1864 - Alfred Stieglitz (d. 1946), American photographer, gallery owner and anarchist sympathiser, born. Renowned both for his photography and his promotion of modern art through his galleries 291 and The Intimate Gallery, and magazines such as '291' and 'Camera Work'. He was also married to painter Georgia O'Keeffe.

##1 1875 - René de Marmande, pseudonym of Marie Constant Emmanuel de Rorthays de Saint Hilaire (d. 1949), French journalist, anti-militarist, syndicalist and anarchist, who contributed 'Temps Nouveaux', 'La Guerre Sociale' and the bulletin of the Association Internationale Antimilitariste, born. During WWI, he founded the pacifist weekly review 'Les Nations' and in April 1918 he was called as a witness at the trial of Almereyda's 'Bonnet Rouge' journal. After the war he joined the PCF for a short period, later becoming a member of the Ligue des Droits de l’Homme. During the German occupation he wrote in the collaborationist press of Paris.

1879 - Ben Reitman (d. 1942), American anarchist fellow traveller, physician to the poor (known widely as 'the hobo doctor'), advocate of women's right to control their own bodies and lover of Emma Goldman, born.

[EE] 1886 - Ethel Carnie Holdsworth (d. 1962), English working class writer, socialist and feminist, who started working in the mills in Lancashire at the age of 11. Her poetry brought her to the attention of the editor of 'The Clarion', Robert Blatchford, who helped her to get work as a writer. She wrote poetry, novels and children's stories, edited the 'Woman Worker', as well as the anti-fascist monthly magazine 'The Clear Light' (1920-25) with her husband Alfred. Her 1913 novel, 'Miss Nobody', is widely believed to be the first published novel written by a working-class woman in Britain and another of her novels, 'Helen of Four Gates', was filmed in 1920. She was also national organiser for the anti-fascist organisation the National Union for Combating Fascismo (NUCF), formed in 1924 by E. Burton Dancy.
The composer Ethel Smyth set two of Holdsworth's poems in the song cycle 'Three Songs' (1913). Smyth dedicated 'Possession' to Emmeline Pankhurst and 'On the Road: a marching tune' to Christabel Pankhurst. She also published a series of sonnets in the early 1920s in the anarchist journal 'Freedom', protesting at the imprisonment of anarchists in Soviet jails.
Her works include poetry: 'Rhymes from the Factory' (1907), 'Songs of a Factory Girl' (1911), and 'Voices of Womanhood' (1914); children stories: 'Lazy-Land, And Other Delightful Stories' (1911), 'The Magic Shoe And Other Tales' (1912), and 'The Lamp Girl, and other stories' (1913); and novels: 'Miss Nobody' (1913), 'Helen of Four Gates' (1917), 'The Taming of Nan' (1919), 'The Marriage of Elizabeth' (1920), 'The House that Jill Built' (1920), 'General Belinda' (1924), 'This Slavery' (1925), 'The Quest of the Golden Garter' (1927), 'Eagles' Crag' (1928), 'All On Her Own' (1929), and 'Barbara Dennison' (1929).

1888 - The first issue of the monthly 'L'Anarchico: Organe du Groupe Socialiste-Anarchiste-Révolutionnaire Italien' appears in New York.

[F1] 1894 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: 20 people were killed and many wounded in Gibellina and eight dead and 15 wounded in Pietraperzia during protests against taxes and the gabello (Mafia sharecropping) system.
[Costantinni pic]

1894 - Procès des Trente: Élie Reclus is amongst those arrested across France as police commissioners use the new lois scélérates to enact search warrants against known anarchists. The repression will continue throughout 1894, forcing many into hiding or exile. The higher profile anarchist arrested will be tried during the 'Procès des Trente' (Trial of the Thirty). [see Aug 6 - Oct 31]

1897 - Tetsu Nakahama [中浜 哲], born Makoto Tomioka (富岡 誠; d. 1926), Japanese anarchist militant and author, who was executed for acts of propaganda of the deed, including a plan to assassinate Prince Hirohito, born. Member of the Girochin Sha (ギロチン社 / Guillotine Society). Sentence to death on September 10, 1925 along side Furuta Daijirō and executed on April 15, 1926.

1900 - Furuta Daijirō (古田大次郎; d. 1925), Japanese anarchist and member of the Guillotine Society (Girochin Sha / ギロチン社), an anarchist terrorist group, born. Captured on September 10, 1924 in Tôkyô, tried on September 10, 1925 and condemned to death. Refusing to appeal his sentence, he was hanged on October 15, 1925.
[d.hatena.ne.jp › はてなキーワード › 一般

1911 - The murder of the slum landlord Leon Beron, an event that precipitated the 'Sidney Street Siege' on January 3.

1911 - The opening in New York of a 'Modern School' founded by the Ferrer Association, with the assistance of Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: A new labour law comes into effect in Massachusetts reducing the maximum weekly work hours for women and children under 18 from 56 to 54 hours. Workers welcomed the two-hour reduction, provided that it did not reduce their weekly take home pay, which for women and children averaged only $6.00 per week anyway. The first two weeks of 1912, the workers tried to learn how the owners of the mills would deal with the new law – a letter was sent from the small English speaking IWW branch to President Wood of the American Woollen Company asking how the new law would affect wages. Wood did not reply. Anger with the company increased when workers realised that a reduction of two hours pay would mean (as the IWW publicly pointed out) three fewer loaves of bread a week to put on the table.
In fact, the American Woolen Company, the largest mill operator in Lawrence reduced its workers' wages by 3.5%, arguing that if workers' hours were to be decreased, then wages would have to fall in order to keep competitive with mills in New Hampshire, Vermont, and in the South, where wages were even lower. Mill owners had assumed that workers would accept the pay reduction without protest. Instead, textile workers would go out on strike, demanding a 15% increase in pay, maintenance of the 54 hour work week, double pay for overtime, and abolition of the bonus system, which encouraged workers to work longer hours and rewarded only the top performers.
Soon after walking out, the Industrial Workers of the World arrived to help organise and lead the strike, and the mayor orders that a local militia patrol the streets. Local officers turn fire hoses on the workers. After two months, mill owners settle the strike, granting substantial pay increases.
[IWW First 70 years: conditions + pp. 54-5 1911 strike & recruiting campaign]
www.wsc.mass.edu/mhj/pdfs/Bread, roses, and other possibilities.pdf

[B1] 1919 - Sara Berenguer Laosa (d. 2010), Catalan poet, anarchist and member of Mujeres Libres, is born in Barcelona. Wrote a narrative autobiography 'Entre El Sol y la Tormenta' (Between the Sun and the Storm; 1988). [expand]

1924 - The first issue of the magazine 'Pensiero e Volontà' (Thought and Will) appears in Rome. This review of social studies and general culture is managed by Errico Malatesta and appears fortnightly. Its final issue will appear on 10 October 1926.

1925 - The first issue of the fortnightly (then monthly) revolutionary syndicalist paper 'La Révolution Prolétarienne' appears in Paris. It ceased publication on August 10, 1939, but reappeared in 1947 until the eighties.

1928 - The début in Paris of the newsletter 'Le Trait-d'Union Libertarian'. Published by dissidents of L'Union Anarchiste Communiste, it announces the inaugural meeting of L'Association des Fédéralistes Anarchistes (AFA).

1929 - Erich Wichmann (b. 1890), Dutch painter, graphic artist, poet and critic, eccentric, co-founder of the Rapalje Partij (the popular name for the Vrije Socialistische Groep aka the Sociaal-Anarchistische Actie in Nederland) anti-bourgeois writer, and fascist towards the end of his life, and brother of the anarchist-feminist Clara Wichmann, dies never having recovered properly from a bout of pneumonia contracted the previous November. [see: Aug. 11]

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: The insurrection planned by the Comité de Defensa Regional de Cataluña for the 8th begins early in a number of locations. In La Felguera, the home of the CNT in Asturias, a number of powerful explosions occur between 7-9 in the evening. Simultaneously, in Sevilla , street riots occur and are assaulted shops and bars. In the town of Real de la Jara rioters set fire to the local church. Looting also occur Lleida and confrontations take place in Pedro Muñoz (Ciudad Real), where trade unionists seize the city, proclaiming libertarian communism.

##2 1959 - Michel Onfray, French philosopher, writer, libertarian socialist, and self-declared "Nietzschian of the left", who promotes hedonism, atheism, and anarchism in his works, born. Was a high school philosophy teacher for two decades and helped establish a tuition-free Université Populaire (People's University) at Caen.

1984 - Gabriella 'Ella' Antolini (b. 1899), Italian-American agricultural worker and Galleanist anarchist, who earned the nickname the Dynamite Girl when she was arrested on a train from Steubenville to Chicago in January 1918 carrying a black leather case containing thirty-six sticks of dynamite and a .32 calibre Colt automatic, which were to be used to carry out revenge attacks for the arrests and persecution of the Milwaukee anarchists and the death in custody of Augusto Marinell on September 15, 1917, dies of cancer in Miami. [see: Sep. 10]

1984 - Augustin Souchy (b. 1892), German anarchist pacifist, dies. [see: Aug. 28]

[DD] 1994 - Zapatista Uprising: An armed insurgency breaks out, timed to coincide with the day on which the North American Free Trade Agreement became operational, led by the Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (Zapatista Army of National Liberation; EZLN), demanding social, cultural and land rights (demands set out in the 'Declaración de la Selva Lacandona' [Declaration of the Lacandon Jungle]). The EZLN quickly seized the municipalities of San Cristóbal, Ocosingo, Chanal, Margaritas, Oxchuc, Huistán and Altamirano, controlling approximately 25% of Chiapas.
The government responded by calling in the armed forces to retake the areas, 12 days of fighting ensues until a ceasefire is declared. During the following 5 month, the EZLN spent its time in consultations on the peace proposals, known as the dialogue of San Cristóball
On June 10, they issued the 'Segunda Declaración de la Selva Lacandona' (Second Declaration of the Lacandon Jungle), rejecting government proposals and calling for a National Democratic Convention, whilst organising political resistance from within civil society - what the EZLN term as "la insurgencia civil" (civil insurgency).

2000 - Arthur Lehning (b. 1899), Dutch anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-militarist, archivist and historian of the anarchist movement internationally, dies. Co-founded in December 1919, with Rudolf Rocker and Augustin Souchy of FAUD (Freie Arbeiter Union Deutschland). Founder of the IISH (International Institute of Social History). [see: Oct. 23]

2003 - Giorgio Gaber, stage name of Giorgio Gaberscik (b. 1939), Italian singer-songwriter, actor, theatre director, playwright and anarchist sympathiser, who was one of the first Italian rock and rollers, dies. [see: Jan. 25]
[EE] 1886 - Elise Ottesen-Jensen, aka 'Ottar' (d. 1973), Norwegian-Swedish sex educator, journalist, feminist and anarchist agitator, who was a member of the Swedish anarcho-syndicalist union Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation and a pioneer of women's right to understand and control their own body and sexuality, born. She was one of the founders of the Riksförbundet för Sexuell Upplysning (Swedish Association for Sexuality Education) and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Through her international contacts in the sex education movement, she helped many German sex educators, openly gay Germans and Jews to find refuge in Sweden. In the 1920s, Ottar was a regular writer for Arbetaren, with her own column focusing on feminist issues. After a disagreements with the other editors of Arbetaren in 1925, she started her own paper, 'Vi Kvinnor' (We Women). The paper did however not last for long. A few years later, she also wrote for the anarchist magazine 'Brand' (Fire).
"I dream of the day when every new born child is welcome, when men and women are equal, and when sexuality is an expression of intimacy, joy and tenderness."

1886 - Gaetano Gervasio (d. 1964), Italian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, carpenter, painter and sculptor, born. [expand]

1894 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: A farmer and soldier are left dead after protests against taxes and the gabello (Mafia sharecropping) system in Belmonte Mezzagno.

[F1] 1905 - An informal conference of 23 industrial unionists, formally representing nine organisations, in Chicago issues an Industrial Union Manifesto calling for an industrial union congress to be held in Chicago on June 27. The June congress became the founding convention of the Industrial Workers of the World.

1905 - Louis Dorlet (aka Samuel Vergine, Louis Dey, Serge and Louis Dorival; d 1989), militant French individualist anarchist, labour organiser and pacifist, born. Sent to prison in 1925 for desertion. Member of l'Union Anarchiste, organised among the unemployed and founded a consumer co-op. Dorlet wrote for many libertarian publications and was a co-editor of 'Le Libertaire'. Mobilized in 1939, he was captured and sent to a stalag. Released in 1945, he resumed his work with 'Le Libertaire'.

1912 - Marius Antoine Joseph Baudy (aka Oulié;b. 1875), French illegalist anarchist and jobbing sculptor, dies from physical exhaustion after being worked to death after 3 years in the Guyana prison colony. [see: Oct. 18]

1916 - The first issue of the anarcho-syndicalist 'La Fuerza' (The Force), "Periódico defensor de las sociedades obreras" (Newspaper advocating workers' societies) in Alcoy, Valencia.

1919 - Peru General Strike for the 8-hour Work Day: Members of the Federación de Obreros Panaderos "Estrella del Perú" (Workers' Union of Bakeries "Star of Peru") join the strike for the eight hour day began in December 1918 by cotton mill workers. A few days later, a coordinating committee organised solidarity strikes in newspapers, in the footwear industry, in transportation and other sectors in Lima and Callao.

1920 - Palmer Raids: The Palmer Raids go into full swing in the US, with a second and larger series of raids (following the first on November 7, 1919) across 30 cities as thousands of suspected anarchist, communist, unionist and radical Americans are rounded up sans warrants. Federal agents seize literature and detain people on the hope of finding 'fellow travellers'. The raids go on until the 6th. None of the 2,700 people arrested are charged with any explicit crime. In all, more than 6,000 are detained during this period.
with follow up operations over the next few days

[DD] 1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: An anarchist group led by Alfredo Fonte aka 'El Toscano' (the Tuscan) attack the El Campamento estancia in Patagonia.

[F2] 1922 - The first issue of 'Arbetaren' (The Worker), the weekly paper of the anarcho-syndicalist trade union federation Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation (Central Organisation of the Workers of Sweden), is published in Stockholm.

##2 1926 - Hideyo Amamoto [天本 英世], aka Eisei Amamoto [あまもと えいせい](d. 2003), prolific Japanese actor, anarchist and Iberophile, who is best known for portraying Dr. Shinigami in the original 'Kamen Rider' series as well as many other characters in tokusatsu films and the Godzilla series, born.

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: The Guardia Civil in Barcelona discovers a cache of bombs which that attribute to the CNT.

1937 - In England Emma Goldman begins organising a publicity campaign about the Spanish revolution, including planning mass meetings in London and the provinces, but is hampered by poor communication with and lack of urgency among key anarchist leaders in Barcelona.

1937 - The first issue of 'Alba Roja' (Red Dawn) appears in Premiá de Mar, Catalonia. Subtitled "Organe du Syndicat Unique des Travailleurs de Premiá de Mar" "Organe du Bureau de Propagande Local de la CNT - FAI - FIJL". Eight issues were published until July 1937.

1937 - In Reus (near Tarragona, Catalonia) the first issue of 'Adelante' (Front), "Paper of the CNT and FAI in Tarragona and Province, Spokesman of Workers in General". This anarcho-syndicalist weekly ceases publication on January 29, 1938 after 52 issues, including a special issue devoted to the first anniversary of the death of Durruti .

[B1] 1946 - Jean-Bernard Pouy, French creator of Gabriel Lecouvreur, a libertarian detective nicknamed 'The Octopus', born. Born into a family of Catalan anarchists, whilst he himself is not an activist, he retains a strong sympathy for anarchists and anarcho-syndicalist militants in particular.

1948 - Vicente García-Huidobro Fernández (b. 1893), Chilean poet, who was an exponent of the artistic movement called Creacionismo (Creationism), dies. [see: Jan. 10]

1949 - Dynam-Victor Fumet (b. 1867), French composer, organist, anarchist and bomb-maker, dies. [see: May 4]

##1 1953 - Frank Leech, aka 'Big Frank' (b. 1900), Anglo-Irish miner, newsagent, Royal Navy heavyweight boxing champion, and militant Glasgow anarchist, dies of a heart attack, some say brought on by hearing that Herbert Read was accepting a knighthood!

[D2] 1965 - Bomb explodes in Naples at the Spanish Consulate. The attack is claimed by the Spanish anarchists of the CNT, FAI and Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL) who declare:
"As long as the Iberian people continue to be oppressed by the fascist dictatorship, dynamite will recall that the voice of freedom cannot be choked. Long live anarchy."

[B2] 1974 - Jean de Boe (b. 1889), Belgian anarchist militant, trade unionist and co-operativist dies in Anderlecht. Condemned as an accomplice to the Bonnot Gang, in February 1913, to 10 years hard labour in French Guiana. Escaped and returned to Belgium in 1922, where he was active in several strikes and he founded 'Les Arts Graphiques' (The Graphic Arts) co-operative. [see: Mar. 20]

1991 - In Concepcion, Chile the 'Federacion Anarquista Interciudadana' is established.

1999 - André Arru (Jean-René Saulière; b. 1911), French anarchist and pacifist, underground organiser during WWII, and a member since 1983 of the ADMD (an association for the right to die in dignity), dies. He ended his life, at age 87, refusing to subject himself to the risks and dependency of advancing age and disease. [see: Sep. 6]
1879 - [N.S. Jan. 15] Ştefan Gheorghiu (d. 1914), Romanian carpenter and revolutionary syndicalist, born. [see: Jan. 15]

[D1] 1894 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: In Palermo a secret meeting of anarchists takes place where a manifesto is drawn up calling for among other things, the abolition of taxes on flour, inquries into public administration on the island, and expropriation of large estates with fallow fair compensation to the owners. The manifesto is communicated via telegraph to the new prime minister Francesco Crispi.
Hours later Crispi declares a state of siege throughout Sicily. Whether the anarchist manifesto played any part in Crispi's announcement, history does not record. Army reservists are recalled and General Roberto Morra di Lavriano is dispatched with 40,000 troops. The old order is to be restored through the use of extreme force, including summary executions. The Fasci are outlawed, the army and the police go on to kill scores of protesters, and hundreds. Thousands of militants, including all the leaders, are put in jail or sent into internal exile. Some 1,000 persons are deported to the penal islands without trial. All working-class societies and cooperatives are dissolved and freedom of the press, meeting and association is suspended.
Novelist and socialist Edmondo De Amicis on the conditions suffered by the rural poor at the time: "Hundreds of families do not anything to live on other than grasses and prickly pear."

1894 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: In response to Crispi's announcement of the state of siege, the Comitato Centrale dei Fasci (Central Committee) meets in Palermo to discuss its response to the order. Two factions quickly emerge - those, who support the need to take advantage of the situation of unrest and provoke a revolution on the island. This group is led by the Socialist politician and journalist Giuseppe De Felice Giuffrida, who was known for his anarchist tendencies. A second larger group take the opposite view, arguing the need to proceed peacefully. The meeting eventually agrees to condemn the violent incidents in various parts of the island, and launches an appeal to stay calm and not to retaliate, drawing up an appeal: "La nostra isola rosseggia del sangue dei compagni che, sfruttati, immiseriti, hanno manifestato il loro malcontento contro un sistema dal quale indarno avete sperato giustizia, benessere e libertà ..." (Our island is red with the blood of comrades who, exploited, impoverished, have expressed their discontent with a system from which you hoped in vain justice, prosperity and freedom. ...), to be published the following day.

[FF2] 1894 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: A large crowd gathered at the headquarters of the Fascio di Marineo (founded in May 1893 by Marretta Antonino, Bongiorno Francesco, Giordano Carmelo and Giordano Alfonso) pending a decision by the Municipal Council about the abolition of the duty on flour (tassa sul macinato). When the council decided to maintain the status quo, one of the leaders of the Fascio, Francesco Palazzo, led the crowd in a demonstration. Matters were further inflamed by attempts by the police, supported by field guards, to arrest people. The crowd continued its rally towards the Town Hall and, under the excuse of fearing an assault on the building, the soldiers opened fire.
Those left dead in the street included Concetta Lombardo Barcia 40 years old, Giorgio Dragotta 26, Matteo Maneri 36, Filippo Barbaccia 65, Giovanni Greco 34, Antonino Francaviglia and Filippo Triolo 43 years old, Ciro Raineri 42 and Michele Russo 25 years old. Those who were seriously injured, and who died in the following days: Anna Oliveri 1 year old, Maria Spinella and Antonino Salerno both 2 years old, Giuseppe Daidone 40, Antonino Manzello 32, Giuseppe Taormina 46, Cira Russo and Santo Lo Pinto 9 months old. In total, 18 people, including 4 women and 5 children died.

1899 - Alphonse Sauveur Cannone (d. 1939), French anarchist militant, born in Oran, Algeria. Took part in the 1919 Mutinerie des Marins de la Mer Noire (Mutiny of the Sailors in the Black Sea), refusing to fight against the Russian revolutionaries during the Allied intervention. Sentenced to 10 years in prison, he escaped, was recaptured and given another five years. Released August 1926, he was active with the international 'Black Group' (Groupe Noir) and a member of the CGT-SR. Cannone fought on the anarchist fronts with the CNT and FAI during the Spanish Revolution of 1936.

1901 - Miguel Chueca Cuartero (d. 1966), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1903 - Jack Frager (Yankel or Yakov Treiger; d. 1998), American anarchist and labour activist, born in the Ukraine.

1904 - Ricardo Flores Magón, with his brother Enrique, seeking to escape constant repression by the dictatorship, leaves México for the United States.

1907 - Mário Dias Ferreira dos Santos (d. 1968), Brazilian lawyer, philosopher and Christian anarchist, who founded the materialist philosophical system Filosofia Concreta (Concrete Philosophy), born

1908 - Higinio Carrocera Mortera (d. 1938), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist who played a prominent role in both the 1934 Asturias uprising and the Civil War, earning the title the hero of Mazucu in the latter, born in a village in the Asturian mining area. He began working in the Sociedad Metalúrgica Duro Felguera rolling mills aged just 13 following the death of his father, using his brother's identity documents as he was too young to legally work there. He also joined the CNT, the majority union amongst metallurgists in La Felguera. During the Jaca Uprising of Decmember 12, 1930 precipitated by the army captains Fermín Galán Rodríguez and Ángel García Hernández, he and other La Felguera militants were involved in an armed class with the Guardia Civil in Sama de Langreo, for which he was imprisoned for the first time. According to his friend Solano Palacios, "From then until his assassination participated in numerous revolutionary strikes in La Felguera, the Nalón basin and the rest of Asturias, frequently suffering persecution and imprisonment."
During a 9-month strike in 1932, he was involved in a number of acts of sabotage on the powe grid and attacks on security forces. In July 1932, a month before the end of the strike, Carrocera was jailed for his part in these actions. At the beginning of the October Revolution of 1934, he actively participated in the attacks on the barracks of the Guardia Civil in La Felguera and Sama, and, as soon as the first armoured trucks bearing the emblems of the FAI, CNT and UHP painted white markings on their sides emerged from the Duro Felguera factory, he led a column of 200 anarcho-syndicalist fighter to Oviedo. Arriving on October 6, he was at the forefront of the fight and his militia group attacked the Carabineros headquarters and took the city's Fábrica de Armas (arms factory), and later halted the advance of government forces. At El Berrón he fought against forces commanded by the then Colonel Solchaga, who he would face again 3 years later in the Battle of Mazucu.
Following the surrender of the insurrectionary forces, he fled into the mountains, like many others, to try and escape the inevitable repression that followed, but not before he and his comrades buried dozens of rifles and several machine guns that he had liberated from the arms factory. These would prove essential in the early stages of the 1936 uprising. After a period in hiding, he travelled to Zaragoza with the intention of going into exile in France but was arrested there on August 7, 1935, along with Constantino Antuña Huerta by Investigación y Vigilancia police. The 'ABC' newspaper announced his capture: "According to sources, Higinio Carrocera acted in Asturias as a revolutionary leader and signed several documents. He is considered a dangerous bomber." Charged with promoting and being a leader of the revolution, he was taken to the prison in Gijón to await judgement.
However, he gained his freedom after he participated in a mutiny of prisoners in the aftermath of the victory on February 16, 1936, of the Popular Front. An amnesty for those convicted of political or social crimes was a key part of its election manifesto and in the days immediately following its win pressure built for it to declare an amnesty date. The government officially decreed the amnesty on the 21st, but Carrocera and his fellow prisoners in Gijón had engineered their release a day earlier. Carrocera returned to La Felguera and spent the following months raising funds to support the families of political prisoners.
With the outbreak of the fascist uprising, he and his CNT comrades were ready. Having dug up their weapons cache, they positioned themselves in a church steeple overlooking the Guardia Civil Barracks in La Felguera and their decisive action prevented the guards from being able to set up defensive positions outside the barracks. They eventually surrendered and, with La Felguera in their hands, Carrocera led a column of 400 centitas to Gijón where they were among the first proletarian reinforcements arrived there. In Gijón they laid siege to the Simancas infantry Barracks for the next month and, following it fall, they immediately set off for the Western Front to try to head off the Galician columns advancing dangerously towards Avilés and Grado. He was in all the heavy fighting that took place in the Malleza area and was injured quite serious in an attack on San Cristobal on the Luiña-Faedo front.
Back in La Felguera, he underwent surgery a number of times and took the opportunity to rebuild his unit, which took the name Battalion Carrocera. The battalion fought on Monte de los Pinos and then at Belmonte, where Carrocera was wounded twice. After 6 months on the front in Belmonte he was given command of a brigade, consisting of four battalions, and a few months later command of the 192 Brigada Móvil del Ejército Popular Asturiano, comprising 3 CNT batallions. All through this period he foungth on the fronts at La Espina, La Cabruñana, Grado and Prania. He also took part in the Battle of El Mazuco, one of the most brutal of the war. On September 1, 1937, more than 33,000 Nationalist troops supported by artillery and airpower, including German aircraft of the Condor Legion, began an advance against hugely outnumber Republican forces. The defenders never exceeded 6,000 troops but they held up the thrust of the Navarre Brigades for 15 days and Higinio Carrocera played a key role.
With the front lines under threat and the Condor Legion carpet-bombing the ridge [the first recorded instance of its use] that the republican occupied, Higinio Carrocera received the order on September 8, 1937, to take command of the troops in the frontline at El Mazuco, replacing José Fernández, the head of the 12th Brigade killed in action while covering with a machine gun withdrawal of his men. Higinio and his men managed to hold the Fascists off for a further week despite running short of ammunition, allowing their comrades to withdraw safely before the Republican leadership, aware that his troops were being massacred, ordered a retreat. On October 3, 1937, he was honoured as a hero for his courage in Battle of Mazucu with the Medalla de la Libertad.
A new Republican defensive line on the Eastern Front was established along the Sella River only to fall back under the Nationalist advance. Higinio Carrocera and his men were in position at the Siege of Oviedo when the Consejo Soberano de Asturias y León (Sovereign Council of Asturias and León) decided to give the evacuation order on October 20, 1937. Carrocera refused to evacuate with the rest of the Council and leave until all his men were safe. Instead he boarded on the steamer Llodio with two hundred other people, one fifth of them women and children, and was one of the last to leave El Musel. Off Cape Peñas the Llodio was intercepted by an Italian warship acting as part of Franco's navy. Having given his captors gave a false name: Vidal Fernández Fernández, he and the other prisoners were moved to Ribadeo and then to La Coruña. In the Romaní concentration camp was identified by some visiting Phlangists and on January 2, 1938, he was handed over to the Guardia Civil for transfer to Oviedo. On January 21, an Emergency Council of War similarily sentenced to death along with thirty-five other men and eight women.
On May 8, shortly before being transferred to the cemetery to be executed, he removed his four gold teeth from his jaws with a spoon in order to get them sent to his mother, still safe in Catalonia. He also hastily wrote a short note in a locket with a picture of her niece Olga containing the date of his death and the text: "I die for freedom". His final words before before he stood in front of the firing squad were: "I die with the greatest peace of mind that in you can have in moments like these, since nothing is on my conscience, other than the condition that my mother and my sisters remain in." Higinio Carrocera was then buried in a mass grave with 260 other anti-fascists.

[AA/DD] 1911 - Sidney Street Siege: Three anarchists shoot it out against more than 1000 troops [bit of an exaggeration]. [REWRITE]
[Costantini pic]

##2 1911 - Axel Österberg, aka 'Kluck' (Axel Fritiof Gustaf Österberg; d. 1968), Swedish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, journalist, author and translator, who used the pen name Gluck and was one of the few Swedish eyewitness to report on the Spanish Revolution, publishing the book 'Bakom Barcelonas barrikader: Bilder från spanska inbördeskriget' (Behind Barcelona's barricades: pictures of the Spanish Civil War; 1936), born.

##1 1912 - Federico Borrell García aka 'El Taino' (d. 1936), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Founder of the local branch of the Libertarian Youth (FIJL) in 1932. FAI militant and during the Spanish Revolution a militiaman in the Columna Alcoiana led by the local anarchist activist, Enrique Vaño Nicomedes. He is best known now by the iconic photo 'The Fallen Soldier', by Robert Capa, which captured his moment of death on September 5, 1936.

1921 - Robert Lapoujade (d. 1993), French painter, radical experimental filmmaker, cinematographer, writer and libertarian Marxist, born. Signatory of 'Manifeste des 121', who is best known for his portraits of French literary figures including Jean-Paul Sartre and Andre Breton. Amongst his short films are 'Prison' (1962), 'Trois portraits d'un oiseau qui n'existait pas' (1964) and 'Un Comedien Sans Paradoxe' (1974). [expand]

1922 - The first edition of 'La Revue Anarchiste' appears in Paris.

[B1] 1923 - Jaroslav Hašek (b. 1883), author of 'Osudy Dobrého Vojáka Švejka za Světové Války' (The Fateful Adventures of the Good Soldier Švejk During the World War; 1923), dies having finished only four volumes of the projected six volumes of his classic anti-authoritarian novel. [see: Apr. 30]

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: Another arsenal of explosives is discovered by the Guardia Civil in a garage in Barcelona: ​​five boxes full of bombs, ready to be sent to various locations; a car bomb and cartridges, and in several rooms, devices, ammunition clips, fuses and 10 carbines.

1937 - The first issue of 'Cultura y Porvenir' (Culture and Future), the weekly paper of the anarchist Libertarian Youth (JJLL) in the Alto Urgel region appears. It was discontinued on May 16, 1937 after 18 issues.

1937 - In Valencia (Spain), the first issue of the newspaper 'L'Indomptable' (The Indomitable), organ of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo and the Federación Anarquista Ibérica, appears. Published weekly in French. At least 39 issues appeared until 7 October 1937. Issue number 19 (13 May 1937) containing an article on the recent murder of Camillo Berneri by the Communists was heavily censored by Republican authorities.

1961 - François Rose (b.1879), French anarchist, trade unionist (CGT, UD, CGTU), dies. Served on the editorial board of 'Germinal' and was a salesman for 'Libertaire'. Organised support for the Black Sea Mutineers in 1921.

1972 - Frans Masereel (b. 1889), Belgian radical woodcut artist, printmaker, illustrator, draughtsman, libertarian, communist, pacifist and Master of the wordless novel, dies, age 82. [see: Jul. 30]

1998 - Zapatista Uprising: Women in X'Oyep try to force soldiers to withdraw from the camp for displaced people in Chenalho, Chiapas. The camp housed the survivors of the Matanza de Acteal (Acteal Massacre) that had taken place two weeks previously on December 22, when right-wing paramilitaries of the Mascara Roja (Red Mask) attacked members of the pacifist group Las Abejas (The Bees), in the small village of Acteal, in the Mexican state of Chiapas. Forty-five people attending a prayer meeting, including a number of children and pregnant women, were murdered and many of the survivors driven out of the village to the refugee camp.
1856 - (Jean Valérien) Maurice Mac-Nab (d. 1889), French poet, songwriter, performer and postal worker, born. Famed for his ironic songs of working-class life performed at the Club des Hydropathes, at the the literary club Café de l'Avenir, in the Latin Quarter, and at Le Chat Noir in Montmartre. Many of his popular songs, such as 'L'Expulsion' and 'Le Grand Métingue du Métropolitain', were explicitly anarchist in sentiment and were sung at demonstrations.

1857 - Émile Cohl (Émile Eugène Jean Louis Courtet; d. 1938), French caricaturist, cartoonist, and animator, born. Disciple of André Gill, member of the Hydropathes and of the largely forgotten Les Arts Incohérents (Incoherents), which included Eugène Bataille (Sapeck) and Jules Levy. Prolific animator whose work embraced his clearly libertarian political views, including the series 'Les Aventures des Pieds Nickelés' (Adventures of the Leadfoot Gang) may have been the best work of Cohl's career. It was based on a working class comic strip by Louis Forton, about a gang of anarchistic youngsters constantly getting into trouble with both the criminal underground and the law. See also his character Toto, who featured in a short entitled 'Toto Devient Anarchiste' (1910).

[B2] 1878 - Augustus Edwin John (d. 1961), Welsh Post-Impressionist painter, draughtsman and etcher, born. The King of Bohemia frequented the London anarchist clubs whilst a student at the Slade in the late 1890s, was familiar with Kropotkin’s 'Memoirs of a Revolutionist' and temporarily named his son Ravachol after the anarchist bomber in 1902 before finally plumping for David. Later in life, he joined the Freedom Defence Committee, the Committee of the National Campaign for the Abolition of Capital Punishment and the Committee of 100.

1879 - The weekly German language magazine 'Freiheit' (Freedom) begins publishing today, in London. [Some sources indicate the 3rd rather than the 4th]

##[C] 1886 - Armand Guerra aka José Silavitse (José Maria Estivalis Cabo; d. 1939), Spanish anarchist, scenario writer, filmmaker, actor, typesetter and member of the young C.N.T., born. In 1913 he created the Paris film co-operative Le Cinéma du Peuple, which made a number of films social nature, including 'La Commune' (1914) and 'The Old Docker'. Guerra was both a producer and actor in these films and used old Communards and anarchists in them. After a 12 year period living in Germany, working on all aspects of the film industry (editor, dubbing director, producer, director, screenwriter, actor), he returned to Spain following the rise of Hitler. There he made his first full-length film during the summer of 1936, before going to the front to fight fascism with a camera. 'Carne de Fieras' (Meat of Wild Animals) was never released, and thought lost forever, until a negative was discovered and released in 1993. He also wrote a diary of his Civil War years entitled 37 'A Través de la Metralla: Escenas Vividas en Los Frentes y en La Retaguardia' (Through Shrapnel. Vivid scenes at the Fronts and in the Rearguard), 1937.
Filmography: 'Un cri dans la jungle' (A cry in the jungle; 1913); 'Les Misères de l'Aiguille' (The miseries of the needle; Dec. 1913), the story of a seamstress who, after the death of her husband, to escape misery, attempts suicide with her ​​baby, staring the rench actress, film director and writer, Musidora (Jeanne Roques) in her first role; 'Le Vieux Docker' (The Old Docker; Feb. 1914); 'La Commune' part 1 (1914); 'Sommernachtstraum' (A Midsummer Night's Dream; 1925), as actor; 'Luis Candelas o El bandido de Madrid' (Luis Candelas or The Bandit of Madrid; 1926); 'Batalla de Damas' (1928); 'Die Geschenkte Loge' (The Gift of the Lodge; 1928), banned by the German censors on the pretext that a gardener busy watering his garden appeared to be urinating; 'El Amor Solfeando' (1930); 'La Alegría que Pasa' (Joy Happens; 1934), playing the part of a clown; 'Carne de Fieras' (Flesh of Beasts; 1936); and 'Estampas Guerreras' Nos. 1&2 (Warrior Prints; 1937), shot with the 'España Libre' Column. [see also: Mar. 10]

1886 - Gustave Virgile Cauvin (d. 1951) French anarchist, anti-militarist, revolutionary trade unionist and anti-alcoholist, Néo-Malthusien and social-cinema propagandist, born.

1891 - Founding Congress of the Revolutionary Anarchist Socialist Party (PSAR), in the Swiss city of Capolago January 4-6.

1894 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: Central committee members Giuseppe De Felice, Nicola Petrina (Fascio di Messina) and Giacomo Montalto (Fascio di Trapani) are arrested after attending a meeting of the Revolutionary Committee. [see: Jan. 3]

1896 - In Ensival (Belgium) in the first issue of the fortnightly Belgian anarchist journal 'La Débacle Sociale' appears, at least ten issues were published until 03 May 1896.

##2 [B1] 1896 - André-Aimé-René Masson aka André Masson (d. 1987), French Surrealist painter, sculptor, illustrator, designer, writer and anarchist, born. Masson studied painting in Brussels and then in Paris. He fought in World War I and was severely wounded. He joined the emergent Surrealist group in the mid-1920s after one of his paintings had attracted the attention of André Breton. Masson soon became the foremost practitioner of automatic writing, which, when applied to drawing, was a form of spontaneous composition intended to express impulses and images arising directly from the unconscious. However, Masson rejected Breton's increasingly egotistic and dogmatic political stance, and especially the notion of having to join the PCF if he remained in the Surrealist group, and he left the Breton's circle.
Masson’s paintings and drawings from the late 1920s and the ’30s are turbulent, suggestive renderings of scenes of violence, eroticism, and physical metamorphosis. A natural draftsman, he used sinuous, expressive lines to delineate biomorphic forms that border on the totally abstract. The fascist riots in Paris on February 6, 1934 prompted Masson and his wife-to-be, Rose Maklès, to depart for Spain. They eventually settled in Tossa de Mar, where they immersed themselves in Spanish culture and politics. Masson supported the Republican government's attempts to create educational reforms, redistribute land, and improve living conditions for factory workers and rural labourers. He also joined an anarchist syndicate and designed the flags of the German and British forces in the International Brigades. His art from this period reveals his concern about the rising threat of Franco and Fascism [see: 'The Barcelona Acéphale: Spain and the Politics of Violence in the Work of André Masson' by Robin Greeley]. After Franco staged his 1936 coup, Masson and his family returned to France when civil war broke out in 1936, but the artist remained deeply concerned for the Spanish people. With the German occupation of France in 1939, Masson was in danger of persecution by the Nazis because of his degenerate art and the Surrealists had ties to the Communist Party, and the fact that his wife Rose was Jewish. In 1941, Masson managed to travel to the Caribbean island of Martinique, and from there to enter the United States.
Although Masson never learned English, he used his years in exile to educate Americans about contemporary French art, lecturing and collaborated with other European exiles on conferences and publications. The American critic Clement Greenberg believed that Masson's visit to America and his exhibitions played a pivotal role in the development of Abstract Expressionism in New York.
With the end of the war in 1945, Masson returned to his native France. He developed an interest in Japanese and Chinese calligraphy (as well as the Impressionist paintings of Monet and the Romantic landscapes of J. M. W. Turner) and was also drawn to the philosophy of Zen Buddhism.
"Painful contradictions are sometimes the source of the greatest riches".

1879 - [O.S. Dec. 23, 1878] Mikheil 'Mikhako' Tsereteli [მიხეილ 'მიხაკო' წერეთელი], aka 'Baton', M. Sangala [მ. სანგალა], 'Alarodieli' [ალაროდიელი], Vrasti [ვრაცი](d. March 2, 1965), Georgian prince, historian, philologist, sociologist, political and public figure, who was intially an anarchist close to Varlam Cherkezishvili and Peter Kropotkin, but later became a nationalist, born.

1917 - Léo Voline (Léo Eichenbaum; d. 2002), third child of anarchist poet, historian and Russian refugee, Voline (Vsevolod Eichenbaum), born. In 1937, Léo, a committed anarchist, went to Spain to fight in one of the military columns of the C.N.T.. In February 1938, his unit was encircled and decimated by the fascists but Léo survived.

1918 - José Expósito Leiva (b. 1918), Andalusian journalist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, born. During the Civil War, he joined the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL), becoming secretary of the propganda committee in 1938 and editor of 'Juventud Libre'. In 1938 he published a lecture on Buenaventura Durruti in the collective book 'Hora Durruti. Conferencias pronunciadas ante el micrófono de Unión Radio'. At the end of the conflict, he was arrested at the port of Alicante and imprisoned in the fortress of Santa Bàrbara. Sentenced to death on 24 February 1940 before a court martial in Madrid, the penalty was commuted to 30 years in prison in the October of that year because of his youth. In September 1943, he was released on parole and joined the clandestine struggle with the CNT and the Aliança Nacional de Forces Democràtiques (National Alliance of Democratic Forces; ANFD). Secretary General of the Ninth National Committee of the CNT between May and July 1945, after the arrest of his predecessor Sigfredo Catalá Tineo.
Then he went to occupied France and then to Mexico on behalf of the CNT, where he was given the portfolio of the Minister of Agriculture in José Giral Pereira's first (August 1945 - March 1946) and second (April 1946 - January 1947) governments of the Second Republic in exile in Mexico, which drove a wedge between anarchist militants and the collaborationist wings of the CNT/MLE. He also signed a declaration of support for the call for a plebiscite in Spain and one in 1948 in favour of turning the MLE into a political party. In 1949 he settled in Venezuela, where he remained on the margins of the CNT.

[DD] 1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: During the first armed confrontation of the general strike in rural Patagonia, four policemen and a worker are killed in an ambush by the strikers, and two policemen and a gendarme are taken hostage near El Cerrito.

1927 - Jacob (Koos) van Rees (b. 1854), Dutch professor, Christian anarchist, teetotaler and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Apr. 16]

[D1] 1945 - In Ragusa, Sicily, the anarcha-feminist Maria Occhipinti, a leader of the anti-militarist movement Non Si Parte (We Won't Leave), lies down in front of army trucks which have come to find new young conscripts to incorporate into the new Italian army. Within minutes, a crowd surrounds the soldiers, forcing them to release their recruits, but they also kill a demonstrator, precipitating a four-day insurrection. After a period of fierce fighting, the Italian army was able to retake the city. Hundreds of insurgents were later detained and Maria served nearly two years' in prison for her part in the revolt. [expand]

1948 - Oriol Solé Sugranyes (d. 1976), Spanish libertarian, member of the MIL (Iberian Liberation Movement) who practised expropriation policies (bank robberies) along with Salvador Puig Antich, Jean-Marc Rouillan, etc., under the dictatorship in 70s Spain, born. On 24 July 1974, he was condemned by Franco's council of war to 48 years in prison. Incarcerated in Segovia prison, he escaped with thirty members of ETA on April 6, 1976 but was shot a few hours later by the Guardia Civil as he tried to cross the Franco-Spanish border.

1951 - Bob Black, US anarchist critic and author of 'The Abolition of Work and Other Essays', born.

[D2] 1960 - In the early hours of the morning, Catalan guerrilla 'El Quico' Francesc Sabaté i Llopart is wounded as his anarchist action group is trapped in a shoot-out with the Guardia Civil at Sarria de Ter, a town near Girona in Catalonia. Antonio Miracle Guitart (b. 1930), Rogelio Madrigal Torres (b. 1933), Francisco Conesa Alcaráz (b. 1921) and Martin Ruiz Montoya (b. 1939) die in the exchange. Sabaté is the sole survivor but is killed the following day.

1960 - Albert Camus (b. 1913), is killed, aged 46, in an automobile accident near Sens. [see: Nov. 7]

##1 1961 - Daniel F (born Daniel Augusto Valdivia Fernández), Peruvian musician, vocalist, poet and anarchist. Leader and vocalist of Leusemia, the founding band of the underground movement in 1983, born.

[E2] 1972 - Fosca Corsinovi, aka Marie Thérèse Noblino & Fosca Barbieri (b. 1897), Italian anarchist, who volunteered in the Spanish Civil War as a nurse with the CNT-FAI, dies. [see: Sep. 24]

2004 - Jeff Nuttall (b. 1933), English poet, publisher, actor, painter, sculptor, jazz trumpeter, anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Jul. 8]

2007 - Carles Fontserè i Carrió (b. 1916), one of the important Catalan anarchist poster artists of the Spanish Revolution, dies. Active in the Sindicato de Dibujantes Profesionales de Barcelona (Union of Professional Illustrators; SPD), whose posters plastered the walls of Barcelona - as George Orwell noted on his arrival in the city that December: "The revolutionary posters were everywhere, flaming from the walls in clean reds and blues that made the few remaining advertisements look like daubs of mud." Fontserè was to bemoan the loss of vitality of these posters once they became 'official' productions of the Republic. The F.A.I. poster 'Llibertat!' (Freedom), with the sickle-waving farmer and the red and black flag in the background, is his work. [see: Mar. 9]

2007 - Henri Portier (b.1941), French anarcho-syndicalist, pacifist, anti-militarist, and historian of the Freinet movement, born. A member of the Institut Coopératif de l'Ecole Moderne (ICEM) of the Freinet movement, he became the movement's historian, making several films and prompting the rediscovery of the movement via the 1996 documentary 'Le Mouvement Freinet'. He is also the author of the pamphlet 'Cinematograph and Freinet Movement' (1989).

2008 - Yannis Tamtakos (Γιάννης Ταμτάκος; 1908), Greek shoemaker and revolutionary, initially as a Trotskyist and later as an anarchist, and was persecuted by both the Greek state and EAM/ELAS during the German occupation, dies a few days before his 100th birthday.
##2 [B] 1844 - Manuel González Prada (d. 1918), noted Peruvian poet, literary and social critic, anarchist thinker, writer and polemicist, born. Numerous of his articles on anarchism and related themes appeared in the Lima newspaper 'Los Parias' (1904-1909) under the pseudonym Anarquía. Briefly head of the National Library of Peru, he resigned following the coup d'etat in 1914. Several of his collections of poetry were published or translated during his lifetime and after.

1874 - Léon Jules Léauthier (d. 1894), the French anarchist shoe-maker who stabbed and seriously wounded the Minister of Serbia, born. Sentenced to life, Léauthier was killed during a prison uprising at Îles du Salut in October 1894.

1877 - Giuseppe Fanelli (b. 1827), Italian revolutionary Bakuninite anarchist involved in the establishing of the First International, dies. A one-time nationalist and mason, he allegedly originated the 'circle A' symbol. [see: Oct. 13]

##1 1878 - Nelly Roussel (d. 1922), French essayist, journalist, free thinker, anarchist, anarcha-feminist, franc-maçonne, and néo-Malthusienne, born. In 1902, she became the first French woman to publicly declare herself in favour of contraception and, with Madeleine Pelletier, she stressed the importance of sex education for girls. [expand]

1881 - The funeral in Paris of the revolutionary Auguste Blanqui is attended by a large crowd including Louise Michel. Neither an anarchist or a Marxist, he was the author of the phrase "Neither God, nor master".

#### [AA] 1883 - Eugène Bonaventure Jean-Baptiste Vigo (Eugeni Bonaventura de Vigo i Sallés), aka Miguel Almereyda [anagram: Y'a la merde](d. 1917), French journalist, anarchist and anti-militarist propagandist, born. Founder and editor of the 'La Guerre Sociale' (1906-1913) and 'Le Bonnet Rouge' (1913-1917). Falsely accused of treason for allegedly receiving funds from Germany in exchange for taking an anti-war position in his newspaper, he was arrested on August 6, 1917. He died a week later on August 13, probably at the hands of a paid assassin who strangled him with Vigo's own shoe laces.
[Costantini pic]

1885 - Alternative date given for the birth of Maria Anna Rygier (also Maria Corradi-Rygier or Maria Rygier Corradi; d. 1953), Italian anti-militarist, syndicalist, anarchist propagandist, anti-fascist activist, and later a monarchist. [see: Dec. 5]

1888 - [O.S. Dec. 24, 1887] Vladimir Sergeevich Shatov [Влади́мир Серге́евич Ша́тов], aka 'Big Bill' Shatov (d. 1943 or 1937), Russian anarcho-syndicalist, Wobbly, railway worker and head of the construction of the Turkestan-Siberian Railway (Туркестано-Сибирской железной дороги), born.

1894 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: Following a peaceful demonstration the previous day, at midday the population begin to meet outside the Fascio di Santa Caterina headquarters in the Piazza Garibaldi with flags, portraits of the king and queen and a crucifix, before planning to spread out through the streets of the town.
Meanwhile, lieutenant of police Colleoni has deployed in the piazza the military reinforcements that had recently arrived from Caltanissetta. With the president of the Fascio Lo Vetere abscent and Joseph Celestino, the vice president of the fascio, and Eugenio Bruno, its treasurer, claiming that they resigned, refused to intervene to disperse the crowd. Leaderless and unaware of the proclamation of the state of siege of January 3rd, the protesters arrived in the Piazza Garibaldi. The commander then ordered them to disperse, but, whilst some of them returned to their own homes, about 2,000 men and women continued to shout and protest.
After three useless trumpet blasts, the order to fire was given and a massacre ensued: ten dead and twenty wounded men, women, old people and children. Four of the injured will die over the following month.

1907 - [O.S. Dec 23 1906] Peter Arshinov and several comrades blow up a police station in the workers’ district of Amur, near Ekaterinoslav. The explosion kills three Cossack officers, as well as police officers and guards of the punitive detachment. Due to the painstaking preparation of this act, neither Arshinov nor his comrades are discovered by the police.

1911 - Emma Goldman speaks at the inauguration of the new Ferrer School in New York City.

1912 - Jacques Ellul (d. 1994), French philosopher, law professor, sociologist, lay theologian, and Christian anarchist, born.

1918 - Alice Télot (d. 1918), French social worker, writer and anarchist, best known by her penname Jacques Fréhel, dies of pulmonary congestion. [Feb. 6]

[D1] 1919 - Spartakusaufstand: Spartacists, led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, head a revolt in Berlin to renew the November revolution, which lasts 6 days; both are murdered by the so-called 'democratic' left on the 15th. [expand]

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: More bombs go off in La Felguera and Gijón , and the strikes in Valencia amongst typographers, metallurgical and employees of the Electra company worsen.

[A2] 1936 - Emma Goldman lectures to the Leicester Secular Society on 'Traders in Death (The International Munitions Clique)'.

1942 - Roland Lethem, Belgian radical filmmaker, screenwriter, actor, writer and anarchist, born. Influenced by Buñuel, Cocteau, Surrealist and Japanese cinema, his work has regularly outraged bourgeois sensibilities. Amongst his better known works are 'La Ballade des Amants Maudits' (Ballad of Star-crossed Lovers; 1966), 'La Fée Sanguinaire' (The Bloody Fairy; 1968), 'Les Souffrances d'un Ouf Meurtri' (The Sorrows of a Bruised Egg; 1967) 'Bande de Cons!' (Band of Idiots; 1970) and 'Le Sexe Enragé de la Fée Sanguinaire' (The Angry Sex of the Bloody Fairy; 1979).

1945 - The first issue of the magazine 'Tiempos Nuevos', a publication of Spanish anarchist exiles in France, appears in Toulouse.

[A1] 1960 - Anarchist guérilla Francisco Sabaté (b. 1915), dies after a shoot-out with fascist Guardia Civil. Wounded yesterday, he escaped, but is killed today in San Celoni by a sometén (Catalan militia). [see: Mar. 30]

1962 - Marcelle Capy (Marcelle Marques; b. 1891), French journalist, writer, militant syndicalist, libertarian socialist, pacifist and feminist, dies. [see: Mar. 26]

1986 - Nadezhda (Esther) Markovna Ulanovskaya [Надежда (Эстер) Марковна Улановская] (b. 1903), Russian anarchist, anti-White partisan, Soviet intelligence officer, interpreter and English language teacher, dies in Israel. [see: Sep. 26]

1988 - Leopoldo Ramos Giménez (b. 1891), Paraguayan intellectual, youthful anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, journalist, poet, theatre writer, and later nationalist politician, dies in Asunción. [see: Oct. 14]

1990 - Lola Iturbe (Dolores Iturbe Arizcuren; b. 1902), Catalonian militant anarcho-syndicalist and member of Mujeres Libres, who wrote under the pseudonym Kyralina, in tribute to the famous novel by Panaït Istrati dies. [see: Aug. 1]

1993 - Maria Zazzi (b. 1904), life-long Italian anarchist militant, dies. [see: Jun. 10]

2002 - Yves Peyraut aka Yvo Pero (b. 1934), French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, Esperantist and prominent figure on Radio Libertaire, dies. [see: Sep. 14]

2006 - José Iglesias Paz (b. 1916), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, dies. [see: Aug. 26]

2014 - Anthony Lorry (b. 1972), French social historian and anarchist, who was the librarian, webmaster, staff delegate at the CEDIAS-Musée Social (Centre d’études, de documentation, d’information et d’action sociales) and one of the main actors in the team behind the 'Dictionnaire biographique du mouvement libertaire francophone', dies. [see: Dec. 4]
[B] 1848 - [O.S. Dec. 25, 1847] Hristo Botev [Христо Ботев] (Hristo Botyov Petkov [Христо Ботьов Петков]; d. 1876), Bulgarian poet, writer, early anarchist, propagandist and revolutionary, born. The first prominent Bulgarian anarchist, his life and writings have shamelessly been appropriated by both Bulgarian nationalists and Communists.

1858 - Sébastien Faure (d. 1942), French anarchist who co-founded 'Le Libertaire' with Louise Michel in 1895, born.

## 1874 - Michal Kácha (d. 1940), Czech shoemaker, anarchist, journalist, editor, translator and publisher, who had a great influence on young writers of his time, born. In 1904, along with the poet, activist, and co-editor of 'Červen' (June), S. K. Neumann, Kácha founded both the Česká Anarchistická Federace (Czech Anarchist Federation, or ČAF) and the Česká Federace Va̧ech Odborů (Czech Federation of All Unions, or ČFVO). Unsuccessful in creating societal change, they merged to form the Federaci Českých Anarchistů Komunistů (Federation of Czech Anarchist Communists, or FČAK) during the Anarchist Congress held in April 1914 in Prague, despite Kácha's objections ["a germ of next compromises"] that it would betray anarchist ideals and corrupt the movement.
Editor of the magazines 'Práce' (Labour, official ČAF publication; 1905-08) and 'Zádruha' (The Cooperative; 1909-14), he also published fellow anarchist Fráňa Šrámek's poetry collection 'Života Bído, Přec Tě Mám Rád' (Life is Misery, Yet I Love You..!; 1905). After the outbreak of WWI, he was arrested and interned in Göllersdorf Castle, but was eventually sent to the front, where he was wounded and invalided out in 1917.
After the war, the anarchist movement fell apart but Kácha failed to follow many into the KSČ, but he created the anarchist-influenced magazine 'Červen' (1919-21) along with S. K. Neumann.

1883 - Eugénie Niboyet (Eugenie Mouchon; b. 1796), French author, journalist and early feminist, who is best known for founding 'La Voix des Femmes' (The Women's Voice), the first feminist daily newspaper in France, dies. [see: Sep. 10]

1892 - Joseph Deakin, an anarchist from Walsall, is arrested on Tottenham Court Road, London on his way to the Autonomie Club [arrested for refusing to explain why he was in possession of a bottle of chloroform]. Jean Battolla an Italian member of the Autonomie Club was also arrested the same day. Joe Deakin was remanded in custody at Great Marlborough Street Magistrates Court the following day on a charge of manufacturing bombs. [expand]

##1905 - Eric Frank Russell (d. 1978), British author and anarchist, best known for his science fiction novels and short stories, some of which were published under the pseudonyms Duncan H. Munro and Niall(e) Wilde, born.

[A] 1907 - Emma Goldman is arrested by the New York City Anarchist Police Squad while delivering a lecture entitled 'False and True Conceptions of Anarchism', which she had successfully presented the previous month at a meeting organised by the Brooklyn Philosophical Association. She is charged with publicly expressing "incendiary sentiments". Berkman and two others are also arrested.

[1919 - Julia Barranco Hanglin (d. 1998), Catalan anarchist and member of the anti-Francoist resistance

1914 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Rabotnitcheska Missal' (Workers' Thought) appears in Sofia, Bulgaria. Initially subtitled 'Journal of pure unionism' and from issue number 13 (August 20), 'Journal of revolutionary syndicalism' - an anarchist journal whose aim is to promote libertarian ideas among the workers and the formation of anarcho-syndicalist unions.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

[C] 1920 - Josep (José) Lluis i Facerias aka 'Face' or 'Petronio' (d. 1957), Spanish anarchist who fought in the Civil War and guérilla resistance to Franco, born. A member of the Sindicat de la Fusta (Woodworkers Union) in the Confederació Nacional del Treball (CNT) and militant in the Joventuts Llibertàries de Catalunya (JLC/Libertarian Youth of Catalonia)[then a separate organisation from the Federació Ibèrica de Joventuts Llibertàries (FIJL)], when the Civil War broke out he enlisted in the Ascaso Column, a militia division formed by anarchists and which later became the 28th Division of the Army. He fought the whole war on the Aragon front until his captured in 1939 during the Retirada, the withdrawal from Catalonia. He also lost his partner and infant daughter, killed as they fled to France along with thousands of other refugees. He then spent the following years in various concentration camps and forced labour battalions in Zaragoza, Vitoria, Extremadura and Catalonia, until his release in late 1945. In Barcelona he immediately joined the Sindicat d'Indústries Gràfiques in the then clandestine CNT, whilst working as a waiter and cashier in a restaurant. He also engaged in other aspects of the underground anti-Franco resistance - robbing banks, factories, companies and jewellers to finance clandestine activities [eight robberies performed with his group in 1946 raised 3,000,000 pesetas for the CNT], and carrying out a series of acts of sabotage, including the shooting-up of the police station in Gracia Travessera de Dalt, destroying CAMPSA (the state-owned petroleum products company of Spain) storage tanks, and bomb blasts at the consulates of pro-Franco regime states (Bolivia, Brazil, Peru) - becoming one of the most active participants in actions and JLC activities.
At the Las Planas plenum of the FIJL in July 1946, he was appointed secretary of defence of the Regional Committee of Catalonia and the Balearics of the FIJL and also assumed the secretariat of the new underground organisation Movimiento Ibérico de Resistencia (MIR/Iberian Resistance Movement).
However, on August 17, 1946, Face was arrested along with most of the Regional Committee and other CNT activists. A total of 39 comrades ended up in prison. Upon his release from Barcelona's Modelo prison in June 1947, he became secretary of the Movimiento Libertario de Resistencia (MLR/Libertarian Movement of Resistance), participating in the Congress of the Movimiento Libertario en el Exilio (MLE/Libertarian Movement in Exile) in Toulouse. Intended to be the armed wing of Spanish anarcho-syndicalism, it was short-lived and was dissolved in February 1948.
However, he remained convinced that armed appropriations were still the best method of getting the money needed to support anarchist militant prisoners and their families, and he formed the Facerías maquis group. Its first action was the robbery of the Hispano-Olivetti factory in Barcelona and the group went on to conducted numerous expropriations, famously on 2 luxury brothels [the Pedralbes and La Casita Blanca] frequented by the Catalan bourgeoisie in August 1949 [returning to both in 1951 to rob them again], and sabotage actions, such as the burning of 20 vehicles at the bus garage of la Ronda de San Antonio and the attack on the police station in Gracia in August 1948. In May 1949 he participated in the bombing campaign organised by Francesc Sabaté Llopart, aka 'El Quico', and in March of that year in the attempt to assassinate the commissioner of the Brigada Político de Barcelona, Eduardo Quintela Bóveda. On August 26, 1949, he managed to escape a Guardia Civil ambush in the Pyrenees unharmed, but two of his companions were killed and one was seriously injured. On April 1, 1950, during the Fiesta de la Victoria commemorating Franco's victory, he placed a powerful bomb underneath a grandstand on the Paseo de Gracia whilst distributing thousands of anti-Franco leaflets throughout the city in a stolen car.
1950 also saw the beginning of deterioration in his relationship with the exiled CNT leadership as they became increasingly opposed to the armed struggle. At the same time, the maquis groups were suffering significant losses, including that of Facerías, who lost his best friend and comrade Guillermo Ganuza Navarro amongst others. On October 26, 1951, Face managed to escape from yet another ambush, killing one policeman and wounding nine. With the exiled CNT leadership's hostility to the armed struggle (which they eventually abandoning all together in 1953), even France was becoming a hostile environment for Face. Under the threat of arrest there (with potential deportation to Spain and certain death) and a lack of support from the so-called anarchist leadership, in June 1952 he travelled to Italy under the name of Alberto di Luigi. There he helped form the Grupos Anarquistas de Acción Proletaria (GAAP/Anarchist Proletarian Action Groups) and tried to restructure the Italian JL groups. He also carried out a series of expropriations with Jesus del Olmo Sáez aka 'Malatesta' to try and fund a series of international anarchist camping events.
Back in France, he contacted Sabaté in 1956 with the aim of carrying out join actions, but a series of disagreements put an end to the collaboration. Deciding to return to Barcelona, Face together with Luis Agustín Vicente aka 'El Metralla' (Shrapnel), a Murcian anarchist with whom he had worked in Italy, and the Italian anarchist Goliardo Fiaschi, in order to execute the traitor Aniceto Linnet Manzanero. Having managed to cross the border into Spain disguised as hikers despite the intense police activity, they split up aiming to meet-up in Barcelona. In the meantime, unknown to Facerías both El Metralla and Fiaschi had been arrested and, at a pre-planned rendezvous in the Saint Andreu district on Friday August 30, 1957 at 10:45 am, Face was ambushed by police hidden in nearby windows and on roofs at the confluence of the carrers Dr. Urrutia and Pi i Molist. Shot several times including in the leg breaking his ankle, he threw himself over a nearby barrier into a trench, falling twelve feet (4m). He then produced a hand-grenade from his pocket, but was fatally shot before he could pull the pin. Shot nine times, he died aged just 37. His death passed unnoted by the exiled libertarian press except for 'Atalaya', which remained critical of the CNT's stance on armed struggle. Face's death left the 'El Quico' Sabaté and Ramon Vila Capdevila 'Caraquemada' (Burnt-face) groups as the only active maquis guerrilla organisations left in Catalonia.

[F2] 1923 - The first issue of 'Solidaridad Obrera: Semanario sindicalista. Órgano de la Confederación Regional de Galicia y portavoz de la CNT' is printed in La Coruña, Galicia.

1954 - Henri Célié, French railway worker, libertarian syndicalist and anarcho-communist, co-founder and former federal leader of the SUD Rail trade union and a member of the scientific council of Attac (Association pour la Taxation des Transactions financières et pour l'Action Citoyenne / Association for the Taxation of Financial Transactions and for Citizens' Action), born.

1952 - Serge Quadruppani, French author of romans noirs detective fiction, translator, essayist, literary editor, journalist and committed libertarian militant, born. The French translator of Andrea Camilleri's series of Inspector Montalbano novels.

1974 - David Alfaro Siqueiros (born José de Jesús Alfaro Siqueiros; b. 1896), Mexican social realist painter, muralist, trades union organiser and one-time anarchist, dies. [see: Dec. 29]

1977 - William Victor 'Bill' Gropper (b. 1897), U.S. cartoonist, Social Realist painter associated with the Ash-Can Group, lithographer, muralist, left (libertarian) communist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Dec. 3]

1977 - Three months after signing the Sex Pistols for £40,000, EMI terminates the contract after releasing only one single.

1982 - Albert Meister (b. 1927), Swiss author and anarchist sociologist, dies. The real author of 'La Soi-Disant Utopie du Centre Beaubourg' (Éditions Entente; 1976) allegedly written by 'Gustave Affeulpin', a fictional text of a future radical libertarian space under the Pompideau Centre (built on what was the working class community of Beaubourg).Participated with Jacques Vallet on the creation of the arts and satire review 'Le Fou Parle' (The Fool Speaks) in 1977. A prolific author under a host of pseudonyms and a researcher in the Ecole des Hautes Etudes de Paris (School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences). [see: Jul. 22]

[1988 - Maria Duran, aka 'Rosina' (b. 1912), Catalan-born Brazilian anarchist propagandist

1997 - Nieves González (Nieves Floristán) (b. unknown), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was the partner of the anarcho-syndicalist Julián Floristán Urrecho for more than sixty years, dies. At the beginning of the Revolution of 1936 she actively participated in the organisation of the Joventuts Llibertàries and the collectives in the Vall-de-roures region (Matarranya and Franja de Ponent) until their destruction in 1937 by troops under the command of the Stalinist counter-revolutionary Enrique Líster. In 1939, with the triumph of Franco, she went into exile in France with her companion. In the early fifties became a militant in the Local Federation of the CNT in Royan until her death.

[E1] 2006 - Comandanta Ramona (b. 1959), Mexican and Tzotzil women's rights activist, as well as the female face of the Zapatista revolution in Chiapas, dies of kidney failure en route from the town of San Andrés de Larrainzer to the hospital in San Cristobal de las Casas. Born in 1959 in a Tzotzil Maya community in the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, Ramona earned a meagre wage by selling artisan crafts before joining the EZLN in 1993 and taking on her famous nom de guerre. A member of the Zapatista lead council, the Comité Clandestino Revolucionario Indígena (Clandestine Revolutionary Indigenous Committee), she was also one of seven female member (out of a total of 23) in leadership positions in an army of Tzotzil and Tzeltal Mayan Indians, one-third of whom were women. It was Ramona who led the Zapatista rebels into San Cristóbal de las Casas on New Year's Day 1994, demanding greater rights for the indigenous people of Chiapas and protesting at Mexico's involvement in the North American Free Trade Agreement. And it was she who was dispatched in February 1994 by the Comité to represent it at the first peace talks with the Mexican government, held in the colonial cathedral of San Cristóbal.
However, 1994 was also the year that she began another fight, this time against cancer of the kidney, receiving a donor transplant from her brother in 1996, something made possible by donations from Zapatista supporters. In October that year, though sick and frail, she defied a government ban and showed up in Mexico City for the Congreso Nacional Indígena (National Indigenous Congress), the first Zapatista representative to appear in the capital. Protected from potential arrest by the massed ranks of Zapatista supporters, she addressed the congress and later, to a rapturous reception, a crowd of 100,000 supporters in the Zócalo, Mexico City's massive central square.
Ramona's last public appearence was during the preparatory meetings for La Otra Campaña (The Other Campaign, the main political campaign of the Zapatistas aimed at the protection of indigenous rights and autonomy, by organising horizontally from below and uniting all the disparate radical and anti-capitalist elements within Mexican society) on September 16, 2005 , in the Caracol (autonomous council) in La Garrucha. La Otra Campaña was temporarily suspended for the duration of her funeral as a sign of respect. Her real name and details of her pre-revolutionary life have never been revealed.

2006 - C. J. Sansom's detective novel 'Winter in Madrid', is first published. Set in 1940 in the aftermath of Franco's victory, the novel describes Madrid under the yoke of political repression, food shortages, poverty, corruption, sadism and ignorance (religious and political), and puts the defeat of the Republic fully at the feet of the Communists.
1867 - [O.S. Dec. 27, 1866] Jan Wacław Machajskii, aka A. Wolski (d. February 19, 1926), Polish revolutionary and theorist of Makhaevism (Machajewszczyzny), a synthesis of anarchism and Marxism, born.

1873 - Charles Péguy (d. 1914), French poet, playwright, essayist, editor, libertarian socialist and anti-clericalist, born. Strongly inspired by the anarchism of Jean Grave and, outraged at the anti-Semitism being displayed in the Dreyfus case, became an ardent Dreyfusard. His early political tracts were published in 'La Revue Socialiste' and 'La Revue Blanche', but he gradually moved towards mainstream socialist thought, nationalism and even Catholicism.

####1876 - Rafael Barrett (Rafael Ángel Jorge Julián Barrett y Álvarez de Toledo; d. 1910), Spanish polymath, writer, essayist, journalist and anarchist thinker, who became an important figure of the Paraguayan literature during the twentieth century, born. Launched the anarchist newspaper 'Germinal' in 1908, which was quickly banned for exposing torture and abuses of power and Barrett arrested and exiled to Brazil, and then to Uruguay.
www.inventati.org/ingobernables/textos/anarquistas/Instituto Cervantes - Rafael Barrett, El Hombre Y Su Obra.htm

##1884 - Arturo M. Giovannitti (d. 1959), Italian-American IWW activist, anarchist socialist, anti-fascist agitator and poet, born. He was involved in the IWW's organisation of the 1912 Lawrence 'Bread and Roses' textile strike (also known as the 'Strike for Three Loaves'), alongside Joseph Ettor, during which a woman striker named Anna LoPizzo, was killed as police broke up a picket line. Joseph Caruso, a striker, was charged with her murder (even though the fatal shot was fired by the police). Giovannitti and Ettor, who were not present, were later arrested and charged as accessories to murder as part of the authorities' attempts to break the union.

"A man may lose his soul for just one day
Of splendor and be still accounted wise,
Or he may waste his life in a disguise
Like kings and priests and jesters, and still may

Be saved and held a hero if the play
Is all he knew. But what of him who tries
With truth and fails and then wins fame with lies?
How shall he know what history will say?

By this: No man is great who does not find
A poet who will hail him as he is
With an almighty song that will unbind

Through his exploits eternal silences.
Duce, where is your bard? In all mankind
The only poem you inspired is this. "

- 'To Mussolini'


1887 - Henri Chassin (d. 1964), French poet, anarchist songwriter and an anti-militarist who deserted from the army in 1914, born. A "petit fils de communard" who was the author of numerous popular Parisian songs. Active in the great railway strike of 1920 and was charged with "conspiracy against state security" and imprisoned. Involved in le Groupe des Hydropathes, La Vache Enragée, the activities of La Muse Rouge and performed in many Paris cabarets such as the Grenier de Grégoire. Author of a book of poems 'Machin de Belleville' in 1927.

1893 - The first issue of the short lived anarchist periodical 'El Eco Ravachol' appears in Sabadell (near Barcelona).

1893 - The first issue of the fortnightly newspaper 'La Debacle: Organe Revolutionnaire' appears in Saint-Josse-Ten-Node, Belgium. It runs for eleven issues, the last dated 23 July to 6 August 1893.

##1895 - Georgette Ryner (d. 1975), French writer, poet, teacher and anarchist activist, who was also the daughter of anarchist thinker Han Ryner and companion of the individualist anarchist Louis Simon, born. Worked on numerous newspaper and journals including 'Le Semeur de Normandie' (The Sower), 'l'En Dehors' (The Outside) and 'Ce Qu'il Faut Dire' (What Must Be Said) and was author of numerous books and poems including 'Dans la Ronde Éternelle' (In the Eternal Round; 1926) and 'Adolescente Passionnée' (1969). [NB: Numerous internet sources state that Georgette was Han Ryner's partner (pace 'The Daily Bleed'). This is incorrect.]

1900 - Ludovic Massé (d. 1982), Catalan proletarian writer, novelist and libertarian, born. Author of 'Le Refus' (1946), in praise of pacifism, and numerous other novels.

[E2] 1905 - [O.S. Dec. 25, 1904] Esther Dolgoff (Esther Miller; d. 1989), US anarchist activist and member of the IWW, born in Russia. A friend of Emma Goldman, Rudolf Rocker, Augustin Souchy and other noted anarchists, Esther Dolgoff was active in the anarchist movement since her teens, she met Sam, her life companion, in Cleveland in 1930 whilst he was on an IWW speaking tour. Together they founded Libertarian League in 1955 and were active in the Libertarian Book Club and the Industrial Workers of the World. A contributor to many anarchist movement publications, she was co-editor of the New York anarchist journal 'Views and Comments' and translated important anarchist works into English, most notably Joseph Cohen's 'Di yidish-anarkhistishe bavegung in Amerike : historisher iberblik un perzenlekhe iberlebungen' (The Jewish Anarchist Movement In The United States: A Historical Review And Personal Reminiscences; 1945).

1909 - Philippe Daudet (d. 1923), youthful French anarchist and author of the posthumously published poetry collection 'Parfums Maudits' (1924), who died in mysterious circumstances, born. Son of the reactionary 'Action Française' journalist Léon Daudet (1867-1942), who was himself the son of the anarchist sympathiser Alphonse Daudet (1840-1897). Léon had been the perfered January 22, 1923, target for Germaine Berton at the 'Action Française' offices, but who instead ended up shooting Marius Plateau. This action inspired Philippe, who anonymously contacted Georges Vidal, the editor of 'Le Libertaire', on Nov. 22, 1923, laying out his anarchist sympathies and stating that he was going to assassinate Raymond Poincaré (President of the Council of Ministers) or Alexandre Millerand (President of the Republic). Two days later he visited the supposed anarchist bookseller Pierre Le Flaouter, who was in fact a police informer. Alarmed at Philippe's plans, Le Flaouter stalled him, telling him to return to the shop later that day. Meanwhile he contacted the police to warn them about the plot.
What happened next is disputed. One version is that instead of entering the bookshop where the police lay in wait, Philippe hailed a taxi and went to the St. Lazare prison, where Germaine Berton was being held, and shot himself in the head, an unknown suicide.
On Dec. 2, 'Le Libertaire' brought out a special edition with the headline "The Tragic Death of Philippe Daudet, Anarchist. Léon Daudet, his father, hushes up the truth", after 'Action Française' had announced that Philippe's death was due to illness, laying out the truth (as far as they knew it).
Léon Daudet in turn claimed that the whole thing was a bizarre conspiracy between the French state and the anarchists somehow tied up to the failed assassination attempt on him, with the Sureté killing Philippe. The taxi driver Bajot then brought a defamation suit against Léon, which was successful and Léon spent 5 months in prison and was fined 5000 francs.
Where Philippe got the gun or what really happened is not, and probably never will be, known but the smart money is on his being killed by the police.

