1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: On behalf of the city council, Antonio Cuevas Jurado announces to the city a manifesto in which he claims that at such critical times, they had had to accept positions running the municipal offices, positions that they did not deserve but could also not refuse. They put at the disposal of the people their honesty and probity, with which they hoped to count on the support of all the social classes of the population, so that there would be public tranquillity, and attracted to it the visitors that the city always had in the past.

1876 - Mikhail Bakunin (b. 1814), Russian revolutionary and philosopher, theorist of collectivist anarchism, who was plagiarised mercilessly by Karl Marx (whilst at the same time being vehemently denouncing by him "a nonentity as a theoretician"), dies. [see: May 30]
[Costantini pic]

####1886 - Fernando Santiván (Fernando Antonio Santibáñez Puga; d. 1973), Chilean writer, shoemaker, tailor, coal seller, boxer, proofreader, propagandist, salesman and Tolstoyan anarchist, born.

1893 - The first issue of the monthly German language anarchist communist journal 'Die Brandfackel' (The Torch) is published in New York.

1894 - The anarchist Oreste Lucchesi kills Giuseppe Bandi, the director of the newspaper 'Il Telegrafo', and author of a series of articles attacking anarchists.

##1897 - Wilhelm 'Willi' Paul (d. 1979), German carpenter and metal worker, who was a lifelong anarchist militant, active in the Föderation Kommunistischer Anarchisten Deutschlands (Anarchist-Communist Federation of Germany) and the Spanish Civil War.

1906 - The Program of the Partido Liberal Mexicano is published by the Organising Meeting in St. Louis , Missouri in the pages of 'Regeneración'. Despite being one of more important political documents of the history of México, Ricardo Flores Magón (who wrote the preamble) still considered it "a timid program" when writing about it in 1915.

1914 - The first issue of the anarchist paper 'L'Action Anarchiste' is published in Uccle, Belgium.

1915 - Ada Martí (Maria de la Concepció Martí Fuster; d. 1960), Catalan writer, journalist and anarchist intellectual, born. [expand]

1920 - The second congress of the Unione Communista Anarchica d'Italia (1-4 July) begins. Under the influence of Malatesta it will remove the reference to communism and change its name to Unione Italiana Anarchica (IAU).

[B] 1920 - First great Dada exhibition, the Erste Internationale Dada-Messe (First International Dada Fair) [July 1-August 25], takes place in the rooms of Dr. Otto Burchard's art-shop in Berlin. It features 174 exhibited objects and is the culmination of the Dada activities in Berlin.

1932 - The first issue of the Italian language newspaper 'La Lanterna', "Periodico Anarchico", is published in Marseilles by a group of Italian anarchist refugees. Printed in Nîmes, it provides support to victims of political repression in Fascist Italy.

1933 - The first issue of the monthly literary magazine 'Prolétariat' is published in Paris by Henry Poulaille and the Groupe Prolétarien.

1937 - In Barcelona the Via Laietana, main artery of the city passing the CNT HQ is renamed Via Durruti in tribute to Buenaventura Durruti and his revolutionary activities.

## 1946 - Michael Antony Aston (d. 2013), English Professor of archaeology specialising in Early Medieval landscape archaeology, vegetarian,naturist, anarchist and atheist, who was best known for the Channel 4 programme 'Time Team', born.

1946 - Pia Turroni begins publishing 'Volontà', the monthly magazine of the Italian anarchist movement clandestinely as the US authorities refused him permission. He continues as managing editor until 1980, when the Milan anarchist group Bandiera Nera (Black Flag) take it over.

1952 - Fráňa Šrámek (b. 1877), Czech poet, novelist, short story writer, Impressionist playwright, anti-militarist and anarchist rebel, dies. [see: Jan 19]

1958 - Valentín González Ramírez (d. 1979), Spanish labourer and anarcho-syndicalist militant in the CNT's sindical de carga y descarga (lit. loading and unloading), whose death at the hands of the Policia Nacional – he was shot and killed by a rubber bullet fired at point-blank range as he came to the aid of his father who was being brutally beaten by the police during a strike at the Mercado de Abastos Frontal in Valencia where they both worked – prompted a general strike in the city, born.

1977 - Lewisham 21 Defence Committee demonstration in New Cross in support of local black youths arrested in police operation: '300 demonstrators marched through Lewisham and New Cross'; more than 100 National Front supporters turn out to attack it: "Shoppers rushed for cover as racialists stormed down New Cross Road" ['Kentish Mercury']. NF throw bottles, "rotten fruit and bags of caustic soda at marchers" ['South London Press']. More than 60 people, fascists and anti-fascists, are arrested in clashes in New Cross Road and Clifton Rise.

2003 - Chicho Sánchez Ferlosio (José Antonio Julio Onésimo Sánchez Ferlosio; b. 1940), Spanish singer, poet, songwriter, journalist, one-time communist but later an anarchist and CNT member, dies. [see: Apr. 8]

2008 - The new Ungdomshuset social centre opens in Copenhagen, Denmark.

2009 - Josefa 'Pepita' Martín Luengo (b. 1944), Spanish teacher, libertarian pedagogy researcher and militant advocate, and anarcho-feminist, who co-founded the Escuela Libre Paideia in Mérida (Badajoz) in 1978 with fellow libertarian education activists Concepción Castaño Casaseca i María Jesús Checa Simó, dies of cancer in the Hospital Universitario de Salamanca. [see: Sep. 19]

2015 - Mike Lesser (b. 1943), British mathematical philosopher, author, computer graphics expert, anarcho-communist and the youngest member of the Committee of 100 and of Spies For Peace, ending up in Wormwood Scrubs along with most of the rest of the Committee at the age of just sixteen, dies in London at the age of 71. [see: Sep. 28]
1789 - Marquis de Sade shouts from the Bastille that prisoners are being slaughtered.

1809 - Alarmed by the growing encroachment of whites squatting on Native American lands, the Shawnee Chief Tecumseh issues a call to all Indians to unite and resist. By 1810, he has organised the Ohio Valley Confederacy, which unites Indians from the Shawnee, Potawatomi, Kickapoo, Winnebago, Menominee, Ottawa, and Wyandotte nations. For several years, Tecumseh’s Indian Confederacy successfully delays further white settlement in the region.

[D] 1839 - Captive Africans on the Cuban slave ship Amistad, led by Joseph Cinquè (a Mende from what is now Sierra Leone), mutiny against their captors, kill the captain and the cook, and seize control of the schooner.

[F] 1855 - Primera Huelga General de España: In the wake of the on-going repression of the labour movement in Catalonia, Spain's industrial heartland, the Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera* (Central Board of Directors of the Working Class) in Barcelona call for a general strike in protest at the execution of the militant cotton spinner Josep Barceló Cassadó on June 6 and the June 21 order from the Military Governor of Catalonia, Capitán General Juan Zapatero y Navas, for the dissolution of all 'illegal' societats obreres.
At midday, workers in the Catalan textile industry in Bacelona, ​​Gracia, Badalona, ​​Sans and other towns on the outskirts and in Igualada come out on strike in defence of the freedom of association and improvements in working conditions, in what is considered to be the first general strike convened in the history of Spain. In Sans the president of the employers' association and Cortes deputy José Sol y Padrís is shot dead. Zapatero issues a proclamation banning all working class organisations that take part in supporting the strike movement.
Industrial actions quickly extends to the main towns of the Principality, including Sabadell, Igualada, Vic, Reus, Vilanova i Geltrú, Sitges and the manufacturing areas of Ter and Cardener. The extent of the strike movement surprises both the authorities and the manufacturer, and they express concern about the high level of organisation amongst workers that it implied. Even the bishop of Vich joined the calls made by the authorities to return to work: "If in your laborious life you have to submit to some privations, religion teaches us resignation and suffering, religion comforts us, promising us more abundant happiness in a future life, the greater the privations in the present are." However, the strike continued under the motto written on a banner: "Viva Espartero! Asociación o muerte. Pan y trabajo." (Viva Espartero [the Spanish president]! Association or death. Bread and work.)
Following negotiations between a government emissary, Colonel Saravia, and the Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera, an agreement was reached on July 10 promising a new law for the recognition of workers' associations. The following day, after with General Espartero having issued a message to Catalonia's workers asking them to trust him, saying that he was "a son of the people who never deceived the people", the strike was called off.
[*Its members were Pau Barba, Secretaries Joan Rovira and Joan Bertran, and members Joan Company, Ramon Maseras, Martomeu Arrons, Jerònim Alsina, Pau Folch, Manuel Escuder and Pere Puigventós]

1857 - Carlo Pisacane (b. 1818), Italian revolutionary, anti-authoritarian precursor of libertarian socialism and the first Italian (and essentially Proudhonian) anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 22]

## 1873 - Nella Giacomelli (d. 1949), Italian anarchist and propagandist, co-founder with Ettore Molinari of 'Il Grido della Folla' (The Cry of the Crowd) in 1902 and of 'La Protesta Umana' in 1906, and in the post-war period a contributor to Errico Malatesta's anarchist daily 'Umanita Nova', born. [expand]

##1874 - Ninfa Baronio (d. 1969), Italian-American anarcha-feminist activist, who helped found Paterson's anarchist Gruppo Diritto all'Esistenza (Right to an Existence Group); co-founded a local feminist group and, with her companion Firmino Gallo, ran the Libreria Sociologica anarchist bookshop said to be "America's richest storehouse of extreme radical literature", born.

1877 - Hermann Hesse (d. 1962), German poet and novelist, born. Author of 'Der Steppenwolf' (1927), whose central character Harry Haller is invited to attend an: "Anarchist Evening at the Magic Theatre, For Madmen Only, Price of Admission Your Mind."

1878 - [O.S. Jun. 20] Ivan Sergeevich Knizhnik-Vetrov [Ива́н Серге́евич Кни́жник-Ве́тров] (Israel Samuilovich (Shmuilovich) Knizhnik [Израиль Самуилович (Шмуйлович) Книжник]; d. 1965), Jewish Russian anarchist theorist, historian, later a Christian socialist and Bolshevik sympathiser and Prolekult propagandist, born.
His published works include a history of revolutionary Narodism, its ties with the First International and the Paris Commune, as well as titles on anarchist theory and various bibliographical works.
Often nominated as being among the leading Russian theorists of anarchism'

1898 - The first issue of the Italian language anarchist-communist periodical 'L'Agitatore' is published in Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

##1909 - Albert Louis Aernoult (b. 1866), French syndicalist roofer, union activist and libertarian, dies a day after arriving at the military-style discipline camp at Djenan al-Dar, Algeria. Supposedly only serving a few days punishment there, at 5 a.m. in the morning he was subjected to 4 hours strenuous exercise. He collapsed from heat stress and exhaustion, and was then beaten with sticks by a lieutenant and two sergeants. He was then put to the crapaudine: forced to lay face-down, the legs are bent up to the kidneys, where the ankles and wrists are then bound behind one's back by a cord. About 3 p.m. Aernoult was thrown into a cell and submitted to the crapaudine again. He died later that night, supposedly of "heat stroke" and "cerebral excitement" as a result of the African sun.

1910 - Unemployed shoe-maker Jean-Jacques Liabeuf (b. 1886) is guillotined following his act of revenge against police for his wrongful conviction for 'pimping'. Armed with a pistol and 2 cobblers' knives, whilst wearing heavily spiked armbands, he is confronted by police - killing one, severely wounding a second and hospitalising six others. Despite widespread protests in his support organised by the anarchist milieu, he is executed, precipitating extensive rioting.

1913 - [O.S. Jul. 20] Tikveš Uprising [Тиквешко въстание (Bul.) / Тиквешко востание (Mkd.)]: On the same day that a new Bulgarian government is chosen, about 30,000 Serbian army troops and irregulars led by Vasilije Trbić are sent to crush the uprising.
[Jul.-Greg. correction error]

1917 - The first issue of the libertarian weekly 'Germinal' is published in Tampico, Mexico.

##1917 - [O.S. Jun. 19] Shlema Aronovich Asnin (Шлёма АроновичАснина; b. unknown), Russian petty thief and colourful anarchist communist activist, who is remembered for his role in the June-July days of 1917 in Krondstadt, is shot and killed during the Kerensky regime's suppression of the uprising.

1921 - Thirteen Anarchists, held for no plausible reason in the Taganka prison in Moscow, inaugurate a hunger strike to the death, timed to coincide with the gathering of the International Congress of Red Trade Unions (the Profinterri) in the capital city, in order to campaign for the release of all political prisoners in Russia.

1926 - French Police announce they have thwarted a plot to assassinate the king of Spain Alphonse XIII (officially visiting France), with the arrests of the Spanish anarchists Francisco Ascaso, Buenaventura Durruti and Gregorio Jover (on June 25). Also today numéro 65 of the anarchiste paper 'Le Libertaire' is seized in Paris. [see: Jun. 25]

[B] 1935 - Nanni Balestrini, Italian experimental poet, novelist and writer of the Neoavanguardia movement, visual artist and anarchist, born. Member of Novissimi (Last Things) and Gruppo 63 writers groups.

1964 - Jörg Bergstedt, German individualist anarchist, environmental activist, anti-GM campaigner, subvertiser and "kommunikationsguerilla", who is seen as persona non grata by many on the Left because of his contacts with the German intelligence services, born.

1977 - Lewisham 21 Defence Committee demonstration in New Cross in support of local black youths arrested in police operation: '300 demonstrators marched through Lewisham and New Cross'; more than 100 National Front supporters turn out to attack it: 'Shoppers rushed for cover as racialists stormed down New Cross Road' ['Kentish Mercury', July 7]. NF throw bottles, 'rotten fruit and bags of caustic soda at marchers' ['South London Press', July 5]. One teacher was kicked unconscious by the fascists. More than 60 people, fascists and anti-fascists, are arrested in clashes in New Cross Road and Clifton Rise, with 35 NF supporters and 17 anti-fascists remanded on bail following court appearances on July 4th & 5th.

1989 - Jean Painlevé (b. 1902), French biologist turned film director, actor, translator, animator, critic and theorist, anti-fascist and anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 20]
1855 - Primera Huelga General de España: By its second day, the strike had spread to Vich, Roda and San Hipólito de Voltregá. The same day a large demonstration heads to Barcelona's city hall to demand the delivery of a red flag that had been requisitioned the previous day by a municipal policeman. By 22:00 that night, the flag had been returned and the demonstration dissolved with songs and acclamations." [see: Jul. 2]

1865 - Auguste Garnery (d. 1935), French jeweller, anarchist militant, revolutionary trade unionist and anti-militarist, born.

1866 - Bernardino Verro (d. 1915), Sicilain socialist and syndicalist, who helped found Fascio Contadino di Corleone (Peasant Fascio of Corleone) in 1892 and became the first Socialist mayor of Corleone in 1914, born. Having formed a strategic alliance with a Mafia clan in Corleone in order to protect the fasci strikers, during the Fasci Siciliani Uprising in September 1893 the Fratuzzi mobilised to boycott it. Verro quit the clan and became a staunch enemy of the mafiosi, and it was a Mafia assassin who killed him with 11 shots, while he was returning home on November 3, 1915.

[B] 1883 - Franz Kafka (d. 1924), Czech-born German writer and anarchist sympathiser, born.
"I followed in the footsteps of Ravachol. They led me later to Erich Mühsam, Arthur Holitscher and the Viennese anarchist Rudolph Gassman, who called himself Pierre Ramuz and edited the journal 'Wealth for All'." - Gustav Janouch: 'Conversations with Kafka' (1953)

1890 - Josep Gené Figueras (d. 1980), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. The son of a baker of advanced ideas, he was enrolled in the Ateneo Igualadino de la Clase Obrera (Igualada Ateneo for the Working Class), a cultural institution that opened in 1890 as a day school for children aged 8-15 years. Raised in that environment, at the age of eighteen José Gene joined the Partit Republicà Democràtic Federal (PRDF; Federal Democratic Republican Party). He also read much Catalan literature, especially theatre works.
An asthma sufferer, he asked to be exempted from military service, but was denied the waiver and chose to flee into exile in France. He lived in Lyon, where in 1912 he frequented the local 'Causeries Populaires' (Popular Lectures), and in Paris, where he worked at a telephone company and came into contact with the libertarian ideas popular in France at this time: he joined the French Syndicalist Youth, he began a relationship with anarchists like Carlos Malate and Sebastian Faure, and in 1914 began collaboration 'El Obrero Moderno', the newspaper of the Igualada comarca run by Juan Ferrer, with whom he always maintained a close friendship. At this time he met Leon Trotsky and became good friends with Charles Malato and Sébastien Faure.
As a result of his militant activism, the French government expelled from the country in 1919, but he managed to outwit the Guàrdia Civil and returned safely to Barcelona, coinciding with the period of pistolerismo and the strike agitated form by the Canadian employers. He joined the CNT and was soon part of the committee of the Sindicat Metallúrgic in Barcelona at the Ramón Achs company. In 1921 he was elected general secretary of the Regional Committee of the CNT of Catalonia following the murder of his friedn Ramon Archs, a position of maximum danger that tested his militant determination and organisational skills.
In 1922 attended the secret Zaragoza Conference that ratified the reorganisation of anarcho-syndicalism within the CNT and, that same year, he spent a short time in the Modelo in Barcelona. He was released in October 1922, decided to return to his native Igualada and work as adjuster, keeping discreetly in the background during the dictatorship of General Miguel Primo de Rivera. His union militancy resumed with the arrival of the Second Republic, but remained in his native Anoia, joining the CNT Regional Committee in 1931 and in 1932 he married Maria Serrarols. He also collaborated on 'Ateneo Porvenir' and organised rallies in Capellades, Vallbona and Pobla de Claramunt.
With the beginning the Civil War, he remained in Igualada, he collectivised the family's cattle herd, bought a poultry farm and undertook to supply milk to his town as part of his contribution to the Social Revolution. He also took part in various rallies in neighboring villages and, between 1937-38, worked on the Igualada 'Butlletí CNT-FAI'. After the Civil War, he crossed the border into France with his partner Maria Serrarols and her daughter Aurora. They embarked on the steamer Mexique, which came into the Mexican port of Veracruz on July 27, 1939. In his long period in Mexico, he was a member of the CNT in exile and treasurer of the local federation in Mazamet. He also held a number of positions in the Mexican confederal organisation. He also worked in various jobs, finally opening a grocery store in Mexico City, where his partner, Mary Serrarols, died in 1972 never having wished to return to Spain.

1933 - Franz Wilhelm Seiwert (b. 1894), German painter, sculptor, poet, Marxist, anarchist sympathiser, Expressionist, Dadaist and then a Constructivist and member of the Cologne Progressives, dies. [see: Mar. 9]

## 1966 - Rodney Adam Coronado, Native American (Pascua Yaqui) eco-anarchist, former Animal Liberation Front activist, spokesperson for the Earth Liberation Front and a member of the editorial collective of the 'Earth First!' journal, born.

1967 - Ilya Eduardovich Romanov (Илья Эдуардович Романов), Russian anarchist, who is currently serving a second term as a political prisoner (first bewteen 2002 and 2012, in a fabricated case of alleged transportation and storage of explosives in 1997 and during which was tortured and forced to confess – later retracted) after he was injured in 2013 when a firecracker exploded in his hand and was sentenced to ten years for a 'terrorist attack' – he had been accused of being a member of Ukranian special forces – and manufacturing explosives, born.

1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Simultaneous bomb attacks in Paris and London against Spanish State Tourist offices, and the Spanish and Greek Embassies. [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]

1995 - Gil J. Wolman (born Gil Joseph; b. 1929), pioneer French film-maker, writer, sound poet, political activist and Internationale Lettriste, dies. [see: Sep. 7]

1999 - Paul Wulf (b. 1921), German anarchist and communist artist, anti-fascist victim of the Nazi regime's sterilisation programmes, dies. [see: May 2]
1845 - Henry David Thoreau moves into his shack on Walden Pond.

1866 - Marius Monfray (d. 1894), French anarchist trade unionist, plasterer and painter-decorator, born. In November 1886, he was sentenced to eight days in prison for organising an illegal lottery (providing support funds for Toussaint Bordat, a defendant in the Procès des 66). His shout in response — "Vive l'anarchie!". Such impudence, for "contempt of court," got him two years in prison tacked on to his eight days.

1868 - Michael Bakunin moves to Geneva, where he will join the Geneva section of the International Workingmen's Association.

1876 - Albert Parsons joins the Knights of Labor.

[BB] 1880 - Leda Rafanelli (d. 1971), Italian anarchist, feminist, anti-militarist, writer, artist and member of the Futurists, who was known as the 'Gypsy anarchist', born. At a young age she had one of her first poems published in the PSI newspaper, also moving with her family to Alexandria where she came into contact with the Baracca Rossa anarchist group and Sufism. Initially an individualist, she gradually moved towards libertarian socialism and, upon her return to Italy (with husband Ugo Polli), formed a friendship with Pietro Gori and declared her pacifism by coming out against the Manifesto of the Sixteen. Her admiration for Armando Borghi led to his asking her to write the forward to his book 'Il Nostro e l'Altrui Andividualismo' (Our and Others' Individualism; 1907). Leda and Ugo founded the publishing house Casa Editrice Rafanelli-Polli but their relationship soon ends.
Becoming involved with the Futurists, she begins a brief but intense relationship with Carlo Carrà, influencing his adherence to anarchism and results in Alberto Ciampi's book 'Leda Rafanelli, Carlo Carrà: un Romanzo, Arte e Politica in un Incontro' (Leda Rafanelli, Carlo Carrà: a novel, art and politics in a meeting; 2005). A longer-term and more fruitful relationship with Giuseppe Monnanni followed and with whom she started the magazines 'La Rivolta' (The Revolt; 1910) and 'La Libertà' (Freedom; 1913-14), and later still the anarcho-individualsit arts and literature magazine 'Vir' and also 'La Sciarpa Nera' (The Black Scarf).
Other activities included joining the editorial board of 'La Protesta Umana' (1906-09 ) with the anarchists Ettore Molinari and Nella Giacomelli, and collaborating on various libertarian publications such as Pietro Gori and Luigi Fabbri's 'Il Pensiero' (The Thought), 'Il Libertario' (The Libertarian), 'Il Grido della Folla' (The Cry of the crowd), 'Volontà' (Will), 'La Blouse' (1906-10), 'La Donna Libertaria' (1912-13), etc. In 1910, Leda also founded the Società Editrice Sociale, perhaps the most important Italian libertarian publisher.
Between 1913 and 1914 Mussolini, then a socialist participant in the Settimana Rossa fell in love with and unsuccessfully pursued her, a period that she covered in her book 'Una Donna e Mussolini: la Corrispondenza Amorosa' (1975). The rise of Fascism made publishing difficult and the Società Editrice Social was closed by the authorities in 1923, along with the magazine 'Pagine Libertarie'. Its replacement, the Casa Editrice Monann, was itself closed down by the fascist regime in 1933. Forced by economic hardship, she became a fortune teller and write popular novels under a host of pen names, all on oriental themes, much of it biographical e.g. 'Nada', 'La Signora Mia Nonna' (The Lady My Grandmother) and 'Le Memorie di una Chiromante' (The Memoirs of a Fortune Teller). Towards the end of her life, Leda taught Arabic and collaborated on 'Umanità Nova'.
Her written works include popular novels and short stories such as 'Sogno d'Amore' (Dreams of Love; 1905), 'Bozzetti Sociali' (Social Sketches; 1910), and 'L'Oasi' (1926),written under a pseudonym about fascist repression in Libya; as well as her political writings which include: 'Valide Braccia' (1907) a pamphlet against the construction of new prisons, 'Seme Nuovo' (New Seed; 1908), 'Verso la Siberia, Scene della Rivoluzione Russa' (Towards Siberia, Scenes of the Russian Revolution; 1908), 'L'Eroe della Folla' (The Hero of the Crowd; 1910), and 'Donne e Femmine' (Women and Girls; 1922).

[B] 1886 [Jun. 22 O.S.] - Olga Vladimirovna Rozanova (Ольга Владимировна Розанова; d. 1918), Russian Cubo-Futurist and Suprematist artist, painter, graphic artist, illustrator, designer, art theorist and poet, born. In 1911 she joined and became one of the most active members of Soyuz Molodyozhi (Union of the Youth). She was also close to the Futurist poets Velimir Khlebnikov and Aleksei Kruchenykh, her future husband. She later joined Malevich's avant-garde artists group Supremus in 1916 and was involved with the weekly anarchist newspaper 'Anarkhiia'. She published a number of polemical articles in the paper's arts and literature section, 'Tvorchestvo' (Creativity or Creative Work), including 'Art - only in Independence and Freedom!' and 'Suprematism and the Critics'. On April 2, 1918, 'Anarkhiia' also published a salute to Rodchenko, Olga Rozanova, Udaltsova and others among the avant-garde: "With pride we look upon your creative rebellion".
Rozanova died of diphtheria in 1918.

1888 - Spartaco Stagnetti (d. 1927), Italian militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1889 - Elena Melli (d. 1946), Italian anarchist militant, who was a companion of Errico Malatesta during the last years of his life, born.

1890 - First issue of the Yiddish 'Freie Arbeiter Stimme' (Free Voice of Labour) appears, New York.

[B] 1899 - Benjamin Péret (d. 1959), French poet, Parisian Dadaist, founder member of the French Surrealist movement, automatism and anarchist, born. Known to have used the pseudonyms Satyremont, Peralda and Peralta. Worked with and was an influence on the Mexican writer Octavio Paz, he moved to Brazil in 1929, where he published 'Le Grand Jeu' (1928) but was expelled from the country along with his wife, the Brazilian singer Elsie Houston, and his newly born son, on grounds of being a "Communist Agitator", having helped form the Brazilian Communist League. Joined the French Communist Party but fought initially with POUM but later joined the Durutti Column on the Aragon Front during the Spanish Revolution. Upon returning to France, he was interned and eventually fled the Nazi invasion, ending up in Mexico. Returning to France post-WWII, he caused a furore with his recently published pamphlet 'Le Déshonneur des Poètes' (1945), in answer to Pierre Seghers, Paul Éluard and Jean Lescure's 'L’Honneur des Poètes' (1943), a collecton of patriotic poems bringing together religious writer with communist and Surrealist poets. He also became an active member of an anarchist group in the Paris region and contributed to the anarchist paper 'Le Libertaire' e.g. 'The factory committee: motor of the social revolution' (September 4, 1952).

##1900 - Robert Desnos (d. 1945), French poet, author, anti-fascist and anarchist, who was one of the most important figures of the French surrealist movement in the 1920s and 30s, born. A youthful anarchist - he was associated with the circle around Rirette Maitrejean, Henri Jeanson, etc. [Armand Salacrou, Georges Limbour] - he would fall out with André Breton and most of the Surrealists when they gravitated towards the French Comunist party in the mid-late 1920s. He was also a fervent anti-fascist, working on behalf of Republican Spain, writing amongst other things a cantata in memory of the murdered García Lorca, whom Desnos had met in 1935. At the outbreak of war he joined up as a sergeant and was deeply shocked by the defeatist attitude that prevailed within the army. He was taken prisoner June 27, 1940, and released after the Armistice. For Desnos, Hitler and fascism were now hs mortal enemies. He went on to become a writer on the journal 'Aujourd’hui', hoping to maintain its independence from censorship, whilst openly attacking Pétain and the conditions prevailing under the occupying Germans, and an active member of the French Résistance network Réseau AGIR. Much of his non-'Aujourd’hui' work was published under various pseudonyms in the underground press and for Réseau Agir, Desnos provided information collected during his job at 'Aujourd'hui' and made false identity papers. Unfortunately, his obvious anti-fascism led to his inevitable denunciation and he was arrested by the Gestapo on February 22, 1944. After a lengthy period of interrogation, Desnos was deported to the Nazi German concentration camps of Auschwitz in occupied Poland, then Buchenwald, Flossenburg's Flöha sub-camp in Saxony, making parts for Messerschmitts, and finally on a forced march to Terezín (Theresienstadt) in occupied Czechoslovakia. Through out his time in the camps he carried on his active resistance to the Nazi war machine, often earning him brutal beatings. In Terezín he died from typhoid at 5.30 on the morning of June 8, 1945, only weeks after the camp’s liberation and less than a month short of his 45th birthday. His ashes were returned to France to be interred in the Montparnasse Cemetery.

## 1905 - Élisée Reclus (b. 1830), French radical geographer, writer and anarchist, dies. Author of a 19-volume masterwork 'La Nouvelle Géographie Universelle, la Terre et les Hommes' (Universal Geography), over a period of nearly 20 years (1875–1894), for which he was awarded the prestigious Gold Medal of the Paris Geographical Society in 1892, despite having been banished from France because of his political activism. As a member of the Association Nationale des Travailleurs, he published a hostile manifesto against the government of Versailles in support of the Paris Commune of 1871 in the 'Cri du Peuple'. He served in the National Guard, being taken prisoner on April 5, and on November 16 was sentenced to deportation for life. [see: Mar. 15]

[C] 1906 - Emídio Santana (d. 1988), Portuguese militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. He attempts to assassinate the Portuguese dictator Salazar on this day in 1937.

1909 - In Cairo's Eden Theatre, socialists and anarchists launch the International Federation for resistance Among Workers. Its aim, as stated in the manifesto drafted also in Greek and Arabic was "the emancipation of the workers and the immediate betterment of their conditions". The organisation the mainifesto stated "will stand outside of any political, national or religious camp."

1910 - The IWW newspaper 'Solidarity' tackles the theme of "sabotage" in reference to a strike of 600 tailors, who obtain most of their demands thanks to the solidarity of others and their use of sabotage.

[F] 1914 - Lexington Avenue Explosion: The Lexington Avenue bomb incident takes place in the apartment of Louise Berger in New York City. Berger was an editor of Emma Goldman's 'Mother Earth News' and her apartment was being used by fellow members of the Lettish (Latvian) Anarchist Red Cross Carl Hanson and Charles Berg, together with IWW member Arthur Caron to assemble the bomb that prematurely exploded. Their plan to bomb Kykuit, John D. Rockefeller Jr.'s massive mansion in Tarrytown, NY, in retaliation for the 1914 Ludlow Massacre in Colorado and police violent suppression of the ensuing protests outside Rockefeller's mansion, Rockefeller being the main owner of the Ludlow mine. Berg, Berger and Hanson, together Marie Chavez, who had not been involved in the plot but had merely been renting a room in the apartment at the time, were killed. A fifth man, an IWW member named as 'Mike' Murphy, escaped with only minor injuries when the bomb caused the floor below his bed to collapse into the apartment below. Sought by the police, he managed to escape via the 'Mother Earth' offices went in to hiding, ending up in Canada.
On July 11, over 5,000 people attended the mass memorial meeting called by the Anti-Militarist League for Berg, Hanson, and Caron, the three anarchists killed in the Lexington Avenue explosion. Over 800 policemen monitored the meeting, while Alexander Berkman, Leonard D. Abbott, Becky Edelsohn, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Carlo Tresca, David Sullivan and Charles Plunkett all spoke for their dead comrades. Plunkett and Berkman were later implicated in the plot

1914 - Arthur Caron (b. 1883), French Canadian anarchist and a member of the Industrial Workers of the World, blows himself along with two members of the Lettish section of the Anarchist Black Cross, Carl Hanson, and Charles Berg, whilst building a bomb which they planned to plant at John D. Rockefeller's home in Tarrytown, New York. [see: Dec. 16]

1919 - Peru General Strike for the 8-hour Work Day: Amidst the widespread clashes during the general strike, the President of the Republic José Pardo y Barreda is deposed. Augusto B. Leguía takes advantage of the situation to seize power amid popular enthusiasm.
The same day, the Comité Pro-Abaratamiento de las Subsistencias (Committee for the Lowering of Subsistence) occupies the premises of the Confederación de Artesanos "Unión Universal" (Confederation of Craftsmen "Universal Union"), transforming it into the headquarters of the second Peruvian Regional Workers' Federation, the Federación Obrera Regional Peruana, established on July 8, 1919, and based on the principles of the old Federación Obrera Regional del Perú.

1920 - The second congress of the Unione Communista Anarchica d'Italia (1-4 July) ends. Under the influence of Malatesta it removes the reference to communism and takes the name Unione Italiana Anarchica (IAU).

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: The first CNT labour dispute since the proclamation of the Second Republic begins when on July 4, 1931, the newly created [at the III Congress of the CNT, June 11-16, 1931] Sindicato Nacional de Teléfonos calls out workers in the Telefónica Española telephone service, run by AT&T (American Telephone and Telegraph) under terms and conditions extremely favorable to the company and that were considered by many to be as a real abuse of power. The strike would end with 30 dead, more than 200 left wounded and 2,000 in prison, as the army and police try to suppress it.
Following AT&T's refusal to negotiate with the CNT, 6,200 of Telefónica Española's 7,000 employees came out on strike. The intention was to stop the telephony service and for the demands to be heard. These include:
· Recognition of the Sindicato Nacional de Teléfonos;
· Reinstatement of all those dismissed since 1925, 1,500 employees;
· Review of employee records;
· Inclusion in the workforce those temporary staff with over a year of service;
· Creating the roster by order of seniority;
· Voluntary retirement at 55 years of age and compulsory retirement at 60;
· Right of female staff to marry and to grant the corresponding benefits for childbirth; and,
· Wage equalisations.
The strike is a success in Seville, Zaragoza and Barcelona, but has uneven results in the rest of Spain. The Socialists, in power, choose to try to alleviate its effects and send UGT members to provide services to cities like Madrid and Barcelona to try to restore 'normalcy' - protecting the interests of a foreign company and give a message of 'stability' to potential investors in the young republic.
On July 7, members of the strike committee are arrested and its public meetings banned. The union fights back with a campaign of sabotage. The following day sees the Chief of Police order all Guardia Civil to lie in ambush and to shoot on sight anyone interfering with telegraph poles. On the 9th, international lines are cut, a bomb damages the Seville exchange and the antennas of the Amposta company are also damaged. July 17 sees strikers in Vizcaya arrested for sabotage and on July 18, a general strike is called in Seville in protest at the death of a striking brewery worker, resulting in further clashes that end with the murder of a worker from the Osborne factory. During his burial anarchists clash with the police, leaving four workers and three security guards dead. The next day another general strike is called in Seville.
On July 22 the government belatedly declares the strike illegal as 10 days notice was not given. The Minister of the Interior orders the closure of all anarcho-syndicalist centres across Spain and the arrest of CNT leaders. Across Spain acts of sabotage continue and in Barcelona saboteurs hold up traffic in order to prevent injuries whilst they set off their explosives. July 22 also sees the declaring in Seville of a state of war and at dawn on the 23rd, in Maria Luisa Park, prisoners trying to escape from a police van are shot, leaving four dead. That same day, the Minister of the Interior orders an assault on the Casa Cornelio tavern, a rebel stronghold in the city. On August 9, a Sindicato Nacional de Teléfonos member is also shot whilst playing cards in a bar.
At the end of August, two months-worth of tension during the strike spill over in Zaragoza as itchy trigger-fingered Guardia Civil shoot 5 passersby, killing one, Isidro Floria Sánchez. [see: Aug. 31]. The CNT calls a 2-day strike that ends up lasting for four days, during which the army is deployed on the Zaragoza streets. Many are wounded on both sides as CNT militants continue to carry out numerous acts of sabotage.
The strike ends on September 4

1932 - Rose Lilian Witcop Aldred (Rachel Vitkopski; b. 1890), Ukrainian-British Jewish anarchist, journalist and pioneer of birth control and sex education, who was sister of Milly Witkop and partner of Guy Aldred, dies from gangrenous appendicitis. [see: Apr. 9 / 23]

[D] 1937 - On his way to Mass at a private chapel in his friend Josué Trocado's house in the Rua Barbosa du Bocage in Lisbon, as the Portuguese dictator António Salazar steps out of his car at 10:30, a bomb explodes within 10 feet/3.5m of him (the bomb had been hidden in an iron case). The bomb-blast leaves Salazar untouched (though his chauffeur is rendered deaf). Following the attack, the Portuguese political police PIDE (Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado) begin searching for the militant anarcho-syndicalist and founder of the Metallurgists National Union (Sindicato Nacional dos Metalúrgicos) Emidio Santana, as one of those behind the 'outrage'. Santana fled to England, only to be arrested by the British police and sent back to Portugal, where he is sentenced to 16 years in prison.
In a collective letter in 1938, Portugal's Catholic bishops would claim that Salazar having escaped death was an "act of God".
[www.esferadoslivros.pt/livros.php?id_li= 357]

1969 - Erwin Blumenfeld (b. 1897), German-Jewish photographer, Dadaist collage artist, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Jan. 26]

1970 - Barnett Newman (b. 1905), US abstract expressionist, colour field painter and life-long anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 29]

2000 - Chiquet Mawet (Michelle Beaujean; b. 1937), Belgian playwright, storyteller, poet, polemicist, social activist and professor of ethics, who was a regular contributor to the Belgian anarchist monthly 'Alternative Libertaire', dies. [see: Jan. 23]

2010 - Rafał Górski (b. 1973), Polish anarcho-syndicalist writer and activist in the Ogólnopolski Związek Zawodowy „Inicjatywa Pracownicza” ("Worker's Initiative" Trade Union), in the defence of tenant rights, and in the wider anarchist movement, as well as being the author of numerous articles and books on the history of syndicalism and anarchism, dies of cancer in Krakow. [see: Sep. 22]
1855 - Primera Huelga General de España: Two delegations representing the workers and the employers' sides go to Madrid to lobby the head of the government, General Espartero. The Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera (Central Board of Directors of the Working Class), made up of its President Pau Barba, Secretaries Joan Rovira and Joan Bertran, and members Joan Company, Ramon Maseras, Martomeu Arrons, Jerònim Alsina, Pau Folch, Manuel Escuder and Pere Puigventós, presents a manifesto (published the same day) calling for the recognition of the right of association and the 10-hour day amongst other demands. Esparero greets them coldly, saying to "the children of the people, my favourites" that their demands would be met if they ended the strike. [see: Jul. 2]

1889 - Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (d. 1963), French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, playwright, artist and filmmaker, born. His fiche policière labelled him a "poète anarchiste homosexuel à Paris".
"Si je n'étais pas reine, je serais anarchiste. En somme je suis une reine anarchistes. C'est ce qui fait que la cour me dénigre et c'est ce qui fait que le peuple m'aime." ("If I was not a queen, I would be an anarchist. In short I am an anarchist queen. This is what makes the court denigrate me and this is what makes the people like me.") - The Queen in 'L'Aigle à Deux Têtes' (The Eagle has Two Heads; 1943) as she lies dying from a stab wound to the heart.

## 1897 - Raoul Lion (d. 1944), French anarchist typographer, who operated an underground anti-fascist printing press along with his brother Henri during the Nazi occupation and, like his brother, was gassed in the Schloss Hartheim Euthanasia Centre (NS-Tötungsanstalt Hartheim), born.

1901* - [O.S. Jun. 22] Petar Sokolov (Петър Соколов; b. 1870), Bulgarian revolutionary, anarchist and participant in the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна македоно-одринска революционна организация [bg] / Внатрешна македонско-одринска револуционерна организација [mk]), is killed in a firefight after his group had been surrounded by numerous Turkish troops near the village of Fikel following their kidnapping of Edirne Nuri Bey, the son of the wealthy Turk-landowner Dartley Mustafa Bey.
in late 1899, accompanies by Slavi Merdjanov, Pavel Shatev and Peter Mandjoukov, he began digging a tunnel under the Ottoman Bank in Istanbul and the branch in Thessaloniki but both were abandoned in Sept. 1900 due to lack of funds to buy the dynamite. The Thessaloniki tunnel would be resurrected in 1903 as part of the Gemidzhii bombings. [expand]
[*some sources give the date as Jul. 4]
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

[C] 1940 - Carl (Karl) Einstein (b. 1885), German poet, experimental prose writer, Dadaist, theorist of Expressionist poetics, art historian and critic, who was one of the first to champion Cubism, anarchist combatant and nephew of Albert Einstein, dies a suicide to prevent capture by the Nazis. [see: Apr. 26]

1942 - Germaine Berton (b. 1902), French trade union militant and anarchist, dies from a large overdose of Véronal. [see: Jun. 7]
[NB: The date is often given as July 4 as the overdose was taken during the night of July 4-5]

1949 - Rodolfo González Pacheco (b. 1881), Argentine playwright, theatre director, journalist and anarchist agitator, dies in Buenos Aires. [see: May 4]

##1952 - Alan Brian Carter, English anarchist, musician and former academic, who specialised in political philosophy, moral philosophy, and environmental philosophy, born.

1983 - Gino 'Nino' Balestri (b. 1901), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist fighter, who fought as a volunteer in the Italian Section of the Columna Ascaso, dies in Aubagne, near Marseille. [see: Nov. 1]

[B] 2007 - George Melly (b. 1926), English jazz and blues singer, critic, writer and lecturer on art history specialising in Surrealism who was court-martialled during WWII for distributing anarchist literature whilst in the Navy, born.
1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: In the town hall it is decided that, as the critical situation experienced by the city had already passed, and since the committee had legal status, it was necessary to inform the Provincial Government and the governor of the province that the Municipality was already operating within the legal system, and that it offered its total support to the Government and to the constituted authorities. Orders were also given to suspend the demolitions and the workers were to repair the streets of the city damaged during the uprising. The confiscated churches, convents and church property were to be returned and those properties was were still able to be used were to be guarded by the Volunteers of the Republic.

1881 - The sixth and last Congress of the Bakuninist faction of AIT (International Workingman's Association, the first Communist International).

1882 - [O.S. Jun. 24] German Karlovich Askarov [Герман Карлович Аскаров] aka Herman Kleiner [Герман Клейнер], Oskar Burritt [Оскар Буррит] (German Karlovich Jakobson [Герман Карлович Якобсон]; d. unknown), prominent Russian anarchist communist, who was a proponent of the Anarcho-Universalist position following the Russian Revolution, arguing that it was necessary for the anarchists to support the socialist state and to refrain from criticising Bolshevik power in order to protect Russia from the White counter-revolution, born.

1897 - Niilo Frans Wälläri (25 August 1967), Finnish anarcho-syndicalist, Wobbly and later communist, who led the Suomen Merimies-Unionin (Finnish Seamen’s Union) from 1938 until his death, born.

#### 1902 - Alfons Tomasz Pilarski aka 'Janson', 'Jan Rylski', 'Kompardt', etc. (d. 1977), German anarcho-syndicalist who took part in the German and Polish anarchist and anti-Nazi movements, born in Upper Silesia. Before WWII one of the leading activists of anarchist movement in Poland. 1917-1921 draughtsman in agronomic office in city hall of Raciborz. In 1918 joined Upper Silesia Communist Party and in 1919 anarcho-syndicalist workers union Freie Arbeiter Union Deutchlands. Until 1933 he was an activist in FAUD. Resistance organiser against Hitler. In 1929 initiated paramilitary anarchist organization Schwarze Scharen (Black Troop) 1928-1932 editor of 'Freiheit' (Freedom) published in Wroclaw (Breslau) and Raciborz. Accused of high treason when the Nazis came to power, he fled to Berlin where he was hidden. With help of Polish diplomat he managed to flee to Poland where he got political refugee status. 1933-35 scholar in Institute for Ethnographic Research in Warsaw. He was active in the Związku Związków Zawodowych (ZZZ; Union of Workers Unions) as an anarcho-syndicalist. 1934-36 secretary of Union in Zaglebie Dabrowskie. He represented Polish anarcho-syndicalists during IWA congress in Paris in 1938. From 1939 in Central Section of ZZZ. Published in 'Front Robotniczy' (Workers’ Front) as Jan Rylski. From May 1939 he worked in a German-language anti-Nazi programme in Katowice radio station. From July 1939 member of ZZZ board. After September defeat went to Mozejki near Wilnus [Vilna]. He joined Zwiazek Walki Zbrojnej (ZWZ: Association of Armed Struggle, precursor of Polish National Army [Home Army/ AK]). Worked in an office preparing fake documents for underground. In 1942 he came back to Warsaw as a Swedish citizen. Took part in so called 'N-action' (disinformation in press and leaflets for Eastern Front German soldiers). He joined the Syndykalistyczna Organizacja Wolność (SOW-a; Syndicalist Organisation Freedom), published in 'Walka Ludu' (Peoples Struggle). Took part in Warsaw Uprising in the ranks of Polish Popular Army. August 8 1944 wounded. Joined Syndicalist Brigade. After defeat of Uprising, together with his wife and daughter, evacuated to Ojcow near Krakow. From January 1945 worked as secretary of propaganda section of District Committee of Workers Unions in Krakow. In June 1945 went to Silesia where he organized reconstruction of industry. After the war he maintained contact with German anarcho-syndicalists. In 1947 he joined Polska Partia Robotnicza (Polish Party of Workers) then Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza (Polish United Party of Workers – communist regime party). 1948-50 worked in office in Ministry of Western Lands. In 1950 expelled from the Party for "anarchist aberration". In 1953 imprisoned for months without sentence. He worked in Warsaw in Dom Słowa Polskiego (Polish Word House) and Panstwowa Centrala Handlu Ksiazkami 'Dom Ksiazki' (State Central of Books Trade 'Book House'). He refused to receive decorations and honorable awards. Died February 3 1977 and was buried in Powazki Cemetery in Warsaw.

[D] 1931 - ERROR

1939 - Felipe Emilio Sandoval Cabrerizo, aka 'Doctor Muñiz' (b. 1886), Spanish bricklayer,anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, expropriator and spy, who is known for his leadership of the dreaded Czech anarchist police centre installed in the Cinema Europe of the district of Cuatro Caminos, the Fleet Street of Madrid, disgraced and abandoned by former comrades after making extensive denunciations under torture by the Francoist Brigada de la División de Investigación Política, he commits suicide by throwing himself from a window of a house that was being used as a police station on the Calle Almagro in Madrid, one of the many makeshift prisons full of Republican prisoners in the capital. His body unclaimed, he was buried in a 'tumba de tercera' (grave of third category i.e. old and with and unidentifiable occupant) in the cementerio del Este. [see: May 26]

[B] 1951 - The surrealist manifesto 'Haute Fréquence', dated May 24th, appears in the anarchist periodical 'Le Libertaire' published today.

## 1958 - Normand Baillargeon, Québécois teacher and academic, writer, essayist, historian of anarchism, libertarian activist and anarcho-syndicalist, who is probably best know as the author of 'L'Ordre moins le pouvoir. Histoire et actualité de l’anarchisme' (Order Without Power. An Introduction to Anarchism: History and Current Challenges; 2001), born.

1962 - John Anderson (b. 1893), Scottish philosopher, founder of the empirical brand of philosophy known as Australian realism, communist, then anti-authoritarian libertarian and anarchist, who was an important influence on the Sydney Libertarians and the Sydney Push, dies of cerebro-vascular disease in Sydney. [see: Nov. 1]

1975 - Alexander Sapoundjiev (b. 1893), Bulgarian teacher, anarchist activist and propagandist, dies. In June 1919, he participated in the founding congress of the FACB (Bulgarian Communist Anarchist Federation). In 1921, after several arrests Sapoundjiev was banned from teaching and he dedicated himself to the publication of several clandestine newspapers, including 'анархист' (Anarchist), 'Robotnitcheska Missal' (Workers' Thought) and 'свободно общество' (Free Society). Following the 9 June 1923 coup d'état and ensuing September insurrection, he was arrested and imprisoned, eventually going into exile in France in 1928. Following a 1931 amnesty, he return to his activitieS in Bulgaria but pro-Fascist coup of May 19, 1934, saw him retire to the village of Biala to devote himself to viticulture and the cooperative movement. He was to suffer further periods of imprisonment, including under the Communists in 1948, but never gave up the struggle.

1986 - Ernesto Bonomini (b. 1903), Italian militant anarchist, anti-militarist and anti-fascist, dies. [see Mar. 18]

1989 - René Lochu (b. 1899), French journeyman tailor, anarchist, syndicalist union activist and pacifist, dies. His close friend Leo Ferre dedicated his song 'Les Etrangers' to him. [see: Aug. 26]

1994 - Nikolas Tchorbadieff (b. 1900), Bulgarian anarchist militant and propagandist, dies. [see: Mar. 1]

2002 - Pietro Valpreda (b. 1933), Italian dancer, writer and anarchist, who was one of those wrongly accused of the Piazza Fontana bombing, dies. [see: Aug: 29]

2010 - Fritz Teufel (b. 1943), West Berlin Communard, political activist, author and active participant in the West German anti-authoritarian student movement in the 1960s, dies. [see: Jun. 17]

2017 - Robert Grodt, aka Demhat Goldman (b. 1989), US anarchist and street medic, best known for his involvement with the Occupy Wall Street movement, dies during the Battle of Raqqa after having joined the YPG (People's Protection Units / یەکینەکانی پاراستنی گەل / Yekîneyên Parastina Gel) in Rovaja in the fight against Daesh / Islamic State. [see: Feb. 23]
1839 - Jules Thomas (d. 1892), French Icarien [follower of Étienne Cabet], Parisian communard, Blanquist, then a militant anarchist, born. Fled France following the fall of the Commune and took refuge in New York, founding the Société des Réfugiés de la Commune which, in addition to its solidarity actions, commemorated the anniversary of the March 18 Paris uprising.

####1839 - Monty Miller (Montague David Miller; d. 1920), Australian anarchist, secularist, militant labour organiser and industrial unionist in the IWW, who took part in the Eureka Rebellion at the age of fifteen and was a founding member of the Melbourne Anarchist Club in 1886, born

[E] 1852 - [O.S. Jun. 25] Vera Nikolayevna Figner (Ве́ра Никола́евна Фи́гнер; d. 1942), Russian revolutionary, Bakuninist socialist, poet and memoirist, who plotted to blow up the Tsar and later directed the Kropotkin Museum, born. One of six children, her three sisters – Lydia, Evgenia and Olga - all took part in the revolutionary movement along side her. Vera herself first became involved in revolutionary politics as a student in Zurich (1872-75), discovering the ideas of Bakunin and joining the anti-authoritarian AIT. Returning to Russia, she worked as a nurse/paramedic amongst the peasantry and became involved with firstly the Narodniks, then Zemlya i Volya (Land and Liberty) and, in 1879 following the split of Zemlya i Volya, she became a member of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya (The Will of the People), conducting propaganda activities among intelligentsia, students and military in St.Petersburg, Kronstadt and southern parts of Russia. He involvement in the paramilitary wing of Narodnaya Volya included the planning the failed Feb. 5, 1880, assassination attempt on Alexander II in Odessa and the successful assassination attempt on the tsar on March 13, 1881.
Figner was arrested in Kharkov on February 10, 1883, betrayed by Sergey Degayev, a police informer who had infiltrated her circle, and a was sentenced to death a year later during the Trial of the Fourteen. The sentence was commuted to perpetual penal servitude in Siberia. Having spent the 20 months before her trial in solitary confinement in the Peter and Paul Fortress, she was imprisoned for 20 years at Schlüsselburg and in 1904 exiled to various parts of Siberia. Allowed to emigrate in 1906, she campaign around Europe for political prisoners in Russia. In 1915 she returned to Russia but never accepted the legitimacy of the Bolshevik Government, and was constantly under Secret Police surveillance. After the 1917 Revolution she worked with the Society of the Former Political Prisoners and Exiles (Обществo бывших политкаторжан и ссыльнопоселенцев) and was Chair of the committee in 1921 to honour Kropotkin upon his death. The committee set up a museum in Kropotkin's birthplace (Kropotkingasse No. 26), of which Vera Figner was director until she was banished by the Communists on Feb. 3, 1930, aged 78, for protesting against the maltreatment of women' in communist prisons.
Her written works include a single book of poetry 'Stikhotvoreniia' (Poems; 1906) and her memoirs 'Nacht über Rußland' (Night over Russia; 1922) and 'Memoirs of a Revolutionist' (Book I: 'A Task Fulfilled' & Book II: 'How the Clock of Life Stopped'; 1927).

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: Antonio Cuevas Jurado acquired in Cadiz a thousand carbines, sabers and bayonets and 50,000 cartridges, in exchange for 50,000 pesetas. The revolution of the small town of Sanlúcar de Barrameda was now properly armed.

1873 - Revolució del Petroli / Revolución del Petróleo [Petroleum Revolution]: A revolutionary syndicalist uprising takes place in Alcoy , Valencia, an important textile centre that was known at the time as 'la petita Barcelona', both for the strength of its nascent labour movement and for the proliferation of its different industries. The name derives from the torches soaked in oil and other pertoleum products that the angry banner-carrying crowds brandished, which were used to set fire to buildings, and for a few days, according to sources, the whole city smelled of oil. A forerunner of the Revolución Cantonal that was to break out in Cartagena five days later and spread across many rgions of Spain, including, Valencia, Andalusia and Murcia, the Revolució del Petroli was formented by the Comissió Federal of the Spanish section of the IWA (FRE de la AIT), who had moved to Alcoy in January 1873 following the Congress of Cordoba.
On July 7, 1873 the workers of Alcoy gathered in the plaça de Toros bullring to deamnd a reduction in the working day to eight hours and a wage increase from four to six reales per day. Rejected by the employers, a general strike was called for the following day, initially counting on the neutrality of the federal republican mayor Agustí Albors Blanes (Pelletes). However, the employers bribed him with 60,000 pesetas and Albors telegraphed the Civil Government of Alicante and asked him to come to the city with military reinforcement, whilst issuing an anti-worker ban.
On July 9, a workers' committee made up of Vicente Fombuena, Tomàs Montava, Severiano Albarracín, Juan Chinchilla and Rafael Abad Seguí met with the mayor with the intention of demanding that the city council resign and that the workers take charge of the municipal government. Albors responded by ordering an attack against the more than two thousand workers who were gathered in the central square of the city, claiming the lives of two internationalists and leaving 20 workers wounded. During the following hours, four other workers were killed and 20 more wounded. Some houses neighbouring the town hall, where the authorities had taken refuge, and some factories are burned. Attempts at mediation proved fruitless and the security forces and employers began to run out of ammunition and finally, after 20 hours of fighting, the Guàrdia Civil surrendered to the crowd, who then occupied the city hall. Albors was shot dead and four guards and two of the employers were wounded. The people elected a Comitè de Salvació Pública, chaired by Severiano Albarracín, which governed Alcoy for the next three days, arresting 42 of the manufacturers who had fired on the crowd, releasing them three days later.
On July 12, the news that a military column led by General Velarde was coming in Alcoy began circulating; the same day Josep Maria Morlius, governor of Alicante, and a commission from Madrid chaired by Deputy Cervera arrived in the city. That same night, the leaders of the uprising fled the city. Everything seemed to have calmed down after a mixed commission of workers and employers had taken charge of the municipal government, and the armed workers had stood down without any resistance following the promise of an amnesty. But there followed a media campaign, triggered by the minister of state Eleuterio Maisonave, who spoke of "chaos", murder and rape.
Gradually normality returned with curfews between July 21-23 July put in place by the new Mayor Tomás Maestre. The employers, however, demanded venegence and on September 13, the Castelar government appointed a special judge and military commander. The city was occupied by the army two days later and 129 workers were arrested and taken to the castle of Alicante, where four years later they remained imprisoned without trial. Five years later, there were still 93 left, 80 prisoners finally having been released on bail; one of the detainees was only released 10 years after the events. A total of 700 workers stood trial, even minors aged between 12 and 17 years. The Revolució del Petroli marked a final break between the republicans and anarchists.

1886 - Manuel Buenacasa Tomeo (d. 1964), important Spanish anarchist, trade unionist and Confederación Nacional del Trabajo militant, born. [expand]

1890 - Marius Paul Metge (d. 1933), French individualist and illégaliste, a member of the Bonnot Gang, born.

1900 - Luigi Bertoni publishes the première issue of 'Il Risveglio Anarchico, Le Réveil Socialiste Anarchiste', in Geneva.

[F] 1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: Members of the Sindicato Nacional de Teléfonos strike committee are arrested and the CNT's public meetings are banned. The union fights back by beginning a widespread campaign of sabotage. [see: Aug. 6]

1937 - Marguerite Aspès (b. 1901), French anarchist militant and revolutionary syndicalist, commits suicide upon hearing of her lover Leopold's death. [see: Jan. 26]

1947 - Gérard Gelas, French libertarian playwright, who founded and is the director of Théâtre du Chêne Noir (Theatre of the Black Oak), born.

1957 - Hiski Salomaa (Hiskias Möttö; b. 1891), Finnish-American singer and songwriter, Wobbly, anarcho-syndicalist and conscientious objector during WWI, who was known as the 'Finnish Woody Guthrie', dies in New York. [see: May 17]

## 1959 - Zbigniew Libera, Polish artist, photographer, performer and anarchist, creator of multi-media installations and objects that challenge political and social issues, who is probably best known for his controversial LEGO Concentration Camp Set, born.

1973 - Bewegung 2. Juni (June 2 Movement) member Gabi Kröcher-Tiedemann is arrested after a shootout in a Buchen carpark after a policeman tries to arrest her for stealing number plates. She was sentenced on December 12, 1973 to 8 years imprisonment for the attempted murder.

1980 - Juan García Oliver (b. 1901), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and Minister of Justice in the Republican Government, dies. Consider by many Spanish anarchists to be a traitor for his willingness to compromise with government and for having encouraging workers to disarm during the Barcelona May Days (1937).

1992 - Mika Feldman de Etchebéhère (Micaela Feldman; b. 1902), Argentinian Marxist and anarchist activist, who fought with the P.O.U.M. in Spain, dies. [see: Mar. 14]

1994 - Third International Anarcho-Syndicalist East-West Conference held in Prague.
1855 - Primera Huelga General de España: Some normality returns to Barcelona as office worker go back and the courts resume sitting. The repression of strikers continues, with the frigate Julia leaving for La Habana in Cuba with seventy of the workers detained so far on board. [see: Jul. 2]

1876 - [O.S. Jun. 26] Nestor Kalandarishvili (ნესტორ კალანდარიშვილი [ka]), aka 'Grandfather' (Дед), 'Siberian Grandfather' (ციმბირელი პაპა), 'Grandfather Nestor' (პაპა ნესტორი)[Нестор Александрович Каландаришвили [ru] (Nestor Aleksandrovich Kalandarishvili)] (d. 1922), Georgian Socialist-Revolutionay who participated in the Gurian peasant uprising of 1905-06, then became an anarchist partisan, born.

1884 - Mauro Bajatierra Morán (d. 1939), Spanish journalist, prolific writer, novelist, playwright, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist propagandist, born.

## 1885 - Ernst Bloch (d. 1977), German Marxist philosopher, utopian, pacifist and one-time anarchist, born. An important influence on liberation theology, who has been called "one of the greatest of modern utopian thinkers." Having studies philosophy at Munich University, he begun to develop his utopian theories and, what he came to call later, a "Anarchotheokratie" (theocratic anarchism). A committed opponent of the war, he spent the period 1917-19 in Bern, Switzerland, believing that only in the cataclysm of war could his desired "an anarchist-expressionist determined world" come about. In Bern he came to know Hugo Ball, who introduced Bloch to his friend Walter Benjamin, and it was there that he also finished 'Geist der Utopie' (The Spirit of Utopia; 1918). He had also begun to self-identify as a socialist even though he still looked upon Lenin as a "Red Czar". Upon his return to the now Weimar republic, he gegan to embrace Marxist philosophy, writing 'Thomas Müntzer als Theologe der Revolution' (Thomas Müntzer as Theologian of the Revolution; 1921), effectively a Marxist revision of his 'Geist der Utopie'. He also wrote numerous essays, stories and reviews for the 'Frankfurter Zeitung', as well as befriending Bertolt Brecht , Kurt Weill and Theodor W. Adorno. Bloch also took part in the fight against the emergent Nazi party and was forced to flee to Switzerland following Hitler's seizure of power.

##1888 - Deolinda Lopes Vieira, aka Deolinda Quartim (d. 1993), Portuguese primary school teacher, militant anarcho-syndicalist, feminist and Freemason, who taught at the anarchist and libertarian-influenced Escola-Oficina N.º 1 in Lisbon, born.
repositorio.ispa.pt/bitstream/10400.12/1698/1/AP 11(4) 447-463.pdf

1890 - Walter Hasenclever (d. 1940), radical German Expressionist poet, playwright, anti-militarist and anarchist fellow traveller, born. His first book of poems, 'Städte, Nächte, Menschen' (Cities, Nights, People) was published in 1910. At the beginning of WWI he volunteered for the army but quickly lost his enthusiasm for war and, feigning mental illness, he earn his discharge. One of the German Expressionists, in fact he one of the first to use the term 'expressionist' in relationship to drama in his series of essays 'Das Theater von Morgen' (The Theatre of Tomorrow; 1916), who were influenced by the Austrian psychoanalyst and anarchist Otto Gross. Like many of his fellow Expressionists, his work is a protest against bourgeois materialism and the war-making state. His plays include: 'Der Sohn' (The Son; 1914), about a youth who becomes a political revolutionary and brings about his father’s death, became the manifesto for the German post-WWI generation; 'Der Retter' (The Saviour; 1915), about a poet who tries to stop the war and is executed by a firing squad; and 'Antigone' (1917), a pacifist reinterpretation of Sophocles’ play. 'Die Menschen' (Humanity; 1918) however is his Expressionist masterpiece and best known work. After that his plays became more populist and he even wrote scripts for Greta Garbo and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. However, when the Nazis came to power, his works were banned and he went into exile in France in 1934, only to be interned by the Vichy regime as a 'foreign enemy'. He died of a barbiturate overdose in internment at Camp des Milles in the south-east of France.

Zum Andenken an Karl Liebknecht
Der Zug entgleist. Zwanzig Kinder krepieren.
Die Fliegerbomben töten Mensch und Tier.
Darüber ist kein Wort zu verlieren.
Die Mörder sitzen im Rosenkavalier.

Soldaten verachtet durch die Straßen ziehen.
Generäle prangen im Ordensstern.
Deserteure, die vor dem Angriff fliehen,
Erschießt man im Namen des obersten Herrn.

Auf, Dirigent, von deinem Orchesterstuhle!
Du hast Menschen getötet. Wie war dir zu Mut?
Waren es viel? Die Mörder machen Schule.
Was dachtest du beim ersten spritzenden Blut?

Der Mensch ist billig, und das Brot wird teuer.
Die Offiziere schreiten auf und ab.
Zwei große Städte sind verkohlt im Feuer.
Ich werde langsam wach im Massengrab.

Ein gelber Leutnant brüllt an meiner Seite:
"Sei still, du Schwein!" Ich gehe stramm vorbei:
Im Schein der ungeheuren Todesweite
Vor Kälte grau in alter Leichen Brei.

Das Feld der Ehre hat mich ausgespieen;
Ich trete in die Königsloge ein.
Schreiende Schwärme schwarzer Vögel ziehen
Durch goldene Tore ins Foyer hinein.

Sie halten blutige Därme in den Krallen,
Entrissen einem armen Grenadier.
Zweitausend sind in dieser Nacht gefallen!
Die Mörder sitzen im Rosenkavalier.

Verlauste Krüppel sehen aus den Fenstern.
Der Mob schreit: "Sieg!" Die Betten sind verwaist.
Stabsärzte halten Musterung bei Gespenstern;
Der dicke König ist zur Front gereist.

"Hier, Majestät, fand statt das große Ringen!"
Es naht der Feldmarschall mit Eichenlaub.
Die Tafel klirrt. Champagnergläser klingen.
Ein silbernes Tablett ist Kirchenraub.

Noch strafen Kriegsgerichte das Verbrechen
Und hängen den Gerechten in der Welt.
Geh hin, mein Freund, du kannst dich an mir rächen!
Ich bin der Feind. Wer mich verrät, kriegt Geld.

Der Unteroffizier mir Herrscherfratze
Steigt aus geschundenem Fleisch ins Morgenrot.
Noch immer ruft Karl Liebknecht auf dem Platze:
"Nieder der Krieg!" Sie hungern ihn zu Tod.

Wir alle hungern hinter Zuchthaussteinen,
Indes die Opfer tönt im Kriegsgewinn.
Mißhandelte Gefangene stehn und weinen
Am Gittertor der ewigen Knechtschaft hin.

Die Länder sind verteilt. Die Knochen bleichen.
Der Geist spinnt Hanf und leistet Zwangsarbeit.
Ein Denkmal steht im Meilenfeld der Leichen
Und macht Reklame für die Ewigkeit.

Man rührt die Trommel. Sie zerspringt im Klange.
Brot wird Ersatz und Blut wird Bier.
MeinVaterland, mir ist nicht bange!
Die Mörder sitzen im Rosenkavalier.

- 'Die Mörder sitzen in der Oper' (The Murderer sitting in the Opera House; 1917)

1898 - May (Marie-Jeanne) Picqueray (d. 1983), French militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, feminist and anti-militarist, born. [expand]

1900 - Ettore Cropalti (d. 1955), Italian shoemaker, anarchist and anti-fascist militant, born.

1919 - The Federación Obrera Regional Peruana (Peruvian Regional Workers' Federation) is founded, based on the principles of the old Federación Obrera Regional del Perú.

[D] 1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: All Guardia Civil are ordered to lie in ambush and shoot on sight anyone interfering with telegraph poles. [see: Aug. 6]

[B] 1933 - Jeff Nuttall (d. 2004), the English poet, publisher, actor, painter, sculptor, jazz trumpeter, anarchist sympathiser and social commentator who was a key part of the British 1960s counter-culture, born.
"His books are full of anarchists -- some of them very bizarre like the anarchist aesthetes of 'The Centauri Device'." - Michael Moorcock

1940 - Yoshiyuki Eisuke (吉行 エイスケ; b. 1906), Japanese Dadaist poet, novelist and anarchist, dies. [see: May 10]

1943 - Esteban Pallarols Xirgu aka José Riera (b. ca. 1900), Catalan individualist anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, naturist and vegetarian, sentenced to death and executed at the Camp de la Bota, Barcelona.

