1838 - Louis Champalle (d. unknown), French weaver and anarchist, who was involved in the Procès des 66, born.

1884 - Eugène Camille Marie Dieudonné aka 'Aubertin' (d. 1944), French individualist, illegalist anarchist and member of the Bonnot Gang, born.

1886 - The Melbourne Anarchist Club is founded.

1890 - In Vienna, the working population responding to the call of anarchist Louise Michel, Eugène Thennevin and Peter Martin takes to the streets to encourage those working to strike. News of the planned protests and the workers' demands of a reduction in the working day to 8 hours, the introduction of universal suffrage, a pension and invalidity, widow's and orphan care and benefits, had spread fear amongst the city's bosses and bourgeoisie. The marches were banned, with the editorial of the May 1 edition of the 'Neue Freie Presse' claiming: "The soldiers are on standby, the doors of the houses are closed, in the homes provisions are being prepared for a siege, the shops are deserted, women and children dare not venture on to the street."
However, the working population was not intimidated and more than 100,000 took to the streets bearing red flags and black flags and singing 'La Carmagnole' but it does not take long before the agents of law and order arrive. In response to their intervention, barricades were erected, a textile factory was ransacked and, inevitably, leaders amongst the workers were arrested. Spontaneous strikes broke out, which continued for a week. In August 1890, three anarchists were handed down long sentences by the Assize Court in Isere for their supposed part in these events. [see: Aug. 8]

1891 - The first issue of 'Le Pot à Colle' (The Glue Pot), published by l'Union Syndicale de l'Ebénisterie et du Meuble Sculpté (syndicalist union of joiners and furniture carvers), appears in the Bagnolet district of Paris

1891 - In Rome, where the internationalist anarchist Amilcare Cipriani and Galileo Palla are speaking at a rally calling for the reduction of the working day to eight hours, the police attack the crowd of more than two hundred with their swords. The crowd retaliate with stones. A worker, Antonio Picistrelli, and a police officer are killed and more than a hundred injured. Over two hundred people are arrested in the following days, including Cipriani and Palla.

1892 - Anarchists disrupt the Central Labour Union's May Day celebration in Union Square, New York. In retaliation, the organisers of the celebration stop Emma Goldman's speaking by hitching a horse to the open wagon she is using as a platform and pulling it away.

1893 - André Veidaux produces a special anarchist edition of the Parisian fortnightly arts review 'La Plume', which is illustrated by Camille and Lucien Pissarro, Adolphe Willette, Maximilien Luce, Duclos and Henri-Gabriel Ibels.

1896 - The first issue of the fortnightly anarchist newspaper 'L'Insurge' is published in Brussels.

1896 - At a demonstration in Union Square, Emma Goldman helps to distribute a May Day anarchist manifesto written by her and a group of American-born comrades in New York.

1898 - Anna Olay (Chaia Edelstein; d. 1957), Lithuanian-American anarchist militant, born. She arrived in New York in April 1906 and became involved in the Free Society Group in Chicago. Along with her husband Maximiliano Olay, she ran the Spanish Labour Press Bureau, a news service for the anarchists during the Spanish revolution. A few years after her husband died she came to Los Angeles, living briefly with the anarchist Dora Stoller Keyser. Olay continued to live in the Los Angeles area until she committed suicide on February 25, 1957. It should be noted that Olay's son, Lionel Olay, was a hippie/beatnik anarchist and author. He was a close associated of Hunter S. Thompson before passing due to a stroke.

##1902 - During the widespread anti-anarchist repression that followed Leon Czolgosz's assassination of President William McKinley, which included the arrest and jailing of the internationally renowned anarchist and editor of German language anarchist newspaper 'Freiheit' Johann Most, and the finding by US courts that anarchists and their speech did not deserve constitutional protection, anarchist and other radicals come together to found the Free Speech League, predecessor of the American Civil Liberties Union.

1905 - The Federación de Obreros Panaderos "Estrella del Perú" (Workers' Union of Bakeries "Star of Peru"), which the previous year had been reconstituted from the remnants of the old union and the Sociedad Obrera de Panaderos, led by Manuel C. Lévano, which had disbanded from the craft-based Confederación de Artesanos "Unión Universal" (Confederation of Craftsmen "Universal Union"), adopts a new constitution.

1905* - Joaquim Penina Sucarrats (d. 1930), Catalan bricklayer, Tolstoyan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, naturist and vegetarian, who established himself in Argentina where he was summarily executed during the dictatorship of José Félix Uriburu, born.
[* May 1, 1910 and Apr. 14, 1910 are alternate dates given]

1907 - During a demonstration in Paris, Jacob Law, a Ukrainian anarchist (born in Balta in 1887), puts five bullets into a bus of cavalry officers returning to an Imperial battleship. He was sent to prison in Guyana, until released on May 10, 1924. A lifelong anarchist, his memoirs, 'Dix-huit Ans de Bagne' (18 Years of Exile), appeared 1926.

1907 - The first issue of 'L'Exploitée: Organe des femmes travaillant dans les usines, les ateliers et les ménages' (The Exploited: Paper of women working in factories, workshops and households) is published in Bern. It has considerable influence in the unionisation of workers, in particular needle makers and goes on to become their official newspaper in Oct. 1907.

1908 - The anarchist Alexander Berkman addresses a crowd in Union Square on May Day.

1908 - The first issue of 'La Palanca: publicación feminista de propaganda emancipadora', "órgano de la Asociación de Costureras", is published in Santiago de Chile.

##1909 - Semana Roja: In Argentina, Police open fire on a Federación Regional Obrera Argentina (FORA; previously FOA) demonstration, killing several activists. [EXPAND]

1913 - First May Day celebrations in Mexico. Also La Casa del Obrero (House of the Worker) changes it's name to Casa del Obrero Mundial (House of the World-wide Worker).

1914 - The first issue of the monthly 'Le Falot: Critique Populaire Valaisan' is published in Vouvry, Switzerland. Created by Clovis Pignat and directed by a group of friends unionists, anarchists and free thinkers, the four page newspaper includes one in Italian.

1919 - Peru General Strike for the 8-hour Work Day: Following the rejection of the workers' demands as expressed in the April 13th manifesto published by the Comité Pro-Abaratamiento de las Subsistencias (Committee for the Lowering of Subsistence), a general strike is called by the Comité.
On May 4 a demonstration in Lima was violently suppressed. In El Callao, which suffered a total shut down of employers, there were serious clashes between the army and the workers, with a large number of deaths and looting. The main workers and anarchist leaders were arrested, including Gutarra, Fonkén and Barba. In Chosica there were also two dead and several wounded. The government imposed the Martial Law, and raided private homes, and local anarchist and trade union offices. A new anti-riot force, denominated Guardia Urbana, was created due to the reluctance of some troops to take part in the repression of the workers movement. But the popular movement did not withdraw and on July 4, the President of the Republic José Pardo y Barreda was deposed. On July 12 the detainees were released and there were popular demonstrations of celebration.

1920 - The first issue of 'Le Réveil de L'Esclave: Organe mensuel d'Éducation Individualiste et Libertaire' is published in Pierrefitte, near Paris.

1920 - The first edition of 'Der Freie Arbeiter', the Brazilian revolutionary anarchist twice weekly 'Journal of Socialist Workers and German Association, is published in Porto Alegre.

1920 - A rally at the Trades Union hall in Turin attended by over 100,000 is addressed by speakers including the anarchist Raffaele Schiavina. The meeting ends when the police attack the crowd, firing into it killing two and wounding thirty.

1920 - With the Fédération Nationale des Cheminots responding to the strike movements in the transport sector running out of steam by calling for a new staggered unlimited strike (grève illimitée), timed to coincide with the traditional workers' May Day demonstrations, the French government fearing the possibility of insurrectionary riots in Paris had sent the military in to support the gendarmerie. Troops now occupy Paris railway stations, whilst the city's avenues are patrolled as a preventive measure by police patrols, mounted dragoons and municipal guards, whilst tanks and armoured cars stand guard on street corners. However, the mobilisation fails to prevent demonstrations across the country turning violent. In fact, rather than preventing trouble, it ends up provoking trouble and leads to the death of at least two people in Paris. One, a 60-year-old woman, who had been standing at a first floor window in the Rue Beaurepaire was hit in the head by a police bullet, dying in an ambulance en route to hospital. In another incident, on the Boulevard de Magenta around 14:30, demonstrators whistled at a group of police officers passing by, to which the police responded with a sabre charge, setting of often bloody skirmishes in the district, in one of which the député Alexandre Blanc was wounded.
The following day 'Le Gaulois' spoke of a "fiasco anarchiste", during which "quelques agents ont suffi à mettre à la raison les apprentis bolchevistes" (a few agents have sufficed to put the Bolshevist apprentices to the test). The paper also reported tow dead and thirty injured. In 'Le Figaro', the right-wing journalist Louis Latzarus hailed the victory of the "bourgeois" over the "manuels" (manual workers): "La volonté de nous défendre, la résolution ferme de ne pas subir le gouvernement des manuels, telle est notre arme, tel est notre salut." (The will to defend ourselves, the firm resolution not to undergo the government of the manual class, is our weapon, this is our salvation.)
In Paris the general strike is largely a failure, with the syndicats 'jaunes' (yellow unions) and the mobilisation of the bourgeoisie and students from the grandes écoles stepping in to run Parisian transport services.

1923 - Sakae Ōsugi, the Japanese anarchist, makes a speech at a May Day gathering in Paris. He is arrested and deported. Sakae returned to Japan, where he was, shortly thereafter, murdered by military police, along with anarcho-feminist writer Noe Itō and a 6-year old nephew.

## 1925 - Bergljot Hobæk Haff (d. 2016), Norwegian novelist and anarchist, who was author of 'Jeg, Bakunin: Bruddstykker av en urostifters liv og levned' (I Bakunin: Fragments of an agitator's life now; 1983), born in Botne (now Holmestrand), Norway.

1926 - In Switzerland, 'Le Réveil Communiste Anarchiste' shortens its name, from today on simply called 'Le Reveil Anarchiste' (The Anarchist Alarm Clock). Luigi Bertoni founded the paper in Genève, in 1900, as 'Il Risveglio anarchico, Le Réveil Socialiste Anarchiste'. Bilingual (Italian-French), it printed different articles depending on the language. Bertoni edited the paper until his death in 1947.

1931 - In France, the pacifists, anarchists and néo-Malthusians Jeanne Humbert and Eugène Humbert begin publishing the newspaper 'La Grande Réforme'.

1931 - In Barcelona, and against the background of rising social tensions, the CNT organise a demonstration. Amongst the delegates from the international anarchist movement are: Augustin Souchy (Germany), Ida Mett and Volin (Russia), Camillo Berneri (Italy), Helmut Rüdiger (Sweden), and Louis Lecoin and Pierre Odeon (France). A huge procession, estimated at more than 100,000 people, gathers to demand the radical reform of society by the new Republic. At 13 hours, the event is blocked by the Civil Guard. An officer advances, revolver drawn. Francisco Ascaso attempts to negotiate, but when the Guardia Civil demands the immediate dissolution of the event, Ascaso disarms him with a punch. The disarmed officer returns to his men. Durruti, brandishing a red and black flag, exclaims "Passage to the FAI!" The crowd then invades Plaza de la Constitución, but when delegates try to enter the Palace to present their resolutions, shooting from the building causes panic and the first victims in ranks of demonstrators. Some groups of armed workers then retaliated with gunfire despite an appeal for calm from Durruti (who is injured, as is Ascaso). A company of infantry, commanded by Captain Miranda, sides with the demonstrators, ending the confrontation.
Result: 1 dead and 15 wounded on the protesters, side, two dead and several wounded amongst the civil guards and Carabinieri.

1931 - Olivier O. Olivier (Pierre Marie Olivier; d. 2011), French painter, Pataphysician and cultural anarchist, born. Member of the Mouvement Panique (Panic Movement), an anarchist avant-garde collective, with Fernando Arrabal, Alejandro Jodorowsky, Roland Topor, Christian Zeimert and Jacques Sternberg. Awarded the Ordre de La Grande Gidouille of the Collège de Pataphysique in 1957, later appointed the Régent d'Onirographie 2005 and a Transcendent Satrap posthumously in 2012.

1932 - Paul (Pol or Paulo) Chenard (d. 1993), French anarcho-individualist and anti-militarist, born. Activist in the Anarchist Federation, including the 14th group (Paris), he wrote a regular column in 'Le Monde Libertaire' and broadcast on the Paris station Radio Libertaire using the pseudonym le Père Peinard. Son of Raoul Chenard. Creator of the free anti-militarist news sheet 'Fais Pas le Zouave!' (1971).

1933 - Christian anarchist 'Catholic Worker' newspaper founded, New York City.

1935 - The first issue of 'Tierra Libre', weekly paper of the Federation of Anarchist groups in the Sueca region, is published in Valencia. Only four issues are printed, the last dated 25 May 1935.

1936 - The fourth congress of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo is held in Zaragoza, Spain.

1937 - 60,000 people gather in Hyde park in London for a May Day demonstration, the first time in 30 years that an anarchist, Emma Goldman, under the auspices of the London Committee of the CNT-FAI, has appeared on the platform. EG speaks about the revolutionary experience and the collectivisation then being carried out on the Iberian Peninsula. The speech is the result of her experiences as a militant anarcho-syndicalist that she gained on her first trip to these lands.

1945 - Probable date of the death of Pierre-Jules Ruff (b. 1877), Algerian anarchist and anti-militarist, in the Neuengamme concentration camp crematorium the day before the camp was liberated by Allied forces. [see: Aug. 19]

1946 - The first issue of the anarchist newspaper 'Germinal' is published in Trieste.

1968 - In Paris, during the traditional May Day demonstrations fights break out around a black flag as Communists try to exclude the anarchists from the procession.

1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: A bomb explodes in the Biba boutique in trendy Kensington. It was accompanied by Angry Brigade Communique 8.

1973 - Asger Oluf Jorn (b. 1914), Danish painter, sculptor, ceramic artist, printmaker, author, founding member of the avant-garde movement COBRA and the Situationist International, dies. [see: Mar. 3]

1983 - Adriano Inácio Botelho (d. 1892), Portuguese anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist militant, dies. [see: Sep. 12]

1990 - Parisian Metro's Stalingrad station is renamed Commune de Krondstad by the libertarian group Commune de Paris.
"S'il ya faillite des idéologies, ce n'est pas le cas de nos idéaux reposant sur la liberté de chacun, l'égalité pour tous, l'entr'aide et le fédéralisme autogestionnaire." (If there is a bankruptcy of ideologies, it is not the case with our ideals which rest on the freedom of everyone, equality for all, mutual aid self-management and federalism.)

1995 - Artür Harfaux (born Arthur Julien René Harfaux; b. 1906), French designer, photographer, writer and screenwriter, dies. [see: May 29]

1998 - Zapatista Uprising: In a police and military operation the autonomous municipality of Tierra y Libertad, with its municipal seat in Amparo Agua Tinta, is dismantled. 53 people are detained.

2008 - Frédéric H. Fajardie (b. 1947), French libertarian writer of detective, adventure and 'neo-thriller' fiction, screenplays, film dialogue and radio plays, dies. [see: Aug. 28]

2014 - Police arrest 10 anarchists, out of a group of approx. 100 who gathered at the central railway station in downtown Helsinki prior to the May Day rally, for alleged possession of weapons, sticks with supposedly sharpened ends which were disguised as flags. A couple of days later, the police are forced to apologise that the flagpoles were not confiscated from the anarchist protesters: "A closer examination of the matter has revealed that the flagpoles that were confiscated from cars were not connected to the anarchists’ demonstration," the police said in a statement.
[B] 1860 - Luigi Francesco Giovanni Parmeggiani aka Louis Marcy (d. 1945), Italian anarchist individualist expropriator, onetime apprentice typographer, shoemaker, and latterly a journalist, publisher, antiques dealer and forger of medieval and Renaissance caskets, jewellery and reliquaries, born. A notorious exiled anarchist individualist in London in the late 1880s and early 1890s, where Parmeggiani adopted the pseudonym Louis Marcy. Amongst the victims of his forgeries were, much to their embarrassment, was the Victorian and Albert and British Museums, the Louvre, the Musée du Grand Palais and the Metropolitan Museum. Published a book of poems, 'Versi', in 1899. Co-founder of the Galleria Anna e Luigi Parmeggiani in Reggio Emilia. [other sources cite d.o.b. as July 24 1858]

1869 - Giuseppe Fannelli founds the AIT section in Barcelona, ​​with a number of distinguished names amongst its members: Rafael Farga Pellicer and Antonio Marsal Anglora, appointed secretaries of the organisation, Gaspar Sentiñón, Trinidad Soriano, José García Viñas, Juan Nuet, Jaime Balasch, Clement Bové and Juan Fargas. The Madrid section would not be officially recognised until December that year.