1912 - The first edition of 'Awakening: Social Anarchist Journal' published in Bulgaria. It tuns until September 5, 1912 and the title reappears during 1919-1920, as an organ of the Anarchist Federation Communist Bulgaria (FACB).
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1917 - George Powell Ballard, aka George Barrett (b. 1888*), English anarchist orator and organiser, "who flashed like a brilliant meteor over our horizon" according to George Cores, dies aged just 30 years old having contracted TB. [see: Dec. 6]
[* some sources give his year of birth as 1883]

1917 - Revolución Mexicana: Pancho Villa raids Santa Rosalia de Camargo, executing 300 Federal soldiers and Chinese prisoners. Emiliano Zapata retakes Jonacatepec.

[DD/AA] 1919 - Semana Trágica: The beginning of the 'Tragic Week' in Argentina when, in response to a police ambush on workers, the anarchist inspired Federación Obrera Regional Argentina (Argentine Regional Workers' Federation) called a General Strike. Rightist agitators and the police fought anarchist and communists (as well as attacking exiled Russian Jews), precipitating the declaration of martial law. Hundreds of workers were killed and injured in the fighting (estimates range between 100-700 killed and 400-2,000 injured). The police lost 3 dead and 78 wounded.

1919* - Alexander Yulievich Ge [Александр Юльевич Ге (Голберг)], aka A. Yu. G [А. Ю. Г.] or simply G. [Г.] (b. 1879), Russian revolutionary, anarchist-communist, member of the 1905 Petrograd Soviet of Workers' Deputies (Петроградского Совета рабочих депутатов) and later a Chekist after the 1917 Revolution, is executed by White Guards – hacked to death whilst "trying to escape" on the orders of General Petrenko (Петренко).
He became One of the organisers of the First Unity Conference of the Russian Anarchist Communists (1-й Объединительной конференции русских анархистов-коммунистов) in London (Dec. 28, 1913 - Jan. 1, 1914)
[* some sources give the date as January 21]
www.hrono.ru › УКАЗАТЕЛЬ Г

##1919 - Robert Duncan (d. 1988), queer American poet and lifelong anarchist, who set himself against orthodoxy in all its forms, whether mercantile capitalism, the communist state or - most troubling for his friends during the Vietnam War - absolute pacifism, born. A devotee of the Imagist poet H.D. (Hilda Doolittle), he wrote 'The H.D. Book' (2011), the definitive work on H.D.'s poetics. Duncan was also gay and managed to earned himself a discharge from the army in 1941 by outing himself as a homosexual.
Member of the San Francisco Libertarian Circle, he also lived in a small upstate New York anarchist rural commune associated with Holly Cantine and his companion, Dachine Rainer, who were publishers for several years of the anarchist quarterly, 'Retort'.

[A] 1920 - Albert Meltzer (d. 1996), English militant anarchist, boxer, bit-part actor, historian, author and publisher, born in Tottenham, London. Co-founder, with Stuart Christie, of the Anarchist Black Cross, he helped found the Kate Sharpley Library. His best known works are his autobiography, 'I Couldn't Paint Golden Angels' (1996), 'Anarchism: Arguments For and Against' (1981) and 'The Floodgates of Anarchy' (1970; co-written with Stuart Christie).

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: CNT militants manage to escape from the Modelo prison in Barcelona through a tunnel dug into the city's sewers, a prelude to the insurrectionary strike that was to break out across Spain the following day. [see: Jan. 8]

[B] 1938 - Roland Topor (d. 1997), Polish-born French graphic artist, cartoonist, painter, writer, filmmaker, actor, songwriter, surrealist and cultural anarchist, born. Co-founder in 1962, with Fernando Arrabal and Alejandro Jodorowsky, of the Mouvement Panique (Panic Movement), an anarchist avant-garde collective, whose other members included Christian Zeimert, Jacques Sternberg and Olivier O. Olivier. Contributor for many years to the likes of 'Hara-Kiri' and 'Le Fou Parle' and ran the magazine 'Mépris' with Sternberg. A prolific book illustrator and poster artist, he was one of the artists to contribute original lithographs to the radical anarchist journal 'Situationist Times'. Wrote the novel 'Le Locataire Chimérique' (The Tenant; 1964), which was adapted by Roman Polanski for his 1976 film 'The Tenant'. His most famous film part was as Renfield in Werner Herzog's 'Nosferatu: Phantom der Nacht' (1979). Created the designs for René Lalouxs 'La Planète Sauvage' (1973), a 72-minute long animated film, based on a novel by Stefan Wul, and designed the magic lantern sequence in 'Il Casanova di Federico Fellini' (1976). His most famous novel is the widely translated 'Joko Fête son Anniversaire' (Joko's Anniversary; 1969), a scathing satire on social conformity. Posthumously awarded a Satrapcy in the Collège de Pataphysique.

"Cette période historique
M'a insufflé la Panique
J'ai conservé le dégoût
De la foule et des gourous
De l'ennui et du sacré
De la poésie sucrée
Des moisis des pisse-froid
Des univers à l'étroit
Des collabos des fascistes
Des musulmans intégristes
De tous ceux dont l'idéal
Nie ma nature animale
A se nourrir de sornettes
On devient pire que bêtes
Je veux que mon existence
Soit une suprême offense
Aux vautours qui s'impatientent
Depuis les années quarante
En illustrant sans complexe
Le sang la merde et le sexe"

(This historical period
I breathed Panic
I kept disgust
The crowd and gurus
Of boredom and sacred
The sweet poetry
Moldy of cold fish
Universes cramped
Of fascist collaborators
Muslim fundamentalists
All those whose ideal
Nie ma animal nature
A feed of nonsense
It is worse than beasts
I want my life
Is a supreme offence
The vultures who are impatient
Since the forties
Illustrating unashamedly
Blood shit and sex)

extract from 'Un beau soir je suis né en face de l’abattoir ' (One evening I was born in front of the abattoir; 2000).


1940 - Segundo David Peralta, aka Mate Cosido (d. 1940), Argentine anarchist outlaw, train and bank robber, and legendary 'Robin Hood' style rural bandit in north-eastern Argentina, who referred to himself as 'el bandido de los pobres', is ambushed by the Gendarmeria Nacional Argentina and shot in the hip whilst collecting the ransom from the kidnapping of a rancher named Jacinto Berzón at the railway station in Villa Berthet, Chaco. It is believed that he died shortly afterwards from his wounds, as he was never seen or heard from again. [see: Mar. 3]

1942 - Hellmut G. Haasis, German historian, writer, publisher and libertarian, born. His writings cover everything from social and political history to poetry, theatre and radio plays, and a novel written in the Swabian dialect. Has been a regular contributor to the quarterly anarchist magazine 'Schwarzer Faden' (Black Thread).

##1945 - Christiane Passevant, French historian, writer, cinema critic, syndicaliste, anarchist and anarcha-feminist former journalist with Radio France, who was also the partner of the libertarian historian and activist Larry Portis until his death in 2011, born.

1948 - Jimmy Gladiator, French anarchist activist, CNT member, poet and novelist, born. Author of the surreal 'Éléphants de la Patrie' (Elephants of the Homeland; 2008). [expand]

1951 - Horst Stowasser (d. 2009), German anarchist activist, historian and author, born. Founder of the German anarchist archive, anArchiv, the author of a book, 'Projekt A', proposing the establishment of a network of self-managed communal housing groups, self-managed businesses and political initiatives at the 'small town level', which led to his co-founding of the Projekt A/WESPE in Neustadt an der Weinstrasse.

[1973 - María Rodríguez (b. 1913), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, who was born to parents who were CNT militants

1975 - Jaime Rebelo (b. 1900), Portuguese anarchist and anti-fascist activist, who co-founded the Associação de Classe dos Trabalhadores do Mar (Sea Workers' Class Association) of Setúbal, better known as the 'Casa dos Pescadores' (House of Fishermen), dies in Almada, having returned to spend his final days in Portugal. [see: Dec. 22]

## 1993 - Leah (Leila) Feldman, aka 'the Makhnovist Granny' (b. ca. 1899), Polish-English life-long adherent of anarchism, who had died a few days before, is cremated in her native East London - a true working class hero. [expand]
[1994 also wrongly given as the year]

2011 - Roger Paon (b. 1919), French socialist, then an anarchist and pacifist, dies.[expand/d.o.b.?]
1863 - Paul Karl Wilhelm Scheerbart (d. 1915), German author of fantastic literature and drawings and an individualist anarchist, who was chosen as one of the 'saints' of Mynona and Anselm Ruest's 'Der Einzige' (he also contributed an article to the first issue), born. He published under the pseudonyms Kuno Küfer and Bruno Küfer, including his best known work, 'Glasarchitektur' (1914), published as Kuno Küfer. Closely associated with one of the leading proponents of Expressionist architecture, Bruno Taut, and he composed aphoristic poems about glass for Taut's Glass Pavilion at the Werkbund Exhibition (1914). He was also close to Erich Mühsam, Senna Hoy (contributing to 'Der Kampf') and Paul Scheerbart. He is also remembers as having tried to invent a perpetual motion machine and having been an influence via his writings and his 'scientific research', on Alfred Jarry.

##1867 - [O.S. Dec. 27, 1866] Jan Wacław Machajski, aka A. Wolski (A. Vol'ski) (d. 1926), Polish revolutionary and theorist of the "makhaevism" (machajewszczyzny), a synthesis of anarchism and Marxism, born.

1871 - The first issue of the weekly newspaper 'La Revolucion Social: Organ of the Federation of the Palma International Workingmen's Association' is published in Palma de Mallorca.

1873 - Vincenzo Pezza (b. 1841), Italian Bakuninist Internationalist, dies. [expand]

1883 - In Lyon the trial of members of the International Workers' Association, known as 'The 66', begins. The 66 are accused of promoting workers' strikes and the abolition of the rights of property, family, fatherland, religion and thus attacking the public peace. Stiff sentences were handed down: 'Leaders' such as Peter Kropotkin, Émile Gautier, Joseph Bernard and Toussaint Bordat received four years in prison; 39 of their cohorts received sentences ranging from six months to three years.

###1890 - Shì Tàixū [釋太虛], more commonly Taixu (or T'ai Hsü) [太虛] and Master Taixu [太虚大师](born Lü Peilin [呂沛林]; d. 1947), Chinese Buddhist modernist and anarchist, who advocated the reform and renewal of Chinese Buddhism, born.

[D2] 1892 - Anarchist revolt in Andalusia, to the cry of "Vive la révolution sociale!" Hundreds of farm labourers take the town of Jerez. The uprising is quickly subdued and its leaders captured and tortured. Four are sentenced to death and executed 10 February 1892, setting off new waves of violence. [expand]

[E] 1896 - The first issue of 'La Voz de la Mujer' probably "The ONLY newspaper in America and perhaps the world to propagate our ideals, written by women and especially for them", is published, in Buenos Aires. Those involved include Virginia Bolten, Pepita Guerra, Teresa Marchiso, Josefa Martinez, Soledad Gustavo , Ana Lopez and Irma Ciminaghi. Ten issues appear until 10 March 1897.
"Tired of asking and begging, of being the plaything, the object of pleasure and our infamous exploiters and our vile husbands, we have decided to raise our voices in the society and demand, we say demand - that we take part in the pleasures of the banquet of life. Ni Dios, Ni Patron, Ni Marido." "Ni dios, ni patrón, ni marido" (No god, no boss, no husband) became the paper's motto.

1910 - Unemployed shoe-maker Jean-Jacques Liabeuf perpetuates his famous act of revenge against the Parisian police following his wrongful conviction for "pimping". Armed with a pistol and 2 cobblers' knives, and whilst wearing heavily spiked armbands, he is confronted by police - killing one, severely wounding a second and hospitalising six others. Despite widespread protests in his support organised by the anarchist milieu, he is executed on July 2, precipitating extensive rioting.

1911 - Pietro Gori (b. 1865), Italian anarchist, labour activist and lawyer, who was an ardent legal defender of numerous anarchists, dies. He was also renowned as a poet and songwriter - author of some of the most famous anarchist songs of the late 19th century, including 'Addio a Lugano' (Farewell to Lugano), 'Stornelli d'Esili' (Exile Songs) and 'Ballata per Sante Caseri' (Ballad for Sante Geronimo Caserio). Published a number of books of poetry, including 'Prigioni e Battaglie' (Jails and Battles; 1891) and 'Alla conquista dell'Avvenire' (Conquering the Future; 1892). [see: Aug. 14]

1912 - San Diego Free Speech Fight: The San Diego Common Council passes Ordinance No. 4623, which called for a restricted zone of 49-square blocks (more than that which was requested by San Diegans) in the middle of San Diego, encompassing all of 'soapbox row'. [expand]
After the passage of the ordinance, Chief of Police Keno Wilson announced he would wait until January 10 before he enforced it.

1928 - L'Association des Fédéralistes Anarchistes is set up by Sébastien Faure and other dissidents from the Union Anarchiste Communiste in Paris.

[D1/DDD] 1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: The date chosen by the Comité de Defensa Regional de Cataluña (Regional Defence Committee of Catalonia), based upon an idea proposed by Joan Garcia Oliver, for an insurrectionary general strike in Catalonia.
The insurrection did not have a very wide following. The Army and Civil Guard took strategic positions in places where there was disorder was expected, and union leaders were detained. In some neighbourhoods of Barcelona there were clashes between anarchists and law enforcement. There were strikes, explosives incidents and proclamations of libertarian communism in some locations such as Aragón, Robres, Bellver de Cinca, the Comunidad Valenciana, Bugarra, Ribarroja, Bétera, Benaguacil, Utiel and Pedralba. In the latter town a Guardia Civil and A Guardia de Asalto (assault guard) were killed during the insurrection; when the Guardia Civil restored order it killed ten civilians.
The National Committee of CNT, which had not called the strike, said on January 10th that the insurrection had been "de pura significancia anarquista sin que para nada haya intervenido en ellos el organismo federal" (purely anarchist, without significance [and] that they, the federal agency, had not participated), although they or their confederal paper 'Solidaridad Obrera' [12/01/33] did not condemned it "con un deber de solidaridad y de conciencia" (out of a duty of solidarity and conscience). But that it was not the revolution that will "con garantías... a la luz del día" (guarantee... the light of day).
On January 9, the official journal of the CNT in Madrid published an editorial 'Esta revolución no es la nuestra' (This is not our revolution), followed up two days later with the claim "Ni vencidos ni humillados" (Neither loser nor humiliated), and blamed the uprising on "la política represiva… sectaria de los socialistas que detentan el poder y usan de él contra los intereses de los trabajadores" (the repressive sectarian politics ... the socialists who use power against the interests of the workers.) The riots "existen y aumentarán por razones de injusticia bien patentes" (exist and flourish because of patent injustice). Therefore, "vencida una insurrección surge otra, resuelta una huelga, otra se produce; apaciguado un motín, estalla otro mayor" (defeat one insurrection another pops up, settle a strike, another occurs; pacify a riot another major one breaks out.)
At the end of the insurrection, 9,000 CNT members have been jailed.

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: During the evening anarcho-syndicalist groups tried to approach the Carabanchel, Cuatro Vientos, de la Montaña and de María Cristina barracks in Madrid but are driven back.
Large explosions in Levante and in less than 2 hours during Sunday night more than 20 explosions are heard in Valencia, where the police prevented the burning of churches. There is unrest in many towns in the Valencia province, including Ribarroja , Bétera , Benaguacil and Utiel. In Gestalgar several bombs explode. In Bugarra after heavy fighting with the police, which leaves five Guardia Civil and Guardia de Asalto dead, the anarchists take the town and proclaim libertarian communism. Bloody fighting also takes place in Gandia, Tabernes de Valldigna and Pedralba. In Catalonia serious clashes occur in Sardañola, Tarrasa, Ripollet and Sallent. In Lérida an assault attempt is made on the barracks of the 25th Infantry Brigade, leaving one sergeant dead and seven sergeants and corporals injured. Five attackers are killed.
In Barcelona attacks take place on the Cuartel de Atarazanas, calle de Arco de Teatro, the calle Castaños and at the Mercado de San José. At 20:05 an attack was launched on the San Agustín barracks of the Regimiento de Infantería nº 10, setting off a bomb and commandeering a tram to use as a barricade in front of the barracks from which to fire from. At 21:00, two bombs explode in the basement of the police, wounding a Guardia Civil and two police drivers.
The turmoil also spreads to Zaragoza, Murcia, Oviedo and other provinces, reaching its greatest resonance in Andalucía, where numerous strikes break out. In Seville cars and trams are set on fire, and the police are shot at several time. In La Rinconada libertarian communism is proclaimed.

1934 - Paul Auguste Bernard (b. 1861), French bakery worker, metallurgist, anarchist and trade unionist, dies. [see: Dec. 26]

[A] 1972 - Kenneth Patchen (b. 1911), American anarchist poet, novelist, graphic designer, pacifist and war resister, dies in Palo Alto. [see: Dec. 13]

## 1985 - Jeremy Hammond, US anarchist and anti-fascist activist, and computer hacker, who was sentenced in November 2013 to 10 years in US Federal Prison for hacking the private intelligence firm Stratfor and releasing the leaks through WikiLeaks, born.

[B] 1996 - Carmen Conde Abellán aka Florentina (b. 1907), Spanish teacher, narrative writer, poet, children's author, militant anarcha-feminist and Mujeres Libres member, dies. [see: Aug. 15]
1857* - [O.S. Dec. 28, 1856] Anna Kuliscioff or Kulischov, Kulisciov (Анна Кулишёва) (Anna Moiseyeva Rosenstein [Анна Моисеевна Розенштейн]; d. 1925), Russian Jewish revolutionary, prominent feminist, Bakunin-influenced anarchist, and eventually a Marxist socialist militant in Italy, is born into a wealthy and privileged Jewish merchant family. A natural scholar, she studied a number of foreign languages under private tuition before, in 1871, being sent to study engineering at the Zürich Polytechnic, where she also took courses in philosophy, Swiss universities being a prominent destination for the young Russian women who were denied the right to further education in the Empire. There, in a new-found environment of intellectual and political freedom, her nascent interest in political ideas developed after encountering narodnist and anarchist ideas. In 1873 Anja abandoned her studies and married the Russian revolutionary Pyotr Makarevich (Петра Макаревича), a member of Bakunin's circle. Forced to return to Russia following an order from the tsar, who feared the spread of revolutionary ideas from Switzerland via the Empires youth studying there, she and Makarevich joined the revolutionary movement, first in the Odessa group known as the Tchaikovsky Circle, or the Grand Propaganda Society (Чайковцы, Большое общество пропаганды) around Nikolai Vasilyevich Tchaikovsky (Никола́й Васи́льевич Чайко́вский) and Felix Vadimovich Volkhovsky (Феликс Вадимович Волховский), a populist (narodnist group based on the idead of Bakunin who pursued a "go to the people" ideology (and amongst whose members was Peter Kropotkin).
In 1874, Makarevich was sentenced to five years hard labour in 1874 for his activities and Anja, fearing possible arrest, fled Odessa, living underground in Kiev and later in Kharkov, often singing in public parks to earn a living. In Kiev she joined a Zemlya i Volya group engaged in armed resistance against the Tsarist regime as well as agitation in peasant communities, including participating in the failed 'Chigirinsky Plot' (Чигиринский заговор) in 1876. When her Zemlya i Volya comrades were arrested, she managed to escape and in April 1877 she fled Russia for Switzerland using someone else's passport. There she changed her name to Kuliscioff (Russian for a labourer) to avoid being traced by Tsarist spies and became involved in anarchist circles. She also met and became the partner of the Italian anarchist Andrea Costa, a turbulent relationship that lasted for five years of constant separation through imprisonment and exile.
In Paris the following year she was arrested for her political activities but was released following the intervention of the Russian novelist Ivan Turgenev, who was fascinated by her beauty and personality, and deported from France, ending up in Italy. There she and Costa became active in the anarchist movement but was arrested in 1879 in Florence on charges of conspiracy against the institutions of the State. She spent thirteen month in prison before being acquitted at her trial, during which she was to describe herself as a revolutionary socialist. Whilst in prison this time round she also contracted tuberculosis. Ejected to Switzerland, they soon returned clandestinely to Italy where they were arrested in Milan in April 1880, where they had begun the publication of the 'Rivista Internazionale del Socialismo'. In the 'Programma' of the paper, Kuliscioff had written for the first time about the need for women's involvement in the transformation of society towards socialism.
Upon her release, she was escorted to the Swiss border and settled in Lugano until the following year, when she returned to Italy and was reunited with Andrea Costa in Imola. There she gave birth to her daughter Andreina in December 1881. Anna's relationship with Costa however had begun to break down due to his 'traditional' and repressive attitude to women, despite his avowed support for women's suffrage, etc.. Anna eventually left him, taking with her their infant daughter, in order to study medicine in Bern against Costa’s wishes. In Switzerland, she reacquaints herself with Russian socialist circles, meeting Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (Гео́ргий Валенти́нович Плеха́нов) and becomes involved in the Marxist Emancipation of Labour (Освобождение труда) group.
In January 1884, her state of health forced her to transfer from the Faculty of Medicine in Bern to that in Naples, a move supported by the academic Arnaldo Cantani. Her arrival coincided with an outbreak of cholera, brought back from the Crimea by army veterans and which results in 3,500 deaths over a fifteen day period. She also met Errico Maltesta during this time whilst he was in hiding from the authorities.
Despite her poverty, she graduated as a doctor of medicine in November 1886 (one of the first woman to do so in Italy), having taken additional courses in Turin and Pavia to complete her specialisation in obstetrics and gynaecology. Her doctorate dissertation was on the aetiology of puerperal fever, a major cause of postpartum deaths, and her research on its bacterial origin, conducted in Pavia in collaboration with the future Nobel laureate in medicine Camillo Golgi, opened the way to a discovery that would save the lives of millions of women whilst giving birth.
To combat the academic ostracism that she was subject to in Naples (she was the first female graduate from its Faculty of Medicine), she moved to Turin for further studies in gynaecology. At this time, and having finally ended her relationship with Costa, she began a new one with the young lawyer socialist Filippo Turati, with whom she had begun corresponding at the suggestion of the prominent Italian feminist Anna Maria Mozzoni. Following another rejection, this time from the university medical clinic in Padua, she returned to Milan, where she opened a medical practice, caring for working women and the poor, working alongside the philanthropist Alexandrina Ravizza and earning herself the name "dottora dei poveri". In 1889, Anna and Turati founded the Lega Socialista Milanese, and two years later in 1891, they founded the socialist news magazine 'Critica Sociale', of which Anna would become the editor. That same year she was forced to abandon her practice due to her ongoing ill health, as well as fulfilling a desire to devote herself to politics.
On April 27, 1890, she made her first appearance on a public platform on the feminist question, speaking at the Circolo Filologico in Milan. The talk, entitled 'Monopolio dell'uomo' (The Monopoly of Man), which stressed the differences between her standpoint and those of Mozzoni and other early feminists, went into print immediately and swiftly became an influential feminist tract. Kuliscioff argued not only for women’s education and social equality, but for their political rights, for equal pay for women and protested against women’s exploitation by both their employers and their husbands, even arguing that women should be paid for housework as an occupation; ideas totally new in Italy at the time. In this she was showing her ardent support for August Bebel, who had introduced "the women's question" into Marxism, arguing that the working class and women were two subject peoples whose liberation would coincide.
'Monopolio dell'uomo' cemented Anna Kuliscioff's position as one of Italy’s leading feminists of the period and her views caused her to clash regularly with other leading Marxists and socialists of the period, including her partner Turati. Despite this, in 1892 Kuliscioff particiapted in the convention that resulted in the foundation of the Partito dei Lavoratori Italiani, the forerunner of the Partito Socialista Italiano. All this political activity inevitably attracted the attention of the State and on May 8, 1898 an armed group broke into her by now famous salon in the Portici Galleria, where the 'Critica Sociale' was laid out and celebrities and 'lowly' workers rubbed shoulder and discussed the issues of the day, arresting her on charges of crimes of conscience and subversion. In December she was released during an amnesty, but Turati remained in prison a further year. Despite this arrest, she participated in the drafting of legislation on children's and women's work, the Legge Carcano, sponsored through parliament by the PSI in 1902. In 1911, together with the prominent syndicalist and feminist Maria Goia, Anna participated in the organisation of the Comitato Socialista per il Suffragio Semminile (Socialist Committee for Women's Suffrage). In January 1912, she also helped found the bimonthly magazine 'La Difesa delle Lavoratrici' which she ran for two years until the advent of the war, which was to cause a falling out between her and the other editors. The same year, however, saw the introduction of the so-called legge di Giolitti, the Legge elettorale italiana del 1912, which widened universal male suffrage to all men over 30, even to those who were illiterate, and to men over 21 who had served in the army or had an elementary school education (increasing the electorate from 7% to 23% of the population), but continued to exclude women from the vote. The new law and her on-going ill health (down in large part to her earlier repeated spells in prison) plunged Anna into a period of despondency, during which her relationship with Filippo Turati, whom she had always been more radical than, ended. The advent of Fascism, which brought serious political and emotional difficulties for anti-fascists like her, also had the effect of further destabilising her self-belief.
Anna Kuliscioff died on December 27, 1925, in Milan and was buried in the cemetery Chimitero Monumental di Milano. In anticipation of her funeral procession, large crowds had gathered under her window on the Piazza del Duomo, but the procession itself was disrupted, attacked by Fascisti thugs who destroyed the flowers and wreaths sent by well-wishers. As the historian Luigi Salvatorelli said at the time: "Fascism did far worse things, but perhaps nothing revealed more clearly its irrevocable moral repugnance."
[* NB. There is some dispute over the exact year and it may have been ani between 1853 and 1857]

1870 - [N.S. Jan. 21] Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (Russian: Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен; b. 1812), Russian writer, journalist, novelist and thinker, who was one of the main 'forefathers' of Russian socialism and agrarian populism (an ideological ancestor of the Narodniki, Socialist-Revolutionaries, etc.), and who was greatly influenced by the anarchism, dies. [see: Apr. 6]

1874 - Helen Tufts Bailie (d. 1962), US anarchist, who was involved in the Modern School movement and outed the Daughters of the American Revolution in 1921 for maintaining lists of "doubtful speakers" which included individuals and organisations such as Mary Woolley, Jane Addams, William Allen White, The National Federation of Women's Clubs, and the American Peace Society, born. She served on Francisco Ferrer Association committee, producing a pamphlet on Ferrer; co-wrote 'The Background of Francisco Ferrer’s Assassination', with Hippolyte Havel and Leonard Abbott, for 'Man!' 1: 9-10 (Sept-Oct 1934) and 'Darling Daughter: A Satirical Novel' (1956) about the DAR blacklists and the 'Red Scare'.

1875 - Julio Herrera y Reissig (d. 1910), Uruguayan poet, playwright, essayist and anarchist, born. Stylistically, he began as a Romanticist but later became an early proponent of Modernism and Surrealism.

1895 - Robert Proix (d. 1978), French socialist, anarchist and pacifist, born in Jean-Baptiste André Godin's Familistère de Guise, a industrial workers community based on the principles of Fourier. A friend of André Prudhommeaux and Albert Camus, who wrote for the libertarian review, 'Témoins' (Witness), that Proix edited. Proix also edited 'Albert Camus, ses Amis du Livre' (1962) [published in english as 'Albert Camus and the Men of the Stone' (1971)], a book of remembrances of Camus by members of the printing trade that knew him. He also worked on the newspapers 'Liberté', 'Union Pacifiste' and 'Monde Libertaire' and supported Louis Lecoin's conscientious objector / antiwar activities. During WWII, he was interned in the Fort du Hâ in Bordeaux for helping Jews escape persecution.

1896 - Manuel Rojas Sepúlveda (d. 1973), Chilean anarchist writer, novelist, poet and essayist, is born in Buenos Aires.

1904 - First issue in Berlin of the anarchist newspaper 'Der Freie Arbeiter', subtitled "Wissen und Wollen" (Knowledge and Desire). From 1919 to 1933 it would be the paper of the Föderation Kommunistischer Anarchisten Deutschlands (Federation of Communist Anarchists of Germany).

## [A] 1905 - Louise Michel (b. 1830), French anarchist, member of the 1871 Paris Commune and co-founder of the Women's Batallion, dies. Her funeral on January 22nd will be attended by 100,000 mourners. [see: May 29]

1907 - The case against Emma Goldman from the Oct. 30, 1906 arrest is dismissed by the New York City grand jury.

[BB] 1911 - The funeral of 'poet of anarchism' Pietro Gori , who died yesterday in Portoferraio (Elba) at the age of 46 years. His remains are transferred from Piombino to Elba Island (Tuscany) by boat, then taken by train to Rosignano, where he is buried. These impressive funeral arrangements take place over three days in order to allow the thousands of workers from all over Tuscany to bid farewell a revered comrade.

1912 - San Diego Free Speech Fight: The California Free Speech League is founded at a meeting of 18 free-speech advocates in the office of attorney E. E. Kirk, a well known San Diego socialist. The 18 represented various groups including the Wobblies, Socialists, church groups, single-taxers, the AFL and other trade unions. The League attempted to take a legal stand against the free speech restrictions by holding up the Constitution and defending the rights of non-property owning peoples. They chose 12 "martyrs" to "mount the corner rostrum, bait the cohorts of Captain Sehon", and go to jail gladly. Among those chosen for the "sacrificial altar": socialists, George W. Woodbey and Kasper Bauer; Wobblies, Laura Payne Emerson, Wood Hubbard, and Jack White. The group not only decided the order of the arrests, but at what intervals they would occur.
Then they named "disinterested witnesses" from the community. Sheriff Jennings, Councilman Woods, Judge Sloane, Rabbi Erlinger, and three ministers would report how the police behaved. Kirk proposed a ban of the businesses that petitioned for the ordinance. And the group even chose to invite their ongoing foe the Salvation Army – Joe Hill called them the 'Starvation Army' – to join the struggle. Above all else, Kirk concluded, "Violence, unless necessary in self-defense, will not be offered by the speakers. [We are] emphatically against that."

1924 - Jean-Baptiste Thuriault (sometimes Thuriau) (b. 1853), French worker and anarchist militant, dies. [see: Apr. 24]

1928 - Première in Paris of the Association of Anarchist Federations, by dissidents of Anarchist Communist Union. The main architect of this new organisation is Sébastien Faure .

##1929 - Heiner Müller (d. 1995), German dramatist, director, poet, anarchist, born.

1931 - The first edition of the weekly satirical newspaper 'El Luchador' (The Wrestler) is published in Barcelona. Edited by the anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist Federico Urales, after several interruptions it will definitively cease publication after August 4, 1933 (issue 122).

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: The official journal of the CNT in Madrid publishes an editorial 'Esta revolución no es la nuestra' (that is not our revolution), followed up two days later with the claim "Ni vencidos ni humillados" (Neither loser nor humiliated), and blamed the uprising on "la política represiva… sectaria de los socialistas que detentan el poder y usan de él contra los intereses de los trabajadores" (the repressive sectarian politics ... the socialists who use power against the interests of the workers.) The riots "existen y aumentarán por razones de injusticia bien patentes" (exist and flourish because of patent injustice). Therefore, "vencida una insurrección surge otra, resuelta una huelga, otra se produce; apaciguado un motín, estalla otro mayor" (defeat one insurrection another pops up, settle a strike, another occurs; pacify a riot another major one breaks out.)

1943 - Giovanni Rossi, aka 'Cardias' (January 9 1943), Italian agronomist, veterinarian and anarchist, who was involved in the setting up of a number of anarchist communes, including the Cittadella farm in Stagno Lombardo, Cremona, and the Cecilia colony in the Brazilian state of Paraná, dies in Pisa aged 87. [see: Jan. 11]

[B] 1950 - Rio Reiser (Ralph Christian Möbius; d. 1996), German singer, musician, composer, songwriter, actor and queer anarchist, born. Active in the Berlin Kreuzberg scene, writting the squatters' anthem 'Rauch-Haus-Song' (Smoke House Song). Singer and main songwriter of the band Sharam (1970-85), his most well known songs include 'Macht Kaputt, Was Euch Kaputt Macht' (Destroys What Destroys You; 1969) and 'Keine Macht für Niemand' (No Power for Nobody; 1972).

1950 - Wenceslao Jimenez Orive aka 'Wences' & 'Jimeno' (b. 1922), Asturian industrial designer, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who led the 'Los Maños' guérilla group in the resistance to Franco following the fascist victory in the Civil War, is shot down in the street without any warning, Seriously injured, he had just enough strength left to take the cyanide capsule, which he always carried with him, so as not to fall into the hands of the police alive. [see: Jan. 28]

1950 - Following the death of Wenceslao Jimenez Orive aka 'Wences' & 'Jimeno' (b. 1922), two members of his 'Los Maños' group, Simón Gracia Fleringán aka 'Miguel Montllor' & 'Aniceto Borrel' (1923 - 1950) and Placido Ortiz Gratal aka 'Vicente Llop' & 'Vicente Lobo' (1921 - 1950), were arrested later the same day.

1954 - Herminia Catalina Brumana (b. 1897), Argentinian teacher, writer, journalist, playwright, anarchist and feminist activist, dies. [see: Sep. 12]

1954 - Satoshi Kirishima [桐島聡], Japanese anarchist and former member of the Scorpion (さそり / Sasori) cell of the East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front (東アジア反日武装戦線 / Higashi Ajia Hannichi Busō Sensen) and the only member not arrested in 1975

2007 - Mary Stanley Low (b. 1912), Anglo-Australian Trotskyist and later anarchist, poet, Surrealist, linguist and classics teacher, dies. [see: May 14]
#### 1855 - Paterne Berrichon (Pierre Eugène Dufour; d. 1922), French poet, painter, sculptor, designer, anarchiste and anti-propriétaire, born. Best known for being the brother-in-law and the much despised editor of Arthur Rimbaud. During his military service he was sentenced to two years in prison for disobedience, but pardoned after sixteen months. On returning to Paris, he was mostly homeless and destitute, frequenting anarchist and literary circles around publications such as 'Le Mercure de France', 'Le Chat Noir' and 'La Revue Blanche', and published a book of poems 'Le Vin Maudit' (1896), with a frontispiece by Paul Verlaine. He also participated in the many anti-militarist and 'Ligue des Antipropriétaires' protests in the Latin Quarter, looting bakeries alongside Louise Michel and being arrested for resisting arrest.

1859 - The date commonly (and erroneously) given for the birth of Francesc (Francisco) Ferrer i Guàrdia (d. 1909), Catalan anarchist and radical educator. [see: Jan. 14]

[F] 1874 - The First International is declared illegal by the new government of General Francisco Serrano. After the events of Alcoy and Sanlúcar de Barrameda, the cantonal insurrection, the resumption of The Carlist war and the resurgence of the independence rebellion in Cuba, the president Emilio Castelar y Ripoll had asked for an extension of his semi-dictatorial powers. He subsequently lost a motion of confidence and on January 3, General Manuel Pavía (Manuel Pavía y Rodríguez de Alburquerque) had rebelled against the Republic in Madrid and dissolved Parliament [Golpe de Estado de Pavía] in order to prevent a radical republican government taking over. Pavía offered to restore Castelar, but he refused and instead General Francisco Serrano y Domínguez ended up heading a 'republicanos unitarios' cabinet of conservatives and radicals.

[B] 1893 - Vicente Huidobro (Vicente García-Huidobro Fernández; d. 1948), Chilean poet, who was an exponent of the artistic movement called Creacionismo (Creationism), born. As a student Huidobro became interested in anarchism and, having become editor in 1912, published numerous anarchist and IWW texts and speeches in the modernist magazine 'Musa Joven'. He became close to the Feración de Estudiantes de la Universidad de Chile because 'Juventud' and 'Claridad' published the latest on new art and the avant-garde, as well as writings of renowned anarchists (Kropotkin, Bakunin, Proudhon), thus confirming a close bond between left-libertarianism politics and the avant-garde.

[1894 - Emilia Pérez Pazos, aka 'Manchada' (d. 1960), libertarian anti-Francoist militant

1914 - The date on which two men were killed during a grocery store robbery in Utah, for which IWW labour organiser and folk singer Joe Hill, coiner of the phrase "pie in the sky", was railroaded and executed in Salt Lake City, Utah.

1918 - [O.S. Dec. 28] Olga Spiridonovna Lyubatovich (Ольга Спиридоновна Любатович), aka 'Shaeek' (Акула), Olga Doroshenko (Ольга Дорошенко), (Maria Svyatskaya) Мария Святская (d. 1917), Russian anarchist-influenced revolutionary, narodnitsa and member of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya (Земля и воля / People's Will), dies. [see: Jun. 29]

1919 - Arrest of the author, poet, publisher, anarchist Erich Mühsam and 11 other radicals in Germany.

1928 - Philip Levine, American working-class poet, anti-fascist and anarchist, born.

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: Rioting, bombings and gunfights continue throughout the country as the Revolution spreads to the southern cities. Anarchists and Syndicalists besiege Barcelona. Armed anarchist risings in Barcelona (January-February) and several other cities are defeated by the Republican government; left-right polarisation develops further in Spain. The insurrection breaks out in Castellón de la Plana following the killing of a guardia civil and an assault guard. [see: Jan. 7 & 8]

1933 - Sucesos de Casas Viejas: On the night of January 10 and in the early hours of January 11, a group of CNT-affiliated farm labourers gather in the Ateneo Libertario in Casas Viejas, a town of about 2000 inhabitants, and quite unaware that they were isolated and that the uprising had failed in other nearby locations, embark upon an uprising during the January 1933 anarchist insurrection. Telephone wires are cut, trenches dug to prevent the movement of vehicles and control points set up at intersections and roads into the town.
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Sucesos de Casas Viejas
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Las fotografías de los Sucesos de Casas Viejas

1933 - Sucesos de Casas Viejas: Following rioting in the province of Cádiz organised by the anarchists, the government decide to send in a company of guardias de asalto under the command of Captain Manuel Rojas Feijespán.
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Sucesos de Casas Viejas
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Las fotografías de los Sucesos de Casas Viejas

1938 - The final edition (issue 13) of 'Informa Bulteno', the 'Information Bulletin of the CNT - AIT - ISP' in Esperanto, is published.

1946 - Daniel Giraud, French essayist, translator, poet, Sinologist, Taoist anarchist and blues musician, who perfoms under the stage name Dan Giraud, born.

1949 - A.J. Alexandrovich (Alexander Joseph)(b.1873), prolific Russian-born French libertarian artist (portraiture and landscape) in paint, ink, charcoal, as well as etching and lithograph, dies. Painted many allegorical compostions as well as portraits of all the well known contemporary anarchist figures. [Mar 11]

1950 - Clovis-Abel Pignat (aka Tschombine Pategnon) (b. 1884), Swiss militant anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, dies*. [see: Nov. 16]

1977 - The first issue of the monthly 'Sicilia Libertaria: Giornale Anarchico per la Liberazione Sociale e l'Internazionalismo', produced by the Ragusa group in Turin, is published.

1986 - Jaroslav Seifert (b. 1901), Czech poet, writer, journalist and translator, dies. [see: Sep. 23]

2002 - Eight members of the group Those Pesky Kids (TPK) are charged with Criminal Trespass after scaling the Argentine Embassy walls in London and dropping the red and black Anarchist flag in solidarity with the insurrectionary events in Argentina.

2004 - Ramón Liarte Viu (b. 1918), Spanish anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist militant, autodidact, journalist and writer, dies. [see: Aug. 28]

## 2009 - Julia Hermosilla Sagredo (b. 1916), Basque anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Franco resistance movement, dies. [see: Apr. 1]
##1856 - Giovanni Rossi, aka 'Cardias' (d. 1943), Italian agronomist, veterinarian and anarchist, who was involved in the setting up of a number of anarchist communes, including the Cittadella farm in Stagno Lombardo, Cremona, and the Cecilia colony in the Brazilian state of Paraná, born.

## 1868 - Cai Yuanpei [Tsai Yuan-pei](蔡元培; d. 1940), Chinese educator, anarchist, Esperantist, pioneer of Chinese modern ethnology, president of Peking University, and founder of the Academia Sinica, born.
Six No's Society [Liu bu hui] founded by Cai Yuanpei
one of the 'Four Elders' of the Nationalist Party in the 1920s
cpc.people.com.cn › 期刊选粹

1874 - General Arsenio Martínez-Campos Antón, the capitán general of Catalonia, follows up on yesterday's banning of the First International in Spain by the new government of General Francisco Serrano, by also declaring the Federació Regional Espanyola de l'AIT, then based in Barcelona, illegal too. [see: Jan. 10]

1886 - Jean-Jacques Liabeuf (d. 1910), a young unemployed French cobbler who was notoriously guillotined after his July 2,1910 act of revenge against police for his wrongful conviction on trumped-up charges of 'pimping', born.

1887 - Clément Duval, French anarchist burglar and member of La Panthère des Batignolles, whose story was appropriated for the plot of the novel 'Papillion', goes on trial at the Seine Court of Assizes. Duval had broken into the apartment of a rich woman (25th October 1886), stolen her jewels and accidentally set it on fire.

##1887 - Mochizuki Katsura (望月桂; d. 1975), Japanese anarchist, painter, designer, and manga artist, the latter under the penname Saikawa Bontarō (犀川凡太郎), born.
People's Art Association (平民美術協会) 1917

[B] 1890 - William Morris' 'News From Nowhere (or An Epoch of Rest)' begins serialisation in 'The Commonweal'.

1907 - Joan Dalmau Ferran aka Joan de la Castanyola (d. 1941), Catalan farmer, Master builder and anarcho-syndicalsit militant, born. Member of the CNT, during the revolution he was a member of the CNT agricultural collective in Puigpelat. On May 25, 1937 he was a delegate to the plenary of the Régional de Sindicats, Seccions i Collectivitats and to the regaional plenum of the CNT on January 8-9, 1938, both held in Barcelona. After the war, he went into exile in France and eventually enlisted in a Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers (CTE) to work on the fortifications of the Maginot Line. Taken prisoner by the Germans, he was deported to Mauthausen concentration camp and died on August 28, 1941 in the Gusen concentration camp (aka Mauthausen II) in Austria.

1911 - First Modern School, based on ideas of Francisco Ferrer, founded by a group including Leonard Abbott, Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman, New York City. Established in 1911, it was moved to Stelton, New Jersey, in 1914.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike aka The 'Strike for Three Loaves': Beginning of the IWW-organised 'Bread & Roses' textile strike of 32,000 women and children at Lawrence, Massachusetts – a workforce made up mainly of Portuguese, French-Canadian, English, Irish, Russian, Italian, Syrian, Lithuanian, German, Polish, and Belgian immigrant families who lived in overcrowded, highly-flammable wooden tenements and whose average wage was $8.76 a week. The first to walk out were a group of Polish women textile workers at the Everett Mill who, upon collecting their pay and finding it short by thirty-two cents, exclaimed that they had been cheated and promptly abandoned their looms. The 'Lawrence Eagle Tribune' reported on a strike meeting held that Friday, January 11. "Voting unanimously to walk out if their pay for 54 hours is less than that received for 56 hours, several hundred Italians, Poles, and Lithuanians, who are employed in the local mills, met last evening at Ford’s Hall. A majority of those who attended the meeting will receive their pay today. A mass meeting will be held Saturday afternoon at 2 o’clock in the City Hall at which speakers in English, Italian, Polish, and French will be present." [NB: Helen Schloss & Matilda Robbins (Tatiana Gitel Rabinowitz)]
www.wsc.mass.edu/mhj/pdfs/Bread, roses, and other possibilities.pdf

1924 - In the premises of the union CGTUnitaire at 33 Rue de la Grange-aux-Belles in Paris, a bloody confrontation takes place during a meeting of the Communist Party. Anarcho-syndicalist militants opposed to the use of the local union for political purposes are fired on by young communist stewards, killing 2 anarcho-syndicalist workers, Adrien Poncet and Nicolas Clos.

1931 - Emma Goldman finishes her autobiography, 'Living My Life'.

1933 - Sucesos de Casas Viejas: In Casas Viejas libertarian communism and common ownership of the land is declared, the town's archive and the property deeds are set on fire and its food store distributed. Early that morning María Silva Cruz aka 'La Libertaria' and her friend Manuela Lago Estudillo [sometimes mistakenly called Manuela Lago y Gallinito - this appears to stem from a mistranslated text, and that Gallinito was actually Antonio Cabaña Salvador, who was prominet in the anarchist group Amor y Armonía (Love and Harmony) that Maria and Manuela were members of], both anarchist militants, march through the village with a red and black flag. The town's mayor is dismissed and, armed with shotguns and the odd handgun, the insurgents surround the Guardia Civil barracks, and its three guards and one sergeant are called upon to to surrender. When they refused, an exchange of gunshots erupts and the sergeant and one of the guards are seriously wounded.
At 14:00, a team of twelve Guardia Civil under a Sergeant Anarte arrive in Casas Viejas, free their colleagues, who had been left behind in the barracks and take over the village. Three hours after that, a further batch of police reinforcements arrive under the command of Lieutenant Gregorio Fernández Artal: they comprise 4 Guardia Civil and 12 Guardias de Asalto. They promptly set about arresting those allegedly responsible for the attack on the civil guards barracks, two of whom after torture, point the finger at two sons and a son-in-law of Francisco Cruz Gutierrez, nicknamed Seisdedos (Six Fingers), a 70 year old charcoal maker and CNT member, who had sought refuge in his home, a mud-and-stone shack, alongside his family. On attempting to break down the door to Seisdedos’ home, one assault guard is shot dead on the doorstep and another is seriously wounded. An unsuccessful attempt to storm the shack is made at ten o’clock that night. Sometime after midnight, newly arrived Captain Manuel Rojas Feijespán ordered his men to open up on the shack with their rifles and machine-guns and later gave the order for it to be torched, killing all but one inhabitant. [see: Jan. 12]
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Sucesos de Casas Viejas
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Las fotografías de los Sucesos de Casas Viejas

[E] 1933 - Maria Isidine, aka Maria Goldsmith or Maria Korn (Maria Isidorovna Goldsmith [Гольдсмит Мария Исидоровна]; b. 1871), Russian Jew, Socialist-Revolutionary, anarchist militant and biologist (animal psychology) at the Sorbonne préparatrice zoology laboratory, commits suicide following the death of her mother. [see: Jul. 31]

[C] 1943 - Assassination of the Italian-born anarchist militant Carlo Tresca (b. 1879) in New York City by unknown assailants. Forced into exile following his involvement in the newspaper 'Il Germe' (The Origin), he emigrated to the USA via Switzerland. In New York he published an Italian language paper, 'La Plèbe', became involved in IWW union activities and in 1917 started 'Il Martello' (The Hammer), a newspaper he published until his death. In 1923, he was sentenced to one year in prison for publishing a book on birth control, but due to large demonstrations in his support his sentence was reduced to four months. Later he organised resistance to Italian blackshirts in America. Tresca's funeral, which was held on January 16 in Manhattan Center, was attended by over 5000 anti-facists. [see: Mar. 9]

1949 - Paco Ignacio Taibo II (born Francisco Ignacio Taibo Mahojo), Mexican intellectual, historian, professor, journalist, social activist, union organiser and world-renowned writer, born. Widely known as PIT, his working-class anarchist family fled Spain in 1958 to escape the Franco regime. In Mexico he became involved in the student movement of 1968 and later an organiser working with independent trade unions. Creator of Héctor Belascoarán Shayne, a one-eye anarchist detective from Mexico City who has appeared in 6 novels including the most recent, 'The Uncomfortable Dead' (2006), co-written with Subcomandante Marcos. Another novel, 'De Paso' (1986) published in English as 'Just Passing Through' (2000), is the story of an exiled Spanish anarchist, Sebastián San Vicente [a real historical figure] in 1920's post-revolutionary Mexico. He is also the author of '68' (2004), a study of the Tlatelolco Square massacre. [see: Oct. 2].

##1954 - Silvio Celestino Corio, aka Crastinus, Qualunque (b. 1875), Italian printer, typographer, anarchist propagandist and partner of Sylvia Pankhurst, dies in Woodford Green, Essex. [see: Oct. 25]

1999 - Fabrizio Cristiano De André, aka Faber (b. 1940), Sardinian singer-songwriter, poet, anarchist and pacifist, considered by most critics to be one of the greatest Italian singer-songwriters of all time, dies in Milan of lung cancer. [see: Feb. 18]

2006 - Maria Rosa Alorda Gràcia (b. 1918), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies. [see: Sep. 17]

2007 - Yael Langella (Yael Sylvie Langella-Klépov; b. 1953), French-Catalan polyglot teacher writer, poet, translator, photographer and libertarian activist, dies. [see: Oct. 11]
1882 - Christian Eli Christensen (d. 1960) Danish author and revolutionary syndicalist, born. Christensen joined the Socialdemokratisk Ungdoms-Forbund (Social Democratic Youth League) at the age of 18, but left in 1906 to play a leading role in the creation of the Socialistisk Arbejderforening (Socialist Workers' Union). Two years later he joined the newly established Syndikalistisk Forbund (Syndicist League), and in 1910 he became a member of the revolutionary syndicalist organisation Fagoppositionens Sammenslutning (Confederation of Trade Unions) and editor of the organisation's newspaper 'Solidaritet' (Solidarty). Particiapted in the organisation of the Stormen på Børsen, the February 11, 1918 attack on the stock exchange in Copenhagen by unemployed syndicalists. Later that year he was sentence to 21 months in prison for a number of old articles on social revolution in an act of political revenge. Prison would physically break him.
In 1920, he visited the Soviet Union and, in 1921 was part of the majority of the FS who entered into federalist cooperation with Danmarks Kommunistiske Parti. In 1923 he went on a voluntary 'exile' in Silkeborg, where he made a living with poultry, horticulture, fishing, etc. Nevertheless, he remained throughout the period in the DKP but with the continuation of the Stalinist terror during the Spanish Civil War and the first Moscow trial in August 1936, he quit DKP and ideologically broke with communism. He tried, and failed, to revive the FS and his new weekly newspaper 'Arbejdet' (Work) folded after two years (1936-38). During his exile in Silkeborg, he formed a close friendship with the then 22-year-old Asger Jorn and future Situationist, upon whom he left a life-long impression - he dedicated his 1960 work 'Critique de la politique économique' to Christensen.
Christensen was the author of 'Arbejderne og Børneflokken' (Workers and the care of children), advocating sexual reolution and birth control; and the memoirs 'En rabarberdreng vokser op' (A Poor boy grows up; 1961) and 'Bondeknold og rabarberdreng' (Country bumpkin and poor boy; 1962), which were edited by his syndicalist comrade the poet Halfdan Rasmussen and published shortly before his death.

1883 - In Lyon at the trial of members the International Workers' Association, known as 'The 66', the 'Anarchist Declaration' is read out to the court. Likely written by Peter Kropotkin, it is a summary of the ideals of the accused.

1890 - Vasily Yakovlevich Eroshenko (d. 1952), blind Russian anarchist, novelist, linguist, translator and an important activist in the Esperanto Movement, born.

[B] 1900 - Yanase Masamu (柳瀬正梦; d. 1945), Japanese manga artist and cartoonist, born. Co-founder of the Miraiha-Bijutsu-Kyokai (Futurist Art Association) in 1920 and MAVO in 1923. Yanase was committed to both proletarian art and its more avant-garde elements as exemplified by the anarchist-influenced MAVO group. He also worked as a satirical cartoonist for various leftist papers including 'Tanemaku Hito' (The Sower), and was frequently investigated and imprisoned. One of the founders of the Japan Manga Society, Yanase also later became a member of the communist-affiliated Proletarian Artist's League and, in October 1931 after having worked on the Japanese Communist Party's officially sanctioned newspaper 'Musansha Shinbun' (Proletarian News), joined the outlawed organisation.

[C/CCC] 1900 - Todor Angelov Dzekov (Тодор Ангелов Дзеков / Théodore Angheloff; d. 1943), Bulgarian anarcho-communist revolutionary and anti-fascist, who was active for a long time in Western Europe and headed a Brussels-based group of the Belgian Resistance against Nazi Germany, born. A member of the anarchist left wing of Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (IMRO) and the Bulgarian Communist Party from an early age; in 1923 he took part in the failed and suppressed September Uprising. In 1923, he settled in Belgium with his wife Aleksandra Sharlandzhieva (Александра Шарланджиева) and daughter, the screenwriter and editor Svoboda Bachvarova (Свобода Тодорова Бъчварова; b. 1925) Between 1936–1938, he joined the XV Brigade's Georgi Dimitrov Battalion of Bulgarian volunteers and fought in the Spanish Civil War. Wounded, he spent time recuperating in a hospital in Murcia and was interned in Gurs concentration camp following the defeat of the republic. Upon returning to Belgium Angelov was an active supporter of the Communist Party of Belgium. In 1942, he organised a resistance group of around 25 people, mostly Central European Jewish immigrants; the group was mostly active around Brussels. Angelov was referred to as Terrorist X by the Nazi authorities and led over 200 actions against the Nazis, including the destruction of a train carrying military machinery and the burning of records of Jews to be deported. During a single year, around half of the group's members were killed or arrested. Angelov was arrested in early 1943 and interned in the Fort Breendonk concentration camp, where he was executed in late November 1943. The Nazis never knew who they had caught despite the 11 months of torture that they subjected him to.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1902 - María Mateo Bruna (d. 1992), Spanish anarchist and Moviment Llibertari Espanyol militant, born. On July 19, 1936, she participated in the construction of barricades in the Gracia district of Barcelona, resupplying the fighters and taking care of the wounded. She later worker in the popular collectivsed bars and cafés. After the war she settled in France with her partner and poet, Miguel Alba Lozano, who contributed to the anarchist periodical 'Cenit' (1991-96). Her brother Blas was also an anarchist militant.

[1906 - Emmanuel Levinas (d. 1995), French philosopher of Lithuanian Jewish ancestry known for his work related to Jewish philosophy, existentialism, ethics, phenomenology and ontology, whose writtings have touched extensively on egoism and anarchism, born.

1909 - Celso Ceretti (b. 1844), Italian anarchist contemporary of Bakunin involved with the founding conference of the Italian Federation of the International Association of Workers, dies. [see: Jan. 13]

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: Following the walk out of women workers at the Everett Mill yesterday, workers in the Washington Mill of the American Woolen Company also found that their wages had been cut. Prepared for the events by weeks of discussion, they walked out, calling "short pay, all out." A mass meeting is held in the City Hall after which the Italian language branch of IWW Local 20 decided to send a telegram to New York City for Joseph Ettor, an Executive Board member and the organisation's top Italian language leader, to come to Lawrence and help organise the strike. Ettor arrived the following day along with Arturo Giovannitti, secretary of the Italian Socialist Federation, a language federation within the Socialist Party of America, and editor of the socialist newspaper 'Il Proletario', who was not himself at the time a member of the IWW.
[IWW organise + tactics - Lucy Parsons Project]
www.wsc.mass.edu/mhj/pdfs/Bread, roses, and other possibilities.pdf

1913 - The creation of the Confederación General de Trabajadores (CGT), an anarcho-syndicalist organisation based on direct democracy, in Costa Rica.

1926 - Pedro Augusto Mota (b. 189?), Brazilian graphics worker, journalist, militant anarchist and labour activist, dies. [expand]

1933 - Sucesos de Casas Viejas: Sometime after midnight, a company of 40 Guardias de Asalto arrives in Casas Viejas under the command of Captain Manuel Rojas Feijespán who is under orders from the Director-General of Security, Arturo Menéndez, to close in from Jérez and stamp out the uprising by pouring "merciless fire at any who open fire on the troops". "Ni heridos, ni prisioneros." (No wounded, no prisoners.)
Captain Rojas orders his men to open up on the Cruz Gutierrez family shack with their rifles and machine-guns and later gives the order for it to be torched. Two of the occupants, a man and a woman, are cut down as they ran outside to escape the flames. Six people are burnt to death inside the shack: Francisco Cruz Gutierrez aka Seisdedos (Six Fingers), a 70 year old charcoal maker and CNT member; his two sons, Perico Jiménez aka Pedro (36 years old) and Francisco 'Paco' Cruz Jiménez (43); Josefa Franco Moya, Seisdedos' 41-year-old widowed daughter; her children Francisco (18) and Manuel García (almost 13 years); Jerónimo Silva González aka 'Zorrito' (38, CNT treasurer); and Manuela Lago Estudillo (17 years old), Maria Silva Cruz's friend and comrade from their anarchist youth group Amor y Aarmonía. María Silva, Seisdedos‘ grand-daughter, who was known as 'La Libertaria', a her young cousin were the only survivors of the conflagration .
At around 04:00, Rojas orders three patrols to scour the village and arrest all the leading militants, instructing his men to shoot at the first sign of resistance. They go on to kill a 74-year-old man, Antonio Barberán Castellar, and arrest a dozen others, leading them in handcuffs to the burnt-out shell of Seisdedos‘ shack. There, Captain Rojas and his men murdered them in cold blood in the little pen. Only one of the 12, Fernando Lago Gutiérrez aka 'Casares', had actually taken part in the attack on the barracks on the 11th. Shortly after that, they pulled out of the village. The slaughter was over. Nineteen men, two women and a child had perished. As had three guards. All told, 28 people including 2 from heart failure, died during the insurrection and ensuing retribution.
As a result of these events lots of locals were later subjected to torture and wholly arbitrary imprisonment. The last victim was María Silva Cruz, 'La Libertaria', Seisdedos‘ grand-daughter, the only survivor along with a young boy, Manuel García. She managed to run out of the conflagration, her clothes and hair ablaze, carrying the boy shouting "Don’t shoot! It’s a boy." Having persuaded the guards not to shoot them, she fled to her mother's house, where she was arrested on January 14, 1933, spending a month in at Medina Sidonia prison. In July 1936, the area fell into the clutches of the fascist rebels. María was then living in Ronda, a nearby village, with her Juan Perez Silva (her then husband, Miguel Perez Cordon, a CNT member having fled to the hills). The fascists sought her out there, carried her off and murdered her alongside two other people on August 23, 1936 at dawn next to the Laguna de La Janda in Tarifa, Cádiz.
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Sucesos de Casas Viejas
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Las fotografías de los Sucesos de Casas Viejas

1944 - Inge Viett, German author and former member of Bewegung 2. Juni (June 2 Movement) and the second generation Rote Armee Fraktion, born. [expand]

##1969 - Suesaburō [or Shuzaburō] Sasai (笹井 末三郎; b.)1901, Japanese anarchist, actor and filmmaker, who founded the Makino Torquay Manufactory (マキノトーキー製作所) film company and appeared in the classic Japanese silent film 'Tôkyô Kôshinkyoku' or 'Tokyo March' (東京行進曲; 1929), directed by Kenji Mizuguchi (溝口健二), dies. [see: Feb. 10]

## 1970 - Zack de la Rocha (Zacharias Manuel de la Rocha), US musician and anarchist, best known as the vocalist and lyricist of Rage Against the Machine, born.

1983 - 6th CNT-AIT anarchist Congress, Barcelona (January 12-16th).

[D] 1994 - Zapatista Uprising: Following 12 days of fighting between government forces and the EZLN in Chiapas, a ceasefire is declared.

2000 - Antonio Zapata Córdoba (b. 1908), Spanish construction worker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and Spanish Civil War fighter, dies during the night of Jan 12-13. [see: Oct. 27]

2007 - John Taylor Caldwell (b. 1911), Scottish seaman, anarchist communist member of the United Socialist Movement and close associate and biographer of Guy Aldred, dies in Glasgow aged 95. [see: Jul. 14]

2009 - In Greece 3 gunmen grab Periklis Panagopoulos (74), founder of one of Greece's largest ferry operators, and his driver in the southern Athens suburb of Vouliagmeni. Panagopoulos was released unharmed on Jan 20 following a large ransom payment.

2012 - Bernard Thomas (b. 1936) French libertarian journalist for 'Canard Enchaîné', dies. Wrote 'Alexandre Marius Jacob' (1970), 'Les Provocations Policières' (1972), 'Aurore ou la Génération Perdue' (1984), 'Anarchism & Violence: Severino di Giovanni', etc. ​[see: Oct. 25]
1844 - Celso Ceretti (d. 1909), Italian anarchist contemporary of Bakunin involved with the founding conference of the Italian Federation of the International Association of Workers, born. [expand]

1848 - Hippolyte Ferre (d. 1913), French communist, internationalist member of the Jura Federation and later an anarchist, born. [expand]

[B] 1883 - 'An Enemy of the People' (En Folkefiende; 1882) by Henrik Ibsen receives its first performance at the Christiania Theatre in Oslo.

[D] 1894 - Lunigiana Revolt [Moti Anarchici della Lunigiana]: In Lunigiana, Tuscany protests in support of the victims of the 'state of siege' declared across Sicily ten days earlier and in solidarity with those of the Fasci Siciliani arrested turn into an insurrection led by armed groups of anarchists.
Having armed themselves, miners and stone carvers from the stone and marble quarries of nearby Massa and Carrara, hotbeds of anarchism, cut telegraph lines, set up barricades on the road between Massa and Carrara and clash with police and strikebreakers, and loot police armouries. In Avenza during the first armed confrontation a policeman and a demonstrator are killed. That night rebels gather in Becizzano, Codena and Miseglia and march to the city, shouting "Long live Italy! Long live the revolution!", in the belief that it had broken out across the country.
Anarchist Luigi Molinari, author of the 'Inno della rivolta' (Hymn of the uprising), which is dedicated to the insurgents of the Lunigiana, including Pasquale Binazzi and Galileo Palla, is later arrested [see: Jan. 16] on charges of inciting insurrection for his part in the insurrection.

1909 - Emma Goldman lectures on 'The Dissolution of Our Institutions' in San Francisco, California, followed by a statement by William Buwalda, a soldier court-martialed last year and recently pardoned by President Roosevelt. This event actually takes place without police interference.

1910 - [N.S. Jan. 26] Moishe Tokar (משה טאָקאַר; b. unknown) date on which Tokar was sentenced to death for his December 6 [19], 1909 assassination attempt on General Sergei Gershelman, commander of the Vilnus Military District,

1914 - Joe Hill arrested on a trumped-up murder charge. [Some sources erroneously put the date as 19 Jan 1915]

1919 - Under the influence of the anarcho-syndicalist unions, a two-day general strike to demand the introduction of the eight hour day begins, paralyzing Lima and El Callao. Initiated by the weavers, it was quickly supported by the other unions, as well as the students of San Marcos. There are a series of fierce clashes with the forces of order, until the government signed a decree legalising the eight hours - although this decree did not apply widely, it was an important workers' victory.]
The Federación de Trabajadores en Tejidos del Perú (Federation of Textile Workers of Peru), the Graphic Federation (Federación Gráfica) and the Federation of Drivers (Federación de Choferes), were all formed the same month as direct results of the movement.

## 1921 - Dachine Rainer (Sylvia Newman; d. 2000), US Anglophile writer, poet, essayist, anarchist and pacifist, born. As a child was radicalised following the executions in 1927 of the Italian anarchists Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, and her readings of Tolstoy and Kropotkin. Her penname is derived from Rainer Maria Rilke, whose political and humanitarian writings she admired.
From 1946 until 1960, Dachine Rainer edited the quarterly anarchist magazine 'Retort', which was hand-set and hand-printed by herself and her partner, the anarchist and short story writer Holley Cantine.
Amongst her works are novellas and novels, including 'Outside Time' (1948), 'A Room at the Inn' (1958), 'The Uncomfortable Inn' (1960) and 'Giornale de Venezia' (1996).

1924 - Paul Feyerabend (d.1994), Austrian anarchist philosopher and anti-scientist, born. "Science is an essentially anarchic enterprise: theoretical anarchism is more humanitarian and more likely to encourage progress than its law-and-order alternatives."

[E] 1925 - Anna Maria Pietroni (d. 1974), Italian anarchist activist, born. From a family of anarchists (her father was a comrade of Malatesta and her brother Manilo was sentenced to 9 years imprisonment by a special court in 1940 for anarchist activities. She took part in the anti-fascist resistance as a messenger of the Maquis but later left the Communist Party and returned to anarchism, working on the weekly 'Umanità Nova'. Active in the post-Piazza Fontana bombing [see: Dec. 12] support campaigns for Valpreda and other arrested anarchists, and that for poet and anarchist militant Giovanni Marini.

1928 - Mara Buneva (Мара Бунева; b. 1901 or 02), Macedonian Bulgarian revolutionary, member of the IMRO, who was famed for the assassination of a Serbian official Velimir Prelić after which she committed suicide, born. She followed her brother Boris into the ranks of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Vatreshna Makedonska Revolyutsionna Organizatsiya [Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация](bg) / Vnatrešna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija [Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Организација](mk)) and, on the direct order of the leader of the IMRO, Ivan Mihaylov (Иван Михайлов), she was trained in Sofia to take on future terrorist actions. In 1927 she went back to Yugoslavia and opened a shop in Skopje as part of her conspiratorial mission. There she managed to acquaint herself with Velimir Prelić, the legal adviser of the Serbian governor of the Skopje district, who was known for ordering arrests and tortures of young local students, members of Macedonian Youth Secret Revolutionary Organisation [Македонска младежка тайна революционна организация (bg) /: Македонска младинска тајна револуционерна организација (mk)], many of whom were sentenced to long terms in prison in December 1927. As result IMRO ordered the execution of Prelić. At the appointed time on January 13, 1928, Buneva intercepted him on his way to lunch and shot the official after which she shot herself. Prelić hung on tol ife for a few days but ultimately succumbed to his wound. Buneva was buried in an unmarked grave

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: 'Solidaridad Obrera' fails to condemned the January insurrection "con un deber de solidaridad y de conciencia" (out of a duty of solidarity and conscience).
[AA] 1850 - While held in the Königstein fortress, the anarchist Michael Bakunin is condemned to death by Saxon tribunal for his part in the May 3 1849 Uprising in Dresden. His death sentence is commuted later to life imprisonment.

1859 - Francisco Ferrer i Guàrdia (d. 1909), Catalan anarchist and radical educator, born. [expand]

1888 - Émile Bachelet (d. 1967), French individualist anarchist, anti-militarist and member of the Bonnot Gang, born.

1888 - Maurice Dommanget (d. 1976), French historian of the labour movement and militant syndicalist, born. He is the author of numerous books on the French Revolution: 'Manifeste des Enragés' (Manifesto of the Enraged; 1948) and 'Babeuf et la Conjuration des Égaux' (Babeuf and the Conspiracy of Equals; 1969); books on Blanqui, the Paris Commune and the history of socialism; plus titles such as 'Histoire du Drapeau Rouge' (1966) and 'Histoire du Premier Mai' (1953).

1900 - The first issue of Sébastien Faure's weekly magazine 'Les Plébeiennes' ("propos d'un solitaire") is published.

[B] 1904 - Henri-Georges Adam (d. 1967), French engraver, non-figurative sculptor, tapestry maker, anarchist, pacifist, anti-militarist and anti-clerical, born. An associate of the Paris Surrealists, in 1936 he joined the Association des Écrivains et Artistes Révolutionnaires (AEAR) and created a set of violent impressionistic engravings entitled 'Désastres de la Guerre' (Disaster of War) in response to the Spanish Civil War.

1909 - Ben Reitman and Emma Goldman arrested on charges of conspiracy against the US government.

1909 - Felix Likiniano, aka Liki (Felix Liquiniano Heriz; d. 1982), Basque anarchist civil war veteran and later ETA fellow-traveller, who was the companion of Soledad Casilda Hernáez, born.

1918 - Emma Goldman is fined and sentenced to 2 years in prison for obstruction of justice (opposing the draft). Raised in America, but born in Lithuania, the young anarchist feminist will soon be deported from the Land of the Free.

## 1918 - Rosa Laviña i Carreras (d. 2011), Catalan anti-fascist militant, cenetista, secretary of the Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth (FIJL), National Committee member and Treasurer of SIA, born. [expand][NB: d.o.b. also given as 19th]

1919 - Voline, Russian revolutionary and anarchist historian, arrested.

##1921 - Murray Bookchin (d. 2006) born in New York City. [expand]

1938 - Ethel Mannin and Emma Goldman speak on 'The Betrayal of the Spanish People' at a CNT-FAI program in London; the audience turns against the Communists when they attempt to break up the meeting.

1945 - Jean Ajalbert (b. 1863), French Impressionist poet, writer and naturalist anarchist, dies. Author of several novels and plays, he participated in numerous literary journals and editorial boards of several journals. [see: Jun. 10]

1962 - Justin Olive (b. 1886), French militant anarchist and revolutionary syndicalist, dies. [see: Oct. 26]

1970 - Ammon Ashford Hennacy (b. 1893), Irish American pacifist, Christian, anarchist, social activist, member of the Catholic Worker Movement and IWW, dies. [see: Jul. 24]

1972 - Adrien Perrissaguet (b. 1898), French militant anarchist propagandist, shoemaker, founder of Groupe des Amis du Combat Syndicaliste and l'Association des Fédéralistes Anarchistes, dies. [see: Apr. 22]

1976 - Wildcat strike wave spreads across Spain to Barcelona, resulting in the formation of workers' general assemblies and defiance of the unions and government.

1977 - Anaïs Nin (Angela Anaïs Juana Antolina Rosa Edelmira Nin y Culmell; b. 1903), American author and diarist, who frequented anarchist circles and was involved in a long intellectual and sexual relationship with Henry Miller at the Villa Seurat in Paris, dies. [see: Feb. 21]

1978 - The Sex Pistols' final concert at the Winterland, San Francisco.

1988 - Nils 'Nisse' Lätt (b. 1907), Swedish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, agitator and journalist, who fought with the Columna Durruti, loosing the sight in one eye due to shrapnel, dies in Gothenburg aged 80. [see: Dec. 30]

1994 - Federica Montseny (b. 1905), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, anarcha-feminist, poet and Minister of Health during the Civil War, dies. The daughter of Catalan libertarian activists and educators Joan Montseny (Federico Urales) and Soledad Gustavo (Teresa Mañé), who also co-edited the anarchists journal, 'La Revista Blanca' (1898-1905), she joined the CNT at seventeen years old. She wrote for anarchist journals such as 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Tierra y Libertad' and 'Nueva Senda', and published her first novel under the name 'Blanca Montsan' in the series 'La Novela Roja'. In 1923 she urged her parents to relaunch 'La Revista Blanca', which led to the family to establishing in the publishing firm Ediciones de La Revista Blanca, specialising in promoting libertarian ideals throughout the 1920s and 1930s. Federica Montseny participated as an editor of the serials 'La Novela Ideal' and 'La Novela Libre', writing many of the novels herself. The 'Novela Ideal' had a weekly edition of 50,000 issues and the 'Novela Libre' a monthly publication of 64 pages, 20,000 issues. [see: Feb. 12]

2005 - Conroy Maddox (b. 1912), English Surrealist painter, collagist, writer, lecturer and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Dec. 27]
1809 - Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (d. 1865) born in France. [EXPAND]
"Whoever puts his hand on me to govern me is a usurper and a tyrant. I declare him my enemy."

##1861 - Paul-Pierre Roux aka Saint-Pol-Roux (d. 1940), French Symbolist poet, novelist, playwright and anarchist, born. Somewhat of a 'forgotten poet', much of whose work was posthumously published despite being hailed by the Surrealists in the 1920s. His early work was regularly serialised in 'La Revue Blanche' including 'Le Fumier' (May-Aug. 1894), the second part of the 'Grands de la Terre' trilogy, a fervent defence of anarchism and the need for social justice and freedom. During WWI however, he became a nationalist but still pursued a strange rural pantheism, idealising the land and the people that worked it, still an essential libertarian and proto-ecological vision. Amongst his major unpublished works are 'Le Tragique dans l'Homme', Vols. I (1983) & 2 (1984).

1870 - The first issue of the weekly Bakuninist newspaper 'La Solidaridad', "Órgano de la Asociación de Trabajadores de la sección de Madrid" (paper of the Spanish anarchist section of the AIT) appears in Madrid. Founded by Anselmo Lorenzo, , it was the first publication of the AIT and, starting from issue no. 29 (July 30, 1870) its subtitle became "Órgano de las secciones de la Federación madrileña de la Asociación Internacional de los Trabajadores" (paper of the Madrid Federation sections of the International Association of Workers). The final issue (no. 49) appeared on January 21, 1871, when the Madrid Federation stopped editing the publication for economic reasons and it was taken over by comrades from the Barcelona Federation.

##1879 - [O.S. Jan. 3] Ştefan Gheorghiu (d. 1914), Romanian carpenter and revolutionary syndicalist, born [expand]

1881 - Pierre Monatte, aka Pierre Lémont (d. 1960), French anarcho-syndicalist and founder of Révolution Prolétarienne, born. [expand]

1888 - Jean-Baptiste Godin (d. 1817), French utopian socialist thinker and Fourieriste founder of Familistère Guise.