1947 - Samuel Edward Konkin III, aka SEK3 (d. 2004), US libertarian philosopher and author of the 'New Libertarian Manifesto', in which he expounded his libertarian social philosophy of agorism, one of the many forms of non-state capitalism dreamed up in America, this one claiming to be a "left-wing market anarchism" [sic], born.

1963 - Tintino Persio Rasi (b. 1893), Italian individualist anarchist activist and propagandist, journalist, writer and Futurist poet, dies. [see: Sep. 15]

1966 - Antonio Casanova (b. 1898), Spanish-born Argentinian baker, editor, translator and anarchist combatant in the Spanish Civil War and French Résistance, dies. [see: Jun. 7]

1971 - Two Berlin radicals, Thomas Weissbecker (loosely connected to the RAF and future members of Movement 2 June) and Georg von Rauch (soon to help form Movement 2 June), are in a Berlin courtroom, charged with beating a journalist from the hated Springer Press. Von Rauch is convicted and Weissbecker is acquitted, but in the confusion after the sentences are announced, von Rauch and Weissbecker (who looked quite similar) switch places and von Rauch walks out of court a free man. As soon as von Rauch had had sufficient time to escape, Weissbecker announces that he is the one who should have been released. Confused and embarrassed court personnel are forced to release him.
##1844 - André Amédée Gustave Slomczynski, aka Slom (d. 1909), French painter and draftsman, Communard, collaborator of Elisée Reclus and anarchist, born.

1855 - Primera Huelga General de España: Demonstrations take place on Las Ramblas and Army units take positions in the working-class neighbourhoods. Factories also reopen, but hardly any workers return to work. The liberal and conservative press printed today attacks the strikers and only the Democrats' newspaper 'La Soberanía Nacional' (National Sovereignty) defending their claims, especially through a series of articles written by the utopian socialist journalist Sixto Cámara. [see: Jul. 2]

1872 - Jacques Mesnil (pseudonym of Jean-Jacques Dwelshauvers; d. 1940), Belgian anarchist, historian, journalist and scholar of Florentine Renaissance art, born.

[B] 1872 - Montéhus (Gaston Mardochée Brunswick; d. 1952), French singer-songwriter, anti-militarist and "revolutionary jingoist", born. He adopted his pseudonym to avoid the anti-Semitism then rampant in French society (his concerts were often interrupted by racist violence). Initially a moderate socialist, he became virulently anti-militarist and libertarian in outlook. A contemporary of Jean-Baptiste Clément, Eugène Pottier, Jules Jouy, Pierre Dupont and Gaston Couté, he like them used his songs as propaganda tool for socialist and anarchist dissent, opposing war [cf. 'Gloire au 17ème' (1907), capitalist exploitation, prostitution, poverty, religious hypocrisy, and even income tax in his lyrics. During Lenin's exile in France, Montéhus became friendly with him and sang at some of his gatherings. The jingoism he adopted during WWI (and a Croix de Guerre) led to his post-war disgrace, which he tried to redeem by composing 'La Butte Rouge' (1923). Later a member of the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and Popular Front supporter, he managed to avoid being sent to a concentration camp, but was forced to wear the yellow star until the Liberation of France.

1873 - Revolució del Petroli / Revolución del Petróleo [Petroleum Revolution]: Having had their demands rejected by the city's industrialists, the protesters create a workers' commission, made up of Vicente Fombuena, Tomás Montava, Severiano Albarracín, Juan Chinchilla and Rafael Abad Seguí, who now meet with the mayor with the intention that the City Council resign and that the workers take over the municipal government. Albores responded by ordering a discharge against the more than two thousand workers who were gathered in the central square of the city and claimed the lives of two internationalists, in addition to leaving 20 injured. During the following hours, there were four others dead and 20 wounded. During the following hours, four other workers were killed and 20 more wounded. Some houses neighbouring the town hall, where the authorities had taken refuge, and some factories are burned. Attempts at mediation proved fruitless and the security forces and employers began to run out of ammunition and finally, after 20 hours of fighting, the Guàrdia Civil surrendered to the crowd, who then occupied the city hall. Albors was shot dead and four guards and two of the employers were wounded. The people elected a Comitè de Salvació Pública, chaired by Severiano Albarracín, which governed Alcoy for the next three days, arresting 42 of the manufacturers who had fired on the crowd, releasing them three days later.

1892 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'L'Uguaglianza Sociale' (Social Equality) is published in Marsala, Sicily.

####1897 - Manuel Fernández Álvarez, aka 'Alvar', Manuel Alvar, Jack Wilkens, Ivan Vilkens, Jaime Salán, J. Galán, etc. (d. 1936), Spanish electrical engineer, pickpocket, teacher, journalist, scholar of cinematography, anarchist, miliciano, and man of many pseudonyms, born.

1900 - Louis Simon (d. 1980), French mathematician, individualist anarchist and militant pacifist, born.

1906 - Gabriel-Constant Martin (b. 1839), French member of the Commune (elected as the teachers' delegate), the International, Blanquist and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 5]

1916 - Félix Padín Gallo (d. 2014), Spanish construction worker, prominent anarcho-syndicalist, member of the Sindicato de la Construcción de Bilbao (Construction Union of Bilbao)and the JJ.LL., lieutenant of the Isaac Puente and Durruti battalions, born.
...until his capture in June 1937, after which he spent the following six years in a number of Franco's punishment and work battalions until his release in June 1943.

1917 - Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman are charged breaking conscription law, are sentenced today to serve two years in prison, to pay fines of $10,000 each, and quite likely deported to Russia at the expiration of their prison terms. US Marshal McCarthy states: "This marks the beginning of the end of Anarchism in New York."

1917 - Antonio Martínez, a young Spanish shoemaker and anarchist, is killed by the São Paulo cops at a demonstration during a textile strike. His killing precipitates a 3-day General Strike on the 13th.

1920 - André Devriendt, aka 'Flamand la Simplicité' (December 30, 2014), French sadler, proofreader, anarchist militant and libertarian syndicalist director of the publication 'Monde Libertaire' and officer in the Fédération des travailleurs des industries du livre, du papier et de la communication CGT (Union of Correctors of the Federation of Workers of the Book, Paper and Communication Industries), born.

[E] 1923 - Soviet GPU secret police raid Mollie Steimer and Senya Fleshin's apartment and they are again [see: Nov. 1] placed under arrest, charged with propagating anarchist ideas, in violation of Art. 60-63 of the Soviet Criminal Code. Sequestered from their fellow prisoners, Fleshin and Steimer again declared a hunger strike. Protests to Leon Trotsky by foreign anarcho-syndicalist delegates, including Emma Goldman, who wrote a personal letter of protest to a congress of the Red International of Trade Unions (Profintern) eventually brought about their release. This time, however, they were notified of their impending expulsion from the country, which was carried out on September 27, deported on board a ship bound for Germany.
In a 1923 letter to a friend, Steimer had declared: "No, I am NOT happy to be out of Russia. I would rather be there helping the workers combat the tyrannical deeds of the hypocritical Communists."

1929 - William Charles Owen (b. 1854), Anglo-American militant and anarchist individualist propagandist, dies. [see: Feb. 16]

1929 - Georges Blondeaux aka Gébé (d. 2004), French journalist and cartoonist in the satirical press, film director and anarchist, born. Began as an indusrial illustrator and published his first cartoon in 1955 in 'La Vie du Rail' under the pen name Gébé, in addition to 'Le Journal du Dimanche', 'Radar', 'Paris-Match' and 'Bizarre'. In 1969, he became editor of 'Hara-Kiri' and in 1970 of 'Charlie Hebdo' (until 1982). He then spent six months in 1986 as editor of the monthly periodical 'Zero', artistic director of 'L'Idiot Internationale' (1989-92) and rejoining the relaunched 'Charlie Hebdo' in 1992.
His works included the comic books 'Rue de la Magie' (Street Magic; 1960), 'L'an 01' (Year 01; 1972) made the following year into a film with sections directed by Gébé, Jacques Doillon, Alain Resnais and Jean Rouch), 'Anarchie Douce' (Sweet Anarchy; 1982); the photo novel '17 Romans Photos' (1974; with Chenz); novels such as 'Les Résistants du Square' (1991); contributed to the collective publication 'Mai 68' (2008); and has even written radio plays and song lyrics, the most famous of which is 'Casse-Têtes' (Puzzles) as performed by Yvs Montand.

"Ils m'ont tapé sur la tête
Je ne me rappelle plus pourquoi
Ni même si ça m'a fait mal
Parce que j'en suis mort

Qu'est-ce que j'étais déjà?
Travailleur immigré, philosophe?
Résistant caché, dissident notoire?
Ou bien animal à fourrure?

Je m'appelais comment, déjà?
José, Abdel, Argentino?
Arabica, Jan Patocka?
Ou bien alors bébé phoque?

Ils m'ont tapé sur la tête
Je ne me rappelle plus pourquoi
Ni même si ça m'a fait mal
Parce que j'en suis mort

M'a-t-on assommé pour mes idées?
Ou pour faire de moi un manteau?
Pour de l'argent ou la couleur de ma peau?
J'ai un bout d'os dans la mémoire

Quand leurs pieds chaussés m'ont cerné
Étais-je allongé dans des draps?
Ou bien couché sur la banquise?
Ou est-ce que je sortais d'un café?

Je suis mort dans la rue de l'ouest
Sur la glace du nord ou chez les flics de l'est
Ou dans la pampa des casquettes
À coups de triques noires

Est-ce que je rêve de vengeance?
De têtes policières éclatées?
De têtes de chasseurs sanglantes?
De têtes de racistes en purée?

Ou bien est-ce que je vois des têtes?
Émerveillées d'elles-mêmes
Émerveillées de leur dedans
Et se découvrant Nouveau Monde?

Je suis mort, répondez pour moi
Je m'appelais Jan Patocka
Argentin et bébé-phoque arabe
Maintenant, ça me revient!"

[They hit me on the head
I can not remember why
Or even if it hurt me
Because I'm dead

What am I?
Migrant worker, philosopher?
Hidden Resistance fighter, prominent dissident?
Or furry animal?

I'm called what, again?
José, Abdel, Argentino?
Arab, Jan Patocka?
Or else baby seal?

They hit me on the head
I can not remember why
Or even if it hurts me
Because I'm dead

Did you because of my ideas?
Or to make out of me a coat?
For some money or the colour of my skin?
I have a piece of bone in the memory

When their shod feet encircled me
Was I lying in bed sheets?
Maybe asleep on the ice floe?
Or was it that I went out to a cafe?

I died on western street
On the ice in the north or with the eastern cops
Or on the safari hats
By blows of black cudgels

Do I dream about vengeance?
Of fragmented police heads?
Of bloody heads of hunters?
Of racists' heads mashed?

Or is what I see heads?
Amazed by themselves
Marvelling at their insides
And discovering the New World?

I died, answer for me
I was called Jan Patocka
Argentinian and Arab baby-seal
Now, it comes back to me!]

'Casse-Têtes' (Brain Teasers; 1970)


## 1937 - David Hockney, English painter, draftsman, printmaker, stage designer and photographer, who has described himself as being an "anarchist-communist", born.

1974 - Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes (b. 1884), French writer (plays, poetry, manifestos and opera librettos), painter and libertarian associated with the Dada movement, dies. [see: Jun. 19]
[B] 1830 - Camille Pissarro (d. 1903), French Impressionist painter, anarchist, contributor to the magazine 'Temps Nouveaux', born.

1855 - Primera Huelga General de España: Following the arrival of Colonel Sarabia, the envoy of General Espartero, an agreement is reached between the emissary and the Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera, With the workers' side exhausted after more than a week out on strike and fearing that General Zapatero was preparing to unleash a bloodbath, an agreement is reached between Colonel Sarabia, the recently arrived envoy of General Espartero, and the Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera. The agreement includes the maintenance of wages and the creation of a consultative body representing both workers and employers. [see: Jul. 2]

## 1872 - Belén de Sárraga Hernández (d. 1950), Spanish teacher, doctor, journalist, Freemason [member of the Orden Masónica Mixta El Derecho Humano, the only Spanish lodge to admit women], freethinker, Spiritist, anti-clerical feminist and anarchist propagandist, who toured and agitated extensively across Latin America, was involved in the Mexican Revolution and the establsihment of the Second Republic in Spain before going into exile in Mexico following Franco's victory, born.

1881 - The fifty or so workers' societies in Catalonia, who had held a previous assembly in March, issue a manifesto, probably written by Farga Pellicer, in which they call for a labour congress of the Spanish Region in Barcelona by the end of September. Soon 'obreros colectivistas' from twenty-two localities across the rest of Spain had signed up to the proposal. [see: Feb. 6 & Sep. 4]

1889 - Lucien Laforge (d. 1952) French painter, cartoonist and pacifist close to the libertarian movement, who drew for 'Les Hommes du Jour', 'Le Journal du Peuple', 'L'Humanité', 'Clarté', 'Le Canard Enchaîné' and 'Le Libertaire', born.

1894 - A new repressive law is passed against anarchist attacks, the possession of substances or explosive devices. This law will be enacted on September 2, 1896, by a Royal Decree which create a special corps of police to prosecute and punish these attacks.

1919 - A meeting to protest the three year sentence imposed on the anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist Dr. Marie D. Equi for an anti-war speech at an IWW union Hall in Portland, Oregan on June 27, 1918, is held at the premises of the International Longshoremen's Association (ILA Hall) in Seattle, Washington. Marie Equi and the militant socialist Kate Sadler Greenhalgh are the speakers.

[C] 1934 - Erich Mühsam (b. 1878), German anarchist poet, murdered on the night of July 9/10, by the Nazis at the Orianenburg concentration camp following months of beatings and torture. His battered corpse is found hanging in the latrine on the morning of 10th. [see: Apr. 6]

1937 - The first issue of the weekly anarchist magazine 'Umbral' (Threshold) is published in Valencia.

1944 - Lucien Pissarro (b. 1863), French Impressionist and Néo-Impressionist landscape painter, printmaker, wood engraver and designer and printer of fine books, dies. [see: Feb. 20]

#### 1946 - Stuart Christie, Scottish anarchist militant, writer and publisher, born in Partick, Glasgow. Stuart first hit the headlines when he was arrested in 1964 in Madrid carrying plastic explosives meant for an assassination attempt on Franco. He spent three-and-a-half years in the notorious Carabanchel prison before being released, apparently following a letter written by his mother to Franco asking for clemency. Back in Britain, he and Albert Meltzer reestablished the Anarchist Black Cross network in order to directly support anarchist prisoners in Franco's hellholes, as well as publishing 'Black Flag' as a class struggle alternative to 'Freedom'. Targeted by the British State, he was dragged into the so-called Angry Brigade 'conspiracy' after police planted two detonators on him. During the Stoke Newington Eight trial at the Old Bailey he was facing twenty years in prison, but was amongst those acquitted. Another arrest followed shortly after and, believing that just like the Mounties, Special Branch would eventually get their man, he moved out of London, first to Yorkshire and then to Sanday on Orkney. There he set up Cienfuegos Press in 1972, the beginning of his publishing 'career', which later included Refract Publications (1982), Meltzer Press (1996) and Christie Books (2002) after he had moved to Hastings, followed by the online Anarchist Film Channel.
Amongst Christie's own works are 'The Floodgates of Anarchy' (1970), co-written with Albert Melterz; 'The Investigative Researcher's Handbook' (1983); 'Stefano delle Chiaie. Portrait of Black Terrorist' (1984); 'A Study of the Revolution in Spain 1936-1937' (1998); 'We, the Anarchists! A study of the Iberian Anarchist Federation, 1927-1937' (2000); plus the three volumes of the autobiographical 'The Christie File': 'My Granny made me an Anarchist' (2002), 'General Franco made me a Terrorist' (2003) and 'Edward Heath made me Angry' (2004).

1962 - Alice Nutter, British musician (vocalist and percussionist) and scriptwriter for theatre, radio and TV, who was a core member of the anarchist band Chumbawamba (1982-2006), bprn.
"We were a group of anarchists with radical politics, not a bunch of tossers grasping at power by being Tory lackeys..."

2014 - Paul Denais (b. 1922), French doctor, libertarian communist militant and Résistance member in Défense de la France, dies at the age of ninety two. [see: May 12]
1854 - Toussaint Bordat (d. unknown), Lyons anarchist, militant trades unionist and direct action advocate, born. Silk weaver and member of the Parti Ouvrier Socialiste, which he left in 1881 to start his own anarchist Parti d'Action Révolutionnaire. He was sentenced to a month's imprisonment following the violence that took place during a demonstration in memory of the bloody suppression of the miners at Ricamarie on June 18, 1882. He also worked on the Lyon anarchist newspapers 'Le Droit Social' and 'L'Etendard Révolutionnaire'. On October 14, 1882, he was arrested and charged with other activists "reconstruction of a revolutionary International" and tried during le Procès des 66.

1855 - Primera Huelga General de España: Following the drawing-up of an agreement between the government's representative, Colonel Sarabia, and the Junta de la Classe Obrera, workers begin to return to work following inclusion of a commitment to make a law authorising and regulating the companies working relations between employers and workers. [see: Jul. 2]

1891 - The first issue of the newspaper 'L'Indépendant', "Organe des Travailleurs", created by Eugene Humbert and Eugene Mariatte, and supported by the Nancy anarchist group Liberté, is publsihed in Commercy.

[D] 1892 - Ravachol (François Claudius Koenigstein) (b. 1859), French accordionist and anarchist bomber, is publicly guillotined in Montbrison, France. [see: Oct. 14]

1893 - Lucien Eugène Haussard aka 'Houssard' (d. 1969), French anarchist militant, propagandist, freethinker and anti-Franco activist, born. [expand]

1894 - The Italian parliament approved three 'anti-anarchiche' laws [ERROR]

1903 - [O.S. Jun. 28] Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprisings [Илинденско-Преображенско въстания]: An Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) congress at Petrova Niva (Петрова нива) near Malko Tarnovo (Малко Търново) in the Strandzha (Странджа) 'Republic' sets the date of July 23 for an uprising, then deferred it a bit more to August 2 when those in the Thrace region, around the Adrianople Vilayet, said they were not ready and needed a later date for the uprising in that region. The uprising is based on the General Plan for the Uprising (Общ план на въстаниет), conceived in May 1903 by leading IMRO member Hristo Matov (Христо Матов).
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

##1906 - Herbert Richard Wehner (d. 1990), German politician, one-time anarchist activist, then a communist and latterly a SPD MP and government minister, born. Joined the Sozialistische Arbeiterjugend (SAJ), the youth wing of Freien Arbeiterunion Deutschlands (FAUD) in 1922, working on its newspaper 'Jungen Anarchisten' but left in 1923 to help found the Anarchistische Tatgemeinschaft (Anarchist Action Group), assuming the editorship of its newspaper 'Revolutionäre Tat' in 1926. In 1925 he had also began working with the prisoners support group Rote Hilfe and began co-operating closely with Erich Mühsam, moving to (autumn 1926 to spring 1927) and staying in his house and working on the newly founded periodical 'Fanal' (Beacon). June 27 joined the KPD, as well as the Roten Frontkämpferbund (Red Front Fighters' Federation) and full-time secretary of the Dresden Rote Hilfe group.
By 1930 he was a full-time party beuraucrat, member of the Saxony parliament, a vice president and deputy secretary of the Communist Party in Saxony.

1914 - Plans to hold a funeral demonstration in Union Square for the three anarchists – Lettish (Latvian) Anarchist Red Cross members Carl Hanson and Charles Berg and IWW member Arthur Caron – killed in the Lexington Avenue bomb explosion of July 4, 1914 had been drawn up but the New York City authorities refused the organisers permission to go ahead. Regardless, Berg, Caron and Hanson's comrades were insistent that a funeral of the three would take place. And on that day over twenty thousand supporters gathered in Union Square to mourn them.
The police refused to allow the funeral to continue, but instead of attempting to remove the crowd from Union Square, detectives arrived at Berkman's house in an attempt to seize the urn that contained the remains of Caron, Berg, and Hanson. One step ahead of the police, Berkman was able to slip out the back door where he had a red car waiting for him, just in case. He sped towards the demonstration in hopes of being able to make it to the speaking podium before being caught. As he approached the crowd, the police mistook Berkman's car to be that of the Fire Chief and eagerly cleared a lane for the car all the way up to the platform. By the time the police realized what had transpired, Berkman was already up on the platform. Any attempt to seize the urn at this point would have caused a riot.
After the demonstration, the urn was placed in the offices of Mother Earth, which had been decorated with wreaths and red and black banners. The urn, itself, took the shape of a pyramid with a clenched fist reaching out of its apex. The creator of the urn, Adolf Wolff, explained the meaning of the design, "It conveys three meanings. By the pyramid is indicated [sic] the present unjust gradation of society into classes, with the masses on the bottom and the privileged classes towering above them to the apex, where the clenched fist, symbolical [sic] of the social revolution, indicates the impending vengeance of those free spirits who refuse to be bound by the present social system and rise above it, threatening its destruction. The urn further symbolizes the strength and endurance of the revolution in so solid a base. A third suggestion is that of a mountain in course of eruption, the crude, misshapen stern fist indicating the lava of human indignation which is about to belch forth and carry destruction to the volcano which has given it birth."
Thousands of mourners passed through the office to pay their last respects. After the funeral, the urn of the fallen comrades was taken from the 'Mother Earth' offices to the Ferrer Center where it remained until the school closed several years later. From there it was taken to the Stelton Colony where the ashes were released in the wind. Afterwards, the bronze fist and hollow pyramid of the urn was used by the Stelton Colony as a bell to call children and adults to meetings.
Berkmann later used the July issue of 'Mother Earth', which he was editing, into a memorial to the 'martyrs' and, unbeknownst to Emma Goldman and much to her chagrin, had filled it with "harangues...of a most violent character.... [including] prattle about force and dynamite" as she later put it. [Emma Goldman - 'Living My Life', Volume 2 (1934)]

1918 - Polish anarchist freedom fighter Simón Radowitzky (1891-1956), aka 'The Martyr of Ushuaia', escapes from the Ushuaia concentration camp on the island of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Radowitzky is serving a life sentence for assassinating the chief of Buenos Aires police, who had ordered the Red Week massacre of workers during a May Day demonstration in 1909. Captured after just 23 days freedom, he spent 21 years in prison until his pardon, fighting in the Spanish Revolution and, from 1940 until his death, lived in Mexico.

## 1951 - Yvonne Estassy, aka 'La mère serbe' of Nîmes (Yvonne Rhimboult; b. 1869), French teacher, journalist, poet and anarchist-individualist propagandist, dies. [see: Jul. 24]

[E] 1998 - Maria Soledad Rosas aka 'Sole' (b. 1974), 22-years-old Argentinian anarchist militant and member of the Italian squatter movement, hangs herself this evening in Benevagienna, Italy, where she is living under house arrest in the Sotto i Ponti community. Her body is taken to the hospital of Mondovì, as required by a magistrate, very upset because of this unexpected interruption of his fishing day.
Arrested, along with Silvano Pelissero and Edoardo Massari, on March 5th by Italian police on serious charges of subversive association for the purpose of constituting an armed gang, they are accused of various cases of direct action linked to the popular struggle against the construction of the High Speed Train Project (TAV) through the Val Di Susa in Piemonte. Edoardo Massari, a 38-year-old anarchist from Ivrea, died in the Vallette prison in Turin on March 28, 1998. The authorities claim that he had hanged himself with a bed sheet. Maria Soledad Rosas, would go on to hang herslef, choosing the same weekday and time to die as her companion Eduardo. The surviving prisoner, Silvano Pelissero, undertook a month long hungerstrike until on July 22nd he was finally transferred from the maximum security prison of Novara to house arrest. On January 31, 2000, he was sentenced to six years and 10 months. On appeal in Jan. 2001 the sentence is reduced by 9 months but on in Nov. 2001 the Court of Cassation in Rome invalidate the main charge (of terrorist activity with subversive purposes). Released in Mar. 2002, the Court of Cassation in Rome in the end reduces Silvano's penalty to 3 years and 10 months. [see: May 23]
1817 - Henry David Thoreau (d. 1862), American essayist, poet, practical philosopher and author of 'Walden', born.

1828 - Nikolay Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky (d. 1889), Russian radical critic, materialist philosopher and utopian socialist, born. He helped lay the basis for revolutionary populism and helped found the narodniki. Wrote 'What is to be Done?', a political novel that influenced two generations of Russian intelligentsia, including many anarchists such as Emma Goldman. [NB: Alexander Berkman used Rakhmetov as a pseudonym when he prepared to assassinate Henry Clay Frick in 1892.] It served as the manifesto of the 19th Century Russian Nihilists and prompted a number of responses, including Tolstoy and Lenin's sperarate appropriations of the title and Dostoyevsky roundly mocked the novel's utilitarianism and utopianism in his novella 'Notes from Underground' (1864) and the novel 'The Devils' (1872) aka 'The Possessed'.

1834 - Aristide Rey (d. 1901), militant French Blanquist, internationalist and Bakuninist Communard, born.

## 1841 - César De Paepe (d. 1890), Belgian medical doctor, member of the First International and a prominent syndicalist, whose work strongly influenced the Industrial Workers of the World and the syndicalist movement in general, born.

1850 - Oscar William Neebe I (d. 1916), US anarchist, labour activist and one of the defendants in the Haymarket bombing trial, born.

[DD] 1873 - Revolució del Petroli / Revolución del Petróleo [Petroleum Revolution]: News that a military column led by General Velarde was coming in Alcoy began circulating; the same day Josep Maria Morlius, governor of Alicante, and a commission from Madrid chaired by Deputy Cervera arrived in the city. That same night, the leaders of the uprising fled the city. Everything seemed to have calmed down after a mixed commission of workers and employers had taken charge of the municipal government, and the armed workers had stood down without any resistance following the promise of an amnesty. But there followed a media campaign, triggered by the minister of state Eleuterio Maisonave, who spoke of "chaos", murder and rape.
Gradually normality returned with curfews between July 21-23 July put in place by the new Mayor Tomás Maestre. The employers, however, demanded venegence and on September 13, the Castelar government appointed a special judge and military commander. The city was occupied by the army two days later and 129 workers were arrested and taken to the castle of Alicante, where four years later they remained imprisoned without trial. Five years later, there were still 93 left, 80 prisoners finally having been released on bail; one of the detainees was only released 10 years after the events. A total of 700 workers stood trial, even minors aged between 12 and 17 years. The Revolució del Petroli marked a final break between the republicans and anarchists.

1876 - Max Jacob (d. 1944), French poet, painter, writer, critic, queer and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. Jacob is regarded as an important link between the Symbolists and the Surrealists. He was one of the first friends Pablo Picasso made in Paris and both frequented anarchist circles in the city and Jacob contributed poems to Florent Fels's anarchist journal 'Action' after the war. Jacob’s brother, sister and brother-in-law died in Auschwitz and, on February 24, 1944, Jacob was arrested by the Gestapo and put into Orléans prison. He died in Drancy deportation camp on March 5, 1944, suffering from bronchial pneumonia.

1881 - Ludwig Rubiner (d. 1920), German Expressionist poet, literary critic, essayist, translator, painter and anarchist sympathiser, born. At college he was a member of the Stirner-influenced Neuen Gemeinschaft and hailed 'The Ego and Its Own' (1845) as being the "most important manifesto of the Century". He also met many writers including Erich Mühsam, Paul Scheerbart, René Schickele, Ferdinand Hardekopf, Wilhelm Herzog and Herwarth Walden, all important representatives of Expressionism. His first poem, 'Zu den Höhen' (To the Heights) was published in the anarchist journal 'Der Kampf' in 1904. Between 1911 and 1918, he worked with Franz Pfemfert on his magazine 'Die Aktion' and in 1914 began writing for the Expressionist literary magazine 'Die Weißen Blätter' (The White Sheets). When war broke Rubiner and his wife went into voluntary exile in Zurich, where he continued to work for 'Die Weißen Blätter' as well as starting the anarchist-influenced anti-war magazine 'Zeit-Echo' (Echo-Time) and beginning a correspondence with Leo Tolstoy. In December 1918 he was given an Austrian passport in Zurich which coincided with his expulsion from Switzeralnd because of his support for the Russian Revolution. Back in Berlin he founded the Bund für Proletarische Kultur (Covenant for Proletarian Culture), alongside Arthur Holitscher, Rudolf Leonhard, Franz Jung and Alfons Goldschmidt, and the Proletarischen Theaters. His books would be burned by the Nazis decades after his death.
His major works include the manifesto 'Der Dichter Greift in die Politik' (The Poet Engages in Politics; 1912), the play 'Die Gewaltlosen' (Men of Nonviolence;1919) and 'Kriminalsonetten' (1913), a book of poems hailed as a forerunner of Dadaism. He also published a detective novel, 'Die Indischen Opale' (The Indian Opal; 1910) under the pseudonym Ernst Ludwig Grombeck.

1886 - Raoul Hausmann (d. 1971), Austrian anarcho-individualist influenced artist, collagist, photographer, sculptor, writer, poet, theorist and anti-fascist, who was one of the key figures in Berlin Dada, born. Helped established 'Die Freie Strasse' (1915-18), the anarchist and Dadaist magazine, with Franz Jung, and support from Oskar Maria Graf, Max Herrmann-Neisse, Richard Oehring, Otto Gross, Clare Oehring and Georg Schrimpf. Amongst his expressly anarchist writing were those in the German individualist anarchist magazine, 'Der Einzige', where Hausmann wrote (under the pseudonym Panarchos) 'Zu Kommunismus und Anarchie', an article heavily critical of Marxist communism [issue no. 2, 'Der Einzige', Jan 26 1919].
After his engagement with Dada, Hausmann focused primarily on photography, producing portraits, nudes, and landscapes. After the Nazi seizure of power in January of 1933, Hausmann, his wife Hedwig and Vera Broido emigrated to Ibiza. The photographs he produced focused on ethnographic and architectural motifs of premodern life in Ibiza. After the outbreak of the the Spanish Civil War in 1936, and the bombardment and subsequent occupation of Ibiza by Franco's troops, Hausmann (who had been active in Spanish anti-fascist groups) had to leave Ibiza. After an adventurous voyage he shortly settled in Prague, but was forced to flee again in 1938 after the German invasion of Czechoslovakia. He then moved to Peyrat-le-Château, near Limoges where he lived illegally with his Jewish wife Hedwig, hiding for years in a small and humid rooftop chamber. After the Normandy landings in 1944, the pair finally moved to Limoges, where Hausmann lived in a secluded manner for the rest of his life. [expand]

1894 - José Villaverde Velo (d. 1936) Galician carver of religious images, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was secretary general of the Confederación Regional Galaica of the CNT, born in Santiago de Compostela.

##1900 - John H. Edelmann (b. 1852), successful US commercial architect and anarchist so radical that he was expelled from the Socialist Labor Party, who was a frequent contributor to anarchist journals and put up Kropotkin when he visited New York, dies in during the deadly heat wave of July 1900.
libcom.org/files/KROPOTKIN IN AMERICA.pdf

[BB] 1904 - Pablo Neruda (Neftali Ricardo Reyes Basoalto; d. 1973), Chilean poet, youthful anarchist, then a communist and subsequently socialist diplomat and politician, born. At the age of 13, Ricardo published his first poems, 'Entusiasmo y Perseverancia' (Enthusiasm and Perseverance; 1917). In a rage, his father burned the adolescent’s writings. After that, he would publish under the pen name of Pablo Neruda: Pablo for Paul Verlaine, his favorite French poet, and Neruda for Jan Neruda, Czech writer. It also became his legally adopted name later in life. As a university student in Chile’s capital Santiago, he participated in the anarchist student movement, and published his first volume of verse, 'Crepusculario' (Book of Twilights; 1923), followed by the collection 'Veinte Poemas de Amor y una Cancion Desesperada' (Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Desperation; 1924). The latter's erotic love poems gained him a degree of local notoriety as well as an international reputation as a poet. However, poverty forced him to take an honorary consulship in Rangoon, later working in Colombo (Ceylon), Batavia (Java, where he marries a Dutch bank employee who he quickly abandoned), and Singapore and beginning to write a number of surrealist poems.
The Chilean diplomatic service then sent him, via a post in Buenos Aires, to Republican Spain as the cultural attaché in Madrid. There he joined a group of intellectuals and artists that included Federico García Lorca, as well as his future wife, Delia del Carril. In Spain he became a staunch anti-fascist but also adopted a hardline Stalinism (despite the later Hitler-Stalin pact), that also saw him rail against the Spanish anarchist movement as he swallowed the Communist propaganda about anarchist inefficiencies and 'crimes'. His politics lost him the consulship but in 1938 the newly elected Chilean Popular Front President Pedro Aguirre Cerda appointed special consul for Spanish emigration in Paris. Responsible for shipping Spanish refugees then housed by the French in squalid internment camps to Chile, it is alleged that Neruda was involved in the excluding of anarchists and anti-Communists from the available places. Certainly only a handful of non-communist ever made it onto the 4 ships used to transport the refugees. It is also said that this discrimination is tied into his alleged links to the NKVD, which in turn is tied in with his arranging of a visa (as the then Consul General in Mexico City) for the Mexican painter David Alfaro Siqueiros following his part in a failed assassination attempt against Leon Trotsky. He would also go on to write a truly dreadful ode to Stalin upon his death and be awarded the Stalin Peace Prize that same year (1953), something that he took more pride in than his 1971 Nobel Prize for Literature
"A few years ago, I was an anarchist, editor of the anarchist trade union journal, 'Claridad', where I published my ideas and things for the first time. And I still retain the anarchist's distrust of all forms of the state, of impure politics. But I believe that my romantic intellectual's point of view is not important. What is true is that I hate proletarian, proletarianising art. In any period, systematic art can tempt only the lesser artist. There has been an invasion here of odes to Moscow, tanks [or bullet-proof agitprop trains], etc. I continue to write about dreams." [1933 letter]

1918 - Luigi Molinari (b. 1866), Italian lawyer, educator and anarchist militant, active with Errico Malatesta and Camillo Berneri, dies. [see: Dec. 15]

1919 - Poet and expressionist Erich Mühsam, on trial in Munich since July 7 for High Treason, is sentenced to 15 years in prison for his involvement in Bavarian Workers' Councils uprising.

1919 - Peru General Strike for the 8-hour Work Day: Detainees arrested during the past two months of general strike are released and popular demonstrations in celebration of the workers' victory take plave.[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federación_Obrera_Regional_Peruana

1920 - Shortly after the second congress of the Unione Anarchica Italiana in Bologna (July 1-4, 1920) the offices of the newspaper, Errico Malatesta's rooms and the premises of the Unione Anarchica Milanese, of which he is a member, are raided, under false pretext.

1926 - At the Union Anarchiste Congress in Orléans (12-14th) the U.A. changes its name to Union Anarchiste Communiste (UAC). This reflects the major shift in the French movement away from the individualist anarchism of the pre-WWI years.

1929 - Robert Henri (b. 1865), American painter, teacher and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Jun. 25]

1936 - Lt. José Castillo is assassinated by Falangists. Tomorrow the Monarchist leader Calvo Sotelo is assassinated in reprisal while in the custody of State security forces. The Falangists attempt their fascist coup on the 17th, but the anarchists immediately battle back and prevent the takeover, ultimately sparking the Spanish Revolution.

1965 - The first issue of 'Provo' is published in Amsterdam, marking the appearence of the protest group of the same name. Fifteen issues will appear up til March 17, 1966.

1973 - Fernando Santiván (Fernando Antonio Santibáñez Puga; b. 1886), Chilean writer, shoemaker, tailor, sold coal, boxing, proofreading, propagandist, salesman and Tolstoyan anarchist, dies a heart attack at the John Kennedy Hospital in Valdivia. [see: Jul. 1]

##1976 - Michael Malice (born Michael Krechmer), New York City-based ghostwriter, author, columnist, anarchist and media personality, born.

2009 - Simon Vinkenoog (b. 1928), Dutch writer, poet, Provo and anti-Drugs war activist, dies. [see: Jul. 18]

2010 - Naphtali 'Tuli' Kupferberg (b. 1923), American counter-culture poet, author, cartoonist, pacifist anarchist, publisher and co-founder of the band The Fugs, dies. [see: Sep. 28]
1851* - Marie de Saint Rémy aka Marie Romanoff or 'La Voyante' (The Seerer) (Marie Andrieu; d. unknown), French anarchist propagandist, spiritualist, occultist, psychic and alternative therapist, born.
[*Some sources give her d.o.b. as July 14, 1852]

1876 - Auguste Gabriel Durand (d. unknown), French anti-militarist, militant anarchist and Marseilles revolutionary syndicalist, born.

1913 - Maurice Pernette (d. 1986), French anarchist, small press publisher, poet and author, born.

[C] 1915 - José López Penedo aka 'Liberto López' (d. 1950), Galician bricklayer, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who fought in the Durruti Column and later as a member of Francisco Sabate Llopart 'El Quico' guerrilla group, born. [expand]

1917 - Greve Geral no Brasil: A 3-day general strike erupts in São Paulo following the killing of the young Spanish anarchist shoemaker, Antonio Martínez, three days previously. [expand]

1920 - Today and tomorrow, the trial in Milan of the anarchists Guido Villa, Aldo Perego, Elena Melli and Maria Zibardi, accused of complicity in the September 7, 1919, attempted bombing of the Café Biffi in the gallery Vittorio Emanuele where the city's wealthiest were holding one of their regualr get-togethers. Bruno Filippi dies during the attack when his bomb exploded prematurely. Aldo Perego gets 12 years and Guido Villa 10 years in prison.

1921 - The Taganka hunger strikers [see: Jul. 2] end their hunger strike after 11 days following the Central Committee of the Communist Party agree to allow them to leave Russia on pain of being shot if they try to return.

[B] 1923 - Carlos Cortez (d. 2005), US anarcho-syndicalist, poet, graphic artist, photographer, muralist and political activist, born. The son of a Mexican-Indian Wobbly union organiser father and a German socialist pacifist mother, he was active for six decades in the Industrial Workers of the World. As an accomplished artist and a highly influential political artist, Cortez is perhaps best known for his wood and linoleum-cut graphics, and his cartoons for the union newspaper the 'Industrial Worker'.
www.politicalgraphics.org/exhibitions/Carlos Cortez/CarlosCortez.htm

## 1934 - Walter De Buck (d. 2014), Flemish artist, painter, sculptor, folk musician, libertarian, socialist and the founder of the modern Gentse Feesten, the Ghent music and theatre festival, born.

1937 - Faina 'Fanny' Efremovna Stavskaya (Фаина 'Фанни' Ефремовна Ставская; b. 1908), Russian revolutionary, anarchist, then Socialist-Revolutionary, trade union worker, communist director of the State Historical Library, is sentenced to be shot and executed the same day after being listed on Stalin's personal executions list (сталинских расстрельных списках). [see: Dec. 1]

1942 - Juana Belén Gutiérrez de Mendoza (b. 1875), Mexican anarcho-feminist activist, typographer, journalist and poet, dies. [see: Jan. 27]

[B] 1949 - Clifford Harper, anarchist graphic artist, born in Chiswick, London.

1952 - Dr. Marie Diana Equi (b. 1872), American medical doctor, lesbian anarchist, labour organiser and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Apr. 7]

2004 - Yeshaayahu Toma Ŝik (b. 1939), Hungarian-Israeli anti-militarist, pacifist, anti-Zionist and anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 17]

2006 - Marie Laffranque (b. 1921), French linguist, philological scholar, anti-militarist and libertarian, who was an expert on the life and works of Federico García Lorca, dies. [see: Nov. 29]
1764 - Jean-François Varlet (d. 1837), French revolutionary considered by many an anarchist precursor, involved with Les Enragés faction in the French Revolution, born.

[FF] 1854 - Conflicte de les Selfactines: Amid the euphoria of the victory of the Vicalvarada, the popular uprising against the Partido Moderado government of Luis José Sartorius y Tapia, Conde de San Luis, crowds of spinners directly effected by the new technology and other cotton workers in Barcelona set fire to several factories where they worked on the 'selfactines' cotton spinning machines. In one such fire a factory owner, his son and the factory's foreman were killed. Three worker arrested and accused of having participated in the fires, were shot.

1864 - Pierre Quillard (February 4, 1912), French Symbolist poet, playwright, Hellenist translator, journalist, anarchist, Dreyfusard and Armenophile, born.

## 1867 - Ettore Molinari, aka Epifane (d. 1926), Italian chemist and anarchist, born. [expand]

1876 - Henri 'Dayen' Fabre (d. 1969), French anarchist (then socialist) and pacifist journalist, born. Sacked at the age of 15 for sending articles to the newspaper of L'Union des Employés. In 1896 he founded the newspaper 'La Jeunesse Nouvelle' in Lyon and wrote for Sébastien Faure's 'Le Libertaire'. In 1902, whilst a member of the anarchist group Germinal, he founded 'Action Révolutionnaire', whilst also working on 'Le Flambeau' (Organe des Ennemis de l'Autorité) and the libertarian communist 'L'Aube Nouvelle'. In 1906, he helped launch 'La Guerre Sociale' with Gustave Hervé and two years later in Paris he started another newspaper, 'Les Hommes du Jour', each issue of which featured a character biography of noted anarchists illustrated by Aristide Delannoy. During WWI, in which he refused military service, he founded the socialist newspaper 'Le Journal du Peuple', and went on to join and later be expelled from the French Communist Party.

1881 - An international anarchist congress is held in London (Jul. 14-20), the so-called 'London Congress', aimed at re-establishing the Anarchist International. Attended by about 30 delegates representing a dozen country, on the 16th the Congress founds the anti-authoritarian International Working Peoples' Association, aka the 'Black International'. 'Propaganda of the deed' is also formally adopted as a strategy by the congress, signalling the beginning of the era of attentats (acts of political violence/property damage).
archive.org/search.php?query=subject%3A"International Working People's Association"]

1883 - La Bande Noire: 45kg of dynamite, 1.2kg of compressed powder and 210m of fuse are stolen from Perrecy.

1889 - The founding congress of the Second Socialist International and the congress of the Possibilistes, supporters of Paul Brousse, are held in Paris, with anarchists attending both conferences.

###### 1896 - José Buenaventura Durruti Domínguez* (or Dumange) (d. 193), legendary Spanish sindicalista y revolucionario anarquista, born. [expand]
*[NB: Domínguez is the Castillian version of the Catalan Dumange, his nother's surname]
libcom.org/files/Paz - Durruti in the Spanish Revolution.pdf

1897 - Paul Czakon, aka Max, Maximo Mas (d. 1952), German miner and fitter, and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Czakon was chairman of the FAUD in Beuthen (now Bytom) in Upper Silesia from 1921 and in 1930 he was one of the founders of the the Schwarzen Scharen (Black Crowds) in the region. In a house search in May 1932 the police discovered the weapons and explosives cache of the group. Czakon fled to Spain with two other comrades, Alfons Molina and Bernhard Pacha. In his absence in March 1933 he was sentenced to 15 years imprisonment for high treason and explosives charges. In Spain, Czakon – using the nom de guerre of Maximo Mas – was commander of the Batallón Sacco y Vanzetti artillery unit in the anarchist Columna Tierra y Libertad militia. In September 1936 he fought with the column in Madrid and in the spring of 1937 at Cuenca on the Teruel front.
Fleeing to France with the collapse of the Republic, he was imprisoned at the Gurs internment camp where he was one of the spokesmen of the 9th Company, a grouping of several hundred former militiamen of all nationalities who refused the internal leadership of the camp by the Communist Party. After the German occupation of France, Czakon joined a Forces Françaises de l'Intérieur military unit in the Résistance. Returning to Germany in 1945, he was re-united with his wife who had been interned by the Nazis in a concentration camp. In order to escape an arrest, he fled from the Soviet occupied zone to Salzgitter, where he died in 1952 in extreme poverty.

1905 - Kurt Helmut Zube (d. 1991), German author, publisher, mail-order bookseller and idividualist anarchist, who wrote under the pseudonym KHZ Solneman (his intials and an anagram of 'namenlos' i.e. nameless), born. Father of John Zube, the German-Australian libertarian activist and founder of the Libertarian Microfiche Publishing project.

1905 - Maxime Ranko, aka Jerzy Borejsza (Beniamin Goldberg; d. 1952), Polish columnist, publisher, anarcho-syndicalist and ardent Platformist, then a communist political and cultural activist, and propagandist, born.

##1911 - John Taylor Caldwell (d. 2007), Scottish seaman, anarchist communist member of the United Socialist Movement and close associate and biographer of Guy Aldred, born.

1915 - [O.S. Jul. 1] Vikentiy Popanastasov, aka Vlado [Владо](Викентий Попанастасов; b. 1888), Bulgarian teacher, anarchist and revolutionary in the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна македоно-одринска революционна организация [bg] / Внатрешна македонско-одринска револуционерна организација [mk]) and the Red Brothers (Червени братя), born
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1921 - The jury in the Sacco and Vanzetti trial return a verdict of guilty of murder in the first degree.

1921 - Man Ray arrives in Paris. Marcel Duchamp introduces him to Dadaists.

[B] 1939 - Dieter Kunzelmann, German left-wing radical and political activist and theoretician, Happenings artist and writer of art and social manifestos, born. Member of the Munich artist group SPUR and the Situationist International, and active in the 68er-Bewegung ('68 Movement) as one of the co-founders of Kommune 1 (K1), the Zentralrats der Umherschweifenden Haschrebellen (Central Council of Wandering Hash Rebels) and, along with Georg von Rauch, founder of the underground Tupamaros West-Berlin. Kommune 1 members Dieter Kunzelmann and Rainer Langhans, attempted to bomb Richard Nixon's motorcade in Berlin on Feb. 27 1969, but the bomb is discovered. Kunzelmann was arrested on July 21 1971 for his bombing activities in the West Berlin Tupamaros. He was later convicted and sentenced to nine years.

1942 - Sébastien Faure (b. 1858), French anarchist and main proponent of 'synthesis anarchism', dies. [see: Jan. 6]

1949 - Gil Bel Mesonada (b. 1895), Spanish militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, writer, journalist, novelist and avant-garde arts theorist, dies. [see: Sep. 1]

1967 - Tudor Arghezi, or simply Arghezi (Ion N. Theodorescu; b. 1880), Romanian writer, best known for his contribution to poetry and children's literature, dies. [see: May 21]

1975 - Jehan Mayoux (b. 1904), French Surrealist poet, teacher, pacifist, anti-militarist and libertarian, dies. [see: Nov. 25]

1979 - Claude Le Maguet (aka Jean Salivas; b. 1887), French poet, typographer, anarchist and militant pacifist, dies. [see: Apr. 27]

1989 - Cecilia García de Guilarte (b. 1915), Basque journalist, writer - novels, plays, narrative history, etc., university professor and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Dec. 20]

1993 - Léo Ferré (b. 1916), Franco-Monégasque anarchist singer, poet, composer and interpreter of the French poètes maudits, dies. [see: Aug. 24]
1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: At dawn, the anarchist sector of the International, believing that the City Council, presided over by Antonio Cuevas Jurado was too moderate, especially in matters relating to the social terrain, mounted a coup attempt. They failed, and according to the Cadiz press: "[...] it is evident that the most intransigent group of the internationalist party that prevails in Sanlúcar has the purpose of destroying the one that is possessed of the city council. What is done up til now does not satisfy their desires; what is wanted is the social liquidation; death and extermination of certain capitalists."

[B] 1884 - Robert Berkeley 'Bob' Minor (d. 1952), US political cartoonist, radical journalist, anarchist, and later a central figure in the Communist Party of the USA, born.

1885 - The first issue of the strongly anti-religious Yiddish langauge socialist newspaper 'Der Arbeiter Fraynd' (The Workers' Friend) is published in London. When Saul Yanovsky became its editor in February 20, 1891, the paper takes a clear anarchist orientation.

1886 - Charles Gallo is sentenced to 20 years in prison and is sent to New Caledonia for his failed assassination attempt of March 5, 1886, at the Paris Bourse.

## 1892 - Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (d. 1940), German philosopher and "Romantic anarchist", who made influential contributions to aesthetic theory, Western Marxism and anti-fascist thought, and is associated with the Frankfurt School, and was also a respected literary and cultural critic, essayist and translator during the Weimar Republic, born. Exposed to Zionism as a university student, he quickly rejected its political and nationalist aspects, developing his own form of 'cultural Zionism', a concept that would inform all his later ideas. He studied at Freiburg's Albert Ludwigs University , Berlin's Humboldt University, where he was elected president of the Freie Studentenschaft (Free Students Association), Munich's Ludwig Maximilian University and the University of Bern. Along the way he met met Rainer Maria Rilke, Gershom Scholem, Ernst Bloch and Leo Strauss. In 1923, he moved to Frankfurt and there met Theodor Adorno, befriended Georg Lukács, and began his association with the Institut für Sozialforschung (Institute for Social Research). During the ensuing decade he would write much of his most important work as well as spending time in Paris and Moscow, and also considered emigrating to Palestine. He also expanded on his journalistic work, having been writing for the German newspapers 'Frankfurter Zeitung' (The Frankfurt Times) and 'Die Literarische Welt' (The Literary World), and began working with Bertold Brecht and in radio. In the summers of 1932 and 1933, he stayed on the Spanish island of Ibiza, falling in love at Ibiza in the Dutch painter Anna Maria Blaupot ten Cate on his second visit. Unsettled by the rise of Hitler and the Nazis, after his first visit to Nice he had flown to Nice, where he planned to take his life in a hotel room. Instead he went to Italy, returning to Germany at the year's end.
When the National Socialists finally seized power, his knew his life was under threat as he was classified a "Jewish intellectual" and already having suffered the increasing everyday anti-Jewish harassment, he took refuge in Svendborg, Denmark with Bertold Brecht, and later in San Remo. Eventually, he settled in Paris, where he began working with Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer, receiving financial support from the Institut für Sozialforschung. He also befriended fellow German refugees Hannah Arendt, Hermann Hesse and Kurt Weill, and also became a member of Georges Bataille's secret society Acéphale. At the end of February 1939, the Gestapo stripped Benjamin of his German citizenship, which meant that he could not leave France without a residence permit in the country of destination, fully establishing his status as a German refugee. On September 1st, he was interned with other German refugees in the Camp Vernuche at Nevers. Released in later November following the intervention of French friends, he returned to Paris but was forced to flee Paris the day before the Nazis arrived in the city. In August, he obtained a travel visa to the US with the assistance of Max Horkheimer, hoping to travel via Portugal. Continuing to keep one step ahead of the German Army, he managed to safely cross the French-Spanish border and arrive at the coastal town of Portbou, in Catalonia. However, the Franco government had cancelled all transit visas and ordered the Spanish police to return people to France, including the Jewish refugee group Benjamin had joined, thwarting his chances of travelling to the United States. On the night of September 25, 1940, he took an overdose of morphine tablets in his room in the Hotel de Francia. The Portbou registry records September 26, 1940 as the official date of death.
Amongst his most important works are 'Zur Kritik der Gewalt' (Critique of Violence; 1921), 'Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit' (The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction; 1936) and 'Über den Begriff der Geschichte' (On the Concept of History / Theses on the Philosophy of History; 1940). See also 'Surrealism: The Last Snapshot of the European Intelligentsia' (1929).
www.lboro.ac.uk/media/wwwlboroacuk/content/phir/documentsandpdfs/arg/Sagriotis Paper - Benjamin and Anarchism.pdf

1894 - In Buenos Aires, Fortunato Serantoni publishes the first issue of the relaunched Argentinan anarchist newspaper 'La Questione Sociale', originally the title of Errico Malatesta's own 1885 Buenos Aires paper. Published in Italian, it will include a Spanish language supplement from that September.

1895 - The first issue of the fortnightly Italian socialist-anarchist periodical 'La Questione Sociale' is published in Paterson, New Jersey. The journal is published by the group Diritto all'Esistenza (The Right to Existence), which also has an older in-house paper 'Era Nuova' (The New Era). The senior editors are: the anarchist writer Giuseppe Ciancabilla (until September 1899), Malatesta (1899), Carlo Tresca (1901), Aldino Felicani , Luigi Galleani, etc.. Postal copies were intercepted in May 1908 as part of anti-anarchist repression but the paper continued to be published until 1924.

1898 - Ernest Ernestan (aka Ernest Tanrez) (d. 1954), Belgian militant, writer, theorist of libertarian socialism, and a significant figure of Belgian anarchism, born.

##1898 - Maurice Catalogne, better known as Lashortes (d. 1984), French teacher, professor of philosophy, libertarian syndicalist and anarcho-pacifist, born in Levallois-Perret.

1908 - At the co-operative restaurant at 33 rue Guersant in Paris, a fight breaks out when a Commissaire de Police, accompanied by a secretary, an Inspector and two agents of the Anthrométrique Service (the police's crude criminological biometric service), attempt to pull down from the restaurant's window an anti-militarist flag declaring: "A Bas la Patrie!" Customers beat up the cops. A few days later, police arrested several people who frequent the place. Amongst them were two anarchists, 'chauffeurs syndiqués' Maurice Girard, who was not even at the restaurant but whose car (which he had lent to his brother) had been parked outside at the time of the incident, and Albert Jacquart. Both were charged and on Aug. 19, 1908 sentenced to three and two years in prison respectively. Their support campaign will stage the first manifestation en automobile through Paris on Jan. 20, 1909.

1912 - The first issue of '¡Luz!' is published by Grupo Luz, in México. Initially a monthly "workers and libertarian" journal, it goes on to become a "weekly of libertarian thought and dissent, written for workers, for the defence of women and the workers themselves."

##1915 - Odette Ester, aka Odette Beilvert (Lucienne Marie Kervorc'h; d. 2010), French anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist resister, who was the long time partner of the Catalan anacho-syndicalist miltant Josep Ester Borràs (José Ester Borrás) aka 'Minga', born.

1918 - Intelligence agencies begin to circulate the names and addresses of over 8,000 'Mother Earth' magazine subscribers, targeting them for investigation. Emma Goldman also reluctantly concurs with Stella Ballantine's decision to close the Mother Earth Bookshop.

1919 - Robert Brayton Nichols (d. 2010), US political radical and anti-war activist, Beat poet, playwright, anarchist-themed sci-fi novelist and architect, who was married to the "cooperative anarchist" and writer Grace Paley, born.

1920 - Eight-member expedition for the Petrograd Museum of the Revolution, including Henry Alsberg, Alexander Berkman, and Emma Goldman, travels through the Ukraine (July 15-August 6). The events are recounted by Berkman in 'The Bolshevik Myth'.

1927 - Julien Content (b. 1892), French miltant anarchist, anti-militarist and revolutionary syndicalist, commits suicide. He had been diabled in a car accident in 1926. [see: Sep. 26]

1973 - Djalma Fettermann (b. 1893), Brazilian metal worker, goldsmith, and post office worker, who was an important libertarian militant in the south of the country during the first two decades of the C20th, played an active role during the general strike of 1917, including throwning a bomb concealed in a wreath of flowers at cavalry charging a crowd, and was editor in the newspaper 'A Luta', dies in Rio de Janeiro at the age of 81, an anarchist to the last. [see: Jun. 17]

1994 - Anarcho-punks from five separate states in the north and north-east of Brazil hold a conference at the University of Ceara, (July 15-17).

1998 - Vincent Ruiz Gutiérrez (b. 1912), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who participated in the Spanish Civil War, dies after a long illness. [see: Aug. 1]

2003 - Roberto Bolaño Ávalos (b.1953), Chilean novelist, poet, one-time Trotskyist and latterly an anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 28]
1854 - Conflicte de les Selfactines: The capità general de Barcelona, Ramon de la Rocha, issues an order that all violations against property or against the security of the people would be executed by firing squad. The same day three cotton workers were shot at 19:00.
The cotton spinners and other workers effectively declared a 'ceasefire', vowing to continue to strike peacefully until the 'selfactines' were removed. With more than 50 factories now out on strike, the Captain General enters into talks with the workers' representative Josep Barceló Cassadó.

1869 - SC Kylstra (Sibillus Catharinus Kylstra; d. 1950), Dutch Reformed minister and Tolstoyan Christian anarchist, born.

1876 - [O.S. Jul. 4] Slavi (or Slavcho) Merdzhanov [Слави (Славчо) Мерджанов], aka Vasil Stoyanov [Васил Стоянов](Svetoslav Chanev Merdzhanov [Светослав Чанев Мерджанов]; d 1901), Bulgarian anarchist and revolutionary in the Macedonian Secret Revolutionary Committee (Македонски Таен Революционен Комитет) aka the Geneva Group (Женевската група) and later member of the Supreme Macedonian-Adrianople Committee (Върховния македоно-одрински комитет), the governing body of the IMARO (ВМОРО), born.

1881 - At the London Congress called to try and re-establish the Bakuninist Anarchist International, the International Working Peoples' Association, aka the 'Black International', is created. It is not to be confused with the original International Workingmen's Association (IWA) or that set up by Burnette G. Haskell and others on July 15, 1881 in San Francisco, which was referred to by the initials IWMA.
archive.org/search.php?query=subject%3A"International Working People's Association"]

1898 - Pierre Desgranges (aka Granges; b. 1865), French anarchist militant, as were his father and his brother Victor, dies. [see: Jun. 10]

1900 - A tunnel being dug for Alexander Berkman to escape from prison (serving 22 years for the attempted assassination of US industrialist Henry Frick) is discovered. Although prison officials cannot verify who is responsible or the tunnel for, Berkman is placed in solitary confinement. The tunnel rat, Eric Morton, sick from the physical hardship of digging the tunnel, soon sails to France and is nursed back to health by Emma Goldman.

1903 - Première issue of the anarchist weekly 'Il Libertario', is published in La Spezia, Italy. It suffers repeated repression by the authorities and its pressed are finally destroyed by fascists on Oct. 29, 1922.

1905 - The first issue of the fortnightly paper 'L'Action Directe' is published in Gilly, Belgium. Initailly the "Organe des travailleurs", then "Organe de la Confédération Générale du Travail" (Belge) and finally "Organe de Propagande Syndicaliste Révolutionnaire".

#### [B] 1928 - Carmen Bruna (born Bruna Carmen Zucarelli; d. 2014), Argentinian poet, Surrealist, physician and anarchist agitator, born. Since 1955, she has worked for various newspapers and literary magazines, including 'Clepsidra' and 'Sr. Neón'. A trained medical doctor, from from 1956 to 1969 she practised her profession in the villages around Salta in the rural hinterland of north-west Argentina. Her first book, 'Bodas' (Weddings; 1980), received the 1979 Premio Lorraine (Lorraine Award) for Argentinan Poetry. In 1982 she joined the Signo Ascendente surrealist group and has since published a number of books of her poetry, including 'Morgana o el Espejismo' (Morgana or the Mirage; 1983), 'La Diosa de las Trece Serpientes' (The Goddess of Thirteen Snakes; 1986), 'Lilith' (1987), 'La Luna Negra de Lilith' (The Black Moon of Lilith; 1992), and 'Melusina o la búsqueda del amor extraviado' (Melusine or finding lost love; 1993). She died on January 15, 2014, one of the last remaining Argentinian surrealists.
"The world of Lautréamont and Rimbaud is my world, barbaric and amazing. My poetry is the poetry of the damned poets. My poetry is actually an invitation to insubordination and revolt. And that is why my motto is that of the anarchists: Neither God Nor Master."
"Poetry does not sell. Perhaps that is because true poetry is, by definition, not for sale."

'Jam Session'

El sol ilumina los cantos rodados
atraviesa las aguas hasta el fondo
contempla la sombra de las truchas
que son almas en pena al atardecer.
El astro rojo se muere.
Ellas también se mueren.
En ríos extraños
en manantiales ciegos.
Los faros se apagaron,
la nave se estrelló contra las rocas.
Descalzos van los penitentes
sus pies sangrando entre las piedras
delgados son sus miembros de anacoretas.
Las bellas jóvenes lloran cuando ellos pasan.
Los olores alquímicos del azufre y el sabor del coriandro
conjuran el perfume de las ruinas
entre las tumbas anónimas de un viejo cementerio.
Y sirven en bandejas de plata
los mejores manjares a los sobrevivientes.
El lamento de las diosas es poco audible.
Thelonius Monk la revolución negra
el brillante Mississippi
la medianoche clandestina
no confiable
el piano que se vuelve loco a la luz de la lun
y rompe todas las camisas de fuerza
sólo un gigolo.
Las arterias estallan
la sangre borda los transparentes espejos viscosos
de las teclas y el saxo.
La lluvia pulveriza las estalactitas del corazón.
Los bellos gatos juegan a perseguir a las mariposas
con sus ojos hipnóticos.
La quimera clava sus uñas y muerde con sus dientes agudos
a los cuerpos enfermos.
Se padece el suplicio
se toleran todas las torturas
en el reino de las pesadillas
noche tras noche
en esa hora sórdida de los aparecidos
con sus órbitas vacías.


1936 - In Barcelona members of the powerful Confederación Nacional del Trabajo urge, without success, Luis Companys, president of the Catalonian Generalitat (governing body), the distribution of weapons to the workers, to counter the imminent threat of a right-wing military coup d'etat.

1936 - Armand Guerra begins filming 'Carne de Fieras' in Madrid.

1948 - Founding of the Dutch Experimental Group by Karel Appel, Guillaume Corneille, and Constant and Jan Nieuwenhuys, Amsterdam.

1948 - Gianfranco Sanguinetti, Swiss revolutionary theorist and Italian winemaker, member of the Italian section of the Situationist International and, following all the organisation's expulsions, he was one of only two members (with Guy Debord) at the dissolution of the SI in 1972, born.

1951 - Franco (Francesco) Serantini (d. 1972), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, born. On May 5 1972, whilst taking part in an action against the fascist MSI in Pisa Franco was severly beaten by riot police. Arrested and transferred to a police station, he is interrogated the following day and, despite obvious illness and injury, the police, interrogating judge and prison guards, ignore his symptoms. On May 7 he is found in a coma in his cell and dies at 09:45. His life is the inspiration for Corrado Stajano's book 'Il Sovversivo: Vita e Morte dell'Anarchico Serantini' (The Subversive. Life and Death of the Anarchist Serantini; 1975) and Francesco Filidei's opera for 6 voices and 6 percussionists, 'NN'.

1953 - Ann Hansen, Canadian anarchist and former member of the urban guerrilla group Direct Action, born. She was one of the Squamish Five (or Vancouver Five), with Brent Taylor, Juliet Caroline Belmas, Doug Stewart and Gerry Hannah, who were tried for a number of actions including the October 14, 1982 bombing of a Litton Industries plant, which made guidance components for American cruise missiles.

## 1976 - Zak Smith, US painter and graphic artist, anarchist and alt-porn performer under the name Zak Sabbath, born.
## 1883 - Barthélemy De Ligt (d. 1938), Dutch anarcho-pacifist and anti-militarist, born. Author of 'Anarchismus und Revolution' (1922), 'La Paix Créatrice. Histoire des principes et des tactiques de l'action directe contre la guerre' (Creative Peace : History of the principles and tactics of direct action against the war; 1935), 'The Conquest of Violence : an Essay on War and Revolution' (1935) and 'Le Probleme de la Guerre Civile' (1937).

1892 - Carlo Cafiero (b. 1846), Italian anarchist and champion of Bakunin, dies in exile in the Swiss psychiatric hospital in Nocera Inferiore from tuberculosis. [see: Sep. 1]

1897 - Ida Scarselli (d. 1989), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist militant, born. Her father Eusebio aka 'Zoppo' was a member of the Unione Anarchica Italiana, as were her brothers and sister (Ferrucio, Egisto, Oscar, Tito and Ines Leda), and were collectively known to the police as the 'Banda dels Zoppo'.

1916 - Following the XII Congress of the CNT held in May 1916, which passed a resolution in favour of calling a general protest strike, limited in principle to one day, and contacts with the socialists PSOE and UGT, leads to the signing of the 'Pacto de Zaragoza'. A joint committee of Ángel Pestaña and Salvador Seguí from the CNT and Francisco Largo Caballero, Julián Besteiro and Vicente Barrio for the UGT is set up in order to organise the protest strike.

1917 - Alexander Berkman is wrongly indicted in absentia in San Francisco for complicity in three murders stemming from the July 16, 1916 Preparedness Day Bombing.

[B] 1917 - Christiane Rochefort (d. 1998), French writer, novelist, essayist, translator, journalist, feminist and anarchist, born. She has also written novels under the pseudonym of Dominique Fejös.

1919 - Pau Sabater i Lliró aka 'el Tero' (b. 1884), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, secretary of the Sindicato de Tintoreros of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, one of the most powerful unions in the textile industry, is kidnapped and killed by a band of employers' pistoleros led by Commissioner Manuel Bravo Portillo. Portillo will be killed in revenge on September 5. [see: Mar. 5]

1932 - Josep (or José) Prat (b. unknown), Catalan journalist, eminent anarchist propagandist and pioneer of Spanish anarcho-syndicalism, dies. In 1907 he participated in the organisation Solidaridad Obrera in Barcelona and became one of the progenitors of the CNT, touring Catalonia espousing a completely autonomous syndicalism that would not be subject to the direction of any political party and proletising in the pages of 'Tierra y Libertad' and 'El Obrero Moderno'. Early advocate of women's liberation, arguing that the condition of women is their repression by men. "'Nature' has nothing to do with this.... If woman is backward, it is because in all times man has kept her inferior ..." (1903). He worked on the newspapers 'El Productor' (1901-1906), 'Tierra y Libertad' (1906-09), 'La Publicitat', 'La Campana de Gràcia', 'La Aurora Social' (paper of the Federation of Workers of Zaragoza; 1910) and 'Solidaridad Obrera' (1918).