1882* - [N.S. Jun. 14] Pavel Potsev Shatev, aka Georgi Manasov [Георги Манасов], Kratovaliev [Кратовалиев] (Павел Поцев Шатев; d. 1951), Bulgarian / Macedonian teacher and journalist, member of the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна македоно-одринска революционна организация [bg] / Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Организација [mk]), one of the Soldiers of Thessaloniki, and later one of the founders of the Inner Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (united) (Внатрешна македонска револуционерна организација (обединета) [mk] / Вътрешна македонска революционна организация - обединена [bg]), Mason and one of the anarchist Gemidzhii (гемиджиите) Circle involved in the 1903 Thessaloniki bombings, born. [see: Jun. 14]
[* many sources appear to have either gotten the Julian to Gregorian calendar alteration wrong (Jun. 2 to 15?) or the translation of юни (June) incorrect, widely quoted as July (јули)]

#### 1883 - Otto Weidt (d. 1947), German anarchist and pacifist, who ran a workshop in Berlin for the blind and deaf and fought to protect his Jewish workers against deportation during the Holocaust, born. As one of his customers was the Wehrmacht, Weidt managed to have his business classified as vital to the war effort. Up to 30 blind and deaf Jews were employed at his shop between the years of 1941 and 1943. When the Gestapo began to arrest and deport his Jewish employees, he fought to secure their safety by falsifying documents, bribing officers and hiding them in the back of his shop. Though Weidt, forewarned, kept his shop closed on the day of the Fabrikaktion in February 1943, many of his employees were still deported. After the war, Otto Weidt established an orphanage for survivors of the concentration camps. He died of heart failure only 2 years later, in 1947. On September 7, 1971, Yad Vashem recognised Weidt as a Righteous Man of the World's Nations.

1895 - In Florence, the trial of Oreste Lucchesi and Amerigo Franchi begins. They are on trial (May 22) for assassinating Giuseppe Bandi, editor of 'Il Telegrafo', on July 1, 1894. His articles resulted in the repression and arrest of numerous anarchists.

1895 - Jacques-Mécislas Charrier (d. 1922), French anarchiste illégaliste, guillotined for an attempted train robbery in which a person was killed, born. Charrier was not the killer, but he defended his illegalist actions and defied the court to take his head. They obliged. [NB: not to be confused with Mécislas Golberg - see Dec 28]

1897 - Romeo Frezzi (b. 1867), Italian anarchist, who was arrested on April 27,1897, in connection with the attempted assassination of King Umberto I five days earlier (he was found in possession of a photo of a group of people, including the putative assassin Pietro Acciarito), dies under interrogation in San Michele prison in Rome. Initially, the Rome police stated that the Frezzi had committed suicide by repeatedly beating her head against the wall. The second version instead spoke of a sudden aneurysm. According to the third version, however, he committed suicide by jumping from a prison window that overlooked the courtyard. The newspaper 'l'Avanti' conducted a campaign to seek out the truth. An autopsy later revealed that Frezzi's death could not be due to a suicide, but was the result of an unprecedented beating: it spoke of a fractured skull, his spine being complete detached, as was his right shoulder, broken ribs and injuries to the spleen and pericardium. [see: Aug. 17]

1897 - Demonstration in Rome after anarchist Romeo Frezzi is found dead in a prison cell, believed murdered by his police guards.

1915 - Following the repudiation at the IX Congreso on April 1 of the principles of anarcho-communism established at the V Congreso in 1905, at an emergency assembly the anarchist minority splits from the FORA del IX Congreso rump to form the FORA del V Congreso (anarquista) in order to maintain adherence to the declaration of the Fifth Congress. [expand]

1916 - Revolución Mexicana: At Carrancista Gen. Gonzales attacks Zapatists forces in Morelos, with air support. 30,000 man army occupies every major town in the state.

1918 - Amilcare Cipriani (b. 1844), Italian Garibaldian revolutionary, partisan internationalist, communard, anarchist and socialist, dies. [Oct. 18]

1918 - Maria Malla Fàbregas (Malla Rosell o Mariposilla; d. 1995), Catalan writer, poet, and anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, born. [expand]

## 1919 - Gustav Landauer (b. 1870), German anarchist revolutionist and theorist, is murdered by soldiers. Called a 'mystical' anarchist, Landauer was involved in the Red Bavaria uprising. [see: Apr. 7]

1919 - Pierre Chardon (Maurice Charron) (b. 1892), French militant individualist anarchist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Nov. 3]

##1921 - Paul Wulf (d. 1999), German anarchist and communist artist, and anti-fascist victim of the Nazi regime's sterilisation programmes, born. One-time member of the KPD and the Vereinigung der Verfolgten des Naziregimes (Association of Victims of the Nazi Regime; VVN). Known for his John Heartfield and Ernst Friedrich-inspired political collages and anti-fascist exhibitions. Strongly influenced by the writing of Erich Mühsam.

##1921 - Roger Boussinot (d. 2001), French director, writer, screenwriter, critic, film historian and libertarian, who used the pseudonyms Emmanuel Le Lauraguais and Roger Mijema, born. Son of the anarchist teacher and Freinet member Jean Charles Boussinot. Author of the monumental 'Encyclopedia of Cinema' (1967); 'Les Mots de l'Anarchie: Dictionnaire des Idées, des Faits, des Actes, de l'Histoire et des Hommes Anarchistes' (Anarchist Words: Dictionary of Ideas, Facts, Actions, Histories and Anarchists; 1982); and of more than 20 novels, many of which have been dramatised, including: 'Le Sixième Sens' (The Sixth Sense; 1959), 'Les Guichets du Louvre' (The Louvre Ticket Offices; 1960 - adapted for the script to his 1974 anti-fascist film 'Les Guichets du Louvre' aka 'Black Thursday'), 'Le Treizième Caprice' (The Thirteenth Caprice; 1962 - also a 1967 Boussinot-directed film) and 'Vie et Mort de Jean Chalosse' (Life and Death of Jean Chalosse; 1976).

1936 - The 'Sterilisers of Bordeaux' trial in France.

1967 - Ernst Friedrich (b. 1894), German anarchist pacifist founder of the Berlin Peace Museum, dies. [see: Feb. 25]
"Without social revolution there can be no lasting peace....We must prepare systematically an uprising against war." - 'War Against War' (1924).

[D] 1968 - Mai '68: Part of the student union building at the Sorbonne is burned down. Occident, a far-right student movement, is blamed. Students at University of Paris at Nanterre prepare a face-down with the 'fafs' (fascists). Daniel Cohn-Bendit and seven other members of the movement are called in front of a disciplinary commission over events on March 22, when a group of around 100 students, mainly anarchists and Trotskyists, occupied administrative buildings at Nanterre University near Paris in protest at sanctions imposed on anti-Vietnam War activists. The occupation spawned the Mouvement du 22-Mars, which would play an important role in the politicisation of the student strikes that sparked Mai 68.
Following months of conflict between the students and the University of Nanterre administration, the dean Pierre Grappin orders the university's closure, the first significant action in les événements de mai 1968.

1974 - Stefan Kozakiewicz aka ‘Marcinek’ (b. 1914), Polish professor, arts historian and syndicalist, dies. [see: Sep: 12]

1977 - 'Bloody Revolutions' c/w 'Persons Unknown', the joint Crass / Poison Girls single is released on Crass Records, "and sold 20,000 in the first week, with HMV destroying copies (which only helped)". The Crass side is the band's response to the anti-fascist action at the 'notorious' Conway Hall gig on September 8, 1979. The single raised £20,000 to fund the Wapping Autonomy Centre.

1991 - Paul Lapeyre (b. 1910), French anarchist, dies following a car accident. [see: May 28]
1858 - Achille Peretti (Aug. 19, 1923), Italian painter, sculptor and anarchist member of the International, who emigrated to the United States in the 1880s following the Italian government's crackdown on the internationalist movement, establishing himself as a portrait and landscape artist as well as a church decorator including of numerous Italianate frescos, born.

1886 - Chicago police kill four and wound at least 200 after they attack a rally of striking workers outside the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company plant in the city. The workers had gone on strike to demand an 8-hour day and had been locked out since early February, with strikebreakers hired to replace them. Speaking to the rally August Spies advised the striking workers to "hold together, to stand by their union, or they would not succeed." When the end-of-the-workday bell sounded, however, a group of workers surged to the gates to confront the strikebreakers. Despite calls for calm by Spies, the police fired on the crowd. Outraged by this act of police violence, local anarchists quickly printed and distributed fliers calling for a rally the following day at Haymarket Square. Printed in German and English, the fliers claimed that the police had murdered the strikers on behalf of business interests and urged workers to seek justice. The first batch of fliers contain the words "Workingmen Arm Yourselves and Appear in Full Force!" When Spies saw the line, he said he would not speak at the rally unless the words were removed from the flier. All but a few hundred of the fliers were destroyed, and new fliers were printed without the offending words. More than 20,000 copies of the revised flier were distributed.

[B] 1886 - Robert Collino (d. 1975), wrote under the pseudonym Ixigrec; a science fiction author - 'Panurge au Pays des Machines' (1940) and 'Essais Fantastiques du Dr Rob.' (1966) - and anarchist, who wrote for many, many libertarian publications, born.

1890 - Alternative birth date [see: 23 February 1882] for enigmatic novelist, German anarchist revolutionary, B. Traven (d. 1969) aka Otto Feige, Albert Otto Max Wienecke, Berick Traven Torsvan, Hal Croves, Torsvan Croves, Ret Marut, Bent Traven.

##1892 - Hugo Gellert (Gellért Hugó; d. 1985), Hungarian-born American artist, radical illustrator, muralist, socialist and anti-fascist, born. A committed radical, taught art classes at the Ferrer school after it had moved from New York to the anarchist colony at Stelton. He would later join the Communist Party of America.

1906 - Vladimir Striga (Vladimir Lapidus; b. 1885), Russian Jewish anarchist illegalist, dies. Member of the anarchist Bialystok group of Chernoe Znamia (The Black Banner), the largest illegalist anarchist communist organisation in the Russian Empire, and then its dissident group, Kommunary (Communards), which called for a more populist form of anarchism and the need to proclaim a new Paris Commune in Bialystok. Tsarist police repression and the death and mass arrests of anarchists and their supporters forced him into exile in Paris. It was there that he met his fate as one of the bombs he and fellow Russian anrchist Alexander Sokolov were carrying exploded. Striga died in agony an hour later. A wounded Sokolov, his cousin Alexander and his companion Sofia Sperauski were arrested but only Sokolov was found guilty - he received 5 years and a 500 franc fine for possession of explosives.
Striga's brother, Jacob Lepidus (or Joseph Lapidus) will be involved in the 'Tottenham Outrage' (Jan. 23 1909) and will take his own life rather than fall into police hands.

[C] 1917 - María del Milagro Pérez Lacruz aka 'La Jabalina' (The Wild Sow)(d. 1942), Spanish anarchist and member of Juventudes Libertarias, who fought with the Iron Column, born. Following the defeat of the Revolution, and pregnant, she was arrested and eventually sentenced to death. On 9 January 1940 she gave birth, never to see her child again. She was shot by firing squad on August 8 1942 alongside 6 male comrades in Huerta Oeste, Valencia. Her life was the basis for the novel 'Si Me Llegas a Olvidar' (If I Get to Forget; 2013) by Rosana Corral-Márquez.

## 1920 - Sicilian Galleanist anarchist typographer Andrea Salsedo (b. 1881), who had been detained without a warrant or being arrested on March 8 1920, along with his 'Cronaca Sovversiva' colleague Roberto Elia, is defenestrated from the 14th floor of the Department of Justice in NYC. Both men had been held for two months without charges for 'questioning' regarding a pamphlet called 'Plain Words' found at the sites of several recent bombings and which had been printed on the 'Cronaca Sovversiva' presses. They had been tortured and the police claim that they had agreed to inform on their fellow anarchists. [see: Sep. 21]

1928 - In Buenos Aires, to protest against the Italian dictatorship, the anarchist Severino Di Giovanni bombs the Italian consulate (which is being used to eliminate Italian antifascists in exile). Nine killed, 34 wounded.

1929 - René E. Mueller (Ernst René Müller; d. 1991), Swiss writer, poet, Lebenskünstler and anarchist, born.
'Poetische Aderlässe' (Poetic Bloodletting; 1960), 'Geheul um Gabriela. Ein Lyrisches Pamphlet' (Howl at Gabriela. A Lyrical Pamphlet; 1968), 'Engel der Strasse. Ein Anti-Roman' (Angels of the Road. An Anti-Novel; 1976) and 'Geliebte Tödin. Poetische Aderlässe' (Beloved Tödin. Poetic Bloodletting; 1986).

"Das Brot ist hart, das Wasser fade,
Keine Cigaretten – schade,
Aus dem Kübel der Gestank
Macht mich krank,
Doch auf meinem Arsche tanzen
Quietschvergnügt zwei Dutzend Wanzen!"

(The bread is hard, the water stale,
No cigarettes - shame
The smell from the bucket
Makes me sick,
But dancing on my ass
Happily are two dozen bugs!)


1937 - Barcelona 'May Days' [Fets de maig del 1937 (ca) or Jornadas de Mayo de 1937 (es)]: Three truckloads (200 in number) of Communist Guardia de Asalto commanded by Rodriguez Salas attempt to seize the worker-run Telefónica telephone exchange in Barcelona. Armed resistance from the CNT workers on the upper floors thwarts this. Within a few hours, a host of armed bands has been formed and the first barricades erected. The mobilisation resolves into two sides: one made up of the CNT, FAI and the POUM (Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista / Workers' Party of Marxist Unification), the other of the Generalitat de Catalunya, the PSUC (Partido Socialista Unificado de Cataluña / Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia; affiliated to the 3rd International and therefore the Partido Comunista de España / Communist Party of Spain), the nationalist ERC (Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya / Republican Left of Catalonia) and the Catalan independence party, Estat Català. Fighting spread to all parts of the city, lasting for four days. Stalinists denounced the Trotskyite POUM as "Franco's Fifth Column" in preparation for its own liquidation (assassinations, etc) of all independent radicals and anarchists (similar to purges in Russia as well).
This signalled the beginning of the Fets de maig del 1937, as it is known in Catalan, or the Jornadas de Mayo de 1937 (in Castillian) - the turning point of the Spanish Civil War and Revolution, when Stalinist counter-revolutionary forces moved against the anarchists and left-communists such as POUM, imposing greater control over the Spanish working class and reintroducing capitalist modes of production.

1958 - Gérard de Lacaze-Duthiers (b. 1876), French individualist anarchist, friend of the arts, pacifist intellectual and originator of the slogan "Make your life a work of art", dies. A prolific author of over 40 books and pamphlets dealing with the arts, literature and pacifism, he founded the magazine 'L'Action d'Art' in 1913 with André Colomer and Manual Devaldès. [see: Jan. 26]

[AA] 1968 - Mai 68: With the Nanterre campus now closed down, students head to the Sorbonne to plan their protests against the closure and the threatened expulsion at Nanterre of the eight Mouvement du 22-Mars-linked students. The Dean of the Sorbonne authorises police to evacuate the premises and students clash violently with police in the Latin Quarter, which surrounds the university. The first paving-stone is thrown at police as the first barricades go up. The whole Latin Quarter becomes a battleground on a scale unseen in recent European history. By morning some 600 are arrested and hundreds were injured, including 83 policemen. The Sorbonne is closed.

1984 - Albano Franchini (b. 1901), Italian anarchist-communist militant and resistance fighter, dies. [see: Aug. 23]

1990 - Karl Ibach (b. 1915), German communist member of the resistance against the Third Reich and later, a writer and politician, dies. [see: Apr. 3]

##[A] 2000 - The Vote Nobody election campaign proves successful today in the Bristol ward of Easton. An Autonomous Zone is declared after 145 people voted for Nobody and just five for the council. One staunch anarchist spoiled his ballot paper.

2008 - Hanon Reznikov (born Howard Reznick; b. 1950), American anarchist, theatre and film actor, writer and co-director of The Living Theatre in New York City (with Judith Malina) following Julian Beck's death in 1985, dies. [see: Sep. 23]

2013 - Russian performance artist and political activist Pyotr Pavlensky performs 'Carcass', a political protest action against the repressive policies of the Putin government.
[B] 1867 - Dynam-Victor Fumet (d. 1949), French composer, organist, anarchist and bombmaker, born. Dynam (his adopted nickname that either came from his musical dynamism or his penchant for practising bomb-making) wrote anarchist verse (which earned him the cancellation of a scholarship), contributed articles to 'La Révolte' and was a friend of Kropotkin and Louise Michel, as well as the likes of Satie and a number of other La Chat Noir regulars (Dynam was the cabaret's orchestra conductor).