1889 - Walter Serner (born Walter Eduard Seligmann; d. 1942), Czech-born German-language writer, essayist, Dadaist and anarchist, born. Also wrote under the pen names Vladimir Senakowski, A.D. and also used the name of his friend Christian Schad. His manifesto 'Letzte Lockerung. Manifest Dada' (Last Loosening. Dada Manifesto; 1918) was an important text of Dadaism. During World War I he was the editor of the magazines 'Sirius' and 'Zeltweg', and a writer for 'Die Aktion'. With the outbreak of World War I, he escaped to Switzerland in 1914 and participated in Dada activities in Zürich, Geneva, and Paris until 1920. From 1925, Serner became the target of anti-Semitism, having been born Jewish and converted to Catholicism in 1913 when he changed his name to Serner. His play 'Posada' premièred in Berlin in 1927, its only performance as it was then banned. In 1933 Serner's books, including 'Handbrevier für Hochstapler' (Handbook for Swindlers; 1928), were also banned by the government of Nazi Germany. Presumed to have died in Theresienstadt concentration camp sometime after 20 Aug. 1942. Serner's most successful novel 'Die Tigerin' (The Tigress) was made into an English-language feature film by writer/director Karin Howard and released in 1992'
"The Anarchists are the mere victims of spiritual collapse."
"Revolution is merely a hysterical skirmish between totally untalented beings with organic defects."

1894 - Lunigiana Revolt [Moti Anarchici della Lunigiana]: Following the breakout of the insurrection two days earlier, further clashes take place including one between workers on the road between Fossola and Carrara, where on of the insurgents is killed by a cavalry unit.

1908 - The Aiglemont colony in France issues the first number of 'Le Communiste' ("For Communist-Libertarian Propaganda, Workers Education & Social Achievements").

1908 - The first issue of the anarchist and nihilist periodical 'Liberación', published on the 5th, 15th and 25th of each month, appears in Madrid.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: 20,000 workers, with many women to the fore, are now out on the picket lines as the mayor calls in the state militia, who class with pickets outside the Pacific Mills. After other early incidents where some scabs were attacked, the strikers embraced Joseph Ettor’s emphasis on nonviolent direct action without ever diminishing their militancy.
Meanwhile, the strike committee draws up their four demands: 1) 15% pay raise for all mill workers; 2) double pay for overtime; 3) an end to the hated 'bonus system' that paid extra money for meeting special, elevated production targets; and 4) amnesty for strikers.

1916 - In San Francisco, California, the first issue of the fortnightly anarchist paper 'The Blast' appears. Created and published the newspaper for next two years by Alexander Berkman in support of the union workers Thomas Mooney and Warren Billings, victims of repression against US anarchists and revolutionary syndicalists. Its anti-militarist stance will result in its being banned, with the final issue dated June 29, 1917.

1919 - The first issue of 'Freedom' is published in New York. Initally subtitled 'A Revolutionary Journal Dedicated to Human Freedom', from number 4 April-May 1919 it is changed to 'A Journal of Constructive Anarchism'. The final issue has the numbers 9-10 October-November 1919.

1923 - In Paris the first issue of 'La Brochure Mensuelle' (The Monthly Brochure) appears, published by Émile Bidault and the 'Groupe de Propagande par la Brochure'. It is published up until December 1937, with more than 190 issues devoted to the writings of over a hundred authors.

[B] 1928 - Victor Arthur James Willing (d. 1988), Egyptian-born British painter and anarchist, born. Married to the Portuguese-born British feminist painter and printmaker Paula Rego.He studied at the Guildford School of Art (1948-49), and at the Slade School of Fine Art, London (1949-54). He and Rego moved to Portugal in 1957 and he stopped painting. However, when he and his family returned to live in London in 1974, he took-up painting again. Little survives of his early purely figurative work but his later works have a vivid and highly coloured hallucinatory quality, which some claim was due to the side effects of the medication he had begun taking for his MS, which was first diagnosed in 1966:
"I have heard that people with MS sometimes get hallucinations. I have had hallucinations but due to special circumstances only indirectly due to my illness. In '74 I was started on a drug called ACTH. This is found to relieve MS symptoms in some cases. Luckily I was one of these and continue to get good results from courses of ACTH. It has however various side effects some of which are undesirable, including sleeplessness. On high doses I only slept 4 hours in 24. I was hyperactive. I would feel very tired but not sleepy, very calm but alert. In this state I would sit down in a comfortable upright chair, relax and stare at the wall. After a time, I could see through the wall - a scene, brightly lit, clearly defined on the other side, like a stage, spot-lit. No figures. No action, therefore, just a scene. The 'life-size' objects would appear in three dimensions but as though already drawn in charcoal and pastel.
"I guess this would last about 20 minutes. I don't think I closed my eyes. I was certainly not asleep ... I would remain in my chair and, taking paper and charcoal, simply copy down the scene. No interpolation was necessary, it had all been done for me - image both in the sense of symbol and form down to the mark. I did not have to do anything. Subsequently 'meanings' might occur to me but in advance there was nothing."
"Beneath even the desire to change society and the need to communicate is a need, urgent in some of us, to affirm our scratches that 'I exist'."
anarchist-studies-network.org.uk/documents/ASN 2.0/paraskos_rembrandt.doc]

1933 - Agustin Gomez Arcos (d. 1998), Spanish anarchist, gay novelist and dramatist, born. He began writing plays but was forced into exile, first to England and then to Paris, because of censorship. He went on to write numerous novels about Franco's Spain: 'L'Agneau Carnivore' (The Carnivorous Lamb; 1975), 'Maria Republica' (1976), 'Ana Non' (1977), 'L'Enfant Pain' (1983), 'Un Oiseau Brûlé Vif' (A Bird Burned Alive; 1984), etc.

## 1939 - Hartmut Geerken, German musician, composer, writer, journalist, radio playwright, filmmaker and anarchist, prominent as a percussionist in the free/avant-garde jazz arena, especially in Holland, born.

1967 - David Davidovich Burliuk (Дави́д Дави́дович Бурлю́к; b. 1882), Ukrainian Futurist book illustrator, publicist, author and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 21]

1969 - Raegan Butcher, U.S. poet, singer and screenplay writer, born. Associated with the anarchist collective CrimethInc., who published his first two books of poetry, 'Stone Hotel' (2003) and 'Rusty String Quartet' (2005). In 1996, Butcher was arrested and convicted for first degree robbery and sentenced to eight years in prison, which is where he first started writing poetry.

[F] 1978 - A demonstration organised by the Spanish anarcho-syndicalist union, the CNT official declared legal six months previously, draws 10,000 protesters in Barcelona, opposing the Moncloa pacts, which allows only the communist CC.OO. and socialist UGT the right to represent workers.

2008 - In Àvila, Castella the first and only issue of 'Acratela', the publication of the Àvila anarcha-feminist collective of the same name. The articles on Anarcha-Feminism, the history of libertarian women, sexist language, education, biographies, poetry, comics, etc. were all published under pseudonyms.

2014 - Carmen Bruna (born Bruna Carmen Zucarelli; b. 1928), Argentinian poet, Surrealist, physician and anarchist agitator, dies. [see: Jul. 16]
1872 - Práxedes Mateo Sagasta, chairman of the Spanish Council order the preemptive dissolution of the International in Spain. Reduced to illegality, some members of the International find themselves in an underground organisation called 'Defensores de la International'. But a year later (11 February 1873) the first Republic was proclaimed, and freedom of association restored.

##1880 - Paulette Brupbacher (d. 1967), Swiss physician, militant feminist, anarchist, author and member of the central committee of International Workers' Aid, is born in Pinsk, in what is now Belarus.

##1880 - Anton Makarovich Prudkin (Антон Макарович Прудкин; d. 1942), Russo-Bulgarian sea captain, adventurer, anarchist, revolutionary, spy, smuggler, writer and artist, born.
member of the Bulgarian Workers Social Democratic Party (Българска работническа социалдемократическа партия); member of the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна македоно-одринска революционна организация [bg] / Внатрешна македонско-одринска револуционерна организација [mk]), involved in the the Thessaloniki bombings, part of the attack on the passenger ship Vaskapu in Burgas Bay [Sep 1 / August 19, 1903] – Ivan Stoyanov and Stefan Dimitrov were killed in the premature explosion and attacks on four other targets had to be aborted. Later a spy for the Tsarist secret police and helped rescue more than 3,000 Jews from Bulgaria during WWII, transporting them to Palestine on the ship that he captained. [REWRITE]
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1894 - Lunigiana Revolt [Moti Anarchici della Lunigiana]: On the outskirts of Lunigiana, close to the Dogali barracks, a march of 400 demonstrators, armed with pruning hooks, pitchforks and some rifles, are met by a company of soldiers. Eight demonstrators are killed, many others wounded as the protesters scatter. Some groups flee to the mountains where they are rounded up in the following days.
The same day the Italian Prime minister, Francesco Crispi, also declares a state of siege in Lunigiana.

1894 - Lunigiana Revolt [Moti Anarchici della Lunigiana]: Luigi Molinari, author of the 'Inno della rivolta' (Hymn of the uprising), which is dedicated to the insurgents of the Lunigiana, inclduing Pasquale Binazzi and Galileo Palla, is arrested on charges of inciting insurrection for his part in the revolt. At his trial on January 31 before the military court in Massa, he was sentenced to twenty three years in prison, which was reduced at a new trial on April 19 to seven and a half years. However, after spending nearly two years in prison in Oneglia, he was released on September 20, 1895 following massive public protests.

1894 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: Dr Nicola Barbato, organiser of the Fascio in Piana dei Greci, and Bernardino Verro, founder of the first Fasci in Corleone, along with fellow Fasci di Palermo leader Rosario Garibaldi Bosco, are arrested on board the steamship Bagnara as they try to escape to Tunis. [see: Jan. 3]

1900 - Juan López Sánchez (d. 1972), Spanish construction worker, anarcho-syndicalist, anarchist theorist, minister in the Generalitat and one of the founders of the 'treintistas' Federación Sindicalista Libertaria, born. Son of a member of the Guardia Civil, his family moved to Barcelona when he was 10 and there he came into contact with anarchist circles. He began working aged 11 and joined the Sociedad de Moldistas y Piedra Artificial, becoming secretary of it Board (1916-17). The union was eventually incorporated into the Sindicato de la Construcción of the CNT. He began his militant union activity in 1920 in the era of the difficult years of gangsterism, and on 29 July, 1920 was involved in a shootout with agents of the employer and was arrested with a comrade, Joaquím Roura Giner. After several attempts of trial, was finally sentenced on February 24, 1923 to one year and a day for manslaughter and one year, eight months and 20 days on firearms offences. Roura was acquitted. On Decmeber 7 that year, he appeared before a military tribual gave him to six-year sentence for having fired at the police whilst trying to prevent his arrest. Imprisoned in the Ocaña reformatory, he became an autodidact.
Released from prison in 1926, under an amnesty, in 1928 he joined the the anarchist group Solidaridad along with Juan Peiro and Angel Pestana. However, López Sánchez was always more of a unionist rather than an anarchist and, during his work within the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo he always tried to steer the organisation away from its adherence to anarchism. However, he continued to clandestinely fight against the dictatorship of General Primo de Rivera as a CNT member, participating in its congress and helping negotiate the legal reconstruction of the organisation, as well as signing the Manifesto de los Treinta, the document of the treintista faction of the union. From 1930 to 1931, he edited the journal 'Acción'. In September 1932, the trentistas were expelled and in 1933 helped found the Federación Sindicalista Libertaria, becoming its general secretary, and joined the Partido Sindicalista, led by Ángel Pestaña. During this period, he was also editor of the papers '¡Despertad!' in Vigo and 'Sindicalismo' in Barcelona and Valencia. After the failure of the Aliança Obrera, he favoured the rfturn of the Sindicats d'Oposició to the CNT and attended the May 1936 Congress of Zaragoza that brought about the reconciliation.
On July 18, 1936 he was chosen to be part of a strike committee that had to face the disturbing indecision of the army quartered in the city but only played a minor role. He however did found the newspaper 'Fraga Social' during this period. On 4 November 1936, at the proposal of the National Committee of the CNT, was appointed Minister of Commerce in the second government (Govern de Concentració) chaired by the Socialist Francisco Largo Caballero. In February 1937, he drew up a decree which defined and regularized the operation of factories, businesses and commerce. This helped to reassure the owners of enterprises that had been nationalized and collectivised. He became the first anarchist minister to visit a foreign country when he visited Paris for meetings with the French government. After the events of 'May 1937' resigned his ministerial position along with fellow ministers Frederica Montseny Joan Peiró and John Garcia Oliver.
On March 7, 1939 in Valencia was appointed member of the National Committee of the Movimiento Libertario Español (MLE) and traveled to Paris to inform Maria Rodriguez Vazquez (Marianet) of its creation. López was forced to flee from Spain when General Francisco Franco and the Nationalist Army took control of the country in March 1939. He went to England and during World War II he worked in radio broadcasting in Spanish from the BBC. He remained there until 1954, when he then moved to Mexico where he stayed until returning to Spain in 1966 and even joined the Organització Sindical Espanyola. In these years he adhered to the reformist 'Aliança Nacional de Forces Democràtiques (National Alliance of Democratic Forces; ANFD), a broad Republican/Socialist/CNT alliance whose original purpose was to peruse the parliamentary road and restore again the Second Republic in Spain, and which later became the Consell Nacional de la Democràcia Catalana.

1902 - Antonio Blanco Blanch (d. 1941), Spanish chocolatier, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Member of the CNT, he was imprisoned several times during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera for his significant union activity. Member during the civil war of the Ministry of Industry and from 1937 to the end of the war was rresponsible of collectivised chemical plant Casa Gros in Badalona. Exiled in France, he was interned in various camps and incorporated into a Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers working on the fortifications of the Maginot Line. Captured during the German breakthrough, he was interned in Stalag I-B Hohenstein (Poland) and, on August 9, he was deported with 168 other Spanish Republicans to the Mauthausen concentration camp. On January 24, 1941, he was transferred to Gusen sub-camp, where he died on November 19, 1941.

1908 - Jean Bourguer (d. unknown), French textile worker, militant anarchist, anti-militarist, anti-clerical and revolutionary syndicalist, born.

1919 - Semana Trágica: The 'Bloody Week' general strike in Argentina ends, leaving hundreds of workers dead and injured in the fighting (estimates range between 100-700 killed and 400-2,000 injured). The police lost 3 dead and 78 wounded. The militant Argentinian anarchist movement is decimated by the repression which follows and trade union reformists gain control of the workers' movement.

1919 - Late on January 16, 1919, General Joaquín Milans del Bosch, the Captain General of Catalonia, fearing the rising power of the Confederación Regional del Trabajo de Cataluña and the possibility of industrial action coinciding with Catalan Nationalist agitation creating a 'perfect storm', manages to persuade the Spanish Prime Minister Álvaro de Figueroa to suspend constitutional privileges in Barcelona. The would remain in place uninterrupted until March 1922.
Confederal premises are raided and unionists arrested. Workers found at or frequenting the homes of prominent militants are jailed. Imprisoned in the Cárcel Modelo, they are later transferred to the boats 'Pelayo' and 'La Giralda,' which serve as floating prisons in the harbour. All newspapers are censored, so that there is no voice in defence of the prisoners. The CNT is forced to operate underground.
Milans also allows the formation of anti-labour, para-military urban militias in the city known as Somatenes. Elsewhere, police are forcefully removing quadribarrada ties from young Catalans. Chasing one protester Catalan police entered a bakery in the carrer del Pi, broke windows and wounded an elderly woman and her granddaughter. An attorney was arrested when he protested against the police action on Las Ramblas.

1926 - The first issue of the weekly anarcho-syndicalist newspaper 'Vida Sindical: Periodico de los Trabajadores' is published in Barcelona under the military dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, and whilst the CNT is illegal. It is probably directed by Angel Pestaña.

[C] 1927 - A gang of British Fascisti surround an International Class War Prisoners' Aid (ICWPA) rally in Trafalgar Square in support of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti and attempt to break it up. Groups of anti-fascists pick off fascists as they try to leave the Square.

1936 - The Unidad Popular is formed in revolutionary Spain.

##1946 - Jean-Pierre Bouyxou, French actor, 'Happenings' participant, filmmaker, film critic, journalist, author, 'post-Situationist' and anarchist, who is seen as the father of the French underground, born. Amongst his pseudonyms are J.P Buixou, Jerôme Fandor, Georges Le Gloupier, Claude Razat and Annie Schon. Georges Le Gloupier is the imaginary film director whose name Belgian anarcho-humourist Noël Godin appropriated for his entarteur personality.

## 1947 - Jamie Reid, English artist and pro-Situ anarchist, born. [EXPAND]

1950 - Poss. alternate date for the death of Clovis-Abel Pignat (aka Tschombine Pategnon) (b. 1884), Swiss militant anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist. [see: Jan.. 10]

1958 - Eusebio Carbó Carbó (b. 1883), Spanish militant anarchist, editor and director of 'Solidaridad Obrera' in 1930s as well as secretary of the IWA, dies in exile in Mexico. Active and very much a globe-trotting internationalist, he saw the inside of nearly sixty prisons around the world from the age of 18 onwards. [see: Dec. 31]

1962 - Danbert Nobacon (Nigel Hunter), English musician and writer, formerly vocalist and occasional keyboard player in the Leeds based anarchist band Chumbawamba, born.

1967 - Marie Majerová (Marie Bartošová; b. 1882) Czech prose writer, feminist, anarchist, then socialist and later communist, journalist, and translator, dies in Prague at the age of 84. [see: Feb. 1]

1982 - Ramon J. Sender (Ramón José Sender Garcés; b. 3 1901), Spanish novelist, essayist, journalist, anarchist and then communist, dies. [see: Feb. 3]
## 1875 - Florencio Sánchez (Florencio Antonio Sánchez Mussante; d. 1910), Uruguayan playwright, journalist and anarchist, who was considered one of the main figures in theatre in both Uruguay and Argentina, born. [expand]

1881 - Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown (born Alfred Reginald Brown; d. 1955), English social anthropologist who developed the theory of structural functionalism and co-adaptation, and who earned the nickname 'Anarchy Brown' as a student for his close interest in the writings of Peter Kropotkin, born.

1885 - Sakae Ōsugi (d. 1923), Japanese anarchist, polemicist and founder of the first Japanese Esperanto school, born. [expand]

[BB] 1885 - Emmy Hennings (born Emma Maria Cordsen; d. 1948), German cabaret performer, poet, chanteuse, dancer, puppeteer, painter and 'mystical anarchist', born. Probably the most misunderstood and ignored of all the Dadaists, she was both anarchist and Catholic, a well-published writer and an active member of the Bohemian intelligentsia, who was THE driving force behind the Cabaret Voltaire, effectively keeping it open by managing the club's finances and occasionally making ends meet by working as a prostitute.
She had already been married with a daughter, been divorced, run away with an acting troop, travelled in France, been forced into prostitution, become a performer at the Künstlerkneipe Simplizissimus and other cabarets in Munich, as well as a friend and lover of Erich Müsham, and been involved in libertarian and anti-militarist circles, before she met the Bakuninist, and her future life partner, Hugo Ball in 1913. She had also had her poetry published in 'PAN' and 'Die Aktion', and that same year she published a short poetry collection 'Äthergedichte' (Ether Poems). She would also soon collaborate with Ball and Hans Leybold on their magazine 'Revolution'.
In 1914 she had spent time in prison for theft and the suspected forging of passports for draft dodgers and, with Ball under threat after having made a number of public anti-war pronouncements, they both moved to Zurich the following year, where they decided to form their own 'vaudeville' ensemble (called Arabella, with Ball playing the piano and Hennings reciting verse, including in their repertoire some of Erich Müsham's poetry). However, their idea for their own venue, the Künstlerkneipe Voltaire, soon mutated into the Cabaret Voltaire, and they found themselves at the forefront of the founding of Dadaism. Yet, Henning and Ball's time as Dadaist was very short, consisting of only two active years, and they went to live in Bern in 1917. In 1920 they married and Ball was to reconvert to Catholicism.
Towards the end of her life, Hennings wrote a number of revisionist memoirs, effectively writing-out her own artistic and political activities (as other have subsequently written her out of history) in favour of a catholic reinvention of her life and a hagiography of Ball's, something she admitted to Herman Hesse, who had become her closest friend after the death of Ball in 1927. And it is only due to the publication of her letters that we have gotten to know of her life as a morphine addict, prostitute and hustler, a promoter of free-love, anarchy and social revolution, and of her stints several in prison.
Amongst her other writings are the poetry collection 'Die Letzte Freude' (The Last Joy; 1913); the novels 'Gefängnis' (Prison; 1919) and 'Das Brandmal. Ein Tagebuch' (The Stigmata. A Diary; 1920); and her biographical writings: 'Hugo Ball. Sein Leben in Briefen und Gedichten' (Hugo Ball His Life in Letters and Poems; 1930), with a foreword by Hermann Hesse; 'Hugo Balls Weg zu Gott. Ein Buch der Erinnerung' (Hugo Ball's Path to God. A Book of Remembrance; 1931); and 'Ruf und Echo. Mein Leben mit Hugo Ball' (Call and response. My Life with Hugo Ball; 1953).

Dir ist als ob ich schon gezeichnet wäre
Und auf der Stunde Totenliste.
Es hält mich ab von mancher Sünde.
Langsam am Leben wie ich zehre.
Ängstlich und sind meine Schritte oft,
Mein Herz hat einen Schlag kranken
Schwacher und wird mit jedem Tag's.
Todesengel steht ein meines Zimmers in Mitte.
Tanz ich doch bis zur Atemnot.
Bald werde ich im Grabe liegen
Niemand und wird sich an mich schmiegen.
Ach, küssen will ich bis zum Tod.

(To you it's as if I was Already
Marked and waiting on Death's list.
It keeps me safe from many sins.
How slowly drains life out of me.
My steps are Often steeped in gloom,
My heart beats in a sickly way
And it gets Weaker every day.
A death angel stands in the middle of my room.
Yet I dance till I'm out of breath.
Soon lying in the grave I'll be
And No One Will snuggle up to me.
Oh, give me kisses up till death.)

- 'Tänzerin' (Dancer)

Wir warten auf ein letztes Abenteuer
Was kümmert uns der Sonnenschein?
Hochaufgetürmte Tage stürzen ein
Unruhige Nächte - Gebet im Fegefeuer.

Wir lesen auch nicht mehr die Tagespost
Nur manchmal lächeln wir still in die Kissen,
Weil wir alles wissen, und gerissen
Fliegen wir hin und her im Fieberfrost.

Mögen Menschen eilen und streben
Heut fällt der Regen noch trüber
Wir treiben haltlos durchs Leben
Und schlafen, verwirrt, hinüber...

(We expect the last adventure
What matters sunlight?
Days filled with illusions collapse
Restless nights - Prayers in purgatory

We do not read the news of the day
It only happens sometimes we laugh secretly
Because we know everything, and malignant,
We sail here and there, frisonnants fever

Men can run well after their futile concerns
Today the rain falls more sullen
We wander through the ropes without existence
And helpless, we fall asleep to the other side...)

- 'Morfin' (Morphine)

"The world lies outside there, life roars there. There men may go where they will. Once we also belonged to them. And now we are forgotten and sunk into oblivion." - excert from 'Prison' (1916).

dspace.mic.ul.ie/bitstream/10395/1392/2/Schönfeld, C.(2000), 'Confessional Narrative/Fragmented Identity: Emily Henning's Das Brandmal. Ein Tagebuch'.(Book Chapter).pdf

1892 - Bruno Misefari (also known by the anagrammatical pseudonym Furio Sbarnemi; d. 1936), Italian anarchist, philosopher, poet, author, engineer and deserter, born. He deserted during the First World War and fled to Switzerland, marrying Pia Recati-Zanolli in Zurich who, after his death, took care of the publication of his writings. There he worked on the anarchist newspaper 'Il Risveglio Comunista Anarchico' and lectured, using his anagrammatical pseudonym, Furio Sbarnemi. On 16 May 1918 he was arrested for a bomb plot fabricated by the police and was expelled from the country after 7 months in prison. That same year he published his first poetry collection 'Diario di un disertore (Dal carcere di Zurigo)' (Diary of a Deserter (From a Zurich Prison); 1918).
After a period in Germany, he returned to Calabria in Italy in 1919 when a general amnesty for deserters was announced but, like all Italian revolutionaries in this period, he continued to be harassed by the police and, later, by fascist groups. With the anarchist dentist Giuseppe Imondi, he published the newspaper 'L'Anarchia' (Anarchy). Between late 1920 and early 1921 had close contacts with Errico Malatesta, Camillo Berneri, Pasquale Binazzi, Armando Borghi and Giuseppe Di Vittorio, amongst other revolutionaries, was a correspondent with 'Umanità Nova' and 'L'Avvenire Anarchico' (The Anarchist Future) and campaigned for Sacco and Vanzetti.
Despite the advent of fascism, in 1924 he founded the libertarian newspaper, 'L'Amico del Popolo' (The Friend of the People), which was banned after the fourth issue. He was also denied work in his chosen profession and arrested on charges of "undermining the powers of the State, for the purpose of killing the king and Mussolini", but was acquitted after 25 days in prison. On 31 March, 1931, he was arrested again and whilst in internal exile on the island of Ponza he married Pia Zanolli. Another amnesty in 1933 led to his release and returned to Calabria but is dispirited, writing to Zia: "Freed yes, but at what price: health shattered, no money, no prospects for the future", and is diagnosed with a brain tumour in November 1933. Despite reunion with Zia, things do not improve and after a failed business venture, his health deteriorates and he dies on 12 June 1936. Zia goes on to edit and publish his works, including 'Schiaffi e Carezze: poesie in brutta copia' (Slaps and Caresses: poems in draft; 1969) and 'Utopia? No!: Scritti scelti di Bruno Misefari' (Utopia? No!: Selected writings of Bruno Misefari; 1976; [Pia Zanolli (ed.]), plus two of her own memoirs of Misefari, 'Tu o Uno Come Te' (You or Someone Like You; nd) and 'L'Anarchico di Calabria' (The Anarchist of Calabria; 1967).

"La religione è il più solido puntello del capitalismo e dello Stato, i due tiranni del popolo. Ed è anche il più temibile alleato dell'ignoranza e del male."
(Religion is the strongest prop of capitalism and the state, the two tyrants of the people. It is also the most formidable ally of ignorance and evil.)
- from: 'L'Amico del Popolo' (The Friend of the People)

Qui, ne la selva densa di roveti,
A l'ombra de le quercie ho la dimora:
Gli uccelli ei grilli fanno da poeti
Lietamente da l'una a l'altra aurora.
Qui, niuna i giorni, solitari e cheti
Fiammata d'ingiustizia, ecco, m'accora:
Solo co' miei pensieri alti e segreti
E i sogni miei vivo e converso ognora.
Uomini primi abitator del mondo,
Io non v'invidio più: simile a voi
De la calma solenne io mi circondo !
Affogati nel sangue, età civile
Di prostituti e di assassini eroi:
Io ti diserto; io, che non sono un vile!

(Here we find the dense jungle of brambles,
In the shadow of the oak trees I have planted:
The birds and the crickets are the poets
Cheerfully from one to the other dawn.
Here, nobody and daylight, solitary and stealthily
Blaze of unrighteousness, behold, upset me:
Alone with my old thoughts and secrets
And my dreams alive convered.
Men first butchers of the world,
I do not envy you any more: like you
Peace solemnly surrounds me!
Drowned in the blood, the civil age
Of heroicn prostitutes and murderers:
I deserted you, and I, I'm not a coward!)

- 'Disertore' (Deserter)


##1895 - Antonio Martín Escudero, also known as 'El Cojo de Málaga' due to lameness caused by an osteitis in his right leg (d. 1937), Spanish bricklayer, flamenco singer, anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist militant, born.

1898 - Two day General Strike and riots in Ancône, Italy following an increase in bread prices. The army occupies the city. Errico Malatesta (publishing the newspaper 'L'agitazione'), Luigi Fabbri and several other anarchists are charged (tried on April 21-28, 1898), with a "criminal conspiracy" against public security and property.

1904 - The first edition of 'L'Action Syndicale: Organe des Travailleurs du Pas-de-Calais' is published in Lens. 261 issue are published up til 2 October 1910.

[B] 1905 - Artur Streiter (d. 1946), German graphic artist, painter, writer, literary critic, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Influenced by Gustav Landauer, Leo Tolstoi and Erich Mühsam and a member of FAUD (Freien Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands), he maintained close ties with Gregor Gog and his FAUD-aligned international movement Bruderschaft der Vagabunden (Brotherhood of Vagrants).

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: Up to ten thousand strikers parade through city streets. Somewhat incongruously they march behind an American flag singing 'The Internationale' and are met and dispersed by soldiers with bayoneted rifles.

[A] 1915 - Anarchist Lucy Parsons leads hunger march in Chicago; IWW songwriter Ralph Chaplin wrote his famous labour song, 'Solidarity Forever' for the march.

1919 - Suspension of the constitutional guarantees in the province of Barcelona. Over the next two days, the military continues its crackdown on the leaders of the CNT, with many of the detainees brought to the prison ship Pelayo with plans to deport them. 25 CNT leaders are detained, among them is Salvador Seguí, aka 'el Noi del Sucre' (Sugar Boy), and journalist Jaume Brossa. They were imprisoned on the Pelayo in the harbour. The newspaper 'Solidaridad Obrera' is also banned. Some authors have argued that the arrest of twenty-five leaders of the CNT by the governor of Barcelona on the same day that constitutional guarantees were suspended on 17 January 1919, was a provocation intended to trigger a reaction amongst the working classes to disrupt and overshadow the autonomy movement. However, exactly the opposite is more likely as the sindicats were far better organised than the nationalist organisations, and therefore far more of a threat to order.
The die is cast and the Confederación Regional del Trabajo de Cataluña would respond to the crackdown by calling a strike at the earliest opportunity in order to demonstrate its ability to fight back against the threatening and repressive regional government.

1920 - Luigi Galleani and Raffaele Schiavina begin publishing their anarchist paper, 'Cronaca Sovversiva: Weekly Revolutionary Anarchist Propaganda - Journal of the Anti-Organisational Tendency', in Turin. Galleani began the paper in the US in 1903, but he and other 'Cronaca Sovversiva' supporters were deported on June 24, 1919.

1920 - The first issue of 'A Stormo!' (In Flight!) 'Revolutionary Libertarian Weekly' is published in Turin. This is actually the same newspaper as Luigi Galleani and Raffaele Schiavina's 'Cronaca Sovversiva', banned in the USA, but retitled to get around that prohibition.

1920 - Palmer Raids: S.S. Buford, transporting 250 labour activists, anarchists and radicals including Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman deported from the Land of the Free on 21 December 1919, lands at Hangö. On January 19 the deportees are met at the Russo-Finnish border by Russian representatives and received warmly at a mass meeting of soldiers and peasants in Belo-Ostrov.

1921 - Crackdown on Barcelona cenetistas involved with the Comité Pro-Presos de la CNT (Pro-Prisoner Committee).

1927 - Simultaneous General Strikes in Santiago and Valparaiso, Chile.

1932 - Revolta de l'Alt Llobregat*: In Figols in the Alt Llobregat (Upper Llobregat), Catalonia, Buenaventura Durruti gives a speech to a meeting of miners: "No creáis en las reformas de la democracia burguesa, de la que los trabajadores nada pueden esperar. (…). La democracia burguesa ha fracasado. (…). Es necesario realizar la revolución. (…). La emancipación total de la clase trabajadora solamente puede conseguirse mediante la expropiación de la riqueza que detenta la burguesía y suprimiendo el Estado". ["Do not believe in the reforms of bourgeois democracy, workers can expect nothing. (...). Bourgeois democracy has failed. (...). Revolution is necessary. (...). The total emancipation of the working class can only be achieved through the expropriation of the wealth that the bourgeoisie holds and abolishing the state."] The following day in Figols, and then in other towns of the region (Sallant, Suria, Berga, Cardona and Manresa), libertarian communism is proclaimed for the first time in Spain's history.
[*also known as the Fets de Fígols de 1932 (Events in Fígols in 1932)]

1944* - Alternate date for the death of Laurentino Tejerina Marcos (b. 1895), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndcalist. [see: Feb. 17]
[* or 1942]

1947 - Eugène Lanti (Eugène Adam) (b. 1879), French anarchist, ex-communist (founder of the French Communist Party) and founder of the Esperanto movement 'Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda' SAT (World Association Anationaliste), dies. [see: Jul. 19]

1985 - Hashimoto Yoshiharu (橋本 義春; b. 1930), Japanese anarchist and publisher, dies in Tokyo. Founder in the 60s of the publishing house Barukan-sha and editor of 'Anaki' (Anarchy). Writer and translator into Japanese of many works by thinkers and theorists of the international anarchist movement including Proudhon, Kropotkin, Emma Goldman, as well as Oscar Wilde and many others.

1998 - Over 2000 indigenous Tzeltals and Tojolbals from the state of Chiapas occupy the military barracks of the 39th Military Zone in protest over Army incursions into their communities.
1857 - Gustave Bouillard aka 'Le grand Bouillard' & 'Le grand Nouillard' (d. unknown), Ardennes blacksmith and anarchist, born. Was once sentenced to six weeks in prison for saying to the Mayor of Nouzon: "Fuck you, you and your [tricolour] sash, I'm an anarchist and I do not recognise your authority."

[E] 1882 - Louise Michel sent to prison for fifteen days for insulting the authorities (outrages à agents).

#### 1894 - Takamure Itsue (高群 逸枝; d. 1964), Japanese poet, activist-writer, anarcha-feminist, ethnologist and the first historian of Japanese women, born. Her mother was the daughter of a Buddhist priest and her father a primary school teacher. The latter taught her classical Chinese and encouraged her literary talents, with her first work (a poem) being published in 1906. In 1910, she was expelled shortly after admission into her normal school in Kumamoto after questioning the educational policies of the school's principal. Following a period in a girl's private school, she went to work in a cotton-spinning factory but was fired from her clerk's job after she wrote a letter to the management complaining about the company's emphasis on duty to the company, the 'nation', and the Emperor, as well as the low wages being paid to its female employees.
Returning to her home city in 1914, Itsue became a substitute teacher in her father's primary school. She also began a correspondence with Hashimoto Kenzō, a fellow teacher three years a junior and admirer of nihilist thought, who would become her lover and with whom she would have a tempestuous life-long relationship [Kenzō became Itsue's literary executor after her death, somewhat controversially as he suppressed (left unpublished or anthologised) many of he anarchist works and articles], with regular periods of estrangement and reconciliation. One such estrangement [which is said to have involved a third party, a young man who ardently pursued her, writing her love letter composed in his own blood three times a day!] led to her taking what would become a famed Shikoku Pilgrimage, Buddhist-inspired expedition to the temples on island of Shikoku, following in the footsteps of a great Buddhist saint, Kôbô Daishi. She left Kumamoto on June 4, 1918 with only the ten yen, an advance for a series of articles about her pilgrimage from the City Editor of the 'Kyūshū Nichi Nichi Shinbun' (九州日日新聞 / Kyushu Daily Newspaper), the paper on which she had failed to get a job after having quit her teaching job to go into journalism. The fact that she undertook the five month long pilgrimage as an unmarried woman alone and which she wrote about in 105 newspaper articles published in the 'Kyūshū Nichi Nichi Shinbun' made her something of a celebrity in Japan at the time. The articles were published after her death in the collection 'Musume Junreik' (娘巡礼記 / An account of a young woman's pilgrimage; 1979).
Upon her return on October 25, she and Kenzō were reconciled, getting officially engaged on April 14, 1919 (a date Takamure referred to as their 'anniversary though they legally 'married' three years later) whilst living together again. In August 1920, Itsue left to live in Tokyo alone and had her first two serious books of poetry published. She returned to Kumamoto with Kenzō in August 1921 but by the following spring they had returned to Tokyo, where her only child was stillborn, an event that played a major role in her awareness of 'bosei' (母性 / natural maternal instincts), something that became an essential element in the development of her personal philosophy of anarchism. The conflict between her intellectual independence and her role as a traditional wife led to another schism and reconciliation in 1923 and two years later, when she again left Kenzō for another man, the news caused a public scandal, increasing her public notoriety further, despite a swift reconciliation.
In 1926 Itsue met the anarchist and pioneering Japanese feminist Hiratsuka Raichō (平塚 らいてう), a move that would be accompanied by the full-flowering of Itsue's anarchism and feminist thought. That same year saw the publication of her first book on women's issues, 'Ren'ai Sōsei' (恋愛創生 / Genesis of Love), as well as her joining the Independent Peasant Movement (農民自治会を結) set up by the labour leader Yasaburō Shimonaka (下中弥三郎), anarchist Ishikawa Sanshirō (石川三四郎), and others. Her then role as chief income-earner for the household saw her (Kenzō having lost his teaching position), saw her publish a great many articles in various journals and newspapers during this period and her becoming one of the best known exponents of feminist thought in Japan. She also engaged in dialogues in print with other prominent Japanese feminists in journals and magazines such as 'Fujin Koron' (Women's Forum), 'Nyonin Geijutsu' (Women and Art), 'Kuroiro Sensen' (Black Front), and 'Chuo Koron' (Central Forum). her debate with Yamakawa Kikue (山川菊栄), one of the founding members of the socialist group Sekirankai (赤らん会 / Red Wave Society), which saw Itsue laying out her views on the relationships between the sexes in a post-revolutionary society based on her central advocacy of free love and her ideal of a Kropotkinesque agrarian self-government with women and mothers as a central element of that future society, a standpoint in stark contrast to Kikue's standard Marxist "marriage as a bourgeois institution of economic oppression" position.
In 1930, Itsue founded the anarcha-feminist group the Proletarian Women's Arts League (無産婦人芸術連盟) and its paper 'Fujin Sensen' (婦人戦線 / Women's Front), published from March 1930 to June 1931, of which she was editor and a major contributor under a number of pseudonyms. The group and paper marked a major turning point in Itsue's life and in her ideological stance. However, the paper drew the attention of the authorities and it was eventually closed down by the Thought Section of the Criminal Affairs Bureau of the Special Higher Police. The suppression and the occurrence of another 'extra-marital' relationship, led to Itsue and Kenzō moving out from the city to what she called the Mori no ie (森の家 / House in the Woods), named in homage to Henry David Thoreau's 'Walden'. This move marked the end of her activism and her devoting herself fulltime to academic study of Japanese women's history, with Kenzō as her assistant, and took place against a backdrop of an increasingly proto-fascist and isolationist society.
It was not until after her death on June 7, 1964 from peritoneal cancer that her the importance of her findings about the matriarchal tradition of Japan were recognised and taken up by the academic world, providing an invaluable legacy for historians, sociologists, and anthropologists, as well as going on to provide a unique historical framework for feminists of the 60s and 70s.

1898 - Outside the police station on the Rue Berselius, Claud-Francois Etiévant, anarchist printer, stabbed orderly Renard twenty times; seized and locked up without being searched, he took out his revolver and wounded policeman Le Breton in the cheek. Commissioner Rouffaud managed to persuade him to throw out his weapon. Condemned to forced labour for life, he died at Maroni, French Guyana. [see: Jun. 8]
[Costantinni pic]

[B] 1904 - The date wrongly given by Carlo Carra in his autobiography for the death of Angelo Galli, who he immortalised in his 1911 work, 'The Funeral of the Anarchist Galli'.
Carlo Carra - "I saw before me the bier, covered with red carnations, wavering dangerously on the shoulders of the pallbearers. I saw the horses becoming restive, and clubs and lances clashing, so that it seemed to me that at any moment the corpse would fall to the ground and be trampled by the horses." - 'La Mia Vita' (1943). [see: May 10]

1906 - Five members of an anarchist-communist group are shot in Warsaw, for their alleged involvement in a bombing on December 30 [17], 1905, against the Bristol Hotel in the city. [expand]

1911 - 26 defendants are found guilt of conspiring to assassinate the Japanese emperor. 24 are sentenced to hang, including anarchist Kanno Suga (she shouts "Museifu Shugi Banzai!” [Long Live Anarchy!] from the dock) and is the first woman political prisoner to be executed in modern Japanese history. [see: May 20 & Jan. 24]

1919 - The crackdown on the CNT and the arrest of its leaders by the military continues. [see: Jan. 17]

1921 - In a series of reprisals between the CNT and Barcelona police, police are ordered to murder ('Ley de Fugas') cenetistas currently being held in jail. Valencian cenetistas Juan Villanueva, Antonio Parra, Juli Peris, and Ramón Gomar - arrested the previous day while delivering funds to aid political prisoners in Barcelona - are among those shot down. Police announce all are killed in an attempted jailbreak.

1921 - Antonio Téllez Solá (d. 2005), Spanish anarchist guérilla, journalist and historian, born. [expand]

1921 - In a series of reprisals between the CNT and Barcelona police, police are ordered to murder ('Ley de Fugas') cenetistas currently being held in jail. Valencian cenetistas Juan Villanueva, Antonio Parra, Juli Peris, and Ramón Gomar - arrested the previous day while delivering funds to aid political prisoners in Barcelona - are among those shot down. Police announce all are killed in an attempted jailbreak.

1922 - The first edition of 'Libereso' (Liberty) 'Organo Monatala di la Anarkiista di Emancipanta Stelo' (Monthly Paper of the Anarchist Section of 'Free Star') is published by the Cosmopolitan Union of Idiste Workers in France.

## 1927 - Roberto Freire (d. 2008), Brazilian anarchist, writer, dramaturge, journalist, doctor, psychiatrist and ex-psychoanalyst, born. [EXPAND]

1931 - Gonzalo Arango Arias (d. 1976), Colombian poet, journalist and philosopher, who led the libertarian and atheist anti-political literary movement known as Nadaísmo (Nothing-ism) under the influence of the Colombian philosopher Fernando González Ochoa during a particularly repressive period at the end of the 1950s, born.

[D] 1932 - Revolta de l'Alt Llobregat*: Libertarian communism is proclaimed and private property and money abolished in the Catalonia mining areas of the Alt Llobregat (Upper Llobregat), in Berga, Cardona, Fígols, Sallent and Súria. The miners, syndicated in the CNT, declared that private property and money had been abolished and proclaimed libertarian communism. Meanwhile, workers in the mines and factories carried on with their labours on a voluntary basis for the benefit of the whole community in lieu of securing the necessary social transformations to allow the organising of a new society based on the free and voluntary labour of those who were to participate in productive tasks. In Fígols consumption was quickly organised on the basis of commissary and, as money had been abolished, payments were made with vouchers authorised by a revolutionary committee (elected by universal suffrage on Wednesday 20th) in accordance with the needs of each individual.
The government immediately made use of the Ley de Defensa de la República (Law of Defence of the Republic) and the insurrection is suppressed within the week. Over 100 militants, including the anarchists Buenaventura Durruti and Francisco and Domingo Ascaso, are sent to the Rio de Oro prison colony in Equatorial Guinea. However, Durruti and seven others were ultimately sent to prison in Fuerteventura on the Canary islands as the governor of the port of Villa Cisneros (modern day Dakhla in the Western Sahara) considered Durruti to have murdered his father, the former Governor Bilbao Fernando González Reguera.
[*also known as the Fets de Fígols de 1932 (Events in Fígols in 1932)]

1932 - Robert Anton Wilson (d. 2007), US libertarian polymath, born.

[C] 1934 - CGT Portuguesa calls a General Strike against the dictatorship of Antonio Salazar.

1937 - Emma Goldman and Ethel Mannin address a public meeting on 'The Spanish Revolution and the CNT-FAI' held in London and chaired by Fenner Brockway of the Independent Labour Party. It was one of the many meetings that Goldman made as propagandist of the Spanish Revolution, always in contact with the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo and Federación Anarquista Ibérica.

1966 - Carlo Frigerio (b.1878), Italian militant and writer, principal collaborator, along with Camillo Berneri, Luigi Fabbri and Carlo Molaschi, on the Malatesta edited 'Pensiero e Volontà' (Thought & Will), dies. [see: Mar. 7]

1966 - Eleuterio Quintanilla Prieto (b. 1886), Spanish anarchist, member of the Asturian CNT, Freemason and rationalist teacher, active in the Spanish Revolution of 1936 and the Orto group in the FAI, dies. [see: Oct. 25]

1968 - Japanese Zengakuren (Federation of Student Self-Government Associations) lay siege to the American airbase at Sasebo, preventing the nuclear aircraft carrier Enterprise from mooring there.

1969 - Tokyo student protests: Early in the morning, 8,500 riot police seal off the Hongo campus and begin clearing the occupied buildings one by one and arresting the occupants. Students from all over the country flock to the nearby Kanda-Jimbocho area and set up a 'liberated quarter' with Parisian style street barricades where they fight with police in a supporting protest.

1970 - René Keravis (b. 1928), French postal worker and anarchist, dies in a road accident.

1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Glasgow South African Airways office firebombed. [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]

1971 - Jeffrey William Monson, American mixed martial artist and anarchist, born.

##1979 - Cs. István Bartos (Csaba Bartos), aka Bartos the Great Human Muck Pit, Hungarian performance artist, humourist, spoken word performer, tramp-philosopher and one-time anarcho-primitivist, born.
1808 - Lysander Spooner (d. 1887), American utopianist, individualist anarchist and member of the First International, born.

1853 - Émile Jean-Marie Gautier (d. 1937), French journalist, Doctor of Law, Social Darwinist, follower of Jules Vallès, anarchist activist and theorist, born. Arrested in 1882, he was involved in the Procès des 66 where he defended himself, refuting the existence of an international anarchist conspiracy. Sentenced on January 19, 1883 to five years in prison, a 2000 franc fine, ten years of monitoring and four-year ban of civil rights, he renounced his politics in prison, earning a pardon in 1886. Released, he became a journalist under the pen name Raoul Lucet, popularising science.
"La prison telle qu'elle est organisée est un véritable cloaque épanchant dans la société un flot continu de purulences et de germes, de contagion physiologique et morale; elle empoisonne, abrutit et corrompt." (The prison is organised as a cesspool pouring in a steady stream of society and corruptions of germs, contagion physiological and moral; poisons her, brutalized and corrupt.) - 'Le Monde des Prisons' (The World of Prisons; 1889).

1865 - Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (b. 1809), French anarchist philosopher and printer, dies. [see: Jan. 15]

[B] 1877 - Fráňa Šrámek (d. 1952), Czech poet, novelist, short story writer, Impressionist playwright, anti-militarist and anarchist rebel, born. A representantive of the turn of the century generation of Czech Anarchističtí Buřiči, "básníci života a vzdoru" (Anarchist Rebels, "the poets of life and defiance"). In 1899 he volunteered started as a one-years military service which, however, was extended for year because of his "anarchistic attitude". After military service, he began studying law but in 1903 he decided to become a full-time poet. Moving to Prague, he joined the literary group Nový Kult (The New Cult), meeting S.K. Neumann and other anarchists and young writers. In 1905, he was arrested during an anarchist student demonstration and briefly imprisoned. He was also called up for a four-week military exercise, during which he wrote his anti-war poem 'Píšou Wed Psani' (They Write Me Letters) and, vowing a campaign of insubordination, he ended up spending 6 days in a military prison.
He went on to continue both his anarchist and literary activities, and during this time he wrote his first strongly anarchist influenced poetry collection 'Života Bído, Přec Tě Mám Rád...!' (Life is Misery, Yet I Love You..!; 1905) and his most famous work, the novel 'Stříbrný Vítr' (Silver Wind; 1910). Too ill to fight, he was still called up in Aug. 1914 and fought on the Russian front in WWI, but was wounded the following month, going on to fight on the Italian and Romanian fronts, events which fuelled his anti-war and love poetry.His works include the short story collection 'Kamení Srdce a Oblaka' (Stone Hearts and Clouds; 1906); the novels 'Stříbrný Vítr' (Silver Wind; 1910) and 'Tělo' (Body; 1919); his anti-militarist poetry collection 'Modrý a Rudý' (Red & Blue; 1906), which includes 'Píšou Wed Psani'; and the plays 'Červen' (June; 1905) and 'Léto' (Summer; 1915).

1883 - The trial to suppress the anarchists involved in the First International, begun on January 8, concludes in Lyon, against those known as 'The 66'. Peter Kropotkin, Émile Gautier, Joseph Bernard, Pierre Martin and Toussaint Bordat are sent to prison for four years, while others receive sentences ranging from six months to five years on charges which include "membership in the International Workers Association". [EXPAND]

1892 - Anarquistas celebrate the first Cuban Regional Congress.

## 1893 - Bernardo Melacci (d. 1943), Italian mechanic, poet, anarchist and anti-fascist, who suffered political persecuted under the Fascist regime, born. Popular figure of anti-fascism in the Valdichiana.

1894 - The first issue of the anarchist communist monthly 'Liberty' is published by James Tochatti in London. The newspaper carries in its columns a wide range of libertarian ideas and published articles in particular by Louise Michel and Peter Kropotkin . It stopped publication in December 1896.

1898 - George Claude Etievant, a French typographer and anarchist who had previously served a 5 year setence for supplying Ravachol with dynamite, stabs a sentry at the Berzeliu street police station, and wounds another after being locked up. He is sentenced to death, subsequently commuted to life in the Guyana prison colony.

1906 - A further five anarchist-communists [see: Jan 18] are shot in Warsaw, for their alleged involvement in a bombing on December 30 [17], 1905, against the Bristol Hotel in the city. [expand]

1908 - Fire burns down the building housing an office, printing plant and book stock at Benjamin Tucker's Unique Bookshop (a hotbed of individualist anarchism).

1910 - Andrea Costa (b. 1851), Italian anarchist participant in the national conference under the direction of Bakunin, before giving up on anarchism and becoming a socialist deputy in the Italian parliament, dies. [see: Nov. 29]

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: Police 'find' dynamite in three different locations in Lawrence: in a tenement house, in an empty lot, and in a shoemaker's shop next door to the print shop where Joseph Ettor receives his mail. The press and the police are quick to assign guilt to the strikers. An editorial in the 'New York Times' declares: "The strikers display a fiendish lack of humanity which ought to place them beyond the comfort of religion until they have repented." The IWW claim, however, that the 'BostonAmerican', a Hearst paper, was off the press and on sale in Lawrence with the details of the dynamite discovery before the sticks of dynamite had actually been found. Soon after, John A. Breen, a local undertaker and a member of the Lawrence school board, was arrested and charged with planting the explosives in a plot to discredit the workers. He was fined $500 and released on bail. It was later discovered that William Wood, the president of the American Woolen Company, had paid Breen $500. Another man, Ernest Pitman, who claimed that he had been present in the company offices in Boston when the plan was developed, committed suicide before he could give evidence in court. Wood was unable to explain why he had given Breen the money but charges against him were eventually dropped.
www.wsc.mass.edu/mhj/pdfs/Bread, roses, and other possibilities.pdf

1912 - Armand Robin (d. 1961), French translator, writer/poet and anarchist, born. A visit to the Soviet Union in 1933 revealed the true nature of the Soviet dictatorship to him and pushed him towards anarchism. He later started writing his poemes de combat (fighting poems), violent attacks on 'stalanist' poets such as Eluard and above all Aragon, and a novel, 'Le Temps Qu'il Fait' (The Weather Is Like; 1942). He joined the French Anarchist Federation in 1945, which published his 'Poèmes indésirables' (Undesirable Poems; 1945). He authored 'La Fausse Parole' (The False Word; 1953), which dissected the mechanisms of propaganda in the totalitarian countries and his knowledge of 28 languages made him a prolific translator.

1914 - Egon Illfeld, aka Ginés García (d. ca. 1980s), German Jewish typographer, anarchist, who fought in the Spanish civil war and was imprisoned by the Stalinists, born.

[E] 1918 - Rosa Laviña i Carreras (d. 2011), Catalan seamstress, anarchist, ancho-syndicalist and anti-fascist militant, secretary of the Federació Ibèrica de Joventuts Llibertàries (Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth), National Committee member and treasurer of Solidaritat Internacional Antifeixista (International Antifascist Solidarity), born. The daughter of Engràcia Carreras, a dressmaker and worker in Palafrugell's cork factory, and Martí Laviña Torroella, a barber and anarchist militant, whose activism led to him being blacklisted and the family being discriminated against. An example of the later involved Rosa herself, when in 1925 she was deliberately chosen to deliver a bouquet of flowers to welcome the king Alfonso XIII on the occasion of the opening of the Torres Jonama schools, a deliberate attempted humiliation which Laviña Torroella refused to countenance. A representative of the Asociación Internacional Antifascista in the town, contributor to the town's newspaper 'Ara' (Now) and prominent activist in Palafrugell's Ateneu Llibertari, he also ran a bookshop in the Carrer dels Valls that, because of his principles, only sold libertarian books and papers, philosophical works, and school textbooks, which failed to earn him and the family enough to get by on; hence working as a barber. In the end, he closed the bookshop down and reopened it as a library.
Rosa was an avid consumer of the library's anarchist literature and was apprenticed as a dressmaker with the Sitges family, only for her and her mother to be fired for celebrating May Day. She then went to work for a local tailors and her mother to the cork factory. When the war broke out she joined the FIJL, becoming its secretary and collaborated on 'Ruta', the organisation's Barcelona-based paper, as well as joining the local SIA group alongside her father, something that he mother was uneasy about. For a while she was head of the local Sindicat del Tèxtil of the Confederación Nacional del Treball and, following her military training, she worked as a nurse as well as caring for evacuated children in the town.
With the end of the civil war approaching, the family spent four days walking across the Pyrenees but only Rosa and her mother were allowed into france when they arrived at the border at Pertús. Rosa said goodbye to her father and that was the last time she saw him (he died in the Arràs concentration camp of congestive heart failure three months later). Rosa spent a year in the Argelès concentration camp where she worked as a nursing assistant, before being hired as a nursemaid in Perpignan from where she fled after being treated like a slave. After returning to Argelès, Rosa and her mother were contracted to work in a hotel. Later during the Nazi occupation they set up home in Montauban near Toulouse and the house was to serve during the Occupation and post-Liberation as a shelter for many members of the various libertarian maquis guerrilla groups, such as those of Marcelino Massana and Ramon Vila Capdevilla, whilst en route to and from Spain.
Following the death of her partner of the previous 38 years Pedro Vaqué 'Migreio', with whom she had a daughter, Rosa Laviña moved to Toulouse in 1954. There she worked as a dressmaker as well as again becoming secretary of the FIJL and a member of the National Committee of the SIA. She also conducted a number of clandestine missions into Spain on behalf of the CNT to carry out activities in support of the families of fellow militants locked up in Franco's prisons. At the same time set up and ran a vegetarian restaurant with her new partner, the French anarchist militant and Esperantist Etienne Guillemeau, as well as collaborating on a number of the newspapers of the exile community, such as 'Cenit', 'Espoir', 'La Proa' and 'Ruta', and became a close friend of Frederica Montseny and her circle.
After the death of her companion Etienne in 1999, she remained active in the libertarian movement in Toulouse into the early 2000s. She returned to live in Palafrugell for a period and was involved in the Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (Republican Left of Catalonia) there. Rosa Laviña dies on May 29, 2011 in Toulouse.
[NB: d.o.b. also given as Jan. 14]

1919 - Almost the entrie leadership of the CNT has been arrested, everyone that is except Ángel Pestaña, editor of 'Solidaridad Obrera', who managed to evade the police. Members of the Spanish Patriotic League shoot and wound a young seventeen year old Catalan nationalist worker Manuel Miralpeix on the carrer de Valldoncella. He died the following day. His funeral was attended by councillers consellers Ulled and Mestres on behalf of the Mancomunitat, the president of the council, Vallès i Pujals and a representation of the Ajuntament de Barcelona.

1919 - Joan Brossa i Cuervo (d. 1998), Catalan language poet Dadaist-influenced, playwright, graphic designer and plastic artist, born. One of the leading early proponents of visual poetry in Catalan literature and amongst the foremost innovators of poetry, the theatre and the art of the second half of the twentieth century. At seventeen Brossa joined the army and served in the Republican front Lleida and, following the defeat of the Republic and a period of national service (where he met numerous fellow avant-garde artists), he remained in Spain as a constant public critic of the Franco regime and the Catholic church. Initially an anarchist sympathiser, he became a Marxist and supporter of the clandestine PSUC following his 1947 meeting with the Brazilian poet and Marxist João Cabral de Melo and the founding of the explicitly Marxist Catalan artists group and magazine 'Dau-al-Set' in 1948.
"La verdadera insurrección no es la de los que toman el fusil, sino la que surge del fondo del hombre" (The real uprising is not to those who take the gun, but that which arises from the depths of man) - 'Clandestino'
www.pocio.cat/membres/GloriaBordons/arxius/introduccio cercle de lectors.pdf

[D] 1932 - Revolta de l'Alt Llobregat*: In response to the armed miners' uprising in Barcelona region, spontaneous anarchist uprisings and general strikes spread across Catalonia and throughout Spain over the next five days. In many places 'libertarian communism' is again declared and armed clashes take place between the revolutionaries and forces of the Second Republic, events that in places stretch deep into the following month [cf: Sabadell on Feb. 15].
[*also known as the Fets de Fígols de 1932 (Events in Fígols in 1932)]

1941 - Paul Reclus (b. 1858), French anarchist militant, engineer and professor, dies. [see: May 25]

1941 - Władysław Głuchowski (b. 1911), Polish teacher, anarcho-syndicalist activist and anti-Nazi fighter, dies of infected wounds as prisoner no.17710 in Sachsenhausen concentration camp. [see: Jul. 27]

1947 - Luigi Bertoni (b. 1872), Swiss typographer and the untiring publisher of the bilingual newspaper 'Le Reveil Anarchiste' (The Anarchist Alarm Clock) which he founded in July 1900 and edited until his death, dies. [see: Feb. 6]

1952 - Maxime Ranko, aka Jerzy Borejsza (Beniamin Goldberg; b. 1905), Polish columnist, publisher, anarcho-syndicalist and ardent Platformist, then a communist political and cultural activist, and propagandist, dies in Warsaw, having suffered serious ill health following his Jan. 1, 1949 car accident. [see: Jul. 14]

1963 - Andrea (or Andres) Villareal (María Andrea Villarreal González; b. 1881), Mexican teacher, poet, feminist, labour organiser, anarchist, Partido Liberal Mexicano revolutionary and later Maderista, dies in Monterrey, Nuevo León, a day before her 82nd birthday. [see: Jan. 20]

1970 - Llibertat Ródenas Domínguez (b. 1893*), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anarcha-feminist member of the Mujeres Libres, who fought with the Durruti Column, dies in exile in Mexico. [see: Sep. 23]
[* alternative dates given as 1891 and 1892]

1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Jake Prescott was arrested on a cheque charge in Notting Hill. [Angry Brigade Group chronology]

1980 - Piero Ciampi (b. 1934) Italian anarchist singer-songwriter and poet, dies. [see: Sep. 28]

1990 - Herbert Richard Wehner (b. 1906), German politician, one-time anarchist activist, then a communist and latterly a SPD MP and government minister, dies. [see: Jul. 11]

1999 - Vasilis Evangelidis (Βασιλης Ευαγγελίδης), unemployed Greek teacher and anarchist, announces a hunger strike to protest his imprisonment and in solidarity with the student protest movement, occupations and demonstrations across the country.

2005 - Carlos Cortez (b. 1923), US anarcho-syndicalist, poet, graphic artist, photographer, muralist and political activist, who was active for six decades in the Industrial Workers of the World, dies. [see: Aug. 13]

[C] 2009 - Anastasia Eduardovna Baburova (Анастасия Эдуардовна Бабурова; b. 1983), Russian journalist, anarchist and ecological activist, is shot dead, together with Russian lawyer and human rights activist Stanislav Markelov, by a neo-Nazi militant outside press conference in Moscow. Their deaths sparked widespread protests and in November 2009 their killer, neo-Nazi killer Nikita Tikhonov, and his girlfriend, Yevgenia Khasis, were arrested. In May 2011 they were both convicted of the murders, Tikhonov being sentenced to life imprisonment, and Khasis to 18 years in prison.
Active in Autonomous Action and various eco groups, Baburova also worked for 'Novaya Gazeta' and regularly wrote articles about the activities of neo-Nazis in Russia.

2013 - Audrey Goodfriend (b. 1920), American lifelong anarchist militant, radical educator and "black diaper baby" (her parents were anarchists, and she was raised in that culture), who was was instrumental in the formation of the Walden Center and School in Berkeley, California, dies in her sleep. [see: Nov. 14]
1862 - Augustin Frédéric Adolphe Hamon (d.1945), French anarchist, sociologist and later a socialist, born. Author of 'Psychology of the Anarchist-Socialist' (1895). [expand]

##1881 - Andrea (or Andres) Villareal (María Andrea Villarreal González; d. 1963), Mexican teacher, poet, feminist, labour organiser, anarchist, Partido Liberal Mexicano revolutionary and later Maderista, born.

1893 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising / Massacro di Caltavuturo [Caltavuturo Massacre]: The Fasci Siciliani dei Lavoratori (Sicilian Workers Leagues) mass movement was inspired by democratic, libertarian and socialist ideas, but which also had a clear secessionist intent, developed in Sicily from 1891 to 1894 and spread among farm workers, tenant farmers, and small sharecroppers as well as artisans, intellectuals, and the urban proletariat. It was dispersed only after a heavy military intervention under the government of Francesco Crispi in early 1894.
The Fasci movement took hold especially among workers, labourers, small farmers and sulfur miners, who decided to join forces (the fasci - a bundle of bound sticks that Mussolini's fascists would later appropriate - symbolising the unity of the exploited) against the arrogance and the coercive power of the dominant classes. It is also held to be the first example of an organised struggle against the Mafia, in this case the figure of gabellot[t]o [rural entrepreneurs who leased the lands from aristocrats, absentee landlords more attracted to the comforts of the city, and who rented out this farmland for short-term use by peasant farmers] mafia-like intermediaries between the landowner and labourer, and who established dominion over their territory by means of the system of extortion utilising hired guards (campieri [watchmen]) to protect livestock, equipment and other assets from bandits and cattle rustlers, and to control the peasants. The gabellotti were able to exploit the peasant sharecroppers endebted to them for the land that they rented to earn a subsitance living but also via the onorous local and state taxes (such as the hated flour tax) and the gabellotti's control of supplies and seeds for the peasants' crops.
Initially the Fasci movement was a purely an urban phenomenon, and the first Sicilian fascio was set up in Messina on March 18, 1889. On May 1, 1891 a fasci was founded by Giuseppe De Felice Giuffrida in Catania. Open to all, it maintained links with the anarchist movement on the mainland including the reknowned Communard Amilcare Cipriani. However, it was not until the formation of the fascio in Palermo on June 29, 1892, that the movement gained its real impetus, linking workers organisations with the peasant masses. In its wake, many workers' associations and mutual aid societies disbanded and became part of the fascio, and within two months the Palermo fascio had 7,500 members. The Leagues rapidly radiated over all Sicily. In the spring of 1893 the leaders of the movement decided to carry their propaganda to the peasants and miners of the countryside. Between March and October the number of fasci grew from 35 to 162 with more than 200,000 members.
A watershed event for the Fasci Siciliani movement was the Strage di Caltavuturo (Caltavuturo Massacre). The Duke of Ferrandina (who owned 6,000 acres of land), after a long negotiation had granted a share of his idle land to the municipality of Caltavuturo as settlement of 'civic uses'. Administrators, however, instead of distributing these 'common lands' to the peasants entrusted then to the local bourgeoisie, including the Town Clerk, and the gabelloti (mafia thugs and land rental intermediaries), and which the mayor did not intend to return to them. In response, at dawn on January 20, 1893, 500 farmers symbolically occupied the fields and the arrival of the military later in the day persuaded farmers to leave the occupied land. Instead, they went to demonstrate in front of the Town Hall and seek a meeting with the mayor. He refused to appear and, turning to leave and reoccupy the land, were attacked from behind with rifle fire and bayonets. Thirteen people lost their lives. The dead were left on the road until nightfall, prey to the town's dogs, and people were not allowed to help the wounded. The Strage di Caltavuturo provoked widespread solidarity demonstrations both locally and nationally. The Fasci di Palermo also launched a subscritption campaign to raise funds for the families of the victims.

1901 - Fransesco Giovanni (Frank) Fantin (d. 1942), Italian-Australian anarchist and anti-fascist, who was murdered by fascist fellow internees in an Australian internment camp, born.

1902 - Juan García Oliver (d. 1980), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndialist and Minister of Justice in the Republican government, born. [expand]

1904 - Jean Celestin 'Cointot' Renaud (b. 1841), French anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Nov. 27]

1909 - La Première Manifestation en Automobile: The first vehicular protest takes place in Paris as 25 taxis full of union activists carrying yellow and green placards that read "Affaire Girard-Jacquart - une infamie judiciaire - Deux innocents condamnés" (a judicial infamy - Two innocent prisoners) in protest against the conviction of the two anarchists drivers, Albert Jacquart and Maurice Girard, following a fight with a police Commissioner on July 15 1908 over the display of an anti-miltarist poster at a co-operatively-run resturant. Organised by the 'Comité de Défense Sociale' (CDS), the procession started next to the Seine at the Tuilleries, passing through la Place de la Concorde, la Madeleine and l'Opéra, ending up at la Place de la République, all whilst the protesters handed out leaflets to dumbfounded passersby. Both drivers were eventually released without charge on February 3.

1911 - Julia Miravé Barrau [sometimes rendered as Miravet, Mirabé Vallejo, Mirabé Barreau, etc.] aka La Maña (d. 2000), Spainish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Franco resistance, born. [expand]

1923 - Varban Kilifarski (b. 1879), Bulgarian anarchist, anti-militarist and libertarian teacher, dies. [see: May 25]

1930 - Alternate (and probably incorrect) date given for the assassination of Kim Jwa-Jin (김좌진), pen name Baekya (백야)(b. 1889), Korean anarchist guerrilla general, who is sometimes called the Korean Makhno. [see: Jan. 24]

1932 - Revolta de l'Alt Llobregat*: Elections for a revolutionary committee, consisting of a general delegate and eight assistants, voted for on the basis of universal sufferage of those aged 16 and over, take place in Fígols. Manuel Prieto, one of the leaders of the miners in Asturias, tarvels to Barcelona to inform the CNT leadership of the events in Fígols and the other insurgents nuclei ,as the revolutionaries in the Alt Llobregat begin to lay out their plans for the building of schools, libraries, more clinics, bathrooms, etc. in their putative anarchist utopia.
[*also known as the Fets de Fígols de 1932 (Events in Fígols in 1932)]

1935 - The first Syndikalistiske Kvinnegruppe Samhold (Syndicalist Women's Group) is formed in Norway when the Nordstrand Lokal Samorganisation (Local Co-operation) syndicate hold a meeting at which local women decide to form an "organisering av husmødrene" (organisation of housewives [sic]). They then established a joint section for the women in Oslo and Nordstrand connected to Nordstand LS as a member organisation of the Norsk Syndikalistisk Forbund (Norwegian Syndicalist League). When the Oslo and Nordstrand sections split, the name Syndikalistiske Kvinnegruppe Samhold was adopted.

1936 - Between January 20 and 30, Emma Goldman presents three popular lectures in London. The first is at the Workers Circle House under the title 'The Two Communisms (Bolshevist and Anarchist. A Parallel)', a second at the National Trade Union Club called 'Russian Literature'; and a third, 'Mussolini, Hitler and Stalin (How far do their common methods lead to similar results?)' in Hammersmith.

1937 - Émile Jean-Marie Gautier (b. 1853), French journalist, Doctor of Law, Social Darwinist, follower of Jules Vallès, anarchist activist and theorist, dies. [see: Jan. 19]

1937 - First edition of the daily newspaper 'Aragon Nuevo', 'Boletin del Consejo de Defensa' (Bulletin of the Defence Council).

1938 - Émile Cohl (Émile Eugène Jean Louis Courtet; b. 1857), French caricaturist, cartoonist, and animator, dies. [see: Jan. 4]

## 1943 - Roel van Duijn (Roeland Hugo Gerrit van Duijn), Dutch anarchist, writer, publicist and organic farmer, who was one of the founders of Provo and of the Kabouter movement (Kabouterbeweging), later joining the Green Movement, born.

1972 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Explosive letter sent to MP at House of Commons. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1981 - 10,000 Mexican farmers in southeastern Chiapas block roads to major oil fields to protest pollution of their fields and crops fields by the State Oil Company. Lasts several days.

[1998 - Julia Barranco Hanglin (b. 1919), Catalan anarchist and member of the anti-Francoist resistance

[E] 2012 - Eight members of the group Pussy Riot [Пусси Райот] stage a performance of 'Putin Zassal' [Путин зассал](Putin has Pissed Himself) on the Lobnoye Mesto in Red Square. The song, which was inspired by the events of December 24, 2011, during which approximately 100,000 people attended anti-Putin rallies in central Moscow, called for a popular revolt against the Russian government and an occupation of Red Square.
1870 - [O.S. Jan. 9] Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (Russian: Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен; b. 1812), Russian writer, journalist, novelist and thinker, who was one of the main 'forefathers' of Russian socialism and agrarian populism (an ideological ancestor of the Narodniki, Socialist-Revolutionaries, etc.), and who was greatly influenced by the anarchism, dies. [see: Apr. 6]

1876* - [N.S. Feb. 2] Olga Iljinicna Taratuta [Ольги Іллівни Таратути (uk) / Ольга Ильинична Таратута (ru)], aka Babushka ,Valia, Tania, D. Basist (real name Elka Golda Eljevna Ruvinskaia [Елька Гольда Еліївна Рувинська (uk) / Элька Гольда Эльевна Рувинская (ru)]; d. 1938), Ukrainian teacher, anarcho-communist revolutionary and founder of the Ukrainian Anarchist Black Cross, born. [see: Feb. 2]
[*some sources give the years as 1874 or 1878]

1883 - Victor François Marie Pengam (d. 1920), French anarchist and anti-militarist, born. A labour activist from an early age, he became the secretary-general of the regional Union of the Trades Councils of Brest and was also active in the 'Université Populaire' and the 'Groupe d'Études Sociales. In 1912 Pengam, himself an orphan, became involved with the Pupilles de la Maison du Peuple and gave up his labour activities, devoting himself to the education of a hundred of these pupils in cultural, sporting and musical events and even founded a brass marching band that played songs such as 'l'Hymne au 17e' and 'l'Internationale' on May Day.

