1842 - Fermín Salvochea y Álvarez (d. 1907), Andalusian author, teacher and insurrectionist, born. He was briefly mayor of Cadiz with the proclamation of the First Republic; among other measures, he implemented an 8-hour work day before he was forced to flee the country.
"Perhaps the most beloved figure in the Spanish Anarchist movement of the 19th century". - Murray Bookchin in 'The Spanish Anarchists' (1998).
The inspiration for the character Fernando Salvatierra in the novel 'La Bodega' (1905) by Vicente Blasco Ibáñez [author of the much filmed 'Los Cuatro Jinetes del Apocalipsis' (The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse; 1916)].

###1880 - [O.S. Feb. 17] Alexander Kiprov [Александър Кипров], aka Antim Cholakov [Антим Чолаков], 'Delibash' [Делибаш], 'Memish Aga' [Мемиш ага], Novov [Новов] (Alexander Dimitrov [Александър Димитров]; d.1931), Bulgarian journalist, fiction writer, playwright, public figure, anarchist, member of the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна македоно-одринска революционна организация) and participant in the 1903 Thessaloniki bombings, born.

1883 - Adolf Wolff (d. 1944), Belgian-born American anarchist, poet and sculptor, born. Associate of Man Ray, who he first met at the Ferrer Centre in New York and whose lover, Belgian poet Adon Lacroix (Donna Lecoeur; 1887-1975), went on to become Man Ray's first wife. Wolff also designed the urn that held the ashes of the three anarchists - Lettish (Latvian) Anarchist Red Cross members Carl Hanson and Charles Berg and IWW member Arthur Caron - killed in the Lexington Avenue bomb explosion of July 4, 1914. The urn was in the shape of a pyramid with a clenched fist reaching out of its apex. Wolff, explained the meaning of the design thus: "It conveys three meanings. By the pyramid is indicated [sic] the present unjust gradation of society into classes, with the masses on the bottom and the privileged classes towering above them to the apex, where the clenched fist, symbolical [sic] of the social revolution, indicates the impending vengeance of those free spirits who refuse to be bound by the present social system and rise above it, threatening its destruction. The urn further symbolizes the strength and endurance of the revolution in so solid a base. A third suggestion is that of a mountain in course of eruption, the crude, misshapen stern fist indicating the lava of human indignation which is about to belch forth and carry destruction to the volcano which has given it birth."

'Prison Weeds'

The isles of evil odours
a chain of islands
on the river
like ulcers
on the flesh
the isles of evil odours.

I break stones
in the stone shed
big ones
into little ones
big ones
into little ones
big ones
into little ones
big ones
into little ones
I break stones
in the stone shed.

A row of men
a row of naked men
standing against the wall
a desk,
a scribe,
a centurion,
they are recording
marks of identification:
"deep long scar on right side"
"one on palm of right hand"
"one on back of right hand"
"one on palm of left hand"
"one on back of left hand"
"one on instep of right foot"
"one on sole of right foot"
"one on instep of left foot"
"one on sole of left foot"
a barrel of bones
the bones of last week's stew
the rotten prison stew
it's not a dog
it's not a cat
it's a man
a man
made in the image of God.
I bought twenty-five onions
from a nigger
twenty-five onions
for ten cents
every night
before the lights go out
we each eat an onion
we each eat an onion.

Old men
a line of old men
like so many patriarchs
or fathers of the church
they are the bucket gang
they carry the buckets to the river
in solemn procession
like so many patriarchs
or fathers of the church
they carry the buckets to the river
with heads bowed
with trembling hands
they carry the buckets to the river.

He never speaks
he never reads
he never laughs
always silent
always brooding
always sad
deep sunken eyes
black beard
noble brow
he resembles a German Christ
no one knows why "he's up"
no one knows when he came
no one knows when he'll go
they say
"nobody home".

"The Priest"
"Who wants the priest?"
the keeper calls
"I want the priest"
"Well my son?"
"What my son?"
"the Christ is in the cooler"
The priest passed on
he did not understand.

in the morning
I look out on the river
the little barred window
faces the river
I like to watch
the life on the river
sail boats
and steamships
I watch them gliding
along on the river
some up
some down
some fast
some slow
some noisy
some silent
I watch them gliding
along the river
I like to look
at the life on the river
Late at night
I look out on the river
the little barred window
faces the river.

The warden
he's a nice old man
in uniform
so spic and span
his face is red
his hair is white
his eyes are blue
his smile is bright
his home is swell
his table fine
and I'm quite sure
so is his wine
go away
with nothing
but the best
to say
they're satisfied
beyond expression
the warden
made such good impression.

that I'm soon to be free
another day
another night
that I'm soon to be free
I feel
a strange unease
Maybe the
just before
the expiration of its sentence
on the verge of regaining
the freedom of eternal life
at the thought of separation
from the body
as I feel
at the thought of separation
from my cell.

[written whilst he served a term in the workhouse, a place for drunks and disorderlies on Blackwell’s Island (now Roosevelt Island.)]


## 1889 - [O.S. Feb. 17] Boris Vladimirovich Yelensky (Борис Владимирович Еленский; d. 1974), Russian-born American anarchist propagandist and secretary of the Anarchist Red Cross of Chicago (1913-17), born. At the age of 16, he joined a small Socialist Revolutionist-Maximalist group and fought in the 1905 Revolution in Russia. Fleeing from the repressive measures by the government that followed the uprising, he emigrated to the United States in 1907, later becoming an anarchist and joining the Radical Library, a branch of the Workmen’s Circle in Philadelphia. While in Philadelphia he helped establish a branch of the Anarchist Red Cross. He later moved to Chicago and helped create the Chicago branch of the ARC. He continued to work with these organisations until the summer of 1917, when most of the political refugees had already returned to Russia to take part in the Russian Revolution. Yelensky, together with his wife Bessie left for Russia in October, and there he was active in the factory committee movement in Novorossijsk. He left Russia in 1922 to escape persecution for his anarchism and back in Chicago he was secretary of the Russian Political Relief Committee 1924-1925, the Chicago Aid Fund 1925-1936 (from 1932 forming a section of the Relief Fund of the International Working Men's Association (IWMA) for Anarchists and Anarcho-Syndicalists Imprisoned and Exiled in Russia) and the Alexander Berkman Aid Fund (ABAF) 1936-1957; founder and secretary of the Free Society Group (FSG) Chicago ca. 1923-1957 and of many committees and funds initiated by both the FSG and the relief funds, e.g. the Maximoff Memorial Publication Committee; published in 'Golos Truženika' (Голос Труженика / Voice of the Worker)[Chicago], 'Golos Truda' (Голос Труда / The Voice of Labour)[New York], the Yiddish 'Freie Arbeiter Stimme' (פֿרייע אַרבעטער שטימע‎ / The Free Voice of Labour)[New York/Philadelphia] and 'Der Freier Gedank' (Free Thought [Paris]. Yelensky's 'In the Struggle for Equality, a history of the Anarchist Red Cross', the most important history of the ARC/ABC to date, was published by the ABAF in 1958. He died in June 1974 (exact date unknown).

1890 - José da Silva Santos Arranha (d. 1962), Portuguese joiner, and important trade union activist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was the second general secretary of the Confederação Geral do Trabalho, (succeeding Manuel Joaquim de Sousa in 1920), born.

1892 - In Marseille the first edition of the weekly 'L'Agitateur: Organe Anarchiste', is published. Subject to post-Ravachol police repression, it was forced to close but reappeared on Jan. 14, 1893, with the remaining 6 issues printed in Avignon, Toulon, Dijon, and even La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. Incessant judicial harassment finally causes the newspaper to close but a further two issues appeared in 1897 under the editorship of La Jeunesse Internationale.

1896 - Interned political prisoners on the Italian island of Tremiti riot and an anarchist, Argante Salucci from Santa Croce sull’Arno, is killed by police, and a dozen of his comrades are injured, after they resist brutalisation by the prison guards.

1898 - The first issue (of only 4) of the libertarian naturalist newspaper 'Le Naturien' appears in Paris, "advocating a return to the primitive nature where man comes to meet his needs with only natural resources".

1900 - Nikolas Tchorbadieff (d. 1994), Bulgarian anarchist militant and propagandist, born. Forced into exile, helped found the International Bookshop in Paris and a founder of the French-Bulgarian review 'Iztok' in 1979. Interned in Vernet concentration camp as an enemy alien in 1939 and later joined the Résistance.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1902 - Otto Wolf (d. 1943), German labourer, Spartacist, anarcho-syndicalist and member of the FAUD underground, born.

##[B] 1902 - Tiffany Ellsworth Thayer (Elmer Ellsworth Jr.; d. 1959), American actor, author, atheist, anarchist, sceptic and founder of the Fortean Society, born. Author of a number of science fiction/fantasy novels including 'Doctor Arnoldi' (1934), about a world where no one dies and which has been characterised as "one of the most grotesque and repulsive works of science fiction ever written". In fact, the general verdict on his work from critics, including Dorothy Parker and F. Scott Fitzgerald who both took a particular dislike to it. Whilst he only acted in the one film - 'The Devil on Horseback' (1936) - a number of his books were made into films, including 'Strangers of the Evening' (1932), based on 'The Illustrious Corpse' (1930); 'Thirteen Women' (1932), based on the 1930 novel of the same name; 'Call her Savage' (1932), based on the 1931 novel; and 'Chicago Deadline' (1949), based on 'One Woman' (1933).
"He is beyond question a writer of power; and his power lies in his ability to make sex so thoroughly, graphically, and aggressively unattractive that one is fairly shaken to ponder how little one has been missing." - Dorothy Parker's New Yorker review of 'An American Girl' (1933)
"...curious children nosed at the slime of Mr. Tiffany Thayer in the drug-store libraries." - F. Scott Fitzgerald
"...absolutely fascinating...and disgusting... If you ever find a copy, give it to some SF fan you dislike. Your reward will be the baffled misery in his eyes after he's read it." - William Tenn, recalling 'Dr. Arnoldi' more than sixty years after he had read it.

1906 - The first issue of the monthly magazine 'Mother Earth' in the US. This 64 page anarchist publication is dedicated to the social sciences and literature is published by Emma Goldman in collaboration with Max Baginski, Hippolyte Havel and others. A victim of anti-anarchist repression, the last issue is published in August 1917.

1909 - Washington Statute of 1909 Criminal Code, Chapter VIII. Crimes Against The Public Peace, Sec. 310-316 covering 'Criminal Anarchy' is passed by the Senate.

1911 - Rebelión de Baja California / Revolución Mexicana: A Magónista column led by Francisco Vasquez Salinas and Luis Rodriguez crosses the border into Baja California and starts requisitioning the big estates near Tecate.

1911 - Francisco Ponzán Vidal (the 'Anarchist Pimpernel') (d. 1944), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist guérillero, anti-Francoist and resistance fighter, born. Captured in France in 1943, shot by the Nazis in Buzet-sur-Tarn, near Toulouse.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: The American Woolen Company, Arlington Mills and U.S. Worsted are forced to give in, and offered a 5 percent pay increase effective March 4. Pacific Mills also agree to as yet unspecified changes to wages paid. The AFL's United Textile Workers accepted the offer and returned to work. John Golden, president of the UTW, had been working with the mill owners and actively tried to break the general strike from the beginning. But the Wobblies refuse to accept the offer, although they sent 10 delegates to negotiate with the employers.

[E] 1918 - Marie Louise Berneri (d. 1949), Anglo-Italian anarchist activist and author, born in Italy. The eldest daughter of Camillo and Giovanna Berneri. Best known as editor of 'Freedom', author of 'Neither East Nor West' and 'Journey Through Utopia'. Berneri was also one of the first people in Britain to promote the ideas of Wilhelm Reich. Married to Vernon Richards, she died in childbirth, age 31.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The army and navy are continuing to try to keep essential services running, including La Canadenca, Catalana de Gas y Electricidad, Energia Elèctrica de Catalunya and Sociedad General de Agua, as well as operating the trams. Barcelona begins to return to some form of normality. The water, light and electricity companies give an ultimatum to their striking workers: those who do not return to work before the sixth will be sacked. The La Canadenca management also offers to readmit its striking workers (again, after being fired twice), but it will not recognise the union, nor will it reinstate the eight workers whose sacking on February 2nd precipitated the strike.
There remains a shortage of water as the military engineers lack the skills and knowledge of how to operate the service properly. Few trams circulate. Taking advantage of the situation, drivers of rental cars are able to negotiate a new contract that includes a salary increase.

1920 - Biennio Rosso [Red Biennium (1919-20)]: Faced with the ongoing strikes and workshop occupations in the Turin region, which included the Fiat factories and the Mazzonis' cotton mills, with the workers demand the recognition of the newly formed workers councils, forced the city's industrialists to organise. Drawing from the pool of existing industrial organisations, Turin industrialists formed their own puppet Confederazione Generale dell'Industria (General Confederation of Industry), the 'Confindustria', and refused to give in to the workers demands.
One consequence of the workers councils struggle was the sciopero delle lancette (strike of the hands of the clock) in the Fiat factories, when the management tried to introduce a daylight saving plan, which resulted in a general strike in the city that spread across parts of Italy. However, with the workers' councils facing the combined might of the reformists in control of the Partito Socialista Italiano and the Confederazione Generale del Lavoro (General Confederation of Labour), who actively sought to suppress the factories movement and thereby reassert their control over the workers, and the Confindustria succeeded in lobbying for the government to fully deploy the repressive apparatus of the state, the workers' councils were ultimately isolated, if not completely defeated. The Turin metallurgical workers did manage to win substantial wage increases but the promise of their greater participation in the control of the companies proved to be
ephemeral, and was never implemented.

1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: A mass meeting of 16,000 people is held in Anchor Square, Kronstadt. It votes to adopt the Petropavlovsk Resolution, much to the ire of the Communist Party apparatchiks present.

1929 - The first issue of the monthly newspaper 'Lucifer: Organe de Pensée Libre et de Culture Individuelle' is published in Bordeaux. Initially edited by Aristide Lapeyre (who signs his articles 'Lucifer') it suspend publication in August 1931 only to resume between January 1934 and 1935.

1932 - Librado Rivera (b. 1864), Mexican anarchist, school principal and comrade of Enrique and Ricardo Flores Magón, dies from complications following a car accident in the US. [see: Aug. 17]

1942 - Biófilo Panclasta (born Vicente Rojas Lizcano; d. 1879), Colombian writer, poet, militant individualist anarchist and agitator, dies. Some sources give the year as 1943. [see: Oct. 26]

[C] 1951 - Vaga de Tramvies / Huelga de Tranvías [Barcelona Tram Strike / General Strike]: In December 1950, the municipal authorities in Barcelona increased the cost of tram fares by 40% from March 1, 1951. They were already more expensive than in the Spanish capital, Madrid, and working class families were outraged. The cost of living had been rising and the price of food was at an all-time high [up 700% on many items since 1939]. Unemployment, homelessness, starvation and deaths from deficiency diseases were rife, especially in the rural areas such as Andalucia. In Barcelona much of the extensive damage stemming from the Civil War had not been repaired and two-thirds of the population lived without plumbing or electricity.
On February 8, 1951, an anonymous leaflet circulated throughout Barcelona, calling for a boycott of the city’s trams to begin on March 1 until the fares were returned to their regular price. As the date of the boycott approached, citizens from across the city began to make their anger known. On February 22, groups of individuals united in protest and used explosives to dislodge the tramlines. In the week that followed, groups of angry citizens gathered to throw stones at the trams and marched through the streets. The police arrested many of them.
By March 1 the boycott of the trams was in full force. Tram workers stayed home and many individuals walked to their offices and shops. That night hundreds of people took to the streets across the city. The municipal police stormed the downtown area in an attempt to break up the groups of protesting citizens. Though many were arrested, the police could not quiet the masses.
On the first day, around 97% of tram users joined the boycott, and by March 4 this figure had risen to 99%. The streets were filled with people walking, in some cases several miles, to their workplaces. Tram drivers were mostly on strike, attacks were made on trams still running, and police units were stationed around the city to protect them. . Taking it upon himself to set an example for strikebreakers, Governor Baeza Alegria stormed out of a meeting at city hall and boarded a tram, which after several minutes took a wrong turn and drove into a stone barricade. The boycott was so successful in fact, that hopes held by the authorities of it being broken by the thousands of football fans who would travel to Les Corts stadium on Sunday, March 4, were completely dashed. After watching their team win 2-1 against Santander, FC Barcelona supporters chose to walk home through pouring rain instead of catching the trams as usual.
For two weeks, the population massively refused to use public transport, carried out their journeys on foot and participated in numerous protest protests, later sign-up and support militants and others. Several days later the authorities caved, the tram company had lost 5,000,000 pesetas, and the old fares were reinstated. It was also announced that 70 people arrested during the boycott would be released.
The damage had already been done though, and preparations to turn the boycott into a strike to protest more general grievances were already under way. A manifesto calling for a strike had been distributed on March 4, and a meeting held two days later by political and union elements, including those in the lower ranks of the Sindicato Vertical, had decided on a date of March 12. Beginning in the textile mills of the Pueblo Nuevo area, the strike quickly spread to involve workers in metallurgical and chemical plants, communications, construction, government workers, and taxi and tram drivers. 300,000 workers had joined the strike, including many in the nearby cities of Badalona, Sabadell, Tarrasa and Mataro. Initially bewildered by the success of the strike, the authorities again mobilised thousands of police and Civil Guard units. Troops were deployed, and four warships carrying hundreds of marines were docked in Barcelona harbour. Demonstrations and clashes took place across the city, and thousands of strikers were arrested and imprisoned for the duration of the strike. As well as acting as a general protest against the regime, other demands were put forward included wage increases, and a reduction in the cost of living.
Despite Barcelona having been turned into an armed camp, the strikers managed to hold out for fourteen days, after which most workers returned to their jobs. Terrified by the prospect of further unrest, the authorities released the vast majority of those arrested, and ordered employers to pay full wages to those who had been on strike. Although little was done to meet the strikers' demands, the encouragement given by the strike to workers across the country was significant, and the continual outbreak of further disturbances plagued the regime in the following months.

2004 - Sidney Solomon (b. 1911), Russian-born American painter, book designer, publisher and long-time anarchist, who lived in New York, dies. [see: Dec. 8]

2006 - Joëlle Aubron (b. 1959), French libertarian member of Action Directe, dies aged 46 from a cancer that had metastasised in her brain. [see: Jun. 26]
[B] 1820 - Eduard Douwes Dekker aka Multatuli (Latin for "I have suffered much") (d. 1887), Dutch writer and anarchist, born. Initially employed as an official in the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia), he resigned in disgust at the treatment of the natives, returned to the Netherlans destitute and devoted himself to literature, publishing the anti-colonial and anti-slavery novel 'Max Havelaar, of De koffij-veilingen der Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij' (Max Havelaar, or the Coffee Auctions of the Dutch Trading Company) under the pseudonym Multatuli in 1859, followed by other novels and literary essays. In 1866 he emigrated to Germany (initially as a semi-exile as, whilst visiting Germany, he had been tried in absentia for his part in a brawl in a theatre - the sentence was later waived) and added writing for the stage to his repertoire and large literary output. [expand]

[FF] 1821 - Revolta Obrera d'Alcoi [Workers' Revolt in Alcoy] / Motín de Alcoy [Alcoy Mutiny] / Sucesos de Alcoy de 1821 [Events of Alcoy from 1821]: In one of the most famous example of 'ludismo', about 1,200 peasants and day labourers from neighbouring towns who carded and spun wool at their homes (under the putting-out system) smash and set fire to 17 spinning machines in Alcoy. The insurgents further demanded that the remaining machines be dismantled. A cavalry regiment and infantry battalion had to intervene from Játiva and Alicante to restore tranquillity.
One of the most industrialised cities in Barcelona at the time, the cloth manufacturing industry employed around 40,000 workers at that time.

##1884 - [O.S. Feb. 18] Police seized all copies of Tolstoy's 'What do I Believe?' (В чём моя́ ве́ра?) at the printers.

1894 - Laurent Van Praet and his brother Jules François, both members of the Ardennes anarchist group Les Sans Patrie, are expelled from France for the possession of copies of anarchist newspaper in their homes, victims of the lois scélérates.

## 1895 - Eugen (Eugenio, Eugène or Eugene) Relgis (originally Eisig Siegler Watchel; d. 1987), Romanian writer, pacifist philosopher, anarchist militant, poet and theorist of humanitarianism (though with a distinct eugenicist element later in life), born. Eisig Sigler adopted his new Celanesque name, Eugen D. Relgis, and began an involvement with the Romanian Symbolist publication 'Fronda', and published his first book, a collection of his philosophical essays entitled 'Triumful Nefiinţei' (The Triumph of Non-Being) in 1913. He published two books of his Symbolist poetry during WWI, 'Sonetele Nebuniei' (Sonnets of Madness; 1914) and 'Nebunia' (Madness), illustrated with his own drawings. He was drafted in 1916 when Romania entered the war but, as a conscientious objector, refused to serve and was imprisoned, and eventually discharged because of his deafness).
After the war he pursued a humanitarian and pacifist agenda, contributing to the review 'Umanitatea' (Humanity) and renewed his literary activities with 'Literatura Războiului şi Era Nouă' (Literature, the War and the New Era; 1919). In 1921 he published an abridged translation of 'The Biology of War', a leading pacifist treatise by German physician Georg Friedrich Nicolai. The following year saw 'Umanitarism sau Internaţionala Intelectualilor' (Humanitarianism or the Intellectuals' Internationale) and his principal political work was 'Principiile Umanitariste' (Humanitarian Principles; 1922), which was translated into 17 languages and made Relgis one of the best-known figures in the intellectual world between the world wars. A further 2 collections of essays followed: 'Umanitarismul şi Socialismul' (Humanitarianism and Socialism; 1925) and 'Umanitarismul Biblic' (Biblical Humanitarianism; 1926). Some of his books contained prefaces by such celebrities as Albert Einstein and Romain Rolland.
During this period he also wrote his best known novel 'Petre Arbore' (3 vols., 1924), the novels 'Melodiile Tăcerii' (Melodies of Silence; 1926) and 'Glasuri în Surdin' (Muted Voices; 1927); a poetry collection 'Poezii' (Poems; 1926) and 'Prieteniile lui Miron' (The Friendships of Miron; 1934), a novel chronicling Relgis' difficulties with his post-lingual deafness. He also translated a number of Nietzsche's works into Romanian, Knut Hamsun's 'Slaves of Love' and various books by S. Zweig, E. Armand, etc..
Eugen Relgis was also a contributor to the Bucharest left-wing dailies 'Adevărul' and 'Dimineaţa'. After editing the short-lived gazette 'Cugetul Liber' (Freethought; 1928-29), Relgis put out his own political and cultural review 'Umanitarismul' (Humanitarianism; 1929-30) as well as working with a large number of libertarian journals around the world.
Relgis also set up the First Humanitarianist Group of Romania, as well as a leftist library, Biblioteca Cercului Libertatea (Freedom Circle Library). Joined in such efforts by the veteran anarchists Han Ryner and Panait Muşoiu.
In 1925, he became a member of the War Resisters International and participated in the peace conference of Hodeston (London), and that of Sonntagsberg (Austria) in July 1928. During the Spanish Civil War, he was appointed to the international board of Antifascist Solidarity International (SIA). The mid 1930s saw him release a series of essays on Judaism and his controversial 'Umanitarism şi Eugenism' (Humanitarianism and Eugenism). His political and literary choices inevitably made Relgis an enemy of both fascism and communism: persecuted during World War II (his Biblioteca Cercului Libertatea was banned in 1940, but Relgis secretly moved the books into a stable), he managed to escape arrest, hidden by friends. Post-WWII, he was once again active in the political press and completed his essay on Nazism, The Holocaust and sexuality: 'Eros în al Treilea Reich' (Eros in the Third Reich; 1946), but fearing further persecution and internment by the communist regime, he left Romania 'illegally', and after a brief stay in Paris, eventually took refuge in Uruguay joining his son (who had fled there in 1942). [His works were subsequently included in an official censorship list 'Publicaţii Interzise' (Works Forbidden from Publishing).]
From 1947 to the moment of his death and Relgis earned the respect of South American circles as an anarchist commentator and proponent of solutions to world peace, as well as a promoter of Latin American culture.
In 1950 he founded an international anarchist archive in Montevideo, one of the few political libraries in South America and embarked on a series of university lectures, which carried him throughout Uruguay, Argentina and Brazil. 1950 also saw a Spanish edition of 'Umanitarism şi Eugenism' (Humanitarismo y Eugenismo), renewing the controversy surrounding his view on eugenics, his advocacy of universal birth control and compulsory sterilisation in cases of "degeneration". Less controversial was his in-depth critique of Nazi eugenics 'Las Aberraciones Sexuales en la Alemania Nazi' (Sexual Aberrations in Nazi Germany).
Relgis also circulated an 'Apel Către Toţi Intelectualii Liberi şi Muncitorii Luminaţi' (Appeal to All the Free Intellectuals and the Enlightened Workers). A prolific author, many of his Romanian language works were subsequently translated into Spanish and he carried on writing on various political subjects - such as his acclaimed political essay, 'Perspectivas Culturales en Sudamérica' (Cultural Perspectives in South America; 1958) which received a prize from the Uruguayan Ministry of Public Instruction and Social Prevision, and an eugenics and sexology treatise, 'Historia Sexual de la Humanidad' (The Sexual History of Humanity; 1961).
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1902 - Juan (John) Baeza (d. 1939), Spanish anarchist involved in the 1935 Les Stérilisés de Bordeaux affair [see: May 2, 1936] where 'illegal' vasectomies were carried out. Sentenced in absentia to 2 years in prison, a 100 francs fine and 10 years exile, he was never caught. He is believed to have taken part in the action groups and resistance against Franco in Spain after the end of the war. Arrested in September 1939 and sentenced to death on September 11 (with Juan Delgado García), he was executed the next day at Camp Bota in Barcelona.

1915 - Italian anarchist and member of the Gruppo Gaetano Bresci aka the 'Bresci Circle' Frank Abarno and undercover New York City police officer Amedeo Polignani, who had infiltrated New York anarchist circles in an attempt to find the perpetrators of the October 13, 1914 bombings of St. Patrick's Cathedral and St. Alphonsus church in the Bowery, place two bombs in St. Patrick's. As Arbano was about to light the one of the fuses with his cigar, kept burning especially for that purpose, he was grabbed and arrested by one of the 50 NYPD detectives secreted amongst the cathedral's congregation following Polignani's tip-off. According the 'The Evening World', some of the officers were "disguised as women worshippers, two as scrubwomen [sic], others as ushers". In fact, so many cops needed to be fitted out with disguises that a Broadway theatrical costumer was employed to fit them out with all the necessary disguises. Fellow 'conspirator' Carmine Carbone, who had meant to take part in the planting of the bombs, was arrested the same day at 1341 Third Avenue, the rented apartment in which the bombs were made.
On April 13, 1915, they were both convicted of conspiracy to cause explosions. Six days later on April 19, Frank Abarno and Carmine Carbone were sentenced to six-to-twelve years at Sing Sing Prison. [see: Oct. 13]

1917 - The first edition of the newspaper 'Les Glaneurs: Recueil éclectique mensuel' (The Gleaners: Eclectic monthly reports) is published and continues through the war months of March 1917 to September 1918.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: In an interview with the mayor Manuel Morales Pareja, the committee asks him to forward the three points and gives the government 48 hours to respond. In Madrid, the government responds that the deadline is very short and the attempt at negotiation fails.

[AA/D] 1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: A meeting of sailor, soldier and worker organisation delegates sets up the 15 member Kronstadt Provisional Revolutionary Committee, which endorses the 'Petropavlovsk Resolution'.

1949 - An attempt is made on the life of Eduardo Quintela Boveda, head of the Brigade Politico Sociale police in Barcelona, involving Jossé and Francesc Sabaté Llopart, Simón Gracia Fleringan, Carles Vidal Passanau, Wenceslao Jiménez Orive, José Lluís Facerías and José López Penedo. [expand]

1963 - Peter Terryn aka the 'Minister van Agitatie' (Minister of Agitation), Belgian journalist and militant anarchist activist, born.

1965 - Mikheil 'Mikhako' Tsereteli [მიხეილ 'მიხაკო' წერეთელი], aka 'Baton', M. Sangala [მ. სანგალა], 'Alarodieli' [ალაროდიელი], Vrasti [ვრაცი](b. 1879*), Georgian prince, historian, philologist, sociologist, political and public figure, who was intially an anarchist close to Varlam Cherkezishvili and Peter Kropotkin, but later became a nationalist, dies in Munich. [see: Jan. 4]
[* d.o.b. O.S. Dec. 23, 1878/N.S. Jan. 4, 1879]

1969 - Clément Fournier (b. 1904), French anarchist and pacifist, dies. [see: Mar. 8]

[A] 1972 - Thomas Weisbecker (b. 1949), German militant member of the Anarchist Black Cross and the Movement 2 June, is shot dead (a bullet in the heart) in Augsberg by a trigger-happy member of a police surveillance teams who had been tracking Tommy and his companion, SPK member Carmen Roll, for 4 weeks. [see: Feb. 24]

[C] 1974 - Salvador Puig Antich (b. 1948), Spanish anarchist militant and member of the Movimiento Ibérico de Liberación (MIL), executed by garrote in Barcelona after being tried by a military tribunal and found guilty of the death of a Guardia Civil policeman.

1975 - Alexey Vyacheslavovich Tsvetkov (Алексе́й Вячесла́вович Цветко́в), one-time Russian anarchist who began working with the National-Bolshevik Party and is considered by many anarchist to be somewhat dodgy, born.

1998 - Josefina Fierro de Bright (b. 1914), Mexican-American labour organiser, dies. Born in Mexico and grew up on farm labour camps; she was the daughter of an anarchist mother, the bordera Josefina Arancibia, who served meals to migrant workers in Maderna, California and introduced her to the teachings of Ricardo Flores Magón. Josefina gave up her studies at UCLA to become a full-time organiser, and her organizing style was described by veteran longshoremen union leader Bert Corona as "gutsy, flamboyant, and tough." She led boycotts of companies that did business in Mexican American communities but did not hire Mexican American workers.
She became executive secretary of El Congreso (the first national Latino civil rights organisation) in 1939 and organized protests against racism in the Los Angeles Schools, against the exclusion of Mexican-American youths from public swimming pools, and against police brutality. She co-ordinated El Congreso’s support for Mexican workers in the furniture, shoe manufacturing, electrical, garment, and longshoremen’s unions.

2002 - Halfdan Rasmussen (b. 1915), Danish poet of social protest, writer of nonsense verse, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-nuclear weapons campaigner and member of Amnesty International, dies in Hornbæk ages 87 years old. [see: Jan. 29]
1756 - William Godwin (d. 1836), philosopher and proto-anarchist, born. Spouse of Mary Wollstonecraft and father of Mary Shelley, his best known works are 'An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Political Justice' and the novel 'Things as They are; or, the Adventures of Caleb Williams'. His other novels were: 'St. Leon: A Tale of the Sixteenth Century' (1799); 'Fleetwood; or, The New Man of Feeling' (1805); 'Mandeville, a Tale of the Seventeenth Century' (1817), a three volume novels 'Cloudesley: A Tale' (1830) and 'Deloraine' (1833).
"Government is, abstractedly taken, an evil, a usurpation upon the private judgement and individual conscience of mankind." - 'Enquiry Concerning Political Justice' (1793).

1877 - [N.S. Mar. 15] Milly Witkop Rocker (Milly Vitkopski; d. 1955), Ukrainian-American anarcho-syndicalist and anarcha-feminist writer and activist, born. [see: Mar. 15]

####1897 - Segundo David Peralta, aka Mate Cosido (d. ca. 1940*), Argentine anarchist outlaw, train and bank robber, and legendary 'Robin Hood' style rural bandit in north-eastern Argentina, who referred to himself as 'el bandido de los pobres', born.
[* badly wounded on Jan. 7, 1940 and likely to have died on that date]

## 1901 - Émilie Busquant (d. 1953), French feminist, militant anarcho-syndicalist and anti-colonial activist who was partner of the Algerian nationalist leader Messali Hadj. helped design and actually sewed the first Algerian national flag, born.

##1903 - Hristo Dimitrov Nestorov, aka Strako [Щако], Itsata [Ицата], Strahil [Страхил], Bogdan Stefanov [Богдан Стефанов] (Христо Димитров Несторов; d. 1954), Bulgarian anarchist member of the interwar underground and anti-Nazi partisan, who went into exile in France after WWII only to return to fight against the communists, born.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1910 - Josef Peukert (b. 1855), German Bohemian anarchist best known for his (questionably) autobiographical book 'Erinnerungen eines Proletariers aus der revolutionären Arbeiterbewegung' (Memoirs from the Proletarian revolutionary Labour Movement; 1913), dies in Chicago, Illinois, in absolute poverty and marginalised by almost every one of his former comrades for his role in the Bruderkrieg (fratricidal war) within the German anarchist movement that stemmed for his links to the alleged police spy Theodor Reuß that that resulted in the arrest of the anarchist Johann Neve by German police. [see: Jan. 22]

[B] 1914 - Asger Oluf Jorn (d. 1973), Danish painter, sculptor, ceramic artist, printmaker, author, founding member of the avant-garde movement COBRA and the Situationist International, born.

[E] 1914 - María Lozano Molina (also Maria Lozano Mombiola)(d. 2000), Spanish poet and anarchist, who fought with the Columna Durruti, partisans in Grenade (Haute Garonne) during WWII and, in the post-war period, supported Sabaté and the autonomous assault groups of the Movimiento Ibérico de Liberación and Grupos de Acción Revolucionaria Internacionalista, born. Involved with the libertarian movement from the age of fifteen, she had links to the Los Solidarios group through family connections and was also in touch with the brothers Miguel José and Augusto Moisés Alcrudo Solórzano (two Aragonese doctors and prominent anarcho-syndicalists) through the family guesthouse, which much frequented by fellow anarchist militants. With the advent of the revolution in 1936, María was one of the women who took to the streets and with others briefly took over the town of Alcubierre, only to enlist with the Columna Durruti and later became a member of the colectividad de Sariñena. When the civil war finished she endured a concentration camp in Gaillac in the Tarn department of France but managed to escape, joining the partisans in the Haute-Garonne region alongside her partner Ángel Mombiola Allue (who was shot by the Germans on August 20, 1944, with two other CNT militants, Ricardo Garcia and Francisco Aguado, during a sabotage operation on a bridge near Ondes). In 1944-45 María made a clandestine trip back into Spain in search of her daughter and got into difficulties on the return leg as she got lost in the mountains. Having settled in Toulouse, she kept an open house for libertarian activists and later went on to be active in the FIJL, CNT and IWA, as well as actively supporting Francisco 'El Quico' Sabaté Llopart and the autonomous assault groups of MIL and GARI. María was also one of the founders of the CRAS (Centre de Recherche sur l’Alternative Sociale) documentation centre in 1972, which she chaired up until her death. She also mounted a vigorous campaign with the Retonda group against the nuclear power station in Golfech, as well as being a regular at meetings and rallies right up until shortly before she died on February 19, 2000 in Toulouse.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The 'La Veu de Catalunya' is the only newspaper that continues to write about the strike, and the military are now covering more and more of the work of those who are out on strike.
Workers of the power station of Sant Adrià del Besos join the strike. In Barcelona, ​​a scab that was running a tram was almost lynched for having run over a child (slightly). He defended himself, firing a gun that he carried, injuring one man and ending up under arrest.

1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: The first issue of the 'Izvestia of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Sailors, Red Soldiers and Workers the city of Kronstadt' (Известия Временного Революционного Комитета Матросов, Красноармейцев и Рабочих города Кронштадта) appears. It announces:


Our country is enduring a difficult moment. Hunger, cold and economic ruin have held us in an iron vice these three years already. The Communist Party, which rules the country, has become separated from the masses, and shown itself unable to lead her from her state of general ruin. It has not faced the reality of the disturbances which in recent times have occurred in Petrograd and Moscow. This unrest shows clearly enough that the party has lost the faith of the working masses. Neither has it recognized the demands presented by the workers. It considers them plots of the counterrevolution. It is deeply mistaken.

This unrest, these demands, are the voice of the people in its entirety, of all laborers. All workers, sailors and soldiers see clearly at the present moment that only through common effort, by the common will of the laborers, is it possible to give the country bread, wood, and coal, to dress the barefoot and naked, and to lead the Republic out of this dead end.

This will of all laborers, soldiers and sailors was definitively expressed at the Garrison Meeting of our town on Tuesday, March 1st. At that meeting, the resolution of ships' crews of the 1st and 2nd Brigades was passed unanimously. Among the decisions taken, it was decided to immediately carry out new elections to the Soviet, for these elections to be carried out on a fairer basis, and specifically, in such a way that true representation of the laborers would be found in the Soviet, and that the Soviet would be an active and energetic organ.

On March 2nd of this year, delegates from all sailor, soldier and worker organizations gathered in the House of Education. It was proposed to form at this Conference a basis for new elections, in order to then enter into peaceful work on redesigning the Soviet structure. But in view of the fact that there were grounds to fear repression, and also due to threatening speeches by the representatives of authority, the Conference decided to form a Provisional Revolutionary Committee, to which to give all authority in governing the town and fortress.

The Provisional Revolutionary Committee is located on the battleship. PETROPAVLOVSK.

Comrades and citizens! The Provisional Committee is deeply concerned that there should not be spilled a single drop of blood. It has taken emergency measures for the establishment of revolutionary order in the town and fortress, and at the forts.

Comrades and citizens! Do not stop work. Workers, remain at your machines, sailors and soldiers in your units and at the forts. All Soviet workers and organizations must continue their work. The Provisional Revolutionary Committee calls all workers' organizations, all naval and trade unions, and all naval and military units and individual citizens to give it universal support and aid. The task of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee is a general, comradely effort to organize in the town and fortress means for proper and fair elections to a new Soviet.

And so, comrades, to order, to calm, to restraint, and to a new Socialist construction for the good of all laborers.

Kronstadt, March 2nd, 1921
bttlshp. Petropavlovsk
PETRICHENKO, President of the Prov. Rev. Committee
TUKIN, Secretary

As well as publishing the text of the 15 point resolution adopted by the mass meeting on March 1, it contains the following news

By 9 P.M. on March 2nd, the majority of forts and all army units of the fortress had given their support to the Provisional Revolutionary Committee. All organizations and the Communications Service are occupied by guards from the Revolutionary Committee. From Oranienbaum have arrived representatives, who declared that the Oranienbaum garrison has also given its support to the Provisional Revolutionary Committee.

THERE IS A GENERAL UPRISING IN PETROGRAD. [not, it has to be admitted, quiet the truth]

1927 - Mikhail Petrovich Artsybashev (Михаи́л Петро́вич Арцыба́шев; b. 1878), Russian writer, playwright and individualist anarchist, who was a major proponent of the literary style known as naturalism, dies. [see: Nov. 5]

1929 - Ettore Aguggini (b. 1902), Italian mechanic and anarcho-individualist, one of three anarchists implicated in the bombing of the Teatro Diana in Milan on March 23, 1921, believed manipulated and set up by the Chief of Police as a pretext for the fascists to instigate a general repression against all anarchists, dies in Alghero prison, Sardinia, aged just 27-years-old, his health shattered by form the appalling conditions he endured during his incarceration. [see: Mar. 23]

1929 - Sándor Csizmadia (b. 1871), Hungarian poet, journalist, anarchist propagandist and later socialist, who served as People's Commissar of Agriculture during the Hungarian Soviet Republic, commits suicide. [see: Mar. 10]

1936 - André Laude (d. 1995), French anarchist, anti-colonial journalist, Surrealist, Situationist, writer and "soleil noir de la poésie" (black sun of poetry), born. An encounter in 1953 with Michel Donnet, an anarchist teacher and secretary of the newly formed Fédération Communiste Libertaire, introduced Laude to the world of anarchism and led to him contributing his journalism to 'Libertaire' and 'Combat'. He published his first poetry, 'La Couleur Végétale' (The Vegetable Colour), in 1954 and, following a meeting with Serge Wellens, a renown poet and editor of 'Cahiers de l'Orphéon', his poetry collection 'Pétales du Chant' (Petals of Song) was published on the review's imprint in 1956.
Part of a grouping of anarchist poets and painters, he also met André Breton and Benjamin Peret, becoming involved in the Surrealist circle. As a militant anti-colonialist and vocal supporter of the Algerian independence struggle, Laude lived and worked on the periphery of the clandestine resistance, eventually being arrested in Paris and taken to a camp run by paratroopers in the southern Sahara, where he suffered barbaric treatment. Exchanged against five senior French officers, Laude was released after several months of hell. In Tunis he resumed work as a journalist for 'Combat' and l'Algérie-Presse-Service, visited Cuba on behalf of the Algerian nationalists, and only returned to France after the fall of Ahmed Ben Bella in 1965. On his return, Laude was put on trial for "collaboration with the enemy". André Breton came to testify on his behalf.
He now returned to his poetry as well as maintaining his political and journalistic activities, becoming involved with Raoul Vaneigem, Guy Debord and the Situationist International. Laude also became involved with artists around the CoBrA group [included the Revolutionary Surrealist Group] and with photographers like Doisneau and Cartier-Bresson.
Selected bibliography:
'Histoire de la Pensée Libertaire' (A Short History of Libertarian Thought; 1968 [essay]); 'Le Petit Livre Rouge de la Révolution Sexuelle' (The Little Red Book of the Sexual Revolution; 1969); 'Joyeuse Apocalypse' (Joyful Apocalypse; 1973 [novel]); 'Testament de Ravachol' (Ravachol's Legacy; 1975 [poetry]); 'Le Bleu de la Nuit Crie au Secours' (The Blue of the Night Crying for Help 1975 [poetry]); 'Le Surréalisme en Cartes' (A Map of Surrealism; 1976); 'Un Temps à S'ouvrir les Veines' (A Time to Open the Veins; [poetry] 1979); 'Rue des Merguez'; 1979 [novel]); 'Liberté Couleur d'Homme' (Freedom is the Colour of Man; 1980 [fictional autobiography]); 'Riverain de la Douleur' (Bordering the Pain; 1981 [poetry]); 'Roi Nu Roi Mort' (Naked King Dead King; 1983 [poetry]); 'Journaux de Voyages' (Travel Journals; 1990 [poetry]); 'Feux Cris & Diamants' (Sout Fire & Diamonds; 1993 [poetry]); etc...
As well as 'Combat' and 'Libertaire', Laude's journalism appeared in 'Tribune Socialist' (PSU), 'Jeune Afrique', 'Le Monde', 'Les Nouvelles Littéraires', 'Le Nouvel Observateur', 'Actuel', 'Politis', 'Le Fou Parle', 'Hors Jeu', 'Albaroz', 'l'Evénement du Jeudi', 'Art Tension', 'France Culture'… and even for 'Playboy'.

1938 - Samuel Schwartzbard (Sholem-Shmuel Schwarzbard/Samuil Isaakovich Shvartsburd; b. 1886), Russian Jewish watchmaker, anarchist and Yiddish poet, dies in Capetown. Escaped the Russian pogroms in 1905, settled in Paris and active in local anarcho-communist groups with Alexander Berkman, Mollie Steimer, Senya Fleshin and Nestor Makhno. In 1926 he gunned down Simon Petliura, who had directed the Ukrainian pogroms in which some of his family were murdered. He fired three times, announcing: "This, for the pogroms; this for the massacres, this for the victims." Schwartzbard was acquitted by a jury and freed. [see: Aug. 18]

1946 - The first issue of 'L'Amico del Popolo', the fortnightly newspaper of the Italian Federazione Comunista Libertaria Ligure section of the Federazione Anarchica Italiana (FAI), appears in Genoa. From the Nov. 11, 1946 issue it becomes the 'Periodico della Federazione Anarchica Ligure' and continues in publication until Nov. 30, 1948.

1966 - Augusto Masetti (b. 1888), Italian anarchist and anti-militarist, dies. Famed for his attack as a conscript upon his colonel (Stroppa) on the parade ground of the Cialdini barracks, in Bologna, while shouting out 'Down with the war! Long live Anarchy!' in protest of the war in Libya. [see: Apr. 12]

[D] 1980 - Tanks on the streets of Amsterdam as the Vondel Free State [Vondelvrijstaat], the squat at Vondelstraat 72 on the corner with Constantijn Huygensstraat, is attacked but resists eviction.

1996 - Léo Malet (b. 1909), French crime novelist, poet, Surrealist, anarchist and later Trotskyist, and creator of Nestor 'Dynamite' Burma, private detective and ex-anarchist, dies. [see: Mar. 7]

2012 - Nadezhda Tolokonnikova and Maria Alyokhina, two members of Pussy Riot [Пусси Райот], are arrested and charged with hooliganism for their part in the February 21 event in Moscow's Cathedral of Christ the Saviour.

2017 - Allan James Baker, better known as Jim Baker or A. J. Baker (b. 1922), Australian philosopher best known for having systematised the realist philosophy of John Anderson, and who was one of the key intellectual figues in the Sydney Libertarians and the Sydney Push from 1945 onwards, dies aged 94. [see: Jul. 22]
#1878 - Kaarlo Uskela (April 19 1922), Finnish labourer, satirical author, poet and anarchist, born. Uskela is best known of his 1921 anthology 'Pillastunut Runohepo' (The Poisoned Poet) which was banned in 1933, eleven years after Uskela's death.

##1878 - Arishima Takeo (有島 武郎; d. 1923), Japanese novelist, short-story writer and essayist during the late Meiji and Taishō periods, Tolstoyan Christian and later a Kropotkin-influenced anarchist, born.
In 1922, he began an affair with Akiko Hatano (波多野秋子), a married woman and an editor working for the 'Fujin Koron' (婦人公論 / Women's Public Opinion), and when Akiko's husband found out the following year about the affair, the pair committed suicide, hanging themselves and leaving behind notes for their families and friends.
[有島武郎 Modernity, Cooperatism and Japanese-Russian Intellectual Relations in Modern Japan Complete - Sho Konishi.pdf]

1882 - Joseph Spivak (d. 1971), lifelong anarchist who was involved in founding the Libertarian Book Club in New York in 1927, is born in Russia. He emigrated to the US and briefly returned to Russia during the revolution. During WWI was actively involved around the country in anti-militarist campaigns with Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman.

1895 - Maria Amalia Melli (d. unknown), Italian anarchist, who sister Elena was the companion of Errico Malatesta, born. On October 17, 1915, she emigrated with her husband Isidoro Prati to France and settled in Ate, Provence, and on January 24, 1918, her daughter Armida, who also became a prominent anarchist, was born. Active in Marseille along side Edel Squadrani despite the hardships that she had to suffer. As a member of the Comitato Anarchico Pro Vittime Politiche, she was one of those in charge of support for Angelo Sbardellotto, providing him the lawyer Mario Trozzi among other things, following his arrest on June 4, 1932, in Rome accused of planning to assassinate Benito Mussolini. On October 26, 1936, she and her daughter crossed the border with Spain, along with other prominent anarchists and antifascists (Lucette Bled, Giovanni Dettori, Camillo Lanzillotta, Karl Ernst Teuffel, etc.), to join her partner Edel, whom had enlisted in the mostly anarchist Columna Italiana. On December 10, 1936, she also joined the column but returned to France the following year. In December 1938, she was arrested with Edel Squadrani and sentence to two months in prison for sheltering Edel, who was the subject of a deportation order. He was sentenced to one year in prison. All trace of Maria and Edel is lost shortly after the end of WWII.

1904 - María Suceso Portales Casamar (d. 1999), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-feminist, born. Member of the CNT and FIJL in Madrid in the early '30s, she was very active in the development of schools and institutions organised by Mujeres Libres (MM.LL). At the end of the war in 1939 she escaped to Britain aboard the Galatea, participating in resistance activities against the Franco regime whilst in London and worked on the newsletter 'España Fuera de España' (1962-65). Resuming contact with her fellow exiles in France, she began editing the (trilingual) magazine 'Mujeres Libres', organ of the Federation MM.LL in exile. In 1972 she moved to Montadin, near Beziers, where Sara Berenger lived, and was responsible for editing the magazine until 1976. She returned to Spain in 1980 after the death of Franco.

1905 - The first issue of the magazine 'Avenir' (Outlook), "weekly publication of the new horizons of perfection" in Catalan, with some articles in Spanish and French, is published in Barcelona - a mix of anarchism, syndicalism, naturism, progressive intellectualism, Noucentisme (a Catalan anti-Modernist movement) and Catalanism. Only five issues published until 1 April 1905.

1909 - Washington Statute of 1909 Criminal Code, Chapter VIII. Crimes Against The Public Peace, Sec. 310-316 covering 'Criminal Anarchy' is passed by the House.

1910 - Spokane Free Speech Fight: IWW begins the Spokane, Washington free speech fight (which they win). [expand]

1917 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: The Extraordinary Session of the Petrograd Soviet, called to decide the fate of Kronstadt, votes to accept Zinoviev's proposal to force the surrender of Kronstadt sailors upon penalty of death.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The 'La Veu de Catalunya' and 'La Publicidad' publish a letter from the manager of La Canadenca, Fraser Lawton, which says that the company wants to negotiate with the strike committee, who were sent a letter the previous Saturday, but who have not yet responded.
There are strikes in the workshops of San Feliu de Guixols and Tarragona woodworkers obtain the 8 hour day and a 20% wage increase.

1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]:


Kronstadt is now enduring a moment of tense struggle for freedom. An attack by the Communists can be expected any minute, with the goal of seizing Kronstadt, and again fastening us to their authority, which brings us only to hunger, cold and ruin. We all, to the last man, will staunchly defend the freedom achieved by us. We shall not allow them to seize Kronstadt, and if they should attempt to do so by force of arms, we will give them a worthy repulse.

Therefore, the Provisional Revolutionary Committee forewarns citizens not to give in to panic and fear if it becomes necessary to hear shooting. Only calm and restraint will give us victory.


'Izvestia of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Sailors, Red Soldiers and Workers the city of Kronstadt' (Известия Временного Революционного Комитета Матросов, Красноармейцев и Рабочих города Кронштадта) Issue No. 2, Friday, March 4th, 1921

1924 - The first issue of the monthly magazine 'Die Internationale', official publication of the anti-authoritarian International Workingmen's Association (AIT or IAA) appears in Berlin. It continues in publication until 1926, and the same title reappears in 1927 as the paper of the Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutchlands (FAUD), with the subtitle: "Journal for the revolutionary labour movement, social criticism and a new socialist construction".

1928 - Octavio Alberola Suriñach aka 'El Largo' and 'Juan', Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist member of the FIJL-MLE, CNT, CGT and Grupo Primero de Mayo, born in the Balearic Islands. In 1939, his family left for Mexico and Octavio began his anarchist militancy as a member of the Juventudes Libertarias and the CNT in exile. In 1962, he became part of the underground organisation Defensa Interior (DI) formed by the Movimiento Libertario Español (MLE) after the 1961 CNT congress. Cipriano Mera, José Pascual Palacios and Octavio Alberola would be responsbile for coordinating DI activies until the organisation was wound up by the 'parental' body at the Montpellier Congress of the MLE in 1965. In 1966, and based in Paris and Brussels, Alberola began coordinating Grupo Primero de Mayo's numerous attacks against the Franco regime as well as its wider activities as part of the growing worldwide resistance to an aggressive and expansionist US foreign policy. On February 9, 1968 in Belgium, after an attempted kidnapping of a minister, he was imprisoned for five months and then palces under house arrest. His father, Jose, was meanwhile killed on May 1, 1967 in Mexico by Franco agents.
In 1971, he secretly returned to France where he worked at the newspaper 'Frente Libertario'. Linked to the Groupes d'Action Révolutionnaire Internationalistes (GARI), in May 1974 he was caught up in the case of the kidnapping of the banker Adolfo Suarez. Arrested at Avignon, he remained imprisoned nearly nine months. After Franco's death, and after the split of the CNT, he worked for the reforming of the CGT and participated in the activities of the COJRA in France. In the years 1980-2000, he hosted the Radio Libertaire program 'Tribuna Latino Americana'. He also became a tireless member of the Grupo por la revisión del proceso Granado-Delgado, which seeks to annul sentences from the Franco era, and active in libertarian iniatives across Europe.

1934 - Joaquín Martínez Delgado (d. 1963), Spanish anarchist militant and Fédération Ibérique des Jeunesses Libertaires (JJ.LL) activist, born. He went with his parents into exile in France, where he became a cabinet maker and TV designer and a member of Defensa Interior, the clandestine section of the JJ.LL. Sent to Spain alongside Francisco Granados in July 1963, they were arrested for the July 29 bombings of the General Directorate of Security and at a Francoist union headquarters. Tortured, they refused to accept admit their guilt, they were tried by military tribunal and garrotted on Aug. 17 in the notorious Carabanchel prison. 35 years later, in 1998, two anarchists Antonio Martin and Sergio Hernandez confessed that they had in fact planted the bombs, but the Spanish authorities refused the famillies' 1999 attempts to get the death penalties overturned.

1937 - The newspaper 'La Noche' carries an announcement introducing the aims, characteristics and membership conditions of the anarchist Friends of Durruti Group. Also, the Generalidad issues a decree winding up the Control Patrols. In 'La Batalla', Nin passes favourable and hopeful comment on an article by Jaime Balius carried in the March 2nd edition of 'La Noche'.

####1937 - Alfredo Maria Bonanno, Italian insurrectionary anarchist, who is considered to be one of the more important theorist of that anarchist tendency with such works as 'La Gioia Armata' (Armed Joy; 1977), 'Internazionale Antiautoritaria Insurrezionalista' (For An Anti-authoritarian Insurrectionalist International'; 1993), 'La Tensione Anarchica' (The Anarchist Tension; 1996), and others, born.

1937 - Alexei Alexandrovich Solonovich (Алексей Александрович Солонович; b. 1887), Russian poet, mathematician, philosopher, and one of the leaders and theorist of the anarcho-mystical movement in Moscow, dies whilst on hunger strike in the NKVD prison hospital in Novosibirsk. [see: Oct. 23]

##1939 - Horst Fantazzini, aka 'The Kind Bandit' (d. 2001) Italian-German anarcho-individualist illegalist and writer, who conducted non-violent bank robberies across northern Italy during the 1960s and '70s and was involved in an infamous prison escape attempt (subsequently made into a film), born. [expand]

[B] 1964 - Buñuel's film version of the Octave Mirbeau novel 'Diary of a Chambermaid' first release in France.

## 1971 - Jaggi Singh, Canadian anarchist and anti-globalisation activist, who was one of the Toronto G20 defendants and is currently involved in the Solidarity Across Borders group and the No One Is Illegal collective, born.

1977 - Mario Mantovani, aka Lucio Adorni, Mario Ferrarini, Lucio Adali (b. 1897), Italian typographer, anarchist propagandist and partisan, dies in Limbiate, Lombardy. [see: Apr. 7]
1872 - The General Council approves a private circular, 'Fictitious Splits in the International, written by Marx and Engels', which exposes "Bakuninist intrigues and disruptive activity in the International". Part of their campaign to undermine the anti-authoritarian and democratic elements within the international. Published in Geneva as a pamphlet in May.

[E] 1882 - Dora Marsden (d. 1960), British teacher, head mistress individualist anarchist and militant suffragette, born. She grew up in extreme poverty, her father having abandoned the family shortly after Dora's birth, taking his eldest son with him and emigrating to America. Amongst the first generation to benefit from universal free primary education following the Elementary Education Act of 1870, she proved an exceptional student and at the age of thirteen became a probationer and then a pupil-teacher at the local school. In 1900 at the age of eighteen, she entered Owens College (now Victoria University) in Manchester on a scholarship, where she met Christabel Pankhurst, Isabella Ford, Teresa Billington, Eva Gore-Booth and a number of other prominent early feminists. After graduating, became a teacher, firstly in Leeds and then in Colchester and Manchester. In 1908 she was appointed headmistress of the Altrincham Pupil-Teacher Centre, by which time she had already become involved in the suffragette movement in Manchester and joined the Women’s Social and Political Union. She began organising demonstrations and protests, and was soon speaking at public meetings alongside Christabel Pankhurst and Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence.
In March 1909 Marsden resigned as headmistress of the Pupil-Teacher Centre to become a paid organiser of the WSPU and that same month was arrested outside the Houses of Parliament during an attempt to present a petition to the prime minister Herbert Asquith. Marsden was sentenced to a month's imprisonment. On her release Dora became the organiser of the WSPU in North-West Lancashire. Another arrest followed on September 4, 1909 for breaking windows in Old Trafford alongside Emily Wilding Davison, for which she was sentenced to two months in Strangeways, much of the time naked as she refused to wear prison-issue clothing. She was then put in a straight jackets and force fed. Released under the Cat and Mouse Act, the following month she took part in another protest with Mary Gawthorpe and Rona Robinson on October 4. Dressed in the university gowns, they interrupted the chancellor of Owens College and demanded that he speak out against the force-feeding of the college's imprisoned suffragette alumni. They were quickly bundled outside and arrested. Determined to continue her campaign of arrest-imprisonment-hunger strike-force feeding-release in order to gain the maximum publicity, on December 4, 1909 she disrupted an election meeting in Southport for Winston Churchill, soon to be Home Secretary Along with Helen Tolson and Winson Etherley, she broke into the Southport Empire Theatre and hoisted herself up into the cupola and, after fifteen hours wait, heckled Churchill from her position in the ceiling before she was manhandled out onto the steep roof.
As early as 1907, there was a growing group of women within the WSPU, who included Dora in their number, who despaired of Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst's autocratic rule over the organisation and the powerful clique of wealthy women like Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence who had too much influence within the organisation. So, on January 27, 1911, Dora Marsden resigned from the WSPU and with a group of seventy plus dissidents, including Charlotte Despard, Teresa Billington-Greig and Margaret Nevinson, founded the Women's Freedom League. The WFL grew rapidly and soon had sixty branches across the country and, with 4,000 members, was twice the size of the WSPU. More militant than the WSPU, members of the WFL were forthright in their aim to get themselves arrested on demonstrations of for non-payment of taxes but refused to use property damage as a tactic. Dora was soon working for the group's newspaper, 'The Vote' but, following an attempt to get the WFL to finance a new feminist journal, she quit the organisation to start 'The Freewoman' with her close friend Grace Jardine as secretary and Mary Gawthorpe as co-editor. Gawthorpe would soon leave due to ill-health and her objection to Marsden's "philosophical anarchism". The first issue of 'The Freewoman' appeared on November 23, 1911, and the paper was soon causing a stir with its advocacy of free love, communal childcare and co-operative housekeeping, and its urging of women not to get married. One of the most controversial articles was by Rebecca West in the very first issue, in which she claimed: "Marriage had certain commercial advantages. By it the man secures the exclusive right to the woman's body and by it, the woman binds the man to support her during the rest of her life... a more disgraceful bargain was never struck." Many in the suffragist movement were outraged. Mary Humphrey Ward, leader of Anti-Suffrage League claimed that the journal represented "the dark and dangerous side of the Women's Movement", whilst Millicent Fawcett, the leader of the National Union of Suffrage Societies (NUWSS), read the first edition and "thought it so objectionable and mischievous that she tore it up into small pieces".
In September 1912, W.H. Smith banned 'The Freewoman' and, with the journal loosing money and Dora increasingly disillusioned both with the parliamentary system and the campaign for women's suffrage as well as the fact that the journal's articles on capitalism received much less attention than those on sex, she decided to close down 'The Freewoman', despite the clamour from the likes of Edward Carpenter to continue with it and "that its cessation has been real loss to the cause of free and rational discussion of human problems." Its final issue was published on October 10, 1912. Ezra Pound would later become the journal's literary editor.
Dora Marsden was soon back with another journal, 'The New Freewoman: An Individualist Review'. Financed by Harriet Shaw Weaver, it moved away from the radical feminism of 'The Freewoman' to a more anarchist and literary approach, in part under the influence of Rebecca West, who became the paper's assistant editor. The first issue of 'The New Freewoman' came out on June 15, 1913 but only lasted for thirteen issues (the last being dated Dec. 15, 1913).
In the September issue (No. 6 (Sept. 1, 1913) Marsden made it explicit the degree to which Max Stirner's version of individualist anarchism now influenced her political outlook and the trajectory that 'The New Freewoman' would soon take:
""We are freeborn men, and wherever we look we see ourselves made servants of egoists. Are we therefore to become egoists too? Heaven forbid! We want rather to make egoists impossible. We want to make them all 'ragamuffins'; all of us must have nothing, that 'all may have'. So say the Socialists." Thus Stirner, more than half a century ago, [claimed] in the most powerful work that has ever emerged from a single human mind."
Rebecca West was amongst those who disagreed with the direction that the journal was taking and in October 1913 resigned her position. Shortly afterwards at a director's meeting on November 25, it was decided to change the name of the 'The New Freewoman' to 'The Egoist: An Individualist Review'. Volume 1 Number 1 of the new journal came out on January 1, 1914 with Harriet Shaw Weaver along side Dora Marsden as co-editors. It would last for six years and 74 editions until the final issue (Vol. 6, No. 5) in December 1919 and become, on Ezra Pound's insistence an important conduit for modernist literary experimentalism of the likes of Pound himself, T. S. Eliot, D. H. Lawrence, Wyndham Lewis, Herbert Read and James Joyce, with Joyce's 'A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man' (1916) published for the first time as a series in 'The Egoist' between 1914 to 1915. In July 1914, Marsden handed over the editorship of 'The Egoist' to Weaver, staying on as a contributing editor, in order to pursue her philosophical research and writings.
Despite her vociferous criticisms of the WSPU and the various suffragist organisations in the pages of her journals, in 1915 Marsden soon came to echo the position of the WSPU in publicly supporting the war effort through the pages of 'The Egoist' and condemning the feminist pacifists who campaigned against it. Despite the journals diminishing sales, Harriet Shaw Weaver vowed to continue publication and, in 1917, T.S.Eliot became one of its assistant editors. That same year, Weaver set up the Egoist Press to publish James Joyce's 'A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man', which no one else would put into print at the time. 'The Egoist' itself began the serialisation of Joyce's 'Ulysses' in January 1919 but, with the sales down to just 400 copies (from a high of 1000).
With the closure of 'The Egoist', Marsden withdrew from public view to continue her work on her rather odd admixture of philosophy, theology, mathematics, physics and biology, which was eventually published by Harriet Shaw Weaver in two volumes as 'The Definition of the Godhead' in 1928 and 'Mysteries of Christianity' in 1930. Supposedly aiming at "the intellectual rehabilitation of the dogmas of Christian theology in terms of the characters of the first principles of physics" (Marsden in the introduction to 'The Definition'), the first volume was panned and the second was greeted with indifference, and less than 100 were ever sold. Dora Marsden suffered a psychological breakdown in 1930, and on November 26, 1935, Marsden became a patient at the Crichton Royal Hospital in Dumfries. The hospital later stated that she "was not able to communicate rationally, was severely depressed and was diagnosed as suffering from deep melancholia."
Dora Marsden remained isolated in Crichton Royal Hospital with her books for the final 25 years of her life and died of a heart attack on December 13, 1960.

1884 - Pau Sabater i Lliró aka 'el Tero' (d. 1919), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, secretary of the Sindicato de Tintoreros of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, one of the most powerful unions in the textile industry, born. [expand]

[A] 1886 - In Paris, the 27-year old anarchist Charles Gallo tosses a bottle of hydrocyanic acid into the Paris Bourse (Stock Exchange). At his trial, where he insisted on addressing the judge as Citizen President, he shouted: "Long live revolution! Long live anarchism! Death to the bourgeois judiciary! Long live dynamite! Bunch of idiots!"

[AA] 1903 - Eighteen-year-old French anarchist Paul Roussenq (labelled by the press as the 'anarchist convict') throws a crouton at the head prosecutor during a trial for vagrancy. For this dastardly terrorist act he is conscripted into the disciplinary battalions of Biribi in Africa for five years. Further insubordination leads to a military tribunal condemning Roussenq to 20 years of forced labour in penal colonies at Cayenne in French Guyana on May 5, 1908. There he was involved in a prison uprising, which earns him another 3,779 days in the dungeon. Only after a press campaign and the mobilization of the S.R.I. (International Red Help) is he finally released from prison — in 1932!

1914 - Selma Cohen (d. 1985) US printmaker, illustrator, mural artist, anarchist and partner of Abe Bluestein, born. [expand]

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The economy is suffering and one incident at the municipal market makes its way into the pages of the 'La Publicidad' newspaper, when a grocer hoarding the best quality cabbages in order to force up prices, is himself forced by protesting shoppers to sell all his cabbages at a cut price rate.
Workers from those gas works, especially from La Catalana, who had not gone out now joined the strike. The police respond by laaunching a series of absurd raids on foreigners.

1920 - Victor François Marie Pengam (b. 1883), French anarchist propagandist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Jan. 21]

1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: In issue no. 3 of the 'Izvestia of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Sailors, Red Soldiers and Workers the city of Kronstadt' (Известия Временного Революционного Комитета Матросов, Красноармейцев и Рабочих города Кронштадта) proclaims: "For three days Kronstadt got rid of the nightmare of communist power, just as it had removed four years ago the power of the Tsar, and of the tsarist generals. For three days the citizens of Kronstadt breathed free, freed from the dictatorship of the party. The Kronstadt Communists' "great leaders" ran away disgracefully, like guilty little children. They saved their skins from the danger that the Provisional Revolutionary Committee would resort to that beloved means of extremists, the firing squad."

1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: Having arrived in Petrograd on March 5, Leon Trotsky issues an ultimatum to rebelling soldiers and sailors in Kronstadt:
"The Workers' and Peasants Government has decreed that Kronstadt and the rebellious ships must immediately submit to the authority of the Soviet Republic. Therefore, I command all who have raised their hands against the socialist fatherland to lay donw their arms at once. The commissars and other members of the government who have been arrested are to be liberated at once. Only those who surrender unconditionally can expect mercy from the Soviet Republic.
"I am simultaneously giving orders to prepare for the suppression of the rebellion and the subjugation of the sailors by armed force. All responsibility for the harm that may be suffered by the peaceful population will rest entirely on the heads of the White Guard mutineers. This warning is final."
'Ultimatum to Kronstadt' - signed by Leon Trotsky (War Commissar), Lev Kamenev (CinC of the Red Army).
This is the ultimatum that was said to be accompanied by a threat that the Bolsheviks would "shoot like partridges" all those who refused to surrender immediately. Only those who did could expect mercy. It is attributed to Trotsky but was in fact issued by Grigory Zinoviev's Petrograd Defence Committee: "You are surrounded on all sides… Kronstadt has neither bread nor fuel. If you insist, we will shoot you like partridges."
The Provisional Revolutionary Committee replied: "The ninth wave of the Toilers' Revolution has risen and will sweep from the face of Soviet Russia the vile slanderers and tyrants with all their corruption. And your leniency, Mr. Trotsky, will not be needed." - 'Izvestia of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Sailors, Red Soldiers and Workers the city of Kronstadt' (Известия Временного Революционного Комитета Матросов, Красноармейцев и Рабочих города Кронштадта) No. 5, Monday, March 7, 1921

1934 - Marie Guillot (b. 1880), French teacher, anarcho-syndicalist, pacifist and feminist activist, dies. [see: Sep. 9]

1939 - The Negrín government is overthrown in an overnight coup (March 5-6) in Madrid; members of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT trade union in the south-central zone are involved in the coup and occupy posts in the new National Council of Defence.

1940 - Cai Yuanpei [Tsai Yuan-pei](蔡元培; b. 1868), Chinese educator, anarchist, Esperantist, pioneer of Chinese modern ethnology, president of Peking University, and founder of the Academia Sinica, dies in Hong Kong, aged 72. [see: Jan. 11]

## 1943 - Bernard Baissat, French journalist, pacifist and libertarian film-maker, born. A Professor of Italian and French literature, in 1967 he became a reporter for the ORTF. From 1968 to 1976 he directed in Africa and Lebanon, then returned to France in 1977 where he continued his work as a director for FR3. "A historian of the camera" he produced and directed numerous documentaires of old comrades (and partners) between 1980 and 1998, helping preserve and understand a rich anarchist and pacifist history. André Claudot, Jeanne Humbert, Eugene Bizeau, May Picqueray, Marcel Body, Aguigui Mouna, Robert Jospin, René Dumont, Serge Utgé-Royo and André Bösiger all appeared in his 'Listen' series. He also directed films on the labour movement, the Bourse du Travail and the Paris newspaper 'Le Canard Enchainé'.

1944 - Max Jacob (b. 1876), French poet, painter, writer, critic, queer and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies in Drancy internment camp from bronchial pneumonia. [see: Jul. 12]

1944 - Pasquale Binazzi (b. 1873), Italian anarchist, secretary of the 'chambre du travail' and organiser of the 'syndicat de l'arsenal' in Spezia, dies. Founded the weekly magazine 'Il Libertario' in 1903, which printed 10,000 copies at its peak until closed by the Fascists in 1922. He died whilst helping organise anarchist guerilla groups in Liguria and Tuscany. [see: Jun. 12]

1984 - Gérard Lebovici (b. 1932), Radical French publisher, film producer, friend and financial supporter of Guy Debord, dies. [see: Aug. 25]

1998 - The arrest in their Turin squat of the Italian anarchists Edoardo Massari aka 'Baleno' and Silvano Pelissero and the Argentine anarchist Maria Soledad Rosas on eco-terrorrism charges relating to a series of attacks against the TAV high-speed train project. On March 28, Baleno, Maria's partner, would take his own life in the Turin prison. After the suicide of Baleno, Soledad – who had not even been in Italy when the original attacks had taken place – was granted house arrest in Piedmont and, on the night of July 10-11, 1998, hung herself with a bedsheet. On January 31, 2000, Silvano was convicted of subversive association, and various 'ecoterrorist' and explosive charges, and given six years and 10 months in prison. An appeal in Janaury 2991 reduced the sentence by 9 months and another court invalidated the terrorist association conviction in November of that year. He was released in 2002 after the Court of Cassation in Rome finally reduced his sentence to 3 years and 10 months.
[[ ]_La_historia_de_Soledad.html]

2009 - Following the grenade attack on the Exarcheia Immigrants' Social Centre on February 24th and the demonstration 2 days later, a much larger protest takes place in Athens, which erupts into extended street battles between protesters and the riot police forces that had attacked the demo. During the clashes, which spread throughout the city centre, several banks and expensive shops were destroyed, and protesters broke into the offices of the neo-Nazi Golden Dawn (Xrysi Avgi), the para-state organisation responsible for numerous assassination attempts against immigrants, anarchists and the left, as well as a campaign of terror against radical infrastructures. The offices were torched to the ground.

[B] 2010 - 'Exit Through the Gift Shop: A Banksy Film' is released in the UK.

2013 - Hunger strike in Rhodes jail, Greece. Revolt in Nafplio prison, Greece.
1870 - Eugène Humbert (d. 1944), French anarchist, militant pacifist, néo-Malthusian and companion of Jeanne Humbert, born. He discovered anarchism at an early age, becoming a militant in the Nancy Liberté group, publishes the journal 'L'Indépendant' and is identified by the police as a "dangerous anarchist". In 1896 he became director of Paul Robin's néo-Malthusian magazine 'Régénération', later launching the newspaper 'Génération Consciente' on 1908, and in 1931 'La Grande Réforme'.
During WWI he fled to Barcelona, returning to France in 1919 he was arrested and sentenced May 4 1921 to 5 years in prison for insubordination. On Nov. 5 1921, he was again convicted, with his wife Jeanne Lisieux, to 2 additional years in prison and fined 3,000 francs each for disseminating neo-Malthusian propaganda.
At the outbreak of WWII, he and Jeanne fled Paris again, later to be sentenced to 18 months in prison for providing a book banned by the 1920 law (punishing anti-natalist propaganda). In prison he falls ill and is transferred to hospital but is killed in prison during WWII Allied bombing, the day before his scheduled release.

1879 - The trial of 29-year-old anarchist Giovanni Passannante [sometimes spelled Passanante], who attempted to kill King Humbert I, begins.

## 1884 - Maria Collazo (d. 1942), Uruguayan educationalist, journalist, feminist, syndicalist and anarchist activist, who was known as Abuelita del Pueblo (Grandmother of the People), born. [expand]

1898 - Nesho Todorov Tumangelov (Нешо Тодоров Тумангелов; d. April 1941), Bulgarian anarchist member of the Koprivshtitsa anarcho-communist cheta (Копривщенска анархо-комунистическа чета), born.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

[B] 1900 - Henri Jeanson (d. 1970), French libertarian pacifist, journalist, screenwriter, pataphysician and author, born. After working in various odd jobs, he became a potent journalist on 'La Bataille', the newspaper of the then anarcho-syndicalist dominated Confédération Générale du Travail (CGT) union. He would later work as a reporter, interviewer and film critic for the 'Journal du Peuple', 'Hommes du Jour' and 'Le Canard Enchaîné', where he defended his uncompromising pacifist line. He also started scripting films in 1932.
In July 1939 he was sentenced to 18 months in prison for publishing an article in 'Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste' in which he congratulated Herschel Grynszpan for his assassination of Ernst vom Rath, an official of the German embassy in Paris. He was arrested again in November 1939, having already joined his regiment following his call-up, for his pacifist articles and for having signed Louis Lecoin's tract 'Paix Immédiate'. He was sentenced on Dec. 20 1939 by a military tribunal to five years in prison for "calling for disobedience within the ranks".
Imprisoned days before the German army marched into Paris, his lawyer managed to obtain his release and Jeanson became the chief editor of 'Aujourd'hui', a new notionally 'independent' pacifist newspaper, that many comrades argued was effectively a collaborationist organ. The first issue was published on Sept. 10 1940 and by November the German authorities were pressuring him for the paper to take an anti-Jewish and pro-Vichy line. Jeanson resigned and went back to prison, but was freed a few months later through the intervention of an ex-ultra-pacifist and now collaborationist friend. Banned from journalism and film, he continued to script-write in secret for film (and uncredited) and for clandestine pamphlets (narrowly avoiding being rearrested in 1942 for this activity) until the Liberation.
Posy WWII, he regained the editorship of 'Le Canard Enchaîné' and wrote for 'Le Crapouillot', 'Combat' and 'L'Aurore'. In April 1947 he caused a furore by quitting 'Le Canard Enchaîné' following the cutting of an article about Louis Aragon, Elsa Triolet, Maurice Thorez and the PCF, but later returned to publish articles under the pseudonym 'Huguette ex-Micro'. He also wrote for the weekly French cinema magazine 'Cinémonde' and was a television critic for 'L'Aurore'. He quit the cinema in 1965 but remained active in journalism and the political struggle, especially around subjects close to his heart such as pacifism, the freedom of expression and anti-colonialism.
Jeanson wrote the scripts and dialogue for around 90 films, including 'Pépé le Moko' (1937), 'Hôtel du Nord' (1938), 'Les Maudits' (The Damned; 1947), 'Le Crime Ne Paie Pas' (The Gentle Art of Murder; 1962) and 'Paris When It Sizzles' (1964). He also directed one of his own scripts, 'Lady Paname' (1950), wrote a number of plays for the theatre and a handful of books including the posthumous memoir '70 Ans d'Adolescence' (1971).