1871 - Mynona aka Salomo Friedlaender (d. 1946), German philosopher, author and anarchist individualist, associated with Expressionism and Dada, born. Mynona is an anagram of "anonym" (i.e., anonymous). A Stirneite, he claimed his philosophy as a "synthesis between Immanuel Kant and Charlie Chaplin". Close to amongst others Martin Buber, Alfred Kubin, Gustav Landauer, Else Lasker-Schüler, Erich Mühsam and Ludwig Rubiner, he was also associated artistically with Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Ludwig Meidner and Paul Scheerbart. Mynona also wrote for 'Die Aktion', 'Der Sturm', 'Die Neue Jugend' and 'Den Weißen Blättern' (The White Sheets). In 1919 he co-founded the Stirner-Bund with Anselm Ruest (Ernst Samuel) and its magazine 'Der Einzige'. His final work, 'Der Lachende Hiob' (The Laughing Job; 1935), was published in France after he had fled to Paris in 1933 fearing the posiblity of being picked up by the Gestapo and transported to Auschwitz. The novel, which is narrated by Jusua Zander, a Jewish mine owner Jusua Zander, is a grotesque satire on the Nazi ideology (lampooned as "Organotechnik" by Mynona). Zander faces down the brutality of the Nazis with laughter and his superior rationality: "Wer der Vernunft gehorcht, wird zum Gott der Erde." (Whoever obeys reason, is God of the Earth.)

## 1880 - Bruno Taut (Bruno Julius Florian Taut; d. 1938) German architect, urban planner and author of the Weimar period, born. He was also a social reformer, anarchist and anti-militarist, whose ideas, including his architectural work, were influenced by the ideas of Kropotkin and Landauer, especially the latter's 'Aufruf zum Sozialismus' (Call to Socialism; 1911), born. His 'Die Auflösung der Städt' (The Dissolution of the City; 1920) displays a clear affiliation with Kropotkinite communitarian ideas of community organisation.

1881 - Rodolfo González Pacheco (d. July 5, 1949), Argentine playwright, theatre director, journalist and anarchist agitator, born in Tandil, Argentina.

##1883 - Wang Jingwei (or Wang Ching-wei [汪精衛]), born Wang Zhaoming (or Wang Chao-ming [汪精衛]), but widely known by his pen name 'Jingwei' [精卫](November 10 1944), youthful Chinese anarchist and member of the left wing of the Kuomintang, before becoming a right-wing collaborator with the Japanese as the president of the Nanjing government (1940-44), born in Sanshui, Guangdong.

[A] 1886 - Haymarket Massacre: A bomb thrown at police by a provocateur during a labour demonstration protesting police brutality yesterday at McCormick Reaper Works kills 7 Chicago cops and ultimately results in the trial of eight anarchists, who are condemned to death.
[Costantini pic]

1892 - Paulino Díez Martín (d. 1980), Spanish carpenter, anarcho-syndicalist and CNT militant, who spent frequent periods in jail because of his untiring activism, born. Following the Spanish Revolution he escaped to Panama, where he lived in exile until his death in 1980.

1895 - First appearance of Jean Grave's weekly magazine of 'Les Temps Nouveaux', which, until August 8, 1914, is a formidable journal of anarchist ideas and propaganda.

##1897 - Giovanna Caleffi Berneri (d. 1962), Italian anarchist, propagandist and teacher, born. The partner of Camillo Berneri and mother of Marie Louise and Giliana Berneri (anarchists all), she was involved in anti-fascist resistance during the Second World War and helped rebuild the Italian anarchist movement after it, publishing the underground anarchist paper 'La Rivoluzione Libertaria' in 1944 and then the paper 'Volontà' alongside Cesare Zaccaria.
Giovannina Caleffi was born at Gualtieri near Reggio Emilia on May 4, 1897, to Giuseppe and Caterina Simonazzi, a poor farming family with four other children. Her father emigrated to Pittsburgh in the USA with the oldest son. Giovannina (usually called Giovanna) went to school at Gualtieri and from 1914, to Reggio Emilia where she completed her studies, thanks to the sacrifices of her older brothers. She started going to socialist meetings.
At the age of fifteen, she lost her faith in Catholicism after discussions within her family. She had Adalgisa Fochi as a teacher, a well known writer and noted socialist active in women’s circles. Giovanna got her diploma in 1915 and began to teach in elementary school at Santa Vittoria di Gualtieri and the following year at Montecchio Emilia. In this period she got to know Camillo Berneri, son of her teacher Fochi, a high school student in the FGS (The Socialist Youth Federation, which from 1916 started moving in an anarchist direction). Camillo transferred to Arezzo, where his mother was teaching, and Giovanna joined him there after a year. They were married on November 4, 1917 at Gualtieri. On March 1, 1918, whilst Camillo was in prison for refusing to serve in the army, their first daughter Maria Luisa was born. The family subsequently moved to Florence. Their second daughter Giliana was born there on October 15, 1919. Their house became an important meeting place for anarchists and antifascists.
Camillo was physically attacked twice. The family was forced to move into exile in France, Camillo leaving first, followed after a short interval by Giovanna and their daughters, managing to secretly get over the border into France in August 1926. The family lived on the outskirts of Paris in great poverty. Eventually Camillo, after being hounded by the French authorities at the instigation of the Italian regime, parted for Spain and Giovanna was left to look after the children on her own. Camillo Berneri was murdered by the Stalinists on May 5, 1937. Giovanna attended the funeral with her daughter Maria Luisa.
She gave aid to the Italian comrades expelled from Spain and then interned in French concentration camps. She was an initiator of the C. Berneri Committee in Paris and from 1938 published a collection of Camillo’s writings under the title 'Pensieri e Battaglie' (Thought and Struggle), with a preface by Emma Goldman. In this period she contributed to the underground Italian anarchist press. With the German occupation of France, she was arrested on October 28, 1940, and spent 3 months in the prison of La Santé in Paris. In February 1941 she was deported to Germany and stayed in prison there for 5 months. She was transferred from prison to prison, ending up in Austria where she was handed back to the Italian authorities. She was sentenced on August 25 to a year's imprisonment at Lacedonia in the province of Avellino, for subversive activities against the Italian state. After the completion of her sentence she went into hiding and took part in resistance activities.
She began a relationship with Cesare Zaccaria, an old friend of the family, and moved in with him from February 1943. At the end of the war the new couple worked for the rebirth of the anarchist movement along with Armido Abbate, Pio Turroni and others. They published the underground anarchist paper 'La Rivoluzione Libertaria' in 1944 and then the paper 'Volontà', which, following the anarchist conference in Carrara in 1945, became a magazine to which the writers Ignazio Silone, Albert Camus, Gaetano Salvemini etc contributed and which Giovanna played a key role in.
In the immediate post-war period she was heavily involved in anarchist propaganda and activity. With Zaccaria she wrote the pamphlet 'Societa senza stato' (The Stateless Society) in 1947. She believed in the dire need to relate anarchism to the masses. She was involved in intensive editorial and publishing activity, bringing out writings by Malatesta, Volin, Fabbri, Carlo Doglio and others. She was a leading light in the campaign in favour of birth control, and with Cesare Zaccaria wrote a pamphlet 'Il controllo delle nascite' (Birth Control) in 1948, which collated a series of articles that had appeared from 1947 in Volontà. It was immediately seized by the authorities. She and Zaccaria were put on trial for "propaganda against procreation" ending with their acquittal in May 1950. She contributed articles to various anarchist papers including 'Umanità Nova', 'L’Adunata dei Refrattari', 'Controcorrente' in Boston, 'Il Mondo', 'Il Lavoro Nuovo' in Genoa, etc. She was active within the correspondence committees of the Federazione Anarchica Italiana for several stretches.
In the summer of 1948 she started the project of a summer holiday for children which she continued the following year. In April of the same year, 1949, she suffered the second great tragedy of her life, the death of Maria Luisa at 31. Giovanna decided to honour the memory of her daughter by setting up a libertarian colony for children, the Colonia Maria Luisa Berneri, open to the children of anarchists of all countries. This was first attempted at Cesenatico, but with poor results because of limited funds. On July 1, 1951, the colony became a reality, although on a modest level, thanks to Zaccaria, who put his country house at Piano di Sorrento at its disposal. It sheltered three groups of thirty children. This positive experience lasted 7 years, ending in the summer of 1957, with a large deficit and without the availability of the house at Piano di Sorrento because of the end of the relationship between Giovanna and Zaccaria, and his break with the anarchist movement. She did not give up the project and with other anarchists from various countries managed to acquire a house and land at Ronchi near Marina di Massa.
Giovanna moved to Genova Nervi in 1956, where the administration of Volonta transferred in January 1959. She died of a heart attack on March 14, 1962, in the hospital of Genova Nervi where she was recovering from a serious illness. The anarchist Aurelio Chessa nursed her in her last hours.

1897 - Procesos de Montjuic / Procés de Montjuïc: "The five Anarchists sentenced to death for complicity in the dynamite outrages here during the Corpus Christi procession last year were shot at 5 o’clock this morning in the moat of Monjuich Castle. The troops entrusted with the carrying out of the sentence fired repeated volleys at the criminals, who all met their doom calmly, their eyes fixed on the public, who were kept at a distance by a large force of soldiers. The condemned men, who all had their hands tied behind them, bowed to the public as they arrived at the scene of execution. Mas asked the firing party to come nearer. Nogues, Molas, and Alsina exclaimed: – “We are innocent! This is murder!” Just before the first volley was fired all cried together: – “Long live Anarchy! Long live Revolution!” Molas then gave the word for the soldiers to fire. Four of the prisoners fell dead immediately, but Alsina remained on his knees not even wounded. At the second volley he fell, but was not killed outright, and it was not till a third volley had been fired that he was pronounced to be dead." ['The Times', London, May 5, 1897]
The five men killed - Tomás Ascheri, Antoni Nogués, Josep Molas, Lluís Mas and Joan Alsina - were all anarchists who had been found to have directly carried out the attack on a Corpus Christi procession in the calle Cambios Nuevos in Barcelona on June 7, 1896, when a bomb thrown into the crowd killed twelve and wounded 35 others. All were innocent, probably even Joan Alsina who had implicated the other four whilst under torture. They were amongst the 400 arrested, not just Catalan anarchist workers but also liberals, freethinkers and federal republicans - including many of the biggest names of the movement, such as Josep Llunas y Pujals, José López Montenegro, Juan Montseny, Teresa Claramunt, Joan Alsina, Baldomer Oller, Anselmo Lorenzo, Tarrida del Mármol, Sebastián Sunyé, Juan Bautista Esteve, and the writer Pere Corominas, in a wave of mass arrests and repression that followed the attack. Many of those arrested were deported to African prisons, others ended up in the dungeons of the Montjuïc prison where the tools of the Inquisition still remained in use and were now deployed in full. Tomás Ascheri Fossatti, who many thought to be a police spy, confessed under torture, signing a written confession; as did Antoni Nogués and Lluís Mas, the later being driven insane by his experience.
Between December 11 and 15, 1896, 87 people were tried in camera by drumhead military tribunals under emergency anti-terrorist legislation. Ascheri, Nogués, Molas, Mas and Alsina were sentenced to death; Francesc Callis, Antoni Ceperuelo, Rafael Cusidó, Jacint Melich, Baldomer Oller, Josep Pons, Joan Torrents, Josep Vila, Jaume Vilella and Sebastià Sunyé to 20 years in prison; Joan Casanovas, Epifani Caus and Joan Baptista Oller to 18 years; Antoni Costa, Francesc Lis, Josep Mesa Mateu Ripoll, Joan Sala, Llorenç Serra and Cristòfol Soler to ten years and a day. In addition José Toulouse Cento was fined 50 pesetas for concealing his name and Casimiro Balart two months for change of residence without authorisation. Sixty three other prisoners (including Josep Prats, Ramon Vidal, Salud Borràs, Ramón Confau, Manuel Barrera, Tomás Codina, Antonio Gurri, Antoni Borràs, Adbon Navarro, Roman Archs, Vidal, Rull, Magí Fenoll, Jaume Torrens, López Montenegro, Coromines, Francesca Saperas, Joan Montseny, Teresa Claramunt, etc.) were acquitted and, following the international outcry, the testimonies of torture from those detained and the doubts surrounding the guilt of the accused, the Captain General of Barcelona banished the 63 to the UK in July 1897, rather than to the prison in Africa that potentially awaited them.

1919 - Roger Paon (d. 2011), French socialist, then an anarchist and pacifist, born. Paon joined the Socialist Youth for a brief period in 1933, before turning to the libertarians, particularly the group l'Union Anarchiste de Rouen. He was also a member of the Ligue Internationale des Combattants de la paix, which aided in the resistance to the occupation during WWII. Paon lived in Nice following the war, collaborating on libertarian publications, publishing his own newspaper, 'L'ordre Social' (1950-1953). He was also active alongside Louis Lecoin in the campaign for the recognition of rights of conscientious objection.

1920 - Sacco and Vanzetti learn of their comrade Andrea Salsedo’s death [see: May 3]. Salseda plunged from the 14th floor of the Department of Justice offices while being secretly held and interrogated. Believing he was tossed to his death yesterday, Sacco and Vanzetti fear they will be implicated in a bomb plot. They are arrested tomorrow – accused instead of murder in a bank robbery.

1924 - Having shown extreme caution since the military coup by Primo de Rivera, on September 13, 1923, the CNT holds its last national convention before going underground.

##1927 - On the 41st anniversary of the Haymarket affair, a streetcar (tram) jumped its tracks and crashed into the monument to the dead policemen. The motorman said he was "sick of seeing that policeman with his arm raised".

[D] 1937 - Barcelona 'May Days' [Fets de maig del 1937 or Jornadas de Mayo de 1937]: Gun-battles throughout the night in Barcelona. Many barricades and violent clashes throughout the city.

[E] 1938 - Tatiana Nikolayevna Lapshina (Татьяна Николаевна Ланшина; b. 1899), Polish anarchist, whose OGPU/NKVD files show that she was "of the nobility" and had attended "higher education", is shot by the NKVD in Minusinsk (Минусинске) for participating in "counter-revolutionary activities". [see: Dec. 28]

1944 - Benoît Broutchoux (b. 1879), French miner, labourer, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist propagandist, neo-Malthusian, 'free love' advocate and folk hero of the Pas-de-Calais, dies. [see: Nov. 7]

1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: American Embassy in London is fire-bombed. [Angry Brigade / 1st May Group chronology]

1986 - Celebrations held in Melbourne to mark the centenary of the anarchist movement in Australia.

1999 - Eva X Moberg (Eva Maria Moberg; b. 1962), Swedish journalist, anarchist, feminist and squatting activist, who somewhat controversially became editor of the long-running Swedish anarchist newspaper 'Brand' (Fire) ['ownership' of the title and the right to use it was disputed], dies of cancer. [see: May 13]
1818 - Shameless Bakunin plagiarist and bad-mouther (of the same) Karl Marx born.

1874 - Jean Marestan (born Gaston Havard) (d. 1951), Belgian anarchist, pacifist and militant néo-Malthusian, writer, born.

1891 - The first issue of Zo d'Axa's weekly magazine 'L'Endehors' (The Outside) is published in Paris. It follows an individualist anarchist agenda and is a showcase for the movement's literary talent. "Celui que rien n'enrôle et qu'une impulsive nature guide seule, ce passionnel tant complexe, ce hors la loi, ce hors d'école, cet isolé chercheur d'au delà ne se dessine-t-il pas dans ce mot: "L'Endehors"..." (That which nothing enlists and which an impulsive nature only guides, this passion so complex, it is outside the law, it is outside of school, this lone seeker of the beyond does not emerge from this word: "Endehors"…)

1897 - Giovanna Berneri (nee Giovannina Caleffi) (d. 1962), Italian teacher, anarchist propagandist, companion of Camillo Berneri (murdered by the Communists in Spain on this day in 1937; see below), born. Mother of Marie Louise Berneri (1918-1949) and Giliana Berneri (a.k.a. Giliane; 1919-1998) – like their parents, also anarchists.

1903 - Pierre Odéon (aka Pierre Perrin) (d. 1978), French anarchist, anti-militarist, aided the Spanish Revolution, member of the Résistance, born.

1911 - Aristide Delannoy (b. 1874), French painter, cartoonist and libertarian, dies. [see: Jul. 30]

1913 - Belgrado Pedrini (d. 1979), Italian writer, poet, anarchist and partisan, born. One evening in 1942, in a bar, Pedrini, with his comrades Giovanni Zava and Gino Giorgi, disarmed and beat up five fascists. Searched for by the authorities, they went to Milan where in November 1942, they were surprised by a police patrol whilst sticking up posters calling on Italians to rise up against the war. After a long shoot out during which one of the police died, the three managed to escape and get to Genoa and then La Spezia. Now on the wanted list of Mussolini’s secret police, the OVRA, and described in the daily 'I'l Popolo d’Italia' as dangerous "criminals and saboteurs of the armed resistance", Pedrini, Zava and Giorgi were surrounded by the police in a hotel there. Another shoot out began which lasted several hours and which ended with the arrest of the three anarchists, seriously wounded, and the death of a police officer. Taken to La Spezia jail, Belgrado was transferred in 1943 to the Massa prison, in preparation for a trial and a certain death by firing squad.
In June 1944, partisans of the Elio detachment carried out a spectacular action and managed to free the prisoners of the Massa jail. Belgrado then joined in the guerrilla struggle against the fascists and the Germans. He took part in much combat and in various acts of sabotage carried out by the partisan detachment. In May 1945 shortly after the Liberation, Pedrini was again arrested for the incident at La Spezia, and for other acts from this period which included the expropriation of marble industrialists at Carrara, Milan and La Spezia.
The magistrature turned a blind eye to the political and anti-fascist nature of these acts, preferring to see them as ordinary crimes and sentenced him in May 1949, to life imprisonment, which was then commuted to 30 years imprisonment. Continually transferred from one prison to another because of his escape attempts and the many prison revolts he had instigated, Pedrini avidly read all the classics of literature and philosophy. A brilliant autodidact, he wrote many poems in prison, among which 'Schiavi' (Slaves) – written in 1967 at Fossombrone – which, put to music, became celebrated within the anarchist movement under the title of 'Il Galeone'. He was finally let out of jail on the April 17, 1975, thanks to an intensive international campaign with a strong anarchist input.