[B/E] 1895 - Noe Itō (伊藤野枝; d. 1923), Japanese anarchist, social critic, author, novelist, translator and feminist, born in the rural village of Imajuku on the island of Kyūshū. Hers was a once prosperous family but which now lived in poverty and destitution, with her father a failed maritime agent now working in a tile factory and her mother working in the fields around their village. At the age of six, Noe entered school and soon proved to be gifted pupil. However, the economic situation of the parents deteriorated further and, after three years in school in Imajuku, the young Noe was sent to live with her uncle in Nagasaki in June 1904. Her new city life allows her to have access to a larger library and to continue her education, in which she demonstrates a great intellectual precocity. At the age of fourteen, she returned to her parents' home and had to work in the post office there to help support the family. Wishing to continue her studies, she pleaded her cause with her uncle who had since moved to Tokyo, and he arranged in April 1910 for a scholarship for her to study at the prestigious Ueno Girls High School, a progressive school that refused to include in its principles the famous Japanese patriarchal adage "Good wife, wise mother." There she studied philosophy, literature and foreign languages, including English. She graduated in 1912, at the time winning the admiration of the famous Japanese writer and novelist Murakami Namiroku (村上浪六).
That same year under her uncle's management, a marriage was arranged with a certain Fukutaro, the choice of her parents. He had recently returned from studying in the United States and Noe Itō reluctantly agreed to the marriage with the hope that he would take her back to America with him, planning to leave him as soon as they arrived on the continent. But his wish was not to be and, shortly after the ceremony, she fled. taking refuge with her former English teacher, the Dadaist and libertarian Tsuji Jun (辻潤), the first translator into Japanese of the anarchist philosopher Max Stirner. With his help, and that of her uncle, the seventeen year old Noe got a divorce. Tsuji encouraged Noe to continue with her education and they soon became partners, going on to have two sons together, Makoto and Ryuji, in 1914 and 1915 respectively.
In late 1912, Noe Itō joined the Bluestocking Society (青鞜社 / Seitō-sha), founded by the anarchist and feminist writer Hiratsuka Raichō (平塚 らいてう) and others, and began contributing essays, criticism and translations of foreign feminist works [her poetry had already appeared in its pages as early as November 1912, and it was claimed that the February 1913 issue was censored due to one of her articles] to its arts and culture magazine 'Seitō' (青鞜 / Bluestocking), later joining its editorial group. "Written by women's hands for women" and despite nominally being 'non-political', 'Seitō' attacked the inequalities suffered by women in its pages, whilst dealing with numerous themes such as prostitution, maternity and abortion. Noe herself condemned forced marriage in the pages of 'Seitō', basing her article on her own experience. She also obtained Emma Goldman's book 'Anarchism and other Essays' (1906) in late 1913 and translated three essays from the collection into Japanese ('The Tragedy of the Emancipation of Women', which appeared in the March 25, 1914 edition of 'Seitō'; 'Marriage and Love'; and 'Minorities against Majorities'). This marked a turning point as she approached anarchism, expressing her support for 'free unions' and her rejection of the system of marriage, whilst rejecting the superficial characterisation of the so-called 'liberated woman' of the times - the wearing of western clothes instead of traditional Japanese outfits, or the modernising of hairstyles or drinking alcohol.
In September 1914 she met the charismatic anarchist militant and intellectual Ōsugi Sakae (大杉 栄) and began corresponding with him, and when his weekly paper 'Heimin Shimbun' (平民新聞 / The Commoner's News) was confiscated by the police in October of that year, she defended him from the pages of 'Seitō'. In January 1915, she was made the editor-in-chief of 'Seitō', transforming it into an essentially anarchist publication but quickly found herself more and more isolated, abandoned by many of the monthly magazine's collaborators. Most of these were from a rather bourgeois milieu and used the magazine solely for the purpose of expressing their literary talent and, having already subjected Noe to criticism and attacks for her support of free unions, now found the magazine too contentious and political for them. The magazine's income dropped and its premises were transferred to Noe and Tsuji's house, where they live in poverty with their two children. Less and less satisfied with a small bourgeois feminist movement and the criticism that she was receiving from her colleagues on 'Seitō' for her "indecent behaviour", she began to take more of an interest in social issues, such as the injustices linked to the expropriation of peasant lands by the State, and now became a committed anarchist.
In 1916, she was finally forced to close 'Seitō' down, with the February 1 (vol. 2 no. 6) being its last issue. Around the same time she began a free union without obligations with Ōsugi Sakae, one based on economic independence and respect for the freedom of the other. That September she left Tsuji Jun and moved in with Sakae, who at the time was still living with with his legal wife Hori Yasuko (堀保子), who he had married in 1906. However, Ōsugi was also in a relationship with the journalist, socialist and Seitō-sha member Kanaka Ichiko (神近 市子), which he had started the year before and Kanaka, jealous of this new lover, attacked Ōsugi, stabbing him in the neck in November 1916 in what became known as the Hikage Teahouse incident [also known as the Shichya incident (日蔭茶屋事件)]. Kanaka was sentenced to four years in prison (later commuted to two) for attempted murder. The case cause a massive scandal as the bourgeois press seized on it to discredit the anarchist movement in general. Noe was attacked and severely beaten by a close friend of Kanaka and the publicity brought about the cancellation of the betrothal of Ōsugi's, who later committed suicide in disgarce. Ōsugi's wife also divorced him.
Subsequently, the two lovers settled together in complete destitution, and in 1917 Noe had the first of four daughters she would have with Sakae. In January 1918 the couple settled in the working-class neighbourhood of Kameido in Tokyo and founded the magazine 'Bunmei Hihyō' (文明批評 / Critique of Civilisation), which appeared from January to April 1918. Noe Ito actively participated in the anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist movements and wrote numerous articles in Ōsugi's newspapers, 'Rōdō Shimbun' (労働新聞 / Journal of Labour) and 'Rōdō Undō' ( 労働運動 / Labour Movement). On March 13, 1921, Noe gave birth to their third child, a daughter named Emma, after Emma Goldman. In April 1921 she participated with Yamakawa Kikue (山川菊栄), Sakai Makoto (堺真柄), Kozumi Fusako (九津見房子), Akizuki Shizie(秋月静枝), and Hashiura Haruko (橋浦はる子) in the founding of the 'Sekirankai' (赤瀾会 / Red Wave Society, the first socialist women's organisation founded in Japan, which was banned the following year and had to go underground. On June 7, 1922, she gave birth to her fourth daughter, Louise (after Louise Michel). That December Ōsugi left Japan in order to attend the international anarchist festival to be held in Berlin the following year. However, he spent all his time in France, where he was arrested and thrown into La Santé Prison. Rather than standing trial, he accepted deportation and did not return from France until July the following year. A month later on August 9, Noe gave birth to their final child, a boy named Nestor after Makhno.
On September 1, 1923, the Great Kanto Earthquake hit Japan, devastated the Kanto Plain ( Honshū Island, Japan's main island) and killed more than 100,000 people. Several cities are devastated by the earthquake itself, by fires and violent winds caused by a nearby typhoon. The result is real chaos, and rumours that the Koreans are taking advantage of the situation and plundering are spreading very quickly. Then began a wave of violence and lynching against the Koreans, and martial law was enacted. In confusion, the military police massively arrests socialist, communist and anarchist militants.
On September 16, 1923, Noe Itō, Ōsugi Sakae and his six-year-old nephew Tachibana Munekazu (の橘宗一 ) were arrested and taken to the military police headquarters in Kojimacho, where they were strangled and beaten to death by Lieutenant Amakasu Masahiko (甘粕 正彦) and his Kempeitai (憲兵隊 / Military Police Corps) squad. Their lifeless bodies are found a few days later, at the bottom of a nearby well. The murder of these two well-known militants and such a young boy, known as the Amakasu Incident (甘粕事件), caused a wave of indignation and anger across Japan, and an attempt by a number of militants to kill Amakasu in revenge on the first anniversary of the killings failed.
That December, Amakasu was sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment by a military tribunal (for the death of Noe and Ōsugi), but only served three, before being reinstated in the army as a national hero following his release. He committed suicide after the defeat of fascist Japan in 1945.

1920 - Palmer Raids: US Attorney General Palmer's 'Red' Raids target labour activists and radicals for US government repression. [expand]

[DD] 1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: Striking workers seize the Estancia La Anita, making hostages of their owners and the Deputy Police Commissioner Pedro J. Micheri; they then take the Estancia La Primavera.

## 1933 - Bill 'Ubi' Dwyer, aka William Ubique Dwyer (d. 2001), Irish anarchist, who was active in New Zealand, Australia and England, selling LSD to fund his anarchist activities, worked as a civil servant in London whilst involved with Freedom Press and 'Anarchy' magazine, but is best known as the originator and principal organiser of the Windsor Free Festival, born.

1939 - Rafael Torres Escartín (b. 1901), Aragonese former member of Los Solidarios who, having had a death sentence (passed on him for his part in the assassination of Cardinal Soldevilla in 1923) commuted to life, lost his sanity while in prison and was sent to an asylum upon his release in 1931, is taken out by fascist troops and shot in Barcelona. [see: Dec. 20]

1942 - Christiaan Cornelissen (b. 1864), Dutch militant communist-anarchist, thinker and organiser within the revolutionary syndicalist international, anti-militarist and theoretical economist, dies. [see: Aug. 30]

1952 - Lucien Laforge (b. 1889) French painter, cartoonist and pacifist close to the libertarian movement, who drew for 'Les Hommes du Jour', 'Le Journal du Peuple', 'L'Humanité', 'Clarté', 'Le Canard Enchaîné' and 'Le Libertaire', dies in Paris. [see: Jul. 10]

1952 - Marco Camenisch, Swiss anarchist militant, environmental and anti-nuclear energy campaigner, who was released in March 2017 after serving 24 years of a combined 39 year sentence for several explosive attacks on high voltage pylons in the late 1970s, as well as being framed for the 1989 murder of a Customs cop (a 17 year sentence subsequently reduced to 8 on appeal), born.

1956 - Ricardo Peña Vallespín (b. 1908), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, and novelist, who was part of the artistic and theatrical group Mistral, dies. [see: Nov. 15]

1961 - Blaise Cendrars (born Frédéric-Louis Sauser; b. 1887), Swiss Modernist novelist, amputee left-handed poet, adventurer, soldier, failed film director and an anarchist fellow-traveller who never fully committed himself to the movement, dies. [see: Sep. 1]

1963 - Franz Jung (b. 1888), German Expressionist then Dadaist writer, novelist, playwright, economist, journalist and one-time anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 26]

1966 - Renzo 'Bruno' Cavani, aka Aldo Rossi, Mario Branchi, Bruno Figuera, Evelino Eglesias, Sebastiano Poli, etc. (d. 1966), Italian stonemason, anarchist, anti-fascist and fighter in the Columna Ascaso, commits suicide by ingesting a poison after learning that he had a brain tumour. [see: Jun. 30]

2015 - Canek Sanchez Guevara (b. 1974), Cuban writer, musician, photographer, graphic designer, and the anarchist eldest grandson of Ernesto Che Guevara, dies in Mexico City following heart surgery. [see: May 22]
1825 - Ernest Coeurderoy (d. 1862), French writer and Socialist with anarchist leanings, born.

[BB] 1849 - Johan August Strindberg (d. 1912), Swedish playwright, novelist, poet, essayist, and painter, born. Noted for his satirising of Swedish society, in particular the upper classes, the cultural and political establishment, which brought him many enemies. During the 1880's Strindberg, his interest stirred by the history of the Paris Commune, he read a lot of anarchist and socialist texts including Rousseau and Chernyshevsky's 'What is to be Done?', sentiments that were further stirred up by his 1884 blasphemy trial for a short story in his 'Getting Married' collection, which also led to him embracing atheism. Unfortunately his radical politics were largely posturing and he soon returned to mysticism of various colours, and even abandoned his early pro-women's suffrage views.
Member of the Friedrichshagener Dichterkreis (Friedrichshagener circle of poets) naturalist writers circle.
[see his essays for claims of anarchist beliefs: 'Inferno, Alone, and other writings' (1968) and 'Selected Essays' (1996)]

1855 - Josef Peukert (d. 1910), German Bohemian anarchist advocate of propaganda by deed, born. Best known for his (questionably) autobiographical book 'Erinnerungen eines Proletariers aus der Revolutionären Arbeiterbewegung' (Memories from a Proletarian Revolutionary Workers' Movement; 1913), edited by Gustav Landauer.

1871 - Soulèvement du 22 Janvier 1871 [Uprising of January 22, 1871]: Armed with a rifle, Louise Michel fires her first shot in anger during the siege of Paris. Her target is the Breton Gardes mobiles of General Louis Jules Trochu who have just fired on the crowd protesting in front of the Hôtel-de-Ville during the early stages of the uprising that would see the establishment of the Paris Commune.

[B] 1879 - Francis Picabia (Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; d. 1953), French painter, illustrator, designer, poet, writer, editor and "congenial anarchist", born. [expand]

1880 - Alphonse Tricheux (d.1957), French militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and pacifist, born.

1888 - Having delivering a speech that afternoon at the Théâtre de la Gaîté in Le Havre, Louise Michel is attacked that evening by a royalist, Pierre Lucas, whilst giving a second speech in the hall of the Élysée. Enraged by Michel "denouncing wars, especially colonial ones, where soldiers are trained to commit theft and murder", he asks to speak. Mounts the stage, he makes an incoherent attempt to speak, gives up and returns to his seat. The meeting resumes and shortly after Lucas is back on stage behind Michel, firing two shots from a revolver. One bullet lodges in Louise Michel's left temple, the other in the lining of her hat. Michel tries to calm the crowd which is close to lynching Lucas, "This is nothing. It is a fool who fired blanks." before she realises that she is in fact injured. Lucas is arrested but Louise refuses to press charges against her attacker, even later testifying on his behalf, arguing for his acquittal.. Given first aid by two doctors attending her speech at the Élysée, she returned to Paris the following morning, despite the advice of the doctors. Her doctor in Levallois (Paris) was also unable to remove the bullet, as later was Dr. Labbé at Baujon hospital, and the bullet remained lodged in her skull until her death 17 years later.

1893 - Michal Mareš (Josef Mareš; b. 1971), Czech writer, poet, journalist and anarchist, born. 'Přicházím z Periferie Republiky' (I Come From the Periphery of the Republic; 2009) is his posthumous testimony of the horrors of post-war communist Czechoslovakia.

1898 - Vicenta Sáez (or Sáenz) Barcina (d. 1971), Spanish weaver and anarchist, who was active in the prisoner support movement in Barcelona during the 1920s, born. Due to the activities of the pistoleros, she and her partner, the anarchist militant Justo Donoso Millán (Donoso Germinal), were forced into exile in France in 1927. In 1931, with the declaration of the Republic, they returned to the Peninsula, where Donoso held the position of manager of the weekly 'Tierra y Libertad', an activity in which she helped. In 1939, with the fascist victory, the couple went into exile, first in France and then on July 27, 1939, they arrive in Veracruz, Mexico. Vicenta Sáez Barcina died on April 13, 1971, in Mexico.

[C] 1900 - Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Busch (d. 1980), German singer and actor, born. Joined the Sozialistische Arbeiter-Jugend (SAJ; Socialist Workers Youth) in 1916 and the Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (USPD; Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany) following the November revolution. Noted for his cabaret performances, his interpretations of political songs, including those of Erich Mühsam and Kurt Tucholsky, and for his theatre and silent film work. In 1928 Ernst Busch joined the Berlin Volksbühne, the workers' theatre of the workers and the Piscator-Bühne, acting in plays by Friedrich Wolf, Bertolt Brecht, Ernst Toller and Erich Mühsam, including the latter's 'Judas. Arbeiter-Drama in fünf Akten' (Judas. Workers drama in five acts; 1921) and 'Staatsräson. Ein Denkmal für Sacco und Vanzetti' (For reasons of State. A Monument to Sacco and Vanzetti; 1929).
He was lucky to escape one of the first SA raids at the artists' colony in Berlin-Wilmersdorf on 9 March 1933. Fleeing Germany, he first went to Holland, and from there to Belgium, Zurich, Paris, Vienna and finally the Soviet Union. In 1937 he travelled to Spain as a singer with the International Brigades where he gave out song books ('Brigada de las Canciones Internacionales'), sang before members of the International Brigades and recorded records and performed on the radio.
"Das singende Herz der Arbeiterklasse" (The Singing Heart of the working class) - Hanns Eisler

1903 - Helmut Rüdiger aka Rodriguez, Ivar Bergegren; Dashar, Stefan Stralsund (d. 1966), German author, journalist, anarcho-syndicalist and staunch anti-communist, and theorist of federalism, born. Rudiger fought in Spain with other German anarchists, such as Karl Einstein (Albert Einstein's nephew), and participated in the 'International Group' of the Durruti Column. [expand]
Having witnessed at first hand the ruthless liquidation of the CNT by the Stalinist in Spain, he is quoted as saying: "Since 1937 I hate the Communists as my actual mortal enemies."

[E] 1905 - The funeral of Louise Michel takes place in Paris. The procession starts out at 08:00 from the Gare de Lyon but a crowd of more than 100,000 people along the route means that it takes 9 hours to reach the Levallois-Perret cemetery.

1911 - Charles Laisant (d. 1952), French pacifist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Charles is part of a generational family of anarchistes: His father Albert Laisant, his brother Maurice and his grandfather Charles Ange Laisant (1841-1920), were all militant libertarians.

##1913 - Helmut Kirschey (d. 2003), German construction worker, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. Originally a Social Democratic, he lost his father in World War I. His mother then joined the USPD, serving on the Elberfeld council for the KPD up to her death in 1924. All four of her sons became members of the Communist Youth Federation. In 1931, Kirschey joined the anarcho-syndicalist Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands (Free Workers’ Union of Germany; FAUD). He was arrested in March 1933 and imprisoned for several months, emigrating to Holland in November 1933. He went to Spain in August 1936, initially working in the German anarcho-syndicalists’ police service in Barcelona, which was put in charge of all German-speaking foreigners. Kirschey joined the International Company of the Durruti Column in February 1937. He took part in the May battles in Barcelona on the anarchist side. Kirschey was arrested along with other German anarcho-syndicalists in June 1937, and put into communist secret prisons in Barcelona and Valencia, and imprisoned in Segorbe from April 1938. After that he spent some time in France and Holland. In early 1939, Kirschey managed to enter Sweden, where he was not granted a residency permit and did not receive permission to work during the first years of his stay. Nevertheless, he continued to fight National Socialism in conjunction with the International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF), and survived the war.
In 2006 a one-hour documentary, 'A las Barricadas' about Helmut Kirschey's life by Volker Hoffmann, Dieter Nelles, Jörg Lange and Angelika Feld was released on DVD.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: In Catalonia the Minister of Interior orders the governors of Lerida and Tarragona to arrange for the guardia civil to monitor the installations of La Canadiense and to guard Barcelona's gas and water supplies.

[EEE] 1923 - Germaine Berton, a young anarchist walks into the office of right-wing newspaper Action Française and shoots right-wing extremist Marius Plateau. She was later acquitted for the act.

1932 - Revolta de l'Alt Llobregat*: Caught out by the news of the uprisings, the Republican government headed by Manuel Azaña eventually ordered the commander of the IV Región Militar (Fourth Military Region), General Batet, to send troops and artillery in to end the rebellion in the Alt Llobregat. He was to to proceed with all speed and with greater violence to repress the rebellion... as Azaña was not willing to have the Republic dictated to by "bandidos con carnet de socios de la CNT" (bandits with CNT membership cards). The troops managed to occupy many of the revolutionary towns without a fight or the need to fire a single shot. However, in Fígols many of the miners were willing to stand there. Armed with some rifles and pistols and a large quantity of dynamite, they had built barricades but it took a great deal of effort from Manuel Prieto, who had just returned disillusioned from his trip to Barcelona to talk to the CNT, having discovered that life in the big city and elsewhere remained as before and now realised that their spontaneous movement of a few thousand miners and textile workers had been doomed from its inception to an immediate and unavoidable failure, to persuade them to desist from what would be an act of pure folly. The bloody struggle would be worse than useless, counter-productive to the ideas that they advocated. Given the failure of the workers in Barcelona to launch a strike that week as an expression of solidarity with the miners, now was not the time for revolution and nothing could justified the sterile sacrifice of a handful of lives..
Some decided to escape into the mountains or to cross into France with the aim of continuing their fight but the majority decided to surrender. As a result of these events, hundreds of workers were arrested by the government and eventually deported to the colonies of Equatorial Guinea and the Canary Islands on board the merchant ship Buenos Aires.
[*also known as the Fets de Fígols de 1932 (Events in Fígols in 1932)]

1940 - Bernd Kramer (d. 2014), German anarchist publisher and co-founder of the Karin Kramer publishing house, born.

##1942 - Penelope Rosemont, US Surrealist painter, collagist, photographer and writer, publisher, student radical, Wobbly and anarchist, whose life partner was fellow Surrealist and anarchist Franck Rosemont, born.

1944 - Charles Erskine Scott Wood (b. 1852), American author, poet, painter, civil liberties advocate, soldier, attorney, Christian socialist and philosophical anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 20]

1945 - Else Lasker-Schüler (b. 1869), German-Jewish Expressionist poet and playwright, dies. [see: Feb. 11]

1960 - Christian Ferrer, Chilean-born Argentinia anarchist, sociologist and essayist, born.

1963 - Johannes Nohl (d. 1882), German writer, anarchist pupil of Otto Gross, lover of Erich Mühsam and later one of Hermann Hesse’s analysts, dies. [see: Aug. 8]

1975 - In Almada, Portugal the first issue of the monthly magazine 'Voz Anarquista', produced by the Centre de Culture Libertaire, appears.

## 2018 - Ursula Kroeber Le Guin (b. 1929), US libertarian science fiction and fantasy novelist, short story writer, poet and essayist, dies at her home in Portland, Oregon. [see: Oct. 21]
1844 - Paul Brousse (d. 1912), French medical doctor, anarchist and socialist, member of the Jura Federation (IWMA), born. [expand]

1844 - Celso Ceretti (d. 1909), Italian anarchist contemporary of Bakunin involved with the founding conference of the Italian Federation of the International Association of Workers, born.

##1880 - Antonio María Ildefonso Díaz Soto y Gama (d. 1967), Mexican jurist, author and revolutionary, who was inspired by the anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist world view and became one of the founders of the Partido Liberal Mexicano, born.

1890 - Malatesta's 'L'Associazione' ceases publication with the final London issue (No. 7).

1893 - The first issue of the French language magazine 'La Liberté' is published in Buenos Aires.

[A] 1909 - 'Tottenham Outrage': Two Latvian anarchists, Paul Helfeld and Jacob Lepidus, fire over 400 rounds at their many pursuers (the police had to borrow 4 pistols from passerbys and numerous onlookers joined in the pursuit) following an attempted robbery. One cop and a 10-year old boy, struck by a stray bullet, are killed. A wave of anti-Semitic, anti-immigrant and anti-Left violence and repression was to follow. [expand]

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: The IWW strike committee opens the first of a series on fifteen relief stations and (eleven) soup kitchens to feed strikers and their children.

1913 - Joe Hill's song 'Mr. Block' appears in the 'Industrial Worker'.

1919 - First Regional Conference of Peasants, Workers and Insurgents (anarchist Makhnovists), held in Bolché-Mikhailovska, Ukraine.

[C] 1921 - In response to fascist attacks in Italy, the Unione Anarchica Italiana launches a manifesto 'Against Reaction and Its Political Victims' which concludes with the call "Workers! Comrades! Defend the political victims and defend yourself to!". During January the trades councils in Modena, Bologna and Vicenza are damaged or destroyed as well as the office of the socialist newspaper 'La Difesa' in Florence.

## 1922 - Vernon Scannell (John Vernon Bain; d. 2007), British poet, author, one time professional boxer who wrote novels about the sport, WWII deserter, agricultural labourer, honorary Gypsy, member of the editorial collective of 'War Commentary' and anarchist, born.

[B] 1937 - Chiquet Mawet aka 'La Woow' (Michelle Beaujean; d. 2000), Belgian playwright, storyteller, poet, polemicist, social activist and professor of ethics, who was a regular contributor to the Belgian anarchist monthly 'Alternative Libertaire', born. An adherent of the Yugoslav model of self-managed socialism (Titoism) and activist in the Joventuts Comunistes de Verviers in the 1950s, Michelle Beaujean spent six years (1955-61) in Yugoslavia studying Serbo-Croat and 'slavisme'. There she met her first husband, an actor, theatre director and accordionist, and their university theatre group toured the country. In 1961 she returned to Wallonia and became a teacher, whilst working with several theatre groups. In the 1970s, a period when she acquired the nickname 'Le Woow', she helped kick-start the Belgian anti-nuclear movement, representing the Association pour la Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants (APRI / Association for the Protection against Ionizing Radiation) at the press conference on June 19, 1975 that announced the creation of the Front commun Anti-Nucléaire (FAAN / Common Anti-Nuclear Front). On March 12 the following year during the constitutive general assembly of the Belgian section of Friends of the Earth held in Namur, Beaujean was appointed to the board of directors of this new ecological association. An active member of the radical anti-nuclear movement, she coordinated the organisation of protesters travelling from Belgium for the large demonstration on July 31, 1977 against the Superphénix nuclear reactor at Creys-Malville in France, and during which a protester died during violent clashes with the police.
In 1989, she took part in the Verviers-based artists' collective 'Silence, les Dunes!' and, into the 1990s, moved close to the anarchist movement, working regularly with the monthly newspaper 'Alternative Libertaire' and adopting her pseudonym Chiquet Mawet. In 1997 Chiquet helped found the Liege-based anti-electoral organisation the 'Cercle Carlo Levi' and the 'Chômeur, Pas Chien!' (Unemployed, not a dog!) collective, set up to campaign against the discriminatory regulations and policies then being enacted against the Belgian unemployed. That year she also collaborated on the collective book 'Le Hasard et la Nécessité : Comment Je suis Devenu Libertaire' (Chance and Need: How I Became a Libertarian), éditions Alternative Libertaire Belgique, 1997.
Amongst her theatrical works are 'La véritable histoire de Juliette et Roméo' (The true story of Juliette and Roméo; 1988), 'Piratons Perrault! ou L'horrible fin du sapiens : sortie sur le parvis du XXI e siècle' (Piratons Perrault! Or The horrible end of the sapiens: exit on the forecourt of the 21st century; 1990); 'Caius et Umbrella' (1990), 'La Pomme des Hommes' (The Apple of Man; 1991), 'La Reine des Gorilles' (The Queen of the Gorillas; 1991), 'Le Pape et la Putain' (The Pope and the Whore ; 1994), 'Le Prince-Serpent' (1994), and 'Nuinottenakt' (1995). After a long illness during which she did not publicise her illness and had refused further treatment, Chiquet Mawet died during the night of July 4-5, 2000, aged 62.

1941 - The Spanish anarchist Agustín Remiro Manero is captured by the Secret Police in Portugal while acting as a courier for the British even though the Portugese PIDE secret police knew he was working for the Brits. Remiro is turned over to Francoist authorities who torture him and condemn him to death.

1945 - Georges Gourdin (b. 1915), French anarchist and WWII Resistance partisan, dies in the Nazi camps of Elbruck. [see: Apr. 11]

1946 - Rob Stolk (d. 2001), Dutch Provo stalwart, anarchist and street activist, born. A founder in May 1965, with Roel van Duyn and Robert Jasper Grootveld. Provo officially disbanded on May 13, 1967.

1947 - Pierre Bonnard (b. 1867), French Post-Impressionist painter and printmaker, and a founding member of Les Nabis, dies. [see: Oct. 3]

1948 - Jean-Jacques Gandini, French lawyer, doctor of political science, journalist and anarchist militant, member of the Ligue française pour la défense des droits de l'homme et du citoyen and former president of the Syndicat des avocats de France, born.

1962 - Rolf Engert (b. 1889), German poet, playwright, publisher and writer on Stirner and Ibsen, dies. [see: Oct. 31]

1972 - Miguel García Vivancos (b. 1895), Spanish Naïve painter, militant anarchist and member of the Los Solidarios group, dies. [see: Apr. 19]

1976 - Erminio Blotta (b. 1892), Argentine self-taught sculptor and anarchist of Italian origin, who since the age of 34 was blind in one eye following an accident, dies aged 83 in his adopted home city Rosario. [see: Nov. 8]

1986 - Joseph Beuys (b. 1921), German Fluxus, conceptualist and performance artist, sculptor, installation artist, graphic artist, art theorist, pedagogue of art, theosophist "anarchist and shaman", dies. [see: May 12]

1999 - Maria Suceso Portales (b. 1904), Spanish anarchist militant and member of the Mujeres Libres, dies. [see: Mar. 4]
1869 - In Madrid, Giuseppe Fanelli (sent by Bakunin) gathers the first Spanish group to join the First International and sows the seeds of anarchism among the peasants and workers, with lasting effect for over the next century.

1871 - Émile Roger (d. 1905), Ardennes anarchist, member of 'Les Desherities' (The Wretched) and 'Les Libertaires de Nouzon', born.

[B] 1890 - Jeanne Humbert (Henriette Jeanne Rigaudin; d. 1986), French writer, journalist, pacifist and anarchist militant, who belonged to the néo-Malthusien movement, fighting for sexual freedom and the right to contraception and abortion, born. Raised in Romans-sur-Isère and then, from 1901, in Tours, Jeanne Rigaudin was greatly influenced from the age of ten onwards by her mother's companion, the anarchist weaver Auguste Delalé. In Tours Jeanne got to know anarchist figures such as Laurent Tailhade and Jean Marestan. After Delalé was dismissed following his militant activities, the family went up to Paris where they were helped by Alfred Fromentin, 'l'anarchiste milionnaire', who owned the garage in Choisy run by Jules Dubois where Jules Bonnot and Octave Garnier were killed on April 28, 1912. In Paris Jeanne became the pupil of Eugène Vigo, aka Miguel Almereyda, the father of the libertarian filmmaker Jean Vigo, with Eugène teaching her shorthand. Following his birth in 1905, Jeanne became the secular godmother of Eugène's son Jean.
Among Eugène Vigo's circle was the Néo-Malthusien militant Eugène Humbert, whom Jeanne met in 1908 after she had become involved with the Ligue de la Régénération Humaine (League of Human Regeneration). Impressed by Humbert's views on free motherhood and women's emancipation, when in 1909 he asked her to join the secretariat running his Neo-Malthusian newspaper 'Génération Consciente', she accepted and they went on to collaborate closely, as well as becoming life partners, later marrying in 1924, and together they had a daughter in September 1915. Jeanne also collaborated on numerous other anarchist, pacifist and naturist publications including 'Le Libertaire', 'La Voie de la Paix', 'Liberté', 'Le Monde Libertaire', 'La Patrie Humaine', etc.
In the pre-war period, neo-Malthusian propaganda encountered severe repression, and Eugène had several periods in prison and when the war broke out in 1914, he took refuge in Barcelona. Jeanne joined him there. After their return to France in 1919, Eugène was arrested and sentenced to 5 years in prison. On November 5, 1921, under the new laws (passed in 1920) to repress anti-natalist propaganda, Jeanne and Eugène were both sentenced to two years in prison and a fine of 3,000 francs. Jeanne, who spent her prison term in Saint-Lazare prison, was on July 30, 1922. Eugène however was not released until February 1924.
They continued their activities promoting free motherhood but also in the naturist movement, of which Jeanne was inspired to write the 1928 novel 'En Pleine Vie' (In Full Life). With Eugène, she also participated in the creation of the French section of the World League for Sexual Reform (Ligue Mondiale pour la Réforme Sexuelle) andthey collaborated on Humbert's new publication 'La Grande Réforme' (May 1931- Aug. 1939), paper of the Ligue de la Régénération Humaine. From 1932 to the declaration of war she was a member of the Ligue internationale des Combattants de la paix (International League of Fighters for Peace), created by Victor Méric, writing articles and making numerous lectures for the movement.
During the same period she also collaborated on the Parisian review 'Controverse' (Jan. 1932 - Nov. 1934) and the Bordeaux bulletin Lucifer (1929-1931 and 1934-1935), edited by Aristide Lapeyre. She also authored numerous articles for Sébastien Faure's 'Encyclopedia Anarchiste' and toured widely in France lecturing on birth control and pacifism, famously being quoted on the theme of both saying: "Et d'abord les femmes ne doivent plus faire d'enfants tant que les patries auront le droit de les assassiner" (And first of all, women must not make children until their homelands have the right to assassinate them). This led to her being sentenced on July 18, 1934, to three months' imprisonment and a 100 francs fine but was pardoned following the protests of friends, fellow writers and intellectuals.
During the war she had taken refuge with her daughter Claude in Lisieux, where Eugène was arrested and imprisoned before dying under a bombardment at Amiens on June 25, 1944. In March 1946, Jeanne Humbert resumed the publication of 'La Grande Réforme', which she had to stop publishing for lack of resources three years later, after the thirty-second issue, having "vendu mes quelques bijoux que je tenais de ma mère, mes meubles, enfin tout" (Sold my few jewels that I held of my mother, my furniture, finally everything). In 1981, Bernard Baissat made the film, 'Ecoutez Jeanne Humbert', interviewing Jeanne on her life and times.
Jeanne Humbert's many works include 'Sous la cagoule. A Fresnes, prison modèle' (Under the cowl. In Fresnes, model prison; 1933), 'Contre la guerre qui vient', (Against the coming War; 1933), Éditions de la Ligue internationale des combattants de la paix, 'Jean Vigo, cinéaste avant-garde' (1957), 'Eugène Humbert : la vie et l'œuvre d'un néo-malthusien' (Eugène Humbert: the life and work of a neo-Malthusian; 1947), 'Sébastien Faure : l'homme, l'apôtre, une époque' (Sébastien Faure: the man, the apostle, an era; 1949), 'Les Problèmes du couple' (The Problems of the Couple; 1970), 'Deux grandes figures du mouvement pacifiste et néo-malthusien : Eugène Humbert et Sébastien Faure' (Two great figures of the pacifist and neo-Malthusian movement: Eugène Humbert and Sébastien Faure), as a special issue of 'La Voix de la Paix', 1970.
Jeanne Humbert died on August 1, 1986 in Paris.

[D] 1911 - Eleven anarchists are hung for their supposed part in the High Treason Incident (大逆事件; Taigyaku Jiken) or Kōtoku Incident (幸徳事件; Kōtoku Jiken) plot against the Japanese Emperor's life. [see: May 20]

1911 - Kōtoku Shūsui (幸徳 秋水), pen name of Kōtoku Denjirō (幸徳 傳次郎; Kōtoku Denjirō; b. 1871), Japanese journalist, writer, and one of the most outstanding figures of Japanese anarchism, who translated many works of contemporary European and Russian anarchists, such as Peter Kropotkin, into Japanese, is executed alongside his partner Kanno Sugako (管野須賀子) and 9 other anarchists for their supposed part in the High Treason Incident (大逆事件; Taigyaku Jiken) or Kōtoku Incident (幸徳事件; Kōtoku Jiken). [see: Nov. 5]

1911 - Kanno Sugako (管野須賀子; b. 1881), also called Suga, Japanese anarcho-feminist journalist, writer and activist, is executed alongside her partner Kōtoku Shūsui (幸徳 秋水) and 9 other anarchists for their supposed part in the High Treason Incident (大逆事件; Taigyaku Jiken) or Kōtoku Incident (幸徳事件; Kōtoku Jiken). [see: Jun. 7]

1911 - Uchiyama Gudō (内山 愚童; b. 1874), Japanese Sōtō Zen Buddhist priest and anarcho-communist activist, is one of twelve executed in the High Treason Incident (幸徳事件 / Kōtoku jiken), singled out for prosecution by reason that he had written the pamphlet 'Anarchist Communism* (無政府共産 / Museifu Kyōsan*; 1908), in which he denied the sacredness of the Emperor, and for the fact that he was one of the few Buddhist leaders who spoke out against the Meiji government in its imperialist projects. [see: May 17]

1911 - Nīmura Tadao (新村 忠雄; b. 1887), Japanese anarchist and socialist, who was the supposed mastermind behind the High Treason Incident, is one of the twelve alleged conspirators executed. [see: Jan. 26]

1911 - Furukawa Rikisaku (古河力作; b. 1884), Japanese horticulture and nursery worker, and anarchist during the Meiji era, is one of the twelve alleged conspirators executed in the High Treason Case (大逆事件 / Taigyaku Jiken). [see: Jun. 14]

1911 - Miyashita Takichi (宮下太吉; b. 1875), Japanese mechanical engineer, lumbermill employee, socialist and anarchist, who was one of the supposed masterminds behind the High Treason Incident (大逆事件 / Taigyaku Jiken), is one of the 12 alleged conspirators executed by hanging. [see: Sep. 30]

1911 - Ōishi Seinosuke (大石 誠之助; b. 1867), Japanese physician, libertarian socialist and Christian, is one of the twelve alleged conspirators executed in the High Treason Case (大逆事件 / Taigyaku Jiken). [see: Nov. 29]

1915 - In Pisa an extraordinary congress is called to display a common postion amongst Italian anarchists in opposition to World War I.

1920 - Palmer Raids: 3,000 arrested in a series of Red Scare raids across the US, most without cause or warrants, their homes and businesses invaded and destroyed.

##1925 - Muraki Genjirō (村木 源次郎; b. 1890), Japanese anarchist of the Meiji and Taisho Periods
1913 Osugi, Genjiro Muraki, Arahata, and others started a Syndicalism Study Group
1924 Muraki and Furuta made bombs to assassinate Fukuda, but were arrested.

1930* - Kim Jwa-Jin or Kim Chwa-chin [김좌진], pen name Baekya [백야](b. 1889), Korean anarchist guerrilla general, who is sometimes called the 'Korean Makhno' and played an important role in the attempt of development of anarchism in Korea, is assassinated by Park Sang-sil (박상실 / 朴尙實), aka Choi Yeong-su (崔永錫), a member of the Korea Communist Youth Association (고려공산청년회) while repairing a rice mill the Korean Anarchist Federation (재만한족총연합회) had built in Shinmin. The assassin was never found but the insigator of the plot, Kim Bong Hwan (김봉환) aka Kim Il Sung (김일성) was arrested and executed. [see: Dec. 16]
[* Two dates are commonly given for his death, Jan. 20 and 24 - the latter being the most commonly accepted.]

1937 - The first issue of the 'Boletin del Sindicato de la Industria Textil y de Badalona Fabril y su Radio' (Bulletin of the Union of Industry and Textile Factory of Badalona and Environs), a CNT-AIT monthly, is published.

1937 - A major conference entitled 'El Fascismo Internacional y la Guerra Antifascista Española', sponsored by Joan Garcia Oliver, the then Republic Justice Minister, the fourth in a series organised by the propaganda office of the CNT-FAI, is held in the Cinema Coliseum in Barcelona.

## 1938 - Viktor Fedorovich Belash, aka 'Bilash' [Билаш] (Виктор Фёдорович Белаш; b. 1893), Ukrainian locomotive engineer and anarchist-communist since 1908, is shot during the Stalinist mass purges of the 1930s. In Makhnovshchina since January 1919 - Chief of the Operations Department of the Staff, Chief of Staff, Deputy Chairman of the Council of the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine (Makhnovists) [Революционной Повстанческой Армии Украины (махновцев)]. September 23, 1921 seriously wounded and arrested. Before the general amnesty was in a Kharkov prison on death row. In 1923 he was released on bail of legal anarchists. He worked in Kharkov in the board of 'Yugostali' (Югостали) as an instructor in tariff issues. He was arrested by the NKVD on December 16, 1937. He was shot on January 24, 1938. He was rehabilitated posthumously on April 29, 1976.

[C] 1967 - Renato Castiglioni (b. 1897), Italian socialist, anarchist, trades unionist and anti-fascist, who fought in Spain but was deported back to Italy and internal exile in 1940, dies. [see Mar. 29]

1977 - Anne Archet, Canadian anarchist and feminist author, or as she puts it herself "Héroïne sans emploi, pétroleuse nymphomane, poétesse de mes fesses et anarcho-verbicruciste", born.

1978 - Robert Proix (b. 1895), French socialist, anarchist and pacifist, who was born in Jean-Baptiste André Godin's Familistère de Guise, a industrial workers community based on the principles of Fourier, dies. During WWII, he was interned in the Fort du Hâ in Bordeaux for helping Jews escape persecution. [see: Jan. 9]

1993 - Manuel Medina González (aka Manolo Medina i Ariel; b. 1903), Andalusian journalist, poet, writer, Mason, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, then a Falangist, dies. [see: Aug. 23]

[AA] 2002 - The FBI and Secret Service Los Angeles Joint-terror Task Force armed with sub-machine guns, shotguns and bullet-proof vests raids the home of 18-year old Sherman Austin, anarchist webmaster of Raisethefist.com and founder of RTF Direct Action Network.

2011 - Peter-Paul Zahl (b. 1944), German anarchist of the '68 generation, writer, poet and novelist, dies of cancer in Jamaica. [see: Mar. 14]
1844 - [O.S. Jan. 13] Yekaterína Bréshko-Breshkóvsky [Екатери́на Бре́шко-Брешко́вская], aka ' Babushka', 'grandmother of the Russian Revolution' (бабушка русской революции) (Yekaterína Konstantínovna Verigo [Екатери́на Константи́новна Вериго]; d. 1934), Russian activist in the revolutionary movement and teacher, who was one of the founders and leaders of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров) and its Fighting Organisation (Боева́я организа́ция), born. Best known for her memoirs 'The Little Grandmother of the Russian Revolution: reminiscences and letters of Catherine Breshkovsky' (ca. 1917). Initially a follower of anarchist Mikhail Bakunin, she was imprisoned in the katorga (ка́торга) system as a Narodnik revolutionary in 1874, and exiled to Siberia in 1878. After her release in 1896, she formed a Socialist-Revolutionary group and helped to organise the Socialist-Revolutionary Party in 1901. She escaped to Switzerland and the United States in 1900. After returning to Imperial Russia in 1905, she was captured and exiled to Siberia again. After the February Revolution of 1917, political prisoners were released, and Breshkovsky was offered a seat in Aleksandr Kerensky's government, which she turned down. When the Bolsheviks (who Breshkovsky was critical of) organised the October Revolution, she was again forced to flee. She died in Czechoslovakia.

1871 - Émile Roger (d. 1905), Ardennes anarchist, member of 'Les Desherities' (The Wretched) and 'Les Libertaires de Nouzon', born.

1882 - Francesco Cucca (d. 1947), Sardinian anarchist writer and poet, born. [expand]

1891 - Jules Chazanoff aka 'Chazoff' (d. 1946), French electrical worker, proofreader, anarchist, syndicalist, anti-fascist and anti-militarist, born. [expand]
In 1936, Louis Lecoin entrusted Lucien Haussard and him with the mission to find weapons and ammunition on behalf of the Committee of Supply for the anti-fascist militias and the CNT. In January and February 1939, he and Haussard were sent by Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste to the Pyrenean border to provide assistance to refugees fleeing Spanish fascism. The pair wrote a striking account ('Visions d'horreur et d'épouvante') of the living conditions in these camps for the newspaper 'SIA' in February 1939, and he later intervens to free Haussard who had been arrested in Perpignan for "fraudulent introduction of foreigners into France". During the occupation, he reorganised the syndicat des correcteurs in the 'union-free zone' of the Lyon area (zone libre). Denounced as a communist for his work with the syndicat des électriciens, he was arrested by the Germans and interned at the Tourelles barrackes from July 2 to October 16 1941. During his detention he fell ill and had his stomach removed - the German Major in charge of the sick at Tenon hospital told him to "go off and die on your own" when releasing him. He then worked in the restaurants sociaux in the rue Pierre Lescot in Halles. November 18, 1943, he was arrested again after being denounced as a Jew, and interned at Drancy camp (north of Paris) in January 1944. He was released by the Allies on August 18, 1944, but having contracted tuberculosis, he could not now work and he died September 19, 1946.

1894 - Ramon Murull, a 37 year old bricklayer, attempts to assasinate Ramon Larroca i Pascual, the civil governor of Barcelona, in revenge for the crackdown against anarchist circles and the resulting torture inflicted on those detained following the attack on the Gran Teatre del Liceu of 7 November 1893. His first shot grazes the governor's cheek and before Murull gets a chance to fire again he is arrested. Murull claims that "My attack was not against Mr. Larroca, but against the civil governor, head of the anti-anarchist campaign". He gets 17 years in prison for his efforts.

1899 - Vincenzo Perrone (d. 1936), Italian railway worker, sales representative and anarchist, born. He fought in the Italian army during WWI and was sent to Tripoli during military operations against the Libyan revolt. Discharged from the army in December 1920, he enrolled in the Salerno section Combattenti ed ex Arditi di Guerra. A functionary in the State Railways, he attend some strikes and was fired for his political activities. As a suspected member of the anti-fascist Italia Libera (Free Italy), he was arrested on 29 April, 1925 in a group of communist militants as they tried to hold a May Day demonstration. In July 1925, he and the militant anarchist Gerardo Landi left Salerno and settled in Milan, where he frequented libertarian circles, and became an anarchist. He returned to Salerno in August 1926 and was caught up in one of the numerous fascist police raids 2 months later and was sentenced to 15 days in prison for "carrying a knife". Upon his release, he was sentenced to five years confinement and sent to various prison colonies (Favignata, Ponça and Lipari). With comrades Emilio Lussu, Francesco Fausto Nitti and Carlo Rosselli, he participated in a project to escape from the island of Lipari. In August 1928, he was brought before a Special Court for "communist activities", but was eventually acquitted for lack of evidence. In February 29, 1932 he was released and, in November 1933, crossed clandestinely in France and then into Switzerland, where in Geneva he contacted Luigi Bertoni. In March 1934, he went to Tunisia where, with the help of fellow anarchist militants Luigi Damiani, Antonio Casubolo and Giulio Barresi, to obtained permission to reside there, working as a sales representative and making numerous trips to France. In July 1936, when he was in Paris when war broke out in Spain, and he was in the first group of Italian anarchists (including Camillo Berneri, Mario Girotti, Giuseppe Bifolchi, Vincenzo Perrone, Ernesto Bonomini, Enzo Fantozzi, etc.) who went to Catalonia to fight the fascist uprising. He enlisted in the Batalló Giacomo Matteotti in the Italian section of the Ascaso Column, led by Carlo Roselli and Mario Angeloni, and fought on the Aragon front. On August 28, 1936, he was one of the first Italians (along with Mario Angeloni, Fosco Falaschi and Vicenzo Perrone) to die in the fighting in the Battle of Monte Pelado.

[E] [1903 - Fumiko Kaneko (金子 文子; January 25, 1903* - July 23, 1926), Japanese anarchist and nihilist. She was convicted of plotting to assassinate members of the Japanese Imperial family.
[* official records state 1902, however, these were drawn up many lears later & her family give it as 1903]

1908 - André Mournier ('The Agronomist') flees to Switzerland after two anti-militarist articles by this anarchist and a member of the Colony of Aiglemont got him in hot water with the French government for "insulting the army".

##1911* - Carme Millà i Tersol (d. 1999), Catalant artist (line drawing), designer, publicist and anarcho-syndicalist poster artist, born. Following the fascist military coup in July 1936, she was one of the creators in August 1936 (along with Enric Money, Gustau Cochet, Frank Alpresa, Ricardo Fernández, Lluís Alsina, Enrique del Amo, Enric Saperas, Josep Ballús, Ramon Saladrigas Ballbé, Joaquim Cadena, Josep Company, Eduard Badia Vilató, Albert Sanmartí, etc.) of the Secció de Dibuixants, Pintors i Escultors (Designers, Painters and Sculptors Section) of the Sindicat Únic de Professions Liberals (Single Union of Liberal Professions) in the CNT in Barcelona, known as the 'Dibuixants CNT' (CNT Designers), and a member of the section's Secretariat. In July 1936, she wrote the statutes of the Comitè de l'Escola Nova Unificada (Committee of the New Unified School) and designed its poster 'Escola Nova: Poble Lliure'.
In October 1936, along with Ramon Saladrigas Ballbé, appointed on behalf of the CNT to the Standing Liaison Committee of the Sindicat de Dibuixants Professionals (Union of Professional Designers), affiliated to the Unión General de Trabajadores. In May 1937, following the bloody events that took place in Barcelona, ​​she signed along with other CNY and UGT militants, a manifesto demanding the end to all violence amongst the workers; on the same date, she was appointed professor of art by the Catalan Generalitat. In 1938 she married her fellow anarcho-syndicalist artist Ramon Saladrigas Balbé and in March that year was appointed vice president of the 'Dibuixants CNT' (with Ramon as president). In April 1938 he signed, along with her fellow cenetistas Ramon Saladrigas, Eugenio Vicente, Ramon Arqués, Felipe Prado, Emili Freixes, Josep Company, Gaietà Marí i Joan Abellí, a manifesto addressed to the people of Catalonia calling on then to resist the fascist onslaught. With the fascist victory, she and Ramon left for France and eventually left for the Americas, arriving on July 27, 1939 in the port of Veracruz, Mexico. In 1941, along with Pere Calders and Ramon Saladrigas Ballbé, she held an exhibition of her work in Veracruz. She also illustrated numerous books, including Jaime Félix Gil de Terradillos - 'Los Senderos Fantásticos' (1949) and Josep Maria Francés - '13½ Cuentos' (1954), and led the editorial group on the 'Diccionario enciclopedico U.T.E.H.A.' (Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Union Tipografica Editorial Hispano Americana), that was eventually published in 1967.
In 1959, she returned to Barcelona, where in May she held an exhibition of her Mexican water colours in the Selecciones Jaimes gallery. She returned to Mexico in 1960 but returned permanently to Barcelona the following year, working in advertising. Carmen Millà Tersol died on December 1, 1999 in Barcelona.
[* many sources cite 1907]

1923 - Kurt Gustav Wilckens, German anarchist pacifist emigrant, assassinates Colonel Varela aka the 'Killer of Patagonia' (so named for his role in the rounding up and summary execution of 1,500 workers, many of them anarchists) in Buenos Aires.

1937 - Georges Marie Adolphe Deherme (b. 1867), French sculptor in wood, libertarian typographer, initiator of the Universités populaires (People's Universities), and the director of 'La Coopération des Idées', a social education journal popularising his ideas, dies in Brussels. [see: Apr. 6]

1938 - The first issue of the clandestine Spanish anarchist newspaper 'El Incontrolado' (The Uncontrolled) is published.

[B] 1939 - Giorgio Gaber, stage name of Giorgio Gaberscik (d. 2003), Italian singer-songwriter, actor, theatre director, playwright and anarchist sympathiser, who was one of the first Italian rock and rollers, born. Affectionately known as Il signor G (Mr. G) by his admirers (as well as being called "anarchico", "filosofo ignorante" (philosopher of ignorance) and "vate dei cani sciolti" (bard of the mavericks)), he was an accomplished guitarist and, together with Sandro Luporini, he pioneered the musical genre known as teatro canzone (song theatre).

Vorrei essere libero, libero come un uomo.
Vorrei essere libero come un uomo.

Come un uomo appena nato che ha di fronte solamente la natura
e cammina dentro un bosco con la gioia di inseguire un'avventura,
sempre libero e vitale, fa l'amore come fosse un animale,
incosciente come un uomo compiaciuto della propria libertà.

La libertà non è star sopra un albero,
non è neanche il volo di un moscone,
la libertà non è uno spazio libero,
libertà è partecipazione.

Vorrei essere libero, libero come un uomo.
Come un uomo che ha bisogno di spaziare con la propria fantasia
e che trova questo spazio solamente nella sua democrazia,
che ha il diritto di votare e che passa la sua vita a delegare
e nel farsi comandare ha trovato la sua nuova libertà.

La libertà non è star sopra un albero,
non è neanche avere un'opinione,
la libertà non è uno spazio libero,
libertà è partecipazione.

La libertà non è star sopra un albero,
non è neanche il volo di un moscone,
la libertà non è uno spazio libero,
libertà è partecipazione.

Vorrei essere libero, libero come un uomo.
Come l'uomo più evoluto che si innalza con la propria intelligenza
e che sfida la natura con la forza incontrastata della scienza,
con addosso l'entusiasmo di spaziare senza limiti nel cosmo
e convinto che la forza del pensiero sia la sola libertà.

La libertà non è star sopra un albero,
non è neanche un gesto o un'invenzione,
la libertà non è uno spazio libero,
libertà è partecipazione.

La libertà non è star sopra un albero,
non è neanche il volo di un moscone,
la libertà non è uno spazio libero,
libertà è partecipazione.

(I would like to be free, free as a man.
I would like to be as free as a man.

As a man born just in front of him only the nature
and walking through a forest with the joy of chasing adventure,
always free and vital, makes love like an animal,
unconscious as a man pleased with his own freedom.

Freedom is not star on a tree,
it is not the flight of a fly,
freedom is not free space,
Freedom is participation.

I would like to be free, free as a man.
As a man who needs to explore with their imagination
and that this space is only in its democracy,
who has the right to vote and who spends his life to delegate
and in taking control has found its new freedom.

Freedom is not star on a tree,
not even have an opinion,
freedom is not free space,
Freedom is participation.

Freedom is not star on a tree,
it is not the flight of a fly,
freedom is not free space,
Freedom is participation.

I would like to be free, free as a man.
As man evolved more that rises with their own intelligence
that defies the nature of science with the power unchallenged,
with him the enthusiasm of space without limits in the cosmos
and convinced that the power of thought is the only freedom.

Freedom is not star on a tree,
not even a gesture or an invention,
freedom is not free space,
Freedom is participation.

Freedom is not star on a tree,
it is not the flight of a fly,
freedom is not free space,
Freedom is participation.)

'La Libertà' (1972)


## 1950 - John William 'Chummy' Fleming (b. 1863), British-born boot maker, pioneer Australian unionist, agitator for the unemployed, and prominent Melbourne anarchist, who was instrumental in starting May Day celebrations and marches in Melbourne and a founding member of the Melbourne Anarchist Club, dies aged 86 during the night of January 25-26. [expand]

1958 - First day (of 2) of the second SI conference in Paris.

1961 - Nadezhda Andreeva Udaltsova (Наде́жда Андре́евна Удальцо́ва; b. 1886), Russian Cubo-Futurist and Suprematist artist and painter associated with the anarchist movement during the 1917 Revolution, dies. [see: Nov. 29]

1962 - Lucy Fox Robins Lang (b. 1884), US anarchist and labour activist, dies. [see: Mar. 30]

1964 - Alternate date for the death of Gregorio Jover Cortés (b. 1891), Spanish militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist activist and fighter against Franco, according to the Ateneu Llibertari Estel Negre. [see: Mar. 25 & Oct. 25]

1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Home of the Lord Provost of Glasgow bombed. [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]
1817 - Jean-Baptiste Godin (d. 1888), Utopian socialist thinker, Fourieriste and founder of Familistère (Social Palace) utopian community in Guise, northern France, born.

1876 - Gérard de Lacaze-Duthiers (d.1958), French Individualist anarchist, friend of the arts, pacifist intellectual and originator of the slogan "Make your life a work of art", born. A prolific author of over 40 books and pamphlets dealing with the arts, literature and pacifism, he founded the magazine 'L'Action d'Art' in 1913 with André Colomer and Manual Devaldès.

1877 - Kees van Dongen (Cornelis Theodorus Maria van Dongen; d. 1968), Dutch painter, cartoonist on the anarchist magazine 'La Revue Blanche' and one of the founders of Fauvism, born. [expand]
Participated, alongside fellow Fauvists André Derain and Maurice de Vlaminck, in the November 1941 Weimar congress of European artists organised by the Nazi "official state sculptor" Arno Breker, and was considered a collaborationist post-WWII.

1877 - Mihail Ivanov Gerdzhikov*, aka Lyasov [Лясов], Michel, Todor Lukanov [Тодор Луканов](Михаил Иванов Герджиков; d. 1947), prominent Bulgarian anarchist and revolutionary in Macedonia and Edirne, a member of the Macedonian Secret Revolutionary Committee (Македонски Таен Революционен Комитет) aka the Geneva Group (Женевската група), Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна македоно-одринска революционна организация [bg] / Внатрешна македонско-одринска револуционерна организација [mk]), Revolutionary Organisation (United) (Вътрешна македонска революционна организация [bg] / Внатрешна македонска револуционерна организација (обединета) [mk]) and the Federation of Anarcho Communists in Bulgaria (Федерацията на анархокомунистите в България) + member Gemidzhi (Гемиджиите)
[* alt. spelling: Mikhael Guerdjikov]
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1887 - Mikhael Guerdjikov (d. 1947), Bulgarian anarchist influenced by Bakuninist ideas who started the first Bulgarian anarchist paper, 'Free Society', born. [expand]
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1888 - Miguel Giménez Igualada, aka Miguel Ramos Giménez, Juan de Iniesta (d. 1973), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist and individualist anarchist thinker and writer, born. [expand]
After a violent youth in Uruguay, he returned to Spain and took part in various anarchist publications. Following the victory of the Francoists, he escaped to France and was interned in its refugee camps, before going into exile in Mexico, where he put his talents as an orator to good use.

1897 - Erwin Blumenfeld (d. 1969), German-Jewish photographer, Dadaist collage artist, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, born.
"Dadaism was a good vehicle from which to launch darts at all those aspects of society for which he felt contempt… he was intensely disillusioned with capitalism, nationalism, communism…all the isms except Dadaism and anarchism." - Yorick Blumenfeld, on his father.

1901 - Marguerite Aspès (d. 1937), French anarchist militant and revolutionary syndicalist, born.

1905 - [N.S. Feb. 8] One of the quoted dates for the death of Kosta Nunkov [Коста Нунков], aka David Ognyanov [Нунков Огнянов](Konstantin Ivanov Nunkov [Константин Иванов Нунков]; b. 1877), Bulgarian revolutionary, anarchist, a member of the Macedonian Committee (Македонския комитет) and a Kumanov leader of the Inner Macedonian-Odrin Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешната македоно-одринска революционна организация). [see: Jun. 20]

1912 - Emilio Vilardaga Peralba (d. 1969), Catalan militant anarcho-syndicalist and member of the 'Tierra y Libertad' column, who was imprisoned under Franco, born. [expand]

1913 - Juana Quesada (d. 2003), Argentinian feminist activist and anarchist, born in Pilar, Buenos Aires. Raised in a working class family of libertarian ideals, her brother Fernando Quesada also stood out as an anarchist militant. Based in the 1930s in Bahia Blanca, Juana joined the Federación Femenina Antiguerra and, following the fascist uprising in Spain in 1936, joined Ayuda al Pueblo Republicano, an anti-fascist solidarity organisation suporting the Second Spanish Republic, where she forged links with other anarchist women of the period including Carmen Vazquez, Juana and Menchu ​​Garballo, and Mercedes Vazquez. In 1938 she settled in Buenos Aires, joining the Federación Anarco Comunista Argentina, which in 1955 changed its name to the Federación Libertaria Argentina, where she took charge of the cultural commission. In 1942 she teamed with the anarchist Jacobo Maguid, known by his pseudonyms Jacinto Cimazo or Jacinto Macizo, and with whom she had a daughter. She died in Buenos Aires in October 2003).

1919 - The first issue of the weekly Italian language libertarian periodical 'Alba Rossa' (Red Dawn) published in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

1921 - Ha Ki-Rak (하기락; d. 1997), Korean anarcho-pacifist academic, writer, and philosopher, who was a major figure of C20th Korean anarchism, born. [expand]

[B] 1924 - Armand Gatti, prolific French libertarian playwright, poet, journalist, screenwriter, film-maker and Maquis member, born. Captured by the Germans during WWII, he was tortured and sentenced to a concentration camp in Hamburg where he was forced to work in a diving bell at the bottom of the Baltic Sea. Gatti eventually escaped and made his way back into France on foot, and then to London where he joined a British Special Air Service special forces parachutist team. Post-war he became a journalist successively for 'Le Parisien Libere', 'Paris-Match', 'France Observateur', 'L'Express' and 'Libération', in order to pay for his travel and political adventures. He abandoned his journalism in 1959 to devote himself to the theatre. His works include the plays 'Chant Public Devant Deux Chaises Électriques' (Public Singing Before 2 Electric Chair; 1966) - on Sacco and Vanzetti; 'La Colonne Durruti' (The Durruti Column; 1972); 'La Passion du Général Franco par les Émigrés Eux-Mêmes' (The Passion of General Franco by the Émigrés Themselves; 1976). Husband of Hélène Châtelain, French actress (in Chris Marker's 'La Jetée'), writer, filmmaker and director of the film 'Nestor Makhno, un Paysan d’Ukraine' (1995).

1939 - Following the unsuccessful attempt by the remnants of the Republican army to defend the front at the Llobregat river, Barcelona falls to the fascists. Fascist sympathisers and staunch Catholics crawl out of the woodwork to greet their entry into the city as hundreds of thousands continue to flood across the border into France during what became known as La Retirada (The Retreat).

1939 - Chaim Leib Weinberg or Khayim Leyb Vaynberg [yi] [(חיים לייב וויינבערג; b. 1861), US Yiddish-speaking anarchist orator, who was known as 'der folksredner' (the people's tribune), dies.

1948 - Yoshimasa Kurokawa [黒川芳正], Japanese anarchist former member and founder of the Scorpion (さそり / Sasori) cell of the East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front (東アジア反日武装戦線 / Higashi Ajia Hannichi Busō Sensen) and director of the documentary film 'Mothers' (母たち), born.... - life imprisonment

## 1962 - Marius Mason, trans US anarchist, Wobbly, environmental and animal rights activist currently serving nearly 22 years in federal prison for acts of property damage carried out against a GMO research lab, born.

1968 - 40 members of the Nanterre University anarchist group march into the faculty hall with comical posters ridiculing the police. The dean of faculty calls in the police, who are chased off campus.

1971 - Noam Chomsky, famed linguist, critic and anarcho-syndicalist, delivers the Bertrand Russell Memorial Lecture in Cambridge.

1986 - Alfonso Failla (b. 1906), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist fighter, who took part in the armed resistance against the fascist squadristi in the 1925 Siracusa Uprising and who spent many years interned on the island of Ponza by the fascist regime, dies. [see: Jul. 30]

1989 - Llum Gil Domènech (b. 1901), Catalan anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies. Introduced the libertarian movement at a young age by her father, she was particularly active in the CNT from the 1930s in the Sindicat Tèxtil. In 1976 she joined the CNT's Sindicat de Jubilats (Pensioners Union) in the Verneda neighborhood of Barcelona.
#1842 - François Dumartheray (d. 1931), French anarchist communist and member of the First International, born. [expand]

#### [B] 1875 - Juana Belén Gutiérrez de Mendoza (María Juana Francisca Gutiérrez Chávez; d. 1942), Mexican anarcha-feminist activist, typographer, journalist and poet, born. The daughter of a mestizo father, Santiago Gutiérrez, and a mother, Porfiria Chávez, of Indian descent, hers was a poor rural family typical of the period, surviving on the meagre wages her father earned as a blacksmith, horse-tamer and farm labourer. The family's one claim to fame was one of Juana Belén's grandfathers, a poor working man, who had been executed by firing squad because of his beliefs and was held in high esteem by the family. Even so, she was able to overcame this adversity. Largely self-taught, it was through the reading of Peter Kropotkin, Mikhail Bakunin and Pierre Joseph Proudhon, whose works she would later translate into Spanish, that she began to identify within the anarcho-syndicalist current. In 1887, at the age twelve, she married an illiterate miner in Sierra Mojada, Chihuahua, called Cirilo Mendoza, who Juana taught to read and write. In 1897, she began to collaborate on the newspapers 'El Diario del Hogar' and 'El Hijo del Ahuizote', and began learning the craft of typography. That same year she was imprisoned in the Minas Nuevas prison for her defence in print of the labour rights of the miners at the La Esmeralda mine in Chihuahua state, contained in a report she had written criticising the poor working conditions in the mine. Following her release, in 1899 she founded the Club Liberal Benito Juárez, a group frequented by the Flores Macon brothers, Camilo Arriaga, Librado Rivera and others. The following year she published a book of her poetry and participated in the creation of the libertarian Partido Liberal Mexicano (Mexican Liberal Party) with her fellow Club Liberal Benito Juárez members.
By 1901, Juana had become a teacher and was living in the town of Guanajuato, and it was there that she and fellow schoolteacher Elisa Acuña y Rossetti founded the weekly newspaper, 'Vésper', with Gutiérrez having sold some of her goats in order to raise sufficient cash to buy a small printing press. She has also become an active member of the Movimiento Precursor, a small but committed group throughout Mexico which agitated against the increasingly oppressive regime of President Porfirio Díaz. In the pages of 'Vésper' Juana regularly attacked the clergy in Guanajuato, wrote against the domination of foreign influences in Mexico and continued her campaigning against Díaz and his contempt for the ordinary people of the country. 'Vésper' quickly gained a reputation outside of Guanajuato itself, with the PLM newspaper 'Regeneración' stating: "Now, when many men have lost heart and, out of cowardice, retired from the fight…. now that many men, without vigour, retreat… there appears a spirited and brave woman, ready to fight for our principles, when the weakness of many men has permitted them to be trampled and spit upon." As the main contributor to 'Vésper' and its printer, she was denounced and the paper seized, and to avoid another spell in prison, she moved to Ciudad de México (Mexico City).
In 1902, she resumed the publication of 'Vésper' in the capital, continuing her attacks on the government. The following year she joined the Club Liberal Ponciano Arriaga, signing (on February 27, 1903) as First Member (primer vocal)[i.e. first listed non-official] the Manifiesto del Club Liberal Ponciano Arriaga, which called for the release of political prisoners and universal suffrage, amongst others demands. During the meeting, undercover police staged a 'riot', a pantomime that provided the excuse necessary for the arrest of Juana Belén, Elisa Acuña y Rossetti, Camilo Arriaga, Ricardo and Enrique Flores Magón and Juan Sarabia, who were all were held in the dismal prison of Belén. Later she was banished to Laredo, Texas, where she met up with the brothers Flores Magón, Santiago de la Hoz, Juan Sarabia, Elisa Acuña y Rossetti and Sara Estela Ramírez. With Elisa Acuña and Sara Estela Ramírez, Gutiérrez recommenced the publication of 'Vésper' and, with Acuña, she edited the socialist newspaper 'Fiat Lux'.
In 1905, Juana returned to Mexico City, where she brought together groups of workers under the banner Socialismo Mexicano, and edited the group's new newspaper 'Anáhuac'. At the same time, she also wrote for the more mainstream 'Excélsior' newspaper. In 1907, she founded Las Hijas de Anáhuac, a group of some 300 libertarian women, which agitated for strikes for better working conditions for women. The group was also prominent in the activities of the anti-Díaz Partido Nacional Antirreeleccionista, with Porfirio Díaz ordering her deportation to the United States as a consequence of her involvement in the organisation. Upon her return to Mexico in 1909, Gutiérrez founded the Amigas del Pueblo, a women's political association that involved Dolores Arana, Manuela y Delfina Peláez, Manuela Gutiérrez, Dolores Jiménez y Muro, María Trejo, Rosa G. de Maciel, Laura Mendoza, Dolores Medina and Jacoba González amongst others. With the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution in 1911, she became an active participant. Still close to Camilo Arriaga, she was involved in the Complot de Tacubaya on March 27, 1911, an unsuccessful attempt sponsored by the Círculo Ponciano Arriaga to ferment the rebellion of troops stationed in the barracks of San Diego, in Tacubaya, which was supposed to precipitate the spontaneous insurrection of the whole population, something that did not happen, and ended up with her being imprisoned for three years in San Juan de Ulúa prison in the company of Dolores Jiménez y Muro, María Dolores Malvaes and Elisa Acuña.
Following the resignation of Porfirio Díaz in May 1911, Juana Belén was one of the first voices to demand that the government of Francisco I. Madero accede to the claims of the workers and give the vote to women. She also quickly perceived that Madero was cut from exactly the same politically venal cloth as Díaz and Gutiérrez became an enthusiastic supporter of Emiliano Zapata, the fiery champion of Mexico's oppressed peasants and Indians, becoming part of the group that elaborated Plan de Ayala, first proclaimed on November 25, 1911. In 1914 upon her release from prison, Zapata made her a colonel in the Victoria regiment, a military unit which she not only commanded but set up from scratch. During this time, she also served as editor of the indigenist newspaper 'La Reforma' in Chilpancingo, Guerrero, which advocated the liberation of the Indian masses, whilst continuing the tough organisational and political work of the revolution. Marked out by Venustiano Carranza, Primer Jefe of the Constitutionalist Army, as a 'convicted Zapatista' for her outspoken writings, she was imprisoned in 1916 for ten months, after having been captured by government forces.
Even with the assassination of Zapata in April 1919, Juana Gutiérrez refused to give up on the idea that one day Mexico's peasants would possess the land they laboured on, and Mexico's women would be liberated from their ancient burdens and discriminations. In June 1919, she began yet another publishing project, 'El Desmonte', in which she continued to lay out her critique of Mexican society and put forward her own views on workers' and women's rights and politics in general during its short lifespan. In October 1919, she founded the Consejo Nacional de Mujeres Mexicanas (National Council of Mexican Women) with Elena Torres, Evelyn T. Roy, Thoberg de Haberman, María del Refugio García and Estela Carrasco, taking the presidency in this organisation. She also took part in the Frente Único Pro-Derechos de la Mujer (United Front for the Rights of Women), becoming one of its major figures.
In the 1920s and 30s, she continued her precarious living as a journalist, whilst founding an experimental agricultural colony in the State of Morelos in 1921 and, in 1922, founded another indigenist newspaper, '¡Alto!', in which she railed against the current state of land reform in the country whilst campaigning for an effective system of rural education. During the early 1920s, Juana Gutiérrez was appointed missionary teacher for the indigenous ethnic groups in the states of Jalisco and Zacatecas and also became director of the Hospital Civil de Zacatecas. In 1924 she published '¡Por la tierra y por la raza!' (For Land and for Race!), which sold out almost immediately. However, the book was not reprinted until 1967, when her daughter Laura Mendoza Gutiérrez and granddaughter Susana Mendoza brought out a second edition. Between 1926 and 1930 she was also the inspector of federal schools in Querétaro and in Zacatecas.
In 1930, and now 73 years of age, she returned to publishing with the newspaper 'Alma Mexicana: Por la Tierra y Por la Raza', in which she took to task both those feminists she believed to be "un-Mexican", due to their inability to understand the needs of ordinary women, as well as those involved in what she saw as engaging in pointless ideological dogmatism and infighting within the women's movement. In 1932,' Vésper' entered its fourth and final season.
Juana Gutiérrez lived in extreme poverty in her later years, and she was forced to burn many of her papers in order to heat beans that she sold on the street. However, she did not allow this her destitution to defeat her, and continued to speak out for the cause of social and economic justice for women. Thus in 1940, she founded the group La Republica Femenina (named after a 1936 book of hers), which argued that the social imbalance came from the triumph of patriarchy over matriarchy, and continued to collaborate in various newspapers up til her death, on July 13, 1942 in Mexico City.

[E] 1882 - Poss. date [see also: Jul. 27] for the birth of Hélène Brion (d. 1962), French teacher, feminist, syndicalist and pacifist. The first French woman to be tried before a military tribunal (for publishing defeatist propaganda), she is given a 3 year suspended sentence. Author of 'La Voie Féministe' (1978) who never finished her monumental 'Encyclopédie Féministe', covering biographical information on all the foremost women of her time.

1892 - First edition of fortnightly anarchist-communist paper 'Libertaire Organe Algérien' - epigraph: "Anarchy is the only solution of the social problem" - is published in Algiers.

1895 - The first issue of the weekly anarchist communist newspaper 'The Firebrand', subtitled: "For the Burning Away of the Cobwebs of Superstition and Ignorance", appears in Portland, Oregon.

1895 - Guelfo Guelfi, aka 'Zaffa', 'Figlio di Tacchi' (d. 1973), Italian alabastraio (alabaster craftsman), sculptor and anarchist individualist, who was one of the key organisers of the Settimana Rossa in June 1914, born. [expand]

1903 - Police arrest Emma Goldman and Max Baginski in New York City for being "suspicious persons". They are released after questioning.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: Every mill in town is now closed and the number of strikers has swelled to 25,000, including virtually all of the less-skilled workers. The owners, contemptuous of the ability of uneducated, immigrant workers ability to organise themselves and survive the lack of wages, do not bother to recruit scabs, certain they will prevail quickly. By the time they realised they had a fight on their hands, the strikers were so well-organised that importing scabs was a far more difficult proposition.
www.wsc.mass.edu/mhj/pdfs/Bread, roses, and other possibilities.pdf

[F] 1913* - Paterson Silk Strike: One of the oldest industrial cities in the United States, Paterson, New Jersey, was known as the "Silk City of America" with more than one-third of its 73,000 workers holding jobs in the silk industry. It also had a long history of conflicts between mill owners and textile workers, but the silk strike of 1913 was the biggest, longest, and most dramatic strike in Paterson’s history, during which approximately 1,850 strikers were arrested, including Industrial Workers of the World leaders William Dudley Haywood and Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, and five people, both strikers and non-strikers, killed.
The strike began when 800 silk workers, almost the entire work force at the Doherty Silk Mill, walked off the job following the sacking of four members of a workers committee. The mill's owner Henry Doherty had increased the number of looms each weaver had tended from two to four and, although Doherty had promised that wages would increase under the new system, their wages had not been increased and the weavers also anticipated that the four-loom system would eventually increase unemployment and job competition and decrease wages. They had therefore attempted to organise a meeting with the company's management to discuss the four-loom system on January 27, 1913, but following the dismissals, the workers had spontaneously struck.
The workers however were largely unorganised. Being mostly foreign-born, non-English-speaking, unskilled workers, the AFL's United Textile Workers did not want their dues but the smaller National Industrial Union of Textile Workers' Local 152 of the IWW, which had gradually grown in size through the efforts of local organisers, Ewald Koettgen and Adolph Lessig, were asked for their help. The local agreed and, with Doherty refusing to bargain with the strikers, Local 152 request help from IWW headquarters in Chicago. On February 25, 1913, [the date regularly and erroneously given as the beginning of the strike] IWW national [sic] organisers Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Carlos Tresca and Pat Quinland arrived to speak at a mass meeting, where all three were arrested that night at the meeting. A prominent feminist, Gurley Flynn would go on to be the most important of the IWW organisers in Paterson, along with Big Bill Haywood who arrived later that week. She was on the site of the pickets every day, delivered numerous speeches, and organised Tuesday night meetings for the female silk workers, who compromised half the strikers, and for the wives and daughters of male strikers. Flynn’s efforts helped cultivate female organisers, Italian and Jewish women like Carrie Golzio and Hannah Silverman joined the traditional local leadership of male weavers (Adolf Lessig, Louis Magnet and Evald Koettgen). Silverman, a seventeen-year-old mill worker who became an effective public speaker and also led the Paterson Strike Pageant parade up Fifth Avenue on June 8 to Madison Square Garden, where the strikers themselves reenacted scenes form the strike in a play organised by Greenwich Village artists in an effort to raise funds for the strikers.
The strike also itself proved to be extraordinary in that it was a general strike that unifyied the skilled and unskilled, the English-speaking with the Italians and Jews, and all the distinct crafts. Every morning workers gathered at Turn and Helvetia Halls to meet with the Central Strike Committee and plan the day’s picketing, to get food to strikers, and to respond to whatever events may happen that day.
In the end, the strike only proved to be a partial victory for the workers. Although the dyer’s helpers did not gain the 8-hour day, the weavers did protect the two-loom system and preserve the right of free speech, both on the streets and in the factory. In 1919, Paterson silk workers won the 8-hour day, but by that time Paterson’s silk industry was already in decline.
[NB: Some sources give the date as euither Jan. 23 or 24.]

1922 - Mariano Aguayo Morán (d. 1994), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist photographer and anti-Francoist anarchist guerrilla, who was a member of the Los Maños action group, born.

## 1922 - Francisco Martínez Márquez, aka 'Paco' (d. 1994), Catalan anarcho-syndicalist photographer and anti-Francoist anarchist guérilla, who was a member of the Los Maños action group, born. [expand]

1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Angry Brigade's Communique 5 received by the Press Association.