1908 - Madeleine Lamberet (d. 1999), French anarchist, painter, designer, engraver, illustrator and primary-school teacher, born.
[ LAMBERET&x=0&y=0]

[DD] 1910 - Kileler Rebellion [Κιλελέρ Εξέγερση]: Early in the morning, around 200 crofters (Κολίγος) and farmers had gathered in the village of Kileler (Κιλελέρ) in Thessaly with their red and black flags to travel by train to Larissa (Λάρισα) to attend a large agricultural demonstration with other crofters and farmers from across Thessaly. It was part of their on-going protests against the semi-feudal Chiflik system under which rural areas in the Ottoman Empire were regulated. Their main demand was the expropriation of land from the landlords and its redistribution to farmers.
When they tried to board a train without buying tickets, the director of Thessalian Railways, Politis (Πολίτης), who was on board the train, refuses to allow them to continue to Larissa. He then got some troops that were on the train travelling to Larissa to police the demonstration to push them off the train. Politis then proceeded to insult the farmers, calling them "rabble" and "beasts". The farmers them start stoning the train and the troops were ordered to fire on the farmers, killing Athanasios Ntafouli (Αθανάσιου Νταφούλη) and Athanasios Bocas (Αθανάσιου Μπόκας), and wounding many others. The train quickly pulled out of the station and one kilometre on at the station at Tsoular (Τσουλάρ, today's malia / Μελία), 800 locals were waiting. However, the train was ordered not to stop. Instead, the soldiers fired a warning volley over the heads of the crowd of waitng farmers, who reposned by attacking the train with stones and sticks. The angry crowd was fired on from the train, leaving two more dead and 15 wounded.
When the train arrived in Larissa and news of what had happened in Kileler and Tsoular spread, unarmed demonstrators began battling with the armed forces, who responded with live fire. Two tenant farmers were killed during a cavalry charge. The prefect, the police chief and the garrison commander of Larissa, who had all watched the battle, realised that the suppression of the revolt of crofters was impossible, so the demonstration was allowed to continue peacefully. The rally ended, after having drawn up and approved a resolution which was sent to the Parliament in Athens demanding the immediate passage of the bill for the expropriation of estates and distribution of estate, the strengthening of the Agricultural Fund tax, and expressing deep sorrow for the State's unjust attacking on the people, the unarmed victims of slavery in Thessaly.
The uprising was followed by mass arrests and detention of many farmers. Several were released by decree and 62 of the protesters were tried and acquitted on June 23, 1910 in an attempt to defuse the situation. The uprising in Kileler roused a wave of sympathy across the country and increased the social pressure to solve the agrarian question. However, the measures taken were only piecemeal and it was not until 1923 that the estates were expropriated on a large scale.

[F] 1913 - Joe Hill's song 'There is Power in a Union' first appears in the IWW's 'Little Red Song Book'.

1914 - [N.S. Mar. 19] Ştefan Gheorghiu (b. 1879), Romanian carpenter and revolutionary syndicalist, dies in the Filaret sanatorium in Ploieşti from the tuberculosis contracted in the military prison in Galați in 1907. He was aged just 35. [see: Jan. 15]

1917 - Derek Stanley Savage (pen name D.S. Savage; d. 2007), English poet, critic and Christian anarcho-pacifist, who became General Secretary of the Anglican Pacifist Fellowship, born. Associated with the post-war New Apocalyptics poetry group.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Public lighting services remain poor and power failures mean that tram services are interrupted or stopped altogether in Barcelona, whilst the strike movement moves back on to the offensive. The strike has now spread to include the power workers in the hydroelectric power plants in Tordera – which provides electricity to Sabadell and Panadés – and in the city of Tremp in the Pyrennes, supplier for the municipality of Igualada. In the latter the guardia civil take over the plant. In addition, workers in Molins del Rey are on strike and there are rumours that Lérida will also join in.

[D] 1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: Lev Kamenev and Leon Trotsky issue an ultimatum to rebelling soldiers and sailors in Kronstadt:
"The Workers' and Peasants Government has decreed that Kronstadt and the rebellious ships must immediately submit to the authority of the Soviet Republic. Therefore, I command all who have raised their hands against the socialist fatherland to lay donw their arms at once. The commissars and other members of the government who have been arrested are to be liberated at once. Only those who surrender unconditionally can expect mercy from the Soviet Republic.
"I am simultaneously giving orders to prepare for the suppression of the rebellion and the subjugation of the sailors by armed force. All responsibility for the harm that may be suffered by the peaceful population will rest entirely on the heads of the White Guard mutineers. This warning is final."
'Ultimatum to Kronstadt' - signed by Leon Trotsky (War Commissar), Lev Kamenev (CinC of the Red Army).
This is the ultimatum that was said to be accompanied by a threat that the Bolsheviks would "shoot like partridges" all those who refused to surrender immediately. Only those who did could expect mercy. It is attributed to Trotsky but was in fact issued by Grigory Zinoviev's Petrograd Defence Committee: "You are surrounded on all sides… Kronstadt has neither bread nor fuel. If you insist, we will shoot you like partridges."
The Provisional Revolutionary Committee replied: "The ninth wave of the Toilers' Revolution has risen and will sweep from the face of Soviet Russia the vile slanderers and tyrants with all their corruption-­and your lemency, Mr. Trotsky, will not be needed." - 'Pravda o Kronshtadte' No. 5, Monday, March 7th, 1921

[C] 1921 - Ateo Tommaso Garemi i Gagno (d. 1943), Italian-French communist, then anarchist and anti-fascist combatant, born. As a young man he emigrated with his family to France, where he worked as a lumberjack. When he was 17 he joined as a volunteer in the International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War. In 1940 he joined the French Section of the Communist International (SFIC) and, after the German occupation of France, he joined the Maquis (Francs-tireurs Partisans), fighting in the Marseille region. After the armistice of September 8, 1943, he returned to Italy and became the organiser and commander of the Gruppi di Azione Patriottica (GAP) in Turin. Together with the Turin anarchist Dario Cagno, who profundly influenced Garemi, he ambushed Domenico Giardina, the leader of the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN; Voluntary Militia for National Security), on the morning of October 25, 1943. However, both were betrayed by an informer and arrested 2 days later. They were tortured, prosecuted and sentenced to death by the Special Court of Turin for complicity in the murder of Giardina. Garemi was executed on December 21, 1943 in the courtyard of the Monte Grappa barracks in Turin, and Cagno 2 days later. Resistenza vicentina went on to name a batallion after him.

1922 - Nestor Kalandarishvili (ნესტორ კალანდარიშვილი [ka]), aka 'Grandfather' (Дед), 'Siberian Grandfather' (ციმბირელი პაპა), 'Grandfather Nestor' (პაპა ნესტორი)[Нестор Александрович Каландаришвили [ru] (Nestor Aleksandrovich Kalandarishvili)] (b. 1876), Georgian Socialist-Revolutionay who participated in the Gurian peasant uprising of 1905-06, then became an anarchist partisan, is killed in an ambush during the Yakut Mutiny (Якутский мятеж). [see: Jul. 8]

1932 - Renato Lacquaniti (d. 1998), Italian anarchist, anti-militarist and painter, born. One of the co-founders of the artistic group 'Atoma' (created in the local group of the Anarchist Federation of Livorno) and in 1960 painted 'Composizioni Anarchiche'.

1941 - Francisco del Águila Aguilera (b. 1916), Andalusian stonemason, anarchist and anti-fascist member of the FIJL and CNT, is shot in Almeria alongsdie his brothers Juan and Rafael. In 1935, along with Abel Paz, Cueto and others, he was in the military wing of the FIJL, which he represented in the Comitè de Guerra d'Almeria in late September 1936 and in the Comitè Central Antifeixista d'Almeria, and the FAI on the Comitè Permanent del Front Popular d'Almeria (Standing Committee of the Popular Front of Almeria) in late 1936.

1951 - Vaga de Tramvies / Huelga de Tranvías [Barcelona Tram Strike / General Strike]: Following the reversal of the ticket price rise, the Phalangists organsied members to board trams in order to "break the ice". The act merely hardens the workers' position. [see: Mar. 1]

1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Ian Purdie arrested. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1981 - Arahata Kanson [荒畑 寒村] aka Arahata Katsuzō [荒畑 勝三](b. 1887), Japanese labour leader, journalist, participating in many of the left-wing movements of the era, born. He started as a libertarian-socialist close to Kōtoku Shūsui (幸徳秋水) and Sakai Toshihiko (堺利彦) and the Heiminsha (平民社) group around the 'Heimin Shinbun' (平民新聞 / The Commoner's News) newspaper, then became an anarcho-syndicalist implicated in the 1908 Red Flag Incident (赤旗事件 / Akahata Jiken) and imprisoned, and then a communist involved in the founding of the Japanese Communist Party (日本共産党), known as the First Communist Party (第一次共産党), in 1921, eventually serving in the Diet as a representative of the postwar Japan Socialist Party (日本社会党), dies at the age of 93 in the Tamagawa Hospital (玉川病院) in Setagaya-ku, Tokyo due to emphysema. [see: Aug. 14]

1992 - Léo Campion (Léon Louis Octave Campion; b. 1905), Franco-Belgian character actor, singer, anarchist, free thinker, Freemason, Régent de l'Institut de Pataphysique and Grand Maître de la Confrérie des Chevaliers du Taste Fesses, dies. [see: Mar. 24]

2000 - Miriam Patchen (Sirkka Miriam Oikemus; b. 1914), peace activist and dedicatee of all the works of her lifelong partner, fellow anarchist and poet, Kenneth Patchen, dies. [see: Sep. 28]

2002 - Ralph Rumney (b. 1934), English artist, writer, lifelong conscientious objector and on of the founders of the Situationist International, dies. [see: Jun. 5]

2007 - Jean Baudrillard (b. 1929), French sociologist, philosopher, cultural theorist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 27]

2007 - Protests in Copenhagen continue as the city demolishes the Ungdomshuset (Youth House) building, an anarchist youth and cultural centre.

2013 - Mutiny of prisoners in Patra prison, Greece.

2014 - Three members of Pussy Riot – Nadezhda Tolokonnikova [Наде́жда Толоко́нникова], Maria Alyokhina [Мари́я Алёхина] and Taisia Krugovykh [Таисия Круговых] – in Nizhny Novgorod as part of a campaign for prisoners' rights, are attacked and covered in green paint by a group of unknown men wearing Ribbon of Saint George medals.
1878 - Carlo Frigerio (d. 1966), Italian militant, printer, writer, principal collaborator, along with Camillo Berneri, Luigi Fabbri and Carlo Molaschi, on the Malatesta edited 'Pensiero e Volontà' (Thought & Will), born. One of the princicle protagonists of the anarchist movement in Switzerland. [expand]

1885 - First issue of the weekly magazine 'L'Audace', in Paris, organe communiste-anarchiste, which replaced the newspaper 'Terre et Liberté'. Its epigrams where: "Pour vaincre que faut'il? De l'audace, de l'audace et encore de l'audace" [Danton] and "Meurt s'il le faut mais dis la vérité" [Marat]. (“Audacity, always audacity, still more audacity” and “Die if necessary but speak the truth”)

## 1891 - Gildardo Magaña Cerda (d. 1939), Mexican author, antirreeleccionista, revolutionary, anarcho-syndicalist and Zapatista general, who succeeded Zapata as head of the Ejército Libertador del Sur (Liberation Army of the South), born.

1892 - François Ravachol and a number of his friends decided to try and bomb the commissariat (police station) in Clichy in revenge for the treatment of the Affaire de Clichy defendants [see: May 1 & Aug. 28]. However they are unable to come close to the commissariat with their bomb, a smelting pot full of fifty dynamite cartridges and scrap iron as grape, and Ravachol will instead targets the home of the presiding judge at the Clichy trial, Edouard Benoit on March 11.

1907 - [N.S. Mar 20] Peter Arshinov (Пётр Арши́нов) shoots Vasilenko, head of the main railroad yard at Aleksandrovsk. A notorious and pitiless oppressor of workers, Vasilenko had turned over to the military tribunal more than 100 workers who were accused of taking part in the armed uprising in Aleksandrovsk in December, 1905; many of them were condemned to death or forced labor because of Vasilenko’s testimony. He was caught and sentenced to death by hanging but, the sentence temporarily postponed, he managed too escape from Aleksandrovsk prison on the night of April 22, 1907.

1909 - Charles Perrone (b.1837), Swiss-born anarchist, militant of the First International, Bakuninist propagandist and cartographer, dies. [see: Dec. 06]

[B] 1909 - Léo Malet (d. 1996), French crime novelist, poet and Surrealist, born. He has written under a number of differnt pseudonyms: Frank Harding , Léo Latimer, Lionel Doucet, Jean de Selneuves, Noël Letam, Omer Refreger, Louis Refreger and, in association with fellow writers Serge Arcouët and Pierre Ayraud, under the collective pseudonym John-Silver Lee.
In his autobiography his tells of his individualist anarchist youth, selling 'Le Libertaire' on the streets of Montpelier and becoming associated with André Colomer, before later becoming a Trotskyist. Moved to Paris and began working as a cabaret singer at La Vache Enragee in Montmartre in 1925, continuing his anarchist associations, as well as becoming a vegan, and working in numerous odd jobs: clerk, labourer, newspaper vendor and occasional journalist (on 'L'En Dehors', 'L'Insurgé', 'Journal de l'Homme aux Sandales', 'la Revue Anarchiste', etc..
He later became a friend of Jacques Prévert, who introduced him to the Surrealists, becoming close friends with André Breton, René Magritte and Yves Tanguy, amongst others. Like many of his fellow Surrealists, he joined Benjamin Peret' Trotskyist POI (Parti Ouvrier Internationaliste) between 1936 to 1939. In 1942 he created his most famous character, Nestor 'Dynamite' Burma, private detective, ex-anarchist, serial monogamist and inveterate pipe smoker, who featured in 33 novels, beginning with the 'Les Nouveaux Mystères de Paris' series and the first novel, '120, Rue de la Gare' in 1943 under the Nazi occupation. The most 'anarchist' of these novels is arguably 'Brouillard au Pont de Tolbiac' (Fog on the Tolbiac Bridge; 1956), where Burma is taken back to his anarchist past by the arrival of a letter addressed to him beginning "Dear Comrade". Unfortunately, Malet also displayed a growing anti-Arab racism in his older writings.
[ a&titre=Léo Malet, une brève biographie&num=40&date=2010-04-25]

1911 - Dolores Vimes Domínguez (d. 2007), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, is born into an anarchist family. Her father Juan Vimes Durán was one of the founders of a union in her home town Constantina, Sevilla, and during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and the Republic he was imprisoned on several occasions. Dolores was already a member of the CNT herself prior to the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic. Her father and brother were killed during the Civil War, and her partner José Teyssiere Gómez, also a centista, was sentenced to death. After the sentence was commuted, Dolores was able to visit the prison in Seville before he was sent to the La Corchuela concentration camp, about eight kilometers from Dos Hermanas, where more than a thousand political prisoners worked on the construction of the Bajo Guadalquivir Canal. In 1942, she married José in the La Corchuela camp in order to get some money and be able to feed her children. On December 28, 1942 Teyssiere managed to escape, and after spending a few days hiding at a comrade's home, Dolores took him to a cottage in the Cuarteros district, where he managed to stay hidden for five years until his situation was normalised. In later life she participated in events recognising and celebrating the historical memory of the 'presos del Canal', the Republican prisoners forced to work constructing the Bajo Guadalquivir Canal. Her testimony is recorded in the collection 'El canal de los presos' (1940-1962) (2004); Mariano Agudo and Eduardo Montero - 'Presos del Silencio' (2004); and, José Luis Gutiérrez Molina - 'La tiza, la tinta y la palabra. José Sánchez Rosa, maestro y anarquista andaluz (1864-1936)' (2005). Dolores Vimes Domínguez died on May 17, 2007.

1911 - The United States sent 20,000 troops to the Mexican border in the wake of the Mexican Revolution.

1913 - Ramón Álvarez Palomo aka 'Ramonín' (d. 2003), Asturian militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. As a CNT militant, he was involved in the insurrection of 1934 and was imprisoned with Durruti before taking refuge in France. He also fought in Spanish Revolution and was the publisher of 'Acción Libertaria' until 1994. Writer and historian with a number of books to his credit.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Only 12 of the 1000 La Canadenca strikers have returned to work following the expiry of the deadline. The strikes in the water, gas and electricity industries continue and have spread to several cities including Igualada, Sabadell, Cerdanyola, Villefranche, Molins de Rei and others. The army has failed to normalise gas supplies and Badalona is in the dark because of a strike at the La Propagadora gasworks. González Rothwos, the civil governor, says he wants to end the strike and get back to normal. Some strikes are settled such as coal loaders and cleaning staff, and employees at the Sant Andreu railway station return to work.

1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: Having arrived in Petrograd on March 5, Leon Trotsky issued an ultimatum to rebelling soldiers and sailors in Kronstadt:
"The Workers' and Peasants Government has decreed that Kronstadt and the rebellious ships must immediately submit to the authority of the Soviet Republic. Therefore, I command all who have raised their hands against the socialist fatherland to lay donw their arms at once. The commissars and other members of the government who have been arrested are to be liberated at once. Only those who surrender unconditionally can expect mercy from the Soviet Republic.
"I am simultaneously giving orders to prepare for the suppression of the rebellion and the subjugation of the sailors by armed force. All responsibility for the harm that may be suffered by the peaceful population will rest entirely on the heads of the White Guard mutineers. This warning is final."
'Ultimatum to Kronstadt' - signed by Leon Trotsky (War Commissar), Lev Kamenev (CinC of the Red Army).
This is the ultimatum that was said to be accompanied by a threat that the Bolsheviks would "shoot like partridges" all those who refused to surrender immediately. Only those who did could expect mercy. It is attributed to Trotsky but was in fact issued by Grigory Zinoviev's Petrograd Defence Committee: "You are surrounded on all sides… Kronstadt has neither bread nor fuel. If you insist, we will shoot you like partridges."
Two days later, the Provisional Revolutionary Committee now reply: "The ninth wave of the Toilers' Revolution has risen and will sweep from the face of Soviet Russia the vile slanderers and tyrants with all their corruption. And your leniency, Mr. Trotsky, will not be needed." - 'Izvestia of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Sailors, Red Soldiers and Workers the city of Kronstadt' (Известия Временного Революционного Комитета Матросов, Красноармейцев и Рабочих города Кронштадта) No. 5, Monday, March 7, 1921
At 18:00 that day, some of the 17,600 specially selected forces of the Red Army assembled under the command of Trotsky open fire at 6:45 p.m. on the forts of Kronstadt; the sailors, soldiers, workers and populace of Kronstadt counter-fire and reduce Trotsky's batteries to silence.
Trotsky: "One can't make an omelet without breaking eggs."
Voline: "I see the broken eggs — now where's this omelet of yours?"

1931 - Theo van Doesburg (Christian Emil Marie Küpper; b. 1883), Dutch artist, painter, poet, theorist on art and architecture, who is best known as the founder of De Stijl, dies. [see: Aug. 30]

[F] 1942 - Lucy Eldine Gonzalez Parson (b. 1853), American anarchist labour organiser and founding member of the IWW, dies in a house fire. Lucy Parsons probably grew up as a slave and married Albert Parsons, a former Confederate soldier, and became a radical republican to 1871. In 1874, they moved to Chicago and engaged in the revolutionary socialist movement, participating in revolutionary activism on behalf of political prisoners, people of colour, the homeless and women. Lucy began writing for 'The Socialist' and 'The Alarm', the journal of the IWPA (International Working People's Association) that she and her husband helped form in 1883. Albert was to be arrested and fitted-up for the Haymarket massacre in 1886, and executed on November 11, 1887. Lucy wrote a biography of Albert: 'Life of Albert R. Parsons with Brief History of the Labour Movement in America' (1889) using material Albert left at his death.
In 1892 in Boston she began publishing the periodical, 'Freedom: A Revolutionary Anarchist-Communist Monthly' (1890-92), followed by the Chicago-based 'The Rebel' (1895-96), and was regularly arrested for her public advocacy of anarchism and workers rights. In 1905 she participated in the founding of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and began editing the 'Liberator' (1905-06), an anarchist newspaper that supported the IWW in Chicago. In January 1915 she organised the Chicago Hunger Demonstrations and continued to be a thorn in the side of the bosses and the police - in 1920 the Chicago Police Department branded her as being "more dangerous than a thousand rioters".
Following her death, police seized her library of over 1,500 books and all of her personal papers.

1947 - Yoshiaki Makita [牧田吉明], aka Bakudan'ya [爆弾屋] (d. 2010), Japanese anarchist, new left wing (新左翼) activist, and latterly a nationalist of the 'new right wing' (新右翼 / Shinuyoku) variety, born. He played the role of terrorist in 'Heroic Purgatory' (煉獄エロイカ, 1970), a film by Kiju Yoshida (吉田喜重]).

1956 - Patrick Schindler, French writer, journalist, activist in the Front homosexuel d'action révolutionnaire and the Fédération Anarchiste, of which he is the general secretary in 2007, born.

1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Ian Purdie is charged, along with Jake Prescott, accused of the two Angry Brigade bombings. They are both in the top security wing at Brixton Prison -- as class A prisoners -- and are kept in their cells for 23 hours a day.

1980 - Irma Götze (b. 1912), German pediatric nurse, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Dec. 3]

1988 - Saturnino Carod Lerín aka ' 'El Cuco Cebollero', 'Satur' and 'Jacinto Lahoz Marín' (b. 1903), leading Aragonese anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist combattant, dies. [see: Feb. 21]

1998 - Jack Frager (Yankel or Yakov Treiger; b. 1903), Ukrainian-American anarchist and labour activist, dies. A youthful participant in the Russian Revolution of 1917, in order to escape being conscripted into the Red or White armies, he fled to Romania, and then on to Argentina. Whilst living in Buenos Aires for 18 months, he self-published Gustav Landauer on anarchism in Yiddish, before moving to New York in 1923. He became acvtive on the Committee to Defend Sacco and Vanzetti, made arrangements for Emma Goldman’s last U.S. speaking tour, made his own speaking tours of the U.S. during the 1930’s, helped found the Libertarian Book Club in NYC in the late 1930's, was on the editorial board of the Yiddish language anarchist newspaper 'Freie Arbeiter Stimme' (The Free Voice of Labour), was active in the Painters' Union and taught labor history at Brookwood Labor College. When he was 80, he visited Spain to meet with the resurgent, post-Franco anarchist movement. At 87 he visited Ukraine but was to develope Alzheimer's disease. "Daddy was indefatigable," said his daughter Cheshire, "when he sought anti-war and Yiddishkeit groups in Florida and didn't find them, he started them. He never lost his ideas, energy or commitment."

2000 - Nicolas Walter (b. 1924), journalist, philosopher, atheist, anarchist, dies. He was a founding member of the Committee of 100 and of Spies for Peace as well as author of 'About Anarchism' (1969). [see: Nov. 22]

2005 - Philip Lamantia (b. 1927), Sicilian-American anarchist and Surrealist poet, dies. [see: Oct. 23]

2013 - Mutiny in Grevena prison, Greece.

2014 - Uwe Timm (b. 1932) German author of libertarian oriented publications, anti-militarist and co-editor of the libertarian journal 'espero', dies of a subdural haematoma in Barcelona, ​​shortly after his 82nd birthday. [see: Feb. 5]
[B] 1885 - Juan de Dios Filiberto (Oscar Juan de Dios Filiberti Rubaglio; d. 1964), Argentine anarchist, instrumentalist (piano, guitar, violin and harmonium), conductor, poet and composer, who became prominent in the Argentine tango genre, born. He worked in various trades (shoeshine, boilermaker, baker, lottery ticket seller, bricklayer, stevedore, longshoreman, mechanic, etc.) and from 1904 to 1910 worked in the Navales Mihanovich workshops. Always linked to anarchist groups, he was one of the organisers of the 1907 shipyard strikes. Amongst his most enduring compositions are 'Guaymallén', 'Quejas de bandoneón' (The Bandoneón's Woes), 'Suelo Argentino' (Argentine Soil), 'Cura Segura' (Sure Medicine), 'De mi Tierra' (From My Land), 'Se Recomienda Solo' (It's Better Alone), 'La Planchadorita' (Woman Ironing), 'El Ramito' (Spring), 'El Besito' (The Little Kiss), 'Malevaje', 'La Porteñita' (Little Girl from Buenos Aires), 'Clavel del Aire' (A Carnation from the Wind), 'Caminito' (Little path) and 'Botines viejos' (Old lace shoes). His first band was Orfeón Los del Futuro, which he formed with other militant anarchist musicians, and in 1932 he formed his famous and innovative band, Orquesta Porteña, which included 'non-standard' instruments such as clarinets and flutes. The band appeared in Luis Moglia Barth's film '¡Tango!' (1933), as well as recording numerous records for the Odeon and RCA Victor labels and becoming a fixture on the Buenos Aires radio stations during the 1930s. He went on to lead other equally important groups in the following decades, such as the Orquesta Popular de Arte Folklórico, the Orquesta de Música Popular and the Orquesta de Música Argentina y de Cámara. After his death in 1964 his last band would be renamed the Orquesta de Juan de Dios Filiberto de Música Argentina y de Cámara and, after a 1973 Presidential decree, its name was officially changed again to the Orquesta Nacional de Música Argentina Juan de Dios Filiberto.

[E] 1887 - Marie-Adele Anciaux aka Mary Smiles (d. 1983), French militant, naturalist animal rights activist and libertarian teacher, born. [expand]

1904 - Clément Fournier (d. 1969), French militant anarchist and pacifist, born. [expand]

[8-22 1905 - Les Travailleurs de la Nuit Trial: [EXPAND]

1905 - Dolores Prat Coll aka pequeña Montseny (little Montseny)(d. 2001), Catalan textile worker and militant anarcho-syndicalist member of the CNT from the age of 15, born. Prominent in the fight for the eight hour day, she was secretary of the Sindicato de la Industria Textil in Ripoll during the Civil War years. Following the defeat of the Republic, she and her family went into exile in France and were interned in the Magnac-Laval camp. On May 15, 1940, she crossed clandestinely back into Spain on behalf of Prats de Molló. She later settled in Toulouse, continuing their trade union work as secretary of the local CNT federation and the Solidaridad Internacional Anarquista (SIA).
She appeared in Lisa Berger's film 'Chemin de Liberté' (Way of Freedom; 1997) and was the subject of 'Dolores: Une Vie Pour La liberté' (A Life for Freedom; 2002) by her son Progreso Marin.

1907 - Marinos Antypas (Μαρίνος Αντύπας; b. 1872), one of the most important pioneering figures from the utopian socialist and peasant movements in Greece, dies. [expand]

1909 - Maurice César François Fayolle (d. 1970), French electrician and veteran libertarian communist, born.

1909 - Kikuoka Kuri (菊岡 久利; d. 1970), the pen-name of Takagi Michinokuo (高木陸奥男), Japanese poet and novelist of the Showa period, and anarchist, born.
[菊岡 久利菊岡久利KAI01.HTML]

##nov181914 - Britta Gröndahl (d. 2002), Swedish writer, French language teacher, editor, translator, feminist and anarcho-syndicalist militant in the Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation, born. [expand]

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Workers on the Ferrocarril de Sarrià electric rail line who had come out on strike yesterday are followed by those at the Plaça de Catalunya station. Police are sent into to attack the workers and multiple arrests are made.
The govnerment finally gives into the pressure from the La Canadenca company (i.e. Regs i Força de l'Ebre) and the bosses, declaring a state of war. The city is divided into sectors, each commanded by a colonel or general.
Workers from 21 of the 38 companies then on strike, including La Canadiense, Ferrocarril de Sarriá–Las Planas–Rubí, Servicio de Transportes de Barcelona, Catalana de Gas y Electricidad, Energía Eléctrica y Gas Lebón, are called up and must report to their recruitment areas. Those who do not comply are threatened with four years in prison.
The strike committee meets to try and decide on how to combat the new measures. After a long discussion it is decided that workers should present themselves, but that they are to refuse to work as scabs in the companies. Five days later, more than a hundred of the newly drafted worker/soldiers are charged with insubordination and the rest detained in a legal limbo. The trials of several soldiers in August 1919 revealed that dozens of them were insubordinate, disobeyed orders, insulted their commanders, or deserted. [The exacr numbers of those drafted are unknown but estimates vary between three to five thousand.]
It was clear that repressive measures were not going to break the strikers' wills, and the government and employers have begun to display increasing divisions over how to proceed. Milans del Bosch pushed for a further increase in coercion. The government of Romanones, however, feared the effect of stirring up the conflict.

1920 - Roberto Elia and Andrea Salsedo, anarchists who worked for the 'Cronaca Sovversiva', are kidnapped (or on February 25th?) by the Department of Justice without a warrant or being arrested. They are secretly confined and beaten in Department Justice (sic) offices in an effort to get them to inform on their fellow anarchists. Andrea Salsedo was suicided May 3rd, defenestrated from the 14th floor of the Department of Justice where he was being questioned.

1920 - After attending a conference of Moscow anarchists Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman are granted a meeting today with Lenin.

1920 - In Siena, fascists and the police attack the union offices which are defended by a hundred anarchist and socialist militants. Many workers are wounded in the confrontation, and the anarchist Regoli Giuseppe succumbs to his wounds. A General Strike in protest follows.

1921 - The Russian anarcho-syndicalist militant Grigori Petrovich Maximov is imprisoned, along with other members of the Nabat Federation. He is not released until autumn, following a hunger strike, when he is expelled from Russia with Voline.

1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: The Bolsheviks, consolidating their party power over the workers and peasants, begin an air raid on the peaceful population of Kronstadt. The Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Kronstadt appeals by radio-telegram to workers around the world to publicize their plight.

1921 - President Eduardo Dato assassinated in Madrid by Luis Nicolau, Pedro Mateu and Ramon Castenellas, metallurgists of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT. Dato was in charge of anti-union repression in Barcelona, and responsible for the killing of three imprisoned union activists on Jan, 20th, victims of the ley de fugas (law of escape) - being "set free" only to be shot down moments later as "escapees."

1933 - After the triumph of the right in elections, anarchists across Spain take to the streets. The movement reached insurrectionary extraordinary virulence in the Ebro Valley area (Aragón and La Rioja), with assaults on city councils and the proclamation of libertarian communism. The repression was very hard, several hundred were imprisoned.

1936 - Jules Alexandre Sadier (b. 1862), Franco-Argentine anarchist militant propagandist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Jun. 7]

[A] 1937 - March 8-18: Battle of Guadalajara; Italian troops defeated by Republican army with substantial International Brigade support.

1947 - Dominique Joubert (d. 2004), French poet, writer, libertarian and anarchist, who helped set up the cooperative printing house, Edit 71, born.

## 1954 - Bob Brozman (d. 2013), US guitarist, ethnomusicologist, musical historian, and anarchist, known for his mastery of the National Resonator guitar, born.

1976 - Robert Touati, a French anarchist active in Centro Iberico around 1974, and Juan Durran Escriban, wanted in Spain for an attack on an armoury, are both killed on the grounds of Toulouse University during the night of 8/9 March.

1984 - Petr Andreevich Pavlensky (Павленский, Пётр Андреевич), Russian conceptual artist and political activist, born. He regularly protests against the repressive nature of the Russian state through his performances [see: May 3, 2013]. On November 10, 2013, Russian Police Day, he nailed his testicles with the hammer to the stone pavement of the Red Square in Moscow in a protest against the Russian "police state".
1879 - Carloman François Rose (d. 1961), French anarchist, house painter and trade unionist (CGT, UD, CGTU), born. He served on the editorial board of 'Germinal', was a salesman for 'Libertaire' and organised support for the Black Sea Mutineers in 1921.

#### 1879 - Carlo Tresca (d. 1943), Italian-born American newspaper editor, orator, anarchist, labour organiser, prominent Industrial Workers of the World activist, and anti-fascist, born. Forced into exile following his involvement in the newspaper 'Il Germe' (The Origin), he emigrated to the USA via Switzerland. In New York he published an Italian language paper, 'La Plèbe', became involved in IWW union activities and in 1917 started 'Il Martello' (The Hammer), a newspaper he published until his death. In 1923, he was sentenced to one year in prison for publishing a book on birth control, but due to large demonstrations in his support his sentence was reduced to four months. Later he organised resistance to Italian émigré blackshirts in America. An outspoken foe of Fascism in Germany and Italy, and of Communism in the Soviet Union. The FBI accumulated a mere 1,358 pages on this outstanding citizen. He was murdered by an unknown assailant, presumably by fascists or the Mafia, on a New York street. [see: Jan 11]

[E] 1883 - A large demonstration of the unemployed at the Esplanade of Les Invalides is broken up by police. A large contingent marches across Paris, headed by Louise Michel, Joseph Tortelier and Émile Pouget (who initiated the demonstration), waving black flags (hers is an old black skirt attached to a broom handle) and ended with the looting of 3 bakeries. [According to historian George Woodcock, this is the earliest known instance of anarchists flying the black flag.] Louise Michel handed herself into the police a couple of weeks later and was sentenced on June 23, 1883 to six years for "excitation au pillage" and sent to Clermont-de-l’Oise prison. On January 14, 1886, she was finally released after thirty months of detention, following a presidential pardon.

[BB] 1894 - Franz Wilhelm Seiwert (d. 1933), German painter, sculptor, poet, Marxist, anarchist sympathiser, Expresionist, Dadaist and then a Consructivist and member of the Cologne Progressives, born.
Close friend of Erich Muhsam and of Ret Marut (aka B. Traven) - Seiwart sheltered Marut whilst he was on the run in 1919-20 and was one of the last persons to see Marut before he disappeared. Seiwert was also possibly the only person who knew the Marut-Traven connection and who Marut kept in contact with in Europe following his flight to Mexico.
He was seriously burned in 1901, at the age of seven, in an experimental radiological treatment, an event that influenced his later art and made him fear that his life would be short.
In 1916 he met the Expressionist artists Carl Oskar Jatho and Käthe Jatho-Zimmermann at one of their regular anti-war discussion evening in their apartment in Cologne, beginning a close friendship and collaboration. In 1919 he also met Max Ernst and took part in Dada activities; he was invited to exhibit in the large Dada exhibit in Cologne but withdrew at the last moment, claiming Dada was part of the "bourgeois art world". In that same year he formed the Stupid group which included Heinrich Hoerle and Anton Räderscheidt. According to Ernst, "Stupid was a secession from Cologne Dada. As far as Hoerle and especially Seiwert were concerned, Dada's activities were aesthetically too radical and socially not concrete enough". He was also a key member of the Kölner Progressiven (Progressives) Constructivist group in the 1920s, who were central to the Kölner Karneval and the extravagant parties at the Paradiesvogel (Bird of Paradise) and Lumpenball (Rag Ball).
His work appeared in Marut's 'Der Ziegelbrenner' (The Brickmakers; 1917-21) and in 1932 Seiwert's magazine 'a bis z' (1929-33), the organ of the Gruppe Progressiver Künstler (Group of Progressive Artists) offered unsold copies of 'Der Ziegelbrenner' to "friends of Traven". Seiwert also published a booklet, 'Rufe' (1919 or 1920), which included the prose piece of the title and an early version of the essay 'Zeichen', a theoretical "attempt to sketch the dialectical development of the representation of world history" which discusses Marx and Copernicus, as well as Masaccio, Seurat, Picasso, Rembrandt, and Beethoven, and also contains a tribute to Ret Marut. He also published with Tristan Rémy a collection of poetry, 'Choix de Poésies' (1924), in France including both of their poems as well as Erich Mühsam's.
When Hitler came to power in 1933, Seiwert briefly fled to the mountain range Siebengebirge, but his health was badly deteriorating, and friends brought him back to Cologne, where he died.

[CCC] 1896 - Umberto Tommasini (d. 1980), Italian blacksmith, anarchist and anti-fascist fighter, born into a working class socialist family. He took part in the October 14, 1909 protests against the death sentence passed on the Spanish anarchist Francisco Ferrer and also particpated in the celebrated Circolo di Studi Sociali. Wounded during WWI, he was taken prisoner and interned in the Mauthausen POW camp. Upon his release in 1919, he returned to Trieste and resumed his work as a blacksmith, and frequented socialist and anarchist circles. Following the 1920 internal debates within the socialist movement, he decided not to renew his membership of the Partito Socialista and threw his lot in with the anarchist movement. He also became active within the trades union movement, particularly against strikebreakers and the increasingly bold fascists gropus. In 1921 he was wounded by a group of fascists who had stormed the factory where he worked. That summer he took part in a reprisal raid against a squadristi group who had been active in the red light district of San Giacomo, during which his bomb wounded 30 fascists. In 1925, during an Unione Anarchica Italiana meeting, he met Camillo Berneri and Gino Bibbi, both of whom he remained politically close to. He also had a part in the failed attack Gino Lucetti against Mussolini (September 11 1926), supplying the explosives but without knowing their final use. Feared by the Fascist authorities, he was harrassed constantly and was one of the first anti-fascist to be interned, spending six years on the islands of Ustica and Ponza, and during which his "haughty and contemptuous attitude" was a thorn in the authorities' side, who described him as being "a tireless sower of hatred against the present social constitution, intolerant of any discipline and in no way subservient to the authorities." Within a few weeks of his return to Trieste in 1932, he decided to go into exile, leaving for France clandestinely to join the anti-fascist fight in exile.
At the outbreak of the Spanish Revolution, he joined the Ascaso Column of the CNT-FAI, commanded by Carlo Rosselli and Camillo Berneri and largely made ​​up of anarchists. On August 28, 1936, during the battle of Monte Pelado on the Huesca front his WWI experience was crucial in helping prepare trenches and repelling a Carlist attack and later contributed to the move towards a greater militarisation of the Militias. During an attempt to sabotage a fascist ship in the port of Cueta in February 1937, he was arrested, together with Giobbe Giopp, Alfredo Cimadori and Giovanni Fontana, by the Communists and taken to Valencia, where he was harshly interrogated by the Stalinist police. Managing to escape, he was forced to give himself up so as not to interfer with the negotiations to free the entire group (including Cimadori who would turn out to be a fascist police informer) currently taking place between the anarchist Ministry of Justice and the the Socialist Interior Minister. In late April 1937, after suffering a mock execution, was released. After a brief stop in Barcelona, where he would meet Berneri for the last time, he returned to Paris disillusioned by the events of May 1937 and reinforced in his anti-Communist views. In Paris during the summer of 1937, Tommasini plotted a new attempt on Mussolini's life planned for the following year, but which was foiled by the Fascist police as one of the ploters was an informer. In the summer of 1939, Tommasini was arrested by the French police and interned in Le Vernet Internment Camp. With the end of hostilities between France and Italy, Tommasini was handed over to the Italian police on January 24, 1941. Interrogated in Coroneo prison in Trieste, he was subsequently sent into internal exile on the island of Ventotene for five years. Unlike other political prisoners, who are released after July 25, 1943, with the overthrow of Mussolini, Tommasini was held along with other anarchists and interned in the Renicci internment camp until the end of the war. Given his strong anti-Communist views he, unlike many anarchists, refused to join the Resistance because it was wholely uner communist control.
Fearing potential arrest in Trieste, he stayed at his sister's in Bologna after his release. When he did return to Trieste, he helped found the Gruppo Anarchico Germinal, who relaunched the magazine 'Germinal' in May 1946. He also returned to employment as a metalworker and, despite the power of the communist unions, was elected as a workplace delegate. In 1954, he was sentenced to 11 months in prison by the military government during the Anglo-American occupation for illegal anarchist propaganda (posters urging police disobedience and desertion). During that period he also helped a number of anarchist flee communist Bulgaria on their clandestine passage to France. In 1965, he was a member of the 'anti-organisationalist' Gruppi di Iniziativa Anarchica (GIA) that split from the Federazione Anarchica Italiana (FAI). During the late '60s and '70s he became a benchmark for the younger militants who joined the anarchist movement. In 1971, he became the editor of 'Umanità Nova' and continued his activites into his eighties. In 1984, Claudio Venza published a long autobiographical interview tilted 'Umberto Tommasino. The Anarchica Triestino' (translated into Italian in 2011 as 'Il fabbro anarchico. Autobiografia fra Trieste a Barcellona').

1901 - Author, pacifist and anarchist Leo Tolstoï is excommunicated by the Russian Orthodox Church.

## 1908 - Henri Jullien (d. 2001), grandson of Paule Mink, born in Hanoi. A French socialist, trade unionist, then a mutualist and anarchist. One of the founders of the first syndicat de journalistes confédérés in 1935, he participated in the Résistance and joined the anarchist movement after WWII. In 1949 he became the chair of SIA (Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste) and a supporter of the CIRA (Centre International de Recherche sur l'Anarchisme) in Marseille.

1913* - Abraham Guillén Sanz (d. 1993), Spanish anarchist militant, author, economist, educator, and theorist of co-operativism and self-management, who was a lifelong member of the CNT, both in Spain and in exile in South America, born.
[* March 13 also given as his d.o.b.]

[B] 1916 - Carles Fontseré (d. 2007), one of the important Catalan anarchist poster artists of the Spanish Revolution, born. Active in the Sindicato de Dibujantes Profesionales de Barcelona (Union of Professional Illustrators; SPD), whose posters plastered the walls of Barcelona - as George Orwell noted on his arrival in the city that December: "The revolutionary posters were everywhere, flaming from the walls in clean reds and blues that made the few remaining advertisements look like daubs of mud." Fontserè was to bemoan the loss of vitality of these posters once they became 'official' productions of the Republic. The F.A.I. poster Llibertat! (Freedom), with the sickle-waving farmer and the red and black flag in the background, is his work. A refugee in France following Franco's victory, he worked painting stage designs and illustrating Catalan literature. After time spent in Mexico, he ended up in New York where he worked as a cartoonist, painter, poster designer and scenery decorator. He also collaborated with Salvador Dali on a photography project.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The decree allowing for the government's compulsory militarisation of all reservist factory workers aged between 21 and 31 years is published in the press. The strike committee itself issues a proclamation inviting all workers to decide for themselves how to respond: "you will have to accept the consequences individually." In response, those drafted went en masse to the recruiting booths. However, once they were assigned a destination, they refused to obey despite all arguments and threats put to them.
The choice between work under military orders or imprisonment was a tactic that had served to destroy the railway strike of 1912 but, to the surprise of the authorities, most workers in the electricity, gas and water industries refused to work; more than 3,000 were arrested and taken to the fortress of Montjuïc.
During the night of March 9-10, a bomb exploded in the Heinrich printing press in the Calle Córcega, wounding four. The unions accused the police of an act of provocation.

1933 - Georg Hermann Stenzleit (b. 1848), German cabinet maker and international anarchist movement 'fixer', dies. [see: Jul. 23]

1938 - Franco's forces, with overwhelming air superiority, launch a major assault on the Aragon front; the Republican forces, torn by internal disputes, collapse; and by April 15 the Nationalists reach the coast, splitting Republican territory in two.

1939 - In Madrid, the anarchist Cipriano Mera (1896-1975), heading the IV army corps, routs the counter-revolutionary communist troops which besiege the National Council of Defence.

1949 - Following the unsuccessful attack on Eduardo Quintela Boveda's car the week before [see: Mar. 2], José López Penedo and José Sabaté Llopart, in whose house in Torrasa they were staying prior to returning tho France, are surprised by a night-time police raid. They defend themselves and, in the ensuing gun battle, manage to jump out of a window in a hail of bullets. José Sabaté manages to escape while Jose Lopez Penedo, wounded by a bullet in the lung, is captured unconscious.

1958 - Louis Moreau (b. 1883), French militant libertarian, pacifist, painter and engraver, dies. Trained as a lithographer, in 1900 he settled in Paris to practice his trade, developing a passion for drawing, painting and woodcuts. There he began contributing to Jean Grave's 'Temps Nouveaux'. Called up during WWI, his work was published in the clandestine 'Le Semeur'. [see: Apr. 15]

1959 - Lazar Lipotkin [Лазарь Липоткин] (Eliezer Solomonovich Lazarev [Элиэзер Соломонович Лазарев]; b. 1891), Russian-American anarcho-communist, who played a prominent role in the exiled Russian anarchist movement in America, dies in Rochester, New York. [see: Nov. 30]
1871 - Sándor Csizmadia (d. 1929), Hungarian poet, journalist, anarchist propagandist and later socialist, who served as People's Commissar of Agriculture during the Hungarian Soviet Republic, born.

[BBB/C] 1896 - Nancy Cunard (d. 1965), Surrealist writer, poet, model, anarchist and anti-fascist, born into the British upper class - her father Baronet Sir Bache Cunard and mother Maud Alice Burke, a flamboyant American heiress. Her paternal great grandfather was founder of the steamship company of the same name, the origin of the family’s immense wealth.
Her poetry first appeared in magazines in 1916 and she published 3 volumes: 'Outlaws' (1921), 'Sublunary' (1923) and 'Parallax' (1925). She also became the muse of Paris Dada through her friendship with Man Ray who regularly used her as a model. Tristan Tzara wrote 'Mouchoir de Nuages' (1924), his fourth and final play, for her.
Nancy was also the model for characters in novels by 2 of her lovers: Virginia Tracy in Michael Arlen's 'Piracy' (1922), Iris March in his 'The Green Hat' (1924) and the eponymous heroine in 'Lily Chritine: A Romance' (1928). Aldous Huxley also modelled his characters Myra Viveash in 'Antic Hay' (1923) and Lucy Tantamount in 'Point Counter Point' (1928) on her. Other characters based on her include Lady Brett in Hemingways 'The Sun Also Rises' (1926) and those in Louis Aragon's 'Le Con d'Irene' (1927) and 'Blanche, ou l'Oubli' (1967); Evelyn Waugh's 'Unconditional Surrender' (1961); and Wyndham Lewis' 'The Roaring Queen' (1973).
In 1928 she bought Three Mountains Press (renamed Hours Press) that had published Hemingway, Gertrude Stein, Carlos Williams and E. Pound. She had become the lover of the surrealist poet Louis Aragon. Later she fell in love with the African-American piano player, Henry Crowder, who was playing jazz in a boîte de nuit in the then trendy Montparnasse district; due to this relationship she was disinherited and wrote 'Black Man and White Ladyship' (1931), an attack on upper class racist attitudes as exemplified by her mother's attitude to he relationship with Crowder. She also edited the massive 'Negro: an Anthology' (1934), collecting poetry, fiction and non-fiction primarily by African-American writers such as Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston, and included writing by George Padmore and Cunard's own account of the Scottsboro Boys case.
She was also a passionate anti-fascist, writing about Mussolini's annexation of Ethiopia and the Spanish Civil War - predicting that it would precipitate another world war. She fund-raised for Spanish refugees, publishing pamphlets (including the poetry collection 'Les Poètes du Monde Défendent le Peuple Espagnol' (The Poets of the World Defend the Spanish People; 1937) and helping organise relief supplies. She also worked as a Resistance interpreter during WWII. However, her Spain and WWII work serious affected her physical and mental health and she declined in the post-war years, dying in a mental hospital weighing only sixty pounds (27kg).

1912 - San Diego Free Speech Fight: For over a month demonstrators and onlookers had assembled every Sunday at the city's jail to show solidarity with those free speech campaigners inside and sing songs of the workers' revolution.
On that Sunday afternoon a noisy crowd of 5,000 people surrounded the city jail, who "laughed, jeered, and applauded" as evangelist Lulu Wightman harangued the police from a soapbox, calling them "brass-buttoned anarchists" and – an insult at the time – "Cossacks". By this time a large crowd of ordinary citizens had gathered to watch "the fun". Wilson phoned the fire department. "Bring 50 feet of hose", he said. "Water cure". But the hose on the fire engine that turned up barely able to reach the protestors, much to their ammusement. A second 100 ft high-pressure hose was dispatched, which was deployed, drenching the demonstrators and onlookers alike. For almost an hour, moving closer and closer, four streams pummeled the human shield around Laura Payne Emerson, who stood on the soapbox trying to speak. To keep their balance, those in the front rows tilted forward. Many people were knocked over and injured, including a baby shot from its pushchair into the gutter by the force of the water. More arrests for disturbing the peace also followed.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The military are forced to run the railways as the authorities cannot find any staff willing to run them. Workers unloading coal in the port threaten to go out on strike in order to prevent its supply to La Canadensa. The Transatlántica company donates 7,000 pesetas to the army scabs after they break up a demonstration in front of the company offices.
The situation had become very serious and a solution needed to be found.

[B] 1920 - Boris Vian (d. 1959), French polymath: writer, poet, jazz musician, singer, translator, critic, actor, inventor, engineer and 'apolitical anarchist', born. Probably best known for his novels written under the pseudonym Vernon Sullivan including 'J'Irai Cracher sur vos Tombes' (I Spit on Your Graves; 1946). He also wrote a number of sci-fi novels: 'L'Ecume des Jours' (Foam of Days; 1947); 'L'Automne à Pékin' (Autumn in Peking; 1947); 'L'Herbe Rouge' (Red Grass; 1950); and 'L'Arrache-Coeur' (Heartsnatcher; 1953).
"On ne connaît la loi que lorsque les gens l'enfreignent." (We know the law only when people break it.)
"La vérité n'est pas du côté du plus grand nombre, parce qu'on ne veut pas qu'elle y soit." (The truth is not on the side of the majority, because we do not want it to be there.)
"Si le travail c'est l'opium du peuple, alors je ne veux pas finir drogué..." (If the work is the opium of the people, so I do not want to end up a junkie...)
"Supprimez le conditionnel et vous aurez détruit Dieu." (Remove the conditional and you destroy God.)

1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: Radiotelegramme to the Workers of all Countries, from the Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Kronstadt: "Three days ago, the Communists opened fire upon us, and spilled our blood. As we fight for a just cause, we took up the challenge. The garrison and the working population of Kronstadt, which shook the infamous yoke of the Communists, has decided to fight until the end."

## 1923 - Salvador Segui Rubinat, 'El Noi del Sucre' (The Sugar Boy)(b. 1886), prominent Catalonoan CNT figure, is assassinated on the orders of the governor of Catalonia. [see: Dec. 23]

1934 - Emma Goldman continues her massive three month long speaking tour of the United States when she gives an evening lecture in The Arena stadium in New Haven, Connecticut, reading extracts from her autobiography 'Living My Life' and discussing 'Today's International Problems', thereby avoiding discussing domestic politics as agreed with the US Government when they gave permission for the tour.

1935 - Jose Antonio Labordeta Subias (d. 2010), Aragonese singer-songwriter, poet, novelist, one-time libertarian who later became a resolutely non-sectarian liberal socialist politician, born into a staunchly Republican family. Popularly known as El Abuelo, his sympathies remained with anarchism and he was amongst those who helped keep the songs of the Revolution alive.

Habrá un día en que todos
Al levantar la vista
Veremos una tierra
Que ponga libertad (bis)

Hermano aquí mi mano
Será tuya mi frente
Y tu gesto de siempre
Caerá sin levantar
Huracanes de miedo
Ante la libertad

Haremos el camino
En un mismo trazado
Uniendo nuestros hombros
Para así levantar
A aquellos que cayeron
Gritando libertad

Sonarán las campanas
Desde los campanarios
Y los campos desiertos
Volverán a granar
Unas espigas altas
Dispuestas para el pan

Para un pan que en los siglos
Nunca fue repartido
Entre todos aquellos
Que hicieron lo posible
Para empujar la historia
Hacia la libertad

También será posible
Que esa hermosa mañana
Ni tú, ni yo, ni el otro
La lleguemos a ver
Pero habrá que empujarla
Para que pueda ser

Que sea como un viento
Que arranque los matojos
Surgiendo la verdad
Y limpie los caminos
De siglos de destrozos
Contra la libertad

(There will be a day when all
Looking up
We will see a land
That put freedom (x2)

Brother here my hand
Be yours my forehead
And you always gesture
Fall without lifting
Hurricane fear
Given freedom

We the way
In one path
Joining our shoulders
To raise and
To those who fell
Screaming freedom

Ring the bells
From the belfries
And the empty fields
Granar again
High tenons
Arranged for bread

For a bread that in the centuries
Never was divided
Among those
They did their best
To push the story
Towards Freedom

It is also possible
That this beautiful morning
Neither you, nor I, nor the other
The get to see
But we must push
So it can be

Make it like a wind
They start the bushes
Emerging truth
And clean the roads
From centuries of destruction
Against freedom)

'Canto a la Libertad' (Song of Freedom)

Pascual se crió menudo
Siempre esperando saber
Por qué su padre decía
A la hora del mal comer:
Pascual, Pascual, tú a lo tuyo
Que es trabajar

Segó por las tierras altas
Llegó por el olivar
Deshojó azafrán con frío
Y hasta se pensó casar
Con una moza sonora
De gran pechera y buen pie
Hasta que los padres de ella
También le hicieron saber
Pascual, Pascual, tú a lo tuyo
Que es trabajar

Se metió en lo libertario
Se hizo de la CNT
Corrió todos los caminos
Todos corrieron contra él
Estuvo en el frente el Ebro
En Andorra y en Teruel
Gritó por los barrios altos
Luego gritaron contra él
Pascual, Pascual, tú a lo tuyo
Que es trabajar

Hizo resuello por Francia
Muy cerca de Montpellier
Los nazis le hicieron preso
Y lo exportaron a Argel
De aquí pasó a Sevilla
Y luego a Carabanchel
Y en todas partes oía
Con consejos de burgués
Pascual, Pascual, tú a lo tuyo
Que es trabajar

Anda de nuevo menudo
Por marchar tanto al revés
De esperar siempre el tranvía
Hasta llegar la vejez
Camina cansado y triste
De ir desde el tajo a la mina
Desde el secano al andamio
Sin entender la consigna
Pascual, Pascual, tú a lo tuyo
Que es trabajar

El día que agonizaba
En un catre de un cuartel
Alzó la cabeza duro
Y dijo con mala fe
"trabajar, trabajar, trabajar"
¿Y para quién?"

(Pascual often raised
Always waiting to hear
Why your father said
At the time of bad eating:
Pascual, Pascual, you do your thing
What is working

He cut through the highlands
He came through the olive grove
Plucked cold saffron
And even thought wed
With a sound girl
Large front and right foot
Until her parents
Also let him know
Pascual, Pascual, you do your thing
What is working

He got into the libertarian
It made the CNT
He ran all the way
Everyone ran against him
He was in the front the Ebro
In Andorra, Teruel
He shouted Uptown
Then shouted against him
Pascual, Pascual, you do your thing
What is working

He wheezing by France
Very near Montpellier
The Nazis made him prisoner
And exported to Algiers
From this he went to Seville
And then to Carabanchel
And everywhere heard
With tips from bourgeois
Pascual, Pascual, you do your thing
What is working

Come back often
For both backward march
Always expect the tram
To reach old age
Walk tired and sad
To go from the mine pit
From dry to the scaffold
Without understanding the slogan
Pascual, Pascual, you do your thing
What is working

The dying day
In a barracks cot
He raised his head hard
He said in bad faith
"Work, work, work"
And for whom?")

'Con el sudor de tu frente' (By the sweat of your brow) [co-written with Joaquín Carbonell]


1938 - Nationalists begin major offensive in Aragón.

[BB] 1939 - Armand Guerra aka José Silavitse (José Maria Estivalis Cabo; b. 1886), Spanish typesetter, film-maker, journalist, writer and anarchist, dies. Began work at 13 as a typesetter and was thrown into prison during a 1907 typesetter's strike as a member of the young C.N.T. Leaving Spain he went to Paris with his brother Vincente the following year. In 1909 he was in Geneva and Nice, where he published the newspaper 'Tierra y Libertad' (banned in Spain). In 1911 he journeyed though Italy to Cairo, where he worked on the trilingual paper 'L'Idea'. After that too was banned, he travelled round the Mediterranean before returning to France. In 1913 he created the Paris film co-operative Le Cinéma du Peuple, which made a number of films social nature, including 'La Commune' and 'The Old Docker' (both 1914). Guerra was both a producer and actor in these films and used old Communards and anarchists in them. He also contributed to various anarchist newspapers including 'Tierra' (published in Cuba) and Luigi Bertoni's 'Réveil'.
Guerra made his first full-length film during the summer of 1936 in Spain, before going to the front to fight fascism with a camera, filming for the CNT at the war front. 'Carne de Fieras' (Meat of Wild Animals) was never released, and thought lost forever, until a negative was discovered and released in 1993. Guerra also took part in propagandist speaking tours in the South of France and was imprisoned by the Stalinist police between April to August 1938 on a ship in the port of Barcelona. In February 1939, he managed to embark for Paris via Sète, thereby escaping the concentration camp in southern France.
His memoir of his time in Spain is entitled 'A Través de la Metralla: Escenas Vividas en los Frentes y en la Retaguardia' (Through the Shrapnel: Vivid Scenes at the Fronts and in the Rear; 1938).
Other films include directed: 'Luis Candelas o El Bandido de Madrid' (1926) [wrote]; 'Batalla de Damas' (1928) [also wrote]; 'El Amor Solfeando' (1930); and the 2 volumes of 'Estampas Guerreras' (1937).
Actor: 'Les Misères de l'Aiguille' (Miseries of the Needle1914); 'Ein Sommernachtstraum' (Wood Love; 1925) a fantasy by Hans Neumann based on 'A Midsummer Night's Dream'; and 'La Alegría que Pasa' (Joy Happens; 1934).
[see: Jan. 4]

1945 - 90 members of the Bulgarian Anarchist Federation meet (or attempt to meet?) in an extraordinary session, seeking ways of resisting the new communist regime (which has closed all meeting places and prohibited the anarchist newspapers), are stopped by the communist militia and sent in concentration camps, where they are tortured and compelled to do forced labour.

###1964 - Ugo Fedeli (b. 1898) Italian anarchist militant, anti-fascist, historian, writer and librarian, dies. Wrote under numerous pseudonyms including Hugo Train and G. Renti. Arrested for the first time in 1913 (aged 15 years old) for participating in the Unione Italiana Sindacale (USI) organised strike; invloved in anti-miltarist campaigns by anarchist groups including Franchi Tiratori (Snipers) and Ribelli Milansesi (Milanese Rebels); attended the events of the 'Settimana Rossa' (Red Week) in Milano (June 7-14, 1914); drafted in 1917, but deserted to Switzerland where was tried in the 'Bombe di Zurigo' process in 1919 (along with other anarchists, including Bruno Misefari, Luigi Bertoni and Joseph Monnanni); in 1920 married Clelia Premoli; took part in the main events of the 'Biennio Rosso' (Two Red Years) in Milan until march 1921: then accused, alongside other anarchists, of a series of bomb attacks which culminated in the attack on the Diana theatre, which caused 21 casualties. [expand]

[A] 1966 - Provos smoke-bomb the Dutch royal wedding.

##?? 1968 - María Ascaso Abadía (b. 1908), Spanish seamstress, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, who was sister of the prominent anarchist militants Domingo and Francisco, dies. Wanted by the police in 1924, she and her mother Emília Abadía Abad took refuge in the home of the libertarian militant María Barajas, who had been giving sanctury to many wanted anarchists including Felipe Alaiz de Pablo and Hermós Plaja Saló. Soon after, the pair left for France and her brothers Domingo and Francisco. In 1926, she took part in the Comitè Ascaso, Durruti i Jover, formed to campaign for the release of the three anarchist militants (Buenaventura Durruti, Francisco Ascaso and Gregorio Jover) arrested in France and in danger of being extradited to the Kingdom of Spain. She and her mother were also sheltered by Berthe Fabert and Séverin Ferandel, two of the main leaders of the Committee. She later bacame the partner of Lluís Riera Planas (Pere Carner), with whom she had a child.
During the Revolution she was responsible with Paula Feldstein and Luis Riera for the Colònia Ascaso-Durruti, opened in Llansa by the SIA and which took in 300 children, mostly orphans. In 1939, with the triumph of Franco, she crossed the Pyrenees and in July 1939 he was part of a group of 150 refugees, including her partner, mother Emilia and child are, mostly members of the CNT who, despite having their papers in order, could not embark on any ship bound for Mexico, because of the intervention of communist leaders,
Passed in France during the Retrada, she bet in July 1939, a group of 150 refugees - her partner and their child and his old mother Emilia - most members of the CNT, despite proper papers do could board a vessel bound for Mexico, following the intervention of the Stalinist leaders with the Servicio de Evacuación de los Refugiados Españoles who made the selection from amongst the refugees, and were substituted at the last moment. During this period, her partner Lluís Riera died of typhus in a French concentration camp near Bordeaux and her son, Sol, was also interned. María Ascaso later managed to embark on the De La Salle for San Felipe de Puerto Plata in the Dominican Republic with her mother, arriving on February 23, 1940. She lived in the Dominican Republic with a new partner Mariano Francés Alonso, a chauffeur and mechanic and UGT militant, whilst remaining a core activist in the CNT in exile.
María Ascaso Abadia died on cancer in Mexico City on March 10, 1968.

1969 - A commando of situationists 'returns' a statue of Charles Fourier to its plinth in Paris, left vacant since its removal by the Nazis.

1972 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: South African Airways, London, firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1972 - Stephen Mac Say (b. 1884), French anarchist, professor, bee-keeper and partner of Marie-Adele Anciaux aka Mary Smiles [see: Mar. 8], dies. [see: Oct 5]

2005 - Chris Pallis, aka Maurice Brinton, Martin Grainger, N. Kastings, et al (Christopher Agamemnon Pallis; b. 1923) Anglo-Greek neurologist and libertarian-socialist intellectual, writer and historian on the left, translator and mainstay in the London Solidarity group, dies in London aged 81. [see: Dec. 2]

2007 - Kurt Wafner (b. 1918), German publisher, editor, radio play author, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, dies at the age of 88. [see: Nov. 25]
1850 - Clément Duval (d. 1935), French anarchist illegalist, member of La Panthère des Batignolles, born. He was sentenced to death by a French court for a burglary (in which a policeman was wounded trying to apprehend him). Eventually commuted to life, he spent 14 years in French Guyana where he attempted over 20 prison escapes. Finally, on April 14, 1901, he made good his escape and after a two year sojourn slipped into NY City, where he lived until age 85, supported and surrounded by Italian and French anarchist comrades.

1863 - [O.S. Feb. 27] Iza Zielińska (Iza Gąsowska; d. 1934), Polish journalist, educator, social activist and participant in the Polish and International anarchist and socialist movements, born. [expand]

1867* - [O.S. Feb. 28] Evgeny Iustinovich Lozinsky [Евгений Иустинович Лозинский], aka E. Ustinov [Е. Устинов] (d. 1937), Russian member of the Union of Socialist-Revolutionary Maximalists (Союз социалистов-революционеров-максималистов), editor of its paper 'Free Discussion Sheet' (Вольный дискуссионный листок), later breaking away to form the Union of Revolutionary Socialists (Союз революционных социалистов), which was effectively an anarcho-communist organisation before becoming a Makhaevist (follower of Jan Wacław Machajski's synthesis of anarchism and Marxism), born.
[* 1879 also given as the year of birth]

1888 - Virginia Tabarroni aka 'Danda' (d. 1977), Italian typographer and anarchist, who was the aunt of Anteo Zamboni, the 15-year-old who attempted to assassinate Mussolini in Bologna on October 31, 1926, born.

1892 - François Ravachol's second attempt to take retribution for the Affaire de Clichy defendants, targets the home of the presiding judge at the Clichy trial, Edouard Benoit. On the first floor of no. 136 Boulevard Saint-Germain outside Benoit's flat, he placed the smelting pot bomb with its fifty dynamite cartridges and scrap iron shrapnel. Shortly after he had left the premises, the bomb explodes causing extensive damage butcausing no injuries. The affair caused a considerable sensation, which became greater following the attack on the Lobau Barracks attack, the site of the Communard massacres, on March 15, days before the anniversary of the rising of the Paris Commune, by the anarchist carpenter Théodule Meunier.
[Costantinni pic]

1897 - Ilona Duczyńska (d. 1978), Polish-Hungarian revolutionary, journalist, translator, engineer, and historian, born. During the First World War, she became acquainted with anarcho-syndicalist revolutionary Ervin Szabó, who connected her with the work of the Galilei Circle. She became a revolutionary socialist. For her anti-war activities, she was expelled from school in 1915 and during her studies at the Technical University of Zurich, she fell in with a number of members of the RSDLP, including Nadezhda Krupskaya and Lenin. She helped plan the October 16, 1918 assassination attempt on the Hungarian Prime Minister Istvan Tisza, when the gun used by Lékai János, a member of the Galilei-Circle (Galilei-kör) and Korvin anti-militarist movement, jammed. For this she was amongst those imprisoned but they spent only fifteen days in prison as they were freed during the Aster Revolution.

1909 - Maurice Laisant (d. 1991), French author, anarchist and anti-militarist, born. Son of the anarchist Charles Laisant and brother of the anarchist Albert, grandson of the anarchist Charles Ange Laisant. Edited 'Le Monde Libertaire'.

1909 - In Limoges, towards two o'clock in the morning, a bomb exploded in front of the police station causing some damage. The same night, a dynamite cartridge is discovered on the wall of the barracks of the 78th Infantry Regiment. The attack was immediately attributed by some newspapers to anarchists as their response to a circular by Georges Clemenceau concerning anti-militarists. The investigation determines that the dynamite used in the attacks had been stolen some time ago from quarries at nearby Isle.

#### 1922 - Cornelius Castoriadis, aka Pierre Chaulieu, Paul Cardan, Jean-Marc Coudray, etc. (Κορνήλιος Καστοριάδης; d. 1997), Greek-French philosopher, social critic, economist, psychoanalyst, author of 'The Imaginary Institution of Society', and co-founder of the French libertarian socialist group Socialisme ou Barbarie, born.

1930 - Silvio Gesell (b. 1862), German merchant, theoretical economist, social activist and anarchist, dies. [see: Mar. 17]

[B] 19?? - Leslie Fish, US filk musician, author, Trekie, IWW member and anarchist political activist, born. A member of the 'filk outfit' DeHorn Crew - the Chicago IWW's house band and lover of fellow anarchist and band member Mary Frohman. The character Jenny Trout in the science fiction novel 'Fallen Angels' (1991) by Larry Niven, Jerry Pournelle and Michael Flynn is based on her. She has recorded morethan a dozen albums, written a number of science fiction short stories as well as 'A Dirge for Sabis' (with C. J. Cherryh; 1989), part of the 'The Sword of Knowledge' trilogy of shared world fantasy novels. She also sings (and makes several appearances) in the film 'Finding the Future: A Science Fiction Conversation' (2004).

1949 - Miguel Barba Moncayo aka 'Reyes' (b. ca. 1899), Catalan anarchist activist with the FIJL, is murdered in cold blood in his own home in front of his wife and children after the police had knocked on the door and asked him for his identification. He had only just been released from prison.

## 1953 - Mari Toft, aka Syphilia Morgenstierne, Norwegian journalist exponent of 'gonzo journalism', and anarchist, born.

1963 - Louise Olivereau (b. 1884), US teacher, poet, militant anarchist and anti-conscription activist, who was sentenced to 10 years in prison for sending out anti-conscription leaflets during WWI, dies. In 1911 through 1912 she had worked as an assistant to William Thurston Brown at the Ferrer Modern Day School in Portland. In 1917 she worked as secretary of the Lumber Workers, a division of the IWW in Seattle. In August, after reading Elihu Root's pro-war speech, she mailed a circular to the drafted men of Seattle urging them "but one thing - obedience to your own conscience...we do not ask you to resist the draft IF YOU BELIEVE THE DRAFT IS RIGHT." On September 5, 1917, the IWW office was raided by federal agents, and two days later Olivereau went to special agent Howard Wright to request the return of her books. After questioning, she admitted to mailing the circular, and she was then arrested. Olivereau chose to act as her own attorney during the trial to avoid taking defence funds away from other radical causes. After a trial in late November at which she was convicted of six counts of "attempting to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny and refusal of duty in the military," and three for "unlawfully using the mails and postal service of the United States for transmission of unmailable matter," she was sentenced on December 3, 1917 to ten years in prison at Canyon City, Colorado. However she only served 28 months.

1963 - André Lorulot (b. 1885), French individualist anarchist, free thinker, lecturer, propagandist and playwright, dies. ​[see: Oct. 23]

1973 - Manuel Rojas Sepúlveda (b. 1896), Chilean anarchist writer, novelist, poet and essayist, dies. [see: Jan. 8]

2001 - Over 100,000 greet Zapatistas at the conclusion of their 15-day trek to México City in demand for indigenous rights.

2010 - Odette Ester, aka Odette Beilvert (Lucienne Marie Kervorc'h; b. 1915), French anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist resister, who was the long time partner of the Catalan anacho-syndicalist miltant Josep Ester ' Borràs (José Ester Borrás) aka 'Minga', dies. [see: Jul. 15]

2013 - Seven prisoners escape from Feres Prison, Evros, Greece.
[AA] 1650 - Diggers at Wellingborough issue their declaration: 'A Declaration of the Grounds and Reasons why we the poor Inhabitants of the Town of Wellingborrow, in the County of Northampton, have begun and give consent to dig up, manure and sow Corn upon the Common, and waste ground, called Bareshanke belonging to the Inhabitants of Wellinborrow, by those that have Subscribed and hundreds more that give Consent.'

1871 - Commune de Narbonne: At a meeting of the the Club de la Révolution faction of the Republican Lamourguier Club in Narbonne, revolutionary socialist journalist on the Carcassonne newspaper 'La Fraternité' and Narbonne councillor Émile Digeon calls for the arming of the Guards Nationale. In front of the two thousand people present he states: "Revolution, it is peace through the abolition of standing armies, it is the removing taxes for the small buisnessman and the day labourer..." ["La révolution, c'est la paix par l'abolition des armées permanentes, c'est la suppression des impôts pour le petit propriétaire et pour le journalier..."]
[ Digeon.html]

###1880 - Nitta Tōru (新田 融), aka Yuzuru (d. 1938), Japanese mechanical engineer arrested during the High Treason Case (幸徳事件 / Kōtoku Jiken) and sentenced to 10 years for violating explosive control criminal penal code, born.

####1890 - [O.S. Feb. 28] Grigori Vladimirovich Gorelik, aka Anatolii [Анатолий](Григорий Владимирович Горелик; d. 1956), Ukrainian anarchist, who was active in the anarcho-syndicalist movement in France, USA and later in Argentina, participated in the Russian Revolution and was an organiser of the All-Russian Black Cross (Всероссийского Черного Креста), before deportation from Russia along with other anarcho-syndicalists in 1922, born.
In 1922, co-authored with Voline and А.И. Комов the book 'Persecution of Anarchism in Soviet Russia' (Гонения на анархизм в Советской России) in Berlin and published by the Groups of Russian Anarchists In Germany (Группы Русских Анархистов В Германии)

1892 - Dante Carnesecchi (d. 1921), Italian carpenter, individualist anarchist associated with left wing futurism alongside other individualist anarchists such as Renzo Novatore, Leda Rafanelli, Auro d'Arcola, and Giovanni Governato, who was murdered by plainclothes carabinieri, born.

1911 - Rebelión de Baja California / Revolución Mexicana: Luis Rodriguez and 20 PLM rebels seize Tecate after having to fight several battles.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: Having offered a 5% pay raise on March 1, which the IWW and many workers rejected, and concerned over the public reaction to the House Committee on Rules hearings, as well as the possible threat to their own tariff protection, the American Woolen Company acceded to all four of the strikers' original demands. Agreements were reached with the other companies and the strike was called off on March 24, 1912. The strike committee was dissolved and the militia moved out. After two months of struggle, the Great Lawrence Strike had ended.

1914 - Revolución Mexicana: Emiliano Zapata besieges Cuautla with 5,000 men. City taken, all federal officers executed. Magónist forces led by Jose Maria Leyva and Simon Berthold fail to retake the town.

1917 - [O.S. Feb. 27] February Revolution [Февральская революция] / Petrograd Soviet of Workers' Deputies [Известия Петроградского совета рабочих Депутатов]: Another significant event of the day was the formation of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers' Deputies (Известия Петроградского совета рабочих Депутатов), which coincided with the dissolution of the State Duma (IV Convocation), which the Soviet would replace. Prior to the formation of the Soviet, the Central Workers' Group (Центральная Рабочая Группа), which had been founded in November 1915 by the Mensheviks to liaise between the workers and the body created to mobilise industry for the war effort, the Central Military-Industrial Committee (Военно-промышленные комитеты), represented the will of the Petrograd proletariat. However, as the economic conditions in Russia worsened as the war went on, the ЦРГ had become increasingly radical, encouraging street protests (including an anti-government demonstration, timed to coincide with the opening of the next session of the State Duma) and issuing revolutionary proclamations, as well as supporting the general strike on the anniversary of Bloody Sunday (Jan 22 [O.S. Jan. 9], 1905]. To try and head-off any potential revolutionary activity, the entire leadership of the Central Workers' Group was arrested on the night of February 8 [O.S. Jan. 27] and locked up in the Peter and Paul Fortress.
Far from heading-off further industrial unrest and a feared revolution, this action only inflamed the situation further and, with the ever escalating number of strikes and street protests, which had seen a parallel increase in government repression, leadership of the Central Workers' Group was freed by a crowd of revolutionary soldiers and workers arrived at the Tauride Palace on the morning of March 12 [Feb. 27]. There the members of the Council of Workers' Deputies, together with the members of the Menshevik faction of the Duma, representatives of other socialist parties, leaders of legal unions, co-operatives and other organisations, took the decision to convene a constituent assembly of the Council of Workers' Deputies called the Provisional Executive Committee of the Soviet of Workers' Deputies (Временный исполнительный комитет Совета рабочих депутатов). It consisted of the Mensheviks Kuzma Gvozdev (Кузьма Гвоздев) and Boris Bogdanov (Бори́с Богданов), leaders of the Central Workers' Group); Nikolai Chkheidze (Никола́й Чхеидзе) and Matvei Skobelev (Матве́й Скобелев), State Duma deputies from the Menshevik faction; the Menshevik Internationalists Naum Kapelinsky (Наум Капелинский) and Konstantin Grinevich-Schechter (Константин Гриневич-Шехтер); Nikolai Sokolov (Николай Соколов), a Social Democrat); and Henrich Ehrlich (Хенрих Эрлих), a representative of the Bund. Too busy on the streets, the Bolsheviks missed the meeting.
The Provisional Executive Committee called upon the workers to elect deputies to the Petrograd Soviet (one deputy per thousand workers, with at least one member for each plant), and the rebel soldiers - to elect one representative per company. The inaugural meeting of the Petrograd Soviet was opened in the Tauride Palace on the same day at 9 o'clock in the evening and ended on the night of March 13 [Feb. 28]. During the plenary session the following day, elected representatives from factories and the military formally joined the soviet, in which moderates again dominated. A permanent Executive Committee of 15 members, which included two Bolsheviks [Alexander Shlyapnikov (Алекса́ндр Шля́пников) and Peter Zalutsky (Пётр Залуцкий)], was also selected and it adopted a proclamation, the 'Manifesto to the Population of Petrograd and Russia':
"The Soviet of Workers' Deputies, sitting in the State Duma, has as its main objective the organisation of popular forces and the struggle for the final consolidation of political freedom and popular government in Russia ...
We invite the entire population of the capital to immediately rally around the Council to form local committees in the districts and to take over management of all local affairs. All along, the combined forces will fight for the complete elimination of the old government and the convening of a Constituent Assembly elected by universal, equal, direct and secret suffrage."
Participants of the meeting approved the proposal of the Russian Bureau of the Central Committee of the RSDLP on the organisation of a workers' militia, as well as adopting as the official organ of the Petrograd Soviet the newspaper 'Izvestia [i.e. News] of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers' Deputies' (Известия Петроградского совета рабочих Депутатов), which began publication on March 13 [Feb. 28].
Within day the the Soviet had changed its name to the Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies (Петроградский совет рабочих и солдатских депутатов), and after two weeks it had almost 3,000 deputies, of which the majority were soldiers, and, given the structure of the meetings and the enthusiasm of the delegates, the meetings were often chaotic, confused and unruly; a vehicle for speech-making and little else.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Declaration of the state of war in Barcelona. Carlos González Rothwos leaves the position of civil governor. During the next two days there are arrests of workers for posting propaganda and there are explosions in gas pipes and in an electrical substation, all probably accidents, caused by inexperienced troops untrained in their operation. Attempts to force workers to run the trams leads to militarisation and being operated by soldiers - very few run.