'Il Galeone' (1967)

Siamo la ciurma anemica
d’una galera infame
su cui ratta la morte
miete per lenta fame.

Mai orizzonti limpidi
schiude la nostra aurora
e sulla tolda squallida
urla la scolta ognora.

I nostri dì si involano
fra fetide carene
siam magri smunti schiavi
stretti in ferro catene.

Sorge sul mar la luna
ruotan le stelle in cielo
ma sulle nostre luci
steso è un funereo velo.

Torme di schiavi adusti
chini a gemer sul remo
spezziam queste catene
o chini a remar morremo!

Cos’è gementi schiavi
questo remar remare?
Meglio morir tra i flutti
sul biancheggiar del mare.

Remiam finché la nave
si schianti sui frangenti
alte le rossonere
fra il sibilar dei venti!

E sia pietosa coltrice
l’onda spumosa e ria
ma sorga un dì sui martiri
il sol dell’anarchia.

Su schiavi all’armi all’armi!
L’onda gorgoglia e sale
tuoni baleni e fulmini
sul galeon fatale.

Su schiavi all’armi all’armi!
Pugnam col braccio forte!
Giuriam giuriam giustizia!
O libertà o morte!

Giuriam giuriam giustizia!
O libertà o morte!

(We're the crew aenemic,
of an infamous prison
on which the quick death
rages with slow hunger.

Never clear horizonts
unclenchs our dawn
and over the sleazy blanket
screams the guide every hour.

Our days fly
between stinky keels
we're thin, pallid, slaves
tied with iron chains.

The moon rises above the see
revolve the stars in the sky
but over our lights
lied a funeral veil.

Crew of waterless slaves
bent to suffer on the oar
broke these chains
or bent to row we'll die!

Suffering slaves
what is this rowing?
Better to die between the waves
on the whitening see.

We row until the ship
crashed the reefs
highs the black and reds
between winds hiss!

And be pitiful bed
the scummy and wicked wave
but rises a day over the martyrs
the sun of the anarchy.

Come now slaves to arms, to arms!
Fight with the strong arm!
Swear, swear justice!
Freedom or death!

Swear, swear justice!
Freedom or death!)


1916 - At a mass meeting in Carnegie Hall to celebrate Emma Goldman's release from prison, where she had just served two weeks in the workhouse for violating Section 1142 of the New York State Criminal Code when she distributed information about birth control during a lecture in New York City in January, fellow campaigner Rose Pastor Stokes causes a sensation by passing out small slips of paper containing birth control information, which she had promised to distribute during her speech at the event. During part of her speech, Stokes spoke directly to those whose job it is to enforce these Victorian Era laws:
"You, gentlemen, who earn your living by hunting down the victims of a maladjusted society, and you, gentlemen of the club, if you are here to interfere with, or arrest, or provide the authorities with evidence against anyone ignoring this unjust section of the law, I address myself to you. I should be truly sorry to place you under so mean an obligation, for I know your hearts well enough to know that you do not always relish the job your economic insecurity forces you to hold on to. But I cannot do other than again take the opportunity afforded me here of passing out information to wives and mothers in need."
At the conclusion of the evening’s speeches, many audience members rushed forward and scrambled for the slips that Stokes had promised to distribute. She found herself quickly surrounded and besieged as private security officers tried unsuccessfully to maintain order.

1920 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, two Italian-American anarchists, are arrested for murder and payroll robbery. They will subsequently be executed for a crime they quite possibly did not commit.

1920 - Charles Ange Laisant (b. 1841), dies. French Conseiller Général in Nantes, and Député in Paris (18ème) who later became an anarchist under the influence of his son Albert (who also led his two sons, Maurice and Charles, down the errant path). [see: Nov. 1]

1921 - Riccardo Siliprandi (pseudonym, Ariè), Italian militant antifascist and anarcho-syndicalist, is assassinated by a fascist squad in Luzzara, Italy.

1934 - The first issue of the anarchist magazine 'Tiempos Nuevos', a fortnightly journal of sociology, the arts and economics founded and directed by Diego Abad de Santillán, is published in Barcelona.

[A] 1937 - Barcelona 'May Days' [Fets de maig del 1937 or Jornadas de Mayo de 1937]: In Barcelona during the evening, the well known Italian anarchist militant and theorist Camillo Berneri and his friend and fellow anarchist Francesco Barbieri are seized by the Communists, presumably on Moscow's orders (Stalinist purges). Their bodies will be found the following day, riddled with machinegun bullets. Camillo's eldest daughter, Marie Louise Berneri, fighting on the front in Aragon, returns to Barcelona for her father's funeral.
Newspapers on the 6th publish casualty figures: 500 dead and over 1500 wounded. The vast majority are anarchists, murdered in the streets of the Catalan capital. Yet the newspapers continue to promulgate the lie that the anarchists are the aggressors.

##1937 - Camillo Berneri (b. 1877), Italian anarchist and outspoken anti-communist, is among those murdered in the Stalinist purge of anarchists in Barcelona following the attempted takeover of the city's telephone exchange.

1937 - Francesco Barbieri (b. 1895), Italian anti-fascist and anarchist militant, is killed alongside Camillo Berneri in Barcelona by Stalinist militia.

1952 - Alberto Savinio (Andrea Francesco Alberto de Chirico; d. 1891), Italian writer, painter, musician, journalist, essayist, playwright, set designer, composer and Nietzchean-inspired "proto-anarchist" associated with Dada and Surrealism, dies. [see: Aug. 25]

## [B] 1954 - Henri Laurens (b. 1885), French Cubist sculptor, painter, illustrator, theatre designer, engraver, stonemason and anarchist, who turned down the Légion d'honneur, dies. [see: Feb. 18]

1968 - Mai '68: In Paris, the courts convict thirteen Mai '68 student demonstrators; four are given prison terms. [expand]

1972 - Violent clashes between anti-fascist protesters and the police in Pisa. A young anarchist, Francesco Serantini, is beaten and arrested by police. He will succumb to his injuries on the morning of May 7.

1984 - Jacques Reclus, aka Shao Kelu (b. 1894), French teacher (French, History, and later Chinese), translator, Sinologist, and anarchist militant, nephew of Elisha and son of Paul Reclus, dies in Paris. [see: Feb. 3]

1990 - Pyotr Petrovich Siuda (Пётр Петрович Сиуда; b. 1937), Russian factory worker, Soviet dissident, political prisoner, anarcho-syndicalist and historian, who took part in the 1962 events in Novocherkassk, dies in mysterious circumstances on the night of May 5, 1990, after he was discovered in the street near his home with severe head injuries and died in the ambulance en route to hospital. His comrades claimed that he had discovered the burial place of the slaughtered Novocherkassk strikers. The briecase he had been carrying containing many documents on the events, which he had sain that he was planning to hand over to an unidentied diplomat, had also disappeared. [see: Dec. 7]

2010 - Three people die following a fire in a Marfin-Egnatia bank close to Syntagma. The petrol-bombs that set the fire were identified as thrown from the black bloc.
1786 - Carl Ludwig Börne (d. 1837), German journalist, literary and theatre critic and political satirist, who was singled out by Gustav Landauer in 'Börne und der Anarchismus' (1900) as an early German forerunner of anarchism, born.
"Nicht darauf kommt es an, daß die Macht in dieser oder jener Hand sich befinde: die Macht selbst muß vermindert werden, in welcher Hand sie sich auch befinde. Aber noch kein Herrscher hat die Macht, die er besaß, und wenn er sie auch noch so edel gebrauchte, freiwillig schwächen lassen. Die Herrschaft kann nur beschränkt werden, wenn sie herrenlos (ist) - Freiheit geht nur aus Anarchie hervor. Von dieser Notwendigkeit der Revolution dürfen wir das Gesicht nicht abwenden, weil sie so traurig ist. Wir müssen als Männer der Gefahr fest ins Auge blicken und dürfen nicht zittern vor dem Messer des Wundarztes. Freiheit geht nur aus Anarchie hervor - das ist unsere Meinung, so haben wir die Lehren der Geschichte verstanden."
(It does not depend on that power is located in this or that hand power itself must be reduced, which hand she also finds it. But still no ruler has the power he possessed, and if he ever so classy cars leave voluntarily weaken. The rule can only be limited if it ownerless (is) - freedom is only apparent from anarchy. From this necessity of the revolution, we must not turn away his face, because she is so sad. We need to look than men of the danger straight in the eye and must not tremble before the knife of the surgeon. Freedom emerges only from anarchy - that is our opinion, we have understood the lessons of history.)

1837 - Juan Serrano y Oteiza (d. 1886), Spanish anarchist intellectual, lawyer, journalist and writer, born. His most famous work is probably his utopian novel 'Pensativo' (1885).

[EE] 1854 - Charlotte Wilson (Charlotte Mary Martin; d. 1944), English Fabian, anarchist, feminist and co-founder of 'Freedom' and Freedom Press, born. A leading member of the early Fabian Society and the Hampstead Historic Club, whose members included Sidney Webb, George Bernard Shaw, Sydney Olivier, Annie Besant, Havelock Ellis, Edward Carpenter, and Olive Schreiner. With Schreiner, she founded the The Society of Friends of Russian Freedom. An active campaigner she spoke at socialist rallies, including that in Trafalgar Square on November 13, 1887, known as Bloody Sunday, which police broke up violently. In 1886, parliamentarians within the Fabian Society proposed that it organise as a political party; William Morris and Wilson opposed the motion, but were defeated. She subsequently resigned from the Society in April 1887, continuing her association with the anarchists from the Society. In 1886, she co-founded the 'Freedom' newspaper with Peter Kropotkin, and edited, published, and largely financed it during its first decade, as well as becoming the principal spokesperson for the anarchist school of thought in the socialist revival of the 1880s. She remained editor of 'Freedom' until 1895, when she left the anarchist movement and rejoined the Fabian Society in 1907, founding its Women's Group in 1908, and campaigned for female suffrage.

1854 - Giuseppe Scarlatti (d. 1916), Italian Bakuninist anarchist, born. Author of 'L'Internazionale dei lavoratori e l'agitatore Carlo Cafiero' (The Workers International and the Agitator Carlo Cafiero; 1909).

[A] 1862 - Henry David Thoreaux, author of 'Civil Disobedience' (1849) and 'Walden' (1854), dies. [see: Jul. 12]

1877 - Fernand Julian (d. 1927), French anarchist and syndicalist who help found the Cité Coopérative Paris-Jardin à Draveil, born.

1882 - The first issue of the 'Los Desheredados' (The Wretched) is published in Sabadell, Barcelona. Subtitled "Órgano de todos los que aman la verdad y el bien", then from Sept. 6, 1883, "Periódico defensor de la Federación Española de Trabajadores" and changes to "Periódico anárquico colectivista" from Nov. 28, 1884. 235s issue are published up until Nov. 26, 1886.

1885 - Yaeko Nogami (野上 弥生子) (Yae Kotegawa [野上 ヤヱ]; d. 1985); Japanese novelist and feminist of the Shōwa period, who wrote for the anarchist-influenced feminist magazine 'Seitō' (青鞜 / Blue Stocking), and gained a substantial following with fans of the proletarian literature movement, born. An anti-imperialist, she witnessed the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War.

###1894 - Gustavo Cochet (July 27 , 1979), Argentine painter, printmaker, writer and anarchist, who was active in the CNT / FAI in the run up and during the Spanish Revolution, born in Rosario, Argentina. [expand]

1896 - Otello Gaggi (d. 1945), Italian worker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-militarist and anti-fascist persecuted by both fascism and Stalinism, who was condemned to the Soviet gulags and whose case became an international cause célèbre, born in San Giovanni Valdarno.

1913 - Alexandros (Alekos) Schinas (Ἀλέξανδρος Σχινάς; b. ca. 1870), Macedonian anarchist, who assassinated King George I of Greece, shooting him through the heart, on March 18 1913 in Thessaloniki, dies. Arrested immediately and jailed, he refused to acknowledge his actions despite repeated torture. He allegedly commits suicide by jumping out of the window of the gendarmerie in Thessaloniki (the police had apparently suggested to him that it would be the only way to end his torture); but it is possible he was simply defenestrated by the gendarmes from a window of a police station.

1914 - Louis Mercier-Vega (or Luis) (born Charles Cortvrint; pseud., Charles Riedel, Santiago Parane, etc.; d. 1977), Belgian journalist, activist, propagandist and libertarian thinker, who joined the movement at age 16, born. Lifelong writer for the libertarian press and founder of several reviews, including 'Revision' (1938), the trilingual 'Aporte' (1966-1972), 'Interrogations' (1974).

1916 - Alexander Berkman starts the No Conscription League - the meetings attract crowds by the thousands.

## 1919 - Alexandre de Fisterra [gl.] or Alejandro Finisterre [sp] (Alexandre Campos Ramirez; d. 2007), Galician anarchist poet, editor, academic, and inventor of futbolín, the Spanish version of table football, born in Finisterre, La Coruña.

1923 - Paul Zilsel (d. 2006), US theoretical physicist, militant activist, anarchist and co-founder of Left Bank Books in Seattle, Washington, born in Vienna.

1934 - Alfred Marpaux (b. 1862), French militant federalist, syndicalist, cooperativist and typographer, dies. [see: Nov. 15]

1955 - Guérilla Francisco Sabaté and 4 others rob a bank; he robbed many, using the funds to finance their activities and distribute propaganda for the activist groups in Barcelona and adjoining towns and villages.

1968 - Mai '68: Parisian Universities are closed and, following the conviction of 13 of the demonstrators arrested on May 3, four of whom were given jail terms, new demonstrations of solidarity with those rounded up so far end in violent confrontations with the forces of repression. Barricades appear in the streets.
At Nanterre University the eight Mouvement du 22-Mars-linked students, who include Daniel Cohn-Bendit and René Riesel, threatened with expulsion are summoned by the Administrative Disciplinary Committee; Nanterre faculty members professors Henri Lefebvr, Guy Michaud, Alain Touraine and Paul Ricoeur accompany them in support. Nanterre students react by holding mass demonstrations in the centre of Paris and in the Latin Quarter. They are joined by other protesting against the police invasion of the Sorbonne after UNEF (Union nationale des étudiants de France) and SNESUP (the higher education teachers' union) had called a march. A complete ban on demonstrations was implemented and large sections of Paris closed down by the authorities. The police responded by subjecting the protests to constant harassment and mass arrests. In the face of increasing violence from the forces of law and order, more than 20,000 students, teachers and supporters marched on the Sorbonne, still sealed off by the police, who responded to their arrival with batons charges. Five hours of rioting ensued as barricades were erected by the protesters using whatever was at hand: "Literally thousands helped... women, workers, people in pyjamas, human chains to carry rocks, wood, iron." Cobblestones were prised up and thrown at the CRS, forcing the police to retreat for a time behind their own barricades. The police then responded with tear gas and charged the crowd again.
By the end of the night, six hundred students and 345 police officers had been injured, and four hundred twenty-two people arrested. The rest of France began to take notice of what was taking place in the capital and the protest movement began to spread out into the provinces. It also spread beyond the universities, with high school student unions now speaking in support of the riots and increasing numbers of young workers planning to join in the protests against the ancien régime.

[B] 2012 - Pierre-Valentin Berthier (b. 1911), French individualist anarchist, peace activist, poet, novelist and journalist, dies. [see: Sep. 18]
1868 - Stanisław Feliks Przybyszewski (d. 1927), Polish individualist, novelist, Symbolist dramatist and poet of the decadent naturalistic school, who wrote both in German and in Polish, born. Fascinated with the philosophy of Nietzsche and a fervent apostle of industrialism and self-expression, he became increasingly involved in Satanism and anarchism. He was active in founding the journal 'Pan', and contributed to Karl Kraus' 'Die Fackel' (The Torch). His "poems in prose" include such sensational works as 'Totenmesse' (1893), 'Vigilien' (1894), 'De Profundis' (1895), 'Epipsychidion' (1900) and 'Androgyne' (1906). He also wrote novels such as 'Satan's Kinder' (Satan’s Children; 1897) and the 'Homo Sapiens' trilogy (1895-1896).

## 1883 - Evaristo Carriego (Evaristo Francisco Estanislao Carriego; d. 1912), Argentine modernista poet, short story writer and anarchist, who had a profound influence on the lyrics of tango porteña, born in Paraná, Entre Ríos.