1987 - Clara Thalmann-Ensner (b. 1910), Swiss revolutionary and anarchist, who fought in the Spanish Revolution with the Columna Durruti and founded the Serena Commune in Nice in 1953 with her partner Pavel (Paul) Thalmann, dies. [see: Sep. 24]
I am going to make the revolution in the the sky” - Clara Thalmann, 1953.

2012 - Adela García Murillo (b. 1919), Spanish anarchist, who joined the CNT when the Columna Maroto, headed by Francisco Maroto del Ojo, arrive in Güéjar Sierra, dies. During the war, along with her son-in-law José Barcojo and other militants, she participated in the reorganisation of the clandestine CNT in Granada and was involved in the post-1939 maquis support networks. Arrested following a tip-off, pent 10 years in a women's prison and, upon her release, she devoted herself to the reorganisation of the confederation in the city of Granada. After the death of the dictator Francisco Franco, she actively participated in the reappearance of the CNT in Granada.
[D] 1817 - As George, the Prince Regent (and future king George IV), is being driven to Westminster for the State opening of the British Parliament his carriage is attacked mob and the glass of his coach window is broken by either a stone or a bullet (it was never identified precisely). The debate in the House of Commons was interrupted as news of the attack was taken there from the House of Lords, and Parliament adjourned after having sent a message of loyalty to the Prince.
The 56 years old Prince Regent was a much hated figure of the British royal family; corpulent and self-indulgent at a time when thousands of ordinary people were on the verge of starvation, his profligate lifestyle - an illegal marriage to the Roman Catholic widow, Maria Fitzherbert, a disastrous official marriage to Princess Caroline of Brunswick and his low level of morality - made him a laughing stock throughout the country.
And this at a time when the fear of revolution was ever-present in the minds of the ruling class:
the Napoleonic Wars (1803-15) had just ended;
Luddites were roaming the country smashing the machinery of the new industrialism; and,
there had been a massive rise in Revolutionary Societies and radical Reformist Clubs, such as the Hampden Clubs, focuses for the widespread republican sentiments abroad in the country at the time, which had been sparked by the French Revolution two decades previously.
That the attack on George had followed hot on the heels of the Spa Fields Riots the previous month (December 2, 1816), no wonder Parliament believed that a revolution, organised by the numerous Hampden Clubs, was imminent.
Their immediate response was to pass the so-called 'Gag Acts':
on March 4, 1817, Habeas Corpus was suspended (the suspension was not lifted until January 1818);
the Seditious Meetings Act was passed and continued in force until July 24, 1818 - it was designed to ensure that all reforming "Societies and Clubs ... should be utterly suppressed and prohibited as unlawful combinations and confederacies" and no meeting of more than fifty persons could be held without the prior consent of the magistrates; and,
on March 27, the prime minister, Henry Addington, Viscount Sidmouth, ordered the Lords Lieutenant to apprehend all printers, writers and demagogues responsible for seditious and blasphemous material.
The government had little success with the latter, as juries refused to risk the freedom of the press, and the government managed to have only one printer convicted.

1881 - [N.S. Feb. 9] Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky (Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский; b. 1821), Russian novelist, short story writer and essayist, dies. [see: Nov. 11]

1883 - Edward Carouy (d. 1913), French anarchist illegalist and individualist, member of the Bonnot Gang, born. [expand]

1922 - Wenceslao Jiménez Orivee aka 'Wences' & 'Jimeno' (d. 1950), Asturian industrial designer, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who led the 'Los Maños' guérilla group (maño being a slang term for natives of Aragon) in the resistance to Franco following the fascist victory in the Civil War, born. His father, a railroad worker, ticket collector and militant in the CNT, was arrested on the Zaragoza-Canfranc train and shot in Jaca the summer of 1936 by Francoists. Initially a member of a socialist youth group, Wenceslao had been arrested several times for distributing anti-Francoist literature before his 1946 meeting with libertarian activist Ignacio Zubizarreta Aspas. He subsequently joined the Federació Ibèrica de Joventuts Llibertàries (FIJL) and in August 1946 he was arrested in Zaragoza and brutally tortured. Released three months later, he took part in attempted attack against Franco in the Pierto Muela near Calatayud, which failed, and he joined a rural guérilla group. In July 1947 he was the Aragon delegate to the National plenary of Regional FIJL groups held in Madrid. Then, disappointed by the ineffectiveness of the guérillas went to France, where he worked for a time as a fitter in Lyon and Paris.
In Paris he was contacted by José Lluis 'Face' Facerias, joining his guérilla group and with whom he went to Spain on November 26, 1948. Following differences with Facerias, he formed his own group called Los Maños that would be active in Barcelona, Madrid and other regions. In Barcelona he participated in the expropriation of the Bank of Vizcaya and the attack against the informer Antonio Seba Amorós. On 9 March 1949, with the brothers José and Francisco 'El Quico' Sabaté Llopart, Simón Gracia Fleringan, Carlos Vidal Pasanau, Jose Lopez Penedo and Jose Lluis Facerias, he participated in the ambushing in Barcelona of what they believed to be the car of Eduardo Quintela Boveda, head of the Francoist secret police (Brigada Politico Social; BPS), who was not on board that day. Instead, they killed Manuel Piñol, the secretary of the Falangist Youth Front, and his driver. Subsequently the group carried out a string of armed robberies in Madrid, Malaga, Seville and France in order to fund an attempt on the life of Franco as he drove to his residence at the royal palace on Mount Pardo. A few months later they made a second, equally unsuccessful, attempt to blow up Franco’s convoy as it made its way up the steep winding road at La Cuesta de la Muela between Zaragoza and Madrid. The group then returned to Paris.
Meanwhile, in Spain, a huge number of other activists were being shot down in the streets of Barcelona, among who were close friends of Wences. Along with fellow Los Maños members Daniel G.M. aka 'Rodolfo', Salvador Luis Benito aka 'Salgado', Plácido Ortiz Gratal and Simón Gracia Fleringan, Wences left for Barcelona on December 22,1949, with the intention of investigating what had happened. However, traitors had penetrated his group as well. On January 2, 1950, the group was betrayed by a disaffected member, Aniceto Pardillo Manzanero aka 'el Chaval' (The Kid), and most were arrested on January 9, 1950. The same day Wenceslao was ambushed and shot without warning by police in a Barcelona street; wounded, and not wanting to fall into the hands of the forces of repression of the dictatorship, he committed suicide by taking a cyanide capsule that was mounted in the top of a pen that he carried.
Simón Gracia Fleringan was executed in Barcelona by firing squad on December 24 1950, together with Victoriano Muñoz Tresserras and Plácido Ortiz Gratal. Their bodies were thrown into a common, unmarked, grave. Los Maños group member Mariano Aguayo Morán was fortunate to have been in Paris when the group was betrayed in Barcelona and his testimony forms a major part of the 2013 book by Freddy Gómez, 'Los Maños: Anatomy of an Action Group'.

1938 - Émile Armand Bidault (b. 1869), French anarchist militant, organiser, anti-militarist and pacifist, dies. [see: May 29]

1944 - Gérard Duvergé (b. 1896), French teacher, anarchist and anti-fascist resister, is arrested in France. He will die tomorrow under Gestapo interrogation. [see: Jun. 15]

## 1968 - Marie Ganz (b. ca. 1891), Austrian-American anarchist labour organiser, social worker, and writer, who was arrested for threatening to shoot John D. Rockefeller Jr. in the wake of the Ludlow Massacre as well as during the 1917 NY Food Riots, dies at Saint Vincent's Hospital in Manhattan, New York City.

1970 - Bomb attack on offices of the Spanish Cultural attache in Paris. [First of May Group]

[B] 1995 - George Woodcock (b. 1912), Canadian anarchist thinker and historian, political biographer, essayist, poet and literary critic, author of 'Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements' (1962), dies. [see: May 8]

2016 - Paul Lorin Kantner (b. 1941), US co-founder and rhythm guitarist of Jefferson Airplane, member of Jefferson Starship, and anarchist, dies after suffering ill heath in the wake of a heart attack the previous year. [see: Mar. 17]
1864 - Amédée Pauwels aka Étienne Rabardy (Désiré Joseph Pauwels; d. 1894), Belgian anarchist individualist, bomber and friend of Paul Reclus, born. He accidentally blew himself up when his bomb exploded prematurely during an attack on the Église de la Madeleine in the Place de la Madeleine, Paris, on March 15, 1894.

1888 - Jean-Baptiste Godin (b. 1817), Utopian socialist thinker, Fourieriste and the founder of Familistère (Social Palace) utopian community in Guise, northern France, dies. [see: Jan. 26]

[B] 1905 - Barnett Newman (d. 1970), US abstract expressionist, colour field painter and life-long anarchist, born. Wrote 'The True Revolution is Anarchist' (1968) as a foreword to Kropotkin's ' Memoirs of a Revolutionist'. Little more than a week before the 1933 election, Newman and his friend Alexander Borodulin offer themselves as write-in candidates for New York City mayor and comptroller, respectively. They circulate thousands of copies of their manifesto, 'On the Need for Political Action by Men of Culture', which promotes a three-prong program of "more extensive education, a greater emphasis upon the arts and crafts, and the fostering of cultural living conditions."
"Anarchism ... the only criticism of society which is not a technique fro the seizure and transfer of power by one group against another... What is particualr about anarchism is not its criticism of society but the creative way of life it offers that makes all progrommatic doctrine impossible." - 'The True Revolution is Anarchist!' (1968), Newman's foreword to 'Memoirs of a Revolutionist' by Peter Kropotkin.

##1910 - Maurice Joyeux (d, 1991), mechanic, writer, bookshop owner, anarcho-syndicalist and prominent figure in French anarchism, born. Constantly in and out of prison for his militant activities, including a five year sentence for refusing conscription in 1940. The following year he organised a mutiny in Montluc prison, near Lyon, and escaped only to be recaptured. He opened a bookshop in Paris, 'Le Château des Brouillards' (The Castle of Mists) and in 1953 he founded the newspaper 'Le Monde Libertaire'.

[DD] 1911 - Rebelión de Baja California / Revolución Mexicana: Mexicali in Baja California, a border town with several thousand inhabitants, is taken in a pre-dawn raid by a group of about thirty, mostly Mexican Magónista revolutionaries led by Jose Maria Leyva. The sole casualty is the town's jailer.
The American journalist John Kenneth Turner, who supported and supervised the movement from the American side of the border, began a solidarity campaign, known as "Hands Off Mexico!", with the Mexican revolutionaries Simón Berthold Chacón and José María Levya to denounce the movement of United States troops toward the border.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike / Death of Anna LoPizzo: At one of the largest demonstrations of the Bread & Roses strike, I.W.W. Executive Board member Joseph Ettor addresses a mass meeting on the Lawrence Common, urging the strikers to be peaceful and orderly, and leads them on a march through the business district. At one of the mills, a company of militiamen refuses to let them pass. Ettor avertes a conflict by waving the paraders up a side street. They follow, cheering him for his good sense.
During the evening, independent of the earlier demonstration, Anna LoPizzo, a woman striker, is shot and killed by a police officer (Oscar Benoit) as police try to break up a picket line. Despite being three miles away at the time talking to a meeting of German workers, Ettor and Arturo Giovannitti are arrested as "accessories to the murder" and charged with inciting and provoking the violence. They were refused bail and imprisoned for eight months without trial. In April, Joseph Caruso, an Italian striker, was arrested and jailed in an attempt by Lawrence police to find the man who had fire the fatal shot.
Martial law is enforced following the arrest of the two I.W.W. strike leaders. City officials declare all parades, open air meetings, and gatherings of three or more illegal, and Governor Foss (also a mill owner) calls out an additional twelve companies of infantry and two troops of cavalry to patrol the streets. A militiaman's bayonet killed a fifteen-year old Syrian boy in another clash between strikers and police.
The arrest of Ettor and Ciovannitti was aimed at disrupting the strike. However, the I.W.W. sent Bill Haywood to Lawrence, and with him came I.W.W. organisers William Trautmann, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, and, later, Carlo Tresca, an Italian anarchist. More than 15,000 strikers met Haywood at the railroad station and carried him down Essex Street to the Lawrence Common, where he addressed a group of 25,000 strikers. Group by group, they sang the "Internationale" for him in their various tongues. Looking down from the speaker's stand and seeing the young strikers in the crowd, Haywood roared in his foghorn voice: "Those kids should be in school instead of slaving in the mills."
libcom.org/files/1912 The Lawrence textile strike.pdf

## 1915 - Halfdan Rasmussen (d. 2002), Danish poet of social protest, writer of nonsense verse, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-nuclear weapons campaigner and member of Amnesty International, born.

1925 - Emma Goldman lectures on 'The Bolshevik Myth & the Condition of the Political Prisoners' at South Place Institute, London, her first public meeting in England at which she denounces the Bolsheviks, prompting vocal protests from some members of the audience.

1925 - In Paris the first edition of the Italian language 'Tiempos Nuevos: Semanario de Educacion y de Lucha' (Weely on Education and Struggle) is published.

1927 - Edward Paul Abbey (d. 1989), American novelist, essayist, polemicist and desert anarchist, born.
"Freedom begins between the ears."
"Anarchism is not a romantic fable but the hardheaded realisation, based on five thousand years of experience, that we cannot entrust the management of our lives to kings, priests, politicians, generals, and county commissioners."
"Anarchism is founded on the observation that since few men are wise enough to rule themselves, even fewer are wise enough to rule others."

1938 - The first issue of 'Vida' (Life), the CNT journal of anarcho-syndicalist peasants is published in Valencia.

[E] 1939 - Germaine Greer, the 'Untamed Shrew', a ratbag ("being tuppence in the quid") and intellectual, 'second-wave' feminist writer, and one-time anarchist communist as a member of the Libertarian Push in Sydney, is born in Melbourne, Australia. [expand]
self-described anarchist communist

1944 - Gérard Duvergé (b. 1896), aka Fred Durtain, aka Chevalier, French teacher, anarchist and anti-fascist resister, dies following his arrest and torture by the Gestapo. [see: Jun. 15]

[A] 2002 - Chumbawamba sell the song 'Pass it Along' to General Motors for $70,000 and give the money to an activist campaign against the company.
1826 - Gustave Adolphe Lefrançais (d. 1901), French revolutionary, member of the First International, of the Paris Commune, and a founder of the anarchist Jura Federation, born.

## 1871 - [O.S. Jan. 18] Paraskiev Ivanov Stoyanov (also transcribed as Paraskeva Stojanov or Parachkef Stoyanov)(Параскев Иванчов Стоянов; d. 1941), Romanian surgeon, historian, and significant figure of Romanian and Bulgarian anarchism, born. [expand]

1894 - Italian anarchist propagandist Francesco Saverio Merlino is arrested in Naples and imprisoned until May 1896.

1899 - Cesar Fauxbras, pen name of Kleber Gaston Gabriel Alcide Sterckeman (d. 1968), French pacifist and anti-militarist journalist, proletarian writer, anti-fascist and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

[E] 1899 - Dolores Morata Díaz (d. 1974), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. She was also known as Dolores Aguilar due to her 'unió lliure' (free union) with her fellow anarchist militant Miguel Aguilar Doñate, which began in 1922, and with whom she had four sons and a daughter. That same year, under pressure from the Primo de Rivera regime, the couple went into exile in France and settled in Lavelanet. In 1931, with the proclamation of the Second Republic, they returned to the Peninsula. Listed as a "dangerous anarchist", they suffered constant persecution and regular periods of imprisonment, and in February 1932 they were deported to the African prison colony of Bata in Spanish Guinea. In 1939 with the Fascist victory, they went in exile to France. With the declaration of war her companion was expelled and emigrated to Mexico. Dolores remained in France with their children. A member of the CNT in exile, Dolores Morata Diaz died on December 18, 1974 in Toulouse.

1907 - Takami Jun (高見 順; d. 1965), pen-name of Takami Yoshio, Japanese novelist, poet, Marxist and anarchist, born.


Water wants to disappear under the ground
Even the water that welled up from my heart,
as soon as it falls on the ground with the rest,
it already wishes it were disappearing
The pure thoughts of my dirty mind
are also quick to hide from the public eye

'消えたがる' (Wanting to Disappear)


1908 - The first issue of 'Cultura', a monthly review of teaching, science, arts and literature, appears in Catalonia. Bilingual in Catalonian and Spanish, the publication of the Ecole Intégrale in Sabadell ceases after just 6 issues due to financial difficulties.

[F] 1910 - Founding congress in Lund of the anarcho-syndicalist Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation (Central Organisation of the Workers of Sweden).

##1910 - Moses Harman (b. 1830), US schoolteacher, publisher, advocate of women's rights, free love and eugenics, individualist anarchist, who was prosecuted under the Comstock Law for content published in his anarchist periodical 'Lucifer the Lightbearer', dies aged 79 in Los Angeles. [see: Oct. 12]

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: A fifteen-year old Syrian striker, John Ramay [also variously given as Ramey, Rami and Ramy], is bayoneted in the back by a militiaman and later dies. With the death being blamed on the strikers themselves, Joseph Ettor from his jail cell comments: "Bayonets cannot weave cloth."

1912 - Horst Matthai Quelle (d. 1999), Spanish-speaking German post-Stirnerite philosopher, born.

1914 - Wordsworth Donisthorpe (b. 1847), English individualist anarchist, inventor, pioneer of cinematography and chess enthusiast, dies in Hindhead, Surrey. [see: Mar. 24]

1916 - Giuseppe Scarlatti (b. 1854), Italian Bakuninist anarchist author of the 1909 book on the anarchist Cafiero, 'L'internationale des Travailleurs et l'agitateur Carlo Cafiero', dies. [see: May 6]

[BB] 1925 - Jack Spicer (d. 1965), San Francisco Renaissance poet and gay anarchist son of a Wobbly, born. Spicer formed the Committee for Anarchist Unity as well as an 'Unpopular Front' whilst an undergraduate at Berkeley. After graduating, he found work as a teaching assistant there, but lost his postgraduate post after refusing to sign the Loyalty Oath, a provision of the Sloan-Levering Act that required all California state employees (including graduate teaching assistants at Berkeley) to swear loyalty to the United States. Just as problematic in terms of a career was his open and avowed homosexuality.
His anarchist convictions also led him to refuse copyright on his poetry since he believed that he was in no sense its owner, hardly even its creator. He later forged an alliance with fellow gay poets Robert Duncan (whom he met at an anarchist meeting) and Robin Blaser, and together they referred to their common work as the Berkeley Renaissance.
An alcoholic, he collapsed into a pre-hepatic coma in the elevator of the building he lived in and died several weeks later in the poverty ward of San Francisco General Hospital.

Your life does not count. It is the rules of
the tribe. No
Your life does not count.
counting it all does not count. It is the rules
of the tribe that your life doesn’t count.
Numbering it doesn’t count. Madness doesn’t
Being mad at the numbers doesn’t count.
It is a rule of the tribe (dead as they are)
told over the dead campfires
That it doesn’t count.
That your life doesn’t count.
Countess Death give me Some life in this
little plain we live in from start to finish
Let me slit their throats and smash their heads on the

from 'Golem'


1934 - Hatta Shūzō (八太舟三; b. 1886), Japanese Christian pastor, philosopher and proponent of 'pure' (i.e. non-syndicalist) anarchism, dies aged 48. [see: Dec. 19]

1935 - Ludovic Ménard (Charles Ménard; b. 1855), French anarchist, syndicalist and founder of the slate workers union, dies. Signatory of the Charter of Amiens, adopted by the Confédération Générale du Travail in 1906. [see: Sep. 9]

##1940 - Denis Langlois, French lawyer, anarchist pacifist writer, who served prison time as a conscientious objector (c.f.: 'Le Cachot' [The Dungeon]), born. He also wrote 'Les Dossiers Noirs de la Police Française' (Black Files of the French Police; 1971), 'L'Injustice Racontée aux Enfants' (The Injustices Told to Children1978), 'Le Nouveau Guide du Militant' (1979), 'L'Utopie est Morte! Vive l'Utopie!' (2005), 'Slogans Pour les Prochaines Révolutions' (Slogans for the Coming Revolution; 2008). He has also written a number of novels including 'Un Assassin Très Ordinaire' (A Very Ordinary Assassin; 1978), 'La Révoltution' (1985) and 'L'Affaire Seznec: un Innocent au Bagne' (The Seznec Affair: an Innocent in the Penal Colony; 1988)'.

1940 - Heinrich Bartling (b. 1880), German locksmith, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies in Sachsenhausen concentration camp. [see: Sep. 22]

1958 - The first issue of 'Liberté' newspaper published by the militant anarcho-pacifist Louis Lecoin appears.

[A] 1978 - In Barcelona 50 anarchists are arrested, accused of the dastardly crime of attempting to "reconstitute the F.A.I" (Iberian Anarchist Federation). Franco is dead, but the old fears of a powerful revolutionary organisation re-emerging persists.

1997 - Pepita Grau (Josepa Grau i Ferrer; b. 1916), Catalan anarcho-syndicalsits and anarcha-feminist militant, active in the CNT and the Mujeres Libres, dies. [see: Feb. 15]

2008 - Conchita Guillen Bertolin (b. 1919), Spanish militant anarchist and member of Mujeres Libres, dies. [see: Aug. 16]
1869 - Italian (Bakuninist) section of the International founded.

##[E] 1885 - Luisa Landová-Štychová (Aloisie Vorlíčková; d. 1969), Czech journalist, populariser of science, pioneer feminist, atheist, anarchist and then communist politician, born. The daughter of a grocery and baker shop owner, she refused to take over the store despite her father's insistence and Aloisie changed her surname to Landová, the maiden name of her paternal grandmother. Politically active pre-WWI, especially among the Northern Bohemian miners, joining the Česká Anarchistická Federace (Czech Anarchist Federation) in 1907 and participating in its anti-militarist campaigns. In 1912 she became known for her radical feminist views and is arguable the first Czech anarchist to promote feminist or anarcha-feminist views. The following year she and her partner, the scientist and anarchist Jaroslav Štych, founded the atheist Svaz Socialistických Monistů (Union of Socialist Monists), which was banned during the war but continued its activities clandestinely as the Sdružení Dělnických Abstinentů (Workers' Association of Abstainers). Štych was also responsible for introducing Landová-Štychová to astronomy, and together they founded an observatory in Petrin and their astronomical society, the Astronomickém Kroužku (Astronomical Circle), would go on to become a gathering place for anarchist and socialists. The anarcho-communists amongst the group, including Landová-Štychová herself, having realised the limited opportunities for organising political struggle available within the group, in 1914 set up the Federace Českých Anarchokomunistů (Federation of Czech Anarcho-communists) under the iniative of Bohuslav Vrbenský and based on the ideas of Stanislaus Kostka Neumann. However, the development of the FČA was interruped by the war and many members were either jailed or ended up joining the army.
After the war, Vrbenský led an exodus of members into the Česká Národně Socialistické Strany (Czech National Socialist Party) and, after a series of negotiations involving Landová-Štychová, renamed itself the České Strana Socialistická (Czech Socialist Party) and allocated the anarcho-communist current three positions on its Executive Committee. Whilst the FČA was effectively absorbed into the ČSS, the anarcho-communists maintained their own organisational structures within the party, holding their own independent anarchist congresses. Landová-Štychová also participated in the preparation for the general strike on the October 14, 1918 as a member of the Socialist Council's action committee, helping draft the strike appeal which openly talked about a Czechoslovak Republic — the first such public declaration to refer to Czechoslovakia as a new state entity. Initially organised by the Socialist Council as a demonstration in protest against the export of food and goods to Austria, it mutated into all-out revolt across the country aimed at creating the new republic.
Between 1918-1923, Landová-Štychová was a member of the Revolučním Národním Shromáždění (Revolutionary National Assembly) as a representative of the ČSS, one of only three women at the time, and she used her position to actively campaign on feminist issues: highlighted the need to reform family law so that even housewives were paid an eight-hour working day and given full voting rights; to reform of the marriage law and called the possibility of establish civil marriages and legal separation; the decriminalisation of abortion; the expropriation of empty properties for the establishment of a homes for children and orphans; the introduction of physical and sexual health education in schools; as well as campaigning against prostitution, smoking and alcoholism.
However, disputes between the anarcho-communist wing and the ČSNS rump over issues, such as forming a Left front with the KSČ (Komunistická Strana Československa / Communist Party of Czechoslovakia), erupted and Landová-Štychová lost her parliamentary seat and the anarchist were marginalised. Finally, the more radical Vrbenský wing was expelled in 1923 for voting against the Law on Protection of the Republic and stripped of their parliamentary mandate. Later that year Landová-Štychová and Vrbenský co-founded the Neodvislá Socialistickou Stranu Dělnickou (Independent Socialist Workers Party), which went on to closely cooperate with the Neodvislá Radikální Sociálně Demokratická Stranou (Independent Radical Social Democratic Party), forming the Socialistické Sjednocení (Socialist Unification), which ultimately fell apart at its first congress the following year. In 1925 the vestiges of the NSSD merged with the KSČ.
Landová-Štychová went on to be a member of parliament (1925-29) for the KSČ, member of the Svazu Proletářských Bezvěrců (Union of Proletarian Atheists), the vice-president (1928-31) of Mezinárodní Dělnický Pomoc (International Workers' Aid), and, in 1925, president of Mezinárodní Rudá Pomoc (International Red Aid). An active anti-fascist, she helped organise support for anti-fascists in the Spanish Revolution and provided support for German anti-fascists escaping Nazi Germany and seeking asylum in in Czechoslovakia.
After 1945 she devoted herself to the popularisation of scientific knowledge and was the author of several publications and pamphlets, and in 1952 was made the vice-president of the Československé Společnosti pro Šíření Politických a Vědeckých Znalostí (Czechoslovak Society for the Propagation of Political and Scientific Knowledge).
Luisa Landová-Štychová dies on August 31, 1969 in Prague.
Amongst her publications are the memoir 'Žena v Manželství' (A Woman in a Marriage; 1923); 'Pomoc Proletářským Dětem' (Helping Proletarian Children; 1927), 'Proti Dnešnímu Vězeňskému Režimu v Československu' (Against Today's Prison Regime in Czechoslovakia; 1928), 'Proč Demonstrují Političtí Vězňové na Pankráci Hladovkou?' (Why Demonstrate in Support of the Political Prisoners on Hunger Strike in Pankrac?; 1928), 'Sociálně-Revoluční Význam 14. Října 1918' (The Socio-Revolutionary Significance of October 14, 1918; 1935), 'Výchova Dětí v Bezvěrecké Rodině' (Raising Children in an Atheist Family; 1947), 'Proslovy k Pohřbům Osob bez Vyznání' (Speeches for Funerals of People without Religion; 1949), and 'Astronomie v Boji s Vatikánem' (Astronomy in the Fight Against the Vatican; 1951).

1894 - Lunigiana Revolt [Moti Anarchici della Lunigiana]: At his trial before the military court in Massa, Luigi Molinari is hastily sentenced to twenty three years in prison, which is reduced at a new trial on April 19 to seven and a half years as the instigator of the insurrection earlier this month in Lunigiana. However, after spending nearly two years in prison in Oneglia, he is released on September 20, 1895 following massive public protests.

1897 - 'El Perseguido' (The Hunted), an anarchist-communist labour periodical, ceases publication in Argentina.

1899 - Aristide Lapeyre (d. 1974), French hairdresser, anarchist, militant pacifist and néo-Malthusian, born. Worked in the CNT-FAI propaganda office during the Civil War and helped many escape the clutches of the Gestapo during WWII and was captured by the Nazis for his pains.

1903 - Roger Monclin (d. 1985), French author and libertarian peace activist, born. Author of a book on the anarchist poet and songwriter 'Gaston Couté, 1880-1911, Poète Maudit' (1962).

1905 - [N.S. Feb. 12] Kosta Nunkov [Коста Нунков], aka David Ognyanov [Нунков Огнянов](Konstantin Ivanov Nunkov [Константин Иванов Нунков]; b. 1877), Bulgarian revolutionary, anarchist, a member of the Macedonian Committee (Македонския комитет) and a Kumanov leader of the Inner Macedonian-Odrin Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешната македоно-одринска революционна организация), dies during a four-hour battle against Turkish troops near the village of Kutlibeg (Кутлибег). Badly wounded and rather than fall into the hands of the Turks, he shoots himself with his pistol. [see: Jun. 20]

1909 - The opening of the Scuola Moderna Razionalista in Clivio, Lombardy, by the anarchist Felice Monzini following the model of Ferrer in Barcelona in order to provide an alternative to the religious schools and introduce teachings based on libertarian principles. Eventually forced by the authorities to close in 1921.

[B] 1924 - Georgi Simeonov Popov (Георги Симеонов Попов; b. 1900), Bulgarian anarchist, teacher, poet, orator, anarchist organier and insurrectionist guerrilla, dies at his own hands to avoid being capture by the army. [see: May 22]

1936 - Plemum of the FAI (Iberian Anarchist Federation) convenes in Madrid (Jan. 31 - Feb. 1). Members of the FARP-FAI (Portuguese Anarchist Federation) are also in attendance.

1945 - Wiesław Protschke aka 'Wieslaw' (b. 1912), Polish syndicalist and anti-Soviet and anti-Nazi fighter, dies. [see: Nov. 13]

1945 - The first issue of the journal 'Estudios Sociales' (Social Studies) is produced by Spanish anarcho-syndicalist activists in exile in Mexico.

## 1975 - Marjorie Mardones Leiva, Chilean lecturer in librarianship and documentation sciences, libertarian and feminist, born.

1981 - Marcel (André) Voisin (b. 1892), French anarchist and pacifist who worked in 'La Ruche' (The Hive) libertatian school, dies.

2011 - Don Lacoss (b. 1964), US radical scholar, writer, adventurer, surrealist and anarchist, dies. Don was a contributing editor for 'The Fifth Estate' and an active member of the Chicago Surrealist Group.

1860 - Michel Zévaco (d. 1918), French journalist, novelist, publisher, film director, anti-clerical revolutionary socialist and anarchist, born. Popularly known for his 'Les Pardaillan' series of swashbuckling novels which were serialised in a number of daily newspapers. [expand]
www.encres-vagabondes.com/dossier epee/dossier zevaco.htm]

1879 - Georgy Ivanovich Chulkov (Гео́ргий Ива́нович Чулко́в; d. 1939), Russian Symbolist poet, editor, writer, critic and the founder and popularised of the theory of Mystical Anarchism, born.

## 1882 - Marie Majerová (Marie Bartošová; d. 1967) Czech prose writer, feminist, anarchist, then socialist and later communist, journalist, and translator, born.

1886 - Manuel Pardiñas Serrano (d. 1912), Spanish anarchist gunman who assassinated President José Canalejas in 1912 for his role in suppressing a rail strike, then turned the gun on himself, born.

1887 - First edition of the Barcelona anarchist weekly 'El Productor'. Initially subtitled a 'Socialist Daily', it went weekly on March 8, 1887 and subsequently became an 'Anarchist Periodical' from July 4, 1890. It cease publishing at issue 369 (September 21, 1893).

##1891 - Alfonso Vidal y Planas (d. 1965), Spanish journalist, poet, novelist, narrator and dramatist of Bohemian life, and anarchist affiliated with the CNT, who collaborated on 'El Sindicalista' during the Civil War, going into exile upon the defeat of the Republic, born in Santa Coloma de Farners.
Doctor in Metaphysics from the University of Indianapolis and professor of Spanish Literature and Elementary Philosophy in Tijuana (Mexico). As a humorous journalist he was founder and director of 'El Loco' and collaborated with '¡Oh la la !'.

1904 - Gerhard Wartenberg, aka H. W. Gerhard, G. Berg, 'Ägide' (d. 1942), German chemist, author, editor, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist organiser in the Freien Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands, born.
died in Sachsenhausen concentration camp aged 38 years old

1909 - First edition of the daily newspaper 'La Révolution' in Paris. It was to only run for 2 months (56 issues).

1911 - Étienne Faure aka 'Cou Tordu' or 'Cou Tors' (b. 1837), French member of the Commune de Saint-Étienne, militant anarchist and propagandist, dies. [see: Aug. 23]

1920 - During this month Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman settle in Petrograd where they renew their friendships with William Shatoff, now working as Commissar of Railroads, and John Reed.

1926 - First edition of the Belgian anarchist fortnightly 'Le Combat' (The Fight). It stopped printing in April 1928 after 33 issues.

1931 - Severino Di Giovanni (b. 1901), Italian typographer and, anarchist who emigrated to Argentina and won fame for his campaign of propagandist violence in support of Sacco and Vanzetti, is executed by military firing squad. [see: Mar. 17]

1965 - Sergei Zalesov (Сергей Залесов; d. 2017), Ukrainian artist, poet and anarchist, founder of the Anarchist Union (Житомирского анархического союза) in Zhitomir, Ukraine and local organiser of the All-Union Confederation of Anarcho-Syndicalist (всесоюзной конфедерации анархо-синдикалистов), born.

1971 - Raoul Hausmann (b. 1886), Austrian anarcho-individualist influenced artist, collagist, photographer, sculptor, writer, poet, theorist and anti-fascist, who was one of the key figures in Berlin Dada, dies. [see: Jul. 12]

1972 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Rhodesia House in London firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1976 - Hans Richter (b. 1888), German Dadaist painter, sculptor, collagist, graphic artist, avant-garde film-experimenter, anti-militarist and anarchist, who claimed that Kropotkin's 'Mutual Aid' was the most significant book that he ever read, dies. [see: Apr. 6]

1984 - Lucien Chardonneau (b. 1896), French roofer and lead worker, militant anarcho-syndicalist and trade unionist, dies. [see: Sep. 18]

1986 - The opening of TLP, the Théâtre Libertaire de Paris (formerly Théâtre Déjazet) as a new home for libertarian arts, culture and eduction in Paris, with Léo Ferré the opening act. It closed in 1992 when the lease was cancelled.

2003 - Alfredo Bonanno is sentenced to 6 years in prison plus a €2000 fine (first degree 3 years, 6 months) for armed robbery and other crimes during the so-called ROS-Marini trial.

2003 - Processo ROS-Marini: The sentences are handed down in the Marini process appeal:
- The accusation of membership of an armed band (306 cp) and subversive association (270 cp) for the crimes committed up to 1991 was upheld in the cases of Francesco Porcu, Orlando Campo, Gregorian Garagin, Rose Ann Scrocco and Angela Maria Lo Vecchio.
- Orlando Campo, sentenced to 10 years (increased from the 5 year sentence in the first trial).
- Angela Maria Lo Vecchio, sentenced to 15 years with the revocation of probation (originally sentenced to 12 years).
- Francesco Porcu, sentenced to life imprisonment with 18 months daytime isolation [isolamento diurno] (same sentence of the first trial).
- Gregorian Garagin, sentenced to 30 years plus 9 years (originally sentenced to 30 years plus 6 years to run concurrently).
- Rose Ann Scrocco, who was sentenced to 30 years plus 15 (in the first instance at 30 years plus 10), currently a fugitive.
- Alfredo Maria Bonanno, sentenced to 6 years plus €2000 fine (originally sentenced to 3 years and 6 months).
- All the other defendants were acquitted.

2008 - Ralph Digia (b. 1914), US anarchist, lifelong war resister, pacifist and social justice activist, who was a staffer for 52 years at the War Resisters League, dies aged 93 from pneumonia following a fall and hip fracture. [see: Dec. 13]

2013 - In the early hours of the morning, London based anarchist bookshop Freedom is damaged in an arson attack. Nobody is hurt in the fire which partially gutted the ground floor and damaged the building's electrics.
1868 - [N. S. Feb. 14] Alexander Atabekian (Alexander Movsesi Atabekian [Ալեքսանդր Մովսեսի Աթաբեկյան]; d. 1933*), Armenian physician and prominent anarchist, author and publisher of anarchist literature in Russian, who was also close friend of Peter Kropotkin, born. [see: Feb. 14]
[* there is some confussion over the exact date of his death, with some sources suggesting the year as being 1940]

#### 1876* - [O.S. Jan. 21] Olga Iljinicna Taratuta [Ольги Іллівни Таратути (uk) / Ольга Ильинична Таратута (ru)], aka Babushka, Valia, Tania, D. Basist (real name Elka Golda Eljevna Ruvinskaia [Елька Гольда Еліївна Рувинська (uk) / Элька Гольда Эльевна Рувинская (ru)]; d. 1938), Ukrainian teacher, anarcho-communist revolutionary and founder of the Ukrainian Anarchist Black Cross, born. Taratuta worked as a teacher after completing her studies and was arrested on "political suspicions" in 1895. In 1897 she joined a social democratic group associated with Abram (Аврам) and Juda Grossman (Иуда Гроссман) in Ekaterinoslav (Елисаветграде). Taratuta was a member of the South Russian Workers' Union (Южно-русский рабочий союз) and the Yelisavetgrad (Єлисаветград; modern-day Kropyvnytskyi) committee of the RDSLP (1898-1901). In 1901 she fled abroad, living in Germany and Switzerland, where she worked on the party organ 'Iskra' and met Georgi Plekhanov and Vladimir Lenin.
While in Switzerland in 1903, Taratuta became an anarcho-communist. In 1904, she returned to Russia where she joined the Soyuz Neprimirimyye (Союз Непримиримые / Union of Intransigents) anarchist group in Odessa around the Pole Jan Wacław Machajski. She was arrested in April 1904 but was freed in the autumn for lack of evidence. She then joined the Odessa Workers Group of Anarchist Communists (Рабочая группа анархистов-коммунистов), which distributed propaganda and organised workers’ circles. During this period, she began using the pseudonym Babushka (a strange alias given that she was still only thirty) and soon began to gain a reputation in anarchist circles.
At the beginning of October 1905 she was arrested again but was released with the amnesty that accompanied the publication of the 'October Manifesto' (Октябрьский манифест, Манифест 17 октября). Babushka then joined the combat organisation of the South Russian Group of Anarchist Communists (Южно-русской группы коммунистов-анархистов) which used the tactic of "motiveless terror" – attacks on institutions and representatives of the autocratic regime ["представителей паразитов-эксплуататоров" (representatives of the parasite-exploiters)] rather than particular targeted individuals. It should be noted here that the anarchist-communist or chernoznamentsi (чернознаменцы) current that Taratuta was involved in, was exemplified by the Chernoye Znamya (Чёрное знамя / Black Banner) group of Juda Solomonovich Grossman (Иу́да Соломо́нович Гро́ссман; 1883-1934) aka 'Roshchin' (Рощин), Vladimir Lapidus (Владимиром Лапидусом) aka 'Strigoi' (Стригой), German Karlovich Askarov [-Jacobson] (Герман Карлович Аскаров [-Якобсон]), and German Borisovich Sandomirskiy (Герман Борисович Сандомирский). Its stated programme was "Persistent guerrilla actions by the proletarian masses, organising the unemployed for the expropriation of vital supplies, anti-bourgeois mass terror and the expropriation of private property", however, following a congress in Białystok in autumn 1905, the chernoznamentsi movement broke up into two factions, with the bezmotivniki (безмотивники / motiveless ones) splitting from the anarcho-communist konnunari (коммунары / communards).
It was a bezmotivniki combat cell of the South Russian Group, consisting of Taratuta, Bella Shereshevskii (Беллу Шерешевская), Josif Bronstein (Йосифа Бронштейн), Moise Metz (Моисея Мец), Stanislav Shashek (Станислава Шашек) and Kopel Erdelevski (Копелем Эрделевским) that carried out the notorious attack on the Café Libman in Odessa on December 30 [17], 1905. She was one of the five (along with Shereshevskii, Bronstein, Metz and Shashek) who threw bombs into the café, killing and wounding about 50 people. Soon after, they and the bomb maker Erdelevski were arrested and thrown into prison in Odessa. At their trial on November 14 [1], 1906 in the Odessa military district court, Taratuta and Shashek (21 years old) were sentenced to seventeen years' hard labour. Shereshevskii (22), Bronstein (18) and Metz (21) were sentenced to death and hanged the following October. Erdelevski however had managed to feign insanity and, after being transferred from a psychiatric hospital in Odessa to St. Nicholas hospital in St. Petersburg, escaped in the winter of 1906 and fled abroad.
Six weeks after here trial she managed to escape from the Odessa prison on December 28 [15], and by the end of 1906 Taratuta was in Moscow. There she participated in the formation of the Buntar (Бунтарь / The Mutineer) anarchist group, editing the group's newspaper of the same name. In March 1907, and fearing another arrest, she left for Geneva. There she joined the International Anarchist-Communists combat group (Боевой интернациональной группы анархистов-коммунистов), amongst whose members were Sergei Borisov (Сергей Борисов), Kopel Erdelevski, Nikolay Ignatievich Musil (Николай Игнатьевич Музель) [or N.I. Rogdayev (Н.И. Рогдаев)], Rozalia Tarlo (Розалии Тарло), Naum Tisch (Наум Тыш), German Sandomirskii (Герман Сандомирский) and Isaak Dubinskiy (Исаак Дубинский). Taratuta and the group planned a series of expropriations in the Ukraine (which raised 60 thousand roubles) to finance the buying of weapons, as well as arranging a series of attentats, which were hoped would result in an uprising in southern of Ukraine. In autumn 1907 Olga returned to Ekaterinoslav, going on to Kieve and Odessa, where she planned a series of attacks including the unsuccessful assassination attemptss on General Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kaulbars (Александр Васильевич Каульбарс), commander of the Odessa military region, and General Ivan Nikolaevich Tolmachov (Ива́н Никола́евич Толмачёв), the mayor of Odessa, together with the bombing of the Odessa military district court.
At the end of February 1908, she went to Kiev to help prepare for a mass escape of anarchist prisoners from the city's Lukyanivska (Лук'янівська) prison. The plan was to blow up the fortress walls but before it could be carried out, all the other members of the group were betrayed by police spies and arrested. Olga managed to escape the police's clutches. The previous month, many of the prominent members of the combat group, including Grossman, Borisov and Tisch, had begun to be arrested and Olga herself was arrested in Ekaterinoslav in March 1908 carrying a suitcase stuffed full of bombs. In late 1909, and in view of her previous escape, she was sentenced by the Odessa military district court to 21 years hard labour in Lukyanivska prison.
Following the February Revolution, Olga was released on March 1, 1917, "a tired and subdued woman in her late forties" [Paul Avrich], and she withdrew from anarchist activities as she searched for her partner and their child who she had not seen for the past twelve years.
Having rejected to outcome of the October Revolution and the Bolsheviks' power grab, by May 1918 Olga Taratuta was once again involved in political activities, working in the Political Red Cross (политическом Красном Кресте) in Kiev, supporting imprisoned revolutionaries and political exiles of all persuasions. With the growing persecution of anarchists by the Bolshevik government, Taratuta rejoined the anarchist struggle, working on the anarcho-syndicalist newspaper 'Golos Truda' (Голос Труда / Voice of Labour) and joining the Nabat (Набат) confederation, the Confederation of Anarchist Organisations of Ukraine (Конфедерації анархістських організацій України [uk] / Конфедера́ция анархи́стских организа́ций Украи́ны [ru]), in June 1920. With the signing of the pact between the Soviet government and the Makhnovists at the end of September 1920, she returned to the Ukraine, becoming an adviser to Nestor Makhno. At Makhno's headquarters in Gulyai Polye (Гуляй-поле), she was given 5 million roubles by the Makhnovist commanders, with which she set up the Anarchist Black Cross (Анархического Черного Креста) organisation in Kharkov to support persecuted anarchists and prisoners rotting in Soviet prisons.
On November 26, 1920 during a mass repression against anarchists and Makhnovshchina, she was one of the 300 comrades arrested in Kharkov during the preparations for the anarchist 'unification' (объединительного) congress planned for December 1 in the city. The АЧК offices were closed down and in January 1921 she was transferred to the Butyrka prison in Moscow with forty other comrades. Olga was amongst those anarchist who were released from prison for a few hours to attend the funeral of Kropotkin on February 13, 1921, before being locked up again. On April 26, 1921, she was amongst a group of anarchists taken to Orel Central prison (Орловский главный централ). During the transfer she was badly beaten by her guards. That May, the Soviet Attorney General proposed to Olga that she could be released if she publicly renounces her political views. Her response was to join a group of libertarian prisoners in an 11-day hunger strike to protest their conditions of detention. However, she falls victim to a severe attack of scurvy, suffering the loss of almost all her teeth along side a massive deterioration of her health. In a letter to friends at the time, she claimed that the two years that she had spent in prison up till then had cost her much more that all the years she had spent in Tsarist forced labour camps.
In March 1922, she began two years' exile in Velikii Ustiug (Вели́кий У́стюг), in the north-eastern Volodga oblast. In early 1924, she was released (it would prove just a temporary respite) and returned to Kiev. Though she was no longer has political active, she remained in contact with the few anarchist militants who still remained outside prison walls and in mid 1924 she was arrested for carrying out anarchist propaganda, but was soon released. Later that year, she returned to Moscow and in 1927, and with a new-found energy, Olga joined the campaign in support of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti. She also became an active member of the All-Union Society of Former Political Prisoners (Всесоюзного общества бывших политкаторжан), maintaining over the next few years an extensive international correspondence about the need to organise a global campaign to support anarchist prisoners locked up in the USSR.
In 1929 she returned to Odessa and became involved in the smuggling of anarchist literature into the country. Later that year she was arrested by the Cheka and charged with attempting to set up a local anarchist cell amongst railway workers and the spread of anarchist propaganda. She was sentenced to two years in prison, When she got out in 1931, eight members of the All-Union Society of Former Political Prisoners (Всесоюзного общества бывших политкаторжан) appealed to the Soviet authorities to grant her a pension as a very sick and old revolutionary desperately in need of support. But instead, she was arrested yet again in 1933. 1937 saw Olga back in Moscow and now having to work in a metallurgical factory despite her poor health. On November 27, 1937, Olga Taratuta was arrested for a final time, accused of anarchist and anti-Soviet activities. At her trial on February 8, 1939, she was sentenced to death by the Chief Tribunal of the Soviet Union and executed the same day.
[*some sources give the years as 1874 or 1878]

1881 - Rosario (Roser) Dulcet Martí, aka 'Dolcet' (d. 1968), Catalan textile worker, anarcho-syndicalist militant and propagandist, born. [expand]

1890 - The first issue of 'Volné Listy' (Free Sheet) in Brooklyn, NY, a Czech language anarchist monthly.

1894 - Román Delgado (d. 1952), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist who was active in Cuba (expelled for inciting the workers of the sugar to go on strike), North America and Mexico, born.

[C] 1902 - Mika Feldman de Etchebéhère (d. 1992), Argentinian Marxist and anarchist, who fought with the POUM in Spain, born. The only woman to lead a militia column in the Spanish Civil War. [expand]

1915 - María García (d. 1998), Spanish militant cenetista, born. Moving to Madrid from Extremadura, she first encounter anarchism via the libertarian newspapers sold on the capital's street. She joined the CNT and worked in the ranks along side Cipriano Mera during the Civil War. She managed to escape from Alicante to Oran, where she ended up in the concentration camps. In 1947 in Oran she became the partner of fellow cenetista José Alcaraz and spent the 1970s in France, settling in Toulouse. María García died there on March 13, 1998.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The origins of the conflict, dated back to late January 1919 when the company Regs i Força de l'Ebre, a branch of Barcelona Traction Light and Power Co. Ltd., which produced 70% of the electricity consumed in Catalonia, introduced changes in the working conditions of clerical staff at the Anglo-Canadian financed 'La Canadiense' hydroelectric plant in Barcelona, changes that amounted to a cut in wages. On February 2, with a number of temporary staff due to have to be taken on on permanent contracts, they were moved on to the lower wage rate [their monthly salary of 150 pesetas cut to 125 and 125 cut to 105], prompting protests from some of them who happened to be CNT members. Eight were sacked (five being from the billing section) for these protests and their attempts to form a union in the company [Fraser Lawton, the director of la Canadenca in Catalunya, had forbidden the formation of unions amongst his workers]. Three days later on February 5, 117 [other sources claim 140] clerical staff in the billing section held a sitdown strike demanding the reinstatement of their colleagues. They later took to the streets and went to see the regional governor who promised to intercede on their behalf if they agreed to return to work. When they returned to the factory, however, they were blocked from entering by a police cordon and were all told that they had been fired. The company refused to provide further explanation other than a statement from one of the foreign managers, Mr. Coulton, who said they were inept and that was due to the dismissal. Instead, they attempted to replace them with staff from other sections, whilst at the same time refusing to recognise the Sindicat Únic d'Aigua, Gas i Electricitat de la CNT (Single Union of Water, Gas and Electricity of the CNT) as an interlocutor.
They were followed three days later on Februart 8 by virtually the whole workforce under the strategic approach adopted at the Congrés de Sants [June 28-July 1, 1918], marking the beginning of the most successful strike action in Spanish labour history. The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo directed strike led to a city-wide general strike in Barcelona, involving more than 100,000 workers and all efforts to break the strike were unsuccessful and the CNT’s demands were met, including the eight-hour day, union recognition, the reinstatement of all fired workers, and wage increases in some industries.
vagacanadenca.blogspot.co.uk/search/label/11_Diari d'un obrer

[A] 1919 - Twenty three year old French carpenter-cabinet maker and militant anarchist Louis Émile Cottin aka 'Milou' tries to assassinate Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau. Firing at Clemenceau several times as he is leaving his house on rue Franklin in Paris, Cottin managed to hit him once, wounding him but missing any vital organs. Clemenceau survives and Cottin is arrested. On March 14, 1919 he was sentenced to death but this was commuted to 10 years in prison following a protest campaign organised in the pages of the French anarchist newspaper 'Le Libertaire'.
Following his release from prison and a prolonged period spent under house arrest, in July 1936 Émile Cottin joined the Durruti Column and fought in the Spanish Civil War, dying on October 8, 1936 during the battle at Farlete, near Pina de Ebro, Zaragoza, Aragon.

1926 - Jules Leroux (b. 1860), French anarchist co-operativist activist, dies. [see: Aug. 10]

1926 - Luigi Veronelli (d. 2004), Italian anarcho-oenologue and theorist of peasant-hood, cook, gastronomist, philosopher and activist, writer and publisher, who is remembered as one of the central figures in the enhancement and dissemination of Italian food and wine heritage, born.

1930 - José María Nunes (d. 2010), Portuguese-Catalan filmmaker, director, script writer, actor and anarchist, born in Portugal. His family moved to Spain in 1942, ending up in Barcelona in 1946, ​​where he lived until his death. Always fascinated by the cinema (he had written his first screenplay before the age of thirteen), one of the first books he read in Castilian was 'Cómo Escribir un Guión Cinematográfico' (How to Write a Screenplay) by Enrique Gómez. Living in a shack in the shadow of the Montjuic mountain, he began to write short novels, novelas rosa, 2 of which he managed to sell to a publisher. Having tried a number of different jobs and unable to go to university to study architecture (no high school education), he decided to devote himself to photography as a way into the cinema.
His first film in 1957, 'Mañana...' (Tomorrow...) laid the foundations for the establishment of the Escola de Cinema de Barcelona and he would go on to establish himself as one of its main proponents, alongside Joaquim Jordà, Jacinto Esteva and Pere Portabella. His other films include: 'No Dispares Contra Mí' (1961); 'La Alternativa' (1963); 'Noche de Tino Tinto' (1966); 'Biotaxia' (1968); 'Sexperiencias' (1968); 'Iconockaut' (1975); 'Autopista A-2-7' (1977); 'En Secreto... Amor' (1983); 'Gritos a Ritmo Fuerte' (1984); 'Amigogima' (2002); 'A la Soledad' (2008); and 'Res Publica' (2009).

1931 - Paulino Scarfó (b. 1909?), Italian-Argentinian anarchist and associate of Severino Di Giovanni, is executed by the same firing squad that had executed Di Giovanni the day before, shouting "Long live anarchy!".

1934 - Having received permission in 1933 to lecture in the United States under the condition that she speak only about drama and her autobiography – but not current political events, Emma Goldman returns to New York to generally positive press coverage – except from Communist publications. Soon she was surrounded by admirers and friends, besieged with invitations to talks and interviews. Her visa expired in May, and she went to Toronto in order to file another request to visit the US. However, this second attempt was denied.

1944 - Salvatore Cassia (d. 2002). Italian anarchist and electronics worker who was actively involved in campaigns around the police murder of Giuseppe Pinelli and for the release and pardoning of the framed Valpreda and his comrades, born.

1945 - Adolf Brand (b. 1874), German writer, poet, photographer, individualist anarchist, editor of the journal 'Der Eigene' (The Unique) and pioneering campaigner for the acceptance of male bisexuality and homosexuality, dies alongside his wife during an Allied bomb raid. [see: Nov. 14]

1968 - The first issue of the magazine 'Anarchos', published by the Eastside Anarchist Group, appears in New York. One of the first journals addressing social ecology and libertarianism. Main editor is Murray Bookchin. Ceases publication in 1972.

1978 - Emma Neri (b. 1897), Italian primary teacher, anarchist and antifascist, dies. [see: Sep. 5]

## 1997 - Ha Ki-Rak (하기락; b. 1921), Korean anarcho-pacifist academic, writer, and philosopher, who was a major figure of C20th Korean anarchism, dies as the 76 year old prepares to go out to hand out his homemade 'Labour News' (노동신문) newspapers to workers. [see: Jan. 26]
1842 - Pierre Joseph Proudhon is summoned to appear before the assizes of Doubs following the publishing of his third memoir, 'A Notice to Proprietors, or a Letter to M. Victor Considerant, Editor of 'La Phalange', in Reply to a Defence of Property'.

1884 - First issue of the anarchist weekly 'Le Défi' (The Challenge) appears in Lyon. Only 3 issues were ever published.

##1894 - Jacques Reclus, aka Shao Kelu (d. 1984), French teacher (French, History, and later Chinese), translator, Sinologist, and anarchist militant, nephew of Elisha and son of Paul Reclus, born.

1901 - Ramon J. Sender (Ramón José Sender Garcés; d. 1982), Spanish novelist, essayist, journalist, anarchist and then communist, born.
tafel.levillage.org/politic/portraits d'anars.htm

[B] 1902 - Hélène Patou (d. 1975), French writer, militant anarchist and néo-Malthusienne, born. She first encountered anarchism working in a textile mill and subsequently went on to live and work in the libertarian community of Le Milieu Libre de Vaux and was one of the founders of the Bascon commune. In 1936, she modelled for a number of well-known painters, including Henri Matisse and Francis Picabia, and when the revolution in Spain broke out, she travelled to Barcelona where she met Buenaventura Durruti and joined the Columna Durruti. With the fall of France to the Nazis in June 1940, and knowing that she was being sought by the police, she went into hiding in the mountains around Nice, living in the small village of Pélasque in Lantosque and making a living from her sewing skills.
After the war, she lived in Paris with her friend the individualist anarchist activist and propagandist Rirette Maîtrejean, one-time partner of Victor Serge. Hélène later became a proofreader and partner of the French anarchist writer and champion of Proletarian Literature, Henry Poulaille, setting up the Centre Henry Poulaille municipal archive in the southern Paris commune of Cachan. Patou herself was also the author of a novel 'Le Domaine du Hameau Perdu' (The Domain of the Lost Hamlet; 1972), her own entry into the annals of Proletarian Literature.
Hélène Patou died on February 6, 1977 in Cachan.

1906 - Acquisition of a house at 165 Jubilee Street in Whitechapel, which becomes the Workers' Friend Club & Institute, a place in London for meetings, a print shop, and an anarchist school.

###1908 - Miguel García García, aka Miguel Ferrer (d. 1981), Catalan anarcho-syndicalist militant and anti-Francoist guerrilla, who served 20 years in Franco's prisons and went on in exile to play an important role in the European anarchist movement, not least for his part in the revival of the Anarchist Black Cross network along side Albert Meltzer and Stuart Christie, born

[E] 1909 - Simone Weil (d. 1943), French philosopher and writer, one-time Marxist, pacifist, trade unionist, then anarchist miliciana in the Centuria Sébastien Faure of the Columna Durruti's Grupo Internacional, Christian mystic and humanist, born. Having declared at the age of ten that she was a Bolshevik and gone on to become active in the workers' movement, writing political tracts and supporting the unemployed and striking workers as a Marxist, trade unionist, and pacifist, she ended up in the 1930s being sympathetic to both Trotskyism (though Trotsky himself attack some of her writings) and anarchism. The former led to her supporting German Marxists fleeing the rise of Hitler, as well as forging contacts with POUM following a vist to Barcelona in 1934). However, her activities during the 1933 general strike in France and after increasingly led her to identifying herslf as anarchist. So, having learned of the break out of the war in Spain, and despite her pacifism, she decided that she had to do something, catching a train from Paris en route for Barcelona at the beginning of August 1936.
In the middle of that month, Simone Weil arrived with the Columna Durruti to Pina de Ebro, about 15 kms from Zaragoza in an area recently retaken from the fascist troops under General Yagüe Aragón. However, within a few days later had to be evacuated to a hospital in Sitges, after suffering a stupid domestic accident in a house abandoned in no man's land - stepping in a frying pan full of boiling oil as she prepared a meal, badlt burning her foot. Recovered by the end of September 1936, she returned to France with the intention of going back to Spain, but never did. Instead her christian morality got the better of her sympathies for the Spanish anarchists and POUM, blaming her change of heart on the anarchists' killing of priests and unrentant falangists. On particular incident that affected her was the killing of a fifteen-year-old fascist, an event which she related in her famous 1938 letter to the French monarchist novelist and one-time Franco supporter Georges Bernanos:
"... in Aragon, a small international group of twenty-two militiamen from all countries captured, following a slight skirmish, a fifteen-year-old boy who had fought as a Falangist. Immediately upon capture, still trembling from having seen his comrades killed at his side, he claimed that he had been enrolled by force. They searched him, and found a medal of the Virgin and a Falangist card on him. He was sent to Durruti, the head of the column, who, after having exposed him for an hour to the beauties of the anarchist ideal, gave him the choice between dying or immediately enlisting in the ranks of those who had taken him prisoner, unlike his comrades of the day before. Durruti gave the child twenty-four hours to think it over; at the end of twenty-four hours the kid said no and was shot. Durruti was, however, in some respects an admirable man."
Weil's accident almost certainly saved her from suffering the same fate as many of her comrades in the Centuria when it was nealy totally wiped out in the batalla de Perdiguera on October 16, with all the unit's women – nurses Georgette Kokoczynski 'La Mimosa' and Augusta Marx, and milicianas Suzanne Hans (Suzanne Girbe) and Juliette Baudart – being killed. All four were captured and shot, with the badly beaten bodies of the two nurses thrown into the front lines so that the Republican troops could see them. So badly battered were their bodies, that the militia believed them to have been disemboweled!

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: 32,000 textile mill workers are now involved in the Bread & Roses strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts.

1913 - The trial of the Bonnot gang begins in France. [expand]

1913 - The Casa del Obrero Internacional opens in Los Angeles.

1930 - In Russia Vera Figner, the 78-year old director of the Kropotkin Museum, is banished for protesting against the maltreatment of women' in communist prisons.

1931 - American anarchist Michael Schirru, who had travelled to Rome to try and assassinate Mussolini, is arrested by police after a shoot-out where he wounds 3 police and tries to shoot himself in the head. He recovers, is tried by a kangaroo court and executed by firing squad the next day [29 May].

1936 - Ernest Gégout (b. 1854), militant anarchist propagandist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Mar. 16]

## 1938 - Henry Albert Seymour (b. 1861), British secularist, individualist anarchist, gramophone innovator and author, who published the first English language anarchist periodical, 'The Anarchist', in Britain in 1885, dies.

1953 - Daniel Villanova, French libertarian actor, playwright, songwriter and self-described "comico-maquisard", who specialises in one-man shows, born. Amongst his theatre works are 'Le Grand Bluff' (1992), a tragicomedy and indictment against racism and xenophobia; 'Maestro (Une corrida goyesque)' (1994), a comedy co-written with Doux-Douille and Daniel Gros; 'La Corde folle n° 2' (Rope crazy n° 2; 1996); the tetrology 'Quatre saisons': 'L'Automne' (November 1999), 'L'Hiver' (March 2002), 'Le Printemps' (2005) and 'L'Été' (The Summer; 2009); 'Hommage à Lucette' (Tribute to Lucette; 2007); 'Jean-Charles Président' (President Jean-Charles), created during the 2011 French presidential campaign as an indictment against Nicolas Sarkozy; and 'La Croisade des Rabat-Joie (No gazarán!)' (The Killjoy Crusade (No enjoying!)), 2013.

[D] 1969 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Unexploded dynamite charges discovered on the premises of the Bank of Bilbao and the Bank of Spain in London. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1972 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Kirkgate, Huddersfield, Army Recruiting Office destroyed by firebombs. [Angry Brigade chronology]

[C] 1977 - Alfons Tomasz Pilarski aka 'Janson', 'Jan Rylski', 'Kompardt' & others (b. 1902), German anarcho-syndicalist who took part in the German and Polish anarchist and anti-Nazi movements, dies. [see: Jul. 6]

1988 - Robert Duncan (b. 1919), American poet and lifelong anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 7]

1999 - Edward Wołonciej aka 'Czemier' (b. 1919), Polish solicitor, author, syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, dies. [see: Sep. 19]

2010 - Janos (John) Réty (b. 1930), Hungarian-British anarchist poet, translator, publisher, chess-player and activist, dies. [see: Dec. 8]
1849 - Jean Richepin (d. 1926), French poet, dramatist, novelist, actor, sailor and stevedore, born. An atheist and anarchist like his one-time mentor, about whom he wrote 'Etapes d'un Réfractaire: Jules Vallès' (1872), he returned from the Franco-Prussian war and was present in Paris during the 1871 Commune (there are conflicting stories of his involvement as a pro-Commune sniper or as a neutral non-combatant, and his 1888 Commune novel 'Cesarine' pursues an ambiguous narrative line, something Vallès criticised him for). He co-wrote and produced a play, 'L'Etoile' in 1873 with the Republican caricaturist André Gill, but remained unknown until the publication in 1876 of his poetry collection 'La Chanson des Gueux', which immediately brought him a trial for obscenity and a month in prison and 100 franc fine. His signature style of both his poetry, novels and theatre works was it use of slang, obscenity, sensuality and all-round anti-bourgeois sentiment, which earned him the opprobrium of the critics and public alike as a "métaphysique d'égoutier" (metaphysical sewerman).
Became part of the Parisian boheminan/anarchist milieu, frequenting 'Le Chat Noir' alongside the likes of Adolphe Willette, Paul Verlaine, Claude Debussy, Erik Satie, Paul Signac, Maurice Mac-Nab, August Strindberg, Jules Jouy and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. However, his rebellious nature was to become tame enough to allow his admission to the l’Académie Française in 1909, something which made him a target for 'Le Canard Enchaîné'.

## 1856 - Paul-Napoléon Roinard (d. 1930), French libertarian poet, playwright, librettist, painter and victim of absinthe, born. [expand]
"Un peuple a-t-il jamais profité d'une guerre?
S'ils changent leur couleur, elle ne change guère,
Tous sont rouges du sang qu'on a versé pour eux.
Guerre à la guerre!" - from 'Les Patries'

1876 - François Salsou (d. unknown), French anarchist advocate of propaganda by deed who tried to kill Shah Muzaffar al-Din of Persia in 1900, born.

1882 - Salvador Enric Josep Planas i Virella (d. unknown), Catalan anarchist, who made an unsuccessful attempt on the life of the president of Argentina, Manuel Quintana, born.

1883 - The first issue of the weekly newspaper 'Ilota' (Slave) appears in Pisota (Tuscany, Italy). Published by a 'socialist anarchist revolutionary' group attempting to reconcile international insurrectionary and illegaliste thought and the line of the Socialist Revolutionary Party of Romagna.

1898 - The first issue of the anarchist weekly 'Le Cravacheur' [a cravche is a whip] appears in Roubaix, Northern France.

##[B] 1900 - Jacques Prévert (d. 1977), French poet, surrealist, libertarian, born. Wrote screenplays and dialogue for a host of films including his brother Pierre's film 'L'Affaire est Dans le Sac' (It's in the Bag; 1932) and for Marcel Carné's classic 'Les Enfants du Paradis' (1945), and co-wrote that for Carné's 'Le Jour Se Lève' (1939). An extra, alongside his brother Pierre, in Vigo's 'L'Atlante'. Prévert's poems are widely taught in French schools.
'Ni Dieu, ni Maître: Mieux d'Etre' (Neither God nor Master: Better to Be)
'Rêve + Evolution = Révolution' (Dream + Evolution = Revolution)
'Quand la vérité n'est pas libre, la liberté n'est pas vraie.' (When the truth is not free, freedom is not true.)

1908 - Franz Held (Franz Herzfeld; b. 1862), German anarchist poet, playwright and novelist, father of John Heartfield and Wieland Herzfelde, dies in a mental hospital in Bolzano, northern Italy.

1910 - Giovanni Passannante (b. 1849), Italian anarchist who attempted to assassinate King Umberto I of Italy, dies. [Possible alternate date with Feb 14, 1910, and most likely date, also given.][see: Feb. 19]

1912 - Pierre Quillard (b. 1864), French Symbolist poet, playwright, Hellenist translator, journalist, anarchist, Dreyfusard and Armenophile, dies in Neuilly-sur-Seine. [see: Jul. 14]

1926 - Adolphe Willette (b. 1867), French painter, caricaturist and anarchist who bizarrely also ran as an 'anti-semitic' candidate in the Paris elections in 1889, dies.​ [see: Jul. 31]

1937 - Jean-Pierre Bastid, French anarchist-influenced author, film director, screenwriter and writer, born.

1939 - Spanish Loyalist capital of Gerona falls to Franco's fascists.

1946 - In Marseilles the first issue of 'Monde Nouveau' (New World), "Organ of the Regional Libertarian Movement - Southern Region", appears.

1947 - Luigi Russolo (b. 1883), Italian Futurist painter, composer and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 30]

1950 - Anarchist guerrillas José López Penedo aka 'Liberto López' (b. 1915) and Carlos Vidal Pasanau (b. 1917) are executed (shot) at the Campo da Bota in Barcelona.

1956 - Clara Gilbert Cole (b. 1868), English anti-militarist, anarchist and active suffragette in the Women’s Social and Political Union, dies. [see: Dec. 4]

1963 - Nicolas Stoïnoff (or Stoïnov)(b. 1862), 'patriarch' of Bulgarian anarchism, anti-militarist, writer, journalist and teacher, dies. [see: Dec. 19]
"People around the world, decide:
the elimination of militarism!
the abolition of military service!
education of youth in the spirit of humanism and peace!"
"This is also the conclusion of my life, the clamour of a hundred years old, my last words to men." - from 'A Centenarian Bulgarian Speaks'

1987 - Francisco Nobrega Do Quintal (b. 1898), important Portuguese militant, propagandist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 24]

1989 - José Villanueva (b. 1912), Spanish anarchist and CNT member, who volunteered for and fought in the Durruti Column alongside his brother Floreal Carbó, dies. [see: Aug. 16]

1990 - Toma Bebić (b. 1935), Croatian/Dalmatian multidisciplinary artist (musician, writer, actor, painter and poet), humanist and anarchist, dies of lung cancer in Split. [see: Nov. 6]
1846 - Johann Most (d. 1906), Bavarian-born American anarchist and advocate of 'propaganda by the deed', born. [expand]

1875 - Manuel Devaldès (aka Ernest-Edmond Lohy) (d. 1956), French individualist anarchist, pacifist and neo-Malthusian, born. Member of 'l'Action d'Art'. Opposed WWI and found refuge in England, which granted him conscientious objector status in 1914. Wrote 'Contes d'Un Rebelle' (Thoughts of a Rebel; 1925) and 'Anthologie des Écrivains Réfractaires' (Anthology of Writer of Resistance; 1927).
"En tout esclave consentant à sa servitude est un maître qui sommeille. Qui obéit volontiers à plus fort que soi est prêt à imposer à plus faible sa volonté."

[A/E] 1878 - [O.S. Jan. 24] The Russian anarchist Vera Ivanova Zasulich (Ве́ра Ива́новна Засу́лич) attempts to assassinate General Fyodor Trepov (Фёдор Тре́пов), prefect of police of St Petersburg, in revenge for his having ordered the flogging of a political prisoner, the narodnista Aleksei Stepanovich Bogolyubov (Алексей Степанович Боголюбов), a member of Zemlya i Volya (Земля и Воля), for not having taken off his hat in front of Trepov in the courtyard of the capital's 'Shpalerka' (Шпалерка) detention prison. The incident provoked a riot within the prison.
Trepov was left with serious injures (two bullet wounds to the stomach) following the attack and was forced to retire soon afterwards. Vera Zasulich was arrested and, facing a possible 15 to 20 years in prison, was acquitted at her trial on April 24 [12] that year. The news of Vera's acquittal drew large celebratory crowds outside the court and much interests in the international press.

1883 - Josef Mach (b. November 8, 1951), Czech poet, translator and journalist, satirist and parodist from the circle of anarchist writers (anarchističtí buřiči), later a long-time worker of the Czechoslovak Ministry of Foreign Affairs, born.

[D] 1894 - Auguste Vaillant (b. 1861), who bombed the French Chamber of Deputies to avenge Ravachol, a symbolic gesture, meant to wound as many deputies as possible rather than kill (so weak was the explosion that twenty deputies received only slight injuries), is guillotined. His final words are: "Mort à la société bourgeoise! Vive l’anarchie!" (Death to bourgeois society! Long live anarchy!). [see: Dec. 27]
[Costantinni pic]

## 1899 - Gino Bibbi (d. 1999), Italian engineer, anarchist and militant anti-fascist, who became a Republican fighter pilot during the Spanish Civil war and muntions designer, born. As an engineering student, he manufactured the bomb that his cousin Gino Lucetti used in his assassination attempt on Mussolini in September 1926. After various spells of confinement by the fascists, the first beginning in 1923, he managed to escape to France and then moved to Spain in 1931. He worked closely with the CNT and FAI. He began to take flying lessons to prepare for an aerial attack on Mussolini! [expand]

1901 - Ricardo Flores Magón formally joins the Partido Liberal Mexicano during the Congreso Liberal (Feb. 5-14) in San Luis Potosí today. It is the main vehicle for organising the anti-Diaz struggle and spreading the ideals of anarchism throughout Mexico.

1911 - Rebelión de Baja California / Revolución Mexicana: Guadalupe, Chihuahua is captured by the Liberal Party column of Prisciliano G. Silva.

[B] 1914 - William Seward Burroughs II (pen name William Lee; d, 1997), American novelist, short story writer, essayist, painter, satirist, one-time junkie, celebrated queer and libertarian, born.
"The people in power will not disappear voluntarily, giving flowers to the cops just isn't going to work. This thinking is fostered by the establishment; they like nothing better than love and nonviolence. The only way I like to see cops given flowers is in a flower pot from a high window."

[BB] 1916 - First performance of the Cabaret Voltaire at the Holländische Meierei in Spiegelgasse 1, Zurich. The Künstlerkneipe (artists' local) Voltaire as it was initially called was advertised in the local Zürcher Allgemeine Zeitung with the following press notice:
"Cabaret Voltaire. Under this name a group of young artists and writers has been formed whose aim is to create a centre for artistic entertainment. The idea of the cabaret will be that guest artists will come and give musical performances and readings at the daily meetings. The young artists of Zurich, whatever their orientation, are invited to come along with suggestions and contributions of all kinds."
Amongst those present were founders Hugo Ball, Emmy Hennings, Marcel Janco and Tristan Tzara, plus Georges Janco, Arthur Segal and Marcel Slodki and his balalaika orchestra.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Following the sacking of eight workers (including five from the billing section) for protesting against the pay cut they received when there contacts were normailised three days earlier, 117 clerical staff in the billing section held a sitdown strike demanding the reinstatement of their collegues. They later took to the streets and went to see the regional governor, Puig i Cadafalch, and they also spoke with the mayor Manuel Morales Pareja and the governor González Rothwos to demand that they act as mediators. Puig i Cadafalch promised to intercede on their behalf if they agreed to return to work. When they returned to the factory, however, they were blocked from entering by a police cordon and were all told that they had been fired. The company refused to provide further explanation than a statement from some of the foreign managers, Mr. Coulton, who said they were inept and that was due to the dismissal. Instead, they attempted to replace them with staff from other sections, whilst at the same time refusing to recognise the Sindicat Únic d'Aigua, Gas i Electricitat de la CNT (Single Union of Water, Gas and Electricity of the CNT) as an interlocutor.
Workers at another Barcelona plant stage a sit-in later in the week in support of their comrades.
vagacanadenca.blogspot.co.uk/search/label/11_Diari d'un obrer

1924 - The first issue of the duplicated news-sheet 'La Lueur' (The Glow) [Epigraph: "Ni dieu ni maître - Bien-être et Liberté​"] appears in Tours, France.

1932 - Uwe Timm (d. 2014) German author of libertarian-oriented publications, anti-militarist and co-editor of the libertarian journal 'espero', born.

1936 - In Montevideo (Uruguay) the first issue of the monthly 48 page journal 'Esfuerzo' (Effort) 'Revista de Divulgacion Social' (Journal of Outreach).