1919 - Johannes Baader and Raoul Hausmann stage a 'Propaganda Evening' in Café Austria, where they found the Antinationaler Rat der unbezahlten Arbeiter (Anti-National Council of Unpaid Workers; ARUDA) and the Club der Blauen Milchstraße.

## 1920 - Françoise d'Eaubonne (Françoise Marie-Thérèse Piston d'Eaubonne; d. 2005), French woman of letters (novels, biographies, essays, poetry, memoirs, etc.) and libertarian feminist, whose ceaseless campaigning led to her one of the most influential and best-known leaders of the French feminist movement and who is credited with having coined the terms 'écoféminisme' and 'phallocrate', born.

1921 - Edgar Rodrigues (Antônio Francisco Correia; d. 2009), militant anti-fascist and anarchist historian of the Portuguese and Brazilian anarchist movement, who authored more than fifty books, born.

1942 - Juan Montseny i Carret (aka Federico Urales) (b. 1864), Catalan teacher, novelist, publisher, individualist anarchist militant, companion of Teresa Mañé (Soledad Gustavo) and father of Federica Montseny, dies. [see: Aug. 19]

1949 - Date sometimes given for the execution in Zaragoza of Justiniano Garcia Macho, aka 'El Macho', (b. unkown) and Pedro Acosta Canovas, aka 'El Chaval' & 'Pedro', (b. 1925). [see: Mar. 22]

[F] 1951 - Vaga de Tramvies / Huelga de Tranvías [Barcelona Tram Strike / General Strike]: Following a climbdown by the government and the Organización Sindical, together with the Phalangists trying to get its worker back operating the trams at the old ticket rates that were reintroduced on the 6th, the CNT declares a general strike for the 12th: "Against the cost of living! Against the Falangist terror!" It quickly spreads across the city. [EXPAND]

##1954 - Mat Kavanagh (b. 1876), Irish-English building labourer, barber and life-long class struggle anarchist militant, who was a leading figure in the French anarchist movement, dies. [EXPAND]

1955 - Louis Estève (b. 1884), French individualist anarchist, poet, novelist and essayist, author of 'Psychologie de l'Impérialisme' (Psychology of Imperialism; 1913), who was a regular contributor to the anarcho-individualist journals of E. Armand, 'L'En Dehors' and 'L'Unique', dies.

1955 - Theodor Plievier (orig. Plivier; b. 1892), German novelist, writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 12]

1958 - Manol Vassev (Yordan Sotirov; b. 1898), Bulgarian anarchist militant, labour organiser and World War II Resistance fighter, dies. A popular Bulgarian militant anarcho-trade unionist, member of the Bulgarian Anarchist Communist Federation (FAKB) and a living symbol of resistance to both fascism and to Bolshevism. Arrested in March 1945, he spent several years the Stalinist concentration camps of Dupnitsa and Kutzian, where his resistance forced the authorities to release him. However, he rifused to sign a statement denouncing his anarchist beliefs and leave, and he had to be thrown out by force. He later served 5 years in the Sliven prison, and was sentenced again to one and a half years there. At the trial before the second term, exceptionally held in public, he was accused of being an "agent in the pay of the Anglo-Americans". He rose and cut the prosecutor short, crying out: "It isn’t me who signed the Teheran and Yalta treaties with the English and the Americans; it’s not me who went to London to kiss the skirt of the Queen of England!" He was poisoned by his prison guards one day before his scheduled release.

1977 - Joaquín Ascaso Budría (b. 1906 [or 1903]), Zaragozan construction worker, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was president of the Consejo Regional de Defensa de Aragón (Jan. 17 - Aug. 10, 1937), died in Caracas in such penury that four comrades had to contribute to the costs of his burial. [see: Jun. 5]

1980 - Renée Lamberet (Jeanne Renée Yvonne Lamberet; b. 1901), French professor of history and geography, activist and anarchist historian, dies. [see: Oct. 4]

[B] 1980 - Ángel Borda (b. 1901), Argentinian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, trades union organiser, popular library founder, autodidact, sculptor, story and song writer (chamarritas and coplas), dies. [see: Aug. 2]

1986 - José Martínez Guerricabeitia (aka Felipe de Orero) (b. 1921), Spanish anarchist and founder of the anti-Francoist Ruedo Ibérico publishing house which published the first Spanish translations of Hugh Thomas' 'The Spanish Civil War', and Brenan’s 'The Spanish Labyrinth', dies at his own hands. [see: Jun. 18]

1990 - Fernand Rude (aka Pierre Froment) (b. 1910), French social historian, sympathetic to libertarian / anarchist movements, dies. [see: Jun. 13]
## 1858 - Maximilien Luce (d. 1941), French Neo-Impressionist artist, painter, printmaker, engraver and anarchist, born. Initial training as a wood carver, he began to study engraving and, after 4 years military service, painting. Luce's early work was mainly landscapes and urban scenes which frequently emphasize the activities of people at work, but became better known for his pointillist canvases.
As a child he witnessed the tragic events of the Paris Commune, later becoming part of the anarchist milieu and a friend of Jean Grave. In 1887 Pissarro , Seurat and Signac welcomed him into the Neo-Impressionists group. He also submitted numerous artworks to radical newspapers ('Le Père Peinard', 'La Révolte', 'L'Endehors', 'La Feuille', etc.) and was imprisoned in 1894 during the Procès des 30 anti-anarchist hysteria following the acts of Ravachol and Valliant, labelled a "dangerous anarchist" because his drawings were seen as "inciting the populous to revolt". In 1934, Maximilien Luce was elected President of the Société des Artistes Indépendants after Signac’s retirement, but soon resigned in a protest against society's policy to restrict the admission of Jewish artists.
Luce made a series of famous lithographs on prison life, which were accompanied by a Jules Vallès text, and many of his works are on the theme of the Paris Commune and the horrors of the Great War.

1870 - A meeting of several thousand is held in Lyon by local members of the Association Internationale des Travailleurs (International Association of Workers), who had been working since the beginning of the year in preparation for a possible workers revolution in the city. [see: Sep. 4]

1893 - Francesco Momo (b. 1863), Italian anarchist militant, one of the pioneers in organising the anarchist movement in Argentina, born.
Sociedad Cosmopolita de Resistencia y Colocación de Obreros Panaderos

1901 - Fernand Pelloutier (b. 1867), French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist activist and founder of the Federation of Bourses du Travail, dies. Pelloutier in the words of Pierre Monatte, can be "justly regarded as the father of revolutionary syndicalism." He rejected parliamentary reformism and anarchist revolutionary violence, favouring instead the General Strike. [see: Oct. 1]

1905 - Les Travailleurs de la Nuit Trial: [Fifth session] On the night of 27 to 28 March 1903, the cathedral of Tours was visited by burglars. Using a mason's ladder taken from a nearby site, the wire mesh of a window was cut with pliers in the base of the right angle, the artistic stained glass window had been broken and though it the perpetrators were introduced. On the inside of the cathedral, a 7-metre firemen's ladder, taken in the angle internal of the Southern corner of the tower had allowed to be taken away in their frames high value XVIIIth century tapestries: 'La Nativité et Les Rois mages' (The Nativity and the Magi), 'Jésus au milieu des docteurs' (Jesus in the midst of the doctors), 'La Présentation au Temple' (he Presentation in the Temple), 'La Fuite en Egypte' (t
The Flight from Egypt).
On the stained glass fracture was discovered a silk button.
Early research made ​​it possible to establish that at 03:39 n individual carrying a 3rd class return Paris-Tours ticket, dated the 27th, was shown at Tours ticket control to catch the 03:42 Express Train.
He had in his hands a big roll of carpet and he was accompanied by another person, the bearer of two other rolls of lesser volume, who entered at the docks with a 10 cents ticket. The first of these individuals was Bour, who was recognissed by the employee who had gaven him a first class supplement and a porter who had helped carry the parcels.
Jacob, Bour and Pélissard, claims the indictment, agreed that this theft was committed by them; according Bour, the tapestries were transported to Jacob's mother and his mistress, to make them unrecognisable, cutting them up.
One of these pieces was used as door cover to the bedroom of Jacob, but at the time of the search of Rue ​​Leibniz, give evidence on the theft.
Messrs. Cruchet Narcissus, head priest at Tours, and Caubet, former police commissioner in Tours, give evidence on the theft.
Mr Caubet relates the departure from Tours to Paris from burglars, as related in the indictment. He speaks at length of the many robberies in the region, but which have nothing to do in the case.
Jacob laughs, smiles, shrugs his shoulders.

1911 - Maria Luisa 'Gigia' Minguzzi (b. 1852), Italian seamstress, anarchist and feminist, who was an important figure in the Italian anarchist movement, and played a leading role in the development of the female workers' movement in Italy, dies. [see: Jun. 21]

1913 - Alternate d.o.b. for Abraham Guillén Sanz (August 1 1993), Spanish anarchist militant, author, economist, educator, and theorist of cooperativism and self-management, who was a lifelong member of the CNT, both in Spain and in exile in South America. [see: Mar. 9]

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Barcelona is under military occupation and machine guns are mounted at strategic points along public highways. Milans del Bosch sends out a circular introducing censorship of the press. The workers continue to demand their rights, which include the minimum wage and an eight-hour maximum shift.
José Morote, the undersecretary to the presidency, who has been tasked with mediating in the dispute, arrives in Barcelona from Madrid.

[B] 1928 - René-Louis Lafforgue (d. 1967), French singer, songwriter, actor, interpreter and anarchist, born to Basque anarchist parents. The family went into exile in France following the Spanish Civil War, where his brother is killed in participating in the Resistance.
After practising several professions including as a typesetter, he became an actor and singer-songwriter. The fifties saw his talent recognised following appearances with Georges Brassens. His songs like 'Julie la Rousse' (1956) provide him popularity. He also opened a cabaret, L'Ecole Buissonnière (School of Truancy) with his partner Claudie in 1962, a venue frequented by libertarian and pacifist performers, including the likes of Pierre Louki, Boby Lapointe, Maurice Fanon, Christine Sèvres and Guy Bedos.
Some of his films: 'Sous le Ciel de Paris' (actor; 1950), 'Julie la Rousse' (actor/composer; 1958), 'Les Amants de Teruel' (actor/composer/screenwriter; 1961) and 'La Communale' (1965).

1934 - Victor Barrucand (b. 1864), French anarchist, poet, musician, writer and journalist, dies. [see Oct. 7]

1939 - Ferre Grignard (Fernand Grignard; d. 1982), Belgium anarchist songwriter, skiffle artist and protest singer, born.

1942 - Georges Mathias Paraf-Javal (b. 1858), French activist and individualist anarchist propagandist and scientist, dies. A founder of the Ligue Antimilitariste and, with Émile Armand, the anarchist colony at Vaux (which had 400 members and lasted from 1902 to 1907). [see: Oct. 31]

1950 - Hippolyte Havel (b. 1871), Czech anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 13]

1961 - Labour organiser Elizabeth Gurley Flynn is elected chair of the National Committee of the Communist Party, U.S.A. One-time IWW and an anarchist in her youth.

1971 - Rockwell Kent (b. 1882), US painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Jun. 21]

[C] 1978 - An escape tunnel is discovered at Madrid's Carabanchel prison. The Spanish militant anarchist Agustín Rueda Sierra and seven fellow prisoners are 'identified' as the tunnel builders and subjected to more than six hours of brutal beatings and torture.

[C] 1978 - Agustín Rueda Sierra (b. 1952), Spanish militant anarchist, who was active in the Coordinadora de Presos en Lucha (COPEL), is tortured and beaten to death after the discovery of an escape tunnel at Madrid's Carabanchel prison. [see: Mar. 14]

1998 - María García (b. 1915), Spanish militant cenetista, dies. [see: Feb. 2]

2017 - Henri Cueco (b. 1929), French painter, stage designer, academic, writer, screenwriter, syndicalist, former communist, then libertairian, and co-founder of the anti-consumerist artists' collective Coopérative des Malassis, weakened by Alzheimer's, dies of a kidney infection. [see: Oct. 19]

2018 - Eduardo Colombo (b. 1929), Argentine physician, psychoanalyst, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist activist, member of the French CNT and former member of the FORA, who was also professor of social psychology at the Universidade de Buenos Aires until the 1966 military coup forced him into exile in Paris, dies in Paris. [see: Sep. 1]
[A] 1851 - The Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin, after first being jailed in Prague, is sent today to the Olmütz fortress in Austria, where he is sentenced in May to hang.

1863 - Raphael Friedeberg (d. 1940), German medical doctor, socialist and later an anarchist following his involvement in the Acona community, where he settled permamnently in 1904, born. [expand]

1872 - A law is passed in Paris condemning affiliation to the International as being an "attack against the public peace" and to be punished accordingly.

1885 - Jules Auguste Gorion aka Alfred Breton (d. 1952), French anarchist individualist, born. Editor of the individualist newspaper 'Le Réveil de l'Esclave' (The Awakening Slave; 1920-25), he also worked on Émile Bauchet's 'Le Semeur de Normandie' (1923-36) and Lorulot's anticlerical 'La Calotte' (The Skullcap). In the 1930s he devoted himself to industrial agitation and was sentenced to 18 months in prison for "obstructing the free movement of labour". He also edited a collection of revolutionary poems: 'Cris de Révolte Contre l'Iniquité Sociale et les Exploiteurs du Peuple' (Cries of Revolt Against Social Injustice and the Exploiters of the People; 1950).

1893 - Emilio Canzi (d. 1945), Italian partisan, anarchist and anti-fascist combattant in the Spanish Civil War, born. Head of the Battaglione Cantarana, he helped train the Arditti del Popolo (People’s Commmandos), who fought against Mussolini’s Blackshirts. Following the killing of a fascist he had to flee to France. In 1927 he returned to Italy to undertake underground work but was arrested. He managed to explain away his presence and left the country illegally in 1928. In France he joined an exile group of Piacenza anarchists, the Anarchist Communist Union of Piacenza. In October 1933 he served on the Anarchist Committee for political Victims based in Paris that maintained links with militants still in Italy. He was a main organiser of protests against the expulsion of Italian anarchist militants from France in 1935.
In 1936 he fought with Italian anarchist volunteers in Spain on the Aragon front. Returning to Paris he contributed to the exile anarchist press and organised aid for Italian anarchist volunteers who had ended up in French concentration camps. With the German invasion, Emilio was arrested by the Nazis, spending 3 months in a German prison and then he was sent to a concentration camp. In March 1942 he was transferred to Italy to receive a sentence of five years of internment on the prison island of Ventotene. From here he was sent to the concentration camp of Renicci D’Anghiari from where he and other anarchists organised a daring escape in 1943. He organised a partisan detachment in the mountains. He was arrested by the fascists in 1944 but was freed in a prisoner exchange. The Communists tried to neutralise his importance in the partisan movement and to discredit him and he was arrested by them. Another partisan unit freed him and he took part in the fighting to liberate Piacenza. He threw himself into activity in the anarchist movement again, taking part in the congress of the FCL (Libertarian Communist federation) and then at the founding congress of the Italian Anarchist Federation in Carrara in September 1945.
On October 2 1945 he was struck by a British Army truck and he died in hospital several weeks later. The nature of the accident remains mysterious.

1896 - Louis-Émile Cottin (d. 1936), French carpenter-cabinet maker and militant anarchist, born. Received a death sentence [see below] (later commuted) for trying to assassinate Clémenceau in 1919. Cottin died on the Saragossa front during the Spanish Revolution, where he fought in the famed Durruti Column.

1897 - Errico Malatesta clandestinely re-enters Italy and begins publishing the weekly newspaper 'L'Agitazione'. Ii will be published until 12 May 1898.

1898 - Edward Paul Abbey (b. 1927), American novelist, essayist, polemicist and desert anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 29]

## 1901 - Horacio Badaraco (d. Aug. 1946), Argentine anarchist militant, journalist on 'La Antorcha' and collaborator of other libertarian publications, founder of the Spartacus Alianza Obrera y Campesina, born.

1902 - Alternative date for the birth of Mika Feldman de Etchebéhère (d. 1992), Argentinian Marxist and anarchist who fought with the P.O.U.M., born. The only woman to lead a militia column in the Spanish Civil War. [see: Feb. 2]

1912 - Young Italian anarchist Antonio d' Alba attempts to assassinate Vittorio Emanuele III by firing two shots from a revolver. The king came out unscathed, but D'Alba was captured and sentenced to hard labour.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: IWW members agree to terms granting wage increases as 10,000 strikers gather and vote, successfully ending the 'Bread & Roses' Lawrence Textile Strike of 32,000-people against wool mills. "On March 14, 1912, the throng that assembled on the Lawrence Common had come from all over the Western world. They had also come from just a few blocks away. Beneath hazy skies and merciful spring temperatures, fifteen thousand people clogged streets and alleys as they walked to their appointed meeting… But if their languages were many, their purpose was one. They would soon resume quarreling. All the former animosities, as old as the ‘old country,’ would surface. Yet for this singular afternoon, after sixty-three days without work or pay, surviving on soup and sandwiches doled out in dingy kitchens, witnessing the death of two strikers, the beatings of dozens, the arrests of hundreds, the marching of thousands, this cosmopolitan collection of the world’s workers had become an American tapestry." Bruce Watson - 'Bread and Roses: Mills, Migrants, and the Struggle for the American Dream' (2005)]

1915 - Walter Crane (b. 1845), English artist, book illustrator and libertarian socialist, dies. [see: Aug. 15]

1917 - Criminal Syndicalism: Introduced on February 19, 1917, the Idaho legislature passes its criminal syndicalism bill. A relatively brief document, the statute described criminal syndicalism as the "doctrine which advocates crime, sabotage, violence or unlawful methods of terrorism as a means of accomplishing industrial or political reform." It made the "advocacy of such doctrine" a felony and then went on to criminalise not only advocating criminal syndicalism, but also publicising criminal syndicalism; "[o]penly, wilfully and deliberately justif[ying], by word of mouth or writing, the commission or the attempt to commit crime, sabotage, violent methods of terrorism;" establishing or holding membership in any organisation committed to teaching or advocating criminal syndicalism; assembling to teach or advocate criminal syndicalism; and providing a physical forum for the advocacy of criminal syndicalism. In 1925 Idaho further expands its previous provisions to include a defintion of sabotage: "improper use of materials; loitering at work; slack work; slowing down work or production; [and] scamped work."

1918 - Gennaro Rubino (b. 1859), Italian anarchist who unsuccessfully tried to assassinate King Leopold II of Belgium on November 15 1902, dies in prison, possibly from Spanish flu after fifteen years of imprisonment and isolation that had come to affect his mental faculties.

1919 - The 23-year-old Louis-Émile Cottin is sentenced to death for the attempted assassination of Clemenceau on 2 Feb 1919. This is commuted to 10 years in prison following a protest campaign organized in the pages of the anarchist 'Libertaire'.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The new civil governor ​Carles Montañés [Carles Emili Montañès i Criquillion] and Gerardo Doval, the new chief of police, arrive in Barcelona from Madrid. Upon his arrival, Montañés is applauded at the station: perhaps not so much for what he is, but because his presence means the end of Gonzalez Rothwoss.
Lawton and Montañés have a meeting where the second convinces the first to negotiate with the strike committee.
The Federación Patronal de Barcelona is established. Its first major task it would set itself was to try and root out CNT members from amongst the strikers, setting as one of its terms for ending the second general strike that in order to be reinstated, a worker had to give up their CNT membership card and negotiate a new salary individually, a demand that no self-respection centista would tolerate.

1921 - Errico Malatesta, Armando Borghi and Corrado Quaglino launch a hunger strike in the San Villore prison in Milan.

[B] 1944 - Peter-Paul Zahl (d. 2011), German anarchist of the '68 generation, writer, poet and novelist, born. Linked to the Bewegung 2. Juni (June 2nd Movement), he was jailed for 6 months in 1970 for printing a "Freedom for all prisoners" poster in support of RAF and June 2nd Movement prisoners. In 1972 he was involved in a shoot-out with police during a 'terrorist' manhunt, during which a cop was shot. He was convicted in 1976 double murder trial to 15 years in prison, serving 10 years during which he turned author. In 1985, he emigrated to Jamaica where he was granted Jamaican citizenship and worked as a stage director and writer. [expand]

1945 - Alexander Granach (real name Jessaja Szajka Gronach; b. 1890) [1893 also given as the date], anarchist sympathiser and popular German actor in the 1920s and 1930s as well as 1940s Hollywood, dies. [see: Apr. 18]

1951 - Vaga de Tramvies / Huelga de Tranvías [Barcelona Tram Strike / General Strike]: Barcelona has been turned into an armed camp, with four warships carrying marines docked in the harbour and troops having arrested thousands more strikers over the past few days, the general strike collapses, as workers return to their jobs. For many the threat of lay-offs was too great and, with thousands already starving, to risk unemployment seemed ridiculous. Though some workers continued to stay home from their jobs in an attempt to sustain the protest, by the end of the week most Barcelonan’s had returned to work.

1958 - Jesús del Olmo Sáez (aka Malatesta; b. 1924), Spanish anarchist and anti-Francoist resistance fighter, dies. [see: Oct. 18]

1962 - Giovanna Caleffi Berneri (b. 1897), Italian anarchist, married to Camillo Berneri (murdered by the Communists in Spain), mother of Marie Louise Berneri, Giliana Berneri (anarchists all), dies. [see: May 4]

1967 - Antonio María Ildefonso Díaz Soto y Gama (b. 1880), Mexican jurist, author and revolutionary, who was inspired by the anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist world view and became one of the founders of the Partido Liberal Mexicano, dies in Ciudad de México,one of the few major figures of the Mexican Revolution to have died a natural death. [see: Jan. 23]

1978 - In the early hours in Madrid's Carabanchel prison, the Spanish militant anarchist Agustin Rueda Sierra (b. 1952) dies from the injuries inflicted on him following the discovery of an escape tunnel the previous day. He and seven comrades were 'identified' as the tunnel builders and subjected to more than six hours of brutal beatings and torture. [see: Nov. 14]

1988 - Fritz Scherer (b. 1903), German migrant worker, bookbinder, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who used his wartime position as a fireman to try and protect his comrades as well as cover for his underground anarchist activities, dies as the family funeral message stated "After a short illness, without suffering and after a full life". [see: May 13]

1993 - Soledad Estorach Esterri (b. 1915), Catalan anarcho-feminist, member of Mujeres Libres, companion in arms with Concha Liaño, dies. [see: Feb. 6]

[D] 1997 - Zapatista Uprising: In San Pedro Nixtalucum (Municipality of El Bosque), in a repressive display, the state police assault civilians sympathetic to the EZLN, resulting in 4 deaths, 29 wounded, 27 detained and 300 displaced.
##jul41830 - Élisée Reclus (Jacques Élisée Reclus; d. 1905), renowned French radical geographer, writer and anarchist, born. [EXPAND]
Author of a 19-volume masterwork 'La Nouvelle Géographie Universelle, la Terre et les Hommes' (Universal Geography), over a period of nearly 20 years (1875–1894), for which he was awarded the prestigious Gold Medal of the Paris Geographical Society in 1892, despite having been banished from France because of his political activism. As a member of the Association Nationale des Travailleurs, he published a hostile manifesto against the government of Versailles in support of the Paris Commune of 1871 in the 'Cri du Peuple'. He served in the National Guard, being taken prisoner on April 5, and on November 16 was sentenced to deportation for life.

[E] 1877 - [O.S. Mar. 3] Milly Witkop Rocker (Milly Vitkopski; d. 1955), Ukrainian-America anarcho-syndicalist and anarcha-feminist writer and activist, born. Exiled to London, she was an activist in the Jewish anarchist movement among East End sweatshop workers. In London in 1896 she met Rudolf Rocker, who became her lifelong companion. Their son, the artist Fermin Rocker, was born in 1907. When Rocker was interned as an enemy alien at the start of WWI, Milly continued her anti-war activities, which led to her arrest in 1916 and imprisonment til the war ended in 1918. In November of that year they both moved to Germany where they became involved in the founding of the anarcho-syndicalist trade union Freie Arbeiter Union Deutschlands (Free Workers' Union of Germany). Disillusioned with the male-dominated nature of the union, Witkop became one of the leading founders of the Frauenbund (Women's Union) in Berlin in 1920, later to become the countrywide (Syndikalistische Frauenbund, with Milly drafting 'Was Will der Syndikalistische Frauenbund?' (What Does the Syndicalist Women's Union Want?; 1921) as a platform for the SFB.
Witkop was also active in the fight against racism and anti-Semitism in Germany and despaired of the labour movement's unwillingness to fight either which ultimately helped pave the way for the rise of the NSDAP. Following the Reichstag fire, Witkop and Rocker fled Germany for the United States via Switzerland, France and the UK. In the US the couple continued to give lectures, write about anarchist topics and helped raise awareness of events during the Spanish Civil War. In 1937 Milly and Rudolf Rocker settled in the anarchist community of Mohegan, NY.

1891 - Aldino Felicani (d. 1967), Italian-American anarchist, typographer, editor, and publisher ('Rompez les Rangs', 'Libertarian Youth', 'The Social Question', 'L'Agitazione', 'The Lantern' and, until his death, 'Controcorrente' (Countercurrent), born.

1892 - French anarchist carpenter Théodule Meunier targets the Lobau Barracks, the site of the Communard massacres, with a bomb on the eve of the anniversary of the rising of the Paris Commune. Numerous arrests follow and Prime Minister, and future President, Émile Loubet at once submits to the Chamber of Deputies a bill providing that all persons responsible for such outrages should be liable to capital punishment.

1894 - An open air meeting being held in Peckham Park Road by Peckham Anarchists is attacked by a group of right wing thugs in collusion with the police. The group’s red flag is seized and torn to pieces. When the group defended themselves with walking sticks, the police – who had been actively inciting the mayhem – moved in. According to a report in the April 1894 edition of 'Freedom', Detective Sergeant Walsh apparently pushed a group of small boys watching the fight into the midst of the mellee. Alfred Foster, the main speaker, twenty seven years old and living at Commercial Road, Peckham was arrested by PC Martin for "disorderly conduct by causing a crowd to assemble"!
At Lambeth Police Court the following day Foster appeared before Justice Biron. Speaking for the defence was another member of the group William Hart, a tailor’s trimmer, who stated that he was an atheist and took an affirmation rather than swearing on the Bible. Biron was hostile from the beginning asking "You were making Anarchist speeches?" Foster was ordered to find a surety of £25 to be of good behaviour for six months or go to prison for a month.
Agnes Henry volunteered to put up the money but was refused as a woman! H.B. Samuels in his turn offered to put up the surety but was refused because he would not swear on the Bible! After a week in prison Foster was freed when W. B. Parker put up the money.

1894 - Amédée Pauwels (b. 1864), Belgian anarchist bomber, dies when a bomb he was carrying into the the Church of La Madeleine in Paris explodes prematurely. [see: Jan. 29]

1908 - José Peirats Valls (d. 1989), Spanish anarchist, activist, anti-fascist combatant, journalist, historian and author of 'Anarchists in the Spanish Revolution' and other books on Spain, born. [expand]

1914 - Oswald Heidbrinck (Oswald-Pierre Heidbrinck; b. 1858), French painter, watercolourist, draftsman, engraver and caricaturist of the Belle Epoque, and anarchist sympathiser, who collaborated on Jean Grave's 'Les Temps Nouveaux' and 'L'Assiette au Beurre', dies in Paris. [see: Oct. 14]

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: La Canadenca representatives, members of the strike committee and José Morote, the assistant secretary of the presidency who had been sent from Madrid to mediate, hold a series of meetings at the headquarters of the Instituto de Reformas Sociales. The first meeting takes place at 15:00 as the strike committee arrived two hour late, much to the annoyance of the employer's side. The meetings were to last for three long days.
Montañés reported to the Minister of the Interior that the union presented their negotiation position, which he believed could be acceptable. What he did not say was that he had previously accepted three demands from the CNT: release of prisoners, guarantees of reinstatement, and the reopening of trade union premises. The new demands placed before the company are:
1) Readmission of those dismissed
2) Increase in salaries
3) Guarantees to avoid retaliation
4) 8-hour day
5) Full payment of wages in the case of accident
6) 50 thousand pesetas in compensation
7) Payment of wages lost during the strike.
The La Canadenca representatives responded by accepting the 8-hour day and payment of the wage in cases of accident, but refused to pay any compensation or the proposed salary increases of 10 to 50%. They even agreed, at the request of Montañés, to pay the wages paid during the strike if the workers presented themselves within three days. Where they remained firm was in refusing to reinstate of the dismissed strikers. Lawton declared the following day that many of those employees are thieves, which is why he can not readmit them.
With reprissals still in place against part of the striking workers, the strike committee rejected the employer counter-offer at 19:00. A new attempt at resolving the dispute began.

[F] 1920 - The council movement in Turin begins a strike, combined with occupation of the factories and resuming production under their own workers' control.

1933 - Sucesos de Casas Viejas: A government Comisión de Investigación into the Casas Viejas massacre recognises the existence of the shootings but exonerates the government.

1945 - David Antona Domínguez (b. 1904), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist and one-time Secretariado del Comité Nacional CNT, dies. [see: Nov. 22]

## [B] 1948 - Gerhard Seyfried, German anarchist comics and graphic artist, cartoonist and writer, born. Famed for his bearded anarchist dwarf with his toothy grim and bomb.

1960 - Julia Bertrand (b. 1877), French teacher, militant anarchist, feminist and free thinker, dies. She collaborated on the feminist newspaper 'La Femme Affranchie' (The Emancipated Woman) and the journal 'La Vrille' (The Spiral) published by the anarchist Victor Loquier. Register in the 'Carnet B' (the Interior Ministry's book of monitored subversives) as an anti-miltarist, she was arrested an internned in 1914. Released following protests, she is banned from teaching but begins work in Faure's La Ruche until it closes in November 1917, and eventually has her teaching certification reinstated in 1925. Active in the anarchist press, including 'L'en Dehors', 'l'Idée Libre', 'Le Libertaire', etc.., in the Ligue d'Action Anticatholique and campaigning against vivisection. [see: Feb. 14]

1966 - Jean Biso (b. 1881), French anarcho-syndicalist, Secretary of the Syndicat des Correcteurs in Paris, participant in support groups for Sacco and Vanzetti, Spanish Revolution of 1936, dies. [see: Apr. 14]

1969 - Two anarchists, Alan Barlow and Phil Carver, arrested immediately following a powerful explosion at the Bank of Bilbao in London. In their possession was a letter claiming the action on behalf of the 1st of May Group.

1970 - Arthur Adamov (b. 1908), Russian-born French playwright and anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 23]

1971 - Louis Louvet (b. 1899), French anarcho-syndicalist, in the Syndicat des Correcteurs d'Imprimerie since 1937, dies. Involved in numerous anarchist publications including: 'Le Libertaire' (1924); 'L'Éveil des Jeunes Libertaires' (1925); 'L'Anarchie' (1925); 'La Revue Anarchiste' (1925); 'Controverse' (1932); 'Ce Qu'il Faut Dire' (1944-45); 'Les Nouvelles Pacifistes' (1949); and 'Contre Courant' (1951). [see: Feb. 7]

1971 - Miquel Liern Barberà (b. 1907), Spanish anarchist, CNT member and combattant on the Teruel, Brunete and Ebro fronts, dies. [see: Aug. 16]

1978 - Reinhold Wilhelm 'Willy' Huppertz (b. 1904), German mechanic/fitter, and militant anarchist communist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was a member of FAUD and the Allgemeine Arbeiter-Union - Einheitsorganisation (General Workers Union - Unity Organisation), dies in Mülheim an der Ruhr. [see: Nov. 18]

1980 - Hélio Oiticica (b. 1937), Brazilian visual artist (painting and sculpture) and anarchist, dies. Grandson of José Rodrigues Oiticica. Best known for his participation in the Concrete group, his Rio de Janeiro installation 'Tropicália' (1967), a labyrinth-like environment with parrots, plants, sand, texts, and a television — a satire on the clichés of Brazilian culture and a commentary on the conflict between tradition and technology typical in the Third World, gave its name to the Tropicalismo movement. [see: Jul. 26]

1995 - Jean Meckert, aka Jean or John Amila, Edouard Duret, Edmond Duret, Guy Duret, Albert Duvivier, Mariodile, Marcel Pivert (b. 1910), French libertarian novelist, screenwriter and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Mar. 15]

[A] 1997 - First International Day Against Police Brutality [DAPB]: This day of protest initiated in response to Swiss police beating two children, aged 11 & 12, by the Black Flag in Switzerland, with the help of COBP from Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Over 50 groups within 14 countries participate.

2018 - Anna Campbell, nom de guerre Hêlîn Qereçox (b. June 12, 1991), British queer anarchist feminist, prison abolition activist and plumber, who was active in Bristol Anarchist Black Cross, the Empty Cages Collective, HSA, etc., dies fighting as a volunteer in the YPJ (Yekîneyên Parastina Jin‎ / Women's Protection Units) in Rojava during the Turkish military operation assault on Afrin in northern Syria. [see: Jun. 12]
1853 - Suggested date of birth of Lucy Eldine Gonzalez Parson, American anarchist labour organiser and founding member of the IWW. The exact date is unrecorded but this is the date recorded in the US Library of Congress. [see: Mar. 7]

1877 - Eleanor 'Fitzi' Fitzgerald (Mary Eleanor Fitzgerald; d. 1955), US theatre employee and manager, editor, anarchist speaker and writer, born. A friend and supporter of Emma Goldman, who she met through her then partner Ben Reitman, she became the office manager and assistant editor for 'Mother Earth'. She later became became involved with Alexander Berkman and was co-editor his paper 'The Blast'. She was also a member of the No-Conscription League, helped found the League for the Amnesty of Political Prisoners and was the manager of the Provincetown Players. Amongst her other relationships was one with Eugene O'Neill and she lived with fellow activist Pauline Turkel for many years. Eleanor Fitzgerald died from cancer on March 30, 1955.

1877 - Antoine Bertrand (d. 1964), French anarcho-syndicalist, member of La Jeunesse Libre (Free Youth) group, born.

1900 - The first issue of the monthly 'Zsherminal' (Germinal), Yiddish journal of anarchist youth is published in London and Leeds. Rudolph Rocker and Milly Witkop carry out the printing themselves in order to keep the costs down. In print until March 1903, reappearing between Jan. 1905-May 1909.

1908 - Police forcibly remove Emma Goldman from the Workingmen's Hall in Chicago, where she is scheduled to speak on 'Anarchy as It Really Is', an event organised by the newly created Freedom of Speech Society. Barred since March 2 by police from addressing any meetings in any public halls in Chicago, every subsequent attempt has been thwarted by the police and she temporarily abandons her attempts on the 20th.

1908 - René Daumal (d. 1944), French writer, poet, critic, essayist, playwright and Indologist, born. Founder of the anarchist and socialist influenced magazine 'Le Grand Jeu', a counter weight to Breton's Surrealist group. Best known for his posthumously published novel 'Mount Analogue' (1952).

1918 - 'Regeneración' publishes a proclamation in the US, "With the anarchists of the world and the workers in general." The authors, Librado Rivera and Ricardo Flores Magón, argue that the social revolution approaches and that all anarchists must infuse it with their energies and possibilities. This text gets the paper seized in the land of the free, and this is its last published appearance in the mythical land of milk and honey.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: To increase the pressure on the employers's side, the Confederación Regional del Trabajo de Cataluña added a new sector to the general strike, as a typographers' strike left Barcelona without newspapers. The Catalan CRT also threatened to bring out telephone operators and banking staff.
A second conciliatory meeting is held.

[D] 1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: Bolsheviks stage their final bloody assault on the rebellious Kronstadt sailors and people - Kronstadt put Trotsky in power and Trotsky has squashed Kronstadt, shooting its rebels like partridges. In the process he has truly earned his sobriquet, the 'Red Butcher'.

1930 -The first issue of 'Studi Sociali' (Social Studies), a free fortnightly written by Luigi Fabbri in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and published by Carlo Fontana Montevideo (Uruguay) in collaboration with editions of the newspaper 'La Protesta'.

1933 - Last appearance of 'Arbeitslose', FAUD's (Die Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands) newspaper for the unemployed in Dresden, which also served as the unofficial organ of the German anarcho-syndicalist movement after the Nazi's banned their two previous papers.

1933 - Émile Chapelier (b. 1870), Belgian miner, autodidact, prolific writer, militant libertarian communist and revolutionary syndicalist, who was the inspiration and founder of the libertarian communist colony, L'Expérience at Stockel, near Brussels, born.

1938 - Continuous bombing of Barcelona, March 16-18, by the fascist forces.

##1947 - Geoff Mullen (Geoffrey Richard Mullen; d. 2014), Australian computer programmer, anarchist and draft resister whose jailing in 1971 became a focal point of opposition to conscription for the Vietnam War, born.

1950 - Grigori Petrovitch Maximoff (Grigóriy Petróvich Maksímov [Григо́рий Петро́вич Макси́мов]) aka Gr. Lapot [Гр. Лапоть] (b. 1893), Russian-American agronomist and anarcho-syndicalist, member of the Nabat Confederation until his expulsion from the Soviet Union in 1921, who is best known for 'The Guillotine at Work: Twenty Years of Terror in Russia' (1920), his expose of Bolshevik repression, dies in Chicago. [see: Nov. 22]

1953 - Doc Corbin Dart aka '26', US punk rock singer and anarchist, who was lead singer, founder, and lyricist of the 1980s punk rock band the Crucifucks, born.

## 1960 - As'ad AbuKhalil (أسعد أبو خليل), Lebanese-American professor of political science at California State University Stanislaus, author and "former Marxist-Leninist, now an anarchist", feminist, and "atheist secularist", born.

1962 - Zenzl Mühsam (b. 1884), militant German anarchist and companion of Erich Mühsam, dies. She wounded up in Stalin's Gulags, convicted of "membership of a counterrevolutionary organisation and counter-revolutionary propaganda", and upon her release she was shuttled from one Workers' Paradise to another. [see: Jul. 27]

1969 - Antonio Pereira (b. 1908) (true name Tomaso Ranier) dies. Italian anarchist, member of the Ortiz column during the Spanish Revolution and in the underground movement after the fascist Franco became dictator.

1978 - Giuseppe Bifolchi aka Luigi Viola aka 'V' (b. 1895), Italian anarchist communist, who fought in the Spanish Civil War and then later in the Italian Resistance to the Nazis, dies. [see: Feb. 20]

1993 - Jan Paweł Rogalski (b. 1908), Polish Jewish editor, anarchist and anti-Nazi fighter, dies. [see: Aug. 18]

1995 - Joséphine Coueille (b. 1912), known as Andrée Prévotel, French anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, free thinker, dies. Charged in the 'Sterilizers of Bordeaux' case (affaire des stérilisés de Bordeaux) for promoting vasectomies, her charges were dropped, but her husband André Prévotel was sent to prison. [see: Apr. 19]
[NB: Mar. 15 (and to a lesser extent Mar. 14) is sometimes given as her date of death]

[B] 2001 - World Première of Anton Coppola's opera, 'Sacco & Vanzetti', staged by Tampa Opera at the Carol Morsani Hall. Based on music he wrote for a film his nephew Francis Ford Coppola had planned to make about the anarchists but never did.

2011 - Another fire breaks out at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant in northern Honshu and emergency workers evacuated as radiation levels rise. Meanwhile the death toll from the initial earthquake & tsunami rises to 4,277 with at least 8,194 missing.

2012 - A third member of Pussy Riot, Yekaterina Samutsevich [Екатерина Самуцевич], is arrested for her part in the February 21 event in Moscow's Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. [see: Mar. 3]

2017 - Gérard Terronès (b. 1940), Moroccan-French jazz producer and anarchist, who founded the Disques Futura et Marge jazz record label, dies in Paris at the age of 76. [see: Jun. 9]
1848 - Ernesta Forti (d. unkown), Italian anarchist, born. She worked in the dairy in rue Joquelet, Paris, that was owned by her partner the prominent French anarchist Constant Martin. Her son Alfredo, who was also an anarchist, also worked there. In February 1894, she had come to the notice of the police as being an anarchist and On March 8 the French police ordered her and Alfredo's exulsion. They ended up in London, where Constant Martin was also exiled following the Procès des Trente. In London she married a French tailor called Siccardi, who acknowledged her son, thereby both automatically became French citizens with all the rights. In 1894 her name appears on a list of anarchists held by the French frontier and railway police.

1862 - Silvio Gesell (d. 1930), German merchant, theoretical economist, social activist and anarchist, born. Many have tried to label him as an anti-Semetic, anti-feminist, nationalist and imperialist social Darwinist by taking individual quotes out of context and accepting the Nazi's superfical and erroneous appropriation of parts of his economic theory and writings, but he was clearly a libertarian internationalist. [expand]

###1867 - Lee Hoe-Yeong [이회영], also known by his pen name Woodang [우당], (November 17, 1932) Korean teacher, independence activist, anarchist and one of the founders of Shinheung Military Academy (신흥 무관 학교) in Manchuria, born.

[B] 1873 - A.J. Alexandrovitch (Alexandre Joseph)(d.1949), prolific Russian-born French libertarian artist (portraiture and landscape) in paint, ink, charcoal, as well as etching and lithograph, born. Painted many allegorical compositions as well as portraits of all the well known contemporary anarchist figures. [see: Jan 10]

[BB / GGG] 1877 - Otto Hans Adolf Gross (also Grob; d. 1920), Austrian psychoanalyst, sexologist and libertarian revolutionary, born. Influenced by the philosophy of Max Stirner, Friedrich Nietzsche and the political theories of Peter Kropotkin. He was was also an early follower of Freudian psychoanalytic theory, going on to become involved in the development of psychiatry and psychoanalysis, as well as in the modern literature of Expressionism and Dadaism. A generation before Wilhelm Reich, Gross was the first analyst to emphasize the dialectical interdependence between individual inner change and collective political change. He tried to live these radical ideas in both his private and professional life – which he refused to separate – and thus became anathema to those trying to establish the credibility of psychoanalysis as a science in the eyes of society and academe.
Born into a bourgeois family – his father was a professor of criminology and leading authority in his field – Gross was educated by private tutors and at private schools before becoming a medical doctor in 1899. A period working as a naval doctor led to his travelling to South America, where he developed an opium habit, which would later turn into a lifelong cocaine addiction. In 1901 he began working as a psychiatrist and assistant doctor in Munich and Graz, published his first papers and had his first treatment for drug addiction at the Burghölzli Clinic near Zürich. Sometime around 1904 he met Sigmund Freud and became his assistant. By 1906 Gross was living in Munich and at the utopian Ascona community in Switzerland, where he had an important influence on many of the expressionist writers and artists who frequented it, such as Karl Otten and Franz Werfel, as well as Ascona’s resident and visiting anarchists, including Erich Mühsam.
In 1908 Gross sought further treatment for his cocaine addiction (seemingly a professional hazard amongst psychoanalysts at the time) at the Burghölzli where he was analysed by C.G. Jung (leading to Jung labelling of him as a hopeless lunatic) – and he, in turn, analysed Jung. In 1911 Gross was forcibly interned in a psychiatric institution. Upon his released, Gross ended up in Berlin in early 1913, joining the anarchist group close to Franz Pfemfert and ‘Die Aktion’. Around this time he announced plans to found a school for anarchists in Ascona and, in a letter to the Swiss medical doctor and anarchist Fritz Brupbacher, to publish a ‘Journal on the Psychological Problems of Anarchism’. Two years later, Gross was arrested as a dangerous anarchist and expelled from Prussia, where upon his father had him detained at the Austrian border and interned in a psychiatric institution [on the basis of Jung’s diagnosis of schizophrenia]. By the time he was freed, following an international press campaign initiated by his friends, Gross had become one of the psychiatrists working at the hospital. In 1915, after a spell as an army doctor, Gross, together with the writer Franz Jung, the painter Georg Schrimpf and others, published a journal called ‘Die Freie Strasse’ as a “preparatory work for the revolution”. At the time, he also exerted a considerable personal influence on Franz Jung, Raoul Hausman, Hannah Höch and the others around Berlin Dada.
His personal life mirrored his libertarian views, married in 1903 to Frieda Schloffer, with whom he had a son, Peter, he later had relationships with Else Jaffé (Else Freiin von Richthofen), who gave birth to a son, Peter; an affair with Else’s sister, Frieda Weekley, who later married D.H. Lawrence; Swiss writer Regina Ullmann (who later became a close friend/protégé of Rilke) and who gave birth to a daughter, Camilla; Marianne Kuh, (sister of the Austrian writer Anton Kuh) – a daughter Sophie; as well as having relationships with Marianne’s sister, Nina, and possibly with the third sister, Margarethe.
Otto Gross died of pneumonia on February 11, 1920, after being found sick, near-starved, frozen, and suffering from withdrawal symptoms in a Berlin street. A psychoanalytic outcast, in one of the very few eulogies that were published, German writer and close friend Otto Kaus wrote, “Germany’s best revolutionary spirits have been educated and directly inspired by him. In a considerable number of powerful creations by the young generation one finds his ideas with that specific keenness and those far-reaching consequences that he was able to inspire.” Anton Kuh also wrote of Gross as “a man known only to very few by name – apart from a handful of psychiatrists [Freud, Jung, et al] and secret policemen – and among those few only to those who plucked his feathers to adorn their own posteriors.”
A minor character in David Cronenberg’s film 'A Dangerous Method' (2011) and a central one in Eric Koch’s novel 'Premonitions' (2008).
The psychology of the unconscious is the philosophy of revolution.” Otto Gross, 'Zur Ueberwindung der Kulturellen Krise, die Aktion', vol. 3, no. 14, 1913.

1892 - On the second floor of 39 Rue de Clichy, François Ravachol places a small suitcase. In the building lives Bulot, a public prosecutor. Five people are wounded in the considerable carnage.
"I have done this", Ravachol declares, "first because M Benoit passed an unfair sentence on Decamp and friends. The jury asked for the minimum sentence, he gave the maximum. Second, because there has been no publicity over the ill-treatment they received at the Clichy police headquarters. It is for these reasons that I have especially marked out MM Bulott and Benoit, but I want all those who have the responsibility of meting out justice to be more clement if they want better treatment themselves."
[Costantini pic]

1893 - [N.S. Mar. 29] Maria Vartanovna Petrosova [Мария Вартановна Петросова] or Mariya Vasilyevna Potresova [Мария Васильевна Потресова] (d. unknown), Russian member of the revolutionary movement since tsarist times, born. [see: Mar. 29]

1897 - Jules Jouy (b. 1855), French anarchist, singer, writer, poet, journalist, painter, songwriter and pioneer of the social song, dies. [see: Apr 27]

1901 - Severino di Giovanni (d. 1931), Italian typographer and anarchist who emigrated to Argentian, born. Best known for his campaign of violence in support of Sacco and Vanzetti and anti-fascism, for which he was executed by firing squad. [EXPAND]

1906 - Johann Most (b. 1846), German-American anarchist, propagandist, bookbinder and publisher of 'Freiheit', dies. [see: Feb. 5]

1911 - Rebelión de Baja California / Revolución Mexicana: Federal forces retake Tecate and kill the entire defending PLM force.

1917 - Opening of the Galerie Dada at the Galerie Corray, Bahnhofstrasse 19, Zurich.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Prime Minister Romanones puts pressure on the Civil Governor of Barcelona, ​​Carles Montañés, to resolve the conflict within the next 24 hours as he had received a threat from Largo Caballero, leader of the Socialist UGT, to call a general strike across the country if the conflict in Barcelona were not resolved. An hour later the manager Lawton accepted all the conditions of the La Canadenca strikers and added that there would be no reprisals. The strike committee then agreed to lift the general strike as long as this resolution is accepted by an assembly of strikers. A document is signed by the company, the strike committee and the unions involved (wood, electricity, water and gas, metallurgical) containing 9 points:
1) Readmission of dismissals and strikers
2) Removal of hostile company management personnel
3) Wage increases: 60% for those who earn 100 pesetas monthly, 40% for those on 100 to 150, 20% for those on 150 to 200, 15% for those on 300 to 400, 10% for those on 400 to 500. Not applicable to children under 17 years
4) Equalization of salaries with those of the Federación Patronal de Barcelona (Employers' Federation of Barcelona)
5) Payment of half salary for February and full salary payment from March 1 with increase, minus holiday pay
6) 8-hour day
7) Full payment of wages in the case of accident at work
8) No retaliation
9) Resumption of work within 48 hours.
After 45 days of strike, an agreement is reached that represents an almost total victory for workers: freedom of prisoners (except those who had a trial in progress), the reinstatement without penalties of all the strikers and pickets, general rise of wages, granting eight hours and payment of lost wages during the strike.
Seventy-six prisoners released are released over the next two days.

1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: Bolshevik forces enter Kronstadt. There is a great slaughter as the island is taken and a bloody suppression of those who who took part in the rebellion, and many of those who did not.

1934 - During her 90 days 'cultural tour' of the US - for which the US government gave permission only on the condition that she only spoke only in theatres and only about literature i.e her aboutbiography 'Living My Life', during which she was watched at all times by members of the FBI - Emma Goldman gives a stirring incendiary lecture to the City Club in Rochester, New York, speaking on the "drama" of world events and about fascism, Nazism, Stalinism, etc. and her eventful biography.

1935 - As vice president of the Société Contre l'Abus du Tabac (Society against the Abuse of Tobacco), anarchist militant, freethinker, anti-militarist, feminist and teacher Julia Bertrand presents a talk at the organisation's Paris headquarters entitled 'Le tabac. Poison de la vie en toutes circonstances' (Tobacco. Posionous to life in all circumstances).

[A] 1937 - The Friends of Durruti Group is formally established in Spain.

1941 - Jules Sellenet, known as Francis Boudoux (b. 1881), French militant, anti-militarist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Jul. 18]

## 1941 - Paul Lorin Kantner (d. 2016), US co-founder and rhythm guitarist of Jefferson Airplane, member of Jefferson Starship, and anarchist, born.

1947 - Shì Tàixū [釋太虛], more commonly Taixu (or T'ai Hsü) [太虛] and Master Taixu [太虚大师](born Lü Peilin [呂沛林]; b. 1890), Chinese Buddhist modernist and anarchist, who advocated the reform and renewal of Chinese Buddhism, dies of a cerebral haemorrhage at the Jade Buddha Temple (玉佛寺) in Shanghai. [see: Jan. 8]

1953 - Ulrich Klan, German musician, composer, educator, author and libertarian, born.

1965 - Nancy Cunard (b. 1896), Surrealist writer, poet, model, anarchist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Mar. 12]

1967 - Aivar Voitka, Estonian anti-Soviet guerrilla legend and proto-anarchist member of Metsavendlus Eestis (Forest Brothers), born. The documentary 'Voitka - Metsän veljet' (Warriors of Independence; 2004) directed by Pekka Lehto, was made about their exploits.

1986 - Cipriano Damiano González (b. 1916), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Franco underground resistance, dies. [see: Sep. 22]

1988 - Nikolas Asimos (Νικόλας Άσιμος [Asimopoulos (Ασιμόπουλος)]; b. 1949), Greek lyricist, composer and singer of Greek rock and 'folk' songs, and anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 20]

2013 - Five prison guards held hostages in Malandrinos prison, Greece.
[B] 1842 - Stéphane Mallarmé (real name Étienne Mallarmé; d. 1898), French Symbolist poet, critic and an anarchist sympathiser, born. Mallarmé's poetry was greatly influenced by that of the 'father of Symbolism' Charles Baudelaire, who had himself not been immune to the influences of anarchism prevalent in French society at the time, and in turn himself had an influence on a number of notable anarchists such as Renzo Novatore and Fernando Pessoa. Mallarmé would also exert an influence in anarchist circles of Paris which he frequented e.g. Le Chat Noir. [c.f. fellow symbolist poet and anarchist Henri de Régnier.] But more importantly he would provide inspiration to the Dadaist, Surrealist and Futurist movements.
He financial supported a number of anarchists whilst they were on trial (incl. Félix Fénéon), regularly subscribed to 'Le Révolté' and published texts in 'Les Entretiens Politiques et Litteraires'.
"Je ne sais pas d'autre bombe, qu'un livre." (I know of no bomb other than a book.)

'L’après-midi d’un faune. Églogue', 1876

Non, mais l’âme
De paroles vacante et ce corps alourdi
Tard succombent au fier silence de midi :
Sans plus il faut dormir en l’oubli du blasphème,
Sur le sable altéré gisant et comme j’aime
Ouvrir ma bouche à l’astre efficace des vins !

Couple, adieu ; je vais voir l’ombre que tu devins.

('The Afternoon of a Faun. Eclogue'

No, but the soul
Void of words, and this heavy body,
Succumb to noon’s proud silence slowly :
With no more ado, forgetting blasphemy,
I must sleep, lying on the thirsty sand, and how I love
to open my mouth to wine’s celestial effect !

Farewell to you, both: I go to see the shadow you have become.)


1844 - Mikelis Avlichos (Μικέλης Άβλιχος; d. 1917), Greek scholar, humorist and satirical poet, atheist, anarchist and radical, born.

## 1855 - Nicolò (Nicolantonio) Converti (d. 1939), Italian surgeon, anarchist propagandist, existentialist, militant internationalist and typographer, born. [expand]
[NB. Some sources state Mar. 16]

1861 - Lucien Descaves (d. 1949), French libertarian novelist, born. His second novel, 'Sous-Offs' (NCO; 1889), based on his 4 years military service, provoked a scandal and earned him a trial for insulting the army and offending public morality. Acquitted, he was stripped of his military rank. In 1892, he became literary editor of Séverine's 'Journal', and worked on Zo Axa's 'L'Endehors' until 1895, then on Jean Grave's 'Temps Nouveaux'.
He was editor of 'l'Aurore' at the outbreak of the Dreyfus affair and immediately took a stand against the anti-Semitism displayed during it. In 1900 he co-authors with Maurice Donnay, a theatrical comedy called 'La Clairière' (The Clearing) inspired by Aiglemont and the other Milieux Libres experimental communities. In 1901 his novel evoking the Paris Commune, 'La Colonne', appeared. A second Paris Commune novel, 'Philémon, Vieux de la Vieille', was printed in 1913. A founding member of the Académie Goncourt, he was one of the most vociferous critics of his co-académiciens after they failed to award the prize to Celine's 'Journey to the End of the Night'.

1877 - Workers celebration in Bern, Switzerland organised by the anarchists Peter Kropotkin and Paul Brousse, leads to clashes with the police when the latter try to seize their red flags.

1879 - Robert Bodanzky, aka Danton (born Isidor Bodanskie; d. 1923), Austrian journalist, essayist, playwright, poet, librettist, artist, anti-militarist and anarcho-communist, born.

1882 - During a meeting at the Salle Favié in Paris, Louise Michel, wanting to disassociate herself from authoritarian socialists and parliamentarists, decides unambiguously that the Black Flag should be adopted by anarchists.
"Plus de drapeau rouge, mouillé du sang de nos soldats. J'arborerai le drapeau noir, portant le deuil de nos morts et de nos illusions." ["More red flags, wet of the blood of our soldiers. I shall raise the black flag, being in mourning for our deaths and for our illusions."]

1889 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: The first Fascio, based on the example of the North and the already existing local società di mutuo soccorso (mutual aid societies), is formed in Messina. It was short-lived, folding in July of that year following the imprisonment of its founder Nicholas Petrina, and it would be another 2 years before the movement really took of following the creation of the Fascio di Catania on May 1, 1891.

[E] 1923 - Maria Turon Turon (d. unkown), Spanish anarchist militant and feminist member of the Mujeres Libres group in the Pueblo Nuevo neighbourhood of Barcelona, born.

1903 - Ernesto Bonomini (d. 1986), Italian militant anarchist, anti-militarist and anti-fascist, born. A young socialist and anti-militarist, he is forced into exile in France in 1922 with the rise of fascism. In Paris he becomes an anarchist and, on Feb. 20 1924, he assassinates in a Paris resturant Nicola Bonservizi, a leading Fascist and editor of the Parisian fascist newspaper 'L'Italie Nouvelle' and correspondant of 'Popolo d’Italia', who also spied on the exile community for Mussolini’s secret police. Arrested after the killing, he was tried on 24 October 1924 and sentenced to 8 years hard labour, later commuted to simple imprisonment.
Freed on 20 February 1932, he was expelled from France and stayed in Belgium for a few months before being smuggled across the border by Umberto Marzocchi. He then worked in Lille at Marzocchi’s Librairie Moderne bookshop. Both were arrested in April 1933 and sentenced to one month in prison. Back in Paris, Ernesto is arrested again and goes on a long hunger strike. At the end of July 1936, he left for Spain and took an active part in the revolution and in the struggle against Franco. He denounced the attacks on the anarchist movement by the Stalinists in the pages of Camillo Berneri’s paper 'Guerra di Classe'.
In April 1938, he took part in a public meeting in Paris under a false name but was arrested and sentenced to a year in prison for breaking the expulsion order. Interned, he managed to escape in April 1939, making his way to the US via Belgium and Canada. In California he learnt upholstery in California, worked in the Twentieth Century Fox studios in Hollywood and continued his anarchist activity, writing for the anarchist press under the name of Dick Perry.

1910 - Julio Herrera y Reissig (b. 1875), Uruguayan poet, playwright, essayist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 9]

1913 - In Thessaloniki (Greece), King George I of Greece, who was visting the city, is shot and killed by Alexandros Schinas, an anarchist.

1918 - Mexican anarchist Ricardo Flores Magón is arrested for the final time on March 18, 1918 under the Espionage Act. He is charged with hindering the American war effort with his ideas, and imprisoned in the federal penitentiary of Leavenworth, causing outrage at the time among both Mexicans and even US liberals. Ricardo Flores Magón died in prison under highly suspicious circumstances, supposedly of a heart attack, but at the hands of prison guards, according to Chicano inmates who rioted and killed his principal murderer.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The government withdraws the state of war. Simó Piera leads a meeting-rally at the teatre Bosque de Gràcia during which it is decided to return to work under the condition that all prisoners are released, both union leaders arrested in January during state of emergency as thousands of prisoners during the strike, which had been promised by the new civil governor Carles Montañés.

1921 - Kronstadt Rebellion [Кронштадтское восстание]: With the fall of Kronstadt yesterday, thousands of sailors and workers lie dead in the streets. Summary execution of prisoners and hostages continues. Today the victorious Bolsheviks are celebrating the anniversary of the Paris Commune of 1871. Trotsky and Zinoviev, with a total lack of shame, denounce Thiers and Gallifet for the slaughter of the Paris rebels.

1923 - Maria Turon Turon (d. unkown), Spanish anarchist militant and feminist member of the Mujeres Libres group in the Pueblo Nuevo neighborhood of Barcelona, born.

1931 - At the penitentiary of Punta Carretas n Montevideo (Uruguay), anarchists expropriators Jaime Tadeo Peña, Agustin Garcia Capdevilla, Pedro Vicente Rivas and Boadas Moretti (arrested on 9 November 1928 after robbing the Messina currency exchange), alongside three common law prisoners, escape from the notorious prison by burrowing from the toilet a tunnel 50 meters long by 4 deep. Dug under the floor and walls, the tunnel is fully equipped and ends in a wood and coal store opened in August 1929 by anarchist Gino Gatti, who is the real 'engineer' of the tunnel, helped by José Manuel Paz (who installed electricity and ventilation), Miguel Roscigna, Andrés Vazquez Paredes and Fernando Malvicini. A sign is left behind: "Solidarity between anarchists is not simply a word written!"

1937 - Battles in Guadalajara (March 8-18) end in victory for the Republican forces (the International Brigades and a division controlled by the anarchist Cipriano Mera) over the fascist nationalist camp composed of Italian, Moroccan troops and strongly armed and motorized Carlists attempting to seize Madrid.

1947 - Mihail Ivanov Gerdzhikov*, aka Lyasov [Лясов], Michel, Todor Lukanov [Тодор Луканов](Михаил Иванов Герджиков; d. March 18, 1947), prominent Bulgarian anarchist and revolutionary in Macedonia and Edirne, dies in Sofia, aged 70. His burial is the last public gathering of Bulgarian anarchists for many years. [see: Jan. 26]
[alt. spelling: Mikhael Guerdjikov]

##1950 - Chisaka Kyoji (千坂恭二), Japanese critic and Bakuninist anarchist philosopher, born. [expand]

1966 - The first edition of a new version of the fortnightly anarchist paper 'L'Internazionale' is published in Venice. It will be published in Forli (from 15 April 1966) and Ancona.

[F] 1971 - During a major strike of Ford workers in England the main offices of the Ford Motor Company at Gants Hill, Ilford, on the outskirts of London, is wrecked by a powerful explosion. A thousand word communique (AB Communique no. 7) is delivered shortly after.

1987 - Pilar Grangel (Maria del Pilar Grangel Arrufat [or Granjel i Arrufas]; b. 1893), Spanish rationalist educator and militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Oct. 19]
## 1820 - Charles-Ferdinand Gambon (d. 1887), French lawyer, magistrate, initially a moderate republican, who later became a socialist, anarchist and pacifist revolutionary, born. Elected a member of the Paris Commune. Defence lawyer for the Lyons anarchists in the 1883 trials. Wrote for 'Le Cri du Peuple' and coined the famous pacifist slogan "Guerre à la guerre".

1836 - François Dejoux (d. unknown), French anarchist activist and brother of Louis Dejoux, born. [see: Nov. 5]

###1901 - Gino Gatti, aka 'El Ingeniero' (real name Giuseppe Baldi; d. 1980s), Italain anarchist expropriator active in Argentina and Uraguay, who was one of the principal organisers of the March 18, 1931 escape of anarchist prisoners from the Punta Carretas Prison in Montevideo, born.

[FF] 1912 - British Syndicalist leader Tom Mann is arrested and charged under the Incitement to Mutiny Act 1797 for having read out sections of 'Open Letter to British Soldiers' at a meeting in Salford on March 14. Originally printed in the 'Irish Worker' the year before, the 'Open Letter' urged the army not to shoot strikers, and it had been reprinted in the first edition of 'The Syndicalist' (January 1912). Mann was also chairman of the Industrial Syndicalist Education League, which was the publisher of 'The Syndicalist'. Guy Bowman, secretary of the ISEL and the paper's editor was also arrested, as were the paper's printers, Benjamin Edward and Charles Ernest Buck. The three were charged under the 1797 Act and with "endeavouring to incite and stir up persons serving in His Majesty's land forces to commit acts of disobedience to the lawful orders of their superior officers".
The same day as Mann's arrest, Bowman and the Bucks stood trial at the Old Bailey, where they were found guilty; and on March 22 Bowman was sentenced to nine and a half months imprisonment with hard labour and the Bucks to 6 months with hard labour. These sentences were subsequently reduced to 6 months and one month respectively without hard labour.
The 'Open Letter' had also been reprinted as a leaflet at his own expense by a railwayman named Fred Crowsley, who had personally distributed copies to soldiers at Aldershot, Hyde Park Comer and Hounslow barracks. He had then been arrested on February 31 and charged under the 1797 Act and was tried at the Hampshire Assizes on June 18 and sentenced to four months imprisonment with hard labour, subsequently reduced to two months without hard labour.
Mann's trial took place on May 9 at the Manchester Assizes, during which he defended himself. He was found guilty and given the same (revised) sentence as Guy Bowman, six months without hard labour in Strangeways prison. He only served seven weeks.
[ Bowman]

1914 - [N.S. Apr. 1] Ştefan Gheorghiu (b. 1879), Romanian carpenter and revolutionary syndicalist, dies in the Filaret sanatorium in Ploieşti from the tuberculosis contracted in the military prison in Galați in 1907. He was aged just 35. [see: Jan. 15]

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Salvador Seguí aka 'el Noi del Sucre' (Sugar Boy) is released and the same day takes part in the famous rally in the massive Plaza de las Arenas bullring in Barcelona. At the meeting, which is attended by 50,000 people inside and spilling into the streets outside, it is agreed to end the strike.

1922 - Comasco Comaschi (b. 1895), Italian cabinetmaker, anarchist and leader of the Arditi del Popolo in his home town of Cascina in Pisa, is ambushed as he and three comrades return home in a carriage from a meeting and murdered by local fascisti, shot in the temple with a shotgun, dying immediately. His death provokes an immediate general strike in Cascina as the whole town goes into mourning, attracting the attention of local and national newspapers. His funeral attracted thousands as the whole town was decked out in red and black. It would prove to be the last 'free' demonstration before the advent of fascism in Italy.
"Cascina was all in red and black. The funeral procession crossed the streets followed by a huge, emotional and tearful crowd. From the windows rained flowers, thrown by gentle hands, on the martyr's coffin. Over 60 wreaths followed the procession. Every class of citizens, without distinction of parties, joined the demonstration of condolences and protest." 'Umanità Nova', April 26, 1922. [see: Oct. 27]

1950 - Charles Benoit (b. 1878), French revolutionary socialist, then an anarchist, dies. [see: Mar. 24]

[B] 1976 - Adam O, Danish comics and poster artist and anarchist, born.
[B] 1828 - Henrik Ibsen (d. 1906), Norwegian playwright, theatre director, poet and libertarian individualist, born. His first play 'Catiline' (or Catalina; 1850) actively promotes the anarchist ideal about fairness and freedom without violence, investigated in a societal context, universally and individually [expressly describing the central character Catiline as an anarchist]. Emma Goldman in her famous lecture 'The Social Significance of the Modern Drama' (1914) analyses the anarchist connotations of his drama in the plays 'The Pillars of Society', 'The Doll’s House', 'Ghosts' and 'An Enemy of Society'.
"The State is the curse of the individual. . . The State must go! That will be a revolution which will find me on its side. Undermine the idea of the State, set up in its place spontaneous action, and the idea that spiritual relationship is the only thing that makes for unity, and you will start the elements of a liberty which will be something worth possessing." [from a letter to George Brandes, shortly after the Paris Commune, 18-05-1871]

1842 - Charles Alérini (d. unknown), French anarchist revolutionary, First International and Jura Federation activist, born. [expand]

1871 - Commune de Narbonne: Following the news of the insurrection in Paris March 18, 1871, a meeting of the the Club de la Révolution in Narbonne votes upon a motion which ends with the words: "the undersigned declare that they no longer recognise the government in Versailles and ask the councilors of Narbonne to decide and inform their fellow citizens whether they are willing to obey the government in Paris or that in Versailles." ["les soussignés déclarent ne plus reconnaître le gouvernement de Versailles et viennent demander aux conseillers municipaux de Narbonne d’avoir à se prononcer et à informer leurs concitoyens s’ils sont prêts à obéir au gouvernement de Paris ou à celui de Versailles"]

1888 - Pietro Bruzzi aka 'Brutius' (d. 1944), Italian journeyman mechanic, anarchist and anti-fascist fighter in Spain, born. [expand]
Arrested in Spain and extradited to Italy, he was interned on the island of Ponza. Escaping, he joined the anarchist anti-fascist resistance in Lombardy and edited the clandestine paper 'L'Adunata dei Libertari' (Anarchist Assembly) in late 1943. He was captured and shot in Melegnano by the fascists.

1889 - Jean de Boe (d. 1974), Belgian typographer, militant anarchist, syndicalist and co-operativist, born. Condemned in February 1913 as an accomplice to the Bonnot Gang to 10 years hard labour in French Guiana. He escaped and returned to Belgium in 1922, where he was active in several strikes and he founded 'Les Arts Graphiques' (The Graphic Arts) co-operative.

1889 - Ernesto Herrera, aka Herrerita, R. Herita & Ginesillo de Pasamonte (Nicolás Herrera Lascazes), Uruguayan writer, playwright, literary journalist, professor, anarchist and Uruguayan diplomat, born.

##1891 - Tcheng Yu-hsiu (郑毓秀; d. 1959), aka Su Mei [蘇梅] also Madame Wei Tao-ming [魏道明], youthful Chinese anarchist, revolutionary and feminist, who later became the first female lawyer and judge in Chinese history during the Nationalist Chinese Republic, born.
[鄭毓秀郑毓秀 › 人民网 › 文史]

1897 - Louis Rodolphe Salis (b. 1851), French creator, host and owner of Le Chat Noir, the first modern cabaret and a meeting place for Paris' radical artists and anarchist alike, born. [see: May 29]

1903 - 'Arbeter Fraint' begins republishing under the administration of the Arbeter Fraint group and editorship of Rudolf Rocker, but now as the organ of the "Federation of Yiddish-Speaking Anarchist Groups in Great Britain & Paris".

1906 - Fearing that Porfirio Diaz will request their extradition to Mexico, Ricardo and Enrique Flores Magón and Juan Sarabia pay their bail and flee to Toronto, Canada. Librado Rivera, Antonio I. Villarreal and Manuel Sarabia take over editing 'Regeneración' even though the US postal authorities withdraw it fourth class postage privileges at the request of the Mexican Government.

1907 - [O.S. Mar. 7] Peter Arshinov (Пётр Арши́нов) shoots Vasilenko, head of the main railroad yard at Aleksandrovsk. A notorious and pitiless oppressor of workers, Vasilenko had turned over to the military tribunal more than 100 workers who were accused of taking part in the armed uprising in Aleksandrovsk in December, 1905; many of them were condemned to death or forced labor because of Vasilenko’s testimony. He was caught and sentenced to death by hanging but, the sentence temporarily postponed, he managed too escape from Aleksandrovsk prison on the night of April 22, 1907.

1910 - The first issue of 'L'Insurgé', weekly paper of the Central Region is published in Limoges.

1917 - Criminal Syndicalism: The State of Washington's criminal syndicalism legislation, "An Act defining the crime of criminal syndicalism and prescribing the punishment thereof", is vetoed by the Democrat Governor Ernest Lister, who had help bring the eight-hour work day to the Pacific Northwest during the IWW's 1917 Lumber Workers' strike, though he was also active in repressing the IWW.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Seventy-six prisoners have been released and the state of siege lifted but 33 prisoners facing charges remain under arrest together with a further eight held by the military. The workers returned to their jobs, but the military refuse to release all the prisoners (who had been arrested whilst having been called up) and the strike ultimately resumes.

1920 - Vladimir Konstantinovich Kaminsky (Владимир Константинович Каминский; b. 1889*), Ukrainian anarchist communist, who was a prominent figure in the Siberian anarchist movement in the city of Krasnoyarsk (Красноя́рск), is sentenced to death by the Krasnoyarsk Cheka and shot.
[* some sources give the year as 1891]

1922 - In the Rue des Plantes in Paris, Lee Ho Ling, a young Chinese student and individualist anarchist [born August 6, 1902 in Soehouang, China], tried unsuccessfully to kill the Chinese Minister Mr Loh Cheng who was returning to his home by car after a party. Lee fires 4 shots at the car but the only injury is to a senior Chinese official present in the vehicle. Lee blamed the minister for the expulsion of 150 Chinese students from Lyon because their ideas were considered "too advanced". He admits the act and is sentenced on July 6 to one year in prison and fined 200 francs.

####aug121923 - Martin Ramirez Sostre (August 12, 2015), Afro-Puerto Rican bookshop owner, forty-one years and thirty days, revolutionary writer, Black Muslim, Black nationalist, Internationalist, and later anarchist, who was framed as part of the COINTELPRO program and spent nine years in prison, becoming a fearless prison activist, born.
[ Liberation Disk/Black Power!/SugahData/Essays/Schaich.S.pdf]

1938 - Nitta Tōru (新田 融), aka Yuzuru (b. 1880), Japanese mechanical engineer arrested during the High Treason Incident and sentenced to 10 years for violating explosive control criminal penal code, dies. [see: Mar. 12]

1940 - Célestin Freinet, French militant anarchist educator, arrested. Freinet is interned in various camps in the south of France. Eventually released, in May 1944 he joined the Maquis FTP of Briançon, and was also active in the Comité départemental de Libération de Gap.

1945 - Maria Lacerda de Moura (b. 1887), Brazilian teacher, lecturer, journalist, writer, poet, anti-fascist individualist anarchist and anarcha-feminist revolutionary, who founded the Liga para a Emancipação Intelectual da Mulher (League for the Intellectual Emancipation of Women), dies. [see: May 16]

## 1954 - M. P. T. Acharya (Mandayam Parthasarathi Tirumal Acharya; b. ca. 1887), Indian journalist, nationalist, communist and later anarchist / anarcho-syndicalist, who was among the founding members of the Communist Party of India, dies.

[A] 1960 - Cuban anarchist-syndicalist workers' papers — including 'Solidaridad Gastronomico' — forced to cease publishing.

1963 - Karl Otten (b. 1889), German writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 29]

1982 - Célestin Pierre Lentengre, aka Pierre Lentente (b. 1890), French mechanic, accountant, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, founder of a Parisian anarchist group, dies. Administrator of 'La Voix Libertaire' (1928-1939) and active in The Friends of Sébastien Faure. [see: Dec. 17]

1998 - Agustin Gomez-Arcos (b. 1939), Spanish anarchist, gay novelist and dramatist, dies. Wrote mostly in French about Franco's Spain, where many of his works were banned. Involved in experimental threatre works in Paris from 1968. [see: Jan 15]

2014 - Karin Kramer (b. 1939), German anarchist publisher and co-founder of the Karin Kramer publishing house, dies in Berlin at the age of 74. [see: Nov. 9]
[F] 1870 - 1500 the miners in the Le Creusot area go on strike to protest against a reduction in their wages. The owner of the local mines and metal works, Eugene Schneider, was notorious: as the bourgeois liberal candidate in the 1869 election, he had been elected by just one vote, having won the previous election of 1863 by 800 votes. He responded to this snub by dismissing 200 workers he suspected of having voted against him. He would use the army against the strikers.

1872 - Neith Boyce Hapgood (d. 1951), U.S. novelist, playwright and journalist, born. She married the anarchist Hutchins Hapgood and together they collaborated on a novel, 'Enemies' (1916) which they later published as a one-act play in 1921. Her other novels include: Novels: 'The Forerunner' (1903), 'The Folly of Others' (1904), 'Eternal Spring' (1906), 'The Bond' (1908), 'Two Sons' (1917), 'Proud Lady' (1923) and 'Harry: A Portrait' (1923). She also co-founded the Provincetown Players together with Susan Glaspell, George Cram Cook and others.

1873 - Demetrius Paparrigopoulos (Δημήτριος Παπαρρηγόπουλος; b. 1843), Greek anarchist, playwright, poet and suicide, dies.

1874 - Gustave Franssen (d. 1950), French copyreader, revolutionary syndicalist and libertarian, born.]

1877 - Gust Samuel Alonen (d. 1953), Finnish-American trade unionist, Wobbly and anarchist, born. He became famous in 1919 when he was sentenced along with Carl Päiviön with more than four years' imprisonment for the dissemination of revolutionary material.