[C] 1936 - Army uprising in Morocco as Rightist generals declare war on the Spanish Republic. In Barcelona workers of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, seize 200 rifles from the holds of 2 ships docked in the harbour and distribute them to union activists. The Spanish Revolution begins.

1951 - Charles Desplanques (b. 1877), French anarchist, trade unionist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Feb. 6]

1954 - The first issue of the newspaper 'El Libertario' in Santiago, Chile: "The emancipation of the workers is the task of the workers themselves."

1980 - Juan García Oliver (b. 1901), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist activist, anti-Franco fighter and Minister of Justice of the Republican government, dies. [expand]

1987 - Concha Estrig (Concepció Estrig; b. 1909), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, dies of complications relating to kidney disease. [see: Oct. 11]

1997 - Police raid anarchist centres and homes across Italy. The Italian Anarchist Federation denounces the raids.
1866 - Vicente Garcia, aka 'Palmiro', Martin Zalacaín (Vicente García y García Díez Varona; d. Oct. 24, 1930), one of the first Spanish anarchist communists, who was also active in South Wales, France and London, born.

1881 - Jules Sellenet, known as Francis or François Boudoux and as Jean Le Vieux (d. 1941), French militant, anti-militarist and anarcho-syndicalist secretary of the l'union des syndicats de Meurthe-et-Moselle, born. In 1907 during a peaceful demonstration by strikers in Raon-l'Etape, the forces of "order" opened fire on the procession, killing two workers. Boudoux deliveres a speech at the funeral services for the two workmen. [see: Jul. 28] A member of l'Association Internationale Antimilitariste, Boudoux was arrested numerous times for his anti-military activities and also for "offences related to industrial disputes". His own union denounced him as an agent provocateur, a charge that the Communists would revive following WWI. On January 11, 1924, he was wounded during a meeting that ended in a brawl between anarchist trade unionists and Communists (two anarchists were killed). In 1926, he served with Pierre Besnard, founder of the C.G.T- S.R (revolutionary syndicalist), as secretary of the Federation of Builders. He also fought in Spain in 1936 with the Durruti Column.

## 1881 - Antonia Maymón (Antonia Rufina Maymón Giménez; d. 1959), Spanish rationalist pedagogue, militant naturist, anarchist and anarcha-feminist, who published books on various topics, born. Maymón collaborated in numerous congresses and publications, such as 'Generación Consciente', and was a founder of the FAI.

1887 - Ettore Mattei founds La Sociedad Cosmopolita de Resistancia y Colocación de Obreros Panaderos, the first organised workers' resistance society, in Buenos-Aires. Errico Malatesta, in Argentina at the time, writes its statutes.

1891 - The first issue of the Italian language newspaper 'Pensiero e Dinamite' (Thought and Dynamite), "il pensiero per sollevare i deboli, la dinami- te per abbattere i potenti" (thought to lift the weak, dynamite to bring down the mighty), is published in Geneva. The founder of the newspaper is the Sicilian anarchist Paolo Schicchi. Wanted by the Italian police for desertion, he intially took refuge in France before being deported. Ending up in Geneva (via Malta), he contacted other anarchists aiming to set up a newspaper expressly calling for violent action. He was eventually expelled from Switzerland after he committed an attack on a police officer.

1894 - Fauset MacDonald delivers an address on 'The Anarchists Plan of Campaign', at a meeting of anarchist-communists at Leicester, England.

1898 - Eva Brandes (d. 1988), US anarchist, who lived at the Ferrer Center in New York and at Stelton Colony, and served on the Board at Mohegan colony, as well as working in for many years in the offices of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union in New York, born.

1905 - [N.S. Jul. 31] Aida Issakhorovna Basevich (Аида Иссахаровна Басевич; d. May 25 1995), Russian engineering technician and lifelong anarchist militant, who suffered repeated repression by the Soviet regime, born. [see: Jul. 31]
July 18 1922 - Georg Franz Kreisler (November 22 2011), Austrian–American Viennese-language cabaret artist, satirist, composer, poet, author and anarchist, born.

1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: A series of bloody confrontations breaks out between the Spanish army and the working classes of Barcelona and other Catalan cities, backed by anarchists, socialists and republicans. It was caused by the calling-up of reserve troops by Prime Minister Antonio Maura to be sent as reinforcements when Spain renewed military-colonial activity in Morocco on July 9, in what is known as the Second Rif War in Melilla.
The transports had begun on July 11th without incident but on the 18th the first major flashpoint occurred when a party of conscripts, including the Batalló de Caçadors de Reus, integrated in the Brigada Mixta de Cataluña, boarded ships owned by the Marques de Comillas, a noted Catholic industrialist, en route for Morocco. The soldiers were accompanied by patriotic addresses, the Royal March, and religious medals distributed by pious well dressed ladies. Spain's narrow social construction was thus on display for all to see, an affluent Catholic oligarchy impervious to the rise of secular mass politics. The onlooking crowd, which contained a number of anarchist and socialist agitators, jeered and whistled, shouting: "¡Abajo la guerra! ¡Que vayan los ricos! ¡Todos o ninguno!" (Down with the war. They are the rich. All or nothing.) as the emblems of the Sacred Heart were thrown from the transport ship Cataluña into the sea. The police reacted by firing into the air and arrested several people.
The protests increased in the following days, with street demonstrations, not only in Barcelona, ​​but also in Madrid and other locations, as news began to come in of the first deaths in combat of the reservists.
www.pronunciamientos.rizoazul.com/semana tragica.html

1913 - The first issue (of only 2) of 'La Ira' (Wrath), "Paper of the expression of the disgust and anger of the people", is published in Barcelona.

[A/F] 1917 - Greve Geral no Brasil: Beginning of city-wide General Strike in Rio de Janeiro, for an 8-hour day and 20% wage increase following a meeting at the headquarters of the Federação Operária do Rio de Janeiro the previous day. [expand]

[B] 1928 - Simon Vinkenoog (d. 2009), Dutch writer, poet, performer, Provo and anti-Drugs war activist, born.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: A general strike is called in Seville in protest at the death of a striking brewery worker, resulting in further clashes that end with the murder of a worker from the Osborne factory. During his burial anarchists clash with the police, leaving four workers and three security guards dead. [see: Aug. 6]

1936 - Rightist rebels seize control of a third of the Spanish mainland and martial law is declared in the Canary Islands. The newspaper 'Solidaridad Obrera' features the headline: "In Seville, the fascists shoot at our brothers! In Cordoue, the soldiers uprise! In Morocco, one fights in the streets! Who does not fill their revolutionary duty is a traitor to the cause of the people! Long Live Libertarian Communism!"

1936 - Armand Guerra begins writing his journal of the Civil War that will become 'A Través de la Metralla' (1937).

1936 - The first issue of the weekly newspaper of the Federació Ibèrica de Joventuts Llibertàries (FIJL), 'Juventud Libre', is published in Madrid.

[BB] 1943 - Gérard Tolck (d. 2005), Swiss painter, engraver, sculptor, editor, agitator and cultural anarchist, born. He was responsible for 2 important Les Breuleux libertarian publications, 'Le Détonateur: Journal de Contre Information et de Réflexion pour l'Unité de la Gauche Autogestionnaire' (1977-81) and 'Le Réveil Anarchiste' (1979-83), de la Fédération Libertaire des Montagnes (Libertarian Federation of the Jura Mountains; FLM). He was also one of the founders of 'Cahiers Noirs' and collaborated on 'Réfractions: Recherches et Expressions Anarchistes'. In 1980 he co-founded Le Café du Soleil, a self-managed libertarian cultural centre in Saignelégier, which organised its famous painting and writing workshops.

##1945 - Nathalie (Natalie) Wintsch-Maléef (Jeanne-Natalie Maléef; b. 1880), Russian-Swiss doctor, teacher, feminist and anarchist, dies.

1958 - Anna Götze (b. 1875), German bookbinder, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, who was the mother of FAUD members Irma and Ferdinand 'Nante' Götze, dies. [see: Apr. 6]

1968 - Protests by youths at the XIIème Festival de Théâtre in Avignon claiming that it is little better than a cultural supermarket in service of the bourgeoise coincide with the banning of a performance of Gérard Gelas' play 'La Paillasse aux Seins Nus' (The Bare-Breasted Clown) in Villeneuve-lès-Avignon by the préfet de police on the grounds that it "risked disturbing public order" and was "against the person of the Head of State". A peaceful protest that evening involving l'enragé Jean-Jacques Lebel is attacked by the CRS. In solidarity, Julian Beck and Judith Malina's Living Theatre, who are due to appear at the festival, refuse to perform their play 'Antigone'. [see: Jul. 20, 27 & 28]

1973 - Georges Henein (b. 1914), Egyptian surrealist author and Trotskyist who was sympathetic to anarchism, dies. [see: Jan. 20]

1975 - Giuseppe Rose (b. 1921), Italian anarchist , painter and poet, dies following his thrid heart attack. [see: Sep. 6]

1984 - Margarete Kubicka, aka Małgorzata Kubicka (Margarete Schuster; b. 1891), German drawing teacher, Expressionist graphic artist, painter, and anarchist partner of the Polish artist, poet and anarchist Stanisław Kubicki, dies in Berlin. [see: Jun. 20]
1834 - Jean-Marie Déguignet (d. 1905), Breton peasant, soldier, farmer, salesman, shopkeeper, libertarian and writer, who is best known for his memoirs, 'Les Mémoires d'un paysan bas-breton' (1904), a classic depiction of the life of the rural poor in C19th France, born.

1865 - Zelmira Peroni or Zelmira Binazzi (Carlotta Germina Peroni; d. 1936), Italian designer and anarchist propagandist, born.

1871 - [N.S. Jul. 31] Maria Isidine aka Maria Goldsmith or Maria Korn (Maria Isidorovna Goldsmith [Мария Исидоровна Гольдсмит]; d. 1933), Russian Jew, Socialist-Revolutionary, anarchist militant and biologist (animal psychology) at the Sorbonne préparatrice zoology laboratory, born. [see: Jul. 31]

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar & Cádiz: The Government of Spain decided to end the revolution in Sanlúcar. Meanwhile, the Cantón de Cádiz is declared, with the prominent Andalusian anarchist Fermín Salvochea y Álvarez elected Alcalde de Cádiz and Presidente del Cantón de Cádiz.

1879 - Eugène Lanti (aka Eugène Adam) (d. 1947), French Espérantist, anarchist, anti-nationalist, anti-Stalinist Communist, born.

[1883 - [N.S. Jul. 31] Jānis Žāklis, aka Mērnieks, Pēteris Mālderis or Peter the Painter, etc. (d. unknown) [EXPAND]

1894 - The anarchist Paolo Lega is sentenced to 20 years and 17 days in prison for his June 16 failed assassination attempt on the Italian prime minister, Francesco Crispi. [see: Dec. 9]

1907 - José Xena Torrent born (d. 1988), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1908 - Emma Goldman's 'What I Believe' is published in the 'New York World'

1913 - Charles Keller (b. 1843), French poet, Paris Communard and Bakuninist, dies. [see: Apr. 30]

## 1915 - Vernon Richards (Vero Recchioni; d. 2001), Anglo-Italian anarchist, author, editor and éminence grise of 'Freedom' for much of the second half of C20th and partner of Marie Louise Berneri until her tragic death during childbirth in 1949, born.

[F] 1917 - Huelga General Revolucionaria [Revolutionary General Strike] / Vaga General Espanyola [Spanish General Strike]: Plans for the general strike have to be changed when a strike by UGT-affiliated Valencian railway workers in dispute with the Compañía de los Caminos de Hierro del Norte de España (Northern Spanish Railyway Company) takes place to coincide with the Asamblea de Parlamentarios in Barcelona. During the negotiations the company had refused to readmit 36 workers who had been dismissed, an inflexible position that the Government supported, no doubt based upon the threat of the imminent general strike. On July 21 the Capitán General of Valencia declared a state of emergency. In response, and despite the understanding that no dispute should be triggered prior to the general strike, pressure from the rank and file forced the Federación Ferroviaria de UGT to announce that if the company did not give in, a strike across the whole sector would begin on August 10. The company did not back down, so the leadership of the Unión General was faced with a difficult choice – it did not want to abandon the rail workers but to precipitate a strike before the wider revolutionary movement was fully prepared would likely prove distaterous. Finally, the socialist strike committee – composed of Francisco Largo Caballero and Daniel Anguiano for the UGT and Julián Besteiro and Andrés Saborit for the PSOE – decided to declare the general strike for Monday, August 13, three days after the railway strike was due to begin on the 10th

1917 - [O.S. Jul. 6] July Days [Июльские дни]: Around 120 Kronstadt sailors refuse to give in, and retreat to the Peter and Paul fortress. Red Guards (a militia of regular factory workers) accompany the sailors, following their pledge to protect them. The Government forces setup a barricade and begin a seige. Stalin mediates and reaches an agreement with both sides: the Kronstadters will disarm, in return for getting free passage back to Kronstadt. The General Strike comes to an end, and workers return to their jobs, fearful of arrest. The Government induced terror becomes near hysteria, and countless numbers are arrested as spies. All troops called in from the front arrive in Petrograd, in a massive show of force.

1919 - In Bologna Riccardo Sacconi, Armando Borghi, Giuseppe Sartini, Virgilia D'Andrea, and others are arrested for their activism in social struggles (including the fight against rising food prices following the war) and their participation in various anarchist meetings.

1926 - Henri Gauche (aka René or Henri Chaughi; b. 1870), French anarchist and journalist, dies. Longtime contributor to 'Les Temps Nouveaux', and before that to 'La Révolte' and to 'La Plume'. Gauche originally agreed with the Manifeste de 16 and fought during WWI, though by 1916 he had concluded that he was wrong. [see: Feb. 7]

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: Another general strike is called in Seville following the previous day's clashes. [see: Aug. 6]

1933 - The Council of War in Brussels, Belgium, condemns two anarchist conscientious objectors: Hem Day and Léo Campion, who are sentenced respectively to 2 years and 18 months in prison for having returned their military papers to the Minister of Defence in protest against a new law aimed at curbing pacifist propaganda. The go on to start a hunger strike that will bring pressure on the Belgian government and lead to their release on August 3.

[C] 1936 - Military uprising in Barcelona put down by 'committees of defence' organised by the CNT, FAI and Libertarian Youth.
"... Y nosotros, proletarios, hemos escrito con nuestra sangre la única proclama : ¡ Muerte al fascismo y viva la Revolucion!"
(... And we proletarians have written with our blood the only proclamation: Death to fascism and long live the Revolution!)
- in 'Tierra y Libertad' (July 17, 1937).

1936 - Enrique Obregón Blanco (b. 1900 or 1904), Mexican-Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist secretary of the FAI groups, dies during the attempted fascist uprising, either protecting the central telephone exchange or the shipyards. The secretaries of the Catalan united socialist youth (Francisco Graells) and of the POUM youth (Germinal Vidal) also die in the fighting.

1936 - Arturo Menendez López, who was director general of Seguridad for the Second republic during the Casas Viejas incident, is arrested during the night by the military rebels in the Barcelona-Madrid train station Calatayud. He was taken to Pamplona and shot.

1938 - The release of a special issue of 'Nuevos Tiempos' in Barcelona marking the second anniversary of the events of July 19, 1936. " La mas alta expresion del pensamiento anarquista."

1943 - During WWII, an anarchist congress meets clandestinely near Toulouse (19-20th), at the farm of Alphonse and Paule Tricheux, to assess the political situation and attempt to reorganise the anarchist movement. Among those attending are André Arru, Voline, Maurice and Charles Laisant, etc.

1951 - In Barcelona, César Saborit Carrelero, Catalan guerrillero anarquista and member of the action group of José Lluis Facieras, is killed by two police officers of the Brigada Politico-Social. [see: Feb. 16]

1985 - André Pierre Daunis (b. 1897), French railway worker, farmer, electrician, mason and militant libertarian communist, dies. [see: Aug. 1]

1990 - Ruth 'Coucou' Bösiger (b. unknown), anarchist and companion of André Bösiger, dies. [expand]

1998 - Giliana Berneri (b. 1919), Franco-Italian anarchist activist, dies. Daughter of Camillo Berneri and Giovannina Caleffi and sister of Marie-Louise Berneri. [see: Oct. 5]
1821 - Fortuné Henry (d. 1882), French libertarian journalist and poet, who was one of the most influential figures in the Paris Commune, born. Father of Émile Henry (1821-1882) and Jean-Charles Fortuné Henry (1869-19??).

## 1866 - Augustyn Wróblewski (d. unknown), Polish chemist and biochemist, author of groundbreaking works in the field of yeast fermentation, associate professor Jagiellonian University in Krakow, theorist and propagator of anarchism in Poland, born.

1868 - Georges Yvetot (d. 1942), French typesetter and corrector, anarchist, syndicalist, anti-patriot and pacifist, born.

1901 - [N.S. Aug. 2] Ida Mett [Ида Метт] (Ida Meyerovna Gilman [Ида Мееровна Гилман]; d. 1973) Belarusian-born anarchist, syndicalist and author, born. Member of the Dielo Truda group from 1925 to 1928. Author of 'The Kronstadt Uprising' (1921) and 'The Russian Peasant in the Revolution and Post Revolution' (1968) amongst others.

1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: News of the first armed clashes in Morocco and the death of the first reservists arrives in Spain, provoking further protests. [see: Jul. 18]

1920 - The militant anarcho-syndicalist Spartaco Stagnetti, secretary of the Syndicat des Traminots de Rome is attacked and wounded by a bunch of nationalists and fascists, setting off a General Strike.

1921 - Jacques Long (aka Jacklon; b. 1890), French anarchist and partner of Jane Morand, commits suicide in Belgium. [see: Jun: 27]

1926 - Geoffrey Ostergaard (d.1990 ), English anarcho-pacifist, who wrote on workers' control, and also similarities of Sarvodaya in India and anarchism, born.

1936 - In Barcelona, following the fascist uprising by Franco and the military against the Republic yesterday, the workers of the CNT and POUM counter-attacked and today only Atarazanas barracks remain in fascist hands.

1936 - Francisco Ascaso (b. 1901), militant Spanish anarchist activist and anarcho-syndicalist, emblematic figure of the anti-Francoism killed during the anarchist raid on the Ataranzas barracks in Barcelona. [see: Apr. 1]

1942 - Paolo Antonini (b. 1920), Italian anarchist who fought with the Republican forces during the Spanish Revolution, dies in prison in Casablanca, victim of ill treatment by French jailers. He was imprisoned with a number of fellow anarchists for trying to seize a trawler to sail to Gibraltar.

1945 - Paul Valéry (b. 1871), French poet, essayist, philosopher, polymath and non-doctrinal an-archiste, dies. [see: Oct. 30]

1962 - André Renard (b. 1911 ), Belgian socialist, anti-fascist résistant, syndicalist and Wallonian activist, who was prominent in the 1960-61 Grève Générale de l'Hiver and founded the political ideology Renardisme, which combined elements of syndicalism with Walloon nationalism, dies. [see: May 25]

[B] 1964 - Henri Chassin (b. 1887), French poet, anarchist songwriter and an anti-militarist who deserted from the army in 1914, dies. A "petit fils de communard" who was the author of numerous popular Parisian songs. Active in the great railway strike of 1920 and was charged with "conspiracy against state security" and imprisoned. Involved in le Groupe des Hydropathes, La Vache Enragée, the activities of La Muse Rouge and performed in many Paris cabarets such as the Grenier de Grégoire. Author of a book of poems 'Machin de Belleville' in 1927.

1968 - After the events of July 18 in Avignon, a new protest rally against censorship takes place. It is dispersed by CRS riot cops who carry out further arrests. But while the local press spread its hateful and racist diatribes against the cast of Living Theatre, during the night fascist thugs (recruited from the sports of the city by the mayor and politicians left and right) attack the school where are Living Theatre actors are lodged, beating the director of the New York theatre and a passing youth whose only crime was to have long hair. [see also: 27 and 28 Jul.]

1972 - Salvadora Carmen Medina Onrubia de Botana aka 'La Venus Roja' (b. 1894), Argentine poet, novelist, playwright, anarchist and feminist of Spanish-Jewish origin, dies largely unknown in Buenos Aires, with barely a couple of female friends to follow her coffin. [see: Mar. 23]

1996 - Albert Meltzer's (b. 1920) ashes are scattered in the CNT section of Montjuich cemetery in Barcelona. Co-founder of the Anarchist Black Cross, former used bookseller, author, etc., he helped found the Kate Sharpley Library.

[A] 2001 - Carlos Giuliani, a 23-year-old Italian activist and anarchist, is murdered in Genoa by Italian police during protests against the G8 summit.
1876 - Gerhard Rijnders (November 29 1950), Dutch plumber, mechanic of electric doorbells, cinema technician, publisher and anarchist propagandist, born in Amsterdam.

##1879 - Carlos Pezoa Véliz (Carlos Enrique Moyano Jaña; April 21, 1908), Chilean apprentice shoemaker, poet, journalist, essayist, translator, and anarchist, whose literary work remained largely unpublished until his death at the age of 28 and was posthumously recognised as a major figure in the history of Chilean poetry, born.

[B] 1882 - David Davidovich Burliuk (Дави́д Дави́дович Бурлю́к; d. 1967), Ukrainian Futurist book illustrator, publicist, author and anarchist, born. Often called "the father of Russian Futurism". Brother of fellow artist Volodymyr (Wladimir) Burliuk and of anarchist Nikolay, who was arrested by the Red Army in December 1920, sentenced to be shot and executed on December 27. Burliuk himself had to flee Moscow after the Cheka raid against anarchists in April 1918. Co-author of the manifesto 'A Slap in the Face of Public Taste' (1912), said to be the spark that began Russian Futurism.

1887 - In Warsaw a small 40 page book entitled book titled 'Международный язык. Предисловие и полный учебник' (International language: Foreword and complete textbook) is published in Russian under the pseudonym Doktoro Esperanto (Doctor Hopeful), the pseudonym of Dr. Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof. Zamenhof initially called his language "Lingvo internacia" (international language), but those who learned it began to call it Esperanto after his pseudonym, and this soon became the official name for the language. Many anarchists were enthusiastic about the language, seeing this as a way to counter the nationalist instigators of war, but also a way to spread the libertarian ideal beyond state borders.

1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: As the protests grow against the war in Morocco (Second Rif War), Solidaridad Obrera held a rally in Terrassa at which a proclamation by the socialist journalist Antoni Fabra i Ribas is read calling for a general strike throughout Spain on Monday July 26th. The 4,000 workers present approved the resolution in favour of the strike. There was now enormous pressure on the UGT to call a general strike throughout the State on August 2, which they would eventually bow to but too late for the workers in Catalonia. Their strike eventually took place on August 2 but with little support, due to the repressive measures taken by the government, which included the arrest in Madrid on July 28 Pablo Iglesias Posse and the rest of the socialist party leadership.
www.pronunciamientos.rizoazul.com/semana tragica.html

1917 - Francesco Pezzi (b. 1849), Italain anarchist militant and self-taught accountant, dies. Companion of fellow Italian anarchist Maria Luisa 'Gigia' Minguzzi.

1920 - In Turin, Guglielmo Musso is killed by his own bomb during a solidarity strike following yesterday's fascist attack on Spartaco Stagnetti (the trade union secretary in Rome). The young anarchist Musso, about to toss a bomb at a group of police officers, apparently chose to hang onto the bomb at the last moment to avoid killing innocent bystanders.

##1920 - Constant Anton Nieuwenhuys, better known simply as Constant (d. 2005), Dutch painter, sculptor, graphic artist, author and musician, who was a founding member of both CoBrA and the Internationale Situationniste, and the designer of visionary New Babylon architecture project, born.

1927 - In a Paris resturant, a meeting of the Comité International de Défense Anarchiste, Ascaso , Durruti and Jover hold a banquet to celebrate their liberation from French jail after plotting against King Alfonso XIII. In addition to their families, they are surrounded by thirty activists such as Sebastien Faure , Nestor Makhno and Louis Lecoin (the real architect of their release).

1930 - 24-hour general strike in Montevideo, Uruguay, protesting Uruguay protesting imprisonment of anarchists.

1931 - Émile Pouget (b. 1860), French anarcho-communist militant and propagandist, dies. Founded 'Le Père Peinard'. Author and signatory to the 'Charte d’Amiens' (Charter of Amiens; 1906), adopted by the CGT. [see: Oct. 12]

1936 - Start of the Siege of the Alcázar in Toledo. Creation of the Central Anti-Fascist Militias Committee (CAMC) in Catalonia, formed with representatives not only from the CNT but also from the POUM and bourgeois Catalan political parties in the Generalitat (the Catalan government). Within a few months the CAMC was dissolved, the Generalitat was reconstituted and the CNT entered the Generalitat on September 28th, 1936, taking over the Department of Food Supplies. Thus concessions by the CNT leadership towards the state had started already.

1940 - César Terron Abad (b. 1915), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist guerrillerio, dies when his guerrilla group is attacked and he is shot in the head. Previously involved in the anarchist insurgency of 1933 (December 9), taking over the city of Fabero and proclaiming Libertarian Communism. Captain of the 210th Battalion (of the 192th Brigade), during the Spanish Revolution, which distinguished itself in the battle of El Mazuco. With the loss of Asturies in October 1937, César Terron formed a group of about 30 guerrillas who continued badgering and fighting the fascists.

1948 - Tomás Júlio Leal da Câmara, aka Camara (b. 1876), Portuguese painter and caricaturist of the Paris of the Belle Epoque, illustrator of children's books and anti-monarchist, who was an active participant in the French anarchist movement, publishing drawings and cartoons in 'L'Assiette au Beurre', dies in Rinchoa near Sintra. [see: Nov. 30]

## 1955 - André Robèr (André Daniel Robert), Reunionese-French writer, poet, painter, anarchist, publisher and editor of the annual review 'Art & Anarchie', whose poems are mostly written in Réunion Creole and are published by Robèr's own Éditions K'A publishing house, born.

1967 - Francois Mayoux (b. 1882), French teacher, syndicalist, pacifist and companion of Marie Mayoux, dies. [see: Jun. 24]

[E] 1972 - Salvadora Carmen Medina Onrubia de Botana (b. 1894), Argentine poet, novelist, playwright, anarchist and feminist of Spanish-Jewish origin, dies largely unknown in Buenos Aires, with barely a couple of female friends to follow her coffin. [see: Mar. 23]

1974 - Aurelio Fernández Sánchez (b. 1897), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, member of Los Solidarios, dies. Active in the FAI and CNT. Took refuge in Mexico, with Garcia Oliver. Became secretary of the CNT (in exile) of Mexico. [see: Sep. 29]

2007 - Ilya Borodaenko (Илья Бородаенко; b. 1986), Russian member of the Anarchist group Autonomous Action, dies from head injuries sustained during a neo-Nazi attack on an anti-nuclear protest camp at Angarsk, Siberia. At 05:00, around 15 neo-Nazi skinheads attacked the protesters, beating them with iron bars, knives, and air pistols. As a result of the attack, eight people were hospitalised – one, Ilya Borodaenko, died later that day of his injuries.
## 1867 - Gustave Le Rouge (Gustave Henri Joseph Lerouge; d. 1938), French writer, journalist, socialist and anarchist, born. A prolific author (Blaise Cendrars claims 300+ published works) of almost every genre: poetry, memoirs, plays, screenplays for thrillers, anthologies, essays, critical works, adventure novels, spy thrillers, fantasy, science fiction, etc.. Many of his works, such as 'La Conspiration des Milliardaires' (The Conspiracy of Billionaires; 1900), display a clear anti-American and/or anti-capitalist undercurrent.

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: The Sanluqueño Comité de Salud Pública now preparesr the defence of the city, ordering the collect all kinds of ammunition to make available to volunteers. Unrest and fear are becoming unsustainable, with many Sanluquenians seeking shelter in safer places. Gradually the canton began to fall apart. The secretary of the town hall resigned, followe by members of the secretariat, and the popular masses began to manifest symptoms of decay and fatigue.

1882 - José Oiticica (d. 1957), Brazilian lawyer, student of medicine, teacher, poet and an influential figure in the Brazilian anarchist and labour movement, born. Founder in 1946 of the newspaper 'Ação Direta' (Direct Action).

Sou aquele que vai de fronte erguida,
Entre turbas hostis ou indiferentes,
Cheio de bênçãos para os maldizentes,
Certo do que serei na minha vida.

Domador de demônios e serpentes,
Tenho a índole e as manhas do que lida.
Para o arranco final da acometida
Minhas células todas vão contentes.

Tenho alma de guerreiro e missionário,
Mãos de ferro e palavras de evangelho...
Fui herói num passado legendário.

E, Poeta da Anarquia, anjo do povo,
Fecho as portas cardeais do templo velho
E ilumino o altar-mór do templo novo

'Marcadores' (1919 )


[B] 1894 - Oskar Maria Graf (d. 1967), Bavarian author, poet, novelist and anarchist, who occasionally used the pseudonym Oskar Graf-Berg, born. Much of his work is autobiographical and has an anarchist and/or socialist outlook.
Drafted during WWI, in 1915 he had a short story published in 'Die Freie Straße', through the offices of which he got to know Franz Jung, Georg Schrimpf, Dadaist such as Raoul Hausmann and Richard Huelsenbeck, and, in particular, the influential psychologist Otto Gross. In 1916 he was jailed for refusing orders and, after 10 days on hunger strike, he was taken to a psychiatric hospital and dismissed from the military. A year later he was arrested for participating in an ammunition worker's strike, and again in 1919 for his involvement in the revolutionary movements in Munich alongside Erich Mühsam. In 1920, he became active in the working class theatre Die Neue Bühne (The New Stage), and made his literary breakthrough in 1927 with his autobiographical 'Wir Sind Gefangene' (We Are Prisoners).
Bizarrely, when the Nazis came to power his works were not censored and, in 1933, he published in the 'Vienna Arbeiterzeitung' his famous anti-Nazi appeal, 'Verbrennt Mich!' (Burn Me Too!) [see: May 12], which they duly did the following year. Graf left Germany for Czechoslovakia and on Mar. 24 had his citizenship stripped by the Third Reich. In 1938 he left Europe for the US
His books include the early Impressionist-influenced revolutionarypoetry collections 'Die Revolutionäre' (1918) and 'Amen und Anfang' (Amen and the Beginning; 1919); a number of autobiographical works including 'Wir sind Gefangene' (1927) and 'Zur Freundlichen Erinnerung' (For Friendly Rememberance; 1922); 'Das Proletarische Schicksal' (The Proletarian Destiny; 1929), poetry citicism; and novels such as 'Bolwieser' (1931), made into a two-part 1977 TV film by Rainer Werner Fassbinder, 'Der Abgrund' (The Abyss; 1936), the satirical anti-Nazi 'Anton Sittinger' (1937) and 'Die Eroberung der Welt' (The Conquest of the World; 1949).

[E] 1903 - Teresa Fabbrini (Teresa Maria Anna Carolina Fabbrini Ballerini; b. 1855), Italian feminist and anarchist, who from a young age was distinguished both as a tireless propagandist of anarchist ideas and as a lecturer and writer in favour of anarchism and women's rights, worn down by the constant persecution that she had suffered during her entire life, dies aged just 48, exhausted by her hardships and travails. [see: Sep. 1]

1912 - Charles Ostyn (François Charles Ostyn Leopold; b. 1823), French communard, Bakuninst and anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 20]

##1913 - André Bösiger (d. 2005), Swiss anarchist and militant trades unionist, born. A member of the Ligue d'Action du Bâtiment, and associated with Luigi Bertoni and 'Le Réveil Anarchiste' (The Anarchist Alarmclock) and Lucien Tronchet. A founder of the CIRA (Centre International de Recherches sur l’Anarchisme).

1914 - Charles Maurin (b. 1856), French painter, engraver, anti-clerical and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 1]

1916 - A bomb explodes during a Preparedness Day parade [a demonstration demanding the entry of the United States in the global confict] in San Francisco, killing 10 and injuring 40. Unsurprisingly, the authorities immediately suspect anarchist involvement in the bombing. Two radical labour organisers Tom Mooney and Warren K. Billings, are framed through perjured testimony and convicted -Mooney to hang and Billings to life (both were pardoned by Roosevelt in 1939). A few days after the bombing, the offices of 'The Blast' are searched by police and material aseized. Alexander Berkman (founder/editor) and M. Eleanor Fitzgerald are threaten to arrest.

1917 - Criminal Syndicalism: Lumberjack and secretary of the Beinidji branch of the IWW, Jesse J. Dunning, is arrested at the union's downtown headquarters by the city's chief of police, Frank Ripple. Dunning is charged with the possession of two books in violation of the state criminal syndicalism statute, enacted on April 13, 1917, which made it a felony for an individual to display any book or material that advocated or taught sabotage. The two books were both entitled 'Sabotage', one by Elizabeth Gurley Flynn and the other by Emil Pouget. At his trial in September, he was sentenced to two years in the state penitentiary.

1918 - Manuel González Prada (b. 1844), noted Peruvian poet, literary and social critic, anarchist thinker, writer and polemicist, dies. [see: Jan. 5]

1919 - Peru General Strike for the 8-hour Work Day: The Federación Obrera Regional Peruana (Peruvian Regional Workers' Federation) is officially constituted, based on the principles of the old Federación Obrera Regional del Perú. In its 'Declaration of Principles', FORP considered that the capitalists monopolise the profits, monopolise the market and reduce wages, that there is an absolute lack of morality and justice in the society, and that this social injustice forces Workers to seek ways to achieve a better social status of integral freedom and economic equality. The Federation states that it is international, shelters all workers without distinction of race, sex, religion and nationality; commemorates May 1 as a day of high protest by the international proletariat and states that "The emancipation of workers must be the work of the workers themselves."

1920 - Police raid the IWW's Santiago headquarters. In Valparaiso, police plant dynamite in the Wobbly hall and arrest most of the IWW organizers on terrorism charges.

1922 - In the Sacco and Vanzetti case, following the trial, the Goodridge motion for a new trial is made. It is based on the lack of credibility of prosecution witness Goodridge, a known felon who testified under a false name.

1922 - Serge Michel (pseudonym of Lucien Douchet; d. 1997), French libertarian journalist, novelist, poet, painter and anti-colonialist, born.

1922 - Allan James Baker, better known as Jim Baker or A. J. Baker (d. 2017), Australian philosopher best known for having systematised the realist philosophy of John Anderson, and who was one of the key intellectual figues in the Sydney Libertarians and the Sydney Push from 1945 onwards, born.

1927 - Albert Meister (d. 1982), Swiss author and anarchist sociologist, born. The real author of 'La Soi-Disant Utopie du Centre Beaubourg' (Éditions Entente; 1976) allegedly written by 'Gustave Affeulpin', a fictional text of a future radical libertarian space under the Pompideau Centre (built on what was the working class community of Beaubourg). Participated with Jacques Vallet on the creation of the arts and satire review 'Le Fou Parle' (The Fool Speaks) in 1977. A prolific author under a host of pseudonyms and a researcher in the Ecole des Hautes Etudes de Paris (School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences).

1931 - The Republican government belatedly declares the strike illegal as 10 days notice had not been not given. The Minister of the Interior orders the closure of all anarcho-syndicalist centres across Spain and the arrest of CNT leaders. Across Spain acts of sabotage continue and in Barcelona saboteurs hold up traffic in order to prevent injuries whilst they set off their explosives. July 22 also sees the declaring in Seville of a state of war. [see: Aug. 6]

1931 - Jorge Tamayo Gavilán (b. 1902), Chilean mechanic, Wobbly, and one of the most reviled anarchist expropriators in the eyes of Argentine police and press, suffers extra-judicial execution - a bullet to the back of the neck - at the hands of the police.

1932 - Errico Malatesta (b. 1853), peripatetic Italian anarchist militant and theorist, London ice cream seller, mechanic and member of the Naples section of the International Working Men's Association, dies after 6 years of fascist house arrest. [see: Dec. 14]

[C] 1936 - At the initiative of the Ateneu Enciclopèdic Popular, an Olimpiada Popular (Popular Olympics) is due to be held (July 22-26) as a fraternal counterweight to the grand Nazi spectacle that is the Berlin Olympic Games. However, the revolution prompts their cancellation.

1961 - Jack Grisham, US rock vocalist, musician, raconteur, former anarchist and currently a social democrat, whose bands have included T.S.O.L., Vicious Circle, Cathedral of Tears, and Tender Fury, born.

1967 - Lajos Tihanyi Kassák (b. 1887), Hungarian poet, novelist, painter, essayist, editor, theoretician of the avant-garde, anarchist, anti-fascist and anti-Stalinist, dies. [see: Mar. 21]

1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: During a dispute between Ford management and the militant shop steward John Dillon, in the Ford Liverpool plant, the Angry Brigade blow up the home of Ford's managing director, William Batty, in Essex. The same night a bomb damages a transformer at the Dagenham plant of the Ford Motor Company.

#### 1986 - Haukur Hilmarsson, nom de guerre Sahin Hosseini (d. 2018), Icelandic anarchist and political activist, who volunteered in the Revolutionary Union for Internationalist Solidarity (Επαναστατικός Σύνδεσμος Διεθνιστικής Αλληλεγγύης), an anarchist military unit that is part of the YPG-linked International Freedom Battalion (Tabûra Azadî ya Înternasyonal [ku] / Enternasyonalist Özgürlük Taburu [tu]) and was killed during a Turkish air rain on Afrin, born.

1992 - María Mateo Bruna (b. 1902), Spanish anarchist and Moviment Llibertari Espanyol militant, dies. [see: Jan. 12]
1823 - A renewed attempt by about 500 armed men to destroy spinning machines in Alcoy is prevented by troops deployed by the mayor. One of the ringleaders of the insurgents met with him demanding that the machines be taken outside the city to destroy them, but the mayor refused. Then exchanges of shots occurred and the assailants, some of them wounded, fled towards Cocentaina. The troops came after them and arrested five peasants. [see: Mar. 2]

1846 - Protesting slavery and US involvement in the Mexican War, Henry David Thoreau refuses to pay his $1 poll tax and is tossed into jail by his friend the Concord, Massachusetts town constable - an experience that moves him to write 'Civil Disobedience'.

#1848 - Georg Stenzleit (Georg Hermann Jakob Stenzleit; d. 1933), German cabinet maker and international anarchist movement 'fixer', born in Wilpischen near Königsberg (now the Russian enclave of Kaliningrad)

1870 - At the outbreak of war between France and Prussia, the International Working Men’s Association issues a statement (written by Karl Marx) condemning the war, and warning that victory as well as defeat could prove disastrous for working people.
It approvingly quotes a declaration adopted by an assembly of workers’ delegates in Chemnitz, which states: "In the name of German Democracy, and especially of the workmen forming the Democratic Socialist Party, we declare the present war to be exclusively dynastic.... We are happy to grasp the fraternal hand stretched out to us by the workmen of France.... Mindful of the watchword of the International Working Men’s Association: Proletarians of all countries, unite, we shall never forget that the workmen of all countries are our friends and the despots of all countries our enemies."

[A] 1892 - In Pittsburgh, Alexander Berkman attempts and fails to assassinate the despised industrialist Henry Clay Frick, responsible for the deaths of nine miners killed by Pinkerton thugs on July 6, during Homestead Strike.

1895 - Adhémar Schwitzguébel (b. 1844), Swiss watch engraver, anarchist, theorist of collectivist anarchism, founder of the Bakuninist Fédération Jurassienne (Jura Federation) and member of the l'Internationale, dies of stomach cancer. [see: Aug. 15]

[CC] 1908 - Elio Vittorini (d. 1966), Italian writer, novelist, one-time 'fascista di sinistra' and latterly an anti-fascist, born. At thirteen, he ran away from home to see the world, using free tickets gained via railwayman father. Begins to attend the Technical Institute for accountants and binds friendship with the anarchist Alfonso Faihla, participating in the activities of anarchist groups Syracuse. In 1927, after a daring elopement and wedding to Rosa Quasimodo, sister of the poet Salvatore Quasimodo, he became associated with those around the literary review 'Solaria', which saw to establish an art free of the prevailing ideology i.e. fascism and tradition, and was therefore implicitly anti-fascist, pan-European and pro-Modernism. During this period his work had already began to be published more widely and one article published in the pro-fascist magazine 'La Conquista dello Stato' (The conquest of the state) saw him bizarrely being identified with the bourgeois fascist tendency. However, his work that was subsequently published in 'Solaria' and elsewhere including 'Il Mattino' (Morning) and 'Il Lavoro Fascista' (Fascist Worker), and especially the essay 'Scarico di coscienza' (Discharge of consciousness) in 'Italia Letteraria', in which he accused the Italian literature of provincialism, caused something of a scandal and began to earn him a name as "uno scrittore tendenzialmente antifascista" (a writer of the anti-fascist tendency). In 1931, edizioni di Solaria published his first book, 'Racconti di piccola borghesia' (Tales of the petty bourgeoisie), a collection of short stories and 'Solaria' serialised his novel 'Il Garofano Rosso' (The Red Carnation) between 1933 and 1934 as fascist censorship prevented its publication, the fate of many of his novels and short stories from this period ('Il Garofano Rosso' was not published until after World War II). Living in poverty, in the years 1931-1937, he worked on the 'Bargello', the weekly of the Fascist Federation of Florence, on which he expresses his views of the fascista 'di sinistra' (leftist) tendency, and in 1937, he was expelled from the National Fascist Party for expressing in print his support of the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War and calling for Italian youth to got to fight. In fact, he had planned to go to Spain with his friend and fellow writer Vasco Pratolini but never made the trip. Becoming more conscious of the contradictions of fascism and annoyed by the "continuing harassment" of the fascists, leave Florence in 1938 and moved to Milan, where he goes to work at Simon and Schuster. An anthology of American literature which he edited for them was ceased by the fascist censors. Remaining an outspoken critic of Benito Mussolini's regime, Vittorini joined the Italian Communist Party and began taking an active role in the Resistance, which provided the basis for his 1945 novel 'Uomini e No' (Men and not Men). In 1943 he was commissioned by the Italian Communist Party to strengthen its contacts in Sicily and, on July 26 that year, he was arrested and remained in San Vittore prison until September. Upon his release, he became involved in the underground press, as well as helping found the Fronte della Gioventù (Youth Front) and organise a general strike in Florence in February 1944. Fearing arrest by the fascist police, he hid out in the mountains where, between the spring and autumn of 1944, he wrote 'Uomini e No', published by Simon and Schuster the following year. Also in 1945, he briefly became the editor of the Italian Communist daily 'L'Unità'.

1916 - Hélène Lecadieu (Hyacinthe Adolphine Lecadieu; b. 1853), French anarchist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Oct. 20]

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: At dawn in Maria Luisa Park, prisoners allegedly trying to escape from a police van are shot [cf. ley de fugas], leaving four dead. The Minister of the Interior also orders an assault on the Casa Cornelio tavern, a rebel stronghold in the city. [see: Aug. 6]

1936* - Manuel Fernández Álvarez, aka 'Alvar', Manuel Alvar, Jack Wilkens, Ivan Vilkens, Jaime Salán, J. Galán, etc. (b. 1897), Spanish electrical engineer, pickpocket, teacher, journalist, scholar of cinematography, anarchist, miliciano, and man of many pseudonyms, dies in an assault on fascist positions during the Battle of Guadarrama, struck by a shell near the pass of Alto de Leon. [see: Jul. 9]
[* some sources incorrectly give the date as July 25]

## [B] 1961 - Woodrow Tracy 'Woody' Harrelson, American actor, born.
"I don't believe in politics. I'm an anarchist, I guess you could say. I think people could be just fine looking after themselves."

1980 - Mollie Steimer (b. 1897), Russian-American-Jewish-Mexican anarchist, labour agitator, anti-war activist and free-speech campaigner, dies. [see: Nov. 21]

##1999 - Emma Tenayuca (b. 1916), fearless and largely unsung Mexican-American union organiser and activist, libertarian communist, and educator, who played a prominent role in the 1938 Texan Pecan Shellers Strike, dies. [see: Dec. 21]

2012 - At 3 pm, Russian performance artist and political activist Pyotr Pavlensky arrives at Kazan Cathedral, St. Petersburg with his mouth sewn up with a coarse thread, holding a banner reading: Action of Pussy Riot was a replica of the famous action of Jesus Christ (Matthew.21:12–13) in protest at the jailing of Pussy Riot members Nadezhda Tolokonnikova and Maria Alyokhina. He then stands for an hour and a half outside the Kazan cathedral before policemen arrive, forming a circle around him and taunting and threatening him. The officers appear afraid to touch him, but he is eventually taken away in an ambulance for psychiatric examination and is determined by doctors to be sane.
1869 - Yvonne Estassy, aka 'La mère serbe' of Nîmes (Yvonne Rhimboult; d. 1951), French teacher, journalist, poet and anarchist-individualist propagandist, born. [expand]

1870 - Pierre Dupont (b. 1821), French Republican song-writer, poet and socialist balladeer, dies. [see: Apr. 23]

##1880 - Filareto Kavernido (Heinrich Goldberg; d. 1933), Nietzschean communist-anarchist, pacifist, idiste and adherent of the Milieux Libres, born. Originally a German Jewish doctor and polyglot, aged 30 he threw everything in, changed his name to Filareto Kavernido and founded the Kaverno Tues Zaratustra anacho-communist commune in Berlin and started writing down his philosophy in anarchist newspapers including 'L'En Dehors' and 'Libereso'. The community practiced free love and naturism, published revolutionary tracts and works in Ido. Kavernido was also convicted of performing illegal abortions and left Germany for Paris in 1926, where he was invloved in the Rue Tolbiac commune and met Émile Armand. The community later moved to Tourrettes-sur-Loup in southern France but he emigrated in 1929 to the Dominican Republic. Based in Arroyo Frio, near Moca, he participated in the clearing of land parcels and bringing medical aid to the poor, all described in articles in 'L'En Dehors'. The community he tried to set up then faced progressive governmental and church interference and he was finally assassinated by 2 mystery gunmen.

1893 - Ammon Ashford Hennacy (d. 1970), Irish American pacifist, Christian, anarchist, social activist, member of the Catholic Worker Movement and IWW, born.

## 1898 - [O.S. Jul. 12] Grigory Yakovlevich Kobets (Рыгор Якаўлевіч Кобец [be] / Григорій Якович Кобець [uk] / Григорий Яковлевич Кобец [ru]), aka Hryša Lachmaty (Грыша Лахматы [be]), Gregory Lachmaty (Рыгор Лахматы [be]), Grisha Lokhmatiy (Гриша Лохматый [ru]); real name Mikhail Museyovych Drach-Sandig (Михайло Мусійович Драч-Сандига [uk]) (d. Sep. 9 1990), celebrated Byelorussian journalist, playwright, screenwriter and anarchist, who fought with the Makhnovshchyna (Махновщина) and later became president of the Belarusian Association of Victims of Political Repressions (Беларуская асацыяцыя ахвяраў палітычных рэпрэсій), born. The first professional screenwriter in Belarus.

1904 - Virginia Dantas (né Virginia Teixeira; d. 1990), Portuguese militant anarcho-syndicalist, anarchist and anarcho-feminist, born.

1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: News arrived from Morocco that the Spanish army had been defeated by the Rif in Ait Aixa. 26 soldiers were dead and another 230 were wounded. The masses could not wait until August 2nd to begin their fight. The leaders of Solidaridad Obrera were forced to form a central strike committee and begin mobilising for the general strike on Monday 26th.
The strike committee was formed composed of the Socialist Antoni Fabra i Ribas (who tried unsuccessfully to postpone the Barcelona mobilisation so it would coincide with a general strike that the PSOE and UGT planned to call across Spain, and which eventually took place on August 2 with little support, due to the repressive measures taken by the government, which included the arrest in Madrid on July 28 Pablo Iglesias Posse and the rest of the socialist party leadership), the anarcho-syndicalists, and the bricklayer, and later police informer, Miguel Villalobos Moreno. None were then prominent within the Catalan workers movement. Workers began touring the city collecting money for the fund of resistance for what was planned to be an insurrectionary general strike.
www.pronunciamientos.rizoazul.com/semana tragica.html

1918 - Jean-Roger Caussimon (d. 1985), French anarchist singer-songwriter and film actor, born.

[A/D] 1936 - "Llevamos un mundo nuevo en nuestros corazones" (We carry a new world in our hearts) - the motto of the Durruti Column.
The Durruti Column, made up of 2,500 militiamen, leaves Barcelona towards the Zaragoza front. Along side it is the 800 fighters of the Columna Ortiz, also known as the Segunda Columna, Columna Sur-Ebro or Columna Roja y Negra.

1936 - Catalan anarcho-syndicalist militant Pepita Inglés aka 'Rosario', probably only 26 years old at the time, joins the Durruti Column after having been involved in the street fighting in Barcelona since the 19th. She joined up along side her partner Mariano Sanchez, with whom she had two children, leaving them in the care of friends as they left for the front. [expand]
www.dbd.cat/fitxa_biografies.php?id=5002 or 50002?

1942 - Balbina Pi Sanllehy (b. 1896), Catalan textile worker, anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist proagandist, dies of a heat attack in Perpignan. [expand]

1942 - Juan Peiró i Belis (b. 1887) Spanish anarchist, one-time Secretary General of the CNT, and Minister of Industry of the Second Republic during the Spanish Civil War, is shot in Valenci for refusing to co-operate with the Franco regime. [see: Feb. 18]

1953 - Hendrik Ebo Kaspers (b. 1869), Dutch author, administrator and editor of 'De Arbeider' (The Worker), anti-militarist and anarchist, dies in Santpoort. [see: Feb. 11]

[C] 1974 - In Barcelona, the militants and MIL (Iberian Liberation Movement) members Oriol Solé Sugranyes and José Luis Pons Llobet (arrested near the French border on September 17, 1973 after a run in with the Guardia Civil) are condemned to 48 and 24 years of prison, respectively.
1854 - Conflicte de les Selfactines: Following protracted talks with Josep Barceló Cassadó, one of the main leaders of the cotton workers, the capità general de Barcelona, Ramon de La Rocha, issues a ban prohibiting the use of 'selfactines' cotton spinning machines. At the same time the main workers' leaders, Ramon Maseras, Miquel Guilleuma, Antoni Gual, Josep Nogué and Josep Barceló, sign and publish a document laying out for de la Rocha their greavences against the 'selfactines'. The conflict however dragged on following an appeal by the manufacturer to the government of Madrid against the prohibition order, whilst the workers continued their strike.

1863 - Adolphe Retté (d. 1930), French Symbolist poet, writer and anarchist, born. His key works date from his early phase amongst the Parisian anarchist milieu (before his conversion to Catholicism): 'Thulé des Brumes' (1892) and 'Promenades Subversives' (1897); and include the essays in 'Réflexions sur l'Anarchisme' (1894).

## 1864 - Kate Cooper Austin (d. 1902), American anarchist, feminist and journalist who wrote for many working class and radical papers, born.

1903 - The first issue of the fortnightly magazine of sociology, art and literature, 'Il Pensiero', is published by Pietro Gori and Luigi Fabbri in Rome.

1905 - At the iniative of Georges Thonar, the Groupement Communiste (Communist Group), and which will change its name to the Groupement Communiste Libertaire" (GCL; Groupement Communiste Libertaire" (GCL) the following year, is formed in Belgium to further the ideals of anarchist communism through meetings, study groups, works of propaganda and its newspaper 'L'Insurgé'. The group is also involved that year in the creation of the L'Expérience colony with Émile Chapelier and his partner, first at Stockel-Bois, and then at Boitsfort, til 1908. The commune willpublishe the monthly 'Le Communiste' and 'Le Révolté' (1908-1914).

1907 - Théodule Meunier (b. 1860), French anarchist and advocate of propaganda by deed, dies in the Cayene penal colony. [see: Aug. 22]

[B/E] 1908 - Luce Fabbri (d. 2000), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist writer, journalist, theorist, publisher, poet, teacher and daughter of Luigi Fabbri, born. Amongst her output was political writings: 'Camisas Negras: Estudio crítico histórico del origen y evolución del fascismo, sus hechos y sus ideas' (Blackshirts: Historical critical study of the origin and evolution of fascism, its facts and ideas; 1935) and, under the pseudonym Luz de Alba, '19 de Julio Antología de la Revolucíon Española' (July 19. Anthology of Spanish Revolution; 1937); literary criticism: 'La Poesía de Leopardi'; 1971); and her poetry: 'I Canti dell'Attesa' (The Songs of Expectancy; 1932), and the unpublished 'Propinqua Libertas'. [expand]

1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: Yesterday's decision to hold the general strike tomorrow is ratified at a meeting with delegates from 250 factories throughout the region of Barcelona, despite the civil governor of Barcelona, Ángel Ossorio i Gallardo, having officiall banned the holding of the meeting.
www.pronunciamientos.rizoazul.com/semana tragica.html

1927 - On a beach in Valencia during an open air festival (25th-26th) the Fédération Anarchiste Ibérique (FAI) is clandestinely formed. The União Anarquista Portuguesa (UAP; Portuguese Anarchist Union) had originally been going to hold their congress on the 20th in Lisbon but a military coup forcrd its postponement and relocation.

[D] 1934 - Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (Не́стор Іва́нович Махно́ [uk] Не́стор Ива́нович Махно́ [rus]) aka батько Махно [father Makhno](b. 1889), Ukranian anarchist general who fought both the red and white armies during the Russian Revolution of 1917, exiled in Paris dies in the early hours from tuberculosis. He was 44. [see: Oct. 27 & Nov. 7]

1938 - The beginning of the great battle in Spain on the Ebro front, the last protracted battle that end mid November with the defeat of the Republican forces.

1980 - Kajsa Ekis Ekman, Swedish cultural journalist, commentator and writer, who is a member of the editorial board of the libertarian newspaper 'Brand' (Fire), and a founder of the climate action group Klimax and Feministiskt Nej till Surrogatmödraskap (Feminist No to Surrogacy), born.

[A] 2001 - In Dijon, 40 anarchists occupy the Italian consulate to protest police violence at the G8 Summit in Genoa, Italy. A streamer proclaiming: “G8 kills to bury the anger of the street” is hung above the entrance.
1870 - Louise Hutteaux (Louise Clement; d. unkown), French midwife and individualist anarchist, who was the companion of the Bonnot Gang member Pierre Victorin Joseph Jourdan alias Pierre Clément, born. She was arrested and accused of harbouring him, but was not charged and was released. In August 1913, following a denunciation, she was sentenced, based upon little evidence, to 5 years in prison for "assisting in an abortion".

1881 - Paul Berthelot aka Marcelo Verema (d. 1910), French Esperantist, anarchist, journalist, writer, scientist and anthropologist, born. In 1900 he began to study medicine in Paris and joined the anti-militarist movement. In late 1901 he fled to Switzerland to avoid having to do military service. Having moved to Spain and, moving in anarchist circles, he founded a Catalan Esperanto Association in 1904 and worked on a number of Catalan and Esperantist newspapers. In 1907, Berthelot visit Uruguay and Argentina, settling permanently in Brazil. He first taught Esperanto and French at Berlitz Academy in Rio de Janeiro, then became director of its branch in Petropolis, before being fired for anti-militarist propaganda. He then attempted to establish an anarchist agricultural colony at Dumba, near Leopoldina in the state of Goya, which failed. He also wrote three plays in Portuguese - 'Os Judgment' (The Judgement), 'O Grande Dia' (The Great Day) and 'Impossivel Felicidade' (Impossible Happiness) - and the book of anthropology 'Entre Sertanejos e Indios do Norte' (1910). His most famous book, 'L'Evangile de l'Heure' (The Gospel of the Hour; 1912), was written in French and published in Paris in 'Temps Nouveaux'. The book is a transposition of the parables and teaching of Jesus from a libertarian point of view and appeals to the passions: not to pay rent, workers solidarity, equitable justice, the collectivisation of land, disobedience towards the state and religion, etc..

1893 - George Grosz (Georg Ehrenfried Groß; d. 1959), German Expressionist artist and anti-authoritarian socialist, who became a prominent member of the Berlin Dada and New Objectivity group during the Weimar Republic, born. In November 1914 Grosz volunteered for military service, hoping for a safe post away from the front and was eventually discharged as medically unfit the following year. Like John Heartfiled, he too Anglicised his name in protest against German nationalism but was drafted in Jan. 1917 but against discharged as permanently unfit (he apparently tried to commit suicide and narrowly avoided the firing squad) that May.
Arrested during the Sparticist uprising in Jan. 1919, he managed to escape using false papers. Although active in the Kommunistischen Partei Deutschlands (KPD), he was much more aligned with anarchist thought and organisation, and having spent five months in Russia in 1922 and meeting Lenin and Trotsky, he left the KPD because of his antagonism to any form of dictatorial authority. [In 1933 he was condemned by his former comrades in the Communist Party as "a petty-bourgeois traitor".]
A member of the Berlin Dada group, with John Heartfiled he co-founded the satirical magazine 'Die Pleite' (Bankruptcy; 1919-1924) and would later edit the satirical (KPD) magazine 'Der Knüppel' (The Truncheon). He also co-edited 'Jeder sein eigener Fussball' (Everyman his own Football) with Franz Jung; and 'Der Blutige Ernst' (In Bloody Earnest), with Carl Einstein. In 1921 he stood trial with his published Wieland Herzfelde for defamation of the army for his portfolio 'Gott Mit Uns'. He was fined 300 marks and the print run destroyed. Again in 1923 he was in court, this time charged (using a law that had not been invoked in centuries) with defaming public morals, corrupting the inborn sense of shame and virtue innate in the German people for his portfolio 'Ecce Homo'. Found guilty, he was ordered to pay a 6000 marks fine; and 24 the portfolio's plates were confiscated and banned from publication.
In 1924, he and Wieland Herzfelde formed the artists' association Rote Gruppe (Red Group) based on the program outlined in their 1925 publication 'Die Kunst ist in Gefahr, Drei Aufsätze' (Art is in Danger, Three Essays), and Grosz would chair the group until 1928, when he was co-founder of the Association Revolutionärer Bildender Künstler Deutschlands (German Association of Revolutionary Artists). Grosz was again on trial in 1929, this time charged with blasphemy for his drawing 'Maul Halten und Weiter Dienen' (Shut Up and Obey) featuring a crucified Christ in a gas mask. The judge decided that it was a critique of militarism and not of religion and dismissed the charge.
Bitterly anti-Nazi, Grosz left Germany shortly before Hitler came to power, first on a summer teaching job in 1932 in the US and then, having returned to Germany, he emigrated with his family to New York. During the 1937 Entartete Kunst exhibition he is labelled a "cultural Boshevik" and his art is confiscated and destroyed for its "anarchist implications".
In the States the style of his art changed but he exhibited regularly, and in 1946 he published his autobiography, 'A Little Yes and a Big No'.
"Civilian again, I experienced in Berlin the rudimentary beginnings of the Dada movement, the start of which coincided with the 'swede' period of malnutrition. The roots of this German Dada movement were to be found in the recognition that it was perfectly crazy to believe that the spirit, or anything spiritual ruled the world. Dadaism was the only significant artistic movement in Germany for decades. Dadaism was no artificially fostered movement but an organic product, at its origin a reaction to the cloudlike ramblings of so-called sacred art. Dadaism forced artists to declare openly their position .. . What did the Dadaists do? They said that it did not matter whether a man blew a 'raspberry' or recited a sonnet by Petrarca or Shakespeare or Rilke, whether he gilded jack-boot heels or carved statues of the Virgin. Shooting went on regardless, profiteering went on regardless, people would go on starving regardless, lies would always be told regardless – what was the good of art anyway? In those days we saw the mad final excrescences of the ruling order of society, and burst out laughing. We did not yet see that there was a system behind all this madness." - 'Die Kunst ist in Gefahr, Drei Aufsätze' (Art is in Danger, Three Essays; with Wieland Herzfelde, 1925)

[BB] 1895 - Jankel Adler (d. 1949), Polish painter, printmaker and anarchist, born. Member of the Gruppe Progressiver Künstler Köln (Group of Progressive Cologne Artists) alongside Frans Seiwert and Gerd Arntz. As a modern artist and a Jew, he was forced to flee when Hitler came to power in 1933, the same year his work went on display as degenerate art (and he would also feature in the 1937 Muncih Entartete Kunst exhibition). Taking refuge in Paris, he saw his exile as a conscious act of political resistance against the fascist regime in Germany but eventually ended up in London, where he became involved with 'Freedom', something that would lead to his being refused British nationality after the war.

1896 - The first issue of the anarchist weekly 'The Alarm', "For your liberty and ours", is published in London. Involved are Peter Kropotkin and Emma Goldman but it ceased publication in December of the same year.

1896 - [O.S. Jul. 14] Emmanuel Semenovich Zelikovich (Эммануи́л Семёнович Зелико́вич; d. after 1965), Russian Soviet science fiction writer, populariser of science and anarcho-mystic, born.
Having met Alexei Alexandrovich Solonovich (Алексей Александрович Солонович), one of the leaders of the anarcho-mystical movement in Moscow, he became interested in anarchism and mysticism (although he admitted that mysticism "does not correspond to anarchist doctrine").

1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: The July Revolution (Revolució de Juliol (Cat.) / Revolución de Julio (Sp.) or the Glorious Week (Setmana Gloriosa / Semana Gloriosa) [more commonly known by the name given to it by the Catalan bourgeoisie, Setmana Tràgica (Semana Trágica (Sp.) / Tragic Week) begins in Barcelona.
Following the news of the first armed clashes in Morocco and the death of the first reservists arrives in Spain on July 20 and further protests against the war in Morocco (Second Rif War), Solidaridad Obrera held a rally in Terrassa on July 21 at which a proclamation by the socialist journalist Antoni Fabra i Ribas is read calling for a general strike throughout Spain on Monday July 26th. The 4,000 workers present approved the resolution in favour of the strike. On July 24, news arrived from Morocco that the Spanish army had been defeated by the Rif in Ait Aixa. 26 soldiers were dead and another 230 were wounded. The masses could not wait until August 2nd to begin their fight. The leaders of Solidaridad Obrera were forced to form a central strike committee and begin mobilising for the general strike on Monday 26th.
The strike committee was formed composed of Antoni Fabra i Ribas (who tried unsuccessfully to postpone the Barcelona mobilisation so it would coincide with a general strike that the PSOE and UGT planned to call across Spain, and which eventually took place on August 2 with little support, due to the repressive measures taken by the government, which included the arrest in Madrid on July 28 Pablo Iglesias Posse and the rest of the socialist party leadership), the anarcho-syndicalists, and the bricklayer, and later police informer, Miguel Villalobos Moreno. None were then prominent within the Catalan workers movement. Workers began touring the city collecting money for the fund of resistance for what was planned to be an insurrectionary general strike. The following day the decision to hold the general strike on the 26th was ratified at a meeting with delegates from 250 factories throughout the region of Barcelona, despite the civil governor of Barcelona, Ángel Ossorio y Gallardo, having officially banned the holding of the meeting.
Yet, despite all the ample warnings of the growing discontent, not just in Barcelona but across the whole country, Ossorio y Gallardo and the Generalitat de Catalunya had not put any serious plans in place to prevent serious civil disorder during the general strike. So, when the strike in Barcelona began in the suburbs, where most of the factories were located, little was done to halt the burning of the booths where the hated consumos (consumption) tax was collected.
The strike spread like wildfire from the suburbs to down-town. By mid-morning the whole Catalan economy was paralysed. Many employers, for fear of the workers, decided to close their businesses directly what added more space to the protest. Small businesses, some for fear of the pickets, others sympathetic to the reasons for the strike, closed their doors. Workers began began to forcibly stop trams which, as a key economic sector of the city life, the government tried to protect, but after several clashes between the Guardia Civil and the protesters, they had to abandon their efforts.
By the afternoon the city was in working hands. Workers had managed to secure weapons and began clashing with the Guardia Civil and the police, and attacking Guardia Civil barracks and police stations (military barracks initially went unnoticed), freeing political prisoners. To prevent the arrival of reinforcements rail lines were dynamited, cutting the city off from Madrid, while in the working class neighbourhoods rose hundreds of barricades. The police had dispersed unable to stop the move. The state apparatus was divided between those who wanted the strike suppress immediately (the Minister of the Interior) by bringing in the army, and those like Governor Ossorio who did not want to use troops, fearing that they would fraternise with the workers. That same afternoon, the Madrid government finally forced Ossorio to resign and, unable to stop the workers, the Capitán General de Cataluña, Luis de Santiago, declared martial law in Barcelona.
www.pronunciamientos.rizoazul.com/semana tragica.html

1912 - Paint Creek-Cabin Creek Miners' Strike: Striking miners attack Mucklow, present-day Gallagher, leaving at least twelve strikers and four guards dead. The county sheriff then made a request for troops to be sent in, which now allowed the governor William E. Glasscock to intervene officially.

1917 - Criminal Syndicalism: Following the burning down of the Crookston lumber mill in Bemidji, Minnesota on July 21, which was immediately blamed on the IWW, and the 'discovery' of pamphlets on sabotage in Bemidji's IWW hall, further 'proof' in many's eyes, and for which three Wobblies including Jesse Dunning, the local IWW secretary, were arrested, a mob led by the mayor rounds up 24 Wobblies, including Dunning. They are then forced to salute the flag and packed onto a train bound for Foston. 1,000 people see them off. Dunning later became the first person convicted under Minnesota's new criminal syndicalism legislation.