1939 - Soledad Gustavo (Teresa Mañé i Miravet; b. 1865), Catalan anarchist propagandist and mother of Federica Montseny, an important figure in Spanish anarchism, dies. [see: Nov. 29]

[C] 1944 - Tadeusz Tyszka aka 'Lord' (b. unknown), Polish printshop worker, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Nazi combattant, is shot dead by police during the siege of his underground printshop on Francuska St. in Warsaw. The Germans confiscated the newly printed issue of an underground periodical 'Wzlot' (Uprising). The son of fighter of 1905 Revolution, before WWII, member of ZZZ. Captain in Main Military Department of the Syndykalistyczna Organizacja 'Wolność' (SOW-a; Syndicalist Organisation 'Freedom').
1861 - Alice Télot (d. 1918), French social worker, writer and anarchist, best known by her pen-name Jacques Fréhel, born. In April 1899, she met the anarchist writer Han Ryner (Henri Ner), with whom she started a clandestine affair, as she worked in child protection for a private charity, that remained secret until after her death when Ryner published 'Le Sillage Parfumé' (The Perfumed Wake') in 1958. Between late 1900 and early 1910 they collaborated ghost-writing for a feuilletonniste (writing serials) and indiviually she was the author of poems, novels and literary collections
'Dorine' (1890), 'Breton' (1891), 'Déçue' (1893) 'Tablettes d'Argile' (1894), 'Vaine Pâture' (1899), 'Le Cabaret des Larmes' (1902), 'Les Ailes Brisées' (1903') and 'La Guirlande Sauvage' (1911). Perhaps the best-known of her several novels is 'Le Précurseur' (1905), a philosophical love-story set in a kind of female phalanstery operating on the principles of Stoicism, Epicureanism and feminism. Many of her works were also published in various periodicals, including 'Boulevard Montmartre',' Le Figaro Illustré', 'La Fronde', 'Le Livre', 'La Nouvelle Revue', 'Nouvelle Revue Internationale Européenne', etc. Their protagonists are almost always women. Alice Télot died on January 5, 1918 in Paris due to pulmonary congestion.

## [B] 1864 - John Henry Mackay (d. 1933), gay Scottish individualist anarchist poet, writer and populariser of Stirner's writings, born. Author of 'Die Anarchisten' (The Anarchists) (1891) and 'Der Freiheitsucher' (The Searcher for Freedom) (1921).
"Ever reviled, accursed, ne'er understood,
Thou art the grisly terror of our age.
"Wreck of all order," cry the multitude,
"Art thou, & war & murder's endless rage."
0, let them cry. To them that ne'er have striven
The 'truth that lies behind a word to find,
To them the word's right meaning was not given.
They shall continue blind among the blind.
But thou, O word, so clear, so strong, so true,
Thou sayest all which I for goal have taken.
I give thee to the future! Thine secure
When each at least unto himself shall waken.
Comes it in sunshine? In the tempest's thrill?
I cannot tell - but it the earth shall see!
I am an Anarchist! Wherefore I will
Not rule, & also ruled I will not be!" - 'Anarchy'.

1872 - Luigi Bertoni (d. 1947), Swiss typographer and publisher of the bilingual newspaper 'Le Reveil Anarchiste' (The Anarchist Alarm Clock), who fought on the Huesca front during the Spanish Civil War, born.

1877 - Charles Desplanques (d. 1951), French anarchist, trade unionist and anti-militarist, born.

[F] 1881 - Congreso Obrero de Barcelona de 1881: The new Federación de Trabajadores de la Región Española is formed at a Conferencia Regional Extraordinaria (Extraordinary Regional Conference) held in Gracia [Feb. 6-9]. During the period in which the FRE-AIT had had to operate clandestinly (1874-1881), ideological and strategic differences had emerged within it and now, planning to take advantage of the pledge by the new liberal government chaired by Práxedes Mateo Sagasta to recognise freedom of association, a group within the Barcelona Local Federation of the FRE de la AIT (Josep Llunas i Pujals , Rafael Farga Pellicer , Antoni Pellicer i Paraire and Eudald Canivell i Masbernat) who proposed to change the policy of the Federal Commission, which had "moved away from the idea of ​​great labour movements, in favour of secret groups, partisans of direct action" called an extraordinary regional conference. The congress, which coincided with the passing of new freedom of association legislation [Real Decreto de 3 de febrero de 1881 (effective as on Apr. 1, 1881)] was attended by representatives of 39 local federations of the 'regions' of Eastern Andalusia, Western Andalusia, Valencia, Castile New, Old Castile and Catalonia. Of the members of the Federal Commission, only its secretary Anselmo Lorenzo attended. The Conference decided upon the dismissal of the Federal Council, the dissolution of the FRE of the AIT and the reconstruction of a powerful trade union movement.
www.rojoynegro.info/sites/default/files/El anarcosindicalismo y sus Congresos.Completo.pdf

##1893 - Kyūtarō Wada (和田 久太郎; February 20, 1928 ), Japanese anarchist, labour activist and haiku poet under the pen name Yoihachi (酔蜂), who was nicknamed Hisa-san (久さん) because of his warm personality, born. [expand]
He was sentenced to an indefinite prison term following a failed attempt to assassinate General Masatarō Fukuda (福田雅太郎) from a French restaurant in Tokyo in revenge for Fukuda's killing of his friend Ōsugi Sakae.
Suffering from chronic lung disease, he committed suicide in prison.

1899 - Debut of Sébastien Faure's daily anarchist paper, 'Le Journal du Peuple' (The People's Daily) in Paris.

1900 - Claude-François Georges Etiévant (b. 1865), French anarchist and anti-militarist, dies in the Îles du Salut penal colony in French Guiana having had his death sentence for a revenge attack on police in January 1898, that left 3 officers with only slight wounds, communicated to life. [see: Jun. 8 & Jan. 19]

1915 - Teofilo Navarro Fadrique aka 'Negro', 'Le Vieux' and 'Zapatero' (d. 2008), Spanish shoemaker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Franco resistance, born. An anarchist activist and member of the CNT from the age of 15, at the outbreak of hostilities in July 1936 he volunteered in the Durruti Column, later becoming a member of the 26th Division until the end of the war. Following Franco's victory, he and his partner Dolores Jiménez Álvarez, aka 'Blanca', entered France on February 11, 1939, via Puigcerda and Le Perthus. During his exile in France in Cordes and Toulouse, he was active in the Movimiento Libertario Español (MLE), Solidaridad Internacional Antifascista (SIA),the Juventudes Libertarias and in the Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI), occupying various positions of responsibility in both the MLE and SIA between 1945 and 1955.
During the 1940s, he was also a member of the Comisión de Defensa and the group of guides who assisted the passage of men and materials into Spain. A supporter of direct action, he and his wife Dolores Jiménez (with whom he had 3 children, Helios and the twins Juno and Blanca) collaborated with with many of the various action groups - especially with Francisco Sabaté Llopart and José Luis Facerías, crossing several times into Spain himself in 1946. In Toulouse he ran a shoe repair shop and was also responsible for a collective of cobblers, set up thanks to financial support from Cerrada Laureano Santos - mounted with silver furniture provided by Laureano Cerrada Santos (aka the 'anarchist entrepreneur'), before withdrawing after management had been questioned by some comrades.
Between 1950 and 1962, he and Blanca ran a FIJL arts youth group in Toulouse and, in the 1970s, they continued to support the armed struggle in Spain. In particular, they helped supply the comrades of the Defensa Interior (DI), Grupos de Acción Revolucionaria Internacionalista (GARI) and Movimiento Ibérico de Liberación (MIL), with weapons seized from the fleeing Nazi army during WWII and provided safe houses.

[E] 1915 - Soledad Estorach Esterri (d. 1993), Catalan anarcha-feminist militant and founding member of Mujeres Libres, born. Her schoolteacher father had spent many years working abroad and was consequently more liberal that his peers in the family's village, taught Soledad to read and write, something almost completely unheard of for girls of her class. He died when Soledad was just 11 years old and, as a consequence of his death, Soledad was forced to go to work in the local chemical industry in order to support the family. However, she was able to continue her education for a few hours a week courtesy of a friend of her father's, a teacher from a nearby village. Under pressure from her conservative religious mother to marry when she was fifteen years of age, something Soledad desperately did not want to happen, she managed to persuade her mother that she should move to Barcelona, where she could earn enough to support the family whilst continuing her education. Soledad prevailed over her mother's doubts and in Barcelona her first job was in her uncle's shop, but the shop was forced to close due to the economic crisis. Her second job was as a maid but the hours were long (5 a.m. to one in the morning) and the pay was poor, so she quit and got a job in a factory - the pay was better and she also had time to study. In the late 1930s she began attending night school classes organised by the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo. The following year, with the fall of the monarchy, she began attending an ateneo and joined their youth group, taking part in meetings and enjoying the sense of community and the excitement of collective action.
In 1934, Soledad and a number of other women CNT members, who included Pilar Grangel, Aurea Cuadrado and Conchita Liaño, began organising, forming a network of mutual support and holding meetings in the Barcelona building workers' local. This group went on to become the Grupo Cultural Femenino but face a struggle from within the ranks of the CNT for acceptance. In 1936, she was amongst those members that were active in the organisation of group's rally at the Teatro Olimpia in Barcelona in early 1936. Despite little support from the wider libertarian movement or publicity in its press, the meeting was packed and the ground work was laid for the establishment of a wider reagional organisation. Following contacts with the Madrid Mujeres Libres group, the Grupo changed its name to the Agrupación Mujeres Libres as part of the countrywide Mujeres Libres network. Along side fellow Mujeres Libres members such as Concha Liaño and Amparo Poch, Soledad was prominent defender of women's rights and one of the leading organisers of women in the working class neighbourhoods of Barcelona: raising awareness of the new organisation, holding meetings, setting up women's mutal aid networks and strategy meetings that went on to set up a babysitting and creche service for women workers. Soledad was also involved in the activities of the Casa de la Dona Treballadora (House of Women Workers), as well as being responsible for its finances.
That same year, Soledad and her sister Juana joined the Barcelona Joventuts Llibertàries group and, during the revolutionary events of July 1936, she served on the revolutionary committee of the Clot neighbourhood and was a local FIJL delegate during the war. On July 18, she was amongst those anarchists and workers from the Sindicat de la Construcció, street merchants and others who besieged the shipyard barracks and occupied the Casa Cambo on the Via Layetana, fortifying it and turning it into the FAI-CNT headquarters. Caught up in the revolutionary fervour, Soledad helped build barricades and appropriate theatre building, turning them into community kitchens, working to support the milicianas at the front. She also acted as CNT, FAI and FIJL representative for Aragón, Catalunya and parts of València, and collaborated on the publications 'Mujeres Libres' (1936-38) and 'Tierra y Libertad' (1938).
With the impending victory of Franco, Soledad was preparing to leave for France from Figueras on January 26, 1939, when she learnt that Pepita Carpeña and another of her Mujeres Libres comrades were trapped in Barcelona and, at the risk of her own life, she returned by car and rescued them. Exiled in France, she settled in Bordeaux in 1940 where she lived with her partner Andrés G. de la Riva and the same year was diagnosed with a serious heart complaint. In 1945, she returned clandestinely to Spain but was forced to return shortly afterwards due to the post-war upsurge in Francoist repression. In 1964, she began contributing to the re-launched 'Mujeres Libres' (1964-76), which was published in London and Montady under the editorship of Maria Suceso Portales Casamar and Sara Berenguer Guillén (Sara Berenguer Laosa).
Soledad Estorach died in Paris on March 14, 1993, following a long hospitalisation due to chronic heart disease. A chapter in the collective work 'Mujeres Libre: Luchadoras de la Libertad' (Mujeres Libre: Fighters for Freedom; 1999) is dedicated to her.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Despite press censorship (in place since January 17 and the suspension of the constitutional guarantees in the province of Barcelona), an article in the 'Diario de Barcelona' claims that La Canadiense workers have gone on strike and have talked with the governador civil, Carlos González Rothwos, and with Josep Puig i Cadafalch, president of the Mancomunitat de Catalunya (Commonwealth of Catalonia) and leader of the Lliga Regionalista.
The Sindicato Único de Artes Gráficas proposes a 'censura roja'

1919 - Benigna Galve (d. unknown), Spanish anarchist, who was especially active in the libertarian ateneus (free schools), born. Shortly before the outbreak of the Civil War, she became partner of the prominent anarchist Manuel Villar Mingo. At the end of the civil war they arrested by Franco's authorities and she spent four years in various prison, including València, Barcelona, Figueres and Madrid. Following her release, she continued to visit her partner in prison and, after spending 16 years apart, they had a son together. In 1960, the couple emigrated to Buenos Aires, where their old friend Diego Abad de Santillán help support them.

1932 - Camilo Cienfuegos Gorriarán (d. 1958), Cuban revolutionary who was raised in an anarchist family that had left Spain before the Spanish Civil War, becoming a key figure of the Cuban Revolution, along with Fidel Castro, Che Guevara, Juan Almeida Bosque and Raúl Castro, born.

1938 - Han Ryner (Jacques Élie Henri Ambroise Ner) (b. 1861), French teacher, anti-clericalist, pacifist, anarchist philosopher, dies. [see:Dec. 9]

1939 - 130,000 refugees cross the Spanish border, fleeing Franco's fascists.

1944 - René Viénet, French sinologist, filmmaker, writer and publisher, who was a member of the Internationale Situationniste between 1963 and 1971 until he resigned, born.

1954 - Maurice Eugène Marie Hallé (b. 1888), French anarchist activist, poet and songwriter, dies. [see: Oct. 17]

1975 - Hélène Patou (b. 1902), French writer, militant anarchist, néo-Malthusian and artist's model (Matisse and Picabia, among others) who was a member of the Durruti column, dies. [see: Feb. 3]

1991 - René E. Mueller (Ernst René Müller; b. 1929), Swiss writer, poet, Lebenskünstler and anarchist, dies. [see: May 3]
1870 - Henri Gauche (aka René or Henri Chaughi) (d. 1926), French militant anarchist journalist for Jean Grave's journal 'La Révolte' and the arts and literature review 'La Plume', born.

1885 - The execution by beheading in Halle of German anarchists Emil Küchler, Franz Reinhold Rupsch and August Reinsdorf, implicated in the failed assassination attempt against the German Kaiser and Princes at the unveiling ceremony of the Niederwald Monument to the glory of the German armies on September 28, 1883 . Whilst Küchler and Rupsch were the authors of the attentat, Reinsdorf refused to implicate his comrades and defended his anarchist beliefs till the end.
"The workers build palaces and live in shacks; they produce everything and maintain the whole state machine, but for them nothing is done; they produce all industrial products, and yet they eat little and poorly, they are a always despised, brutal and superstitious feeling the full weight of slavery. Everything the government does, or tries to do, only ends up maintaining current relationships. The upper crust remains on the shoulders of the masses. Is it to be this way forever? Is it not our responsibility to change this state of affairs?" [Reinsdorf at the trial.]

1886 - Charles Gallo (d. 1887), French individualist anarchist, who on March 5, 1886, threw a bottle of hydrocyanic acid into the Paris Bourse, born. [expand]

1889 - Louis Louvet (d. 1971), French anarcho-syndicalist member of the Syndicat des Correcteurs d'Imprimerie involved in the printing of numerous anarchist publications, born.

1904 - The first edition of 'L'Emancipation', a libertarian weekly, is published in Lens (Pas-de-Calais). Epigraph by Elisée Reclus: "La politique est l'art d'écorcher le peuple sans le faire crier."

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Censorship of newspapers on the subject of the strike only 'Diario de Barcelona' has published a story about the extension of the strike. Newspapers and other publications receive the letter from the Sindicat d'Arts Gràfiques, Paper, Cartró i Similars (Union of Graphic Arts, Paper, Cardboard and Similar) outlining their plans for a 'censura roja', stating that their workers will not print newspapers that attempt to publish news contrary to the interests of the workers on strike.
The arrest of Daniel Rebull i Cabré, aka 'David Rey', is an important blow to the clandestine anarcho-syndicalist networks because it disarmed one of the publishing and distribution networks of 'Solidaridad Obrera', which had to be replaced by a network of 20 to 30 smaller clandestine presses.

## 1922 - Samuel Fielden (b. 1847), English-born American militant anarchist activist and propagandist, dies. Fielden was one of the three Haymarket Anarchits sentenced to death but not executed. Fielden's crime was to be stepping down from the speaker's platform when a bomb went off, wounding him. His sentence was commuted to life in prison on November 10, 1887, he eventually pardoned on June 26, 1893. [see: Feb. 25]

1929 - In Barcelona, the first issue of 'Iniciales: Revista de los Espiritus Libres' (Originals: Review of Free Spirits), an anarchist naturalist publication.

[B] 1941 - Maximilien Luce (b. 1858), French painter, engraver and anarchist, dies. As a child he witnessed the tragic events of the Paris Commune, later becoming part of the anarchist milieu and a friend of Jean Grave. In 1887 Pissarro , Seurat and Signac welcomed him into the Néo-Impressionists group. He also submitted numerous artworks to radical newspapers and was imprisoned in the anti-anarchist hysteria following the acts of Ravachol and Valliant. [see: Mar. 13]

1958 - André Prevotel (b. 1910), French postal/telegraph service worker, anarchist and néo-Malthusian, who was involved in the stérilisés de Bordeaux aka affaire Bartosek, dies. [see: Sep. 24]

##2008 - Pilar Molina Beneyto (b. 1949), Valencian writer, photographer, documentary filmmaker, historian, anarcho-syndicalist and anarcha-feminist, dies. [see: Apr. 11]
1878 - Severino Albarracín Broseta (b. 1850), Spanish teacher, anarchist internationalist and prominent figure in the Federación Regional Española, dies. Leading participant in the insurrectionary strike of Alcoy in July 1873, where nearly ten thousand workers seized the city. Arrested for his role in the insurrection, he eventually goes into exile in Switzerland.

1905 - [O.S. Jan. 26] One of the quoted dates for the death of Kosta Nunkov [Коста Нунков], aka David Ognyanov [Нунков Огнянов](Konstantin Ivanov Nunkov [Константин Иванов Нунков]; b. 1877), Bulgarian revolutionary, anarchist, a member of the Macedonian Committee (Македонския комитет) and a Kumanov leader of the Inner Macedonian-Odrin Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешната македоно-одринска революционна организация). [see: Jun. 20]

1910 - Hans Henrik Jæger (b. 1854), Norwegian writer, novelist, philosopher and anarchist advocate of naturalism, dies. [see: Sep. 2]

[F] 1912 - San Diego Free Speech Fight: The San Diego Free Speech Fight began officially on February 8, 1912, when an ordinance banning street-speaking within a six-square-block "congested" area went into effect... That night, police arrested 38 men and three women and charged them with "conspiracy to commit a crime". [expand]

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The 'La Canadiense' strike in Barcelona begins. Taking its name from the principle electrical company involved, it lasts 44 days and extends to other companies, becoming a General Strike — paralysing the whole city and industry. The government declares martial law and imprisons 3,000 striking members of the CNT. By mid-March the company has agreed to reinstate all workers with wage increases and introduce an 8-hour day; those imprisoned during the strike are also to be released. Over 20,000 people turn out to greet the release of the CNT leaders and hear them (including Salvador Segui) speak. The end of the strike is declared, but in the face of the refusal of the army to release a score of still imprisoned militants, the workers go on strike again on March 24, 1919, in a display of their solidarity, which ends April 14 with the victory of the strikers. [REWRITE]

## 1921 - Peter Kropotkin (b. 1842), Russian geographer, anarchist theorist and organiser, dies from pneumonia in the city of Dimitrovo, near Moscow. [see: Dec. 9]

1933 - Sucesos de Casas Viejas: A motion to set up a Comisión de Investigación (commission of inquiry) into the events in Casas Viejas is defeated by 123 votes to 81.

1937 - Malaga falls to Franco's forces.

[E] 1938 - Olga Iljinicna Taratuta [Ольги Іллівни Таратути (uk) / Ольга Ильинична Таратута (ru)], aka Babushka ,Valia, Tania, D. Basist (real name Elka Golda Eljevna Ruvinskaia [Елька Гольда Еліївна Рувинська (uk) / Элька Гольда Эльевна Рувинская (ru)]; b. 1876*), Ukrainian teacher, anarcho-communist revolutionary and founder of the Ukrainian Anarchist Black Cross, is tried and condemned to death, accused of anarchist and anti-Soviet activities. She is executed the same day. [see: Feb. 2]
[* some sources give 1874 or 1878]

1942 - Lucien Barbedette (b. 1890), French professor and anarchist, who wrote for many newspapers and reviews, and worked on Sébastien Faure's 'Anarchist Encyclopedia', dies. [see: Aug. 13]

1951 - The first issue of the monthly Italian newspaper of "propaganda for social emancipation", 'Seme Anarchico' (The Anarchist Seed), is published in Turin and continues in print until March 1968.

1999 - Luísa Adão (Luísa Do Carmo Franco Elias Adão; b. 1914), militant Portuguese anarcho-syndicalist, anarchist, nurse and life-long companion of Acácio Tomás de Aquino, dies. [see: Jun. 19]
1849 - Giovanni Passannante (d. 1910), Italian anarchist who attempted to assassinate king Umberto I of Italy, born. [Possible date of birth but Feb. 19, 1849 the more likely correct date.]

1881 - [O.S. Jan. 28] Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky (Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский; b. 1821), Russian novelist, short story writer and essayist, dies. [see: Nov. 11]

1883 - The first issue of 'La Federación Igualadina: Órgano de las Secciones Federadas en Igualada', anarchist federalist and collectivist weekly, is published in Igualada (a municipality of the province of Barcelona). In print until 17 July 1885 (issue 128).

1890 - The first issue (of only 2 ever editions) of the weekly 'Le Bandit du Nord: Organe Anarchiste' is published in Roubaix, northern France.

## 1893 - Charles-Auguste Bontemps (d. 1981), French 'Social Individualist' anarchist, pacifist, freethinker and naturist activist, prolific writer and poet, born. He collaborated in the anarchist publication 'Ce Qu'Il Faut Dire' led by Sebastien Faure, was later a member of Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste during the Spanish civil war and prominent in the rebuilding of the Francophone Fédération Anarchiste in 1945 and again in 1953.

1923 - Émile Masson (b. 1869), Breton militant, professor, writer and libertarian socialist propagandist, dies. A friend of Élisée Reclus and of Kropotkin, he took part in the universitaire populaires (1899–1905) and later on tried to reconcile his libertarian socialism and his Breton nationalist sympathies. Author of 'Les Rebelles' (1908), "anarchico-bretons" tales. [see: Jul. 28]

[F] 1932 - Last issue of the 'Syndikalist' published by the Dresden FAUD (anarcho-syndicalist Free Worker's Union - Germany), is suppressed by the Nazis.

1947 - Alexandre Mairet (Charles-Alexandre Jean-Mairet; b. 1880), Swiss painter, wood cut specialist, illustrator and anarchist, who collaborated with the libertarian press and particularly with the 'Réveil Anarchiste', whose header he redrew in 1930, dies in Geneva "sans confession" as the obituaries quanitly put it. [see: Apr. 24]

1948 - The first issue of the monthly journal 'Alba Roja' (Red Dawn) is published in Mexico.

[B] 1948 - Karl Valentin (Valentin Ludwig Fey; b. 1882), German comedian, cabaret performer, clown, author, film producer and anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 4]

[A] 1969 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Bank of Spain in Liverpool bombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

##1980 - The joint Crass / Poison Girls ‎'Bloody Revolutions' / 'Persons Unknown' single, a benefit release that raised £20,000 to fund the Wapping Autonomy Centre, is recorded over two days at Southern Studios in London.

1983 - Marie-Adele Anciaux aka Mary Smiles (b. 1887), French anarchist militant, anti-vivisectionist and libertarian teacher, lifelong companion of Stephen Mac Say, dies. [see: Mar. 8]

2007 - Alexandre de Fisterra [gl.] or Alejandro Finisterre [sp] (Alexandre Campos Ramirez; b. 1919), Galician anarchist poet, editor, academic, and inventor of futbolín, the Spanish version of table football, dies in Zamora, Castilla y León, aged 87 years old. [see: May 6]

[C] 2012 - Nikita Kalin (Никита Калин; b. 1991), 20-year-old Russian anarchist and anti-fascist activist is found stabbed to death on the campus of the Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of the Sciences [FIAN] in Samara. He had 61 seperate knife wounds and had suffered extensive rib and head injuries in what was obviously a fascist attack. [see also: Oct. 31]
1794 - Jacques Roux (b. 1752), radical Roman Catholic priest (curé rouge), a precursor of socialism and modern anarchism, stabs himself and dies whilst recovering from a previous suicide attempt in a Paris prison cell. Active during the French Revolution, he was a spokesman for the poorest of the sans-culottes and leader of the Enragés, denouncing those monopolising the revolution, the speculator, the merchant — and also government and the whole apparatus of the parliamentary state. In 1791 he was elected to the (first) Paris Commune and in 1793 he proclaimed his 'Manifeste des Enragés' (Manifesto of the Madmen), in which he demanded the abolition of private property and class society in the name of the people he represented. His incendiary rhetoric was also instrumental in precipitating a series of food riots, further enraging the Jacobins against him and leading to the laying of charges of being a foreign spy attempting to overthrow the revolutionary government. The Committee of Public Safety instigated an investigation against him into alleged embezzlement of charitable funds and thrown into prison in September 1793. On January 14, 1794, when informed that his case was going to be tried by the Revolutionary Tribunal, Roux tried unsuccessfully to kill himself, only to succeed one month later. [see: Aug. 21]

##1869 - Octave Jahn (d. 1917), French anarchist who helped found the 'League of Anti-Patriots' in 1886. born. Participant in numerous strikes and other industrial actions since the age of 15, he was jailed for 2.5 years for his part (strident revolutionary oratory at meetings) in the May 1897 strike in the Hainaut area of Belgium. He subsequently became a tireless propagandist anarchist, travelling (despite numerous convictions and several stretched in jail) through France, North Africa, Switzerland, England and Spain, countries where he lived until 1909. He then moved to Mexico, where he participated in the revolution and helped found the Ferrer school in 1915.

1872 - Eugene Bigel (d. unknown), Ardennes anarchist worker and advocate of direct action, born. He dynamited numerous police stations, inflicting material and psychological damage. His last attempted bombing, July 15, 1891, at the residence of an industrialist, failed to explode and was traced to him. Bigel received a heavy sentence and was sent to the prison colony in Cayenne.

[EE] 1886 - Hiratsuka Raichō (平塚 らいちょう [or 平塚雷鳥]) (Hiratsuka Haru [平塚 明]; d. 1971), Japanese writer, journalist, political activist, anarchist and pioneer of feminism in Japan, who founded the monthly feminist magazine 'Seitō' (青鞜 / Bluestocking), born. Raichō [her chosen name means 'Thunderbird'] founded 'Seitō' in 1911 with Yasumochi Yoshiko, Mozume Kazuko, Kiuchi Teiko and Nakano Hatsuko, all fellow members of the Seitō-sha (青鞜社 / Bluestocking Society). The first issue opened with the statement: "In the beginning, a woman was the sun" (元始、女性は太陽であった), which was considered as the opening Declaration of Women's Rights in Japan many later thought it was a reference to the Shinto goddess Amaterasu and the then-popular idea that early (i.e. prehistoric) Japanese societies were matriarchal, however Raichō conceived of it as a rebuttal of the Nietzschean concept of the inferiority of all women. Initially focusing on women's literature, 'Seitō' soon began to carry essays and editorials written from an expressly feminist viewpoint and covering a wide variety of issues that were not covered elsewhere: gender equality, the legalising prostitution and abortion, women's suffrage, female sexuality, chastity, and adultery. The magazine's subject matter and its increasingly radical nature eventually drew the attention of the authorities, resulting in a number of bans under the 1900 Public Order and Police Law (治安警察法) the April 1912 edition was banned due to the subject matter (adultery) of the story 'Letters' (手紙), in its pages and the June 1915 issue for an article on abortion, whilst another edition was removed from sale because of an article was critical of private capital!
'Seitō' eventually closed in 1916. However, Raichō continued to live by the concept of the 'new woman' (shin-fujin / 新婦人) that she and the other Seitō-sha members had argued in favour of in the paper's pages, living openly with her younger lover, the artist Okumura Hiroshi (奥村博史), who she had begun a relationship in 1914. The couple would go on to have two children together and did not legally marry until 1941. In 1919, Raichō formed the Shin-Fujin Kyokai (新婦人協会 / New Woman's Association) together with fellow women's rights activist Ichikawa Fusae (市川 房枝), following an investigation that she had carried into female workers' conditions in textile factories in Nagoya. The first Japanese organisation formed expressly for the improvement of the status and welfare of women, Shin-Fujin Kyokai was instrumental in establishing the Women's Suffrage Movement in Japan, campaigning on the rights of women to attend political meetings and join political organisations. Shin-Fujin Kyokai effectively folded in 1923 and, with Okumura in poor health, Raichō largely withdrew from public life though she continued to write essays and lecture
In the post-war period Raichō joined the Japanese Communist Party (Nihon Kyōsan-tō / 日本共産党) and became a prominent member of the peace movement. She was amongst those members of the Japan Women's Movement (婦人運動家) who travelled to the United States when the Korean War broke out to present the US Secretary of State Dean Acheson with the 'Request for peace by Japanese women' (日本女性の平和への要望書), arguing for Japan to remain neutral and pacifist. In 1955, Raichō was involved in the creation of the Committee of Seven for World Peace Appeal and, in 1962, of the New Japan Women's Association (新日本婦人の会).
Hiratsuka Raichō continued to write and lecture up until her death on May 24, 1971 from cancer of the gall bladder.

1888 - Giuseppe Ungaretti (d. 1970), Italian modernist poet, journalist, essayist, critic and academic, born. Briefly associated with the Dadaists, he developed his own poetics which he labelled Hermeticism. For a time he was also an anarchist sympathiser, getting to know Mussolini is his socialist phase, but like Mussolini and many of Ungaretti's Futurist friends, supported the irredentist position at the outbreak of WWI and went on to become an active Fascist.

[C] 1888 - Giuseppe Pasotti (d. 1951), Italian anarcho-syndicalist and member of the Italian League of Human Rights, born. In 1911 he served 3 months for having stopped blacklegs going to work, took part in the Red Week of 1914, and in 1918 the War Tribunal of Milan issued an arrest warrant for his incitement to desertion. In the early thirties he emigrated to France with his family and took part in various anti-fascist demonstrations and attacks on Italian fascists, for which the Frencch authorities tried to deport him. he also ran, alongside his son Nullo, a network to smuggle militants and materials into Spain during the Civil War and was active in recruiting Italians to the republican cause and was head of the political investigations bureau of the Spanish FAI, responsible for handing out entry documents for Spain. Framed for a March 1937 bomb explosion on a Port Bou-Marseilles train, he got 3 months in jail. Moving to Spain, he eventually left for Tunis in early 1939. He returned to Italy post-Liberation only to move permantly to Tunisia, disgusted by the 'Historic Compromise' between the Communist Party and the Christian Democrats.

1890 - [N.S. Feb. 22] Fanya Yefimovna Kaplan [Фа́нни Ефи́мовна Капла́н] (Feiga Haimovna Roytblat [Фейга Хаимовна Ройтблат]; d. 1918), Russian Socialist Revolutionary and one-time anarchist, who unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate Lenin at the 'Hammer and Sickle' factory on August 31, 1918, born. [see: Feb. 22]

1892 - Four anarchists, Manuel Fernández Reina (25 years old), José Fernández Lamela (25), Manuel Silva Leal (44) and Zarzuela Antonio Granja (34 years old) are garrotted in Jerez, Anddalusia, victims of the repression that followed the peasant revolt of January 8.

## 1901 - Suesaburō [or Shuzaburō] Sasai (笹井 末三郎; d. 1969), Japanese anarchist, actor and filmmaker, who founded the Makino Torquay Manufactory (マキノトーキー製作所) film company and appeared in the classic Japanese silent film 'Tôkyô Kôshinkyoku' or 'Tokyo March' (東京行進曲; 1929), directed by Kenji Mizuguchi (溝口健二), born.

[F] 1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: The first group of 119 children leave the city from the Franco-Belgian Hall (Lawrence IWW offices) bound for New York, under a scheme organised by Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, to be temporarily fostered at supporters homes in the city for the duration of the strike. They are met by 5,000 members of the Italian Socialist Federation and the Socialist Party singing the 'Marseille' and the 'Internationale'.
Seventy are Belgian or French-Canadian. One such child was a French girl named Marthe and in a letter printed in 'L'Emancipation', she recalled, "The great strike . . . prompted my exodus," and that her parents greatly benefited from the strike. She became close friends with the daughter of the family that took her in.
Everyone of the 119 children sent to New York was found on physical examination to be suffering from malnutrition, in some form. As Bill Haywood most eloquently put it, "Those children had been starving from birth. They had been starved in their mothers' wombs. And their mothers had been starving before the children were conceived."
www.wsc.mass.edu/mhj/pdfs/Bread, roses, and other possibilities.pdf

1916 - A high society banquet to honor Archbishop George Mundelein was held in Chicago. Unbeknownst to the 200 some attendees, however, was the ill intent of the chef, Nestor Dondoglio aka 'Jean Crones'. A fervent anarchist of the Galleanist persuasion, Dondoglio had poisoned the soup with arsenic. However, in his haste, Dondoglio had added too much poison, inducing his victims to vomit up the mixture and thus killing no one. Though over a hundred diners became violently ill, the Archbishop remained unscathed, having passed on the soup. Jean Crones was able to escape the scene and into hiding. Police later raided his apartment, discovering the would-be assassin’s true identity, Nestor Dondoglio, a German immigrant, as well as a score of carefully prepared poisons (see bottom image) alongside a variety of "anarchist materials".
From hiding, Dondoglio sent taunting letters to the New York Times boasting of his plot, saying "I am sorry that all or not at least 100 got killed for the world would be better without them". He promised to strike again and laughed at the feeble attempts of the police to find him. He was never caught.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: There is no light on the streets of Barcelona and the La Canadiense management gives an ultimatum to the strikers to return to work.

#### [B] 1920 - Alex Comfort (d. 2000), British physician, gerontologist, sexologist, anarchist, pacifist, poet, novelist, etc., born. Comfort considered himself "an aggressive anti-militarist", and believed that pacifism rested "solely upon the historical theory of anarchism" - he even formed a peace corps in opposition to this school's army cadets. He was an active member of the Peace Pledge Union (PPU) and Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament [running a mobile pirate radio station broadcasting anti-nuclear propaganda to the factory workers building Blue Streak missiles in Stevenage], and a conscientious objector in World War II.
A poet talked of in the same breath as Auden and Spender, he also wrote novels [including 'No Such Liberty' (1941), which compared British wartime actions to Nazi Germany's (George Orwell reviewing the book declared its author "objectively pro-Fascist"); 'The Power House' (1944); 'On This Side Nothing' (1949); 'A Giant's Strength' (1952); 'Come Out to Play' (1961); 'Tetrarch' (1981); 'Imperial Patient' (1987); and 'The Philosophers' (1989) - a sci-fi satire on the Thatcher government]; a handful of plays; volumes of travel writing; studies of political corruption, medical ethics, eastern philosophy; works on gerontology, on human evolution and art ['Art and Social Responsibility' (1946)]. He also wrote the preface to 'Outlaw of the Lowest Planet' (1946), a collection of Kenneth Patchen's poems.
However, 'The Joys of Sex: A Gourmet Guide to Lovemaking' (1972) is the book that he will always be remembered for (Comfort would have much preferred to be remembered for his poetry) and should be seen as an anarchist elegy to personal responsibility and freedom from political and sexual repression.
His major writings on anarchism are 'Peace and Disobedience' (1946) and 'Authority and Delinquency in the Modern State' (1946), with many of his writing on anarchism collected in 'Writings Against Power and Death' (1994).

1932 - CNT proclaims a General Strike; insurrections follow. Within the week the Catalan city of Terrassa is taken over and anarchist communism is declared. [expand]

1938 - Pedro Masera Polo (b. 1877), Spanish miner and anarchist is sentenced to death and executed, his body buried in a mass grave the Soldedad de Huelva cemetery, along with between 2000 and 4,000 other victims of the Francoist terror.

1952 - Alfred Sanftleben (aka Slovak; b. 1871), militant German anarchist, also active in Switzerland and the US. dies. Typesetter and translator, friend of Max Nettlau, Gustav Landauer (collaborating on 'Der Sozialist' and 'La Révolte'), Rudolf Rocker and the Flores Magón brothers (translating articles into English for their paper, 'Regeneración'). [see: Aug. 23]

[E] 1953 - Maria Anna Rygier (also Maria Corradi-Rygier or Maria Rygier Corradi; b. 1885), Italian anti-militarist, syndicalist, anarchist propagandist, anti-fascist activist, and later a monarchist, dies. One-time editor at the socialist newspaper 'Il Popolo d'Italia', founded by Benito Mussolini in 1914. Later an anti-fascist exile in France and wrote 'Rivelazioni sul Fuoruscitismo Italiano in Francia' (Revelations about Antifascist Exiles in France; 1946). [see: Dec. 5]

1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Ian Purdie is imprisoned for 9 months for throwing a petrol bomb at the Ulster Office in Saville Row during an Irish Civil Rights Campaign march. [Angry Brigade chronology]
1869 - Hendrik Ebo Kaspers (d. 1953), Dutch author, administrator and editor of 'De Arbeider' (The Worker), anti-militarist and anarchist, born.

1876 - Edward Joris (d. 1957), Belgian clerk and anarchist, who was involved in the July 21, 1905, assassination attempt on Sultan Abdülhamit II at the Yıldız Hamidiye Mosque in Constantinople, for which he was sentenced to death and later pardoned, born. [expand]
Ghent-born Edward Joris who works in Konstantinopel for the firm Singer convinces Armenian friends to organize an attack against the Sultan Abdul Hamid. The attack failed. Joris is sentenced to death. King Leopold II uses his influence to grant Joris pardon and release.
On December 23, 1907, he was suddenly released and Joris returned to Belgium

1879 - [N.S. Feb. 23] Kazimir Malevich (d. 1935), Suprematist painter and anarchist who, like many other avant garde artists, fell foul of the Communist authorities, born. [see: Feb 23]

##1881 - Carlo Carrà (d. 1966), Italian futurist painter and author, born. An anarchist in his early years, he painted his famous futurist work 'The Funeral of the Anarchist Galli' (1910-11), which Carrà was present at, in that period. However, he became an ultra-nationalist during WWI and, like many of the Futurist, later became active Fascists, signing a manifesto which called for support of the state ideology through art.

1884 - Jenny Hamilton Patrick (d. 1971), Scottish typesetter, printer and prominent Glasgow anarchist, born. [expand]
went to Spain with Ethel MacDonald, working in the Ministry of Information in Madrid

1887 - Clément Duval, anarchist expropriator and member of La Panthère des Batignolles, is condemned to death.

1888 - Joseph Ishill (d. 1966), Romanian-American anarchist typesetter, born. One of the founders of the Ferrer Colony was founded in Stelton, N.J. in 1915, Ishill began helping print the Colony's magazine, 'The Modern School', and a year later he published Oscar Wilde's 'The Ballad of Reading Gaol'. From the publication of that book in 1916 until his death fifty years later, Ishill published more than 200 books and pamphlets, all of them typeset and printed by hand, mostly via the Oriole Press, which he founded in 1926.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

[C] 1890 - Virgilia d'Andrea (d. 1932), Italian anarchist poetess, anti-fascist, teacher and writer, born. She first became interested in anarchism aged 12 at convent school when the nuns made her pray for the dead King Umberto I, who had been shot and killed by the anarchist Gaetano Brescia in revenge for the May 1898 Protesta dello Stomaco (Protest of the Stomach) massacre. Her sympathies were more with the young avenger than the king. Her curiosity aroused, she began to supplement her passion for poetry by reading political works. Qualifying as a teacher, she left the convent in 1908 and taught in a number of elementary schools in the Abruzzo region. She joined the Italian Socialist Party, helping establish a women's section. But having witnessed the Settimana Rosso (Red Week) in Milan in 1914 and the state's inadequate response to the 1915 Abruzzo earthquake, she became even more radicalised, participating in the anti-interventionist movement at the beginning of WWI and developing a greater admiration for the anarchists she met. In 1917 she was introduced to the anarcho-syndicalist Armando Borghi, secretary of the USI (Union Syndicale Italian) and its newspaper, the weekly 'Guerra di Classe’ (Class War), then interned in Abruzzo. He would become her life-long companion and collaborator. She then became involved in the USI (editing 'Guerra di Classe’ when Borghi was exiled to Isernia), giving talks and writing prose for the movement in addition to her poetry. The political police also began to take notice of her, labelling her an effective and dangerous radical anti-war agitator and she too was placed under house arrest for the duration of the war.
In 1922 D'Andrea published her first book of poetry, 'Tormento' (Torment), which featured an introduction by Errico Malatesta. The Italian state seized and banned all copies, charging her prose with the ability to disrupt public order and incite class hatred. Sadly, the rest of her literary output is slim: 'L’Ora di Maramaldo’ (The Hour of the Defenceless; 1925), a collection of prose published in France in 1928; and 'Torce Nella Notte’ (Torches in the Night; 1933), a collection of articles and treatises published in New York a few days before her death.
With the rise of fascism, something d'Andrea was to label as a war of violence waged against civilisation, she wrote advocating an all-out struggle against it: "attacking fascism amounts to a defence of humanity's present and future." Inevitably, her and Borghi's high profile anti-fascist activities led to death threats and, following the fascist March on Rome, the went into exile, first in Berlin (1923), then Paris (1924), where she founded the magazine 'Veglia' (Vigil) and became active in support of Sacco and Vanzetti, then finally to the US in 1928. There they continued their political activities, campaigning for Sacco and Vanzetti, doing anti-fascist work whilst collaborating on the anarchist newspaper 'L'Adunata dei Refratari’ (Call of the Refractaires [i.e. the unmanageable]). Meanwhile her health deteriorated and she was diagnosed with bowel cancer. On May 1, 1933, she was hospitalised in New York and died a few days later, during the night of May 11, aged forty-three.

“Ancora due che salgono il monte del martirio”, mi disse qualcuno con la voce piena di tristezza.
“Ma siamo qui tutti noi” rispose un giovanetto forte a cui i venti anni empivano d’avvenire le pupille radiose.
“Viva Sacco e Vanzetti!” gridò un fanciullo esuberante, e agitò un lembo della bandiera guardando fissamente in alto…
…Non so se il cielo grigio che pesava sul nostro capo o la distesa fresca e canora dei suoi magnifici sogni…
“Non vi addolorate, non vi scoraggiate per il nostro destino” essi avevano scritto. “Ci vogliono morti e sia”.
Io avevo guardato a lungo la lettera dei due morituri. Non una lacrima, non una esitazione, non una sillaba mal certa.
I due uomini che hanno vissuto da anni a faccia a faccia con la morte si sono sovrumanati si sono sublimati.
Avrebbero potuto impazzire.
Hanno invece saputo trovare nella sapiente capacità dello spirito loro, tutto il perchè vero e vivo della vita.
Avrebbero potuto morire.
Hanno saputo invece ricercare nell’intrico dell’oscurità che non ha più mattino, la sorgente sovrana che rinnova lo spirito.
Avrebbero potuto rinnegare.
Hanno saputo invece serbare per i viventi, dopo i colloqui aspri e freddi con la morte, le parole più belle e più pure dello spirito che si denuda per la tomba.
Quelle che sorgono nel cuore allorchè recisa è la visione dei sogni.
Quelle che sembrano raccolte da una fiorita di rose.
Quelle che sembrano distaccate da una roccia di perle.

("Two more to go up the mountain of the martyr," someone said to me, her voice full of sadness.
"But we are all of us here," said a young man whose strong in the twenty years empivano of the future pupils radiant.
"Viva Sacco and Vanzetti , "cried an exuberant child, and waved a piece of the flag looking steadily at the top ...
I do not know ... if the gray sky that weighed on our head or the expanse of fresh and beautiful singing of his dreams ...
"Do not grieve, do not be discouraged for our destiny," they had written. "It takes dead and it is."
I had a long look at the letter of the two moribund. Not a tear, not a hesitation, not a syllable sore certain.
The two men who have lived for years in face-to-face with death were sovrumanati you are sublimated.
They could go crazy.
Instead, they have been able to find the skilled ability of spirit, because all the true and living life.
They could die.
They knew how to be sought in the tangle of darkness that no longer am, the sovereign source that renews the spirit.
They could deny.
They have instead been able to preserve the living, after talks harsh and cold with death, the words most beautiful and purest spirit that is laid bare to the grave.
Those that are in the heart severed policies where is the vision of dreams.
What appear gathered from a flowering of roses.
Those that seem detached from a rock of pearls.)
- extract from 'Torce Nella Notte’ (Torches in the Night; 1933)


1892 - The issue of the annual publication 'L'Antipatriote: Plus de Frontières! -L'Humanité Libre!' appears in Brussels. Epigrams "Patriotism is the last refuge of scoundrels" [A. Spies] and "Our enemy, is our master" [La Fontaine]. The 1894 issue will be prosecuted for "inciting disobedience".

1904 - Élie Reclus (Jean-Pierre Michel; b. 1827), French journalist, anthropologist and anarchist revolutionary, brother of Elisha Reclus, dies. [see: Jun. 16]

1916 - Shortly before she is about to give a public lecture, Emma Goldman is arrested yet again and charged with violating the Comstock Law, this time for distributing information about birth control during a lecture in New York City the previous month. At her court case in April, she is convicted of violating Section 1142 of the New York State Criminal Code and, rather than paying the $100 fine, opts to spend fifteen days in the Queens County Penitentiary instead, something she saw as an "opportunity" to reconnect with those rejected by society.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Following yesterday's ultimatum by the La Canadiense management, a handful of workers have returned to work. Now, workers at the Astilleros Minguell SA shipyards begin a sympathy strike. Santiago Pascual, a 29-year-old union delegate from Tarrasa, who had been attacked several times before by the police, is ambushed by comany pistoleros and seriously injured.

1922 - Gino (Biagio) Cerrito (d. 1982), Italian militant anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist historian, born. Professor d'Història Contemporània a la Facultat de Magisteri de la Universitat de Florència. Author of 'L'Antimilitarismo Anarchico in Italia nel Primo Ventennio del Secolo' (Anarchist Antimilitarism in the First Two Decades of the Century; 1968), 'Le Origini del Movimento Operaio in Italia' (The Origins of the Labour Movement in Italy; 1969) and many other books.

1930 - Felice Vezzani, aka V. Enizza, Félix, Lux (b. 1855), Italian painter, decorator, artist, writer and anarchist propagandist, who was active in Italy, the US, Argentina and France, dies in Paris. [see: May 26]

1943 - Carlo Tresca (b. 1879), Italian-born American newspaper editor, orator, labour organiser, prominent Industrial Workers of the World activist and anti-fascist, is shot in the back and the head, killing him instantly. His assassin is believed to have been Carmine Galante, acting on the order of Frank Garofalo, Maffia underboss to Fascist sympathiser Joseph Bonanno. [see: Mar. 9]

1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: The house in Grosvenor Avenue, Islington, where Jake Prescott had been staying, is raided by the police. The house is searched for explosives. Diaries, address books, newspapers and other articles are taken away. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Police forcibly remove four defence witnesses who were due to give evidence in the trial at Bow Street Magistrates court of the people arrested at the Miss World contest protests in November 1970. Charges are brought against Scotland Yard for assault (of those dragged away from Bow Street) and for wrongful arrest and imprisonment. [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]

## 1977 - Jyri Antero Jaakkola (d. 2010), Finnish anarchist and human rights activist, who was shot dead by UBISORT, Unión de Bienestar Social de la Región Triqui a state-sponsored paramilitary organisation connected to Institutional Revolutionary Party, whilst en route to San Juan Copala, a village of indigenous Trique people that has declared itself an autonomous zone in the Mexican state of Oaxaca, born.

1979 - Belgrado Pedrini (b. 1913), Italian writer, poet, anarchist and partisan, dies. [see: May 5]

1981 - Ramón Lafragueta (b. 1905), Spanish railway worker, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, dies. [see: Aug. 24]

1994 - Paul Feyerabend (b. 1924), Anarchist philosopher and anti-scientist, dies. [see: Jan 13]
"Science is an essentially anarchic enterprise: theoretical anarchism is more humanitarian and more likely to encourage progress than its law-and-order alternatives."

1994 - Mercedes Comaposada i Guillén (b. 1901), militant Catalan anarcho-feminist, teacher and lawyer, dies. Born into a militant household, she starts work at an early age and becomes an editor at a film production company and joins the CNT Public Performances in Barcelona. Later, after studying law, she became a women's educator and helped found the Mujeres Libres in April 1936 and started publishing the group's magazine, illustrated by her partner, the libertarian sculptor Baltasar Lobo. After the defeat of the Republic, she and Lobo move to Paris under the wing of Pablo Picasso, where she works as a secretary and translates the work of a number of Castilian writers, especially Lope de Vega.
She also contributed to the 'Mujeres Libres' magazine (and was also editor in chief), 'Ruta' , 'Tiempos Nuevos' , 'Tierra y Libertad' and 'Umbral'. She was also author of 'Esquemas' (Schemes; 1937, a book of poetry), 'Las Mujeres en Nuestra Revolución' (Woment in Our Revolution; 1937), 'La Ciencia en la Mochila' (Science in a Rucksack; 1938), 'Conversaciones Cono los Artistas Españoles de la Escuela de París' (Coverstions with Spanish Artists of the Paris School; 1960, under the pseudonym Mercedes Guillén), 'Picasso' (1973, as Mercedes Guillén) and an unpublished work 'Mujeres Libres'. [see: Aug. 14]

1995 - Attilio Bortolotto aka 'Tilio' and Arthur Bartell (b. 1903), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Sep. 19]

2010 - Colin Ward (b. 1924), English anarchist, social theorist and writer, dies. [see: Aug. 14]
1837 - Carl Ludwig Börne (b. 1786), German journalist, literary and theatre critic and political satirist, who was singled out by Gustav Landauer in 'Börne und der Anarchismus' (1900) as an early German forerunner of anarchism, dies. [see: May 6]

1851 - Francesca Saperas i Miró (d. 1933), Catalan seamstress, and militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. In 1869, she married anarchist shoemaker Martí Borràs Jover, first director of the paper 'Tierra y Libertad', on which Francesca also worked. In 1889, she helped organise a large rally in Barcelona's Plaza Cataluña in solidarity with striking German workers but the organisers were arrested and the demonstration never took place. In 1894, she was widowed when her partner committed suicide in jail after having written a letter to his wife saying goodbye affectionately. She then turned her house in the Calle Tallers into a shelter for persecuted anarchists and worked on the newspaper 'La Justicia Humana' (1895). Later she became a partner of Ascheri Fossati, who was sentenced to death in 1897, accused of being responsible for the attack on the Corpus Christi procession. A few hours before the execution, Francesca and Ascheri were married in his dungeon. During her time in Montjuïc prison she, like other condemned women prisoners, were tortured. In 1897, she was exiled to France, where she actively participated in the international campaign against the regime in Montjuïc, but returned the following year. Later she began a relationship with Francisco Callis, another victim of Montjuïc who would also commit suicide, unable to overcome the psychological effects of the suffering inflicted upon him. She emigrated to the Americas and lived between 1912-14 in Buenos Aires, later spending time in Mexico and the United States, returning to Barcelona permanently in 1923. During the late 1920s, she suffered from paralysis and a 1929 committee was set up to aid her. She died in August 1933 and only five of her ten children outlived her.

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: Within three days of Amadeo I's abdication on February 10, 1873, disorder had broken out in Sanlúcar de Barrameda. A revolutionary committee composed of the local anarchist council, perhaps including men such as Trinidad Gonzalez, who directed both the shoemakers' and masons' unions, had replaced the city council, imprisoned the police, and destroyed notarial records. This attack upon the government, clearly orchestrated by local anarchists, attempted to transform social relations in one town, and represented a sharp break with the Intransigent Republican pattern of insurrection, which limited its goal to mere political autonomy from the state, leaving social relations intact.
"... on the night of February 12 to 13, 1873, the mob assaulted the City Council producing wreckage and condemning to the pyre, among other symbolic objects of the previous power, marks of the fifth, At the same time as it burned the faithful destined to collect the most hated indirect taxes, the consumptions, suppression several times retracted by the governments of the Sexenio ". The city council presided over by Jose Maria Hontoria is dismissed. A Revolutionary Committee takes over the city government. The police are imprisoned and the notary records destroyed ..."

1882 - The first issue of 'Le Droit Social' (The Social Law), "Organe Socialiste Revolutionnaire", is published in Lyon. 'Le Droit Social' (12 Feb. - 23 July 1882) is the first in a long line of linked revolutionary papers to appear in the city - 'L'Etendard Révolutionnaire' (The Revolutionary Standard; 30 July - 15 Oct. 1882); 'La Lutte' (Struggle; 1 April - 9 Aug. 1883); 'Drapeau Noir' (Black Flag; 12 Aug. - 2 Dec. 1883); 'L'Emeute' (Riot; 9 Dec. 1883 - 20 Jan. 1884); 'Le Défi' (Challenege; 3 - 17 Feb. 1884); 'L'Hydre Anarchiste' (The Anarchist Hydra; 24 Feb. - 30 March 1884); 'L'Alarme' (The Alarm; 13 April - 1 June 1884); 'Le Droit Anarchique' (The Anarchist Line; 8 - 22 June 1884) and 'La Lutte Sociale' (The Social Struggle; 28 Aug. - 2 Oct. 1886), many of which carryied the motto: "Liberté - Egalité - Justice" but all closed down, victims of repression.

1885 - The first issue of the monthly magazine 'The Commonweal', the journal of the Socialist League, is published in London. William Morris was the manager, editor and chief writer until stripped of his post in 1889 in an anarchist 'coup' (anarchists having been in the majority within the Socialist League since 1887). The paper had eventually folded by the end of 1895, along with the League whose active members join the Freedom Group.

##[B] 1892 - Theodor Plievier (orig. Plivier; d. 1955), German novelist, writer and anarchist, born. During his early years he worked as a bricklayer's apprentice, sailor, panned gold in South America, vagabond, ranch hand, fisherman, barman and cook. He had a short story 'Proletariers Ende' published in 'die Freie Arbeiter' in 1909 and his WWI experiences, which included participating in the 1918 Wilhelmshaven mutiny, led to his sensational first novel, 'Des Kaisers Kulis' (The Kaiser’s Coolies; 1930), about the Keil revolt. Close to Müsham and Toller, in the early 1920s he started the anarchist publishing house Verlag der Zwölf (Publisher of the 12). An individualist anarchist, he lived largely in extreme poverty, cutting a rather odd messianic figure with his long red beard and street corner anti-war ranting.
Around this time he met the Russian anarchist Alexander 'Sascha' Shapiro - he features in Shapiro's wife's, the anarchist and journalist Hanka Grothendieck (also mother of the anarchist mathematician Alexander Grothendieck), unpublished autobiographical novel 'Eine Frau' as the young anarchist and budding writer Gerd - with whom he worked as a boat builder and photographer. Following another period in South America, where he absorbed anarcho-syndicalist ideas, he returned to Germany and published 'Des Kaisers Kulis', becoming an overnight sensation and going onto be staged by director Erwin Piscator as a play later that year. Three other novels, including 'Der Kaiser ging, die Generäle Blieben' (The Kaiser Goes: The Generals Remain; 1932) were published before the Nazis took power, banning his works. He fled to Moscow, via Prague, Zurich, Paris and Oslo. There, in order to avoid Soviet censorship, he avoided political commentary, writing 'adventure' stories.
Plievier interrogated captured German soldiers for the background to his famous documentary novel 'Stalingrad' (1945), the first part of his WWII trilogy with 'Moscow' (1952) and 'Berlin' (1954). He left the Soviet Union in 1948, settling in West Germany.

[A/D] 1894 - A week after the execution of Auguste Vaillant, anarchist student and son of a Communard Émile Henry (b. September 26, 1872) throws a home-made bomb into the crowd of Parisian petty bourgeois busy drinking beer and listening to the orchestra playing 'Marthe' by Flotow in the bourgeois Cafe Terminus, killing one and injuring 17.
"This pretentious and stupid crowd of employees, earning from 300 to 500 francs a month; more reactionary than their bourgeois masters . . ." - 'Le Crapouillot' (The Trench Mortar) Jan. 1938.
On the corner of the Rue de l'Isly and the Rue de Rome, Emile Henry, having wounded three pursuers, findc his way barred by policeman Francois Poisson's raised sabre. Henry shoots and wounds him in the chest with the last two bullets in his revolver. He is at last overcome by two other policemen.
He was executed by guillotine on May 21, 1894, aged twenty-one. His last words are said to have been: "Camarades, courage! Vive l'anarchie!"
[Costantinni pics]

1899 - The Ecole Libertaire opens at l'Hôtel des Sociétés Savantes, in Paris.

1900 - Fernand Planche (d. 1974), French libertarian activist and cutler, founder of the review 'La Conquête du Pain' (The Conquest of Bread) and author of 'Anarchist Synthesis', born. During the winter of 1939-1940, he was incarcerated in the La Santé prison in Paris, for "complicity in desertion", escaping during the evacuation of the prison to the south of France, and then interned in Germany as a "subversive element". Helped rebuild the libertarian movement after the war, then moved to New Caledonia in 1950, where he opposed colonialism. Wrote 'La Vie Ardente et Intrépide de Louise Michel' (The Fiery and Fearless Life of L.M.; 1946), 'Durolle au Pays des Couteliers' (D. in the Land of the Cutlers; 1948) and, with Jean Delphy, a biography of Peter Kropotkin ('Kropotkin'; 1948), woodcuts by Jean Lébédeff.

[E] 1905 - Federica Montseny i Mañé (d. 1994), Spanish poet, novelist, essayist, and children's writer, anarchist, anarcha-feminist, naturist and Minister of Health during the Civil War, born in Madrid. The daughter of Catalan libertarian activists and educators Joan Montseny (Federico Urales) and Soledad Gustavo (Teresa Mañé), who also co-edited the anarchists journal, 'La Revista Blanca' (1898-1905), she wrote her first novel, 'Peregrina de amor' (Pilgrim of Love), which was published under the name Blanca Montsan in the series 'La Novela Roja' (most copies of which were destroyed in a fire), when still only 15 and her first play, 'La tragedia del pueblo' (The tragedy of the people) about the Barcelona working class, soon afterwards. She also joined the CNT at seventeen years old and wrote for anarchist journals such as 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Tierra y Libertad' and 'Nueva Senda'. In 1923 she urged her parents to relaunch 'La Revista Blanca', which led to the family to establishing in the publishing firm Ediciones de La Revista Blanca, specialising in promoting libertarian ideals throughout the 1920s and 1930s. Federica Montseny participated as an editor of the serials 'La Novela Ideal' and 'La Novela Libre', writing many of the novels herself. The 'Novela Ideal' appeared in a weekly edition of 50,000 and the 'Novela Libre' a monthly 64-page publication with a print run of 20,000. During the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, she wrote a trilogy of novels, 'La Victoria' (1925), 'El hijo de Clara' (1927) and 'La indomitable' (1928), which provoked a great deal of controversy within conservative 1920s Spanish society. Centred on the issue of female emancipation, these books directly addressed the rejection of the institution of marriage and the right of women to take the initiative when choosing their relationships and potential fathers of their future children. On June 7, 1930, she married her life-long companion Josep Esgleas i Jaume, better known by his penname Germinal Esgleas i Jaume, and with whom her father Juan spent time in prison for illegal CNT activity during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, and together with whom she had three children: Vida (1933), Germinal (1938) and Blanca (1942).
Like her parents, Fedrica was considered to be more of an individualist anarchist but was still active within the mainstream anarchist movement, joining the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo in 1923, becoming a member of the Sindicat Únic de Professions Lliberals in Barcelona, and the Federación Anarquista Ibérica in 1927, as well as working on 'Solidaritat Obrera' and being a prolific contributer to papers such as 'Nueva Senda', 'Tierra', 'Redención', 'Acción Social Obrera', etc.. During the years of the Republic, through numerous articles, she railed against the trentistes faction [which proposed collaboration with those Republican organisations not actively engaged in the social revolution] within the FAI, criticising it for splitting the libertarian movement. With the outbreak of the fascist uprising, she joined the Regional Committee of the CNT and the FAI Peninsular Committee. In addition, Federica served on the Comité de Milicias Antifascistas de Cataluña (July 1936), helping set up the Columna Tierra y Libertad. During the early revolutionary rallies of the revolution, her appearences and speeches caused something of a sensation, due in part to the novelty of a woman in a traditionally male arena, and she became known as the anarchist 'La Pasionaria'. On November 4, 1936,6 Francisco Largo Caballero appointed Montseny as Ministerio de Salud Pública y Bienestar Social (Minister of Health and Social Welfare), bizarrely for an anarchist becoming the first woman in Spanish history to be a cabinet minister, and one of the first female ministers in Western Europe. Over the next few months Montseny began planning for the introduction of a series of reforms that would include the introduction of sex education, family planning and the legalisation of abortion, shelters for children, dining rooms for pregnant women, and employment rights for the disabled. However,, these were too radical for the government and events overtook them and they were never introduced.
Having already defended POUM against unjust accusations and attacks from the Stalinists, Montseny was amongst those prominent anarchists who sough to intervene when the combined elements of the Union General de Trabajadores (UGT), Catalan Socialist Party (PSUC) and Communist Party (PCE) sought to eradicate the anarchists and POUM as political powers in Catalonia during the events of May 3-7, 1937. A week later on May 16 Montseny and the other three anarchist ministers, Juan Garcia Oliver, Juan López and Juan Peiró, resigned from the government. She continued to try and defend anarchist prisoners during the Stalinist persecution that followed, as the anarchist militias were militarised by the new Juan Negrin government.
At the end of the Spanish Civil War in January 1939, Montseny fled Barcelona with her family for France. There she led the CNT in exile until her arrest by the Vichy police in November 1941. That same month a court in Limoges rejected the Spanish government's extradition request because she was pregnant with her third daughter Blanca, thus saving her from certain death (a few days before the extradition request, her former ministerial colleagues Lluís Companys and Julián Zugazagoitia had been executed by the Spanish state). She remained in prison in Perigueux and Limoges for the remainder of the war and was not released until the liberation of France. In December 1944, she settled in Toulouse, where she published the anarchist newspaper 'L'Espoir'. In May 1945, the Congress of the CNT in Paris, is elected to fill the office of press and propaganda committee. In April 1977 she returned to Barcelona from exile to help in the reconstruction of the CNT, participating in its first big rally since 1939, as several hundred thousand gathered in Montjuïc in Barcelona on July 2, 1977. In 1987 she published her autobiography, 'Mis primeros cuarenta años' (My first forty years).
Federica Montseny died in Toulouse on January 15, 1994 at the age of 88.

1905 - [O.S. Jan. 31] Kosta Nunkov [Коста Нунков], aka David Ognyanov [Нунков Огнянов](Konstantin Ivanov Nunkov [Константин Иванов Нунков]; b. 1877), Bulgarian revolutionary, anarchist, a member of the Macedonian Committee (Македонския комитет) and a Kumanov leader of the Inner Macedonian-Odrin Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешната македоно-одринска революционна организация), dies during a four-hour battle against Turkish troops near the village of Kutlibeg (Кутлибег). Badly wounded and rather than fall into the hands of the Turks, he shoots himself with his pistol. [see: Jun. 20]

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Fearing sympathy strikes amongst the company's workers, the director of Tramvies de Barcelona SA grants the eight-hour day to its factory workers and nine hours for those working on its trams. The Astilleros Minguell SA strike has also been resolved overnight. However, the La Canadiense strike situation remains the same whilst police have begun drawing up a list of the homes of the striking La Canadiense workers in anticipation of further repressive measures.
In the San Martin neighborhood, Luis More Tarrades, a textile foreman who acted as a police provocateur is ambushed and shot at 10:00 by unknown attackers, leaving him with a serious injury to the lumbar region and an exit wound in the abdomen, which caused his death a day later. He accused two members of the grupo de los metalúrgicos, Luis Prida and Jaime Sabanés Parés, the later a 24-year-old former president of the Sociedad La Constancia, who had just been released from prison after being falsely accused by Bravo Portillo of having taken part in an attempt on the industrialist Josep Albert Barret i Moner and had been tried in absentia for a second attack. Sabanés and Prida were arrested and spent eight months in prison before being declared innocent.

[FF] 1920 - The first strike by textile workers at the Fábrica de Hilados y Tejidos (Fabricato) works in Bello-Antioquia, Colombia directed by their fellow worker Betsabé Espinoza Corría. The 400 striking women did not have the support of their (120) male peers. The strike ended on March 4, with Betsabé Espinosa, who was an excellent speaker, having managed to negotiate a 40% increase in wages and an agreement for 9 hours and 50 minutes working day, as well as the supply of espadrilles and the promise of the cessation of sexual harassament by bosses. She also helped set up women's self-defence squads ('swarms') to fight police repression as well as a Comité de Solidaridad to help finance the strike and support the women during it. This was the first big strike perpetuated solely by women in Colombia.

1930 - Louis Armand Matha (b. 1861), French anarchist, manager of the newspaper 'L'Endehors' and collaborator of the newspaper 'Le Libertaire' and the 'Journal du Peuple' during the Dreyfus Affair, dies. [see: Apr. 10]

1949 - Nella Giacomelli (b. 1873), Italian anarchist and propagandist, co-founder with Ettore Molinari of 'Il Grido della Folla' (The Cry of the Crowd) in 1902 and of 'La Protesta Umana' in 1906, and in the post-war period a contributor to Errico Malatesta's anarchist daily 'Umanita Nova', dies. [expand]

1961 - David Graeber, US anthropologist, anarchist author, & advocate of a universal basic income in his latest book, ‘Bullshit Jobs: A Theory’ (2018), born.

1980 - Muriel Rukeyser (b. 1913), US feminist poet, radical political activist, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Dec. 15]

1994 - Donald Clarence Judd (b. 1928), US anarchist, Minimalist painter and sculptor, dies. [see: Jun. 3]

## 2018 - Chris Kneath (b. 1946), Brighton anarchist, Hunt Saboteur, animal rights campaigner, prisoner support activist, and Cowley Club and Bottled Wasp stalwart, dies. [see: Nov. 23]
1870 - Joseph Dubois (d. 1912), Franco-Russian mechanic and anarchist illegalist member of the Bonnot Gang, born. Born in Russia but emigrated to France after serving in the Foreign Legion. Set up a garage collective with other anarchists in Courbevoie in 1908. Jules Bonnot learned to drive at Dubois' garage and hid the gang's cars there after robberies. It was at Dubois' Choisy-le-Roi workshop that he and Bonnot were ambushed and killed on 28 April, 1912.

1874 - Émile Maince (d. unknown), French anarchist, art conservator and counterfeiter, born.

1883 - Carlo Cafiero is commited to San Bonifacio psychiatric hospital in Florence. [see: Sep. 1]
[Costantinni pic]

1884 - In Florence, the state police seizes, for the third time, the newspaper of the anarchist communists 'La Questione Sociale', arresting its editor, Pilade Cecchi, who is eventually sent to prison for 21 months.

##1855 - Friedrich 'Fritz' Köster (d. 1934), German locksmith, editor, trade unionist, radical socialist, anarcho-syndicalist and FAUD member, who published under the pseudonym 'Fridolin Cyclop', born.

1902 - The first issue od 'La Protesta Umana', a social sciences, arts and literature monthly, is published in Chicago. The paper was to move to San Francisco in 1903 and become a weekly 'Di Lavaratori in Difesa dei Lavaratori' (The Workers in Defense of Workers).

## [BB] 1903 - Georges Simenon (d. 1989), Belgian-born French author, anarchist and creator of Inspector Maigret, born. Whilst no active as an anarchist he admitted to having been a habitue of anarchist circles since the age of 16 (his favourite uncle was an active anarchist): "Je me considère comme un anarchiste non violent, car l'anarchie n'est pas nécessairement violente, celui qui s'en réclame étant un homme qui refuse tout ce qu'on veut lui faire entrer de force dans la tête ; il est également contre ceux qui veulent se servir de lui au lieu de lui laisser sa liberté de penser." (I consider myself as a nonviolent anarchist, because anarchy is not inevitably violent, it does not claim that a man that refuses to change will be hit around the head; it is also against those who want to manipulate instead of allowing for the freedom of thought.) [Anti-Semitism & Vichy collaboration?]

1906 - Agostinho da Silva (d. 1994), Portuguese philosopher, essayist, writer, Christian humanist and millenarist, born. Essential an utopian anarchist whose ideas on freedom were close to those of Gustav Landauer.
"No Político distingo dois momentos, o do presente e do futuro. Principiando pelo segundo, desejo o desaparecimento do Estado, da Economia, da Educação, da Sociedade e da Metafísica; quero que cada indivíduo se governe por si próprio, sendo sempre o melhor do que é, que tudo seja de todos, repousando toda a produção, por uma lado, no , por outro lado, na fábrica automática; que a criança cresça naturalmente segundo as suas apetências, sem as várias formas de cópia e do ditado que têm sido nas escolas, publicas e de casa; que o social com as suas regras, entraves e objectivos dê lugar ao grupo humano que tenha por meta fundamental viver na liberdade, e que todos em vez de terem metafísica, religiosa ou não, sejam metafísica. Tudo virá, porém, gradualmente, já que toda a revolução não é mais do que um precipitar de fases que não tiveram tempo de ser. Por agora, para o geral, democracia directa, economia comunitarista, educação pela experiência da liberdade criativa, sociedade de cooperação e respeito pelo diferente, metafísica que não discrimine quaisquer outras, mesmo as que pareçam antimetafísicas. Mas, fora do geral, para qualquer indivíduo, o viver, posto que no presente, já quanto possível no futuro; eliminando o supérfluo, cooperando, aceitando o que lhe não é idêntico – e muito crítico quanto a este -, não querendo educar, mas apenas proporcionando ambiente e estímulo, e procurando tão largo pensamento que todos os outros nele caibam. Se o futuro é a vida, vivamo-la já, que o tempo é pouco; que a Morte nos colha e não, como é hábito, já meio mortos, aliás, suicidados."
(The Political distinguish two moments, the present and the future. Beginning with the second, I wish the disappearance of the State, Economy, Education, Society and Metaphysics; want each individual to govern itself, always being better than it is, that everything is all, resting all production , on the one hand, on the other hand, the automatic factory, the child grows naturally by their appetites, without copying, and many forms of which have been dictated in schools and public house, with the social its rules, obstacles and objectives give rise to human group which has the ultimate goal to live in freedom, and that instead of having all metaphysical, religious or not, are metaphysical. It will, however, gradually, since every revolution is not more than a precipitate phase that did not have time to be. For now, to the general, direct democracy, communitarian economy, education, the experience of creative freedom, society, cooperation and respect for different metaphysics that does not discriminate against any other, even those that seem antimetaphysical. But out of the general, for any individual, living, since at present, as already possible in the future, eliminating the superfluous, cooperating, accepting what you are not identical - and very critical of this - not wanting to educate, but only providing environment and encouragement, and looking as wide as everyone else thought it fit. If the future is life, vivamo it already, that time is short, that Death in crop and not, as usual, already half dead indeed suicidados.)
from 'Reflexos, Aforismos e Paradoxos' (Reflections, Aphorisms and Paradoxes; 1999)

[D] 1911 - Rebelión de Baja California / Revolución Mexicana: Revolutionary forces under the command of José Luis Moya defeat a federal force and occupy San Juan de Guadalupe, Durango. Moya would die three months later on May 9, 1911, on the eve of the signing of the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez (the peace agreement signed on May 21 between the then President of Mexico, Porfirio Diaz, and Francisco I. Madero, the revolutionary leader who would go on to betray the Magónistas) during an attack on the garrisoned town of Sombrerete, Zacatecas.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: An advert promoting the sale of bonds for Barcelona Traction Light & Power appears on the front page of the 'Diario de Barcelona'!

1920 - Otto Gross (also Grob; b. 1877), Austrian psychoanalyst, sexologist and libertarian revolutionary, dies. [see: Feb 13]

[AA] 1921 - Peter Kropotkin's funeral held in Moscow — the last public anarchist gathering and the last non-state-sponsored mass assembly in Russia for 70 years — as Lenin, Trotsky and the Bolsheviks begin their crackdown to secure their power over the working class. On passing Butyrki jail, incarcerated political prisoners strike up an anarchist hymn to the dead. Under pressure of the libertarians, anarchist prisoners are allowed to attend Kropotkin's funeral. A crowd estimated at 30-100,000 follows the coffin to the cemetery. Black flags are deployed and banners proclaiming:
"Where there is authority, there is no freedom"
"The anarchists ask to be released from the prison of socialism"
Emma Goldman, among others, delivers a public remembrance at Kropotkin's funeral in Moscow.

1934 - Anarcho-syndicalist CNT calls for the socialist UGT in Spain to clearly and publicly state its revolutionary objectives. It meets with no reply, leaving the CNT, in effect, to be used as cannon-fodder to help produce another government that would attack the CNT.