##1909 - Park Cha-jeong [박차정], aka Yim Cheol-ae [임철애], Yim Cheol-san [임철산] (May 27, 1944), Korean anarchist, communist, independence activist and the first wife of Kim Won-bong [김원봉], chief of the Korean Revolutionary Army, born.
[박차정 › 서울 › 강남구]

1911 - Revolución Mexicana: Revolutionary outbreaks throughout Mexico, Porfirio Diaz offers to resign. Jose Luis Moya killed in heavy fighting at Zacatecas. Followers of the anarchist Flores Magón brothers begin their march from Mexicali to attack Tijuana.

1912 - San Diego Free Speech Fight: Even though he’d never mounted a soapbox, Joseph Mikolasek was one of the first Wobblies arrested in the free-speech fight. He became the court’s test case for violating the ordinance. On March 9, Judge Puterbaugh gave him 30 days. Back on the street, Mikolasek became even more outspoken – for the cause and against the brutalities he’d witnessed in jail.
Earlier in the day, police officers at Soapbox Row had beaten Mikolasek repeatedly with their nightsticks. At 20:30, as he stood in the doorway at 13th and K, two blue-coated policemen approached. He recognised their faces in the semi-darkness, until one turned a flashlight on his eyes and ordered him outside. The other shot him in the leg. Mikolasek grabbed an axe just inside the doorway and swung at the flashlight in self-defense. The downed officer fired in all directions. He hit Mikolasek in the stomach, and, spinning around, hit the second officer at least twice. Mikolasek crawled down to Tenth Street and begged Mrs. Frank Fuqua for help. She called the police.
Mikolasek died 19 days later. On his deathbed, he swore that Stevens and Heddon had beaten him savagely at the IWW rally and followed him home for "more of the same". The six Wobblies arrested at the house said that Mikolasek had acted in self-defense. There were no assassins, and Heddon shot Stevens by mistake. They also mentioned a third policeman, who rode up on a motorcycle and fired the first shot.
A later search revealed that the 'headquarters' was only one downstairs room, where six or eight men stayed. Most of the other residents were Latino families unaffiliated with the IWW. In the room, police found stacks of Wobbly literature, including documents that showed "an organised attempt to launch a civil war in this city." According to one report, they also found three revolvers, two rifles, ammunition, and a Maxim silencer that made no more noise than an air rifle.
Word of the incident shot through the city. The 'riot call' blew at the firehouse: five steam-whistle blasts, a pause, then five more. Within minutes, between 200 and 400 'citizens' crowded around the police station. They collected nightsticks and formed patrols. Some carried rifles, and there was talk, two newspapers reported, "of lynching". By the next morning, police and citizen patrols had arrested over 80 suspects and locked them in the Mason Street School and the newly built stockade at Grape Street. Many of the "lawless nomads" had never heard of Soapbox Row.
Unable to hold a funeral in San Diego, which was now under a virtual state of martial law, the IWW shipped Mikolasek’s body to Los Angeles, where a funeral procession drew over 10,000 people.

##1915 - Elbert Green Hubbard (b. 1856), US writer, publisher, artist, philosopher, and Christian anarchist, dies when the RMS Lusitania is torpedoed and sunk by a German submarine off the coast of Ireland. [see: Jun. 19]

1925 - The first issue of the weekly newspaper 'L'Insurge', "Journal d'action révolutionnaire et de culture individualiste" is published in Paris by André Colomer. It ceases publication in June 1926 after 60 issues.

1937 - Barcelona 'May Days' [Fets de maig del 1937 or Jornadas de Mayo de 1937]: Return to 'normalisation' in Barcelona. The Republican government had sent troops to take over the telephone exchange on May 3, pitting the anarchists and Poumists on one side against the Republican government and the Stalinist Communist Party on the other. Squads of Communist Party members took to the streets yesterday, to assassinate leading anarquistas, resulting in pitched street battles, leaving 500 anarchists killed.

1947 - Francesco Cucca (b. 1882), Sardinian anarchist writer and poet, dies. [see: Jan. 25]

##1948 - Lluís Llach i Grande, Catalonian musician, composer and songwriter, born. Repeated banned in Spain through the Franco years for his revolutionary and pro-Catalan cultural songs, he spent a number of periods abroad in exile. Wrote the music for the Manuel Huerga film, 'Salvador (Puig Antich)' (2006). He also wrote and dedicated the song 'I si Canto Trist' to Salvador Puig Antich one month after his execution.
"I am from an anarchist background and I find the idea of states difficult to swallow. I don’t see the state as solving problems; I see it as a problem in itself."
[ís_Llachís_Llach 4/civ 4 Lluís Llach.pdf]

1968 - Mai '68: As clashes between protesters and the police continue in the narrow streets of the Latin Quarter (with the later deploying even greater brutality that had been seen over the previous days), during the evening (18:30) a march against police brutality called by the UNEF (Union nationale des étudiants de France) takes place from Denfert-Rochereau via Les Invalides, the quai d'Orsay and Concorde to the Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile. Arriving at 21:30, the 10,000 who started out are now five times that number as the ranks of the students and teachers are swelled by the ever increasing numbers of young workers joing the protests and by high school students, with the Comités d'Action Lycéens (High School Students Action Committees) having come out in support of the protests the previous day. The protesters take possession of a vast circle round the Arc de Triomphe, with their red and black flags massed on either side of the unknown soldier's tomb, singing the 'International'. The flics prudently stay out of the way with the UNEF students having largely prevented the more radical elements from anything other than marching and chanting. Returning to the Sorbonne, many of the students melt away into the Latin Quarter, circumventing the police roadblocks set up to seal-off the quartier, to relieve those who have held the barricades there during the daylight hours. The day ends with 431 protesters in police cells.
Earlier in the day, the students' leadership declare they are ready for a dialogue on three conditions: the withdrawal of police forces from the Latin Quarter; the release and immediate amnesty for imprisoned students; and, the reopening the Sorbonne and Nanterre. Nothing concrete came of this offer and confusion surrounding a false rumour that the government had agreed to reopen them would eventually add fuel to the fire that ended in the Night of the Barricades three days later.
Meanwhile, with a total lack of irony, De Gaulle declares that he will not tolerate any further student violence.

1972 - Franco (Francesco) Serantini (b. 1951), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, is found in a coma in his cell and dies at 09:45 after being severly beaten by riot police 2 days earlier. [see: May 6]

1991 - Kurt Helmut Zube (b. 1905), German author, publisher, mail-order bookseller and idividualist anarchist, who wrote under the pseudonym KHZ Solneman (his intials and an anagram of 'namenlos' i.e. nameless), dies in Freiburg im Breisgau. [see: Jul. 14]

[AA] 1996 - Albert Meltzer (b. 1920), militant anarchist, boxer, bit part actor, historian, author and publisher, dies. Co-founder, with Stuart Christie, of the Anarchist Black Cross, he helped found the Kate Sharpley Library. His best known works are his autobiography, 'I Couldn't Paint Golden Angels' (1996), 'Anarchism: Arguments For and Against' (1981) and 'The Floodgates of Anarchy' (1970; co-written with Stuart Christie). [see: Jan. 7]

2009 - Robin Francis Blaser (b. 1925), US poet, essayist and anarchist, dies. [see: May 18]
1877 - Mary Marcy (Mary Edna Tobias; d. 1922), US author, poet, pamphleteer, socialist and Wobbly, who was a member of the Socialist Party of America, associate of the Dil Pickle Club and editor of the anarchist-friendly Chicago-based monthly magazine 'International Socialist Review', born. Eugene Debs called her "one of the clearest minds and greatest souls in all our movement".

1891 - Miguel Arcángel Roscigno (or Roscigna; d. 1936?), Argentinian blacksmith and celebrated anarchist expropriator, born into a family of Italian immigrants. He became interested in anarchist ideas during 1909 following the Semana Sangrienta / Semana Roja (Bloody or Red Week) in Buenos Aires and the subsequent assassination of Colonel Ramon L. Falcon by the Ukrainian anarchist Simón Radowitzky. [expand]

1896 - The weekly 'Lucifer, The Light-Bearer' begins publishing in Chicago. Created and published by anarchists and free love advocates Moses Harman, his daughter Lillian and the individualist Cox Edwin Walker in Valley Falls, Kansas, in 1883. In addition to publishing articles on anarchism and atheism, the paper particularly advocates for the rights of women, including birth control and free love. Its contributions of anarchists Kate Austin, Voltairine de Cleyre, Abe Isaak and Emma Goldman. In 1907, the newspaper will change its title to 'The American Journal of Eugenics'.

1898 - Ugo Fedeli (aka Hugo Treni, G. Renti, etc.; d. 1964), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist activist and propagandist, born. [see also: Mar. 10]

## 1901 - Emilio Z. Arana (b. unknown), Spanish-Argentine physician, naturalist, geographer and anarchist, dies.

##oct111904 - Amparo Barayón Miguel (d. 1936), Spanish, pianist, anarchist activist, feminist and partner of the anarchist novelist Ramón J. Sender, who was shot at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War having been betrayed to the falangists by her brother-in-law, born.

1912 - George Woodcock (d. 1995), Canadian anarchist thinker and historian, political biographer, essayist, poet and literary critic, author of 'Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements' (1962), born.

1916 - Dr. Ben Reitman is sentenced to 60 days in jail for advocating birth control.

1921 - Nathalie Lemel (b. 1827), militant French anarchist, feminist and bookbinder, dies. [see: May 8]

##1928 - Luisa Lallana (b. 1910), an Argentinian anarcho-syndicalist militant, is assassinated whilst handing out leaflets during an industrial dispute. Employed at the Mancini factory sewing burlap bags for bagging grain for export, she was affiliated to the Federación Obrera Local and a member of the anarcho-syndicalist Federación Obrera Regional Argentina. Whilst distributing leaflets by the Comitè de Dones de Portuaris (Women Port Committee) with her friend Rosa Valdez in support of striking dockers during a dispute organised by the Societat d'Estibadors (Dockers Society) in the port of Rosario, she is shot in the forehead by a blackleg, Juan Romero, a member of the extreme right-wing and paramilitary Liga Patriótica Argentina (Patriotic League of Argentina. He and other blacklegs had been recruited by Tiberio Podesta, manager of the Association of Labour (aS), in charge of recruiting 'treballadors lliures' (free labourers), also known as crumiros (rustlers) or carneros (or rams), also a Liga Patriótica Argentina member.
Luisa Lallana dies later that evening. In reaction to the outrage, a general strike was called by FORA, the Partit Comunista and the Federació Obrera Local. Her funeral procession the following day was led by a thousand women to the La Piedad cemetery
and, in a large demonstration of solidarity by the working class in Argentina – the estimated numbers varied between 3,000 and 20,000 demonstrators – which was severely repressed by the police. The climate of workers' agitation was so great that the torpedo boat Córdoba and the gunboat Independencia were sent to reinforce the navy and police in Rosario. Luisa Lallana became a symbol, but she was only one of 11 members of the working class who were killed during that strike May 1928.

[B] 1930 - Gary Snyder, American poet, essayist, lecturer, Deep Ecology environmental activist, Buddhist anarchist and one-time Wobbly, born.
"The Frontier-type Wobbly-Thoreau anarchism is in my blood, i.e. that's my own tradition, I was raised up in it. So put it with the Oriental historical depth, and I got a fulcrum to tip the whole damn civilization over with." Gary Snyder in a letter Philip Whalen [talking about his discussions with Kenneth Rexroth]

1936 - In Tokyo, the Japanese anarchist movement is beheaded with heavy prison sentences of 19 of its major activists for "illegal activities". Toshio Futami, aged 34, is about to be sentenced to death (commuted). The anarchist stronghold, the Tôkyô Printworkers' Union, was crippled when nearly 100 of its members were arrested. During this month a further 300 anarchists are swept up in mass arrests.

1937 - Barcelona 'May Days' [Fets de maig del 1937 or Jornadas de Mayo de 1937]: After four days of heavy fighting that had ensued the Republican government had sent troops to take over the telephone exchange on May 3, pitting anarchists and Poumists on one side against the Republican government and the Stalinist Communist Party on the other, the situation in Barcelona is 'normalised'.
Following the events on May 5, the CNT had called for a return to work on May 6 but this was largely ignored by the workers and that afternoon the fighting resumed as squads of PSUC members took to the streets to assassinate leading anarquistas, resulting in pitched street battles. May 6 also saw a force of about 5,000 troops, most of them guardias de asalto, dispatched from Madrid and Valencia bound for Barcelona to reinforce the government and Generalitat units there. That night two Republican destroyers, accompanied by the battleship Jaime I arrived at the port of Barcelona from Valencia loaded with armed men. When news of this had spread through the city, most of the striking workers abandon their resistance.
At 08:20 on May 7, guardias de asalto began occupying key points in Barcelona whilst others sent from Valencia occupied the cities of Tarragona and Reus - the former had seen serious fighting the previous day as Estat Català , ERC and PSUC militiamen had attacked the local FIJL headquarters. In an attempt to prevent passage of the column from Valencia, local anarchists had blown up bridges, roads and railways.The CNT hierarchy against appeals to the rank and file to return to work, proclaiming over the radio: "¡Abajo las barricadas! ¡Que cada ciudadano se lleve su adoquín! ¡Volvamos a la normalidad!" (Down with the barricades! Let each citizen take down their cobblestone! Let's get back to normal!). Across Catalonia guardias de asalto set to disarming and arresting members of the CNT, FAI , FIJL and POUM and anyone else who might have participated in the resistance.
By the following day, May 8, the streets had returned to something approaching normality as people began to dismantle the barricades, except for the PSUC barricades, which persisted into the following month. That same day, the Agrupación de los Amigos de Durruti (Friends of Durruti) distributed a manifesto reviewing the events of May. It was highly critical of the CNT leadership, effectively calling their behaviour over the crisis "treachery".

1938 - Higinio Carrocera Mortera (b. 1908), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist who played a prominent role in both the 1934 Asturias uprising and the Civil War, earning the title the hero of Mazucu in the latter, is amongst 30 Republicans executed by firing squad against a cemetery wall in Oviedo that day. [see: Jan. 3]

1940 - Emma Goldman suffers a second stroke. [see: Feb. 17]

1945 - Whilst working in his garden, German anarcho-syndicalist Fritz Kater is injured attempting to defuse an incendiary bomb. It explodes, severely burning his face and chest. Kater dies twelve days later in hospital.

[C] 1950 - Manuel Ródenas Valero (b. 1919), Manuel Llovet Isidro (b. 1906), Jose Capdivela Ferrer (b. 1920), Alfredo Carvera Canizares (b. 1912) and Roger Ramos Rodriguez (b. 1920), five members of the group of ten guerrillas that entered Spain in mid-May 1949 and been involved in an attack in the city of Barbastro, before being chased by the Guardia Civil and, having split in two, were captured on June 6 at Mas del Castaño and senteced to death by a council of war on March 16, 1950, are executed in Zaragoza.

1999 - Aguigui Mouna (aka André Dupont; b. 1911), French anarcho-prankster, agitator, pacifist propagandist, philosopher and anarchist individualist, dies. ​[see: Oct. 1]

2006 - Matilde 'Mati' Escuder Vicente (1913-2006), Spanish libertarian teacher and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Dec. 12]
[BB] 1866 - [N.S. May 22] David Edelstadt (Doṿid Edelshṭaṭ / דוד עדעלשטאַדט; d. 1892), American Yiddish anarchist and poet, born. [see: May 22]

1877 - [N.S. May 21] One of the quoted d.o.b. for Kosta Nunkov [Коста Нунков], aka David Ognyanov [Нунков Огнянов](Konstantin Ivanov Nunkov [Константин Иванов Нунков]; Feb. 21 [8], 1905), Bulgarian revolutionary, anarchist, a member of the Macedonian Committee (Македонския комитет) and a Kumanov leader of the Inner Macedonian-Odrin Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешната македоно-одринска революционна организация). [see: Jun. 8]

## [B] 1878 - Neno Vasco (Gregório Nazianzeno Moreira de Queiroz e Vasconcelos; d. 1923), Portuguese lawyer, journalist, poet, playwright and militant anarcho-syndicalist writer, born. [expand]

1898 - 'Agitazione' is raided and, like all other anarchist papers in Italy, suppressed following a popular revolt in Milan earlier this month. Samaia, Lucchini, Vezzani and Lavattero leave the country; Enrico Malatesta and others are arrested.

1899 - Marcel Wullens (d. 1928), French anarcho-syndicalist who participated, with his brother Maurice, in the review 'Les Humbles', the journal 'L'Insurgé', and helped found 'La Révolution Prolétarienne', born.