## 1887 - Lajos Kassák (d. 1967), Hungarian poet, novelist, painter, essayist, editor, theoretician of the avant-garde, anarchist, anti-fascist and anti-Stalinist, born. He was among the first genuine working-class writers in Hungarian literature and was an important influence across the various artistic and radical intelectual groups in Budapest in the ealy 1900s. [expand]

1913 - Émile Maurin (b. 1862) (known as Elie Murmain), French anarchist militant and photographer, dies. [see: Jul 28]

1919 - Hungarian Councils Republic declared. Anarchists particiapte in the Budapest Commune. [expand]

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Salvador Seguí continues to try and persuade the workers to return to work and the newspapers claim that "tornada a la normalitat" (everything is back to normal). However, Seguí issues a warning giving the authorities 72 hours to release the remaining prisoners or the workers will go out on strike again.

1926 - Todor 'Tocho' Mitev (d. 2002), Bulgarian anarchist and doctor, born.

[B] 1934 - Raoul Vaneigem, Belgian writer, philosopher, novelist and principal theoretician, alongside Guy Debord, of the Situationist International, born. Author of 'Traité de Savoir-Vivre à l'Usage des Jeunes Générations' (The Revolution of Everyday Life; 1967), 'Le Livre des Plaisirs' (The Book of Pleasures; 1979); 'Le Mouvement du Libre-Esprit' (The Movement of the Free Spirit; 1986), amongst other political/philosophical works. His single fiction piece is the erotic novel 'L'Ile aux Delices' (The Island of Delights; 1979).

1937 - The Spansih anarchist Iron Column meets in assembly to vote on militarisation or disbandment: it agrees to militarisation.

1942 - Jindřich Štyrský (b. 1899), Czech painter , photographer, photomontagist, graphic designer, collagist, poet, Surrealist theorist and anarchist, dies of a longterm heart condition. [see: Aug. 11]

1945 - Amédée Dunois (pseudonym for Amédée Gabriel Catonne; b. 1878), French anarchist militant, communist, and then a revolutionary socialist trade unionist, dies in Bergen-Belsen after his arrest by the Nazi regime. Author of several works of history (in particular on the Paris Commune) and the chapter 'Marxism & Socialism' in Sébastien Faure's 'Anarchist Encyclopaedia'. [see: Dec. 16]

1946 - The first and only edition of the anti-clerical newspaper 'Il Corvo' (The Crow) is published in Livorno, Italy. Edited by the anti-religious 'Pietro Gori' group of the Itailan Anarchist Federation in tribute to Giordano Bruno.

##1970 - Michèle Bernstein, French novelist, critic, member of the Situationist International and partner of Guy Debord, who became his literary executor, born.

1988 - François-Charles Carpentier (b. 1904), French militant anarchist, friend of Louis Mercier Vega and fighter with the Durruti Column, dies. [see: Oct. 28]

2004 - Consuelo Zabala (b. 1920), Spanish life-long anarchist militant, dies. [expand]

2012 - John Brailey (b. 1934), English printer, bookseller, anti-war activist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Apr. 2]
1812 - Stephen Pearl Andrews (d. 1886), US lawyer, individualist anarchist, linguist, political philosopher, outspoken abolitionist, free-love advocate, and author of several books on the labour movement and Individualist anarchism, born.

1871 - Commune de Lyon: During the night (22-23) the Hôtel de Ville is invaded by some of those involved in the September 28, 1870 uprising and attempt to form a Commune in the city (where the Association Internationale des Travailleurs had been active since early in the year trying to prepare the workers for what many saw a possible revolution), members of the former Comité de Salut Public, the Comité Révolutionnaire de la Guillotière, and the 18th and 24th Battalions of the Comité Central of the Garde Nationale. A provisional committee to rally the city in support of the Paris Commune is formed. It proclaims the Commune, hoists the red flag, dismisses the préfect Valentin Henon, who along with the mayor had been trying to delay theradicals in the hope of the arrival of troops to prevent the uprising. The mayor is forced to appoint Riciotti Garibaldi, the son of Italian revolutionary general, as head of the Guard Nationale.
The following morning, with poster declarting the creation of the Commune having appeared on the city's streets, Michael Bakunin comes to the balcony of the town hall of Lyon in the Place Bellecour and, flanked by members of the International, makes an appeal for world revolution.

1871 - Commune de Saint-Étienne: Hearing of the proclamation of the Lyon Commune, a large group of Guard Nationale gather in the Place de l'Hotel de Ville with shouts of "Vive la Commune!" Members of the Club de la rue de la Vierge visit the mayor and demand the resignation of the City Council. By 17 votes to 7, councilors declare themselves ready to quit but choose to remain in office until the election of their replacements.

1873 - Fermín Salvochea y Álvarez, an early and important Andalusian anarchist, is briefly mayor of Cadiz with the proclamation of the 1st Republic.

1893 - Kléber Claux, aka Ramon (Ray) Insa Lleo (d. June, 1971), French-Australian anarchist and naturalist, born.

[B] 1896 - Mathias Léoni (d. 1981?), Italian sculptor of medals, mosaic artist and anarchist, born. Like his brother Leonida (born January 17, 1899), an anarchist from a young age. In 1915, he was sentenced to 25 days in jail and a fine for throwing projectiles at police during a demonstration against the war. Both brothers refuse their call up and flee to the mountains. On Nov. 20, 1917 they are discovered by the carabinieri. Leonida escapes but Mathias is arrested and imprisoned. In 1923 both brothers fleeing fascism go into exile in France, where they settled in Paris. Mathias joins the Ruche des Artistes as a medal sculptor and mosaic artist. In the late 1960s Léoni put his studio at the disposal of the Albert Camus group of the Organisation Révolutionnaire Anarchiste (ORA). He also made a series of cast and engraved medals of famous anarchists including Louise Michel, Michel Bakunin, Jules Vallès and Nestor Makhno.

1905 - In the Amiens courthouse, the trial of Alexandre Marius Jacob and his Les Travailleurs de la Nuit (Night Workers) gang, credited with 150 burglaries, concludes. Jacob and Félix Bour receive life in prison, 14 others get sentences ranging from 5 to 20 years, while another seven are acquited.

1907 - The first edition of the illegal fortnightly anti-militarist broadsheet 'Rompete le File!' (Break Ranks!), created by Maria and Filippo Corridoni Rygier, is published in Milan.

1909 - Washington Statute of 1909 Criminal Code, Chapter VIII. Crimes Against The Public Peace, Sec. 310-316 covering 'Criminal Anarchy' is approved.

1912 - San Diego Free Speech Fight: With the city and county jails holding more than 250 inmates, Chief Wilson announces that, from now on, police would make 'selective arrests' – just leaders of the movement – and deport those in jail to the city limits. The following day [23rd] rumors spread that the night before, several trucks had driven prisoners to the train station at Sorrento Valley. Unmasked civilians, calling themselves the new Vigilance Committee, ordered handcuffed captives to form a single line. What followed was a 'going-away party'. Vigilantes beat the men with clubs and axe handles, then told them to walk to Orange County. Chief Wilson denied knowledge of the incident. The Union said he "was inclined to laugh" at the allegation. Chief of Detectives Myers, labeled a "Cossack" by protesters, said that, for all he knew, the prisoners "merely started on their way".

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Many workers return to work to find that the military have badly damaged plant that they were trying to operate and the workers now have no jobs to return to. The outstanding prisoners are slowly and grudgingly being released.

1928 - Alan Barlow (d. 2004), British trade unionist and anarcho-syndicalist, arrested, charged and imprisoned in 1969 for his role in the 1st of May Group bombing of the Francoist Banco de Bilbao in London, born.

[E] 1942 - Maria Collazo (b. 1884), Uraguayan educationalist, journalist, feminist, syndicalist and anarchist activist, who was known as Abuelita del Pueblo (Grandmother of the People), dies. [see: Mar. 6]

1949 - Justiniano Garcia Macho aka 'El Macho' (b. unkown) and Pedro Acosta Canovas aka 'El Chaval' & 'Pedro' (b. 1925) are executed in Zaragoza.
[NB: some confusion over the exact date with some sources stating Mar. 12.]

1952 - Ana Aurora do Amaral Lisboa (b. 1860), Brazilian teacher, poet, writer, playwright, and libertarian and feminist activist, dies in Rio pardo. [see: Sep. 24]

1961 - Ettore Bonometti (b. 1872), Italian shoemaker and anarchist militant, dies. [see: Nov. 22]

1968 - Students occupy the school at Nanterre and the March 22nd Movement emerges - an organisation with no hierarchy and no ideological program. 150 students, calling themselves anarchists, occupy the administrative building. Courses are suspended until April 1.

[A] 1969 - Miguel Garcia released from prison in Spain.

1972 - Saul Newman, Anglo-Australian political theorist and prominent post-anarchist thinker, born

1987 - Eugen Relgis (b. 1895), Rumanian poet, anti-militarist and prolific anarchist author of some distinction, dies in Uruguay. [see: Mar 2]

1990 - Geoffrey Ostergaard (b. 1926), English anarcho-pacifist, dies. Wrote on workers' control, and also similarities of Sarvodaya in India and anarchism. [see: Jul. 20]

1991 - María Mañas Zubero (b. 1912), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies. [see: Dec. 4]

## 2001 - Tony Gibson (b. 1914), British psychologist, BBC producer, writer and anarchist, dies. His best known book was 'People Power: Community and Work Groups in Action' (1979). Active as an artist's model and posed for an advertisement of Brylcreem 1939 - in 1940 this advertisement was added a RAF cap plus the caption "For active service" but Gibson himself was at that time a conscientious objector working as an ambulance man and a farm labourer.

2007 - Hans Schmitz (b. 1914), German anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, militant anti-fascist and conscript to the Wehrmacht, dies. [see: May 16]

2013 - Escape from Trikala prison, Greece.
##1813 - Jacques Marie Anselme Bellegarrigue (d. ca. 1869), French journalist, lawyer, professor and individualist anarchist, federalist promoter of municipalism and a defender of revolution without violence, born. Wrote a novel: 'Le Baron de Camebrac, en tournée sur le Mississippi', published episodically between 1851 and 1854.
"L'Anarchie c'est l'ordre, le gouvernement c'est la guerre civile." (Anarchy is order, the government is war civil.) - 'Au fait, au fait!! Interprétation de l'Idée Démocratique' (1848)

1860 - André Girard (known as Max Buhr) (d. 1942), French anarchist militant and trade unionist, born.

1871 - Commune de Saint-Étienne: Hearing of the proclamation of the Lyon Commune, a large group of Guard Nationale gather in the Place de l'Hotel de Ville in Saint-Étienne with shouts of "Vive la Commune!" Members of the Club de la rue de la Vierge visit the mayor and demand the resignation of the City Council. Prominent amongst them is the anarchist cobbler Etienne Faure aka 'Cou Tordu' (Twisted Neck). By 17 votes to 7, councilors declare themselves ready to quit but choose to remain in office until the election of their replacements. At about 20:00 the following day the Guard Nationale occupies the City Hall singing the 'Marseillaise' and cheering the Commune. An hour later, the building is invaded by the crowd, and representatives of the Club de Rue de la Vierge ask the authorities present (interim prefect, the mayor and two of his deputies, the Commander of the National Guard) to proclaim the Commune! They refuse and are arrested. Around midnight, the Commune is proclaimed by the crowd. The red flag is raised.
On the 25th the mayor is forced to recognise the fact and accept the organisation of a plebiscite in favour of the Commune. In response, the revolutionaries quit the Hotel de Ville. Seizing his opportunity, the préfect Henri de L'Espée calls upon the Garde Nationale to protect the building and in response the insurgents take the préfet prisoner and occupy strategic points across the city including the railway station, the telegraph office and stocks of weapons and gunpowder. The insurgents then elect a Comité Révolutionnaire but the population prove to be less than enthusiastic and, lacking widespread support, at 06:00 on the morning of March 28 the City Hall is encircled, the red flag is removed and the commune falls without any resistance. More than a hundred of those involved in the creation of the Commune de Saint-Étienne are arrested and at their trial on December 5, 1871, dozens are sentenced to deportation or imprisonment.

[D] 1871 - Commune de Lyon: Bakunin comes to the balcony of the town hall of Lyon in the Place Bellecour to make an appeal for world revolution. He has with him all of the First Workers' International.

[DD] 1871 - Commune de Marseille: The préfecture is invaded and a local committee is formed, chaired by Adolphe Cremieux and comprising 12 members, which declares: "À Marseille, les citoyens prétendent s'administrer eux-mêmes, dans la sphère des intérêts locaux. Il serait opportun que le mouvement qui s'est produit à Marseille fût bien compris, et qu'il se prolongeât. Nous voulons la décentralisation administrative avec l'autonomie de la Commune, en confiant au conseil municipal élu dans chaque grande cité les attributions administratives et municipales." [In Marseille, citizens claim self-government in the sphere of local interests. It would be appropriate that the movement that has happened in Marseille is well understood, and that it be prolonged. We want administrative decentralisation with the autonomy of the Commune, by giving the elected municipal council in every major city and municipality administrative duties. However, the Commune is beset by internal divisions over the following days, as even the flag as a symbol of the Commune is the subject of division – the red flag being replaced by the tricolore, which is in turn replaced by a black flag (symbolising grief rather than anarchism) – and the neighbouring towns that the communards had hoped would rally in support of the Commune fail to do so.
Elsewhere, the Communes of Lyon, Toulouse, Saint-Etienne, Limoges, and Narbonne all fell to the troops of the bourgeois government that had set up in Versailles following its ousting from the capital by the Paris communards. On the evening of April 3, 6-7,000 government troops under the command of the military head in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, General Espivent de la Villeboisnet, arrived outside the city. Faced by overwhelming odds, which included artilley and two warships in the harbour sheeling the city, the 400 Guards Nationale and the communards fought bravely throughout the following day, but at 19:30 the guns fell silent. Approximately 150 of the defenders were left dead and 500 taken prisoner and thrown into various Marseille jails. Espivent's forces lost 30 dead (including some shot for fraternising with the crowd during a brief parley between Espivent and Gaston Cremieux, one of the Commune leaders) and 50 wounded. Cremieux was later sentenced to death and shot on November 30, 1871, whilst other participants such as Clovis Hugues were sentenced to prison, fined and barred from public office.

1871 - Delarartion of the International Workers Association: Federal Council of Parisian Sections. [expand]

## 1894 - Salvadora Carmen Medina Onrubia de Botana aka 'La Venus Roja' (d. 1972), Argentine poet, novelist, playwright, anarchist and feminist of Spanish-Jewish origin, born. The daughter of Ildefonso Medina and Teresa Onrubia, both Spaniards, she was still just a girl when her father died and she then moved with her mother and sister to Gualeguay in Entre Ríos, although for a time she attended the American College in Buenos Aires. In Gualeguay her mother secured a position as a rural schoolmistress in the Carbó district and Salvadora would also work as a teacher in her early youth. Her writing began when she was an adolescent and she contributed to the local newspaper and sent articles off to the reviews 'Fray Mocho' and 'P.B.T.' and these were published. She was still very young when she moved to the city of Rosario where she struck up a connection with anarchist activism and amateur dramatic groups, in which she was involved. In Rosario she worked as secretary to the lawyer Pérez Colman with whom she had an affair, leading to her giving birth to her first child as a single mother. She then broke off their relationship and moved away to Buenos Aires with her young son to live in a boarding house.
By 1913 she was ensconced in Buenos Aires working as a permanent staffer with the anarchist daily 'La Protesta', for which she was paid 150 pesos per month. She was also published in 'La Antorcha' and 'Caras y Caretas'. On February 1, 1914, Salvadora spoke at a street meeting calling for the release of Simón Radowitzky, the libertarian icon who she protected all her life. A snapshot survives of her addressing the meeting on the corner of the Engineering Faculty in Buenos Aires with the Calle Montes de Oca; it has become famous and represents Salvadora’s first public image. In 1915, she met the Uruguayan journalist Natalio Félix Botana and they became a couple; from then on her life changed at a dizzying rate, although she was never to abandon her libertarian beliefs. She and Botana were very soon living together and Natalio adopted Carlos (Pitón), Salvadora’s first-born and together they would have another three children: Helvio, Jaime and Georgina.
In 1915 Botana was beginning to dabble in business with an ambitious journalistic project, the daily newspaper 'Crítica' that was to achieve a large print-run and attract a wide spectrum of readers. His talent and commitment made a success of it, but at the start he faced a few tough years of day by day struggle and Salvadora was equally involved. 'Crítica' was Argentina’s most popular daily paper up until the 1950s, an oddity, being sensationalist yet boasting a cultural supplement for the elite, with contributions from Borges, Roberto Arlt and the Gonzâlez Tuñons. In its heyday it was selling upwards of 700,000 copies a day. 'Crítica'‘s clout in national politics was unquestionable and it was even capable of toppling a government, for which reason Botana was appreciated as much as he was cursed and comparisons were drawn with the US media mogul William Randolph Hearst. Actually, Botana stored up not just power but also a huge fortune that allowed his family and Salvadora to live in the lap of luxury. Salvadora used such privilege to build up an out and out solidarity network for the libertarian comrades who used to refer to her as "hermanita" (little sister). A number of unemployed comrades were found jobs at 'Crítica', securing their release as political prisoners and a number of needy women would receive sewing machines from Salavora’s own hands; she used to deliver them in her de luxe Rolls Royce in a practice replicated later by Evita.
Salvadora helped out with the running of the paper and even took issue with her husband, such as the time she vetoed 'Crítica'‘s being used as a platform for the Communist Party. She could always find some space to squeeze in an article by an anarchist and was particularly careful to find room for feminist items. Even though they came from differing political viewpoints, Alfonsina Storni, Alicia Moreau de Justo, Herminia Brumana and Juana Rouco were all contributors to 'Crítica'. Among her more celebrated feats was her involvement in the liberation of Simón Radowitzky; on two separate occasions, Salvadora dispatched employees of the paper to orchestrate his escape from Ushuaia penitentiary, but those ventures were discovered and Simon was left to languish behind bars. In the end, thanks to the power she wielded, Salvadora succeeded in 1929 in securing an order from the already weakened President Yrigoyen allowing Radowitzky’s release and departure into exile in Uruguay. On arrival in Montevideo, the renowned anarchist hero was helped and welcomed by a relative of Botana’s.
During the Spanish Civil War, the Botanas fought Francoism and helped out exiles arriving in Argentina. Botana personally was down in the docks arranging leave for Spanish exiles in transit to come ashore in Buenos Aires, sent money for the orphaned children of republican soldiers and welcomed writers like Rafael Alberti and María Teresa León to her estate in Don Torcuato and lent a helping hand to Margarita Xirgu and other Spanish artistes.
But for all her multiple family and intellectual commitments, Salvadora never ceased to be the active militant. In 1919 she was just another activist in the Tragic Week mobilisation, pregnant and holding her oldest son by the hand. On January 7 she spoke in La Chacarita cemetery at the burial of two of the martyrs of that week, clambering on to the coffins for a rally that ended in a tough crackdown. One of the many steps taken in the wake of the Tragic Weeks events was the closure of the libertarian daily paper 'La Protesta', with its employees being thrown out of work; thanks to Salvadora’s solidarity, they were hired by 'Crítica'.
In 1931, one year on from General Uriburu’s coup d’etat, 'Crítica' was shut down and Botana and Salvadora were both jailed by Inspector Polo Lugones (son of the writer Leopoldo Lugones) because of their political differences with the regime, even though 'Critica' had initially supported the coup. From the Buen Pastor women’s prison, Salvadora sent the dictator, Uriburu, a famous letter which ended with these words: "From this corner of wretchedness, I slap your face with my complete contempt." Following this, the Botanas had to move away to Montevideo, from where they opened a sub-office of the paper which survived despite all the difficulties and later they set off on a lengthy tour of Europe. Those were tough times for Salvadora and Natalio. In addition to the political problems of the time and the shutting down of their paper Salvadora’s oldest son, Pitón, died in 1929 in unclear circumstances. It was classed as an accident since he had shot himself while chatting with his sisters, but it was also said that the lad had taken his own life on learning from Salvadora that his father was not Botana but someone else. Salvadora never got over the tragedy and the trip to Europe was a pilgrimage in search of some ease, but the couple were eventually to part company.
Alongside her family, political and business roles, Salvadora turned to writing and became a prolific writer of poetry, narrative and plays. Her very first play was 'Almafuerte' (1914) and it was to be staged that same year at the Apolo Theatre. It was followed by 'La solución' (1921) 'Lo que estaba escrito' (1928), 'Las descentradas' (1929) and 'Un hombre y su vida' (1936). She also wrote plays for children. But she really hit the mark with 'Las descentradas' which was performed at the Ideal Theatre with Gloria Ferrandiz in the lead. It was a stirring piece that found Salvadora at the height of her powers. 'Las descentradas' represented a critique of woman’s subjection to patriarchal rules and put forward the case for women’s autonomy on foot of anarcho-feminist principles. The play carried a significant message denouncing the role in which men had cast woman; Salvadora urged women not to put up with any repression and just be themselves. In terms of a discussion of gender identity, 'Las descentradas' is a bona fide avant-garde production several decades ahead of its time. And as a playwright, Salvador became the first woman member of Argentores (Argentinean Playwrights’ Society).
She translated plays from the French and English, especially the plays of Noel Coward, and staged productions of Perrault’s tales for children. Another curious item from Salvadora’s pen was her novel Akasha. Based on certain notion in the theosophy of Krishnamurti and the theory of reincarnation, the romantic novel is set among the upper classes of the Buenos Aires of the author’s own day and provides the backdrop for a feminist critique. In the day to day publication of 'Crítica', Salvadora’s closet colleagues were the journalist Sebastian Marotta and Roberto Arlt. Along with Arlt, Salvadora took off on esoteric tours of greater Buenos Aires in search of rather theatrical spiritualist experiences that the author of 'Los siete locos' (Arlt) was later to send up in his book. Salvadora was also a great friend of the poetess Alfonsina Storni with whom she associated and whom she had as her house-guest up until Storni committed suicide.
The scathing, humorous political vignettes published by Salvadora are indicative of her powerfully incisive style, as in the case of the article called 'El gato anarquista' (The Anarchist Cat) about a cat that happens to fall on to the apron of the Colon Theatre, striking terror into the audience which mistakes the noise for the explosion of a bomb. As for her poetry, she penned melancholic poems along modernist lines with the oriental references typical of the earliest decades of the 20th century. And she published the poetry anthologies 'El vaso intacto', 'La rueca milagrosa' and 'El misal de mi yoga'.
In 'Critica y su verdad' (1958) Salvadora Medina tackled a number of genres, for one finds alongside objective narrative testimony, essays, booklets and pamphlets, creating a hybrid feel. That book not only lifts the lid on some aspects of the author’s life but also on her (unsuccessful) battles to recover her newspaper after it was seized by the Peronists. From 1946 to 1951, following Botana’s death in a car accident in Jujuy province, Salvadora was the managing editor of 'Crítica'. By the time Peronism came to power, the Botana family had been greatly weakened by Natalio’s death. Salvadora and Eva Peron did not get on together, although initially they were on friendly and cooperative terms. In a 'Letter to Evita' which the government had pressed the director of 'Crítica' to write by way of a homage, Salvadora was naïve enough to place herself on a par with Eva, both of them being battlers, but this did not go down well. When women were granted the vote in 1947, Salvadora had no hesitation in talking exception to that right, so long campaigned for by women, being credited exclusively to Eva Peron and she insisted that the parts played by Cecilia Grierson, Julieta Lanteri, Elvira Rawson de Dellepiane, Alicia Moreau, Carolina Muzzilli and Juana Repetto, historical suffragist activists, also deserved recognition.
Salvadora Medina Onrubia was forever surrounded by rumours and she acquired an almost legendary status, being dubbed "The Red Venus", "The Red Lady" or the "Argentinean Pasionaria", and she was also regarded as an extravagant woman hard to pigeon-hole. In actual fact, those who knew her well said that she was an impassioned, selfless anarchist, albeit more by temperament than doctrine and Luce Fabbri described her as a romantic. There was a consistency to her feminist activism, in her private life as well as in her work; she had resisted marriage until Botana persuaded her of the need to legalise their connection following the birth of her last child, her daughter. She backed the suffragists even though the ballot box is looked at askance in anarchist dogma. She worked alongside men, became addicted to ether, was very poor and then very wealthy and welcomed international intellectuals to her famous estate in Don Torcuato where Siqueiros painted a famous mural and then fled it to live in a tiny apartment. She had a large family, looked out for everybody and finished up very much alone.
When Salvadora Carmen Medina died in Buenos Aires city on July 21, 1972, she had barely a couple of female friends to follow her coffin. She slipped out of memory until slowly she was brought to prominence again in recent years and her anarcho-feminist record and the eclectic power of her literary efforts were brought to light.

1901 - Pierre Fauvet (b.1859), French gunsmith, peddler, militant member of various anarchist groups in Saint-Étienne and organiser of tours in the region for Sébastien Faure, dies. [see: May 15]

1902 - Ettore Aguggini (d. 1929), Italian mechanic and anarcho-individualist, one of three anarchists implicated in the bombing of the Teatro Diana in Milan on March 23, 1921, born. [expand]

1907 - The first issue of the journal 'Lux: Revista Pedagogica Ilustrada' of the Badalona Modern School, supported by the Humane Society for Rationalist Education, is published in Badalona, near Barcelona. L'Escuela Moderna in Badalona adheres to the teachings of Francisco Ferrer, promoting a rationalist education for children away from the reactionary influence of Catholicism.

1913 - The first edition of the fortnightly 'L'Action Anarchiste: Révolutionnaire - Communiste' is published in Micheroux-Fleron, near Liège in Belgium. Only 8 issues were ever printed.

1917 - Opening-celebration of the Galerie Dada. Programme: Abstract dances (by Sophie Taeuber, verses by Ball and masks by Arp).- Frédééric Glauser: verses - Emmy Hennings: verses - Hans Heusser: compositions - Olly Jacques: prose by Mynona - H.L. Neitzel: verses by Hans Arp - Perottet: new music - Tristan Tzara: Negro verses - Claire Walter: expressionistic dances.

1918 - Trial of 101 Wobblies (Industrial Workers of the World) begins in Chicago, for opposition to World War I; accused of violating the Espionage Act.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: 300 workers building the Rubí Terrassa railway line go out on strike. Elsewhere, troops have been withdrawn from the gas plants they had been temporarily running.

1921 - A bomb explodes at the Teatro Diana in Milan, killing and wounding many. Among those accused are Giuseppe Mariani and Giuseppe Boldrini, who get life sentences, and Ettore Aguggini (who died in prison); also implicated are Ugo Fedeli, Pietro Bruzzi, and Francesco Ghezzi (editors of 'L’Indivi-dualista'). The work of an individualist anarchist group believed manipulated and set up by the Chief of Police Gasti, the bombing serves as a pretext for a general repression against all anarchists and also serves the interests of the fascists, who attack the offices of the trade unions and leftist organizations. They also destroyed the office of the anarchist paper 'Umanita Nova'.

1946 - Alberto Ghiraldo (b. 1874), Argentine journalist, playwright, poet, notable intellectual, founder and editor of numerous anarchist publications such as 'Martín Fierro', 'El Sol', 'La Protesta' and 'Ideas y Figuras', dies.

1954 - Christo Dimitrov Nestorov, aka Strako [Щако], Itsata [Ицата], Strahil [Страхил], Bogdan Stefanov [Богдан Стефанов] (Христо Димитров Несторов; b. 1903), Bulgarian anarchist member of the interwar underground and anti-Nazi partisan, who went into exile in France after WWII only to return to fight against the communists, is betrayed to the Communist authorities, Nestorov and his three anti-comunist anarchist partisan comrades, Miliu Ivanov (Милю Иванов) and Doncho (Дончо) and Emilia Karaivanov (Емилия Караиванови) in the Kavak dere (Кавак дере) area near Pavel Banya (Павел баня) are ambushed and surrounded by several hundred soldiers, militiamen and armed party members. After a fierce gun battle and wounded himself, Nestorov manages to hold of the attackers long enough for the Karaivanov brothers to esccaped but he and Ivanov are killed. There is now a memorial plaque to Hristo Nestorov in the village of Gabarevo (Габарево). [see: Mar. 3]

1972 - Bianca Sbriccoli Pichioni aka 'Rosa Salvadè', also known as Bianca Fabbri & Bianca Fabbri-Sbriccoli (b. 1880), Italian anarchist, who married her cousin, the prominent anarchist intellectual Luigi Fabbri, dies. [see: Sep. 30]

1974 - Aristide Lapeyre (b. 1899), French hairdresser, anarchist, pacifist militant and néo-Malthusian, dies. [see: Jan. 31]

[E] 1978 - Agafya 'Galina' Andreyevna Kuzmenko (Галина Андріївна Кузьменко; b. 1896*), Ukrainian school teacher, domestic servant, anarchist-communist and feminist, who was the partner of Nestor Makhno, dies. The daughter of a Kiev gendarme, she graduated with honours from a teacher's seminary in Dobrovelichkivka (Добровеличківка) and in 1916 began working as a teacher of the Ukrainian language and literature in a school in Huliaipole (Gulyaypole or Gulyai-Pole). Already known for her anarchist sympathies, she became an active leader in the local Prosvita (Enlightenment) [All-Ukrainian Society 'Enlightenment' on behalf of Tarasa Shevchenka (Всеукраїнське товариство «Просвіта» імені Тараса Шевченка)] cultural organisation. In the Spring of 1919, she became the third wife of Bat'ko (батька) Nestor Ivanovych Makhno (Нестор Іванович Махно), the commander of the Makhnovshchina, the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine (Революційна Повстанська Армія України), as well as his aide. In that role, she was prominent in her support of the involvement of women in the struggle to free Ukraine from the threat of both the Red and White armies [1] and in the promotion of education amongst the largely rural population of revolutionary Ukraine. In the latter role, she was elected head of the Teachers Union of the Huliaipole Republic (Союзу вчителів Гуляйпільської республіки) in Autumn 1919.
With the Makhnovshchina having been betrayed by their so-called Bolshevik allies following the routing of Wrangel's forces and the defeat of the revolution imminent, Galina crossed into Romania with Makhno and the remnants - just 77 men - of his exhausted and depleted army on August 28 1921. Living first in Bucharest and then in Warsaw, where Galina gave birth to a daughter, Elena (Елена), in 1922. On September 25, 1923, Galina, Makhno and a number of their comrades were arrested by the Polish authorities and charged with plotting a rebellion in eastern Galicia in order to use it as a base to become part of an "anarcho-Soviet Ukraine" [sic]. At their trial in November and December they were acquitted for lack of evidence and Makhno and Galina exiled to Toruń. Following a suicide attempt by Makhno on April 14,1924, they were allowed to move to Danzig (Gdansk) under constant police surveillance. Following lobbying of the Polish government, they were allowed to leave for Berlin and in 1925 Galina and Makhno finally ended up in Paris [2], where they joined other Russian exiles in the Group of Russian Anarchists Abroad (Группа Русских Анархистов Заграницей). Galina worked in various jobs to finance the family [3], including in a shoe factory, grocery store and as a laundress in a boarding school for Russian émigré girls in the Paris suburb of Vincennes, where they lived until Makhno's death in 1934 from tuberculosis.
After the occupation of France by the Nazis, Galina and Elena were deported to Germany as forced labour, working in a number of factories. After the end of the war they were arrested by the NKVD and taken to Kiev to stand trial. In July 1945 Galina Kuzmenko was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment for participating in the Makhnovist movement and sent to the Dubravlug (Дубравлаг) gulag, a special camp for those convicted of "especially dangerous state crimes" (государственные преступления) in the Zubovo-Polanski (Зубово-Полянского) district of the Mordovia Republic (Республики Мордовия). Elena was sentenced to 5 years exile in Kazakhstan. Both were released in May 1953 during the amnesty that followed Stalin's death, and lived in Dzhambul (Джамбула) in the Kazakh SSR (Казахська РСР), where Galina died.
[* NB. The exact year of her birth is also cited as being 1892 and 1894]

[1]. Female revolutionaries and female relatives of revolutionaries were sought out for particularly brutal treatment by the White insurgent forces. For example, when the wife of Makhno’s elder brother, Savva, fell into the hands of Denikinist forces, she was brutally beaten, stabbed with bayonets and had one of her breasts cut off, before finally being shot.
[2]. Makhno having managed to avoid an attempt by the Bolsheviks to kidnap him and return him to Russia, whilst Galina and Elena had finally been granted entry at the end of December 1924
[3]. Makhno suffered from ongoing health problems that included tuberculosis and worked at times as a carpenter and stage-hand at the Paris Opera, at the Pathé film-studios, and at the Renault factory.

1985 - Anton Levien Constandse (b. 1899), Dutch author, editor, magazine publisher, freethinker, atheist, anti-fascist and, above all, an anarchist, dies in The Hague aged 85. [see: Sep. 13]

2003 - Hideyo Amamoto [天本 英世], aka Eisei Amamoto [あまもと えいせい](d. 1926), prolific Japanese actor, anarchist and Iberophile, who is best known for portraying Dr. Shinigami in the original 'Kamen Rider' series as well as many other characters in tokusatsu films and the Godzilla series, dies from acute pneumonia at the age of 77. [see: Jan. 2]

2010 - José María Nunes (b. 1930), Portuguese-Catalan filmaker, director, script writer, actor and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 2]
[A] 1834 - William Morris (d. 1896), English utopian socialist, poet, artist, designer, printer and founder of the Arts & Crafts Movement, born. Best known for 'News From Nowhere' (1890).

## 1847 - Wordsworth Donisthorpe (d. 1914), English individualist anarchist, inventor, pioneer of cinematography and chess enthusiast, born.

1867 - Henri Moray (aka Jean de l'Ourthe; d. unknown), Belgian militant socialist then anarchist, blacksmith, plasterer and journalist, born.

1871 - Commune de Narbonne: Following the news of the insurrection in Paris on March 18, 1871, the Club de la Révolution faction of the Republican Lamourguier Club had met on March 20 to decided upon how they should respond. They pass a motion that ends with the words: "...the undersigned declare that they no longer recognise the government in Versailles and ask the councillors of Narbonne to decide and inform their fellow citizens whether they are willing to obey the government in Paris or that in Versailles." ["les soussignés déclarent ne plus reconnaître le gouvernement de Versailles et viennent demander aux conseillers municipaux de Narbonne d’avoir à se prononcer et à informer leurs concitoyens s’ils sont prêts à obéir au gouvernement de Paris ou à celui de Versailles"] They also asked the city council to immediately arm the Garde Nationale and to adopt the red flag.
On the morning of 24, Antoine Raynal, first deputy in the absence of the mayor, refuses to convene the council despite the insistence of the president of the club de la Révolution, Baptiste Limouzy, a councillor himself, and principal collaborator of Émile Digeon. With the council having already refused to arm the Garde Nationale in the city, with news leaking out that its commander had been authorised to distribute a certain amount of rifles to his men, people started rushing to the Hotel de Ville. At around 20:00 the mob invades the town hall with Émile Digeon, who had rushed back to the city late the previous day, at its head. As 'chef provisoire' (provisional leader) of the new commune, he takes to the balcony of the municipal building and proclaims the establishing of the Commune de Narbonne. The red flag replaces the tricolore. The insurgents set to setting up their defences around the building.
1,500 troops of the 52e de Ligne from the Narbonne garrison sent to seize the city hall the following day arrest their offices and go over to the people. Some set off immediately to enlist their comrades in the city's barracks. The deputy mayor Raynal is also arrested and the garrison commander barricades himself and his remaining men in for fear of revolutionary contamination. By the evening there are nearly 250 armed communards. On March 26, Émile Digeon and a troop of more than two hundred Communards seized the sub-préfecture, the station and the telegraph office, totally unmolested. The Communards are masters of the city. Two days later they seized the Arsenal, taking the guards prisoner. Attempts to rally surrounding towns and ferment uprisings across the South bear no fruit and, in an attepmt to prevent government reinforcements arriving, Digeon organises the removal of the railway tracks leading into Narbonne. However, the arrival of two companies of Turcos (Algerian Riflemen) from Perpignan on March leads to clashes the following day that leave three insurgents dead ans several others wounded. Further government reinforcements from Toulouse, Carcassonne, Foix and Montpellier continue to arrive and on March 30 a general amnesty is offered if the insurgents evacuate the town hall before the start of hostilities. Digeon is given 24 hours grace to flee and avoid arrest. He refuses and the Commune's conseil de guerre reject the proposal. Towards midnight General Zentz ordered his troops into position opposite the communards' barricades and at 03:00 on March 31 the first clashes begin as communards trying to fraternise with the Turcos are shot dead by them. Digeon request to Zentz for the evacuation of wounded is rejected and instead the general threatens to shell the town hall. Facing overwhelming odds (the communards number just 550) and to prevent more deaths, it is decided to evacuate the Hotel de Ville and Digeon's comrades try to get him to hide as the Commune falls. However, he gives himself up the following day and is thrown into a filthy jail cell, as are more than a hundred communards arrested in sweeps of the city. When Digeon and his fellow insurgents eventually faced trial on November 13, 1871 before the Aveyron assizes in Rodez for being part of an armed gang, "which has executed an attack aimed at destroying or changing the government, and incited civil war, encouraging the citizens or inhabitants to arm one against another ... " ["laquelle a exécuté un attentat ayant pour but de détruire ou de changer le gouvernement, et d'exciter à la guerre civile, en portant les citoyens ou les habitants à s'armer les uns contre les autres… "]. To their surprise, after an hour and a half of deliberations on the 18th the jury acquitted Émile Digeon and the other accused, to cries of "Vive la République!" from the crowd gathered outside the court. Digeon's experiences during the commune, as well as his friendship with Louise Michel, would move him further towards embracing anarchism as his political philosophy, even going as far as standing as an 'anarchist candidate'(!?) in a 1883 election in Narbonne.

1871 - Commune de Saint-Étienne: About 20:00 the Guard Nationale occupies the City Hall singing the 'Marseillaise' and cheering the Commune. An hour later, the building is invaded by the crowd, and representatives of the Club de Rue de la Vierge ask the authorities present (interim prefect, the mayor and two of his deputies, the Commander of the National Guard) to proclaim the Commune! They refuse and are arrested. Around midnight, the Commune is proclaimed by the crowd. The red flag is raised.

1871 - Commune du Creusot: In the strongly Republican city of Le Creusot, whose Republican Committee has just renamed itself the Comité Républicain-Socialiste, 3000 people gather to express their support for the Guard National de Paris. A demonstration in favour of the Paris Commune is planned by the Republican and Socialist Committee for two days time. The authorities respond by dispatching an infantry company, two groups of cavalry and three battalions of the National Guards.
On March 26, a face-to-face meeting between Guards Nationale and soldiers of the line on the Place de la Mairie turns into fraternisation with cries of "Vive la République." The colonel withdraws his troops and the mayor, Jean-Baptiste Dumay, proclaims from a window of the first floor of the Town Hall, on which the red flag has been hoisted: "I am no longer the representative of the Government in Versailles, I am the representative of the Municipality of Le Creusot." That night, the mayor sends the Guard Nationale to occupy the station, and the telegraph and mail offices, only to find the three institutions are already occupied by the remained of the soldiers.
On the morning of the 27th, the préfet, the local prosecutor and a thousand military reinforcements arrive by train. Meetings are banned and arrest warrants are issued for the leaders of the movement. Demonstrations in support of Dumay and the Commune are dispersed. Yet the proclamation is repeated several times and the red flag is raised again. The following day (March 28) order in Le Creusot is finally restored. Many of the leaders of the Republican-Socialist Committee have fled to Geneva, others are in prison. Jean-Baptiste Dumay is in hiding in Le Creusot.

1878 - Charles Benoit (d. 1950), French revolutionary socialist, then an anarchist, born.

1894 - Émile Digeon (b. 1822), French revolutionary socialist journalist, libertarian free thinker, anarchist journalist, leader of the short-lived Narbonne Commune, declared in 1871 when Paris rose up (Paris Commune), dies. [see: Dec. 7]

##1904 - Russell Blackwell (d.1969), US cartographer, community activist, Wobbly, anarchist and co-founder of the Libertarian League. Fought with POUM and Anarchist militias during May Barcelona events. Wounded in action and arrested by the Stalinist police and imprisoned in Madrid.

[B] 1905 - Léo Campion (Léon Louis Octave Campion; b. 1992), Franco-Belgian character actor, singer, anarchist, free thinker, Freemason, Régent de l'Institut de Pataphysique and Grand Maître de la Confrérie des Chevaliers du Taste Fesses, born. Expelled from France at the end of a campaign against him by Action Française, he meets anarchist bookseller and Freemason Marcel Dieu (aka Hem Day) and becomes secretary of Libre Pensée de Bruxelles, secretary of the Belgian section of the War Resisters International (WRI), a cartoonist at the newspaper 'Le Rouge et le Noir' and starts a singing career. Protesting a proposed bill prohibiting pacifist propaganda and the dissemination of and anti-militarist ideas, Léo Campion and Hem Day return their military papers. Recalled under arms as punishment for thiis act of defience, the two refuse to join their units and are arrested.
At their trial before the Council of War on July 19, 1933, a crowd (including Han Ryner) gathers expecting only verbal fireworks but no convictions. Their military service records are exemplary and the only thing that they can be accused of is refusing to answer a Callback. They both ridicule the judiciary and military, with Hem Day declaring from the outset: "I am here, not accused, but accuser!
Léo Campion is sentenced to 18 months in prison and Hem Day 2 years, and both face returning to the military tribunal to go through the whole process yet again at the end of their sentences. They refuse the punishment and begin a hunger strike. Public pressure eventually forces the government into a compromise by dismissing them from the army as being unworthy for membership of its ranks! The new legislation is also abandoned.
Brussels becomes a home to many Spanish refugees and Campion launches a newspaper, 'Rebellion', in 1937 dedicated to the Spanish revolution. During the occupation, he returned to France but, being a conscientious objector, he was interned with other antifascists in the Argeles detention camps of in 1940. Bizarrely, he is awarded the Croix de Guerre 1939-1945, quiet something for a life-long conscientious objector.
Returning to Brussels, in Dec. 1944 he founds the weekly satirical newspaper 'Pan' (which merged with another satirical weekly 'Ubu' in 2004), and returned to the cabaret as an actor and producer, becoming director of the Caveau de la République (1951-1953), Tabou (1952-1953). He was also a producer on French Radio (ORTF) between 1951 and 1961, hosting the radio programme 'Cabaret du Soir'. He also became a stage and screen actor, appearing in Eugène Ionesco's anti-fascist play 'Rhinocéros' in 1961, and numerous films and TV programmes, including Jean Renoir's 'French Cancan' and Michel Deville's 'La Lectrice' amongst others, whilst maintaining his links and support for the anarchist movement.
He is also author of a number of books including the humour collections 'Le Petit Campion Illustré' (1953) and 'Palabres' (Palavers; 1961), as well as books on anarchism and Freemasonry such as 'Les Anarchistes dans la Franc-Maçonnerie ou Les Maillons Libertaires de la Chaîne d'Union' (The Anarchists in Freemasonry or The Libertarian Links Chain of Union; 1969) and 'Le Drapeau Noir, l'Equerre et le Compas' (The Black Flag, the Square and the Compass; 1978).
"The refusal of military service is an insurance against death, this insurance will be viable when there are enough policyholders." - Léo Campion.

1911 - Revolución Mexicana: Emiliano Zapata takes command of 800 man revolutionary band after leader Pablo Torres is killed by federales. Many Indians lost land to large haciendas during the Porfirio Diaz years. Zapata and his followers began a revolt against this with the banner 'Tierra y Libertad!' (Land and Liberty).

[F] 1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: The strike is officially over, the IWW's strike committee is dissolved and the militia moved out. After two months of struggle, the Great Lawrence Strike had ended.

[E] 1912 - Augusta Farvo (d. 2003), Italian anarchist militant and propagandist, and anti-fascist member of the Bruzzi-Malatesta anarchist partisan brigade, who earned the nickname "Nonna d'amore e d'anarchia" (Grandma of love and anarchy) towards the end of her life, born. At the height of the fascist menace in Italy, Augusta opened and ran a newspaper kiosk in the Via Orefici, overlooking the Duomo in the centre of Milan. During the Resistenza phase, she was a member of the Bruzzi-Malatesta Brigades, of which there were two active groupings in Milan (one around the partisans Perelli and Concordia, and a second based in the Pero-Rho district headed by Romeo Asara), and helped many anti-fascist activists, both anarchists and communists alike, often hiding them in her home. Augusta's partisan activities continued through the fighting during the liberation, something actively recognised by the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale.
In the immediate aftermath of the war her home on the Via Passerella served as a meeting place, both for members of the anarchist movement and for Esperantists, while his newspaper kiosk became a point of reference for the anarchist press both in Italy and abroad. She welcomed many comrades to her home and in the 1950s it became point of call for many Spanish anti-Franco exiles, including the Catalan guerrilla Josep Lluís Facerías, with whom she liked to play cards, one of her passions.
During the sixties those activists welcomed included members of the Provo movement and in the seventies yet another new generations of her fellow anarchists. Following the Piazza Fontana massacre on December 12, 1969, Augusta not only felt the torment that all anarchists were suffering during that period as the Italian state tried to rail-road members of the movement for what had in fact been fascist bombings. For her, the torment was even greater because two of her friends were accused of being the authors of the massacre by the Milan police: the first, Giuseppe Pinelli, killed after being thrown out a window at the police headquarters in Milan and the second, Pietro Valpreda, an innocent facing a long prison sentence. Augusta's home quickly became the meeting place for the diverse campaigns aimed at countering the disinformation campaign being waged by the Italian state against the Italian anarchist movement and in support of those arrested and imprisoned during this phase of the Anni di Piombo.
On October 13, she took her personal campaign to the Italian capital, staging a seven day hunger strike along side Fernando del Grosso on the Porta San Giovanni to demand that a date for the trial of those comrades charged with the Piazza Fontana bombs be finally set. When the state was finally forced to enact what was referred to as the Legge Valpreda (Law No. 773, which removed the prohibition on granting bail against the accused of a crime for which arrest is mandatory) and free Valpreada who had been held in prison without charge for the previous three years, Augusta welcomed him into her home in the Passaggio Osii.
Alzheimer's disease later limited her ability to actively participate in the anarchist movement, and the last appearance of "L'ultima partigiana anarchica" (the last anarchist partisan as the press called her at the time) was at the funeral on July 8, 2002 organised by the Circolo Ponte della Anarchica Ghisolfa for her friend Pietro Valpreda.
Augusta Farvo died on May 20, 2003 in Milan and was cremated at the Lambrate cemetery two days later with numerous comrades from the libertarian movement in attendance.

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Attempt to burn down a house at Beckenham was discovered in time to prevent total destruction. Greens on the Sandwich golf links damaged.

1915 - Silvano Ceccherini, (December 21 1974), Italian longshoreman, anarchist, vagabond, robber and bandit of the Tombolo pine forest, soldier in the French Foreign Legion, and autobiographical novelist, who was nicknamed the "Italian Jean Genet", born.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: With 16 civilian workers and 7 activists prosecuted by the military still remaining in prison and the deadline issued by Salvador Seguí on the 21st having expired, a ballot shows a majority of just over 50% in favour and a second strike is called. However, this time it not only involves La Canadenca but is a general strike across Catalonia, returning the region to a total blackout and shutdown.
General Milans del Bosch declares a second state of war is proclaimed and neither of the daily newspapers, 'La Publicidad' or 'La Veu de Catalunya', is published. The army occupies Barcelona and under martial law provisions arrests 3,000 workers and CNT leaders, including the strike committee. He was supported by the new Federación Patronal de Barcelona (Employers' Federation) and the Lliga Catalana, as well as having under his command Police Chief Manuel Bravo Portillo, who led a group of pistoleros, using violence to intimidate the workers. The Federación Patronal de Barcelona would try to make it a demand that in order to be reinstated, a worker had to give up their CNT membership card and negotiate a new salary individually, a demand that no self-respection centista would tolerate.

###1919 - Lawrence Ferlinghetti, US poet, painter, Beat, publisher, anarchist and founder of City Lights Bookstore, born.

1924 - Aurelio Fernández Sánchez, Spanish anarchist militant and anarcho-syndicalist, member of Los Solidarios, is arrested, alongside his brother Ceferino and Adolfo Ballano Bueno, and imprisoned in Barcelona. He subsequently escapes and flees to Paris, where he is involved in a planned attack against the Spanish king Alfonso XIII. [see: Jul. 26]

1926 - Dario Fo, Italian playwright, manager-director-actor-mime and author of 'Accidental Death of an Anarchist' (Morte Accidentale di un Anarchico; 1970) and 'Can´t Pay? Won´t Pay!' (Non Si Paga! Non Si Paga!; 1974), born.

1930 - Eugeen Van Mieghem (b. 1875), Belgian artist and anarchist, whose subjects were the poor, the working class and, above all, the docks of his home city Antwerp, dies from a ruptured aorta in the Stuivenberggasthuis (Stuivenberg hospital) in Antwerp. [see: Oct. 1]

1944 - Ramon Finster (d. April 9, 1996), French éducateur de rue and anarchist militant, born. [expand]

#### 1947 - José Pérez Ocaña (d. 1983), Andalusian naive painter, performance artist, LGBT activist and anarchist, known simply as Ocaña, born. Gay and proud, Ocaña moved to Barcelona to both escape intolerance and to be able to express himself artistically. There he eked out a living as a painter whilst establishing himself as a prominent character on Las Ramblas. A militant in the Front d'Alliberament Gai de Catalunya (FAGC), he was also laos active in the anarchist and libertarian movement, performing at cultural events. Amongst the tributes to Ocaña following his death Ventura Pons' 1978 documentary film 'Ocaña, Retrato Intermitente' (Ocaña, an Intermittent Portrait).

1952 - Wilhelm (Willi) Jelinek (b. 1889), militant German anarchist-syndicalist, dies in the Bautzen prison camp (ex-GDR, East Germany), under unknown circumstances. [see: Dec. 25]

1975 - Georgette Ryner (b. 1895), French writer, poet, teacher and anarchist activist, who was also the daughter of anarchist thinker Han Ryner and companion of the individualist anarchist Louis Simon, dies. [see: Jan. 7]

2002 - César Milstein (b. 1927), Anglo-Argentine chemist and youthful anarchist, winner of the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1984 for his research on monoclonal antibodies, dies in Paris. [see: Oct. 8]

2013 - Mutiny in Larisa and Patra prisons, Greece.
1812 - [N.S. Apr. 6] Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (Russian: Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен; d. 1870), Russian writer, journalist, novelist and thinker, who was one of the main 'forefathers' of Russian socialism and agrarian populism (an ideological ancestor of the Narodniki, Socialist-Revolutionaries, etc.), and who was greatly influenced by anarchism, born. [see: Apr. 6]

1843 - Louis Jules Marie Montels (d. 1916), French clerk and commercial traveller, militant in the Paris Commune of 1871 and anarchist, born. After being made a colonel of the Twelfth Federate Legion of the Commune, Jules Montels was sent on a mission to Béziers, where he took part in Narbonne insurrection (March 24-31, 1871). Following the fall of the Commune, he was sentenced in absentia (having fled to Geneva) by a council of war to death on December 11, 1871. [expand]
In 1877, he went to Russia where he became tutor of the children of Leo Tolstoy.

##1865 - Wu Zhihui [or Wu Jingheng or Wu Shi-Fee] (吳稚暉; October 30 1953), Chinese linguist, philosopher, youthful anarchist and later one of the 'Four Elders' of the Nationalist Party in the 1920s, who was chair of the 1912–13 Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation that created Zhuyin and standardised Guoyu pronunciation, born. Famed for his calligraphy

[D] [1871 - Commune de Toulouse: A Garde Nationale rebellion leads to the proclamation of the Toulouse Commune.

[1871 - Commune de Narbonne: troops sent to seize the city hall go over to the people and leave immediately enlist their comrades. by the evening, there are nearly 250 armed communards

[1871 - Commune de Saint-Étienne: the mayor is forced to recognize the fact and accept the organisation of a plebiscite in favour of the Commune

[1871 - Commune de Lyon: the arrival of the 5e Hussards [héros en armes de Belfort], who are welcomed with enthusiasm by the population, brings an abrupt end to the Commune

1871 - Commune du Creusot: Albert Leblanc, provincal envoy of the central committee of the Garde Nationale de Paris, asks the citizens of Le Creusot to declare a Commune.

## 1873 - Rudolf Rocker (d. 1958), German-American anarcho-syndicalist theorist, organiser and anti-fascist, born. Author of 'Anarcho-Syndicalism: Theory and Practice', 'Anarchism & Anarcho-Syndicalism', 'Pioneers of American Freedom', 'The Tragedy of Spain' and 'Nationalism and Culture'.

1877 - Jean-Baptiste Knockaert (aka Jean Rouge; d. 1957), Belgian anarcho-syndicalist, communist and free thinker, born.

1887 - Clément Duval is deported from the military fortress of Toulon, bound for the prison vaults of French Guyana.

1891 - Ravachol ransacks the house of two elderly spinsters, Louise and Jenny Loy, in Saint-Étienne and then tried to set fire to it. "Before leaving, organized two outbreaks of fire: one in the living room, stacking chairs on over others and spraying them with oil." [Pierre Bouchardon - 'Ravachol et Cie', 1931] [see: Oct. 14]

1905 - Antonio Ejarque Pina aka 'Jarque' (d. 1950), Aragonese metalworker, militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combattant, born. Active in the CNT from 1920 to 1930 he was chair of the committee of the union of the CNT in Zaragoza. In 1931, he was the Sindicat del Metall de Saragossa's delegate to the CNT congress in Madrid and a member of the Aragon Regional Committee of the CNT. He was also involved in the running of the libertarian magazine 'Cultura y Acción' (Culture and Action). He managed to escape from Zaragoza and cross the Republican lines following the military insurrection in July 1936, and signed the pact of revolutionary unity between the CNT and the UGT in Aragon. At the war front, he was Commissioner-General of the 25th Division commanded by Antonio Ortiz Ramírez, and later by Miguel García Vivancos, and worker on the '25 División' periodical. In October 1938, as Inspector of the 25th Division, he was the author of a report denouncing the communist maneuvers to prevent the 25th Division from obtain the necessary weapons during the Battle of Teruel. Captured at the end of the war he was interned in the Albatera ia Oriola concentration camp. Upon his release, he went underground and was nominated by a plemun of the CNT as a delegate on the Alliance Nationale des Forces Démocratiques (ANFD) in exile in Paris. [expand]

1912 - In the Sénart Forest, near Montgeron (south of Paris), six members of the Bonnot gang steal a De Dion-Bouton limousine, shooting the driver through the heart. They drove into Chantilly north of Paris where they robbed the local branch of Société Générale Bank, shooting the bank's three cashiers and making off with nearly 50,000 francs. They escaped in their stolen automobile as two policemen tried to catch them, one on horseback and the other on a bicycle. Identified by officers near the Asnières train station, they abandon the car and manage to get on a train from the station.

1917 - Huelga General Revolucionaria [Revolutionary General Strike] / Vaga General Espanyola [Spanish General Strike]: In Spain a joint strike committee of the CNT and UGT (set up following the historic 'Pacto de Zaragoza' of July 17, 1916) sign a pact of unity of action and draw up a manifesto, which was published two days later, in which they demanded fundamental changes in the political system. From this pact came an agreement to hold a revolutionary strike the following August [declared on Aug. 13, 1917], during which the unions openly confronting the structures of the state. The strike was a failure and cost 70 dead, 43 of them in Catalonia, and 2000 arrests.
1918 - Claude Debussy (b. 1862), French composer heavily influenced by the Symbolists and Impressionist, dies. [see: Aug. 22]

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: With the press already subject to censorship, a number of breaches led to the all ceasing publication until 15 April. All constitutional guarantees are suspended across Spain, echoing what had already taken place in Barcelona. The city itself was now displaying ever more prominent signs of military occupation, with artillery deployed in Plaça de Catalunya and other central locations. The centre of the city was now patrolled by volunteers Sometent for first time since they had began to take shape in November 1918. They now numbered about eight thousand and were under the command of regionalists like Josep Bertran i Musitu, Eusebi Bertran i Serra and the Marquès de Camps (Carles de Camps i d'Olzinelles), alongside the leaders of the Unión Monárquica Nacional, like the industrialist Emilio Vidal i Ribas. Francesc Cambó i Batlle, leader of the Lliga Regionalista decided to act as an example and went out with his rifle on his back.

[C] 1922 - René Cavanhie (aka René Cavan; d. 1996), French poet, songwriter, anarchist and resistance fighter, born. Helped organise the smuggling of people out of occupied France (via Spain) during WWII and fought in the Resistance. Wrote for 'Le Libertaire', using the pen name Cavan, for Louis Lecoin’s paper 'Liberté' and May Picqueray’s 'Le Réfractaire'. Author of a number of works including 'Révolution au Paradis' (Revolution in Paradise; 1958) and 'Poèmes et Chansons Anarchistes' (Anarchist Poems and Songs; 1983).

'Vieve la Liberté'

J'en ai rien a foutre de prosodie
De césure, d'enjambement
D'hémistiche et d'homophonie
Toutes les règles c'est emmerdant
Je veux ecrire librement

Et puis, moi, je suis pour les pauvres
Les rimes riches, ça me débonde
De Vladivostock à Hanovre*
Que d'injustices dans le monde
En ajouter serait immonde

Compter des pieds? Le globe en est plein
Dans cette innombrable sarabande
Deux ou trois de plus ou de moins
Qu'est-ce-que ça me fiche, je vous le demande?
Et je me fous bien qu'on me vilipende

Alternance des rimes? Haro!
Dites-moi ce que ça change
S'inquiéter du sexe des mots
Pourquoi pas de celui des anges?
Que voilà des règles étranges

Consonne d'appui? Pauvre étai
Je ne suis ni terrassier ni maçon
Pour étayer ce que je fais
Je veux rimer à ma façon
Au diable, toutes vos prisons!

Ma muse se batifole en liberté
Toutes vos lois sont bien trop tristes
S'il fallait vraiment les respecter
Ca ne serait pas gai d'être un artiste
Et puis, voyez-vous, moi, je suis anarchiste.

(* Les pauvres sont tellement pauvres qu'ils n'ont même pas une rime pour leur nom.)

'Enjoy The Freedom'

I have nothing to fuck prosody
Hyphenation, spanning
On hemistich and homophony
All the rules is boring
I want to write freely

And I am for the poor
The rich rhymes, I'm débonde
Vladivostok Hanover *
That injustice in the world
Would add foul

Counting feet? The world is full
In this countless sarabande
Two or three more or less
What is it that I care, I ask you?
And I do not care although I vilifies

Alternating rhymes? Haro!
Tell me what it changes
Worrying sex words
Why not the angels?
That these are strange rules

Consonant support? Stay poor
I am not a mason or laborer
To support what I do
I rhyme my way
To hell with all your prisons!

My muse frolics freely
All your laws are too sad
If I had really respect
It would not be a gay artist
And then, you see, I am an anarchist.

(* The poor are so poor they do not even have a rhyme for their name.)


1932 - During its 19th and last regional Congress, held in Erfurt [25th-28th], the Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands (FAUD, anarcho-syndicalist union) decides that, in the event of the Nazis taking power, its federal bureau in Berlin will shut down and be replaced by an underground directorate and that there would have to be a General Strike by way of reply. The latter decision proves impracticable: for one thing, the FAUD all across Germany is decimated by a wave of arrests.

1946 - Robin Eric Hahnel, US economist, academic, and libertarian socialist sympathiser, who is best known for his work on participatory economics with 'Z Magazine' editor Michael Albert, born.

1960 - Julia Bertrand (b. 1877), French teacher, militant anarchist, feminist and free thinker, dies. Participant in the feminist periodical 'La Femme Affranchie'. [see: Feb. 14]

1964 - Gregorio Jover Cortés (b. 1891), Spanish militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist activist and fighter against Franco, dies. [see: Oct. 25 & Jan. 25]

2006 - Severino Campos Campos (b. 1905), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 26]
1871 - Paris Commune: Election of the members of the Commune.

[D] [1871 - Commune de Narbonne: Émile Digeon and a troop of more than two hundred Communards seize the sub-prefecture, and at the station, the telegraph, unmolested. The Communards are masters of the city.

[1871 - Commune de Saint-Étienne: elections set for the 29th

[1871 - Commune du Creusot: On the Place de la Mairie, a face-to-face meeting between Guards Nationale and soldiers of the line turns into fraternisation with cries of "Vive la République." The colonel withdraws his troops and the mayor, Jean-Baptiste Dumay, proclaims from a window of the first floor of the Town Hall, on which the red flag has been hoisted: "I am no longer the representative of the Government in Versailles, I am the representative of the Municipality of Le Creusot."
That night, the mayor sends the Guard Nationale to occupy the station, and the telegraph and mail offices, only to find the three institutions are already occupied by soldiers.

1872 - Émile Armand (pseudonym of Ernest-Lucien Juin) (d. 1962), French individualist anarchist and free love activist, born. Wrote 'l'Initiation Individualiste Anarchiste' (1923) and 'La Révolution Sexuelle et la Camaraderie Amoureuse' (1934). [expand]

1879 - Georges Cochon, aka 'notre Sauveur, à nous, les gueux' (our Saviour, we the beggars) & 'le président des sans-pognon' (president of the moneyless) (d. 1959), French upholsterer, anarchist and very popular secretary of the Union syndicale des locataires ouvriers et employés, born.

1885 - Louis Montgon aka 'Vérité' (d. 1972), French labourer, artisan watchmaker, anarchist propagandist, militant anarcho-syndicalist in the CGTU, born. In the early 1920s, he was the secretary of the local Perpignan anarchist group and was described in a police report as "enemy of all authority". During the 1920s, he took part in numerous anti-fascist and anti-Bolshevik activities and conferences. He also left the then Communist-dominated CGTU to join the CGTSR. From July 1936 to March 1937, he was the Departmental chair of the Comité de Défense de la Révolution Espagnole and of the Fédération des Émigrés Antifascistes Espagnols. He also managed the bilingual French-Spanish 'Bulletin d'information du Comité de Défense de la Révolution Espagnole Antifasciste in Perpignan (11 issues from February 6 to September 23 1937 and replaced by the 'La Nouvelle Espagne Antifasciste'). However, he resigned from the bulletin after issue no. 3 due to his disagrement with the official collaborationist line of the Spanish libertarian movement and was replaced by Jean Ay, though he continued to represent the Perpignan group in the Federation and, after the events of May 1937 in Barcelona, ​​raised funds for comrades of the French section of the CNT imprisoned by the Stalinists.
In February 1939, he was charged with being the liaison between the Spanish émigrée groups in Paris and the Marseilles-based Comitato Anarchico pro Vittime Politiche, then run by Pio Turroni, maintaining the links between the Spanish and Italian internees in the Argeles and Saint Cyprien detention camps. During one such visit, he was arrested by the gendarmes in Argeles. After the Second World War, Montgon continued his activism and was the secretary of the local federation of the French CNT (CNTF) in Perpignan.

[B] 1886 - Juan Serrano y Oteiza (b. 1837), Spanish anarchist intellectual, lawyer, journalist and writer, dies. His most famous work is probably his utopian novel 'Pensativo' (1885). [see: May 6]

1889 - Jacques Doubinsky (Iakov Dubinsky; d. 1959), Ukranian Jewish anarchist and Makhnovist, born. As a young labour radical he joined the Ukrainian peasant uprising in 1918, fighting with the famed anarchist insurrectionary Makhnovist army. Involved in many publishing enterprises and assisting Bulgarian refugees.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1890 - Raymond Callemin, (aka Raymond-la-Science) Belgian member of the anarchist/illegalist Bonnot Gang, born. Callemin, who also started the individualist paper 'L'Anarchie' with Victor Serge, was guillotined in 1913.

1891 - Marcelle Capy (Marcelle Marques; d. 1962), French journalist, writer, militant syndicalist, libertarian socialist, pacifist and feminist, born.

1892 - Walt Whitman (b. 1819), American Transcendentalist poet and, to some, a proto-libertarian, dies. [see: May 31]

[C] 1903 - Albert Guigui-Theral, aka Varlin (d. 1982), Algerian-born French anarchist, militant syndicalist, mechanic and French Resistance fighter, born.

[D] 1910 - The US Immigration Act of 1910 amends existing law to deny entrance into the United States of criminals, paupers, anarchists & diseased persons.

1923 - In Yambol, Bulgaria, during an anarchist protest against the governments decision to disarm the people, the army shoots into the crowd, wounding the speaker Atanas Stoitchev and massacring others. About 30 are murdered here, including others executed at the Yambol barracks tomorrow (Todor Darzev, Pani Botchkov, Dimitar Vassilev, Cyrille Kehaiov, Spiro Obretenov, Pétar Kassapina, Rousko Nanine, Pétar Glavtchev, etc.).

1923 - Pier Carlo Masini (d. 1998), Italian historian of anarchism and libertarian activist, especially during the years 1940 and 1950, born. Became editor of the Italian Anarchist Federation (FAI) weekly paper 'Umanita Nova' in 1948.

1926 - Todor 'Tocho' Mitev (d. 2002), Bulgarian anarchist and doctor, born [expand]

## 1969 - B. Traven ( 1882), German anarchist novelist, dies. [see: Feb 23]

2000 - Alex Comfort (b. 1920), British physician, gerontologist, sexologist, anarchist, pacifist, poet, novelist, etc., dies. [see: Feb 10]

[A] 2005 - Antonio Téllez (b. 1921), Spanish anarchist, guerrilla, historian, dies. Author of, among other works, 'Sabaté: guérilla urbaine en Espagne 1945-1960' (1972). [see: Jan. 18]
1839 - Jules Lermina (d. 1915), French prolific novelist, journalist and anarchist, whose early novels appeared under the pseudonym William Cobb, born. Author of the 'L'ABC du Libertaire' (1906), published by the Aiglemont libertarian colony and in 'Le Libertaire'

[B] 1854 - Georges Eekhoud (d. 1927), Belgian novelist and anarchist, born. In the 1880s Eekhoud took part in several of the modern French-Belgian artist movements, like Les XX and La Jeune Belgique and began to get involved with the growing Belgian anarchist movement. 'Kees Doorik', his first novel was published in 1883, about the wild life of a tough young farmhand who committed a murder and his novels continued to be markedly socio-politcal in content, portray working class life but with a distinct homosexual subtext. Gay himself, Eekhoud published his 1899 novel 'Escal-Vigor', the first novel in French literature to deal openly the homosexuality, to critical acclaim but wider public outrage and Eekhoud was unsuccessfully proscecuted for violating morality.

1858 - Florence Finch Kelly (Florence Evaline Finch; d. 1939), American journalist, author of novels and short stories, anarchist, feminist and suffragist, born. Finch contributed many articles to the 'Boston Globe' and the anarchist periodical 'Liberty', and worked on the staff of 'The New York Times' as a book reviewer from 1906 to the mid 1930s. In addition to seven novels and numerous short stories and magazine articles on literary, artistic, and economic subjects. She also produced a free-love novel titled 'Frances: A Story for Men and Women' (1889) and "an avowedly anarchist novel" 'On the Inside' (1890) - though she later played down her anarchism in her autobiography 'Flowing Stream: The Story of Fifty-six Years in American Newspaper Life' (1939).

1871 - Commune de Narbonne: Delegates from surrounding towns come to give their support to the Commune of Narbonne and request instructions.

1871 - Commune de Toulouse: The newly appointed préfet arrivesat the Arsenal with three cavalry squadrons, six hundred infantry and six guns. He takes possession of the prefecture and the Capitol without resistance.

[1871 - Commune de Saint-Étienne: troops begin arriving from Lyon

1871 - Commune du Creusot: During the morning, the préfet, the local prosecutor and a thousand military reinforcements arrive by train. Meetings are banned and arrest warrants are issued for the leaders of the movement. Demonstrations in support of Dumay and the Commune are dispersed. Yet the proclamation is repeated several times and the red flag is raised again.

1892 - At 06:00, François Claudius Koenigstein aka Ravachol takes the bus to the Rue de Clichy, where Léon Bulot, the public prosecutor in the (Affaire de Clichy [see: May 1]) case of Henri Louis Decamps and Charles Auguste Dardare. Arriving at about eight o'clock, he drops off his bomb contained in a small valise on the second floor of number 39 outside Bulot's flat. He had walked fifty yards before the bomb exploded. Seven people are injured and the building is destroyed. Damage is estimated at 120,000 francs. After the attack, Ravachol takes an omnibus in order to inspect the damage but the omnibus is diverted and he ends up at the Restaurant Véry (24, boulevard de Magenta, Paris). There he falls into conversation with a waiter, Jules Lhérot, expounding anarchist and anti-militarist theories. Ravachol also talks about the bombing, arousing suspicions in Lhérot, who denounces him when he returns to the restaurant 3 days later. [see: Mar. 30]
[Costantinni pic]

## 1915 - Liu Shifu (劉思復) aka Liu Szu-fu or Shi(h) Fu (b. 1884), one of the most influential figures in the Chinese revolutionary movement and, in particular, the anarchist movement in the early twentieth century, born.
Founder of the Huìmíng Xuēshè / Hui-Ming Hsüeh-she (晦鸣学舍) or The Society of Cocks Crowing in the Dark (a.k.a. Cock-Crow Society)
In July 1912, he and his brother Liu Shixin, Mo Ji Peng (莫纪彭), Peigang Zheng, Liang Bingxian, Huang Lingshuang, etc. created the famous Xinshe, or Heart (or Consciousness) Society (心社).
In 1913 he founded the 'Dark Ming Lu' (晦鸣录) / 'Hey Ming Lu' (晦鳴錄) magazine, organ of the Cock-Crow Society, later renamed 'Voice of the People' (民声)
[支那暗殺團支那暗杀团[ ]_Yu_G._T._-_THE_CHINESE_ANARCHIST_MOVEMENT.html]

[FF] 1917 - Huelga General Revolucionaria [Revolutionary General Strike] / Vaga General Espanyola [Spanish General Strike]: Following the success of the December 18, 1916 24-hour general strike, the CNT and UGT joint strike committee publish a joint manifesto, the 'Manifiesto Conjunto de la UGT y la CNT' / 'Manifest Conjunt de la UGT i la CNT' (Joint Manifesto of the UGT and the CNT), in which they set out the history of workers' complaints and analayse why previous protests against the exploitation of the working class have not worked. Based on this detailed analysis, they then state that this is why they have been forced to come to the conclusion that the only way they can combat the exploiters of the proletariat is to call an indefinite general strike, and end the text hoping that the strike, of which they have not yet set the start date, is a success.
"In order to oblige the ruling classes to those fundamental changes of system that guarantee to the people the minimum of decent living conditions and the development of their emancipatory activities, it is necessary that the Spanish proletariat employ the general strike, with no definite term of completion, as the most powerful weapon he possesses to claim his rights."
In response, Álvaro Figueroa y Torres Mendieta, Conde de Romanones suspended constitutional guarantees and imprisoned all the signatories of the manifesto that could be found.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Many striking workers are ready to end what they now see as a failing strike, but the civil governor Carles Montañés refuses to mediate in the conflict.

[F] 1920 - In Turin the metal workers' union (Federazione Impiegati Operai Metallurgici) begins a General Strike. The Turin anarchist newspaper 'L'Ordine Nuovo' publishes a proclamation, 'Per il Congresso dei Consigli di fabbrica. Agli operai e contadini di tutta Italia' (For the Congress of the Councils of the Factory. For workers and peasants from all over Italy), signed by the libertarian group of Turin, including the strike organisers and militant Councilists Pietro Ferrero (assassinated by the fascists in 1922) and Maurizio Garino. On April 14, the authorities intervene with an extreme rigor to break the strike (which continues until April 23). Arrests en masse occur, which include Garino.

1921 - Harry Johannes Järv (d. 2009), Finnish Swedish librarian, author, translator and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1931 - In Montevideo, the celebrated Argentinian anarchist expropriator, Miguel Arcángel Roscigno (or Roscigna; b. 1891), is arrested and disappeared. [see: May. 8]

1938 - Arnaldo Simões Januário (b. 1897), Portuguese anarcho-syndicalist militant and member of União Anarquista Portuguesa, dies in the Tarrafal (Cap Verde) prison camp. [see: Jun. 6]

1977 - The first major national meeting of the CNT since the fall of the Franco dictatorship is held in San Sebastian de los Reyes (Madrid).

2004 - Tony Smythe (b. 1938), British anarchist pacifist and militant, dies. Anti-nuclear activist, director of MEDACT, the Medical Campaign for Global Security. [see: Aug. 2]

2004 - Karl Ludwig Ratschiller (b. 1921), Italian geologist and anti-Nazi partisan in North-Eastern Italy during WWII, dies. [see: Jun. 22]
##1849 - Pierre-Joseph Proudhon is condemned to three years in prison and fined 3,000 francs for one of his lampoons published in the newspaper 'Le Peuple'. The unhappy tribunal explains the reasons for his harsh sentence:
"1° D'excitation à la haine du gouvernement; 2° De provocation à la guerre civile; 3° D'attaque à la Constitution et à la propriété!" (1° Stirring up hatred against the government; 2° Provoking civil war; 3° Attacking the Constitution and property!)

1870 - Karl Marx addresses his 'Confidential Communication' to his German friends to stir up hatred against Mikhail Bakunin (his anarchist nemesis) by declaring him an agent of the pan-Slavist party from which he allegedly received 25,000 francs per year. It was, of course, a lie.

1871 - Paris Commune: Over 200,000 people turn out at the City Hall to see their newly elected officials, whose names are read to great and festive acclaim, making this day a revolutionary festival. The red flag, raised over all public buildings, is emblematic of the Commune.

[1871 - Commune de Narbonne: the insurgents seized the Arsenal.

[1871 - Commune de Saint-Étienne: at six in the morning, the City Hall is circled, the red flag is removed.

1871 - Commune du Creusot: Order in Le Creusot is finally restored. Many of the leaders of the Republican-Socialist Committee have fled to Geneva, others are in prison. Jean-Baptiste Dumay is in hiding in Le Creusot.

[D] 1903 - A robbery is committed at the Cathedral of Saint Gatien Tours during the night of 27th-28th by Marius Jacob and Les Travailleurs de la Nuit. From the daily report of Tours Central Commissioner Caubet, March 28, 1903:
"Last night, unknown perpetrators broke into the cathedral on the side of the street from the Pralette using a ladder leant against a window that they broken, and stole four large Aubusson eighteenth tapestries marked with the arms of the city of Tours and bearing the figure S.M., 3m by 4m representing 'La Nativité', 'Jésus au milieu des docteurs' (Jesus among the Doctors), 'La fuite n Egypte' (The escape from Egypt) and 'La présentation au temple' (The Presentation in the Temple). These tapestries were framed and displayed in a chapel. An investigation was opened."
"Then he noticed the fine, heavy, 17th century Aubusson tapestries which hung on the walls . . ." [Bernard Thomas - 'Les Vies d'Alexandre Jacob', 1970]
[Costantinni pics]

1906 - Ines Lida Scarselli (d. 1985), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, born. [expand]

1911 - Part of the Bonnot Gang is caught and killed by cops after months of joyous bank robbing and other escapades. Many letters had been sent publicising their actions and taunting the police. Comprised of unemployed anarchists, the Bonnot Gang received much enthusiastic response from the public.