1931 - John Africa (Vincent Leaphart; d. 1985), African-American founder and ideologue of MOVE, a Philadelphia-based communalist anarcho-primitivist organisation that fell foul of COINTELPRO, born. He was killed during an armed standoff with the Philadelphia Police Department.

## 1937 - Hélio Oiticica (d. 1980), Brazilian visual artist (painting and sculpture) and anarchist, born. Grandson of José Rodrigues Oiticica. Best known for his participation in the Concrete group, his Rio de Janeiro installation 'Tropicália' (1967), a labyrinth-like environment with parrots, plants, sand, texts, and a television — a satire on the clichés of Brazilian culture and a commentary on the conflict between tradition and technology typical in the Third World, gave its name to the Tropicalismo movement.

[B] 1945 - M. John Harrison (pen name of Michael John Harrison), English anarchist, science fiction and fantasy author and critic, born.
"His books are full of anarchists -- some of them very bizarre like the anarchist aesthetes of 'The Centauri Device'." - Michael Moorcock

1947 - Jaime Semprun (d. 2010), French writer, essayist, translator and publisher, post-situationist and libertarian anti-industrialist, who founded the post-situationist journal 'Encyclopédie des Nuisances' and the linked publishing house Éditions de l'Encyclopédie des Nuisances, born.

1948 - Raúl Carballeira Lacunza (b. 1917 or 1918), Argentinian anarchist who was active in the Spanish anti-Franco resistance, commits suicide rather than be captured in the Montjuich gardens during an ambush mounted by commissioner Eduardo Quintela Vault, head of Brigada Politicosocial de Barcelona. [see: Feb. 28]

1948 - Jean-Michel Carré, French director, cinematographer, film producer and screenwriter, born. A one-time Maoist who now claims to be a libertarian.

1948 - Pierre Peuchmaurd (d. 2009), French poet, Surrealist and anarchist, born.

1966 - Henri Quesnel (b. 1883), French libertarian trades union activist, dies. [see: Dec. 2]

1985 - Fredy Perlman (b. 1934), author, publisher, anti-authoritarian activist and important anarchist theorist, dies. [see: Aug. 20]

1985 - Roger Monclin (b. 1903), French anarchist propagandist, pacifist, orator and writer, dies. [see: Jan. 31]

2000 - The premiere in San Francisco at the Castro Theatre of the documentary film 'Emma Goldman: The Anarchist Guest', directed by sociologist and director Coleman Romalis, at the XX Jewish Film Festival.

2004 - Silvia Mistral (Hortensia Blanc[h] Pita; b. 1914), Cuban-Spanish writer, novelist, film critic, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who lived in Spain and Cuba and is best known by her pen name Silvia Mistral, though she also published under the names Silvia M. Robledo, Ana María Muriá and María Luisa Algarra, dies in Mexico City. [see: Dec. 1]
1849 - [N.S. Aug. 8] Vera Ivanovna Zasulich (Ве́ра Ива́новна Засу́лич; d. 1919), Russian revolutionary, anarchist and then a Marxist and Menshevik, born. [see: Aug. 8]

1882 - Poss. date [see also: Jan. 27] for the birth of Hélène Brion (d. 1962), French teacher, feminist, syndicalist and pacifist. The first French woman to be tried before a military tribunal (for publishing defeatist propaganda), she is given a 3 year suspended sentence. Author of 'La Voie Féministe' (1978) who never finished her monumental 'Encyclopédie Féministe', covering biographical information on all the foremost women of her time.

[E] 1884 - Zenzl Mühsam (Creszentia Elfinger; d. 1962), militant German anarchist and companion of Erich Mühsam, born. Having survived the life of a revolutionary activist during the Bavarian Soviet and Erich Mühsam's imprisonment (1919-24), she then had to face his 1933 arrest by the Nazis and murder in Oranienburg concentration camp the following year. Taking refuge in Prague, she is invited to the Soviet Union, where she publishes some of Erich's poems but falls foul of the Stalinist purges in 1936. Arrested in April, she spends the next 6 months in Butyrka prison. Upon her release, she is homeless and acquaintances refuse to help her for fear of arrest and she is forced to run the risk of being accused of anti-state contacts by relying on financial help from abroad. In November 1938, she requests an exit visa for the US and inevitably she is arrested and charged with "abuse of hospitality and participation in counter-revolutionary organisation and agitation". Sentenced to eight years' hard labour and sent to a Siberian gulag, she remains interned until 1947 despite an international campaign to try and free her. In 1955 she finally obtains permission to return to the GDR, where, with deteriorating health and forbidden to talk about her treatment in Russia, she lives under constant Stasi observation and is repeatedly asked to spy for the secret police, something she steadfastly refused to do.

1885 - Congreso Cosmopolita: Held in Barcelona [Jul. 27-29] after having been previously suspended because of a cholera epidemic. It received the name of Congreso Cosmopolita or Congreso lntenaciona. Those attending: the Comisión Federal (with three delegates), comarcales of Andalucía del Sur y Castilla la Vieja, Alcoy, Palencia, San Roque, Tarrasa, Valencia and Valladohd, Unions of transportes, calzados (footwear), manufactureros, hierro y metales (iron and metals), sombrereros (hatters), marineros (sailors), fulistas (felt workers) and panaderos (bakers), as well as anarchist groups of various strands and from different places (Anárquico de Pintores, Círculo de Estudios y Acción Social de Barcelona, Los Desheredados, Grupo Anarcocomunista Italiano de Barcelona, Unión del Pueblo di Marsella, others from Algiers, Bastia, Cairo, Cesenon, Clarence, Gracia, London, Martigues, New York, San Martín de Provensals and Torino). According to a manifesto of Los Desheredados (The Disinherited) there was the split between federalists, communists and desheredados. It was agreed to advise all anarchists to harmonise their propaganda and revolutionary action, without being able to be more specific because of the atmosphere of police harassment in which the congress was being held. ['Enciclopedia del Anarquismo Espanol']

1894 - Théodule Meunier, French practitioner of 'propaganda by the deed', is sentenced to life in prison in the Cayenne penal colony.
"A perpétuité? La société bourgeoise n'en a pas pour aussi longtemps! Courage, copains, et vive l'anarchie!"

[F] 1896 - The International Socialist Workers' and Trades Union Congress (July 27-Aug. 1) is held in London. Both delegations include a number of well-known anarchists including Errico Malatesta, Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis, Pietro Gori, Gustav Landauer, Bernhard Kampffmeyer, Rudolf Rocker, Fernand Pelloutier and Paul Delesalle, Louise Michel, Peter Kropotkin, Élisée Reclus and Jean Grave. The Marxists pass a motion requiring the recognition and the need for "political action" (in legislative and parliamentary voting), and finish by totally excluding anarchists and all anti-parliamentary Socialists from any future congresses (The latter convene their own anti-authoritarian Congress on the 29th).

1903 - Ono Tozaburo (小野十三郎; d. 1996), Japanese poet and anarchist, born. He attended Tokyo University in 1920, dropping out after 8 months because of his objections to the authoritarian forms of education there. He then came in contact with the growing anarchist movement. He started contributing to the new paper 'Aka to Kuro' (Red and Black) in 1923 writing anarchist poetry for it, which was suppressed in 1924. He founded his own paper 'Dam-Dam', a Dadaist-anarchist publication, which he was only able to produce for one issue. No publisher would print his collection of poems 'Hanbun Hiraita Mado' (A Half-Opened Window) so he printed it himself in 1926. He published another anarchist magazine 'Dando' (Trajectory) with anarchist poet Kiyoshi Akiyama which they were unable to publish for a year (1930-31). By about 1934 he had moved to a Marxist-realist position, but his poetry continued to be filled with social criticism. He was one of many active in the cultural wing of a vigorous anarchist movement.

下の方で しずかに

Climb the mountain
and the ocean rises to meet the sky.
Surrounded by an avalanche of young green leaves.
Quietly far below
a cuckoo cries.
Standing in the wind at such a height
anyone would naturally think about the breadth of the world.
I cover my mouth with my hands
wanting to shout something down below.
The mountain in May
is dazzlingly radiant.
Have you ever seen the horizon
draw its long blue arc
higher than the mountaintop?

'山頂から' (From the Summit)


1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: In Barcelona hundreds of barricades were erected and several armouries were looted for their pistols and rifles. Attacks were directed against churches and church properties, especially the convents, schools and boards of religious orders. In the space of a few hours many religious buildings were set on fire. In some cases the friars and nuns and property were respected, but in most cases arsonists rushed to plunder and pillage and burned furniture and fixtures. The parish priest of Poblenou died of asphyxiation in the basement of his church where he had taken refuge. Some cemeteries are also desecrated convents. The highlight of the anticlerical violence occurred during the so-called noche trágica from Tuesday to Wednesday in which twenty buildings in the city centre and eight convents on the outskirts were burned down, and many Catholics suffered insults and taunts, such as the elderly nun who was forced to strip to ensure that she hid nothing underneath her habit. Prominent in the carrying out of these acts of vandalism were the violently anticlerical jóvenes bárbaros (young barbarians), associated with the Partido Republicano Radical (Radical Republican Party) of Alejandro Lerroux, who at the time was in exile.
www.pronunciamientos.rizoazul.com/semana tragica.html

## 1911 - Władysław Głuchowski (d. 1941), Polish teacher, anarcho-syndicalist activist and anti-Nazi fighter, born. 1931-1932 editor of 'Życie Uniwersyteckie' (University Life) in Poznan, activist of Zwiazek Polskiej Mlodziezy Demokratycznej (ZPMD; Union of Polish Democratic Youth), graduated from the History Faculty. After his studies he worked as a teacher in Belorussian secondary school in Wilnus [Vilna]. 1934-1939 anarcho-syndicalist activist in ZZZ (Union of Workers Unions). At the same time member of Anarchistyczna Federacja Polski (AFP: Anarchist Federation of Poland). Published in 'Front Robotniczy' (Workers’ Front, newspaper of ZZZ). In 1935 became a section secretary of ZZZ in Krakow. Arrested January 10, 1937, after rally in Chrzanow, accused of calling for overthrow of the state. In October 1937 acquitted by the court after police and workers’ testimony. 1937-1939 secretary of section of ZZZ in Czestochowa. Strike organiser. Initiator of many workers common-rooms in Upper Silesia and people’s house in Czestochowa. With the lawyer Zygmunt Choldyk was an initiator of underground Polski Związek Wolności (PZW: Polish Association of Freedom). In 1940 joined Syndykalistyczna Organizacja 'Wolnosc' (Syndicalist Organization 'Freedom'). June 12, 1940, arrested by the Gestapo and send to Sachsenhausen concentration camp. January 12, 1941, died of infected wounds as prisoner no.17710. He left a daughter, Helen.

1918 - Julio Rodríguez Fernandez, aka 'El Cubano' aka 'Fedor' aka Rafael Grau Raimundo (d. 1949), Cuban anarchist and anti-fascist guerrilla, born. [poss. alternate date includes 31 Jul.]

1921 - The premises of anarchist militant, anti-militarist and anticlericist Léon Prouvost (the 'Libertarian Philanthropist') are raided. Days later he committed suicide, after having bequeathed part of his fortune to his fellow publisher André Lorulot. [see: Sep. 28 & Aug. 11]

1924 - On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the founding of the A.I.A. (Association Internationale Antimilitariste), a meeting is held in The Hague. Many well-known militants attend, such as Rudolf Rocker, Emma Goldman, Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis, Barthélemy de Ligt and Pierre Ramus.

1936 - In Catalonia, with the enthusiasm of the revolution throughout Spain of the past few days, a new rationalist school - the Centre de l'Escola Nova Unificada (New Unified School Centre) is founded, based and run upon the Modern School principles of Francisco Ferrer.

1936 - Soledad Pastor Serrano (b. unknown), is murdered by the Falangists. Her son Rafael Cuesta Pastor, an active member of the local committee of the CNT and the Comité Revolucionario de Almodóvar had fled the town before the arrival of the Fascist army. Not finding her son, the Falangists beat her, forced her to drink caster oil and paraded her to the square with the village children foolowing and insulting her, before being shot.

##1949 - Jean Roumilhac (b. 1892), French libertarian activist, dies in car accident. Fought in the Spanish Revolution and was first president of the French section of the S.I.A. (International Solidarity Antifascist). In the 1940s Roumilhac created an agricultural company in the Rhone delta, enabling Spanish anarchist refugees to obtain legal residence permits.

1968 - Following the events of the 18th and 20th July and the banning of all protests and rallies in the city, the Living Theatre's play 'Paradise Now' is banned under a local decree. The give a free performance in the street.

1970 - Albert de Jong (b. 1891), militant Dutch anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Apr. 29]

1973 - The Bewegung 2. Juni (2 June Movement) carry out a bank robbery In West Berlin, stealing 200,000 Deutsch Marks.

1977 - Pierre Clastres (b. 1934), French libertarian anthropologist and ethnologist, dies in Gabriac, Lozère in a car accident. [see: May 17]

1979 - Gustavo Cochet (b. 1894), Argentine painter, printmaker, writer and anarchist, who was active in the CNT / FAI in the run up and during the Spanish Revolution, dies in Funes, Rosario. [see: May 6]

[B] 2013 - Michael Anthony 'Mick' Farren (b. 1943), English journalist, writer, poet, musician, activist, agent provocateur and anarchist, dies after collapsing on stage at London's Borderline while performing with his band The Deviants. [see: Sep. 3]
[B] 1862 - Émile Maurin (d. 1913) (known as Élie Murmain), French anarchist militant and photographer, born. Implicated and sentenced in absentia at the Procès des 66 on January 19, 1883 to five years in prison. In exile in Geneva, he was amnestied in 1889 and returned to France, where he became a travelling photographer under the name of Murmain, in spite of serious problems with his eyesight (he gradually went blind). Maurin used this travelling trade to propagate the anarchist ideas. In 1891, he is again sentenced to prison (for six months) for encouraging soldiers to revolt.

1869 - Émile Masson (d. 1923), Breton militant, professor, writer and libertarian socialist propagandist, born. Wrote under the pseudonyms Brenn, Ewan Gweznou and Ion Prigent. A friend of Élisée Reclus and of Kropotkin, he took part in the universitaire populaires (1899–1905) and later on tried to reconcile his libertarian socialism and his Breton nationalist sympathies. Author of 'Les Rebelles' (1908), "anarchico-bretons" tales. [expand]

1877* - [O.S. Jul 16] Nikola Lazarov Yurukov (Никола Лазаров Юруков; d. April 26, 1923), prominent Bulgarian architect and anarchist revolutionary member of the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна македоно-одринска революционна организация) and the Macedonian Federative Organisation (Македонската федеративна организация), born.
[* other d.o.bs given include 23.02.1877 and 1880]

[BB] 1887 - Marcel Duchamp (d. 1968), French-American artist, painter, sculptor, writer, chess player and individualist anarchist, born. Brother of the painter and printmaker Jacques Villon (1875–1963), the sculptor Raymond Duchamp-Villon (1876–1918) and the painter Suzanne Duchamp (1889–1963). The inventor of the 'readymade' who 'gave up' painting for chess in 1913. In Munich on his 1912 visit to Germany, where he painted 'Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors', he discovered Stirner's 'Der Einzige und sein Eigentum' (1845), which he considered a major turning point in his artistic and intellectual development, calling it "...a remarkable book ... which advances no formal theories, but just keeps saying that the ego is always there in everything." [NB: The previous year he had met Francis Picabia, who might also have introduced Duchamp to the works of Stirner, possibly including his essay 'Art and Religion'.] 'Three Standard Stoppages' (1913-14) was one of the first of his works produced under the expressed influence of Stirner's work.
His 'Nu Descendant un Escalier No. 2' (Nude Descending a Staircase No. 2) on show at the NYC Armory Show scandalised Americans and, following the outbreak of WWI in which he was exempted military service, he left for New York in 1915. There he fell in with Man Ray, with both frequenting anarchist circles and becoming the core of what was later labelled New York Dada.

1894 - In Paris the Chamber of Deputies passes the last lois scélérates (villainous laws), condemning any individual or publication using anarchist propaganda.

1907 - In Raon-l'Etape during a peaceful demonstration by French strikers, police open fire on the procession, killing two workers. Barricades appear in the streets and the black flag is raised. Francis Boudoux (Jules Sellenet), anarchist and secretary of the l'Union des Syndicats de Meurthe-et-Moselle, delivers a speech at the funeral services for the two workmen.

1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: Dawn saw Barcelona shrouded by the smoke plumes coming from numerous burning religious buildings. Throughout the day anti-clerical violence and shootings between insurgents and the forces of law and order continues, with the most serious incidents occurring in the district of San Andrés de Palomar, where rebels armed with rifles captured casetas de consumos (consumption tax booths) guards, whilst members of the Militia built barricades and set fire to the parish church. However the same day the first military reinforcements arrived from Zaragoza and Valencia, believing that they would be suppressing a "separatist" movement.
www.pronunciamientos.rizoazul.com/semana tragica.html

1920 - Pasquale Binazzi, Italian trade union militant and director of the anarchist magazine 'Il Libertario', is arrested in Spezio and charged with forming an armed gang during social disturbances in the city last month. In response to his arrest workers initiate a General Strike.

1968 - Following the municipal and prefectural bans on the Living Thetare's play 'Paradise Now', the company decide to withdraw from the festival to which they were invited to give 16 performances. In the Palace des Papes, police and hired thugs hunt down "hairies and hippies". The theatre troupe play the outdoor free Festival de Châteauvallon on August 1 without incident.

## 1969 - White Panther Party founder, anarchist, author, music critic and one-time manager of the band MC5, John Sinclair is sentenced to 10 years in jail for selling two marijuana joints.

1973 - Robin Gunningham, outed by the 'Daily Mail' as the 'real' identity of English graffiti artist, political activist, film director and all round artistic agent provocateur Banksy, born.
“[I] wouldn’t want to be remembered as the guy who contaminated a perfectly legitimate form of protest art with money and celebrities. I do sometimes question whether I’m part of the solution or part of the problem.” 'Time Out' (2010)

1993 - Eleuterio Blasco Ferrer (b. 1907), Aragonese sculptor and painter, draghtsman cartographer and miliciano during the Civil War, dies in the Residencia de la Tercera Edad de Alcañiz (Residence of the Third Age in Alcañiz) in Teruel, Aragón. [see: Feb. 20]

2006 - Richard Mock (b. 1944), US printmaker, painter, sculptor, and editorial cartoonist best known for his linocut illustrations that appeared on the Op-Ed page of 'The New York Times', dies. His art frequently appeared on the covers of the magazines 'Fifth Estate', 'Alternative Press Review' and 'Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed'.
1870 - Paul Delesalle (d. 1948), French mechanic, anarchist and syndicalist, born. One of the most influential figures of pre-WWI anarcho-syndicalism in France.

1871 - Roberto Elia (d. 1924), Italian militant anarchist and Galleanist, born. Elia and his friend Andrea Salsedo owned a print shop in the US. In 1920, during the Palmer Raids in suspects in the 1919 wave of anarchist bombings, both were abducted without a warrant or arrest [see: Mar. 8]. Held in secret, interrogated and beaten for eight weeks, Salsedo mysteriously "falls" from the 14th floor of the Department of Justice offices (May 3, 1920). Elia refused an offer to cancel deportation proceedings if he would testify about his role in the Galleanist organisation.

[B] 1889 - Karl Otten (d. 1963), German Expressionist writer, novelist, poet, playwright, essayist, artist and anarchist, born. He joined Erich Mühsam's Gruppe Tat in 1910 alongside Franz Jung, Oskar Maria Graf and Georg Schrimpf. During WWI his anarchist and pacifist beliefs got him interned at first and was forced to work as a Arbeitssoldat (working soldier) in a censorship office. In 1918 he published a book of poetry 'Die Thronerhebung des Herzens' and was rearrested and locked up in the fortress of Koblenz. |He was only was after the November Revolution had begun. During the war he also became involved in 'Die Aktion', contributing woodcuts and texts, and collected his short stories in 'Der Sprung aus dem Fenster' (1918).
He fled Nazi Germany in 1933, moving to Paris and then Mallorca. When the island became under threat from the Fascists and fearing internment, he fled via France to England. There he worked for the BBC on English and German publications and broadcasts, as well as anthologising English translations of his own anti-Nazi writings in 'A Combine of Aggression: Masses, Elite and Dictatorship in Germany' (1942). His major novel 'Torquemadas Schatten' (Torquemada's Shadow; 1938) is an important novelistic examination of the Spanish Revolution.

1900 - Angelo Gaetano Bresci assassinates King Umberto I of Italy at Monza, in revenge for the repression of the insurrection in Milan two years previously - the so-called Protesta dello Stomaco aka Massacro di Bava-Beccaris [May 6-9, 1898], when the Italian army under the command of General Fiorenzo Bava Beccaris opened fire on demonstrators protesting high bread prices, killing hundreds.
Exactly one month after the assassination, Bresci appeared in court, defended by by the anarchist lawyer and libertarian socialist theorist Francesco Saverio Merlino. He was convicted and sentenced life, with the first seven years spent in solitary confinement, in his one-day trial. On May 22, 1901 he was found dead in his cell in Santo Stefano prison, most likely having been killed by his guards.
"As he left a gymnastic display organised by the society of Fort e Liberi, Umberto I was hit by two revolver shots fired by the anarchist Gaetano Bresci, who had come from Patterson, USA, with the express purpose of avenging the Milan massacres of 1898. Wounded in the neck and shoulder blades, the king died shortly after. Bresci, condemned to convict prison, was found strangled in circumstances which remain obscure, in cell no 515 of Santo Stefano prison on May 22nd, 1901." - 'The Art of Anarchy'
[Costantini pic]

1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: Starting with the area of ​​the Ramblas and the port, about 10,000 soldiers were occupying the city of Barcelona, ​​while the morale of the insurgents was falling as they were aware that their rebellion was not being supported in the rest of Spain. Between Friday and Saturday the city was gradually regaining normal except in the districts of San Andrés and Horta, where they continued the shootings occurred and where the last burning and looting of monasteries and religious schools.
www.pronunciamientos.rizoazul.com/semana tragica.html

[E] 1921 - Maria Occhipinti (d. 1996), Italian anarcha-feminist, born. In 1945 she was involved in the Non si parte! anti-draft revolt in Ragusa, for which she was imprisoned.

## 1929 - Jean Baudrillard (d. 2007), French philosopher, sociologist, cultural theorist, political commentator, photographer and non-doctrinal libertarian, born. [expand]

1932 - Nikolai Ivanovich Pavlov [Николай Иванович Павлов] or Petrov-Pavlov [Петров-Павлов] (b. 1881), Russian Socialist-Revolutionary and then anarcho-syndicalist, dies in exile in Tashkent, Central Asia.

[C] 1944 - Silvano Fedi (b. 1920), Italian anarchist, anti-fascist partisan and local hero, is killed in a Nazi ambush. [see: Apr. 25]

1963 - Two bombs explode in Madrid, including on at the Direction Générale de la Sécurité (General Security Directorate) which explodes prematurely causing 20 minor injuries. The press whip up a frenzy of resentment against the anti-Francoists. Anarchists Joaquin Delgado and Francisco Granados are arrested in possession of explosives in an unrelated incident. They are tortured before being sentenced to death by a military court and executed by garrot vil on August 17, 1963.

##1979 - Émilie Carles (Émile Allais; b. 1900), French teacher, writer, peace activist and libertarian, who is more widely known as the author of the autobiographical 'Une soupe aux herbes sauvages' (A wild herb soup; 1977), dies. [see: May 29]

1983 - Luis Buñuel (b. 1900), Spanish surrealist film-maker/director, dies. [see: Feb. 22]

2000 - Goliardo Fiaschi (b. 1930), Italian anarchist partisan who fought Franco, Moussolini and Hitler's troop, dies. [see: Aug. 21]

2000 - The Direct Action Network stages a protest at the 2000 Republican National Convention in Philadelphia, United States.
1849 - André Romans-Ville (d. unknown), French shoemaker, autodidact and militant anarchist, born. Involved with the group Terre et Liberté, and was a correspondent with Jean Grave, Sébastien Faure and others. Often under police surveillance. Arrested on February 10, 1894, with Pierre Martin and 20 other companions, they were accused of "participation in a criminal conspiracy". He was released a few weeks later, only to suffer further police persecution. In 1905, in Saillans, he participated in the founding congress of the socialist federation, SFIO.

1874 - Aristide Delannoy (d. 1911), French painter, cartoonist and libertarian, born. Passionate artist who survived financially by the publishing of his cartoons, which appeared numerous in anarchist and anti-militarist papers including 'Assiette au Beurre', 'Les Temps Nouveaux', 'La Guerre Sociale' and 'Hommes du Jour', producing over 150 covers for the latter including the first issues picture of Clemenceau's head on a pike. A cartoon of General Albert d'Amade represented a butcher, and published in the 'Hommes du Jour' gained him a year in prison in 1908. His health suffered during his prison sentence and he was released after 4 months, dying of tuberculosis less than 2 years later.

1882 - The first issue of anarchist weekly 'L'Etendard Révolutionnaire' is published in Lyon.

[B] 1889 - Frans Masereel (d. 1972), Belgian radical woodcut artist, printmaker, illustrator, draughtsman, libertarian, communist, pacifist and Master of the wordless novel, born. Passionately anti-war, he sought refuge in Switzerland during WWI, there befriending Stefan Zweig and Romain Rolland and began working for the pacifist publications 'La Feuille' and 'Les Tablettes'. It was there that he published his first works, three anti-war albums: 'Les Morts Parlent' (The Dead Speak; 1917), 'Debout les Morts' (Arise, You Dead; 1917) and the better known '25 Images de la Passion d´un Homme' / 'Die Passion eines Menschen' (25 Images of a Man's Passion; 1918). In 1922 Masereel returned to Paris and began painting his lesser known street scenes. He also travelled, living for a period in Berlin where he became close to George Grosz, sharing a house with him. With the rise of fascism, he reknewed his involvement in anti-war activities, participating in the World Congress Against War and Fascism in Amsterdam in 1932. However, the fear of war weighed heavily on him, with the Nazis banning and destroying his books and the Spanish Republic under threat. In 1937 Masereel travelled to Republican Spain as a member of a delegation of French artists and was involved with the Pavilion of the World Peace Movement at the 1937 World Exhibition in Paris. With the German invasion of France, he fled Paris and, following a failed attempt to leave for South America, his out in the south of France.
His other works include: 'Le Soleil' (The Sun; 1919); 'Mon Livre d'Heures' aka 'Passionate Journey' (1919); 'Histoire Sans Paroles' / 'Geschichte ohne Worte: Ein Roman in Bildern' (Story Without Words: a Novel in Pictures; 1920); 'Die Idee' / 'L' Idée' (The Idea; 1920), also made into a 1932 film by Berthold Bartosch with Masereel's assisstance; 'La Ville' / 'Die Stadt' (The City; 1925); 'Bilder der Großstadt' (Images of the Great City; 1926); 'Das Werk' (The Work; 1928) and 'La Sirene' (The Siren; 1932).
He also illustrated numerous works by others, including Victor Hugo, Tolstoy, Thomas Mann, Oscar Wilde ('The Ballad of Reading Goal'), Hemingway, Hermann Hesse (who wrote an afterword for his 'Histoire Sans Paroles', Romain Rolland (who provided a foreword to 'Mon Livre d'Heures'), Klaus Mann, Kurt Tucholsky, Thomas Mann, Émile Zola, Upton Sinclair and Stefan Zweig. Of these, 2 particulalry stand out: the 100 woodcuts in 1943 reprint of Charles de Coster's 'The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel and Lamme Goedzak' [originally 'La Légende et les Aventures héroïques, joyeuses et glorieuses d'Ulenspiegel et de Lamme Goedzak au pays de Flandres et ailleurs' (1867)] and Romain Rolland's 'Die Révolte der Maschinen, ou la Pensée Déchainée' (1921), with its 33 woodcuts.
"Masereel is also affected by the new course in Germany. Although he is not a Jew, nor a communist (not even salon-communist), his views on humanity, war and peace, rulers and oppressed are today not held highly in the country and as a result it could cost the windows of any bookseller who displayed Masereel's '25 Images de la Passion d´un Homme' in his shop window."
- Letter from George Reinhart to Hermann Hesse (dated 1 April, 1933)

1898 - As a wave of anti-worker and anti-anarchist repression intensifies following riots in Milan, Amilcare Cipriani and five other libertarians are sent to prison with sentences ranging from 1-5 years.

1898 - Juan Puig Elías (d. 1972), Spanish teacher and militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1906 - Alfonso Failla (d. 1986), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist fighter, who took part in the armed resistance against the fascist squadristi in the 1925 Siracusa Uprising and who spent many years interned on the island of Ponza by the fascist regime, born.

1922 - Paterne Berrichon (Pierre Eugène Dufour; d. 1855), French poet, painter, sculptor, designer, anarchiste and anti-propriétaire, dies at his home in La Rochefoucauld, Charente. [see: Jan. 10]

1925 - Alexander Trocchi (d. 1984), Scottish novelist and International Situationist, born. Best known for his heroin addiction and the novel 'Cain's Book'.

[D] 1936 - Airlift of Spain’s fascist military leaders and their troops from Africa to the Iberian Peninsula with planes supplied by the fascist regimes of Germany and Italy.

1936 - At the Palais de la Mutualité in Paris, a CGT-SR solidarity event is held. Tributes are paid to Erich Mühsam, Alexander Berkman, Francisco Ascaso and Manuel Perez, and protests are made demanding the release of Zenzl Mühsam currently imprisoned in the Soviet Union and for Simón Radowitsky still imprisoned in Uruguay.

1941 - Jean-Louis Comolli, French writer, film director, screenwriter, editor, actor, jazz aficionado and libertarian, born. Amongst his films are 'Cecilia' (1976), which tells the true story of an Italian anarchist colony in Brazil in the 1890s, and 'Buenaventura Durruti, Anarchiste' (1999). He also played a part in Jean-Luc Godard's 'Alphaville, une étrange aventure de Lemmy Caution' (1965).

1957 - José Rodrigues Oiticica (b. 1882), Brazilian anarchist, poet, and activist dies. He was founder and editor of the anarchist journal 'Ação Direta' (Direct Action). [see: Jul. 22]

## 1959 - Vadim Valerievich Damier (Вади́м Вале́рьевич Дамье́), Soviet and Russian historian and anarchist, who is the lead researcher at the Institute of World History of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Институ́т всео́бщей исто́рии РАН) and a member of the Confederation of Revolutionary Anarcho-Syndicalists (Конфедерация революционных анархо-синдикалистов), the Russian section of the AIT-IWA, born.

2006 - Murray Bookchin (b. 1921), one-time anarchist militant and theorist, pioneer in the ecology movement, who introduced the concept of social ecology, dies. [see: Jan. 14]
1784 - Denis Diderot (b. 1713), French essayist, philosopher and playwright, claimed to be a forebearer of anarchism, dies. [see: Oct. 5]

1848 - At the National Assembly in Paris, Proudhon presents a bill for the progressive abolition of land ownership. A frontal attack on the bourgeoisie, it proposes the abolition of l'ancienne société and continues the work begun with the Revolution of February 1848. The speech arouses public outrage and only Louis Greppo, a weaver from Lyon, votes in favour of the proposition.

[B] 1857 - Adolphe Willette (b. 1926), French painter, caricaturist and anarchist who bizarrely also ran as an 'anti-semitic' candidate in the Paris elections in 1889, born.

## 1864 - Fábio Luz (Fábio Lopes dos Santos Luz; d. 1938), leading Brazilian anarchist, physician, writer, novelist, critic, short story writer, essayist and teacher, born. Involved in the anti-slavery movement as a youth, he discovered anarchism with the reading of Peter Kropotkin's 'Paroles d'un Révolté'. Wrote 'D'Ideólogos' (1903), 'D'os Emancipados' (1906), and 'Virgem-Mãe' (1908), the first novels in Brazil to tackle the social question.

1865 - Adalgisa Fochi (d. 1957), Italian teacher, writer and socialist activist in feminist circles, born. The mother of Camillo Berneri and grandmother of Maria Luisa Berneri and Giliana Berneri.

#### 1871 - [O.S. Jul. 19] Maria Isidine aka Maria Goldsmith or Maria Korn (Maria Isidorovna Goldsmith [Мария Исидоровна Гольдсмит]; d. 1933), Russian Jew, Socialist-Revolutionary, anarchist militant and biologist (animal psychology) at the Sorbonne préparatrice zoology laboratory, born. Following the death of her father Isidor, the publisher of the St. Petersburg positivist oriented review 'Znanie', who had been deported to Siberia, she left Russia with her ​​mother, Sofia Ivanova Goldsmith, a disciple of the socialist-revolutionary, Pyotr Lavrov, in 1888. They settled in Zurich but, in 1890, moved to Paris where she enrolled in the Sorbonne gaining both undergraduate and masters degrees, and publishing numerous research papers, both individually and co-authored with her fellow biologist Yves Delage.
Considered one of the leading theoreticians of anarcho-syndicalism in Russia, she is mostly remembered for her contribution to the debate around 'Organisation and Party', in which she shows the limits of both the Platform and the Synthesis positions then current in anarchism. She contributed many articles in Russian, English, French and Yiddish to anarchist publications. She also translated Kropotkin's 'Ethics', carrying out a correspondence with him between 1897 and 1917, letters which have since been published. In 1928, she was the secretary of the Ukrainian anarchist Nestor Makhno, during his exile in France. She lived with her mother in a flat that became a regular meeting place for Russian anarchists in Paris. When her mother died, she committed suicide in January 1933.

1881 - Anna Mahé (Anna Marie-Rose Mahé; d. 1960), French teacher, accountant, militant anarchist individualist, anti-militarist and free-love advocate, born.

1881 - The first issue of the weekly 'La Propaganda', "eco de la clase trabajadora", is published in Vigo, Spain. Started by Ricardo Mella, ir is initially a republican paper but eventually adopts a collectivist anarchist line.

[1883 - [O.S. Jul. 19] Jānis Žāklis, aka Mērnieks, Pēteris Mālderis or Peter the Painter, etc. (d. unknown), [EXPAND]

##1891 - Ignacio Núñez Soler (born Ignacio Soler Nuñez; d. 1983), prominent Paraguayan plastic artist and anarchist, born in Asunción.

1899 - Daniel Garrison Brinton (b. 1837), US archaeologist, ethnologist, author, surgeon in the Union army during the American Civil War, and later an anarchist, dies in Philadelphia. [see: May 13]

1901 - Jean Philippe Arthur Dubuffet (d. 1985), French Art Brut painter, sculptor, lithographer, writer, anarchist, atheist, anti-militarist and anti-patriot, born.

##1905 - [O.S. Jul. 18] Aida Issakhorovna Basevich (Аида Иссахаровна Басевич; d. 1995), Russian engineering technician and lifelong anarchist militant, who suffered repeated repression by the Soviet regime, born.

1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: The uprising in Barcelona had been more or less fully suppressed and the Maura government, through its Minister of the Interior Juan de la Cierva i Peñafiel, immediately began to exact a harsh and arbitrary repression. In the city, more than 2,500 people were arrested (had to enable ships to store the prisoners because it exceeded the capacity of the Barcelona jails) of which 1,725 ​​were prosecuted. 175 were sentenced to exile, 59 to life imprisonment, 18 to temporary detention, 13 to 'rigorous imprisonment' (prisión mayor), 39 to correctional prison and 5 were given death sentences. In addition, unions were closed down, including Solidaridad Obrera, and the closure of secular schools was also ordered.
The five people sentenced to death and executed by the government were: Josep Miquel Baró, a Republican nationalist was executed on August 17, 1909 in Montjuic Prison; Antonio Pujol Malet a Lerroux Republican, executed on September 13; Clemente Garcia, a young man with Down syndrome accused of dancing with the body of a nun in the streets of Barcelona, ​​executed on October 4; Eugenio del Hoyo, a former policeman and security guard; and best known of all, Francisco Ferrer Guardia, the anarchist educationalist and co-founder of Escuela Moderna, executed by firing squad on October 13, the government having used the pretext of his supposedly been the instigator of the uprising to rid itself of a prominent opponent. His murder cause worldwide protests.
www.pronunciamientos.rizoazul.com/semana tragica.html

1918 - Julio Rodríguez Fernandez, aka 'El Cubano' aka 'Fedor' aka Rafael Grau Raimundo (d. 1949), Cuban anarchist and anti-fascist guerrillerio, born. [poss. alternative date to 27 Jul.]

[C] 1922 - Sciopero Legalitario [Strike for Legality]: A General Strike against Fascism, the Sciopero legalitario (Strike for legality) to protest against fascist violence, is called in Italy. It collapses on the August 2nd and the Fascists respond by attacking the last outposts of resistance to their rule.

[F] 1925 - Red Friday: In 1925 when employers attempted to impose yet another round of wage cuts and a lengthening of hours, they were faced with more formidable opposition from a re-grouped Triple Alliance of mine, railway and transport unions and the unofficial National Minority Movement formed in 1924. Strike action was threatened and on the day the strike would have started, Friday July 31, 1925, the Government announced that it would grant a subsidy to the coal industry for nine months while a Royal Commission conducted an inquiry. This victory, accomplished without strike action, was hailed in banner headlines in the 'Daily Herald' as 'Red Friday' (a union defeat four years earlier had been called 'Black Friday' [April 15, 1921]), although subsequent events proved it to be more of a truce than a victory.

1937 - Felipe Cortiella y Ferrer (b. 1871), prominent Catalan author, poet, translator, dramatist, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies of a stroke. [see: Nov. 9]

1952 - Verena Becker, West German member of the Bewegung 2. Juni (June 2 Movement) and later the Rote Armee Fraktion (Red Army Faction) and later informant for the Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz (Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution), born.

1963 - Spanish anarchists Francisco Granados and Joaquín Delgado are arrested for two bombings they did not commit. Convicted solely on the basis of their being anarchists, they were later garrotted.

[AA] 1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Despite close police protection in the home of the Secretary for Trade and Industry, John Davies, is badly damaged by a powerful explosion in London. This action followed close on Davies' announcement of his intention to close Upper Clyde Shipbuilders, throwing thousands of men out of work. This is accompanied by the 11th Communique from the Angry Brigade.

1980 - Louis Simon (b. 1900), French mathematician, individualist anarchist and militant pacifist, dies. [see: Jul. 9]

2002 - Zapatista Uprising: The autonomous municipality Ricardo Flores Magón denounces an attack on the Zapatista support bases in the La Culebra ejido by a group of 40 armed paramilitaries from the PRI community San Antonio Escobar.

2005 - René Bianco (b. 1941), French anarchist activist and historian, free-thinker and a Freemason, dies. [see: Oct. 4]

1855* - Alternative date for the birth of Teresa Fabbrini (Teresa Maria Anna Carolina Fabbrini Ballerini; b. 1855), Italian anarchist and feminist, who from a young age was distinguished both as a tireless propagandist of anarchist ideas and as a lecturer and writer in favour of anarchism and women's rights. [see: Oct. 1]

1863 - Stuart Merrill (d. 1915), American Symbolist poet, who wrote mostly in French, and anarchist sympathiser, born. Taught in Paris by Stéphane Mallarmé and by the time he published his first book of poems, 'Les Gammes', he was active Parisian anarchist circles. He campaigned for the Haymarket Martyrs and for the release of Oscar Wilde. His other works include 'Les Fastes' (1891), and 'Petits Poèmes d'Automne' (1895).
"Le Symbolisme... fut un movement libertaire en littérature."

1869 - The first issue of the weekly 'La Federación', "Organo de la Federacion Barcelonesa de la Asociacion Internacional de los Trabajadore", is published in Barcelona.

[B] 1875 - François-Henri Jolivet (d. 1955), French worker-poet, anarchist and pacifist songwriter, born. Member of La Muse Rouge goguette, participated in the Vache Enragée's fêtes ouvrières and the pacifist 'La Patrie Humaine'.

1884 - The first issue of 'L'Ami des Ouvriers', "Organe des travailleurs de langue française aux Etats-Unis", is published in Hastings, Pennsylvania.

1885 - Pierre Mauldes (Pierre-Louis Beauchet; d. 1966), French militant anarchist, collaborated on 'Libertaire', 'La Revue Anarchiste', 'La Revue Internationale Anarchiste', etc., born.

1889 - The first issue of the German-language anarchist-communist periodical 'Der Anarchist' is published in St. Louis, Missouri.

1892 - Emma Goldman chairs a meeting of over three hundred anarchists to discuss Berkman's attempt to assassinate Henry Clay Frick. Other speakers include Autonomie group leader Josef Peukert, Dyer D. Lum, editor of the 'Alarm', and Italian anarchist Saverio Merlino, an editor of 'Solidarity'.

1892 - The first issue of the satirical weekly newspaper 'De Roode Duivel' (The Red Devil) is published in Amsterdam by Louis M. Hermans, who is also the paper's editor and illustrator.

1897 - André Pierre Daunis (d. 1985), French railway worker, farmer, electrician, mason and militant libertarian communist, born.

[E] 1902 - Lola Iturbe (Dolores Iturbe Arizcuren; d. 1990), Catalonian militant anarcho-syndicalist and member of Mujeres Libres, born. Wrote many of her Mujeres Libres article under the pseudonym Kyralina, in tribute to the famous novel by Panaït Istrati. Secretary of Sindicato del Vestido de Barcelona and editor of the collection 'La Mujer en la Lucha Social y en la Guerra Civil de España' (Editores Mexicanos Unidos, 1974).

1904 - [N.S. Aug. 14] Mariola Milkova Sirakov (Мариола Милкова Сиракова; d. 1925), Bulgarian actor and anarcho-communist revolutionary, born. [see: Aug. 14]

1907 - Angelo Pellegrino Sbardellotto (d. 1932), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, born. Exiled in France following the rise of Fascism in Italy, he is arrested on June 4, 1932, having planned to assassinate Mussolini. He is summarily tried and executed by a fascist firing squad on June 17.

1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: With employers promising that Barcelona workers would receive a full weeks salary, if they returned to work as if nothing had happened, most did. In many other Catalan towns, full normality did not return until Thursday August 5.
In Barcelona the casualty list for the week's upheavals was 75 dead workers, most killed by police and government installed snipers on rooftops or in battle defending the barricades (some sources put the figure at more than 104). Three soldiers also dies. More than 500 workers were injured, some of whom went on to die subsequently, conscious of the fact that if they went to the authorities for healthcare would end up in prison. Also, one hundred and fifteen buildings (of these, 80 were religious buildings) were destroyed through arson.
www.pronunciamientos.rizoazul.com/semana tragica.html

1912 - Vincent Ruiz Gutiérrez (d. 1998), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who participated in the Spanish Civil War, born [expand].

1919 - Alexander Metodiev Nakov (d. unknown), Bulgarian militant anarchist and Esperantist, born.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1925 - The first issue of the Italian-language monthly anarchist magazine 'Culmine' (Summit) is published in Buenos Aires by Severino Di Giovanni.

1927 - André Veidaux (anagrammatic pseudonym of Jean-Baptiste Adrien Devaux; b. 1868), French Symbolist writer, poet, critic and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Jun. 7]

1933 - Revolución del 33 / Cuban General Strike: During a strike of bus and truck drivers, soldiers fire on demonstrators in Havana on August 1, killing two. In Santa Clara the same day, shops and theatres were closed.

1936 - José Sánchez Rosa (b. 1864), Spanish autodidact, teacher, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, is assassinated by Francoist forces. A few days after the fascist uprising of 18 July 1936 he is arrested. A squad of Requetés loaded a truck with his books, pamphlets and all his documents, placing the old Anarchist teacher, who had taken to his sickbed suffering from diabetes, on a mattress on top of his confiscated library. On the morning of August 1, 1936, he is placed up against a wall in the cemetery of Seville and shot. His body is then thrown into the mass grave. [see: Oct. 22]

1941 - Carlo Abate (b. 1859), Italian-American anarchist sculptor and teacher, who was the printer and engraver for the militant Italian language journal 'Cronaca Sovversiva', dies. [see: Oct. 20]

1941 - Étienne Roda-Gil (Esteve Roda Gil; d. 2004), French-born poet, songwriter, screenwriter, libertarian and anarcho-syndicalist, born. The son of militant libertarian Spanish exiles, he was born in the Montauban (Tarn-et-Garonne) refugee camp [his father was interned at nearby Camp de Septfonds prisoner camp]. During the Algerian war he refused to join the French army even though, as a stateless alien, he would obtain a French passport. Instead he fled to London, participating in Spanish libertarian circles and Committee of 100 activities. He also discovered rock 'n' roll. Back in France he was active in the FIJL and CNT. [expand]

## 1942 - Anton Makarovich Prudkin (Антон Макарович Прудкин; b. 1880), Russo-Bulgarian sea captain, adventurer, anarchist, revolutionary, spy, smuggler, writer and artist, is sentenced to death and executed after being captured by the Germans trying to blow up gas tanks near Varna. [see: Jan. 16]

1944 - Warsaw Uprising: The 104 Kompania Związku Syndykalistów Polskich (Company 104 of the Union of Polish Syndicalists) is formed in Warsaw district of Old Town on August 1, 1944, on the first day of the Uprising, as part of Company Róg (Horn) of the Northern Group (Grupa 'Północ') of the Armia Krajowa (AK; Home Army). It fought throughout the Uprising and amongst the last armed group left defending the barricades from the advancing Nazis - many argue that the AK deliberately exposed the fighters to almost certain capture or death after they had withdrawn from the Old Town. However, the last 70-80 fighters managed to withdraw from the area in late August, escaping through the sewage canals to the Warszawa-Śródmieście .

1962 - Igor Yuryevich Podshivalov (Игорь Юрьевич Подшивалов; d. 2006), Russian journalist and prominent Siberian anarchist activist, born. Author of 'Siberian Makhnovshchina : Siberian Anarchists in the Russian Civil War (1918-1924)', 2011, which was published as 'Анархия в Сибири' (Anarchy in Siberia; 2015) in Russia.

1986 - Jeanne Humbert (Henriette Jeanne Rigaudin; b. 1890), French writer, journalist, pacifist and anarchist militant, who belonged to the néo-Malthusien movement, fighting for sexual freedom and for contraception and abortion rights, dies. She was sent to prison alongside her companion Eugène Humbert for spreading neo-Malthusian propaganda in 1921. [see: Jan. 24]

1993 - Abraham Guillén Sanz (b. 1913), Spanish anarchist militant, author, economist, educator, and theorist of cooperativism and self-management, who was a lifelong member of the CNT, both in Spain and in exile in South America, dies in Madrid. [see: Mar. 9]

2005 - Constant Anton Nieuwenhuys, better known simply as Constant (b. 1920), Dutch painter, sculptor, graphic artist, author and musician, who was a founding member of both CoBrA and the Internationale Situationniste, and the designer of visionary New Babylon architecture project, dies in Utrecht. [see: Jul. 21]
1861 - Fernando Tarrida del Mármol (d. 1915), Cuban-born Spanish anarchist theorist, writer, free-thinker, engineer, teacher and director of the Escuela Politecnica of Barcelona, born.

1893 - Régis Messac (d. 1945), French teacher, union organiser, Résistance member, writer, novelist, poet, pacifist and anarchist, born. Like his parents, he was a teacher but suffers a serious brain injury during WWI. Demobilised in 1919 and disgusted with the war, he wrote 2 autobiographical novels: 'Le Voyage de Néania, à travers la guerre et la paix' (1926) and 'Ordre de Transport' (unpub.); a play, 'Phobie du Bleu' (unpub.); a pamphlet, 'Le Pourboire du Sang' (1936), and a small book of poems: 'Poèmes Guerriers' (1926).
Having learnt English from British troops at the end of the war, he went on to work and teach in various universities in England and in Canada. He returned to France in 1929, teaching at a college in Montpellier and obtained his doctorate in arts with a thesis 'Le Detective Novel et l'Influence de la Pensée Scientifique' (1929).
An anarcho-syndicalist and pacifist, he called into question the standard pedagogy and dogmas of official teaching, and as an active militant, became, in 1936, secretary of the Fédération Générale de l'Enseignement (General Federation of Teachers).
As a writer and poet, Messac published two science fiction novels 'Quinzinzinsili' (1935) and 'La Cité des Asphyxiés' (1937), as well pieces for various reviews, on libertarian and proletarian literature. In all, his work includes 30 books, one of which is a posthumous novel 'Valcrétin', a sort of sci-fi anti-colonial satire written in 1943, which was published in 1973.
During the German occupation in WWII, Messac was a member of the Résistance, organising escape routes for those fleeing compulsory labour conscription, and wrote an anti-Vichy tract 'Pot-pourri Fantôme', a chronicle of the war and occupation between 1939 and 1942. Arrested on May 10 1943 during the German occupation and sent to the Nazi concentration camps, he is believed to have dies some time during 1945 in Gross-Rosen or Dora.
Many of his books are currently being reprinted by the French publisher Ex nihilo.

1894 - The Italian anarchist Jeronimo Santo Caserio goes on trial for the assassination of French President Sadi Carnot, in revenge for the death of Auguste Valliant.

1900 - On the Avenue Malakoff in Paris, anarchist François Salsou tries unsuccessfully to kill Muzaffar al-Din, the Shah of Persia, during an official visit to France. Jumping on the Shah's open coach, he points his pistol at the chest of the Shah but the weapon is defective and fails to fire. Disarmed by the crowd, he narrowly escapes being lynched.

[E] 1901 - [O.S. Jul. 20] Ida Mett [Ида Метт] (Ida Meyerovna Gilman [Ида Мееровна Гилман]; d. 1973) Belarusian-born anarchist, syndicalist and author, born. Member of the Dielo Truda (Дело Труда / Workers' Cause) group from 1925 to 1928. Author of 'The Kronstadt Uprising' (1921) and 'The Russian Peasant in the Revolution and Post Revolution' (1968) amongst others. [expand]

## 1901 - Ángel Borda (d. 1980), Argentinian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, trades union organiser, popular library founder, autodidact, sculptor, story and song (chamarritas and coplas) writer, born.

[A/D] 1903 - [O.S. Jul. 20] Ilinden Uprising [Илинденско въстание]: An uprising, in planning since May, begins across large parts of the areas around Bitola, in the south-west of what is now the Republic of Macedonia and some of the north of Greece. The day chosen for the uprising was August 2 (July 20 in the old Julian calendar), the feast day of St. Elias (Elijah). This holy day was known as Ilinden.
During the night of August 2 and early morning of August 3, the town of Kruševo is attacked and captured by 800 Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) rebels.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1922 - Jacques-Mécislas Charrier (b. 1895), French individualist anarchist and illegalist, is guillotined in Paris. He goes to his death at four o'clock in the morning singing the 'Internationale', 'Hymn to the 17th' and 'La Carmagnole'. [see: May 2]

1972 - Paul Goodman (b. 1911), American anarchist cultural critic, poet, playwright, novelist and psychotherapist, dies. Author of 'Communitas: Means of Livelihood and Ways of Life' (1947); 'Growing Up Absurd: Problems of Youth in the Organised System' (1960); 'Don Juan: or, The Continuum of the Libido' (1979); etc. [see: Sep. 9]

1986 - Eric King, US vegan anarchist, who was arrested and charged with an attempted firebombing [his two lit molotovs failed to ignite] of a government official’s office in Kansas City, MO, subsequently to ten years in prison after accepting a non-cooperating plea agreement, born.

1997 - William Seward Burroughs II (pen name William Lee; b, 1914), American novelist, short story writer, essayist, painter, satirist, one-time junkie, celebrated queer and libertarian, dies from complications of a heart attack he had suffered yesterday. [see: Feb. 5]

2009 - Félix (Felicísimo) Álvarez Ferreras (b. 1921), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, Civil War and Résistance fighter, writer and polyglot, dies. [see: Jun. 8]
1843 - Isabel Vilà i Pujo (d. 1896), Catalan nurse, syndicalist, member of the International and rationalist educator, who is considered to have been a pioneer of syndicalism in Catalonia, born.

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantona in Sanlúcar: With the troops commanded by Brigadier José Soria Santa Cruz massed outside the city, the canton collapses before any force could be used against them.
When the troops finaly entred Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Brigadier Santa Cruz appointed Mayor Joaquin Leonar Trapero, ordered the collection of all firearms, fired the radicalised Republic Volunteers and recruited new ones, returned all confiscated goods to the Church, prohibited public disorder, and arrested Antonio Cuevas and about 200 other revolutionaries, who were imprisoned or sent to Ceuta, to the shipyards of La Carraca, or to the Philippines. Most of them were eventually pardoned in 1877.

## 1886 - António Gonçalves Correia (d. 1967), Portuguese anarchist, humanist, vegetarian, poet and essayist, born. Founder of the Comuna da Luz, the first anarchist community in Portugal. [expand]

1887 - Paul 'Ovide' Ducauroy (d. 1953), French weaver, and anarchist individualist activist and propagandist, born.

##1888 - Juan Esteban Fagetti (d. 1954), Uruguayan former soldier, autodidact, writer, poet, journalist and anarchist, born in Paysandú.

1894 - The Italian anarchist Jeronimo Santo Caserio is condemned to die by a Rhône Court of Assizes for the assassination of French President Sadi Carnot (to avenge Auguste Valliant).

1896 - A crowd of 20,000 people gather at the statue of Étienne Dolet in the Place Maubert, Paris, following the call from Parian socialist groups for people to express their anti-clericalism and atheism. This annual gathering of freethinkers will face, over the years, repeated attempts by the authorities to ban it. The Nazis would melt the statue down during the Occupation.

1903 - [O.S. Jul. 21] Ilinden Uprising [Илинденско въстание] / Kruševo Republic [Крушевска република]: The town of Kruševo is captured during the morning by 800 Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) rebels.

1907 - Solidaridad Obrera (Workers Solidarity) is founded in Spain; two months later the organisation begins publishing a newspaper of the same name.

##1916 - Adelita del Campo (nickname of Adela Carreras Taurà; d. 1999), Catalan dancer, actress, feminist, anarchist militant and member of Mujeres Libres, and later a communist, born.

1921 - Hayden Carruth (d. 2008), American poet, literary critic, "old-line anarchist" and "rural communist with a small c", born. 'Suicides and Jazzers' (1992). [expand]

"…. My hands
are sore, they flinch when I light my pipe.
I think of those who have done slave labor,

less able and less well prepared than I.
Rose Marie in the rye fields of Saxony,
her father in the camps of Moldavia

and the Crimea, all clerks and housekeepers
herded to the gaunt fields of torture….

… And I stand up high
on the wagon tongue in my whole bones to say

woe to you, watch out
you sons of bitches who would drive men and women
to the fields where they can only die."

- 'Emergency Haying'


1922 - Jacques-Mécislas Charrier (d. 1895), French anarchiste illégaliste, is guillotined for an attempted train robbery which he didn't commit. [see: May 2]

[A] 1927 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Gov. Fuller announces he will not intervene to stop the scheduled executions.

1942 - Francesco Ghezzi (b. 1893), Italian individualist anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies in a Soviet gulag. [see: Oct. 4]

1949 - Paul Roussenq (b. 1885), known as the "anarchist convict" for the long prison sentences he endured following various offences against authority, dies. [see: May 5]

1961 - Lawrence Jarach, U.S. anarchist essayist and vocalist and trombonist for punk/polka band, Polkacide, born. Author of the primer 'Anarchy 101: Instead of a Meeting', Jarach is a contributing editor of 'Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed', and has published in the 'Berkeley Daily Planet', 'Killing King Abacus', 'Green Anarchy' and 'L'EnDehors'.

1987 - Radio Libertaire, which has fought against the government's attempts to close it down since its 1981 inception, finally get approval to broadcast from the Chirac government via the Commission Nationale de la Communication Audio-visuelle (C.N.C.L.). The harassment does not stop however.

2005 - Françoise d'Eaubonne (Françoise Marie-Thérèse Piston d'Eaubonne; b. 1920), French woman of letters (novels, biographies, essays, poetry, momoirs, etc.) and libertarian feminist, whose ceaseless campaigning led to her one of the most influential and best-known leaders of the French feminist movement and who is credited with having coined the terms 'écoféminisme' and 'phallocrate', dies in Paris. [see: Mar. 12]

2010 - Jaime Semprun (b. 1947), French writer, essayist, translator and publisher, post-situationist and libertarian anti-industrialist, who founded the post-situationist journal 'Encyclopédie des Nuisances' and the linked publishing house Éditions de l'Encyclopédie des Nuisances, dies in Paris of a cerebral haemorrhage. [see: Jul. 26]
1869 - John Frederick Mowbray-Clarke (d. 1953), American sculptor, anarchist fellow traveller and one of the organisers of the influential 1913 Armory Show in New York, born. He and his wife Mary Horgan Mowbray-Clarke ran the Sunwise Turn bookshop in NYC and later the Brocken farm and studio in Rockland County, New York, a centre for anarchist and socialist activities.

1870 - Luisa Pavón Muñoz aka 'Ragon' (d. unknown), Spanish dancer and anarchist, born. She and her husband, Ramon Gabarró Julian, an electrical engineer from Manresa, were expelled (to France) from Spain for their libertarian activities, later returning to live in San Sebastián, Madrid and Cartagena. Gabarró was later arrested in Bayonne whilst attempting to cross the border in 1894. That same year Ragon's name appears on a border control monitoring list of anarchists established by the French railway police.

1872 - National Conference brings together the Italian sections of the AIT (Aug. 2-4). Delegates representing 21 cities, including Cafiero, Costa, Fanelli, Malatesta, etc., meet. An Italian Federation, allied to the First International, (Federazione delle Sezioni Italiane dell'Internazionale) is founded. It opposes the Marxist General Council in London, presaging the split of the First International between authoritarian (Marxist/statist) and anti-authoritarian (anarchist/antistatist) wings.

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Cadiz: The military forces of General Pavia, entered with their troops in the city of Cadiz.

1876 - João de Camargo Penteado (d. 1965), one of the leading Brazilian anarchist pedagogues of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, he co-founded the first Escola Moderna in Brazil, collaborated on and edited numerous libertarian periodicals, and was editor of the 'Boletim da Escola Moderna' (Escola Moderna Bulletin), born.

1895 - At a banquet for more than four thousand organised to celebrate the fiftieth birthday of M. Vuillemin, the director of the Compagnie des Mines d'Aniche (Aniche Mines Company) in Auberchicourt (Nord), anarchist and former miner Clément Delcoux, who had been sacked following a strike in 1893, fires several shots at Vuillemin as he leaves a celebratory Mass. Hit 4 times, the group of engineers and shareholders present attempt to disarm him but a bomb he is carrying explodes, killing Delcoux and injuring several of the guests. Vuillemin survives the attack.

[B] 1896 - José Domingo Gómez Rojas (d. 1920), Chilean poet and anarchist, who was a victim of the Guerra de don Ladislao, born. [expand]

1899* - [O.S. Jul. 23] Vasil Popov, aka Hero [Героя], Doctor [Доктора] (Васил Попов; d. 1927), Bulgarian anarchist guerrilla, who was one of the five members of the anarcho-communist Koprivshtitsa (Копривщенската) cheta that carried out the attack on Tsar Boris III's car in the Arakonakak (Арабаконак) pass on April 14, 1925, born.
During a failed attempt to rob the Agricultural Bank (Земеделска банка) in Troyan (Троян), he and his comrades were surrounded by police and, seriously injured and with no chance of escape, Popov committed suicide.
[*d.o.b. also erroneously given as Apr. 4 [O.S. Mar. 23], 1879]

1901 - Juan Manuel Molina Mateo aka 'Juanelo' (d. 1984), important Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1903 - [O.S. Jul. 22] Ilinden Uprising [Илинденско въстание]: Under the leadership of Nikola Karev (Никола Карев), a local administration is set up known as the Kruševo republic. Turkish troops begin an unsuccessful attempt to retake Kruševo.

1907 - Joaquín Pérez Navarro (d. 2006), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, born.

1914 - Hubertine Auclert aka 'Liberta' and Jeanne Voitout [penname] (Marie-Anne-Hubertine Auclert; b. 1848), French journalist, militant feminist, women's suffrage campaigner and militant anticlerical, dies. [see: Apr. 10]

1920 - Count de Salvatierra, ex-governor of Barcelona (the 'Pacifier of Barcelona', responsible for the repression of the CNT, and the ley de fugas (law of escape - where arrested prisoners are 'allowed' to escape so that they can be shot) murders of 30 trade unionists) is shot down by several anarchists.

1931 - Paul Avrich (d. 2006), American academic, biographer and historian of the anarchist movement in Russia and the US, born.

1950 - Adolphe Tabarant (b. 1863), French libertarian socialist, journalist, writer and art critic, who wrote numerous studies on Impressionist painters and helped organise their exhibitions, dies. [see: Oct. 8]

1977 - Ernst Bloch (b. 1885), German Marxist philosopher, utopian, pacifist and one-time anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 8]

2000 - Salvador Clement (b. 1916), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, active with the CNT, who took refuge in France following the failure of the Spanish Revolution, dies.

2007 - Inés Ajuria de la Torre (b. 1920), Basque militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Oct. 1]

2008 - Juan López Romero Jiménez (aka 'Juan el Camas' or 'Chiquito de Camas' [Shorty from Camas]; b. 1928), Andalusian anarchist and flamenco singer, especially of the fandango, dies. [see: Feb. 25]

## 2014 - Sergio David Urrego Reyes (b. 1997), Colombian student and anarchist member of the Unión Libertaria Estudiantil, takes his own life at the age of sixteen, a victim of homophobic persecution. [see: Nov. 25]
1846 - Emilio Covelli (d. 1915), Italian anarchist organiser involved in the Matese insurrection of 1877, member of the Fédération Italienne de l'AIT, born.

[A] 1882 - During the night tonight, the Bande Noire of anarchist miners makes one of its first attacks against clericalism by throwing the Croix de Mission du Bois du Verne to the bottom of the mine in Montceau-les-Mines, Burgundy.

1893 - Aquilino 'Quilo' Moral Menéndez, aka Mario Guzmán, 'Teócrito' (d. 1979) Spanish metalworker, miner, committed vegetarian and anarcho-syndicalist member of the CNT, later joining POUM and, subsequently, the UGT, before rejoining the clandestine CNT after the Falangist victory, born.

1899 - The first issue of the weekly anarchist journal 'La Protesta', " Literatura Artes ciencia Sociología" and from July 1901 "Periódico Libertario", is published in Valladolid by Ernesto Alvarez. From June 29, 1900 it will be published in Sabadell and, from May 1901, in La Linea de la Conception.

1903 - [O.S. Jul. 23] Ilinden Uprising [Илинденско въстание] / Kruševo Republic [Крушевска република]: Turkish troops continue their unsuccessful attempt to retake Kruševo. The town of Kleisoura, near Kastoria, is taken by Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) insurgents and a siege of the town of Smilevo by the rebels begins.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1910 - Ricardo Flores Magón, Librado Rivera, and Antonio I. Villarreal are met by a large group of friends and supporters at the Los Angeles railroad station. In the evening, a mass meeting is held in the Labour Temple in their honour.

1910 - Constant Marie aka Le Père Lapurge (b. 1838), French anarchist militant, Communard, singer and songwriter, dies. [see: Aug. 27]

1912 - The debut in Paris of the monthly magazine 'Le Mouvement Anarchiste'. When its first manager Pierre Ruff was sentenced in November 1912 to 5 years in prison, it was taken over by Georges Durupt. It ceased publication in February 1913.

1917 - Eduard Vives (d. 1971), Catalan militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. Member of the National Confederation of Labour (CNT) from a young age, during the Revolution of 1936 was part of the Control Patrols and fought the fronts (Teruel) in the Los Aguiluchos column, where he was wounded several times. In 1938 he was captured by Franco's troops, weeks later, after being sentenced to death, managed to escape the day before his execution and go to the Republican zone. He rejoined the Republican army, becoming a decorated commander. When the war ended on 9 February 1939, he crossed the Pyrenees and spent a year interned in a concentration camp and working in the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers (CTE). In 1945 he founded the Local CNT Federation in Castelnaudary and was appointed secretary. In 1959 he went to America, where he directed a department of an electronics factory. In New York, he fought in the anti-Franco groups, collaborated with the newspaper 'España Libre', took part in group activities of the editorial group of Proletarian Cultural and the New York Libertarian Centre, and was secretary of the American delegation to the International Antifascist Solidarity (SIA).

1925 - Georges Palante (b. 1862), French philosopher and sociologist, who advocated an aristocratic libertarian individualism, dies. [see: Nov. 20]

1928 - Gaetano Grassi (b. 1846), Italian anarchist, dies. [expand]

[B] 1946 - Boris Vian, French polymath, writer, poet, jazz musician, singer, translator, critic, actor and anarchist, begins writing writing his seminal novel 'J'Irai Cracher sur vos Tombes' (I Spit on Your Graves; 1946), which he completes in 15 days [on Aug. 20].

## 1964 - Moa Martinson (Helga Maria Swarts; b. 1890), Swedish kitchen maid, pantry chef, journalist, novelist, syndicalist and feminist, who was one of Sweden's most noted authors of proletarian literature, dies. [see: Nov. 2]

##1972 - Mezz Mezzrow (Milton Mesirow; b. 1899), American jazz clarinetist and saxophonist, who claimed that a "creative musician is an anarchist with a horn, and you can't put any shackles on him", dies. [see: Nov. 9]

1982 - Albert Guigui-Theral (aka Varlin; b. 1903), Algerian-born French anarchist, militant syndicalist, mechanic and French Résistance fighter, dies. [see: Mar. 26]

1995 - The Confederation of Revolutionary Anarcho-Syndicalists (Конфедерация революционных анархо-синдикалистов), the Russian section of the International Workers' Association (KRAS-MAT), formed.