1911 - Revolución Mexicana / First Battle of Tijuana: Tijuana is captured by the anarchist Magónistes of the Mexican Liberal Party after a fierce battle that killed 32 and wounded 24. Lower California is now almost entirely in their hands. The Magónistes encouraged the people to take collective possession of the lands, to create co-operatives and refuse the establishment of any new government.
The Magónistas were led by Jack Mosby, a deserter from the US Marines, and later by Caryl Ap Rys Price. The Magónistas were supported and joined by many American members of the IWW (Wobblies); they previously captured Mexicali (January 29) and Tecate (March 12, holding it for a few days). Tijuana is held by the Magónistes until routed by Mexican Federalists on June 22.

1920 - The American Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee forms.

1922 - The Milan trial of the anarchists held responsible for bombing the Teatro Diana [date?] begins. Giuseppe Mariani and Giuseppe Boldrini receive life sentences, and Ettore Aguggini dies in prison after many years. Others accused are Ugo Fedeli, Pietro Bruzzi, and Francesco Ghezzi (editors of 'L’Indivi-dualista').

1937 - 'Solidaridad Obrera' dismisses the manifesto issued yesterday by the Friends of Durruti as demagoguery and the Group's members as provocateurs. Their manifesto had spoken of "treachery" by the CNT leadership.

1938 - Fábio Luz (Fábio Lopez dos Santos Luz; b. 1864), leading Brazilian anarchist, doctor, writer, novelist, critic, short story writer, essayist and teacher, dies. Involved in the anti-slavery movement as a youth, he discovered anarchism with the reading of Peter Kropotkin's 'Paroles d'un Révolté'. Wrote 'D'Ideólogos' (1903), 'D'os Emancipados' (1906), and 'Virgem-Mãe' (1908), the first novels in Brazil to tackle the social question. ​[see: Jul. 31]

1939 - The anarchist Miguel Garcia is arrested in Barcelona and put into a hemp warehouse which had been converted into a prison, since the city's Celular prison is brim-full. Garcia is released in March 1941, after 22 months, after being cleared of charges.

1975 - Philip Werner Sauber (b. 1947), Swiss photographer, filmmaker, anarchist militant and member of the Mouvement du 2 Juin, who was the younger brother of the former Formula 1 racing team owner Peter Sauber, dies in an exchange of gunfire with the police in Cologne. [see: Apr. 4]

1976 - Jens Ingvald Bjørneboe (b. 1920), Norwegian poet, novelist, playwright, essayist and anarchist, though he self-identified as an anarcho-nihilist, dies in Veierland. [see: Oct. 9]

1990 - Robert Jospin (b. 1899), French militant socialist, pacifist and one-time anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 9]

1999 - Madeleine Lamberet (b. 1908), French anarchist, painter, designer, engraver, illustrator and primary-school teacher, dies. [see: Mar. 6]
1858 - Jules Regis (aka Siger) (d. 1900), Turkish-born revolutionary socialist and anarchist, born.

1876 - Victor Meric (aka Flax; d. 1933), French journalist, anarchist and anti-militarist, born. Involved in the anarchist milieu, he worked on 'Le Libertaire' and helped found the Association Internationale Antimilitariste. He also wrote for Gustave Hervé's 'La Guerre Sociale' and co-founded 'Les Hommes du Jour' with Henri Fabre. Despite his militant anti-militarism he was called up for WWI in 1914, serving on the front lines for 4 years. Initially enthusiastic about the Russian Revolution, he joined the Communist Party but became disillusioned with the Bolshevik's "cult of centralisation" and leaves/is ejected in 1923, joining Parti Communiste Unitaire / l'Union Socialiste Communiste. In 1931 he founded the Ligue Internationale des Combattants de la Paix (LICP) as well as the newspaper 'La Patrie Humaine'.

1906 - Angelo Galli (b. unkown), an Italian anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant is killed during a general strike in Milan. An active trade union agitator - the anarchist newspaper 'La Protesta Umana' called him "un grande signore dell'ideale, un'anima pulsante col dolore del mondo [...] smanioso d'azione" (a great lord of the ideal, his soul pulsing with the pain of the world [...] eager for action) - he had been at the forefront of organising the strike in response to a serious incident of repression, when royal guards had fired on workers on May 6, 1906, killing one and injuring 8 others. On the morning on May 10, Galli and 2 comrades went to the Macchi e Pessoni factory to intercept some scabs but he was stabbed to death by guards at the factory.
His funeral, led by 15 huge red and black flags and which resulted in heavy clashes between anarchist mourners and Italian police determined to stop any political displays, was immortalised in Carlo Carrà's 1911 work, 'The Funeral of the Anarchist Galli'. However, Carra wrongly gave the date as January 19, 1904 in his autobiography.
Carlo Carra - "I saw before me the bier, covered with red carnations, wavering dangerously on the shoulders of the pallbearers. I saw the horses becoming restive, and clubs and lances clashing, so that it seemed to me that at any moment the corpse would fall to the ground and be trampled by the horses." - 'La Mia Vita' (1943).

[B] 1906 - Yoshiyuki Eisuke (吉行 エイスケ; d. 1940), Japanese Dadaist poet, novelist and anarchist, born.

#### 1917 - Lorenzo Portet y Tubau (b. 1870), Spanish anarchist militant, colleague of Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia and propagandist for the Escuela Moderna movement, who continued Ferrer's work after his death, dies in Paris from tuberculosis. Margaret Sanger – Portet's lover since a chance meeting in a Liverpool café and with whom Sanger planned to set up home in Europe but separated by the Atlantic Ocean and prevented from returning to Portet by the death of her daughter Peggy, her trial over her 'Family Limitation' pamphlet, and the dangers of travelling during wartime – is heartbroken at the news.

1922 - In Chicago 200 labour activists are arrested for complicity in the murder of two policemen and bombing of factories. [expand]

##1922 - Antonio García Barón, aka Antonié, 'El Rubio' (d., 2008), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, miliciano in the Columna Durruti, and survivor of Mauthausen, born.

1934 - The General Strike in Aragon, which totally paralysed the Aragonese capital throughout April 1935, ends today.

1936 - Azaña is named President of the Spanish Republic. Wave of strikes. Land seizures in the west and the south of the country.

1943 - Régis Messac (1893-1945), French teacher, union organiser, résistance member, writer, novelist, poet, pacifist and anarchist, is arrested during the German occupation and sent to the Nazi concentration camps. [see: Aug. 2]

1944 - Victor Loquier (b. 1866), French hair dresser and ardent anarchist propagandist, dies. [see: Oct. 29]

[A/D] 1968 - 'The Night of the Barricades' / Mai '68: Students marching on the state broadcasting network ORTF HQ are surrounded by riot cops. The students respond by occupying the Latin Quarter and building barricades. Thousands of people join them. A passing builder demonstrates the use of a pneumatic-drill to students who are trying to dig up the cobblestones from the street to add to their arsenal.
Many local residents provide support for students as the police attempt to storm the barricades, giving sanctuary to those escaping the police and medical aid to the injured. They too became caught up in the violence which rages until the morning of the next day, many falling under the batons of the police, who also fire tear-gas grenades into the apartment buildings they suspect of containing students.
Three hundred sixty-seven people are seriously injured, including 251 police and 102 students. Four hundred sixty-eight people are arrested, 60 are cars burned. Shocked by the heavy-handed reaction of the police, the general public sides increasingly with the students.
Elsewhere in France, demonstrations also take place in Bordeaux, Lyon, Strasbourg, Grenoble, Toulouse, Lille, etc. against the violence being meted out by les flics and in support of the students in Paris.

1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Incendiary device discovered on board an Iberian Airliner at Heathrow. Similar devices are found in other European capitals on planes belonging to Iberia. [Angry Brigade/First of May Group]

## 1988 - Stefan Julian Rosłoniec aka 'Julek' (b. 1911), Polish anarchist, dies in Uppsala, Sweden. A very active member of the Anarchistyczna Federacja Polski (AFP: Anarchist Federation of Poland) before WWII, which caused him to be imprisoned on numerous occasions. During the Nazi occupation, he helped many people to hide and in particular a dozen Jews who had escaped Warsaw ghetto, which earned him the title 'Righteous Among the Nations' in 1974. After the war, he lived with his wife Bronislawa in Łódź where he was an Esperanto enthusiast and member of the leadership of the Polish Association of Esperanto. The couple then emigrated to Sweden.

1991 - Victor García (Tomás Germinal García Ibars) (b. 1919), militant Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, writer, translator and historian of the international anarchist movement, dies. [see: Aug. 24]

2007 - Tonight the remains of Giovanni Passannante (the Italian anarchist who attempted to assassinate King Umberto I of Italy on Nov. 17, 1878) - his brain and skull having been preserved in formaldehyde in the Criminal Museum in Rome since his death - are taken to Savoia di Lucania and buried secretly.
1873 - Charles Achille Simon (aka Biscuit, aka Ravachol II) (d. 1894), French apprentice glassmaker and 'propaganda by deed' anarchist, born. [expand]

1878 - Emil Heinrich Maximilian Hödel, a 21-year-old anarchist and plumber, shoots Kaiser Wilhelm I to protest and publicise the misery of the workers. He fires twice and misses the Kaiser both times but fatally wounds someone trying to apprehend him. Sentenced to death and executed August 16, 1878, his last words are "Vive la commune!".

1889 - Marie Vuillemin aka 'La Belge' (d. 1963), Belgian anarchist who, after having left her abusive husband (a man named Schoofs), lived with the anarchist-individualist Octave Garnier, founder member of the illegalist group that became known as the Bonnot Gang, born. She was arrested on May 17, 1912, for conspiracy but was acquitted during the trial of the gang.]

1898 - The first issue of the weekly 'Discontent', "Mother of Progress", is published in Lakebay, Washington. It is the newspaper of the anarchist Home colony. After a haitus between 28 June 1899 and May 2 1900, is reappears in Home, Washington and ceases publication on April 23 1902 after 186 issues.

1918 - Carmen Bueno Uribes (d. 2010), Spanish nurse and midwife, and anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1929 - Albin Cantone aka 'Albin' (b. 1888), French anarchist propagandist, dies. Cantone published the review 'Les Glaneurs' (1917-18), wrote for 'Les Vagabonds' (1921-1922), 'La Brochure Mensuelle', 'Semeur', etc.

[B] 1932 - Date sometimes given for the death of Virgilia d'Andrea (b. 1890), Italian poet, teacher, writer, anarchist and anti-fascist. [see: May 12 & Feb. 11]

1942 - Georges Yvetot (b. 1868), French typesetter and corrector, anarchist, syndicalist, anti-patriot, pacifist, dies. [see: Jul. 20]

## 1945 - Henk Eikeboom (b. 1898), Dutch poet, writer, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, dies of typhus in Stalag X-B Sandbostel, reception camp for the Neuengamme concentration camp. [see: Feb. 16]

1963 - Antonio 'El Gallego' Soto Canalejo (b. 1897), Spanish-Chilean militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Oct. 8]

1968 - The aftermath of the 'Night of the Barricades': Following the police assault of more than 60 barricades, 367 people are hospitalised of which 251 are cops; 720 others are hurt and 468 arrested. An estimated 60 cars went up in flames and 188 others were damaged. The major mainstream unions (CGT, CFDT and FEN) call for a general strike on 13 May.
“Be Realistic, Demand the Impossible!”
“Beneath the paving stones – the beach!"
“All Power to the Imagination!”+1
1842 - Josep Lluís Pellicer i Fenyé (June 15 1901), Catalan painter, illustrator and cartoonist, anarchist sympathiser and cousin of Rafael Farga Pellicer, born.

1876 - Louis Jakmin (aka Eugène Jacquemin) (d. 1930), French blacksmith, anarchist propagandist, anti-militarist and militant syndicalist, born. Secretary of la Fédération Communiste Anarchiste (1913), manager of 'Libertaire', and participant in the newspaper 'Le Réveil Anarchiste Ouvrier'. [expand]

1883 - La Bande Noire: The first of three explosions [the other two are on June 5 and October 30, 1883] that target the engineer Michalovski. All three see his bedroom destroyed but he escapes unharmed each time. These actions appear to be part of a campaign of class struggle against the bourgeoisie. Unlike the Bande Noire action against the spies, the aim in this case appears to be the "murder of the bourgeois" in the context of a class struggle as opposed to mere "suppression of the bourgeoisie".
Yet no victims are killed during these two years of attentats.

1890 - Renzo Novatore, pseudonym of Abele Ricieri Ferrari (d. 1922); Italian individualist anarchist, illegalist and anti-fascist poet, philosopher and militant, born. Best known for his posthumously published book 'Verso il Nulla Creatore' (Toward the Creative Nothing). [expand]

1892 - Pietro Ferrero (d. 1922), Italian union activist and anarchist, born. Secretary in Turin of the Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro's metallurgists union, the Federazione Impiegati Operai Metallurgici, and organiser of the Councilist movement in the city's factories, he was murdered in December 1922 by fascist thugs.

1895 - Following his return to France from exile in London, Émile Pouget publishes the first issue of his new weekly newspaper 'La Sociale', which is in effect the banned 'Le Père Peinard' in all but name. Inevitably Pouget as editor ends up in jail for 4 months but the paper continues to be printed until Oct. 1896, 76 issues in all, and is replaced by a new 'Le Père Peinard'.

1910 - Auguste André Delalé (b. 1864), French anarcho-syndicalist and founding member of l'Association Internationale Antimilitariste at the 1904 Congress in Amsterdam, dies. Collaborated on Jean Grave's journal 'La Révolte', with Émile Pouget on 'Père Peinard', 'Libertaire', etc. [see: May 16]

##1922 - Paul Denais (d. 2014), French medical doctor, libertarian communist militant and Résistance member in Défense de la France, born in Rochefort sur Loire.

1922 - Alexandru Bogdan-Piteşti (also known as Ion Doican, Ion Duican and Al Dodan; b. 1870), Romanian Symbolist poet, essayist, art and literary critic, journalist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 13]

1926 - Massachusetts Supreme Court upholds the death sentences of "those anarchistic bastards" Sacco and Vanzetti and denies their motion for a new trial.

[B] 1932 - Virgilia d'Andrea (b. 1890), Italian poet, teacher, writer, anarchist and anti-fascist, dies sometime during the night of May11-12. [see: Feb. 11]

1940 - Michal Kácha (b. 1874), Czech shoemaker, anarchist, journalist, editor, translator, and publisher, who had a great influence on young writers of his time, dies. [see: Jan. 6]

1946 - Founding Congress of the Nihon Anarkisuto Renmei (Japanese Anarchist Federation) held in Tokyo.

## 1947 - Georg von Rauch (d. 1971), German anarchist and founder of the Anarchist Black Cross in Germany and June 2nd Movement, born. A member of the left-radical Blues-Scene in West-Berlin at the end of the 1960s having started studying philosophy at Kiel University but moved to Berlin at the height of the German student movement protests. He joined the Sozialistischen Deutschen Studentenbund, participating in protests for a better education policy and against the Vietnam War. He was also a member of the Zentralrats der umherschweifenden Haschrebellen (Central Council of the Roving Hash Rebels) and of the Wieland-Kommune, which financed itself by clandestine printing and 'proletarian shopping'. In the wake of the attempted murder of student leader Rudi Dutschke on April 11, 1968 and the May revolts in France, some of the Wieland-Kommune, together with Kommune 1 members, formed the West Berlin Tupamaros in order to take the fight to the West German state. The Tupamaros would mutate in 1971 into the Bewegung 2. Juni (Movement 2 June), named after German university student Benno Ohnesorg who had been killed by police in 1967.
After having beaten up a journalist from the hated Springer Press together with Michael 'Bommi' Baumann and Thomas Weissbecker, von Rauch was arrested on February 2, 1970. He was held imprisoned as a suspect until his court trial started in summer 1971. At the trial hearing on 8 July, 1971, a week-long adjournment was announced and, as Baumann and Weissbecker had been granted bail, they were free to leave. However, von Rauch was able to flee the court in Berlin-Moabit by changing roles with Weisbecker (they looked quiet similar, especially when Tommy put on Geeorg's glasses) and when Weissbecker announces that he was the one who should have been released. He was held for a further 4 days but later released.
Just before half past six in the afternoon on December 4, 1971, after five months on the run, Georg von Rauch was in Berlin-Schöneberg in the Eisenacher Straße, close to Martin-Luther-Straße, together with 3 others (Michael 'Bommi' Baumann , Hans Peter Knoll and Heinz Brockmann) when they were ambushed by plainclothes armed police as they try to park a stolen Ford Transit van. A total of 25 shots are fired and von Rauch is hit in the eye, killing him instantly. The others escaped.

1954 - Carmen Blanco García, Galician and Spanish language writer, illustrator, professor and anarcha-feminist, who has used the pseudonym Emma Luaces in tribute to Emma Goldman, born. [expand]

1965 - Roger Vailland (b. 1907), French novelist, essayist, screenwriter, youthful anarchist and, having fought alongside Communists in the Résistance, a Communist Party member dies. [see: Oct. 16]

1968 - Aftermath of 'The Night of the Barricades' / Mai '68: Following the police assault of more than 60 barricades, 367 people are hospitalised of which 251 are cops; 720 others are hurt and 468 arrested. An estimated 60 cars went up in flames and 188 others were damaged. In an attempt to co-opt (and control) the movement, the major mainstream unions (CGT, CFDT and FEN) call for a general strike on May 13.
"Soyez réalistes, demandez l'impossible" (Be Realistic, Demand the Impossible!)
"Sous les pavés – la plage!" (Beneath the paving stones – the beach!)
"L'imagination prend le pouvoir" (All Power to the Imagination!)