1912 - San Diego Free Speech Fight: Police brutality and aggression were rampant throughout the free speech fight, and the first death of the campaign comes when sixty-three-year-old Michael Hoy, an IWW veteran of free-speech fights in Spokane and Fresno, dies after the police beat him and withheld medical attention. Arrested during the first week of protests in San Diego, Hoey spent 40 days in city jail. Although they denied it, Hoey swore that three officers – rookie patrolman Irwin, in particular – clubbed and kicked him repeatedly in the groin. Cramped with over 100 prisoners in a cell built for 60, Hoey had to sleep on a cement floor and eat inedible food. "When I asked Dr. Claude Magee [the police surgeon] for a laxative, he gave me an emetic, which caused such violent vomiting that I became seriously ill."
On March 21, Magee sent Hoey in an ambulance to Agnew Hospital with a note: the patient is in "practically normal condition", but suffers from an old rupture. Seven days later, Hoey died. A coroner’s jury diagnosed bronchial pneumonia and found "no evidence of violence". Dr. Deville of Agnew Hospital disagreed. Hoey died from unsanitary conditions at the jail, Deville told the San Diego Sun, and "police brutality".

[E] 1915 - Anarchist Emma Goldman is arrested after trying to explain to an audience of 600 people at the Sunrise Club in New York the use of contraceptive methods for the first time the history of the United States. After a stormy trial, she was sentenced to spend 15 days working in prison workshops or pay a fine of $100, Goldman chose jail to the applause of the audience. A 'Little Review' reporter said: "Emma Goldman was sent to prison to hold that women need not always keep their mouths shut and their wombs open!" She was later considered by the FBI director Edgar Hoover to be, "the most dangerous woman in America", ordering her expulsion from the country.

[B] 1917 - Ramón Cambra Turias aka 'Mone' (d. 2010), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-militarist, printer, translator and poet, born.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: On the fourth day of the strike, met the Council of the Mancomunitat and the president Josep Puig i Cadafalch explained that, "required by the Captain General [Milans del Bosch] to cooperate in restoring normalcy among citizens, I offered to provide the help needed to tend to the most urgent health, supply and assistance services that concern all citizens, considering only the Council that the Mancomunitat is not responsible for any activity other than that started". The Council also agreed that it was necessary to anticipate the introduction of legal formulas to resolve conflicts when they start and that, as soon as the strike ended, the Mancomunitat would organise a conference on labour to promote a 'social truce'. In fact, earlier, on January 29, 1919, the Standing Committee of the Mancomunitat had agreed to address the employer and worker representatives of the sectors where there was a labour dispute to offer their mediation, which they did in a dispute involving print workers in Girona, with a satisfactory outcome for workers.
Milans del Bosch did not like the March 28, 1919 proposal from the Mancomunitat, and did not allow this agreement to be published in the only official newspaper published in Barcelona or in other Catalonia newspapers. Milans del Bosch wrote a letter to Puig i Cadafalch in which he said he believed that the announcement made the Mancomunitat and the organisation of a conference on labour were not appropriate "in the current state": "They are political issues that need a hiatus today and that I propose to have observed."

1919 - Criminal Syndicalism: Arkansas joins the majority of states in the union by passing Act 512, which read:
"An act to define and punish anarchy and to prevent the introduction and spread of Bolshevism and kindred doctrines, in the State of Arkansas.
§1. Unlawful to attempt to overthrow present form of government of the State of Arkansas or the United States of America.
§2. Unlawful to exhibit any flag, etc., which is calculated to overthrow present form of government.
§3. Laws in conflict repealed; emergency declared; effective after passage."
Such a crime was a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of between $10 and a $1,000, and the perpetrator could be imprisoned in the county jail for up to six months. This anarchy bill was originally introduced as House Bill Number 473, and, on March 6, 1919, it was read in the House of Representatives. The House moved that the bill be placed back upon second reading for the purpose of amendment. The motion was passed, and the following amendment was sent up: "Amend House Bill No. 473 by striking out the words ‘association of individuals, corporations, organization or lodges by any name or without a name,’ as found in lines 2 and 3 of section 2, of the bill."
On March 12, 1919, House Bill 473 was read the third time and placed on final passage in the Senate
On March 28, 1919, Governor Charles Hillman Brough signed the bill, making it Act 512.

## 1928 - Alexander Grothendieck, German anarchist, anti-militarist and mathematician, the central figure behind the creation of the theory of algebraic geometry, born. His father was the Ukranian anarchist Alexander 'Sascha' Shapiro aka Tanaroff and mother the German anarchist and journalist Hanka Grothendieck. His early life is covered in his mother's unpublished autobiographical novel 'Eine Frau'. During the Spanish Civil War his parents left him in Germany with a foster family so they could fight for the Republic. His father was to die in Auschwitz.

[F] 1934 - The Uníos Hermanos Proletarios (UHP; Union of Proletarian Brothers or Unite! Proletarian Brothers) aka Uníos Hijos del Proletariado (Unite! Children of the Proletariat) is formalised with the signing of the Pacto CNT-UGT de Asturias.

1953 - Valentine de Saint-Point (Anna Jeanne Valentine Marianne Glans de Cessiat-Vercell; b. 1875), French artist, writer, poet, painter, playwright, art critic, choreographer, lecturer, journalist, feminist and futurist, who repudiated Marinetti's views on women, dies. [see: Feb. 16]

1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Time bomb attributable to The Angry Brigade found at Waterloo Station.

1970 - Jules Vignes (b. 1884), French anarchist publisher, propagandist and Idist, dies. The creator of a number of newspapers including 'La Torche' (Oct. 1908), the Saint-Genis-Laval liberatrian Idist paper 'La Feuille' (The Sheet) in 1917, and the original version of the Libération newspaper in 1927. He became involved in supporting the Spanish revolution and the revolutionary fighters in exile including the network around Francisco Ponzán Vidal (Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist guerrillero, anti-Francoist and resistance fighter captured in 1943, shot and burned by the Nazis two days before the Spanish guerrillas liberate Toulouse). In 1945 he republishes 'La Feuille' and started 'Le Vieux Travailleur' (The Old Worker, 1951-57) and 'Le Travailleur Libertaire' (1957-58). [see: Apr. 13]

1998 - Edoardo Massari aka 'Baleno' (b. 1963), Italian anarchist militant and member of the Italian squatter movement, commits suicide. [see: Apr. 4]
1830 - Claude Rougeot (d. 1871), French shoe-maker, Lyons anarchist and participant in the insurrection in the Guillotière suburb in Lyon (April 30) where they tried to establish a commune in conjunction with the Paris Commune and similar efforts in other cities in France, born.

##1891 - Yvan Goll (Isaac Lang; d. 1950), bilingual French-German Jewish writer (poetry, novels, dramas, libretti, essays, etc.) and anarchist sympathiser, who had close ties to German expressionism, Zurich Dada and to French surrealism, who also wrote under the pseudonym of Iwan Lazang, born in Alsace-Lorraine. A law and philosophy student in Berlin, he became involved in the new wave of German expressionism then flourishing in Berlin before the First World War.
A friend of the Jewish German poet and playwright Else Lasker-Schüler, he too would became a noted Expressionist poet as well as writing for the theatre. He also collaborated on the Expressionist magazines 'Der Sturm' and 'Die Aktion'. A socialist pacifist and in 1914, to escape conscription into the German army, he took refuge in Geneva, where he adopted the pseudonym Yvan Goll in 1915. In Switzerland he became a member of the Pacifist group around the French writer Romain Rolland (Pierre Jean Jouve), spent time at the Ascona commune and became associated with Hans Arp, Tristan Tzara and Francis Picabia at the Cabaret Voltaire and continued his law studies at the University of Lausanne.
In 1919, he moved to Paris with his future wife, Claire Aischmann-Studer, where they associated with a circle of poets and painters, who were followers of Apollinaire. They were also associated with artits and writers such as André Malraux, Jean Cocteau, Louis Aragon, Philippe Soupault, Fernand Léger, Marc Chagall, Fujita Tsuguharu, Robert Delaunay and Albert Gleizes.
His artwork, previously marked by Expressionism, became informed by the Cubist and Constructivist aesthetics of the circles that he moved in, and his Cubism anticipated his later Apollinaire-influenced Surrealism. Largely derived from dreams, his Surrealism waould be particularly influencial on Devětsil and the Czech Surrealists, as well as in Latin America (on the like of Vicente Huidobro) and on English speakers such as Pound and Joyce. He would present his artistic ideas in the only issue of his 1924 magazine 'Surréalisme' in his 'Manifeste du Surréalisme' essay, which threw down the gauntlet: "Monsieur Breton, prenez-en votre parti: vous ne serez pas le Pape du Surréalisme!". Breton's own 'Manifeste du Surréalisme', published a month later, largely turned out to be an attack on Goll's views on surrealism and the pair would continue an antagonistic relationship for another 20 years, until Goll assisted Breton to settle in America, introducing him to the new intellectual world that he had become a part of, when the latter arrived in the country in 1942 as an exile. Yvan and Claire Goll had emigrated to the United States in 1939 to escape Nazi persecution, settling in New York where they remained until 1947, when Yvan was diagnosed with leukaemia and decided to return to liberated France. He died on Feb. 27, 1950. Claire survived him until May 30, 1977. Both writers are buried the Père-Lachaise cemetery in Paris.
Amongst Goll's works are his Expressionist poetry collections 'Films' (1914) and 'Der neue Orpheus. Eine Dithyrambe' (1918), which was published in 'Die Aktion' and illustrated by Georg Grosz; his famous anti-war poem 'Requiem für die Gefallenen von Europa' (Requiem for the Dead of Europe; 1916); a play 'Der Unsterbliche' (The Immortal One; 1918); 'Die Chapliniade: eine Kinodichtung' (Chapliniade: A film poem; 1920), illustrated by Fernand Léger; the 1921 satiric drama, 'Methusatern oder Der ewíge Bürger' (Methusalem, or or the Eternal Bourgeois), which anarchist film maker Jean Painlevé made into his first short film in 1926, playing Hamlet, and with Antonin Artaud as a bishop at a surreal funeral; the long experimental poem 'Paris Brennt' (Paris Burns; 1921); his Apollinaire-influenced 'Manifeste du Surréalisme' (1924); 'Der Eiffelturm: gesammelte Dichtungen' (1924), illustrated by Robert Delaunay and Fernand Léger; Marc Chagall illustrated 'Poèmes d'amour' (1925), a collection of love poems by Goll and his wife Claire; the libretto for a surrealist opera, 'Royal Palace' (1927), set to music by composer Kurt Weill, and the scenario for Weill's cantata 'Der Neue Orpheus' (1927), based on his 1918 poem of the same name; 'Chansons Malaises' (1935); the epic poem 'La chanson de Jean Sans Terre' (The song of homeless John; 1936), with illustrations contributed by Marc Chagall; 'Élégie d'Ihpetonga suivi des masques de cendre' (1949; Elegy of Ihpetonga and Masks of Ashes), illustrated by Pablo Picasso; 'Traumkraut' (Dreamweed; 1951), written between 1947 and 1950, but published after his death; 'Abendgesang. Siebzehn Gedichte aus dem Nachlass' (Evening Song. Seventeen poems from his estate; 1953); and 'Bouquet de Rêves pour Neila' (1967), with illustrations by Joan Miró.

'Requiem For The Dead of Europe'

Let me lament the exodus of so many men from their time;
Let me lament the women whose warbling hearts now scream;
Every lament let me note and add to the list,
When young widows sit by lamplight mourning for husbands lost;
I hear the blonde-voiced children crying for God their father at bedtime;
On every mantelpiece stand photographs wreathed with ivy, smiling, true to the past;
At every window stand lonely girls whose burning eyes are bright with tears;
In every garden lilies are growing, as though there’s a grave to prepare;
In every street the cars are moving more slowly, as though to a funeral;
In every city of every land you can hear the passing-bell;
In every heart there’s a single plaint,
I hear it more clearly every day.


1893 - [O.S. Mar. 17] Maria Vartanovna Petrosova [Мария Вартановна Петросова] or Mariya Vasilyevna Potresova [Мария Васильевна Потресова] (d. unknown), Russian member of the revolutionary movement since tsarist times, born. During the 1917 Civil War, she was an active participant in the Saratov Anarchist-Communists group (Саратовской группы анархистов-коммунистов) and at the end of 1920, together with her partner V.V. Barmashov (В.В. Бармашем), she was involved in clandestine activities of the Moscow Platform (Платформы) group of supporters of the position of Peter Arshinov and Nestor Makhno. In the mid-1930s, she was also a member of the anarchist group Aron Davidovich Baron [Аро́н Дави́дович Ба́рон] in Orel. She was arrested by the Soviet authorities on numerous occasions and spent long periods in the labour camp. The last official record of her is in 1957. It is not known where or when she died.

1897 - Renato Castiglioni (d. 1967), Italian socialist, anarchist, trades unionist and anti-fascist, born. A stationmaster in Bologna, he had been a militant in the rail union since 1914, and a member of the PSI since 1921. As a member of the union leadership, he was one of the organisers of the 1920-21 strikes and the anti-fascist strike on August 23, 1922, called by the Workers Alliance. In 1923, he was dismissed from his post in the Italian railways because of his activism. After being exempted from military service in December 1923, he took part from 1923 to 1925 in the work of the organisation Italia Libera. In 1925 the Central Committee of the railway trade union informed him that a warrant of arrest had been issued against him for stopping a train of carabinieri and guards going Parma. To escape arrest, he left for France later that year, settling in Paris and taking part in anarcho-syndicalist movement activities.
Working in the construction industry, he joined the CGTU and then probably the CGTSR, participating in all the strikes and demonstrations as well as the campaign for Sacco and Vanzetti. He worked at various newspapers published by Camillo Berneri and the Comité d'aide aux victimes politiques. Expelled from France in 1934, he was successively expelled from Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland before returning to Paris in secret. In 1935 he was on a list of anarchists in the Paris region as residents at no. 11 avenue Philippe Auguste (XI arr.).
At the outbreak of the Spanish Revolution, he left for Barcelona where he arrived on July 29, 1936, becoming the first volunteer in the Italian section of the Ascaso Column, he participated in the battle of Monte Pelato. Then, at the request of the railway workers' union, he went to Port Bou as lead coordinator for Spanish railways. He was later appointed by the Government of Catalonia as head of the radio, telegraphy and direction finding and interception service for Barcelona, and then head of aviation radio at the Sarignera (Barcelona) airfield, participating in several air missions and setting up radio interception for the Servicios Fronterizos at Port Bou. During this period he was a member of the Italian anarchist group Pisacane and, from early 1937, a member of the newspaper 'Guerra di Classe'.
In December (or July?) 1937, following a double ear infection, he returned to France where, arrested for violating the expulsion of 1934, he was sentenced to one month and fifteen days in jail. Upon his release, he did not return to Spain but settled in Marseille under a false identity. On the list of "subversives" issued by Italian Fascist authorities, he was arrested in Paris in 1940 and interned in July at camp Vernet, then to that of Remoulins d'Où where, in February 1941, he was extradited to Italy. On April 29 he was sentenced to five years internal exile on the island of Ventotene, and later in the Renicci di Anghiari concentration camp. Upon his release from confinement on September 6, 1943, he participated in the resistance and the reconstruction of the underground trade union movement in the cities and countryside of Romagna. He was the editor of the underground mimeographed bulletin 'La Tribuna Ferrovieri Dei' (The Railway Workers Tribune). After the liberation he joined the PCI.
Throughout the 1930s he also collaborated on 'Combat Syndicaliste', 'L'Espagne Antifasciste', 'L'Adunata dei Refrattari' and 'Il Martello' (New-York).

1908 - Antonio Pereira (real name Tomaso Ranieri; d. 1969), Italian anarchist, member of the Ortiz column in the Spanish Revolution, and the underground movement after the fascist Franco became dictator, born.

## 1921 - Dante Carnesecchi (b. 1892), Italian carpenter, individualist anarchist associated with left wing futurism alongside other individualist anarchists such as Renzo Novatore, Leda Rafanelli, Auro d'Arcola, and Giovanni Governato, is murdered by ten plainclothes carabinieri, shot and beaten to death with only a guitar to defend himself with. [see: Mar. 12]

1924 - The weekly anarchist magazine 'Revista Nueva' begins publication in Barcelona, continuing until July 25, 1925 (69 issues).

[A] 1935 - Clément Duval (b. 1850), French anarchist illegalist, member of La Panthère des Batignolles, sentenced to death by a French court for a burglary (in which a policeman was wounded trying to apprehend him), dies in New York. [see: Mar. 11]

[B] 1940 - Godfrey Reggio, documentarian film director, screenwriter, actor, and anarchist, born.

1940 - Tosca Tantini (b. 1913), Italian ice cream maker, anarchist and miliciana, who fought in the Columna Ascaso, dies in France. [see: Nov. 16]

1943 - Joaquin Pallarès Tomás (b. 1923), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and leader of the Pallarès Action Group, one of the first anti-Franco urban guerrilla groups, which started its operations almost as soon as the Civil War ended in 1939, in and around Hospitalet, Santa Eulalia, Sans and La Torrasa (villages and districts in and around Barcelona), is executed (garotte vil) alongside Francisco Álvarez Rodríguez, Fernando Ruiz Fernández, Francisco Atarés Agustin (Francisco Atarés Martín), Josep Serra Lafort (José Serra Lopez), Benito Saute Martí, Juan Aguilar Mompart, Bernabé Argüelles Depaz (Agustin Argüelles Cabeza?) and Pere Tréssols Meix (Pedro Tresols Meix), members of his group, in Modelo prison, Barcelona. Among the operations credited to it was the execution of the chief inspector of the Hospitalet police (on April 30, 1939), as well as a number of incidents in which police were disarmed or shot, and robberies were carried out. His group was made up of Catalans, plus some Aragonese from around Huesca.
In addition to guerrilla activity, they did remarkable work on the reorganisation of the FIJL in Catalonia, setting up the first post-war regional committee and the Barcelona local committee. At the time of their arrest, three of the group's members (Pallarés, Alvarez and Ruiz) held positions on the Libertarian Youth regional committee. They were captured by the police in March 1943 and tortured; within days, Joaquin Pallarés – who displayed great integrity — and eight of his comrades were executed. Two days later three more were executed: José García Navarro, Vicente Martínez Fuster (Vicenç Martínez Fuster) and Joan Pelfort Tomàs (Juan Pelfort Tomasa). Vicente Iglesias, José Urrea, Manuel Gracia, Rafael Olalde and Hilario Fondevilla Fuentes had their lives spared. The Pallarès was one of the first Franco urban guerrilla groups.

1961 - Armand Robin (b. 1912), French poet, translator and anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 19]
"Que m'importe qu'on m'abatte au coin de la rue, j'écrirai des poèmes jusqu'à ce qu'on me tue." ("What does it matter to me that I am shot on the street corner, I shall write poems until they kill me.")

1968 - Monny de Boully (Solomon or Salmon Moni de Buli; b. 1904) Serbian-French Surrealist writer, poet and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 27]

2012 - Laura Gómez, secretary of the CGT-Barcelona, burns a cardboard box filled with false trading tickets in front of the Barcelona Stock Exchange (Borsa de Barcelona), a symbolic action organised as part of the Huelga del 29M general strike protests in Spain against the government's plans to reform labour law. She ends up in prison on April 25, charged with arson and fire damage to the Stock Exchange. After 24 days on remand and a court hearing, she was released on bail and had to wait until October 2015 until her trail (along side Eva Sánchez, ex-general secretary of CGT-Barcelona), when they faced calls from the prosecution for a two and half years sentence. Following a plea bargain, they received suspended sentences of nine months for damages and 4 and a half months for disorderly conduct.
[B] 1844 - Paul Verlaine (d. 1896), French Symbolist poète maudit, born. Bisexual lover of Arthur Rimbaud and, whilst never an anarchist despite the Mary Evans caricature of him as a devil with the word 'anarchist' in cyrillic letters on his forehead, he did frequent the usual Parisian anarchist haunts. French singer Léo Ferré set fourteen of his poems (along with 8 of Rimbaud's) to music on his album 'Verlaine et Rimbaud' (1964).

1869 - Emma Goldman (d. 1940), Russian-American anarchist writer, activist and feminist, born. [expand]

1882 - Bohuslav Vrbenský (d. 1944), Czech dentist , journalist, anarcho-communist, then communist politician and minister, born. Chair of the Svazu Českého Utudenstva (Union of Czech Students) between 1904-06 and active in the anti-clerical and anti-militarist movements. He also collaborated on the anarchist journals 'Komuna' (Commune; 1907), 'Přímá Akce' (Direct Action; 1907) and 'Zádruha' (The Co-operative; 1909–14). In 1909 he became head of the federal co-ordinating body of anarchist groups and began his campaign to transform the movement into a prominent political force, defined as being not only against any state but above all against the Austria-Hungarian state, a "specific political party" not involved in the state legislative body. Michal Kácha was against this idea ["a germ of next compromises"], claiming that it would betray anarchist ideals and corrupt the movement. At the April 1914 ČAF Congress in Prague Vrbenský's arguments won and the ČAF and ČFVO merged to form the Federaci Českých Anarchistů Komunistů (Federation of Czech Anarchist Communists, or FČAK).
From September 1914 to the 1917 amnesty, Vrbenský was imprisoned in Austrian internment camps. During the war anarchists had worked closely with dissident socialists and the [non-fascist] national socialists and in 1919, he was active in bringing about the merger of the faction of the FČAK that he was a member of with the Česká Strana Národně Sociální (Czech National Social Party; ČSNS) to form the České Socialistické Straně (Czech Socialist Party, or ČSS), though the more radical Vrbenský wing continued to act rather independantly. Between 1918-1923 he was a ČSS member of the National Assembly, Minister of Supply (1918-19), Minister of Public Works (1920), and Minister of Health from 1921 to 1922. However, in 1923, he was sacked as a minister and the ex-ČSNS rump was expelled from the ČSS for voting against the Law on Protection of the Republic. In 1924 he helped found the Independent Socialist Workers Party (Neodvislá Socialistickou Stranu, or NZS), which went on to closely cooperate with the Neodvislá Radikální Sociálně Demokratická Stranou (Independent Radical Social Democratic Party), forming the Socialistické Sjednocení (Socialist Unification), which ultimately fell apart at its first congress the following year. In 1925 the vestiges merged with the KSČ and Vrbenský became a full-time communist official. After a brief internement at the beginning of the Nazi occupation, he fled to Russia.

1884 - Lucy Fox Robins Lang (d. 1962), US anarchist and labour activist, born in Kiev. During her childhood, Lang worked in a cigar factory and tended her younger siblings while taking courses at the Hull House settlement. A committed anarchist by age fifteen, she participated actively in the labour and free speech movements of early twentieth-century America whilst working as a printer, waitress, vegetarian restaurant owner, and real estate broker to support her many political activities. In 1904, she contracted a completely egalitarian marriage with anarchist Bob Robins, stipulating that love alone should govern a marriage, and insisted that they sign a legal document limiting the union to five years, allowing her to continue her political activities, requiring the sharing of all household tasks, and stipulating that there would be no children. The couple did separate as specified by their contract, but soon reunited and remained married for twenty years. When the couple moved to New York, Lang met Emma Goldman and began arranging speaking tours, bail money, and publicity for the famed activist. For ten years, Lang and Robins travelled in a mobile home Lang designed, organizing activists around the country. She also played an important role in two notorious attempts at framing labour leaders: the 'Los Angeles Times' bombing in 1911, for which James and John McNamara were charged, and that of Tom Mooney, a California AFL leader falsely accused of bombing a 1916 parade held to support military preparations for WWI. In both cases her efforts gained the court cases countrywide attention. In 1918, Lang began working with labour leader Samuel Gompers of the AFL, becoming his confidante and one of the few women to speak at the AFL annual convention. In 1919 she became executive secretary and organiser of the Central Labor Bodies Conference for the Release of Political Prisoners and of the Repeal of War-Time Laws. The latter group spearheaded a national labour campaign to obtain amnesty for thousands of WWI political prisoners, including conscientious objectors, court-martialed soldiers, and those, such as socialist Eugene Debs, jailed for speaking out against the war. Her book 'War Shadows' (1922) documents the successful amnesty campaign.
She separated from Robins in the mid 1920s following his rejection of anarchism for the communism of the new Soviet Union, marrying Harry Lang, a long-time acquaintance and labour editor of the 'Jewish Daily Forward'. In the 1930s, she developed an interest in Zionism and helped raise in 1939 funds for the Kfar Blum cooperative (later a kibbutz) in Palestine for German and Austrian refugees. However, she continued her largely unsung political activities, helping keep public attention focused on the legal battles of anarchists and labour activists.
Lucy Fox Robins Lang died on January 25, 1962, in Los Angeles, having made significant contributions to American political and labour history, despite her refusal to ever be a paid employee of any political or labour organisation.

#### 1892 - Trial of the so-called Walsall bomb plot anarchists begins. [EXPAND]

1892 - François Ravachol returns to the Restaurant Véry (24, boulevard de Magenta, Paris)[see: Mar. 27] and the waiter Jules Lhérot recognises him as the person who he had talked to 3 days before about the bombing, and who also resembles the description of the bomber given in the press. Lhérot denounces him to the police and, after a struggle, Ravachol is arrested for his bombings.
[Costantinni pic]

[BB] 1895 - Jean Giono (d. 1970), French author (novels, poetry, essays, journalism, plays) and, like his Italian-born shoemaker-father, Jean-Antoine, he was a self-taught libertarian, born. Regarded as a "paysan-anarchiste", apart from holidays and his abominated war service, spent his whole life in the small town of Manosque in Provence. Traumatised by his experiences in WWI, he became a committed lifelong pacifist. Returning to work in his local bank, he began to write fiction and following the success of his prize-winning first published novel, 'Colline' (Hill of Destiny; 1929), he quit to write full time, going on to produce a n extensive and varied output. Nature featured strongly in his work, such as 'Les Vraies Richesses' (True Riches; 1936) and the more famous 'Le Hussard sur le Toit' ( The Horseman on the Roof; 1951) and 'L'homme qui Plantait des Arbres' (The Man Who Planted Trees; 1953), both later made into films, as were a number of his other works. His more overtly political texts include his novel 'Le Grand Troupeau' (To the Slaughterhouse; 1931), which was based on his WWI experiences; pamphlets such as 'Refus d’Obéissance' (Disobedience; 1937); and the polemical 'Lettre aux Paysans sur la Pauvreté et la Paix' (Letter to Farmers on Poverty and Peace; 1938). One of his texts, 'Le Grand Théâtre', appeared in possibly the most exclusive book ever, 'L'Apocalypse de Saint Jean', encrusted with gems by Salvador Dalí, weighing 460 pounds and valued at over a million dollars. In addition, Giono directed a single film, 'Crésus' (Croesus; 1960), about the travails of a lonely shepherd who discovers a stash of money shortly after WWII.
With the rise of fascism and foreseeing another European war, he looked to join together with others to more effectively campaign against the threat of war, in February 1934 he joined the communist-inspired Association des Écrivains et Artistes Révolutionnaires (Association of Revolutionary Writers and Artists) but left in 1935 when the French Communist Party and the USSR came out in support of rearmament. His pacifism would repeated lead him into trouble during WWII. Arrested on September 14 1939 for refusing mobilisation, he escaped charges and was discharged from military service. He also continued to publish throughout the war, works that were openly critical of the Vichy regime and which he refused to submit to the censor; and was regularly accused of collaboration, despite his obvious anti-Nazism and whilst secretly protecting clandestine Jews and communists (including German Trotskyist Karl Fiedler and Marie-Berthe Aurenche, ex-wife of Max Ernst and partner of the Expressionist painter Chaïm Soutine). His supposed collaboration also resulted in the bomb that exploded outside his door during the night of 11/12 January 1943, his arrest and imprisonment in September 1944 and the banning of his books until 1947.

1900 - Nicolas Faucier (d. 1992), French anarchist, trade unionist and pacifist, born. Ran the bookshop La Librairie Sociale, and with Louis Lecoin formed the Comité pour l'Espagne Libre, (later the SIA [Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste]) and did a many stints in prison for his anti-war activities and only an escape during WWII saved him from the German camps.

1900 - Bruno Filippi (d. 1919), Italian individualist anarchist writer and activist, born. Regular collaborator on the Italian individualist anarchist magazine 'Iconoclasta!' alongside Renzo Novatore. Arrested in 1915 in possession of a recently fired gun during an anti-militarist demonstration and spent some time in prison. During the Biennio Rosso (Two Red Years) he was active in Milan with a group of young comrades who were involved in a series of bombings. On September 7, 1919 the bomb Filippi was carrying exploded as he attempted to attack the Café Biffi in the gallery Vittorio Emanuele in Milan where the 'Circolo dei Nobili (club of nobles), the richest people of the city, were having a meeting. His foot was all that was left amongst the rubble but it led to his identification and the arrest of a number of his comrades. In 1920 a pamphlet of his 'Iconoclasta!' articles was published as 'Posthumous Writings of Bruno Filippi'.

1906 - The first issue of the 'L'Affranchi' (The Freed) is published in Brussels. Initially monthly, it is printed erratically until stopping in 1914.

1908 - José Luis González Bernal (d. 1939), Aragonese Surrealist painter and draftsman, and anarchist, born.

1911 - Francisco Ponzán Vidal (d. 1944), known as 'el maestro de Huesca' aka François Vidal, 'Paco', 'Gurriato' and 'El Gafas' (The Eye), important Spanish anarcho-syndicalist militant, anti-Franco guerrilla and Resistance fighter, born. Founder and organiser of the escape and evasion lines used by the Pat O’Leary and Sabot networks, the French security services (Travaux Ruraux), and local French Resistance organisations, from 1940 to 1943, Francisco Ponzán Vidal’s group, consisting mainly of Spanish anarchist exiles, saved the lives of hundreds if not thousands of resistance fighters, evadees and escaped prisoners of war.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: With the company having given in to workers' demands, the children who had been living in foster homes in New York City are brought home.

1915 - Francisco Sabaté i Llopart aka 'El Quico' (d. 1960), Catalan anarchist guérilla extraordinaire, born in Barcelona. [expand]

1916 - Gala night at Cabaret Voltaire: Huelsenbeck, Janco and Tzara recite in three languages a simultaneous poem of their own creation.

1928 - The first issue of '¡Despertad!' (Awake!), CNT paper for the Región Marítima is published in Vigo. Initially printed every 10 days, it becomes a weekly until the end of the summer of 1930.

###1930* - Takenaka Tsutomu [or Takenaka Rō](竹中労; d. 1991), Japanese reporter, critic and anarchist, born. He wrote across a wide range of political and cultural subjects including novels, manga and Japanese film history under a number of pseudonyms, including Yumeno Kyōtarō (夢野京太郎), Kenka Takenaka (ケンカ竹中) and Hankotsu no Ruporaitā (反骨のルポライター)[literally 'Rebellious Reporter']
[NB: Some sources also give his d.o.b. as May 30, 1930]

## 1947 - Lorenzo Kom'boa Ervin, African-American class struggle anarchist, former Black Panther, writer, and Anarchist Black Cross activist, born.

1955 - Eleanor 'Fitzi' Fitzgerald (Mary Eleanor Fitzgerald; b. 1877), US anarchist, magazine editor, director, business manager and executive director of the experimental theatre company, the Provincetown Players, dies of cancer. [see: Mar. 16]

1980 - Henry Poulaille (b. 1896), French anarchist writer and champion of Proletarian Literature, dies. [see: Dec. 5]

1985 - Yaeko Nogami (野上 弥生子) (Yae Kotegawa [野上 ヤヱ]; b. 1885); Japanese novelist and feminist of the Shōwa period, who wrote for the anarchist-influenced feminist magazine 'Seitō' (青鞜 / Blue Stocking), and gained a substantial following with fans of the proletarian literature movement, dies. [see: May 6]

1989 - Alan Albon (b. 1921), British anarchist, pacifist and publisher, who served as an editor for 'Freedom' before becoming one of the founding editors of 'Green Anarchist', dies at Heathrow Airport. [see: Aug. 24]

2013 - Mutiny of the prisoners of the first ward in Koridallos prison, Greece.

2015 - Serge Torrano (b. 1950), French welder, signalman on the SNCF, militant libertarian communist and syndicalist, dies following a heart attack. [see: Feb. 17]
[1871 - Commune de Narbonne: the commune falls.

[B] 1885 - Jules Pascin (Julius Mordecai Pincas; b. 1930), Bulgarian-born American painter and anarchist, born. An Expressionist, he was influenced first by Fauvism and, for a brief period, by Cubism. A member of the so-called Paris School, his work included satirical cartoons, drawings, watercolours, oils, pastels, etching and lithographs.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1888 - Jean-Marie Guyau (b. 1854), French poet and libertarian philosopher, dies. Kropotkin labelled him as being "unconsciously anarchist". [see: Oct. 29]

1907 - First German Anarchist Congress, in Offenbach, with representatives from the whole country. Participants include Friedrich Kniestedt.

## 1907 - Rudolf Michaelis, aka Rudolf Michel, Hans Bronner (d. 1990), German archaeologist, primary school teacher, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who fought in the Centúria Erich Mühsam in the Columna Ascaso, born. His partner was the photographer Margarethe Gross, better know by her married name Margaret Michaelis-Sachs.

1912 - San Diego Free Speech Fight: The funeral of veteran Wobbly free speech campaigner Michael Hoy takes place. [see: Mar. 28]

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Miguel Burgos, a secretary of the CNT's sindicato de ramo de curtidores (tanners), is killed in prison under the Ley de fugas, allegedly while attempting to escape.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: In Barcelona the sometent militia hold a rally in the Plaça de Catalunya, where 8,000 people attend.

1934 - Emidio Recchioni (b. 1864), Italian anarchist, anti-fascist and father of Vernon Richards, dies in Paris whilst undergoing an operation on his vocal cords. [see: Oct. 4]

1943 - José García Navarro, Vicente Martínez Fuster (Vicenç Martínez Fuster) and Joan Pelfort Tomàs (Juan Pelfort Tomasa) are executed by garotte vil in Modelo prison, Barcelona. [see: Mar. 29]

2001 - Rob Stolk (b. 1946), Dutch Provo stalwart, anarchist and street activist, dies. [see: Jan. 23]

[B] 1856 - Charles Maurin (d. 1914), French painter, engraver, anti-clerical and anarchist, born. Worked in a variety of styles including Post-impressionism and Symbolism. Inspired by the work of Japanese artists and the growing popularity of the 18th-century print, he was one of a small group of artists who experimented with colour plates and in 1891 he patented a new technique of colour printing. He also produced wood-engravings, many depicting working class life. A friend of the anarchist painter Felix Vallotton, he collaborated on various newspapers including Fénéon's 'La Revue Blanche' and Jean Grave's 'Le Temps Nouveaux'. Bizarrely, Winston Churchill used the pseudonym Charles Maurin to exhibit his painting under.

1871 - Émile Digeon is arrested, following the army's defeat of the Narbonne Commune yesterday.

1883 - Louise Michel is incarcerated in Saint-Lazare prison.

1883 - The first issue of 'La Lutte: Organe Anarchiste' is published in Lyon. It succeeds 'L'Etendard Révolutionnaire' (The Revolutionary Banner). Only 19 issue [last issue dated Aug. 5 1883] are printed and it is succeeded by 'Le Drapeau Noir' on Aug. 12 1883. A victim of police repression, only 4 issues emerge in 1894, but the newspaper returns from 6 January 1895 until the end of the year.

1894 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Le Plébéien', "Journal communiste-anarchiste", "Organe de combat pour l'émancipation des travailleurs" covering "Sociologie -Arts - Littérature", is published in Dison, Belgium.

1894 - Umberto Lanciotti (d. 1974). Italian anarchist expropriator, who spent time in America, Britain and Argentina, only to fall foul of the Ley de Residencia and be rendered to the Italian fascist regime, spending seven years in Moussolini's prisons as an "anarchico pericoloso e attentatore" (dangerous anarchist and bomber), born.

## 1901 - Francisco Ascaso Abadia (d. 1936), Spanish anarchist militant and anarcho-syndicalist, CNT member, born. Emblematic figure of anti-Francoism, member of Los Justicieros and of Los Solidarios. [expand]

1901 - Eugène Léon Tricheux (d. 1963) French building worker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist activist, born. He began work as a sheet metal worker in a Toulouse aviation factory before working on construction sites. Listed as an anarchist and anti-militarist in the 'Carnet B' in June 1924, the following year he and his brother Marius with others founded an independent union building, which later aligned itself with the CGT-SR. He was also prominent in the city's Bien-Être et Liberté anarchist group. On August 23 1927, he was arrested, along with his parents, following a demonstration in support of Sacco and Vanzetti and was sentenced to two months in prison. He then became a taxi driver and, in 1933, created a union for the industry, becoming its secretary.
At outbreak of the revolution in Spain in July 1936, Eugène went there together with his parents, brother and sister, and settled in Puigcerdà, the city then in the hands of the Republicans and, in particular, the anarchists. They lived there for almost a year, active the management of the city. When his father was arrested June 11, 1937 by the communists, Eugene tried to intervene with the help of a Spanish comprade, but Eugène himself was arrested and imprisoned for a number of weeks in Barcelona's Modelo prison (the rest of the family also ended up under arrest). Eventually released, the family returned to France. In 1940, he initiated the creation in Toulouse of the Cercle d'études économiques et sociales and the Groupe Orobon-Fernandez and, with the exiled Spanish CNT and the SIA, organised shows, film screenings and information meetings in the city's neighborhoods to raise funds for the Spanish comrades. In June 1940, being on the police files, he was arrested. along with his brother and father, and interned in prison St-Michel. Eugène was sent to the Camp de Noé, close to Toulouse and held in the block for réfractaires de la Relève of the Service du Travail Obligatoire (STO), going on to work as forced labourer in the Hautes-Alpes, participating in the building of fortifications. The rest of the family during this period were involved in the reconstruction of French anarchist movement.

1902 - The first issue of the "périodique et gratuite" newspaper 'La Petite Feuille Anarchiste' (The Little Anarchist Sheet), appearing roughly monthly, is published in Roubaix.

1912 - Paul Brousse (b. 1844), French medical doctor, anarchist and socialist, member of the Jura Federation (IWMA), dies. [see: Jan. 23]

1914 - The first issue of 'Le Réveil Anarchiste' (The Anarchist Alarm) is published in Lilas, near Paris. It replaces the 'Réveil Anarchiste Ouvrier'.

1915 - At the IX Congreso of the Federación Obrera Regional Argentina, which had a built-in revolutionary syndicalist majority with the participation of new trade unions and other autonomous organisations, the Congress resolved by 46 votes in favour, 14 against and one abstention, repudiated the avowal to anarcho-communism established at the V Congreso in 1905. This would lead to the split

[E] 1916 - Julia Hermosilla Sagredo (d. 2009), Basque anarcho-syndicalist, miliciana and member of the anti-Franco resistance movement, born. [expand]
Actress in the Grup Artístic Confederal de Santurtzi.
[NB: some sources give March 30 as the date]

1926 - Charles Angrand (b. 1854), Impressionist, Néo-Impressionist, Divisionist and Pointillist painter and anarchist illustrator, dies. [see: Apr. 19]

1926 - The first issue of the anarchist monthly (then fortnightly) Italian language newspaper 'Germinal' is published in Chicago. It ceases printing in May 1930.

1927 - The first issue of 'Etica: Journal of Personal Education, Philosophy, Literature, Art and Naturism' is published in Barcelona. Amongst its many employees will be Isaac Puente, E.Armand, Federica Montseny, Han Ryner and E. Goldman. The magazine will cease publication in Jan. 1929, giving way to 'Iniciales' (Initials), but the title 'Etica' will reappear in Valencia between 1935-1936.

1930 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Anarchia', published by the Italian anarchist Aldo Aguzzi, appears in Buenos Aires.

1939 - Franco declares victory in his war against the Republic. The U.S. recognises the Franco government in Spain.

[C] 1958 - Björn Söderberg (d. 1999), Swedish anarcho-syndicalist militant of the Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation (SAC), born. He was assassinated by neo-Nazis (three bullets in the head) as he left his home in revenge for his exposure of Robert Vesterlund, a celebrity in the Swedish neo-Nazi movement, to the union's newspaper 'Arbetaren' that he was a member of the board of the local Chamber of Trade Union Trade at Svanströms store in Stockholm. Vesterlund was forced to resign from his job and was forced out of the union.

1972 - Dissolution of the Situationist International.

1974 - The first issue of the monthly magazine 'Le Réfractaire: Organe Libertaire Pour la Défense de la Paix et des Libertés Individuelles', Journal of the Association of Friends of Louis Lecoin, is published in Paris by May Picqueray. It ceases publication following his death in December 1983.

1976 - Max Ernst (b. 1891), German Dadaist and Surrealist painter, sculptor, graphic artist and poet, dies. [see: Apr. 2]
1851 - Joseph Lane (d. 1920), British anarchist, born. A decade after his death Max Nettlau, who had known him in the Socialist League, wrote in his history of anarchism: "I consider him to be the best head English socialism possessed in the years from 1879 to 1889, and I regret that his activity came to an end - not through his fault - in the first months of 1889; a man like him has been lacking from that time to this."

1862 - Ersilia Cavedagni (d. unknown), Italian-American anarcha-feminist activist, writer, and editor, born.

1864 - Ersilia Cavedagni, aka Ersilia Grandi (d. unknown), Italian American anarchist and anarcha-feminist militant, born.

[B] 1891 - Max Ernst (d. 1976), German Dadaist and Surrealist painter, sculptor, graphic artist and poet, born. Read and was influenced by Stirner's 'The Ego and His Own' in his youth, as did many Dadaist, long claiming it as one of his favourites, and studied philosophy at university. He also titled a 1925 frottage 'L'Unique et sa Propriété'.

1892 - Hans Leybold (d. 1914), German Expressionist poet and anarchist fellow traveller, whose small body of work was a major inspiration behind Berlin Dada, and in particular the works of his close friend Hugo Ball, born. He was involved in editing and contributing to Expressionist magazines, including Franz Pfemfert's 'Die Aktion'. He and Ball produced poetry together under the pseudonym Ha Hu Baley and also started the short lived magazine 'Die Revolution', which that had Erich Mühsam's (another close friend of Leybold) slogan "Laßt uns chaotisch sein" (Let us be chaotic) in its masthead, and in which and his colleagues issued their literary manifestos.
"Protect yourself against responsibilities! Hit out: against old household rubbish! And if some valuable piece gets torn up in the process: what does it matter? You respected people! You well-polished ones! You bigwigs! We ought to stick our tongues out at you! Boys, you'll say. Old men! we'll reply"

1895 - Marietta 'Maria' Bibbi (d. 1993), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, who life and militancy was closely linked to that of her brother Gino Bibbi, who affectionately called her Zingrina, born.
[* some sources give the date as August 2, 1895]

1899 - Ferdinand Félix Fortin (d. 1988), French anarchist militant, member of the trade union of proofreaders, manager of 'The Libertarian Review', born.

1904 - James L. Walker (b. June 1845), sometimes known by the pen name Tak Kak, was an American individualist anarchist of the Egoist school, born in Manchester.

[F] 1908 - In Rome, during a funeral for a worker who died in an industrial accident, confrontations occur with the police, who oppose the procession. Police draw their guns and open fire, killing four and wounding 17. Among the dead is the anarchist militant Paolo Chiarelli. A General Strike is declared, and subsequently, several anarchists are arrested, tried and condemned to heavy prison sentences.

1908 - Ramón Vila Capdevila aka 'Caracremada' or 'Caraquemada' (Burnt-face), 'Peus Llargs' (Big Feet), Capità Raymond (Captain Raymond), Ramon Llaugí Pons, 'El Jabalí' (The Wild boar) (d. 1963), Catalan militant anarcho-syndicalist and guérilla fighter, born. [expand]

1916 - In Paris, during WWI, Sebastien Faure, with the help of Mauricius (Maurice Vandamme) launches the anarchist paper 'Ce Qu'il Faut Dire' (What Must Be Said). The newspaper elicits a keen interest, despite heavy censorship due to its antiwar views.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: All the union locals have been closed ddown and their leaders jailed. Amongst those arrested today is Ángel Pestaña, editor in chief of 'Solidaritat Obrera', which is also banned.

1933 - Zamfir Arbure, aka Zamfir Arbore, Zemphiri Ralli, 'Aivaza' (Zamfir Constantin Ralli-Arbore [Земфирий Константинович Арборе-Ралли]; b. 1848), Romanian writer, journalist, historian, geographer, ethnographer, member of the International Workingmen's Association and international anarchist agitator, dies in Bucharest aged 84. [see: Nov. 14]

1934 - John Brailey (d. 2012), English printer, bookseller, anti-war activist and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1939 - Mauro Bajatierra Morán (b. 1884), Spanish journalist, prolific writer, novelist, playwright, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist propagandist, summarily tried and executed in Madrid following the Fascist victory. [see: Jul. 8]

## 1941 - Bernard Willem Holtrop, Dutch libertarian cartoon artist publishing under the name Willem, who was a youthful anarchist connected to the Provo movement, born. In 1966 he founded with Hans Metz the Provo-related cartoon magazine 'God, Nederland en Oranje' (God, the Netherlands and the Orange), later founding the Dutch underground weekly magazine 'Hitweek', which later continued as 'Aloha'. Since 1968 he has worked in Paris, publishing daily in 'Libération' and his work has appeared in 'De Nieuwe Linie', 'HP / De Tijd', 'Charlie Hebdo', 'L'Enragé', 'Hara-Kiri', 'Charlie Mensuel', 'Siné Mensuel', etc.

1945 - Chris Lebeau (Joris Johannes Christiaan Lebeau; b. 1878), Dutch artist, designer, painter, art teacher, theosophist and anarchist, dies of exhaustion in Dachau concentration camp. [see: May 26]

1951 - Vaga de Tramvies / Huelga de Tranvías [Barcelona Tram Strike / General Strike]: The protest spreads to Madrid. [see: Mar. 1&12] [expand]

1952 - Lettrist Gil Wolman's 'L'Anticoncept' (1951) is banned by the French film censorship commission.

1958 - Mary Barbour (Mary Rough; b. 1875), Scottish political activist, community leader and social policy pioneer, who played an outstanding part in the Red Clydeside movement in the early 20th century and especially for her role as the main organiser of the women of Govan who took part in the rent strikes of 1915, dies. [see: Feb. 20]

1959 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Massachusetts Representative Alexander Celia unsuccessfully proposes a bill posthumously pardoning Sacco and Vanzetti.

1962 - Pierre Carles, French libertarian documentary filmmaker, agent provocateur and one-time anarcho-communist, born. Co-directed (with Georges Minangoy) 'Ni Vieux Ni Traître' (2006), a documentary film about the involvement of French and Catalan anarchists in the fight against Franco.

1976 - Maurice Dommanget (b. 1888), French historian of the labour movement and militant syndicalist, dies. [see: Jan. 14]

1996 - Antonio Ortiz Ramirez (b. 1907), Catalan carpenter-cabinet maker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-Franco and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Apr. 13]
## 1837 - Paul Robin (d. 1912), largely forgotten French anarchist educator and neo-Malthusian, whose libertarian legacy influenced the educators Sébastien Faure and Francisco Ferrer, born.

1858 - Albert Victor Samain (d. 1900), French Symbolist poet, writer and anarchist, born. A habituee of Le Chat Noir, his most famous poetry collection is 'Le Jardin de l'Infante' (1893).

1902 - The New York Criminal Anarchy Law is enacted, arguably the first such law in the twentieth century to criminalise political advocacy. It would go on to become the model for similar state Criminal Syndicalism laws.

1907 - Ekaterina 'Katina' Alekseyevna Boronina (Екатерина Алексеевна Боронина; d. 1955), Russian writer, anarchist and anti-Soviet resister, who was active in the anarchist underground and Anarchist Black Cross in the inter-war years, born.

[C] 1909 - Joan Borràs Casanova (d. 1987), Spanish anarchist, proletarian painter, poster artist and writer, born. Following the Fascist coup, he joined the CNT's Aliança d'Intellectuals per a la Defensa de la Cultura i al Sindicat de Dibuixants (Alliance of Intellectuals for the Defence of Culture and the Union of Artists). During the revolution, he worked as a member of the Libre-Studio designing posters for the Delegació de Propaganda i Premsa del Consell Executiu Popular (Office of Propaganda and Popular Media Executive Council; CEP) - becoming known as a painter of the Revolution - and illustrations for the libertarian press such as 'Estudios', 'Libre-Studio', etc.

#### 1914 - Suzanne Hans (d. 1936), French anarchist and miliciana, who fought and died alongside her partner Louis Recoule in the Centúria Sébastian Faure of the Columna Durruti, born. Both her parents Suzanne Camus and Henri Hans and one of her grandmothers were active anarchists, and she and Louis met as members of the Union Anarchiste group in Paris' 13è Arrondissement. They had two daughters, born in 1935 and 1936, both of whom died as infants of meningitis and whooping cough respectively. When the couple learned of the fascist uprising in Spain, they both left in September 1936 to join the International Group of the Durruti Column – Suzanne joining up under the surname of Louis' mother. Both are thought to have died along with comrades such as Émile Cottin and Pietro Ranieri during the fascist offensive at Farlete on October 8, 1936 [though it is possible that Louis in fact died at Perdiguera eight days later].

1915 - The first issue of the pre-Dadaist Expressionist journal 'Der Mistral', "Literarische Kriegszeitschrift" (literary war journal), is published by Hugo Kersten , Emil Szittya and Walter Serner in Zurich. Printed by the mysterious anarchist printer Julius Heuberger, it has a distinctly anarchist political tone, criticising the "grammar of war", one based on bourgeois linguistic structures and rages against religion, law, politics and the current cultural industry. Three issues were published, the last on April 26, 1915, which bears the subtitle "Zeitschrift für Literatur und Kunst" (Journal of Literature and Art).

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The president of the Spanish government Romanones takes everyone by surprise and issues a decree (Real Decreto de 3 de abril de 1919: Jornada máxima legal en todos los trabajos) introducting the 8-hour working day for both Catalonia and throughout Spain against the opposition of the military and radical elements, who favour continuing the conflict until the unions are 'defeated'.

1927 - Vasil Popov, aka Hero [Героя], Doctor [Доктора] (Васил Попов; b. 1899*), Bulgarian anarchist guerrilla, who was one of the five members of the anarcho-communist Koprivshtitsa (Копривщенската) cheta that carried out the attack on the Tsar Boris III's car in the Arakonakak (Арабаконак) pass on April 14, 1925, following a failed attempt to rob the Agricultural Bank (Земеделска банка) in Troyan (Троян), he and his comrades are surrounded by police and, seriously injured and with no chnace of escape, Popov commits suicide. [see: Aug. 4]
[*d.o.b. also erroneously given as Apr. 4 [O.S. Mar. 23], 1879]

1933 - Zamfir Constantin Arbore (Zamfir Ralli; b. 1848), Romanian amateur historian, geographer, ethnographer, member of the International Workingmen's Association, international anarchist and a disciple of Mikhail Bakunin, dies. [see: Nov. 14]

1941 - Anne de Koe (b. 1866), Dutch architect, Tolstoyan Christian, anarcho-communist and director of Vereniging Ons Huis in Rotterdam, dies in Lochem. [see: Oct. 2]

1963 - Achille Daudé (Achille Daudé-Bancel; b. 1870), French anarchist, trade union activist and advocate of cooperatives, dies. [see: Dec. 15]

[B] 1968 - Nina Paley, American cartoonist, animator, libertarian and free culture activist, born.

1975 - Angela Bambace (b. 1898), Italian-American garment worker, feminist, anti-fascist, anarchist, communist, and labour organiser for the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union for over fifty years, dies of cancer. [see: Feb. 14]

1994 - Agostinho da Silva (b. 1906), Portuguese philosopher, essayist, writer, Christian humanist and millenarian, essential an utopian anarchist whose ideas on freedom were close to those of Gustav Landauer, dies. [see: Feb. 13]

[1996 - 'Unabomber' Theodore Kaczynski is arrested at his cabin outside of Lincoln, Montana.]

2013 - Mutiny in Koridallos female prison, Greece.
[E] 1810 - Désirée Gay (Jeanne Désirée Véret; d. ca. 1891), French seamstress, feminist and utopian socialist, born. A follower of the utopian socialist Henri de Saint-Simon, in 1832 she and Marie-Reine Guindorff founded 'La Femme Libre' [it later went through a number of name changes - 'La Femme nouvelle', 'L'Apostolat des femmes' and 'La Tribune des femmes'], the first French feminist newspaper produced and published only by women, in reaction to the exclusion of women from decision making among the Saint-Simonites. She would go on to act as an intermediary between the Owenites, the Saint-Simonites and Charles Fourier, as weel as play a prominent role after the February Revolution of 1848 and would eventually Desirée become president of the International Workingmen's Association's women's section in 1866.

1819 - William Batchelder Greene (d. 1878), US individualist anarchist, Unitarian minister, soldier and promoter of free banking, born.

[B] 1858 - Remy de Gourmont (d. 1915), French Symbolist poet, novelist, journalist, art critic, anti-nationalist and anarchist, born. One of the founders of the 'Mercure de France', in which much of his work was published,including his anti-nationalist text 'Joujou Patriotisme', which in 1891 led to the bourgeois press labelling him "un dangereux anarchiste" and his being forced to resign from the Bibliothèque Nationale, despite Octave Mirbeau's intercession. A friend of Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stéphane Mallarmé, he was also co-editor alongside Alfred Jarry, of 'L'Ymagier', a magazine dedicated to symbolist wood carvings. His 1899 anarchist novel, 'Le Désarroi', remained unpublished until 2006.
"Art is free of any freedom of conscience"

[1871 - Commune de Marseille: the army attacks the préfecture and the Commune of Marseilles falls.

[D] 1871 - Commune de Limoges: As in many towns and cities across France, Limoges had regularly seen crowds of people on the street, waving red flags marched to cries of "Vive la Commune! Vive Paris! Down with Versailles!", since news of the declaration of the Commune in the capital. So it was inevitable that, when the 9e Régiment d'Infanterie was ordered to Paris and, having marched to the train station, they would face attempts to stop them. The crowd, composed mainly of women and children, greeted the troops with cries of "Long live the Republic Paris. Vive la Commune!", and asked the soldiers if they would "fire upon your brethren?" Accompanied by a detachment of the Guard Nationale, led by a porcelain painter named Couessac, they invaded the station, preventing the reinforcements leaving for Versailles and Paris. Some of the soldiers offered up their rifles and ammunition to the crowd, with around 80 weapons falling into the hands of the population of Limoges. Meanwhile, another group of protesters invaded the préfecture. The préfect fled, disguised as a servant. The Hôtel de Ville was also occupied and the Commune de Limoges was proclaimed, whilst the surrounding streets were blocked with barricades.
The first attempts that day by the military to regain control of the city ended in confusion, as a detachment of the 81st Infantry Regiment came under fire from the barricades erected in the streets around the Hôtel de Ville, and in the dark the commander of the 4th Cuirassiers cavalry regiment, Colonel Billet, was shot and mortally wounded. That night a siege was proclaimed and reinforcements sent to the city: three infantry regiments, a battalion of light infantry, a second regiment of cuirassiers, two artillery batteries, a half battery of machine guns. The headquarters of the Société Populaire, where mutinous soldiers had found refuge, was surrounded. On April 10, the Commune's Conseil Municipal (City Council) resigned, and was replaced by a military committee of 22 members, under the command of General Dalesme. The Commune ended somewhat peacefully, one might say with a whimper, but in the aftermath there were numerous arrests and denunciations, so many of the latter that the prosecutor ended up complaining of the "large number of letters and anonymous information."

[A] 1871 - Paris Communards take the archbishop of Paris hostage.

1872 - The Second Congress of the Spanish Regional Federation of AIT (FRE de la AIT) begins [Apr. 4-11] in clandestine session in Zaragoza in anticipation of being banned by the Government, which eventually happened after it officially opened its sessions on April 8, 1872 at the Teatro Novedades. During the congress the Bakunist majority expel the Marxist 'autoritaria' minority based around 'La Emancipación' (Francisco Mora, Ángel Mora, Pablo Iglesias, Valentín Sáez, José Mesa, Victós Pagés, Hipólito Pauly, Inocente Calleja and Luis Cantillón).
[ anarcosindicalismo y sus Congresos.Completo.pdf]

[BB] 1876 - Maurice de Vlaminck (d. 1958), French landscape and still-life painter, lithographer, wood-engraver, etcher, writer, poet, violinist and anarchist, born. Along with André Derain and Henri Matisse he is considered one of the principal figures in the Fauve movement, later dabbling with Cubism (despite his professed hostility to it and it's debt to Cézanne, who was a great influence on Vlaminck's art) and graduating to a more abstract art. He grew up in a musical household and helped support his young family by giving music lessons and playing in popular orchestras and café-concerts in Paris, alongside working as a wrestler, billiards shooter, mechanic, labourer and professional cyclist before a bout with typhus weakened him. He also discovered that he could write, penned three risqué novels ]in collaboration with Fernand Sernada, including 'D'un Lit Dans l'Autre' (From One Bed to Another; 1902)] as well as writing vehemently anti-bourgeois articles for the anarchist press including 'Le Libertaire'.
While serving his mandatory 3-year military obligation, he met the painter André Derain in 1900, when the train on which both men were riding derailed. A lifelong friendship was struck, as well as a deal to share a studio in Chatou. Much of his work is of Expressionist landscapes with few featured human figures and represents a largely nostalgic (the modern world was also largely absent too as exampled by his hatred of the railways - "a gaping sore which admits infection"), view of the countryside, and certainly one that hated its annexing by the bourgeoisie and their houses built on once productive farming land.
In addition to his books written with Serada, he wrote some 20 works - novels, poems and memoirs - including 'Tournant Dangereux' (Dangerous Turn' 1929), 'Le Ventre Ouvert' (The Open Stomach; 1937), 'Portraits Avant Décès' (Portraits Before Death; 1943) and 'Paysages et Personnages' (Landscapes and Characters; 1953). He also illustrated with drawings, woodcuts, etchings and lithographs more than 20 books, including 'Les Hommes Abandonnés' (Man Abandoned; 1927) by Georges Duhamel, 'Le Diable au Corps' (The Devil Made Flesh; 1926) by Raymond Radiguet and works by other writers such as Julien Green and Marcel Aymé, in addition to books that he himself had written.
Participated, alongside fellow Fauvists André Derain and Kees van Dongen, in the November 1941 Weimar congress of European artists organised by the Nazi "official state sculptor" Arno Breker, and was considered a collaborationist post-WWII.
"What I could have done in real life only by throwing a bomb...I tried to achieve in painting."

1892 - Jules Thomas (b. 1839), French Icarien [follower of Étienne Cabet], Parisian communard, Blanquist, then a militant anarchist, dies. Fled France following the fall of the Commune and took refuge in New York, founding the Société des Réfugiés de la Commune which, in addition to its solidarity actions, commemorated the anniversary of the March 18 Paris uprising. [see: Jul. 7]

1894 - In Paris, during the trial of Émile Henry, a bomb explodes at the Foyot restaurant. The libertarian writer Laurent Tailhade, who was there by chance, lost an eye in the explosion. The anarchist Louis Matha was suspected of being the author of the attack, but no proof could be found against him.

1912 - Émile Armand assumes the editorship of 'L’Anarchie', from April 4th, 1912 to September of this year.

1912 - San Diego Free Speech Fight: The citizens' vigilance committee is summonded in San Diego with the warning that between 90 and 100 IWW’s had hopped a train at Santa Ana headed for San Diego. A meeting in District Attorney Utley's office decides to deputise as many people so they could and stop the train at the county line. That afternoon 30 prisoners vanished from jail. Some said police turned them over to a citizens’ committee for 're-education' at Sorrento Valley. An estimated 45 newly deputised constables rode on horseback to San Onofre. Over 100 other San Diegans headed north in cars or on the 15:00 train. They packed blankets and provisions for several days and vowed "inspirational lessons in patriotism."
The night before, a posse had stopped the Santa Fe at the county line. They ordered 72 'vagrants' down from the freight cars and beat them. In the morning, bragging about the 'fun' they were having, vigilantes herded their captives across the county line. Three couldn’t walk. The official word: two tripped when hopping down from the train; the third broke his leg when he slipped on tracks and fell off a bridge. Charles Hanson, a veteran of three free-speech fights, was that third victim. He told the 'Industrial Worker' that vigilantes forced him to kiss the flag ("You son of a bitch, come on, kiss it, God damn you!") and run a gauntlet through over 100 men – two lines, 50 each – armed with whips, clubs, and broken whiskey bottles. He didn’t get far when a wagon spoke shattered his kneecap. As he bled in the dust, Hanson watched a "cowardly and inhuman cracking of heads".
At 1:00 a.m. on April 5, a freight train from Los Angeles reached the county line. On board were over 100 men, half under 21. The train slowed to an unscheduled halt. Four hundred 'citizens' – men, and some women – lined both sides of the tracks. Some carried lanterns. Many sported constables’ badges and all wrapped a white handkerchief around the left elbow: the sign of a vigilante. Albert Tucker was one of the 'free travelers' on the train. "The moon was shining dimly through the clouds,” he recalled, “and I could see pick handles, wagon spokes, and every kind of club imaginable swinging from the wrists of all of them." He also saw rifles, aimed at the Wobblies, and 'black snakes' – 18-inch fire hoses filled with sand at one end, tacks at the other. A black snake left no marks.
"We were ordered to unload," Tucker recalled, "and we refused. Then they closed around the flat car we were on and began clubbing and knocking and pulling men off by their heels." A half-hour later, hundreds of "drunk and hollering and cursing" vigilantes marched "bruised and bleeding" captives single-file to a nearby cattle corral. Inside, the men had to keep moving in a circle with their hands over their heads. Those who fell were beaten. Anyone acting like a leader got "an extra beating." Vigilantes dragged unconscious Wobblies out of the corral and into the darkness. Rifle fire chased those who tried to flee. "Afterwards," says Tucker, "there was a lot of our men unaccounted for and never have been heard from since."
At dawn, constables opened the corral gate and released four or five prisoners at a time. They marched up the tracks and stopped before a mob of vigilantes. Each prisoner had to kneel, kiss the American flag, and sing the 'Star Spangled Banner'. If someone refused, or even looked like he might not cooperate, black snakes beat him senseless. Then, Tucker says, each had to "run a gauntlet of 106 men, every one of which was striking at us as hard as they could." As he watched the man before him run, fall, and crawl through two rows of flying handles, Tucker noticed that the clubbers were headhunters: whenever a man raised his head, vigilantes took dead aim.
When Tucker ran the gauntlet, he kept his head low. He emerged black-and-blue. As he hobbled to the county line he bled from "a dozen" wounds and vowed: "If I ever take part in another [free-speech fight], it will be with machine guns and aerial bombs. There must be a better way of fighting – and better results." That night, the war continued in town. Unmasked members of the citizen’s committee kidnapped Abraham Sauer, editor of the pro-Free Speech 'San Diego Herald'. They drove him to East County, put a noose around his neck, and told him never to return – or identify them. Sauer never took legal action or named names.
That morning, while the edition was still being printed, 30 vigilantes burst into the printer’s shop and smashed the galleys. From that point on, Sauer smuggled the weekly 'Herald' from Los Angeles and distributed it on the sly.
The 'San Diego Union' editorials praised the vigilantes: "If this action be lawlessness, make the most of it" (April 7); "These anarchists have gone far enough…hereafter they will not only be carried to the county line and dumped there, we intend to leave our mark on them…so that the outside world may know that they have been to San Diego" (April 12). Stumpy, the correspondent for 'Solidarity', wrote in reply: "The jails are full, but they seem to think there is plenty of room in the cemetery."

[FF] 1914 - Unemployed Riot in Union Square, NYC:
"At one-thirty in the afternoon on the fourth of April, crowds enjoying the Saturday half-holiday in Union Square were startled at a sudden incursion by a massive contingent of police. Four hundred officers hurriedly deployed, asserting control over the area. Some patrolled the outer boundaries. Others swept up and down along the pathways of the park, warning idlers to “move on.” Fifty uniformed men filed into hiding within a pavilion at the north end of the plaza; scores more concealed themselves inside a construction shed, and another hundred or so plainclothesmen mingled among the spectators.
Commissioner McKay arrived in his green automobile, and established a command post on 17th Street, between Broadway and Fourth Avenue. During the previous two weeks, he had endured ceaseless criticism for having failed to prevent the anarchists’ last parade through the wealthiest neighborhood in Manhattan. This morning, he had received word that they were planning to repeat the performance, and he was absolutely determined to forestall them. To do so, he called on all the department’s resources. Besides the men on the scene, he had two hundred more officers dispersed among the basements of every fashionable club and hotel from the Ladies’ Mile to Harlem. One thousand more reserves stood ready in the precincts to act as reinforcements. A general order issued to all these forces that morning was terse and direct: “Break ‘em up!”
There were two rallies planned for the afternoon. The Central Federated Union, a conglomeration of AFL locals, had received official approval from the city to hold their meeting. The anarchists, as usual, had not deigned to beg for “the kind permission of the master class and its armed hirelings. ”Berkman suspected that the police were intentionally pitting the groups against each other, using the moderate trade unionists to discredit the radical unemployed. Newspapers, he knew, would gleefully exaggerate any conflict between rival labor factions. So, he had two choices. He could march, and face accusations of fomenting dissension within the working class, or he could postpone his parade.
It was after 2 p.m., and no one outside Berkman’s inner circle yet knew what he had decided. Six or seven thousand demonstrators were milling around at the northern edge of Union Square, where the trade-union meeting was just being called to order. Spectators hovered on the periphery, or watched from windows, hoping to see some excitement. Three motion-picture cameras swept the scene. McKay and his inspectors surveyed the crowd, while reporters and photographers scrambled to cover any potential outbreak. Lincoln Steffens stood on tiptoe trying to get an adequate view. Everyone kept sharp for the anarchists.
And then with shout and shove, they were here. The group surged forward in a tight, organized mass, “seeming to spring from the ground,” wrote a reporter, “so rapid was their approach.” The militants pushed through the crowd, distributing propaganda as they forced a path toward the speaker’s platform. The mob tightened in, cheering crazily. At the front, Berkman scaled a stacked tower of lumber, which served as an improvised stage. As the highest spot in the area, the platform also happened to be the police operations center, so as he turned to address the demonstrators he was just a few feet from McKay and his inspectors. Everyone craned closer to hear.
He started with his usual imprecations against labor fakirs and the “capitalist class.” Then came the substance of his address. “We will postpone our meeting,” he said, “because we want the people of New York and of the country to see our solidarity with labor, whether organized or unorganized.” As Berkman clambered down to the sidewalk, the police inspectors momentarily relaxed.
At the very moment their attention lapsed, they lost control of the situation. A different group of radicals – either unaware that their rally had been put off, or unwilling to abide by the decision – chose this instant to raise signs reading, “Hunger,” “Unemployed Union Local No. 1,” and “Tannenbaum MUST Be Freed.” Seeing the placards, policemen at the boundaries of the demonstration thought a parade was forming, and recalled their orders to “Break ‘em up.”Forming wedges, they sliced in to the throng. Commanders signaled frantically, but whether to stop the assault or urge it on, it was impossible to know. “The crowd jeered and yelled and the banners continued to wave for a moment or two,” a reporter wrote. “Then the flags were jerked from the hands of the color bearers, and a minute later those color bearers … were on their way to the East Twenty-second Street Police Station.”
Riotous demonstrators trailed the officers and their prisoners to the upper edge of the park, shouting threats, and turning back only when a line of mounted policemen cantered over to block their path. Facing south, the leaders improvised a new plan. “Come on, men,” shouted an unemployed anarchist named Joe O’Carroll, “We’ll march to Rutgers Square.” With him in the lead was Becky Edelsohn – “a comely young woman” of “electric vitality” in her mid-twenties – who was a former lover of Berkman’s, and was becoming a leading campaigner for militancy. During the previous parade up Fifth Avenue, she had been the one who even shocked some of her own cohort by prying open the door to a limousine to spit at the faces of the women inside.
Arm in arm, they showed the way, and within a minute, hundreds had fallen into line behind them. The column soon stretched the entire length of the park. Demonstrators shouted “Kill the Capitalists!” and “Revenge Tannnenbaum!” Detectives scurried to head off the leaders, while the mounted patrol trotted menacingly on the parade’s flank, and the hidden officers streamed out from their concealed positions. For a few moments, the two sides marked each other. Then, at 14th Street, the detectives ordered the protesters to disband. The crowd responded with taunts and hisses. And, at last, detectives Gegan and Gildea – the detectives who had been pining for this moment since early March – ordered the attack.
The horsemen formed a column, drew their batons, and spurred directly toward the middle of the parade. “Invective and imprecations hurled at the policemen changed to yells of alarm and terror” as the surging cavalry struck the mass of demonstrators. Protesters fled, if they could, or were ridden down. Officers wheeled and charged, wheeled and charged, knocking dozens to the sidewalks, raising a clamor that could be heard for blocks around. At the front of the march, plainclothesmen and uniformed policemen pushed their way towards the heart of the mob. “The officers fought coldly, contemptuously, systematically, shoulder to shoulder and elbow to elbow,” a reporter wrote. “The IWW and anarchists battled wildly and lost all judgment in a furious rage.” Each side unleashed its resentment and hatred on the other. “The yells of defiance, the curses, the screams of pain from men and women, the clacking of galloping horses, the curt orders from police commanders made a chorus which overwhelmed the ordinary song of the streets.”
In the first moments of fighting, detectives had grabbed O’Carroll, and dragged him – struggling – from the melee. His friends chased behind, cuffing and shouting at the arresting officers, pulling their hair in a wild attempt to pry him free. The panicked and outnumbered cops lashed out indiscriminately, beating the thin, sickly O’Carroll on the head until a deep gash opened across his scalp, and blood was pouring over his face and soaking his clothes. Becky threw her body over his, shielding him as best she could from the policemen’s blows, and shouting desperately, “Save Joe from the oppressors of the poor!”
Hearing her calls for help, an unemployed radical named Arthur Caron moved to intervene. Within seconds, he too was on the ground, being struck again and again with blackjacks and fists on his head and legs. “For Christ’s sake,” he pleaded, “stop hitting me.” They grabbed him up, manhandled him toward a patrol wagon, and threw him into the hold. O’Carroll and an officer were already in the back, two more officers rode up in the cab, and several plainclothesmen stood out on the running board. The door slammed shut as the vehicle coughed into motion. A cop hissed at him, “You bastard, we’ve got you now,” and punched him in the face. He tried to get up, blood racing from his nose. “You Bastard, lie still!” they yelled, as they all beat him on the back of his skull. O’Carroll staggered over and cradled Caron’s wounded head. “Poor boy!” he muttered in shock. “Jesus! You’re getting it awful.”
At the East 22nd Street station, the two crushed protesters were dragged from the wagon and shoved down onto opposite ends of a long bench. Before they could be booked, the detectives made them wash the blood off their faces, necks, and hands so they could be presentable to the magistrate. Then they had to think of what charges they would file against their prisoners.
“That’s O’Carroll,” one of them said. “We’ll charge him with striking an officer and resisting arrest.”
“What’ll we charge that big bastard with?” asked another, gesturing to Caron.
“Charge the fuck with trying to take him away from the police and yelling, ‘Kill the bastards!’”
“No scene in New York for years has approached the violence of the outbreak in Union Square yesterday,” proclaimed the next morning’s Sun. There had been eight arrests, and dozens of injuries. For more than a week, newspaper editors had been calling for stern measures against protest demonstrations, and for now the press seemed satisfied with the result. “The police,” a Times reporter wrote, “led by a detachment of mounted men, wielded their clubs right and left, and left many aching heads in their wake.” The World expressed similar contentment at seeing “a couple of hundred vile-tongued IWW’s … routed by unmerciful clubbing.” After the battle, Commissioner McKay surveyed the scene of his masterstroke with complacency. “Though what did happen was bad enough,” he told reporters, “anything might have happened, and we were prepared for it.” Surely, no one would now accuse him of overindulging these anarchists." [Thai Jones - 'More Powerful than Dynamite Radicals, Plutocrats, Progressives, and New York’s Year of Anarchy' (2012)]

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Salvador Seguí and other anarcho-syndicalist leaders, who wanted above all to maintain the strength of the CNT as a union against the more confrontational elements, issues call to return to work by April 7, but unlike before the union is in no position now to negotiate terms for the release of thousands of prisoners, layoffs or retaliation against the mostly CNT-affiliated workers who had supported the general strike.

1931 - Gerardo Gatti Antuña (d. 1976?), Uruguayan anarchist militant and head of the Uruguayan graphic workers' union, born. One of the founders and the first secretary of the Plenario Intersindical de Trabajadores - Convención Nacional de Trabajadores (PIT-CNT; Intersyndical Plenary of Workers - National Convention of Workers), a leader of Resistencia Obrero Estudiantil (ROE; Student Worker Resistance), the Federación Anarquista Uruguyaya (FAU) and the Partido por la Victoria del Pueblo (Party for the People's Victory). He was disappeared by the Argentine government, tortured in the Automotores Orletti, the clandestine detention and torture centre that operated in Buenos Aires, and an attempt made to ransom him for $2m before his death (date unknown).

1945 - Daniel Cohn-Bendit, French-born student leader during the unrest of May 1968, born. The one-time anarchist was then known as Dany le Rouge but has since become Dany le Vert, having joined the German Greens.

##1947 - Philip Werner Sauber (d. 1975), Swiss photographer, filmmaker, anarchist militant, member of the Mouvement du 2 Juin and younger brother of the former Formula 1 racing team owner Peter Sauber, born in Zurich.

1963 - Edoardo Massari aka 'Baleno' (d. 1998), Italian anarchist militant and member of the Italian squatter movement, born.

## 1966 - Ramsay Kannan, Scottish-Lebanese anarchist publisher and book distributor, and founder of AK (1987) and PM Press (2007), born. Was also once the vocalist and bass player in the Scottish anarcho-punk band Political Asylum.

1991 - Julien Toublet (b. 1906), French jewellry worker and militant anarcho-syndicalist, as was his son Jacky Toublet, dies. [see: Aug. 27]
1839 - Gabriel-Constant Martin (d. 1906), French teacher, elected a member of the Paris Commune, First International, Blanquist, anarchist, born. Martin wrote for Sébastien Faure's paper, 'Le journal du peuple' until his death, July 9, 1906.

1871 - Élisée Reclus, serving in the National Guard, now in open revolt, during the Paris Commune, is taken prisoner. On the 16th of November he is sentenced to transportation for life; but, largely at the instance of influential deputations from England, the famed geographer and anarchist had his sentence commuted in January 1872 to perpetual banishment.

1877 - Benevento Anarchist / Banda del Matese Uprising: In Italy, the debut of the anarchist Gang of Matese. Carlo Cafiero, Errico Malatesta, Pietro Cesaré Ceccarelli and the Russian militant Sergei Stepniak are among the 26 dubbed the Gang of Matese (la banda del Matese) by the government after the town of Letino declares a social revolution and libertarian communism three days hence.

1889 - Court of Rome sentences the anarchist (and later socialist) Andrea Costa to three years in prison for "ribellione alla polizia di stato" (rebellion against the state police).

1896 - Jean Charles Boussinot (d. 1970), French anarchist schoolmaster, and writer, born. Father of the libertarian writer, director, screenwriter and film historian Roger Boussinot [see: May 2].
Wrote 'Le Cœur qui Chante: drame en 3 actes' (The Heart Sings: drama in 3 acts); the novels 'Les Meskines' (1930) and 'La Délivrance de Prométhée, 1: La Femelle' (1933); as well as a number of anti-clerical texts on education, including 'L'École, Antichambre de Caserne et de Sacristie' and 'Le Vrai Visage de L’école Laïque' (The School, Antechamber of the Barracks and Sacristy and The True Face of the Secular School; 1931) with Émile Janvion; as well as the wonderfully titled 'Mourir Pour la Patrie? Oh ! Non, Pas Ça!' (Dying for one's country? Oh! No not that!), one of a number of articles for the 'Encyclopédie Anarchiste'.