2002 - Léo Voline (Léo Eichenbaum; b. 1917), French anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, third son of Voline, dies. [see: Jan. 4]
1835 - Against the backdrop of the series of anticlerical riots, known as bullangas, that took place in Barcelona in July and August of 1835, during the night [Aug. 5-6] the Bonaplata factory aka 'El Vapor' is burned by the mutineers, "convinced that machine-made looms diminished the production of manual labour", according to the governed military, General Pastor. Four workers were shot as alleged perpetrators and many others were sentenced to prison terms. In addition, the civil governor established a basis of work that included a factory inspection committee to which the workers had to address their complaints, suffering the "la pena de ocho días de arresto" (the penalty of eight-day arrest) for any workers who does not comply with the system, raising the issue anywhere other than in the committee. Upon a second offense "he will be expelled from this city as a disgraceful man and harmful to society, will circulate notice to all manufacturers so as not to admit him in their factories, and if by his acts they give rise to tumult or asonada (a tumultuous and violent meeting to achieve some purpose, usually political") will be sent before a competent court for disturbing the public order."

1859 - Oreste Lucchesi (d. 1904), Italian anarchist, who was sent to prison in 1895 for killing Giuseppe Bandi, the director of the newspaper 'Il Telegrafo', and author of a series of articles attacking anarchist, born.

1869 - Marie Pitt (Marie Elizabeth Josephine Pitt; d. 1948), Australian poet, socialist, feminist, ecologist and anarchist, born.

[E] 1881 - The first issue of Benjamin Tucker's individualist anarchist newspaper 'Liberty' is published in Boston. On its cover is a picture of Sofia Perovskaya, one of the assassins of Tsar Alexander II.

1882 - La Bande Noire: During the nights of the early summer of 1882, numerous attacks on religious symbols took place: dynamite attacks on various rural crosses; on the chapel of a religious school; against the school for nuns at a hamlet near Montceau-les-Mines, as well as against the church of Bois-du-Verne. The first dynamite attack was on the mission cross of the Bois du Verne takes place during the night on August 5-6.

#### 1884 - Meta Kraus-Fessel (Meta Fessel; d. 1940), German civil servant, social expert, sexologist, social democrat, then communist, and ultimately anarchist and anti-Nazi, who – amongst her many claims to 'fame' – was the first woman official in the Prussian Ministerium für Volkswohlfahrt (Ministry of People's Welfare) and was one of the co-founders of Roten Hilfe (Red Aid) in 1924, born.

1888 - Torquato Gobbi (d. 1963), Italian anarchist typographer and bookbinder, born.

1891 - Marcel Vergeat (d. 1920), French mechanic, and anarchist and syndicalist, born. Invited to the Second Congress of the Communist International in Moscow in July 1920 along with fellow anarcho-syndicalist Jules Lepetit (Louis Bertho) and the socialist Raymond Lefebvre, all three were upset by what they found in Russia and said so publicly. They noted what they saw and experienced and let it be known that their report would be critical. When it was time to leave, their official escorts asked the three men for their briefcases. Fearing they would not be returned, Lefevre, Vergeat, and Lepetit refused to hand them over. They were then separated from the other delegates and put on a special train to Murmansk, a city on the Arctic coast, and told to wait there for a ship. Along the way they were mistreated. When they got there they were abandoned by their escorts and left to fend for themselves, eventually they were taken in by some fishermen. When no ship arrived to transport them, they complained in writing to Moscow but nothing came of it. They also sent letters to friends in which they expressed fears that the Bolsheviks were trying to kill them. In the end they resolved to buy a boat and try to escape on their own. Their Fishermen tried to dissuade them, but to no avail. They set sail in the last days of September (or possibly on October 1st) never to be seen again. Needless to say, the Bolsheviks told a radically different story.

1892 - The first issue of the newspaper 'L'Ordine', "Periodico settimanale popolare", is published in Turin. From November 18, 1893, it becomes a weekly. The epigram is "Otez le gouvernement, la terre et tous ses biens sont aussi communs entre les hommes que l'air et la lumière" (Remove the government, the earth and all its assets are as commons to men as air and light).

1893 - Elías Castelnuovo (d. 1982), Uruguayan journalist, storyteller, playwright, poet, essayist and anarchist, communist and then Peronist, born.

1894 - Procès des Trente: In Paris the Procès des Trente (Trial of the Thirty) begins. The authorities, hoping to put an end to 'propaganda by the deed' and other anarchist opposition, enacted lois scélérates (villainous laws, nickname for very severe anti-anarchist laws) in December 1893 and added to these in July, allowing them to intensify repression against the anarchist movement.

1916 - Pierre Martin aka 'le Bossu' (the Hunchback)(b. 1856), French anarchist, anti-miltarist and pacifist, dies. [see: Aug. 16]

1927 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: The Massachusetts high court hears final plea from Sacco and Vanzetti.

1930 - Martin Bauml Duberman, American historian, playwright, novelist, and gay-rights activist, born. Whilst critical of anarchism, he has written on anarchist subjects including: 'Mother Earth: an epic drama of Emma Goldman's life' (1991) and the novel 'Haymarket' (2003).

## 1931 - Umberto Lenzi (d. 2017), Italian b-movie film director and screenwritting exponent of the giallo, poliziottesco and cannibalici genres, novelist and anarchist, born.

[B] 1934 - Diane di Prima, US Beat poet, playwright, photographer, collagist, teacher and anarchist, born. Her maternal grandfather, Domenico Mallozzi, was an active anarchist, and associate of Carlo Tresca and Emma Goldman. She began writing as a child and by the age of 19 was corresponding with fellow anarchist poet Kenneth Patchen. She lived and wrote in Manhattan for many years, where she became known as an important but neglected writer of the Beat movement. During that time she co-founded the New York Poets Theatre, and founded the Poets Press, which published the work of many new writers of the period. Together with Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) she edited the literary newsletter, 'The Floating Bear' (1961-69). Her work with the NY Poets Theatre and 'The Floating Bear' resulted in several charges for obscenity, and in 1961 she was actually arrested by the FBI for publishing two poems in 'The Floating Bear'. According to di Prima, police persistently harassed her due to the nature of her poetry. In the late 1960s, she moved permanently to California, where she has lived ever since. Here, di Prima became involved with the Diggers and maintained her radical social and poltical stance. She is also the mother of 5 children, about which she has said: “I wanted everything—very earnestly and totally—I wanted to have every experience I could have, I wanted everything that was possible to a person in a female body, and that meant that I wanted to be mother.… So my feeling was, ‘Well’—as I had many times had the feeling—‘Well, nobody’s done it quite this way before but fuck it, that’s what I’m doing, I’m going to risk it.’” In 2013 Diana was diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease.
Amongst here published works are: 'This Kind of Bird Flies Backward' (1958); 'Dinners and Nightmares' (short stories; 1961); 'The New Handbook of Heaven' (1963); 'Poets Vaudeville' (1964); 'Seven Love Poems from the Middle Latin' (translations; 1965); 'Poems for Freddie' (1966); 'Earthsong: Poems 1957-1959' (1968); 'Hotel Albert' (1968); 'War Poems' (editor; 1968); 'Memoirs of a Beatnik' (fictionalised biography; 1969); 'L.A. Odyssey' (1969); 'The Book of Hours' (1970); 'Revolutionary Letters' (1971); 'The Calculus of Variation' (1972); 'Loba, Part I' (1974); 'Freddie Poems' (1974); 'Selected Poems: 1956-1975' (1975); 'Brass Furnace Going Out: Song, After an Abortion' (1975); 'Loba As Eve' (1975); 'Loba, Part II' (1976); 'Tribute to Kenneth Patchen' (1977), with Lawrence Ferlinghetti, William Everson, Hugo Manning, Michael Horovitz et al; 'Loba, Parts I-VIII' (1978); 'Pieces of a Song: Selected Poems' (1990); 'Seminary Poems' (1991); 'Recollections of My Life as a Woman The New York Years' (2001); 'The Poetry Deal, City Lights' (2014). Her theatre pieces include: 'Murder Cake' (1960) and 'Paideuma' (1960), both for the Living Theatre; 'The Discontentment of the Russian Prince' (1961); 'Like' (1964); 'Monuments' (1968); 'Discovery of America' (1972); and 'Whale Honey' (1975).
"Diane di Prima, revolutionary activist of the 1960s Beat literary renaissance, heroic in life and poetics: a learned humorous bohemian, classically educated and twentieth-century radical, her writing, informed by Buddhist equanimity, is exemplary in imagist, political and mystical modes. A great woman poet in second half of American century, she broke barriers of race-class identity, delivered a major body of verse brilliant in its particularity." - Allen Ginsberg


You cannot write a single line w/out a cosmology
a cosmogony
laid out, before all eyes

there is no part of yourself you can separate out
saying, this is memory, this is sensation
this is the work I care about, this is how I
make a living

it is whole, it is a whole, it always was whole
you do not “make” it so
there is nothing to integrate, you are a presence
you are an appendage of the work, the work stems from
hangs from the heaven you create

every man / every woman carries a firmament inside
& the stars in it are not the stars in the sky

w/out imagination there is no memory
w/out imagination there is no sensation
w/out imagination there is no will, desire

history is a living weapon in yr hand
& you have imagined it, it is thus that you
“find out for yourself”
history is the dream of what can be, it is
the relation between things in a continuum

of imagination
what you find out for yourself is what you select
out of an infinite sea of possibility
no one can inhabit yr world

yet it is not lonely,
the ground of imagination is fearlessness
discourse is video tape of a movie of a shadow play
but the puppets are in yr hand
your counters in a multidimensional chess
which is divination
& strategy

the war that matters is the war against the imagination
all other wars are subsumed in it.

the ultimate famine is the starvation
of the imagination

it is death to be sure, but the undead
seek to inhabit someone else’s world

the ultimate claustrophobia is the syllogism
the ultimate claustrophobia is “it all adds up”
nothing adds up & nothing stands in for
anything else



There is no way out of a spiritual battle
There is no way you can avoid taking sides
There is no way you can not have a poetics
no matter what you do: plumber, baker, teacher

you do it in the consciousness of making
or not making yr world
you have a poetics: you step into the world
like a suit of readymade clothes

or you etch in light
your firmament spills into the shape of your room
the shape of the poem, of yr body, of yr loves

A woman’s life / a man’s life is an allegory

Dig it

There is no way out of the spiritual battle
the war is the war against the imagination
you can’t sign up as a conscientious objector

the war of the worlds hangs here, right now, in the balance
it is a war for this world, to keep it
a vale of soul-making

the taste in all our mouths is the taste of power
and it is bitter as death

bring yr self home to yrself, enter the garden
the guy at the gate w/ the flaming sword is yrself

the war is the war for the human imagination
and no one can fight it but you/ & no one can fight it for you

The imagination is not only holy, it is precise
it is not only fierce, it is practical
men die everyday for the lack of it,
it is vast & elegant

intellectus means “light of the mind”
it is not discourse it is not even language
the inner sun

the polis is constellated around the sun
the fire is central

'Revolutionary Letter # 49'

Free Julian Beck
Free Timothy Leary
Free seven million starving in Pakistan
Free all political prisoners
Free Angela Davis
Free Soledad brothers
Free Martin Sobel
Free Sacco & Vanzetti
Free Big Bill Hayward
Free Sitting Bull
Free Crazy Horse
Free all political prisoners
Free Billy the Kid
Free Jesse James
Free all political prisoners
Free Nathan Hale
Free Joan of Arc
Free Galileo & Bruno & Eckhart
Free Jesus Christ
Free Socrates
Free all political prisoners
Free all political prisoners
All prisoners are political prisoners
Every pot smoker a political prisoner
Every holdup man a political prisoner
Ever forger a political prisoner
Every angry kid who smashed a window a political prisoner
Every whore, pimp, murder, a political prisoner
Every pederast, dealer, drunk driver, burglar
preacher, striker, strike breaker, rapist
Polar bear at the San Francisco zoo, political prisoner
Ancient wise turtle at Detroit Aquarium, political prisoner
Flamingoes dying in Phoenix tourist park, political prisoners
Otters in Tucson Desert Museum, political prisoners
Elk in Wyoming grazing behind barbed wire, political prisoners
Prairie dogs poisoned in New Mexico, war casualties
(Mass grave of Wyoming gold eagles, a battlefield)
Every kid in school a political prisoner
Every lawyer in his cubicle a political prisoner
Every doctor brainwashed by AMA a political prisoner
Every housewife a political prisoner
Every teacher lying thru sad teeth a political prisoner
Every indian on reservation a political prisoner
Every black man a political prisoner
Every faggot hiding in bar a political prisoner
Every junkie shooting up in john a political prisoner
Every woman a political prisoner
Every woman a political prisoner
You are political prisoner locked in tense body
You are political prisoner locked in stiff mind
You are political prisoner locked to your parents
You are political prisoner locked to your past
Free yourself
Free yourself
I am political prisoner locked in anger habit
I am political prisoner locked in greed habit
I am political prisoner locked in fear habit
I am political prisoner locked in dull senses
I am political prisoner locked in numb flesh
Free me
Free me
Help to free me
Free yourself
Help to free me
Free yourself
Help to free me
Free Barry Goldwater
Help to free me
Free Governor Wallace
Free President Nixon
Free J Edgar Hoover
Free them
Free yourself
Free them
Free yourself
Free yourself
Free them
Free yourself
Help to free me
Free us


[D] 1936 - The famous 'King Kong' armoured car (tiznado) is delivered to the Durruti Column by the CNT's Sindicato Metalúrgico, hastily constructed in the Casa Torras in Barcelona by members working in shifts to get it ready for the Aragón front.

[C] 1936 - Ramón Acin Aquilué (b. 1888), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, professor, writer and avant-garde artist, is murdered by pro-Francoists. Involved with the CNT and imprisoned for his support of political prisoners. [see: Aug. 30]

1937 - Franco's artillery opens fire on Madrid.

1941 - Alice Becker-Ho (Alice Debord), China-born French Situationist and poet, born. [expand]

##1941 - Karatani Kōjin (柄谷 行人), Japanese philosopher, literary critic and founder of the counter–capitalist/nation-state organisation New Associationist Movement (ニュー アソシエーショニスト ムーブメント) in Japan, who work is informed by both Marxism and anarchism, born.

1945 - Ingemar Johansson (d. 2014), Swedish writer, translator, editor, chess player and historian, anarchist and Sveriges Arbeter Centralorganisation militant, who specialised in translationg and writing on Dada and Situationism, born.
skkamraterna.se/oldsite/tavling/sasong1314/Ingemar/Ingemar Johansson a.pdf

1969 - Kondō Kenji (近藤 憲二; b. 1895) Japanese anarchist of the Taisho and Showa periods, who looked after Itō Noe (伊藤 野枝) and Ōsugi Sakae's (大杉 栄) five orphaned children following their murder on September 16, 1923 in what became known as the Amakasu Incident (甘粕事件), dies aged 74. [see: Feb. 22]

[F] 1997 - A 12-hour civic strike convened by the Confederación de Trabajadores de Venezuela in protest of a 27% increase in the price of petrol, noncompliance with the salary increase by employers and the massive dismissal of employees as tolerated by the government of President Rafael Caldera. According to the CTV, the strike was supported by 95% of the country's eight million workers, the biggest labour action in the past eight years.

2017 - Tunisian fishermen have prevented the C-Star, a ship chartered by far-right Génération Identitaire anti-immigration activists to protest people smuggling and block migrant boats, from putting into port at Zarzis.
1859 - Émile 'Michel' Hugonnard (d. unknown), French carpenter-cabinetmaker and anarchist militant, born.

##1897 - Albert Perier (or Perrier), aka Germinal (d. 1970), Argentine-born French anarchist militant, revolutionary syndicalist and anti-fascist résistant, born in Buenos Aires.

1898 - The Landsorganisationen i Sverige (Swedish Trade Union Confederation), an umbrella organisation for fourteen Swedish trade unions that organise mainly 'blue-collar' workers, is founded following the January 1 conference in Stockholm called on the initiative of the 1897 Scandinavian Labour Congress and the Swedish Social Democratic Party (Sveriges socialdemokratiska arbetareparti).

1900 - The Mexican anarchist periodical 'Regeneración: Periódico Jurídico Independiente' is first published by Jesus and Ricardo Flores Magón brothers, along with the lawyer Antonio Horcasitas. Suppressed by authorities, 'Regeneración' temporarily suspends publication, eventually resurfacing in the US after Ricardo and Enrique go into exile there (January 3, 1904).
"The town in rivers of pulque sails, while the bells repican & rockets resound & centellean the knives between the flare lights.
Crowds swarm the tree-lined avenue and other prohibited streets, sagrada zone of the ladies of corsé and the gentlemen of jaqué, with the Virgin in you walk. From their high boat of lights, the wings of the Virgin protect and guide.
Today is the day of Our Lady of Los Angeles, for Mexicans signalling a week of verbenas, and, on the brink of madness, the violent joy of the town, like wanting to deserve it, is born a new newspaper. It is called Regeneration. It inherits the fervours and the debts of the Democrat, closed by the dictatorship."
'Regeneración' resumed publication in San Antonio, Texas, on November 5, 1904. It was smuggled into México clandestinely and continued to remain an annoying thorn in Mexican dictator Diaz's side. 'Regeneración' was influential enough that Diaz worked repeatedly to have it shut down, where "freedom of speech" in the United States proved deceptively false. It's circulation grew to 30,000 that year. In fact, even moderates like the Governor of Yucatan and Madero were receiving 'Regeneración' and later, when Ricardo's anarchism was more apparent, prominent anarchists, such as Voltairine de Cleyre became involved in the Mexican paper. Familiar with the works of Kropotkin, Bakunin, Grave, and Malatesta as early as 1900, Ricardo didn't openly advocate anarchism until 1907.

1925 - Ricardo Mella (b. 1861), one of the first Spanish anarchist writers, intellectuals and activists, dies. [see: Apr. 23]

1927 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Huge demonstrations take place around the world against the imminent execution of Sacco and Vanzetti. In Paris, a heavily policed procession which is joined by Luigia Vanzetti, sister of Bartolomeo, brings together more than 100,000 people. There is a call for a 24-hour strike for tomorrow (Monday).

1937 - Henri Lebasque (b. 1865), French Post-Impressionist painter and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Sep. 25]

1946 - Alberto Ghiraldo (b. 1875), Argentine lawyer, writer, socialist politician and anarchist propaganist, dies in Santiago de Chile.

1952 - Benigno Andrade García aka 'Foucellas' (b. 1908), Spanish locksmith, anarchist militant and anti-Francoist guerilla, is executed by garrote at 7 am in the provincial prison of A Coruña, Galicia. [see: Oct. 22]

[C] 1963 - Ramón Vila Capdevila (b. 1908), also known as 'Caracremada' (Caraquemada, Burnt-face), 'Jabalí' (the Wild Boar), or 'Capitán Raymond', famed anti-fascist guerrilla is shot down and purposely left to die following a shoot-out with the Guardia Civil. [see: Apr. 2]

## 1976 - Manuel Monleón Burgos (b. 1904), Spanish painter, illustrator, poster artist, photomontagist, naturist, Esperantist and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 23]

1979 - The tracks that make up side four of the first Crass album 'Stations Of The Crass' are recorded at the Pied Bull, Islington, London.

1999 - Three people in Pisa associated with the animal and earth liberation journal 'Il Silvestre' arrested and charged with firebombings of companies.

2012 - Francisco Carrasquer Launed (b. 1915), Aragonese poet, writer, essayist, translator, free-thinker and anarchist, dies. Older brother Felix Carrasquer Launed.
##1849 - [O.S. Jul. 27] Vera Ivanovna Zasulich (Ве́ра Ива́новна Засу́лич; d. 1919), Russian revolutionary, anarchist and then a Marxist and Menshevik, born. Involved with radical politics as a student, she was arrested and imprisoned in May 1869 for her contacts with the nihilist Sergey Nechayev (Серге́й Неча́ев). Released in 1873, she joined the Kievan Insurgents, a revolutionary group of Mikhail Bakunin's anarchist supporters, becoming a respected leader of the movement. On Feb. 5 1878, Zasulich attempts to shoot General Fedor Trepov (Фёдор Тре́пов), prefect of police of St Petersburg, in revenge for his having ordered the flogging of Alexei Bogolyubov (Алексей Боголюбов), a political prisoner who had refused to remove his cap in his presence. Trepov was wounded and Zasulich acquitted at her trial after having effectively put Trepov on trial. Zasulich fled to Switzerland to avoid further arrest and there converted to Marxism, later becoming involved in the founding of 'Iskra' (Искры) and the Mensheviks, supporting the Russian war effort during WWI and opposing the October Revolution of 1917.
'Vera, or the Nihilists' (1880) by Oscar Wilde is allegedly based upon the story of her life.

1854 - Conflicte de les Selfactines: The newly appointed Captain General of Barcelona, Manuel Concha, held a meeting with the leaders of the Societats Obreres, out of which came a workers' manifesto (signed by 19 of them) calling an end to the strike, and suaranteeing pardons for all workers convicted during the strike and the opening of a period for negotiation between the manufacturers and workers. The following day the Madrid government quietly revoked the order banning 'selfactines' but, out of fear of the reaction amongst the workers, did not make the ban public until May 1855. [see: Jul. 2]

[D] 1870 - Failed Attempt at Insurrection in Marseille: 40,000 people, including Gaston Crémieux, Charles Alérini, Combes, Naquet, Brochier, Rouvier, Matheron, etc., demonstrate outside the prefecture. The arrest of Alfred Naquet causes a surge of anger and immediately forms a central revolutionary Action Committee, the crowd soon occupies the mayor and members of the Committee are brought to power by popular acclaim. The Committee, consisting mainly of members of the International and some radical Republicans, and chaired by Gaston Cremieux, express the desire of the people to proclaim a Republic and establish a revolutionary Commune.
Unfortunately, a squad of police dispersing the crowd and, after a brief exchange of gunfire, capture the Committee members. The prisoners, numbering about thirty, are locked in Fort St. John and crammed into a stinking dungeon. They later face a council of war and are imprisoned.

[A] 1879 - Emiliano Zapata (d. 1919), Mexican revolutionary hero and anarquista, born. "Tierra y libertad". [expand]

## 1882 - Johannes Nohl (d. 1963), German writer, anarchist pupil of Otto Gross, lover of Erich Mühsam and later one of Hermann Hesse’s analysts, born.

#1882 - Onofrio Giglioli (d. 1968), Italian anarchist, who was famously father of nine children named Rivoluzio (Revolutionised) Siberia, Libero (Free), Equo (Equal), Protesta (Protest), Sovverte (Subvert), Scintilla (Spark), Ribelle (Rebel) and Feconda Vendetta (Fertile Vendetta), born. Active in labour struggles in Rovereto sul Secchia, he was instrumental in helping 80 anarchist workers from Modena and Rovereto to emigrate to Fontenay-sous-Bois in France, escaping fascist Italy, by winning a contract with a large construction company. He was later active in the support networks for Republican Spain on both sides of the border and continues to maintain contact with the Spanish resistance after 1939.

1886 - Émile Aubin (aka Marat; d. unknown), French anarchist and anti-militarist propagandist and songwriter, born. Author of several revolutionary songs under the pseudonym Marat.

1897 - Anarchist Michele Angiolillo assassinates Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, the Spanish Prime Minister, who in May had ordered the execution of five anarchists held responsible for a bombing in Barcelona the year before. He is quickly tried and executed on the 20th.

1903 - [O.S. Jul. 26] Ilinden Uprising [Илинденско въстание]: After three days of fighting and a siege, the town of Smilevo is captured by Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) insurgents.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

##1908 - Ciriaco Duarte (b. 1996), Paraguayan trade union leader, anarcho-syndicalist, anarchist, writer and journalist, born.

1911 - Revolución Mexicana: Gen. Victoriano Huerta sent to Cuernavaca with 1,000 federal troops and forces Emiliano Zapata to demobilise part of his peasant army.

1918 - Michel Zévaco (b. 1860), French journalist, popular novelist, publisher, film director, anti-clerical revolutionary socialist and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 1]

1926 - Lizzie Holmes (Sarah Elizabeth Mary Hunt; b. 1850), American music teacher, seamstress, labour organiser, journalist, socialist and militant anarchist, dies. [see: Dec. 21]

[BB] 1936 - The supposed date of the death of the mysterious Renée Dunan (b. 1892) prolific French author of erotic historical, fantasy and science fiction novels and stories, critic, poet, Dadaist, Feminist, anarchist, naturiste and pacifist; used diverse pseudonyms: Louise Dormienne, Marcelle La Pompe, M. de Steinthal, Monsieur de Steinthal, Renée Camera, Chiquita, Ethel Mac Singh, Luce Borromée, Laure Héron, A. de Sainte-Henriette, Ky, Ky C [the pseudonyms Spaddy and Jean Spaddy once attributed to Dunan are actuually by Johannès Gros]. Collaborated in the magazines of 'Crapouillot' and 'Le Sourire'. Book critic for 'Rouge et le Noir'
In the 1940s, a certain Georges Dunan claimed to be the author of books signed by Renée Dunan [confirmed by Jean-Pierre Weber], who is believed to have died in Nice in December 1944. However, the jury is still out on the verdict and the best evidence is that the works are a collaborative effort of a Renée and Georges Dunan of 86, Boulevard Voltaire in Paris.
Another version of her biography would have it her her real name was Marcelle Lapompe, a one-time prostitute or madame. [NB: birth and death dates unknown]

1942 - María del Milagro Pérez Lacruz aka 'La Jabalina' (The Wild Sow)(b. 1917), Spanish anarchist and member of Juventudes Libertarias, who fought with the Iron Column, is shot by firing squad alongside 6 male comrades in Huerta Oeste, Valencia. Her life was the basus for the novel 'Si Me Llegas a Olvidar' (If I Get to Forget; 2013) by Rosana Corral-Márquez. [see: May 3]

[B] 1982 - Ferre Grignard (Fernand Grignard; b. 1939), Belgium anarchist songwriter, skiffle artist and protest singer, dies in abject poverty of throat cancer. [see: Mar. 13]

1988 - Carl Heinrich Løgstrup Petersen (b. 1915), Danish cigar maker, working historian, anarchist and author of the anarchist movement in Denmark, dies in Viborg. [see: Jun. 29]

[C] 1999 - Gino Bibbi (b. 1899), Italian engineer, anarchist and militant anti-fascist, who became a Republican fighter pilot during the Spanish Civil war and muntions designer, dies at the age of 100. He was cremated with a red and black scarf tied round his neck. [see: Feb. 5]

2005 - Monica Sjöö (b. 1938), Anglo-Swedish painter, writer and radical anarcho/eco-feminist, who was an early exponent of the Goddess movement, dies of cancer in Bristol aged 66. [see: Dec. 31]

2006 - Igor Yuryevich Podshivalov (Игорь Юрьевич Подшивалов; b. 1962), Russian journalist and prominent Siberian anarchist activist, dies from injuries, including brain damage, sustained four days earlier when he was hit by a car near the town of Shelekhov in the Irkutsk region. [see: Aug. 2]

2014 - The Dzerzhinsky District Court of St. Petersburg turn down an Investigative Committee petition for a psychiatric evaluation of conceptual artist and political activist Pyotr Pavlensky following his February 23, 2014 performance piece 'Liberty', a “small-scale reconstruction of Maidan" on Malo-Konyushenny (Tripartite) Bridge near the Church on Spilled Blood in central St. Petersburg.
[D] 1792 - Delegates from all quarters of Paris assemble at the Hôtel de Ville during the last hours of August 9th to form a new insurrectionary Commune. [expand]

1853 - Michael Schwab (d. 1898), German-American labour organiser, born. Served over six years in prison for charges relating to the anarchist Haymarket affair before he was pardoned in 1893. However, he was to die from tuberculosis contracted whilst in prison.

## 1896 - [O.S. Jul. 28] Natan Yakovlevich Futerfas (Натан Яковлевич Футерфас; d. 1937), Polish-Russian clerk, polyglot and anarchist, who was a prominent figure in the Esperanto movement in the USSR, born. During the Civil War he was a member of the Moscow anarchist groups and headed the Organising Committee of the All-Russian Federation of Esperantists [Всероссийской федерации эсперантистов](1918-1924), uniting anarcho-esperantists. From 1924 onwards, he was arrested at least four times, almost always ending up in prison and exile. At the same time, he continued to take part in the anarchist movement, being one of the prominent members of the Petrograd Anarcho-Syndicalists Group [Петроградской группы анархо-синдикалистов](1927), and was a member of various groups of exiled anarchists in the Narym (Нарымском) region and in Arkhangelsk. On February 18, 1937, he was arrested again and, based on false testimonies, accused of terrorist activities. On October 23, 1937, a Troika under the NKVD of the Arkhangelsk region found him guilty and he was shot four days later.

1898 - [O.S. Jul. 28] Vasil Bonĉev Ikonomov (Васил Бончев Икономов; d. 1925), Bulgarian anti-fascist anarchist guerilla fighter, who was an important figure in the early 1920s Bulgarian movement, participating in the anarcho-communist Koprivshtitsa (Копривщенската) cheta attack on Tsar Boris III's car in the Arakonakak (Арабаконак) pass on April 14, 1925, born.
On the night of June 20, he and his group were ambushed by Public Security (Обществена безопасност) agents near the village of Belitsa (Белица), Ihtiman (Ихтиман) province, most likely due to betrayal, killing Ikonomov. Binoculars belonging to Boris III are found on his body, suggesting to the police that they had caught one of the assassins.

1913 - In Seattle Emma Goldman, Ben Reitman and another publicist are arrested while distributing leaflets in advance of a lecture and charged with "peddling bills without a license". They are released on five dollars bail.

1927 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Protests and strikes against the imminent execution of Sacco and Vanzetti scheduled for August 10 continue around the world.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: A Sindicato Nacional de Teléfonos member is shot dead whilst playing cards in a bar.

1938 - Sir Walter William Strickland, 9th Baronet (b. 1851), English translator, atheist and libertarian, known as the 'Anarchist Baronet', dies in Buitenzorg, Java. [see: May 26]

1939 - Ceferí Llop Estupiñà (b. 1916), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, member of the FIJL and CNT, dies. [see: Aug. 16]

1943 - Kléber Nadaud (b. 1895), French anarchist militant, dies. [see: Sep. 17]

1982 - Yekaterina Stanislavovna Samutsevich [Екатерина Станиславовна Самуцевич], Russian computer programmer, video director, political activist, and ex-member of the anti-Putinist punk rock group Pussy Riot [Пусси Райот] and the street art group Voina [Война](War), born.

2010 - Georges Fontenis (b. 1920), French school teacher, professor at the École normale d'instituteurs de Tours, trade unionist and libertarian communist, who was one of the main anarchist figures of the post-War years, dies at his home in Reignac-sur-Indre, France. [see: Apr. 27]
1860 - Jules Leroux (d. 1926), French anarchist co-opertivist activist, born.

1878 - Bruno Alfred Döblin (d. 1957), German Expressionist novelist, essayist, doctor, and Landauerian Christian socialist with a strong affiliation with anarchist thought, especially Kropotkin (though he was never active), born. Alfred Döblin's oeuvre encompasses over a dozen novels ranging in genre from historical novels to science fiction to novels about the modern metropolis; several dramas, radio plays (he was amongst the first to utilise the new medium), and screenplays; a true crime story; a travel account; two book-length philosophical treatises; scores of essays on politics, religion, art, and society; and numerous letters. Many of his works, including the best known for his novel 'Berlin Alexanderplatz' (1929), his science fiction novel 'Berge Meere und Giganten' (Mountains Seas and Giants; 1924) and the four part 'November 1918, Eine Deutsche Revolution' (November 1918: A German Revolution; 1934-45)[Vol. I: 'Bürger und Soldaten' (Citizens and Soldiers), Vol. II 'Verratenes Volk' (A People Betrayed), Vol. III, 'Heimkehr der Fronttruppen' (Return of the Frontline Troops), and Vol. IV, 'Karl und Rosa' (Karl and Rosa)] clearly display his anarchist sympathies.
In 1910, Döblin became involved with the newly founded Expressionist journal 'Der Sturm', contributing numerous essays and literary pieces, including his early novel 'Der Schwarze Vorhang' (The Black Curtain; 1912). He also became part of the circle that included Erich Mühsam, who, along with Gustav Landauer's Christian anarchism, greatly influenced his political outlook. In order to avoid conscription in WWI, Döblin volunteered in December 1914 as a doctor and, despite sharing the widespread early enthusiasm for the war common among many German intellectuals, he soon became avowedly anti-war. His politicisation continued in the immediate post-war period, writing a series of satirical and polemical political essays under the pseudonym 'Linke Poot', some later published in 'Der Deutsche Maskenball' (The German Masked Ball; 1921). On March 12 1919, his sister Meta also died after being injured during skirmishes between the Spartacists and nationalist troops in Berlin.
In late 1918, Döblin joined the Independent Social Democratic Party (USPD), which ideologically stood between Social Democratic Party (SPD) and the Communist party (KPD) of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg and later joining the SPD when the USPD dissolved in 1921. Never an active member, he resigned from the SPD in 1928 "out of protest against bureaucracy and bossism", in his own words.
In 1925 he also joined the Gruppe 1925, a discussion circle of progressive and communist intellectuals including Bertolt Brecht, Johannes R. Becher, Ernst Bloch, Hermann Kasack, Rudolf Leonhard, Walter Mehring, Robert Musil, Joseph Roth, Ernst Toller, Kurt Tucholsky and Ernst Weiß, among others - Brecht went on to consider Döblin one of his most important influences.
In Döblin's 'Berlin Alexanderplatz', one of the classic Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) novels, is the story of Franz Biberkopf, an ex-convict, who falls in with a gang of burglars. In Book 6 he is involved in a discussion with an old anarchist (having resumed his old life as a pimp and petty criminal and gone along to the meeting to be disruptive and have fun). He expounds his vaguely Nietzschean individualism via: "A man's got only himself, just himself. I look after myself. I'm a self-provider, I am!" Which the old anarchist (who, it has been argued, is Döblin's mouthpiece in the book) counters with the need for solidarity: "And I've told you that three dozen times already: you can't do anything alone. We need a fighting organisation".
Originally projected to have a second volume, it was never written as Döblin was forced into exile in 1933 with the Nazi accession to power.
"A comradely association of free men, forms the natural basic cell of all society, the small community; there one must begin. . . . That's what Prince Kropotkin had long known and taught, what he learned from the Swiss watchmakers in the Jurabund, in political jargon: syndicalism, anarchism"

1879 - Paul-Eugène Trouillier (d. unknown), French gardener, labourer, itinerant singer, anarchist and anti-militarist, born.

[B] 1884 - Panaït Istrati (Ghérasim Istrati; d. 1935), Romanian-French writer (short stories and novels) and revolutionary communist, and later libertarian, born. Nicknamed the Maxim Gorky of the Balkans. The title of his novel 'Kyra Kyralina' (1923) was appropriated by Lola Iturbe as her pseudonym, and the story of his time in the Sviet Union and his resulting disillusionment with Stalinist is told in 'La Véritable tragédie de Panaït Istrati' (2013) by Eleni Samios-Kazantzaki, who was one of his travelling companions during that period. [expand]

## 1899 - Aurelio Lolli (d. 1999), Italian lifelong anarchist, WWI deserter, anti-fascist militant and one of the founders of the Biblioteca Llibertària de Castel Bolognese, born.
Aurelio Lolli died on May 30, 1999 in Castel Bolognese, just over two months after his 100th birthday.

1912 - The first issue of 'El Libertario' is published in Gijon, replacing 'Acción Libertaria' which ceased publication earlier on in the year.

1916 - Elba Piñeyro (d. 2007), Argentine textile worker and anarchist militant, born.

1917 - Huelga General Revolucionaria [Revolutionary General Strike] / Vaga General Espanyola [Spanish General Strike]: Despite the agreements made with the CNT contained in the 'Pacto de Zaragoza' and the the 'Manifiesto Conjunto de la UGT y la CNT' / 'Manifest Conjunt de la UGT i la CNT' (Joint Manifesto of the UGT and the CNT), the latter setting out the joint plan by the two organisations to call for a general strike, a countrywide strike on the railways begins, called by UGT and PSOE's joint strike committee. The socialist strike committee had also agreed to independantly call a general strike for three days later on August 13, days before the planned date by the joint strike committee. The strike spreads rapidly over the following days, as workers in many areas joined the strike movement in advance of August 13, quickly taking on the guise of the planned for revolutionary general strike in many areas of the country. Activities in almost all major industrial, urban and mining areas: Vizcaya, Madrid, Valencia, Zaragoza, La Coruña, Asturias, León, Rio Tinto, etc., ground to a halt. In Catalonia, the move was widely supported in Badalona, Terrassa, Manresa, Mataró and other Catalan cities. In Barcelona street clashes took and barricaded were constructed, and in Sabadell a Republic was proclaimed and savagely repressed.
The Socialists had believed that, as in Russia in February 1917, that they could make common cause with the military, whose clandestine Juntas de Defensa (Defence Boards) – a sort of military pressure group who in 1916 had demanded reforms of the civil power, including wage rises – had been repressed by the government of Manuel García Prieto in June that year. However, the Juntas de Defensa proved to still be part of the established order, and not only did the soldiers not form Soviets with the workers, but in general obeyed their bosses, mounting a bloody repression against the workers. The unofficial Assemblea de Parlamentaris (Parliamentary Assembly), which had been set up to try and get the Cortes reopened and had in June affirmed its support of the independence of Catalonia, denounced the strike, intially by disregarding it and later openly condemning it.

##1924 - Jean-François Lyotard (b. 1998), French philosopher, sociologist, literary theorist, and libertarian socialist member of Socialisme ou Barbarie, born.

1948 - Emmy Hennings (born Emma Maria Cordsen; b. 1885), German cabaret performer, poet, chanteause, dancer, puppeteer, painter and 'mystical anarchist', dies. [see: Jan. 17]

2005 - Gérard Tolck (b. 1943), Swiss painter, engraver, sculptor, editor, agitator and cultural anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 18]

2007 - Elba Piñeyro (b. 1916), Argentine tetxtile worker and anarchist militant, dies on her 91st birthday.
## 1858 - Joseph Thomas Deakin (d. 1937), English ticket office worker, socialist and anarchist, who is best known for his part in the so-called 'Walsall bomb plot', a provocation organised by Chief Inspector William Melville (1883-1917), superintendent of the Metropolitan Police Special Branch, and for which Deakin was sentenced to five years in prison, born.

1882 - [N.S. Aug. 23] Voline (Во́лин)(Vsévolod Mikhailovich Eikhenbaum or Eichenbaum [Все́волод Миха́йлович Эйхенба́ум]; d. 1945), Russian anarchist, Makhnovist revolutionary and historian, born. Author of 'Red Fascism' (1934), in which he compared Bolshevism to Fascism. In 1936, with André Prudhommeaux having gone to Spain, Volin took on he took over the editing of 'L’Espagne Antifasciste' (CNT-FAI-AIT), which later became 'L’Espagne Nouvelle' and, like Prudhommeaux, Volin denounced CNT-FAI participation in the Republican government. [see: Aug. 23]

1890 - Erich Wichmann (d. 1929), Dutch painter, graphic artist, poet and critic, eccentric, co-founder of the Rapalje Partij (the popular name for the Vrije Socialistische Groep aka the Sociaal-Anarchistische Actie in Nederland) anti-bourgeois writer, and fascist towards the end of his life as his mental and physical condition deteriorated, who was also the brother of the anarchist-feminist Clara Wichmann, born.
Author of 'Het witte gevaar. Over melk, melkgebruik, melkmisbruik en melkzucht' (The white danger. About milk, milk consumption, milk abuse and milk consumption; 1927), in which he, as a "'principled alcoholic", rants about the Dutch national drink being the soulless, weak expression of a decadent people.

1898 - In Brussels, a commissaire de police attempts to arrest anarchist Henri Willems at his home but it met by gunfire. Willems escapes, firing 22 times at the pursuing crowd and police. A young sculptor/carver and director since 1893 of the Belgian newspaper 'Le Libertaire', and subsequently banned by the police on February 20, 1894, following its publication of articles inciting civil disobedience whilst saluting the memory Auguste Vaillant. Arrested in early 1895, Willems was sentenced to two and a half years in prison for articles written in 'Le Libertaire' and in 'L'Antipatriote'.

##1899 - Jindřich Štyrský (d. 1942), Czech painter, photographer, photomontagist, graphic designer, collagist, poet, Surrealist theorist and anarchist, born. He met and fell in love with the Surrealist artist, feminist and anarchist Toyen (Marie Čermínová), with whom he formed a close artistic collaboration for the rest of his life. Initially influenced by the Cubist, he gradually absorbed Surrealist tropes, becoming a member of the anarchist-influenced arts group Devětsil in 1923, and between 1928-29 the director of the Osvobozeného Divadla (Liberated Theatre), the group's drama wing, where he collaborated with Vítězslav Nezval (on a dance performance of his poetry collection 'Abeceda' (Alphabet)) among others, created stage designs (including for Jarry's 'Ubu Roi').
Štyrský and Toyen travelled to Paris in 1925, where they lived lived and worked together for three years. Štyrský's main activities at this time focused on his photography, his collages and photomontages, and his publications. His 'Erotika Revue' (1930–33) was illustrations by a wide range of well-known Czech artists, including Toyen, for whom the eroticisation of the world was a life-long theme, and who was one of the most uninhibited. She also contributed to the 6 volume series of erotic literature and illustration 'Edice 69' (Edition 69), which he founded in 1931. He also designed, often with Toyen, numerous book covers (he was one of the first to illustrate 'Maldoror') and also wrote studies of both Rimbaud and Marquis de Sade. [see also: 'Emilie Prichází Ke Mne Ve Snu' (Emilie Comes to Me in a Dream; 1933) in the final edition of 'Edice 69']
A member of the Spolku Výtvarných Umělců Mánes (the Association of Fine Artists) and associate member of the Surrealist group around André Breton and Paul Eluard, he and Toyen were founding members of the Skupiny Surrealistů v ČSR (Czech Surrealist Group) in Prague in 1934. In 1935, invited by the French Surrealists, Štyrský went back to Paris. There, he fell seriously ill, and had to return to Czechoslovakia. Štyrský and Toyan were forced underground during the Nazi occupation and Second World War, during which Surrealism as an underground movement flourished but during which Štyrský was also to die of a long-term heart condition.
www.tumblr.com/tagged/jindrich styrsky

1899 - Dario Cagno (d. 1943), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, born. [expand]

1905 - Radical Revolution of 1905 [Revolución de 1905]: Catalan labourer and anarchist sympathiser Salvador Planas i Virella attempts to shoot the Argentine President, Manuel Quintana, as his coach approaches the Casa Rosada. He fires his old pistol 3 times but the gun is defective and Quintana escapes unharmed.
He then turns the gun on himself but it again fails to work properly. He is arrested and, despite the allegations of mental instability by his lawyer, is sentenced to 10 years in prison for attempted murder and locked up in Las Heras prison. On January 6,1911, he and Francisco Solano Regis, serving 20 years for an assassination attempt on President José Figueroa Alcorta, escape through a tunnel and are never heard of again.

1906 - The first issue of the weekly 'L'Emancipateur' ,"Organe du Groupement Communiste Libertaire", is published in Stockel-Bois, near Brussels.

1917 - [N.S. Aug. 24] The first issue of 'Golos Truda' (The Voice of Labour) appears in Petrograd under banner of the Union of Anarcho-Syndicalist Propaganda, published by Voline upon his return from America. Edited by G.P. Maximov, it is shut down by the government in May 1918 and its successor 'Volny Golos Truda' (The Free Voice of Labour) is closed down after its fourth issue (September 16, 1918). [see: Aug. 24]

[E] 1919 - Ukrainian anarchist partisan Maria Grigorevna Nikiforova [Марія Григорівна Никифорова (uk) / Мария Григорьевна Никифорова (ru)] or Nykyforovna [Никифоровна / Никифорова] aka Marusya, and her companion Witold Bzhostek (or Brzostek) are recognised on the street in Sébastopol and arrested by the Whites. Marusya's group, despairing of being able to rescue her, head for the Kuban region to return to the partisan fight in the rear of the Whites. They will be tried and executed before a field court-martial held on September 16, 1919. [see: Sep. 16]

1921 - Léon Prouvost (aka the 'Libertarian Philanthropist'; b. 1856), French individualist anarchist, anti-militarist and anti-clericalist, dies. [see: Sep. 28]

##[B] 1932 - Fernando Arrabal Terán, Spanish playwright, screenwriter, film director, novelist, poet, painter, anti-Communist, anti-Francoist, Surrealist and Pataphysician, born. The son of a Spanish Army Officer stationed in Melilla in what was then Spanish Morocco. In 1936, his father refused to participate in General Franco's military coup, was arrested, and sentenced to death for mutiny. His sentence was later commuted to thirty years’ imprisonment. He went on to feign psychological illness in order to be transferred to a lower security prison. On December 29, 1941, Fernando Arrabal Senior escaped from the hospital in his pyjamas, and disappeared into the countryside covered in 3 feet of snow, never to be seen again.
Author of seven feature films; short films; nearly 70 plays; 5 operas; twelve novels; 6 collections of poetry; around 150 books for bibliophiles and poems illustrated by Dalí, Picasso, Saura, etc.; essays and his notorious 'Letter to General Franco'. After having seen and raved about Arrabal's 'Guernica', Sartre wanted to publish the play in 'Les Temps Modernes' but was told he was an anti-Communist anarchist and halted its publication.
Co-founder in 1962, with the Chilean-French filmmaker, playwright, actor, author, musician, comics writer and one-time anarchist Alejandro Jodorowsky and the Polish-born French illustrator, painter, writer, filmmaker actor and surrealist Roland Topor, of the Mouvement Panique (Panic Movement), an anarchist avant-garde collective inspired by and named after the Greek God Pan and influenced by Luis Buñuel and Antonin Artaud's Theatre of Cruelty, which concentrated on chaotic performance art and surreal imagery.
Elected Transcendent Satrap of the Collège de Pataphysique in 1990, in the company of Camilo José Cela, René Clair, Jean Dubuffet, Marcel Duchamp, Max Ernst, M. C. Escher, Eugène Ionesco, Michel Leiris, Man Ray, The Marx Brothers, Joan Miró, Jacques Prévert, Raymond Queneau, Boris Vian, Roland Topor, Umberto Eco, Dario Fo and Jean Baudrillard.

"Cette période historique
M'a insufflé la Panique
J'ai conservé le dégoût
De la foule et des gourous
De l'ennui et du sacré
De la poésie sucrée
Des moisis des pisse-froid
Des univers à l'étroit
Des collabos des fascistes
Des musulmans intégristes
De tous ceux dont l'idéal
Nie ma nature animale
A se nourrir de sornettes
On devient pire que bêtes
Je veux que mon existence
Soit une suprême offense
Aux vautours qui s'impatientent
Depuis les années quarante
En illustrant sans complexe
Le sang la merde et le sexe"

(This historical period
I breathed Panic
I kept disgust
The crowd and gurus
Of boredom and sacred
The sweet poetry
Moldy of cold fish
Universes cramped
Of fascist collaborators
Muslim fundamentalists
All those whose ideal
Nie ma animal nature
A feed of nonsense
It is worse than beasts
I want my life
Is a supreme offense
The vultures who are impatient
Since the forties
Illustrating unashamedly
Blood shit and sex)



1935 - Jean-Gabriel Goujon (b. 1859), French technical officer, bridge engineer, co-operativist and militant anarchist, dies.

1937 - The Republican government, toeing the Communist line, disolves the Council of Aragon, the last bastion of the revolutionary anarchist ideals of social revolution and libertarian communism as practiced for the past year in the Aragon farming communities. Its president Joaquín Ascaso and other board members are arrested. To quell any revolt by the peasants, the government sent the 11th Division commanded by the Stalinist Líster. Destroying all collective achievements, it forces farmers to return the collectivised land and tools to the wealthy landowners. He also arrests over six hundred CNT activists, some of whom are shot in the name of reestablishing state order.

##1954 - Salut Borràs i Saperas (b. 1878), Catalan anarchist militant, who participated in the Mexican Revolution along side her partner Octave Jahn in Emiliano Zapata's ranks, dies. Born in January 1878 in Barcelona, she was the eldest daughter of two anarchist members of the AIT, Martí(n) Borràs i Jover and Francesca Saperas i Miró, in the late 1880's and '90's, she assisted her mother in the distribution of subscription copies of the newspaper that her father had founded, 'Tierra y Libertad'. The partner of Lluís Mas Gasio since 1895, following his arrest after the attack on the Carrer de Canvis Nous in 1896, she was forced by the authorities to marry legally under the threat of her son Lluís being imprisoned, the ceremony taking place in a convent two hours before Lluís Mas' execution on May 4, 1897. She was also detained along with her mother and imprisoned a year before being expelled to France, where he settled in Marseille. Active within the anarchist movement, she maintained contact with its prisoners, establishing contacts with clandestine committees and groups, secretly burying their dead, practising solidarity with the persecuted, etc.
She began a relationship with the French anarchist Octave Jahn in Charanta (Jarnac, Cognac ...) and from 1908 lived in Mexico, where they participated in the revolution in the ranks of Emiliano Zapata's forces. In 1911, when Salud decided to return to Barcelona, Jahn remained in Mexico and Guatemala, whilst also carrying out propaganda trips around Europe, disseminating news of the Mexican Revolution on behalf of the Central Obrera del Món until his death on June 9, 1917 in Mexico.
Salud Borràs settled in Paris in 1913 with her son and worked as a dressmaker, making constant trips between France, Catalonia and Mexico. In 1930 she returned to Barcelona, ​​where she settled in a small house on the Calle de Robador, in the Raval district. Following the victory of the Franco regime, she went into exilein France. During a field trip her son was killed.
Salut Borràs Saperas died on August 11, 1954 at the Salpetrière hospice in Paris.

[A/D] 1964 - Stuart Christie and Fernando Carballo Blanco are arrested with explosives in Spain, on a mission to blow up Franco. [expand]

1979 - The tracks that make up the first three sides of the first Crass album 'Stations Of The Crass' are recorded live at Southern Studios, London.
1827 - William Blake (b. 1757), English Romantic poet, visionary radical, mystic, printer, engraver, subversive and proto-anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 28]

1842 - 1842 General Strike / Plug Plot (or Plug Drawing) Riots: A mass meeting of around 3,000 cotton workers took place at Chadwick’s Orchard in Preston. They pledged to "strike work until they had a fair days wages for that work, guaranteeing its continuance with the Charter", the Chartist newspaper 'The Northern Star' reported that "Before night every cotton mill was turned out without resistance - all done chiefly by boys and girls".

1861 - Luigi Galleani (d. 1931), influential Italian anarchist militant, born. [expand]
"When we talk about property, State, masters, government, laws, courts, and police, we say only that we don't want any of them." - 'The End of Anarchism?' (1925).

##1874 - Oreste Ristori (d. 1943), Italian journalist, militant individualist anarchist, anarcho-communist and anti-fascist, born. [EXPAND]

1882 - La Bande Noire: Anarchist miners from Montceau-les-Mines, Burgundy, continue their attacks against clericalism by destroying the cross at Alouettes in an attack during the night on August 11-12. [see: Aug. 6]

1883 - The newspaper 'Drapeau Noir' (Black Flag), "Organe Anarchist" begins publishing in Lyons. A victim of repression, it ceases publication on Dec. 2, 1883, to be replaced by 'L'Emeute' (The Riot).

[E] 1886 - Louise Michel is sentenced to four months in prison and a 100 franc fine for her part in the June 3 meeting at the Chateau d’Eau Theatre in Paris in support of the striking Decazeville miners. Paul Lafargue, Jules Guesde and Dr. Paul Susini, who refused to appear at the trial, were sentenced in absentia to 4 to 6 months in prison and fined 100 francs each.

1894 - Procès des Trente: The Procès des Trente comes to an end. Intended to justify repressive measures against the anarchists and to reassure the public after the recent attacks, the indictment of Advocate General Whelk fails to prove an agreement and alleged criminal conspiracy between the various defendants (19 anarchist theorists and 11 common thieves) as the defendants, some of whom do not even know each other, had no trouble refuting the charges.
The jurors acquitted all 26 appearing in court except Philippe Léon Ortiz (sentenced to fifteen years hard labour), Annette Chericotti (eight years of hard labour) and Orsini Bertani (six months imprisonment and a fine of sixteen francs)
Paul Reclus, Alexander Cohen, Constant Martin, Louis Duprat and Émile Pouget will in the meantime be sentenced in absentia on October 31 to 20 years hard labour. When they return to France following an amnesty, they are (with the exception of Paul Reclus) all acquitted. [see: Aug. 6]

##1900 - Dorvalina Martins Ribas (d. 1944), Brazilian teacher, lecturer and militant anarchist, who became a disciple of Francisco Ferrer and supporter of secular education whilst still a student, born. [expand]

[D] 1903 - [O.S. Jul. 30] Ilinden Uprising [Илинденско въстание] / Kruševo Republic [Крушевска република]: Following the 10 hours Battles of Sliva (Слива) and Mechin Stone (Мечкин Камен), the rebels retreat from the town and a 18,000 people strong Ottoman force recaptures a heavily shelled Kruševo. It had been held by Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) insurgents for just ten days.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1917 - Huelga General Revolucionaria [Revolutionary General Strike] / Vaga General Espanyola [Spanish General Strike]: The socialist strike committee publishes the 'A los obreros ya la opinión pública' (To the workers and to the public opinion) manifesto, which stated that the strike would not stop "until it has obtained the sufficient guarantees of initiation of the regime change", and called upon the Juntas de Defensa (Defence Boards) to support the workers.

[C] 1920 - Bernard Voyenne (d. 2003), French anarcho-syndicalist activist, federalist, Résistance fighter, journalist, professor and writer on Proudhon, born. Worked on the 'Combat' newspaper alongside Albert Camus. Author of 'Proudhon et Dieu: Le combat d' un anarchiste' (Proudhon and God: The struggle of an anarchist; 2004).

1921 - Abel Paz (Diego Camacho; d. 2009), Spanish militant anarchist, historian and Civil War combatant, born. Paz helped found the 'Los Quijotes del Ideal' group in August 1936, along with Victor García, Liberto Sarrau and other young libertarians. (Los Quijotes del Ideal opposed anarchist collaboration with the Republican government.) Author of 'Durruti, the People Armed' (1976), 'CNT 1939-1951: El Anarquismo contra el Estado Franquista' (Anarchism versus the Francoist State; Madrid: 2001); etc. [expand]

[A] 1936 - The first International Brigade volunteers arrive in Spain.

## 1938 - Nelly Trumel, French still life artist, militant feminist and anarchist, and member of Diennes de Garde (Bitches on Guard), who hosted the weekly 'Femmes Libres' programme on Radio Libertaire, born.

1944 - Jehan Jonas (d. 1980), French chanteur libertaire, cabaret singer, poet, playwright and screenwriter, born. [expand]

1975 - Laurance Labadie (b. 1898), American individualist and mutualist anarchist writer and theorist, son of Joseph Labadie, dies. [see: Jun. 4]

1985 - Folke Ivar Valter Fridell (b. 1904), Swedish textile mill worker, proletarian writer and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Oct. 1]

[B] 1992 - John Cage (d. 1912), American composer, music theorist, writer, poet, artist and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 5]

2012 - The final day of La Rencontre Internationale de l'Anarchisme (Aug. 8-12), celebrating 140 years of the creation of the anti-authoritarian International, in Saint-Imier, Switzerland.

#### 2015 - Martin Ramirez Sostre (b. 1923), Afro-Puerto Rican bookshop owner, revolutionary writer, Black Muslim, Black nationalist, Internationalist, and later anarchist, who was framed and sentenced to forty-one years and thirty days as part of the COINTELPRO program, spending nine years in prison and becoming a fearless prison activist before being granted clemency, dies at home, his apartment having effectively become a new prison in the last few years of his life after a series of strokes had left him unable to negotiate the steps in front of the building. [see: Mar. 20]
1871 - Probable date of birth of Hippolyte Havel (d. 1950), Czech anarchist, scholar and bohemian. editor of several anarchist publications, including the 'Chicago Arbeiter Zeitung', 'The Revolutionary Almanac' (1914), and 'Revolt' (1916). Companion of Emma Goldman, who met him in London and brought him to the States; married to the anarchist Polly Holliday, who ran the famous eponomous Greenwich Village resturant with him; friend of Eugene O'Neill, who based the character Hugo Kalmar of 'The Iceman Cometh' on him; and 'adopted' the photographer Berenice Abbott.

1882 - La Bande Noire: Destruction of the cross in Bois Roulot in an attack during the night on August 12-13. [see: Aug. 6]

1883 - La Bande Noire: It is the turn of the engineer Chevalier to see his house dynamited but this time the anarchists again missed their target, receiving some minor scratches and bruises from the projectile material.

1890 - Lucien Émile François Barbedette (d. 1942), French professor and anarchist, who wrote for many newspapers and reviews, and worked on Sébastien Faure's 'Anarchist Encyclopedia', born.

1994 - Zdzisława Bytnarowa aka 'Sławska', 'Sława', 'Sławka' (b. 1901), Polish teacher, who fought in the ranks of the Armia Krajowa (Home Army) during the Warsaw Uprising, dies. [see: Mar. 12]

1903 - [O.S. Jul. 31] Ilinden Uprising [Илинденско въстание] / Kruševo Republic [Крушевска република]: Despite the white flags flying above the town, Ottoman forces continue to shell Kruševo. It had been held by Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) insurgents for just ten days. Krusevo was bombed, robbed and destroyed. Shops and houses were looted, robbed and burned, the women raped, and any men discovered they beat and killed. 117 people, including 15 women, 5 girls and 6 children, died. More than 150 girls and women were raped, 159 houses and 210 shops, including most of the bazaar, were burned.
[Jul.-Greg. correction check]

1910 - The beginning of 3 days of events in Besancon surrounding the inauguration of the statue of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. Proposed the previous year to mark the centenary of his birth, it was financed by subscription and Georges Laethier won the competition to design it. The statue has unfortunately disappeared, melted (like many others) by the Nazis during the occupation.

1910 - The bi-weekly German language magazine 'Freiheit', "Internationales Organ der anarchisten deutscher Sprache", first published on Jan. 4, 1879 in London by Johann Most and from 1882 in New York, ceases publication today.
catalog.loc.gov/vwebv/search?searchCode=LCCN&searchArg=ca 19000055&searchType=1&permalink=y]

1917 - Huelga General Revolucionaria [Revolutionary General Strike] / Vaga General Espanyola [Spanish General Strike]: Despite the Socialists having taken strike action independantly of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT, anarchist workers came out on strike across Catalonia and elsewhere. From August 13 to 17, a large part of the country was paralyzed, but transport and especially the railways, a key sector and the one that precipitated the strike, remained largely uneffected by strike action. Even so, at the beginning of the strike, activities in all major industrial zones (Vizcaya and Barcelona, including some smaller ones such as Yecla and Villena), urban (Madrid, Valencia, Zaragoza, La Coruña) and mining (Jaén, Asturias and León) were shut down. However, the strike action only remained effective for a few days, and at the most a week in activist strongholds. In small towns and rural areas it had little impact. The government declare a state of war and order the security forces to act with its full might and without hesitation.

## 1917 - Eugène Bonaventure Jean-Baptiste Vigo (Eugeni Bonaventura de Vigo i Sallés), aka Miguel Almereyda [anagram: Y'a la merde](b. 1883), French journalist, anarchist and anti-militarist propagandist, is murdered in his prison cell – strangled by a shoelace. Father of anarchist film maker Jean Vigo; founder and director of the ultra-leftist paper 'Le Bonnet Rouge', for which he was in prison when murdered (and his collaborator Émile Joseph Duval was executed in July 1918 for receiving money from Germany to support the newspaper); co-founder of the newspaper 'La Guerre Sociale'; founding member of l'Association Internationale Antimilitariste (A.I.A.) and founder of Les Jeunes Gardes révolutionnaires, action combat groups which clash in the street with the extreme-right-wingers. [see: Jan. 5]
[Costantini pic]

[B] 1923 - Carlos Cortez (d. 2005), US anarcho-syndicalist, poet, graphic artist, photographer, muralist and political activist, born. The son of a Mexican-Indian Wobbly union organiser father and a German socialist pacifist mother, he was active for six decades in the Industrial Workers of the World. As an accomplished artist and a highly influential political artist, Cortez is perhaps best known for his wood and linoleum-cut graphics, and his cartoons for the union newspaper the 'Industrial Worker'.
www.politicalgraphics.org/exhibitions/Carlos Cortez/CarlosCortez.htm

1936 - The first issue of 'El Frente' (The Front), "Boletin de guerra de la Columna Durruti CNT-FAI" on the Aragon front, is publsihed in Pina de Ebro.

##1974 - Eyal Hertzog (איל הרצוג), Israeli co-founder of the popular video sharing website Metacafe and spokesperson for Anarchists Against the Wall (אנרכיסטים נגד גדרות‬), born.
1846 - Henry David Thoreau jailed for tax resistance to the Mexican War.

[BB] 1865 - Pietro Gori (d. 1911), Italian anarchist, labour activist and lawyer, who was an ardent legal defender of numerous anarchists, born. He was also reknowned as a poet and songwriter - author of some of the most famous anarchist songs of the late 19th century, including 'Addio a Lugano' (Farewell to Lugano), 'Stornelli d'Esili' (Exile Songs), 'Ballata per Sante Caseri' (Ballad for Sante Geronimo Caserio). Published a number of books of poetry, including 'Prigioni e Battaglie' (Jails and Battles; 1891) and 'Alla conquista dell'Avvenire' (Conquering the Future; 1892).

1878 - The opening in the Benevento Assize Court of the prosecution of the Banda del Matese internationalists for armed insurrection in April 1877 in the villages of Matese. The best known of the defendants are Errico Malatesta, Carlo Cafiero and Cesare Ceccarelli. They are charged with "the crime of conspiracy to destroy and change the form of government, to encourage people to take up arms against the state power in order to provoke civil war (...) an attack by an armed group, and complicity in the crimes of: voluntary injuring by firearm on the person of the king's riflemen...", injuries that caused the death of a rifleman. The defence of the accused is provided by four lawyers, including a very young 21 years old Neapolitan Saverio Merlino, whose passionate defence leads to the acquittal of the defendants.

1883 - La Bande Noire: The house of the mayor of Sanvignes, Grelin, is targeted by a bottle containing explosives thrown through a glass door.

###1887 - Rirette Maîtrejean (Anna Henriette Estorges; d. 1968), French individualist anarchist activist and propagandist, born. Editor of the newspaper 'l'Anarchie' after the death of Albert Libertad, companion to the anarchist Mauricius (Maurice Vandamme) and to Viktor Kibaltschin alias Victor Serge. Both were tried as members of the Bonnot Gang - both knew the gang members (Serge having grown up with a number of them), both were involved in pro-Bonnot propaganda and 2 revolvers linked to the gang were found in their house. She was acquitted but Serge received 5 years in solitary. She wrote for many anarchist publications, such as 'La Revue Anarchiste', 'La Défense de l'Homme' and 'La Liberté' (founded by Louis Lecoin in 1959).[expand]

###1887 - Arahata Kanson [荒畑 寒村] aka Arahata Katsuzō [荒畑 勝三](d. 1981), Japanese labour leader, journalist, participating in many of the left-wing movements of the era, born. He started as a libertarian-socialist close to Kōtoku Shūsui (幸徳秋水) and Sakai Toshihiko (堺利彦) and the Heiminsha (平民社) group around the 'Heimin Shinbun' (平民新聞 / The Commoner's News) newspaper, then became an anarcho-syndicalist implicated in the 1908 Red Flag Incident (赤旗事件 / Akahata Jiken) and imprisoned, and then a communist involved in the founding of the Japanese Communist Party (日本共産党), known as the First Communist Party (第一次共産党), in 1921, eventually serving in the Diet as a representative of the postwar Japan Socialist Party (日本社会党), born.

1890 - Rafael Farga i Pellicer (b. 1844), Catalan typesetter, political cartoonist, journalist, painter, syndicalist, member of the International and anarchist, also known as Justo Pastor de Pellico, dies. [expand]

[E] 1901 - Mercedes Comaposada i Guillén (Mercè Comaposada i Guillén [ca]; d. 1944), militant Catalan anarcho-feminist, teacher and lawyer, born into a militant household. She starts work at an early age and becomes an editor at a film production company and joins the CNT Public Performances in Barcelona. Later, after studying law, she became a women's educator and helped found the Mujeres Libres in April 1936 and started publishing the group's magazine, illustrated by her partner, the libertarian sculptor Baltasar Lobo. After the defeat of the Republic, she and Lobo move to Paris under the wing of Pablo Picasso, where she works as a secretary and translates the work of a number of Castilian writers, especially Lope de Vega.
She also contributed to the 'Mujeres Libres' magazine (and was also editor in chief), 'Ruta' , 'Tiempos Nuevos' , 'Tierra y Libertad' and 'Umbral'. She was also author of 'Esquemas' (Schemes; 1937, a book of poetry), 'Las Mujeres en Nuestra Revolución' (Woment in Our Revolution; 1937), 'La Ciencia en la Mochila' (Science in a Rucksack; 1938), 'Conversaciones Cono los Artistas Españoles de la Escuela de París' (Coverstions with Spanish Artists of the Paris School; 1960, under the pseudonym Mercedes Guillén), 'Picasso' (1973, as Mercedes Guillén) and an unpublished work 'Mujeres Libres'.