1968 - António Pedro Ribeiro (António Pedro de Basto e Vasconcelos Ribeiro da Silva), Portuguese poet "of anarchist tendencies", who stood for the Portuguese presidency in 2011, born. Performer of poetry, both as a member of the rock bands such as Os Ébrios (The Drunkards) and solo; creator of numerous poetry and arts magazines; and writer of books including 'Declaração de Amor ao Primeiro-Ministro e Outras Pérolas – Manifestos do Partido Surrealista Situacionista Libertário' (Declaration of love to the Prime Minister and other pearls: Manifestos of the Libertarian Surrealist Situationist Party; 2006), 'Queimai o Dinheiro' (Burn the Money; 2009) and 'Fora da Lei' (Outlaws; 2012).

1985 - Jean Philippe Arthur Dubuffet (b. 1901), French Art Brut painter, sculptor, lithographer, writer, anarchist, atheist, anti-militarist and anti-patriot, dies. [see: Jul. 31]

2014 - 200th anniversary celebrations of Mikhail Bakunin marked at the annual Pryamukhino Readings conference in Pryamukhino (Tver’ region), Russia.
1837 - Daniel Garrison Brinton (b. 1899), US archaeologist, ethnologist, author, surgeon in the Union army during the American Civil War, and later an anarchist, born.

1840 - Pierre 'Ernest' Teulière (d. unknown), French journalist, member of the International and Communard, born.

1840 - Alphonse Daudet (d. 1897), French novelist, short story writer, playwright, poet and anarchist sympathiser, whose texts appeared in 'Le Révolté', born. He was the father of writers Léon Daudet and Lucien Daudet, and grandfather of anarchist and poet Philippe Daudet.

##1872 - André Ibels (d. 1932), French libertarian poet, playwright, and novelist, he co-founded 'La Revue Anarchiste' in 1983 with his older brother, the famous painter, poster artist and fellow anarchist Henri-Gabriel Ibels, and contributed to numerous other anarchist publications, born.

1875 - Josep (José) Negre i Oliveras (d. 1939), Valencian typographer, journalist, orator and anarcho-syndicalist militant, who participated in the foundation of Solidaridad Obrera in 1907 and was the organisation's last general secretary as well as being elected in 1910 to be the first general secretary of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, which replaced S.O.

1881 - Lima Barreto (Alfonso Henriques de Lima Barreto; d. 1922), Brazilian novelist, short story writer, columnist, journalist and libertarian, born. Lima Barreto was a major figure on the Brazilian Pre-Modernism, best known for his novel and classic of South American literature, 'Triste Fim de Policarpo Quaresma' (The Tragic Fate of Policarpo Quaresma; 1911), a satire of the first years of the República Velha in Brazil. In 1907 he published with some friends and libertarian intellectuals (Fábio Luz, Domigos Ribeiro and Elísio de Carvalho) the short-lived magazine 'Floreal'. In 1917, during the period of social unrest, he began to collaborate in the anarchist press - 'A Plebe', 'A Voz do Trabalhador' and 'A Lanterna' - a defending labourers and anarchists victims of repression, as Brazil was hit by major social unrest, labour strikes and repression.

1885 - Clovis Poirier (stage name Clovys; d. 1955), French singer (author, composer, performer) anarchist and pacifist, born. Director of La Muse Rouge, revolutionary poets and songwriters society.

1890 - Pietro Gori, Italian lawyer and anarchist, is arrested today for "inciting" the clashes during May Day demonstrations in Livorno, charged with fomenting rebellion and class hatred, and organising strikes towards these ends.

1895 - Henri Lion (Antonin Lion; September 21, 1944), French master-printer, free-thinker, freemason and militant anarchist, who operated an underground anti-fascist printing press along with his brother Raoul during the Nazi occupation and, like his brother, was gassed in the Schloss Hartheim Euthanasia Centre (NS-Tötungsanstalt Hartheim), born.

##1903 - Fritz Scherer (d. March 14, 1988), German migrant worker, bookbinder, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who used his wartime position as a fireman to try and protect his comrades as well as cover for his underground anarchist activities, born.

1911 - Emma Goldman is accused of being an agent provocateur by the editors of 'Justice', a publication of the Social-Democratic Party in London, England. Accusation prompts anarchists and liberal journalists and lawyers to rally to Goldman's defense, and a statement protesting charges made by 'Justice' is circulated.

1912 - The opening of the École Moderne in São Paulo.

1914 - Isabella Fyvie Mayo (b. 1843), Scottish poet, novelist, suffragist, Tolstoyan anarchist, pacifist, anti-vivisectionist, anti-imperialist and anti-racist campaigner, who is primarily known for her fiction under the pen-name Edward Garrett, dies aged 70. [see: Dec. 10]

[B] 1915 - Virgili Batlle Vallmajó, better known as simply Virgilio (d. 1947), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, and self-taught Neo-Cubist painter, who later developed into a geometric abstactionist, born. At the outbreak of the fascist coup, he joined the Comitè Antifeixista de Sant Joan les Fonts (Antifascist Committee of Sant Joan les Fonts), which was dominated by the CNT and FAI, doing propaganda work. Soon after, he volunteered for the Aragon front as a sapper and fought in the Battle of Belchite in Zaragoza (August 24, 1937). Tuberculosis forced him into the Montseny sanatorium in February 1938 and the following month to the hospital in Girona, where a Medical Tribunal declared him unfit for military service.
In February 1939, he fled to France and was interned in the Argelès concentration camp, which he later escaped, making his way to Paris. There he worked with Picasso and established a close friendship with the poet Jaume Sabartés i Gual. There he discovered Malevich and Russian Suprematicism, which strongly influenced his analtyical cubist paintings.
At the outbreak of WWII the tuberculosis he had contracted fighting in Spain flared up and he moved south to the Vichy zone, settling in Toulouse, setting up a carpentry workshop manufacturing toys and participated in the activities of the Resistance and Liberation. When he died he was almost totally unknown in Spain until the Madrid gallery of José de la Mano put on an exhibition, 'Virgilio Mallmajó (1914-1947). Del neocubismo a la abstracción geométrica' (From neo-cubism to geometric abstraction) in 2005.

1936 - Alfredo Bagaglino (b. unknown), Italian anarchist, deported back to Italy by the US government in 1920 because of his anarchist activism and then arrested by the Fascist regime, dies in internal exile (confino).

## 1962 - Eva X Moberg (Eva Maria Moberg; d. 1999), Swedish journalist, anarchist, feminist and squatting activist, who somewhat controversially became editor of the long-running Swedish anarchist newspaper 'Brand' (Fire) ['ownership' of the title and the right to use it was disputed], born.

1967 - In The Netherlands, Provo, founded in May 1965, officially disband.

1968 - The Sorbonne is occupied by students and others. The general strike puts hundreds of thousands of students and workers on the streets of Paris.

1985 - In the City of Philadelphia (The City of Brotherly Love), and following an armed siege, the house of the radical black group MOVE at 6221 Osage Avenue has a four-pound bomb made of C-4 plastic explosive and Tovex, a dynamite substitute, onto the roof of the house from a police helicopter. Eleven people, including group leader John Africa, five other adults and five children are killed, a number shot as they tried to surrender. The resulting fire destroys 62 others homes in neighbourhood. Surviving MOVE members are still imprisoned.

1985 - John Africa (Vincent Leaphart; b. 1931), African-American founder and ideologue of MOVE, a Philadelphia-based communalist anarcho-primitivist organisation that fell foul of COINTELPRO, is one of eleven people killed when the Philadelphia Police Department bomb 6221 Osage Avenue in West Philadelphia. [see: Jul. 26]

2009 - Ivan Ivanov Ratchev (aka Bai Ivan; b. 1926), Bulgarian-born anarchist, dies. Exiled in Switzerland, he took part in the founding of CIRA, edited the revue 'Balkanska Duma' and published 'La Confédération et le "Parti" Marx' (1976). He returned to Bulgaria following the fall of the Iron Curtain to assist the fledgling Bulgarian anarchist movement.

2014 - 200th anniversary celebrations of Mikhail Bakunin marked at the annual Pryamukhino Readings conference in Pryamukhino (Tver’ region), Russia.
[B] 1845 - Louisa Sarah Bevington (d. 1895), English poet, journalist, essayist, Darwinist and anarchist communist, born. The occupation of her father was described as a "gentleman". She was the oldest of eight children, seven of whom were girls. She started writing verse at an early age and her first published poems were two sonnets appeared in the Quaker periodical the 'Friends' Quarterly Examiner' in October 1871. Herbert Spencer read some of these early poems and reprinted a number in the American journal, 'Popular Science Monthly'. Her first poetry collection, 'Key-Notes', was published under the pseudonym 'Arbor Leigh' and many showed a distinct Darwinist and scientific basis. As a result, Herbert Spencer also asked Bevington to write articles on evolutionary theory. Her first two articles, 'The Personal Aspects of Responsibility' and, her best-known essay, 'Modern Atheism and Mr. Mallock'.
Not long after she published her second volume of poems ('Poems, Lyrics, and Sonnets') in 1882, she went to Germany and in 1883 married a Munich artist Ignatz Felix Guggenberger. The marriage lasted less than 8 years and she returned to London in 1890. She began to frequent anarchist circles, restarting her career under her maiden name. By the mid-1890s, Bevington knew many London anarchists and was recognised as an anarchist poet. She probably became acquainted with anarchism through meeting Charlotte Wilson, who had jointly founded the anarchist paper 'Freedom' in 1886.
Rejecting the tactics of the bomb and dynamite being espoused by some anarchists in Britain, she associated with the anarchist paper 'Liberty' (subtitled: "A Journal of Anarchist Communism"), edited by the tailor James Tochatti from January 1894. She wrote many articles and poems for it, as well as for other anarchist papers, like the 'Torch', edited by the two young nieces, Helen and Olivia, of the artist Dante Gabriel Rossetti. She was involved in efforts to set up an organisation, the Anarchist Communist Alliance and wrote an Anarchist Manifesto for it , which was distributed on May 1st 1895 (the Alliance appears not to have survived long).
At the age of 50 in 1895, Bevington was still active but was suffering from bad health, namely heart disease that had been afflicting her for years. She managed to write some articles for 'Liberty' in that year and her last collection of poems for Liberty Press. She died on November 28, 1895 in Lechmere, as the result of dropsy and mitral disease of the heart. Whilst her poems, very much a product of late Victorian times, have not aged all that well, the articles and pamphlets she wrote in which she strongly argued for anarchism, still bear a look.

##1882* - [O.S. Jun. 2] Pavel Potsev Shatev, aka Georgi Manasov [Георги Манасов], Kratovaliev [Кратовалиев] (Павел Поцев Шатев; d. 1951), Bulgarian / Macedonian teacher and journalist, member of the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна македоно-одринска революционна организация [bg] / Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Организација [mk]), one of the Soldiers of Thessaloniki, and later one of the founders of the Inner Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (united) (Внатрешна македонска револуционерна организација (обединета) [mk] / Вътрешна македонска революционна организация - обединена [bg]), Mason and one of the anarchist Gemidzhii (гемиджиите) Circle involved in the 1903 Thessaloniki bombings, born.
[* many sources appear to have either gotten the Julian to Gregorian calendar alteration wrong (Jun. 2 to 15?) or the translation of юни (June) incorrect, widely quoted as July (јули)]

1887 - Lysander Spooner (b. 1808), American utopian individualist anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 19]

1891 - Learning from comrades that Baroness Rochetaillee had been buried with her jewellery, one stormy night François Ravachol scaled the cemetery wall, raised the tombstone, which weighed 120 kilos, tore off the oak lid of the coffin which was held in place by three iron bands, broke the lead casing to find only a wooden cross with the corpse.
[Costantini pic]

1910 - In Buenos Aires, the printing plant for the anarchist journal 'La Protesta' is again attacked and destroyed.

1912 - Johan August Strindberg (b. 1849), Swedish playwright, novelist, poet, essayist, and painter, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

1912 - San Diego Free Speech Fight: A mob of vigilantes waits for Emma Goldman's arrival at the San Diego train station and follows her to the Grant Hotel in an attempt to run her out of town. Reitman is kidnapped, tarred, and sage-brushed, and his buttocks singed by cigar with the letters I.W.W.. Goldman flees from San Diego to Los Angeles.

[BB] 1912 - Mary Stanley Low (d. 2007), Anglo-Australian Trotskyist and later anarchist, poet, Surrealist, linguist and classics teacher, born. In 1933 she met the Cuban Trotskyist poet Juan Breá (1905-1941) in Paris. They joined the Surrealist group there, working alongside André Breton, Paul Eluard, René Magritte and Yves Tanguy. The poet and Surrealist ELT Mesens and the poet Benjamin Peret also become close friends. With the outbreak of the Revolution, she and Breá (rejecting the Breton-inspired Stalinist orthodoxy) went to Spain and joined POUM, where she helped organised the Women's Militia, edited the English-language paper 'Spanish Revolution'. Her sympathy for the anarchists was aroused by the organisation by the CNT of the shoeshine boys and the prostitutes into their own unions, and by her attendance of Durruti's funeral. In December that year, they had to flee the country after Breá narrowly avoided an assassination attempt (presumably by Stalinists, who tried to run him over as he left a POUM meeting). In London, she and Breá married and co-authored 'Red Spanish Notebook: The First Six Months of the Revolution and the Civil War' (1937), with a preface by C. L. R. James, the first book on the Revolution. Following stays in Cuba and Paris, from early 1938 the couple lived in Prague with fellow Surrealists Toyen and Jindřich Štyrský, until they were forced to flee the Nazi invasion in July 1939. Ending up in Cuba in 1940, where Breá dies the following year and Low was to marry Trotskyist Cuban journalist trade-unionist Armando Machado in 1944, and giving birth to 3 daughters. With the Cuban Revolution,
Machado was arrested and only released thanks to the protection of Guevara. Eventually they won asylum in the US in 1965, where she was involved with the Cuban anarchist exile review 'Guangara Liberteria'.
Her works include 'La Saison des Flutes' (1939); 'Alquimia del recuerdo' (Alchemy of memory; 1946); the trilingual book of poetry, 'Three Voices, Voces, Voix' (1957); 'In Caesar’s Shadow' (1975); 'Alive in Spite Of' (1981); 'A Voice in Three Mirrors' (1984); and 'Where the Wolf Sings' (1994). [The last two were illustrated by her own collages and drawings, and printed by AK Press.]

1919 - Émile de Antonio (d. 1989), American anarchist film director, producer, academic and author, who was the only filmmaker on Richard Nixon's enemies list, born. Largely a director of documentaries, including 'Point of Order' (1964); 'In the Year of the Pig' (1968); 'McCarthy: Death of a Witch Hunter' (1975) and 'Mr. Hoover and I' (1989); his only drama was the Plowshares 8 film 'In the King of Prussia' (1983). He also co-directed, with Haskell Wexler and Mary Lampson, the Weather Underground documentary 'Underground' (1976).

1931 - Viktor Dyk (b. 1877), Czech poet, novelist, playwright, journalist, youthful member of the generation of the Czech Anarchističtí Buřiči, "básníci života a vzdoru" (Anarchist Rebels, "the poets of life and defiance") and later a right-wing nationalist, dies. [see: Dec. 31]

## 1940 - Six days after suffering her second debilitating stroke, Emma Goldman (b. 1869) seminal anarchist rebel, feminist, anti-militarist, world citizen and force of nature, dies in Toronto aged 70, whilst on tour raising money for anti-Franco forces in Spain. Author of 'My Disillusionment in Russia', 'Living My Life', 'Anarchism & Other Essays' and 'The Place of the Individual in Society' amongst other works. [see: Jun. 27]
"Anarchism is the only philosophy which brings to man the consciousness of himself; which maintains that God, the State, and society are non-existent, that their promises are null and void, since they can be fullfilled only through man's subordination." - 'Anarchism, What it Really Stands For' (1910)
"Love, the strongest and deepest element in all life, the harbinger of hope, of joy, of ecstasy; love, the defier of all laws, of all conventions; love, the freest, the most powerful moulder of human destiny; how can such an all-compelling force be synonymous with that poor little State and Church-begotten weed, marriage? Free love? As if love is anything but free!" - 'Marriage and Love' in 'Anarchism and Other Essays' (1911).

1950 - Valerie Powles (Valerie Gay Powles; d. 2011), English teacher, vocational historian, local activist and anarcho-individualist, born [expand]

1968 - Mai '68: Sorbonne students occupy and open the University to the population, inviting "the workers to come and discuss with them the problems of the University". All demonstrators who were arrested have been released.

[F] 1968 - Mai '68: Workplace occupations start. A significant aspect of the May Upheaval. By the end of this month over 10,000,000 workers are involved in occupations. In Nantes, the workmen of South-Aviation, begin the first occupations of factories.