1936 - Temistocle Monticelli (b. 1869), Italian anarchist militant and anti-militarist, member of the Comité de Défense Libertaire, as secretary of the underground Comitato di Azione Internazionalista Anarchica he was arrested during WWI, dies. [see: Dec. 5]

1951 - The first issue of the monthly social studies journal 'Contre-Courant' (Countercurrent), following a preliminary special issue in December 1950, is published in Paris under the directorship of Louis Loivet.
"Les courants politiques, philosophiques, moraux entraînent la société vers le totalitarisme. En attendant que la dictature de droite ou de gauche, dont les méthodes sont similaires, ouvre ses camps de concentration ou procède aux exécutions sommaires, l'étatisme s'insinue partout, la natalité se veut excessive, de parti de l'Eglise sape l'école laïque, le fisc est omnipotent, la guerre exterminatrice se prépare. En la circonstance, "Contre-Courant" n'a pas besoin de justifier son titre. Il se suffit à lui-même. Ce sera l'organe de tous ceux qui aspirent à la paix et à la liberté, sans arrière-pensées." ("The political, philosophic, moral currents lead the society towards totalitarianism. Whilst the dictatorships of the left or right, the methods of which are similar, open their concentration camps or proceed with summary executions, the state control insinuates itself everywhere, the birth rate remains excessive, the Church undermines secular schools, the treasury is omnipotent, anholatory war is brewing. In this particular case, "Countercurrent" does not need to justify its title. It says it all. It will be the organ of all to those who aspire to the peace and to the freedom, without ulterior motives.") - Numéro 1, February 1952.

1953 - Pasquale Fancello, aka Pascale Crodazzu (b. 1891), Sardinian bricklayer, anarchist and anti-fascist militant active during the Spanish Revolution, dies in Rome. [see: Nov. 3]

1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Searches at the homes of Hilary Creek, John Barker, Kate McLean, Chris Allen and others in a hunt for explosives. Jake Prescott is charged with conspiracy to cause explosions between July 30 1970 and December 1971, and with the specific bombings of Carr's home, the Dept of Employment and the Miss World contest. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1997 - Ricardo Mestre (b. 1906), Catalonian anarcho-syndicalist, construction worker, CNT and FAI member, dies in México. One of the founders of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL), he was exiled following the Revolution of 1936. [see: Apr. 15]
## 1868 - [O. S. Feb. 2] Alexander Atabekian (Alexander Movsesi Atabekian [Ալեքսանդր Մովսեսի Աթաբեկյան]; d. 1933*), Armenian physician and prominent anarchist, author and publisher of anarchist literature in Russian, who was also close friend of Peter Kropotkin, born.
[* there is some confussion over the exact date of his death, with some sources suggesting the year as being 1940]

1877 - Julia Bertrand (b. 1960), French teacher, militant anarchist, feminist and free thinker, born. She collaborated on the feminist newspaper 'La Femme Affranchie' (The Emancipated Woman) and the journal 'La Vrille' (The Spiral) published by the anarchist Victor Loquier. Register in the 'Carnet B' (the Interior Ministry's book of monitored subversives) as an anti-miltraist, she was arrested an interned in 1914. Released following protests, she is banned from teaching but begins work in Faure's La Ruche until it closes in November 1917, and eventually has her teaching certification reinstated in 1925. Active in the anarchist press, including 'L'en Dehors', 'l'Idée Libre', 'Le Libertaire', etc., in the Ligue d'Action Anticatholique and campaigning against vivisection.

1885 - Jules Vallès (b. 1832), French journalist, anarchist propagandist and novelist dies. [see: Jun. 11]

1886 - Angel Pestaña Núñez (d. 1937), Spanish watchmaker and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Head of the newspaper 'Solidaridad Obrera' and repeatedly Secretary of the National Committee of the CNT. Anti-union Pistoleros try to kill him on August 25, 1922, but despite being seriously wounded, he recovers. In 1929 he is forced to resign from the National Committee of the CNT becuase of his reformist position, later to take part in atttempts to legalise the union and abandon revolutionary action, he is expelled from the union. [expand]

1886 - The first issue of the fortnightly socialist newspaper 'El Socialismo' is publishe in Cadiz. From 16 June 1890, it will be subtitled 'Anarchist Communist fortnightly'. Its editor is Andalusian anarchist Fermín Salvochea, just out of prison for his participation in the Cadiz Commune during the summer of 1873. It is forced to stop publication on August 12, 1891, after 76 issues. Epigrams: "The Emancipation of workers will be the task of the workers themselves" and "All for one, one for all"

1892 - André Claudot (d. 1982), French anarchist, artists and cartoonist, born. His illustrations in 'Le Libertaire' in 1911 earned him the attentions of the authorities and an entry in the 'Carnet B'. Drafted on 1914, he persists with his work for the anarchist press. In 1926, he goes to China, where he became a professor at the National Institute of Arts in Beijing, then Hangchow in 1928. In 1930 he returned to Paris and then to Dijon as a teacher. He moves away from anarchism and in 1941 joins the resistance and is active in the Communist Party of Liberation. The end of his life is mainly devoted to painting. The libertarian filmmaker Bernard Baissat made a film of his life, 'Ecoutez Claudot' (1979).

1894 - A bomb explodes at the Hotel du Comte Salverte, 32 Rue Ch. Laffitte in Neuilly (Paris region). This comes almost a month after the explosion of another bomb, at 8 Rue Duluet (19 January 1894).

1896 - [O.S. Feb. 2] Gueorgui Vassilev Cheïtanov or Georgi Sheĭtanov [Sheytanov](Георги Василев Шейтанов; d. 1925), writer, speaker and theorist of the Bulgarian anarchist movement, born. His first scrape with the law was being arrested for burning the archives in a local court in 1913. He escaped and fled to Paris aged 18. He returned clandestinely the following year to Bulgaria to continue his revolutionary propaganda work. Arrested and tortured, he spends 2 years in prison before again escaping and goes to Moscow, where he is quickly disappointed by the Bolsheviks. While fomenting insurrection in Bulgaria, he is again arrested and imprisoned with other anarchists, but they manage to escape and return to their clandestine activities. Following an attack on the Sofia cathedral on April 16, 1925, martial law is proclaimed. Cheïtanov is arrested and executed on the night of June 2, 1925, aged 29.
"Let the dance of terror leading the way!
The orgy of destruction is our manifesto!
Bulgaria kings, lackeys, spies will die!
Long live anarchy!"

[E] 1898 - Angela Bambace (d. 1975), Italian-American garment worker, feminist, anti-fascist, anarchist, communist, and labour organiser for the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union for over fifty years, born in Brazil. She helped organise garment workers, including the 1919 Dressmakers and Waistmakers strike in New York City and the 1932 Amalgamated Clothing Workers strike in Elizabeth, New Jersey.

1903 - Valentina Sáez Izquierdo, aka Valentina del Olmo (d. 1984), Spanish anarchist militant, born. In 1933, she was very active in the Comitè Revolucionari de Saragossa, along with Isaac Puente and others; managed to flee subsequent repression dressed as a nun along with her three children. Persecuted following the fascist coup of 1936, for three months she remained hidden in Zaragoza until January 17, 1937, when she managed to pass into the Republican zone. Installed in Barcelona, she participated in the Solidaridad Internacional Antifascista. After the war, in 1939 she and her children, Jesús Olmo, Malatesta, Fernando and Pilar - all libertarians, went to France, ending up in the Rivesaltes camp and, in 1945, settled in Montpeller. Valentina Izquierdo Sáez died of cancer on November 13, 1984, in Fàbregues, near Montpellier.

1910 - Giovanni Passannante (b. 1849), Italian anarchist who attempted to assassinate king Umberto I of Italy, dies. [Most likely date with Feb 4, 1910 also given in some sources.][see: Feb. 19]

1911 - Rebelión de Baja California / Revolución Mexicana: After several months waiting to see how the revolution was unfolding, Francisco I. Madero crosses the border into Mexico to take charge of the movement, establishing its headquarters in Guadalupe, Chihuahua. He also plans to break off relations with the Partido Liberal Mexicano and demand that the Magónista Ejército Libertario Mexicano (Libertarian Mexican Army) place themselves under his command. He would later sign a peace treaty, the Tratados de Ciudad Juárez, on May 21, 1911, with Porfirio Diaz, who then resigned, allowing Madero to sieze power and be elected president in November that year. Following the signing of the treaty, the Federal Army and Maderista forces turned their arms on the Magónista forces, and the interim president, Francisco León de la Barra, even went as far as requesting support from the government of the United States to move Mexican troops across US territory to attack the ELM from the rear, move which ultimately led to the defeat of the Magónistas at Tijuana on June 22, 1911.

1915 - [O.S. Feb 1] Attack on the Sofia City Casino [Атентатът в София Градското казино] [EXPAND]

1917 - Émile Roger (b.1871), Ardennes anarchist, member of Les Desherities (The Wretched) and Les Libertaires de Nouzon, dies. [see: Jan. 25]

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Three days after the attack on Santiago Pascual, a grupo de acción made up of three masked men with handkerchiefs, shoots and seriously injures a blackleg La Canadiense meter reader, Joaquim Baró Valero, on the Calle Calabria. He died the following day off his wounds. Baró was the only collector who had refused to collaborate with the strikers in not reading light meters and not passing bills on to consumers. The only scab at the department. The company offered a reward of 10 thousand pesetas (10 years salary for an average worker) for information on the assassins. They did not get any takers. Elsewhere, acts of sabotage destroy wiring supplying power to the city's street lights.

1920 - More than a hundred Federal Bureau of Investigation agents, assisted by volunteers from the American Legion, descend on Paterson, New Jersey – the "Silk City of America" and a radical stronghold – raiding the homes of more than thirty members of the Italian anarchist Gruppo L’Era Nuova, as well as those active in another anarchist group called Gli Insorti (The Insurgents) and Paterson’s Ferrer School.

1923 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: American-Italian anarchist Nicola Sacco goes on prison hunger strike.

1928 - Pío Tamayo, poet and influential militant anarquista, arrested in Venezuela along with student leaders Rómulo Betancourt, Jóvito Villalba and Guillermo Prince Lara. La Federación de Estudiantes demanded their release.

[C] 1936 - The CNT issues a prophetic manifesto warning that right-wing elements are ready to provoke a military coup.

##[B] 1937 - Dumitru Ţepeneag (pen names Ed Pastenague and Dumitru Tsepeneag), Romanian novelist, essayist, short story writer, translator and anarchist, who currently resides in France, born. He was one of the founding members of the Oniric group, and a theoretician of the Onirist trend in Romanian literature, while becoming noted for his activities as a dissident. In 1975, the Communist regime stripped him of his citizenship.

1937 - An extraordinary congress of Aragon collectives creates the Federación de Colectividades de Aragón.

1938 - Jorge Guillermo Borges Haslam (b. 1874), Argentine writer, teacher of psychology, Spencerian philosophical anarchist and father of the writer Jorge Luis Borges, dies in Buenos Aires. [see: Feb. 24]

1991 - Émilienne Léontine 'Mimi' Morin (b. 1901), French stenographer, militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and companion of Buenaventura Durruti, dies. [see: Oct. 28]

2009 - Luís Andrés Edo (b. 1925), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, member of the then underground CNT during the Franco years and guerrila arms smuggler, dies. [see: Nov. 7]
1885 - The first issue of 'Bandera Social' (Social Flag), "Semanario Anarárquico-Colectivista" (Anarcho-Collectivist weekly) is published in Madrid. It ceases publication in Jaanuary 1887. Issue number 65 of 14 June 1886, contained the 'Manifesto a Todos los Trabajadores de la Región Española' (Manifesto to all Workers of the Spanish Region).

1872 - The first issue of the fortnightly newsletter (weekly from July 1873) 'Bulletin of the Jura Federation' of the AIT is published in Switzerland. The newsletter has a major influence during the rise of anti-authoritarian ideas within the International, despite its modest circulation of 600 copies.

#### 1894 - The Royal Observatory in Greenwich is the apparent target of Martial Bourdin, a 26 year old Frenchman with links to the anarchist Club Autonomie, when the bomb that he is carrying in his hand explodes prematurely. Bourdin, who was carrying a large amount of money and obviously planned to escape after setting the bomb, sustained massive injuries and died thirty minutes later. The police later raided the Club Autonomie in Windmill Street, off Tottenham Court Road in London, a popular club for foreign anarchists.

1907 - The first of the Bulgarian fortnightly 'свободно общество' (Free Society), the first social anarchist newspaper to be published in the country. The second issue is printed clandestinely on March 1, 1907 and its creator, Michel Guerdjikov, is arrested for publishing a banned newspaper.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1912 - Revolución Mexicana: Gen. Juvencio Robles begins terror campaign against Zapatistas, burning several Zapatista towns.

1915 - Publication in English, German and French of 'Manifesto Against the War', signed by 35 anarchists, including Errico Malatesta, Domela Nieuwenhuis, Louis Lecoin, Alexander Berkman, Emma Goldman, Alexander Schapiro, etc.

1916 - Pepita Grau (Josepa Grau i Ferrer; d. 1997), Catalan anarcho-syndicalist and anarcha-feminist militant, active in the CNT and the Mujeres Libres, born. During the Spanish Revolution she worked organising women's groups in Aragón and participated in the work of Maternitat de Barcelona, along side Félix Carrasquer and Áurea Cuadrado. In 1937 she also collaborated on the weekly publication 'Cultura y Acción'. During the Retirada, she went into exile in France. In 1960, she returned to the Peninsula and fought for rights for war widows and the militants and militiamen wounded whilst serving the Second Republic. Pepita Grau i Ferrer died on January 30, 1997 in Barcelona and was buried the following day in the Collserola cemetery.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The workers meet with La Canadiense executives to present their demands. The blackleg La Canadiense meter reader, Joaquim Baró Valero, shot on the Calle Calabria by a three-man grupo de acción yesterday, dies of his wounds during the morning.

1922 - Clara Gertrude Meijer-Wichmann (b. 1885), Dutch lawyer, philosopher, pacifist, anti-militarist, anarcho-syndicalist and anarcho-feminist, dies. [see: Aug. 17]

1932 - Before dawn in the Catalan city of Terrassa, workers openly launch an insurrection, raiding the J. Carner armoury on carrer Sant Francesc and laying siege to the Guàrdia Civil barracks on carrer de Sant Leopold. Meanwhile, the town's mayor, Avellí Estrenjer, and two aldermen (Francesc Devant and Francesc Casas) were taken prisoner and having occupied the Town Hall (Ajuntament), the revolutionaries hoisted the red and black flag of anarcho-syndicalism over the building. However, attempts to take prisoner the president of the Institut Industrial, Pere Amat, and the deputy mayor Samuel Morera, failed and the pair alerted the Guàrdia Civil in the nearby town of Sabadell. As the fighting began to spread through out Terrassa, Guàrdia Civil units from Sabadell and 50 soldiers of the Tercera Companyia de Infanteria (Third Infantry Company) from Barcelona eventually surrounded the town hall and a three-hour fire-fight took place. When, at 10:00 that morning, it became clear that the government troops were about to shell the town hall, the last group of revolutionaries holding out in Terrassa decided to surrender. Amazingly, there were hardly and casualties on either side and those revolutionaries who had been arrested were carted off to Barcelona for trial. Over the following days in Terrassa over a series of indiscriminate arrests of militants of the CNT and the Bloc Obrer i Camperol (Workers’ and Peasants’ Bloc) took place as the republican government sought to weed-out the 'trouble makers'.

1939 - Alphonse Sauveur Cannone (b. 1899), Algerian-born militant, one of the anarchist participants in the Black Sea Mutiny of 1919 and combatant in the Spanish Revolution of 1936, dies. [see: Jan. 3]

1941 - Henri Portier (d. 2007), French anarcho-syndicalist, pacifist, anti-militarist, and historian of the Freinet movement, born. A member of the Institut Coopératif de l'Ecole Moderne (ICEM) of the Freinet movement, he became the movement's historian, making several films and prompting the rediscovery of the movement via the 1996 documentary 'Le Mouvement Freinet'. He is also the author of the pamphlet 'Cinematograph and Freinet Movement' (1989).

## [B] 1946 - The film 'Zéro de Conduite' (1933), by the anarchist Jean Vigo is finally released, after being banned since 1933.

##1946 - Jean Renoir's film of the Octave Mirbeau novel 'Diary of a Chambermaid' is released.

[C] 1997 - During the night of the 15th-16th, the anarchist bookshop in Lyon, La Plume Noire, is torched by right-wing extremists. The books and furniture suffer heavy fire damage but, thanks to a wonderful show of solidarity, the bookstore reopens in a few months.
1838 - Henry Brooks Adams (d. 1918), American journalist, historian, academic and novelist, born. One of the chief subjects of his writings and thought was on the nature of power.
"I am an anarchist in politics and an impressionist in art as well as a symbolist in literature. Not that I understand what these terms mean, but I take them to be all merely synonyms of pessimist." [in a letter, to Charles Milnes Gaskell, October 28, 1894.]

1844 - James Guillaume (d. 1916), English-born historian of the First International and anarchist active in the Swiss Jura Federation, born. Aligned with Mikhail Bakunin, with whom he was kicked out of the International Workingmen's Association in a coup by Marx and his followers.

[BBB] 1848 - Octave Mirbeau (d. 1917), prolific French short story writer, novelist, anarchist, anti-militarist, pamphleteer, art critic and dramatist. Author of 'Le Jardin des Supplices' (Torture Garden; 1899) 'Le Journal d'une Femme de Chambre' (Diary of a Chambermaid; 1900), the Expressionist novel 'Les Vingt et un Jours d'un Neurasthénique' (21 Days of a Neurasthenic; 1901) and 'Dingo' (1913), written from the point of view of the dog; as well as a number of books of short stories; plays, such as the proletarian drama 'Les Mauvais Bergers' (The Bad Shepherds; 1897) and 'Le Foyer' (Charity; 1908), on the subject of the economic and sexual exploitation of adolescents in so-called charitable homes; and a novelistic travelogue, 'LA 628-E8' (Sketches of a Journey; 1907), an excoriating critique of Belgian colonialism dressed up a report on his journey through Belgium - LA 628-E8 being the numberplate of the car and main character during the trip. He worked as a journalist/columnist/polemicist on Séverine's newspaper 'Le Cri du Peuple' and on Zo d'Axa's 'L'Endehors' and was foremost amongst Dreyfus' supporters. In 1893, he wrote the preface to Jean Grave's 'La Société Mourante et l'Anarchie' (The Dying Society and Anarchism; 1893).
"Toutes les lois sont oppressives et criminelles. Elles ne protègent que les riches et les heureux." ("All the laws are oppressive and criminal. They protect only the rich and the happy.")

##1854 - William Charles Owen (d. 1929), India-born Anglo-American teacher, journalist, militant and anarchist individualist propagandist, born. Member of the IWA, collaborated on the newspaper 'Free Society' and Emma Goldman's 'Mother Earth'. In 1911 he was involed with the Magon brothers newspaper 'Regeneración' and later became editor of his own newspaper 'Land and Liberty' (1914-15). Initially influenced by Kropotkin (he was the first to translate 'Paroles d'un Révolté' into English), he came under the influence of Benjamin Tucker and anarchist individualism. During WWI he went to England where he took part in the newspaper 'Freedom', in 1926 withdrew to a small co-operative colony close to Storrington in Sussex.

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: In Sanlúcar de Barrameda the city's doctor, Antonio González Peña, dismissed the alcalde (mayor) and became President of a Ayuntamiento Republicano (Revolutionary Committee), supported by 39 armed men of the Guardia Municipal Republicada (Republican Municipal Guard), headed by Eduardo Franco. [NB: the supposedly libertarian 'republic' wish to still pay its workers on differntial scale: seven reales for each sergeant, 6 for each corporal, and 5 for each ordinary soldier.] He removed Mayor Jose Maria Ontoria and the entire Municipal Corporation, imprisoned the police of the old Town Hall and burned the notary records. He also asked the Governor of Cadiz for enough weapons and money to put a thousand men under arms. He also sought to explain to the rural labourers that their pay for working the vines could not exceed the income from the wine itself, which obviously displeased the day labourers, who wanted their wages at all costs, whether the money was there or not. As a moderate revolutionary, he seized the Colegio de los Escolapios (Piarists or Poor Regular Clergy college), demolished two convents, readaptled churches to convert them into schools and barracks, and municipalised the local cemetery.

[B] 1875 - Valentine de Saint-Point (Anna Jeanne Valentine Marianne Glans de Cessiat-Vercell; d. 1953), French artist, writer, poet, painter, playwright, art critic, choreographer, lecturer, journalist, feminist and Futurist, who repudiated Marinetti's views on women, born. [expand]

1879 - Gusto Gräser (Gustav Arthur Gräser; d. 1958), German nomadic 'poet-prophet' who, with his brother Karl Gräser (1875–1920), co-founded the Monte Verità utopian anarchist/vegetarian community in Ascona, Switzerland, born. Another brother was the painter Ernst H. Graeser (1884–1944). Numerous anarchist including Gustav Landauer, Erich Mühsam, Otto Gross and Ernst Toller, as well as writers, artists and philosophers, who including Ernst Bloch, Herman Hesse, Patricia Cavalli, Hugo Ball, Emmy Hennings, Klabund, Tristan Tzara, Oskar Schlemmer, Hans Richter, Marcel Janco and Gerhart Hauptmann, etc. were all frequenters of Monte Verità.
Amongst his published works were 'Efeublätter' (Ivy leaves; 1902), together with books of sayings and poems such as 'Winke zur Genesung unsres Lebens' (Signs to the recovery of our lives; 1918) and 'Wortfeuerzeug' (Word lighter; 1930).

## 1882 - Julián Martín Castro, aka 'El payador rojo' (d. 1971), Argentine folkloric singer, composer, poet and anarcho-communist, born.

1898 - Henk Eikeboom (d. 1945), Dutch poet, writer, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, born. An activist with the anarcho-syndicalist Nederlandsch Syndicalistisch Vakverbond (Dutch Syndicalist Trade Union), the Dutch section of AIT, he was one of the editors of the anarchosyndicalist 'De Arbeider'. One of the first people to be arrested and deported during the Nazi occupation, he died of typhus in Sandbostel (Stalag X-B) concentration camp on May 11, 1945 following a forced march from Rotenburg.

1904 - Augustus Marcel Le Lann (d. 1974), Breton boilermaker, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1911 - Rebelión de Baja California / Revolución Mexicana: Prisciliano G. Silva is arrested by Madero in Guadalupe, Chihuahua for refusing to recognise him as provisional president of Mexico.

1915 - César Saborit Carrelero (d. 1951), Catalan guerrillero anarquista and member of José Lluis Facieras' action group, born. [expand]

1916 - Emma Goldman is arrested in New York City for lecturing on birth-control. [?]

1917 - A bill introduced into the Washington state legislature in Olympia, Washington defined "criminal-syndicalism" as advocating by word of mouth or writing sabotage, violence, or other unlawful methods of bringing about industrial or political revolution and making the offense a felony.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: In the pages of 'La Publicitat' workers claim that their strike is fully justified. The company tries to bring in strikebreakers but all the time more and more workers are joining the strike.

1933 - Yoshishige Yoshida, Japanese film director and screenwriter, born. Co-wrote (with Masahiro Yamada) and directed 'Erosu Purasu Gyakusatsu' (Eros + Massacre), a film biography of anarchist Sakae Ōsugi, who was assassinated by the Japanese military in 1923.

1936 - Election and formation of the Popular Front government against the fascist Franco. Anarchists [a few, most opposed], socialists, communists, republicans and labour groups form a republic.

##1939 - Jacques Vallet, French journalist, poet, art critic, dramatist and libertarian author, born. Author of a book of poems 'Les Chiens de la Nuit' (The Dogs of the Night; 1964) and participant in the poetry review 'Strophes' (Stanzas), he also wrote for numerous newspapers, including 'Libération', as well as starting in 1977 his own libertarian arts and satire magazine 'Le Fou Parle' (The Madman Speaks), a Grand Prix de l'Humour Noir winner. Vallet also delved into crime fiction, writing a series of novels including 'L’Amour Tarde à Dijon' (Love is Slow in Dijon; 1996), based on Jean-Bernard Pouy's Octopus character; 'Pas Touche à Desdouches' (Do Not Touch; 1997); 'La Trace' ( 1998); 'Une Coquille dans le Placard' (A Shell in the Closet; 2000); 'Sam Suffit' (Enough Sam; 2001), a whodunnit involving the cast of 'Waiting For Godot'; and 'Monsieur Chrysanthème' (2001). He is also involved in the libertarian review 'Anartiste' [a term created by Marcel Duchamp to describe his position in the art world] started in June 2002 by the La Vache Folle (The Mad Cow) group.

1946 - The debut in Paris of the newspaper 'L'Homme et la Vie: Organe du Mouvement de Synthèse Culturelle', a forum open to all progressive currents. Edited by the libertarian individualist Manuel Devaldès, only 4 issue are known of.

1954 - Iain Banks (d. 2013), Scottish novelist and self-described "evangelical atheist", who, using the pen name Iain M Banks, was the author of the Culture series of sci-fi novels that feature a pan-galactic anarchist society, born.

1958 - Victor Arendorff (b. 1878), Swedish writer, journalist, poet, lyricist, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Apr. 27]

1970 - Pedro Vallina Martinez (b. 1879), Sevillian medical doctor, prominent figure of Andalusian anarchism, Civil War fighter and militant, who was involved in the labour movement and spent much of his life in and out of prison and exile for his opposition to Spanish repression and fascism, dies. [see: Jun. 29]

1979 - Aquilino 'Quilo' Moral Menéndez, aka Mario Guzmán, 'Teócrito' (b. 1893) Spanish metalworker, miner, committed vegetarian and anarcho-syndicalist member of the CNT, later joining POUM and, subsequently, the UGT, before rejoining the clandestine CNT after the Falangist victory, dies in La Felguera, Asturias aged 85. [see: Aug. 5]

2006 - Paul Avrich (b. 1931), devoted and sympathetic US biographer and polyglot [Russian, Yiddish and others] historian of anarchism, dies. [see: Aug. 4]
##1849 - Joseph Favre (d. 1903), Swiss chef, culinary journalist, anarchist member of the Jura Federation, and socialist, who fought with Garibaldi as a young man and is best known for his four-volume 'Dictionnaire universel de cuisine pratique', born.

1875 - Fanny Clar (Clara Fanny Olivier; February 24, 1944), French journalist and writer, anarchist and pacifist, then socialist and feminist, born.

[EE] 1877 - Isabelle Eberhardt (d. 1904), Swiss explorer and writer, who lived and travelled extensively in North Africa dressed as man, using the name Si Mahmoud Essadi, born. Daughter of the Armenian-born anarchist, ex-priest and convert to Islam, Alexandre Trophimowsky. Isabelle was an extremely liberated individual, rejecting conventional European morality in favor of her own path and that of Islam. She died in 1904, in a flash flood in the Algerian desert at the age of 27. Her life was the basis for 'Song from the Uproar: The Lives and Deaths of Isabelle Eberhardt', an opera composed by Missy Mazzoli.

1880 - [B.S. Mr. 1] Alexander Kiprov [Александър Кипров], aka Antim Cholakov [Антим Чолаков], 'Delibash' [Делибаш], 'Memish Aga' [Мемиш ага], Novov [Новов] (Alexander Dimitrov [Александър Димитров]; d. December 23, 1931), Bulgarian journalist, fiction writer, playwright, public figure, anarchist, member of the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна македоно-одринска революционна организация) and participant in the 1903 Thessaloniki bombings, born. [see: Mar. 1]

1889 - [N.S. Mar. 1] Boris Vladimirovich Yelensky (Борис Владимирович Еленский; d. 1974), Russian-born American anarchist propagandist and secretary of the Anarchist Red Cross of Chicago (1913-17), born. At the age of 16, he joined a small Socialist Revolutionist-Maximalist group and fought in the 1905 Revolution in Russia. Fleeing from the repressive measures by the government that followed the uprising, he emigrated to the United States in 1907, later becoming an anarchist and joining the Radical Library, a branch of the Workmen’s Circle in Philadelphia. While in Philadelphia he helped establish a branch of the Anarchist Red Cross. He later moved to Chicago and helped create the Chicago branch of the ARC. He continued to work with these organisations until the summer of 1917, when most of the political refugees had already returned to Russia to take part in the Russian Revolution. Yelensky, together with his wife Bessie left for Russia in October, and there he was active in the factory committee movement in Novorossijsk. He left Russia in 1922 to escape persecution for his anarchism and back in Chicago he was secretary of the Russian Political Relief Committee 1924-1925, the Chicago Aid Fund 1925-1936 (from 1932 forming a section of the Relief Fund of the International Working Men's Association (IWMA) for Anarchists and Anarcho-Syndicalists Imprisoned and Exiled in Russia) and the Alexander Berkman Aid Fund (ABAF) 1936-1957; founder and secretary of the Free Society Group (FSG) Chicago ca. 1923-1957 and of many committees and funds initiated by both the FSG and the relief funds, e.g. the Maximoff Memorial Publication Committee; published in 'Golos Truženika' (Голос Труженика / Voice of the Worker)[Chicago], 'Golos Truda' (Голос Труда / The Voice of Labour)[New York], the Yiddish 'Freie Arbeiter Stimme' (פֿרייע אַרבעטער שטימע‎ / The Free Voice of Labour)[New York/Philadelphia] and 'Der Freier Gedank' (Free Thought [Paris]. Yelensky's 'In the Struggle for Equality, a history of the Anarchist Red Cross', the most important history of the ARC/ABC to date, was published by the ABAF in 1958. He died in June 1974 (exact date unknown).

[F] 1881 - A circular of the Spanish Ministerio de la Gobernación (Ministry of the Interior) announces that workers' associations are no longer illegal and are now able to quit the world of 'clandestinity'.

1894 - Procès des Trente: In the wake of Émile Henry's Terminus bombing, French police carry out numeroius raids against the anarchist movement, arrestinh many of those that will subsequently appear in the Procès des Trente.

1903 - Joseph Favre (b. 1849), Swiss chef, culinary journalist, anarchist member of the Jura Federation, and socialist, who fought with Garibaldi as a young man and is best known for his four-volume 'Dictionnaire universel de cuisine pratique', dies in Boulogne-sur-Seine. [see: Feb. 17]

1911 - Rebelión de Baja California / Revolución Mexicana: Silva's men, who are now mixed with the Maderists, are disarmed because they too [see: Feb. 16] refusing to recognise Madero as provisional president of Mexico. Many of them will later be executed. At the same time Guitierrez de Lara, together with a small column of US volunteers, joins the Maderists.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: A second children's exodus takes place, this time to two separate destinations. A small group of 35 was sent to the mountains of Barre, Vermont, where they were met by "three brass bands and a large crowd" before marching to the Barre Socialist Hall. Flynn accompanied another group to New York.

1917 - Gabriela Lahuerta Giménez, Spanish anarcho-syndicalist militant in the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, born. During the Civil War, she worked as a nurse in the hospital in Plana d'Utiel, Valencia, where she met her fellow anarcho-syndicalist militant Gabriel Aspas Argilés; in 1938 they became partners. During the war she worked as liaison with libertarian guerrillas until she was arrested and imprisoned. Once free, she and Aspas went secretly to France, settling in Beziers.

1918 - Gabriella 'Ella' Antolini (1899-1984), the Dynamite Girl, is arrested

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: 80% of workers in the textile industry walk out. In addition to striking in support of the laid off workers at La Canadiense, the textile workers demand recognition of their union, and a recognition by the authorities of the eight hour day. Metallurgists of the Sarriá Railway also on strike and, with no access to their workshops, the company is no longer able to carry out repairs. Soon after, the majority of other electrical workers in the city declared themselves on strike, also demanding a wage increase.
Police break into a union meeting in the centro obrero on the Calle San Pablo claiming that they have no permit. 62 film company workers there are arrested. They had been planning to extend the strike to the entertainment sector. Fraser Lawton, the La Canadenca manager, gives in and hold his first meeting with the union. The first negotiations are to be held in the La Canadiense building. But when the strike committee of five delegates from the CNT, headed by Simó Piera arrive, Lawton discovers that there is a CNT member amongst their ranks and he walks out without beginning the discussions.

[B] 1929 - Alejandro Jodorowsky, Chilean-French filmmaker, playwright, actor, author, musician, comics writer and one-time anarchist, born. At sixteen he became interested in anarchism and associated with Chilean poets Nicanor Parra and Enrique Lihn. In 1960 he became a founding member of the anarchistic Paris avant-garde Panic Movement of performance artists. In 'La Danza de la Realidad' (The Dance of Reality; 2013) his son Adan Jodorowsky aka Adanowsky plays the part of Adan the Anarchist.

1940 - In Canada, Emma Goldman suffers a severe stroke which leaves her paralysed on the right side, and although her hearing was unaffected, she is unable to speak; she is rushed to the hospital where she remains for six weeks.

1944 - Pietro Bruzzi aka 'Brutius' (b. 1888), Italian journeyman mechanic, anarchist and anti-fascist fighter in Spain, dies. Arrested in Spain and extradited to Italy, he was interned on the island of Ponza. Escaping, he joined the anarchist anti-fascist resistance in Lombardy and edited the clandestine paper 'L'Adunata dei Libertari' (Anarchist Assembly) in late 1943. He was captured and shot in Melegnano by the fascists.

1944* - Laurentino Tejerina Marcos (b. 1895), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndcalist, dies. [expand]
[* or 1942]

1950 - Serge Torrano (d. Mar. 30, 2015), French welder, signalman on the SNCF, militant libertarian communist and syndicalist, born.

1954 - Ernest Ernestan (aka Ernest Tanrez) (b. 1898), Belgian militant, writer, theorist of libertarian socialism, a significant figure in Belgian anarchism, dies. [see: Jul. 15]

1958 - Petr Bezruč (pseudonym of Vladimir Vasek; b. 1867), Czech writer, poet and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 15]

1971 - Michal Mareš (Josef Mareš; b. 1893), Czech writer, poet, journalist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

1972 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Bonhill Street Social Security Office, London, firebombed. Liverpool Army HQ, Edge Lane, bombed. Severe damage. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1972 - Hirabayashi Taiko (平林 たい子; b. 1905), pen-name of Hirabayashi Tai (平林タイ), Japanese fiction writer, feminist and one-time anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 3]

1983 - Ivan Igorevich Khutorskoy, aka Vanya Kostolom [Ваня Костолом], 'Kostolom' (Bonecrusher)(Ива́н И́горевич Хуторско́й; d. 2009), RASH (Red and Anarchist Skinheads) skinhead, who was a prominent member of the Russian anti-fascist movement, born. He was murdered in his home in a suburb of Moscow on November 16, 2009.

2009 - José Martín Elizondo (b. 1922), Spanish libertarian playwright, theatre director and teacher, who lived in exile in France after 1947, where he created the collective Amigos del Teatro Español, dies in Toulouse.
digitalis-dsp.uc.pt/bitstream/10316.2/38532/1/Antigona entre muros.pdf]

## 2013 - Omar Aziz, aka Abu Kamal (b. 1949), prominent Syrian intellectual, economist, and long-time anarchist dissident, dies of a heart attack in the central Adra prison, a day before his 64th birthday, after having been held in Assad's the infamous dungeons for the past three months. [see: Feb. 18]
1847 - Jean Baguet (aka Jean Bayet; d. unknown) born. French anarchist exiled to Switzerland to avoid arrest following demonstrations at Montceau-the-Mines in August 1882. Sentenced in absentia to five years prison at the Trial of the 66, January 1883.

1868 - Paul Eltzbacher (d. 1928), Jewish German anarchist academic, law professor, Bolshevik and member of the Reichstag, best known for his early writings upon anarchism, born.

1872 - Julienne Adam (Julienne-Louise Adam; d. unknown), French laundress and anarchist, born. In 1894 she was included on a list of anarchists belonging to the French railway police for border control purposes, the same year that she took refuge in London.

1884 - [N.S. Mar. 2] Police seized all copies of Tolstoy's 'What I Believe In' at the printers.

1885 - Henri Laurens (d. 1954), French Cubist sculptor, painter, illustrator, theatre designer, engraver, stonemason and anarchist, who turned down the Légion d'honneur, born. Closely associated with fellow Cubists Juan Gris, Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque and especially his fellow sculptor, anarchist and anti-fascist Baltasar Lobo, who he hid from the Nazis in his house during WWII.

1887 - Juan Peiro Belis (d. 1942), Catalan anarcho-syndicalist theorist and one-time Secretary General of the CNT, born. In November 4, 1936, he was one of the CNT's four ministers (Minister of Industry) in the new government headed by Largo Caballero. He sought refuge in France in 1939, but was extradited back to Spain by Pétain. Refusing to cooperate with Franco, he was shot in Valencia on 24 July 1942.

1893 - Alexander Sapoundjiev (d. 1975), Bulgarian teacher, anarchist activist and propagandist, born. In June 1919, he participated in the founding congress of the FACB (Bulgarian Communist Anarchist Federation). In 1921, after several arrests Sapoundjiev was banned from teaching and he dedicated himself to the publication of several clandestine newspapers, including 'анархист' (Anarchist), 'Robotnitcheska Missal' (Workers' Thought) and 'свободно общество' (Free Society). Following the 9 June 1923 coup d'état and ensuing September insurrection, he was arrested and imprisoned, eventually going into exile in France in 1928. Following a 1931 amnesty, he return to his activities in Bulgaria but the pro-Fascist coup of May 19, 1934, saw him retire to the village of Biala to devote himself to viticulture and the cooperative movement. He was to suffer further periods of imprisonment, including under the Communists in 1948, but never gave up the struggle.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1913 - Decena Tragica [Ten Tragic Days (Feb 9-18)] / Revolución Mexicana: Francisco I. Madero, in imprisonment and threatened with death, at the pleading of his wife and mother, and, as she said, to save their lives, not his own, signed his resignation. Vice Pres. Pino Suárez did the same.

#### 1924 - Antoinette Cauvin (or Cauvin-Sorgue), aka Madame Sorgue, La citoyenne Sorgue (Antoinette Durand de Gros; b. 1864), French anarcho-syndicalist orator, who was associated with a great many strikes in Europe and travelled widely in France, Portugal, Italy, Wales and England and Scotland, speaking in Leith to the Dockers during their strike in 1913, dies of a heart attack in the Bonnington Hotel, Southampton Row, London, born.
'Louise Michel Aveyronnaise', 'the most dangerous woman in Europe', 'La Belle Anarchiste'

[B] 1924 - Francisco 'Chico' Cuberos Neto (d. 2010), Brazilian militant anarchist and theatre and TV actor, born. An anarchist activist from boyhood, he was involved for decades was part of the Centre de Cultura Social (Center for Social Culture) in São Paulo, along with his brother Jaime Cubero and others. He was also active in the Societat Naturista Amics de la Nossa Chácara (Society of Friends of Our Orchard), which played a key role in organsing anarchist conferences in Brazil.

## 1927 - Osvaldo Bayer, Argentine journalist, screenwriter for the cinema, historian of his country's anarchist movement and self-declared "ultra-pacifist anarchist", born. Member of the Federación Libertaria Argentina (FLA), he worked for various Argentine newspapers and in 1958 he founded 'La Chispa' (The Spark), "the first independent newspaper of Patagonia". Under the government of President Maria Estela Martinez de Peron, Bayer was threatened and persecuted because of his work, especially his book 'Los Vengadores de la Patagonia Trágica' (various volumes 1972-75; also known as 'La Patagonia Rebelde'), eventually leading to his exile in Berlin in 1975, which lasted until the fall of the military dictatorship in 1983.
In Berlin he continued his work as a journalist and historian, publishing 'Los Anarquistas Expropiadores y Otros Ensayos' (Anarchists Expropriators and Other Essays; 1975); 'Rebeldía y Esperanza' (Rebellion and Hope; 1993) and 'Severino Di Giovanni, el Idealista de la Violencia' (Severino Di Giovanni, the Idealist of Violence; 1998) amongst other books. He has also written the screenplays and dialogue for, as well as produced and appeared in, a dozen films, including one based on 'La Patagonia Rebelde' (1974); plus 'Fútbol Argentino' (1990) and 'Awka Liwen - Rebelde Amanecer' (Awka Liwen - Rebel Dawn; 2010), a documentary about the massacres and appropriation of lands of the indigenous peoples in Argentina, which was declared of national interest by the then President of Argentina, Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner. He has even ventured into the world of the novel, with 'Rainer y Minou' (2001), the story of a tortuous love between the son of an Nazi SS officer responsible for Auschwitz and the young daughter of a couple of German Jewish refugees in Argentina.

1931 - Lucio Urtubia Jiménez, Spanish bricklayer, anarchist militant, master forger and bank robber, who is considered the last of the 'bandidos buenos' (good bandits) that helped finance the clandestine anti-Franco resistance, born.

###1940 - Fabrizio Cristiano De André, aka Faber (d. 1999), Sardinian singer-songwriter, poet, anarchist and pacifist, considered by most critics to be one of the greatest Italian singer-songwriters of all time, born.

1946 - Start of the Royal Indian Navy mutiny, a turning point in the struggle against British rule over India. It starts when Indian sailors based in Bombay harbour go on strike against the British. The strike becomes a full-fledged revolt, encompassing 78 ships, 20 on-shore facilities, and 20,000 sailors in various ports. Though the revolt is eventually suppressed by force by the British, it becomes a decisive factor in the British decision to grant India independence. Realizing that it can no longer rely on colonial troops to enforce their rule over India, Britain concludes that it is better to make a deal with the bourgeois pro-independence organizations than to risk being overthrown by a popular uprising. The revolt also frightens the mainstream independence movements, who are working towards the partition of India, because it succeeded in unifying Hindus and Muslims in a common cause outside their control. Mohandas Gandhi issues a statement condemning the strikers for acting on their own without the "guidance" of their "political leaders" and calling their actions "unholy".

##1949 - Omar Aziz, aka Abu Kamal (d. 2013), prominent Syrian intellectual, economist, and long-time anarchist dissident, born. He died in 2013 following a heart attack in the central Adra prison, a day before his 64th birthday, after having been held in Assad's the infamous dungeons for the previous three months.

1959 - Jacques Doubinsky (Iakov Dubinsky; b. 1889), Ukranian Jewish anarchist and Makhnovist, dies. As a young labour radical he joined the Ukrainian peasant uprising in 1918, fighting with the insurrectionary Makhnovist army. [see: Mar. 26]

1965 - Ivan Sergeevich Knizhnik-Vetrov [Ива́н Серге́евич Кни́жник-Ве́тров] (Israel Samuilovich (Shmuilovich) Knizhnik [Израиль Самуилович (Шмуйлович) Книжник]; b. 1878), Jewish Russian anarchist theorist, historian, later a Christian socialist and Bolshevik sympathiser and Prolekult propagandist, dies in Leningrad aged 86. [see: Jul. 2]

2014 - Five members of Pussy Riot are detained in Sochi together with a group of 12-15 others as the former attempt to perform a song called 'Putin Will Teach You to Love the Motherland' [Путин научит тебя любить родину] during the Winter Olympics.
1849 - Giovanni Passannante (d. 1910), Italian anarchist who attempted to assassinate King Umberto I of Italy, born. [Most likely date of birth, with some sources also giving Feb 9, 1849.]

1869 - Friedrich 'Fritz' Oerter aka Bernhard Rothmann (d. 1935), German lithographic worker and anarchist, born. Along with his younger brother Sepp, he was active in the youth wing of the Social-Democratic Party but were expelled, joining the anarchist movement and smuggling anarchist literature into the country. Both brothers were arrested for delivering “seditious speeches” at a meeting of the unemployed in Mainz. On Oct 25th 1893 Sepp was sentenced to 8 years in prison and Fritz to 1 year. Fritz was badly affected by prison and spent the next decade in poor health. Both the brothers participated in the Anarchistischen Föderation Deutschlands (German Anarchist Federation) and contributed to the paper 'Der Freie Arbeiter' (Free Worker).
In 1918/1919 Fritz participated in the activities of the Workers and Soldiers Councils in Fürth and he joined the FAUD, becoming influential within it as a leading proponent of the doctrine of passive resistance, and as editor of the FAUD paper 'Der Syndikalist'. He also had close friendships Gustav Landauer, the playwright Ernst Toller and Erich Müsham. In 1935 Fritz was arrested by the SA (Nazi stormtroopers) and detained. Following his interrogation he died a week later in hospital at the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, apparently of pneumonia.

1887 - Eduard Douwes Dekker (b. 1820), Dutch anarchist writer/novelist best known under his pseudonym, Multatuli (Latin, "I have suffered much"), dies in Germany. Wrote the autobiographical novel 'Max Havelaar'. [expand]

## 1888 - Konrad Świerczyński aka 'Wicek' (d. 1956), Polish anarchist, bookstore owner and poet, born. Father of Bernard Świerczyński aka 'Aniela' & 'Kondek'. Participant of Winter Palace assault in 1917 in Petersburg. During the interwar period he was a leading light in the Polish anarchist movement, and was imprisoned many times for his anarchist activity. During the Nazi occupation, he helped his son, Bernard, to hide Jews smuggled out of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, he was a soldier of Syndicalist Brigade (104 Kompania Związku Syndykalistów Polskich). ADC [aide de camp] of General Skokowski in Polska Armia Ludowa (PAL; Polish People's Army). After WWII, he lived in Tarnow,south Poland), and was a power plant worker. Died 29th February 1956 in Tarnow.

[B] 1896 - André Breton (d. 1966), French writer, poet, Dadaist, founder of Surrealism, member of the PCF and later an anarchist, born. [expand]

1899 - Lucio Fontana (d. 1968), Argentinian anarchist, painter and sculptor, born.

1901 - Aristide Rey (b. 1834) militant Blanquist, internationalist, Bakuninist, Communard, dies. [expand]

1902 - Kay Boyle (d. 1992), American writer, novelist, poet, journalist, educator, ant-war activist and anarchist fellow traveller, born. Author of the anti-Nazi novel 'Death of a Man' (1936) and blacklisted victim of McCarthyism, who campaigned against the Vietnam War, set up the San Francisco chapter of Amnesty International and worked for the NAACP.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: In the Bread & Roses Strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts, 200 police draw their clubs and go after 100 women pickets, knocking them to the ground and beating them.

1917 - Criminal Syndicalism: Idaho introduces a criminal syndicalism bill into the Idaho legislature. A relatively brief document, the statute described criminal syndicalism as the "doctrine which advocates crime, sabotage, violence or unlawful methods of terrorism as a means of accomplishing industrial or political reform." It made the "advocacy of such doctrine" a felony and then went on to criminalise not only advocating criminal syndicalism, but also publicising criminal syndicalism; "[o]penly, wilfully and deliberately justif[ying], by word of mouth or writing, the commission or the attempt to commit crime, sabotage, violent methods of terrorism;" establishing or holding membership in any organisation committed to teaching or advocating criminal syndicalism; assembling to teach or advocate criminal syndicalism; and providing a physical forum for the advocacy of criminal syndicalism.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Gonzalez Rothwoss, the governador civil de Barcelona, meets with the bosses. Rumors say they are ready to enter the La Canadiense plants in the city and take action against the workers, taking over electriciy generation and distribution with the army.
There are strikes in the slums of Gracia and Sans.

1919 - The 23-year-old anarchist, Louis-Émile Cottin, fires on a car carrying Prime Minister Clemenceau, who is wounded. Cottin was tried and sentenced to death, a sentence commuted to 10 years imprisonment following a protest campaign organised in the pages of 'Libertaire'.

##??? 1920 - John O'Dwyer Creaghe (or Juan, as he came to be known; b. 1841), Irish-born physician and international revolutionary anarchist of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century active in England, Argentina and the United States, the latter in support of exiled Mexican anarchists, dies in Washington DC. [expand]

1933 - Sucesos de Casas Viejas: Following the defeat on February 8th of the motion to set up an inquiry, an unofficial parliamentary committee arrives in Casas Viejas.

1947 - Pierre Besnard (b. 1886), French railway worker and anarcho-syndicalist, who was co-founder and Secretary of the Confédération Générale du Travail-Syndicaliste Révolutionnaire (CGT-SR), prominent in the setting up in August 1936 of the Comité anarcho-syndicaliste pour la défense du prolétariat espagnol (which provided financial and material support to the CNT-FAI), became secretary of the Conference of these committees in October 1936 and later Secretary of the Association Internationale des Travailleurs, and co-founder of the Confédération Nationale du Travail in December 1946, dies. [see: Oct. 8]

1950 - Marc Pierrot (b. 1871), French doctor, anarchist militant and propagandist, dies. [see: Jun. 23]

1962 - Émile Armand (pseudonym of Ernest-Lucien Juin) (b. 1872), French individualist anarchist, free love activist and poet, dies. Author of 'Poésies Composées en Prison, l'Initiation Individualiste Anarchiste' (1923) and 'La Révolution Sexuelle et la Camaraderie Amoureuse' (1934). He also wrote for and edited the individualist anarchist publications 'L’Ère Nouvelle' (The New Era; 1901–1911); 'L’Anarchie' (1905-1914); 'Hors du Troupeau' (Out of the Flock; 1911); 'Les Réfractaires' (The Objectors; 1912-1914), 'Par delà la Mêlée' (Beyond the Fray; 1916) 'L'En Dehors' (The Outside; 1922–1939) and 'L’Unique' (1945–1953). He also contributed articles for Sebastien Faure's 'Anarchist Encyclopedia' and suffered repeatedly convictions, including "aiding and abetting desertion" during the First World War as well as internment during WWII. [see: Mar. 26]

[AA] 1964 - Five Spanish libertarians begin a hunger strike at the infamous Fresnes prison in France to draw attention to their plight. Still imprisoned (out of 21 originally arrested in September 1963), they are all released within a few days.

##1970 - Cindy Crabb, US author, musician, zine writer/artist, feminist and feminist, born.

1978 - Heimrad Prem (b. 1934), German painter and one-time Situationist, dies. [see: May 27]

1997 - Haniya Yutaka [埴谷 雄高] (Yanaka Hanataka [般若豊]; b. 1909), noted Japanese novelist and critic, Stirnerite anarchist and later Marxist, dies aged 87. [see: Dec. 19]

2000 - Maria Lozano Molina (also Maria Lozano Mombiola)(b. 1914), Spanish poet and anarchist, who fought with the Durruti Column, partisans in Grenade (Haute Garonne) during WWII and, in the post-war period, supported Sabaté and the autonomous assault groups of Movimiento Ibérico de Liberación and Grupos de Acción Revolucionaria Internacionalista, dies. [see: Mar. 3]

2014 - A second attempt to film a perfomance of 'Putin Will Teach You to Love the Motherland' [Путин научит тебя любить родину] near the building of Sochi Seaport ends with Pussy Riot being beaten by uniformed Cossacks working as security for the Olympics.

[E] 2016 - Vi Subversa (Frances Sokolov; b. 1935), English ceramicist, social worker, cabaret artist, anarcha-feminist, and singer and guitarist of British anarcho-punk band Poison Girls, dies after a short illness. [see: Jun. 20]
1852 - Charles Erskine Scott Wood (d. 1944), American author, poet, painter, civil liberties advocate, soldier, attorney, Christian socialist and philosophical anarchist, born. He contributed to Benjamin Tucker's 'Liberty', Emma Goldman's 'Mother Earth' and 'The Blast', and is best known as the author of the 1927 satirical bestseller, 'Heavenly Discourse'.

1882 - Margarethe Faas-Hardegger (b. 1963), Swiss anarchist, syndicalist, feminist, anti-fascist and peace militant, born. She preached and practised free love, and established an anarchist-communist agricultural community at Minusio. [expand]

[A] 1890 - In Genoa, a group of Italian anarchists, organised by Giovanni Rossi embarks on a ship to Brazil, to found the experimental Cecilia Colony.

1894 - Two boobytrapped bombs aimed at killing the police explode in Paris. One at the Hôtel Calabresi, 69 rue Saint-Jacques, kills one woman and injure serveral others including the hotel proprietress and a policeman. The second explodes at the Hôtel Renaissance, 47 Rue du Faubourg-Saint-Martin, causing only structural damage. Both bombings are attributed to the Belgian anarchist Amédée Pauwels (Désiré Joseph Pauwels; also known as Étienne Rabardy), who it is thought recovered bombs left by Émile Henry in his apartment following his arrest.

[BB] 1894 - Curt Corrinth (d. 1960), German Expressionist poet, novelist, dramatist, screenwriter and 'Bohemian anarchist', born. His anti-bourgeois experimental novel 'Potsdamer Platz' (1919), illustrated by Paul Klee, about the son of a war-proiteering millionaire who persuades Berlin's prostitutes to give up selling their bodies and instead embrace free love to create a 'heaven' on Earth - an anarchist celebration of prostitution as a potential revolutionary challenge to bourgeois order, which ends with the women mimicking the C19th image of bare-breasted Liberty by manning the barricades and laughing at and seducing the soldiers trying to retake the city.
Another of his works, the play 'Trojaner' (Trojans), is directed against the anti-Semitism rampant in German society, and caused outrage when first performed in 1929, and was banned by the Nazis in 1933 along with all his other works. He was taken into 'protective custody' by the Nazis in 1934 but later released and continued writing, opening the Leichlingen bookshop in 1945.

1894 - Enrico Arrigoni (aka Frank Brand; d. 1986), Italian American individualist anarchist lathe operator, house painter, bricklayer, dramatist and political activist influenced by the work of Max Stirner, born. During the Spanish Revolution, he went to fight with the anarchists but was imprisoned and Abe Bluestein, Selma Cohen and Emma Goldman played a part in his escape from prison in Spain.
"The “Frank Brand” I knew was an illegal. That is, he lived in the USA as an illegal immigrant. He was also an illegalist — that is, a law-breaker by conviction and principle. He used pseudonyms (Frank Branch, Harry Arrigoni, Harry Goni) and false papers to hide his past as a militant revolutionary anarchist in Italy, Switzerland, France, Germany, Russia, Hungary, Cuba, Argentina, Mexico, and Spain. At the same time, however, he was completely open about his beliefs and even about his identity — he even wrote his books under his own real name, Enrico Arrigoni, although his friends often addressed him by his nom de guerre..." - Peter Lamborn Wilson.

1894 - The Belgian newspaper 'Libertaire' is banned by the police today, following publication of articles inciting civil disobedience in memory of Auguste Vaillant.

1895 - Giuseppe Bifolchi aka Luigi Viola aka V (d. 1978), Italian anarchist communist, who fought in the Spanish Civil War and then later in the Italian Resistance to the Nazis, born. A non-commissioned officer during WWI, Giuseppe Bifolchi became an individualist anarchist, later moving over to a pronouncedly organisational anarchist communism. Forced into exile in France in the 1920s, he became a supporter of the Organisational Platform of the Libertarian Communistsand participated in the international meetings convened by the Platformists in 1927. In 1924 he contributed to the single issue (December 15th) of the Italian paper 'L’Agitazione a favore di Castagna e Bonomini', published in Paris to support the two comrades Mario Castagna and Ernesto Bonomini accused of having killed two fascists and threatened with extradition. Working in a cement works, he later contributed to the French anarchist paper 'Le Libertaire' under the signature 'V', a reference to the pseudonym (Luigi Viola) that he used during his time in France and Belgium, where he was forced to move in September 1927 following the issung of an expulsion order. In Brussels he became the publisher of the Italian anarchist monthly 'Bandiera Nera' and contributed to Luigi Bertoni's bilingual Franco-Italian paper 'Il Risveglio anarchico-Le réveil anarchiste' and to the monthly magazine 'Vogliamo'.
In July 1936, along with Camillo Berneri, Michele Centrone, Mario Girotti, Vincenzo Perrone, Ernesto Bonomini and Enzo Fantozzi, he was part of the first group of Italians to go to Perpignan to prepare to fight in Spain. He was later joined there by his partner Argentina Gantelli.. A member of the Italian section of the Ascaso Column, he was the leader of the group of riflemen who on August 25, 1936 managed to capture the heights of Monte Pelato, albeit with heavy losses. Alongside fellow anarchist Antonio Cieri, he was also one of the Ascaso Column's commanders (both refused to continue with the postions upon militarisation). During the events of May 1937 he was a member of the Italian section of the Defence Committee of the CNT. Forced to return to France in late 1937, he was arrested in 1937 at Perpignan and again served with an expulsion notice. Amongst those items he bought back from Spain, were the passports of dead Italians that he was able to use to secure passage to South America for comrades at the start of WWII.
Arrested by the Germans in 1940, he was interned in a prison camp and then extradited to Italy. There he was sentenced to 3 years imprisonment as a "combattente antifranchista in Spagna" and deported to Ponza, Ventotene and Renicci d'Anghiari, later fighting in the Resistance. After the war, he was sindaco "repubblicano" (Liberation Mayor) of Balsorano and went on to form an anarchist fruit co-operative and worked for the anarchist press - 'Umanità Nova', 'L'Adunata dei Refrattari', 'L'Internazionale', etc.

1898 - Anton Ciliga (d. 1992), Croatian philosopher, Left Communist and anarchist sympathiser, born. One of the founders of the Yugoslav Communist Party, he was initially enthusiastic about the Russian revolution, but soon became disillusioned and, after the suppression of Kronstadt [his pamphlet 'The Kronstadt Revolt' was published by Freedom Press in 1942], opposed the Bolshevik regime and was sent to the gulags. During WWII, he was interned again, this time in the Jasenovac camps in Croatia. His major work is 'The Russian Enigma' (1940, 1979).

## 1907 - Eleuterio Blasco Ferrer (d. 1993), Aragonese sculptor and painter, draughtsman cartographer and miliciano during the Civil War, born. Member of the Milícia de la Cultura (part of the 26 Divisió prior to the militarisation of the Columna Durruti).

1911 - The publication in Germany of the first issue of Franz Pfemfert's magazine 'Die Aktion', subtitled 'Journal for literature and a libertarian politics'. This high quality weekly brought together the Expressionist arts movement and radical social criticism from anarchist writers. It was subject to numerous fines, bans and seizures because of its anti-militarist position. It became bimonthly in 1919, moving closer to become Councilist movement and, towards the end of its publication (1931), became the official organ of the Trotskyist opposition.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: With both the Sindicat Únic de la Construcció (Single Union of Construction), led by Simó Piera, and the Sindicat Únic d'Aigua, Gas i Electricitat de la CNT having already initiated a series of localised strikes in solidarity with clerks after the company refused to negotiate or speak to the Catalan CNT, and with more sectors also demanding the 8-hour day, the CNT now extends the strike across the whole of La Canadiense, so Barcelona and some Catalan towns are now without electricity, which means a total paralysis of nearly all other companies.
In the late afternoon, the governor telegraphs the government insisting that he and the company want them to send in the troops. A minister responds, asking if there is really no other option. The gobernador later replies that the capitán general Milans del Bosch had already sent in the guardias civiles but that the workers had told them that if they did not leave, they would immediately shut the generators down. The governor reluctantly withdrew the police and claims that the only other option is to send the army in. At 01:30 the following morning the governor is informed that the Consejo de Ministros have ruled out the mobilisation of the army but that they have ordered the siezure of the works by the state at 15:00, with the agreement of the La Canadiense board.
The workers' demands are rejected and the strike continues in the same state.

[C] 1924 - In a Parisian restaurant the Italian anarchist Ernesto Bonomini takes revenge for the beating murder of his teacher/friend by a squad of fascist thugs in Italy, silencing Nicola Bonservizi, secretary of the local fascio, a writer for 'L'Italie Nouvelle' and Mussolini's fascist paper 'Popolo d' Italia' with several shots from his revolver.

1926 - Jules Gustave Durand (b. 1880), French anarchist, revolutionary trade unionist, secretary of the Le Havre coalmen's union, dies. [see: Sep. 6]

1928 - Kyūtarō Wada (和田 久太郎; b. 1893), Japanese anarchist, labour activist and haiku poet under the pen name Yoihachi (酔蜂), who was nicknamed Hisa-san (久さん) because of his warm personality, commits suicide in prison due to the chronic lung disease that he was suffering from. [see: Feb. 6]

1933 - The first issue of the fortnightly newspaper 'La Protesta' (Protest) is published in Puteaux (Hauts-de-Seine). It replaces the newspaper 'Nova Umanità', banned in January 1933 by the French authorities.

1998 - Andre Senez (b. 1917), French shoemaker and militant in the Jeunesse Anarchiste Communiste (Anarchist Communist Youth), dies. [see: Oct. 8]

2013 - Attempted revolt in Koridallos prison, Greece. [expand]
[E] 1826 - Lois Waisbrooker (d. 1909), US anarchist and feminist author, editor, publisher, spiritualist and campaigner on birth control, women's rights and free speech, born. Probably best remembered for her 1893 novel 'A Sex Revolution'. [expand]

1868 - Attilio Cini (d. 1926), Italian anarchist, born. [expand]

##1886 - Aleksei Eliseevich Kruchenykh or Kruchonykh or Kruchyonykh (Russian: Алексе́й Елисе́евич Кручёных; d. 1968), Russian Cubo-Futurist or zaum (‘transrational language') poet, critic and anarchist, born. Associated both with the Futurist poets around Vladimir Mayakovsky and David Burliuk, and Suprematist artists artists Kazimir Malevich, Natalya Goncharova, Mikhail Larionov and Olga Rozanova, the last of whom he married in 1912. Kruchenykh wrote the libretto for the Futurist opera Victory Over the Sun, with sets provided by Kazimir Malevich, and is famed for his series of books including 'Universal War' (ВсеЛенская Война Ъ; 1916), illustrated with Malevich lithographs.

1894 - Émile Pouget's newspaper 'Father Peinard' cease publication with its 253th and final issue, a victim, alongside many other libertarian publications disappear and those anarchists prosecuted during the Trial of the Thirty, of the notorious anti-anarchist Lois Scélérates.

1898 - Felisa de Castro Sampedro (d. 1981), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and feminist militant, born. Recognising the need for a specifically feminist organisation within the libertarian movement, she joined together with other women from within the syndicalist and libertarian ateneo movements, including Maruja Boadas, María Cerdán, Nicolasa Gutiérrez, Soledad Estorach, Elodia Pou and Conchita Liaño, and in late 1934 the Grupo Cultural Femenino de Cataluña was formed in Barcelona with the help of prominent militants Pilar Grangel, Libertad Ródenas and Áurea Cuadrado. One of their immediate initiatives was to set up rotating childcare arrangements so the women with children could attend meetings. The lack of usable spaces limited their scope for action. They did however manage to organise a successful rally at the Teatro Olimpia in Barcelona, ​​for which they requested the help of Frederica Montseny but, always reticent about groups specificly for women, she rejected the invitation. They also collaborated actively in the solidarity campaign organised by the CNT during the general strike in Zaragoza in 1934, when many Catalan families welcomed the children of the strikers, by contacting the Catalan women with Zaragozan mothers. In 1936 the Grupo merged with the Agrupaciones Mujeres Libres de Madrid to form a countrywide Mujeres Libres organisation.
After the defeat of the Revolution, she went into exile in France where she met other comrades from the CNT and Mujeres Libres (especially Pepita Carpena and Pilar Grangel) whilst being held in the Clermont l'Hérault concentration camp. In 1943, she was living in Bordeaux.
She died on November 16, 1981 in Caracas, Venezuela.

1903 - Anaïs Nin (Angela Anaïs Juana Antolina Rosa Edelmira Nin y Culmell; d. 1977), American author and diarist, who frequented anarchist circles and was involved in a long intellectual and sexual relationship with Henry Miller at the Villa Seurat in Paris, born.
"When we blindly adopt a religion, a political system, a literary dogma, we become automatons."

1903 - Saturnino Carod Lerín aka ' 'El Cuco Cebollero', 'Satur' and 'Jacinto Lahoz Marín' (d. 1988), leading Aragonese anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist combattant, born into an anarchist peasant family. He started working on the land aged 6 years old, ploughing and harvesting in the Castille region and, at the end of WWI, he went in search of work acros Europe before settling in Barcelona with a job in construction. There he joined the CNT and through the union learned to read and write. Always an active anarchist, he refused to hold positions of responsibility. During the years of pistolerisme, he was part of an action group and had to flee to France to escape the repression launched by the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera. He returned from exile with the amnesty granted by the Second Republic and actively participated in the Sindicat de la Construcció in the CNT in Zaragoza.
In February 1936, he was a member of the Aragon Regional Committee (Comité Régional) and was responsible for organizing the farmers union (sindicats pagesos) in the region, participating in numerous propaganda tours especially in the Valderrobres (Teruel) area with Florentino Galván. On July 19, 1936, as Secretary of Propaganda for the CR, he managed to escape from Zaragoza, reaching Tortosa where he formed, with Captain Ferrer, the Columna Carod-Ferrer which participated in the liberation of many Aragon villages, including Alcaniz, Calanda, Alcorisa, Montalbán, etc ..., and put in place a network to help evacuate militants stranded in Zaragoza. When liberating his home village of Moneva (500 inhabitants), saved the life of the priest Enrique Guallar, a childhood friend who was about to be lynched by the population and who throughout the war became the secretary of supply for the small collectivised town. His column then merged with that of Antonio Ortiz Ramírez, taking the name Columna Confederal Sud-Ebre. Following militarisation, he was appointed Commissar of 118th Brigade, commanded by Victorio Castán Guillén, then Commissar of the Division 25th (Exèrcit Popular), a position he held until the end of the war. He collaborated on 'Nuevo Aragon', the newspaper of the Council of Aragon.
In May 1937, during clashes in Barcelona with the Stalinists, he was ordered to Catalonia at the head of several groups from the 25th Division with the intention of stopping the clashes but was stopped from doing so by the orders of the leaders of the CNT.
At the end of the war he was on the Madrid front was arrested at the port of Alicante and interned in the concentration camps at Los Almendros and Albaterra. He escaped in May 1939 with Castán and Sebastián Vicente Esteban Castan and went to France with the aid of Francisco Ponzán Vidal's guides. There he was interned until the end of 1940 and, upon his release integrated, joined Ponzán's clandestine group, participating in the Résistance against the German occupation, and the continued struggle in Spain. In January 1941, he crossed into Spain, where he conducted liaison missions between the CNT National Committee of Manuel Amil Barcia and Celedonia Pérez in Madrid.
In June 1941, he conducted a new mission in Spain, travelling to Valencia, Barcelona and Madrid, where he was arrested on Aug. 7, 1941, probably due to the action of the traitor Eliseu Melis Díez, of whom he was one of the first to suspect treachery. Brought before the council of war, which opened in Madrid on October 11, 1949 - and during which the priest Enrique Guallar, who after the war had been 'exiled' to Epila by Franco, spoke in his favour - he escaped the death penalty and was sentenced twenty five years inprisonment. He was interned successively Figueres, Barcelona and San Miguel de Los Reyes, from which he was released in late 1960. He lived in Barcelona and was arrested again in October 1961 and in 1962 for his links with the Aliança Sindical Obrera (ASO).
In July 1965, to the surprise of many, he took part in the affair of the cincpuntisme negotiations between the CNT and former Francoist hierarchical unions. In February 1976 he participated in the confederal assembly at Sans and the rebuiltding of the CNT and the following year was one of the promoters of the founding of the La Verneda Libertarian Ateneo in Barcelona.
Saturnino Carod Lerin died in Barcelona on March 7, 1988.

1918 - Criminal Syndicalism: A criminal syndicalism law is approved in Montana. Entitled 'An act defining criminal syndicalism, and the word sabotage; prohibiting the advocacy, teaching or suggestion thereof; and prohibiting the advocacy, teaching or suggestion of crime, violence, or the commission of any unlawful act or thing as a means to accomplish industrial or political ends, change or revolution; and prohibiting assemblages for the purpose of such advocacy, teachings or suggestions: declaring it unlawful to permit the use of any place, building, rooms or premises for such assemblages in certain cases; and providing penalties for the violation thereof.', it defines sabotage as: "malicious, felonious, intentional or unlawful damage, injury or destruction of real or personal property of any form whatsoever, of any employer, or owner, by his or her employee or employees, or any employer or employers or by any person or persons, at their own instance, or at the instance, request or instigation of such employees, employers, or any other person." Oregon, Utah, Oklahoma and California copied the law almost wholesale into their state leginslation.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: At 01:30 the governor is informed that the Consejo de Ministros have ruled out the mobilisation of the army but that they have ordered the siezure of the works by the state at 15:00, with the agreement of the La Canadiense board. At 16:00, the CNT declared the strike across the La Canadenca, 1,200 workers at the La Canadiense transformer station on the Avinguda del Paral·lel suspend electricity distribution.
Barcelona and some Catalan towns continue to have no electricity supply, resulting in a near total paralysis of industry [70% of the factories in the province of Barcelona are unable to operate]. The German company Energía Eléctrica de Cataluña however,continues to supply energy to its subscribers and some companies are able to continue working including the newspaper 'Las Noticias'.
Three is now what amounts to a general strike in Barcelona as the city is plunged into a blackout, at dusk police forces are forced to patrol with torches and lamps. The company responds by sending senior officials to talk to the strike committee [Simó Piera, Josep Duch, Camil Piñón, Saturnino Meca, Vicenç Botella and Salazar i Peña]. Up to sixty trams remained stranded in the city streets but the remainder, about 700, had time enough to return to their garages; shops are closed; there is no lighting in the civil government building; factory workers gathered on Las Ramblas; and police break up groups on the Avinguda del Paral·lel. Six more workers are detained.
The government immediately responded by siezing the company, becoming administrator and temporary operator of La Canadenca. The army was immediately sent in to occupy the transformer station and try to make it operational again. In response to the army being sent in, the Sindicat Únic appealed to all workers stand together, extending the strike to cover all of electricity, gas and water companies in Barcelona. The Secretaría de Marina (Secretary of the Navy) appoints technicians and officers and sends them to Barcelona. Military engineers arrive that night and set to trying to resore some supplies to the city.

1926 - Jan Wacław Machajski, aka A. Wolski (A. Vol'ski) (b. 1867), Polish revolutionary and theorist of the Makhaevism (Machajewszczyzny), a synthesis of anarchism and Marxism, dies in Moscow. [see: Jan. 8]

1936 - Shin Chae-ho (신채호; b. 1880), Korean historian, novelist, nationalist independence activist, anarchist and social Darwinist, dies. [see: Dec. 8]

1937 - The first issue of 'Resurgimiento' (Renaissance) is published in Montevideo, Uruguay, "Publicacion Anarquist, Organo del grupo Libertario 'Nuevos Rumbos'" (New Directions).

## 1947 - Mauro Macario, Italian film, theatre and television director, playwright, essayist, poet and anarchist, born.

1961 - Dick Lucas, British vocalist with the anarcho-punk rock band Subhumans and later with the ska-punk band Citizen Fish, born.

1973 - Justin Sane (Justin Cathal Geever), lead guitarist and singer/songwriter of the US anarcho-punk band Anti-Flag, born.

2011 - Miguel Grau Caldú (b. 1913), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist resister and poet, dies. [see: Nov. 10]

##2012 - Five members of Pussy Riot [Пусси Райот] stage a performance in Moscow's Cathedral of Christ the Saviour of 'Punk Prayer: Mother of God, Chase Putin Away!' [Панк-молебен: Богородица, Путина прогони!], which urges the Virgin Mary to rid Russia of Vladimir Putin and to "become a feminist", as well as criticising the subservience of many Russians to the church and attacking the church's links to the KGB and its traditionalist views on women. This performance led to the arrest and prosecution of three of their members. [see: Aug. 17]

2016 - Revolutionary Struggle (Επαναστατικός Αγώνας) member Pola Roupa (Πόλα Ρούπα) attempts to break her partner and fellow RS comrade Nikos Maziotis (Νίκος Μαζιώτης) out of Koridallos prison via a hijacked helicopter.
1879 - First issue of 'Le Révolte', founded by Peter Kropotkin, François Dumarteray, Élisée Reclus, etc. appears in Switzerland.