1903 - [O.S. Aug. 1] Ilinden Uprising [Илинденско въстание]: Under the leadership of Nikola Pushkarov, some Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) bands near Skopje attack and derail a military train. Further east in Razlog in Pirin Macedonia (the Blagoevgrad Province in present-day Bulgaria) the population join in the uprising.
[Jul.-Greg. correction check]

1904 - Helmut Klose aka 'Vagabund' (d. 1987), German anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist tailor, short story writer, poet, actor and itinerant, born. A member of FAUD (Freien Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands) and later of the FAUD-aligned international movement Bruderschaft der Vagabunden (Brotherhood of Vagrants). He played a role alongside Gregor Gog, founder of the Bruderschaft der Vagabunden, in Fritz Weiss's film 'Vagabund' (1930). Fleeing the rise of the Nazis, he spent time in Austria and Yougoslavia, from which he was expelled for possession of Spanish anarchist literature. Ending up in Spain, he fought in the French Batalló de la Costa section of the Durruti Column and, in Catalonia, joined the Deutsche Anarcho-Syndikalisten (DAS), working on a collective farm. [expand]

##1904 - [O.S. Aug. 1] Mariola Milkova Sirakov (Мариола Милкова Сиракова; d. 1925), Bulgarian actor and anarcho-communist revolutionary, born. From a well-to-do family, she rebelled at an early age against her social background, joining the anarchist movement. She regularly attended secret anarchist meetings and eventually became Bulgarian anarchist Gueorgui Cheitanov's partner. In her spare time she was involved in the Orpheus theatrical troupe in Kilifarevo. In 1922-23 she studied in Pleven, with fellow anarchists Vasil Popov and Valko Shankov hiding out in her quarters. Following the coup of June 9, 1923 Sirakova was arrested, raped and brutally abused by the police. In June 1924, she returned to Kilifarevo and was soon again arrested, but soon released. In the town she was active supporting the local population as well as hiding and treating wounded rebels. Following the April 16, 1925 attack on the St Nedelya Church, Sofia and the country's political and military elite gathered there for the funeral of General Konstantin Georgiev (Константин Георгиев), the Cheitanov group split, going into hiding. After the split of the band she and George Sheytanov and Zhelyu Grozev (Желю Грозев) attempted to emigrate to Turkey. In Nova Zagora supporters provided them with food and false papers, but on May 26 Mariola Sirakova and Cheitanov were caught in an ambush and arrested. They were taken back to Nova Zagora, where they were put on a train to Sofia. On May 28, Sirakova and Cheitanov were shot at Belovo railway station along with 12 other anti-fascist prisoners.

1917 - Huelga General Revolucionaria [Revolutionary General Strike] / Vaga General Espanyola [Spanish General Strike]: In Catalonia the repression of the labour movement started with the imprisonment of the strike committee (among others, Francisco Miranda, Ángel Pestaña and Salvador Seguí) and spread over many union leaders; the Strike Committee was arrested by the police and a mutiny that broke out in the model prison was repressed with great harshness, resulting in the death of several prisoners, including seven prominent socialist militants.
In Sadabell, the first clashes between anarcho-syndicalists and Guàrdia Civil at 08:00 on the Gurugú tavern frequented by workers when mounted guards carrying out a raid are fired on, killing one. Captain Tegido and 14 guàrdies civil returned but the strikers resisted and beat a tactical retreat, leaving two passersby killed in the crossfire and the tavern owner, his son and a waiter under arrest. Events at the Gurugú caused outrage amongst the striking workers and at 09:30, the seals on the Obrera union offices in carrer de l'Estrella 110 were broken, a red and black flag hoisted and the building barricaded. The surrounding streets (carrers Corominas and Jovellanos) were alo barricaded with bails of wool and the neighbours warned to leave. Around noon, guards tried to attack but overwhelming fire from the barricades on the carrers Calderón and Colón forced them to retreat. Two syndicalists were killed and Tegido was nearly killed when a bomb blew up under the legs of his horse. After around 16 hours of fighting, the workers withdrew from the barricades and the Obrera building pursued by the Guàrdia Civil, leaving three or four dead workers behind. The Red Cross set up three field hospitals and made continuous trips to collect the dead and wounded. At 23:00, three companies of the Regimiento de Vergara arrived from Barcelona with two artillery pieces, setting up at the Guàrdia Civil barracks.

[A] 1924 - Colin Ward (d. 2010), British anarchist writer - "one of the greatest anarchist thinkers of the past half century, and a pioneering social historian" [Roman Krznaric], born.

[B] 1926 - Lina Wertmüller (Arcangela Felice Assunta Wertmüller von Elgg Español von Braueich), Italian film writer and director, born. Her films depict her largely libertarian and feminist world view, none more expressly than 'Film d'amore e d'anarchia - Ovvero "Stamattina alle 10 in via dei Fiori nella nota casa di tolleranza..."' (Film of Love and Anarchy - Or "This morning at 10 in via dei Fiori at the noted brothel ..."; 1973) aka 'Love and Anarchy', about an anarchist who stays in a brothel while preparing to kill Mussolini.

1928 - Klabund (psedonym of Alfred Henschke; b. 1890), German Expressionist poet, playwright, novelist, consumptive and anarchist, who influenced German literature with his adaptations and translations of Oriental literature, dies. [see: Nov. 4]

1936 - In Spain fascist insurgents take Badajoz; over 4,000 people are massacred in the next 10 days.

## 1943 - Nguyen An Ninh (b. 1900), influential Vietnamese nationalist journalist, poet and libertarian communist, who was active in the revolutionary struggle against the French colonial empire, dies in Pulo Condore prison whilst serving his fifth prison sentence. [see: Sep. 5]

1954 - Juan Esteban Fagetti (b. 1888), Uruguayan former soldier, autodidact, writer, poet, journalist and anarchist, dies in Montevideo. [see: Aug. 3]

1956 - Lennart Olof Birger Eriksson, aka Fjodor, Swedish musician, former bass player in the punk rock band Ebba Grön, part-time chef, and anarchist, born.

1969 - Hem Day (Marcel Camille Dieu / Henri Day; b. 1902), Belgian scholar, secondhand bookseller, pacifist, anarchist and writer, dies. [see: May 30]

1974 - The East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front (東アジア反日武装戦線) anarchist urban guerrilla group try to blow up the Morotomo (もろとも) iron bridge over which Emperor Hirohito's royal train was travelling, which they code-named the Rainbow Operation (虹作戦). However, the plot was aborted because a member was spotted shortly before it was to be put into action.
1750 - Sylvain Maréchal (Pierre-Sylvain Maréchal; d. 1803), French essayist, poet, atheist, philosopher and political theorist, born. A precursor of utopian socialism, he can be labelled an anarchiste avant la lettre, although the Marxists also claim him. Creator of the Revolutionary Maréchal calendar.

1844* - Adhémar Schwitzguébel (b. 1895), Swiss watch engraver, anarchist, theorist of collectivist anarchism, founder of the Bakuninist Fédération Jurassienne (Jura Federation) and member of the First International, born.
[* March 1 erroneously cited by some sources]

[B] 1845 - Walter Crane (d. 1915), English artist, book illustrator and libertarian socialist, born. Influenced both politically and artistically by William Morris, he produced illustrations and cartoons for the Socialist papers 'Justice', 'The Commonweal' and 'The Clarion', and was part of the Arts and Crafts movement and produced an array of paintings, illustrations, children's books, ceramic tiles and other decorative arts.

1849 - Pavlos Argyriadis (Παύλος Αργυριάδης; d. 1901), Greek journalist, writer, libertarian socialist and member of the Paris Commune, born.

1882 - La Bande Noire: During the night of August 14-15, an armory is looted by a group from the Bois-du-Verne Bande Noire, headed by a certain Devillard, and twenty-two hours later a series of dynamite and ax attacks against the hamlet's chapel began. The seized weapons are handed out to a gathering of 2-300 sympathisers and Bande Noire members, who then move off towards the chapel of the Bois-du-Verne, which is attacked with axes, ransacked, set on fire and the entrance is destroyed by a bomb. About two hundred protesters then marched off to the neighbouring villages, led by a red flag, to the cries of "Vive la sociale! Mort aux bourgeois!"

1903 - Pascal Pia (born Pierre Durand; d. 1979), French writer, poet, journalist, illustrator, scholar and anarchist, born. He also used the pseudonyms Avinin Mireur, Léger Alype, Pascal Rosé and Pascal Fely amongst others. Friend and collaborator of Albert Camus, to whom Camus dedicated his 'Le Mythe de Sisyphe' (The Myth of Sisyphus; 1942).

## 1907 - Carmen Conde Abellán aka Florentina (d. 1996), Spanish teacher, narrative writer, poet, children's author, militant anarcho-feminist and Mujeres Libres member, who worked on the group's magazine and undertook lecture tours, born. In 1931 she married the poet Antonio Oliver Belmar and had a long-term lesbian relationship with Amanda Junquera. A prolific author of prose, poetry, childrens stories, essays, biography, etc., some published under a series of pseudonyms, including Magdalena Noguera, Florentina Sea and others, whilst living clandestinely after the defeat of the Republic.

1909 - The first issue of the bimonthly revolutionary syndicalist 'Le Terrassier' (The Digger), "Organe du syndicat général (CGT) des Ouvriers Terrassiers, Puisatiers-Mineurs, Tubistes, Poseurs de Rails et Parties Similaires du département de la Seine" (Paper of the Road Labourers, Well Diggers, Pipe Layers, Railsway Workers and Similar Trades section of CGT). The cover illustration is by Aristide Delannoy of a labourer belabouring 'the man'.

1917 - Huelga General Revolucionaria [Revolutionary General Strike] / Vaga General Espanyola [Spanish General Strike]: There are clashes in Asturias and Bilbao and in Sabadell the troops fired on the barricades causing 32 deaths. In Madrid a clash took place in Cuatro Caminos where there were barricades. Demonstrators are joined by women and children carrying placards, however their presence did not prevent a cavalry charge.
In Sabadell troops of the Regiment de Vergara and the Guàrdia Civil lay siege to the locals of the Federació Obrera de Sabadell (FOS), of the Obrera a Sabadell at carrer de l'Estrella 110, which was affiliated to the CNT, and of the Fraternidad Republicana Radical at Via Massagué 55. [expand]
In Madrid, the Socialist strike committee organisers are arrested on the carrer Desengano, where the Committee headquarters is located.

##1918 - In the U.S., Ricardo Flores Magon and Librado Rivera are sentenced to twenty years in prison and a $5,000 fine and fifteen years respectively for having published on March 16, 1918, in their journal 'Regeneración' the manifesto to 'the members of the party, to the anarchists of the world and the workers in general'. They are taken to McNeil Island Penitentiary.

1920 - A national meeting of Italian anarchists is held in Florence to plan increased solidarity and agitation in supportr of victims of political repression. Present are Errico Malatesta and Bonazzi Clodoveo for the UAI; Gigi Damiani for the newspaper 'Umanità Nova'; Diego Guadagnini for the Committee for Libertarian Defence; Dante Pagliai and Emilio Spinaci the Committee for Political Victims in Milan; Giuseppe Sartini for the USI; Domenico Giulietti for Federation of Maritime Workers; Andrea Pedrini and Cesare Stazzi for the Ancône Bourse du Travail; Camillo Berneri for the Federation of Revolutionary Youth and Andrea Viglongo for the Committee of Turin Factory Workers.

1927 - Spartaco Stagnetti (b. 1888), Italian militant anarcho-syndicalist, is murdered whilst exiled by the Fascist regime on the island of Ustica, near Palermo [NB. Year often incorrectly given as 1928.] [see: Jul. 4]

[E] 1930 - Selma James (Selma Deitch), US co-author of the women's movement classic 'The Power of Women and the Subversion of the Community' (1972), with Mariarosa Dalla Costa, co-founder of the International Wages for Housework Campaign and coordinator of the Global Women's Strike, born.

1935 - Paul Victor Jules Signac (b. 1863), French neo-Impressionist painter and anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 11]

1936 - The constituent congress of La Fédération Anarchiste Française (following a split within the Union Anarchiste) takes place today and tomorrow in Toulouse. Volin and André Prudhommeaux are the main facilitators.

1940 - Dora Beatriz Barrancos, Argeninian university professor, sociologist and historian, dedicated to the development of feminism in Argentina, social movements of the early twentieth century, revolutions carried out by women, socialist and anarchist movements, and the role of education in history Argentina, born.

1951 - The first performance of the Living Theatre takes place in the house of Judith Malina and Julian Beck as the could find a room or the money to finance its hire. Four plays are performed: 'Childish Jokes' by Paul Goodman, 'Ladies' Voices' by Gertrude Stein, 'He Who Says Yes and He Who Says No' by Bertolt Brecht, and Federico Garcia Lorca's 'The Dialogue of the Mannequin and the Young Man'.

[A] 1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Following the announcement by the British Government that internment was to be introduced in Ireland, there was a powerful explosion at the Army recruiting centre in Holloway Road, North London. This was accompanied by a Communique signed 'Angry Brigade Moonlighters Cell'.

1987 - Jean Émile Louis Scutenaire (b. 1905), Belgian poet, anarchist, surrealist and civil servant, dies. [see: Jun. 29]

1997 - Roc Llop i Convalia (b. 1908*), Catalan teacher, poet, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies in Paris aged 89 (or maybe just 88) years old. [see: Dec. 31]
[* Anarcoefemerides give the year as 1909]

[CC] 2004 - Roger Albert Giner, a young Catalan anarchist and anti-Fascist is stabbed by a group of neo-Nazis skinheads in the Barcelona neighborhood of Gràcia. He died in the Hospital Vall d'Hebron after spending almost five months in a coma. The police, altered by a member of the public who described a group of 20 youths armed with chains and throwing stones fighting, found Roger lying on the ground with a deep wound in the neck and losing large amounts of blood. The intervention of a surgeon at the scene managed to stabilise him but he never recovered from his injuries. Police chased a group of six Nazis, arresting them in the Rambla del Prat. Amongst them was a 25-year-old skin Aitor Dávila, from Albal, Valencia, who was found with the weapon, a brass knuckleduster with attached blade - in his possession. In November 2006, Aitor Dávila was found guilty of murder and, controversially, sentenced to only 11 years, following the jury's unanimous request for clemency, plus €90,000 compensation for Roger's family. A second defendant, Emilio Cortés, was acquitted. Effectively, the judge held that Roger was responsible in part for his own fate and therefore decided on a lesser sentence and awarded half the costs of the defence bill against his family.
1856 - Pierre Martin aka 'le Bossu' (the Hunchback)(d. 1916), French anarchist, anti-miltarist and pacifist, born. [expand]

1872 - The first issue of the weekly anarchist 'La Revista Social', "Organo de la Union de los Obreros Manufactureros de España.", is published in Manresa (near Barcelona).

1878 - The German anarchist Heinrich Emil Maximilian Hödel, who tried to assassinate Kaiser Wilhelm I in Berlin on May 11, is sentenced to death and swiftly beheaded. His last words are "Vive la commune".

1890 - The first issue of Ernesto Alvarez's anarchist newspaper 'La Anarquia' is published in Madrid. The newspaper ceased publication on June 15, 1893.

1894 - Santo Geronimo Caserio (Sante Jeronimo) (b. 1873), Italian anarchist who stabbed French President Sadi Carnot to avenge the execution of Auguste Valliant, is guillotined at 4:55am. Carnot died from his wounds.
"Corragio camaradi, evviva l'anarchia!" (Courage comrades, long live anarchy!)
[Costantini pic]

1895 - One year after the execution of Sante Caserio, a bomb explodes in front of the French consulate in Ancona (Italy), breaking its windows and front doors.

##1902 - Paweł Lew Marek (born Melajach Lew; d. 1971), Polish journalist, anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist, co-founder of the Anarchistycznej Federacji Polski during the Second Republic, born. He participant defence of Warsaw in 1939, and then fought in the Warsaw ghetto uprising and the Warsaw Uprising itself. After 1945, he became as trade union activist. His autobiography covering the war years, 'Na krawedzi zycia. Wspomnienia anarchisty (1943-1944)' (After a life. Memoirs of an Anarchist (1943-1944)), was published posthumously in 2005.

1902 - Jean Frédéric Henry Barrué (d. 1989), French Professor of Mathematics, communist militant and revolutionary syndicalist and later an anarchist, born. During the Spanish Civil War, he worked on Aristide Lapeyre's 'L'Espagne Antifasciste' in Bordeaux and became an important figure in the Groupe Sébastien Faure.

1907 - Georgette Léontine Roberte Augustine Kokoczinski aka 'La Mimosa' (Georgette Léontine Brivadis-Ango; d. 1936), French anarchist, actress and nurse, born. At the age of 16, unable to get on with her parents any longer, she left for Paris where she was taken in by André Colomer and his partner Magdalena who introduced her to libertarian ideas. She frequented the cabarets in Montmartre and was attracted to show business and poetry. In 1928 she started using the stage name Mimosa as part of a theatre group that added colour to libertarian meetings and festivals in the area through singing, poetry readings and staging dramas.
She disappeared on October 16 during the Battle of Perdiguera (Zaragoza) and died the same day (or on Oct. 17), possibly shot by firing squad, in circumstances that are not entirely clear.

1907 - Miquel Liern Barberà (d. 1971), Spanish anarchist, CNT member and combatant on the Teruel, Brunete and Ebro fronts, born.
Following Franco's victory, he was interned in the Barcarès and Argelès concentration camps, later working for the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers. In 1941 he was arrested by the Germans and sent to Mauthausen concentration camp and then to Dachau. He managed to survive until the Allied liberation and settled in Montpelier, working as a mosaic maker and was active in the local CNT.

1912 - José Villanueva (d. 1989), Spanish anarchist and CNT member, who volunteered and fought in the Durruti Column alongside his brother Floreal Carbó, born. Following Franco's victory, went to France and was interned in the concentration camp at Vernet. After World War II he settled in Languedoc and remained a militant in the CNT in exile.

##1916 - Paquita Jolis Puig (d. 1982), Catalan militant anarcho-feminist and Mujeres Libres activist, born. Active in the FIJL in Premiá de Dalt, in 1936 she, her sister Assumpció and a group of two dozen other women, formed a local Agrupació Mujeres Libres. This group participated in the running of the town's Municipal Council and was the promoter of the creation of the Museu de Física i Ciències Naturals (Museum of Physics and Natural Sciences). With the victory of Franco in the Civil War, she was forced into exile in France, where she became active in the local federation of the CNT in exile in Marseille. Paquita Jolis Puig died on August 16, 1982, on her birthday, in Marseille.

1916 - Ceferí Llop Estupiñà (d. 1939), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, member of the FIJL and CNT, born. Following the 1936 military coup, he joined the Comitè Revolucionari de Manresa and volunteered for the front. Following Franco's victory, he went to France but soon returned. However , he was denounced as a member of the Comitè Revolucionari de Manresa militia and of having participated in the assault of the Dominican convent. Arrested by Franco's army, on 28 April, 1939 he was tried by an emergency summary court martial and sentenced to death for the crime of "military rebellion". He was shot on August 9, 1939 in the Camp de la Bota del Poblenou in Barcelona.

[E] 1918 - The opening of the Centro Radical Femenino (Women’s Radical Centre), part of the anarcho-syndicalist Casa del Obrero Mundial. The Centre brings out a newspaper 'El Iconoclasta' that claims to be produced by “eager female fighters and designed to raise the consciousness of women enslaved by Roman vampirism” (a reference to Catholic clergy sucking on women’s life blood).

1919 - Conchita Guillén (born María de la Concepción Bertolín Pilar Guillén; d. 2008), Spanish militant anarcho-feminist and member of Mujeres Libres, born. Sister of the anarchist painter Jesús Guillén Bertolín.

1936 - The second day (of 2) of the constituent congress of La Fédération Anarchiste Française (following a split within the Union Anarchiste) in Toulouse. Volin and André Prudhommeaux are the main facilitators.

1938 - Ilya Moiseevich Geytsman [Илья Моисеевич Гейцман], aka P. Geytsman, Haim London or Chaim the Londoner (Itsko-Isaak Moishev Fayvishev [Ицко-Исаак Мойшев Файвишев]; b. 1879*), Lithuanian anarchist, organiser of the October 1905 attempt on the Vilnius police chief Captain EK Klimovich (Е.К.Климовича), participant in the Russian revolutionary movement, is executed by the NKVD in the killing fields of Butovo, a victim of the Stalin purges.
[* some sources give year as 1874]

1940 - Raphael Friedeberg (b. 1863), German medical doctor, socialist and later an anarchist following his involvement in the Acona community, where he settled permamnently in 1904, dies. [see: Mar. 14]

1957 - Adalgisa Fochi (b. 1865), Italian teacher, writer, anti-fascist, mother of Camillo Berneri and grandmother of Maria Luisa and Giliana Berneri, dies. [see: Jul. 31]

1962 - As part of a concerted drive against political and social dissenters, the Cuban government forces the Libertarian Association of Cuba to cease publishing its journal 'El Libertario' and suspend public activity because they had voiced minor criticisms of the Communist role in the government and their domination of the labour unions. All anarchist publications and public activities are banned across Cuba.

1969 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Home of Duncan Sandys, Tory MP, fire-bombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1982 - Paquita Jolis Puig (d. 1982), Catalan militant anarcho-feminist and Mujeres Libres activist, dies on her 66th birthday. [see: Aug. 16]

## 1996 - Robert 'Bobby' Lynn (b. 1924), Scottish Stirnerite anarchist and militant trade unionist, dies.
1863 - Johannes Methöfer (Johannes Cornelis Hendrik Philip Methöfer; October 24, 1933), Dutch editor, author, propagandist and anarchist, who is considered one of the first anarchists active in the Netherlands and was an active promoter of the Dutch produktiecoöperaties movement, born.

##1864 - Librado Rivera (d. 1932), Mexican teacher and school principal, militant anarchist propagandist and one of the closest comrade and collaborator of Ricardo Flores Magón, born.

1867 - Romeo Frezzi (d. 1897), Italian anarchist, who was to die under interrogation following his arrest (he was found in possession of a photo of a group of people, including the putative assassin Pietro Acciarito) in connection with the attempted assassination of King Umberto I on April 22 1897, born.

1868 - Józef Edward Abramowski (d. 1918), Polish political thinker, philosopher, psychologist, sociologist, militant libertarian and coopertivist, who strove to bridge the gap between psychology and sociology in his scientific work, born. Abramowski is considered to be a spiritual father of Anarchism in Poland.

1876 - Georges Gustave Gillet (d. 1951), French militant syndicalist, anti-militarist and anarchist propagandist, born.

1883 - Jeanne Françoise 'Jane' Morand (d. 1969), French militant individualist anarchist and anti-militarist activist, born. Jane Morand participated in the creation of a diction course for amateur actors at the libertarian Théâtre du Peuple collective and also participated in the creation of Armand Guerra's film co-operative, Cinéma du Peuple. [expand]

####1885 - Clara Gertrude Meijer-Wichmann (d. 1922), Dutch lawyer, philosopher, pacifist, anti-militarist, anarcho-syndicalist and anarcho-feminist, born. As a law student, she co-founded the Nederlandse Bond voor Vrouwenkiesrecht (Dutch League for Women's Suffrage), lecturing and writing articles on the emancipation of women is all areas of society. Appointed in 1914 as a researcher at the Central Department of the Ministry of Justice Statistics in The Hague, she declared: "Criminal law should be banned completely, because I proclaim that it is an act of retaliation and not a way to render justice." In 1919 she founded the anti-prison organsiation Comité van Actie Tegen de Bestaande Opvattingen Omtrent Misdaad en Straf (Action Committee Against the Existing Notions of Crime and Punishment). A member of 'De Dageraad' (The Dawn), an association of freethinkers based around the magazine of the same name, motto: 'Magna est veritas et praevalebit' (Mighty is the truth and it will prevail). An active anti-militarist, she married the conscientious objector Jo Meijer in 1921 and they co-founded the War Resistors International that year.
Sadly Clara, aged 36, died giving birth to their daughter the following year. Jo Meijer went on help preserve his wife's intellectual heritage as well as continue their work in the WRI. The Clara Wichmann Institute (CLWI), a Dutch organisation dealing with the legal status of women, was established in her honour in 1987 but was forced to close in 2004 due to the withdrawal of government funding. Its work is continued via the Stichting Proefprocessenfonds Clara Wichmann (Trial Process Fund Foundation). Since 1988 there has also been a Clara Meijer-Wichmann medal awarded on Human Rights Day (December 10) in her honour, intially by the Dutch League of Human Rights but laterly by the J'Accuse foundation, recognising work in defence of humanity.

1894 - Emma Goldman released from prison after serving ten months for a speech at an unmemploymen rally on August 21, 1893. She sells a report about her prison experience for $150 to the 'New York World', which publishes it the day after her release.

1895 - Nicolas Ivanovitch Lazarévitch (Николай Иванович Лазаревич; d. 1975), Russo-Belgian electrician, construction worker, farm labourer, proof-reader, trade unionist, anarchist and anti-militarist, co-writer of the 1926 'Organisational Platform of the General Union of Anarchists (Draft)' and husband of Ida Mett (Ida Gilman), born.

1902 - Julián Guijarro Priego (d. 1987), Spanish foundry worker and anarcho-syndicalist member of the MLE and CNT, born. During the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera he participated actively in all the workers and social struggles. Following the fascist uprising in July 1936, he participated in the street fighting and joined a Revolutionary Committee. With the triumph of Franco, he crossed the Pyrenees and was interned at the concentration camp at Vernet. He later enlisted in the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers (CTE). During the occupation was registered on a list of "dangerous anarchists" and sent to work in Germany as part of the Service du Travail Obligatoire. He later joined the Maquis.

1909* - Josep (José) Sabaté i Llopart aka Pepe (d. 1949), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, guerrilla fighter against Franco, and older brother of Francesc (Francisco) 'El Quico' Sabaté and Manuel aka Manolo, born into a strongly anarchist family. He joined the CNT in 1931, writing articles for its paper 'Solidaridad Obrera' and later joined the 'Los Novatos' action group alongside Fransesc. With the fascist uprising, he enlisted with the 'Los Aguiluchos' (Young Eagles) column, which was organised by anarchist Juan Garcia Oliver, and fought on the Aragon front where he headed a centúria. He later fought in a number of other units but was taken prisoner in April 1939 and sent to Alicante, where he ended up in the Albatera concentration camp. Following periods in the concentration camps at Cartagena and València, he was paroled (ransomed after paying a 'deposit') in 1946 [some sources incorrectly give the dtae as 1948] and crossed the border to fight alongside El Quico in the libertarian action groups. The pair were soon joined by their younger brother Monolo but later split to go their own ways. [expand]
[*NB: some sources give the year of birth as 1910]

1909 - Josep Miquel i Baró (b. 1865), Catalan Republican is shot at 07:00 in the Santa Amàlia battery of the Montjuïc fortress in Barcelona. He was one of five (the others being the anarchists Francesc Ferrer Guàrdia, Antoni Malet Pujol, Eugenio del Hoyo and Ramon Clemente García) tried and executed in the aftermath of the Setmana Tràgica.

1913 - A debate between the socialist intellectual Maynard Shipley (1872 - 1934), then director of 'The Commonwealth', organ of the Socialist Party of Washington, and the anarcha-feminist activist Emma Goldman, in the Liberty Hall, Everett, Washington. The debate centres on whether voting and political parties were necessary or not for the emancipation of the working class.

##1926 - George Melly (d. 2007), English jazz and blues singer, critic, writer and lecturer on art history specialising in Surrealism who was court-martialled during WWII for distributing anarchist literature whilst in the Navy, born.

##1939 - Yeshaayahu Toma Ŝik (d. 2004), Hungarian-Israeli anti-militarist, pacifist, anti-Zionist and anarchist, born. Pioneer of the Israeli-Palestinian search for peace, a forerunner of the present day pacifist-refuseniks. His non-doctrinaire libertarian socialist politics and strong vegan life style were almost unique in the Israel of the 70s and 80s. Today they are embodied in part in the work of groups like Ma'avak Ehad (One Struggle).

1944 - Francisco Ponzán Vidal (b. 1911), Spanish militant anti-fascist guerrillero, anti-Francoist and resistance fighter, dies, shot by the Nazis in Buzet-sur-Tarn, near Toulouse. [see: Mar. 30]

1963 - Spanish anarchists Francisco Granado Gata and Joaquín Delgado Martinez, having been arrested less than three weeks ago for a bombing they did not do, tortured and tried in secret, are garrotted in Carabanchel prison, still protesting their innocence. [see: Mar. 4 & Oct. 4]

1965 - Takami Jun (高見 順; b. 1907), pen-name of Takami Yoshio, Japanese novelist, poet, Marxist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 30]

1965 - Jack Spicer (b. 1925), San Francisco Renaissance poet and gay anarchist son of a Wobbly, dies. [see: Jan. 30]

1976 - José Luis Quintas Figueroa (aka 'El Quintas', 'Alfonso' & Clemente Cabaleiro Covelo; b. 1911), Spanish tinsmith, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist member of FIJL, MLE and CNT, and anti-Franco guerrilla, dies. [see: Apr. 17]

1982 - Sébastien Briat, French anti-nuclear activist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was struck and killed near Avricourt by a train carrying nuclear waste which had been reprocessed in France, and was heading to Gorleben, Germany for storage, born.

## 1983 - Michael 'Mikey' Smith (b. 1954), Jamaican dub poet and anti-authoritarian, who identified with anarchism, is struck on the head by a stone and killed on Marcus Garvey's birthday after being challeged by three JPL supporters after Smith had heckled the JLP Minister of Education at a political rally the previous evening. [see: Sep. 14]

1987 - Julián Guijarro Priego (b. 1902), Spanish foundry worker and anarcho-syndicalist member of the MLE and CNT, dies. [see: Aug. 17]

2001 - Anthony Earnshaw (b. 1924), English artist, author, illustrator and self-styled "armchair anarchist", dies. [see: Oct. 9]

2002 - Todor 'Tocho' Mitev (b. 1926), Bulgarian anarchist and doctor, dies. [see: Mar. 26]

[B] 2004 - Jaceguay Lins (b. 1947), Brazilian composer, conductor, music teacher, writer, poet and anarchist beekeeper, dies in destituion complications associated with throat cancer. [see: Apr. 21]

2012 - Nadezhda Tolokonnikova, Maria Alyokhina and Yekaterina Samutsevich, the three Pussy Riot members arrested following the February 21 'Punk Prayer: Mother of God, Chase Putin Away!' [Панк-молебен: Богородица, Путина прогони!] event in Moscow's Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, are convicted of "hooliganism motivated by religious hatred", and each was sentenced to two years' imprisonment. Two other members of the group, who escaped arrest after the February protest, reportedly left Russia fearing prosecution.

[E] 2012 - 'Pussy Riot Global Day': In support for the Russian group Pussy Riot, then on trial in connection with the February 21, 2012, 'Punk Prayer: Mother of God, Chase Putin Away!' [Панк-молебен: Богородица, Путина прогони!] performance in Moscow's Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Inna Shevchenko and two other FEMEN activists cut down a 4m high wooden cross near Maidan Nezalezhnosti in Kiev, erected in 2005 as a memorial to the victims of Stalinist repression and the famine of the 1930s, with a chainsaw.
1563 - Étienne de La Boétie (b. 1530), French aristocrat and proto-anarchist, author of the classic work on tyranny 'Discours sur la Servitude Volontaire' (The Politics of Obedience: The Discourse of Voluntary Servitude; 1548), dies.

[E] 1824 - André Léo (pen name of Victoire Léodile Béra; d. 1900), French novelist, journalist, militant feminist, Communard and Bakuninist, who is considered by many modern feminists to be one of the great writers of the nineteenth century, born. Member of the International who was also involved with the Association of Women for the Defence of Paris and Aid to the Wounded. After writing her first novel 'La Vieille Fille' (1864), Béra took the pen name André Léo, she started the newspaper 'La Coopération', advocating workers associations. Returning to Paris in 1860, she became involved with the Republicans and with the feminist activists Paule Minck and Louise Michel, and was arrested alongside Louise Michel at a protest put down by the army in Sept. 1870. She then founded a newspaper, 'La République des Travailleurs', and joined the Paris Commune, publishing editorials in 'La Sociale', which had a distribution of 100 000 copies, and for ' Cri du Peuple', and organising girl's eduction with Noémie Reclus and Anna Jaclard. She escaped the repression of the Bloody Week and went into exile in Switzerland and Italy, taking a prominent part in the publication of the journal 'Le Socialisme Progressif'.

1886 - [N.S. Aug. 30] Samuel Schwartzbard (Sholem-Shmuel Schwarzbard / Samuil Isaakovich Shvartsburd [Самуї́л-Шльо́ма Шва́рцбард]; d. 1938), Russian Jewish watchmaker, anarchist and Yiddish poet, born. [see: Aug. 30]

[BB] 1886 - Emil Szittya (Adolf Schenk; d. 1964), Hungarian anarchist, writer, journalist, painter, art critic, traveller and vagabond, born. He arrived in Paris in 1906 and, later that year moved into the Monte Verità settlement at Ascona. Around 1908, he met Blaise Cendrars in Leipzig, then they meet in Paris. In 1910, Emil Szittya published in Paris a first series of anarchist magazine, the Franco-German 'Neue Menschen: Les Hommes Nouveaux' (The New Men). A second series will be published in 1911 in Vienna and Munich. In October 1912, he collaborated with Marius Hanot, Blaise Cendrars and Freddy Sausey on the first issue (third series) of the French version of 'Les Hommes Nouveaux. Review Libre'. One issue emerged. When war broke out in 1914, he moved to Zurich, where he remained until 1918, getting to know Lenin , Radek and Trotsky.
In 1915, in collaboration with Hugo Kersten, he published the pre-Dadaist 'Der Mistral' and frequented the Cabaret Voltaire from it inception in 1916. There he met a fellow Hungarian, the painter and writer Lajos Kassák who published the avant-garde magazine 'A Tett' and with whom he returned to Hungary in 1918 to take part in the revolution. Following time spent in Budapest, Vienna and Berlin publishing numerous magazines including 'Horizont-Flugschriften' with Hans Richter, he fled the rise of fascism and returned to Paris, where he published the anti-fascist magazine 'La Zone' (1933-1934), a "cross-section of German politics, culture, science, art, theater, music and radio." With the Nazi invasion, he fled to the south of France and took part in the Résistance. In 1961 he met in Paris another marginal revolutionary, Franz Jung, and his 'Hommage à Franz Jung' (1988) would be published posthumously. He also published a series of monographs on numerous leading contemporary European artists.
He also knew most of the European avant-garde such as the members of Les XX: Stravinsky, Darius Milhaud, Arthur Honneger, Erik Satie, etc., numerous artists including Picasso, Otto Dix, Dressler, Derain and was important in championing Chagall. And his memoir, 'Das Kuriositäten-Kabinett: Begegnungen mit seltsamen Begebenheiten, Landstreichern, Verbrechern, Artisten, religiös Wahnsinnigen, sexuellen Merkwürdigkeiten, Sozialdemokraten, Syndikalisten, Kommunisten, Anarchisten, Politikern und Künstlern' (The Cabinet of Curiosities: Encounters with strange events, vagrants, criminals, artists, religious lunatic, sexual oddities, social democrats, syndicalists, communists, anarchists, politicians and artists; 1923), caused something of a scandal when published.

1889 - The first issue of the Italian language anarchist newspaper 'Il Socialista', "redatto da lavoratori" (written by workers, is published in Montevideo. Its subtitle "Periodico Irreligioso, Antipatriottico" is changed to "organo Comunista-Anarchico" from issue 3 onwards.
"Padrone Nè Dio" - "Parlate di liberta Chi è povero è schiavo?". (Neither God nor Master - You speak of freedom Who is poor and a slave?)

1890 - Albert Dubois-Pillet (b. 1846), French neo-Impresssionist and Pointillist painter and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies. [see: Oct. 28]

1890 - [O.S. Aug. 6] Alternative d.o.b. of Alexander Petrovich Shapiro [Александр Петрович Шапиро], aka Sacha Piotr or Sascha Pjotr, Alexander Tanarov, Sergei (d. August 1942), Ukrainian anarchist of Jewish descent and propagandist, who fought with the anarchists in Spain and was murdered by the Nazis in Auschwitz. [see: Oct. 23]

1893 - The day after a riot of the unemployed, Emma Goldman addresses a public meeting, urging those in need to take bread if they are hungry. The next evening she helps lead a procession of several hundred anarchists to Union Square, where, among many other speakers, she addresses a crowd of the unemployed.

1895 - The first issue of the Rosario (Santa Fe, Argentina) anarchist-communist periodical 'La Libre Iniciativa' is published.

1900 - Albert Victor Samain (b. 1858), French Symbolist poet, writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 3]

[B] 1903 - Moriya Emori (盛弥 江森; d. 1960), Japanese poet, children's writer and anarchist, also known as Soma Jukichi, born. Beginning around 1924, he published poems in and collaborated on anarchist different newspapers, especially 'Genshi' (Origins). He was a founder of the anarchist journal 'Bungei Kaiho' (Literary Liberation) and wrote for 'Musanaha Simbun' (Proletarian Weekly). With the demise of 'Musanaha Simbun' in August 1929, he helped start 'Daini Musansha Simbun' (Second Proletarian Weekly). In March 1940 he participated in the creation of the anarchist journal 'Shiga' (Plain Poetics). In 1945 he became editor of 'Jinto Shimbun Jinming' (People's Journal) and, when the paper of the Japanese Communist Party, 'Akahata' (Red Flag) was banned, he became editor of 'Tone Dokuritsu Heiwa' (Peace and Independence).
Amongst his publications are 'Gendai Rōdō Seisaku' (Modern Labour Policy; 1941) and 'Shijin no Sei to Shi ni Tsuite' (About the Life and Death of the Poet; 1959).

## 1907 - Shirai [or Shiirai] Shinpei (白井新平; Sd. 1988), Japanese anarchist, social activist, horse racing pundit, and founder of the horse racing newspaper 'KeisyuNEWS' [ケイシュウNEWS], who wrote under the pennames Yamamoto Saburō [山本三郎] and Aki Yamamoto [山本秋], born.

##1908 - Jan Paweł Rogalski (d. 1993), Polish anarchist and anti-Nazi fighter, born. Before the war, employee newspaper 'Ostatnie Wiadomości' (Last News), a member of the Anarchistycznej Federacji Polski (AFP; Polish Anarchist Federation). In 1924, one of the editors of the socialist magazine 'Nowy Zew' (New Call). Since 1926, a student of the Faculty of Politics and Social Sciences at the Polish Free University. In the same year he began to act in self-education anarchist group organised by Benjamin Wolman, then in 1927 he was on the organising committee of the Anarchistycznej Federacji Polski (Polish Anarchist Federation), a comrade of Jerzy Borejsza. Worked in the clandestine AFP newspaper 'Walka' (Struggle). In 1929, in Warsaw, arrested in connection with the Akademią Kropotkinowską (Kropotkin Academy). During this time, he served as Secretary of the Organisation of the Warsaw AFP. In 1930 he went to France, where he worked as a labourer and studied at the Sorbonne. In 1932, he returned to Poland. During the occupation, went into hiding and helped hide others. In October 1939 together with Roman Jablonowski (before the war member of Communist Party of Poland, then close to syndicalists, activist and last leader of ‘Zegota’ (Council for Aid to Jews) initiated a socialist resistance group. In August 1942, escaping from the Warsaw ghetto. During the Warsaw Uprising, he was arrested along with his ​​family by the SS Division Galicia, but they manage to escape. By the end of the occupation, they were hiding in Nadarzyn. In January 1947 invited by Rose Pesotta (union activist and member of anarchist group publishing Freie Arbeiter Shtimme Yiddish language paper, who visited Poland in 1946) Rogalski went to the USA, where he held a series of lectures on Poland and the Warsaw Uprising. After his return, he was interrogated by Urzad Bezpieczenstwa (Public Security – secret police). In 1946, together with other anarchists and Roman Jabłonowski found the Spoldzielczy Instytut Wydawniczy 'Słowo' ('Word' Cooperative Publishers Institute) in Lodz, becoming its chairman. As part of its activities, among others, issued Kropotkin's books. Rogalski also lectured extensively, including in America, on the Warsaw Uprising. The Cooperative was persecuted by Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza (Polish United Workers Party) and was forced to close in 1949. From mid-1949 until his retirement he worked in the ‘Ksiazka i Wiedza’ (Book and Knowledge) publishing house.

1917 - Huelga General Revolucionaria [Revolutionary General Strike] / Vaga General Espanyola [Spanish General Strike]: The governement proclaims that it had restored order and that the strike is over. However, it took several days more to crush the last redoubt of the revolutionary in the Asturian mining areas, where the army applied its repressive measures with great harshness. The official figure of casualties sstood at 71 dead - 37 of them in Catalonia, 200 injured and 2000 detained.
The failure of the strike, in part due to the behaviour of their supposed allies, the socialists of the UGT and PSOE, and confirmed the CNT in its 'apolitical' position and its confidence in the use of direct action tactics against employers. The strike was also discussed during the XIII UGT Congress held in October 1918. Indalecio Prieto affirmed that "the strike failed at the moment when the committee decreed that it be peaceful", and that it would not become "revolutionary" as it should have been. Largo Caballero, a member of the strike committee, replied: "We are accused of not properly preparing a revolutionary movement when what we were asked to prepare was a general strike."

1922 - Alain Robbe-Grillet (d. 2008), French writer, literary theorist, screenwriter and filmmaker, born. One of the figures most associated with the Nouveau Roman. His first published novel (second completed), 'Les Gommes' (The Erasers; 1953), is a detective story set within 24 hours in an unnamed northern French coastal city with a plot involving an anarchist group who kill a string of 'officials' to a strict timetable.

1925 - Warlaam Dzon Aslanovic Tcherkesoff (or Tcherkezov; or Varlam Cherkezov; b. 1846), Georgian Prince, anarchist militant and collaborator with Kropotkin, helped found the Anarchist Red Cross, dies in London. [see: Sep. 15]

1932 - The founding congress of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FILJ) is held in Madrid (August 18-22).

1936 - Celestino Alvarado Quirós (b. 1903), Andalusian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, secretary of the Sindicat del Metall of the CNT, member of the Germinal group of the FAI and Freemason, is murdered by Falangists. [see: Aug. 18]

1944 - Miquel Bueno Gil (b. ca. 1882), Spanish miner, member of the CNT, MLE and a well known FAI activist, born. He was active participation in the uprising in January 1932 leading to a spell in prison. During the Civil War he was a militiaman in the Durruti Column. Exiled in France following Franco's victory, during WWII he participated directly in the resistance along with his son-in-law as part of the network organised by Pat O'Leary and Francisco Ponzan Vidal to smuggle allied pilots out of France via Spain. In October 1943, was stopped by the Gestapo and arrested, under the pseudonym Miguel Solano García, along with his son Josep Bueno Vela and both were deported to Mauthausen concentration camp. On 18 August 1944, he was killed in the gas chamber at Mauthausen following a protest against the brutalities committed by the SS guards.
His daughter Alfonsa Bueno Vela participated in resistance activities along with her ​​husband Josep Ester Borràs, who was himself arrested and deported to Ravensbrück concentration camp, where he was experimented on by Nazi 'doctors', the consequnces of which affected him for the rest of his life.

1961 - Leonhard Frank (b. 1882), German Expressionist novelist, short story writer, playwright, libertarian pacifist and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies. [see: Sep. 4]

1963 - Suffering from cancer, Amadeo Ramón Valledor (aka 'El Asturiano' and 'Ramón'; b. 1920), Spanish miner militant anarcho-syndicalist and libertarian anti-fascist fighter, commits suicide in Perpignan by a shot to the heart. [see: May 24]

1969 - Jean Goldschild (aka Goldsky, or Jacques Guerrier)(b. 1890), French anti-militarist, militant anarchist and journalist, dies. [see: Dec. 13]

1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: The London offices of Iberia Airlines, Spanish State airline, bombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

##1981 - Stefon Leron Alexander, aka P.O.S., US hip hop artist, founding member of the indie hip hop collective Doomtree, vocalist and keyboardist in the noise band Marijuana Deathsquads, and anarchist, born.

1992 - Felicitas Casasín Bravo (b. ca. 1913), Aragonese militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, active in the FAI and FILJ, dies. Member of the Catalan CNT, she took part in the street fighting in Barcelona during the fascist uprising in July 1936. Her father, Bartolomé Casasín Pérez, also a CNT member, was shot by the Falangists alongside 36 others in Huesca on January 5, 1937. Following the libertation of Huesca, she returned there but went into exile in France in 1939 and was interned in the concentration camps at Casimira Sarvisse Sesé and Belle Isle.
1862 - Maurice Barrès (Auguste-Maurice Barrès; d. 1923), French Symbolist novelist and journalist, born. Initially an individualist, he was elected to parliament as a socialist within the populist nationalist Boulangist coalition. However, he became an ardent nationalist and anti-Semite during the Dreyfus Affair, becoming a leading mouthpiece, alongside Charles Maurras, of the Anti-Dreyfusard side. Amongst the Dadaists, Breton and Aragon initially admired Barrès' anarchist views in 'Un Hommes Libre' (189), the 'Culte du Moi' trilogy (1888-91) and 'L'Ennemi des Lois' (1892), whose main character spends three months in Sainte-Pelagie prison for anarchist propaganda, but eventually subjected him to the mock trial [charged with an "attentat à la sûreté de l'esprit" (attempt against the security of the spirit)] that signalled the end of the Dadaist movement in the spring of 1921.

1864 - Juan Montseny i Carret (aka Federico Urales) (d. 1942), Catalan teacher, novelist, publisher, anarchist militant, companion of Teresa Mañé (Soledad Gustavo) and father of Federica Montseny, born. A cooper, he joined the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party in 1885 and 3 years later was appointed general secretary of the National Federation of Barrel Workers. He married Soledad Gustavo, a secular teacher in Vilanova i la Geltrú, and the two became local figures of Anarchism in Reus. Following the repression sparked by the June 7 1896 attack, the authorities closed down the school, and Joan Montseny was detained along with hundreds of activists in Barcelona's Montjuïc prison. After a year in prison he was expelled from Spain and, after a few months exile in England, returned clandestinely to Spain under the name of Federico Urales, publishing 'La Revista Blanca' in Madrid in 1898. Gaining a retrial, he was amnestied but the paper was shut down in 1905. He then devoted himself to agriculture, journalism, writing books and plays including the novels 'La Novela Ideal' (1925), 'La Novela Libre' (1929) and 'El Luchador' (The Wrestler; 1931). He signed the manifesto in favour of the Allies during the WWI and, together with his wife and their daughter Federica Montseny, started publishing a new version of 'La Revista Blanca' in 1923. He remained by his daughter's side throughout the Spanish Civil War and was forced to flee for France in 1939 following the defeat of the remaining Republican armies, dying in an internment camp.
Amongst Montseny's other pseudonyms were Mario del Pilar, Siemens, Doctor Boudín, Remigio Olivares, Un profesor de la normal, Rudolf Sharfenstein, Ángel Cunillera, Antonio Galcerán, Ricardo Andrés, Un Trimardier, Charles Money, Ricos de Andes, etc.
His other works include: 'El Hombre y la Locura Humana' (Man and Human Madness; undated); 'Sembrando Flores' (Planting Flowers; 1920); 'La Barbarie Gubernamental' (Governmental Barbarism; 1933) and 'La Evolución de la Filosofía en España' (The Evolution of Philosophy in Spain; 1934) in 2 Volumes.

1877 - Pierre-Jules Ruff (d. 1942), Algerian anarchist and anti-militarist, who perished in the Neuengamme concentration camp, born.

1882 - George Bellows (d. 1925), US painter and illustrator, born. Associated with a group of radical artists and activists called the Lyrical Left, who tended towards anarchism in their extreme advocacy of individual rights. Teacher at the Modern School in New York. [also listed as being born on 12th]

1888 - The first edition of Ricardo Mella's 'La Solidaridad', "Anarquia Federació Colectivismo", weekly anarcho-collectivist newspaper is published in Seville. Issue no. 59, dated November 17, 1889, is probably the last edition of the paper printed.

1894 - The Italian parliament approved three 'anti-anarchiche' laws:
Law of July 19, 1894, n. 314 On crimes committed with explodive materials; Law of July 19, 1894,, n. 315 On the incitement to crime and on the apology of the crimes committed through the press; Law of July 19, 1894, n. 331, Restoring articles 50 and 52 of the Legge di pubblica sicurezza (Public Security Law) of June 30, 1889, n. 6144 (series 3);
with aim of banning all protest movements against the state.

1894 - A large anarchist gathering in New York welcomes Emma Goldman back. Among the speakers are Voltairine de Cleyre, English anarchist Charles Mowbray, and Italian anarchist Maria Roda.

1897 - Cesare Zaccaria (d. 1961), Italian anarchist and anti-militarist propagandist, also known by his nom de plume as David Levi, born. Longtime friend of the Berneri family, he became the companion of Giovanna Caleffi in February 1943 (Camillo having been murdered by the communists in May 1937 in Barcelona). Involved in the refounding of the Italian anarchist movement post-WWII. He left the anarchist movement in the mid-1950s and died in October 1961.

1903 - [O.S. Aug. 6] Preobrazhenie Uprising [Преображенско въстание] / Strandzha Commune [Странджанската република]: During the night of August 18-19th and the following morning, attacks by Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) insurgents are made on villages throughout the region, including Vasiliko (now Tsarevo), Stoilovo (near Malko Tarnovo), and villages near Edirne. The main goal of the uprising in Thrace is to give support to the uprisings further west (the Ilinden uprisings), by engaging Turkish troops and preventing them from moving into Macedonia. Many of the operations are diversionary, though several villages were taken, and a region in Strandzha (site of the declared Strandzha Republic or Commune) is held for around twenty days.
[Jul.-Greg. correction check]

1916 - Esteban Navarrete Berbel (d. 2002), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1917 - The Spokane office of the Industrial Workers of the World is raided, leaders are arrested, and martial law is declared. The military authority is the National Guard, controlled by the U.S. War Department. This occurs in reaction to a demand by IWW leader James Rowan that all prisoners of the "class war" – Wobbly strikers and strike leaders involved in a statewide lumber strike – be released or Spokane would face a general strike.

[B] 1921 - Georges Darien (pseudonym for Georges Hippolyte Adrien)(b. 1862), French writer (novels, plays, literary magazines, etc.) associated with anarchism and an outspoken advocate of Georgism, dies. His novel 'Les Pharisiens' (1891) is a fictional indictment of French anti-semitism and its most prominent advocate, Édouard Drumont. Forgotten after his death, he was rediscovered after the reissue of 'Voleur' (1897) in 1955 and of 'Bas les Cœurs!' (1889) in 1957. [see: Apr. 6]

## 1923 - Achille Peretti (b. 1858), Italian painter, sculptor and anarchist member of the International, who emigrated to the United States in the 1880s following the Italian government's crackdown on the internationalist movement, establishing himself as a portrait and landscape artist as well as a church decorator including of numerous Italianate frescos, dies in New Orleans. [see: May 3]

1961 - Emili Vivas Blanco (b. unknown), Catalan journalist, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. Prosecuted along with 5 collegues for their part in the La Candadenca strike in 1919, he emigrated to the U.S. in the mid '20s with his companion Aurora. During the campaign in defence of Sacco and Vanzetti they were both imprisoned. Returning to Spain, he became active in the trentistes section of the Confederació Nacional del Treball (CNT) in Catalonia, was appointed secretary of the Ateneu Sindicalista Llibertari in Barcelona in June 1932 and at the beginning of 1933 he became active in the Federació Sindicalista Llibertària (FSL), an organition created within the CNT in opposition to the Federació Anarquista Ibèrica (FAI). During this period he worked on the trentistes newspaper 'Cultura Llibertària' (1931-1933). In the War, he was secretary of the Sindicat de Periodistes in València and editorial secretary of the anarcho-syndicalist newspaper 'Fragua Social'. In August 1937 he was arrested on charges of having published an anonymous article in 'Fragua Social' critical of the Director General of Security. Afetr the war, he crossed into France and was one of the first to join the Résistance in the Roussillon area in the ​​Languedoc. Arrested by the Vichy authorities, he was jailed for a few months in Toulouse. In the summer of 1943, he was arrested by the Gestapo in Perpignan and in 1944 ended up in the Fresnes prison in Paris (Ile de France).

1969 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Bomb explodes after being thrown into army recruiting office, Brighton. [Angry Brigade chronology]

2000 - Luce Fabbri (d. 1908), Italian anarchist writer, journalist, theorist, publisher, poet and daughter of Luigi Fabbri, dies. [see: Jul. 25]

2000 - Dachine Rainer (Sylvia Newman; b. 1921), US Anglophile writer, poet, essayist, anarchist and pacifist, dies aged 79. Her tombstone in Highgate Cemetery reads "Poet and Anarchist". [see: Jan. 13]

2006* - América Scarfò aka 'Fina' (América Josefina Scarfó; b. 1912), Argentinian teacher, anarchist and pioneer of the anarcha-feminist movement, who used the pseudonym of Josefina Rinaldi de Dionisi, dies in Buenos Aires. [see: Nov. 18]
[* many sources erroneously cite Aug. 26]

2008 - Maximino Nardo Imbernón Cano (b. 1937), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: May 29]
1873 - Ivan Kliun (Иван Васильевич Клюн; d. 1943), Russian Suprematist and Constructivist painter, graphic artist and sculptor, born. Participated in exhibitions of the Soyuz Molodyozhi (Union of Youth) group and joined Malevich's Supremus group in 1915. Also associated with the 'Tvorchestvo' (Creativity/Creative Work) section introduced into 'Anarkhiia' in early 1918, that specialised in art and literature. Later taught at the Vkhutemas (Moscow state art and technical school) before sinking into obscurity like many of the revolutionary artists that chose to stay in the Soviet Union rather than go abroad.

1886 - Haymarket Trial: Sentences are handed down against the Haymarket Trial defendants, with George Engel, Samuel Fielden, Adolph Fischer, Louis Lingg, Albert Parsons, Michael Schwab and August Spies sentenced to death. Oscar Neebe is meanwhile sentenced to fifteen years in prison. [EXPAND][see: Jun. 19]

1889 - Élie Étienne Monier (or Monnier) aka Simentoff (d. 1913), French illegalist anarchist member of the Bonnot gang, born. [expand]

[AA] 1897 - Michele Angiolillo Lombardi (b. 1871), Italian typographer, anarchist and proponent of 'propaganda by the deed', who shot and killed the infamous reactionary, Antonio Cánovas del Castillo [see: Aug 8], refuses the last sacraments and is garrotted in the prison yard. His execution, photographed by the press, is one of the first visual testimonies of this official brand of cruelty. [see: Jun. 5]
Michele Angiolillo refused the last sacraments and was garrotted in the prison yard. "The that smile of his, full of light, life and dawn, expired there on the horrifying garrotte: GERMINAL!"
[Costantini pic]

1898 - The first issue of 'Le Cri Révolte', "Organe révolutionnaire bi-mensuel", is published in Paris. It lasts 10 issues.

1899 - Following Sébastien Faure's invite in the pages of 'Le Journal du Peuple' for all libertarians to gather that Sunday on the Place du Chateau d'Eau "en faveur de la vérité (affaire Dreyfus), du bien-être et de l'émancipation sociale", the préfet Lépine responded by mobilising the police to try and prevent the demonstartion. Confronted by the police, protesters target the clergy (who had been prominent in the anti-Semetic campaign aganst Dreyfus), forcing their way into the Church of St-Joseph on the Rue St. Maur. Clashes continue into the evening with 200 arrests, including that of Sébastien Faure. According to the Lépine, 137 officers were injured, including a policeman severely beaten after trying to seize a red flag.

1902 - Aldo Aguzzi (Lucio Ermes aka Agal; d. 1939), Italian anarchist activist, propagandist and anti-fascist, active in Italy, Argentina and Spain, born. [expand]

##1913 - The Chinese anarchist journal, 'Hui-ming-lu' (The Voice of the Cock Crowing in the Dark), produced by the Hui-Ming Hsüeh-she (Midnight Society Singing in Darkness) libertarian group, begins publication (ceases in 1916). The newspaper also included texts in Esperanto an after a few issue changed its name to 'La Voĉo de l'Popolo' or 'Min Sheng' (People's Voice).

[EE] 1914 - American anarchist Rebecca 'Becky' Edelsohn (ca. 1892 - 1973), who had been carrying out a hunger strike protest against her conviction and imprisonment following an anti-Rockefeller demonstration in Tarrytown, New York on May 31, 1914, is released from prison after her supporters had raised the $300 needed to post a bond for her release, a bond that she had refused herself to pay. According to a 'New York Times' article the following day, "Invitations to the funeral of Becky Edelson, whose friends thought her hunger strike at the Workhouse on Blackwell's island would result in her death, were recalled tentatively yesterday when she was released..." [see: May 31]

###### 1922 - Bernard Konrad Świerczyński aka 'Aniela' & 'Kondek' (d. 2002), Polish journalist, libertarian and a key figure in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, born. Inspired by the involvement of his father, Konrad Świerczyński aka 'Wicek', in the anarchist movement, he was active during the Nazi occupation, helping Jews to escape from the Warsaw ghetto and organising hideouts for them, including in his own family's house. He also played an important role, liaising between the inside and outside of the ghetto, and organising and directly participating in the smuggling of food, clothing and letters into the Ghetto. During Warsaw Uprising a soldier of Syndicalist Brigade (104 Kompania Związku Syndykalistów Polskich), as was his father. After WWII, he was awarded the title ‘Righteous Among the Nations’. Journalist in the cooperative movement press and member of the Polish Journalists Association.
In the Żydowski Instytut Historyczny (ŻIH; Jewish Historical Insitute) in Warsaw, there are many examples of that activity. He placed many of his charges, which escaped from the ghetto, in the apartment of his parents and later in other shelters relatively more secure. Among others, the following benefited from his help: Bronka Frydman, Fryda Hofman, Halina Horowic, Pawel Lew Marek and his wife and mother, Roza Rozenberg, Mr. Szlamowicz and his wife and sister, Dr. Aleksander Wolberg, Dr. Zelikson. Bernard obtained from his neighbour a room in the loft for the ghetto escapees. After the fall of the Warsaw Uprising he helped to build a bunker where 40 Jews hid. Among them were two Greek Jews from the ca. 400 Jews from Greece, France and Belgium, liberated by the Polish scouting battalion ZOSKA from Gesiowka (a central camp in the Warsaw ghetto) on Aug. 5, 1944. Pawel Lew Marek underlined his noble attitude to the people helped. The latter in his long account written in July 1966 says: "With his lightheartedness, and his disrespect for danger, he kept up the spirit of all of us and never showed to anyone that he is his benefactor. All this lasted for four years, and especially the last two years, in which every minute decided about life and death. In every one of them 'Kondek', as they called him, and his deceased father showed the most beautiful humanitarian attitude, of which the Polish nation may be proud." Fryda Zgodzinski wrote a similarly glowing homage in July 1966. She relates how he brought her to the ghetto letters from her betrothed from a Stalag (POW camp for soldiers). She describes also how he received her, staying himself at a neighbour's, after she jumped from the train transporting Jews to extermination, wounded and half living, and later how many services he rendered with total disinterestedness and with the greatest warm-heartedness. "He was for them a treasure beyond value and the memory of him will remain as the only shining point in those terrible years."

1927* - Manuel Sabaté Llopart (d. 1950), Catalan anarchist and anti-Franco guerrilla Spanish, who was the youngest of the three Sabaté brothers, born. Despite a youthful desire to become a bullfighter, he cross the Pyrenees to join his brothers in France in 1946. Neither brother wanted him to become a guerrilla but in September 1949, taking advantage of Francisco then being in prison and José being in Spain with his action group, he joined the guerrilla group headed by Ramon Vila Capdevila aka Caracremada (Burntface). After crossing into Spain, the group was ambushed and scattered. Manuel was captured by a couple of the Guàrdia Civil. Tried by a summary court martial on December 10, 1949, he was sentenced to death and was executed on February 24, 1950 at the Camp de la Bota in Barcelona (Catalonia), along with fellow guerrilla Saturnino Culebras Saiz.
[* NB: some cite 1925]

1934 - Fredy Perlman (d. 1985), American author, publisher, anti-authoritarian activist and important anarchist theorist, born.

[EEE] 1937 - Founding Congress of the anarchist women's group, Mujeres Libres, in Valencia.

1941 - Francisco Mares Sánchez (b. ca. 1895), Spanish construction worker, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist member of the MLE and CNT, is executed by firing squad in Paterna. He began working as a construction labourer at 10 whilst attending night school. He soon joined the construction section of the CNT in Valencia. At the beginning of the Primo de Rivera dictatorship, he emigrated to Cuba, returning in 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic. He later became associated with the Sindicats d'Oposició of the trentista tendency of the CNT. In November 1933, he was one of those arrested in connection with the death of Francesc Puchades Xulià, president of the Torrent polling station, and a member of the Valencian Regional Rights party during the elections on November 19 that year. When the fascist coup of July 1936 occured, he was living in Barcelona and was a member of the local Comitè Executiu Popular (Popular Executive Committee) plus one of the organisers of the Iron Column. After militarisation, the column became the 83rd Mixed Brigade of the Republican Army and he was appointed commander of the Second Battalion of the Brigade (73 Division) and Brigade Commander, replacing the wounded Josep Pellicer Gandia, fighting on the Teruel and Extremadura fronts. In 1939, with the triumph of Franco, he was taken prisoner at the port of Alicante and was interned in the Albatera and Los Almendros concentration camps, but escaped and joined the first National Committee of the CNT in Valencia. In late 1939, on his way to France after completing a mission in Barcelona, ​​he was arrested by the police and sent to the Modelo prison in Barcelona, though the Francoist press did not announce his capture until May 5, 1940. After a time in the Modelo prison in Valencia, he was sentenced to death in an emergency summary trial by the Military Court in Valencia.
On August 20, 1941, he was shot by firing squad at the Camp de Tir in Paterna alongside Francisco Cano Alcaraz, director of the EA5A.D Radio Torrente republican radio station.

[B] 1949 - Nikolas Asimos (Νικόλας Άσιμος [Asimopoulos (Ασιμόπουλος)]; d.1988), Greek lyricist, composer and singer of Greek rock and 'folk' songs, and anarchist, though he never apparently expressly self-identified himself as such, born. "[T]he greatest troubadour of the anarchist movement in Greece and one of the figures that made Exarcheia diachronic habitat of radical thinking and practice" according to Libcom.

'Εγώ με τις ιδέες μου' (I only come with ideas)

Εγώ με τις ιδέες μου
κι εσείς με τα λεφτά σας,
νομίζω πως τα θέλετε μονά ζυγά δικά σας,
δε θέλω την κουβέντα σας
ούτε τη γνωριμιά σας.

Θα χτυπήσω εκεί που σας πονάει,
κανένα δε θα αφήσω εμένα να κερνάει.
θα με χρίσω ιππότη και τζεντάι
και άμα ξεμεθύσω
σας λέω και γκοντμπάι.

Και οι θεοί σαν πείθονται
εάν υπάρχει ανάγκα,
για πόλεμο δεν έκανα
ποτέ εγώ το μάγκα
και ούτε νεροπίστολο
δεν έχω στην παράγκα.

Θα τραβήξω το δρόμο μου όσο πάει
κανένα δε θα αφήσω
εμένα να κερνάει,
Θα απολύσω κι όποιον με περιγελάει,
χιλιάδες δυο αλήθειες
ο πόνος μου γεννάει.

Εγώ στα δίνω έτοιμα
κι εσύ τα θες δικά σου
λιγούρα που σε έδερνε
παρ' όλα τα λεφτά σου
και ούτε στο νυχάκι μου
δε φτάνει η αφεντιά σου.

Δε σε παίρνει εμένα να κοιτάξεις
χωρίς καμιά ουσία εσύ
θα τα τινάξεις.
Είσαι θύμα του νόμου και της τάξης
δεν ξέρεις καν το λόγο
για να με υποτάξεις

(Ι only come with ideas
you only come with money
I think you want it all yours, heads and tails
I don't need your small talk
neither knowing you at all

I'll punch you where it hurts
I won't let anyone to pay for me
I'll dub myself a knight and jedi
and if I sober up
I'll tell you a "goodbye"

Even gods may change their mind
when great need there is
I never played brave
when it comes to was
and neither a water pistol
I have in my shack

I'll keep my way as far as it takes
I won't let anyone to pay for me
I will fire anyone that laughs on me
my pains gives birth
to a thousand truths

I hand it all prepared to you
but you want it all yours
your greed won't let you in peace
take your money and go
and neither with my small toe
I can compare your pride

You can't look me in the eyes
and you'll die without a past
You are a victim of law and order
you don't even know the reason
to conquer me.)


1959 - Jean-Baptiste Victor Sipido (b. 1884), Belgian anarchist and tinsmith's apprentice, who attempted to assassinate the Prince of Wales at the Brussel-Noord railway station in Brussels on April 5, 1900 and was subsequently acquitted, dies. [see: Dec 20]

1961 - Greg Egan, Australian science fiction author, born. His novel 'Distress' (1995) sympathetically renders an anarcho-syndicalist society called Stateless.