1913 - Léon Lacombe aka 'Leontou' & 'Le Chien' (b. 1885), French individualist anarchist and miner, who was involved in a series of illegalist actions including robberies and the killing of a police informer, cheats the guillotine by committing suicide, throwing himself from the roof of the La Santé prison. [see: Apr. 12]

1920 - Following a meeting in Decima Persiceto, near Bologna in Italy, the carabinieri massacre seven workers, including the anarchist Compagnoli, and injure 45 others. A general strike 's declared in the province, which is extended to many other Italian cities and lasts until April 7.

1926 - Jaime Cubero (d. 1998), Brazilian activist, journalist, intellectual, educator and brother of Francisco 'Chico' Cuberos Neto, he dedicated his life to the dissemination of anarchist ideas, born.

1930 - Antoine Cyvoct (b. 1861), Lyons anarchist militant, dies. [see: Feb. 28]

1943 - Peter Miller (d. 1999), English anarchist militant, secularist and trade unionist, born. Initially a member of the Trotskyist Socialist Labour League, he moved towards anarchism and, after a meeting with Albert Meltzer, began a long cooperation with the Anarchist Black Cross. A militant secularist, he was chair of the Leicester Secular Society for more than 10 years and an active trade unionist in the labourt movement in Leicestershire. He was also involved in the libertarian press, with 'Black Flag', 'Freedom', 'Cienfugos Press Anarchist Review', 'Anarchy Magazine' and published in the 70s the anarchist cultural magazine 'Z Review'.

1960 - Moriya Emori (盛弥 江森; b. 1903), Japanese poet and anarchist, also known as Soma Jukichi, dies. [see: Aug. 18]

## 1960 - Wicho García (born Luis Donaldo García Hildebrandt), Peruvian musician and vocalist in two emblematic Peruvian rock bands – Narcosis and Mar de Copas, music producer, and anarchist, born.

1976 - Marcelo Salinas (b. 1889), Cuban anarchist, playwright and journalist, who was forced into exile by the Castro regime, dies. [see: Oct. 30]

1988 - Pierre Prévert (b. 1906), French filmmaker, actor, director, writer and libertarian, dies. [see: May 26]

1997 - Allen Ginsberg (b. 1926), American Beat poet, one-time Wobbly and anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 3]

[B] 2004 - Gébé (Gérard Blondeaux; b. 1929), French anarchist, prolific cartoonist, editor of 'Hara-Kiri', 'Charlie Hebdo' and 'Zero', dies. Many of his cartoons and illustrations appeared in the libertarian press, such as 'Monde Libertaire' as well as in alternative and satirical publications.
One of his comic series 'L'An 01' [i.e. after May '68], which covered topics as diverse as ecology, the negation of authority, free love, community life, the rejection of private property and labour, and which was made into a film of the same name directed in 1973 by Jacques Doillon, Alain Resnais, Jean Rouch and Gébé himself. Amongst his other comic strips are 'Armée Non!' (No Army!; 1981) and 'Anarchie Douce' (Soft Anarchism; 1982).
He also wrote works for radio, songs-like 'Casse-Tete', interpreted by Yves Montand, François Béranger, Gérard Jouannest and Juliette Gréco; novels such as 'Sept Cartouches' (Seven cartridges; 1982), 'Le Roman d'une Année Sabbatique' (Novel of a Sabbatical Year; 1988) and 'Les Résistants du Square' (The Resistance Fighters of the Square; 1991). [see: Jul. 9]
1812 - [O.S. Mar. 25] Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (Russian: Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен; d. 1870), Russian writer, journalist, novelist and thinker, who was one of the main 'forefathers' of Russian socialism and agrarian populism (an ideological ancestor of the Narodniki, Socialist-Revolutionaries, etc.), and who was greatly influenced by the anarchism, born. Influenced by the French revolution and the socialism of Saint-Simon. Took an active part in the Revolutions of 1848 in Paris and Rome. Founded the influential newspaper 'The Bell' (Kolokol) in London. Strongly influenced by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and other anarchists. He helped finance his close friend Mikhail Bakunin's escape from Tsarist Russia. [expand]

1840 - Walery Karłowicz Mroczkowski, aka Valerien Ostroga (d. 1889), Polish nationalist insurgent in the 1863 January Uprising, Bakuninite anarchist and portrait photographer working in France under the name of Valerien Ostroga, born.

##1847 - Gustave Jeanneret (d. 1927), Swiss painter, member of the International Council of the Jura Federation, brother of the libertarian engraver and writer Georges-Edouard Jeanneret and uncle of Le Corbusier, born. Trained as a wallpaper engraver but left for Paris in 1869 to dedicate himself fully to his art. During the Semaine Sanglante he was involved in smuggling passports into Paris to enable the escape of Communards. Back in Switzerland, Switzerland, he was secretary of the Neuchâtel section of the AIT (anti-authoritarian) and active within the Jura Federation. He specialised in realist views of the countryside and especially the vineyard.

1862 - Georges Darien (pseudonym for Georges Hippolyte Adrien)(d. 1921), French writer (novels, plays, literary magazines, etc.) associated with anarchism and an outspoken advocate of Georgism, born. His novel 'Les Pharisiens' (1891) is a fictional indictment of French anti-semitism and its most prominent advocate, Édouard Drumont. Forgotten after his death, he was rediscovered after the reissue of 'Voleur' (1897) in 1955 and of 'Bas les Cœurs!' (1889) in 1957.
"I belong to no party. I have no flag. I hate all flags, including the red flag."

##1867 - Georges Marie Adolphe Deherme (d. 1937), French sculptor in wood, libertarian typographer, initiator of the Universités populaires (People's Universities), and the director of 'La Coopération des Idées', a social education journal popularising his ideas, born.

[D] 1871 - Paris Commune: During the Commune, a battalion of the National Guard set up two guillotines before the statue of Voltaire and set fire to them in front of a cheering crowd, shouting: "Down with the death penalty!"

1871 - In an article in the 'Journal Officiel de la Commune', Gustave Courbet, president of the Fédération des artistes, calls on his fellow artists to join him in his efforts in re-establishing the role of the arts and help reopen the museums.

1875 - Anna Götze (d. 1958), German bookbinder, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, born. Initially a member of the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, at the end of WWI she joined the newly formed Spartakusbund. Following the murder of Rosa Luxemburg and the absorption of the Sparticists into the SPD, she joined the anarcho-syndicalist Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands (Free Workers’ Union of Germany) she joined the FAUD and was active in various cooperative projects, women's federations, free schools and free children's groups. Of the three children that she had with her fellow anarcho-syndicalist Karl Brauner, Irma and Ferdinand aka 'Nante', also FAUD members, were active along side her. Her third child, Waldemar, joined the KPD. The resulting intrafamilial disputes gave way only after the Nazis' seizure of power and all the family becoming active in the anti-fascist underground together. On May 9, 1933, the FAUD offices in Berlin-Friedrichshain were raided by the Gestapo and FAUD was forced to set up underground networks. The Götze's apartment in Leipzig quickly became one of the important meeting places for the anarcho-syndicalist resistance.
Anna was arrested for the first time in 1935 and then again on October 1, 1937. She was sentenced to 3 years imprisonment on April 12, 1938, which she served in Waldheim jail. She was then imprisoned in the Ravensbrück concentration camp, where her daughter Irma was also being held. They both managed to escape from there when the Nazis began the death march of prisoners from there in April 1945. Anna Götze died on July 18, 1958.

1876 - Harold Whitmore Williams (d. 1928), New Zealand journalist, foreign editor of 'The Times', Tolstoyan Christian anarchist and polyglot, who is said to have known over 58 languages, born.

1878 - André Victor Hippolyte Mounier aka 'L'Agronome' (The Agronomist) & Jean Prolo (d. unknown), French labourer and member of the anarchist Colony of Aiglemont founded by Fortuné Henry, born.

[A] 1878 - Erich Mühsam (d. 1934), gay German poet, playwright and anarchist militant, born. A rebel from an early age (expelled from school aged 13 and a writer of satirical verse), he left his apprenticeship in the family Pharmacy in 1900 to devote himself to cultural agitation. By 1901 he was in Berlin, where he and his partner Johannes Nohl met the likes of John Henry Mackay, Johannes Schlaf and Hanns Heinz Ewers. He also joined the Neue Gemeinschaft (New Community) circle, which brought together young political intellectuals and agitated in favour of community life, and including Peter Hille, Martin Buber and Gustav Landauer. At that time Mühsam discovered the writings of a number of anarchists, especially those of Mikhail Bakunin. He also began working on numerous libertarian publications such as 'Der Freie Arbeiter', 'Der Anarchist', Johannes Holzman's (Senna Hoy) magazine 'Der Kampf', and he edited the Berlin newspaper 'Der Arme Teufel' (The Poor Devil). Culturally, he became a member of the Friedrichshagener Dichterkreis (Friedrichshagener circle of poets) naturalist writers circle and was a popular figure in literary cabarets and bohemian circles, becoming the producer of the Cabaret zum Peter Hille, named after the Neue Gemeinschaft member.
Between 1904 and 1907, he travelled throughout Europe with his partner Johannes Nohl, going to Italy and Switzerland, where he met Fritz Brupbacher, Bakunin biographer, and participated in the Monte Verità community at Ascona, befriending Karl Gräser, co-founder of Monte Verità with his brother Gusto. He also visited Austria and France, in Paris he frequenting the cabarets Le Lapin Agile and Le Chat Noir, and participated in several meetings of the German Anarchist Club of Paris, befriending Gustave Herve, James Guillaume and former Communards. Back in Berlin, he continued working in 'Der Freie Arbeiter' and its monthly anti-militarist supplement 'Generalstreik' (General Strike), along with 'Der Jugend' and the arts magazine 'Simplicissimus'.
Following the 1907 International Anarchist Congress in Amsterdam, he made a public called for civil disobedience and refusal to pay the tax for the Army. That same year, and having also published a pamphlet on those issues, he was fined 500 marks for "incitement to class hatred and encouraging disobedience of the law." In November 1908, he settled in Munich, where he founded the Gruppe Tat (Action), which included Oskar Maria Graf and Georg Schrimpf amongst its members, and joined Landauer's newly founded Sozialistischer Bund (Socialist Federation), which was based on federated Proudhonian mutualist communities. Arrested numerous times and especially persecuted for having organised demonstrations of unemployed, in 1910 he was arrested for membership of a secret society but eventually acquitted for lack of evidence. However, it did bring about the end of the Tat group.
Around the same time he was an active member of a Schwabian cultural circle, which included the likes of Heinrich Mann and Frank Wedekind along with many other poets and artists. He also published three books of poetry, four plays, and in the period 1911-14 was editor of the revolutionary literary monthly 'Kain: Zeitschrift für Menschlichkeit' (Cain: Journal of Humanity), in which many of his writings of the period were also published.
After the outbreak of WWI, Mühsam initially supported the Manifesto of the Sixteen, for which he was heavily criticise, especially by Landauer. However, he eventually changed his position and was involved in attempts, along with Landauer, Heinrich Mann, etc., to establish an international federation of opponents to the war. His attitude was considered "defeatist" by the authorities and he was banished to the Bavarian Alps. This failed to stop him, and on 17 June 1916, he participated in a demonstration against hunger. In January 1918, during a strike by workers in the munitions factories of Munich, he took to the floor in front of around 100,000 Krupp factory workers to call for a general strike, and was arrested. For violating his ban on political activity for refusing to participate in the then Vaterländischen Hilfsdienst (Patriotic Support Forum), he was sentenced to six months imprisonment in Traunstein and not released until November 5, 1918, shortly before the revolution.
During the German Revolution of November 1918, and which proclaimed the Republic, he was a member of Revolutionären Arbeiterrats (Revolutionary Workers' Counci) which deposed the Kaiser and proclaimed the Free State of Bavaria. Following the assassination of the Bavarian Prime Minister Kurt Eisner by right-wingers, he was one of the leaders of the Bavarian Soviet Republic of April 7 1919 but, following the April 13 attempted Munich Soviet coup, he was arrested and jailed with other leaders. After the defeat of the Republic by the Reichswehr and the right-wing nationalist Freikorps, and during which his friend Landauer was murdered, he was sentenced to 15 years in prison for being a "treibendes element" (driving element).
During his imprisonment he wrote many poems and propaganda pieces including 'Brennende Erde' (Burning Earth), 'Verse eines Kämpfer' (Fighter's Poems), 'Alarm', 'Manifeste aus zwanzig Jahren' (Manifesto of 20 Years) and the five act drama 'Judas' in tribute to Gustav Landauer, killed during the post-Republic repression. Upon release on 20 December 1924 (under a general amnesty that saw Adolf Hitler, who by then had only served eight months of a five-year sentence for leading the Beer Hall Putsch in 1923, also released), he moved to Berlin and founded the anarchist periodical 'Fanal' (Beacon) together with member of the Anarchistischen Vereinigung Berlin (Berlin Anarchist Association). He also participated in campaigning for the release of Sacco and Vanzetti and against the expulsion of Durruti and other Spanish anarchist exiles. From 1925 to 1929 he was active the Rote Hilfe Deutschlands (Red Aid), the Communist Party associated prisoner support organisation, but left because of political differences. In the early 1930s, he was a member of the anarcho-syndicalist FAUD, alongside his friend and comrade Rudolf Rocker. A special issue of the journal 'Fanal' appeared in 1932, shortly before the seizure of power by the Nazis. It included his philosophical essay 'Die Befreiung Geselischaft der vom Staat' (The Emancipation of Society from the State; 1932), subtitled 'Was ist Kommunistischer Anarchismus?' (What is Communist Anarchism?), in which he rejected the doctrine of historical materialism in his work, explaining his revolutionary concepts and the need for the replacement of the state by an organisation of free manual workers and intellectuals. In it he also denounced the Communist Party for its subverting of the Russian revolution, its seizure of power and its so-called dictatorship in the name of the proletariat. From 1931-1933 Mühsam also published regular satirical political contributions in the 'Ulk' supplement in the 'Berliner Tageblattes' under the pseudonym Tobias.
From the mid 1920s onwards, Mühsam had been relentlessly denounced by the Nazi press because of his writings satirising the Nazis such as his short story 'Die Affenschande' (1923), which ridiculed the racial doctrines of the Nazi party, and the poem 'Republikanische Nationalhymne' (1924), which attacked the German judiciary for its disproportionate punishment of leftists when compared to the right wing participants in the Putsch. Following his attempts to create a broad anti-fascist front, Goebbels labelled him "the red Jewish pig" and the main Nazi organ, 'Die Völkischer Beobachter', published three photos on the front page (Rosa Luxemburg, Karl Liebknecht and Mühsam) with the caption: "The only traitors in the team that have not been executed."
On 20 February 1933, he chaired the last meeting of anti-fascist artists in Berlin. Shortly thereafter, on February 28 1933, the day after the Reichstag fire, he was arrested as he tried to leave for Prague. Even after his arrest, the Nazi propaganda machine kept after him claiming that he was involved in the execution of 22 hostages in Munich on April 30 1919, unaware that from April 13 onwards he was firmly locked up in Ebrach prison. Following his arrest, Mühsam spent time in Sonnebrug, Ploetzensse and Brandenburg prison camps, where he was routinely beaten and tortured for things like not singing 'Deutschland über alles', for singing 'The Internationale', and so he could not write, etc. Suffering from heart disease, deaf, almost blind and unable to walk unaided, he was eventually hospitalised.
In February 1934 he was transferred to Orianenburg Concentration Camp, where he was put to work cleaning the latrines. During the night of July 9-10, 1934, he was brutally murdered by SS men, who left him strung up in the latrines. The Nazi press claimed: "Der Jude Erich Mühsam hat sich in der Schutzhaft erhängt" (The Jew Erich Mühsam hung himself in protective custody). His end echoed the meaning of his surname: Painfully (or Laboriously). Mühsam was buried on July 16, 1934, at the cemetery in Dahlem (Berlin, Germany).
Amongst the works published in his lifetime were 'Die Homosexualität. Ein Beitrag zur Sittengeschichte unserer Zeit' (Homosexuality. A contribution to the history of morals of our time; 1903) (pamphlet); 'Die Wüste. Gedichte 1898-1903' (The Desert. Poems 1898-1903; 1904); 'Billy's Erdengang. Eine Elephantengeschichte für artige Kinder' (Billy's Life. An Elephant Story for Kids; 1904), with Hanns Heinz Ewers; 'Die Hochstapler. Lustspiel in vier Aufzügen' (The Impostor. Comedy in four acts; 1906); 'Wüste - Krater - Wolken. Die Gedichte' (Desert - Crater - Clouds. The Poems; 1914); 'Die Freivermählten. Polemisches Schauspiel in drei Aufzügen' (The Free-weds. Polemical Drama in three Acts; 1914); '1919. Dem Andenken Gustav Landauers' (1919. In Memory of Gustav Landauer; 1919); 'Brennende Erde. Verse eines Kämpfers' (Burning Earth. Verses of a Fighter; 1920); 'Judas. Arbeiter-Drama in fünf Akten' (Judas. Workers drama in five acts; 1921); 'Revolution. Kampf, Marsch und Spottlieder' (Revolution. Battle, March and Satirical Songs; 1925); 'Staatsräson. Ein Denkmal für Sacco und Vanzetti' (Reason of state. A Monument to Sacco and Vanzetti; 1929).

Die Augen auf! Erwachen
aus Druck und Zwang und Staat!
Ihr Armen und ihr Schwachen,
besinnt euch auf die Tat!
Die ihr dem Herrn den Spaten führt,
die Häuser baut, das Feuer schürt, -
sehnt ihr euch nicht nach Brot und Land?
Den eignen Spaten in die Hand!
Fort mit der Fessel, die euch band!

In Reihen, Kameraden!
Die ihr die Arbeit haßt,
mit der man euch beladen, -
werft von euch eure Last!
Werft sie, wohin sie fallen mag!
Schafft selbst euch euern Arbeitstag
Pfeift auf des Herren Dienstgebot!
Nicht ihm - euch selbst backt euer Brot!
Nicht ihm - euch selbst helft aus der Not!

Ans Werk! Die Kinder schreien
nach Brot und Bett und Kleid!
Ans Werk, sie zu befreien
aus ihrem Weh und Leid!
Ans Werk, ihr Männer und ihr Frauen!
Den Kindern gilt's die Welt zu bauen!
Mensch, fühl dich Mensch und sei kein Hund!
Freiheit auf freiem Ackergrund!
Dem Volk den Boden! Schließt den Bund!

(The eyes! Awakening
of pressure and coercion and state!
Her arms and her weak,
remembers you in the act!
Leading her to the Lord the spade,
builds the houses, stoking the fire, -
not long after ye bread and country?
Are the spade in his hand!
Continued with the ankle, the tape you!

In rows, comrades!
You hate the work,
with the one you loaded, -
cast your burden from you!
Throw them wherever they may fall!

You yourselves create your working day!
Whistles of the gentlemen on service priority!
Not him - yourselves bake your bread!
Not him - you help yourself out of trouble!

To work! The children cry
for bread and bed and dress!
To work, to free them
from their pain and suffering!
To work, their men and their women!
The children's is to build the world!
Human, feel human and was not a dog!
Freedom at large arable ground!
The people of the ground! Makes the covenant!)

- 'Weckruf' (Wake-up call; 1909)


[BB] 1888 - Hans Richter (d. 1976), German Dadaist painter, sculptor, collagist, graphic artist, avant-garde film-experimenter, anti-militarist and anarchist, who claimed that Kropotkin's 'Mutual Aid' was the most significant book that he ever read, born. [expand]

1890 - Josep Viadiu Valls, aka Juan d'Agramunt, Pep del Noia, Buelna, Hermes , etc. (Josep Joan Enric Viadiu Valls; d. 1976), Catalan anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist, union activist, journalis and author, born.

1893 - Dyer Daniel Lum (b. 1839), American anarchist, labour activist and poet, dies. He was a prominent anarcho-syndicalist, leftist intellectual and the partner and mentor of early anarcha-feminist Voltairine de Cleyre. A prolific author, he contributed to numerous publications including 'Mother Earth', 'Twentieth Century', Benjamin Tucker's individualist anarchist journal 'Liberty', the of the International Working People's Association journal 'The Alarm' and 'The Open Court' among others, born.

1894 - In Chieti, Camillo Di Sciullo, responsible for publishing the anarchist newspaper 'Il pensiero', goes on trial. Defended by the lawyer Pietro Gori, also an anarchist; Di Sciullo is acquitted.

[B] 1902 - Margaret Michaelis (Michaelis-Sachs) (born Margarethe Gross; d. 1985), Austrian, and then Australian, photographer and anarchist, born in Dzieditz, near Krakow, to a liberal Jewsih family. She studied photography at the Graphische Lehr-und Versuchsanstalt (Institute of Graphic Arts and Research) in Vienna from 1918-1921.
'Margaret Michaelis : fotografía, vanguardia y política en la Barcelona de la República, dossier de prensa de 19 de enero al 7 de marzo de 1999'. [expand]

1904 - The case under the Alien Immigration Act of 1903 for the deportation of British philosophical anarchist John Turner is heard by the United States Supreme Court. Arrested on October 23, after giving a lecture at the Murray Hill Lyceum, Immigration officials found a copy of Johann Most's Free Society on him, together with his speaking schedule, which included a memorial to the Haymarket Martyrs. Turner challenged the Law but the Supreme Court upheld it and he was deported.

1906 - Fritz Benner (d. 1966), German belt operator, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, member of the anarchist anti-Nazi underground and Columna Durruti miliciano, born.

1919 - Bavarian Council Republic [Bayerische / Münchner Räterepublik]: Bavarian Raterepublik declared in opposition to the provisional government. The Central Council of Workers', Soldiers' and Farmers' Councils includes Ernst Toller, anarchists Erich Mühsam, Gustav Landauer and one 'Richard Maurhut' — the man who became famous as the novelist B. Traven. [see: Apr. 7]

1919 - Revolución Mexicana: Emiliano Zapata is killed by troops of a Carrancista officer who pretended to mutiny. Following Zapata's death, the Liberation Army of the South slowly fell apart. [expand]

## 1948 - Philippe Garrel, French film director, cinematographer, editor, actor and libertarian, born. His oeuvre is influenced by his experiences during May 68, including 'Les Amants Réguliers' (Regular Lovers; 2005), which is typical of his cynical political world view, is a largely autobiographical story set on and around the Latin Quarter barricades, 'Liberté, la Nuit' (1983) is set during the Algerian War, and features a teacher in the FLN who becomes involved with a young pied-noir.

1958 - Vítězslav Nezval (b. 1900), Czech poet, writer, dramatist, translator, Dadaist, co-founder of Poetism and a leading personality of Czech Surrealism, dies. [see: May 26]

1959 - Shooting begins for Guy Debord's film 'On the Passage of a Few Persons Through a Rather Brief Period of Time'.

1976 - Oriol Solé Sugranyes (b. 1948), Spanish libertarian, member of the MIL (Iberian Liberation Movement) and former Centro Iberico militant, who practised expropriation policies (bank robberies) along with Salvador Puig Antich, Jean-Marc Rouillan, etc., under the dictatorship in 70s Spain, dies. On 24 July 1974, he was condemned by Franco's council of war to 48 years in prison. Incarcerated in Segovia prison, he escaped with thirty members of ETA on April 6, 1976 but was shot a few hours later by the Guardia Civil as he tried to cross the Franco-Spanish border. [see: Jan. 4]

1978 - Emmett Grogan (b. 1942), co-founder, with Peter Coyote and Peter Berg, of the Haight-Ashbury anarchist improv group the Diggers, is found dead on an F Train subway car in New York City, of a heart attack. ​[see: Nov. 28]
1866 - William Godwin, author of 'The Inquiry Concerning Political Justice, and its Influence on General Virtue and Happiness' (1793), dies. [see: Mar. 3]

##1870 - Gustav Landauer (d. 1919), German anarchist revolutionist, theorist, editor, Munich Soviet leader and Commissioner of Enlightenment and Education in the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic, born.
Member of the Friedrichshagener Dichterkreis (Friedrichshagener circle of poets) naturalist writers circle.]

## 1872 - Dr. Marie Diana Equi (d. 1952), US medical doctor, lesbian anarchist, labour organiser and anti-militarist, born. Found guilty of sedition during WWI (as were countless others opposing American involvement in one of Europe's bloodiest wars) under a newly amended Espionage Act.

1882 - Armando Borghi (d. 1968). Italian anarchist, friend of Errico Malatesta's, secretary of the large Unione Anarchica Italiana (UAI) as well as the head of the Italian Syndicalist Union (USI) in Bologna, born. [NB Some sources give the date as Apr. 6]

[BB] 1893 - José Sobral de Almada Negreiros (d. 1970), leading Portuguese modernist artist, poet, novelist, futurist and Marxist individualist, born. A close friend of Fernando Pessoa and Mário de Sá-Carneiro, he illustrated Pessoa's 'O Banqueiro Anarquista' (The Anarchist Banker; 1996) and the three published the 'Orpheu' literary magazine as members of the Geração de Orpheu (Orpheus's Generation) or Grupo de Orfeu. Despite being visually inspired by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, his futurism was strictly leftist and embraced Russian Futurism, Dadaism and Surrealism, being much more of the post-Symbolist lineage than the proto-Fascist machine-worship of the later Italian Futurists.
Author of the 'Manifesto Anti-Dantas e por Extenso' (1915), a hilarious blistering attack on artistic conservatism focused on Júlio Dantas, a major figure of arts and culture in the Salazar regime. Amongst his other works are 'A Invenção do Dia Claro' (Invention of Daylight; 1921)', 'Nome de Guerra' (The Name of War; 1925, published in 1938), the plays 'El Uno, Tragédia de la Unidad' (The One, the Tradegy of Unity; 1928), made up of 'Deseja-se Mulher' (Woman Wanted) and 'S.O.S.'.

1901 - Violent confrontations in Switzerland with the police and the army during demonstrations against the extradition of an Italian anarchist suspected of participation in the attack on King Umberto I on July 29, 1900.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Most of the striking workers return to their jobs (if they still had them).

[D] 1919 - Bavarian Council Republic [Bayerische / Münchner Räterepublik]: Workers' Councils declare a Republic in Bavaria, in spite of the opposition of the Communists. The anarchists are the principal actors, with the Zentralrat der Arbeiter-, Bauern- und Soldatenräte (Central Council of workers, peasants and soldiers' councils) including as members Erich Mühsam, Gustav Landauer, Ernst Toller and one 'Richard Maurhut' – the man who became famous as the novelist B. Traven. But the troops sent in by the socialists will crush the revolutionaries between April 30 and May 2, 1919, killing over 700 victims. [see: Apr. 13]

1928 - Marcel Wullens (Marcel Maurice Julien Wullens; b. 1899) dies of tuberculosis. Militant anarchist and syndicalist who helped found 'La Révolution Prolétarienne'. [see: May 9]

[B] 1933 - 'Zéro de Conduite', Jean Vigo's hugely influential film, receives its première in Paris. It is banned by the censors and is not shown again in France until 1945.

[C] 1937 - Antonio Cieri (b. 1898), Italian anarchist rail worker, anti-fascist militant and Spanish Civil War fighter, is shot and killed [some sources give the 8th], leading a team of Bomberos during an assault on the Huesca front durign the Spainsh Revolution. [see: Nov. 11]

1951 - Gustave-Henri Jossot (aka Abdul Karim Jossot; b. 1866), French caricaturist, illustrator, poster designer, Orientalist painter, writer and libertarian individualist, dies. [see: Apr. 7]

1971 - Julián Martín Castro, aka 'El payador rojo' (b. 1882), Argentine folkloric singer, composer, poet and anarcho-communist, dies in Ciudadela, Buenos Aires at 89 years of age. [see: Feb. 16]

1982 - Pio Turroni (b. 1900), Italian anarchist and long-time anti-fascist militant, dies. He fought in the Spanish Revolution of 1936, and long-time publisher of 'Volontà'. [see: May 30]

2013 - Maria Àngels Rodríguez García aka 'La Rodri' (b. 1953), Spanish historian of the libertarian movement and anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies. [see: Feb. 11]
1798 - Ramón Dionisio José de la Sagra y Periz (d. 1871), Galician anarchist, politician, writer and botanist, who founded the world's first anarchist journal, 'El Porvenir' (The Future), born.

1840 - Angelo de Gubernatis (d. 1913), Italian writer, linguist, orientalist and anarchist, who married Mikhail Bakunin's cousin Sofia Bezobrazova (Besobrasoff), born.

1858 - Attilio Panizza (d. 1919), Italian sculptor and anarchist, known for having composed the song 'Inno dei Malfattori' (Hymn of the Evildoers) aka 'Canto dei Malfattori' (Song of the Evildoers) in 1892, born.

1865 - [N.S. Apr. 20] Victor S. Yarros (d. 1956), US anarchist, lawyer, and author, who was was law partner to Clarence Darrow for 11 years in Chicago, and partner of the feminist gynecologist Rachelle Slobodinsky Yarros, born. [see: Apr. 20]

[D] 1877 - In the Italian township of Letino (Matese) the Banda del Matese hand the city clerk an official notice before giving a speech, burning land deeds, and heading off to liberate yet another town: "We the undersigned declare to have occupied, arms in hand, the municipal building of Letino in the name of the social revolution." [expand]

## 1893 - James Morgan Brown (b. Mar. 22, 1858), Scottish tailor, poet, gay socialist and anarchist communist, dies of Bright's disease.

1894 - Max Sartin (Raffaele Schiavina) (d. 1987), Italian-American individualist anarchist, born. Schiavina collaborated on many US anarchist newspapers (in Italian) including 'Cronaca Sovversiva', and was imprisoned along with Luigi Galleani and both were later deported to Italy in 1919 for anti-war activities. In Italy, following a period in prison for supposed deserton in the time of war, he and Galleani republished 'Cronaca Sovversiva' and became an organiser for Arditi del Popolo. Arrested and accused of belongng to Arditi del Popolo, he spent 15 months in prison before being aquitted. Fleeing the fascist threat, he moved to Paris in March 1923, and there he participated in the defence of Sacco and Vanzetti, publishing 'Difesa for Sacco e Vanzetti'. Schiavina was imprisoned and harassed numerous times before returning to the US where he published, for 45 years, the weekly magazine 'Adunata dei Refrattari' (longest lasting paper of the Italian-American anarchist movement).

1897 - Mario Mantovani, aka Lucio Adorni, Mario Ferrarini, Lucio Adali (d. 1977), Italian typographer, anarchist propagandist and partisan, born.

1909 - The US Court in Buffalo invalidates the citizenship of Jacob A. Kersner, Emma Goldman's legal husband, threatening Goldman's claim to US citizenship. She is forced to cancel her trip to Australia.

1911 - Revolución Mexicana: Mexicali taken by PLM forces.

1912 - Lluís Latorre Mestres (d. 1962), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was one of those responsible for the assassination as "dignitat confederal" of Lucio and Julio Ruano Segúndez, former prominent militants of the Columna Durruti accused of all kinds of excesses (robberies, murders, etc.) on the front, born.

1914 - Revolución Mexicana: Emiliano Zapata forces now in control of most of Morelos.

[B] 1927 - Phyllis Webb, Canadian poet, radio broadcaster, anarchist and feminist, born. In 1967, she travelled to the Soviet Union, carrying out research on the Russian Revolution of 1917 and on the anarchist Peter Kropotkin, much of which appears in her 'The Kropotkin Poems', a never completed cycle of poems based on the anarchist's life.

##1940 - Chicho Sánchez Ferlosio (José Antonio Julio Onésimo Sánchez Ferlosio; d. 2003), Spanish singer, poet, songwriter, journalist, one-time communist but later an anarchist and CNT member, born. Author of numerous popular songs such as 'Gallo Rojo, Gallo Negro' (Red Cockerel, Black Cockerel) , 'La Hierba de los Caminos' (The Grass of the Roads), 'La Quinta Brigada' (The Fifth Brigade), 'A la Huelga' (To Strike), 'Hoy No Me Levanto Yo' (Today I Don't Get Up), 'Balada de las Prisiones' (Ballad of the Prisons), 'La Paloma de la Paz' (The Dove of Peace).

1942 - André Girard (known as Max Buhr) (b. 1860), French anarchist militant and trade unionist, dies. [see: Mar. 23]

1945 - Congress of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL), in Toulouse (April 8-9th).

1947 - Michael Albert, US libertarian socialist activist, economist, speaker, writer and co-founder of Z Communications, born.

1948 - Paul Delesalle (b. 1870), French anarchist and syndicalist, dies. [see: Jul. 29]

[A] 1950 - José Lluis Facerias, anti-fascist guérilla, blows up the Lonja police station in Barcelona. Facerias was a veteran leader of the anarchist action groups, operating since the end of the Spanish Revolution in 1939.

1959 - Felipe Alaiz de Pablo (b. 1887), Spanish individualist anarchist and journalist dies, exiled in Paris. Director of 'Revista de Aragon', writer for 'El Sol de Madrid', 'Heraldo de Aragon', 'La Revista Blanca', 'Solidaridad Obrera' in Valencia and Sevilla. Published novels and works on anarchism and translations. [see: May 23]

1973 - Pablo Ruiz y Picasso (b. 1881), Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, anarchist and later communist, dies. [see: Oct. 25]

1978 - Gaston Leval (born Pierre Robert Piller; also used the pseudonyms Max Stephan, Silvio Agreste, José Benito, Felipe Montblanc, Josep Venutto and Robert Le Franc; b. 1895), dies. Son of a French Communard, anarchist syndicalist, combatant and historian of the Spanish Revolution of 1936. [see: Oct. 20]
1553 - François Rabelais (b. 1494), French monk, Renaissance humanist, writer, doctor and Greek scholar, dies. Claimed as a precursor to anarchism after the description of Thélème, his imaginary abbey run on libertarian principles first described in in Chapter LVII of his utopian work 'La Vie Très Horrifique du Grand Gargantua' (aka 'Gargantua'; 1534).

[A/DD] 1834 - Deuxième Révolte des Canuts / Sanglante Semaine: In 1831, the French economy was in a bad way and had drastically reduced the demand for silk goods, leading to serious poverty amongst the canuts (silk workers) and their families in Lyon as the workers' salaries were cut. This provoked the first Révolte des Canuts [November 21-24, 1831] when insurgents seized the town hall but, lacking any political direction, failed to maintain the initiative and, on December 3, the French military reoccupied the city without any opposition. The authorities set to making sure the radical silk workers were isolated, building a fort to separate the commune of Croix-Rousse, the centre of canut radicalism (and anarchist activity in general in Lyon), from the rest of the town of Lyon and stationed a large garrison there.
Thus, with the economy booming in late 1833-early 1834, with a resulting boom in the Lyonnais silk industry, the owners of the silk works and the Republican government came to the conclusion that the canuts were too well paid. In February that year, the bosses cut the workers' wages, provoking a series of strikes. The strike leaders were arrested and put on trial, whilst new laws were enacted against the workers' associations, the workers have reached the exploding point. These workers' associations had been set up in the wake of the failure of the 1831 revolt, when Parisian republicans had sent agents to Lyon to help organise the silk craftsmen into what became a large network of secret societies.
As the trial was beginning on April 5, the Chambre des Pairs (Chamber of Peers) were discussing a law which would intensify the repression of republican groups. The Republicans managed to amalgamate several political parties to fall within the scope of this law, as did the mutual workers' associations to which Lyon's canuts belonged. The workers were now at boiling point and, on April 9, thousands of craftsmen rebelled, beginning what was to become one of the first serious worker uprisings of the Industrial Revolution era. The army following plans established in the wake of the first uprising, swiftly occupied the city and its bridges, and troops began to fire into an unarmed crowd. The streets were immediately filled with barricades, and workers stormed and occupied the barracks of Bon-Pasteur, while others barricaded themselves in the various working class districts, some, like Croix-Rousse, making themselves into fortified camps. This was the beginning of the Sanglante Semaine (Bloody Week). The Minister of Interior, Adolphe Thiers, would now set in train the tactic that he had used in 1871 to crush the Paris Commune - withdrawing from the city, abandoning it to the insurgents, then encircling and laying siege to it.
On the 10th, the army continued to fire on the crowds as the insurrection continued in Lyon with the seizing of the Telegram office. The black flag now flew over Fourvière, l'Église Saint-Nizier and l'Hôpital de l'Antiquaille, as well as the many communes around the city. The following day [11th], the fighting continued, with the army bombarding the Croix-Rousse neighbourhood, the 'historic' centre of agitation. Meanwhile, more military reinforcements arrived in Lyon and in Saint-Étienne and Vienna other insurrections are attempted. During April 12, troops attacked and managed to take the insurgent district of Guillotière, after having destroyed numerous houses with artillery. In Vaise on the Rue Projetée soldiers massacred the 16 inhabitants of one house, claiming that a shot had been fired from one of its windows.
Over the next few days, the army gradually began retaking most of the city and, on April 14, launched their third attempt to reoccupy the Croix-Rousse district, massacring many workers. By April 15, the 'Bloody Week' in Lyon was effectively over: the Silk workers had been subdued in a blood bath, with more than six hundred victims amongst the insurgents. The authorities estimated 190 dead on the civilian side (though this is likely to have been much higher). Military losses were 131 dead, killed in action or mortally wounded, and 192 wounded. Around a 10,000 town's people were taken prisoner, to appear in a "monster trial" in Paris in April 1835. Many were subsequently sentenced to deportation or long prison sentences as part of thee harsh repression that followed.

1877 - Louis Rimbault (b. 1949), French anarchist and propagandist for vegetarianism, born.

1890 - [N.S. Apr. 23] Rose Lilian Witcop Aldred (Rachel Vitkopski; d. 1932), Ukrainian-British Jewish anarchist, journalist and pioneer of birth control and sex education, who was sister of Milly Witkop and partner of Guy Aldred, born.

## 1908 - US President Theodore Roosevelt argues before a Senate committee that any material espousing anarchist opinions should be criminalised.

###1914 - Soledad Casilda Hernáez Vargas [sometimes cited as Casilda Méndez Hernáez], aka 'Casilda', 'la Miliciana', 'Kasilda', 'Kasi' (d. 1992), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, anarcho-feminist, anti-fascist, miliciana in the Columna Hilario-Zamora, and later a supporter of Euskadi Ta Askatasuna, born in the Fraisoro orphanage in Zizurkil.

1915 - Frank Abarno and Carmine Carbone, members of the Italian anarchist Gruppo Gaetano Bresci, accused of planting bombs in St. Patrick's Cathedral and the Church of St. Alphonsus on the five year anniversary (October 13, 1914) of the execution of Francisco Ferrer, are today sentenced to 6 to 12 years in prison.

#### 1918 - In Moscow, anarchist black guards confiscate the car of the American ambassador. The car is seized in an effort to effect the release of political prisoners and trade union militants imprisoned in America. This action serves as a pretext for the Bolshevik secret police, the Cheka, to mount a sweeping attack on the anarchists on the night of April 11.

1919 - Big Dada event in the Hall zur Kaufleuten in Zurich. Foundation of the 'artistes radicaux' (radical artists) group, with the following committee-members: Hans Arp (Alsace), Fritz Baumann (Basel), Viking Eggeling (Sweden), Augusto Giacometti (Zurich), Walter Helbig (Dresden), P.R. Henning (Berlin), Marcel Janco (Roumania), Hans Richter (Berlin) and Otto Morach (Zurich).

1927 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Death sentences for "those anarchistic bastards" (quote from the trial Judge Thayer during the trial) Nicolas Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti are upheld in Massachusetts.

1931 - Konstantin Vasilievich Akashev (Константи́н Васи́льевич Ака́шев; b. 1888), Russian Socialist-Revolutionary and later anarchist communist, who defected to the Bolsheviks during the October Revolution and became the first commander of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Air Force Fleet (Glavvozduhoflot)[Рабоче-Крестьянского Красного Военно-воздушного Флота (Главвоздухофлот)], and was arrested during the 'Spring' Case (Дело «Весна») of 1930-31 against an alleged "anti-Soviet military conspiracy" and sentenced on April 3, 1931 to "the highest level of social protection" (высшей мере социальной защиты) i.e. shot by the Collegium of the OGPU, is executed. [see: Nov. 3]

1936 - The first issue of the anarchist weekly 'Más Lejos' (Beyond) is published in Barcelona. It only lasted 9 issues.

##1942 - Harold H. Thompson (d. 2008), Irish-American anarchist activist and jailhouse lawyer, born.

1949 - Miguel Amorós Peidro, Valencian anarchist historian and theoretician, who is close to Situationist and anti-industrialist currents, born.

1950 - A group of Lettrists – including Serge Berna, Jean-Louis Brau, Ghislain Desnoyers de Marbaix and Michel Mourre – perpetrates the Notre-Dame Scandal, when Mourre, dressed as a Dominican monk, reads a sermon prepared by Berna announcing the death of God at Easter mass.

1996 - Ramon Finster (d. 1944), French éducateur de rue and anarchist militant, died in Marseille during a heart operation. [see: Mar. 24]

2005 - Andrea Rita Dworkin (b. 1946), American radical feminist and writer, as well as anti-war activist and anarchist in the 1960s, best known for her criticism of pornography, which she argued was linked to rape and other forms of violence against women, dies in Washington D.C. of acute myocarditis at the age of 58. [see: Sep. 26]
1834 - Deuxième Révolte des Canuts / Sanglante Semaine: The insurrection continues in Lyon with the seizing of the Telegram office. The black flag flies over Fourvière, l'Église Saint-Nizier and l'Hôpital de l'Antiquaille.

1856 - Claude Crespin (d. unknown), Lyon anarchist and syndicalist, born.

1861 - Louis Armand Matha (d. 1930), French anarchist, manager of the newspaper 'L'Endehors' and collaborator of the newspaper 'Le Libertaire' and the 'Journal du Peuple' during the Dreyfus Affair, born. A comrade of Émile Henry, he is believed to have 'cleaned out' the latter's apartment following his arrest, and to have organised the attack against the restaurant Foyot on 4 April 1894. Charged alongside Jean Grave and Sébastien Faure at the rocès des Trente, he is acquitted.

1871 - In Montereau, Seine-et-Marne, a demonstration inspired by the events of the Paris Commune is held, at which a tree of Liberty is planted, topped by a red flag. Protesters then loot a armoury and occupy the gendarmerie. Masters of the city, they sound the alarm throughout the night. The next day, the arrival of many police squads encourages the insurgents to return power to the préfectural authorities.

[1871 - Commune de Limoges: the commune falls

[F] 1887 - The launch of the Sociedad de Obreros Panaderos "Estrella del Perú" (Workers' Union of Bakeries "Star of Peru") cooperative, an important and long-lived Peruvian workers' association set up under the aegis of mutualism or as ‘resistance societies’ in accordance with the International Working Men’s Association model.

#####1905 - John Olday, aka Fredrick Frostick, Frank Allen, Willi Freimann, Michael Peterson (Arthur William Oldag; d. 1977), Scots-German artist, cartoonist and writer, and anarchist revolutionary, who was active in Germany, France, Britain and Australia, born.

1911 - Teresa Pons Tomàs (d. 1988), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

#### 1918 - This evening of the 10th & 11th, in reaction to growing protests of Russian anarchists to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the Cheka — the Bolshevik secret police — raids anarchist centres in Moscow. Approximately 40 anarchists are killed or wounded, more than 500 taken prisoners.

[A/D] 1919 - Anarchist-influenced revolutionary hero Emiliano Zapata (b. 1879) is ambushed and assassinated by Mexican troops. Zapata had been tricked into meeting with Colonel Jesús Guajardo Martínez, who he was trying to get to defect to the rebel's side. Col. Guajardo had been tasked by General Pablo González Garza, who was in charge of subduing the Zapatista rebellion in Morelos during the fighting between Emiliano Zapata and the then Mexican president, Venustiano Carranza, who had turned against the rebel general and one-time supporter. However, shortly after been given the task, Col. Guajardo had publicly disgraced himself, getting himself arrested drunk in a cantina. Zapata attempted to smuggle in a note to Guajardo, inviting the disgraced soldier to switch sides. Gen. González intercepted the note and hatched a plan to kill Zapata. Accusing Guajardo of not just being a drunkard, but also a traitor, that the only way he could redeem himself was by feigning defection. Guajardo wrote to Zapata, setting him up: a mock battle was held after which 50 federales (most ex-Zapatistas) were shot by a supposedly defecting Guajardo and his troops. Convinced of Guajardo's bona fides, Zapata agreed to meet hin at the Hacienda de San Juan, in Chinameca but, upon his arrival, hidden snipers of surrounding rooftops open fire, riddling him with bullets.
Zapata's body was photographed and put on display so that there would be no doubt that Zapata was dead, before being buried in Cuautla. Zapata's assassination backfired on Carranza and González, the former forced to flee the capital the following year, loosing the presidency, with Zapata becoming the apostle of the revolution and a symbol of the dispossessed peasants. Support amongst the people of Morelos grew and they continued to support the Zapatista forces, providing them with weapons, supplies and protection. To many the rebel general still rides in the hills intent on finishing the job he began on November 28, 1911 – the date of the 'Plan of Ayala', the peasants' declaration of independence.

1922 - Luisa Capetillo Perón (b. 1879), Puerto Rican writer, novelist, journalist, trade unionist, libertarian propagandist, women's rights activist and anarcha-femnist, dies of tuberculosis. [see: Oct. 28]
[NB: the date of her death is frequently given as Oct. 10, 1922. This is erroneous as notice of her death appeared in the press in April 1922. c.f. 'El Imparcial', Apr. 13, 1922 & 'Unión Obrera', Apr. 15, 1922.]

1928 - The first issue of 'Verbo Nuevo: Periódico de ideas y de Lucha' (New Word: Peridocial of Ideas and Stuggle), is published in Brussels.

1945 - Herbert Müller-Guttenbrunn (b. 1887), Austrian publicist, writer, playwright and satirist, best known as the publisher of 'Das Nebelhorn' (The Foghorn), is shot by a Russian soldier in front of his house in Klosterneuburg in circumstances that remain unclear. [see: Jun. 5]

1946 - The first issue of the anarchist weekly 'Ação Direta' (Direct Action) is published in Rio de Janeiro.

1967 - David Rovics, US singer and songwriter, anarchist and Wobbly, born. [expand]

1969 - Simone Larcher (Rachel Willissek; b. 1903), French anarchist, proofreader, anti-militarist, dies. With Louis Louvet, she published the newspapers 'l'Éveil des Jeunes Libertaires' and 'L'Anarchie' until 1929. [see: Apr. 30]

1972 - Louis Laurent (b. 1883), French trade unionist, member of the Revolutionary Anarchist Union and the Anarchist Federation of Languedoc in the 30s, dies. Helped publish various libertarian journals, worked with the League of Conscientious Objectors and the CGT-SR (revolutionary trade union). Helped found 'Le Libertaire' in 1968. [see: Oct. 2]

## 1983 - Sherman Martin Austin, US anarchist and musician, who was arrested and convicted for inflammatory content on, the anti-police / anti-State website that he was webmaster of, born.

[EE] 1985 - Maria Angelina Soares Gomes (b. ca. 1905), Brazilian embroidery-worker, teacher, feminist, anarchist, and writer, dies in Rio de Janeiro. She came under anarchist influence early in life, both by her brother, the anarcho-syndicalist Florentino de Carvalho (Primitivo Raimundo Soares), and by her stepmother, Paula Soares, and became involved in the anarchist struggle in 1914, helping Florentino produce the newspaper 'Germinal-La Barricata', which was published in Portuguese and Italian. Her writing would go on to be printed in publications such as 'A Guerra', 'A Lanterna', 'El Libertario', 'A Voz da União', 'A Plebe', and 'A Voz dos Garçons'. In São Paulo, she helped found and run the Centro Feminino de Educação as well as other escuelas modernas libertarias of the period.

[B] 1995 - Chaoze One, German Roma rapper and anarchist, born.

2011 - Olivier O. Olivier (Pierre Marie Olivier; b. 1931), French painter, Pataphysician and cultural anarchist, dies. [see: May 1]
1834 - Deuxième Révolte des Canuts / Sanglante Semaine: Second insurrection (following the November 21-24, 1831 uprising) by silk workers in Lyon following the occupation of the city by troops, who fire on an unarmed crowd. The streets are immediately filled with barricades, with workers storming and taking the barracks of Bon-Pasteur, while others barricade themselves in the districts, some, like Croix Rousse, making fortified camps.
There are attempted insurrections in Saint-Étienne and Vienna.

1891 - The first issue of the Belgian anarchist newspaper 'L'Homme Libre: Organe de Combat pour l'Émancipation des Travilleurs' is published in Brussels. Intially a weekly, the following year it goes fortnightly and is then relaced by 'La Débacle'.

1893 - [N.S. Apr. 23] Lev Nikolaevich Zadov (Лев Николаевич Задов [rus] / Льова Миколайович Задов [uk]), aka Lev Zinkovsky (Лев Зиньковский / Левко Зіньковський) aka Leva aka Levka the Bandit (Leib ben Yehuda Zadov [Лейб бен Иехуда Задов / Лейб бен Ієхуда Задов]; d. 1938), Ukrainian metalworker, anarchist communist and chief of military intelligence of the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine (Революционной повстанческой армии Украины / Революційна повстанська армія України), who later changed sides to become an OGPU operative and was shot alongside his brother Daniel after being convicted of "collaboration with foreign secret services", born. [see: Apr. 23]

[B] 1905 - Attila József (d. 1937), one of the most important and well-known Hungarian poets, born. Hailed by the Hungarian Communist Party in the 1950s as a great proletarian poet, he was in fact an anarchist who opposed the Bolsheviks. After the crushing of the revolution in 1919, during the twenties, he became a member of the Vienna Bund der Herrschaftslosen Sozialisten’ anarchist circle. Expelled from university in 1925 for his revolutionary poem 'Tiszta Szívvel' (Pure Heart), the following year he visited Paris. There he met the anarchist Achille Dauphin-Meunier (who had written his book about the proletarian revolution in Hungary, 'La Commune Hongroise et les Anarchistes' (1925)) and became involved with the Union Anarchiste Communiste. Returning to Hungary, he joined the illegal Kommunisták Magyarországi Pártja (Party of Communists of Hungary) in 1930 but was expelled soon after because of his ideological unreliability and anti-Stalinist views. His works include: 'A Szépség Koldusa' (Beggar of Beauty; 1922); 'Nem én Kiáltok' (It's Not Me Shouting; 1925); the surrealist influenced 'Nincsen Apám se Anyám' (Fatherless and Motherless; 1929); 'Döntsd a Tőkét, ne Siránkozz' (Knock Down the Capital; 1931), which was confiscated by the public prosecutor; and 'Külvárosi Éj' (Night in the Outskirts; 1932).

1910 - In Cheyenne, Wyoming, Emma Goldman and Ben Reitman are arrested at an open-air meeting.

[CCC] 1911 - Anteo Zamboni (d. 1926), 15-year old Italian anarchist, who tried to assassinate Benito Mussolini in Bologna on October 31, 1926, by shooting at him during the parade celebrating the March on Rome, and was immediately lynched, born.

1915 - Georges Gourdin (b. 1915), French anarchist and WWII Resistance partisan, born. Arrested and tortured by the Gestapo in May 1944 before being sent to Germany, he died in the Nazi camp of Elbruck.

1917 - Matilde Saiz Alonso (d. 1984), Spanish anarchist and miliciana, who fought with the Columna Roja i Negra and was the partner of fellow anarchist Francisco Sansano Navarro, born.

#### 1918 - The Bolsheviks use the respite of the Brest Litovsk treaty with imperialism to attack their critics on the left. Tonight, 26 anarchist centres in Moscow are raided by the Cheka and hundreds of anarchist are arrested including Lev Chernyi.

##1924 - Première issue of the 'Bulletin of the Anarchist Red Cross' is published in New York. "Save your brothers tortured in the prisons of Russia."
Launched with a call to American workers and their organisations to put pressure on the Bolshevik authorities to put an end to persecutions and imprisonments of Russian workers, Socialist revolutionary militants, trade unionists and anarchists — victims because they refuse to kneel before the Bolshevik Party dictatorship.

1931 - "The ordinary man is an anarchist. He wants to do as he likes. He may want his neighbour to be governed, but he himself doesn't want to be governed. He is mortally afraid of government officials and policemen." - George Bernard Shaw, address in New York, April 11, 1931.

##1936 - Nelly Kaplan, Argentine-born French libertarian feminist writer, novelist, filmmaker, screenwriter and actress, who is still the only female film maker linked with surrealism, born.
Buenos Aires, 1940: "When I grow up, I will do cinema," says young Nelly Kaplan , 9, at breakfast, after being dazzled by Abel Gance's 'J'accuse!'. "We do not speak with a full mouth," retorted her father, an Argentine bourgeois, accustomed to the escapades of his impetuous daughter." [Nelly Kaplan - 'Entrez, c'est ouvert! : Autobiographie', 2006]
Fourteen years later she was Gance's assistant on the filming of 'La Tour de Nesle' (1954) as well as playing a small part in the film itself (Alice, a maid seduced by the lead character Jehan Buridan, played by Pierre Brasseur). She went on to collaborate with him on 'Magirama' (1956) and 'Austerlitz' (1960). In 1955, she met Philippe Soupault and, the following year, André Breton at an exhibition of pre-Columbian art at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs in Paris, with whom she had "une éblouissante amitié amoureuse". Starting in 1961, she directed a series of art shorts and documentary films, many of which won prizes at various international festivals. These included 'Gustave Moreau' (1962), 'Abel Gance, Hier et Demain' (Abel Gance, Today & Tomorrow; 1963), 'À la Source, la Femme Aimée' (1966) and 'Le Regard Picasso' (1967), before making her best known work 'La Fiancée du Pirate' (A Very Curious Girl; 1969), which Pablo Picasso described as "insolence considered as one of the fine arts".
Amongst her other films are: 'Papa les P'tits Bateaux' (1971); 'Néa' (1976); and 'Plaisir d'Amour' (1991), as well as numerous screenplays and TV films. She is also a prolific author, beginning with three short works of fiction, which were published under her pseudonym 'Belen': 'La Géométrie dans les Spasmes' (Geometry in Spasms; 1959), 'Délivrez-nous du Mâle' (Deliver us from the Male; 1960) and 'La Reine des Sabbats' (The Queen of the Sabbaths; 1960); all three were later reprinted in 1966 under the title 'Le Réservoir des Sens' (The Reservoir of the Senses). Her novels include 'Le Collier de Ptyx' (1971); 'Mémoires d’une Liseuse de Draps' (Memoirs of a Lady Sheet Diviner; 1974) - banned by French censors; 'Aux Orchidées Sauvages' (1998); 'Ils Furent une Étrange Comète' ('2002); and 'Cuisses de Grenouille' (2005); and she has a number of film essays: 'Manifeste d'un art nouveau : la Polyvision' (1955); 'Le Sunlight d'Austerlitz' (1960) and 'Napoléon' (1994) - about Gance's classic; and collections of correspondence, such as 'Mon Cygne, mon Signe…' (2008), her correspondance with Abel Gance. Her most recent publication are 'Entrez, c'est ouvert! : Autobiographie' (2006) and 'Ecris-moi tes hauts faits et tes crimes' (Write to me of Your Deeds and Your Crimes; 2009).

1937 - André Bernard, French anarchist, pacifist and Surrealist, born. Took part in the founding of the International Centre for Research on Anarchism (CIRA). Sentenced in 1961 to 21 months in prison for "insubordination in peacetime".

1949 - Pilar Molina Beneyto (d. 2008), Valencian writer, photographer, documentary filmmaker, historian, anarcho-syndicalist and anarcha-feminist, born. [expand]]

## 1963 - Mark Clifford Thomas, English comedian, presenter, political satirist, journalist and self-described "libertarian anarchist", born.

1968 - Spokesperson for the German student movement Rudi Dutschke survives being shot in the head. Solidarity demonstrations on his behalf in Paris, Rome, Vienna and London take place.

1968 - Mário Dias Ferreira dos Santos (b. 1907), Brazilian lawyer, philosopher and Christian anarchist, who founded the materialist philosophical system Filosofia Concreta (Concrete Philosophy), dies standing up, having claimed that to die lying down was unworthy of a man. [see: Jan. 3]

1977 - Jacques Prévert (b. 1900), French poet, surrealist, libertarian, dies. [see: Feb. 4]

1993 - Marietta 'Maria' Bibbi (b. 1895), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, who life and militancy was closely linked to that of her brother Gino Bibbi, who affectionately called her Zingrina, dies. [see: Apr. 2]

1998 - Zapatista Uprising: The autonomous municipality Ricardo Flores Magón is dismantled in a police and military operation in the community of Taniperlas, municipality of Ocosingo. Nine Mexicans are detained and twelve foreigners are expelled from the country.
1834 - Deuxième Révolte des Canuts / Sanglante Semaine: Troops attack and take the insurgent district of Guillotière, after having destroyed numerous houses with artillery.

1844 - John Neve (Johann Christoph Neve; d. 1896), Danish anarchist militant, who was active in the workers' movements in Denmark, Belgium, England, and Germany where he died in prison, born.

[D] 1871 - Decree of the Commune to demolish the Vendôme Column, as it is considered "a monument of barbarism, a symbol of brute force and false glory, an affirmation of militarism..."

1885 - Léon Lacombe aka 'Léontou' & 'Le Chien' (d. 1913), French individualist anarchist and miner, who was involved in a series of illegaist actions including robberies and the killing of a police informer, born. [expand]

## 1888 - Augusto Masetti (d. 1966), Italian labourer, mason, anarchist and anti-militarist, born. Famed for his October 30, 1911 attack as a conscript upon his colonel (Stroppa) on the parade ground of the Cialdini barracks, in Bologna, while shouting out "Down with the war! Long live Anarchy!" in protest of the war in Libya. Turning to his fellow conscripts he declared: "Brethren, stand up". Arrested, he was found to have antiwar fliers on him calling on soldiers to target their officers. [expand]

1901 - Edgardo Ricetti Scandella (d. 1984), Argentinian-born anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anarcho-naturist and teacher, born.

1904 - Joaquín Miguel Artal, a 19-year-old anarchist, tries to stab the President of the Council of Ministers, Antonio Maura, in Barcelona. Maura leaps on to the running board of Maura's carriage whilst holding an envelope. Maura, thinking it was a petition reaches out and Artal pulls what the press claimed was a 20 inch knife(!), plunging it into the left side of Maura and shouting "Long live anarchy!" Maura, who would be the victim of another unsuccessful asssassination attempt on April 22, is only slightly injured. Artal is arrested on sentenced to 17 years in prison on June 11, 1904. He will die in prison 5 years later, a victim of the appaling conditions preveleant in Spanish jails.

1906 - Francisco Ferrer, Spanish anarchist educational theorist and teacher, continues to test the tolerance of Spanish authorities and clerics by organising a massive demonstration today, Good Friday, in support of secular education. The government and Catholic Church are quite exercised and leap at the chance to jail him on false charges in June (for over a year).

1907 - Arthur Lewin (d. 1976), German typographer, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and Eserantist, active in Spain and France, born.

#### [A] 1918 - Moscow headquarters of the anarchists surrounded and attacked by Bolshevik troops. For the past two days Cheka, the Bolshevik secret police has carried out raids on Moscow anarchist groups and making arrests. Very similar to what happens to anarchists, radical and labour activists in the US during this period.
"At last the Soviet government, with an iron broom, has rid Russia of Anarchism." - Leon Trotsky, who prepared the military action against the anarchists.

#### 1918 - The daily newspaper 'Anarkhiia' (Анархия), "Social and literary anarchist newspaper" (Общественно-литературная анархическая газета) organ of the Federation of Anarchist Groups of Moscow (Федерации Анархи-ческих Групп Москвы), is closed by the Cheka during the defeat of the Moscow anarchist groups. It would resume around April 20, 1918 (or May 1, 1918) at issue No. 42, still as a daily. The last issue was released around July 1, 1918 (No. 99). The Cheka again closed it down on July 2, 1918, during a crackdown on "bourgeois and petty-bourgeois publications". [see: Sep. 26]

1919 - Founding congress of the l'Union Anarchiste Communiste held in Italy, 12-14 April.

1930 - Pierre Morain (d. 2013), French tiler, syndicalist, libertarian communist militant and anti-colonialist, born.

1931 - Teresa Claramunt i Creus (b. 1862), Catalan textile worker, militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and feminist pioneer, dies. [see: Jun. 4]

#1943 - Timothy James 'T.J.' Clark, English art historian and lecturer, writer, libertarian Marxist, former member of the British Section of the Situationist International and one of the key figures in King Mob, born.
[ art cant kill the SI.pdf]

1968 - The attack on student leader Rudi Dutschke in Germany results in riots there and supporting demonstrations in France.

1989 - Abbie Hoffman (b. 1936), Yippie peace activist of the 60's, dies at 52.

1993 - Fascist try to burn down the anarchist bookshop at 121 Railton Road, Brixton.

2009 - Franklin Rosemont (b. 1943), American anarchist, poet, artist, co-founder of the Chicago Surrealist Group and historian of anarchist movement, dies. [see: Oct. 2]

2009 - Pierre Peuchmaurd (b. 1948), French poet, Surrealist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 26]
[B] 1860 - James Ensor (d. 1949), Belgian symbolist and proto-expressionist painter, printer, musician and anarchist, born. Founding member, alongside Théo van Rysselberghe, of Les XX (Les Vingt), a Belgian painters, designers and sculptors group, who held a series of exhibitions with the likes of Paul Signac, Camille Pissarro, Maximilien Luce, Odilon Redon, Cézanne, Toulouse-Lautrec, Gauguin and Van Gogh. He was also a significant influence on the likes of Klee, Grosz and the Surrealists.
'Christ’s Entry into Brussels in 1889' - "..akin to [Elisée] Reclus’s notion of the freedom of the individual as a moral imperative, and [Oscar] Wilde’s belief that artists have the responsibility to open the space for that freedom. In the tradition of Bosch, Bruegel, and Goya, Ensor created this painting as an attempt to lampoon those institutions that confused authority with greater human laws." (Patricia G. Berman - 'James Ensor: Christ's Entry into Brussels in 1889')

1876 - Ivanka Hristova Boteva (Иванка Христова Ботева; d. 1906), Bulgarian anarchist, who was the daughter of the legendary poet-revolutionary Hristo Botev and his wife Veneta Boteva, born.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1877 - Enrique Flores Magón (b. 1954), Mexican revolutionary anarchist and brother of anarchist Ricardo Flores Magón, born. [EXPAND]

1884 - Jules Vignes (d. 1970), French anarchist publisher, propagandist and Idist (Ido, international language, a simplification of Esperanto), born. In October 1908 he founded the anarchist journal 'La Torche', in 1917 the libertarian Idist newspaper 'La Feuille' (The Sheet) in Saint-Genis-Laval (Rhône) and in 1927 the first manifestation of the newspaper 'Libération' (the name was later used for the Socialist Party organ).

1884 - The first issue of the newspaper 'L'Alarme: organe anarchiste' is published in Lyon. It succeeds 'L'Hydre Anarchiste' and eight issues of this weekly Sunday newspaper are published until June 1 1884.

[A] 1901 - Clément Duval escapes from prison in French Guyana by canoe with 8 other prisoners.

[D] 1905 - Grèves de Limoges de 1905: In Limoges, 'la ville rouge' or 'la Rome du socialisme', the city undergoes significant social unrest following strikes by locksmiths, then shoe workers followed by the porcelain industry. The initial grievance that triggered the strike was a call for the removal of a tyrannical foreman which then extended throughout the whole profession. Today the bosses ordered a lockout.
The strike had begun in the wake of protests against low wages and, in particular, the tyranny of two autocratic foremen in local porcelain factories. The industrial unrest had started amongst local locksmiths, and they and the workers at a footwear manufacturers, Maison Fougeras, a makers of shoes and clogs. were the first groups of workers to go out on strike. In March 1905, a number of felt manufactures (involved in the hat industry) also joined the growing strike movement. That same month the appointment of a new general, Marie Charles Tournier, a militant Catholic, at the head of the Limoges military region, was badly received in Limoges, 'la ville rouge' or 'la Rome du socialisme' as the town was popularly known.
Subsequently, workers at the Haviland porcelain factories also went out on strike. Emboldened by the actions of their fellow workers, they too sought to challenged the conditions under which they were employed and, more expressly, the power of their supervisors – droit de seigneur – not only as to who was employed, but also how much they were paid on piecework rates and the sexual exploitation that the predominantly young and female workforce had to suffer at their hands. The main targets of the potiers-porcelainiers' ire were Penaud, the hated director of the painting workshops at Théodore Haviland's Place des Tabacs factory, who was accused of sexually exploiting and abusing young female workers subordinate to him, and Jean-Baptiste Sautour, chief engineer at Charles Haviland's Avenue Garibaldi works, accused of having sacked a worker who had buried her dead child without any religious ceremony, and who had also discriminated upon religious grounds and encouraged others to bully their fellow workers upon the same basis.
By April 13, the strike had extended throughout the whole industry and in Limoges itself the atmosphere of unrest had grown with widespread picketing and protests. The red flag was now flying over the Théodore Haviland's factory in response the owner, who had American roots, having raised the flag of the United States there. The same day the bosses ordered a lockout. On April 14, 19 of 32 porcelain factories across France were idle and in Limoges the army now intervened, with General Tournier sending in the 12e Corps d'Armée. Fighting swiftly brakes out, barricades are erected in one of the popular suburbs, Ancienne Route d'Aixe, in response to the military killing a horse, a mare named Estacade, whose body became the centre of a new barricade (something recorded in a number of popular postcards produced illustration the strike and the unrest accompanying it. That same day Théodore Haviland was hanged in effigy by a group of youths and his car, something of an expensive rarity in those days, set on fire.
The following day, Monday 15th, military reinforcement are dispatched to the town and all gatherings are banned by the préfecture. Increasingly angry, workers began invading and occupying their places of work, barricades were also being erected in the streets and armouries and gun shops looted. Elsewhere, protesters took to the streets with signs saying "Mort à Penaud, Mort à Sautour" ("Death to Penaud, Death to Sautour) and "Vous êtes tous priés d'assister à l'enterrement de Sautour et de Penaud" (You are all invited to attend the funeral of Sautour and Penaud). That night, a bomb exploded outside the house of the director of Théodore Haviland's factory, M. Chadal.
Meanwhile, the police and soldiers had arrested an increasing number of people, not just in connection with the gun shop raids but also during the street protests, and on April 17, the workers' delegation attempted to gain the release of those arrest. Initially rebuffed by the préfet, they left the préfecture empty handed and, with the waiting crowd, they then went to the town hall to request the intervention of the socialist mayor, Emile Labussière. That attempt failed also. Instead the crowd proceeded to the county prison in the Place du Champ-de-Foire is a show of solidarity with those locked-up there. A large demonstration was then held in the Jardin d'Orsay opposite the prison to demand the release of protesters arrested on the previous days. A troop of horsemen (dragons) quickly arrived, provoking a violent confrontation during which the soldiers open fire without warning, mortally wounding a 20-year-old porcelain worker, Camille Vardelle, who had been a mere onlooker. Dozens of others were also injured by the troops.
The day after the clashes outside the prison and Vardelle's death, the préfet was overwhelmed with demands for protection from Limoges' more prominent citizens, with a number of factory owners and their lieutenants complaining of having received threatening letters "de menaces de style anarchiste". News of the events of the previous days were also splashed across the pages of the world's press. Camille Vardelle's funeral on April 19 drew tens of thousands in a large demonstration of workers' solidarity.
By the end of the week the town was much more quiet and the bosses finally lifted the lockout (Friday 21) following negotiations with union representatives, but there was no such respite for those, especially the anarchists, who had taken an active part in social unrest. They now became the target of repression: arrests, dismissals, expulsions from the city and the department, as was the case for Régis Meunier. On April 22, work resumed in the porcelain factories; but the workers had not obtained satisfaction on their main demands and the movement continued in other sectors, prominent amongst these was at the Beaulieu rabbit skin plant [rabbit skins were used at the time in the manufacture of felt hats], where the factory and the owner's house were blockaded.
One year on from the Grèves de Limoges de 1905, the anniversary of the murder of Camille Vardelle in 1906 was marked by a clashes between protesting workers and police, and several libertarian militants ended up under arrest.

1905 - The French 'Illegalist' newspaper 'L'Anarchie' first appears in Paris today and every Thursday until the outbreak of WWI in 1914.

1907 - Jack Bilbo (Hugo Cyril Kulp Baruch; d. 1967), German-born Jewish writer, novelist, painter, illustrator, sculptor, gallery owner, adventurer and anarchist, born. Co-founder in 1930 of the anti-Nazi Kampfbunde gegen den Faschismus (Committees for Combating Fascism) and fought with anarchist militia in the Spanish Revolution. Interned on the Isle of Man in WWII, he became a friend of Kurt Schwitters, showinghis work in his Modern Art Gallery, which he opened in October 1941 on Baker Street in London. [expand]

## 1907 - Antonio Ortiz Ramirez (d. 1996), Catalan carpenter-cabinet maker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-Franco and anti-fascist fighter, born. A member of the CNT at fourteen, he joined Los Solidarios in 1923 and was active in the Sindicato de la Madera, woodworkers section of the union. Following the declaration of the 1931 Republic, he was imprisoned following a strike and in 1934 joined the Nostros affinity group. During the Spanish Revolution he led the 800-strong Roja y Negra Colonna aka Ortiz Column, was made commander of the Republican 25th Division [Apr. 1937, but dismissed by the Communist authorities in the Sept.] and a volunteer French army officer during WWII, born.
Following demobilisation, he was involved with José Pérez Ibáñez and Primitivo Pérez Gómez in the 1948 attempted assassination of Franco by bombing his boat from the air at a San Sebastian regatta. The subsequent exposure in the French press, and fearing for his safety, Ramirez went into exile in Latin America in 1951, first to Bolivia, then Peru and, in 1955, to Venezuela. In 1987 he returned to Barcelona, where he managed to recoup his salary as a Republican Army sergeant.

1913 - Anarchist Rafael Sancho Alegre, a member of La Simpatía de Barcelona, fires three shots at King Alfonso XIII of Spain, the eighth attempt on his life, as the King is riding through the streets of Madrid. He is arrested and on July 9, 1913 is sentenced to death, but pardoned by the king himself and the sentence commuted to life imprisonment on September 3, he remains in prison until 1931.

1915 - Two Italian anarchist, Frank Abarno and Carmine Carbone, members of the Gruppo Gaetano Bresci aka the 'Bresci Circle', are convicted of conspiracy to bomb St. Patrick's Cathedral on March 2, 1915. Six days later on April 19, Frank Abarno and Carmine Carbone were sentenced to six-to-twelve years at Sing Sing Prison. [see: Mar. 2]

1917 - Criminal Syndicalism: Within a month of Idaho having past a statute on criminal syndicalsim, the State of Minnesota passes its own statute entitled: "An act defining criminal syndicalism, prohibiting the advocacy thereof and the advocacy of crime, sabotage, violence, or other unlawful methods of terrorism as a means of accomplishing industrial or political ends, and assemblage for the purpose of such advocacy; declaring it unlawful to permit the use of any place, building or rooms for such assemblage in certain cases; and providing penalties for violations of the provisions thereof." Over the next three years, twenty-one states and two territories,
most of which were in the West or Midwest, followed suit with their own criminal syndicalism laws.

1918 - The first issue of the weekly 'La Plèbe' is published in Paris. "Syndicaliste, libertaire, socialiste, la Plèbe [...] est l'organe de tous ceux qui, à l'épreuve du désastre, ont gardé intacte leur foi, leur raison, leur combativité, de tous ceux aussi des masses profondes, que la guerre a réveillés..." (The People ... is the organ of all those who, in the event of disaster, have kept intact their faith, their reason, their fighting spirit, and also all those deep masses that war has awakened ...)

1919 - Bavarian Council Republic [Bayerische / Münchner Räterepublik]: Following its declaration on April 7th by the Workers' Councils, an attempted counter-coup, known as the Palmsonntagsputsch (Palm Sunday Putsch), is launched against the Münchner Räterepublik by the SPD-led Hoffmann Government in exile in Bamburg. Troops of the Republikanische Schutztruppe (Republican Protection Force) occupy Munich Central Station but are swiftly defeated by elements of the Roten Armee, under the command of the KPD military leader Rudolf Egelhofer. KPD factory delegates used the event to push for the transfer of power from the Assembly to a KPD-dominated Vollzugsrat (Executive Council), with Eugen Leviné and Max Levien at its head. Egelhofer becomes the Munich Stadtkommandanten, the city's military commander. Gustav Landauer and Ernst Toller acknowledge the Executive Council and initially also take part in the second phase of the Soviet Republic. In response, a ten day general strike is proclaimed.
Three days later near Dachau (north of Munich), the Workers', Soldiers' and Farmers' Councils of the Republic of Bavaria led by Ernst Toller, rout the government troops sent to quell the revolution. It will prove to be a sadly short-lived victory.

[E] 1919 - Madalyn Murray O'Hair (Madalyn Mays; d. 1995), US psychiatric social worker, anarchist, feminist and atheist activist, who was founder of American Atheists and a woman of many pseudonyms, her favourite being M. Bible, who 'Life' magazine in 1964 called "the most hated woman in America", born.
"I told my kids I just want three words on my tombstone ... Woman, Atheist, Anarchist. That's me."

1930 - Marie Huot (Mathilde Marie Constance Ménétrier; b. 1846), French poet, writer, journalist, lecturer, anarchist, feminist néo-Maltusian, Theosophist, vegetarian propagandist, and activist for animal rights and against vaccination, who was known as 'La mère aux chats' and wrote under the penname of Edward Mill, dies. [see: Jun. 28]

[F] 1933 - Pano Vassilev (b. 1901), Bulgarian militant anarcho-syndicalist, is assassinated in Sofia by the police whilst looking for a printer in Sofia for Mayday leaflets. [see: Oct. 17]

1941 - Jean-Marc Reiser (d. 1983), one of France's foremost cartoonists and comic artists, born. In 1960, he participated in the launch of 'Hara-Kiri' magazine, together with Georges Bernier, François Cavanna and Fred. His work appeared in numerous other magazines including 'Charlie Hebdo', 'La Gueule Ouverte', 'Charlie Mensuel', 'Métal Hurlant', L'Écho des Savanes', etc., as well as the anarchist magazines 'Enragé' and 'Action'.