[B] 1886 - Hugo Ball (d. 1927), German author, poet, philosopher, literary critic and one of the leading Dada artists, anarchist and Bakunist, born. Along with Raoul Hausmann, he was the most active of the Dadaists in anarchist circles. [expand]

1886 - Saverio Friscia (b. 1813), one of Michael Bakunin's most ardent advocates in Italy at the time, along with Carlo Gambuzzi, Giuseppe Fanelli and Alberto Tucci, who together formed the Neapolitan section of the First International, dies. [see: Nov. 11]

1890 - [O.S. Feb. 10] Fanya Yefimovna Kaplan [Фа́нни Ефи́мовна Капла́н](Feiga Haimovna Roytblat [Фейга Хаимовна Ройтблат]; d. 1918), Russian Socialist-Revolutionary and one-time anarchist, who unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate Lenin at the 'Hammer and Sickle' factory on August 31, 1918, born. One of seven children of a poor pious Jewish peasant family, her father was a teacher in a Jewish elementary school who home educated her four brothers and two sisters. During the 1905 revolution, Kaplan was involved in anarchist revolutionary circles and was known by the nom de guerre 'Dora' (Дора). In 1906, she was involved in preparing for an attack in Kiev on the local governor-general Vladimir Sukhomlinov (Владимир Сухомлинов) but she and her partner Victor Garsky (Виктор Гарский), aka Jacob Shmidman (Яков Шмидман), were constructing the bomb it detonated prematurely and she received a head wound and partially lost her eyesight. As she fled the apartment, she was arrested. On January 18 [O.S. Jan. 5] 1907, the military district court in Kiev sentenced her to death, which was commuted to hard labour for life in the Nerchinsk katorga (Нерчинская каторга) mining district in Transbaikal due to her minority. Shackled hand and foots, she was initially transported to Maltsevskayaa prison (Мальцевскую тюрьму), where she was subjected to corporal punishment, being repeated stripped and canned on her bear flesh. She also underwent surgery to remove bomb fragments from her arms and legs, as well as suffered from deafness and chronic articular rheumatism. In May 1909, she was examined by a doctor because of her continuous headaches and her diagnosed her near blindness (she was left being only able to read with the aid of a magnifying glass). Fanny later spent time in the region's Akatuyskoy (Акатуйской) katorga where she met the the well-known Socialist-Revolutionary (Социалистов-Революционеров) activist Maria Alexandrovna Spiridonova (Мария Алекса́ндровна Спиридонова). Under the influence of Spiridonova whilst in prison, Fanny became an эсеркa (eskera, a female socialist-revolutionary).
During her time in prison, Fanny's parents had emigrated to America in 1911 and two years later her term of hard labour was reduced to twenty years. Fanny was finally amnestied along with all political prisoners following the February 1917 revolution and, after her release, she lived for a time in Chita, moving in April 1917 to Moscow. Eleven years of hard labour had undermined her health and Kaplan was also gradually loosing her sight altogether. Comrades in the party decided that she needed medical treatment and sent her in the summer of 1917 to the Crimea, where the interim government has opened in Yevpatoria (Евпатории) sanatorium for former political prisoners in Yalta. The October Revolution found Kaplan in Kharkov, where she had a successful operation on her eyes, which partially restored her vision (she was able to discern outlines and spatial awareness but little else). She the lived in Sebastopol, leading training courses for employees of the zemstvos (local self-government bodies).
With the Bolsheviks' ruthless 1918 power grab on-going, which most recently had involved the banning of the Bolsheviks' one-time coilition partners the Left Socialist Revolutionaries (Партия левых социалистов-революционеров-интернационалистов), Kaplan had decided that she should assassinate Lenin as "a traitor to the Revolution". So, on October 30, 1918, at the Michelson (Михельсона) plant, more popularly known as the Hammer and Sickle (Серп и Молот) factory, in the Zamoskvorechye (Замоскворецком) district of Moscow where Lenin was due to address a rally of workers. He had turned up unguarded despite the assassination of Moisei Uritsky (Моисе́й Ури́цкий), chief of the Petrograd Cheka that morning, and as he left the factory to get in his car and was turning to address a woman who had accosted him, Kaplan fired three shots at Vlad the Impaler, wounding him seriously in the neck, ending up in his lung, and in his shoulder (the third shot hit the female petitioner) An unconscious Lenin was driven back to the Kremlin by his chauffeur, where he was operated on by Vladimir Mintz (Владимир Минц) and saved, but he never fully recovered from his wounds.
Fanny Kaplan was arrested almost immediately at a nearby tram stop. Interrogated by the Cheka, Kaplan readily confessed to the attack:
"My name is Fanya Kaplan. Today I shot at Lenin. I did it on my own. I will not say whom I obtained my revolver. I will give no details. I had resolved to kill Lenin long ago. I consider him a traitor to the Revolution. I was exiled to Akatui for participating in an assassination attempt against a Tsarist official in Kiev. I spent 11 years at hard labour. After the Revolution, I was freed. I favoured the Constituent Assembly and am still for it."
Despite having claimed sole responsibility, the Bolsheviks at the time tried to implicate Kaplan in being part of a British plot and having spied for the British Ambassador Robert Lockhart.
Fanny Kaplan was shot without trial, September 3, 1918 at 16:00 in the courtyard of the Kremlin in Moscow on the oral instruction of the Central Executive Committee Yakov Sverdlov (Я́ков Свердло́в). According to one of the versions of the story of her death is that the sentence was carried by the CEC's 1st car combat detachment (1-й автобоевой отряд) whilst the engines of all their vehicles were running to cover up the sound of the firing squad. Whatever the truth, Fanya Kaplan's body was then doused with petrol and burned in an iron barrel in the Alexander Gardens (Александровский сад).

1894 - Henry Le Fèvre (d. 1991), French vegetarian, pacifist, anarchist and publisher of 'Le Néo Naturien', "revue des idées philosophiques et naturiennes", born.

1894 - Marius Monfray (b. 1866), French anarchist trade unionist, plasterer and painter-decorator, dies. In November 1886, he was sentenced to eight days in prison for organising an illegal lottery (providing support funds for Toussaint Bordat, a defendant in the 'Trial of the 66'). His shout in response — "Vive l'anarchie!". For such impudence, 'contempt of court', got him two years in prison tacked on to his eight days. [see: Jul. 4]

1895 - Kondō Kenji (近藤 憲二; August 6, 1969) Japanese anarchist of the Taisho and Showa periods, who looked after the five orphaned children of Itō Noe (伊藤 野枝) and Ōsugi Sakae (大杉 栄) following the pair's murder on September 16, 1923 in what became known as the Amakasu Incident (甘粕事件), born
[ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/近藤 憲二

## 1900 - Luis Buñuel Portolés (d. 1983), Spanish Surrealist film-maker/director, anarchist, atheist, anti-clerical, anti-bourgeois, anti-fascist and blasphemer, born.
"I'm a revolutionary but revolution horrifies me, I'm an anarchist, but I'm totally against the anarchists."
"At twenty-eight I was an anarchist, and the discovery of Sade was to me quite extraordinary. It had nothing to do with the erotology, but with thought atheist. Turns out what had happened, until this moment, is that purely and simply had hidden me freedom, completely deceived me regarding what was religion and, above all, about morality. I was an atheist, had lost faith, but replaced it with liberalism and anarchism, with the sense of the innate goodness of man, and at the bottom was convinced that the man had a predisposition to goodness spoiled by the organization of the world by capital and soon discovered that all that was nothing, that everything that could exist (and if not that, something else), and that nothing, absolutely nothing, should be taken into account as it were the total freedom that if he felt like the man could move, and that there was good and there was bad. Imagine what that means for an anarchist."
Max Aub - 'Conversations with Luis Buñuel' (1984)

1910 - Baltasar Lobo Casquero (d. 1993), Spanish artist, illustrator, sculptor and anarchist, born. Lifelong companion of poet and anarchist Mercedes Comaposada Guillén. Abandoning his early job in a religious sculpture workshop, he got a scholarship he studied at the Reial Acadèmia de Belles Arts de San Fernando (Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando) in Madrid but, dissatisfied with their curricula, he left to work in woodcarvers run by CNT member Ángel Garzón, his first contact with anarchism, as well as making gravestones. He also too lessons at the Cercle de Belles Arts (Academy of Fine Arts) in Madrid. In 1933, and following a year's military service, he met the militant anarcho-feminist Mercedes Comaposada Guillén, one of the founders of the Mujeres Libres. In 1935 he made his first trip to Paris and, in 1936, joined the FIJL and began illustrating 'Tierra y Libertad', 'Castilla Libre', 'Frente Libertario', 'Tiempos Nuevos', 'Umbral', 'Mujeres Libres', 'Campo Libre', etc.. An active member of the Secció de Tallistes del Sindicat de la Fusta (Woodcarvers Section of the Woodworkers Union) of the CNT, he enlisted in the militia at the outbreak of war and participated in the Arts i Lletres group, give lessons at the front to those militants who could neither read nor write, "harmonising in this way the anarchist philosophy of making revolution (personal growth and humanising the individual) at the same time as being at war, fighting fascism".
Following the defeat of the republic, he went to France and settled in Paris, occupying the abandoned factory Naum Gabo. In 1945 he was part of the Masters of Contemporary Art exhibition alongside Matisse, Picasso, Leger, Utrillo, Bonnard and Laurens, later becoming Picasso's secretary for many years.

1918 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: At the height of the Red Scare, the office of the 'Cronaca Sovversiva', an anarchist newspaper both Sacco and Vanzetti had written for and donated money to, is raided. The names Sacco and Vanzetti are for the first time linked by officials to anarchist activities.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: At 02:00, the company succeeds in restoring light to some of the main city thoroughfares. supply is abnormal and with great interruptions. There are numerous faults and half voltage, and there is only a supply to the streetlights until 8 at night. The Hospital Clínico (Clinical Hospital) has serious problems with its lighting. In the city there are strong rumours that two soldiers have been electrocuted. The government later denies the news, but finally in an article that escaped censorship a week later, it is admitted that they were killed. Coal supplies are stuck on the docks as the sindicato de transportistas refuses to handle them and military do not have the correct vehicles to transport the supplies themselves.
The La Canadenca manager Fraser Lawton publishes a letter in the city's newspapers stating that he had not received any concrete demand from the strikers.

1921 - The Confederación General de Trabajadores is founded in Mexico during a workers' convention that took place in Mexico City from February 16- 22. The congress was called by the Comité de la Federación Comunista del Proletariado Mexicano to draw together anarcho-syndicalist and other union organisations who opposed the more moderate, pro-government Confederación Regional Obrera Mexicana.

1927 - The Dielo Trouda group, which inclues Peter Arshinov and Nestor Makhno, sends a circular out to all anarchist groups calling for an international conference for April 20th (held near Paris) based on their 'organisational platform'.

1930 - In Italy Camillo Berneri sentenced to six months in prison.

1930 - Giuliano Montaldo, radical Italian film director, who directed the docudrama 'Sacco e Vanzetti' (1971), born.

1937 - Tomás Herreros Miquel (or Miguel) (b. 1877), Spanish typesetter, anarcho-syndicalist, writer, gifted speaker, organiser, street activist, dies. A key figure in the early days of Spanish anarcho-syndicalism, he was active in the Arte de Imprimir, chaired the Junta de Defensa dels Drets Humans (Council fot the Defence of Human Rights) in Barcelona and was part of the anarchist group Quatre de Maig. Editor of the newspaper 'Solidaridad Obrera' since its creation and a close friend of Francisco Ferrer . In July 1909 he was arrested at the beginning of the Semaine Tragique and in 1910 attended the founding congress of the CNT. The following year he became editor of 'Tierra y Libertad' (and a member of the organisation). [expand]
Author of 'Huelga General en Barcelona' (General Strike in Barcelona; 1902); 'El Obrero Moderno' (The Modern Worker; 1911) and 'La Política y los Obreros' (Politics and The Workers; 1913).

1960 - Paul-Émile Borduas (b. 1905), French-Canadian abstract artist, teacher and anarchist, who was the leader of the Automatistes and main author of the manifesto 'Refus Global' (1948), Borduas had a profound influence on both Québécois and Canadian art, dies in Paris of a heart attack. [see: Nov. 1]

1971 - Alexandre Breffort (b. 1901), French journalist, screenwriter, playwright, writer, anarchist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Nov. 22]

1986 - During the first AFA national conference, Searchlight make a series of totally bogus allegations against the anarchist group Class War that they have had links to fascist organisations. This resulted in Class War, Direct Action and the 'anarchist haters' Red Action walking-out and Class War being suspended by the organisation.
www.meanwhileatthebar.org/IWCA/BTF Review.pdf]

2003 - Arthur Moyse (b. 1914), English anarchist, artist and bus conductor, dies at the ripe young age of 88. [see: Jun. 21]

2013 - Fake press release stating that Banksy had been arrested by the Met Police Anti-Graffiti Task Force released, starting a minor media feeding frenzy.
1851 - Antonio Pellicer i Paraire (d. 1916), Catalan Bakuninist anarchist, typographer, writer and playwright, born. Member of the Spanish Regional Federation of the AIT and secretary of the Unión of Noógrafos of Barcelona. Between 1871 and 1875 he lived in Mexico , Cuba and the United States In exile?). Helped found the Sociedad Tipográfica in 1879 and the later La Solidaria, a breakaway from the Sociedad Tipográfica, in 1881. He edited the weekly newspaper 'Acracia' between 1886 and 1888, and was on the steering and editorial committees of other newspapers such as 'La Crónica de los Trabajadores', 'La Revolución Social', 'Revista Social' and 'El Productor', collaborating with Ricardo Mella [see 21 Apr] amongst others.
In 1891 he emigrated to Buenos Aires, Argentina where he ran a professional journal entitled 'Éxito Gráfico i La Noografía' and was president of the Instituto Argentino de las Artes Gráficas.
As a writer, he wrote a number of Obrerista (Workers' Theatre) plays in Catalan including 'En lo Ball' (In The Dance), 'Celos' (Jealosy), 'Jo Vaig' (I), 'La Mort de la Proletària' (Death of the Proletariat) and 'Sense Esperança' (No Hope).

1879 - [O.S. Feb. 11] Kazimir Malevich (d. 1935), Suprematist painter and anarchist who, like many other avant garde artists, fell foul of the Communist authorities, born. He wrote regualrly for the weekly 'Anarkhiia' (Anarchy) and its arts and literature section 'Tvorchestvo' (Creativity or Creative Work), contributing to more than twenty issues and supported the paper financially.
“The banner of anarchism is the banner of our ego and like a free wind our spirit will billow our creative work through the vast spaces of our soul.”
"'Clean the squares of the remains of the past, for the temples of our image are going to be erected.
Clean yourselves of the accumulation of forms belonging to past ages." (in 'Anarkhiia' 1918)
"We are revealing new pages of art in anarchy’s new dawns …
We are the first to come to the new limit of creation, and we shall uncover a new alarm in the field of the lacquered arts …
The powerful storm of revolution has borne off the garret, and we, like clouds in the firmament, have sailed to our freedom.
The ensign of anarchy is the ensign of our ‘ego,’ and our spirit like a free wind will make our creative work flutter in the broad spaces of the soul.
You who are bold and young, make haste to remove the fragments of the disintegrating rudder. Wash off the touch of the dominating authorities.
And, clean, meet and build the world in awareness of your day." Malevich - 'To The New Limit' (originally published as 'K novoi grani'), 'Anarkhiia' 31 (1918) (p220-1).
"The banner of anarchism is the banner of our ego and like a free wind our spirit will billow our creative work through the vast spaces of our soul."

[B] 1882 - B. Traven (d. 1969), Anarchist author/novelist, aka Ret Marut, Hal Croves, Bruno Traven, Traven Torsvan, Otto Feige, born in Poznañ, Poland. Spent a portion of his life hiding his tracks, changing identity, country and jobs. [This is the best guess for the date and location of this mysterious author's birth.]

1883 - La Bande Noire: In Montceau, a dynamite explosion blows in the window of the house of a miner named Saunier. This attacks is the first of a series of six or seven actions that take place over the following two months against informers providing information to the police. [see: Apr. 23]

1883 - In the countryside near Ganshoren in Belgium a bomb being carried by the French anarchists Antoine Cyvoct and Paul Metayer (possibly on their way to test it), accidentally explodes. Metayer, who was about to emigrate to the US, dies the following day, refusing to reveal anything to the police about his activities. Cyvoct is extradited to France to be tried (wrongly, it appears) for the [Oct. 22, 1882] Bellcour attack in Lyon.

1899 - Émile Bauchet (b. 1973), French militant anarchist and Ligue Internationale des Combattants de la Paix activist, born.

###[C] 1904 - Manuel Monleón Burgos (d. 1976), Spanish painter, illustrator, poster artist, photomontagist, naturist, Esperantist and anarchist, born. One of the most important poster and photomontage artists of the Spanish Revolution.

1909 - Isabel Hernández Marichal, aka 'La Tabaquera' (The Snuffbox) (d. 1983), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist is born in the Canary Islands. The eldest of three children, her father emigrated to Cuba when she was very young and the rest of the family moved to Tenerife. At 12-years-old, she began working in the tobacco factories and, aged 16, she joined the CNT's Sindicat de Tabaquers d'Ambdós Sexes, participating in numerous strikes, labour disputes and meetings, such as the celebrated 1936 May Day event in the Plaça de Toros in Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Her militancy led to a number of arrests and following the fascist coup on July 18, 1936, she went into hiding. She was amongst the 64 CNT members arrested and tried for the uprising on January 23, 1937, that resulted in 19 workers being shot dead. She was convicted of the "crime of rebellion" and sentenced to 12 years and one day in prison. However, she managed to go underground in Las Palmas, hiding out in friends' aprtments for 5 years and, using her sister Rosa's identity paper, worker again in tobacco factories. She established a romantic relationship with Blas Pérez Sicilia in 1943, with whom she had two daughters, Josefa and Nieves. With the 1945 pqardon for those not convicted of "delitos de sangre" (crimes of blood), the couple returned to Tenerife in 1949. Blas was pardoned in 1951, later emigrating to Venezuela. Following the death of the dictator Francisco Franco, she participated in the revival of the CNT and spoke at the first public meeting to be held after the Franco regime on May 1 1978 at the Palais Royal in Tenerife. She was also appointed Coordinadora Feminista and participated in the commemorations of March 8, 1979. In his later years senile dementia decimated her powers. Isabel Hernández Marichal died on June 23, 1983 in Tenerife.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Energía Eléctrica de Cataluña also joins the strike, but the power cuts are shortlived and their dispute is resolved an hour later.
The unions are informed of the seizure of the company by the lawyer Montalvo, and respond by writing to the governor to tell him that, as the government has brought about the suspension of constitutional guarantees in the province, ​​the interruption of the free exercise of trade unions rights and the detention of workers, the strike committee "will only deal with the government" when they decide to end the repressive measures, and on the other hand with the company regarding the demands presented. The Sindicatos d'Aigua, Gas i Electricitat (Water, Gas and Electricity), Madera (Wood), Construcción (Construction) and Metalurgia (Metallurgy) are signatories to the letter.
At 23:00, the military manages to get a small part of the city relit. Thanks to this, some newspapers are distributed, but anything approaching a steady electrical supply was not achieved until the following morning, although the voltage still remains low and variable.

1919 - 'A Batalha' premières, the second daily newspaper in the country, published by the anarco-sindicalista CGT (the General Confederation of Workers in Portugal, comprised of 150,000 workers).

[E] 1920 - Natasha Notkin (b. 1870), Russian-American pharmacist, nihilist and anarchist, who identified herself as being a nihilist before coming to the US at the age of 15, dies of bronchial pneumonia. While in Philadelphia, Notkin became a highly respected anarchist and was often referred to as the 'soul' of the Philadelphia anarchist scene and known for her self-sacrificing dedication, being "married to the movement". She worked as the city’s contact for anarchist newspaper, 'Free Society' and then for 'Mother Earth'.
She was a close confidant of Emma Goldman and Voltairine de Cleyre. Goldman stated that "she was the true type of Russian woman revolutionist, with no other interests in life but the movement." With de Cleyre, she co-founded and helped run the Ladies Liberal League of Philadelphia and the Social Science Club. After de Cleyre fell victim of an assassination attack, Notkin and others formed the Friends of Voltairine de Cleyre to help pay for her medical expenses.
Notkin became a pharmacist, learning the trade from a fellow anarchist, Jacob Joffe. She continued to work with Joffe until moved to Los Angeles with fellow pharmacist, William Eidelson (also known as Wolf Ethelson). The two married in Los Angeles on Dec. 19, 1917. At first they lived at 1419 N Normandie. Then in 1918, they purchased the Hollenbeck Pharmacy located at 2201 E. 4th Street, which was also listed as their residence.
In February 1920, Notkin fell victim to influenza and eventually died of bronchial pneumonia on February 23, 1920, and was buried two days later at the Beth Israel Cemetery in Boyle Heights.

1934 - Fyodor Pavlovich Drugov (Федор Павлович Другов; b. 1891), Russian SR-Maximalist and anarcho-individualist, who was a member of the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee (Петроградского военно-революционного комитета) and the Cheka Collegium (Коллегию ВЧК), and played a key role in the storming of the Winter Palace, is shot by the OGPU having been found guilty of espionage, despite having been given permission to return to the USSR from exile. [see: Jun. 30]

1960 - Dominique Lagru (b. 1873), French shepherd, coal miner, ornamental plasterer, naïve painter, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies in Paris. [see: Sep. 30]

1979 - Eleven members of a libertarian group in Barcelona are busted, including two escapees from Carabanchel a year ago.

## 1989 - Robert Grodt, aka Demhat Goldman (d. 2017), US anarchist and street medic, best known for his involvement with the Occupy Wall Street movement and his participation and death in the Battle of Raqqa whilst fighting with the YPG (People's Protection Units / یەکینەکانی پاراستنی گەل / Yekîneyên Parastina Gel) against Daesh / ISIL, born.

2014 - In a performance timed to coincide with Russian Army Day, St. Petersburg conceptual artist and political activist Pyotr Pavlensky and others performed his piece 'Liberty', a “small-scale reconstruction of Maidan" on Malo-Konyushenny (Tripartite) Bridge near the Church on Spilled Blood in central St. Petersburg, where they built an imitation barricade, raised Ukrainian and anarchist flags, set dozens of car tires on fire and banged on sheets of metal, in support of the Maidan protests in Kiev. Police interrupted the performance, arresting Pavlensky and his fellow performers. Pavlensky and his assistant Yaroslav Gradil were released from prison 2 days later after being held accused of hooliganism.
1847 - Wordsworth Donisthorpe (d. 1914) [ERROR]

1849 - Nicolas Thomassin (d. 1919), French weaver, socialist, anarchist, participant in Sans Patrie (formed October 18, 1891) with Gustave Bouillard, Pierre Leroux, Paulin Mailfait, etc., born.

##1874 - Jorge Guillermo Borges Haslam (February 14 1938), Argentine writer, teacher of psychology, Spencerian philosophical anarchist and father of the writer Jorge Luis Borges, born.

1884 - The first issue of the Sunday weekly newspaper 'L'Hydre Anarchiste' (The Anarchist Hydra) appears in Lyon [see Feb. 12]. It is shortlived (6 issues, with the lasy dated 30 March 1884) and is replaced by 'L'Alarme' (The Alarm).

1886 - Maurice Vandamme (aka Mauricius) (d. 1974), French anarchist, architect's clerk and biologist, born. He was an anarchist individualist candidate in the municipal elections in Clignancourt 1925; discovered the therapeutic properties of the ozone and founded a medical centre in Paris in 1936 working with ozone insufflations. [expand]

1889 - The first issue of anarchist pamphleteer Émile Pouget's 'Le Père Peinard: Réflections Hebdomadaires d'un Gniaff' (Father Peinard: Weekly Reflections of a Cobbler) is published. With its individual style, mixing slang, neologisms and and Pouget's own inventive coinages (in the style of Jacques Hébert and 'Le Père Duchesne' during the French Revolution), the paper attacks all aspects of the state, the army, capital and religion, whilst promoting direct action, the general strike, anti-militarism and anti-clericalism. Subjected to continuous bouts of repression, it never missed an issue despite fines and prison sentences for its staff, it was only with the introduction of the lois scélérates (villainous laws) that Pouget was forced into exile in London, where Le Pere Peinard continued publication (second series (1894-18195). On Pouget's return to Paris, he published the newspaper under the title 'La Sociale', but reverted to its original name in October 1896 and continued in publication until 1902

1907 - Inauguration of the libertarian Social School of the Campinas League of Workers in Brazil. Militant anarquista Adelino de Pinho begins teaching here in 1908.

[C/EEE] 1909 - Ethel MacDonald (d. 1960), Glasgow-based anarchist activist who was labelled the 'Scots Scarlet Pimpernel' by the British press for her activities in Spain in 1937, born. One of nine children, the 'Bellshill Girl Anarchist' left home at sixteen to become a lifelong activist in the working class and women's movements, joining the Independent Labour Party, (ILP). Working as a waitress and shop assistant, in 1931 she met Guy Aldred and left the ILP to become active in the Anti-Parliamentary Communist Federation (APCF). In 1933 she accepted his invitation to work as his secretary, and together they formed the United Socialist Movement (USM) in June 1934. During the Spanish Revolution, she was a prisoner aid militant and announcer and propagandist on Barcelona Loyalist radio. Visiting comrades captured imprisoned following the May 1937 Stalinist crackdown, she smuggled letters and food into prison and helped many anarchists escape Spain. Eventually arrested by the Communist police, she went underground in Barcelona upon her release but later escaped to France. Upon her return to Glasgow that November, she was greeted by 300 people at Central Station, and in a short speech she expressed her sadness at the fate of the revolution: "I went to Spain full of hopes and dreams. It promised to be utopia realised. I return full of sadness, dulled by the tragedy I have seen. I have lived through scenes and events that belong to the French revolution." [expand]

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: Following the adverse publicity the authorities were getting as the families of strikers in Lawrence were forced to temporarily foster out their children, they ordered that no more children could leave for their temporary foster homes. To try and prevent them from leaving, fifty policemen and two militia companies were used to surround the Lawrence railroad station and the city marshal ordered the families of the 100 children gathered there to disperse. When defiant mothers still tried to get their children on board the train and resisted the authorities, police dragged them by the hair, beat them with clubs and arrested them as their horrified children looked on in tears. 30 women were detained in jail.
When newspapers reported this ugly scene, complete with photographs of cops clubbing women and children, the reaction around the country was visceral and marked a turning point in the Bread and Roses Strike. President Taft asked his attorney general to investigate, and Congress began a hearing on the strike on March 2, hearing testimonies from children involved. As a result of the strikes and protests, employees gained improvements in wages, conditions, and work hours in textile mills not only for themselves but also for thousands of workers to follow.

[D] 1932 - On the rue Monte Caseros, Montevideo Chief of Police Luis Pardeiro and his chauffeur are killed in a hail of bullets. An attentat against the renowned torturer of many anarchists (Miguel Arcangel Roscigno, et al), the attack is attributed to the anarchists Armando Guidot, Bruno Antonelli Dellabella and Francisco Sapia.

1933 - Sucesos de Casas Viejas: The Cortes finally approves by 173 votes to 130 a government motion creation of a Comisión de Investigación (commission of inquiry) into the events in Casas Viejas. [see: Feb. 8]

## 1934 - Gertrude Brice Kelly (b. 1862), prominent New York City surgeon, suffragette, labour and social activist, Irish independence supporter, anarchist and unredeemed pagan, dies.

1938 - Gustave Le Rouge (Gustave Henri Joseph Lerouge; b. 1867), French writer, journalist, socialist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 22]

1939 - Vázquez and Herrera's circular letter announces that the CNT-FAI will cease activities abroad and thanks the international community for its efforts on behalf of the Spanish anarchists.

1944 - Fanny Clar (Clara Fanny Olivier; b. 1875), French journalist and writer, anarchist and pacifist, then socialist and feminist, dies. [see: Feb. 17]

##1949 - Thomas Weisbecker (d. 1972), German militant member of the Anarchist Black Cross and the Movement 2 June, born into a family who together with their friends had either spent time in various Nazi concentration camps or been killed in the Holocaust. Having been kicked out of the Kieler Gelehrtenschule in early 1967, he moved back to Karlsruhe. However, repeated holiday visits to Keil led to his involvement in the Aktionszentrum Unabhängiger Sozialistischer Schüler (AUSS), a country-wide organisation formed from various socialist education groups in 1967. After graduating from high school in 1968 in Karlsruhe, he began his studies in Frankfurt am Main, but the threat of conscription into the Bundeswehr led to him moving to West Berlin, where he became involved in Hash rebels and Blues circles - taking part in anti-Vietnam War actions against U.S. facilities, actions against judicial institutions, banks, town halls, county offices and consulates, as well as against the reactionary press, including an attack on the apartment of the district court director, the chief prosecutor, the KaDeWe, the head of the central prison in Tegel and the home of the President of the penal system. He also became involved in the German A.B.C. network with his former school friend Georg von Rauch.
In February 1970, together with Michael 'Bommi' Baumann and Georg von Rauch, he had beaten up a journalist from the hated Springer Press. Arrested in July 1970 in West Berlin, he was remanded in custody until the trial the following year. At the trial hearing on 8 July, 1971, a postponed by a week was announced due to procurement of additional evidentiary motions and the court granted the request for bail for Tommy and Bommi. They were free to leave. However, von Rauch was able to leave the court in Berlin-Moabit with Bommi in Tommy stead (they looked quiet similar, especially when Tommy put on Geeorg's glasses) and when Weissbecker announces that he was the one who should have been released. He was held for a further 4 days but later released and went underground, joining the fringes of the RAF.
On March 2, 1972, having been under surveillance 4 weeks together with his companion , SPK member Carmen Roll, and their flat in Georgenstrasse in Augsburg, he was shot dead (a bullet in the heart) by a trigger-happy member of the police surveillance teams who had been tracking him as he and Roll returned to their car.
In memory of Tommy, a Berlin-Kreuzber social centre renamed itself the Tommy-Weisbecker-Haus.

1950 - Manual Sabaté Llopart aka 'Manolo' (b. 1927), Catalan anarchist and youngest brother of the famous anti-Franco guerilla Francisco Sabaté Llopart, 'El Quico', is shot alongside fellow Catalan anarchist Saturnino Culebras Saiz aka 'Primo' (b. ca. 1921) at the Campo da Bota, Barcelona. Manolo's death sentence was simply because of his name and the fact that the Spanish authorities could not get hold of his more famous brothers. [see: Aug. 20]

1951 - In Italy, the French GAAP (Groupes Anarchistes d’Action Prolétarienne) is created on February 24-25, by former members of the FAI excluded at the congress of Ancône.

1982 - Lucien Tronchet (b. 1902), Swiss anarchist and trade unionist whose anti-fascist activities landed him in prison, dies. [see: Oct. 4].

2001 - Zapatistas march on México City. [expand]

[B] 2012 - 'Song from the Uproar: The Lives and Deaths of Isabelle Eberhardt', an opera composed by Missy Mazzoli about the anarchist adventurer, premières in New York City.

## ##2018 - Haukur Hilmarsson, nom de guerre Sahin Hosseini (b. 1986), Icelandic anarchist and political activist, who volunteered in the Revolutionary Union for Internationalist Solidarity (Επαναστατικός Σύνδεσμος Διεθνιστικής Αλληλεγγύης), an anarchist military unit that is part of the YPG-linked International Freedom Battalion (Tabûra Azadî ya Înternasyonal [ku] / Enternasyonalist Özgürlük Taburu [tu])‎, is killed during a Turkish air raid on Afrin. [see: Jul. 22]
1845 - Victor Dave (d. 1922), Belgian member of the Internationale and militant anarchist, born.

1847 - Samuel Fielden (d. 1922), English-born American militant anarchist activist and propagandist, dies. Fielden was one of the three Haymarket Martyrs sentenced to death but not executed. Fielden's crime was to be stepping down from the speaker's platform when a bomb went off, wounding him. His sentence was commuted to life in prison on November 10, 1887, he eventually pardoned on June 26, 1893.

1877 - Karel Toman (pen name of Antonín Bernášek; d. 1946), Czech poet, journalist, translator (from French) and representative of the generation of Czech Anarchističtí Buřiči, "básníci života a vzdoru" (Anarchist Rebels, "the poets of life and defiance"), born.

1891 - Piet Kooijman (Pieter Adrianus Kooijman; d. 1975), Dutch author, anarchist activist and theoretician, who published under the pseudonyms 'Weetgraag', 'MO' and 'Observator', born.

1892 - Andre Soudy (d. 1913), French anarchist illegalist and member of the Bonnot Gang, born.

[CCC] 1894 - Ernst Friedrich (d. 1967), German anarchist, anti-militarist and founder of the Berlin Peace Museum, born. From a poor background, he was unable to study drawing and sculpture, he instead became an apprentice in the publishing trade and then a factory wotker, all the time studying during the evenings. In 1914 he became an actor in the Koniglichen Hoftheater in Potsdam and, already an anti-militarist, he refused military service and was placed under observation in a mental institution. In 1916, he participated in illegal assemblies of anti-militarist and revolutionary youth and in 1917 was imprisoned for an act of sabotage. Released at the beginning of the revolution of November 1918, he joined the Free Socialist Youth Movement (Freien Sozialistischen Jugend) around Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg, and the Communist Youth organisation.
In 1919, he founded the Föderation der Jugend Révolutionären Deutscher Sprache" (Federation of German-speaking Revolutionary Youth) and publishes the weekly 'Freie Jugend',linking the various groups of young anarchists from Germany, Austria and German-speaking Switzerland. In the early twenties, he opened a space in Berlin frequented by anti-authoritarian youth, which became a place for young workers and the artistic and literary milieu to meet and put on exhibitions and debates.
Author of 'Proletarian Kindergarten' (1924), a children's picture and story book aimed at educating children to oppose war and militarism, and 'Krieg dem Kriege' (War Against War; 1924).
In 1923 he opened the first Berlin International Anti-War Museum, which also includes a print shop and bookstore, and was the subject of numerous attempts at repression, prosecutions, fines and prison terms. In 1930 Friedrich was imprisoned for 'high treason' for a year because of the publication of anti-militarist writings intended for secret distribution amongst the army and police. Having been released, and against the background of the rise of the Nazis, he fortuitously moved some of the museum's archive abroad as during the night of the Reichstag fire Friedrich was arrested and the museum ransacked and had materials confiscated by the SA. Friedrich was imprisoned and the Museum turned into a Nazi meeting place cum torture centre.
In ill health and under pressure from the American Quakers, he was released in September 1933 and placed under house arrest but managed to escape, via Czechoslovakia and Switzerland, to Belgium where he set up a second anti-war museum in Brussels. He related his ant-Nazi struggle and subsequent escape in 'Vom Friedens-Museum zur Hitler Kaserne: Ein Tatsachenbericht über das Wirken von Ernst Friedrich und Adolf Hitler' (From Peace Museum to Hiltler Barracks: A factual report on the work of Ernst Friedrich and Adolf Hitler; 1935). With the German invasion of Belgium, his museum was again destroyed and he was interned as a refugee in France. Wanted by the Gestapo, he was arrested but managed to escape and join the Maquis (FFI) in Lozère (helping save 70 Jewish children from deportation).
After the War, he stayed in France and tried unsuccessfully to refound the Anti-War Museum and, using funds from an international award, he purchased a barge in 1945, recommissioning it as the 'Peace Ship' Arche de Noé dedicated to promotting Franco-German friendship. With reparations from the German government, in 1954 he purchased land on an island in the Marne (near the town of Le Perreux-sur-Marne), building an international youth centre, which became L'île de la Paix (The Island of Peace), a meeting place for young workers.
After his deah in 1967, an Anti-War Museum was finally re-established in Berlin in 1982.

1900 - Emma Goldman lectures at the Athenaeum Hall, in London's Tottenham Court Road, on the subject 'The Basic Principles of Morality'. At the farewell concert the following day at the same venue, Peter Kropotkin and Louise Michel spoke, as well as Michel herself. Music was supplied by the Slavonitzer Tamburitza Quartet.

1906 - The first issue of 'Le Combat de Roubaix-Tourcoing' is published (though actually a continuation of 'Le Combat', first published on Oct. 15, 1905). It will change its name again to 'Le Combat du Nord' (and 'Nord Pas-de-Calais') and in 1911 to 'Le Combat Organe Communiste Révolutionnaire du Nord', with the subtitle 'Organe Hebdomadaire de Défense et d'Éducation Ouvrière' (Weekly Paper for the Defence of Workers' Education). The newspaper, on which many anarchist work, ceased publication after 208 issues on July 18, 1914, with the outbreak of WWI.

## 1908 - 'The Washington Post' proposes that ALL anarchists be put to death (whether culpable or not of any crime or offence).

1913 - Paterson Silk Strike: Following local organisers of the National Industrial Union of Textile Workers, Local 152 in Paterson having requested help from IWW headquarters in Chicago, national [sic] organisers Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Carlos Tresca and Pat Quinland arrive in the town to speak at a mass meeting. At the meeting that evening, Gurley Flynn spoke on the importance of uniting strikers across racial boundaries, warning them to guard against being divided by the police and manufactures and not to be "tricked by racial prejudice, for they’ll tell you that the Jews are going to work and then they’ll tell you that the Italians have gone back to work". Tresca also spoke but Patrick Quinain of the Socialist Party was late and, as he walked down the aisle in Turn Hall, all three were arrested and charged with inciting violence through radical speech. Strikers from the meeting followed them to the jail and held a rally outside the jail, singing and shouting for their release. Women shouted, "When the strike is won, Gurley Flynn will be the boss!" All three were relesed on bail, with hefty sureties pledged.
By the time 'Big Bill' Haywood arrived, later that week, the strike had spread to silk mills all across Paterson. 300 mills were shut down, and 25,000 silk workers were on strike. Haywood advised the strikers: "fold your arms or put your hands in your pocket and let the manufacturers do the worrying."
[NB: Some sources give the date as euither Jan. 23 or 24.]

1916 - Naum Tufekchiev (Наум А. Тюфекчиев; b. 1864), Bulgarian revolutionary, member of the Supreme Macedonian-Adrianople Committee, and organiser of the assassination of Stefan Stambolov and agent provocateur in the Feb. 14, 1915 attack on the Sofia City Casino, is assassinated in Sofia on the order of Todor Alexandrov (Тодор Александров), head of the IMORO, shot six times in the chest by the organisation's executioner Tushe Scachkov (Туше Скачков). [see: Jun. 29]
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Newspaper censorship remains in place but 'La Veu de Catalunya' claims that the Consell del Govern has asked the Ajuntament (City Council) to become involved, whilst the 'Diario de Barcelona' claim that factories are working normally and that La Canadiense has reinstated 30 sacked employees.

1919 - During this month 'Go-Head!' — a circular attributed to 'The American Anarchists' — appears throughout New England. In it, the American Anarchists, presumably the Italian-American Anarchists, threaten to “dynamite” officials in retaliation for the ongoing deportations and repression the anarchists are enduring.

1928 - Juan López Romero Jiménez (aka 'Juan el Camas' or 'Chiquito de Camas' [Shorty from Camas]; d. 2008), Andalusian anarchist and flamenco singer, especially of the fandango, born.

1932 - Pierre Lariviere (b. 1884?), French anarchist, painter and caricaturist who illustrated some of Jean Grave's 'Temps Nouveaux', dies.

1955 - The only issue of the newspaper 'Lotta Anarchica: Portavoce del Campeggio Internazionale Anarchico' is published by the Gruppo Krondstadt In Genoa, Italy.

1957 - Anna Olay (Chaia Edelstein; b. 1898), Lithuanian-American anarchist militant, commits suicide. [see: May 1]

[BB] 1970 - Mark Rothko (Marcus Yakovlevich Rothkowitz; b. 1903), American abstract expressionist/colour field painter, poet and anarchist, his health failing and suffering from depression, commits suicide. [see: Sep. 25]

[E] 2002 - Isabel Mesa Delgado (b. 1913), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, member of the CNT from the age of 14 and secretary of Valencian Mujeres Libres, dies. Following the defeat of the revolution, she organised a clandestine resistance group and provided aid to prisoners and their families under the fascist dictatorship. With the death of Franco Isabel helped with new libertarian projects, like Radio Klara and the libertarian ateneo (college) 'Al Margen'. [see: Dec. 31]
## 1894 - Jean Grave is charged for writing and publishing 'La Société Mourante et l'Anarchie' (The Dying Society and Anarchy) with its preface by Octave Mirbeau. Grave is subsequently sentenced to two years in prison and fined a thousand francs for "incitement to looting, murder, theft, fire, etc." and the destruction of the offending book ordered.

##1900 - [O.S. Feb. 13] Ivan Tsvetkov Balev (Иван Цветков Балев; d. 1981), Bulgarian physician and anarchist - one of the first anarchists to be persecuted by the post-war Communist regime, born. [Jul.-Greg. correction O.S. Feb. 13]

1913 - Angelo de Gubernatis (b. 1840), Italian writer, linguist, orientalist and anarchist, who married Mikhail Bakunin's cousin Sofia Bezobrazova (Besobrasoff), dies in Rome. [see: Apr. 7]

1915 - Juan García Durán, pseudonym of Luís Costa García, aka 'El Fuegos' (d. Dec 12 1986), Galician librarian, historian, and militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1917 - Criminal Syndicalism: The State of Washington's criminal syndicalism legislation, "An Act defining the crime of criminal syndicalism and prescribing the punishment thereof", is passed by its Senate. It was later passed by the House of Representatives on March 6 but vetoed by the Democrat Governor Ernest Lister (who had help bring the eight-hour work day to the Pacific Northwest during the IWW's 1917 Lumber Workers' strike, though he was also active in repressing the IWW) two weeks later on March 20. It finally pssed into law, over the veto, early in the next legislative session on January 14, 1919.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: With the strike committee refusing to talk to the president of the Mancomunitat de Catalunya (Commonwealth of Catalonia), Josep Puig i Cadafalch, and the mayor of Barcelona, ​​Manuel Morales Pareja, other workers decide to visit Cadafalch and Pareja to try and solve the conflict.
Once again the electricity is suspended in Barcelona, ​​cuts in the water supply. Some factories and workshops are able to operate but with continuous interruptions of theie electricity supplies. There are still no trams on the streets. The governor seizes the water companies. The clandestine strike committee refuses to hold a public interview with the mayor Manuel Morales Pareja who wishes to mediate.

1920 - First edition of 'Umanita Nova', anarchist daily paper published in Milan and Rome (circulation 50,000) founded by Errico Malatesta and Antonio Cieri. Shut down in 1922 by the fascist regime, it reappears in 1945 as a weekly.

1920 - Richard O. Moore, US poet, pacifist and philosophical anarchist, associated with Kenneth Rexroth and the San Francisco Renaissance, born.

[D] 1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: The revolutionary Kronstadt sailors send delegates to Petrograd find out about strikes occurring there. The delegation visits a number factories and return on the 28th, when things begin to heat up as they protest the Bolshevik counter-revolution.

1921 - The first issue of 'Redencion' (Redemption), an anarcho-syndicalist weekly newspaper of unions in Alcoy, a city in the Alicante region of Spain, and official voice of the CNT is published. A total of 131 issues appeared until Sept. 26, 1923.

1926 - Georges Butaud (b. 1868), French anarchist communard, partisan of the Milieux Libres and publisher of 'Flambeau' ("an enemy of authority") in 1901 in Vienna, dies. [see: Jun. 6]

1946 - Elena Melli (b. 1889), Italian anarchist militant, who was a companion of Errico Malatesta during the last years of his life, dies. [see: Jul. 4]

[B] 1950 - Adam Cornford, British poet, librettist, essayist, cartoonist and editor at 'Anarchy Comics', born.

1969 - Jeanne Françoise 'Jane' Morand (b. 1883), French militant individualist anarchist and anti-militarist activist, dies in Paris. [see: Aug. 17]

1994 - Leopold Kohr (b. 1909), Austrian social philosopher, economist, lecturer and philosophical anarchist known both for his opposition to the "cult of bigness" in social organisation and as a proponent of the small is beautiful movement, dies in Gloucester. [see: Oct. 5]

2009 - In Athens a march in protest against the hand grenade attack on the Exarcheia Immigrants' Social Centre ends with an attack on the HQ of 'Apogevmatini', an ultra-conservative newspaper responsible for daily attacks on Greek social and labour movements.
1848 - First anarchist journal, Proudhon's 'Le Representant du Peuple', appears in France. It claims that the emancipation of the working class can only be achieved by the working class itself — without the assistance of governments. Sells 40,000 copies.

1863 - [N.S. Mar. 11] Iza Zielińska (Iza Gąsowska; d. 1934), Polish journalist, educator, social activist and participant in the Polish and International anarchist and socialist movements, born. [see: Mar. 11]

1867 - Paulin Mailfait (d. 1927), Ardennes anarchist, participant in 'Sans patrie' (formed October 18, 1891) with Gustave Bouillard, Nicolas Thomassin, Pierre Leroux, etc., born.

1876 - François Segond Casteu (d. 1935), French anarchist who attended Sebastien Faure's 'Ruche' and a collaborator on 'Libertaire' and 'Germinal', a weekly magazine of the Somme, born.

1887 - Giuseppe Monanni (d.1952), Italian editor, self-taught journalist, publisher and propagandist of individualist anarchism (a la Nietzsche and Palante), born. A typesetter by profession, he founded the anarchist journal 'Vir' in 1907 in Florence. Alongside his wife Leda Rafanelli (whom Mussolini famously slobbered over whilst still editor-in-chief of the daily socialist newspaper 'Avanti!'), he collaborated on various newspapers and publications including 'La Questione Sociale' (1909); 'La Rivolta' (1911) and 'La Libertà' (1913-1914). In addition to his journalism, Monanni was editor of Libreria Editrice Sociale (Social Publishing Library; 1910 to 1915), the Casa Editrice Sociale (Social Publishing House; 1919 to 1926), and finally the Casa Editor Monanni (Monanni Publishing House; 1926 to 1933), as well as publishing works on individual anarchism by Palante and Nietzsche. His editorial work suffered the interruption of WWI and temporary refuge in Switzerland. Upon his return to Italy, and like many others, he suffered increasing repression with the rise of fascism but managed to found with Carlo Molaschi the Libera Università (Free Univerity) whose work was subsequently limited to general educational work following the passing of special laws, and ceased all together due to financial and further political restraints. After the end of the war and the fall of Fascism in Italy, he collaborated again under the pseudonym of 'Mony' the newspaper 'Libertario'.

1892 - The first issue (of only 2 known) of the weekly newspaper 'Le Déchard: Organe Hebdomadaire Révolutionnaire de la Région Est & Nord' is printed in Damery-Brunet (dept of La Marne). The editor? One 'Eh Kécsatfoux?' (Well what's it got to do with you?)

1905 - 'Regeneración' begins republishing in St. Louis, Missouri. This anarchist publication, issued by the brothers Ricardo and Enrique Flores Magón and their Partido Liberal Mexicano, is soon repressed by the American government (on October 12).

1908 - The 'San Francisco Chronicle' today states that anyone asserting anarchist convictions displays "conclusive proof of [their] incurable insanity".

1911 - Rebelión de Baja California / Revolución Mexicana: Antonio I. Villarreal deserts the Junta Organizadora del Partido Liberal Mexicano and joins Francisco I. Madero.

[B] 1912 - Lawrence George Durrell (d. 1990), British-born novelist, poet, dramatist, biographer, travel writer and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. His close relationship with Henry Miller that spanned 45 years and encompassed much cross-fertilisation of their literary efforts, especially during their period living at the Villa Seurat in the later '30s. It also led to his involvement in the Miller-inspired shift of the English Surrealists away from its communist orthodoxy towards an anti-authoritarian/anarchist politics, which would influence the likes of Herbert Read, David Gascoyne, Robert Duncan and Kenneth Rexroth. Politically Durrell was a 'non-joiner' and refused to have his writings included in expressly political publications and anthologies when requested (cf: his refusal of Comfort's Egyptian request during WWII).However, after the war he was published in a number of anarchist publications including George Woodcock's magazine 'NOW', Duncan's 'Experimental Review', the anarchist influenced New Apocalyptics poetry group and Rexroth's 'Circle Editions'; had his works regularly discussed in the pages of 'Freedom' and was anthologised by Comfort and Rexroth.

1913 - Pierre Boujut (d. 1992), French cooper, writer, poet, pacifist and libertarian, born. Published 3 literary journals over a sixty year period: 'Reflets' (Reflections; 1933-1936), 'Regains' (Regains; 1937-1939) and 'La Tour de Feu' (The Fire Tower; 1946-1991); as well as numerous poetry collections and a memoir, 'Un Mauvais Français' (A Bad Frenchman; 1989).

1913 - After 25 days of deliberations, the Paris trial of the twenty defendants of the Bonnot Gang (Bande à Bonnot) concludes and sentences are handed down for the more than thirty crimes or offences committed both in France and abroad tried:

Raymond Callemin (22 year old typographer), Eugene Dieudonne (28, carpenter), André Soudy (20, grocer) and Elie Monier (23, florist) are sentenced to death.
Marius Metge (22, cook) and Edward Carouy (29, a metal worker) to prison for life.
Jean De Boë (23, typographer) to ten years hard labour.
Kléber Bénard (22 years, taxidermist) to six years in prison.
André Poyer (21, mechanic) and Henry Crozat De Fleury (26, broker) to five years in prison.
Victor Kibaltchiche [the future Victor Serge] (32, industrial designer and translator) to five years in prison.
Jean Georges Dettweiller (37, mechanic) and David Belonie (27, commercial employee) to four years in prison.
Pierre Jourdan (25, peddler) and Antoine Gauzy (33, peddler) to 18 months in prison.
Charles Reinert (33, foundry worker) to one year in prison.
Louis Rimbault (35, locksmith) aquitted (absent from the trial after simulating madness and being committed to an asylum - released 2 years later).
Léon Alphonse Rodriguez (34, peddler) aquitted (for service to the police).
Marie Vuillemin (23, unemployed, Octave Garnier's lover), Barbe-Marie Le Clerch (or Clerc'h; 22 years old, feather-worker) and Rirette Maitrejean (27, a former teacher) are aquitted.
Bernard Gorodesky (27, secondhand goods dealer) is sentenced to 6 months prison in absentia (he is on the run and is never found).

Raymond Callemin, André Soudy, and Antoine Monier faced the guillotiné on April 21st. Doubt over Eugene Dieudonne's guilt concerning the Rue Ordener attack results in his death sentence being commuted on April 20, 1913, to forced labour for life.

1913 - Edward Carouy (b. 1883), Belgian anarchist illegalist and individualist commits suicide (by poisoning) in his cell after being sentenced today during the Bonnot Gang trial to penal servitude (hard labour) for life.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Workers at the Dos Rius company and the Tramvies de Barcelona SA join the strike. The 'La Veu de Catalunya' and 'Diario de Barcelona' publish articles on the effects of the strike on gas and electricity supplies, as well as carrying news that many companies are now hitting back hard against the strike movement and that the position of the strikers is getting ever more desperate, especially financially as the increases in numbers of workers now claiming strike pay (20-30 céntimos per week each) is a drain on the unions' strike funds.
The city council proposes that the local government accept the three conditions of the strike committee: reinstatement of guarantees, freedom for detainees and recognition of trade unions. The Catalanists abstained.
There is a focus on the suspension of constitutional guarantees in Lérida are in anticipation of hydroelectric workers joining the strike with the provincial governor there claiming that if the strike breaks out in the power plants there, he does not have the military means to cope.
Speaking to journalists, President of the Mancomunitat Josep Puig i Cadafalch claims that he has been unable to intervene as a mediator, since he has only ever been visited by workers (on February 5) who had given him some directions as to the reasons for the strike but that that they hadn’t stipulated in writing who they represented of what their demands (if any) were, so therefore he could begin negotiations (despite the workers having claimed at the time that he had agreed to help mediate). In fact, the city authorities stood back and did not get involved until the strike and the consequent absence of electricity had paralysed city life and industry, and the CNT had already taken the dispute into its own hands as a lever to force the authorities and employers to recognise unions and to release the CNT members and leaders that had been imprisoned a month previously.
Following the rejection of a regional referendum during a vote in Congrés, Prime Minister Romanones [Álvaro de Figueroa y Torres-Sotomayor, 1st Count of Romanones] closes the Spanish Parliament and suspended constitutional guarantees throughout Spain.

1920 - Ludwig Rubiner (b. 1881), German Expressionist poet, literary critic, essayist, translator, painter and anarchist sympathiser, dies following a protracted bout of pneumonia. [see: Jul. 12]

[CC] 1921 - In Florence today and tomorrow, and against the backdrop of the rise of fascism and the previous day's destruction of headquarters of the Socialist newspaper 'La Difesa' by the fascist squadre d'azione, serious confrontations occur between fascists and anti-fascists. In one incident a group of anarchists attacked a procession of 'liberals' that had formed up after the inauguration of the flag of the Fasci di Avanguardia (Fascist Vangaurd) on their way to a 'partiotic' wreath laying at the war memorial in the Piazza dell'Unità. A bomb mortally wounded a policeman Antonio Petrucci and a 24-year-old student Carlo Menabuoni. Many others were wounded in the general panic that followed. Gino Mugnai, a railway worker with a socialist lapel badge, who was passing by and failed to take off his hat to the passage of the car carrying the hospital the policeman, was shot in the head by one of the fascists.
The Blackshirts later carried out a revenge attack on a building in the Via Taddea, home of the local headquarters of the Associazione Comunista degli Invalidi di Guerra (Communist Association of War Invalids), the Sindacato Ferrovieri (railway workers union) and the provincial Federazione Comunista, where the weekly 'Azione Comunista' newspaper was being prepared. Spartaco Lavagnini, a well known local anti-fascist, communist and Sindacato Ferrovieri official, was shot four times at close range as he worked on the 'Azione Comunista'. In a display of their contempt, the fascisti left the corpse with a cigarette in its mouth. News of Lavagnini's assassination quickly spread and railway workers began to blockade trains and stations, and barricades were erected across Florence. A provincial general strike was also called.
At Certaldo (near Florence), the anarchist Ferruccio Scarselli dies, ripped apart by a bomb during one confrontation, whilst in Spezia an anarchist named Uliviero is killed by the police. At the same time in Trieste the main union offices are burned down.
On March 1st, in answer to the fascist violence, a general strike is called in Trieste and Florence. In the latter new clashes occur resulting in the death of more than 20 with over a hundred people injured.

#### 1923 - Einstein visits the CNT headquarters in Barcelona.

In February 1923 Albert Einstein visited Barcelona at the invitation of the Generalitat (the Catalan government) to give a series of sponsored lectures explaining his theory of relativity. On arrival he insisted on meeting with — and giving talks to — members of the CNT, the anarcho-syndicalist labour union. The following account of Einstein’s Barcelona visit is excerpted from ‘¡Pistoleros! 3: 1920-24. The Chronicles of Farquhar McHarg’ (2012):

"I shared a rented room above a bar in the Carrer Cadena with two Soli editors, Liberto Callejas and Irenofilo Diaro. The bar was leased to a chef by the name of Narciso, a compañero who had taken it on after the collapse of the big waiters’ strike in 1919. We ate there as well — three times a day, our meals being included in the rent — and slept on foldaway camp beds during the day.

I was working for an engineering firm in Barceloneta as a toolmaker, but most evenings I spent translating and writing for 'Solidaridad Obrera’s international news section. Soli’s editorial offices had moved to no. 58 Conde del Asalto (now the Nou de la Rambla), in the heart of the Fifth District, which for some reason was now referred to in the press as China Town, the barri Xino. I was also helping out at Crisol! but that was much less demanding work.

It was at Soli’s office in Asalto that I met, of all people, Albert Einstein, the great theoretical physicist who was visiting Barcelona on a lecture tour sponsored by Esteve Terradas, an engineer, CNT sympathiser and a prominent Gran Oriente freemason. Terradas, an enthusiastic supporter of the rationalist schools, had brought Einstein from Berlin to give a series of lectures on his recently published and much talked about theory of relativity.

Einstein arrived with his wife, Elsa, in late February, and because he wasn’t such a celebrity in those days, not many people knew he was in town until the posters appeared announcing his lectures at the Syndicalist Athenaeum in the Carrer Mercader and the Sants Rationalist Athenaeum in the Carrer Vallespir.

The city fathers and ‘men of order’ were appalled when they learned that the great physicist was hob-nobbing with anarchists and cenetistas. That wasn’t all. He had booked himself into a dilapidated old pensión, the Grand Hotel of the Four Nations — Le Quatre Nations — at No 35 Las Ramblas, on the corner of Escudellers and the Plaça del Teatro. The city fathers tried to move him to the Ritz, but Einstein would have none of it, insisting that he preferred to remain where he was. When I asked him what was so special about that particular hotel, he said he specifically wanted to stay there, because it was where Michael Bakunin had lodged in 1869, just prior to the Lyons uprising and the Paris Commune. Einstein was an admirer of Bakunin and had specifically asked for the Russian anarchist’s old room. I wonder what his wife made of the hotel, or the room; it hadn’t changed much in the intervening fifty years — not that his wife’s opinions appeared to matter much to him.

Einstein’s first port of call after checking in at the Quatre Nations was to the Soli office where he found me writing my column. In he walked, unexpected and unannounced, asking to speak to Ángel Pestaña. At first I didn’t know who he was and assumed, because of his violin case and dishevelled appearance, that he was a street or café musician, a busker. He was in his mid-forties at the time, but even then he had an air of permanent distraction — other-worldliness — about him. He wore a shabby brown woollen suit with a cardigan, a white shirt with a high plastic collar and a red tie topped by a mop of tousled, unruly brown hair that stuck out in all directions making him look as though someone had stuck a live 2,000 volt electrode up his arse. His hair was already greying at the temples and roots — as was his droopy moustache, and his round, cheery face bore an expression of permanent, pleasant surprise; and his eyes shone with mischief and humour.

‘Salud!’ he said, seizing my hand warmly with both hands. ‘Please allow me to introduce myself. My name is Albert Einstein and I, too, am a revolutionary, an anti-authoritarian: I am the original valiant and fearless Swabian [of the Swabian League (Schwäbischer Bund)]. You, the anarchists and anarcho-syndicalists, of the CNT are also valiant Swabians, revolutionaries of the streets; I, however, am a new-generation revolutionary operating in the field of quantum physics and I will disprove the reactionary quantum theorists and carry the banner of the quantum revolution into ever-stranger territory and provide the final triumphant synthesis of unified field theory.’

I looked at him blankly, dumfounded, and — I’m embarrassed to admit — all I could think of to say to the great man was: ‘Really? Fascinating! Would you like some coffee?
Pestaña wasn’t in, so I explained, briefly who I was and what I was doing in Barcelona, and offered to take him to the union offices in the nearby Carrer Nou, where we would probably find him. We hit it off really well and chatted away like old friends as we walked. The reason he wanted to meet Pestaña was because his anarchist friends in Berlin — Rudolf Rocker, Fritz Kater and Augustin Souchy — said he was the best person to explain what was happening in Spain.

Einstein was a delight to be with — sympathetic and supportive of everything we were doing. We chatted for hours in Pestaña’s office before heading off for supper. It was a memorable evening, full of little insights into the physical and metaphysical universe — and the man himself.

Nice to be somewhere where nobody’s bothered about quantum physics’ was one of his more memorable comments I remember. He loved his sausages and music, in no particular order of preference, so we chose the restaurant we took him to for its chorizo and resident string quartet, which pleased the ‘fearless Swabian’ enormously. As he said, ‘Fine sausages nourish the body and good music nurtures the imagination.’ In fact he was so excited when he saw the restaurant had an orchestra he leaped on to the podium with his violin and pleaded with the musicians to let him join in. What could they say? It didn’t take them long to realise their mistake, but everyone — audience and musicians alike — took his contribution to the evening’s entertainment uncritically and with good humour, and gave him a standing ovation at the end, probably to get him off the stage. His playing was appalling, and he seemed totally oblivious to his lack of musical talent. Einstein may have been able to predict the bending of starlight by the warping of space around the sun, but he was shit on the violin.*

Einstein was one of these people with a theory and opinion about everything, not just relativity, but he was never boring or pedantic — even about his pacifism. His conversation was riveting, and he bubbled on passionately about his loathing for state power and all forms of regimentation. ‘Politics,’ he said, ‘is for the present, but our equations are for eternity.’ The only thing he didn’t have a theory about, so far, was what he called einheitliche Fieldtheorie, a unified theory about everything — but he was working on it.

Over dinner he explained how the idea of relativity had come to him. It happened while daydreaming about travelling on a light beam. He described it as one of his ‘Aha!’ moments, when the ‘little grey brain cells’ suddenly have a breakthrough. ‘Insights explode on you when you least expect them,’ he observed, ‘when you think the brain has given up on the big problem you are wrestling with and you find yourself distracted and thinking of something completely unrelated.’

Another of those ‘Aha!’ moments led him to apply his theory of relativity to gravity. This particular epiphany occurred one day after lunch as he stared absent-mindedly out of the window of the patent office where he worked. Across the road he saw a slater perched precariously on the roof of a tall building. Suddenly, he had a flashforward of the man falling — and while even though it was a sickening thought that made him panic, at the same time he found himself calculating, incongruously, that until the man hit the ground he would be unaware of his own weight. That moment he described as one of ‘perfect certainty’; an inspired thought that he regarded as the happiest in his life so far. Everything is relative, I suppose.

‘The wider point of the story,’ he said, ‘was that if you feel you have hit an impasse the best way to think of all problems — be they mathematical, scientific, political, ethical, moral or even domestic — is to walk away from them. When it seems you can achieve nothing more, you should find a way of distracting yourself, maybe by walking the dog if you have one. The answer, my friends,’ he concluded triumphantly ‘will arrive when you least expect it and you will see the same old thing in a completely new way. Once that happens, you never go back!’"

[* I should point out that Farquhar, whom I knew well in later life, suffered from congenital amusia and his judgments on anyone’s musical talents should be taken with a large pinch of salt. Einstein was a no-mean violinist who, no doubt, could turn his hand to anything from a sardana to a zarzuela, although Mozart was his first love. - Stuart Christie, Jan. 3, 2015]


1944 - Manuel Joaquim de Sousa (b. 1883), Portuguese shoemaker, who was one of the outstanding figures of the anarcho-syndicalist movement - speaker, writer, polemecist and organiser – and an important trade union leader of the First Republic, dies in Lisbon aged 60. [see: Nov. 24]

1950 - Yvan Goll (born Isaac Lang; b. 1891), bilingual French-German Jewish writer (poetry, novels, dramas, libretti, essays, etc.) and anarchist sympathiser, who had close ties to German expressionism, Zurich Dada and to French surrealism, dies. [see: Mar. 29]

## 1960 - Simon Critchley, English philosopher known for his advocacy of 'Neo-Anarchism' and atheist, whose "only religious commitment is to Liverpool Football Club", born.

1968 - The Hornsey home of Stuart Christie is raided by police on a warrant relating to recent attacks in and around London.

1970 - José Santos González Vera (b. 1897), Chilean writer, novelist, journalist and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 17]
1839 - In Spain a Royal Order authorises the formation of associations of mutual aid. It remains a milestone in the history of associationism in Spain, although it only endorsed the constitution in a very restricted way and subject to the inspection of civil authorities, based upon an exclusive model of association, that of mutual aid (...) defining such as "corporations whose institute is mutually assisting in their misfortunes, illnesses, etc., and to bring together the product of their economies in order of appealing to their future needs."

1855 - Károly Krausz (d. 1930), Hungarian journalist, anarchist propagandist, agitator and later accountant, born.

1861 - Antoine Cyvoct (d. 1930), French anarchist, Lyons militant, born. Wrongly accused of being the author of the bombing of the Bellecour Theatre restaurant in Lyon on October 22, 1882. [expand]

1867* - [N.S. Mar. 11] Evgeny Iustinovich Lozinsky [Евгений Иустинович Лозинский], aka E. Ustinov [Е. Устинов] (d. 1937), Russian member of the Union of Socialist-Revolutionary Maximalists (Союз социалистов-революционеров-максималистов), editor of its paper 'Free Discussion Sheet' (Вольный дискуссионный листок), later breaking away to form the Union of Revolutionary Socialists (Союз революционных социалистов), which was effectively an anarcho-communist organisation before becoming a Makhaevist (follower of Jan Wacław Machajski's synthesis of anarchism and Marxism), born. [see: Mar. 11]
[* 1879 also given as the year of birth]

1887 - The anarchist burglar and member of La Panthère des Batignolles, Clément Duval, has his death sentence (11 January 1887) commuted to life by the President of the Republic.

1904 - The only issue of the Glasgow anarchist paper 'Voice of Labour' is published.

1916 - The 'Manifeste des Seize' (Manifesto of the Sixteen) issued by some 15 anarchists (Peter Kropotkin, Jean Grave, et al) in support of the allies. This proclamation was published in France in the pages of the daily newspaper La Bataille, March 14. It was reprinted in 'La Libre Fédération' on the 14th of April, this time accompanied by 100 signatures, including those of many Italians.

1918 [or poss. 1917] - Raúl Carballeira Lacunza (d. 1948), Argentinian anarchist who was active in the Spanish anti-Franco resistance, born. He was one of many libertarian youngsters active in getting illegal anarchist publications distributed, including 'Juventud Libre', 'Tierra y Libertad', 'Solidaridad Obrera' and 'Ruta' for example, all of which turned up regularly in Madrid and Barcelona. He committed suicide on 26 June 1948 in the Montjuich gardens during an ambush, prefering death to capture.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Both the 'La Veu de Catalunya' and 'Diario de Barcelona' publish the manifesto of the Federación local de Sociedades Obreras de Resistència de Barcelona explaining why the strike began. The 'Manifiesto de la Federación Local de Barcelona' also reiterates the workers' three demands.

1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: After three years of the privations of War Communism, the Bolsheviks appeared to be winning the war, with the White forces beginning to withdraw and Ukraine now under control following the betrayal and defeat of the Makhnovshchina. Yet there widespread discontent was still on the increase amongst the Russian populace, particularly within the peasantry. The main focus of this was the Communist party's grain requisitioning policy known as Prodrazvyorstka (Продразвёрстка, продовольственная развёрстка) - the forced seizure of large portions of the peasants' grain crop used to feed urban dwellers, which often resulted in the peasants refusing to till their land, and was one of the main factors behind the continued mass outbreaks of peasant uprisings - more than a hundred in February 1921 alone. Workers in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) had also held a series of strikes that month, sparked by the reduction of bread rations by one third over a ten-day period, and which were followed by the typical brutal Bolshevik repression of strikers in Petrograd.
It was against this backdrop that the crews of the battleships Petropavlovsk (Петропавловск) and Sevastopol (Севастополь) held an emergency meeting on February 28, at which they set out a list of 15 demands:
1. Immediate new elections to the Soviets; the present Soviets no longer express the wishes of the workers and peasants. The new elections should be held by secret ballot, and should be preceded by free electoral propaganda for all workers and peasants before the elections.
2. Freedom of speech and of the press for workers and peasants, for the Anarchists, and for the Left Socialist parties.
3. The right of assembly, and freedom for trade union and peasant associations.
4. The organisation, at the latest on 10 March 1921, of a Conference of non-Party workers, soldiers and sailors of Petrograd, Kronstadt and the Petrograd District.
5. The liberation of all political prisoners of the Socialist parties, and of all imprisoned workers and peasants, soldiers and sailors belonging to working class and peasant organisations.
6. The election of a commission to look into the dossiers of all those detained in prisons and concentration camps.
7. The abolition of all political sections in the armed forces; no political party should have privileges for the propagation of its ideas, or receive State subsidies to this end. In place of the political section, various cultural groups should be set up, deriving resources from the State.
8. The immediate abolition of the militia detachments set up between towns and countryside.
9. The equalisation of rations for all workers, except those engaged in dangerous or unhealthy jobs.
10. The abolition of Party combat detachments in all military groups; the abolition of Party guards in factories and enterprises. If guards are required, they should be nominated, taking into account the views of the workers.
11. The granting to the peasants of freedom of action on their own soil, and of the right to own cattle, provided they look after them themselves and do not employ hired labour.
12. We request that all military units and officer trainee groups associate themselves with this resolution.
13. We demand that the Press give proper publicity to this resolution.
14. We demand the institution of mobile workers' control groups.
15. We demand that handicraft production be authorised, provided it does not utilise wage labour.
What would come to be known as the Kronstadt Rebellion (Кронштадтское восстание), an event that would once and for all show the world the true face of the Bolshevik party and their contempt for the workers and peasants of Russia, had begun.

1921 - In Certaldo (near Florence) ongoing clashes [see: Feb. 27] clashes between fascists and anti-fascists result in a number of injuries and the death of an engineer and socialist Catullo Masin. That same evening local anarchists built barricades to try and prevent an expected fascist raid. One of the anarchists, Ferruccio Scarselli from a well-known militant family, died during an attack by squadristi and police, ripped apart by a hand grenade during the confrontation. A cop, Gavino Pinna, is also killed during the ensuing shoot out. In Spezia an anarchist named Uliviero was also killed by the Guardie Regie (Royal Guards i.e. Interior Ministry police). At the same time in Trieste the main union offices are burned down.

1934 - Emma Goldman featured a talk at Broadwood Hotel Auditorium in Philadelphia, organised by the Emma Goldman Committee in the city. The US government had given permission for a lecture tour of the United States on the condition that she spoke only in theatres and on her autobiography 'Living My Life', and avoided talking about the prevailing political situation.

[D] 1970 - Bomb attack on the Bank of Bilbao and the Spanish State Railways in Paris. [First of May Group]

1978 - Eric Frank Russell (b. 1905), British author and anarchist, best known for his science fiction novels and short stories, some of which were published under the pseudonyms Duncan H. Munro and Niall(e) Wilde, dies. [see: Jan. 6]

## 1982 - Friedrich Liebling (Salomon Liebling; b. 1893), Austrian anarchist, pacifist and non-academic trained libertarian psychologist from the school of individual psychology Alfred Adler, who advocated nonviolent education and mutual aid, and founded the Zürcher Schule für Psychotherapie, dies in Zürich aged 88. [see: Oct. 25]

2006 - José Gonzaga Herrera (b. 1911), Andalusia labourer and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 23]
1866 - Pedro Esteve (d. 1925), Spanish-born French typographer, anarchist propaganist and militant, born. Active in Barcelona’s famous Arte de Imprimir, he helped co-found Barcelona’s principal anarchist newspaper 'El Productor' in 1887. Emigrated to the US in 1892, where moved between New York, where he organised seamen, Colorado, where he participated in union forming activities with miners, and Tampa, Florida, where he organised cigar makers. He frequently shared the platform with Emma Goldman and acted as her interpreter. In addition to intermittently editing 'La Questione Sociale' between 1899 and 1906, Esteve also edited 'El Despertar' (Paterson, 1892–1895?, 1900), 'El Esclavo' (Tampa, 1894–1898?), and 'Cultura Obrera' (New York, 1911–1912, 1921–1925), as well as writing for the likes of 'Mother Earth', 'Doctrina Anarquista Socialista', etc..
Author of 'A los Anarquistas de España y de Cuba' (1893), 'Socialismo Anarquista. La Ley. La Violencia. El Anarquismo. La Revolución Social' (1902), 'Reflexiones Sobre el Movimiento Obrero en México' (1911), 'Reformismo, Dictadura, Federalismo' (1922), etc..
Partner of the Italian American anarchist-feminist, speaker, writer and labour activist Maria Roda (1877-19??).

[D] 1920 - Biennio Rosso [Red Biennium (1919-20)]: During a Lega Proletaria (Proletarian League) demonstration and rally, where Erico Malatesta was amongst the speakers, war wounded and veterans (many of whom did not join the fascisti after the war) attack the police, while a group of fascists beat up the Socialist deputy Luigi Repossi. In the Piazza Missori, police call upon the driver of a tram carrying some veterans from the rally to stop. When the tram fails to halt, two cops open fire, killing the conductor and a disabled passenger. Five other passengers are injured. In protest, the Camera del Lavoro (local Syndicalist labour union office) proclaims a national 24-hour strike.

1944 - Félix Fénéon (b. 1861), French art critic, novelist, anarchist and friend of Seurat, Paul Signac, Théo van Rysselberghe, Henri-Edmond Cross, André Gide, et al, dies. [see: Jun. 22]

1956 - Simón Radowitzky (Szymon Radowicki; b. 1891), aka 'The Martyr of Ushuaia', legendary Ukrainian-born anarchist freedom fighter who killed police chief Ramon Falcon and his secretary with a bomb in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on November 14, 1909, dies. [see: Oct. 10 or Nov. 10]

1956 - Konrad Świerczyński aka 'Wicek' (b. 1888), Polish anarchist, bookstore owner and poet, dies. [see: Feb. 19]

2012 - Maruja Lara (Angustias Lara Sanchez; d. 2012), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, miliciana, nurse and activist in the clandestine prisoners support group, Unión de Mujeres Demócratas, dies. [see: Sep. 11]
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C] 2016 [D] 2017 [E] 2018 [F]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC] 2016 [DD] 2017 [EE] 2018 [FF]
Monthly features: 2013 [AAA] 2014 [BBB] 2015 [CCC] 2016 [DDD] 2017 [EEE] 2018 [FFF]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)


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AfrikaansAlbanianAmharicArabicArmenianAzerbaijaniBasqueBelarusianBengaliBosnianBulgarianCatalanCebuanoChichewaChinese (Simplified)Chinese (Traditional)CorsicanCroatianCzechDanishDutchEnglishEsperantoEstonianFilipinoFinnishFrenchFrisianGalicianGeorgianGermanGreekGujaratiHaitian CreoleHausaHawaiianHebrewHindiHmongHungarianIcelandicIgboIndonesianIrishItalianJapaneseJavaneseKannadaKazakhKhmerKoreanKurdishKyrgyzLaoLatinLatvianLithuanianLuxembourgishMacedonianMalagasyMalayMalayalamMalteseMaoriMarathiMongolianMyanmar (Burmese)NepaliNorwegianPashtoPersianPolishPortuguesePunjabiRomanianRussianSamoanScots GaelicSerbianSesothoShonaSindhiSinhalaSlovakSlovenianSomaliSpanishSundaneseSwahiliSwedishTajikTamilTeluguThaiTurkishUkrainianUrduUzbekVietnameseWelshXhosaYiddishYorubaZulu

Text-to-speech function is limited to 200 character