## [A] 1989 - José Peirats Valls (b. 1908), member of the FAI and CNT, combatant in the Spanish Revolution, including a stint with the Durutti Column in Aragon and Catalonia, dies. Editor, writer and director of various papers ('Solidaridad Obrera', 'Tierra y Libertad', 'Acratia') and author of 'Anarchists in the Spanish Revolution' etc. [see: Mar. 15]

1996 - 'Die for the Government', the debut album by the U.S. punk rock band Anti-Flag is released.

1996 - Maria Occhipinti (b. 1921), Italian anarcha-feminist, dies from complications associated with Parkinson's Disease. [see: Jul. 29]

1996 - Rio Reiser (Ralph Christian Möbius; b. 1950), German singer, musician, composer, songwriter, actor and queer anarchist, dies. [see: Jan 9]

1999 - Jesús Guillén Bertolín aka Guillembert (b. 1913), Spanish anarchist, painter and designer, dies. Partner of Sara Berenguer and brother of Conchita Guillén Bertolín. [see: Oct. 31]

2007 - José Palacios Rojas aka 'Piruli' (b. 1914), Spanish farm labourer, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and Civil War combatant, dies. [see: Apr. 14]

2010 - Nair Lazarine Dall'Oca (b. 1923), Brazilian seamstress and anarchist, dies of a heart attack having spent several years suffering from Alzheimer's disease. [see: Apr. 23]

2010 - Francisco 'Chico' Cuberos Neto (b. 1924), Brazilian militant anarchist and theatre and TV actor, dies. [see: Feb. 18]
1752 - Jacques Roux (d. 1794), French radical Roman Catholic priest that took an active role in the revolutionary politics during the French Revolution, born. Nicknamed 'le Curé Rouge', he is considered a precursor of modern socialism and anarchism. A skillful orator who communicated the ideals of popular democracy and classless society to crowds of the poorest Parisian sans-culottes, working class wage earners and shopkeepers, radicalising them into a dangerous revolutionary force as well as inciting women to assert their rights. He became a leader of a popular far-left political faction known as the Enragés, writing the famed 'Manifeste des Enragés', which was signed by Jean Varlet and Leclerc d'Oze, and in 1791 was elected to the Paris Commune.

1869 - Jean-Charles Fortuné Henry (d. unknown), French anarchist militant, anti-militarist and founder of the libertarian Aiglemont community, born. His father, Henry Fortune (1821-1882) was sentenced to death in absentia for being a member of the Paris Commune, and his brother, Émile, was guillotined for committing two attentats, including the Café Terminus bombing on February 26, 1894.
Artists who came to Aiglemont included the cartoonist Alexandre Steinlen, playwright Maurice Donnay, journalist and novelist Lucien Descaves, the painter Francis Jourdain, and the novelist Anatole France.

1893 - Following a meeting three days earlier, Emma Goldman again leads a march of a thousand people to Union Square, where, speaking in German and English, she repeats her belief that workers have a right to take bread if they are hungry, and to demonstrate their needs "before the palaces of the rich"; about three thousand gather to listen. Goldman's speech is characterized by the press as "incendiary" and, over a week later, cited as the reason for her arrest.

1903 - [O.S. Aug. 8] Preobrazhenie Uprising [Преображенско въстание]: The harbour lighthouse at Igneada is blown up.
[Jul.-Greg. correction check]

[E] 1910 - Sara Estela Ramírez (b. ca. 1881), US-Mexican teacher, journalist, labour organiser, activist, feminist, essayist, and poet, who was a prominent supporter of the Partido Liberal Mexicano and close friend of Ricardo Flores Magón, dies after a long illness. Along with her collaborators Juana Gutiérrez Belén de Mendoza, Elisa Acuña y Rosetti and Dolores Jiménez y Muro, she was one of the founders of Mexican feminism.

## [CC] 1911 - Nicholas Turčinović aka Nicolas (or Nicolò) Turcinovich or Nicola Turcini (d. 1971), Croatian anarchist and anti-fascist fighter, born. He left school at an early age and came into contact with libertarian workers circles in Rovigno. In August 1927, he signed on as a cabin boy aboard the Belvedere, a ship plying between Trieste and the Americas. After a fight on board with a fascist who provoked him, he decided during a stop-over in Buenos Aires not to go back to fascist Italy, and he deserted. At around the same time, in December 1929, he was sentenced in absentia by a court in Pula to six months in prison. In Buenos Aires he made contact with the FORA in which a number of Istrian militants were active, people such as Francesco Depanghere and Giuseppe Pesel, members of the Umanitá Nova group. He tried all sorts of jobs to earn a living.
In 1930, fleeing the repression that followed upon General José Félix Uriburu’s coup d’etat, he stowed away on a Yugoslav ship bound for Europe. After coming ashore in Antwerp he settled in Paris where he worked as a bricklayer and, according to the police, became "one of the most active Italian militants", as a result of which he was expelled from France in May 1931. With some Spanish comrades, he then left for the newly proclaimed Spanish Republic and, in Barcelona, he joined the CNT. In September 1931 he was arrested following a general strike and charged with having helped in the armed defence of the CNT Construction Union premises in the Calle Mercaders in Barcelona when it was attacked by the police and he was held on the prison ships, the Dedalo and the Antonio Lopez. In February 1932, together with fellow Italians Luigi Sofra and Egidio Bernardini, he mounted an escape bid. In February 1933, following an intensive campaign mounted by the CNT he was amnestied but was handed an expulsion order and escorted with Egidio Bernardini and his partner, Livia Bellinari, to the French border. After passing through Belgium and Holland, by May 1933 he was back in Barcelona. Charged with membership of a "criminal gang", he was promptly arrested and committed to the Modelo prison in Barcelona for "breach of an expulsion order". In December 1933 he took part in a mass break-out from the Modelo, only to be rearrested within days. On his release on 28 February 1934, he was arrested again and tried for "resisting the security forces" and given a 4 month jail term. In September 1934 he was expelled and escorted to the border with Portugal. He managed to re-enter Spain via Andalusia and settled in Seville, but the repression following the Casas Viejas incident was so severe that in October the same year he fled to Tangiers and thence to Algeria, living in Algiers and in Oran. Persecuted even in Algeria, by 1935 he was back in Spain and settled in the Valencia area.
Following the coup attempt in July 1936, he set off for Barcelona where the FAI put him in charge of organising the Italian Section of the Ascaso Column. According to a number of witnesses (Umberto Calosso, Carlo Rosselli, etc.) he played a crucial part in the engagements in Monte Pelado and Huesca. In January 1937, at the request of the CNT’s Federació Regional de Pagesos (Regional Peasant Federation) of Levante, he was dispatched to Valencia to oversee the running of some farming collectives. The end of the civil war found him stranded in the Alicante rat-trap but he managed to get out to Madrid and laid low in the home of a fascist whose life he had saved during the early months of the war. On March 29, 1941, after he was "turned in" by his landlord, he was arrested in Madrid. Extradited to Italy, he was sentenced in September 1941 to five years’ internment on the island of Ventotene.
In July 1943, with the collapse of fascist rule, he was moved to the Renicci d’Anghiari concentration camp (in Tuscany) together with dozens of other anarchist comrades deemed "dangerous". On September 18, 1943, he was freed and set off for Istria where he promptly joined the partisans led by Josip Broz aka Tito. After he fell out with the Yugoslav communists, he left for Genoa where he made contact with the libertarian movement in the city. With other activists (Marcello Bianconi, Emilio Grassini, Pietro Caviglia, Alfonso Failla, Pasquale Binazzi, etc.) he took part in the Liberation struggle. Using the experience gained in Spain he served as a liaison between anarchist partisan groups and groups from other organisations. He also commanded the Malatesta Brigade – part of the Squadra Partigiane of Azione (SAP; Partisan Action Squads) – alongside Francesc Ogno, Emilio Grassini, Pietro Pozzi and Giuseppe Verardo – and the Pisacane Brigade, an anarchist urban guerrilla outfit operating in the Cornigliano and Plegi quarters of Genoa. After the Liberation he was one of the most active militants in Genoa. In June 1945 he was the Federazione Comunista Libertaria Ligure (FCLL; Ligurian Libertarian Communist Federation) delegate to the Milan congress of the Italian Federazione dei Comunisti Anarchici (FdCA).
In 1946 he moved to Venice where he set up home with Alberta Machiori and they had a daughter the following year. In 1954 he returned to Genoa where he took part in most of the congresses held in the city by the Federazione Anarchica Italiana (FAI). In 1965 at the Carrara congress he was appointed to run the FAI book service and served on the organisation’s Correspondence Commission. In 1970 he was one of the founders of the Armando Borghi Circle in Genoa, marshalling young people drawn to anarchism through the social struggles of the day. Nikola Turcinovic died on December 30, 1971 in Genoa and was buried on January 2, 1972 in that city. In 2005 the 'Nicola Turcinovic' Libertarian Group was launched in Genoa.

##1917 - Antonia Ugeda Fuentes (d. 2006), Spanish furniture worker, nurse and anarchist activist, born. Having worked in child care and as a maid, she joined a furniture factory as an apprentice varnisher. At the age of 14, with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic, he joined the CNT and in early 1936 took part in a strike in solidarity with sacked varnish workers. Around this time she also joined the Iberian FIJL. During the war, after taking a nursing course, she worked as a nurse at the hospital that was created in Villena and became romantically involved with a comrade, Joaquín García. Following Franco's victory, she hid until 4 May 1939 in Villena, the date on which she was denounced, arrested and imprisoned spending one year in Redován and three in Alicante prison. Released in May 1943, she broke with Joaquín and moved to Barcelona, where she worked again as a varnisher and later became involved with Ginés Camarasa, a prominent activist. During these years they were active in the underground struggle and Antonia became responsible for the upkeep of the 'Tres Tombes' (of Ferrer Guàrdia, Durruti and Ascaso) in the Montjuïc cemetry. Between 1990 and 2004, she also worked on the anarchist journal 'Orto'. Antonia Ugeda Fuentes died in Badalona, Cataloni on November 24, 2006.

1922 - As part of its efforts to set up the Federación de Trabajadores Regional Ecuatoriana (Ecuadorian Regional Federation Of Workers), the Sociedad Cosmopolita de Cacahueros 'Tomás Briones' (Cosmopolitan Society Of Cacao Workers 'Tomás Briones') issues a call to other organisations and workers' unions to unify on the basis of anarcho-syndicalism, the main revolutionary tendency at that time in the Ecuadorian working class. The 'Principios y Finalidades' (Principles and Purposes) section of its manifesto, is in effect a direct copy of Errico Malatesta's 'Il Programma Anarchico' (1920):
"WE WANT to radically abolish the domination and exploitation of man by man, WE WANT men united as brothers by a conscious and desired solidarity, all cooperating voluntarily for the well-being of all, WE WANT human society be constituted in order to provide for all human beings, with the means for achieving the maximum well-being, both moral and material, WE WANT this for everyone: BREAD, FREEDOM, LOVE AND SCIENCE." [Sociedad Cosmopolita de Cacahueros 'Tomás Briones' manifesto, August 21, 1922]

1927 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Supreme Court Justice Brandeis refuses to hear request for stay of execution in the case of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti.

1930 - Goliardo Fiaschi (d. 2000), Italian anarchist partisan who fought Franco, Moussolini and Hitler's troop, born.

1933 - Francesca Saperas i Miró (b. 1851), Catalan seamstress, and militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Feb. 12]

1944 - Eugène Dieudonne (b. 1884), individualist, illegalist and member of the Bonnot Gang, dies. [see: May 1]

1953 - Nikolay Nikolayevich Punin (Russian: Никола́й Никола́евич Пу́нин; b. 1888), Russian art scholar and writer, dies. [see: Nov. 28]

[D] 1967 - The US embassy in London machine gunned in an attack claimed by the First of May Group.

1968 - Juan Antonio Llerda (b. ca. 1908), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. Born in Crete, he was a member of the CNT and in July 1936 joined a militia column in Tarragona that ended up in Horta and Gandesa and in which he served as a stretcher bearer. After the Republic's defeat in the region, he left for France, returning to Barcelona and fought on the Ebro front where he was severly wounded by an explosive bullet. During the Retirada, he was interned before enlisting in a Compagnie de Travailleurs Etrangers. During the German occupation he was requisitioned under the STO to work in the submarine base in Bordeaux, where he came into contact with the resistance. Following his release, he joined the Bataillon Libertad, trained as an anarchist Guerrilla and in 1945 fought with the Basque Guernika Battalion against the last German pockets of the Pointe-de-Grave. Some of the weapons he captured went directly to the anti-Franco guerrillas bound for Spain. He remained a member of the Comarcale de Valderrobres in exile, the militia of the FL-CNT in Bordeaux.

1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: A house in Amhurst Road, London, is raided by Special Branch and CID. Jim Greenfield, Anna Mendelson, John Barker and Hilary Creek are arrested. The four are taken to the `Bomb Squad' HQ in Albany Street, London, where the two men are subjected to a brutal beating-up to extract a confession from them. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1973 - Juan Portales Casamar (b. 1922), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: May. 24]

[B] 1996 - René Cavanhié (pen name René Cavan; b. 1922), French poet, songwriter, anarchist and résistance fighter, dies. [see: Mar. 25]

2006 - Joaquín Pérez Navarro (b. 1907), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies. [see: Aug. 4]

2007 - Jacinto Pérez Merino aka 'Pinilla' (b. 1915), Basque metalworker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, and anti-Francoist and Résistance fighter, dies. [see: Sep. 21]

2011 - Léandre Valéro (b. 1923), Algerian anarchist and anarchist, who fought in the Spanish Civil War and was active in the Algerian independence movement, dies. [see: Oct. 12]
1818 - Carlo Pisacane (d. 1857), Italian revolutionary, anti-authoritarian precursor of libertarian socialism and the first Italian anarchist, born. Influenced by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, and perhaps the first anarchist to advocate 'propaganda by deed'.

1860 - Théodule Meunier (d. 1907), French anarchist and advocate of propaganda by deed, born. [EXPAND]

1862 - Claude Debussy (d. 1918), French composer heavily influenced by the Symbolists and Impressionist, born. Whilst never an anarchist (although his father was a Communard and definitely sympathetic to anarchism), he was also influenced by the Parisian anarchist milieu and associated with the 'Revue Blanche' (as its music critic) and the likes of Félix Fénéon and Felix Vallotton. A youthful play he had written, 'Frères en Art' (Brothers in Art), features a series of discussions amongst a group musicians, painters and poets featuring anarchist ideas, and he had in fact published two poems, 'De Rêve' and 'De Grève' (Dec. 1892), that were set to music in the song cycle 'Proses Lyriques' (1893), in Francis Viele-Griffin's anarchist-leaning 'Les Entretiens Politiques et Litteraires'.

1869 - Arthur Holitscher (d. 1941), Hungarian playwright, novelist, essayist, travel writer and anarchist, born. Helped found the Bund für Proletarische Kultur (League for Proletarian Culture) in 1919. Amongst his works are his first novel, 'Weiße Liebe' (White Love; 1896); 'O. Wilde: Ballade des Zuchthauses zu Reading' (1918), his translation of 'The Ballad of Redaing Gaol'; travel books, including those from his visit to revolutionary Russia, 'Drei Monate in Sowjet-Russland' (Three Months in Soviet Russia; 1921) and 'Stromab die Hungerwolga' (Downstream of the Volga famine; 1922); plus his books on anarchism and related subjects, including 'Frans Masereel', with Stefan Zweig (1923) and 'Ravachol und die Pariser Anarchisten' (Ravachol and the Paris anarchists; 1925). His books were on the Nazi's 1933 Black List of burnt books, and shortly after he fled to Paris, moving to Geneva in 1939, where he lived in obscurity and died in poverty.

1878 - Ladislav Klíma (d. 1928), Czech Expressionist novelist, playwright, poet, youthful anarchist and individualist philosopher, born. His philosophical texts were inspired by Berkeley, Schopenhauer and Nietzsche. "I systematically disgraced the crosses in the city's environs, caused scandals in church, for lack of bombs threw anarchist leaflets all over the place..." ['Vlastní životopis filosofa Ladislava Klímy' (The Autobiography of Ladislav Klíma, Philosopher; 1924)]

##1890 - Juan José Luque Argenti (d. 1957), Spanish civil engineer and anarcho-syndicalist, born. He held numerous government infrastructure jobs and became the chief engineer of the Board of Works for the Port of Santa Cruz de Tenerife. For his activities against the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, he was deported to Cap Juby (now part of Western Sahara). He was part of the CNT group took part in the plot of 'Sanjuanada', the attempted military uprising on the eveniong of 24 June, 1926 that attempted to overthrow Primo de Rivera. Arrested, he was finally acquitted by a court martial in 1927. He was also dismissed as chief engineer of the Board of Works for the Port of Santa Cruz de Tenerife. During the Civil War he was a member of the National Committee of the CNT and participated in important meetings of the political section of the anarcho-syndicalist union. He was also one of the leaders of the Associació Nacional de Tècnics d'Espanya (ANTE), attached to the CNT. In 1938 he worked in the newspaper 'CNT Marítima' and was a member of the Consell Econòmic Confederal.
When fascist troops reached the capital, he was one of the few members of the National Committee who had not abandoned Madrid. Following Franco's triumph, he was arrested and remained in jail, where he met Cipriano Mera Sanz, until at least 1944. Following his release, he joined several clandestine CNT committees, representing the Canary Islands. He became a member of the Provisional National Committee of the CNT formed in November 1945 and later was appointed the CNT representative on the Alliance Nationale des Forces Démocratiques (ANFD), tasked with forging links with anti-Franco monarchists.
In April 1946 the whole National Committee was arrested with the exception of Luque, who flee abroad. The talks with the monarchists continued until August 1948 when Juan Borbon, the pretender to the throne, came to an arrangement with Franco. He returned to Spain in August 1951 under safe-conduct agreement that fixed his residence in Madrid, where he remained on probation. A few months after he was arrested during a raid which also was detained Tierno Galvan. Juan José Luque Argenti died August 29, 1957 at the Los Alamos clinic in Madrid.

1904 - Lucio Arroyo Fraile aka 'El Verdejo' and 'El tuerto Teruel' (d. 1988), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Joined the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL) early and was one of the founders of a Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) branch in his home town. Living in France in 1932, he was expelled from the country for his anarchist activities. During the Civil War, he fought with the Columna de Ferro (Iron Colum), and then in the International Brigades, being wounded three times. At the Battle of the Ebro he lost an eye, which earned him the nickname El tuerto Teruel (The Eye of Teruel) by his companions and obtained the rank of captain. Crossing the border with France on February 6, 1939, he was sepearted from his wife and 3 children (who were sent to the Mâcon area) and he was interned in the Boulou (Voló) concemtration camp. The following month he joined the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers No. 10 and was sent to Bordeaux to work on the construction of the munitions store at Saint-Médard-en-Jalles. At the outbreak of war in June 1940, while his wife and children were returned to Spain, Lucio Arroyo was interned in the Argelès camp. In October 1940, he was enlisted in the Groupement de Travailleurs Étrangers (GTE) No. 183 and worked in the learing and reconstruction following severe floods in Catalan country. In March 1943 he was interned in the camp of Saint-Médard-en-Jalles requisitioned for forced labor (Organisation Todt) in the submarine base near Bordeaux. He was then tranferred to Soulac and Cap Ferret. Arrested by the Germans, he twice escaped whilst being deported to Germany and, in June 1944, joined the Maquis and particiapted in the liberation of Ariège. He remained in Pamiers in the Ariège region, aiding clandestine crossings by militants into Spain. In 1947 he and his family settled in Perpignan, where he held positions in the Local Federation of the CNT, and their home was a haven for militants who had fled the Iberian Peninsula.

##[B] 1908 - Henri Cartier-Bresson (d. 2004), famed French photographer and life-long anarchist, considered to be the father of modern photojournalism, born.
“I’m an anarchist - anarchism is an ethic, its a way of behaving.”
"L'anarchie c'est une éthique avant tout. Une éthique d'homme libre. Relisez Bakounine" (Above all anarchism is an ethic. An ethic of free men. Reread Bakunin.)

## 1921* - Piotr Petrenko (Platonov) [Пётр Петренко (Платонов)], aka Petr Molniya [Петр Молния], Petro Blyskavka [Петро Блискавка](b. 1890), Makhnovist guerrilla, elected member of the Revolutionary Military Council of Guliaipolé and commander of a detachment of troops in the Ukrainian insurrectionary army of Sýmon Petliüra, dies in the last major battle against the Red Army, having successful helped in securing Nestor Makhno's flight abroad.
[* some sources cite Aug. 26]

1929 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: A 'Gran Mitin Anarquista', called called for by the Verbo Rojo group and the 'La Anarquia' newspaper, takes place in Ciudad Juárez to mark the second anniversary of the execution of Sacco and Vanzetti. The poster advertising the event also calls for workers to make this day a protest against all injustices, to demand the release of Simón Radowitzky imprisoned for 20 years in Usuhaia prison in Argentina, as well as prisoners in Russia and other countries. "Luchemos por las completa Libertad de los Pueblos!"

1936 - Diego Rodríguez Barbosa (b. 1885), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist militant, anarcho-naturalist propagandist, writer, poet and novelist, is arrested whilst in hiding following the July Fascist uprising, and is tortured and killed by Phalangists. The fascists cut off his head and play football with it. [see: Nov. 5]

1936 - Robert Rizal Ballester (b. 1915), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, dies at the Gusen concentration camp in Austria. [see: Oct. 12]

1936 - The first issue of 'L'Espagne Antifasciste', the French language version of 'Solidaridad Obrera', the weekly paper of the CNT-FAI, is published in Barcelona. It is designed to keep French comrades up to date on development in the Spanish Revolution and on the creation of committees to aid Free Spain. Its news is also relayed via French-language programming on Radio 1 ECN CNT-FAI. From issue no. 7, is is printed in Paris and ceases publication on Jan. 8, 1938, after 31 issues.

1950 - Antonio Ejarque Pina aka 'Jarque' (b. 1905), Aragonese metalworker, militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, dies. [see: Mar. 25]

1965 - Alfonso Vidal y Planas (b. 1891), Spanish journalist, poet, novelist, narrator and dramatist of Bohemian life, and anarchist affiliated with the CNT, who collaborated on 'El Sindicalista' during the Civil War, going into exile upon the defeat of the Republic, dies in Tijuana. [see: Feb. 1]

1968 - Cesar Fauxbras, pen name of Kleber Gaston Gabriel Alcide Sterckeman (b. 1899), French pacifist and anti-militarist journalist, proletarian writer, anti-fascist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies in Paris. [see: Jan. 30]

1980 - Umberto Tommasini (b. 1896), Italian blacksmith, anarchist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Mar. 9]

1983 - Juan Ruiz Martín (b. ca. 1912), Andalusian labourer, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies in exile in London. [some sources give Aug. 2] Affiliated to the Joventuts Llibertàries, in March 1932 he was elected second secretary of the Sindicat d'Oficis Diversos of the CNT in Marbella, a postion he held when the war broke out in 1936. Member of the Comités Antifascistas, from Septermber 1936 he was part of the Comitè d'Enllaç (Liaison Committee), the Comitè del Front Popular and the Comitè d'Abastiments (Committee of Supplies) until the fall of Malaga in Jamuary 1937. He was then an artillery officer in the Army of the Second Republic on the Ebro front, where he was wounded. In 1939, following Franco's victory, he crossed the Pyrenees and was interned in the Vernet concentration camp. Then he was sent to a Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers (CTE), which was able to escape, but was stopped by the police and deported to a concentration camp in the Maghreb. In 1941, in the Djelfa camp in Algeria he was a nurse and eventually enlisted in the British army, staying in England when the was ended (as did Agustín Roa Ventura, Antonio Vargas Rivas and others). Earning his libving as a kitchen worker in a hotel, he remained active organising aid for Spanish activists and wrote for 'Cenit' (Zenith), 'España fuera de España' (Spain outside Spain), 'Faro' (Beacon) and 'Nervio' (Nerve).

[BBB] 1988 - Mystag (Robert François; b. 1919), French illusionist, anarchist propagandist, neo-Malthusian, pacifist and freethinker, dies. [see: Sep. 17]

2007 - Grace Paley (b. 1922), American short story writer, poet, teacher, feminist and "somewhat combative pacifist and cooperative anarchist", dies. [see: Dec. 11]
1837 - Étienne Faure aka 'Cou Tordu' or 'Cou Tors' (d. 1911), French member of the Commune de Saint-Étienne, militant anarchist and propagandist, born. [expand]

1871 - Alfred Sanftleben aka 'Slovak (d. 1952), German, Swiss and American libertarian activist and propagandist, born. German militant anarchist, also active in Switzerland and the US, typesetter and translator, born. A friend of Nettlau, Landauer, Rocker and the Flores Magón brothers (translating articles into English for their paper 'Regeneración'). He was greatly influenced by Giovanni Rossi (of the South American Cecilia Colony fame), who collected and translated many of his writings including his 'Un Comune Socialista' (1876), which Alfred Sanftleben translated and edited under the title 'Utopie und Experiment' (1897).

## 1877 - Ervin Szabó (Ármin Sámuel Schlesinger; d. 1918), Hungarian social scientist, librarian and Marxist anarcho-syndicalist revolutionary, born in what is now part of Slovakia. Studied law at the University of Vienna and wrote for 'Népszava', a Social-democratic newspaper. In 1911, he became director of Budapest's Metropolitan Library (which now bears his name), creating a series of community libraries based on the British public library system. After 1905, he began to move away from social democracy towards revolutionary anarcho-syndicalism, and translated the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels into Hungarian. He also wrote articles in the German 'Neue Zeit' and the French 'Mouvement Socialiste' periodicals and the sociological journal 'Huszadik Század' (Twentieth Century). He became an associate of the likes of Sorel, Kautsky, Mehring, Plehanov, had contacts with Lagardelle and the French syndicalists whilst in Paris at the end of 1904 and with several Russian socialists living in exile. In the years of World War I, despite his serious illness, he became the spiritual leader of the anti-militarist movement. He finished his great historical work 'Social and Party Struggles in The Revolution of 1848-49' in his sick-bed.

##1882 - [O.S. Aug. 11] Voline (Во́лин)(Vsévolod Mikhailovich Eikhenbaum or Eichenbaum [Все́волод Миха́йлович Эйхенба́ум]; d. 1945), Russian anarchist, Makhnovist revolutionary and historian, born. Author of 'Red Fascism' (1934), in which he compared Bolshevism to Fascism. In 1936, with André Prudhommeaux having gone to Spain, Volin took on he took over the editing of 'L’Espagne Antifasciste' (CNT-FAI-AIT), which later became 'L’Espagne Nouvelle' and, like Prudhommeaux, Volin denounced CNT-FAI participation in the Republican government. [expand]

1891 - Agostino Gazzei (d. unknown), Italian blast furnace worker and anarchist, born. Member of the Gruppo Pietro Gori. In 1911, he took an active role in the great strike of the Piombino and Elba Island steel workers, that proved to be a protracted and dramatic struggle between the proletariat and the local steel industry trust. In 1922, after the violent death of the fascist Salvestrini, Agostino emigrated to Belgium to escape the beatings and the purges by the Blackshirts, later marrying Emilie Camille Goffre. After working again in the steel industry, the late '20s saw him in a cement factory, where he and a number of comrades were seen by the fascists in the local emigre community as dangerous. Through the '30s he continued his anti-fascist activities and in 1943, whilst living in Charleroi, he was still reported as "hostile to the Mussolini regime".

1894 - Áurea Cuadrado Castillón, also known as Áurea Cuadrado Alberola (d. 1969), Spanish militant anarcho-feminist and fashion designer, born. Member of the Sindicat del Vestit de la Confederació Nacional del Treball (Union of Dressmakers of the CNT) and participated in the foundation of the Grup Cultural Femení (Women's Cultural Group) in 1934, the forerunner of the Mujeres Libres.
barcelonaenfemeni.org/Les Corts/Aurea Cuadrado.htm

1901 - Albano Franchini (d. 1984), Italian anarchist-communist militant and resistance fighter, born. An activist in Mòdena and in 1918 joined an anarcho-communist youth group. A worker in the Oficina Mecànico Industrial, he was called up in 1920 but when he returned to Mòdena in July 1922, he was not reinstated due to his libertarian politics. Later that year, he attempted to create a committee for the protection of political victims and prisoners, returning to the anarchist struggle in Mòdena. Arrested by the Fascists for distributing anarchist propaganda, he was imprisoned in 1923-24, later deciding to emigrate to France. He returned the following year, however, and was arrested again in Mòdena in 1926 on the occasion of the failed attempt on Mussolini's life in Bologna by Anteo Zamboni. Once free, like many other anarchists, he found that most anarchist organisations involved in the antifascist struggle had been dismantled. So he joined the underground structure of the Italian Communist Party. Arrested in December 1930, he appeared before the Special Tribunal and was sentenced in April 1931 to four years in prison for "Communist propaganda", but was released in October 1932 under an amnesty. Arrested yet again in June 1937 at a meeting of "subversives", he was let off with a 'warning'. Arrested again in July 1943 for his anti-fascist activities, he succeeded in escaping and joined the ranks of Giustizia e Libertà, fighting under the nom de guerre of Paolo Romanelli in the Brigata Allegretti and taking part in the liberation of Mòdena.
Join the Resistance in Allegretti Brigade, Division Modena-plain, and on behalf of the shareholders becomes part of the first democratic junta to free Modena appointed by the CLN. While Franchini did not participating actively in the movement post-WWII, he remained a libertarian. He died May 3, 1984.

1903 - Manuel Medina González (aka Manolo Medina i Ariel; d. 1993), Andalusian journalist, poet, writer, Mason, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, then a Falangist, born. Active member of the CNT and FAI in Seville, he was forced to resign as director of Solidaridad Obrera de Valencia in 1932 was forced to resign after having posted criticism of Ángel Pestaña and the National Committee of the CNT. As a journalist, he worked for numerous newspapers including 'Acción Social Obrera', '¡Despertad!', 'Estudios', 'Iniciales', 'El Productor', 'La Revista Blanca', 'Solidaridad', 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Tierra Libre', etc. and directed 'Tierra y Libertad'.
When the Civil War broke out, he joined the Phalange in Seville and was director of the Falangist daily newspaper 'Azul' (Blue).

1907 - Mexican anarchists Ricardo Flores Magón, Antonio Villarreal and Librado Rivera are arrested after their hiding place is discovered. Thomas Furlong, of the Furlong Detective Agency, had been employed by Enrique Creel, governor of Chihuahua, early in 1907 with the sole aim of hunting down PLM activists and had been on the trail of Flores Magón for a while. Many Mexicans knew he was in Los Angeles but he was using a pseudonym, and his location and identity was only known by 2 people other than his close comrades. It was one of these, Librado Rivera, who had left the city when it was known that they were being sought by agents working for the Mexican government, and who was followed on his return to Los Angeles and to Magón's hiding place. Finally, on August 23, 1907, Magón, Rivera and Antonio Villarreal were arrested without a warrant by Furlong, two of his assistants and some officers from the Los Angeles police department. During the arrest Ricardo was beaten unconscious when he tried to attract the attention of passers-by. The following day the Furlong detectives returned to the offices of 'Revolución' and removed all important letters and documents. 'Revolución' continued publication under the editorship of several comrades who were arrested one after the other until the journal was finally silenced in January 1908.

[B] 1908 - Arthur Adamov (d. 1970), Russian-born French playwright and anarchist, born. One of the foremost exponents of the Theatre of the Absurd.

1908 - Pedro Calvo Calvo (d. 1992), Aragonese basketmaker, railway worker, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. His four siblings, Isidro, Andrés, José and Jesús, were all members of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT). In 1927, he was a member of an anarchist group and, with the proclamation of the Second Republic, he joined the CNT in Jaca. Leaning the trade of basketmaking, he was able to travel the region, distributing anarchist literature alongside his baskets. In July 1932, he began working for the Ferrocarril del Nord and 2 years later joined the timber workers union. When Jaca fell into Franco's hands, he was able to cross into France and from there he made his way to Barcelona. There, he joined the 25th Division, fighting on the Aragon front. Later in the 130th Brigade, he worked in supplies and fought as a sapper in the area of ​​Huesca (Olivan, Broto) and was a quatermaster in the 176th Brigade.
Exiled in France at the end of the war, he was interned in the camp at Septfonds and, in September 1939, he was sent with the Compagnie de travailleurs to the mines at Gravan. In 1940, he was confined in the internement camps at Argelés, Bram and again at Argelés. Requisitioned to work in Germany, he managed to escape in July 1941 and then participated in the anti-Nazi resistance. After the war, he worked as a forester in various places (Arbusol, Illas, Canet, Perpignan, etc.) and belonged to the MLE in exile in Perpignan. He lived with Adelina, a nurse whom he had met on the Aragon front. He also collaborated on 'Tierra y Libertad' and was the author of 'Un arrancapinos de la provincia de Huesca' (A small man from Huesca province; 1987 & 1991, revised and enlarged) and 'La sociedad liberal y sus contradicciones' (The liberal society and its contradictions; 1987).

1911 - José Gonzaga Herrera (d. 2006), Andalusia labourer and anarcho-syndicalist, who joined the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) in 1929, born. A machinegunner during the Civil War, he fought for the Pedro Rubio Battalion in the Castuera area and was a defender during the seige of Madrid at the Ciutat Universitària, gaining the rank of seargenat in the Republican Army. With Franco's victory, he returned to his village where he was arrested and imprisoned. Court-martial, he was sentenced to death, but the sentence was commuted after a year to 30 years in prison. Between 1942 and 1944 he was one of the 2,000 political prisoners working as slave labour on the digging of the Canal del Baix Guadalquivir aka Canal de los Presos (Canal of Prisoners) under Franco's Redención de Penas por el Trabajo policy. Caught with barley, from which prisoners made a coffee substitute, he was imprisoned in Sevilla and worked raising rabbits. In total, he spent 13 years, 3 months and 3 days, in prison and was released on August 6, 1952. He returned to his home village Constantina, but threats from the local Falange forced him to move to Madrid. After the death of Franco, he returned to Constantina and was reinstated as a seargent in the army, receiving compensation as a prisoner of 1,600,000 pesetas.

1927 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Ferdinando Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti are executed tonight in the electric chair, in Boston, Massachusetts, framed for two murders which occurred during an armed robbery in 1920.

1936 - Maria Silva Cruz aka 'La Libertaria' (b. 1915), Spanish anarchist and popular hero of the Casas Viejas Uprising in Andalusia, is shot at dawn by the fascists. She was later immortalised by Federica Montseny in her book 'María Silva: la libertaria' (1951).

1936 - Concha Monrás Casas (María de la Concepción Monrás y Casas; b. 1898), Catalan Esperantist, life-long partner of Ramón Acín and mother of the artist Katia Acín Monràs, is shot along with a hundred other Republican prisoners, seventeen days after Ramón faced a firing squad himself. [see: Nov. 3]

1939 - Josep Domènech Agulló (b. ca. 1896), Spanish shoemaker, anarcho-syndicalist member of the CNT and of the member of the Municipal Council in Cocentaina (Valencia), is executed by Franco's troops at the entrance of Alcoi cemetery.

##1946 - Peter Marshall, English philosopher, historian, biographer, travel writer, poet, ecologist, Green anarchist and animal liberationists, born. Author of 'William Godwin' (1984); 'The Anarchist Writings of William Godwin' (1986) [ed.]; 'William Blake: Visionary Anarchist' (1988); 'Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism' (1992/2008); and 'Nature's Web: An Exploration of Ecological Thinking' (1992).

1948 - Adrienne Montégudet (Victorine Valentine Augustine Amélie Valdant; b. 1885), French school teacher, militant communist, revolutionary syndicalist and ultimately a libertarian, dies. [see: Jun. 12]

1956 - Ernst Frick (b. 1881), Swiss painter, autodidact, amateur archaeologist, scholar of primitive languages and anarchist, who had a long association with the libetarian commune of Monte Verità at Ascona, dies in Ascona, his home since 1911. [see: Sep. 21]

1959 - Tiffany Ellsworth Thayer (b. 1902), US actor, author, atheist, anarchist, skeptic and founder of the Fortean Society, dies. [see: Mar. 1]

1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Angry Brigade charges are laid against Stuart Christie, Jim Greenfield, Anna Mendelson, John Barker and Hilary Creek at Albany Street Police Station:
Conspiring to cause explosions between January 1 1968 and August 21 1971.
Possessing explosive substances for an unlawful purpose.
Possessing a pistol without a firearms certificate.
Possessing eight rounds of ammunition without a firearms certificate.
Possessing two machine guns without the authority of the Secretary of State.
Possessing 36 rounds of ammunition without a firearms certificate.
Jim: attempting to cause an explosion in May 1970.
Anna and Jim: attempting to cause an explosion in Manchester, October 1970.Stuart: possessing one round of ammunition without a firearm certificate. (This was dated back 2 years when a bullet was taken from his flat. No charges were preferred against him at the time.)
John, Jim and Stuart: possessing explosive substances.
Jim, John and Hilary: receiving stolen vehicle.
Stuart: possessing explosive substances. (The two detonators planted by the police).
All are refused bail and remanded in custody to await trial.

1994 - Enrique Garcia Sanchiz (b. 1907), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Dec. 11]

1996 - Mariano Cruellas Maraña (b. ca. 1913), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies in Caracas. Born into a family of small landowners in Fraga, Huesca who were part of the anarchist movement. One of the founders of the Jeunesses Libertaires (FIJL) in Fraga, during the war he was a Milicien in the Roja y Negra column, fighting on the Huesca front where, after a failed attack and a confrontation with the Stalinists, his unit was dissolved and he left the front. Exiled in France with his wife Salvadora Serveto (born circa 1917 in Fraga, who died in November 1992 in Perpignan), he first fought in the Résistance in Perpignan and eventually emigrated to Venezuela, where he participate at the core of the CNT in Caracas. After having started a small buisiness with a number of employees, the CNT decided in the 1960s to excluded from the organisation. Told of the decision, Mariano Cruelas said that the union could remove his membership but they would never remove the CNT, which he had been a member of since 15 years old, from his heart.

2003 - Helmut Kirschey (b. 1913), German construction worker, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Jan. 22]
1887 - Joseph Rosenzweig Moir (d. 1944), Czech anarchist poet, writer and lawyer of Jewish origin, born. The uncle of the Czech poet Jiří Orten. In February 1942, Rosenzweig Moir and his wife were deported to the Theresienstadt concentration camp during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia. He was selected for transfer to Auschwitz on October 12 1944 (the last record of him), where he is persumed to have died.

1896 - Pere Massoni Rotger aka 'Mazoni' or 'Massoni Viva' (d. 1933), Catalan roofer and anarcho-syndicalist, born. In 1915 he joined the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) and became a delegate of the Sindicat d'Obrers Rajolers del Ram de la Construcció (Tilers Branch of the Construction Workers Union). This was an era where gunmen hired by employers regualrly attacked unionist and union organisers and, on 23 April 1919, he suffered an attack at the hands of a squad of pistolers and was seriously injured. He failed to recover from all his injuries and a progressive paralysis in the leg limited his abilty to worker as a tile, and he ended up as the caretaker at the Tilers Union offices in the Carrer de l'Om in Barcelona. He continued to work within the CNT, helping organise strikes, was a member of the defence committee for fellow tiler Enric Guiot i Climent, sentenced to death for robbery, and helped reorganise the sindicats de Treballadores de l'agulla (Needleworkers union), de Construcció (Construction) and de Constructors de Persianes (Blindmakers). During this period, he also became a good friend of Josep Peirats Valls.
In 1924, he was jailed for taking part in the conspiracy against the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, accused of being one of the organisers of the December 1924 Bera insurgency. In 1928, he joined the Solidaridad group and published a pamphlet 'Los ladrilleros a través de las luchas sociales' (Bricklayers across the social struggle). In April 1928, he attended the Assemblea de Cooperatives Catalanes and, in June, represented the CNT on the first Comitè Revolucionari de Catalunya, which plotted against the dictatorship. [expand]

1898 - Francisco Nobrega Do Quintal (d. 1987), important Portuguese militant, propagandist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. General secretary of the Portuguese Anarchist Union (UAP) and director of its paper 'O Anarquista'.

####[feb24] 1899 - Jorge Luis Borges (Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo; d. 1986), Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, opponent of fascism, totalitarianism and anti-Semitism, who declared himself to be "a modest Spencerian anarchist", something he inherited from his father Jorge Guillermo Borges, born.
"My father was an anarchist, a Spencerian, a reader of 'The Man Versus the State', and I recall that in one of the long summer vacations we took in Montevideo, my father told me to take a good look at many things because those things were going to disappear and I would be able to tell my children or grandchildren ... that I had seen those things. He told me to look at military barracks, flags, maps having different colors for the different countries, butcher shops, churches, priests, customs houses, because all of those things were going to disappear when the world was one and differences were forgotten. Up until now the prophecy hasn’t come true, but I hope it will come true some day." [Fernando Sorrentino - 'Seven Conversations with Jorge Luis Borges' (1973)]

1905 - Ramón Lafragueta (d. 1981), Spanish railway worker, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, born. Particiapnt in the libertarian movement from a young age, he joined the Sindicat Ferroviari, part of the Federació Nacional d'Indústries Ferroviàries (FNIF) of the CNT, and held a number of union positions. During the Civil War, he fought on the Aragon front. After the war, he went to France and was interned in various concentration camps (Argelés, St Cyprien, Bram and Vernet). On his return from exile, he participated in 1945 in a tour throughout France in order to reorganize the Spanish libertarian movement. He then moved to Grenoble, where for 15 years he was the treasurer of the FL-CNT and held various positions of responsibility at departmental level.

[B] 1916 - Léo Ferré (d. 1993), Franco-Monégasque anarchist singer, poet, composer and interpreter of the French poètes maudits, born. [expand]

1917 - [O.S. Aug. 11] The first issue of anarcho-syndicalist newspaper 'Golos Truda' (The Voice of Labour), appears in Petrograd under banner of the Union of Anarcho-Syndicalist Propaganda, published by Voline upon his return from America, where the paper had first appeared in New York in 1911. Edited by G.P. Maximov, it is shut down by the government in May 1918 and its successor 'Volny Golos Truda' (The Free Voice of Labour) is closed down after its fourth issue (September 16, 1918).

## 1919 - Victor García (Tomás Germinal García Ibars; d. 1991), indefatigable militant Catalan anarcho-syndicalist, writer, translator and historian of the international movement, born. [expand]

1921 - Alan Albon (d. 1989), British anarchist, pacifist and publisher, who served as an editor for 'Freedom' before becoming one of the founding editors of 'Green Anarchist', born in Edmonton.

1922 - Howard Zinn (d. 2010), American anarchist historian, author, playwright, and activist, born.

1927 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Violence breaks out in Paris in the wake of the executions of Sacco and Vanzetti.

1935 - Fifth Congress of the International Workers Association is held in Paris (24-32 August).

[D] 1937 - Santoña Treason: The Euzko Gudarostea (Basque Army) surrenders to the Italian Corpo Truppe Volontarie, without the knowledge of the Republican government, following the Santoña Agreement.

1943 - Simone Weil (b. 1909), French philosopher and one time anarchist militant during the Spanish Civil War, dies. [see: Feb. 3]

[CC] 1944 - The Spanish anarchist participation in the liberation of Paris: After having been interned in the French concentration camps and used as labour cheap, many Spanish anarchists took part in the anti-Nazi resistance in France and Africa. With their experience gained during the Spanish Revolution, they were adept at staging guerrilla actions in the countryside, drawing the German occupying forces and Pétain's militia away from the cities. Amongst those were La Nueve (The Nine - the 9th Company of the Régiment de Marche du Tchad, composed of Spanish anarcho-syndicalists) who, as part of the Free French Forces, participated in the liberation of Paris and were amongst the first to enter the city.
At 20:41, the first half-tracks of the Division Blindée de Leclerc (commanded by Captain Raymond Dronne) break into the insurgent capital, by the Porte d'Italie. They are led by the Spanish anarchists of La Nueve, who carry the names of battles fought against Franco in Spain (Guadalajara, Teruel, Brunete, Belchite, Ebro, Madrid, etc.). At 21:22, the armored half-track 'Guadalajara' is the first to appear in front of the Hotel de Ville. Spaniards are welcomed as liberators.
"Nous avons été les premiers à entrer dans Paris. Le premier canon installé place de l'Hôtel de Ville, c'est moi qui en étais responsable, nous l'avions appelé 'El Abuelo'." (We were the first to enter Paris. The first cannon installed in the Place de l'Hotel de Ville, I was in charge, we called it 'The Grandfather') - testimony of Jesus Abenza.

1954 - Pierre Marie Le Meillour (b. 1884), French boilermaker, printworker, anarchist, anti-militarist and revolutionary syndicalist, dies. [see: Apr. 24]

1964 - Virgilio Gozzoli (b. 1886), Italian anarchist, anti-fascist, poet, playwright, publisher and Futurist artist, dies. [see: Nov. 10]

##1967 - Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin and other Youth International Party members throw 300 one-dollar bills from the balcony onto floor of New York Stock Exchange, creating instant bedlam and causing trading to cease as people scrambled for the cash.

1982 - Ludovic Massé (b. 1900), French proletarian writer, novelist and libertarian, dies. [see: Jan. 7]

2006 - Antonio Moreno Ronchas (b. 1910), Spanish railway worker, miliatant anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Franco combatant, dies. [see: Oct. 1]

[A] 2007 - Anarchist supporters of the recently demolished Youth House disrupt the 94th birthday celebrations for Copenhagen's famous waterside Little Mermaid statue. Protesters wearing shark fins scatter the bikini-clad women taking part, spoiling the party.

2009 - Daniel Barret (Rafael Spósito Balzarini; b. 1952), Uruguayan sociologist, journalist, university professor and prominent anarchist, dies. [see: May 21]
##1861 - William Barbotin (pseudonym of Joseph Barbotin; d. 1931), French painter, sculptor, engraver and libertarian, linked to anarchist geographer Elisée Reclus, born. In 1886, he visited communard and fellow artist Jules Perrier and fell in love with Sophie Guériteau, a young female member of the Reclus family. Under Reclus' influence, Barbotin became an anarchist and began attending the Parisian anarchist milieu and provides support and collaboration on 'La Révolte' and Jean Grave's 'Temps Nouveaux', creating woodcut portraits of Proudhon, Bakunin, Kropotkin, Carfiero, Reclus, Pierre Leroux, Auguste Conmtechisel, etc. and numerous etchings.

1873 - Charles Gogumus (d. 1915), French shopworker, revolutionary syndicalist militant, anarchist and anti-militarist, born.

1877 - 'L'Anarchia', "Bollettino del Movemento Scoiale", begins publication in Naples under the direction of Emilio Covelli. Due to frequent persecution, the newspaper ceased publication in Naples in October 1877 after just seven issues. It then transferred to Florence, where, under the direction of Giovacchino Niccheri, three other issues were published, the last dated 18 November.

1891 - Alberto Savinio (Andrea Francesco Alberto de Chirico; d. 1952), Italian writer, painter, musician, journalist, essayist, playwright, set designer, composer and Nietzchean-inspired "proto-anarchist" associated with Dada and Surrealism, born. He was the younger brother of 'metaphysical' painter Giorgio De Chirico. He was influenced by and a contemporary of Apollinaire, Picasso, Jean Cocteau, Max Jacob and Fernand Léger, and in turn was an important influence alongside Erik Satie on John Cage. Trying to differentiate himself from his increasingly famous artist-brother, Andrea adopted the penname Alberto Savinio in 1914, the same year he founded the musical movement Sincerismo (Sincerism). In 1915 he returned with his brother Giorgio back to Italy to enlist and ended up serving in the same military hospital as Carlo Carrà, where they formed the Schola Metafisica (Metaphysical School).
Both he and his brother were denounced by the fascist press for their pro-European attitude during the early 1930s after both returned from a period spent in France. In 1943 he also had to go into hiding after being denounced as an anti-fascist.

1905 - The Congreso Constituyente marks the founding of the Federación Obrera Regional Uruguaya. All the participating organizations were societies of resistance, of clear anarchist imprint: "picapedreros y graniteros, obreros albañiles caldereros y anexos, panaderos, conductores de carruajes, obreros del puerto, aserradores y anexos, ferrocarrileros , pintores y obreros varaleros, peones de barracas, calafates y carpinteros de ribera y artes gráficas (Zubillaga)."
"El congreso obrero, al inaugurar sus sesiones, envía un saludo fraternal a todos los proletarios del universo en lucha por su emancipación económica y social, haciendo votos porque la solidaridad internacional sobrepase las fronteras, estableciendo la armonía sobre la tierra. Hace extensivo este saludo a los compañeros que gimen en las cárceles victimas de la prepotencia capitalista. Al mismo tiempo, acuerda un voto de censura contra la ‘ley de residencia’ de la Republica Argentina que coarta la libertad de pensamiento." ["The Workers' Congress, when inaugurating its sessions, sends a fraternal greeting to all the proletarians of the universe in struggle for their economic and social emancipation, hoping that international solidarity will surpass the frontiers, establishing harmony on earth. It extends this greeting to the companions who moan in the prisons victims of the capitalist arrogance. At the same time, it agrees to a vote of censure against the 'law of residence' of the Argentine Republic that restricts freedom of thought "]

1918 - The first All-Russian Conference of Anarcho-syndicalists is held in Moscow [Aug. 25-Sept. 1].

1922 - Returning from a lecture tour, Ángel Pestaña, militant anarcho-syndicalist and CNT reformist, is ambushed by a right-wing death squad in the industrial town of Manresa, Catalonia, and seriously wounded.

[B] 1932 - Gérard Lebovici (d. 1984), radical French publisher, film producer, friend and financial supporter of Guy Debord, born. Radicalised during the events of May 1968, he frequented libertarian circles, founding Editions Champ Libre in 1969 and, following a meeting in 1971, formed a close association with Debord, republishing 'The Society of the Spectacle' and financing his film of the same name. Champ Libre also republished some classic revolutionary tracts and radical writers such as Bakunin and Landauer. He later bought up the Studio Cujas, a cinema located in the Latin Quarter of Paris, which became a centre for Situationist cinema. He also became fascinated by the libertarian character of Jacques Mesrine, adopting Mesrine's daughter Sabrina after his death in 1979 and planned in 1984 to republish his autobiography 'L'Instinct de Mort' (Killer Instinct). He was shot and killed on March 5 1984 in what many see as a police-inspired assassination.

1941 - Carol Bolt (d. 2000), Canadian playwright, author of the Emma Goldmann play 'Red Emma, Queen of the Anarchists' (1974), born.

1944 - Members of La Nueve take part in the fighting against the occupying Nazi forces in Paris, including in the Place de la République. [see: Aug. 24]

1945 - The first issue of 'España Libre', "Organe du Comité de Relations de la Confédération Régionale du Centre en France (CNT-AIT)", is publsihed in Paris. Its headline article is entitled: "Que l'action des forces de la Résistance en Espagne inspire les antifascistes de l'exil." (The actions of the forces of resistance in Spain is an inspiration ot anti-fascists in exile.)

1963 - Sébastien Doubinsky, French bilingual writer (English and French), translator, editor, poet and anarchist, born.

## 1967 - Niilo Frans Wälläri (b. 1897), Finnish anarcho-syndicalist, Wobbly and later communist, who led the Suomen Merimies-Unionin (Finnish Seamen’s Union) from 1938 until his death, dies in Helsinki at the age of 70. [see: Jul. 6]

1990 - Julián Arrondo (b. 1917), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, dies. Born in Villafranca, Navarra, as a young man he moved to Barcelona, where he joined the Bonanova Joventuts Llibertàries. During the Civil War, he was a militiaman in the Durruti Column on the Aragon front. Escaping to France in February 1939, he was interned in various camps and joined one of the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers. After his release, he became a forester on the Côte d'Or, settling in Dijon where he became the treasurer of the local fedartion of the MLE/CNT in exile, as well as treasurer of the Dijon-Nevers region.

1997 - Miguel Alejandro Dilla (b. 1909), Spanish anarchist activist member of the FIJL, CNT and MLE, dies. During the Revolution of 1936, he took an active part in the organisation of the Collectivité de La Fresneda and in the Joventuts Llibertàries. Exiled in France during the Retirada, he was interned in various camps. He then moved to Sabigny (Haute Marne) and continued to be active in the libertarian movement in exile until his death.
[E] 1827* - Nathalie Lemel (or Le Mel) (d. 1921), French bookbinder, militant anarchist in the Association Internationale des Travailleurs, feminist and Pétroleuse, who fought on the barricades at the Commune de Paris of 1871, born. She joined the First International in 1866 and, along with Eugène Varlin, helped found the La Ménagère food cooperative and the La Marmite cooperative resturant. An active participant on the barricades in the Paris Commune, she also organised food for the city's poor. Following the defeat of the Commune, she was deported to Nouvelle Calédonie alongside Louise Michel. Amnestied in 1880, she went on to be employed by the newspaper 'L'Intransigeant' and continued her fight for women's rights. [*NB: Other dates given include Aug. 24 and the alternative year of 1826.]
chipluvrio.free.fr/gdes femmes/gdes-femmes4.html

1837 - Carlo Gambuzzi (d. 1902), Italian Anarchist, who fought alongside Garibaldi at the Battle of Aspromonte in 1862, dies. Follower of Mikhail Bakunin, he eventually married his widow Antonia Kwiatkowska.

[B] 1880 - Guillaume Apollinaire (born Wilhelm Albert Włodzimierz Apolinary Kostrowicki ; d. 1918), French poet, playwright, short story writer, novelist, art critic, youthful anarchist and proto-Surrealist, born in Rome. At school in Nice he discovers anarchism and becomes a Dreyfusard, before moving to Paris in 1899. There he becomes part of the artistic and anarchist communities of Montmartre and Montparnasse, befriending the likes of Cocteau, Jarry, Picasso, Breton, de Vlaminck, Derain, etc.
www.la-presse-anarchiste.net/spip.php?article3037 - La Revue Anarchiste n°6 (juin 1922) w/ de Vlaminck on Apollinaire

1885 - Tomás González Morago aka 'Paulo' (b. unknown), Spanish writer and Bakunist member of the First International, dies of cholera in Granada prison. Member of the federal council of the Internacional Española (1870-1871) and the Alianza Internacional de la Democracia Socialista. His magazine 'El Condenado' (1872-73) defended the ideas of Bakunin against Marx. He also worker for the newspaper 'La Federación' and was associate editor of 'La Solidaridad' and 'El Orden', newspapers from which he challenged the pro-Marxist of the Madrid Federation. On December 30 1883, he was expelled from the Federation for "immoral conduct detrimental to the organisation", terms that concealed the fact that he had been printing counterfeit currency at the official Mint, where he worked as a recorder. He then found himself denounced and arrested. Abandoned by everyone, including the Federal Commission, he was jailed in Madrid for this crime.

1899 - René Lochu (d. 1989), French journeyman tailor, anarchist, syndicalist union activist and pacifist, born. His close friend Leo Ferre dedicated his song 'Les Etrangers' to him and contributed a freface and afterword to his autobiography 'Libertaires, Mes Compagnons de Brest et d'Ailleurs' (Libertarians, My Comrades in Brest and Elsewhere; 1983).

1899 - Paweł Grossman (d. 1966), Polish Jewish libertarian socialist and anarchist militant, born. Anarchistycznej Federacji Polski militant and one of the most active members of the organisation during the period 1926-39.

1905 - V Congreso de la Federación Obrera Regional Argentina: In a climate of governmental and police repression against the working class: a state of siege, arrests, strikes and demonstrations repressed with much loss of blood (seee: May 21, 1905 ), the Fifth Congress of the FORA (Federación Obrera Regional Argentina) held in Buenos Aires, states: "The 5th Argentine Regional Workers Congress, consistent with the philosophical principles that have given the raison d'être for the organization of labour federations, declares: We approve and recommend to all its members the [organisation's] propaganda and its vast knowledge, with the aim of teaching the workers the economic and philosophic principles of the anarchistic communism." [expand]

1905 - Severino Campos Campos (d. 2006), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. A member of the CNT since 1918 and a well-known FAI militant, he collaborated on the Valencian newspaper 'Solidaridad Obrera' and was one of its most important writers. He worked for thirty years in various rationalist schools of Catalonia, especially at the Rationalist School in the Torrassa district, run by the family Ocaña, one of whose members Igualdad, was his companion. Secretary of the Regional Committee of the Catalan FAI in June 1937, he was also a member of the group that drew up the paper adopted in plenary CNT-FAI in Catalonia of 14 March 1937 opening up particiaption in the Generalitat and helped create a political council within the unified Regional Committee of the CNT-FAI-FIJL. In 1936-37, along with Peirats and others, fought against CNT participation in the Generalitat and suffered threats from Garcia Oliver. During the Civil War he collaborated with the magazine 'Ideas', porgan of the Moviment Llibertari del Baix Llobregat, which denounced the degeneration of the revolution. After the war he went into exile in Mexico, returning to Spain after Franco's death of Franco returned to Spain, he lived in L'Hospitalet de Llobregat. In 1979 he was appointed director of Solidaridad Obrera and was editor between 1982 and 1983. In the nineties he returned to Mexico, leaving his personal archive to the Fundació Anselmo Lorenzo (FAL). He died aged 100 years and was buried with a red and black flag that covered his coffin.

1907 - The International Anarchist Congress, 26-31 August, is held at the Plancius Hall in Amsterdam under the initiative of Domela Nieuwenhuis and the Association Internationale Antimilitariste, whose second Congrès Antimilitariste International is held concurrently on August 30-31.

1915 - Juan José Sacramento García (d. 1997), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, born. He started working at a young age as an apprentice baker and joined the CNT in Villena (Alicante) at the age of 15. Following Franco's coup d'état in July 1936, after participating in the fighting in Villena, he enlisted in the Columna España Libre and was sent to the Madrid front. His group of ccomrades assisted in the flight of the Republican government when they retreated to Valencia. In March 1939 he was taken prisoner in Alicante and was interned in the concentration camps at Los Almendros and d'Albatera before being transferred to Villena prison in Alicante, where he was sentenced to 30 years and interned at Dueso. Paroled in 1945, he moved to Barcelona where he worked as a baker and a wooden platform builder and became part of the clandestine CNT. It particular he helped his friend Ginés Camarasa García to hide and helped many wanted militants. After Franco's death he joined the CNT in L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, where he died on June 6, 1997.

1916 - José Iglesias Paz (d. 2006), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, born. on August 26, 1916 in Lobios (Ourense, Galicia). Moved to Sallent, Barcelona, to work in the potash mines, where his brother was already working. In 1935 joined the National Confederation of Labour (CNT) and the Juventudes Libertarias in Sallent, becoming its secretary. In July 1936, with the outbreak of the fascist military coup, he attended night school in order to take the entrance exam for the Post Office. He was immediately incorporated as a medical orderly into the Tierra y Libertad Column formed in the mining region of Upper Llobregat, and after a few weeks of training in Barcelona, ​​left for the Central front. He participated in various battles, including Talavera de la Reina, Toledo, San Martin de Valdeiglesias, Àvila.
In early 1937, after his column was militarised in the II Battalion of the 153th Mixed Brigade, he fought on the Aragon front, where he participated in the failed assault on Belchite. For a while José he was assigned, although reluctantly, to work in military censorship, working under the Stalinist Santiago Carillo. During the events of May 1937, he was forced to defend himself, with gun in hand, from a group of Stalinists who wanted to kill him and, with a few comrades, succeed win helping free his brother, a militant of the CNT, held in a communist prison.
In February 1939, during the withdrawal, he crossed the Pyrenees and was interned in the concentration camp at Saint Cyprien, from where he managed to escape 18 months later. For two months he worked in a mine in the area of ​​Lourdes, but after spending two months in hospital due to poisoning, ending up interned in the camp of Argelès. Two months later he managed to escape and found a job as a lumberjack. In 1942 he was arrested in Perpignan and forced to work in Bordeaux under the Service du Travail Obligatoire (STO). In October he was sent by train to Baden-Baden and then onto to Karlsruhe to work in a munitions factory. When he was released, he had to remain hospitalised three months recovering from malnutrition.
After the Second World War he returned to France and settled first in Paris and then in Lyon, where he played in the Movimiento Libertario Español (MLE) in exile and supporting the anarchist action groups leaving for Franco's Spain. In July 1948, as a delegate of the Legal Section of the CNT, he clandestinely crossed into the Peninsula to Roncesvalles, with the task of assisting (find lawyers, bribe judges, etc.). He was specifically in charge of aid and assistance to prisoners in Valencia, Barcelona, ​​Zaragoza and Madrid, settling in Terrassa, Barcelona. On May 3, 1950, having been denounced by the mother of one of his colleagues, he was arrested along with several members of action groups, including Silvio Aiguaviva Vila, Pedro Meca López, Ginés Urrea Piña and Santiago Amir Gruañas, and tortured for 17 days in the dungeons of the Direcció de Policia (Police Directorate).
On February 6, 1952, he was tried at a court martial, with thirty members and supporters of libertarian action groups, and sentenced to death, along with eight other companions. Five of them (Santiago Amir Gruañas, Pere Adrover Font, Jordi Pons Argilés, José Pérez Pedrero and Ginés Urrea Piña) were executed on March 14, 1952, and the remainder had their sentences commuted to 30 years in prison. For two years he remained locked in Barcelona's Modelo prison, where he was responsible for the library, and was then transferred to the prison of Dueso (Santoña). In 1961, following an amnesty, he was put on probation and went to Galicia, where he worked in municipal services in several locations (Ponferrada, Lugo, Vilalba, vilagarcía, etc..), But was always dismissed because of police harassment. In 1968 he married Pilar Rodriguez. Unable to find steady work, he went into exile in 1972 with his partner and her son George in Switzerland, settling first in Locarno and then Lugano, where in 1973 achieved the status of political refugee. He worked as a bricklayer and grocer and participated in the activities of the local anarchist movement, always in contact with the CNT and militants in the Italian section of the Lega Svizzera dei Diritti dell'Uomo (Swiss League of Human Rights).
Following the death of the dictator Francisco Franco, he regained the Spanish passport in July 2003 and finally returned to Galicia with his partner, settling in San Bieito and resuming contacts with the Galician CNT. The April 17, 2004 he participated in the Second 'Xornadas Cangas pola Memoria Común' (Cangas Days of Common Memory) and in November 2005, with Joaquina Dorado Pita and others, on the Libertarian Days Compostela. He also talks, participated in several local meetings and, on 05 January 2006, in the Antifascist Days II Lalin. Jose Iglesias Paz died on June 10, 2006 at the hospital in Ourense (Galicia) and was buried two days later in his hometown to many colleagues and after a speech of tribute paid by Rosa Bassave, secretary of the CNT de Compostela. He left unpublished autobiographical notes, parts of which were collected in the Italian edition of Albert Minnig's 'Diario di un volontario svizzero nella guerra di Spagna' (1986).

1921 - Alexander Taranovski (b. 1888), Ukranian anarchist reolutionary, dies. Born into a middle class peasant family of Jewish origin, in 1917 he fought in the Great War as a lieutenant and that same year declared himself an anarchist. He headed the Polish Jewish society's 'Black Guard' and, during the autumn of 1918, he entered the Revolutionary Insurgent Army of Nestor Makhno, and was appointed a member of staff in October 1920. He also commanded the battalion of Jewish guerrillas created in Hulaipóle. In November 1920, he left Crimea and, after breaking the siege by the Red Army, he managed to collect Makhnovist forces at Hulaipóle. In August 1921, he participated in the group responsible for the escape of Nestor Makhno abroad. Taranovskiwas captured on 18 August 1921 by a group of Ukrainian anti-Makhnovist peasants who, on 26 August 1921, burned him alive.

1930 - Louis Eugène Jakmin (aka Jacquemin) (b. 1876), French blacksmith, anarchist propagandist, anti-militarist and militant syndicalist, dies. [see: May 12]

## 1933 - René Lourau, French sociologist, political scientist, libertarian thinker, and theorist and practitioner of l'autogestion pédagogique (self-teaching), born. Co-author of 'Interrogations sur l'autogestion' (1979), with Amédéo Bertolo, Albert Heiter and Murray Bookchin.

1936 - The Grup Sindical d'Escriptors Catalans (GSEC; Association of Catalan Writers Group) is established as part of the Sindicat d'Arts Gràfiques of the CNT, and later to the Sindicat Únic de la Ensenyança i Professions Liberals. Members include Jaume Balius Mir, Marc Benet, Manuel Cruells, Delfí Dalmau, Alexandre G. Gilabert, J. Guivernau Jané, Miquel Llor, Enric Lluelles, Carme Montoriol Puig, Víctor Mora, Anna Murià Romaní, Josep Maria Murià Romaní, Josep Pons Pagès, Dídac Ruíz, Joan Sallarès, Manuel Tarragó Romeu and Xavier Viura.

1937 - Santander falls to the Nationalists.

1944 - Members of La Nueve triumphantly march up the Champs-Elysées before the arrival of General De Gaulle. [see: Aug. 24]

1949 - Enrique Martinez Marin ('Quique'; b. 1927) and Celedonio García Casino (aka 'Celes' or 'el Largo'; b. 1922), anti-Francoist guerrillero members of José Luis Facerías' Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth (FIJL) group are ambushed (alongside 'Face', Antoni Franquesa Funoll and 2? others) and killed by the Guardia Civil ambush on the French frontier. [see: Apr. 14 & Dec. 25]

1972 - Juan López Sánchez (b. 1900), Spanish construction worker, anarcho-syndicalist, anarchist theorist, minister in the Generalitat and one of the founders of the 'treintistas' Federación Sindicalista Libertaria, dies. [see: Jan. 16]

1978 - José Expósito Leiva (b. 1918), Andalusian journalist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Jan. 4]

1982 - Ana María Cruzado Sánchez (b. 19??), Catalan anarcho-syndicalist militant and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Oct. 24]

1986 - Boris Franteschini (b. 1914), Italo-Australian farm labourer, logger, anarchist activist and anti-fascist, dies. Born in the USA, his family of Italian immigrants anarchists returned to Italy when he was 7 years old, but with the rise of Mussolini's fascism and the repression against militants that followed , the family emigrated to Australia in 1927. He was involved in the fight against fascism and, in particular, providing support (moral and financial) to libertarians who continued to fight in Italy and Spain, and to the refugee victims of Francoism.