1949 - Marie Louise Berneri (b. 1918), the elder daughter of Camillo and Giovanna Berneri, editor of 'Freedom' and author of 'Neither East Nor West' and 'Journey Through Utopia', dies in childbirth. [see: Mar. 1]
"Into the silence of the sun
Risen in dust the rose is gone,
The blood that burned along the briar
Branches invisibly on the air.
Flame into flame's petal
Her grief extends our grief,
Over the ashy heat-ways
A green glance from a leaf
Shivers the settled trees.
A child walks in her grace
The light glows on his face,
Where the great rose has burned away
Within the terrible silence of the day."
'In Memory of M.L.B.' - Louis Adeane

1950 - Hoche Arthur Meurant (b. 1883), French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Dec. 17]

1966 - Carlo Carrà (b. 1881), Italian futurist painter and author, dies. An anarchist in his early years, he painted his famous futurist work 'The Funeral of the Anarchist Galli' (1910-11), which Carrà was present at, in that period. However, he became an ultra-nationist during WWI and, like many of the Futurist, later became active Fascists, signing a manifesto which called for support of the state ideology through art. [see: Feb. 11]

1971 - Vicenta Sáez (or Sáenz) Barcina (d. 1971), Spanish weaver and anarchist, who was active in the prisoner support movement in Barcelona during the 1920s, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

1980 - José Ester i Borrás (b. 1913), Spanish anarchist, active in the resistance in France, arrested and sent to Mauthausen concentration camp, dies. After the liberation he co-founded the Spanish Federation of Former Political prisoners and camp inmates (FEDIP). [see: Oct. 26]

2005 - André Bösiger (b. 1913), Swiss anarchist and militant trades unionist, dies. A member of the Ligue d'Action du Bâtiment (L.A.B), and associated with Luigi Bertoni ('Réveil Anarchiste' - The Anarchist Alarmclock) and Lucien Tronchet. A founder of the CIRA (Centre International de Recherches sur l’Anarchisme). [see: Jul. 22]

2009 - Abel Paz (Diego Camacho Escámez; b. 1929), Spanish militant anarchist, historian and Civil War combattant, dies. Paz helped found the Los Quijotes del Ideal group (who opposed collaborating with the Republican government) in August 1936, along with Victor García, Liberto Sarrau and other young libertarians. [see: Aug. 12]
1834 - Deuxième Révolte des Canuts / Sanglante Semaine: In Lyon, where the Insurrection of the Silk Workers began the 9th of April, the army gradually begins retaking the city, attacking, for the third time, the Croix Rousse district, and massacring many workers.

1845 - Louis Genet (d. unknown), textile worker, member of the Vienna anarchist group 'Les Indignés', born.

1874 - Josiah Warren (b. 1798), US individualist anarchist and publisher of what is arguably the first anarchist periodical (first published in January 1833) dies in Boston.

1881 - Jean Biso (d. 1966), French anarcho-syndicalist, Secretary of the Syndicat des Correcteurs in Paris, participant in support groups for Sacco and Vanzetti, and the Spanish Revolution of 1936, born.

1883 - [N.S. Apr. 26] Sophia Illarionovna Bardina (Софья Илларионовна Бардина; b. 1853), Russian anarchist revolutionary, who defended the attentat against the Tsar, saying that "for us, anarchy does not signify disorder, but harmony in all social relations; for us, anarchy is nothing but the negation of oppressions which stifle the development of free societies", commits suicide, shooting herself in the head. [see: Apr. 26]

[B] 1901 - Valeriano Orobón Fernánez (d. 1936), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist theoretician, trade-union activist, translator and poet, who wrote the Spanish lyrics of the CNT anthem 'A Las Barricadas', born. [expand]

1902 - The first issue of 'Il Grido della Folla' (The Cry of the Crowd), an individualist anarchist weekly is published in Milan. It suspends publication after 11 August 1905 and, after three month hiatus, reappears on November 11, 1905, with the title: 'Grido della Folla'. There is another interruption of publication (following the printing of a single issue entitled 'La Protesta della Folla' on May 27 1906) between December 15 1906 and June 22 1907, and finally ceases publication after 15 August 1907.

[F] 1905 - Grèves de Limoges de 1905: Today and tomorrow workers invade the factories, set up barricades in the streets and loot the armouries. [expand]

1906 - The first issue of the bilingual 'l'Action Anarchiste - l'Azione Anarchica' is published in Geneva.

1911 - Simón Berthold Chacón (b. unknown), German-Mexican former socialist, Partido Liberal Mexicano militant and second in command of the Ejército Liberal in Baja California, who headed up the capture of Mexicali withJosé María Leyva on January 29, 1911, is wounded during the taking the mining town of El Alamo and dies.

1912 - San Diego Free Speech Fight: A mob of vigilantes waits for Emma Goldman's arrival at the San Diego train station and follows her to the Grant Hotel in an attempt to run her out of town. Reitman is kidnapped, tarred, and sage-brushed, and his buttocks singed by cigar with the letters I.W.W.. Goldman flees from San Diego to Los Angeles.

1912 - Manuel Chiapuso Hualde (d. 1997), Basque anarcho-syndicalist writer, teacher, historian and activist, born. [expand]

1914 - José Palacios Rojas aka 'Piruli' (d. 2007), Spanish farm labourer, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and Civil War combattant, born. Member of the CNT and FIJL from an early age, he received his education at the local CNT Ateneo. After the occupation of his village by Franco forces, when all of the local CNT committee and many militants were summilarily shot, he managed to escape to the Republican zone and join the militia, fighting on the Cordoba, Granada and Almeria fronts and in Madrid. Trapped in Alicante, he was taken prisoner at the end of the war and interned at the Albatera concentration camp and then in Malaga prison. Released after several years in prison without ever having been tried, Piruli continued to participate in the clandestine CNT. After the death of Franco he was involved in the reconstruction of the CNT in Seville, remaining a member until his death.

1916 - Antonio Pellicer i Paraire (b. I85I), Spanish typesetter and anarchist, who settled in Argentina in 1891 who's article in 'La Protesta Humana' and his book 'The Organisation of Labour' (1900) were important in helping form the Federation Obrera Argentina (Workers' Federation of Argentian) in 1901, dies. [see: Feb. 23]

1917 - Cabaret Voltaire's 'Fête of the Galerie Dada', Second Soirée ('Sturm'-Soirée) at Bahnhofstr. 19, Zurich. According to Tristan Tzara's 'Chronique Zurichoise 1915-19' (1922), "Second performance at the gallery Dada: Jarry, Marinetti, Apollinaire, van Hoddis, Cendrars, Kandinsky. NIGHTLY ATTACK: Heusser, Ball, Glauser, Tzara, Sulzberger, A. Ehrenstein, Hennings etc. negromusic and dance with support by Miss Jeanne Rigaud and Miss Maja Kruscek, Masken von Janco." Also taking place was the première of Oskar Kokoschka's comedy 'Sphinx und Strohmann' (Sphinx and Man of Straw). Marcel Janco directed and designed the masks. Tristan Tzara played the parrot, Emmy Hennings the unfaithful Anima, Friedrich Glauser was Death and Hugo Ball the betrayed husband Firdusi. The chaos that raged that evening on the stage of the Cabaret Voltaire was described by Ball in his 'Die Flucht aus der Zeit' (The flight from time; 1927): "Finally, when Mr Firdusi had to fall, everything got caught up in the wires and lights strung about. For a few minutes, there was total night and confusion."
Tzara again: "This show decided the role of the theatre, which will entrust the stagedirection the subtile invention of outbreaking wind, the scenery in the midst of the audience, visible conducting and grotesque pillars: The dadaesque theatre. Above all masks and 'coups de theatre', the image of the director. Bravo! and high, high!"

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The strike end. Milans del Bosch and Martínez Anido, with support from the Federation of Employers and Military Defence Juntas, dismissed Governor Montañés and police chief Doval, considered too soft, and send them back to Madrid.

1920 - Today the strike and Councilist factory occupations in Italy, begun March 15, has spread, and is now general in Piedmont; in the following days it spreads through much of northern Italy, particularly among the dockers and railroad workers. The government had to use warships to land troops at Genoa to march on Turin.

1925 - Members of the Koprivshtitsa (Копривщенската) anarcho-communist group – Vasil Ikonomov (Васил Икономов), Vasil Popov (Васил Попов), Nesho Mandulova (Нешо Мандулов), Nesho Toumangelov (Нешо Тумангелов) and Anton Ganchev (Антон Ганчев) – attack Bulgaria's Tsar Boris III's cavalcade as it passes through the Arabakonak Pass (Прохода Арабаконак) in the Stara Plania (Стара планина) mountains. Boris escapes unharmed. The narrowness of his escape was outlined in the 'Dawn' (Зора) newspaper two days later (Apr. 16) under the headline 'Salvation of His Majesty': "As already known, His Majesty the King was returning from hunting when he was attacked by robbers. For several years the King has been going on a regular basis every two or three months to the mountains between Orhanie, Arabakonak and Etropole, where there are ancient forests ... on Sunday, the king made his usual hunting trip ... The robbers fired directly into the car on the driver and the person standing next to him. As His Majesty the King always stands next to the driver - something that the robbers must have known - when they fired at these two places. Only by a happy coincidence, the king was not sitting on front seat in the car this time."
Given the failure of the assassination attempt, a second opportunity for an assassination attempt was secured when General Konstantin Georgiev (Константин Георгиев) was killed as part of the long-running plan to blow up the Sveta Nedelya (Света Неделя) church in the capital.
two days later at the funeral of

1925 - Milan Mitsov Manolev (Милан Мицов Манолев; b. 1885), Bulgarian anarchist and revolutionary, militant in the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна македоно-одринска революционна организация [bg] / Внатрешна македонско-одринска револуционерна организација [mk]) and the Red Brothers (Червени братя), is murdered after being forced to falsely confess to the killing of prominent Bulgarian historian and member of the right-wing of the IMARO Professor Nikola Milev (Никола Милев).

1927 - Enrique Martínez Marín aka 'Quique' (d. 1947), Spanish anti-Francoist anarchist guérilla, born. He belonged to the Young Libertarians of Carmelo and was the delegate for this neighbourhood to the local section of the anarchist Federation of Libertarian Youth (FIJL), which had fought in the Spanish Civil War and played an important role in the resistance to Franco after the fascist victory.
He was arrested on the August 8, 1947, but was released on the March 25, 1948. He died alongside Celedonio García Casino (aka Celes or el Largo) on the August 26, 1949, in a Guardia Civil ambush on the French frontier. José Luis Facérias and the other members of the group managed to escape.

1937 - Friends of Durruti Group, (former anarchists in the Durruti Column) issues a Manifesto opposing commemoration of the anniversary of the Republic, arguing it is merely a pretext for reinforcing bourgeois institutions and the counter-revolution.

## 1944 - Hermann Steinacker (Johann Baptist Steinacker; b. 1870), German tailor, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Nazi anarchist underground, is murdered in Mauthhausen concentration camp, injected with copper sulphate. [see: Nov. 20]

1945 - Fioravante Meniconi (b. 1893), Italian militant anarchist individualist and anti-militarist propagandist, dies. [see: Oct. 13]

1952 - Carl Paivio (Karl Einar Päiviö; b. 1893), Finnish American labour activist, Wobbly and anarchist, who was a Red Scare victim, ending up being sentenced with Gust Alonen, his fellow editor of the Finnish language anarchist paper 'Luokkataistelu' (Class Stuggle), to not less than four years and not more than eight years hard labour in Sing Sing prison for "criminal anarchy", dies on Ellis Island before he could be deported under the McCarran–Walter Act. [see: Nov. 23]

1968 - 4,000 anti-Vietnam War student protesters battle police in West Berlin. Also the peak of demonstrations in West Berlin against Axel Springer and his publishing empire, after an assassination attempt on Rudi Dutschke ("Red Rudy").

1968 - Albert Grace (b. ca. 1912), English docker, electrician and anarchist, dies. [expand]

[E] 1986 - Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir (b. 1986), French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist, dies of pneumonia in Paris, aged 78. [see: Jan. 9]

1988 - Daniel Guérin (b. 1904) dies. One of France's best known revolutionary activists and thinkers, author of books such as 'Fascism and Big Business' (1936), 'Anarchism; From Theory to Practice' (1965) and 'No Gods No Masters: An Anthology of Anarchism' (1965). [see: May 19]
1834 - Deuxième Révolte des Canuts / Sanglante Semaine: The end of the 'Bloody Week' in Lyon. The second great insurrection of the Silk workers is subdued in a blood bath, with several hundred victims. Those insurrectionists captured, rather than killed, will appear in a "monster trial" in Paris in April 1835.

1836 - George Engel (d. 1887), German-American anarchist, labour union activist, IWA member and Haymarket martyr, born. [expand]

1864 - Antoine Antignac (d. 1930), French anarchist and propagandist, bookstore manager, writer for numerous libertarian publications, born.

1879 - Following his defence of the attentats of May 11 and June 5 1878, where the anarchists Emil Hödel and Karl Eduard Nobiling respectively try to assassinate Kaiser Wilhelm I in separate incidents in Berlin, in the columns of 'L'Avant-Garde' in terms of "propaganda by the deed", Paul Brousse is sentenced to 2 months in prison and banished for 10 years from the Swiss Confederation.

1882 - Pierre Ramus (pseudonym of Rudolf Großmann) (d. 1942), Austrian anarchist writer and propagandist, born. [expand / see: May 27]

​[B] 1883 - Louis Moreau (d.1958), French militant libertarian, pacifist, painter and engraver, born. Trained as a lithographer, in 1900 he settled in Paris to practice his trade, developing a passion for drawing, painting and woodcuts. There he began contributing to Jean Grave's 'Temps Nouveaux'. Called up during WWI, his work was published in the clandestine 'Le Semeur'.
Post-WWI, his famous his 'Femme Libérée' series illustrated André Lorulot's magazine 'l'Idée Libre' and he contributed wood engravings to Émile Armand's 'Néo-Naturien' and 'L'EnDehors'. With Germain Delatouche, a fellow engraver and libertarian, Moreau formed the group Les Partisans in 1924.
His portraits of famous anarchists and anti-militarist illustrations embellish a lot of books and reviews of the libertarian press: 'Les Humbles', 'La Revue Anarchiste', 'l'Almanach de la Paix', 'L'Unique', 'Temps Nouveau' and numerous titles from Joseph Ishill's Oriole Press.

1889 - Louis Alexandre Bertho (aka Jules Marius Lepetit & 'Legrand') (d. 1920), French labourer, driver, anarcho-syndicalist, reported missing after a trip to Moscow, probably eliminated by the Communists, born. [expand]
Invited to the Second Congress of the Communist International in Moscow in July 1920 along with fellow anarcho-syndicalist Marcel Vergeat and the socialist Raymond Lefebvre, all three were upset by what they found in Russia and said so publicly. They noted what they saw and experienced and let it be known that their report would be critical. When it was time to leave, their official escorts asked the three men for their briefcases. Fearing they would not be returned, Lefevre, Vergeat, and Lepetit refused to hand them over. They were then separated from the other delegates and put on a special train to Murmansk, a city on the Arctic coast, and told to wait there for a ship. Along the way they were mistreated. When they got there they were abandoned by their escorts and left to fend for themselves, eventually they were taken in by some fishermen. When no ship arrived to transport them, they complained in writing to Moscow but nothing came of it. They also sent letters to friends in which they expressed fears that the Bolsheviks were trying to kill them. In the end they resolved to buy a boat and try to escape on their own. Their Fishermen tried to dissuade them, but to no avail. They set sail in the last days of September (or possibly on October 1st) never to be seen again. Needless to say, the Bolsheviks told a radically different story.

1889 - The first issue of fortnightly 'La Plume', "Revue de Littérature, de Critique et d'Art Indépendant" is published in Paris. 426 issues appear up til January 1914.

[F] 1906 - The Primeiro Congresso Operário Brasileiro (First Brazilian Workers' Congress) takes place [April 15-22] at various venues (Rua da Constituição 30/32, the Centro Galego, and the Teatro Lucinda) in Rio de Janeiro, during which the anarcho-syndicalist Confederação Operária Brasileira (Brazilian Workers Confederation) is founded under the auspices of the International.
[ção_Operária_Brasileiração_Operária_BrasileiraÇÃO OPERÁRIA BRASILEIRA (COB).pdf]

[AA] 1906 - Ricardo Mestre Ventura (d. 1997), Catalonian anarcho-syndicalist; construction worker; CNT and FAI member, born. One of the founders of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL); exiled in México City after the Revolution of 1936; co-founder of the Unión Distribuidora de Ediciones.
“Anarchy is an art, a beautiful pink elephant; consequently, the anarchist is an artist, capable of taming his impatience, annihilating his fears and overcome his ambitions.”

1907 - The first issue of the fortnightly (then monthly) 'Páginas Libres' (Free Pages), journal of philosophy, science, sociology, literature and criticism, is published in Barcelona. 14 issues appear up til Jan 30 1908.

1908 - The first issue of the monthly magazine 'L'Ecole Rénovée: revue d'élaboration d'un plan d'éducation moderne', in association with the International Modern School in Barcelona and Francisco Ferrer, is published in Brussels. Eight issues of the magazine appear until November 1908, when it is transferred to Paris, and continues to be published during 1909.

1908 - In Paris, Eugène Humbert launches his new Malthusian journal 'Génération Consciente', covering issue of birth control, women's emancipation, etc. 77 editions are published up til Aug. 1914.

1908 - Basiliso Serrano Valero, aka 'Fortuna' & 'El Manco de La Pesquera' (d. 1955), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist guérilla fighter, who later fought with the Maquis and joined the PCE, born. After the war, he became a Robin Hood-like character as a member of Agrupació Guerrillera d'Aixequi i Aragó (AGLA), carrying out raids on rich landlords and his assistance to the local poor, but was arrested by the Guardia Civil on April 27, 1952, as he prepared to take refuge in France. On November 4, 1955, he was tried and sentenced to death and executed in the Paterna military barracks in Valencia on December 10, 1955.

1918 - Following the attack on the Moscow anarchists on the night of April 11-12, an order was issued to on April 15 to attack the anarchists in Vologda. The operation was led by the head of the local Cheka, P. N. Aleksandrov. The 8th Latvian Regiment, part of the Vologda garrison, surrounded the Europa hotel at 05:00. After several machine gun bursts the attack began. The anarchists were taken by surprise and preferred to surrender. 40 rifles, 200 cartridges, 10 hand grenades several machine guns and 6 pyroxylin grenades were seized. Around 100 anarchists were arrested including Fedorov. At the Passage hotel the anarchist M. Sobelev was captured and several hand grenades and a revolver were confiscated from him.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The Romanones government falls but the ex-prime minister helps cover up what was in effect a local military coup.

1919 - Attilio Panizza (b. 1858), Italian sculptor and anarchist, known for having composed the song 'Inno dei Malfattori' (Hymn of the Evildoers) aka 'Canto dei Malfattori' (Song of the Evildoers) in 1892, dies in London. [see: Apr. 7]

1920 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: A paymaster and a security guard are killed and robbed of over $15,000 at the Slater-Morrill Shoe Company factory in South Braintree, Massachusetts, a crime for which anarchists Ferdinando Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti will be blamed and executed.

1933 - The first issueof the fortnightly Italian language newspaper 'La Vecchia Umanità Nova' (The Old New Humanisty) is published in Puteaux (Hauts-de-Seine) by Antonio Cieri and Camillo Berner following the banning of 'l'Umanità Nova' and of 'La Protesta'. It too will be proscribe after just one edition.

1938 - Nationalists (fascists) break through Republican forces and reach Mediterranean at Vinaroz; Republican Spain split in two.

1939 - The first issue of the Italian language newspaper 'Intesa Libertaria' (Libertarian Agreement) is published in Philadelphia, covering the North American Libertarian Congress held in New York on 1-2 April 1939.

## 1958 - Benjamin Obadiah Iqbal Zephaniah, British dub poet, playwright, author, Rastafarian, vegan and anarchist, born. "I'm an anarchist... I want a revolution but everyone's too busy shopping."

1968 - Amparo Poch y Gascon (b. 1902), Spanish anarchist feminist, Mujeres Libres founding member, doctor and propagandist for sexual freedom, dies. [see: Oct. 15]

1980 - Jean-Paul-Charles-Aymard Sartre (b. 1905), French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, literary critic, anti-colonialist, one-time Marxist, and latterly an anarchist, dies in Paris from oedema of the lung. [see: Jun. 21]
1844 - Paul Ambrose Paillette (d. 1920), French poet, songwriter, amour-libriste, anarchist, vegetarian and supporter of free love, born. An engraving worker, he became a full-time singer in the Montmartre cabarets and produced an estimated ten thousand verses among them 'Heureux Temps' (Happy Times), a lyrical treatment of the future anarchist communist society, which was published in 'Le Libertaire' in 1895 and which is still popular in anarchist circles today.

## [B] 1854 - Laurent Tailhade (d. 1919), French satirical poet, writer, anarchist polemicist, opium addict ('La Noire Idole', after de Quincey) and translator ('Satyricon de Pétrone'), born. Probably best known for his poetry collections, 'Au Pays du Mufle' (In the Land of the Boor; 1891) and 'Imbéciles et Gredins' (Imbecile and Scoundrels; 1900). A strong supporter of propaganda by deed, especially the bombings of Valliant - "Qu'importe la victime si le geste est beau" (Who cares about the victim if the gesture is beautiful), and vehemently anti-clerical, he too fell victim to an attentat bombing at the Restaurant Foyot onn April 4 1894, loosing the sight in one eye. True to his word, he refused to condemn the bombing. He was charged with "incitement to murder" on October 10, 1901, following an article written in 'La Libertaire' on the occasion of the visit of the Tsar in France, he was sentenced to one year in prison despite the intervention of his friend Émile Zola, who claimed that the beauty of his style could help excuse his incendiary views.

1854 - Jacob (Koos) van Rees (d. 1927), Dutch professor, Christian anarchist, teetotaler and anti-militarist, born. Father of Otto van Rees.

1866 - Gustave-Henri Jossot (aka Abdul Karim Jossot; d. 1951), French caricaturist, illustrator, poster designer, Orientalist painter, writer and libertarian individualist, born. Deeply libertarian, yet he refuses the label anarchist, his revolt was through the medium of his cartoons, targeting the institutions of society: family, army, justice, churches, schools, etc.. His first drawings were published in 1891 in 'Le Rire', then in 'L'Assiette au Beurre', the anticlerical newspaper 'Le Diable', 'Les Temps Nouveaux', etc.. He abandoned his libertarianism in 1907 and, after a long bout of depression, retired to Tunisia in 1911 and converted to Islam (taking the name Abdul Karim Jossot), though his individualism ran counter to the religion's practice and his newspaper articles made plain. He later became a Sufi, which fitted better with his his anti-clericalism and pacifism, and painted in the Orientalist style. In his 1951 memoir 'Goutte à Goutte' (Drip by Drip; never published), he proclaimed his recovering of his atheism.

[D] 1871 - Demonstration in Hyde Park in London, in support of the Paris Commune.

1892 - A month after a failed bombing in Liege at the house of Renson, one of the 2 magistrates involved in the trial of the Belgian anarchists Hansen, Bustin and Langendorf for the March 28, 1891 theft of more than 900 kilograms of dynamite from the powder magazine at Ombret, a second attempted bombing takes place at the residence of the other prosecutor Beltjens.

[C] 1896 - Tristan Tzara (born Samuel or Samy Rosenstock, also known as S. Samyro; d. 1963), Romanian-French avant garde poet, essayist, performance artist, journalist, playwright, literary and art critic, composer and film director, who was strongly influenced by individualist anarchism in his early years before joining the PCF in 1937, born. Alarmed by the establishment of Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime, which also signified the end of Berlin's avant-garde, he merged his activities as an art promoter with the cause of anti-fascism. In 1936, he published a series of photographs secretly taken by Kurt Schwitters in Hanover, works which documented the destruction of Nazi propaganda by the locals, ration stamp with reduced quantities of food, and other hidden aspects of Hitler's rule. After the outbreak of the Civil War in Spain, he briefly left France and joined the Republican forces, visiting beseiged Madrid alongside Soviet reporter Ilya Ehrenburg. Upon his return, he published the collection of poems 'Midis Gagnés' (Conquered Southern Regions). Some of them had previously been printed in the brochure 'Les Poètes du Monde Défendent le Peuple Espagnol' (The Poets of the World Defend the Spanish People; 1937), which was edited by two prominent authors and activists, Nancy Cunard and the Chilean poet Pablo Neruda. Tzara had also signed Cunard's June 1937 call to intervention against Francisco Franco. Though close to the PCF (some sources claim he joined in 1934) and adhering to many of the Party's cultural demands, he was never fully trusted and seen to be too independant.
Following the German occupation, he moved to the Vichy zone where, on one occasion, the anti-Semitic and collaborationist publication 'Je Suis Partout' made his whereabouts known to the Gestapo [his parents were Jewish Romanians who reportedly spoke Yiddish as their first language]. Based in Marsille amongst the group of anti-fascist and Jewish refugees protected by American diplomat Varian Fry, he joined the French Resistance, working with the Maquis. He also contributed to the various magazines published by the Resistance and took charge of the cultural broadcast for the Free French Forces clandestine radio station. His son Cristophe was also a Resistance member, having joined the Franc Tireurs Partisans in northern France. In 1942, with the generalisation of antisemitic measures, Tzara was also stripped of his Romanian citizenship rights. At the end of the war and the restoration of French independence, Tzara became a naturalised French citizen. [expand]
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1903 - The buildings of the anarquista newspaper 'El Hijo del Ahuizote' are seized by the police for the second time. The staff, Ricardo and Enrique Flores Magón and Librado Rivera are arrested for having "ridiculed public authorities".

1906 - Georgi Grigorov, a.k.a. Georges Balkanski, G. Grigoiev and G. Hadjiev (d. 1996), Bulgarian anarchist theorist and historian, born.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1918 - Anarchist and Maximalist uprising in Samara. [EXPAND]

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The 'Real Decreto de 3 de abril de 1919: Jornada máxima legal en todos los trabajos' on the 8-hour day is published in the 'Diario de Barcelona'.

1919 - Bavarian Council Republic [Bayerische / Münchner Räterepublik]: Near Dachau (north of Munich), the Workers', Soldiers' and Farmers' Councils of the Republic of Bavaria led by Ernst Toller, rout the government troops sent to quell the revolution - a sadly short-lived victory.

[BB] 1919 - Anarchist choreographer Merce Cunningham (d. 2009) born. [expand]
"I have in a sense tried to avoid any concern with power and ego, self-expression and all that. . . . We represent anarchy so to speak." - 'The Dancer and the Dance: Merce Cunningham in Conversation with Jacqueline Lesschaeve' (1985).

1925 - St Nedelya Church Assault [Атентат в църквата Света Неделя]: A group of activists of Military Organisation (Военната организация) of the Bulgarian Communist Party (Българската комунистическа партия; БКП) blows up the roof of the Sveta Nedelya (Света Неделя) church in Sofia during the funeral service of General Konstantin Georgiev (Константин Георгиев), in an attempt to wipe out the military and political elite, including Tsar Boris III. One hundred and fifty people are killed in the attack – including twelve generals, fifteen colonels, seven lieutenant colonels, three majors, nine captains and three Deputies – and around 500 injured, as the dome is brought down by 25kg secreted in the attic of St Nedelya's above one of the columns of the main dome. The explosives had been smuggled into the church over the course of a couple of weeks by БКП members Peter Abadzhiev (Петър Абаджиев) and Asen Pavlov (Асен Павлов), assisted by a sexton at the church and former Communist Party member, Peter Zadgorski (Петър Задгорски), who had been recruited specially for the attentat.
The original plan had been to assassinate the Chief of Police in Sofia, Vladimir Nachev (Владимир Начев), and target his funeral. However, when they saw the level of security surrounding Nachev's funeral, which had been increased when two members of the Communist Party's central committee, one of which was Asen Pavlov, were arrested, leading the police to believe that some sort of attack was imminent, they postponed the bombing. Instead, they chose the funeral of General Konstantin Georgiev (Константин Георгиев), who had been assassinated by Atanas Todovichin (Атанас Тодовичин) and Zhivko Dinov (Живко Динов) when he attended evening mass at the Seven Saints (Свети Седмочисленици) church on the same day as the failed Arabakonak Pass (Прохода Арабаконак) attack. With the assistance of the sexton Petar Zadgorski, the person chosen to light the 15m long slow fuse, Nikola Petrov (Никола Петров), entered the churches attic at 07:00. At 15:20, the signal to light the fuse was given by Zadgorski and he and Petrov left he church. The later was quickly driven to the border by Atanas Todovichin and escaped but Zadgorski, who the plotters were planning to kill, managed to surrender to the police and he revealed the location of the head of the БКП's Military Organisation Kosta Jankov (Коста Янков) and his assistant, Ivan Minkov (Иван Минков), who had help plan the attack – Jankov was killed defending himself during the attempt to arrest him and Minkov committed suicide before being captured.
Ironically, the main target of the bomb, Tsar Boris III, was not in the church, as he was attending the funerals of those killed in the attempt on his own life in the Arabakonak Pass (Прохода Арабаконак) in the Stara Plania (Стара планина) mountains.
Shortly after the bombing, the Central Committee of the Communist Party, many of whose members had been lukewarm if not outright hostile to the plan initially, officially declared it a "reckless act disastrous for the anti-fascist movement", and later in Communist literature the perpetrators were described as his "left sectarians" acting against the will of the party.

1925 - Prominent anarchist activist Emma Goldman gives a lecture at the South Place Institute in London entitled 'An Exposure of the Trade Union Delegation's Report on Russia'. The talk, which was repeated again in London on the 27th, had been organized by the British Committee for the Defence of Polish Prisoners in Russia. [expand]

1965 - Karl Raichle (b. 1889), German metalsmith, artist, member of the November 1918 Kieler Matrosenaufstand sailors' council, anarchist and member of various experimental libertarian communities, dies in Meersburg, Germany. [see: Aug. 31]

1997 - Roland Topor (b. 1938), Polish-born French graphic artist, cartoonist, painter, writer, filmmaker, actor, songwriter, surrealist and cultural anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 7]
## 1833 - Arthur Arnould (d. 1895), French anarchist, journalist, novelist, member of First International and the Paris Commune, friend of Michael Bakunin, born. Collaborated on the 'Bulletin of the Jura Federation'. Arnould wrote 'L'Etat et la Révolution' (1877), a history of the Paris Commune, and a number of novels as A. Matthey - 'Le Roi des Mendiants' (The King of Beggars; 1885), 'La Revanche de Clodion' (Revenge of Clodion; 1882), 'Le Point Noir' (The Black Dot; 1885) and 'Le Pendu de la Baumette' (The Hanging of Baumette; 1881).

##1854 - Benjamin Tucker (d. 1939), US philosophical individualist anarchist, bookseller (Unique Bookshop) and publisher, born.

1905 - Grèves de Limoges de 1905: In Limoges a large protest by striking workers and their supporters, including a number carrying red and black flags, outside the Préfecture as a workers' delegation led by the socialist Pierre Bertrand attempt to negotiate the release of strikers arrested for looting gunsmiths two days previously.
The strike had begun in the wake of protests against low wages and, in particular, the tyranny of two autocratic foremen in local porcelain factories. The industrial unrest had started amongst local locksmiths, and they and the workers at a footwear manufacturers, Maison Fougeras, a makers of shoes and clogs. were the first groups of workers to go out on strike. In March 1905, a number of felt manufactures (involved in the hat industry) also joined the growing strike movement. That same month the appointment of a new general, Marie Charles Tournier, a militant Catholic, at the head of the Limoges military region, was badly received in Limoges, 'la ville rouge' or 'la Rome du socialisme' as the town was popularly known.
Subsequently, workers at the Haviland porcelain factories also went out on strike. Emboldened by the actions of their fellow workers, they too sought to challenged the conditions under which they were employed and, more expressly, the power of their supervisors – droit de seigneur – not only as to who was employed, but also how much they were paid on piecework rates and the sexual exploitation that the predominantly young and female workforce had to suffer at their hands. The main targets of the potiers-porcelainiers' ire were Penaud, the hated director of the painting workshops at Théodore Haviland's Place des Tabacs factory, who was accused of sexually exploiting and abusing young female workers subordinate to him, and Jean-Baptiste Sautour, chief engineer at Charles Haviland's Avenue Garibaldi works, accused of having sacked a worker who had buried her dead child without any religious ceremony, and who had also discriminated upon religious grounds and encouraged others to bully their fellow workers upon the same basis.
By April 13, the strike had extended throughout the whole industry and in Limoges itself the atmosphere of unrest had grown with widespread picketing and protests. The red flag was now flying over the Théodore Haviland's factory in response the owner, who had American roots, having raised the flag of the United States there. The same day the bosses ordered a lockout. On April 14, 19 of 32 porcelain factories across France were idle and in Limoges the army now intervened, with General Tournier sending in the 12e Corps d'Armée. Fighting swiftly brakes out, barricades are erected in one of the popular suburbs, Ancienne Route d'Aixe, in response to the military killing a horse, a mare named Estacade, whose body became the centre of a new barricade (something recorded in a number of popular postcards produced illustration the strike and the unrest accompanying it. That same day Théodore Haviland was hanged in effigy by a group of youths and his car, something of an expensive rarity in those days, set on fire.
The following day, Monday 15th, military reinforcement are dispatched to the town and all gatherings are banned by the préfecture. Increasingly angry, workers began invading and occupying their places of work, barricades were also being erected in the streets and armouries and gun shops looted. Elsewhere, protesters took to the streets with signs saying "Mort à Penaud, Mort à Sautour" ("Death to Penaud, Death to Sautour) and "Vous êtes tous priés d'assister à l'enterrement de Sautour et de Penaud" (You are all invited to attend the funeral of Sautour and Penaud). That night, a bomb exploded outside the house of the director of Théodore Haviland's factory, M. Chadal.
Meanwhile, the police and soldiers had arrested an increasing number of people, not just in connection with the gun shop raids but also during the street protests, and on April 17, the workers' delegation attempted to gain the release of those arrest. Initially rebuffed by the préfet, they left the préfecture empty handed and, with the waiting crowd, they then went to the town hall to request the intervention of the socialist mayor, Emile Labussière. That attempt failed also. Instead the crowd proceeded to the county prison in the Place du Champ-de-Foire is a show of solidarity with those locked-up there. A large demonstration was then held in the Jardin d'Orsay opposite the prison to demand the release of protesters arrested on the previous days. A troop of horsemen (dragons) quickly arrived, provoking a violent confrontation during which the soldiers open fire without warning, mortally wounding a 20-year-old porcelain worker, Camille Vardelle, who had been a mere onlooker. Dozens of others were also injured by the troops.
The day after the clashes outside the prison and Vardelle's death, the préfet was overwhelmed with demands for protection from Limoges' more prominent citizens, with a number of factory owners and their lieutenants complaining of having received threatening letters "de menaces de style anarchiste". News of the events of the previous days were also splashed across the pages of the world's press. Camille Vardelle's funeral on April 19 drew tens of thousands in a large demonstration of workers' solidarity.
By the end of the week the town was much more quiet and the bosses finally lifted the lockout (Friday 21) following negotiations with union representatives, but there was no such respite for those, especially the anarchists, who had taken an active part in social unrest. They now became the target of repression: arrests, dismissals, expulsions from the city and the department, as was the case for Régis Meunier. On April 22, work resumed in the porcelain factories; but the workers had not obtained satisfaction on their main demands and the movement continued in other sectors, prominent amongst these was at the Beaulieu rabbit skin plant [rabbit skins were used at the time in the manufacture of felt hats], where the factory and the owner's house were blockaded.
One year on from the Grèves de Limoges de 1905, the anniversary of the murder of Camille Vardelle in 1906 was marked by a clashes between protesting workers and police, and several libertarian militants ended up under arrest.

[D] 1910 - Partido Liberal Mexicano military chiefs meeting in Tlaxcala decide that, because of the general unrest through out the states of Mexico, it is now time for a new revolutionary uprising.

1911 - José Luis Quintas Figueroa (aka 'El Quintas', 'Alfonso' & Clemente Cabaleiro Covelo; d. 1976), Spanish tinsmith, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist member of FIJL, MLE and CNT, and anti-Franco guerrilla, born. [expand]

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: Joseph Caruso is arrested in Lawrence as an 'accomplice' to the supposed shooter in the killing, 'Salvatore Scuito'. Having apparently been singled out by the police as a potential fall guy, he had been dismissed from various mills in Lawrence through the actions of the Callahan Detective Agency of Boston and Lawrence Police Inspector Vose had endeavored to persuade him to seek employment elsewhere with the intention no doubt to have the alleged principal disappear, a fugitive from justice. Instead, Caruso changed his name, secured employment and stayed in the city until his arrest.
The mysterious 'Salvatore Scuito' was never found.

1913 - Congreso de Campesinos, Córdoba: Held from April 17 to 24 on the initiative of Catalan peasants. Representations from Spain and Portugal came and it was decided to create the Federación Nacional de Agricultores (National Federation of Farmers) to protect and build the anarchist ideology in the peninsula. It was agreed to publish a newspaper entitled 'La Voz del Campesino' under the motto: "la tierra para los que la trabajan" (the land for those who work it). Their demands focused on the extension to the field of the Ley de Accidentes de Trabajo (Work Accidents Act) and the establishment of a maximum day and a minimum wage. It was recommended to extend the creation of rationalist schools.
During the course of 1916-17 there were important strikes in the Andalusian agriculture, being of special importance those that began on May 1, 1917; The state would have to declare state of siege on May 28, 1918.
[ón_Nacional_del_Trabajoón_Nacional_de_Agricultores anarcosindicalismo y sus Congresos.Completo.pdf]

#### [B] 1923 - Jacques Sternberg (d. 2006), Belgian novelist, writer of science fiction and fantastique, pamphleteer, essayist, journalist, columnist, anti-competitive yatchsman and anarchist, born into a Polish Jewish family. Fleeing the Nazi advance, the family attempted to escape to Spain via the south of France, but were returned and interned in the Gurs camp. Stenberg's father was deported to Poland, dying in Majdanek. Jacques escaped and joined the underground, returning to Belgium after the war.
Member of the Mouvement Panique (Panic Movement), an anarchist avant-garde collective, with Fernando Arrabal, Alejandro Jodorowsky, Roland Topor, Christian Zeimert and Olivier O. Olivier. Participant in 'Hara-Kiri' and was a director of the magazine 'Mépris' (Contempt) with his friend Roland Topor. Much of his fiction features his dark humour and his pessimistic anarchist/libertarian outlook. Has also written under the pseudonyms Jacques Bert, Charles Sabatier and Christine Harth, penned the script for Alain Resnais' 1968 time travel film 'Je t'aime, Je t'aime' and for a number of TV programmes.
Amongst his volumous output are novels such as 'L'Employé' (The Employee; 1958), 'L'Architecte' (The Architect; 1960), 'La Banlieue' (The Suburb; 1976) and the powerful anti-political dystopia of 'Mai 86' (1978); short story collections 'La Géométrie dans l'Impossible' (The Impossible Geometry; 1953), 'La Géométrie dans la Terreur' (The Terror Geometry; 1958), 'Contes Glacés' (Icy Tales; 1974) and 'Contes Griffus' (Clawed Tales; 1993); science fiction story collections such as 'Entre Deux Mondes Incertains' (Between Two Uncertain Worlds; 1957), 'Univers Zéro' (Universe Zero; 1970) and 'Futurs sans Avenir' (Future Without Future; 1971), which feature tales of aliens misguidedly posing as African-Americans to invade America, the 533rd crucifixion of Jesus and the casual destruction of Earth by aliens who cannot understand humanity.

1923 - Norman Potter (d. 1995), English Christian anarchist, designer, craftsman, writer and poet, born. A cabinetmaker and design teacher at the Royal College of Art, he also helped establish a Construction School at the West of England College of Art and Design in Bristol. Imprisoned several times for his political actions, he was active during the student revolts of 1968.

1952 - The Central Obrera Boliviana (Bolivian Workers' Centre) is founded within the framework of the 1952 Revolution, replacing the Confederación Sindical de Trabajadores de Bolivia (Trade Union Confederation of Bolivian Workers), and has had difficult relations with all Bolivian governments since. It also supported the overthrow of President Carlos Mesa in 2005, calling for a general stike that January.

1967 - Émile Bachelet (b. 1888), French individualist anarchist, anti-militarist and member of the Bonnot Gang, dies. [see: Jan. 14]

1986 - Cipriano Damiano González (b. 1916), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Franco underground resistance, dies. [see: Sep. 22]

1989 - Eugène Bizeau (b. 1883), French vine-grower, pacifist, anarchist poet and chansonnier, member of the 'Muse Rouge', dies. [see: May 29]

2003 - Clifford Harper's exhibition 'Graphic Anarchy' opens at the Guardian newsroom.

2008 - Rosario Sánchez Mora aka 'La Dinamitera' (b. 1919), Spanish seamstress, member of the Juventudes Socialistas Unificadas and miliciana during the Civil War, famed for her expertise in explosives, which was immoralised in Miguel Hernández's poem 'Rosario, dinamitera', dies. [see: Apr. 21]

2014 - Conxa (Concha) Pérez (Concepció Pérez Collado; b. 1915), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, miliciana in the Columna Ortiz and anti-Franco resister, dies. [see: Oct. 17]
##1850 - Charles Joseph Antoine 'Jo' Labadie (d. 1933), US labour activist, writer, poet, printer, non-violent individualist anarchist, born. His collection of radical pamphlets and ephemera became the Labadie Collection at the University of Michigan.

I shall speak out!
Like the roar of the sea, I have a message.
There is danger ahead and I would give warning.
The greater the danger the louder the roar,
And my foghorn voice is pitched deep and
I am the spirit of Discontent.
I chafe under the galling collar of wrongful
And Nature has conferred upon me the power
of insight, of foresight.
The things 1 see I shall tell,
And the world shall judge be they true or false.
I shall speak out!
Who art thou that sayest me nay.?
Whence come thy right and power to stopple
my mouth
And barricade the free flow of words to willing
Who appointed thee guardian of speech?
Who made thee custodian of ideas?
Who commissioned thee jailor of progress?
Thou art usurper and 1 flout thy authority!
I shall speak out!
My words shall sting thee, shall cut thy hide,
shall drive thee to shame, shall whelm
thee with remorse!
Fool! thou standest in the light (»f thine own
Casting a blighting shadow on thine own soul!

I come with the blaze of the sun in my face.
And thou canst not gaze with candor in mine
I shall speak out!
Thy criminal purpose would blow out the lights
that guide the mariners to ports of safety;
Would ruthlessly take the breast from hungry
Would blot out the signboards on the road to
Would fasten cords across the pathway to the
spring of righteousness
To trip the unwary and impede the watchful.
I shall speak out!

'Freedom of Speech', in 'Doggerel for the Underdog' (1910)

1881 - Max Weber (d. 1961), Russian-born Jewish-American Cubist painter, poet, and anarchist, born. 'Cubist Poems' (1914); 'Primitives: Poems and Woodcuts' (1926).

1884 - Ludwig Meidner (d. 1966), German painter, graphic artist and poet, born. A revolutionary anarchist in his early years and associated with the individualists around 'Der Einzige', he later became a religious mystic and ended his life as a strictly observant painter of biblical themes. The foremost and most radical exponent of a second wave of Expressionism, a movement which championed the cause of the exploited and suppressed. Military service during WWI turned Meidner into an avowed pacifist and he advanced socialist goals in his 1919 'An alle Künstler, Dichter, Musiker' (To all Artists, Poets, and Musicians), a work that challenged the existing social order and urged artists to become socialists and protect the "greater good". In 1933, Meidner was placed on the list of banned writers and artists, and works by and about him were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Also in danger because of his Jewishness, Meidner left Germany in 1939, and did not return until 1953.

1888 - The first issue of the fortnightly anarchist communist journal 'La Justicia Humana' is published in Barcelona. Edited by Emilio Hugas and Martí Borràs (a proponent of propaganda by deed, who committed suicide in prison in Barcelona on May 9, 1894), is the first newspaper to promote anarchist communism in Spain. Eight issues emerged until 25 November 1886.

1890* - Alexander Granach (real name Jessaja Szajka Gronach; d. 1945), German anarchist sympathiser and popular actor in the 1920s and 1930s, born. Apprenticed as a baker, he attended Russian Jewish revolutionary student meetings and discovered the Yiddish theatre. Moving to Berlin he joined an amateur theatre and, in 1909, he attended the school of the famous Max Reinhardt theatre. Post-WWI (drafted into the Austro-Hungarian army), he started acting in films, playing the part of Knock in FW Murnau's 'Nosferatu' (1921) and appearing in GW Pabst's 'Kameradschaft' (Comradeship; 1931). He also played Marat in Hans Behrendt's 'Danton' (1931) but in 1933, he fled anti-Semitic persecution and took refuge in the Soviet Union, meeting old revolutionary friends. However, in 1936 he was a victim of the Stalinist purges and imprisoned. Released, he left the country for Switzerland, from where he emigrated to the United States in 1939 and a second career in Hollywood. His first film was Ernst Lubitsch's 'Ninotchka' (1939) playing Kopalsky, one of the 3 Russians in Paris to sell jewellery confiscated from the aristocracy during the Russian Revolution of 1917. He also played Paco in 'For Whom Bell Tolls' (1943) by Sam Wood, Julius Streicher in 'The Hitler Gang' (1944) as well as a number of roles as an anti-fascist. Perhaps his most notable role was as Gestapo Inspector Alois Gruber in Fritz Lang's 'Hangmen Also Die!' (1943).
His libertarian sympathies led to him giving money to the Spanish anarchists Durruti and Francisco Ascaso, assisting them to find refuge in Belgium. He also took the lead role in the play 'Staatsraison' (Reason of State), a tribute for Sacco and Vanzetti as well as a denunciation of the American judicial machinery, written by his friend Erich Mühsam.
[NB: 1893 also given as his d.o.b.]

[B] 1899 - René Shapshak (d. April ?? 1985), Paris-born South African sculptor, painter, illustrator and anarchist sympathiser, born.

1935 - Panaït Istrati (Ghérasim Istrati; b. 1884), Romanian-French writer and revolutionary communist, and later libertarian, dies. [see: Aug. 10]

1937 - The Friends of Durruti Group, hold their first public meeting, with four speakers addressing about 1,000 workers.

## 1962 - Ian Fraser, US-South African playwright, writer, comedian, artist, anti-Apartheid activist, anarchist, and social agitator, born.

1973 - Maximilian 'Max' Nacht, aka Max Nomad (b. 1881), Austro-American anarchist, journalist and historian of the revolutionary movements, who also published under the pseudonyms 'Podolsky', Stephen Naft and Max Norton, dies in the Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center in New York aged 92. [see: Sep. 15]
##1854 - Charles Angrand (d. 1926), Impressionist, Neo-impressionist, Divisionist and Pointillist painter and anarchist illustrator, born. After being denied entry into École des Beaux-Arts, he moved to Paris in 1882, where he began teaching mathematics whilst befriending the artists of the Parisian avant-garde including Georges Seurat, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Signac, Maximilien Luce, and Henri Edmond Cross. In 1884 he co-founded Société des Artistes Indépendants, along with Seurat, Signac, Odilon Redon, and others. His Impressionist paintings of the early 1880s, generally depicting rural subjects but in the mid-1880s, his style evolved towards Neo-Impressionism and, following a meeting in 1887, his thick brush strokes and Japanese-inspired compositional asymmetry heavily influenced van Gogh. In the early 1890s, he abandoned painting, instead creating dark Symbolist conté drawings and pastels of subjects including rural scenes and depictions of mother and child (many also include a signature image of a black cat). He also drew illustrations alongside Signac, Luce, and Théo van Rysselberghe for anarchist publications such as 'Les Temps Nouveaux'.

1865 - Jean Boldt (Johan Carl Emil Boldt; d. 1920), Finnish advocate, lawyer and journalist, who later became known as a theosophist and Tolstoyian Christian anarchist advocate of pacifism, animal welfare and vegetarianism, born.

## 1889 - Juana Rouco Buela (d. 1969), Spanish-Argentinian dress maker, autodidact, anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist and anarcha-feminist pioneer, who helped create the Centro Femenino Anarquista (Women’s Anarchist Centre), with Virginia Bolten, Teresa Caporaletti, Marta Newelstein and Maria Collazo, and others, born. The daughter of Galicians who had emigrated to Madrid, her father died when she was four years old and her mother worked as a seamstress to support the family. Juana emigrated from Spain to Argentina with her brother Ciriaco at the age of fifteen on July 24, 1900 and settled in Buenos Aires. At the age of 15 she joined the May Day demonstrations of 1904, her first participation in the workers movement. She became a leading light among the women workers of the Refineria Argentina, the huge sugar refinery of Rosario and was their delegate at the Congress of the anarchist workers organisation Federacion Obrera Regional Argentina in the same year. At this conference the final aim of anarchist communism was adopted by the FORA. It was in the FORA libraries that Juana educated herself, yet another example of the autodidacticism that has characterised the anarchist movement. In 1907, she organised the Centro Femenino Anarquista (Women’s Anarchist Centre), with Virginia Bolten, Teresa Caporaletti, Marta Newelstein and Maria Collazo, and others. This represented the phenomenon of the development of a whole layer of anarchist women who were speakers and organisers in Argentina; a first wave with Bolten and a second generation with Juana and others.
Juana took part in the tenants strike in Buenos Aires and with Maria Collazo spoke during the massive demonstration protesting against rent rises and evictions. Rents had tripled in real terms since 1870. One hundred and twenty thousand people were involved in this tenants movement, which was crushed by the police and military. She was deported to Spain under the law of residency which was also used to remove Bolten and Collazo. There, after a brief period in Madrid, she moved to Barcelona where she made the acquaintance of leading anarchist militants like Teresa Claramunt, Anselmo Lorenzo and Leopoldo Bonafulla and took part in the campaigns to free Francisco Ferrer. As a result of this she had to move to Marseilles and then Switzerland. On her return, because she was banned from Argentina, she settled in Montevideo, Uruguay, and together with Virginia Bolten and Maria Collazo, led an intensive propaganda campaign, setting up the paper 'La Nueva Senda' (The New Path). She spoke at a rally protesting at the shooting of the Spanish libertarian educationalist Francisco Ferrer. As a result of this she suffered new persecutions. She escaped a police raid disguised in men’s clothing. She returned in secret to Argentina - disguised as a widow with her face concealed by a black veil - and participated in a general strike organised by the FORA. In this period she started using the surname Rouco to dodge the authorities. She was arrested and extradited to Uruguay where she was imprisoned for a year. In 1914 she decided to move to Paris secretly, and when she was discovered on the boat there was disembarked in Brazil. She settled in Rio de Janeiro for three years where she took part in anarchist activity and where Juan Castiñeira became her partner. She once again returned to Argentina, and took part in the events of the Semana Tragica (Tragic Week). Along with her partner Jose Cardelle she undertook a speaking tour of the towns of the interior, building up her reputation as a speaker, writer and champion of women’s liberation. In 1921 she founded the Centro de Estudios Sociales Femeninos (The Centre of Women’s Social Studies) in Necochea and set up the feminist paper 'Nuestra Tribuna' (Our Tribune) subtitled "Ideas, Art, Criticism and Literature".
This was an international anarchist paper published between 1922 and 1923 which attracted much criticism and controversy in anarchist circles over its outspoken advocacy of women’s liberation. The publication also faced financial difficulties and the refusal of its printers to continue printing as well as threats from the police. The last issue appeared in November 1923. She was forced to leave Buenos Aires and settled in the town of Tandil in 1924. In 1928 she took part in the Third International Women’s Congress.
The coup of General Uriburu in 1930 caused her to cease activity. The Spanish Civil war re-galvanised her and she organised solidarity campaigns between 1936 and 1939. In the 1940s the rise of the Peronist movement which she had agitated against once again forced her into inactivity. In the 1950s she joined the Federacion Libertaria Argentina and contributed articles to the eponymous paper of the exiled Spanish anarchist women’s organisation Mujeres Libres. In 1964 she published her autobiography 'Historia de un ideal vivido por una mujer'.
Juana Rouco Buela died in October 31, 1969 in Buenos Aires at the age of 80.
"At the age of eighteen, the police considered me to be an element dangerous for the tranquillity of capitalism and the State".

1890 - Max Nettlau publishes 'The Historical Development of Anarchism' in 'Freiheit'.

#### 1895 - Miguel García Vivancos (d. 1972), Spanish anarchist militant and combatant, and Naïve painter, born. Formed the Los Solidarios group, together with Buenaventura Durruti, Francisco Ascaso, Juan García Oliver, Gregorio Jover, Ramona Berri, Eusebio Brau, Manuel Campos, and Aurelio Fernández). In 1924, he was condemned to three months of prison. Released, exiled in France, he travelled with Ascaso, Durruti and Jover in Latin America (Mexico, Cuba, Peru, Chile). On his return to France, he was arrested because of the expropriations practised by the group on their trip. Escaping extradition, he was expelled and found refuge in Belgium. In 1927, he returned to Barcelona, participating in the clandestine struggles and took part in the Thirties in several insurrectionary attempts. Captured, he was interned for one year in Burgos.
García Vivancos was active during the Spanish Civil War, leading the Aguiluchos Column on the Huesca Front, as well as other major units in Belchite and Teruel. He opposed the anti-militarist line of the intransigentes anarchists and willingly cooperated with the Stalinist militarisation of fighting units. In September 1937 he was made responsible major units, 126 Brigada and the 25 División (in the place of Antonio Ortiz), winning battles in Belchite and then Teruel where he was wounded in January 1938. In May 1938 he was promoted to colonel.
At the end of the war he was charged with handling the evacuation to France of Spanish refugees escaping the fascists in the Puigcerda sector. He himself wound up being interned for four years in the French concentration camp at Vernet-les-Bains before being liberated during WWII by the Maquis and joining the French Resistance for the duration. At the CNT Congress in Marseilles in 1945, he was excluded from the organisation. Having gone astray, his views were deemed incompatible with libertarian practice.
Living in poverty in Paris , he discovered and developed his talent for painting. He was introduced in 1947 to Pablo Picasso, who helped open up the art world for him. His first exhibition was held in 1948 at the Gallery Mirador and won him instant recognition amongst the likes of surrealist André Breton.

1902 - Demetrio Urruchúa (d. 1978), Argentinian painter, printmaker, muralist, libertarian and anti-fascist, born. Collaborated in the '30s on 'Nervio' (Nerve), a libertarian-socialist publication in which he criticised the Mexican communist muralists and their concept of "proletarian art", and in particular David Alfaro Siqueiros and his political agenda. Urruchúa himself was strongly influenced by the events of the Spanish Revolution and the fight against fascism and they strongly inform his use of paint used as a weapon to fight against injustice, against all dictatorships and against the horror of war.

1905 - Grèves de Limoges de 1905: Camille Vardelle's funeral draws a large workers' demonstration. The lockout is finally lifted, but the anarchists who took a very active part in social unrest become the target of repression: arrests, dismissals, expulsions of the city and the department, as was the case for Régis Meunier . The anniversary of the murder of Camille Vardelle in 1906, is still marked by a clash between police and several libertarian militants are arrested.

[F] 1908 - The anarcho-syndicalist Confédération Syndicale Belge (Belgian Trade Union Confederation), the last of the various anarcho-syndicalist union movements formed in Belgium in the years prior to WWI, is founded in Liège.

1909 - In Paris, Jean Goldschild, with Miguel Almereyda (Eugène Vigo; his adopted name, Almereyda, is an anagram: Y'a la merde), Rene de Marmande, Georges Durupt and others, are part of a group of friends who today form the 'Fédération Révolutionnaire', promoting direct action for "La destruction radicale de la société capitaliste et autoritaire".

[E] 1912 - Joséphine Coueille, aka Andrée Prevotel (d. 1995), French postal worker and lifelong anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and free thinker, born. Arrested alongside her partner André Prévotel, and fellow anarchist militants Aristide Lapeyre and Louis-Emile Harel, for the promotion of vasectomies in the 'Sterilizers of Bordeaux' case (also known as the affaire Norbert Bartosek after the anarchist and neo-Malthusian doctor who performed the operations. Since vasectomies were not illegal in themselves, they were charged under the penal code that prevents castration and with violence against the person. Her charges were dropped and only spent 12 days in custody, but her husband and Harel were convicted and sent to six months in prison. A member of the CGT-SR, she was again arrested in 1939 for defeatism and incitement to disobedience in the military.
Both were also involved in the SIA, starting a branch in the Gironde in 1942 to aid Spanish refugees. [expand]

1915 - Two Italian anarchist, Frank Abarno and Carmine Carbone, members of the Gruppo Gaetano Bresci aka the 'Bresci Circle', are sentenced to six-to-twelve years at Sing Sing Prison for plotting to bomb St. Patrick's Cathedral on March 2, 1915. [see: Mar. 2 & Apr. 13]

[D] 1919 - La Révolte de la Mer Noire: Sailors Mutiny in the Black Sea, April 19-21. A French delegation, made up partly of anarchist sailors, demands suspension of the war against Russia, the return of the ships to France, and no disciplining for their rebellion.
Like much of the radical history of the first half of the twentieth century, the Communists (in this case, the PCF) got to write much of the history of the insurrections, revolts and revolutions that took place. The naval mutiny amongst the French fleet sent into the Black Sea, which was part of the wider 'White' attack on revolutionary Russia, which by then had still not fully succumbed to the Bolshevik counter-revolution, is one such example. So, the PCF would have everyone believe that André Marty, a chief engineer and socialist on board the destroyer Protet (and, coincidentally, the only officer involved in the events), heroically led the mutiny (despite being under arrest most of the time for his plot to take over the Protet and not having been released until after the red flag had been raised on the Jean-Bart and the France on April 20). This version of events was fabricated by the PCF after Marty had been pardoned [he had been sentenced to 20 years hard labour for attempting to seize control of the Protet] and joined the party in 1923, going on to become one of its leading lights, hence the hagiography.

1922 - Kaarlo Uskela (b. 1878), Finnish labourer, satirical author, poet and anarchist, born. Uskela is best known of his 1921 anthology 'Pillastunut runohepo' (The poisoned poet) which was banned in 1933, eleven years after Uskela's death, dies of blood poisoning having refused to attend a dentist and attempt to trat his own dental caries. [see: Mar. 4]

1928 - Ladislav Klíma (b. 1878), Czech Expressionist novelist, playwright, poet, youthful anarchist and individualist philosopher, dies. [see: Aug. 22]

1930 - Congrès de l’Union Anarchiste Communiste Révolutionnaire (U.A.C.R.) held in Paris [19-21].

1937 - The first issue of the weekly newspaper 'L'Espagne Nouvelle', replacing 'L'Espagne Antifasciste', is published in Nîmes. From Sept. 17 1937 it goes fortnightly and adopts the subtitle: "Organe pour la défense des militants, des conquêtes et des principes de la Révolution espagnole".

1937 - Jean-Pierre Lajournade (d. 1976), French anarchist filmmaker, born. Best known for his experimental film 'Le Joueur de Quilles' (1969).

1944 - Takis Oikonomakis (Τάκης Οικονομάκης; b. 1886) Greek writer, lawyer, journalist and anarchist, dies.

1945 - Julius Nolden, the former head of the Freie Arbeiter Union Deutschlands (Free Workers' Union of Germany), is freed from Lüttringhausen prison by the arriving Allies.

1956 - N. A. Palmer (Andrew Palmer), British musician and artist, who was the rhythm guitarist for anarcho punk band Crass, born.

[B] 1957 - Ian Heavens (d. 2000); Scottish anarchist, co-founder of the punk/samba band Bloco Vomit, born. A co-founder of the online Spunk Archives.

1974 - Fernand Planche (b. 1900), French writer and activist of the Anarchist Synthesis tendency, dies. [see: Feb. 12]

2005 - Violeta Fernández Saavedra (b. 1913), Spanish-Mexican teacher, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies in Puebla, Mexico from a respiratory illness. [see: Jun. 30]

2014 - Concha Liaño (Concepción Liaño Gil; b. 1916), Spanish anarcha-feminist militant, who was one of the founders of the Agrupación Cultural Femenina (Women’s Cultural Association) and the magazine 'Mujeres Libres' (Free Women), dies. [see: Nov. 24]
1865 - [O.S. Apr. 8] Victor S. Yarros (d. 1956), US anarchist, lawyer, and author, who was was law partner to Clarence Darrow for 11 years in Chicago, and partner of the feminist gynecologist Rachelle Slobodinsky Yarros, born. Early on he was associated with the anarcho-communists but soon converted to individualist anarchism, and was very critical of everything collectivist. He was a prolific contributor to the US individualist anarchist periodical 'Liberty'. He did not see anarchism as a utopian system but, like the other individualists, he envisioned a society in which coercion was used only in defence: "The anarchists, as anarchists, work directly, not for a perfect social state, but for a perfect political system."

1884 - Otto van Rees (d. 1957), Dutch painter and Tolstoyian anarchist, born. Son of Jacob van Rees, he grew up a home frequented by freethinkers, anarchists, philosophers and artists. In 1899 he founded the Landbouwkolonie van de Internationale Broederschap (International Brotherhood Agricultural Colony) at Blaricum and was a regular at the Ascona colony. He also taught painting and formed a lifelong relationship with one of his pupils, Catherine (Adya) Dutilh,in 1904. Mobilised by the Dutch military at the beginning of WWI, he was discharged from military service in the autumn of 1915 after making a collage of empty cigarette packs. With Adya and his children, he moved to Ascona where he and Adya met various Dadaist and became involved in the Cabaret Voltaire. Both were also profoundly effected by the horrors of the war and, influenced by the ideas of the writer Pieter van der Meer the Walcheren and the French philosopher Jacques Maritain, converted to Catholicism. In 1918 Van Rees signed the Dadaist Manifesto in Berlin and was the co-founder in 1924 of the Swiss artist group Der Große Bär, which included Ernst Frick and Richard Seewald.

1893 - Joan Miró i Ferrà (d. 1983), Catalan painter, sculptor and ceramicist associated with the Surrealists, but whose work was closer to Magic Realism and can even be seen as a forerunner of Abstract Expressionism, born. Before the Spanish Revolution, when he largely lived in France whilst spending his summers in Spain, he was viewed as apolitical but took up the Republican government's commission of a mural, 'El Segador' (The Reaper) or 'El Campesino Catalán en Rebeldía' (Catalan Peasant in Revolt), for the Spanish Republican Pavilion at the 1937 Paris Exhibition. He also designed the explicitly political 'Aidez l’Espagne' poster. Having been prevented from visiting Spain by the war and then by Franco's victory, but the German invasion of France forced him to flee to Spain, narrowly avoiding capture. In Spain he underwent a self-imposed internal exile, first in Palma and later in Barcelona, returning permanently to Palma in 1956. After the war, he also made regular trips to Paris. He also went on to make other political statement via his art, including the triptych 'L'Esperança del Condemnat a Mort' (The Hope of a Condemned Man; 1974), inspired by the execution of the Catalan anarchist Salvador Puig Antich and through which he made explicit his opposition to Franco. There were also the lithograph set (the Barcelona Series, published in 1944 and which he would revisit in colour in 1966), which were based on Alfred Jarry's Pere Ubu character, through which he expressed his experiences of the Spanish Revolution and its aftermath, with the lithographs clearly depicting Franco and his generals as versions of the fictional tyrant. Similarly, the 1978 collaboration with the experimental theatre company La Claca called 'Mori el Merma' (Death to the Bogeyman), for which he designed a series of grotesque puppets, stand-ins again for Franco and his generals.

1897 - George (Gueorgui) Getchev (d. 1965), Bulgarian anarcho-communist, poet, writer of children's stories, translator and journalist, born.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1903 - Octave Mirbeau's 'Les Affaires sont les Affaires' (Business is Business) premières at the Comédie-Française in Paris.

1904 - Akiyama Kiyoshi [秋山 清], aka Tsubone Kiyoshi, Takayama Keitarō (d. 1988), Japanese poet and anarchist thinker, born. After graduating high school in Kokura, Fukuoka, he entered to the preparatory course of law at Nihon University in Chiyoda, Tokyo, but left the course and began to work doing various jobs (paperboy, elevator operator, scribe, etc.). By 1924, he had joined the Japanese libertarian movement and 1926 began his literary activity, working in anarchist magazines such as 'Tanki' (The Lone Rider / 矛盾), 'Kokushoku Shimba' (Black Front / 黒色戦線), 'Dando' (Trajectories / 弾道), etc. In 1933, he became the main contributor to the magazine 'Kaiho Bunka' (Emancipation and Culture / 解放文化) and collaborated on 'Bungaku Tsuhin' (Literary News / 文学通信), organ of the Kaiho Bunka Renmei (Federation for Emancipation and Culture / 解放文化連盟) organisation through which he wanted take culture into the anarchist labour movement and that he had launched that year with others (Okamoto Jun, Tai Uemura, Ono Tozaburo, etc.). He also participated in several other magazines, including the new 'Dando' (Trajectories / 弾道), 'Shi Kōdō' (Poetics Action / 詩行動), etc. After WWII, in May 1946 he was one of the founders of the Anakisuto Nihon Renmei (Japanese Anarchist Federation / 日本アナキスト連盟), participated in the literary movement Shin Nihon Bungakukai (New Japan Literary Society / 新日本文学会常) and also collaborated in the magazine 'Kosumosu' (Cosmos / コスモス) with Okamoto Jun and Kaneko.
Among his works are 'Self-criticism in literature. Testimony to democratic literature' (文学の自己批判 民主主義文学への証言; 1956), 'Japanese Rebellion Thought. Genealogies of anarchism and terror' (日本の反逆思想 アナキズムとテロルの系譜; 1960), 'White Flowers' (白い花; 1966), 'Some Solitude' (ある孤独; 1967), 'Nihilism and Terror' (ニヒルとテロル; 1968), 'Personal Recollections of Postwar Poetry' (戦後詩の私的な回想; 1968), 'Collected Poems' (秋山清詩集; 1968), 'Japanese Anti-War Poems' (日本反戦詩集; 1969, with Ito Nobuyoshi and Okamoto Jun), 'Prohibited Poems' (発禁詩集; 1970), 'Rejection of Power. The Philosophy of Anarchism' (権力の拒絶 アナキズムの哲学; 1971), 'The Credo of Rebellion' (反逆の信条; 1973), and 'Thoughts on Violence' (わが暴力考; 1977). In 2006 an anthology (秋山清著作集 / Akiyama Kiyoshi Chosaku-shū) was published with 12 volumes of his best writing. 'Ōsugi Sakae hyōden' (大杉栄評伝; 1976), was Kiyoshi's biography of his fellow Japanese anarchist poet.
Akiyama Kiyoshi died on November 14, 1988 in Kokura, now Kitakyushu, Fukuoka.

[EE] 1915 - Maria Silva Cruz aka 'La Libertaria' (d. 1936), Spanish anarchist and popular hero of the Casas Viejas Uprising in Andalusia, born. She earned her nickname from an incident when a guardia civil had ordered her to take off the red and black scarf that she habitually wore and she had refused, slapping the guard when her tried to take it off her. A participant in the Sucesos de Casas Viejas in January 1933, she was one of only two survivors (the other being a neighbour's child who she carried from the flames) of the conflagration of the hut of Francisco Cruz Gutierrez, nicknamed Seisdedos (Six Fingers), her grandfather, during the brutal suppression of the uprising. When the fascists took the city of Ronda in August 1936, the Guardia Civil sought her out and arrested her, snatching her son who was only a few months old violently from her arms. She was shot at dawn on August 23 1936 along side two others. She was later immortalised by Federica Montseny in her book 'María Silva: la libertaria' (1951).

1919 - La Révolte de la Mer Noire: Easter Sunday, almost all the sailors of the France and the Jean-Bart, instead of saluting the tricolour flag raised aft, stood facing the bow and sang the Internationale, while the red flag was raised on the bowsprit mast on both boats simultaneously.

## [B] 1920 - Donald Rooum, English anarchist cartoonist and writer with a long association with Freedom Press, born. Best known for his Wildcat cartoons.

1927 - The Dielo Truda (Workers Cause) group, formed by Nestor Makhno, Peter Arshinov and other exiled Russian and Ukrainian anarchists in Paris and then including Ida Mett, organise an international anarchist conference in L'Ha-les-Roses, France. Among the delegates are Bifolchi, an Italian delegation from the magazine 'Pensiero e Volonta', Luigi Fabbri, Camillo Berneri, and Ugo Fedeli.

1930 - Aldo Tambellini, Italian American painter, sculptor, poet and anarchist, who was a pioneer in electronic intermedia, born. Tambellini's art has always been overtly political and directed towards his community activism. Founding member in 1962 of the counter-culture group, Group Center, which involved Ben Morea, and working closely with the Umbra poetry collective. In 1965 he made his first moves as an avant-garde filmmaker, pioneering the technique of painting directly on film, and beginning his Black Film Series. In 1966 Tambellini founded The Gate Theater in New York's East Village and the following year helped co-found a second theatre, the Black Gate.

1946 - The All-Korean Anarchist Congress [국 아나키스트 대회] meets (April 20-23) at Geumgang-sa [금강사] in Gyeongsang Province [경남안].

1951 - Guy-Ernest Debord meets the Lettrists at the Cannes Film Festival, following the screening of Isou's 'Traité de Bave et d'Éternité' (Treatise on Slime and Eternity).

1953 - Jindřich Honzl (b. 1894), Czech theatre and film director, theatrical theorist, translator, educator, communist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: May 14]

1967 - Aldino Felicani (b. 1891). Italian-American anarchist, typographer, editor, and publisher of many papers, dies. Friend and supporter of Sacco and Vanzetti, founding their Defence Committee. Published, until his death, the Italian-American paper 'Controcorrente' (Countercurrent). [see: Mar. 15]

1970 - Probable date of the death by drowning of Paul Celan (b. 1920) in the Seine in Paris. [see: Nov. 23]

1974 - Richard Hülsenbeck (b. 1892), Dadaist propagandist, poet, writer, collagist, anarchist, drummer and Jungian psychoanalyst, dies. [see: Apr. 23]
1841 - Anselmo Lorenzo Asperillo (d. 1914), 'The Grandfather of Spanish anarchism', printer and prolific author of early anarchist theory in Spain, born. [expand]

##1861 - Anselmo L. Figueroa (d. 1915), Mexican-American journalist, anarchist and member of the Junta Organizadora of the Partido Liberal Mexicano, is born in California.

1869 - Anthelme Girier aka Jean Baptiste Lorion (d. 1898), French anarchist orator, who was imprisoned and involved in the revolt at the Iles du Salut penal colony, born.

1885 - Ethel Duffy Turner (d. 1969), American journalist and author who took an active part in the Mexican Revolution alongside the Magonistas, born. Her books include 'Writers and Revolutionists: Oral History Transcription' (1966), 'Revolution In Baja California: Ricardo Flores Magon's High Noon' (1981) and 'Ricardo Flores Magón y el Partido Liberal Mexicano (Textos de la Revolución Mexicana)' (1984). Ethel Duffy Turner also wrote a novel, 'The Orange Tree', a novella and a number of short stories.

1898 - In Ancône, Italy anarchists, including Errico Malatesta, go on trial (21-27th) for criminal conspiracy gainst "the public safety of people and property".

1908 - Carlos Pezoa Véliz (Carlos Enrique Moyano Jaña; b. 1879), Chilean apprentice shoemaker, poet, journalist, essayist, translator, and anarchist, whose literary work remained largely unpublished until his death at the age of 28 and was posthumously recognised as a major figure in the history of Chilean poetry, dies of tuberculosis of the peritoneum, aged only 28 years old. [see: Jul. 21]

1913 - Three members of the anarchist Bonnot Gang, André Soudy (b. 1892), Raymond Callemin (b. 1890) and Elie Monier (b. 1889), are executed. [see: Feb. 25; Mar. 26 & Aug. 20 respectively]

1913 - Revolución Mexicana: Emiliano Zapata besieges Victoriano Huerta's garrison at Cuautla. Federal train blown up,killing 100 federal troops, federals round up civilians.

[B] 1914 - The first public performance by Futurist painter and anarchist Luigi Russolo's intonarumori noise machines takes place at the Teatro dal Verme in Milan. Initially banned by the police fearing a riot, 2 local politicians intervene to get the programme of 3 pieces - 'Risveglio di una Città' (Awakening of a City), 'Colazione sulla Terrazza del Kursaal Diana' (Breakfast on the Terrace of Kursaal Diana), and 'Convegno di Automobili e di Aeroplani'(A Meeting of Automobiles and Aeroplanes) - put on. Half an hour before the concert was due to start, a large crowd was already en riot, throwing missiles at the stage. So loud was the noise throughout the concert that the music was inaudible. Marinetti likened it to "showing the first steam engine to a heard of cows."

1924 - Claude Lefort (October 3 2010) French philosopher and libertarian socialist member of Socialisme ou Barbarie, born.

1926 - The first issue of the weekly newspaper 'l'Anarchie', "Organe d'Action et de Philosophie Anarchistes", is published by Simone Larcher and Louis Louvet in Paris. It replaces 'l'Éveil des Jeunes Libertaires' and continues in the individualist tradition of Libertad and 'l'Anarchie', producing 52 issues until April 1929.

1935 - Auguste Garnery (b. 1865), French jeweller, anarchist militant, revolutionary trade unionist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Jul. 3]

1937 - The Delegated Committee for the Defence of Madrid dissolved.

1938 - Boris Pilnyak [Бори́с Пильня́к](real name Boris Andreevich Vogau [Борис Андреевич Вогау]; b. 1894) Russian Soviet novelist and short story writer, and anarchist sympathise, who spent time living in an anarchist commune, is sentenced to death by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR and shot laterthe same day. [see: Oct. 11]

## 1947 - Jaceguay Monteiro Lins (d. 2007), Brazilian composer, conductor, music teacher, writer, poet and anarchist beekeeper, born. [expand]

1951 - Giuseppe Pasotti (b. 1888), Italian anarcho-syndicalist and member of the Italian League of Human Rights, dies. [see: Feb. 10]

1968 - Armando Borghi (b. 1882), important Italian anarchist figure, propagandist, dies. [see: Apr. 7]

1984 - Marcel Janco (b. 1895), anarchist-influenced Romanian and Israeli visual artist, architect and art theorist, dies. [see: May 24]

1998 - Jean-François Lyotard (b. 1924), French philosopher, sociologist, literary theorist, and libertarian socialist member of Socialisme ou Barbarie, dies from a particularly aggressive form of leukaemia. [see: Aug. 10]
1858 - James Morgan Brown [see: Mar. 9]

1873 - Luigi Lucheni (d. 1910), Italian anarchist, born. Notably, on September 10, 1898, Luccheni stabs the impératrice Elisabeth of Austria 'Sissi', in Geneva, using a frayed file, as a symbolic blow against "the persecutors of the workers". The Swiss courts sentenced him to forced labour. He was found hung in prison in 1910.

## 1891 - Nicola (Ferdinando) Sacco (d. 1927), Italian-American anarchist, cobbler and nightwatchman – the good shoemaker to Bartolomeo Vanzetti's poor fish-peddler, who was framed and executed alongside his comrade following a facical trial that became an international cause célèbre, born. [expand]
[, Sacco-Vanzetti and the Anarchists.pdf]

1897 - In Rome the anarchist Pietro Acciarito, 26, attempts to stab the king of Italy, King Umberto I. Tried and sentenced May 28, following a parody of a trial, Acciarto gets life in prison.

1898 - Adrien Perrissaguet (d. 1972), French founder of L'Association des Fédéralistes Anarchistes, of the weekly magazine 'The Libertarian Voice' and of 'Combat syndicaliste', born. An activist in the Sacco and Vanzetti committee, he also fought in the Spanish Revolution of 1936 and was a member of the French Resistance during WWII.