1987 - Domingo Díaz Ferrer (b. ca.1908), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and railway worker, dies. Member of the Federació Nacional de la Indústria Ferroviària (FNIF; National Federation of Railway Industry) of the CNT. Following the fascist uprising in July 1936, he represented the CNT on the Comissió d'Ordre Públic (Public Order Commission) of Alicante. Shortly after he voluntered for the militia and became an organiser of the medical corps of the Iron Column. On November 20, 1936, he was one of the witnesses at the execution of the Falangist José Antonio Primo de Rivera. From February 1937 he represented the Iberian Anarchist Federation (FAI), was a member of the Provincial Council of Valencia and was later appointed Commissioner of Health of Valencia hospitals. At the end of the war he managed to reach Algeria and in 1945 became a pastry maker in Oran. At that time he was appointed head of the Interim Regional Committee of the FNIF in North Africa and political secretary of the Departmental Committee for North Africa of the CNT in exile. After Algerian independence, he settled in Nice (Provence, Aquitaine), where he worked remained active in the CNT and worked on the Parisian newspaper 'Frente Libertario' (Libertarian Front).

1989 - Jean Frédéric Henry Barrué (b. 1902), French Professor of Mathematics, communist militant and revolutionary syndicalist and later an anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 16]

##1995 - John Kilian Houston Brunner (b. 1934), prolific British libertarian socialist-orientated science fiction author, who was active in CND and wrote the CND marching song 'H-Bomb's Thunder', dies. [see: Sep. 24]

1999 - Zapatista Uprising: Confrontation between the army and Zapatista support bases in the community of San José la Esperanza, municipality of Las Margaritas. Three indigenous people are detained and 7 military personnel receive machete wounds.

2004 - Silvia Mistral (Hortensia Blanc(h) Pita; b. 1914), Cuban film critic, writer, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who lived in Spain and Cuba, dies in Ciudad López Mateos, Mexico. [see: Dec. 1]

2006 - Date often erroneously given for the death of América Scarfò aka 'Fina' (América Josefina Scarfó; b. 1912), Argentinian teacher, anarchist and pioneer of the anarcha-feminist movement. [see: Aug. 19 & Nov. 18]
1838 - Constant Marie aka Le Père Lapurge (d. 1910), French anarchist militant, Communard, singer and songwriter, born. Author of the revolutionary songs 'Dame Dynamite', 'le Père Lapurge' and 'la Muse Rouge'.

1863 - Maria Teresa 'Teresina' Carini Rocchi (d. 1951), Italian anarcha-feminist and socialist, who became involved in the workers movement in São Paulo alongside fellow anarcha-feminists Ernestina Lesina, María Lopes and Tecla Fabbri (Teresa Fabri), born. Brought up in a bourgeois family, Maria Teresa Carini dutifully married a clarinetist Guido Rocchi when she was twenty-six and with him travelled to Brazil. There they settled in the country's capital, where her burgeoning social conscience led her to attend workers' meetings and protest actions. She was the co-author, with María Lopes and Tecla Fabbri, of the manifesto 'As Jovens costureiras de São Paulo' (The Young Seamstresses of São Paul) published in the anarchist periodical 'A Terra Livre' on July 28, 1906, which encouraged the capital's seamstresses to denounce their degrading living conditions, long hours and low wages.

1871 - Theodore Herman Albert Dreiser (d. 1945), American novelist, poet and journalist of the naturalist school, born. A socialist who was involved in a number of social justice campaigns including Sacco and Vanzetti, against the deportation of Emma Goldman (whose writings he regarded as "the richest of any woman’s of the century"), the conviction of the trade union leader Tom Mooney and was involved with the National Committee for the Defence of Political Prisoners. He joined the American Communist Party shortly before his death.

[E] 1884 - Anna-Thérèse Dondon (Florence Trinquet; d. 1979), French anarchist illegalist, born. Moving to Pars as a young woman, she quickly became involved in libertarian circles ('L'Anarchie' and Libertad's Causeries Popularies) as well as a prisoners relief committee. Having married George Dondon, she became involved with his brother in passing counterfeit currency, for which she was convicted twice, the second in 1906 she was sentenced to five years in Rennes prison. Released in 1909, she returned to Paris and became involved with René Valet, secretary of the Jeunesse Révolutionnaire. The couple lived in the Romainville libertarian commune where they later met members of the Bonnot Gang.

1885 - The first and only known issue of 'La Tête de Mort', "Journal communiste, anarchiste et révolutionnaire", is published in Saint-Imier, Switzerland. The paper turned out to be a hoax, and was in fact a version of the humorous magazine 'Cancan Jurassien' published (anonymously) by Numa Langel, who was fined 5 francs for his efforts.

## [B] 1890 - Man Ray (born Emmanuel Rudnitzky; d. 1976), American Surrealist photographer, painter, film-maker, chess-player and anarchist, born. In the autumn of 1911 he began to life classes at the anarchist Modern School in Harlem (New York), also known as Ferrer School, and met a number of prominent anarchist intellectuals including Robert Henri, Emma Goldman Will Durant, Adolf Wolff, Jack London, John Reed, Alexander Berkman, Upton Sinclair, Hart Crane, Wallace Stevens, William Carlos Williams, Margaret Sanger, Isadora Duncan, Eugene O'Neill, etc. and studied several libertarian authors such as Max Stirner, Tolstoy, Walt Whitman, Thoreau, etc. and radical philosophers (Nietzsche, etc.).
Man Ray contributed to Emma Goldman's journal, ‘Mother Earth,’ by designing two covers of the magazine and, together with the Belgian anarchist Adon LaCroix (who he met while taking art lessons from Robert Henry and George Bellows at the Ferrer Center in New York, and who would later become his companion) would launch their own periodical, ‘The Ridgefield Gazook’, a proto-dadaist and anti-war broadsheet with explicit anarchist references. After befriending Adolph Wolff, Man Ray became acquainted with Stieglitz and Duchamp, joined the avant-garde, conceived Dada as a form of artistic anarchy, and forever changed the course of American art.

1895 - The first (and only) issue of the newspaper 'El Invincible', Periodico Comunista Anarquico", is published in Zaragoza by Juan Palomo. It replaces the suppressed 'El Eco del Rebelde', but it too will be forced to close and be replaced by 'El Comunista'.

#### 1896 - Fernando Tarrida del Mármol (1861-1915) is released from the dreaded Montjuïc prison, thanks to help from family members. The Cuban-born Spanish anarchist theorist, writer, free-thinker, engineer, teacher and director of the Escuela Politecnica of Barcelona was incarcerated in the prison following the Proceso de Montjuïc investigation into the June 7, 1896 bomb attack on the Corpus Christi procession in the Cambios Nuevos, Barcelona. It was only due to the fact that one of his jailers happened to be an old student and recognised him that he was released.

1903 - [O.S. Aug. 14] Ilinden Uprising [Илинденско въстание]: Kleisoura is finally recaptured by Ottoman troops.
[Jul.-Greg. correction check]

1903 - [O.S. Aug. 14] Mosko Atanasov Rashev (or Rachev)(Моско Атанасов Рашев; d. 1925), Bulgarian anarchist guerrilla, born into an extremely poor family. Illiterate, he worked in poorly paid manual jobs. and later, via Georgi Popov and Petar Maznev, came into contact with libertarian circles. A staunch enemy of the police, he joined the clandestine anarchist movement. His first guerilla activity involves the seizing of firearms in the barracks of the region of Veliko Tarnovo. During the night of June 3, 1921, was part of the squad led by armed anarchist revolutionary Gueorgui Sheitanov that ambushed a police escort, freeing anarchist Petar Maznev. The military coup of June 9, 1923, which established the proto-fascist regime of Alexander Tsankov, resulting in the death of 35,000 workers and peasants and provoked an armed resistance that culminated in the bombing of Sofia Cathedral by the Communist Party in April 1925. Following the proclaimation of martial law, which precipitated fierce repression against the revolutionary movement, Rashev joined the Sheitanov' libertarian guerrillas, who were dedicated to assaulting military garrisons, the sabotage of railways and telegraph, burning files and property, etc.. In the summer of 1925, after the breakup of the guerrilla group and the murder of several colleagues in Gorna Oryahovitsa, he decided to continue his fight under the banner of "Victory or death", sending a provocative letter to that effect to the authorities in a letter. The police launched a series of raids, searching for him and he is ambushed and killed by police and army units near Veliko Tarnovo on September 17, 1925 after a fierce firefight.

1906 - Julien Francois Gabriel Toublet (d. 1991), French jewellry worker and militant anarcho-syndicalist, as was his son Jacky Toublet, born. Active during the Spanish Revolution recruiting volunteers to fight, fundraising, coordinating the purchase and supply of arms, etc. In 1939, he was commissioned by the CNT-FAI to organise a Rescue Committee that visited the refugee camps. [expand]

1927 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Thousands continue to turn out in violent protests over deaths of Sacco and Vanzetti.

1940 - Manuel Pérez Feliu (b. 1892), Spanish cabinetmaker, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, is shot by a Phalangist firing squad. [see: Aug. 27]

1960 - Curt Corrinth (b. 1894), German Expressionist poet, novelist, dramatist, screenwriter and 'Bohemian anarchist', dies. His play 'Trojaner' (Trojans), a staunch critique of German anti-Sematism, caused controversy following its 1929 première in Berlin. [see: Feb. 20]

[F] 1974 - Lei da Greve: The new democratic government in Portugal enacts the anti-worker Lei da Greve (Strike Law) for the express purpose of stopping strikes against the Government and the newly liberated workers movement, which had helped put them in place, from continuing to press for improvements in their employment conditions and rights.

1976 - Ángel Continente Saura (b. 1901), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, dies in Saint-Paul-de-Jarrat. Born in Velilla de Ebro, Zaragoza, he moved to Barcelona at a young age, working in the port handling coal cargoes and joined the Transport section of the CNT. On December 17, 1931, he was arrested, along with comrades Antoni Anglès, Ismael Montoliu, Josep Balaguer Salvador and Felip Cano Pallarès, for the possession of a gun during a shootout between guards and workers during a transport strike at the western dock in Barcelona, in which the worker Luis Menéndez García was killed. On March 10, 1932 whilst still in Barcelona prison, he ​​signed a manifesto against Ángel Pestaña and the trentiste strategy. In July 1937 he was elected member of the Board of the Secció del Carbó Mineral del Sindicat de les Indústries d'Aigua, Gas, Electricitat i Combustibles (Coal Mineral Section of the Union of Industries of Water, Gas, Electricity and Fuels) in the Catalan CNT. In 1939 and the Fascist victory, he crossed the Pyrenees and was interned in various concentration camps. After WWII, he lived in Paris, where he was an active member of the Local Federation of the CNT, and between 1959 and 1960, he worked in the Parisian magazine 'Nervio'. He was also a member of the FAI group 'Los sin pasaporte' along with José Pascual Palacios, Jesús Imbernón, Bernabé Esteban, Olavarri, Josep Rossell, J. Martínez, etc.

1976 - Raymond Lachèvre (b. 1894), French militant anti-militarist, anarchist and syndicalist, dies. [see: Apr. 30]

2001 - Juan Gómez Casas (b. 1921), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, anarchist, underground militant, writer and historian, who was the first post-Franco Secretary General of the CNT, dies. Born in Bordeaux into a family of Spanish anarcho-syndicalists, who had emigrated for economic reasons, with proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931, his family returned to the Iberian Peninsula. After college, he joined his father as a member of the CNT (Chemical Industry section of Miscellaneous Crafts Guild) and, from 1936, the Federació Ibèrica de Joventuts Llibertàries (FIJL) in Madrid. During the civil war, he was appointed secretary of the FIJL in the Retiro district and had articles published in the CNT paper 'Castilla Libre'. In April 1938, he joined the 39th Mixed Brigade of the Republican Army and fought on the Teruel front for three months. With the triumph of Franco, he was arrested in the port of Alicante and interned in the Albatera concentration camp, but managed to escape from a juvenile prison. Returning to Madrid, he took up the clandestine struggle with the FIJL. Member of the Sindicat de la Construcció in the CNT and was an anti-collaborationist.
In 1947, he was elected as the Secretary General of the Juventudes Libertarias del Centro in Toulouse, France. Upon his return to Spain, he was arrested with his partner (María del Carmen Martínez Herranz) and his sons. In a search of his home they discovered the printing press used for the clandestine publishing of 'Tierra y Libertad' and 'Juventud Libre'. In July 1948, he was sentenced to 30 years in prison for "membership in illegal organisation". On February 6 1956, he made a failed escape attempt and was finally freed from prison in 1962 and went on to work as an antiques painter, a trade he learned in prison, and was an accountant for a Madrid hotel. Despite having no formal education, he wrote many books, including 'Historia del anarcosindicalismo español' (The history of Spanish Anarcho-syndicalism; 1968), 'Historia de la FAI' (The history of the FAI; 1977) and other historical books that are still considered classical texts. He even translated the classic book 'Moby Dick' into Spanish. He also wrote under the pseudonyms of Jacques de Gaulle (for dectective novels, etc.) and Benjamín.
During the late 1960s, he was a member of the Grup Anselmo Lorenzo in Madrid, alongside Mariano Trapero, Pedro Amijeiras, Florentino Rodríguez and Pedro Barrios, and, among other things, published in Paris in 1969 the anti-Marxist dicussion document 'Manifest Llibertari' and the pamphlet 'Problemas presentes y futuros del sindicalismo revolucionario en España' (Present and Future Problems of Revolutionary Unionism in Spain; 1969). In the seventies, he became one of the leading representatives of the CNT during its reorganisation and its first post-Franco secretary, from August 1976 to April 1978.
##1882 - Práxedis Gilberto Guerrero Hurtado (d. 1910), Mexican journalist, poet, anarchist propagandist and secretary to the Junta Organizadora del Partido Liberal Mexicano, born. He served as an insurgent leader during the 1910 Revolution, is the first Mexican anarchist to give his life for Land and Liberty, when he was killed, at the early age of only 28, on December 30, 1910, during an attack on the town of Janos, Chihuahua, in the early months of the Mexican Revolution.

1891 - Affaire de Clichy: At the trial of the three anarchists arrested and severly beaten on May Day when attacked by police, the Advocate General Bulot demands the death sentence for Henri Louis Decamps. He fails to secure that but the verdicts on two of the three are still severe: Decamps is sentenced to five years in prison and Charles Auguste Dardare to three years. Louis Leveillé is acquitted. [see: May. 1]

##1892 - Augustin Souchy (d. 1984), German journalist, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, born. He became an anarchist at a very young age after reading Gustav Landauer and, in 1911, he went to Berlin, where the 19 year old Souchy met Karl Liebknecht, Clara Zetkin, Gustav Landauer, and other revolutionaries. At the outbreak of war in 1914, Souchy was in Vienna where he was arrested and deported to Germany. At the top of his arrest warrant were the words: "Beware! Anarchist!", which would become the title of his 1977 autobiography. From Germany he went to Sweden to escape conscription. There he was arrested for problems with his passport but managed to escape and cross over into Denmark and Norway clandestinely. Back in Sweden, in 1917, he took the opportunity of the fact that sick and wounded German soldiers on their way home from the Russian front having to change trains in Stockholm, handing out an anti-war pamphlet, 'Warum?', which he had written to the soldiers. Arrested and expelled from the country, only to return with the aid of a false passport. However, he is arrested whilst traveling to Copenhagen in 1919 and imprisoned for 6 months, time he uses to learn Swedish and to write the first book in that language about the recently assassinated Gustav Landauer.
Returning to Germany in late 1919, he joined the Freien Arbeiter Union Deutschland (FAUD), becoming the editor of its journal, 'Der Syndicalist' (from 1922-33). In 1920, he traveled to Russia for the Congress of the Third International, meeting Victor Serge, Zinoviev and Lenin. "I had expected from the social revolution more than a mere replacement of the tsarist autocracy by an authoritarian party dictatorship." During his stay, he spent 6 months visiting Kropotkin, who was then still at liberty, who warned him against the use of an authoritarian political party as an instrument with which to gain power. Six months later, in March 1921 came the suppression of the Kronstadt uprising, and followed by a wave of terror which compelled many SRs, syndicalists and anarchists to leave the "mother country of the world revolution." On his return, he wrote a highly critical book, 'Reise nach Russland 1920' (Travel to Russia 1920), about the Soviet regime. In 1922, he helped form the International Workers' Association (IWA/AIT) and, along with Rudolph Rocker and Alexander Schapiro, was one of three secretaries of the new organisation, which was set up to counter the Bolshevik Profintern (Red International of Labour Unions). Between 1924 and 1926, he was responsible for writing much of 'Die Internationale', the FAUD theoreical journal, and went on to write a number of important books including 'Sacco und Vanzetti' and 'Schreckensherrschaft in Amerika' (Reign of terror in America), both 1927. As a representative of the IWA, he went to Argentina in 1929 to take part in a Congress of Latin American anarcho-syndicalists in Buenos Aires. During his stay, he also undertook a lecture tour in Uruguay. In this period he also met Durruti for the first time and began to pay regualr visits to Spain on IWA business.
On his return from South America, he became involved in the burgeoning anti-fascist movement but, following the Reichstag fire, which was immediately followed by the arrest of Erich Mühsam, life for Souchy and other radicals became increasingly dangerous. Shortly after the fire, he was attacked by three young men in front of his house in Wilmersdorf. He managed to break free and, heeding the warning, escaped to France.
"When I was on the train taking me to Paris, people were glued to the Berlin newspaper columns with pictures of wanted anti-Nazis, including my own ... on Germany a bloody curtain had fallen. My second emigration would last longer than the first."
He settled in Paris, earning a living as a freelance journalist, working mainly for the foreign press and especially for Swedish newspapers, for one of whom he wrote the anti-Nazi polemic 'Die braune Pest' (The Brown Palgue). Just before the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, he was invited by the CNT to speak at a mass meeting in Barcelona against the impending war. Instead of the rally, he arrived in time for the military coup and ended up staying in Spain for 3 years. Handed a weapon, he waved it around, claiming not to know what to do with it: "Only for the present, the word is also a weapon, soon there will be other tasks to perform." On the evening of the third day of fighting, Augustin took to the airwaves on Radio Barcelona to announce the victory of the revolutionaries. He was soo appointed head of external relations (Information in Foreign Languages) and political advisor of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo and tried to organise getting money and arms from France for the CNT-FAI including an unsuccessful trip on behalf of the CNT to Paris at the end of August 1936 to negotiate with Léon Blum, the former Socialist Prime Minister. Later, he wrote his most influential books on collectivisation in Anarchist Catalonia - 'Die Bauern von Aragon' (The Peasants of Aragon; 1937) and 'Nacht über Spanien: Anarcho-Syndikalisten in Revolution und Bürgerkrieg 1936–39. Ein Tatsachenbericht; 1955' (Night over Spain: Anarcho syndicalism in revolution and civil war 1936-39. A factual report; 1955). He also wrote 'The Tragic Week in May', one the few firsthand accounts of the Barcelona May Days of 1937 available.
After the defeat of the Spanish Revolution in 1939, Souchy attempted to return to France. On the trip north, his refugee column was strafed by enemy aircraft and he broke his arm saving a small girl from falling under the wheels of a car. A doctor requisioned him a car and he managed to make it to Paris without being interned. War was yet to break out and he spent times working as a correspondent for various Swedish and American newspapers again. At the start of WWII, German citizens were interned, being sent to a prison camp in the interior but, having a French wife, was released. This provision was eventually repealed and he ended up in a warehouse on the Brittany coast. The Wehrmacht took Paris and proceeded to the Channel coast. When they were in sight of the camp, Augustin managed to persuade the camp commander to give him and other political or Jewish camp inmates the opportunity to escape. He had spent nearly two years in various prison camps and now made his way by bicycle to Marseilles, hoping to escape the country. From there he manage to make it to Mexico. "Mexico meant the end of insecurity, persecution and threats., I took the opportunity offered."
Mexico in 1942 was now one of the main centres for Spanish Civil War exiles, and there Augustine found a trade union organisation that was very close to the anarcho-syndicalist ideals. During the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas (1934-40), hundreds of farms, factories, mines and service companies had been taken over by the workers and were still run as cooperatives. For some of these he advised on agricultural iniatives. He also traveled as a lecturer throughout the country and help the unions in educational work. In Loma Bonita, in the house of an old friend, who had also fought in Spain, he found for more than ten years of a new home. Invited by the Movimento Libertario Cubano, he travelled in February 1948 to Havana, where he attended its Congress and used the opportunity to study and went on a lecture tour of the inland, returning after four months to Mexico. This was the beginning of an extensive period of travels, his "student revolution", as he often called the next 20 years: to Germany, Sweden, ,the United States, ,all countries of Latin America, from Mexico to Chile, as representative of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions to Madagascar, to Yugoslavia, Israel (studying the kibbutzim), Italy, studying and lecturing. "The direct study of economic innovations in revolutionary countries and their practical functioning, so to speak, I had made my specialty."
In May 1951, the exile organisation of the Spanish anarcho-syndicalists in Toulouse organised an international congress of the IWA. Augustine attended as delegate of the Föderation Freiheitlicher Sozialisten Deutschlands (German Federation of Libertarian Socialists Deutschalnds), a successor FAUD and in which Rudolf Rocker and Helmut Rüdiger were also involved. In 1963, he was commissioned by the International Labour Office in Geneva as an educational expert to travel round Jamaica, Honduras, Venezuela, Chile, Uruquay and Ethiopia for 3 years as an educational expert. In 1966, at the ripe old age of 74, he returned to Germany. - "When I had crossed the threshold of the biblical age, I had to remember to make me settle down." He went on to write extensively (both jouranlsim and numerous books), appeared regularly on the radio, attended conferences and workshops and appeared in the documentary 'Kleinen Fernsehspiel', broadcast a month after his death from Pneumonia aged 91 on January 1, 1984. There was no funeral and no grave - Augustin had bequeathed his body to science.

1904 - Agustín Remiro Manero (d. 1942), Spanish commander of one of the Durruti Column's machine-gun battalions, born. He was captured, tortured, then killed during an attempted prison escape. [expand]

[E] 1904 - [ERROR]

1918 - Ramón Liarte Viu (d. 2004), Spanish anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist militant, autodidact, journalist and writer, born. Born in Almudébar, Huesca, his poor working class family moved to Barcelona whilst he was a child. During the Second Spanish Republic to become the general secretary of the Juventudes Libertarias of Catalonia. During the fascist uprising of July 1936, he was caught working in Jaca as a waiter and crossed the Pyrenees into Catalonia via Seu d'Urgell. He fought at the front in the Durruti Column and later in the 26th Division, becoming the editor of its newspaper 'El Frente'. In February 1937, at the Second Congress of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL) held in Valencia, was appointed secretary of the organisation. Also in June of that year, following the plenary session of the Cataln Regional Committee of the CNT, he was appointed as its secretary, a position he held until September of that year. On July 21, 1927, he participated in the CNT-organised rally held at the Olympia in Barcelona, along with Federica Montseny, Francisco Isgleas and Joaquim Cortes, to protest against the events of the Hecho de Mayo 1937 and the the repression that followed, and defending the FIJL's opposition to the Stalinist counter-revolution. In February 1938, following the Second Congress, he was appointed Secretary of the Organización del Comité Peninsular of the FIJL and later made secretary of the Organización del Comité Peninsular of the FAI. In March 1939, he joined the Comité de Coordinación y Defensa (Defence Coordination Committee) in opposition to the Consejo General del Movimiento Libertario Español (General Council of the Spanish Libertarian Movement; MLE).
With the fascist victory, he crossed into France and was held in various prisons (El Templo, Fresnes, Roland Corvejones, etc.) and concentration camps (Vernet, etc.). In 1942, he managed to escape the Algeria camp at Djelfa. He then fought in the French résistance and participated in a failed attempt to invade the mainland via the Basque Country. He was also arrested during a clandestine crossing into Spain and held in Cuevas de Almanzora, Almería and Granada prisons. Once freed, he returned to France, where he helped rebuild the MLE whilst hodling various post in the moderate i.e. collaborationist wing of the movement. In 1951 he was delegate to the Congress of the International Workers Association (IWA), was secretary of the Subcomité pro España and was proposed as a potential minister in a possible Republican coalition goverment. In 1955 he replaced Miguel Sebastián Vallejo as Secretary General of the collaborationist wing of the CNT. In 1957, he was appointed chair of the Alianza Sindical de España designed to unite the anti-Francoist activities of the CNT, Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT) and Sindicato de Trabajadores Vascos (STB). In 1962, he was made the Cultural Secretary of the CNT in Toulouse and went on to direct 'Solidaridad Obrera' between 1980 and 1982, following on from his editorship of 'España Libre', 'Esfuerzo', 'Estudios' and 'El Frente' at various times.
A prolific author, also writing under the pseudonyms 'Rotaeche' and 'Rali', he wrote for various newspaper and magazine, contributed to and wrote numerous pamphlets and books, including: 'AIT: La Internacional del sindicalismo revolucionario' (AIT: The International of revolutionary syndicalism); 'Estudio de la revolución española' (A Study of the Spanish Revolution); 'Voces juveniles: Interpretación àcrata de nuestra revolución' (The Voice of Youth: Our Interpretation of the anarchist revolution; 1937, with others); 'La CNT y los pueblos de España' (CNT and the people of Spain); 'La revolución social española' (The Spanish social revolution; 1975); 'La CNT y el federalismo de los pueblos de España' (CNT and the federalism of the peoples of Spain; 1977); 'La lucha del hombre: Anarcosindicalismo' (The struggle of man: Anarchosyndicalism; 1977); 'La CNT al servicio del pueblo' (CNT in the Service of the People; 1978); 'Marxismo, socialismo y anarquismo' (Marxism, Socialism and Anarchism; 1978); 'La sociedad federal' (Federal Society; 1989); 'Fermín Salvochea "El libertador"' (Fermín Salvochea "The Liberator"; 1991); and 'Bakunin, la emancipación del pueblo' (Bakunin, the emancipation of the people; 1995), etc. However, his most famous works are probably the 'Los pasos del tiempo' (The steps of time) trilogy - 'El camino de la libertad' (The Road to Freedom; 1983), '¡Ay de los vencedores!' (Woe to the winners!; 1985) and 'Entre la revolucion y la guerra' (Between Revolution and War; 1986) - a largely autobiographical account of the Civil War in which this fictional protagonist, Ramiro Rueda, travels the winding paths of Spanish history from the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera to exile.

[BB] 1921 - Fernando Fernán Gómez (Fernando Fernández Gómez; d. 2007), Argentine-born Spanish actor, screenwriter, film director, theatre director, novelist, anarcho-syndicalist and lifelong anarchist, born. He attended a CNT-organised Escuela de Actores (Actors College) in Madrid during the Revolution and was involved with the CNT-AIT for the rest of his life. He directed 30 or so films and acted in over 200, including Pedro Almodóvar's 'Todo Sobre mi Madre' (All About My Mother; 1999); José Luis Cuerda's 'La Lengua de las Mariposas' (Butterfly's Tongue; 1999) and Víctor Erice's 'El Espíritu de la Colmena' (The Spirit of the Beehive; 1973). He also wrote the play 'Las Bicicletas son Para el Verano' (Bicycles Are for the Summer) in 1984 (and released as a popular film in the same year, directed by Jaime Chávarri), which deals with the effects of the Spanish Civil War on citizens of Madrid.

1927 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Sacco-Vanzetti funeral procession from North End to Forest Hills Cemetery, where they are cremated.

1929 - Jean-Louis Bédouin (d. poss. 1996), French poet, writer, critic, Surrealist artist and collagist, and anarchist, born. Joined the Surrealists via a meeting with Andre Breton and began publishing his work in 'Le Libertaire'. In 1960 signed the 'Manifeste des 121' (Manifesto of the 121) against the French State's war in Algeria, denouncing the use of torture by the French army, and calling for French conscientious objectors to be respected. His books include his poetry collections: 'Libre Espace et Autres Poemes' (1967), 'L'Arbre Descend du Singe' (1975) and 'L'Épaule du Large' (1992); a biography of Benjamin Peret (1961); 'Vingt Ans de Surrealisme, 1939-1959' (1961); and the anthology, 'La Poésie Surréaliste' (1964). His assemblages of articles found washed up on the Oleron beaches is the inspiration for his film 'L'Invention de Monde' (1952), co-directed by fellow anarchist and Surrealist Michel Zimbacca, and with spoken text by Benjamin Peret.

1936 - The Italian section of the Ascaso Column repulse an attack by fascist forces at Monte Pelado, near Huesca, Aragon.

1936 - Michele Centrone (b. 1879), Italain carpenter, anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, is shot in the head and dies during the Battle of Monte Pelado on the Aragon front, between Huesca and Almudébar (Aragon, Spain), one of the first Italians to fall there. [see: Dec. 30]

1936 - Fosco Falaschi (b. 1899), Italian brickmaker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, is shot in the stomach and dies during the Battle of Monte Pelado on the Aragon front, between Huesca and Almudébar (Aragon, Spain), one of the first Italians to fall there. [see: Nov. 21]

1936 - Vincenzo Perrone (b. 1899), Italian railway worker, sales representative and anarchist, dies during the Battle of Monte Pelado on the Aragon front, between Huesca and Almudébar (Aragon, Spain), one of the first Italians to fall there. [see: Jan. 25]

1936 - Ricardo Naval Pimentel (b. ca. 1906), Andalucían merchant and anarchist, born Born in Chipiona, he was the third of eight children. Member of the Nuevo Horizonte union, affiliated to the CNT, the Guardia Civil labelled him as a "downright leftist and member of the Popular Front whose behavior leaves much to be desired." Arrested by marauding fascists, he was shot on the morning of August 28, 1936 in Cuesta Blanca, the road between Chipiona and Sanlúcar de Barrameda along with 4 other people: Segundo Alonso Leira, a fellow member of Nuevo Horizonte, the CNT and the FAI; Domingo Caro Blanco, member of the CNT and its onetime president; Antonio Rey Lora (Antoñito Iglesias), of the PSOE; and Manuel Ruiz Sáenz, of the PCE. He left a wife, Ursula Santos Galafate, and son, Augustus.
His brother, Eduardo Naval Pimentel, a travelling trader and CNT member, was also executed on December 8, 1936 near Rota, and his sister, Elvira Naval Pimentel was stripped naked and purged with castor oil [a standard Spanish torture regularly used in its prisons].

1937 - François Béranger (d. 2003), French libertarian singer, born. After working in a Renault factory, then as an itinerant street artist, he returned from an eighteen month stint as a conscript in Algeria disgusted by France's war there. He returned to the Renault factory, but also got some work in radio and cinema. In 1968 the social revolt encouraged him to write and pursue a career in music, becoming known for his French folk songs, and notorious during the 1970s for the controversial themes that he addressed through his music. Amongst his more famous works are the albums 'Tranche de Vie' (1970), 'L'Alternative' (1975) and 'Participe Présent' (1978).

1940 - Lucien Louis Guérineau aka 'Fleury' (b. 1857), French carpenter, cabinetmaker, anarchist propagandist and revolutionary syndicalist, dies. [see: Dec. 15]

1941 - Joan Dalmau Ferran aka Joan de la Castanyola (b. 1907), Catalan farmer, Master builder and anarcho-syndicalsit militant, born. Member of the CNT, dies in the Gusen concentration camp (aka Mauthausen II) in Austria. [see: Jan. 11]

## 1947 - Ian David Bone, English publisher and angry old man of British class struggle anarchism, who was once dubbed "The Most Dangerous Man in Britain" by 'The Sunday People', born.

[B] 1947 - Frédéric H. Fajardie (d. 2008), French libertarian writer of detective, adventure, historical, 'neo-thriller' and juvenile fiction, screenplays, film dialogue and radio plays, and columnist on 'Charlie-Hebdo', born. As a student he was involved in May '68 and later a Maoist and member of Secours Rouge (Red Aid). He wrote his first novel 'Tueurs de Flics' (Killers of Cops) in 1975 (published in 1979) and was at the forefront of the néo-polar (neo-thriller) genre. Amongst his other books is 'Une charrette pleine d'étoiles' (Wagon full of stars; 1988) set during the Spanish Civil War.

1954 - Marius (Alexandre) Jacob (b. 1879), French anarchist illegalist burglar who was the inspiration for Maurice Leblanc's fictional gentleman thief and detective Arsène Lupin, takes his own life with an overdoes of morphine. [see: Sep. 29]

1957 - Ramon Plarromaní Mas aka 'Romaní' (b. 1892), Catalan textile worker and anarcho-syndicalist, dies from problems associated with his poorly healed chest (lung) wound sustained in the 1920s. [see: Jun. 13]

1961 - Fifth Situationist International conference.

1965 - George (Gueorgui) Getchev (b. 1897), Bulgarian anarcho-communist, poet, writer of children's stories, translator and journalist, dies. [see: Apr. 20]

1967 - Alfons Vila i Franquesa (b. 1897), Spanish cartoonist, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. Better known as 'Joan Baptista Acher' or 'Shum', how he signed his paintings and drawings, and by his friends as 'el Poeta'. His cartoons regularly appeared in the Barcelona press including 'Papitu', 'L’Esquella de la Torratxa', 'L’Opinió' and 'La Humanitat'. [expand]

1972 - Louis Montgon aka 'Vérité' (b. 1885), French labourer, artisan watchmaker, anarchist propagandist, militant anarcho-syndicalist in the CGTU, dies. [see: Mar. 26]

1983 - In the wake of the French Socialist governemnt's new regualtions restricting access to the airwaves, at 06:00 the CRS are sent in to attack Radio Libertaire, cutting the transmission cables to Radio Libertaire's antenna, smashing equipment and attacking and arresting seven station staff members and supporters who had rallied to their defence. Since August 14, about fifteen free radios had been silenced by the powers that be, but "les bûcherons roses s'avèreront impuissants à abattre le vieux chêne libertaire..." (The pink lumberjacks will prove powerless to tear down the old libertarian oak ...).

2012 - Isidre Guàrdia Abella aka Leopoldo Arribas, 'Codine', Juan Lorenzo, 'Viriato', Juan Ibérico, 'Isigual', etc. (b. 1921), Spanish writer, autodidact, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Jun. 15]
## 1844 - Edward Carpenter (d. 1929), English early queer activist, utopian and libertarian socialist, poet, songwriter, pacifist, born.

1849 - Émile Goudeau (d. 1906), French journalist, novelist and poet, born. Founder of the proto-anarchist and proto-Surrealist Cercle des Hydropathes in 1878.

1870 - Gabriel Giroud (d. 1945), French anarchist militant and néo-Malthusian propagandist, who also wrote under the pseudonyms Georges Hardy and C. Lyon, born. Editor of 'L'unpatriotic' (Paris, 2 issues in July 1891), whose motto was "Ni Dieu, ni maître! Fais ce que veux!". Suffered from pleurisy and typhoid fever whilst still in school and their after affects would affected him throughout his life. An adherent of the thought and action of Paul Robin, Giroud was a lifelong activist and propagandist, in speech and writing, of integrated education and néo-Malthusianism in France and abroad, in England and to New York where he went after the First World War. He collaborated on a number of Robin's publications: 'L'Education Intégrale' (1903-04), paper of the Ligue pour la défense de l'enfant, and 'Régénération' (1900-08). He then continued his activities on Jeanne and Eugène Humbert's newspaper 'Génération consciente' (1908-1914), and participates on Albert Gros' review 'Le Malthusien' (1908-1920), the magazine 'L'Ecole Renovated' (Brussels, 1908-1909) and on Lorulot's 'L'Idée libre'.
In 1914, when WWI broke out, he joined the "union sacrée" and was in favour of 'armed pacifism but, after loosing his son in the fighting, abandoned the position. In 1916, he published 'Le Néo-Malthusien' but it was banned, as were its successors 'La Grande Question' and the 'Néo-Malthusisme' (only 4 copies of which would appear during the war). In 1918, he joined the opponents of the war in the newspaper 'La Plèbe'. The 'Néo-Malthusisme' reappeared in March 1919, with twenty issued published up til July 1920. He was later involved in campaigning against laws prohibiting the advertising of contraceptives, worker on 'La Grande Réforme' (1931-39), published by Jeanne and Eugène Humbert, and paticipated on Sébastien Faure's 'L'Encyclopédie Anarchiste'. His wife Lucie dies on November 28, 1942, and after WWII, he participated in the relaunch of 'Le Libertaire' and Louis Louvet's 'Ce Qu'il Faut Dire'. He also wrote a number of books and pamphlets, including: 'La Loi de Malthus. Exposé et réponse aux objections' (The Law of Malthus. Presentation and response to objections; 1904); 'Néo-malthusianisme et socialisme. Controverse avec Alfred Naquet' (Neo-Malthusianism and socialism. Discussion with Alfred Naquet; 1910); 'La Vasectomie: Stérilisation de l'homme' (Vasectomy: Male Sterilisation; 1913); 'Moyens d'éviter la grossesse' (Ways to avoid pregnancy; 1908); etc.

1900 - Exactly one month after assassinating King Umberto, the anarchist Gaetano Bresci, appears in court, defended by Francesco Saverio Merlino. He is convicted and sentenced to seven years during a one day trial. In May 1901 he is found dead in his prison cell, likely killed by his guards.

1903 - Ernst Kreuder (d. 1972), German novelist, short story writer and poet, born. His novel, 'Die Unauffindbaren' (The Undiscoverables; 1948), concerns a clandestine anarchist society working against the drudgery of life under capitalism.

1905 - Jean-Marie Déguignet (b. 1834), Breton peasant, soldier, farmer, salesman, shopkeeper, libertarian and writer, who is best known for his memoirs, 'Les Mémoires d'un Paysan Bas-Breton' (1904), a classic depiction of the life of the rural poor in C19th France, dies. [see: Jul. 19]

1919 - The newspaper 'Germinal', published in the decade before WWI by Georges Bastien, reappears in Amiens. Initailly subtitled "Journal du Peuple", from 1920 this switches to "Organe Communiste libertaire de la Somme, de l'Oise" (later adding "le Nord et le Pas-de-Calais") and in 1925 moves to 3 seperate regional editions. This important regional anarchist weekly disappeared in July 1933, a victim of judicial harassment but made a brief reappearance in 1938 (seven issues published).

1922 - Georges Sorel (b.1847), French anarcho-communist, theorist of revolutionary syndicalism and direct action, author of 'Reflections on Violence', dies. [see: Nov. 2]

1933 - Tomás Granado Pozo, Spanish anarchist, Esperantist and poet, born. In 2007 he published a book of his poems 'Gotes de Poesías. Desde el Languedoc a Extremadura' (Drops of Poetry. From the Languedoc to Extremadura).

[B] 1933 - Pietro Valpreda (d. 2002), Italian dancer, writer and anarchist, who was one of those wrongly accused of the Piazza Fontana bombing, born. He grew up in Milan and was involved in the Circolo la Gioventù Libertaria (Libertarian Youth Cicle), alongside Giuseppe Pinelli, and later the Circolo Ponte della Anarchica Ghisolfa (Anarchist Circle of the Ghisolfa Bridge). Moving to Rome, he frequented the Circolo Bakunin, later helping form the more confrontational Circolo 22 Marzo (believed to largely be a tool of the State, controlled by the intelligence services via the neo-fascist infiltrator and provocateur Mario Merlino). An ideal target to use as a cover for the fascist bombing of Milan's Piazza Fontana on December 12, 1969, which left 16 dead and 88 injured, and the group was rounded up with Valpreda's arrested on Dec. 15. Vilified in the press, he languished in jail awaiting trial for 3 years. Eventually released in 1972, it would not be until 1979 that he was acquitted and officially declared innocent in 1985. It would not be until 2001, the year before Valpreda died, that Delphi Zorzi, Carlo Maria Maggi, Giancarlo Rognoni and Stephen Tringali will be found guilty of the bombing (Zorzi, Maggi and Rognoni's convictions were later overturned and Tringali's sentence reduced).

1947 - Virgili Batlle Vallmajó, better known as Virgilio or Virgilio Vallmajó (b. 1915), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, and self-taught Neo-Cubist painter, who later developed into a geometric abstactionist, dies of tuberculosis. [see: May 13]

1952 - The John Cage composition '4 Minutes 33 Seconds', scored for piano or any group of instruments, premières in Woodstock, NY.

1953 - Juan Naranjo (b. unknown), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. Active in the Sindicat del Vidre (Glassworkers Union) of the CNT in Gijón, Asturias and, from 1937, in the group Solidaridad, part of the FAI. During the Civil War he was an alternate on behalf of the FAI on the Tribunal Popular (People's Court) and was part of the local committee of anarchist organisation. When Asturias was occupied by fascist troops, the boat he was escaping was intercepted at sea by the Fascist battleship Cervera and he was interned in a concentration camp. After many years of imprisonment, he settled in Barcelona.

1957 - Juan José Luque Argenti (b. 1890), Spanish civil engineer and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 22]

1983 - Following the French Socialist government's new regulations restricting access to the airwaves that had resulted the previous morning in the CRS cutting the transmission cables to Radio Libertaire's antenna, smashing equipment and attacking and arresting station staff and the supporters who had rallied to their defence, during the night of August 28-29, 1983, 'Radio Libertaria' in Trieste, Italy suffers a fascist arson attack.

1992 - Félix Guattari (Pierre-Félix Guattari; b. 1930), French psychotherapist, philosopher, semiologist, and libertarian Marxist, dies of heart failure in his home at the La Borde clinic, Cour-Cheverny. [See: Apr. 30]

1999 - Juan Andrés Álvarez Ferreras aka Íbero Galo (b. 1916), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, Civil War and Résistance fighter, dies in Los Angeles. Born in France, the son of an emigrant anarchist who, in 1931, with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic, returned with his family to Spain and settled in Tolosa in the Basque Country. In this city he worked as a hairdresser and various members of his family were active libertarians and during the Republican years he actively participated in anarchist agitation. Following the revolutionary events of October 1934, it was imprisoned for a few months in Ondarreta and Irun. Also as a result of the transport strike in the Basque Country, he was jailed for three months in Ondarreta prison. Following the fascist uprising in July 1936, he fought in San Sebastian, Bilbao, Irun and Santander in the Batalló Malatesta, until he was captured by Italian forces when they occupied Santander. After passing through several workers battalions (working on the reconstruction of Belchite, etc.), in 1941 he was repatriated to France, where he was born and imprisoned in Fort Montluc in Lyon on charges of deserting from the French Army. Then he was sent as a forced labourer to Germany, where he remained until the end of WWII. Once freed in 1945, he collaborated in the reorganisation of the Local Federation of the CNT in Exile in Montlucon (Aquitaine) and was an activist in the Cultura y Acción group of the FAI, with his brother Félix and Salvador Fernández Canto. From 1952 he lived in Canada, first in Quebec, where he worked at Lake St. John, and then in Calgary. In 1962, he moved to Los Angeles and remained active in the American libertarian movement. He also collaborated, under his pseudonym, on numerous anarchist periodicals, such as 'Centi', 'Le Combat Syndicaliste', 'La Escuela Moderna', 'L'Espoir', etc..

2006 - Pedro Fernández Eleta aka 'El Taxista' (b. 1919), Spanish taxi driver, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, dies. [see: Jun. 29]

2009 - Date sometimes given for the death of Horst Stowasser. [see: Aug. 30]
1797 - Mary Shelley (d. 1851), daughter of anarchist philosopher William Godwin and feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, and author of Frankenstein, born.

1849 - Francesco Pezzi (d. 1917), Italain anarchist militant and self-taught accountant, born. Companion of fellow Italian anarchist Maria Luisa 'Gigia' Minguzzi.

1864 - Christian Cornelissen aka 'Clemens' (d. 1942), Dutch militant communist-anarchist, thinker and organiser within the revolutionary syndicalist international, anti-militarist and theoretical economist, born. [NB: some sources state the 31st]

1886 - [O.S. Aug 18] Samuel Schwartzbard (Sholem-Shmuel Schwarzbard / Samuil Isaakovich Shvartsburd [Самуї́л-Шльо́ма Шва́рцбард]; d. 1938), Russian Jewish watchmaker, anarchist and Yiddish poet, born. Escaped the Russian pogroms in 1905, settled in Paris and active in local anarcho-communist groups with Alexander Berkman, Mollie Steimer, Senya Fleshin and Nestor Makhno. In 1926 he gunned down Simon Petliura, who had directed the Ukrainian pogroms in which some of his family were murdered. He fired three times, announcing: "This, for the pogroms; this for the massacres, this for the victims." Schwartzbard was acquitted by a jury and freed.

####1888 - Ramón Acín Aquilué (d. 1936), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, professor, writer and avant-garde artist (painter, sculptor, cartoonist), born. Involved with the CNT and imprisoned for his support of political prisoners. A friend of film director Luis Buñuel, he helped finance 'Las Hurdes: Tierra Sin Pan' (1932), with money he won on the lottery, and is credited as co-producer on the film. He often signed his work under the pseudonym Fray Acín.

1893 - Franz Nowak, aka Zigeuner [Gypsy] (d. Jan. 1945), German bricklayer and one of the leading anarcho-syndicalists in Upper Silesia, who was also chairman of the Freien Vereinigung der Maurer Deutschlands (Free Association of Masons of Germany) and the Freie Vereinigung deutscher Gewerkschaften (FVdG - Free Association of German Trade Unions) in Breslau, born. He was murdered in Gross-Rosen concentration camp shortly before the end of the war.

1900 - José Ledo Limia (d. 1977), Galician anarchist agitator and Civil War fighter, born. During the Great War, he emigrated to Rio de Janeiro and later travelled to Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Peru. In 1919 he was expelled from Argentina and returned to the Peninsula as a stowaway. He returned to Spain as a stowaway and was arrested in Vigo. He joined the army in the wake of the Anual military disaster (Morocco) and served for several years as a gunner in Africa (1921-25). Later he travelled to Havana and on to Mexico (1925-26) and worked in the United States (Pennsylvania). It was in the USA that he came into contact with A. Quintas who introduced him to anarchism. A short time after that he was deported to Spain over his involvement in the Sacco-Vanzetti campaign. He arrived in a Spain under the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and spent several months in prison. Later he lived in hiding but was very active, amongst other things helping to set up the social Ateneo in Madrid.
During the republic he worked for the Transmediterrnea shipping line (travelling to Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay) acting as a liaison between anarchists on both sides of the Atlantic (smuggling militants and propaganda materials). He gave up the sea after a trip to Fernando Poo when he nearly died of malaria. He was intensely active then in Barcelona and Madrid; the uprising in Asturias in 1934 found him up to his neck in the revolution and he was jailed along with Fosco Falaschi and Benigno Mancebo. He was released on parole in mid-1935 (although some people claim that he was sentenced to death and released under the amnesty in 1936). Thereafter he was active in the catering union in Madrid and in the anarchist federation the FAI. When the civil war broke out, he joined the Galician column as its trade union delegate, fighting on the Madrid front - and rejecting promotion.
He later joined the Investigation Branch (in Barcelona-Madrid) whose task was to counter the Stalinist counter-revolution (1937). At this time he was disappointed at the course being taken by the revolution and was bitter at the sight of yesterdays red-hot revolutionaries jockeying for 'position'. He had a miraculous escape from capture by the Francoists at the end of the war and crossed into France via Matar and Camprodon, only to begin an odyssey through concentration camps in Argeles, Barcares, St Cyprien and Arles - from which he escaped several times (he was in Perpignan in February 1939), but to little avail. He was sent to punishment camps and assigned to the Sur-Niort labour battalion. Eventually he made it to Paris where, after some harsh confrontation with anarchist trade union, the CNT, leaders he secured a passage to the Americas. In April he sailed from Le Harve, bound for Cuidad Trujillo in the Dominican Republic. Later he moved on to Queretaro in Mexico in 1942, where he remained until 1965 when he smuggled himself to Portugal from where he was forced to flee to Mexico after a short while. In 1974, sorely disenchanted, he returned to end his days in his native land, working on the land. An indefatigable battler, not much given to writing (though he was friendly with well-known libertarian intellectuals) and a born activist, he was without doubt one of the greatest anarchists of his day and one of the ones who resisted the temptation to compromise which seduced lots of other CNT members in 1936.
Among his friends were Carpio, B. Esteban, Odón, Tato, Lamberet and Mancebo. Yet he remains a little-known militant.

1907 - The second Congrès Antimilitariste International of the the Association Internationale Antimilitariste is held today and tomorrow in Amsterdam, concurrently with the International Anarchist Congress, 26-31 August.

1919 - Jiří Orten (Jiří Ohrenstein; d. 1941), Czech poet and nephew of the anarchist poet Josef Rosenzweig-Moir, born. The foremost representative of the so-called 'war generation' in Czech literature, he was never a member of any artistic group, but his work was influenced by existentialism, surrealism and folklore. His first collection of poems, 'Čítanka Jaro' (Reader of Spring), was published in 1939. With the Nazi occupation, and being a Jew, his freedom was extremely restricted and he published his next book, 'Cesta k Mrazu' (Journey towards frost; 1940), under the pseudonym Karel Jílek and the long poem 'Jeremiášuv Plác' (The Lamentations of Jeremiah; 1940) was signed Jiří Jakub. Forced to give up writing, he worked as a labourer on a farm and later survived by taking odd jobs. 'Ohníč' (Challock; 1941) was work last published in his lifetime as on August 30, 1941, the day of his twenty-second birthday, Jirí Orten was knocked down in a Prague street by a German ambulance. A friend took him to the General Infirmary in Prague, but as a Jew, Orten could not be treated there and had to be moved to a different hospital. Two days later, he died.

1927 - Paulin Mailfait (b. 1867), Ardennes anarchist, participant in 'Sans Patrie' with Gustave Bouillard, Nicolas Thomassin, Pierre Leroux, etc., dies. [see: Feb. 27]

1930 - Zo D'Axa (b. 1864), French lampoonist, publisher, writer, adventurer and anarchist propagandist, commits suicide. [see: May 24]

1936 - Teodoro Mora (b. unknown), Spanish communist and then anarchist, is killed in action at Casavieja. A construction worker, whose militancy began at 14 in the Unió General de Treballadors (UGT), the main trades union on the Peninsular. He was expelled from the Partit Comunista d'Espanya (PCE) for refusing to criticise anarchists. In the early '30s, and under the influence of his friend Cipriano Mera, he joined the CNT and was activie in the organisation in the Madrid region. With Mera, Miguel Gonzalez and Feliciano Inestal Benito Anaya one of the architects of the exclusion of the union of its Bolshevik elements. During the great construction strike in Nouvelle Castille launched by the CNT in spring 1936, he defended the position of the Alianza Obrera. Arrested in June 1936 as a member of the strike committee, on 17 July 1936 he was released due to popular demonstrations demanding the release of prisoners. On July 19 of that year he presided in Madrid, along with Mera, the general assembly of members. He participated in the assault of the Montaña barracks and was one of the first organisers of the confederal militias in places such as Alcalá, Vicálvaro and Guadalajara. In August he led, with iron discipline, the Battalion Mora, part of the framed Colonne Del Rosal, which fought Buitrago and Serradag. Teodoro Mora was killed in action on August 30, 1936 at Casavieja (Avila, Castile, Spain). Other sources cite the September 12, 1936 in Mijares, Castile, and still others believe he was captured by the fascists in Gavilanes, also in Avila, being put in a cage and eventually murder.

1940 - Jean-Pierre Garnier, French sociologist and libertarian urban planner, born.

[B] 1946 - Jacques Tardi, leading French comics author and illustrator, libertarian, anti-militarist and anti-capitalist, born. He is the creator of Adèle Blanc-Sec and has made a series of adaptions of various authors works including the four-volume series on the Paris Commune, 'Le Cri du Peuple' (2001-04), based on a novel by Jean Vautrin, and the Nestor Burma series, based on novels by anarchist Léo Malet, is often credited solely as Tardi. On New Years Day 2013, he was surprised and disgusted to learn that he had received the Légion d'Honneur, which he swiftly turned down "avec la plus grande fermeté" (with the greatest firmness).

[A] 1957 - José Luis 'Face' Facerias (b. 1920), Spanish anarchist and resistance guerilla, is assassinated by the Barcelona police. [see: Jan. 6]

##1969 - Ethel Duffy Turner (b. 1885), American journalist and author who took an active part in the Mexican Revolution alongside the Magonistas, dies in Mexico at the age of 70. [see: Apr. 21]

[D] 1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: The London home of the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, Sir John Waldron, is damaged by a bomb blast. The bombing is not reported in the national press, as was the bombing of the home of Attorney General, Sir Peter Rawlinson, in Chelsea on September 8th. The Waldron bombing was accompanied by the famous Jack the Ripper quoting 'Dear Boss' letter. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1973 - Jean Senac (b. 1926), gay Algerian poet Christian infidel, socialist, libertarian and friend of Albert Camus, who was known as the "poet who signed with a sun", is murdered by an unknown assailant(s). [see: Nov. 29]

1974 - The bombing by the anarchist East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front (東アジア反日武装戦線) of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Headquarters, killing 8 and wounding 376 people, much to the surprise of those involved.

1980 - Josep Gené Figueras (b. 1890), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies in Mexico City. [see: Jul. 3]

1991 - Jean Tinguely (b. 1925), Swiss painter, sculptor and anarchist, dies. [see: May 22]

1998 - Carlos Molina, aka El Bardo de Tacuarí, also Gaucho Molina & El Payador Libertario (b. 1927), Uruguayan poet, payador and anarchist, who is considered the most important artist of the genre in the Rio de la Plata region of the second half of the C20th, dies in Montevideo. [see: Sep. 11]

## 1999 - George Molnar (b. 1934), Hungarian-born philosopher whose principal area of interest was metaphysics, taxi-driver, tram-conductor, union organiser, cartoonist, artist, prominent member of Sydney university's Libertarian Society and of the Sydney Push in the 1950s & 60s, and in the late 1970s a member of Big Flame in Leeds during a period in England, dies of a massive heart attack aged 88.

2003 - The Federação Anarquista do Rio de Janeiro (FARJ) is founded with the publication of its Manifesto de Fundação.

2009 - Horst Stowasser (b. 1951), German anarchist activist, historian and author, dies of sepsis during the night of August 29-30. [see: Jan. 7]
1865 - Paolo Schicchi aka 'il leone di Collesano' (d. 1950), Italian anarchist supporter of the spontaneous/anti-organisational current (anarchico-spontaneista/tendenza antiorganizzatrice), anti-militarist, anti-clericalist, who was prominent in the anti-fascist struggle, born. An individualist anarchist since an early age, he represented the tendency advocating terrorism i.e. the attentat as a way of sustaining the current political struggle at the 1891 libertarian socialist congress in Capolago. A regular resident of Italian jails, he was editor of the 'L'avvenire Anarchico' newspaper in Pisa in 1910 and a great influence among Sicilian workers and also the Partido Socialista Italiano (Italian Socialist Party) in the region. He also published 'La Zolfara', 'Il Piccone' and 'La Zappa', and was active in the land occupations of that period. After WWI, in 1921, he founded 'Il Vespro Anarchico', one of the most courageous and unstinting of newspapers in the struggle against fascism and the maffia, which, despite his individualism, he used to expond his views on the need for a united front of revolutionary forces to oppose squadrismo. Mussolini reacted by banning 'Il Vespro' and jailing Paolo. He managed to escape prison and leave Italy a few months later, settling in Tunisia. In August 1930, he tried to return to Italy to rejoin Salvatore Renda and Filippo Gramignano in the internal fight against Mussolini, with Severino Di Giovanni providing financial assistance in getting him back into the country.
However, the ship's captain betrayed him and he was arrested. At his trial he was defiant and was sentenced to ten years in prison. Upon his release he was sent into internal exile. Following the defeat of fascism, he began publishing 'Conversazioni Sociali', a series of collections of memoirs and old and new writings and, from March 1946 with a new monthly magazine 'L'Era Nuova', "rivista mensile di cultura sociale", in which he argued "the absolute necessity to form a united front of all revolutionary healthy forces to oppose any reactionary forces anywhere and under any banner that might come". This led him to work with communists and socialists alike in the realisation of a policy that still informs Italian anti-fascism today. He died on December 12, 1950 after having spent forty years in prison and in both internal and external exile.

1872 - The resolutions of the Rimini Conference (A.I.T.), held August 4-6, 1872, are printed in the 'Bollettino dei Lavoratori' and then secretly issued in Naples. No detailed report exists of the Conference, which declares itself anarchist, opposed to the Marxist authoritarians, only he resolutions themselves.

1882 - Zhang Ji (張繼; d. 1947), Chinese revolutionist against the Qing dynasty and early Chinese anarchist, who became a leading member of the right-wing in the Kuomintang, born.

## 1889 - Karl Raichle (d. 1965), German metalsmith, artist, member of the November 1918 Kieler Matrosenaufstand sailors' council, anarchist and member of various experimental libertarian communities, born.

1893 - Scheduled to speak to the unemployed, Emma Goldman is arrested in Philadelphia on New York warrants charging her with incitement to riot for her Aug. 21 speech.

1894 - The French anarchist pedagogue Paul Robin's libertarian Cempuis school at Prévost Orphanage is shut down by the government. Robin and the school, where 600 students attended, was subjected to numerous right-wing attacks, leading to the revocation of its license to teach.

1900 - Gino Lucetti (d. 1943), Italian anarchist who attempted to assassinate Mussolini in September 1926, for which he got 30 years in prison, born.

1901 - Ramón Domingo (d. 1995), Spanish anarchist propagandist and Civil War combatant, born. When he was 17, he emigrated to Barcelona in search of work, where he joined the anarchist movement. As a CNT member, in 1919 he participated in the La Canadiense strike, for which he was imprisoned in the Modelo prison in Barcelona. In 1923, during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, he went to France, where he worked picking grapes. In 1933 he returned to El Ordial to work on family land and opened a library, which was later burned by Franco's troops during the war. In 1936 he joined the CNT militia that marched to Aragón, fighting at Cogolludo and Cifuentes and later joining the 43rd Battalion. With the fascist victory, went into exile in France and suffered in the concentration camps of Argelès and Barcarès. Later he became a Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers (CTE) worker in the Brest arsenal, from which he escaped and fled to Tours. From January 5, 1942 he was a member of the Local Federation of the CNT in Exile in Tours. He then went to live in the Paris region. An active anarchist propagandist - he sold the movemnet's newspapers on the streets and markets - and became a self-taught and cultivated reader - from 'l'Encyclopédie Anarchiste' to Sébastien Faure, and 'L'homme et la Terre' to Élisée Reclus. Ramon died on Sunday June 16, 1995 in Montreuil and was cremated on 23 June in the Parisian cemetery of Père Lachaise.

1909 - Francisco Ferrer (b. 1859), Spanish anarchist and teacher, is captured after hiding for five weeks in caves on his farm. He will be executed without trial by firing squad at Montjuich Fortress in Barcelona on 13 October.

1911 - Revolución Mexicana: Victoriano Huerta orders Emiliano Zapata's arrest, Zapata flees into the countryside.

1912 - Paul Robin (b. 1837), largely forgotten French anarchist educator and néo-Malthusian, whose libertarian legacy influences the educators Sébastien Faure and Francisco Ferrer, dies. [see: Apr. 3]

1920 - The Union Anarchiste Italienne (UAI), with half a million members, begins a series of factory occupations in Milan, Turin and across northern Italy following the adoption of a policy advocating Factory Councils at the organisation's July 1-4 congress in Bologna. Anarchists, and Malatesta in particular, speak in the occupied factories and form pickets to guard them to oppose attacks by the police and fascists. The movement has gained such momentum by early September, that the bosses are driven to introduce some degree of self-organisation in their workshops, but they do not extend this to entire factories. The reformist unions, alarmed by the magnitude of the revolutionary movement (especially in steel and automobile industries), are eager to sign an agreement with employers to end the movement.

##1923 - José Luis García Rúa, Asturian philosopher, writer and prominent anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. The son of anarchist militant in the CNT, who died at the beginning of the civil war, he fled to France, where he was sent to a camp for women, young and old in Lorgues (Provence), and then to a concentration camp in Barcarés. Returns to Gijón in 1939 and worked in a tile factory and other odd jobs to help his family. Being aware of the exploitation of himself and his fellow workers, he decided to return to school. [expand]

1930 - Having been suppressed by the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera since May 28, 1924, 'Solidaridad Obrera', the newspaper of the CNT, is published again in Barcelona.

[FF] 1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: The first labour dispute involving the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo since the proclamation of the Second Republic in Spain.
At 16:00 a group of workers from the telephone company had just repaired lines on the Paseo de la Independencia in Zaragoza, escorted by two pairs of the Guardia Civil. Having gotten into their truck several shots rang out, the Guardia Civil then opened fire on passers-by who surrounded them and the scabs, with the result of several serious injuries; Serafín Rodríguez, Tomás López Gascón, Enrique Moret and Felipe Zarzuela. Isidro Floria Sánchez suffered fatal wounds. Only one of them, Seraphim, is a telephone worker; the rest are civilians. Witnesses claimed that the shots from the Guardia Civil caused most of the victims, something the governor confirmed to the minister, by telegram, stating the he could not ensure that the victim was not shot by the police.
The UGT called for a one-day strike for the following day, an act supported by the governor. The CNT called a meeting and, raising the stakes, called a two-day strike which in fact lasted for four and was accompanied by widespread sabotage and protest. The government responded by sending the army in to guard government buildings, banks, Telefónica premises and the Central Market. Cavalry units also patrolled the centre of Zaragoza. The Guardia Civil was strengthened by sending in 200 reinforcements. Strikes and sabotage spread across the country to town and cities including Cadiz, Huelva, Teruel, San Sebastián, Pozoblanco, Zamora, and Criptana.
Telephone lines were pulled down and cable and ducts ripped up and burnt. Sabotage was repeated in the Plaza de Sas and in the Calles Democracia, San Pablo and San Blas. Telephone communication with Barcelona was broken and the trams were attacked and stopped as tram lines were lifted in the Calle Espartero. Many on both sides were shot and wounded on both sides, the first being two passers-by, Manuel Ortín Sebastián and José Catón Ara, shot by a Guardia Civil near the Arco de San Roque. The authorities subsequently claimed that they fired first despite neither being armed. On the 3rd and 4th, the clashes increased especially in the Paseo Independencia and the Plaza San Miguel; in the Paseo María Agustín a Guardia Civil sergeant was injured in one shoot-out and in the Calle Alfonso a ticket collector on a tram was wounded. [see also: Aug. 6]

1936 - Isaac Puente Amestoy (d. 1936), Spanish anarchist, CNT member and physician, is shot by a fascist firing squad during the night of August 31 - September 1. [see: Jun. 3]

1962 - Hélène Brion (b. 1882), French teacher, feminist, syndicalist and pacifist, dies. The first French woman to be tried before a military tribunal (for publishing defeatist propaganda), she was given a 3 year suspended sentence. Author of 'La Voie Féministe' (1978) who never finished her monumental 'Encyclopédie Féministe', covering biographical information on all the foremost women of her time. [see: Jan. 27 or Jul. 27]

1968 - The Internationale des Fédérations Anarchistes/International of Anarchist Federations (IFA/IAF) is founded at an international anarchist conference in Carrara (August 31-September 5), uniting the federations of France, Italy and Spain, as well as the Bulgarian federation in exile in France. Also present in the now defunct London Federation of Anarchists, who took part in the preparation for the conference in 1968.

1969 - Luisa Landová-Štychová (b. 1885), Czech journalist, populariser of science, pioneer feminist, atheist, anti-fascist, anarchist and then communist politician, dies. [see: Jan. 31]

1980 - Hipólito Marivela Torres aka Germán Marivela (b. 1917), Castillian carpenter, anarcho-syndicalist and fighter with the Durruti Column, dies. [see: Oct. 11]
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C] 2016 [D] 2017 [E] 2018 [F]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC] 2016 [DD] 2017 [EE] 2018 [FF]
Monthly features: 2013 [AAA] 2014 [BBB] 2015 [CCC] 2016 [DDD] 2017 [EEE] 2018 [FFF]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)


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Detect languageAfrikaansAlbanianArabicArmenianAzerbaijaniBasqueBelarusianBengaliBosnianBulgarianCatalanCebuanoChichewaChinese (Simplified)Chinese (Traditional)CroatianCzechDanishDutchEnglishEsperantoEstonianFilipinoFinnishFrenchGalicianGeorgianGermanGreekGujaratiHaitian CreoleHausaHebrewHindiHmongHungarianIcelandicIgboIndonesianIrishItalianJapaneseJavaneseKannadaKazakhKhmerKoreanLaoLatinLatvianLithuanianMacedonianMalagasyMalayMalayalamMalteseMaoriMarathiMongolianMyanmar (Burmese)NepaliNorwegianPersianPolishPortuguesePunjabiRomanianRussianSerbianSesothoSinhalaSlovakSlovenianSomaliSpanishSundaneseSwahiliSwedishTajikTamilTeluguThaiTurkishUkrainianUrduUzbekVietnameseWelshYiddishYorubaZulu

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