[F] 1906 - The anarcho-syndicalist dominated Federación Obrera Regional Paraguaya (Paraguayan Regional Workers' Federation) is founded by the Sociedad de Obreros Gráficos (Society of Graphical Workers), the Sindicato de Resistencia de Obreros Carpinteros (Union of Resistance of Carpenters) and the Sindicato de Cocheros (Union of Coal Miners). FORP's paper 'El Despertar' appeared for the first time shortly after on May 1.
[ón_Obrera_Regional_Paraguaya[ ]_tomo_ii_fra]

1907 - [O.S. Apr. 9] Following his capture by police on March 20 [O.S. Mar. 7], 1907, after he had assassinated Vasilenko, head of the main railroad yard at Aleksandrovsk and a notorious and pitiless oppressor of workers, Peter Arshinov (Пётр Арши́нов) had been cruelly beaten, and two days later sentenced to hang by a military tribunal. Suddenly, when the sentence was about to be administered, it was established that Arshinov’s act should by law not be tried by the military tribunal, but by a higher military court. This postponement gave Arshinov the chance to escape Aleksandrovsk prison. On the night of April 22-23, 1907, during Easter mass, while the prisoners were being led to the prison church, the prison guards assigned to watch the prisoners at the church were surprised by the audacious attack of several comrades. All the guards were killed, and all the prisoners had the chance to escape. Fifteen men escaped together with Arshinov.

1916 - Oscar William Neebe I (b. 1850), US anarchist, labour activist and one of the defendants in the Haymarket bombing trial, dies. [see: Jul. 12]

1970 - Kikuoka Kuri [菊岡 久利](Takagi Michinokuo [高木陸奥男]; b. 1909), Japanese author of poetry and novels active in Showa period and anarchist, dies in Tokyo. [see: Mar. 8]

1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Committal proceedings for Jake Prescott and Ian Purdie start at Barnet Court. The committal is to decide whether or not the magistrate feels there is enough evidence against the two of them for a trial to be set at the Old Bailey. There is no doubt that he will find so, but nevertheless proceedings proceed... interminably... until May 27. Jake had been presented (April 15) with three more charges: having conspired with Ian to cause explosions `with others' between July 1970 and March 1971 and having actually caused the Miss World and DEP bombings. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1994 - Karl Hess (b. 1923), US political philosopher, journalist, editor, tax resister, gun smuggler, atheist and libertarian activist, who was often described as the “most beloved libertarian" and vacilated between right-wing and leftist politics before embracing oxymoronic 'Free-market anarchism', dies. [see: May 25]

2007 - Alberto Grifi (b. 1938), Italian film director, painter and anarchist, dies. [see: May 29]

2013 - Prisoners’ food abstention from mess in Larisa prison, Greece.
1821 - Pierre Dupont (d. 1870), French Republican song-writer, poet and socialist balladeer, born. Forerunner of the workers' song as exemplified by Eugene Pottier ('The International') and Jean-Baptiste Clément ('Time of the Cherries'), his socialist songs earned him seven years exile from France in 1851. His song 'Les Carriers' was popular amongst the Communards. The lyrics of the popular 1871 Paris Commune song ‘La Commune’ was set to the music to his song 'Les Carriers' (The Quarrymen). In his 1851 preface to the collection of 'Chants et Chansons (Poésie et Musique)', Baudelaire wrote in a tribute to the man and the poet:
"When I browse the work of Dupont, I still feel returning in my memory, probably because of some secret affinity, this sublime movement of Proudhon , full of tenderness and enthusiasm he is heard humming the song of Lyon,

Allons, du courage,
Braves ouvriers !
Du cœur à l'ouvrage !
Soyons les premiers."

1861 - Ricardo Mella Cea (d. 1925), Spanish anarchist, born. A leading movement theorist, Mella headed publishing teams of 'Solidaridad', 'El Libertario', 'Acción Libertaria'. [expand

##1880 - Alexandre Mairet (Charles-Alexandre Jean-Mairet; February 9, 1947), Swiss painter, wood cut specialist, illustrator and anarchist, who collaborated with the libertarian press and particularly with the 'Réveil Anarchiste', whose header he redrew in 1930, born.

[F] 1883 - La Bande Noire: A bomb explodes at the home of a miner called Menénager in Mont-Saint-Vincent. This attack is the last of a series of six or seven actions over the past two months against informers providing information to the police. [see: Feb. 23]

1883 [N.S. May 5] - Strajk Szpularek [Spoolers' Strike] / Strajk w Żyrardowie [Żyrardów Strike]: On the first day of the strike, 245 workers of the Żyrardów linen factory fail to turn up for work in protest at their pay cuts. [see: May 5]

1890 - [O.S. Apr. 9] Rose Lilian Witcop Aldred (Rachel Vitkopski; d. 1932), Ukrainian-British Jewish anarchist, journalist and pioneer of birth control and sex education, who was sister of Milly Witkop and partner of Guy Aldred, born.

[B] 1892 - Richard Hülsenbeck (d. 1974), Dadaist propagandist, poet, writer, collagist, anarchist, drummer and Jungian psychoanalyst, born. Like many of the Dadaists, and more specifically Hugo Ball, Tristan Tzara, the Janco brothers, Hülsenbeck was well read in contemporary political theory and sympathised with anarchist ideas of social and political organisation.
In 1912 he went to Munich to study medicine but after a year changed to studying German literature and art history. He also met the then anarchist Hugo Ball, who would become a decisive influence on his intellectual and artistic development. Hülsenbeck also began collaborating with the journal 'Der Sturm' (1914-32) and wrote the first of many theoretical and satirical essays, which were later published by the magazines 'Die Aktion' [1911-32; anarchist Franz Pfemfert's Expressionist and Leftist magazine that he started after his time editing the anarchist magazine ‘Der Kampf'] and 'Die Freie Strasse' [1915-18; anarchist and Dadaist magazine edited by Franz Jung, Georg Schrimpf, Richard Oehring, Otto Groß, Raoul Hausmann and Johannes Baader]. When he went to study at the Sorbonne during the winter of 1912–1913, he contributed as a "Paris correspondent" to ‘Revolution’, a polemical literary magazine started by Ball and his friend Hans Leybold (which also involved Erich Mühsam).
Huelsenbech’s readings of Balls’ social and political critiques of Germany and its bourgeois social system reinforced his own political understanding and the two began to collaborate more closely when Hülsenbeck followed Ball to Berlin in 1914. He continued to study German literature and began to publish poems, essays, and book reviews in ‘Die Aktion’. A few months into WWI, he volunteered for the army, serving several months in a field artillery unit (Ball also volunteered but was turned down as unfit), but never made it to the front as he was released from service because of neuralgia. Both Hülsenbeck and Ball became increasingly opposed to the war [Ball witnessing the invasion of Belgium, saying: "The war is founded on a glaring mistake, men have been confused with machines"] and to the intensity of German nationalist sentiment, organising several protests against the war effort in the spring of 1915, and in commemoration for fallen fellow poets.
Ball left for Zürich with his wife, Emmy Hennings, and soon after sent for Hülsenbeck. He arrived [Feb. 26, 1916] shortly after Ball had founded the Cabaret Voltaire [Feb. 1, 1916; with the first soirée in the Holländische Meierei at Spiegelgasse 1 on Feb. 5, with Ball writing of him, in ‘Escape from Time’, on 11 February 1916: "Hülsenbeck has arrived. He pleads for an intensification of rhythm (Negro rhythm). He would best love to drum literature and to perdition."], becoming the house drummer as well as reciting his poetry - "adopt[ing] an arrogant and offensive posture, brandishing his cane at the audience and reciting his poems, according to Marcel Janco, "as if they were insults." His poetry attacked the church, the fatherland, and the canon of German literature (Friedrich von Schiller and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe), and was accompanied by big drums, roars, whistles, and laughter. Hülsenbeck's use of a military drum alluded to the proximity of the war, demanding an immediate and uninhibited bodily response from the audience." [biog., National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC]
His own ill health, and that of his father's, led to his return to Germany in Dec. 1916. In early 1917 he brought the Dada ideas to a largely unsuspecting Berlin, starting the Dada group there, recruiting Georg Grosz, Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Johannes Baader, Walter Mehring, Wieland Herzfelde and John Heartfield. The fruits of their many collaborations included ‘Jedermann sein eigner Fussball’ (1919), 'Der Dada' (1919-20) and 'Dadaco' (1920) [announced in 'Der Dada' in June 1919 as an ambitious collection of Dada poems, essays, collages and drawings, promoted as a 'Dadaistischer Handatlas', to be edited by Richard Hülsenbeck but never published].
Hülsenbeck became the organiser, promoter, and historian of Dada, delivering the 'Dada-Rede in Deutschland' (First Dada Speech in Germany) in January 1918 and participated in the First International Dada Fair [International Erste Dada-Messe], held in Berlin, June 5, 1920 at the gallery of Dr. Otto Burchard.
He also edited the 'Dada Almanach' (1920), wrote 'En Avant Dada' (1920), a history of Dadaism, and 'Deutschland Muss Untergehen! Erinnerungen Eines Alten Dadaistichen Revolutionärs’ (Germany Must Perish! Memories of an Old Dadaist Revolutionary; 1920), and contributed to numerous publications such as the Dadaist-Constructivist magazine 'G' (1923-26), and periodicals such as 'Die Pleite', 'Die Rosa Brille', 'Das Bordell', etc.
Throughout his Dada years, Hülsenbeck also continued his medical studies and began to practice in 1920. He also travelled widely as a ship's doctor, which led to his writing a series of popular travel books: ‘Afrika in Sicht’ (Africa Came into View; 1928), 'Der Sprung nach Osten’ (Air in the East; 1928) and ‘China frißt Menschen’ (China eats People; 1930). Beginning in 1933, Hülsenbeck was repeatedly investigated by the Nazi authorities. Forbidden to write and in constant fear of imminent arrest, he finally obtained passage for himself and his wife Beate Wolff to the United States in 1936. By 1939 he was practicing medicine and psychiatry in Long Island, New York, under the name Charles R. Hulbeck. He also continued to write arts reviews and articles on cultural issues for the 'Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung' and the 'Neue Zürcher Zeitung', and contributing to numerous Dada revivals and exhibitions. In 1970 he returned and settled in Switzerland.
His works include 3 Dada novels 'Azteken oder die Knallbude' (Aztecs or the Blast Booth; 1918), 'Verwandlungen' (1918), and 'Doctor Billig am Ende' (Doctor Cheap at the End; 1921); the 'expatriate' novel [auswandererroman] 'Der Traum vom Großen Glück' (The Dream of Great Happiness; 1933), his last German publication; and poetry collections including 'Schalaben, Schalomai, Schalamezomai' (1916); 'Phantastische Gebete' (Fantastic Prayers; 1916), 'Die New Yorker Kantaten’ (The New York Cantatas; 1952), and 'Die Antwort der Tiefe' (The Response of Depth; 1954). In 1959 he also published 'Sexualität und Persönlichkeit' (Sexuality and Personality). His two memoirs 'Mit Witz, Licht und Grütze' (With Wits, Light and Grits; 1957) and 'Memoirs of a Dada Drummer' (1969) offer reminiscences of his Dada experiences.

"The cows sit on the telegraph poles and play chess
The cockatoo under the skirts of the Spanish dancer
Sings as sadly as a headquaters bugler and the cannon lament all day
That is the lavender landscape Herr Mayer was talking about
when he lost his eye
Only the fire department can drive the nightmare from the drawing-
room bur all the hoses are broken
Ah yes Sonya they all take the celluloid doll for a changeling
and shout: God save the King
The whole Monist Club is gathered on the steamship Meyerbeer
But only the pilot has any conception of high C
I pull the anatomical atlas out of my toe
a serious study begins
Have you seen the fish that have been standing in front of the
opera in cutaways
for the last two days and nights...?
Ah ah ye great devils - ah ah ye keepers of bees and commandments
With a bow wow wow with a bow woe woe who does today not know
what our Father Homer wrote
I hold peace and war in my toga but I'll take a cherry flip
Today nobody knows whether he was tomorrow
They beat time with a coffin lid
If somebody had the nerve to rip the tail feathers
out of the trolley car it's a great age
The professors of zoology gather in the medows
With the palms of their hands they turn back the rainbows
the great magician sats the tomatoes on his forehead
Again thou hauntest castle and grounds
The roebuck whistles the stallion bounds
(And this is how the world is this is all that's ahead of us)."

'The End Of The World' (1916)


##? 1893 - [O.S. Apr. 11] Lev Nikolaevich Zadov (Лев Николаевич Задов [rus] / Льова Миколайович Задов [uk]), aka Lev Zinkovsky (Лев Зиньковский / Левко Зіньковський) aka Leva aka Levka the Bandit (Leib ben Yehuda Zadov [Лейб бен Иехуда Задов / Лейб бен Ієхуда Задов]; d. 1938), Ukrainian metalworker, anarchist communist and chief of military intelligence of the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine (Революционной повстанческой армии Украины / Революційна повстанська армія України), who later changed sides to become an OGPU operative and was shot alongside his brother Daniel after being convicted of "collaboration with foreign secret services", born.

1907 - [O.S. Apr. 9] On March 20 [O.S. Mar. 7], 1907, a former Bolshevik metal worker and then member of the revolutionary anarchist underground*, Peter Andreyevich Arshinov (Пётр Андре́евич Арши́нов), aka Peter Marin (Пётр. Ма́рин), had assassinated Vasilenko (Василенко), head of the main railroad yard at Aleksandrovsk (Александровск). A notorious and pitiless oppressor of workers, Vasilenko had turned over to the military tribunal more than 100 workers who were accused of taking part in the armed uprising in Aleksandrovsk in December, 1905; many of them were condemned to death or forced labor because of Vasilenko’s testimony.
Caught by the police, Arshinov had been cruelly beaten, and two days later was sentenced to hang by a military tribunal. Suddenly, when the sentence was about to be administered, it was established that Arshinov’s act should by law not be tried by the military tribunal, but by a higher military court. This postponement gave Arshinov the chance to escape Aleksandrovsk Central (Александровский централ) prison. On the night of April 22-23, 1907, during Easter mass, while the prisoners were being led to the prison church, the prison guards assigned to watch the prisoners at the church were surprised by the audacious attack of several comrades. All the guards were killed, and all the prisoners had the chance to escape. Fifteen men escaped together with Arshinov.
[* Arshinov would later participate in the Ukrainian Makhnovist movement, writing the well-known 'History of the Makhnovist Movement' (1921)]

1910 - José Sampériz Janina (d. 1941), Spanish journalist, writer and anarchist sympathiser, born in Candasnos, Huesca. His family moved to Cuba in 1925 but returned to Spain in 1932 due to the repression during the dictatorship of Gerardo Machado y Morales. There he became involved in anarchist and intellectual circles, publishing several novels including 'El Sacrílego' (The Sacrilegious; 1931) and 'Candasnos' (1933), and essays, in 'Hitos Ibéricos' (Iberian Milestones; 1935). [expand]
During the Civil War he collaborated on several libertarian newspapers including 'Acracia', 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Orientacion Social', 'Surcos', etc., defending the collectivisation process. In 1937, with his brother Cosme, he went over to communism, affiliating to the Aragonese Federation of the Federació de Treballadors de l'Ensenyament (FETE), part of the Unió General de Treballadors (UGT). A refuge in France during the Retirada, it appears that he was probably sent with the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers to work on the fortifications of the Maginot Line. Taken prisoner by the Germans and deported and died in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp on September 26, 1941.

1914 - The first issue of the newspaper 'La Gioventu Libertaria' (Libertarian Youth) is published in Cleveland, Ohio.

1919 - The first issue of the anarchist periodical 'Iconoclasta!', paper of the Circolo Studi di Pistoia Sociali, is published in Pistoia, Tuscany. Open to all the trends within anarchism, its key collaborators are: Carlo Molaschi, Cesare Zaccaria, Camillo Berneri, Pietro Bruzzi, Leda Rafanelli and Renzo Novatore, but it falls victim to brutal fascist repression, and ceases publication after February 15 1921, following the destruction of the printing press and the arrest of the Arditi del Popolo local.

## 1923 - Nair Lazarine Dall'Oca (d. 2010), Brazilian seemstress and anarchist, born. When Nair Lazarine married Virgilio Dall'Oca, she was joining a well-known Brazilian anarchist family and they quickly became involved in the Centre de Cultura Social (CCS) after the couple moved to São Paulo to live with Aida and Nicola D'Albenzio, Virgilio's aunt and uncle. Both were active anarchist militants, with involved in the Federação Operária de São Paulo (Workers Federation of São Paulo; FOSP). Nair worked as a seamstress and Virgilio worked as a construction builder, collector bus, truck driver, and finally, a taxi driver. Despite financial difficulties, they contributed financial to many solidarity campaigns, especially those supporting the numerous Spanish anarchist refugees that arrived in Brazil at the end of the Spanish Civil War.
The closure of the CCS by the State in November 1937 was a blow to the Brazilian anarchist movement but a group of mainly vegetarian and naturalist anarchists created a farm community in Itaim near São Paulo, buying the land and building the Chácara Nossa (our farm), where Nair and Virgilio went to live. The Societat Naturista Amics de la Nossa Chácara (Friends of the Naturist Society of Nossa Chácara) was established in November 1939 and went on to reopen the CCS in São Paulo on July 9, 1945. The Dall'Ocas were also financed and helped distributed the newspapers 'O Libertarian', created in October 1960, and 'Dealbar', started in September 1965. They were also involved in the Editora Mundo Livre in Rio de Janeiro, which published many anarchist classics as well as the works of prominent Brazilian intellectuals and libertarians.
Following the establishment of the military dictatorship April 1, 1964, the Societat Naturista Amics de la Nossa Chácara decided to sell the farm and buy a new one at Mogi das Cruzes they thought better sited for their libertarian project. The Dall'Ocas and the daughter Clara were involved in raising the money for the Nosso Sítio (Our Place). In early 1969, the CCS was forced to close its door as it was no longer safe to operate there against the background of persecution by the military. After several years living in Itanhaem, the Dall'Oca family took up residence in the city of Santos and it was there that Nair died of a heart attack on August 20, 2010, after several years suffering from Alzheimer's disease.

1926 - Maurice Lemaître (Moïse Maurice Bismuth), French lettriste artist, writer, poet, experimental cinematographer and anarchist, born. One of the key figures of Lettrism from the 1950s to the present.

1936 - Zenzl Mühsam is arrested in Moscow for "counter revolutionary activities".

1946 - An important anarchist congress (April 20-23, 1946) at Anwui in Korea ends. Organised by the Korean historian Shin-Ho Chae (1880-1936), one of the forebearers of anarchism in the country, the brothers Li Jung-Kyu (1897-1983) and Li Eul Kyu (1894-1972) (the latter being nicknamed 'The Korean Kropotkin') and another prominent figure in Korean anarchism, Ha Ki Rak, who also participated in the 1987 Congress of the Korean Anarchist Federation. This congress lays the ground work for establishing the influence of Kroptokin's ideas in post-war Asia.

1976 - Enric Duran i Giralt, aka Robin Bank, Robin Banks or the Robin Hood of the Banks, Catalan anarchist and anti-capitalist activist, member of the Tiempo de Re-vueltas collective and InfoEspacio, born. On September 17, 2008, he publicly announced that he had 'robbed' dozens of Spanish banks of nearly half a million euros as part of a political action to denounce "el depredador sistema capitalista" (the predatory capitalist system) and to finance various anti-capitalist social movements - among the projects financed was the free newspaper publication 'Crisi', 200,000 copies of which were distributed throughout Catalonia by volunteers.

2013 - Bob Brozman (b. 1954), US guitarist, ethnomusicologist, musical historian, and anarchist, known for his mastery of the National Resonator guitar, commits suicide in the wake of a serious 1980 car accident that had left him unable to play guitar and in constant debilitating pain. [see: Mar. 8]
1853 - Jean-Baptiste Thuriot (or Thuriault; d. 1924), French worker, considered by authorities to be the "Grand Master" of anarchism in the Nièvre department, born.

1878 - Marie Mayoux (nee Gouranchat) (d. 1969); known as Joséphine Bourgon, teacher, militant revolutionary, pacifist and libertarian trade unionist, born. Partner of François Mayoux and mother of Jehan Mayoux. Marie and François joined the socialist SFIO in 1915, earning places in the 'Carnet B'. They were heavily fined and sentenced to 2 years in prison for the pacifist pamphlet 'Les Instituteurs Syndicalistes et la Guerre' (The Teachers Union and War) in 1917 and were excluded from the French Communist party in 1922 during the purge of syndicalists. Both participated in the anarchist press including 'La Revue Anarchiste', 'La Voix Libertaire', 'CQFD', 'Défense de l'Homme', 'Le Monde Libertaire', etc. Excluded from the CGTU in 1929, they went on to support the Spanish Revolution and denounced the Stalinist repression.

1884 - Pierre Marie Le Meillour (d. 1954), French boilermaker, printworker, anarchist, anti-militarist and revolutionary syndicalist, born. [expand]

[E] 1889 - Johanna 'Hanna' Kirchner (Johanna Stunz; d. 1944), German Social Democrat, feminist, member of the German anti-Nazi underground and resistance fighter in the French Résistance, born. At 14, she joined the Sozialistischen Arbeiter-Jugend and, four years later, the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands. Living in Frankfurt, she became active in the women's movement there and became a close friend of the communist Eleonore 'Lore' Wolf. During WWI, as a mother with two young daughters, she became involved in communal welfare, dedicating herself to local women's and children's welfare. She then went on, in 1919 with Marie Juchacz, to found and work in the Arbeiterwohlfahrt (Workers' Welfare organisation), focusing on the child victims of the widespread poverty and the malnutrition and ill-health that many suffered from as a consequence during the war and post-war inflation years. Kirchner took many of these children to Switzerland for their health and, during the Ruhrkampf, helped evacuate thousands of children from the Ruhr district, sending them to stay with families in Hesse.
In 1933, she joined the anti-fascist underground after becoming known to the authorities as a committed anti-fascist and for helping Carlo Mierendorff, a pacifist and anti-Nazi, flee from the Gestapo. She fled to Saarbrücken (then still under League of Nations administration and French occupation), leaving her family behind. There she worked at various kitchen jobs and as a waitress in the restaurant run by her friend Marie Juchacz, whilst supporting other German émigrés through the Hilfskomitee für verfolgte Antifaschisten (Persecuted Anti-Fascists' Aid Committee) and worked closely with her friend Lore Wolf, organising the emigration of many of the working-class emigrants from the Reich with Rote Hilfe Deutschlands. Hanna's other activities whilst in the Saar including writing for 'Deutsche Freiheit' (German Freedom), an independent daily SPD newspaper, drawing up reports for the SPD's executive in exile, and producing and distributing illegal leaflets. When the Saar was reoccupied by the German Reich during the Anschluss of 1935, Johanna Kirchner fled further west to Forbach, then Metz (both in Alsace-Lorraine) and finally to Paris, from where she continued her anti-Nazi resistance activities, leading the Saar Refugees' Committee (Saarflüchtlingskommitee).
After the Nazis invaded France in 1940, she was interned with other emigrants by the French authorities in the camp at Gurs, at the foot of the Pyrenees. When the camp commander, who knew her from Forbach, discovered that Johanna Kirchner was on the list of Nazis, he released her and she joined the refugee stream heading south to Avignon. She happened to meet the former Catholic journalist Johannes Hoffmann, who she knew from Saarbrücken, and he arranged for Hanna to lodge in the Notre-Dame de Lumieres monastery. She worked for a priest in Aix les Bains as a housekeeper, where she hid for the next two years before in 1942 Kirchner was discovered by the Vichy authorities and handed over to the Nazis. After periods in Paris, Saarbriicken, Frankfurt and Berlin-Moabit prisons, she finally ended up in Cottbus, where she shared a cell with several female members of the Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group. During her stay in the Hammelgasse prison in Frankfurt, she was able once again to see her two daughters. In May 1942, she was condemned to ten years in prison for treason but in 1944 she was retried in the Volksgerichtshof and popular incitement, high treason and espionage, and sentenced on April 20, 1944 to death. Johanna Kirchner was beheaded on June 9, 1944, at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin.

## 1892 - Aurélio Pereira da Silva Quintanilha (d. 1987), Portuguese university professor, scientist, and anarcho-syndicalist, who was an internationally renowned researcher in the areas of genetics, fungal biology and the genus Gossypium (the cotton plant), born.

1903 - Georges Marie Valentin Vidal (d. 1964), French anarchist, proofreader, poet, novelist and friend of André Colomer, born. From an early age he wrote poetry, heavily influenced by Verlaine, Samain, Guerin and Laforgue, and was expelled from a number of schools for anarchist propaganda. At 15 he published a small booklet of lyrics, 'Quelques Rimmes', and began travelling widely.
He contributed to various publications, including 'L'Essor', 'Primaires', 'La Criée', 'La République des Alpes', etc.. helped found the anarchist newspaper 'Terre Libre' in Marseilles. On 16 November 1922 he was sentenced to two months in prison in Marseille and 100 francs fine for one of his poems published in 'Terre Libre' and 'Le Libertaire'. Days later, on November 24, he was sentenced to three months in prison in Paris and fined 200 francs for the same offense and imprisoned in Petite Roquette. He successfully gained political prisoner status following a hunger strike and fund-raising campaign in the press ('L'Oeuvre', 'L'Humanité', 'L'Ère Nouvelle', etc.). After he was transferred to the prison of Aix-en-Provence, where he wrote the poem 'Devant la Vie...'.
Once free he was appointed secretary and manager of 'Le Libertaire'. In November 1923 he and Colomer were involved in l’Affaire Daudet, with Vidal writing about Daudet, both in the columns of 'Le Libertaire' and in his book 'Comment Mourut Phillipe Daudet' (How Phillipe Daudet Died; 1924).
At this time he published essays on aesthetics 'Art et Action'. In 1925 he published the poem 'The Halt'. In 1926 he co-authored 'Dix-huit ans Bagne' (18 Years in Prison) with his friend André Colomer, and published in April that year 'Jules le Bienheureux', with drawings by Germain Delatouche. In 1926 he went into exile in Costa Rica, where he collected many themes later developed in his stories. In 1928 he returned to France, where he earned his living as a proofreader and began writing detective novels and screenplays and adventure that signed with various pseudonyms (Georges de Guérigny, Jorge Jimenez, Jorge El Macho, Edward G. Georgie, Georgie Vale, Georges-Marie Valentin, etc.).
His other works include: 'Han Ryner: L'Homme et l'Oeuvre' (1924); 'Commentaires' (1923-24); 'Six-Fours: Bourgade Provençale' (1925); 'La Grande Illusion? : Le PCF et la Défense Nationale à l'Époque du Front Populaire'; and his contributions to Sébastien Faure's 'Anarchist Encyclopedia' (1934).

1912 - In Ivry-sur-Seine, a suburb of Paris, the Assistant Director of Security, Jouin, who that morning had arrested gang member Elie Monier in a hotel of Belleville, arrives to search the shop of the discount trader and suspected fence Antoine Gauzy in Ivry. Having arrested Gauzy, they stummble across Bonnot himself whilst searching the premises. A hand-to-hand fight ensues and Bonnot succeeds in shooting two of the policemen. Jouin is killed instantly and Inspector Colmar is seriously injured. Bonnot is wounded in the hand but escapes through an adjoining apartment and through nearby gardens and alleys. Antoine Gauzy narrowly escapes being lynched by a gathering crowd. Bonnot subsequently visited a pharmacist about his hand wound, claiming that he had fallen off a ladder. The pharmacist is not convinced and, connecting his patient to the events in Ivry-sur-Seine, informs the police, who tack him down three days later to Choisy-le-Roi.

1920 - A General Strike in Piedmont, which spread on the 15th across northern Italy, raising the possibility of a victorious insurrection across the whole country, is today suppressed.

1923 - In Sliven, Bulgaria, the anarchists Nicolai Dragnev and the brothers Panayot and Ilia Kratounkov are shot by soldiers under the pretext of "attempting to escape".

1929 - Caroline Rémy de Guebhard, better known as Madame Séverine, (b. 1855), French libertarian, militant feminist, pacifist, journalist and co-founder of the League of Human Rights, dies. [see: Apr. 27]

[B] 1963 - Tõnu Trubetsky aka Tony Blackplait, Estonian punk rock singer, film and music video director, journalist, poet, novelist and anarchist, born.

1967 - Jacques Brunius (b. 1906), French actor, director, writer, poet, anarchist and Surrealist, dies. [see: Sep. 16]

1998 - Christiane Rochefort (b. 1917), French writer, novelist, essayist, translator, journalist, feminist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 17]
1892 - On the eve of trial of François Ravachol, a bomb explodes at the Resturant Véry in Paris, where Ravachol had been arrested on March 30, 1892, killing the owner and one of his customers. The perpetrator is Théodule Meunier, who fled to England where he lived as a political refugee until his arrest at Victoria Station on April 4, 1894. Extradited to France in June, Meunier stood trial the following month andwas sentenced to life imprisonment in the Îles du Salut penal colony in Cayenne. He died of fever and exhaustion fourteen years on July 25, 1907, following a failed escape attempt.

1920 - Silvano Fedi (d. 1944), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist partisan, born. Already an active anti-fascist, he was arrested on October 12, 1939, along with Fabio Fondi, Giovanni La Loggia and Carlo Giovanelli, by the secret police OVRA, and they were sentenced by a Special Tribunal to a year in prison for communist activity i.e. organising an anti-fascist group. Upon his release from prison, he now identified himself as a libertarian communist and returned to the anti-fascist struggle in his home town, Pistoia. His contact with the older anarchist generation led to the formation of the Federazione Comunista Libertaria, and a growing confrontation with the underground Communist Party. Fedi was again arrested by the police in January 1942. With the fall of fascism and the armistice of Italy with the Allies, he was among the first to go to the main piazza (square) and address the crowds. On the 26th July 1943 he was addressing a factory gate meeting at the San Giorgio factory and called on the workers to strike. He was arrested by the police of Marshal Badoglio. On hearing of his arrest, a large crowd gathered outside the Palace of Justice and demanded his release. The authorities were forced to free him a few hours later. Fedi now set up the most important partisan unit in the Pistoia area. Formed mostly of anarchist or libertarian-inluenced peasants, workers, students and ex-soldiers, it carried out several spectacular actions, including raiding the fascist arms dump at the Santa Barbera Fortress three times. He also attacked the Ville Sbertoli prison, freeing 54 mostly political prisoners. Fedi planned to continue the armed resistance after the Anglo-American forces arrived, but his plans were cut short when he was caught in a German ambush on July 29, 1944 and shot. He remains a local hero to this day.

## 1928 - Leon Gualberto Duarte (d. unknown), Uruguayan power worker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and socialist, who was involved in the founding of the Convención Nacional de Trabajadores and the Federación Anarquista Uruguaya, and later the Partido por la Victoria del Pueblo and the reorganisation of the Plenario Intersindical de Trabajadores into the PIT-CNT, born. On July 13, 1976, he was disappeared in Buenos Aires under the wave of repression that was Operación Cóndor.

1937 - Emma Goldman organises a concert at Victoria Palace in aid of Spanish refugees with Paul Robeson on the bill. An artistic success, it fails to raise as much money as hoped.

[B] 1938 - George Orwell's 'Homage to Catalonia' first published.

1949 - Jankel Adler (b. 1895), Polish painter, printmaker and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 26]

1955 - Clovis Poirier (stage name Clovys; b. 1885), French singer (author, composer, performer) anarchist and pacifist, dies. Director of La Muse Rouge, revolutionary poets and songwriters society. [see: May 13]

1959 - Georges Alexandre Cochon (b. 1879), French tapestry maker, anarchist and very popular secretary of the 'Federation of Tenants' (ancestor of the DAL), dies. [see: Mar. 26]

[C/D] 1974 - The beginning of the Carnation Revolution and fall of the dictatorship in Portugal. [expand]

1977 - Albert Perrier (or Perier), aka Germinal, (b. 1897), French militant revolutionary syndicalist and resistance fighter, dies. [see: Aug. 7]

1979 - Robert van 't Hoff (Robbert van 't Hoff; b. 1887), Dutch architect and furniture designer, and utopian anarchist, who was an influential member of the De Stijl movement, dies at the age of 91 in his home in New Milton, Hampshire. [see: Nov. 5]

1997 - Goldy Parin-Matthèy (b. 1911), Swiss psychoanalyst and anarchist, dies. [see: May 30]
1864 - Régis Meunier (d. 1936), French militant syndicalist and anarchist propagandist, born. [expand]

1883 - [O.S. Apr. 14] Sophia Illarionovna Bardina (Софья Илларионовна Бардина; b. 1853), Russian anarchist revolutionary, who defended the attentat against the Tsar, saying that "for us, anarchy does not signify disorder, but harmony in all social relations; for us, anarchy is nothing but the negation of oppressions which stifle the development of free societies", commits suicide, shooting herself in the head. [see: Jun. 27]

1885 - Giuditta 'Yudith' Maria Zanella (d. 1962), Italian anarchist propagandist, anti-fascist and miliciana, who fought in the Columnas Ortiz and Durruti along with her partner, the Italian anarchist militant Ilario Margarita, born.

#### 1885 - Carl (Karl) Einstein (d. 1940), German poet, experimental prose writer, Dadaist, art historian, theorist of Expressionist poetics, art critic and theorist who was one of the first to champion Cubism, and nephew of Albert Einstein, born. Amongst his numerous achievements are his début anti-novel 'Bebuquin oder die Dilettanten des Wunders' (1912), first published in 'Die Aktion', on which he worked, along with 'Die Pleite' and 'Der Blutige Ernst' and his 1921 passion play 'Die Schlimme Botschaft' (The Sad Tidings) was deemed blasphemous (he had placed revolutionary ideas in mouth of his Jesus) and resulted in a conviction for blasphemy in 1922, with a 15,000 marks fine. Fearing further repression with the rise of the Nazis, he moved to Paris in 1928, and a year later he co-founded with Georges Bataille and Michel Leiris the legendary avant-garde arts journal 'Documents: Doctrines, Archéologie, Beaux-arts, Ethnographie', covering then unknowns such as Picasso, Braque, Léger and André Masson. He also co-scripted the 1935 film 'Toni', with director Jean Renoir, assisted by Luchino Visconti, one of the founding members of the neorealist movement. The film, made at the height of Renoir's career, is notable for its use of non-professional actors and is also generally considered the major precursor to the Italian neo-realist movement. Einstein was an anarchist combatant in the Spanish Revolution of 1936, with the famed Durruti Column, and committed suicide to prevent his capture by the Nazis.

1887 - Nīmura Tadao (新村 忠雄; d. 1911), Japanese anarchist and socialist, who was the supposed mastermind behind the High Treason Incident (幸徳事件 / Kōtoku Jiken) and was one of the 12 alleged conspirators executed in 1911, born.

1892 - The trial of François Ravachol begins in Paris for the Resturant Véry bombing, with co-defendants Charles Achille Simon aka 'Biscuit' , Charles Ferdinand Chaumartin aka 'Chaumartin', Joseph Marius Béala aka 'Jas-Béala' and his wife Rosalie Mariette Soubère. Everyone expects the death sentence but the jury give life with hard labour for Ravachol and Simon (the latter crying "Vive la Sociale! Vive l'Anarchie!"; Chaumentin, Béala and Mariette Soubère are acquitted. On June 21, Ravachol will return to court in Montbrison to be tried for three murders, two of which he denied (admitting that of the hermit Chambles). Found guilty, he will be guillotined on July 11.

1899 - Catina Ciullo (Caterina D'Amico Willman; d. 1991), Italian-American anarchist and anti-fascist activist, born.

[B] 1905 - Jean Vigo (d. 1934), surrealist / anarchist film-maker, born. Son of the anarchist Eugene Vigo. Directed only 4 films before he died of tuberculosis but they included the classics buorgeois-baiting 'À Propos de Nice', 'Zéro de Conduite' - inspired Lindsay Anderson's 'If' and the lyrical, innovative and highly influential 'L'Atlante'.

1913 - Paterson Silk Strike: Passaic County Grand Jury indicts IWW leaders Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Carlo Tresca, Patrick Quinlan, and Adolph Lessig, one of the local silk workers' leaders and future IWW buisness agent, for unlawful assemblage and incitement to riot. [see: Jan. 27 & Feb. 24]

1914 - In a poll organised by Séverine (Caroline Rémy de Guebhard) – an unlikely candiate given her prominence as an anarchist, despite her obvious feminist credentials – and the Ligue du Droit des Femmes section of the Association de Etudiantes on behalf of 'Le Journal' takes place. When the votes are counted, it is found that 505 972 women voted in favour of the proposition "I want to vote", with just 114 voting "no".

1922 - The Sociedad Cosmopolita de Cacahueros 'Tomás Briones' (Cosmopolitan Society Of Cacao Workers 'Tomás Briones') disaffiliates from the Confederación Obrera del Guayas, since "its organisational systems is embryonic and deficient and does not allow for protest action, nor does it meet the necessary conditions for the emancipation of the Proletariat - as stated In the Workers' Congress of 1920 - does not respond in any way to the futurist needs, demands and aspirations of the Proletariat, which, acting on a higher social plane, requires, consequently, institutions of higher principles, more compatible with the spirit of the century." [Sociedad Cosmopolita de Cacahueros 'Tomás Briones' manifesto, August 21, 1922]
The ultimate outcome of this would be the country's first revolutionary trade union centre.

1923 - Nikola Lazarov Yurukov (Никола Лазаров Юруков; b. 1877*), prominent Bulgarian architect and anarchist revolutionary member of the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна македоно-одринска революционна организация) and the Macedonian Federative Organisation (Македонската федеративна организация), is surrounded by Public Safety (Обществена безопасност) agents in Sofia and, having exhausted his ammunition and rather than be captured, blows himself to pieces. [see: Jul. 28]
[* 1880 is also quoted by some as the year of birth]

[AA/C] 1937 - The bombing of Guernica by German and Italian planes during the Spanish Civil War.

## 1956 - Thierry Lodé, French libertarian biologist, professor in evolutionary ecology at the CNRS lab at the University of Rennes 1, specialising in animal sexuality and is also active in the fields of evolutionary and conservation biology, anarchist militant and prison abolitionist, collaborating on the weekly anarchist magazine 'Le Monde Libertaire' and the anarchist newspaper 'L'En-Dehors', born. In 2005, disease of the spinal cord left him a paraplegic.

1972 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Bomb blast and fire at Tory HQ, Billericay, Essex. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1973 - André Gaudérique Jean Respaut (b. 1898), Catalan author, resistance fighter, anarchist, survivor of Buchenwald, dies. Author of 'Buchenwald Terre Maudite' (Buchenwald Cursed Earth; 1946) and 'Sociologie Fédéraliste Libertaire' (1961). [see: Sep. 28]

1985 - Horacio Martínez Prieto (b. 1902), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist of the moderate possibilista tendency within the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, he was twice General Secretary of the CNT, dies in exile in Paris. [see: Dec. 29]
1824 - Francisco Pi y Margall (d. 1901), Catalan liberal statesman, federalist, historian, journalist, art critic, philosopher, economist and romanticist writer, who contributed to the popularisation of anarchism in Spain, born. His 'La Reacción y la Revolución' (1885) was influenced by G.W.F. Hegel's philosophy of history and the writings of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, who he translated into Spanish. President of the first Republic in 1873, with the fall of King Amédée (hastened by Andalusian anarchist agitation of workers and peasants). Sought a federal republic, separate from the church, and to redistribe land to the peasants. In Andalusia and in several cities in the Southeast, a libertarian federalism emerged, but the Monarchist reactionaries defeated all revolutionary aspirations and Pi i Margall resigned.

[E] 1855 - Séverine, (Caroline Rémy de Guebhard; d. 1929), French libertarian, feminist, pacifist, journalist and co-founder of the League of Human Rights, born. The first female editor of a major French newspaper, 'Le Cri du Peuple', in 1885 before a falling out with the Marxist Jules Guesde caused her to leave the newspaper in 1888. She also wrote for 'La Fronde' (under the pen name Arthur Vingtras), the first feminist daily newspaper and, despite her pacifism, was a strong defender of anarchists, included Clément Duval, Auguste Vaillant, Germaine Berton, Ascaso, Durruti, Jover, and Sacco and Vanzetti.

[BB] 1855 - Jules Jouy (d. 1897), French anarchist, singer, writer, poet, journalist, painter, songwriter and pioneer of the social song, born. A prolific songwriter (4,000+) in a number of forms: the Montmartre song, political song and the café-concert (goguette) song; many with topical social/political and working class sentiments as displayed by his chanson au jour le jour, his quickly written topical songs that appeared daily in Jules Vallès' 'Cri du Peuple' newspaper.
In 1876 he began publishing in the 'Tintamarre' newspaper songs and articles about his favourite subjects: anti-clericalism, injustice, anarchism; not shying away from using the most macabre, humorous, pornographic and scatological language. In September 1878 he participated in the founding of 'Le Sans-Culotte', a virulent anti-clerical republican newspaper that campaigned for amnesty for the Communards. He was a member of the Le Cercle des Hydropathes and Les Hirsutes literary clubs, and frequented the Chat Noir, founded by a dissident cabaret group called Le Chien Noir which performed in the cabarets of Montmartre.
In Dec 1881 he co-founded, with Eugène Bataille (Sapeck), leader of Des Fumistes [for the Exposition des Arts Incohérents in 1883, Sapeck created 'Mona Lisa Fumant la Pipe' which prefigured Duchamp's 'LHOOQ'], 'L'Anti-Concierge: Organe Officiel de Défense des Locataires', a tenants' newspaper which also became the title of one of his songs. In 1882 he wrote and published the only issue of the 'Journal des Merdeux' and his 1884 collaboration, 'La Lanterne des Curés', is condemned as pornographic. In 1886 he joined the anarchist group La Ligue des Antipropriétaires and 1888 saw his prolonged and violent written tirade against the dictatorship of General Boulanger - "L'Infâme à Barbe", whose supporters labelled him le Poète Chourineur (The Murderous Poet). Around the same time he joined Le Parti Ouvrier (Labour Party) for a period, publishes his second song collection, 'Chansons de Bataille' (1889) and is active within the goguette circles of Paris. In 1893 , he published several violently anti-Semitic songs in 'La Libre Parole Illustrée' and the following year takes over management of Café des Décadents, successor to Café des Incohérents. Unfortunately his health has suffered, not just because of his constant activity but also because of his tobacco and absinthe abuse, and his friends end up committing him to a psychiatric clinic in May 1895, where he dies aged 42 on March 17 1897. Three days later all the Montmartre cabaret milieu attend his funeral at the Père Lachaise Cemetery.
Amongst his more famous songs are 'La Soularde' (The Drunkard; 1897), written for Yvette Guilbert; 'La Veuve' (The Widow; 1887), a song about the guillotine and the death penalty, 'Le Tombeau des Fusillés' (1887), in memory of the Communards. His 'Chanson de la Grève' (Song of the Strike; 1888) was later revived and adopted by French Mayday demonstrators.

1874 - Alberto Augusto Guabello, aka Bartolomeo Livorno, Albert Zurbello, Uno Sfruttato, etc. (d. 1941), Italian-American bricklayer, weaver, galochier (maker of gallsohes), typographer, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, born in Santa Maria, Mongrando, Piedmont.

## 1877 - Billo Zeledón aka 'Billo' & 'Merlín' (José María Pedro Zeledón y Brenes; d. 1949), Costa Rican journalist, poet, writer, accountant and anarchist intellectual, who bizarrely won the competition to write lyrics to the National Anthem, born.

[B] 1878 - Victor Arendorff (d. 1958), Swedish writer, journalist, poet, lyricist, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Also wrote under the pseudonym Captivus. Began his journalistic career on the right wing 'Stockholms Dagblad' but resigned after 4 years there and began working for trade union, anarchist and socialist journals, including 'Brand' (Fire). His books include 'Herr Husvills Visor och Andra Dikter' (Mr Husvills Ballads and Other Poems; 1915) and 'De Valkiga Händernas Folk och Andra Dikter' (The Calloused Hands People and Other Poems; 1928).

1879 - Alberto Meschi (d. 1958), prominent Italian anarchist, syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. Emigrated to Argentina in 1905 but was expelled in 1909 due to his libertarian and trades union activities. Active in Italy until forced to leave for France in 1922 with the rise of Fascism. In 1936 Meschi fought in Spain in the Rosselli Column until to the fall of the Republic. He returned to France, where he was interned in a concentration camp until the end of 1943 when he returned to Italy, joining the resistance movement and heading the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale (National Liberation Committee) plus the Trade Union Headquarters of Carrara until 1947. For the next 20 years or so he worked on the anarchist trade union paper 'Il Cavatore' (The Quarryman).

1887 - Claude Le Maguet (known as Jean Salivas) (d. 1979), French poet, typographer, anarchist and militant pacifist, born. Placed in an orphanage at the age of six (directed by the anarchist Paul Robin), from the age of 16 he became a typographer. Deeply libertarian, he worked for the paper 'L'Anarchie', then in the community of Aiglemont founded by Fortuné Henry. Refusing military service, Le Mauet was forced into clandestine activity. He took refuge in Belgium for a while, then in Lille (where he was arrested and imprisoned for a month, his identity undiscovered) and finally in Geneva, Switzerland, and remained committed to his pacifist ideals when WWI was declared.
In 1916, he helped found the pacifist review 'Les Tablettes' with Albert Ledrappier and Frans Masereel, and contributed to various Swiss newspapers. Returning to France in 1939, he was imprisoned for a period in Lyon by the fascists, then went back to Switzerland, where he devoted himself until his death to his poetry.

1894 - Trial of the French anarchist Émile Henry for bombing the Terminus café February 12, 1894 and blowing up the Bons-enfants police station, November 8, 1892. Henry proudly acknowledged his actions, reading a declaration in which he laid out his analysis of France's corrupt society and called for further revolt. The jury convicted him, finding no extenuating circumstances for his actions. He is sentenced to death and on leaving, he dock, he exclaims: "Camarades, courage! Vive l'anarchie."

1897 - Italian anarchist Romeo Frezzi is arrested because he is found in possession of a photo that showed, in a group of people, Pietro Acciarito, who had 5 days ealier tried to assassinate King Umberto I. He would die on May 2 of injuries sustained under interrogation.

1899 - In the early hours of the morning, and after having publicly boasted to the editor of the Paris newspaper 'La Petite République', Errico Malatesta 'mysteriously' escapes from the Mediterranean island prison of Lampedusa shortly before the planned arrival of an State Police inspector due to take him to the notorious prison on the island of Lipari. He flees to Tunis and then on to London.

1911 - The first issue of the daily newspaper 'La Bataille Syndicaliste', official organ of the CGT and its militant revolutionary syndiclaist members, is published in Paris. The newspaper quickly gains a widde circulation (45,500 copies in December 1912) but is discontinued in late October 1915 after 1638 issues.

1912 - José Pellicer-Gandia, aka the 'Durruti valenciano' (d. 1942), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist revolutionary, who co-founded the Columna de Hierro (Iron Column) during the Spanish Revolution, born.

1913 - Paterson Silk Strike: Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Carlo Tresca and Patrick Quinlan, three out of the five IWW leaders are arrested at the train station following yesterday's indictment for unlawful assemblage and incitement to riot as they return from New York. This provokes a backlash from the strikers as they increace their picketing and other protests. Additionally, Haywood begins to take most of the lead. [see: Jan. 27 & Feb. 24]

##1920 - Georges Fontenis (d. 2010), French school teacher, professor at the École normale d'instituteurs de Tours, trade unionist and libertarian communist, who was one of the main anarchist figures of the post-War years, born.

[F] 1934 - The Federacion Obrera de Chile (FOCH) headquarters located at Calle San Francisco 608 in Santiago is assaulted by Carabineros and 'white guards' during a municipal workers' strike. Five workers die in the attack and 20 other left with bullet and sabre wounds.

1937 - Antonio Martín Escudero, also known as 'El Cojo de Málaga' due to lameness caused by an osteitis in his right leg (b. 1895), Spanish bricklayer, flamenco singer, anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist militant, and leader of the CNT-FAI of Puigcerdá, is ambushed and killed as anarchist milicianos launch an assault on Bellver de Cerdanya in the Catalan Pyrenees. [see: Jan. 17]

1940 - Mariano Albert Reigada (b. unknown), 26-year-old Spanish cabinetmaker and anarcho-syndicalist, who became the political commissar of the 98.ª Brigada Mixta, is shot in the eastern cemetery of Madrid. His brothers Francisco and Jesús were also shot by the Franco regime.

[A] 1945 - Three anarchist editors (Phil Sansom, Vernon Richards and John Hewitson - Marie Louise Berneri is aquitted) of 'War Commentary' are jailed for nine months for 'incitement to disaffection'.

1949 - Didier Daeninckx, prolific French author of detective fiction, novelist, essayist, anti-fascist, one-time communist and latterly a libertarian, born to an anarchist father and communist mother. His works are resolutely politically and socially critical, which has resulted in him ending up embroiled in a number of controversies. His second novel 'Meurtres pour Mémoire' (Murder in Memoriam; 1984) about Nazi collaborators, appeared shortly before the Papon trial and 'Le Der des Ders' (A Very Profitable War; 1985) is set in the post-WWI Parisian anarchist militant milieu.

1957 - Situationist International founding conference at Cosio d'Arroscia, Italy.

1958 - Ali Kitapçı (d. 2015), pioneering Turkish anarcho-syndicalist organiser, who was killed in the October 10, 2015 bombings in Ankara as he attended the Peace Meeting, organised by DİSK, KESK, TMMOB and TTB [Confederation of Revolutionary Trade Unions of Turkey, Confederation of Public Employees' Trade Unions, Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects and Turkish Doctor’s Union], born.

1968 - Former anarchist Daniel Cohn-Bendit is arrested.

1974 - Anna Pietroni and Aldo Rossi, anarchist militants involved with various publications and causes eg. support campaigns for anarchist poet and militant Giovanni Marini and for Pietro Valpreda, die this evening in a car accident. Anna was from a family of anarchists, and both she and Aldo broke with the Communist Party following WWII. [see: Jan. 13]

2001 - No Gods, No Masters: Conference for an Anarchist Future, in Melbourne, 27th -30th.
1861 - Henry Bauer (d. 1934), German-American anarchist, born.

##? 1883 - Etta Federn (Marietta Federn; d. 1951), Austrian writer (essays, biographies, novels, poems, etc.), translator, journalist, educator, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and member of Mujeres Libres, born. She also published under her married names Etta Federn-Kohlhaas and Etta Kirmsse, and the pseudonym Esperanza. [expand]

1896 - Ida Pilat Isca (d. 1980), Ukrainian-American anarchist writer, translator and activist, who was prominent in the Sacco and Vanzetti campaign in New York and later joined the Socialist Party, born.

1898 - In Ancône, Italy the show trial of the anarchists accused of criminal conspiracy against "the public safety and property" concludes. The trial began on the the 21st, following the failure of a General Strike in mid-January against price increases for bread. The defendants are represented by the anarchist lawyers Francisco Saviero Merlino, Pietro Gori and Errico Ferri. Errico Malatesta is sent to prison for seven months (but escapes in early 1899). Bread riots also break out in Bari and Foggia.

1901 - Paule Mink (or Minck) (Adèle Paulina Mekarski; b. 1839), French writer (stories, poems and plays), journalist, seamstress, franc-maçonne (female Freemason), Pétroleuse, socialist revolutionary, prominent feminist and the mother of the anarchist Henri Jullien, who participated in the Paris Commune and in the First International, dies. [see: Nov. 9]

[D] 1903 - [O.S. Apr. 15] Thessaloniki Bombings: The Boatmen of Thessaloníki (Bulgarian: Гемиджиите, Macedonian: Гемиџиите; the Gemidzhii or Gemidzhiite) or the Assassins of Salonica, was Bulgarian anarchist group active in the Ottoman Empire in the years between 1900 - 1903. Most from its members were young graduates from the Bulgarian Men's High School of Thessaloniki. From April 28 until May 1 [O.S. Apr. 15-18] the group launched a campaign of terror bombing in Thessaloniki, which had the group and its three cells (in Thessaloniki, the Tsarigradsko cell in Constantinople and the Edirne cell in Thrace) had been plotting for the past four year. Amongst the more grandiose plans was for the Edirne cell to hold up of the Orient Express on Turkish territory in order to rob the mail carriage and finance the network's campaign.
The first target of the Gemidzhii was a French ship called the Guadalquivir, which was blown up with dynamite planted by Pavel Shatev (Павел Шатев; 1882-1951) as it was leaving the Thessaloniki harbour. That evening Iliya Bogdanov (Илия Богданов), Vladimir Pingov (Владимир Пингов; 1883-1903) and Milan Arsov (Милан Арсов; 1884-1908), blew up the Thessaloniki-Istanbul railway line in an attempt to derail a train, however the train suffered only slight damage and no one on board was injured. The following evening, Konstantin Kirkov (Костадин Кирков; 1882-1903) blew up a gas pipeline under the bridge at the station in Serres, putting Thessaloniki's electricity and water supply systems out of action. This was the signal for widespread actions. Shortly after Jordan Popjordanov (Йордан Пoпйopдaнoв; 1881-1903) aka 'Orceto' (Opцe) blew up the building of an Ottoman Bank office, under which the Gemidzhii had previously dug a tunnel from a shop rented by Marko Boshnakov (Марко Бошнаков; 1878-1908) and secreted a large amount of explosives that they had smuggled into the city. In another attentat, Milan Arsov threw bombs in the Alhambra Café and, upon returning to Thessaloniki, Kirkov threw a bomb at the Grand Hotel. That same night Iliya Bogdanov threw a bomb through the windon of the Café Nyonyo and Vladimir Pingov, during an attempt to target a Turkish government building, was shot by Turkish soldiers. Dimitar Mechev (Димитър Мечев; 1870-1903) and Iliya Trachkov (Илия Тръчков; 1884-1903) also failed in their attempts to blow up the gas tank at a coal gas-producing plant. They were later killed at their hideout during a shoot-out with army and gendarmerie forces, after exhausting their store of more than 60 bombs trying to hold them off. Jordan Popjordanov died the following night (April 30) after throwing his last bombs at the Turkish soldiers besieging him.
Four of the Gemidzii, Paul Shatev, Georgi Bogdanov, Marko Boshnakov and Milan Arsov, were arrested following the Thessaloniki attacks and brought before a special court. All four were sentenced to death but later had their sentences commuted to life imprisonment. Arsov died in prison in 1908 of tuberculosis
On May 1, Kostadin Kirkov was killed while trying to blow up a postal office. Rather than be caught, Cvetko Traikov (Цвятко Трайков), whose mission was to kill the local governor, Hasan Fehmi Pasha (Хасан Фехми паша), killed himself the same day by setting off a bomb and then sitting on it.
The Gemidzhii cells continued the campaign, bombing a passenger train at Kuleliburgaz railway station in a raid led by Mihail Gerdzhikov (Михаил Герджиков; 1877-1947) and the Anton Prudkin (Антон Прудкин; 1880-1942)-led attack on the passenger ship Vaskapu in Burgas Bay on September 1 [O.S. Aug. 19], 1903, both attentats organised by anarchists close to the allied Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация). The premature explosion on the Vaskapu killed Ivan Stoyanov and Stefan Dimitrov, two-tirds of Prudkin's team, and he had to call off attacks on four other ships – the Vaskapoo (Hungary), the Tenedos (Germany), the Apollo (Austria) and the French ship Felix Fresines.

1912 - Jules Bonnot (b. 1876), the French illegalist gang leader, is killed in a police shootout after managing to kill three of the estimated 500 armed police officers, soldiers, firemen and military engineers, not to mention a lynch mob of local citizens, laying seige to the house and garage of Joseph Dubois in Choisy-le-Roi where he was hiding out. Having failed to extracate Bonnot by seige (and during which he had had time to write a letter exonerating Eugène Dieudonné, his mistress Judith Thollon, her husband and Antoine Gauzy), Paris Police Chief Louis Lépine ordered the building bombed, using a dynamite charge. The explosion demolished the front of the building. Injured and hiding under a mattress, Bonnot is shot 10 times before a coup de grace to the head is given by Lépine.

1912 - Joseph Dubois (b. 1870), mechanic and anarchist illegalist member of the Bonnot Gang, is killed during the first moments of the police raid on his Choisy-le-Roi garage where Bonnot is also shot and killed following a seige.

1912 - José Pellicer-Gandia (d. 1942), Valencian anarchist militant and syndicalist, a commander in Durruti's Iron Column during the Spanish Revolution, born.

1913 - Prudencio Iguacel Piedrafita (d. 1979), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist resistance fighter, born.

1919 - After receiving a bomb in the mail, Seattle Mayor Ole Hanson declared that the government should "buck up and hang or incarcerate for life all the anarchists".

1922 - Mécislas Charrier, French anarchist illégaliste, goes on trial for his attempt, along with two others, to rob the Paris-Marseilles train, in which one person was killed.

1932 - Michèle Bernstein, French novelist, literary critic, member of the Internationale Lettriste and the Internationale Situationniste groups, as well as partner of Guy Dubord and later of Ralph Rumney, born.

1943 - Mariarosa Dalla Costa, Italian autonomist feminist, member of Lotta Femminista and Potere Operaio, who co-authored the classic 'The Power of Women and the Subversion of the Community' (1972), with Selma James, born.

1944 - Charlotte Wilson (Charlotte Mary Martin; b. 1854), English Fabian, anarchist, feminst and co-founder of 'Freedom' and Freedom Press, dies a week short of her ninetieth birthday. [see: May 6]
"The genuine Anarchist looks with sheer horror upon every destruction, every mutilation of a human being, physical or moral. He loathes wars, executions and imprisonments, the grinding down of the worker's whole nature in a dreary round of toil, the sexual and economic slavery of women, the oppression of children, the crippling and poisoning of human nature by the preventable cruelty and injustice of man to man in every shape and form." from 'Anarchism and Homicidal Outrage' (1893)

1950 - Brian Brett, Canadian poet and novelist, born.
"I was a rabid anarchist and, out of eccentricity, carried a business card declaring my membership in the I.W.W., the International Workers of the World, the 'Wobblies' - the last great romantic revolutionary organisation of America."

The old poet and writer of fiction—
that’s him in the photograph beside the door,
the little fellow with the moustache,
the aesthete with the taste for whips,
for women in leather,
the man with a trembly upper lip
which made him resemble a rabbit
when he ate his lettuce—
once said to me, years ago:
Everyone should be an anarchist
at the age of twenty.

This was the knowledge of a man
who had gone beyond sixty years,
and had come to love the conservative,
who raced this horses
and drank the best cognacs,
who denied what he used to believe,
concluding that all of us will
eventually Judas the life we once lived.

Young then, I thought it was wise of him
to understand the boil and tidal ebb of blood,
the hormones that control the run, the rush….
But today, when I contemplate not just
my own unfinished home and garden,
but the gardens of those who can afford gardeners—
I can only witness the savage landscape
we have made out of our collapsing planet.
Perhaps this is why, now that I have
more than doubled by years, sometimes,
I want to burn down all our houses.

'Considerations of Anarchy'


1951 - Claire Auzias, French historian, feminist and libertarian, whose main research interests are anarchism and the Roma peoples, born.

[B] 1953 - Roberto Bolaño Ávalos (d. 2003), Chilean novelist, poet, one-time Trotskyist and latterly an anarchist, born. At the time his novel 'Los Detectives Salvajes' (The Savage Detectives; 1998) was published he was a Trotskyist and the novel parodied aspects of the movement.
"The problem is, once among the Trotskyites, I didn't like their clerical unanimity either, so I ended up being an anarchist. I was the only anarchist I knew and thank God, because otherwise I would have stopped being an anarchist. Unanimity pisses me off immensely. Whenever I realize that the whole world agrees on something, whenever I see that the whole world is cursing someone in chorus, something rises to the surface of my skin that makes me reject it."

1974 - Lilian Wolfe (Lilian Gertrude Woolf; b. 1875), English pacifist, anarcha-feminist and member of the Freedom Press publishing collective, dies. [see: Dec. 22]

##? 1976 - Promoe (Mårten Edh, born Nils Mårten Ed), Swedish rapper and member of Swedish hip hop group Looptroop Rockers and anarchist, born.

1988 - Lucio Arroyo Fraile aka 'El Verdejo' and 'El tuerto Teruel' (b. 1904), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 22]

1996 - Claire Culhane (b. 1918), Canadian nurse, hospital records librarian, socialist, leading anti-Vietnam War activist in the Enough/Assez campaign and prisoner rights advocate, dies. [see: Sep. 2]
1858 - Pierre-Joseph Proudhon publishes 'De la Justice dans la Révolution et dans l'Eglise' (Of Justice in the Revolution and the Church, 1858).

[F] 1871 - In reaction to the Paris Commune, the civil governor of Barcelona decrees the prohibition of strikes and meetings and orders an assault on the local of the Las Tres Clases del Vapor, accompanies by the arrest of its president Climent Bové

1891 - Albert de Jong (d. 1970), militant Dutch anarcho-syndicalist, anti-militarist, author and editor, born. [expand]

[B] 1896 - Walter Mehring (d. 1981), German-Jewish Expressionist poet and prose writer, anti-militarist and anarchist, who was one of the most prominent satirical authors in the Weimar Republic, born. Founding member of Berlin Dada. As a writer who during 20s and 30s wrote anti-Fascist literature, he caused scandals and rage in the Nazi party with his plays and chansons. When the Nazis came to power his books were burnt, he was prosecuted as a ''Jewish subversionist," stripped of his citizenship and imprisoned. After escaping an internment camp, he fled to the USA where he eventually got a citizenship. [expand]

##1896 - Séverin Ferandel (d. 1978), French travel agency interpreter, anarchist militant and syndicalist, who ran a radical bookstore, aided Spanish refugees, etc. while living in France and Mexico, born.

[C] 1907 - Bolesław Stein (d. 1969), Polish doctor, anarcho-syndicalist and WWII freedom fighter, born. In November 1926, he was a co-founder of the Organizacja Młodzieży Radykalnej (Organisation of Radical Youth) in Krakow. From November 1929 chairperson of ZPMD in Krakow. Expelled from University for political reasons. Continued his studies in Wilnus [Vilna] (nowadays Lithuania). Worked in Liga Samopomocy Gospodarczej (League of Economic Mutual Aid). Since 1936 chairman of District Council of Związku Związków Zawodowych (ZZZ; Union of Workers Unions) in Wilnus. In April 1938 stood up court accused of libelling Stanislaw Mackiewicz, editor of the conservative paper 'Słowo'. He was also penalized for publishing a leaflet and taking part in a strike. After his studies, worked in a military sanatorium in Rabka (southern Poland). On April 2, 1939, he became a member of Central Department of ZZZ. In 1939 mobilized in Vilna, but managed to get to Lviv (nowadays Ukraine) where he was co-initiator of anti-soviet conspiracy Rewolucyjny Zwiazek Niepodległosci i Wolnosci (Revolutionary Union of Independence and Freedom) which included syndicalists, socialists and peasant movement activists. The organisation was crushed in January 1940. At the same time Boleslaw Stein organized the evacuation of children from the TB hospital in Rabka. During WWII member of ZWZ-AK. From 1940 lived in Krakow. As director of St. John of God Hospital, he provided help to soldiers of Armia Krajowa (AK; Home Army), Armia Ludowa (AL; People's Army), Jews, English pilots and others. After Warsaw Uprising he helped Warsaw fugitives. In 1945 he joined the Polska Partia Socjalistyczna (PPS; Polish Socialist Party) – after unification he stayed in Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza (PZPR; Polish Unified Workers Party – communist regime party). Died 21st October 1969 in Krakow.

1919 - Bavarian Council Republic [Bayerische / Münchner Räterepublik]: With Ebert's troops massing on Bavaria's northern borders, the Red Guards began arresting people they considered to be hostile to the new regime. On April 29, 1919, eight men were executed after being found guilty of being right-wing spies. From April 29 to May 2, government forces go on to crush the Republic of the Councils of Bavaria in Munich. Resistance results in many hard-fought street battles. Many resistors (workers, socialists, anarchists, sympathisers) are summarily executed, leaving over 700 dead.

1980 - Jehan Jonas (Gérard Béziat; b. 1944), French chanteur libertaire, cabaret singer, poet, playwright, screenwriter, dies. [see: Aug. 12]

1989 - I Congreso Extraordinario de CNT-CGT: The CNT-Congreso de Valencia aka CNT-U(nificación) changes its name to the Confederación General del Trabajo having lost the legal battle for the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo name.
[ -breve-introduccion-historica-0ón_Nacional_del_Trabajoía:CNTía:CGT_(España)]

## 2009 - Leonidas Christakis (Λεωνίδας Χρηστάκης; b. 1928), Greek writer, painter, editor, anarchist and counterculture figurehead, dies.

2013 - 580 prisoners on hunger strike in Larisa prison, Greece.
1843 - Charles Keller (d. 1913), French poet, Paris Communard and Bakuninist, born. Companion of Mathilde Roederer, a militant in the A.I.T. and Jura Federation. Author of the song 'La Jurassienne' which was put to music by James Guillaume.

1844 - H.D. Thoreau accidentally burns 300 acres of forest near Concord, Massachusetts during a fishing trip, causing $2,000 in damages.

1855 - Primera Huelga General de España: The civil governor of Barcelona, Pascual Madoz, prohibited both factory closures by employers and the "collective abandonment of labour" by workers, and also introduced that requirement for workers' associations to get government authorisation in order to continue functioning. [see: Jul. 2]

1865 - Max Nettlau (Max Heinrich Hermann Reinhardt Nettlau; d. 1944), German anarchist, historian, bibliographer and philologist, born. Edited and financed 'The Anarchist Labour Leaf'. A member of the Freedom Group, Max also helped fund the 'Torch for Freedom'. His writings include 'Bibliographie de l'Anarchie' (1897), and 'Errico Malatesta: The Biography of an Anarchist' (1924). [expand]

1871 - Following a call to boycott elections in the La Guillotière districy of Lyon, the Town Hall (Place du Pont) is occupied by the Guard Nationale to prohibit access to the polls with the complicity of the majority of the population. Barricades are erected on the Grand rue de la Guillotière and the Cours des Brosses. Under orders from the Préfet Valentin, the army arrives from Perrache to face a crowd of 20 000 to 25 000 people shouting "Do not shoot! [Rifle] Butts in the air! Don't go against the people!" The two columns of infantry take up positions by the Pont de la Guillotière and by the Rue de Marseille, and begin dispersing the demonstrators around 19:45 by shooting. The insurgents fight back from behind their barricades and the battle lasts until 23:00, when the military are getting artillery ready to break down the doors of the Town Hall. Thirty are killed in the fighting.

[BB] 1883 - Luigi Russolo (d. 1947), Italian Futurist painter, composer and anarchist, born. The author of the manifesto 'L'Arte dei Rumori' (The Art of Noises; 1913), who designed and constructed his noise-generating devices or Intonarumori. Born into a very musical family, he seriously considered becoming a musician but moved to Milan and studied art at the Accademia di Brera. He joined the Famiglia Artistica di Milano group where he first met Carlo Carrà and Umberto Boccioni. At this stage he was interested mainly in Symbolist-influenced painting and engraving.
Russolo joined the Futurist movement at the beginning of 1910 and immediately became an activist, taking part in all the serata, or Futurist evenings, and other activities. He signed the 'Manifesto of the Futurist Painters' (1910) and the 'Technical Manifesto of Futurist Painting' (1910). Russolo was committed to being the movement's musical activist as well as a political activist. Like many others, Russolo supported the Anarchist movement and contributed to their journals. In 1913 he co-signed, with Marinetti, Boccioni and Carrà, the manifesto 'Political Programme of Futurism' that was published in 'Lacerba' on October 15. During 1914 he participated in the interventionist demonstrations and was arrested and imprisoned for six days with Marinetti, Boccioni, Carrà and Mazza. When Italy entered the First World War, Russolo joined the Lombard Volunteer Cyclist Battalion with many of his Futurist friends.
The first public performance of his Intonarumori noise machines took place at the Teatro dal Verme in Milan on April 21 1914 provoked a riot. So loud was the audience that the music was all but inaudible. Concerts followed that year at the Politeama Genovese in Genoa and at the London Coliseum. In 1921, after WWI, he presented three concerts in Paris (Théatre des Champs-Elysées) and, in 1922, the intonarumori provided a musical backdrop to Filippo Tommaso Marinetti's play 'Il Tamburo di Fuoco' (The Drums of Fire).
Due to his opposition to Fascism, Russolo spent most of his time between 1927 and 1932 in Paris. In 1931 he moved to Tarragona in Spain, where he studied occult philosophy and then in 1933 returned to Italy, settling in Cerro di Laveno on Lake Maggiore. Russolo published his philosophical investigations 'Al di là della Materia' (Beyond Matter) in 1938. In 1941-42, he took up painting again in a realist style that he called "classic-modern". Russolo died at Cerro di Lavenio in 1947.

## [A] 1883 - Jaroslav Hašek (d. 1923), Czech novelist, satirist, Bolshevik, story writer, journalist and anarchist, born. Austrian police informers considered him "particularly dangerous". Author of the classic four-volume anti-militarist novel, 'The Good Soldier Švejk'. Described by Cecil Parrott, his biographer and an unrivalled authority on him and his work, as: "Truant, rebel, vagabond, anarchist, play-actor, practical joker, bohemian (and Bohemian), alcoholic, traitor to the Czech legion, Bolshevik and bigamist", a list that also omits bank teller, chemist’s assistant, dog breeder, sketch writer, cabaret performer, soldier and POW.
In 1906 he joined the anarchist movement, having taken part in the 1897 anti-German riots in Prague as a schoolboy, and gave regular lectures to groups of proletarian workers. In 1907 he became editor of the anarchist magazine 'Komuna' and faced regular periods of arrest and imprisonment for his anarchist activities. In 1911 he created the Strana Mírného Pokroku v Mezích Zákona (Party of Moderate Change within the Boundaries of the Law), wrote its manifesto and ran for office under its banner.
His journalist career encompassed 'Ženský Obzor' (Women's Horizon; 1908); 'Svět Zvířat' Animal World, from which he was fired for inventing animals and advertising werewolves; 'Českého Slova' (Czech Word; 1911); followed by 'Pochodně' (Porches), 'Humoristických Listů' (Humorist Pages), 'Kopřiv' (Nettle) and 'Karikatur' (Cartoons). Later on he also started the Kynologický ústav (Cynology Institute) [Cynology is the study of matters related to canines or domestic dogs], from where he sold stolen dogs with forged pedigrees, and which later inspired him to write the book 'Můj Obchod se Psy' (My Business is Dogs; 1986). He also ended up writing for and performing in cabaret alongside Emil Artur Longen.
Drafted into the 91st Infantry Regiment of the Austro-Hungarian Army, he fought on the Galician front before being captured by the Russians on September 24, 1915, all experiences that fed into 'The Good Soldier Švejk' (orig. 'Osudy Dobrého Vojáka Švejka za Světové Války' or 'The Fateful Adventures of the Good Soldier Švejk During the World War'). As a POW he contracted typhus but was recruited as a volunteer in June 1916 to fight in the revoluční dobrovolná vojska (revolutionary voluntary army), the Českých Budějovicích (Czechoslovak Legion), where he acted as a clerk, journalist, soldier and recruitment agent. In March 1918, the Czechoslovak Legion was sent to the Western Front, but Hašek decide to desert, joining the Red Army, mainly working as a recruiter and propaganda writer. He also fought as a commander of the Czechoslovak section of Red Army soldiers against the White Army, as well as apparently presiding over a number of executions and working as a Political Commisar.
Already having been married to Jarmila Mayerová in 1910, he embarked on a second short-lived, bigamous marriage in 1920 and shortly after Czeck papers carried the news that the traitor and bigamist was dead. That however did not stop him from resuming his bohemian lifestyle in Prague (it is said that the Soviet authorities sent him back to Czechoslovakia to help organise the Communist movement), where he poked fun at his own obituary, penning an article called 'How I Met the Author of My Obituary'. More importantly he settled down to write the Švejk books, which remained unfinished when he died from the tuberculosis that he had caught during the war. His death largely passed unremarked as the Czechoslovak Finance Minister, Alois Rašín, had just been assassinated by an anarchist.
In Czech, Švejk’s name is now a verb, and a strategy of passive resistance close to Zen: to rebel against the world it is enough to agree to everything, completely.

1886 - On the eve of May 1, 50,000 workers in Chicago are on strike. 30,000 more swell their ranks tomorrow, bringing most of Chicago manufacturing to a standstill. Chicago cops kill four unionists on the 3rd. A demonstration will be held on the 4th in Haymarket Square; a cop is killed by a never identified assailant and eight anarchists (some not in attendance) are tried for murder and sentenced to death.

1894 - Raymond Lachèvre (d. 1976), French militant anti-militarist, anarchist and syndicalist, born.

1901 - Jaume Rosquillas i Magrinyà (d. Nov. 1976, Mexico), Catalan construction worker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, and transport commissioner during the Spanish Revolution, born.

1902 - Carlo Gambuzzi (b. 1837), Italian Anarchist, who fought alongside Garibaldi at the Battle of Aspromonte in 1862, dies. [see: Apr. 30]

1903 - Simone Larcher (true name Rachel Willissek) (d. 1969), French proofreader, anti-militarist and anarchist, born. With her companion, Louis Louvet, she publishes the newspapers 'l'Éveil des Jeunes Libertaires' and 'L'Anarchie', which continues until 1929. [expand]

1919 - Criminal Syndicalism: The Criminal Syndicalism Act of 1919 passes into law in California, making it a felony to encourage or provoke, in anyway, violence with a political motivation. It was used to outlaw speaking out against the government and to punish individuals who did so. The act’s main target was the IWW. The Act was not repealed until 1991.
The act defined criminal syndicalism as "any doctrine or precept advocating, teaching or aiding and abetting the commission of crime, sabotage (which word is hereby defined as meaning willful and malicious physical damage or injury to physical property), or unlawful acts of force and violence or unlawful methods of terrorism as a means of accomplishing a change in industrial ownership or control, or effecting any political change." A person in violation of the act could be sentenced to prison. Whitney was tried, convicted, and sentenced to imprisonment.

1920 - Following a meeting in Rome on the Russian Revolution, attended by the anarchist Spartaco Stagnetti, the police open fire on the crowd wounding several demonstrators. The crowd fight back killing one guard and wounding several others.

1923 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: In the Sacco and Vanzetti case, the Hamilton motion for a new trial for the anarchists is filed. It is based upon criminologist and gun case expert Hamilton who signed an affidavit stating that said the bullets at the scene and in Berardelli did not come from Sacco’s gun.

1930 - Félix Guattari (Pierre-Félix Guattari; d. 1992), French psychotherapist, philosopher, semiologist, and libertarian Marxist, born.

[B] 1936 - Antonio Artero Coduras (d. 2004), Spanish libertarian filmmaker and essayist, is born to an anarchist mother held in Zaragoza prison.

[D] 1966 - Spanish ecclesiastic adviser to the Vatican, the prelate Marcos Ussia, is kidnapped by the anarchist 1st May Group. The action was explained by Luis A. Edo, demanding the release of all political prisoners of Franco's jails. This action was mainly symbolic, designed to bring international attention to the plight of Spanish anarquistas and other victims of the repression in fascist Spain. Ussia was released on May 11, in good health.

2012 - Cleveland 5: 5 Occupy Cleveland activists are arrested in an FBI sting operation, jointly charges with conspiracy, attempted use of an explosive device to destroy property in interstate commerce, and attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction to destroy property in interstate commerce, after allegedly having planned to blow up Ohio bridges.
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C] 2016 [D] 2017 [E] 2018 [F]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC] 2016 [DD] 2017 [EE] 2018 [FF]
Monthly features: 2013 [AAA] 2014 [BBB] 2015 [CCC] 2016 [DDD] 2017 [EEE] 2018 [FFF]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)


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