1988 - José Xena Torrent (b. 1907), militant Catalan anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Jul. 19]

[A] 1995 - First London RTS street party gathered at the Rainbow Centre (a squatted church at Kentish Town) and partied in Camden.

1998 - Heinrich Friedetzky (b. 1910), German electrician and anarcho-syndicalist, who participated in the armed anti-fascist organisation Schwarze Scharen set up by Ratibor FAUD, fought in the Spanish Revolution, and survived the Sachsenhausen and Ravensbrueck concentration camps, dies in Cologne. [see: Oct. 8]

1999 - Adelita del Campo (nickname of Adela Carreras Taurà; d. 1999), Spanish dancer, actress, anarchist and later a communist, dies. [see: Aug. 3]

2000 - Karl Shapiro (b. 1913), American poet, Pulitzer Prize-winner in 1945 and Gandhian anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 10]

2001 - Roger Boussinot (b. 1921), French director, writer, screenwriter, critic, film historian and libertarian, who used the pseudonyms Emmanuel Le Lauraguais and Roger Mijema, dies. [see: May 2]

2009 - Christopher Gray (b. 1942), English anarchist, activist, writer, member of the British Section of the Situationist International and of King Mob, who is best remembered as editor of 'Leaving the 20th Century' (1974), dies from cancer. [see: May 22]

2009 - Edgar Rodrigues (Antônio Francisco Correia; b. 1921), Portuguese militant anti-fascist and anarchist historian of the Portuguese and Brazilian anarchist movement, who authored more than fifty books, dies. [see: Mar. 12]
1843 - François Malicet (d. 1927), French barber, lifelong anarchist and member of 'Les Déshérités' group in Nouzon, born.

1859 - Pierre Fauvet (d. 1901), French gunsmith, peddler, militant member of various anarchist groups in Saint-Étienne, born. Convicted numerous times in both Switzerland and France for his activities.

1884 - The first issue of fortnightly newspaper 'L'Affamé: Organe communiste-anarchiste paraissant tous les quinze jours' (The Hungry) is published in Marseille.

1885 - Jacob Law (Jacob Lew), Ukranian individualist anarchist, born. Author of the May 1, 1907, attentat in Paris where he fired upon a bus full of cavalry officers. Sentenced to 15 years hard labour in Guyana. A lifelong anarchist, he published a book of memoirs, 'Dix-huit Ans de Bagne' (18 Years of Exile; 1926).

1887 - Against a backdrop of increased repression of the anarchist movement and social conflict, the fifth and final meeting of the Federación de Trabajadores de la Region Española takes place [May 15-17]. Only 16 delegates attend.

1893 - [N.S. May 27] Nellie Dick (Naomi Ploschansky; d. 1995), Anglo-American anarchist pedagogue, is born in Kiev, Ukraine. Just nine months old, her parents moved with her to London. In June 1912, as a eighteen-year-old Nellie set up a Modern School, based on the values and ideas of Francisco Ferrer, in Whitechapel in the East End of London. Within a year the school had one hundred children aged five to fifteen. The school, which was run by the children, supported the Suffragists during their public protests, protecting the women from violence, invited guest speakers to teach them and took an active part in the politics of their community.
Nellie went to America in January 1917 with her husband Jim, who she had met at a May Day demonstration in 1913 and had previously set up the Liverpool Anarchist Communist Sunday School, and became involved in the Stelton libertarian colony and the Modern School, which had moved there in 1915. Nelly Dick took over the kindergarten and, in 1923, when another libertarian community started in Mohegan, New York State, founding and running the Modern School there. In June 1928 they returned to Stelton. [expand]

1894 - The first issue of 'L'Idée', a fortnightly Belgian anarchist newspaper, is published in St. Josse-Ten-Node.

1912 - André René Valet (b. 1890) and Octave Garnier (b. 1889) die in a shootout. Illegalist members of the Bonnot Gang, both are killed in the Paris suburb of Nogent-sur-Marne.
[Costantini pic]

1919 - Winnipeg General Strike: The general strike called by the Winnipeg Trades and Labour Council begins today and by 11:00 virtually the entire working population of Winnipeg is out on strike after somewhere around 30,000 workers in the public and private sectors have walked off their jobs – half of whom were not even union members – in support of the city’s building and metal trade workers, on strike over wages and working conditions. The strike lasts until June 26th, when the Winnipeg Labour Council "officially" declares the strike over. [expand]

#### 1923 - Simon Watson Taylor (d. 2005), English anarchist, actor and translator, closely associated with the Surrealist movement, born. Secretary for the British Surrealist Group he edited the English language surrealist review 'Free Union' but later became a key player in the “science” of Pataphysics. Close friend of Marie-Louise Berneri, Vernon Richards, Philip Sansom, John Olday, George Melly, etc., becoming involved in 'War Commentary' and 'Freedom'. Founded the anarcho-surrealist review 'Free Unions/Unions Libres' (its single issue published in1946, two years after first planned due to the 'War Commentary' arrests), through which he came to know André Breton, now moving back towards anarchism. In 1954, he joined the recently created Collège de Pataphysique after breaking with Breton and the Surrealists.
Translated many surrealist-associated works from the French including: André Breton's 'Surrealism and Painting' (1972), Jarry's 'Ubu Plays' (1968), Boris Vian's plays such as 'The Empire Builders', 'The Generals’ Tea Party' and 'The Knackers’ ABC', plus his much reprinted translation of 'Paris Peasant' by Louis Aragon (1971).

## 1933 - Georgi Georgiev Konstantinov (Георги Георгиев Константинов), nicknamed Anarchy (Анархията), Bulgarian anarchist, who bombed the Stalin monument in the Borisov Garden (Борисовата градина) in Sofia on Mar. 3, 1953, two days before the Soviet dictator died, born.

[B] 1935 - Kazimir (or Kasimir) Malevich (b. 1879), Soviet anarchist artist and founder of the Suprematist movement, dies, neglected and in poverty following longterm persecution from the Stalinist regime. He wrote regularly for the weekly 'Anarkhiia' (Anarchy) newspaper, contributing to more than twenty issues and supported the paper financially.
“The banner of anarchism is the banner of our ego and like a free wind our spirit will billow our creative work through the vast spaces of our soul.”
"We are revealing new pages of art in anarchy’s new dawns …
We are the first to come to the new limit of creation, and we shall uncover a new alarm in the field of the lacquered arts …
The powerful storm of revolution has borne off the garret, and we, like clouds in the firmament, have sailed to our freedom.
The ensign of anarchy is the ensign of our ‘ego,’ and our spirit like a free wind will make our creative work flutter in the broad spaces of the soul.
You who are bold and young, make haste to remove the fragments of the disintegrating rudder. Wash off the touch of the dominating authorities.
And, clean, meet and build the world in awareness of your day." Malevich - 'To The New Limit' (originally published as 'K novoi grani'), 'Anarkhiia' 31 (1918) (p220-1).
[see: Feb. 23]

1937 - The first issue of Léo Campion's fortnightly newspaper 'Rebellion' is published in Brussels. Much of the news focuses on the revolution in Spain.

1942 - T-Bone Slim (Matti Valentinpoika Huhta; b. 1880), Finnish-born American IWW songwriter, dies.
"Wherever you find injustice, the proper form of politeness is attack."

1948 - The three day conference of European anarchists that sees the founding of the Comité de Relations Internationales Anarchistes (CRIA) opens in Paris.

1965 - Juan Lechín Oquendo, Executive Secretary of the Central Obrera Boliviana and the Federación Sindical de Trabajadores Mineros de Bolivia, and head of Partido Revolucionario de la Izquierda Nacionalista, is arrested by the Dirección de Investigación Crimina at his home on Avenid 6 de Agosto (building belonging to COMIBOL) at 12:15 and exiled to Paraguay at 14:05 the same day. A statement from the Ministerio de Gobierno gave a number of reasons justifying this lightning operation:
"If to govern is to prevent, we have avoided days of bloodshe and chaos in the country, anticipating the disruptive action of the left-wing coup leaders led by Mr. Lechin, who with resources, money and plans sent from abroad, intended to turn Bolivia into a new focus of violence and extremism in the Southern Hemisphere."
[ del movimiento obrero boliviano/tomo 6/cap 2 los acontecimientos de mayo.pdf,P50002_LANG_CODE:2898957,esín_Oquendoón_Sindical_de_Trabajadores_Mineros_de_Bolivia]

[A] 1968 - Mai '68: The French Prime Minister appeals to the population to resist "anarchy". Occupation of the théâtre de l'Odéon by 2,500 students and the Renault factory at Cléon is occupied by workers.

## ##1971 - Thomas Meyer-Falk, German Red & Anarchist Skinhead (RASH) long-term prisoner, convicted in 1997 of bank robbery with hostage-taking and sentence to 16 years, 9 months and three weeks imprisonment, he has since served the full term (much of it solitary confinement and is being held under an old Nazi-era law Sicherungsverwahrung (reventive detention or security custody), born.

1981 - Maria Girolimetti aka 'Sdazarina' (b. 1895), Italian maid/houseworker, peddler and anarchist, dies. [see:Nov. 28]

1988 - Spanish Embassy in Rome occupied by USI and CNT-AIT anarchist militants.

1995 - Georges Charensol (b. 1899), French journalist, arts, literary and film critic, film extra and individualist anarchist, dies. [see: Dec. 26]

2011 - 'Los Indignados' movement born in Spain under the slogan "we are not goods in the hands of politicians and bankers".
1864 - Auguste André Delalé (d. 1910), French anarcho-syndicalist, born. Collaborated on Jean Grave's journal 'La Révolte', with Émile Pouget on 'Père Peinard', 'Libertaire', etc. Delale was a founding member of l'Association Internationale Antimilitariste at the 1904 Congress in Amsterdam.

1870 - Giovanni Passannante [sometimes spelled Passanante] arrested by cops while surreptitiously plastering subversive manifestoes on the walls in Salerno.

[D] 1871 - Paris Commune: Following the decree of April 12, the Paris Commune destroys the much hated Vendôme Column ("un monument de barbarie") with its statue of Napoléon I as Mars the Peacemaker on top. Dedicated to imperial glory, this symbol of militarism and barbarism, forged from the cannons captured from the Russian and Austrian armies of Napoléon, had no place in the insurgents' city.
Originally scheduled for May 5, the anniversary of Napoleon's death, but the military situation at that time prevented the ceremonial demolition from taking place. Postponed on numerous occasions, the ceremony was finally announced for May 16, 1871. By early afternoon, a crowd had already gathered at the barricades blocking the entrances to the Place Vendôme, as Parisians jostled for the best view or appeared at windows or watched from rooftops. At 15.30, the ceremony begins. A brass band strikes up and the 172ème and 190ème battalions of the Garde Nationale began the Marseillaise and the Chant du Départ. Between the songs, the crowds chanted a little ditty aimed at Napoleon's statute above their heads: "Tireur juché sur cette échasse, Si le sang que tu fis verser, Pouvait tenir sur cette place, Tu le boirais sans te baisser." When the last workman had descended from the scaffolding, the ropes attached to the column take the strain and at 17.15 it crashed down into a bed of horse dung, to the cheers of the battalions of the Garde nationale and the many Parisians gathered in the square.

La Commune de Paris,
Considérant que la colonne impériale de la place Vendome est un monument de barbarie, un symbole de force brute et de fausse gloire, une af?rmation du militarisme, une negation du droit international, une insulte permanente des vainqueurs aux vaincus, un attentat perpétuel a l’un des trois grands principes de la République franoaise, la Fraternité,
Article unique—La colonne de la place Vendome sera démolie.
Paris, le 12 avril 1871.
La Commune de Paris. (Bulletin 22)

[The Paris Commune,
Considering that the imperial column of the place Vendome is a monument to barbarism, a symbol of brute force and of false glory, an affirmation of militarism, a negation of international law, a permanent insult from the victors to the defeated, a perpetual attack on one of the three great principles of the French Republic,
One Article—The column ofthe place Vendome will be demolished.
Paris, 12 April 1871]

1885 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Le Droit Social', "Organe Anarchiste", is published in Marseille as a replacement for the Lyon-based 'Droit Social'.

##1887 - Maria Lacerda de Moura (d. 1945), Brazilian teacher, lecturer, journalist, writer, poet, anti-fascist, individualist anarchist and anarcha-feminist revolutionary, and animal rights campaigner, who founded the Liga para a Emancipação Intelectual da Mulher (League for the Intellectual Emancipation of Women), born. The daughter of Modesto de Araújo Lacerda and Amélia de Araújo Lacerda, freethinkers and educated folk from whom she certainly inherited her strong anticlerical outlook. Five years after she was born they moved to Barbacena, the town where she started her schooling and by the age of 16 she was training as a primary teacher, the profession to which she was deeply committed. One year later she married Carlos Ferreira de Moura, the companion who always supported her – even after their relationship had ended.
In 1915 the couple adopted two orphans, a girl and one of Maria’s own nephews. At that point, she was so committed to her profession as an educator that she set up the League Against Illiteracy and gave free classes. From that valuable experience she came to the conclusion that the purpose of the educational system was to shape people’s personalities, forcing them to abdicate their own individual identities in order to tailor their behaviour to what suited the interests of the established order. Furthermore she realised that it was not enough just to fight illiteracy if they were to achieve a fairer world. That would require a more profound change, a real social revolution!
So she embarked upon her study and investigation of libertarian education as well as delving into the social question. In 1918 she began her career as a writer, issuing her first book 'Em torno da Educação' (On Education) . Such was the impact it made that the following year she published two follow-ups 'Porque vence o porvir?' (Why Does the Future Triumph?) and 'Renovação' (Renewal).
In 1921 she and the family moved to the city of São Paulo where she started work as a private tutor. At that time of great social upheaval she started to give lectures (some in the city of Santos) to trade unions, cultural centres, anarchist theatre groups and labour associations and the likes of the Printing Workers’ Union, the Anticlerical League and the Union of Footwear Crafts. She also started to write for the anarchist press, among it the newspaper 'A Plebe' where she wrote about "the underlying and ancillary sciences of education and educational psychology" carrying on and adding to the work done in that field by Neno Vasco with the weekly newspaper 'A Terra Livre' in 1906.
At around the same time she helped to found the International Women’s Federation and the Women’s Anti-war Committee, based in São Paulo. The object of both organisations was to organise the women of Santos and São Paulo into a movement for human emancipation that would look beyond simple electoral goals, since in those days many women saw the most important goal as winning female suffrage.
In February 1923 she launched the monthly review 'Renascença' which made no bones about spreading libertarian feminist ideas and dealing with other social issues. This review was circulated in nine states of Brazil as well as in Argentina and Portugal. The following year she issued her most famous book 'A mulher é uma degenerada?' (Is Woman Degenerate?) by way of an outraged retort to the thesis ‘Epilepsy and pseudo-epilepsy’ written by the psychiatrist Miguel Bombarda in which he tried to show through pseudo-scientific case studies that woman was man’s biological inferior. In 1926 she issued another classic work: 'Religião do amor e da beleza' (The Religion of Love and Beauty).
In 1927 she parted from her husband Carlos once and for all, although they remained on very amicable terms. Due to her great popularity in countries such as Uruguay, Argentina, Chile and Mexico she was invited to give talks in Montevideo, Buenos Aires and Santiago. On her return she carried on with her activities as a libertarian propagandist in São Paulo until she moved in 1928 to Guararema in the interior of São Paulo state where she lived on a farm belonging to a commune that included the Italian anarchist Artur Campagnoli. The commune was made up of Italian, Spanish and French conscientious objectors to the Great War who intended to live together in harmony in an egalitarian libertarian arrangement whilst offering peaceful resistance to all forms of violence. During Maria’s time on the farm, she set up a school for the commune’s peasants and after that bought some land nearby where she built a modest home and schoolroom. All without giving up on her writing activity: in 1931 she issued two more books, 'Clero e Estado' (Clergy and State) and 'Civilização, tronco de escravos' (Civilisation, Body of Slaves). In 1932 she published yet another outstanding book, 'Amai-vos e não vos multipliqueis' (Love … and Do Not Multiply).
In 1934 suffering from severe rheumatism she was forced to quit her home in Guararema to move into Rio de Janeiro where, although greatly weakened, she carried on writing for the local press and giving talks to labour circles. In 1935, under pressure from the repression emanating from the dictatorial Getúlio Vargas government she returned to Barbacena with the intention of ending her days there with her mother. But she was barred from teaching in the public school system by the authorities who regarded her as a "dangerous communist". So, in 1937, she returned to Rio de Janeiro where she was obliged to work hard just to survive. In 1938 she moved to the Ilha do Governador meaning to give more lectures on education and libertarian subjects. In 1940 she published her last book, a handbook entitled 'Português para os cursos comerciais' (Portuguese for Commercial Courses), in which, among other things, she included an essay by José Oiticica on 'Style'.
In September 1944 her mother died and in December she moved back to Rio de Janeiro once and for all. Maria Lacerda de Moura died on March 20, 1944, aged not quite 58. Her funeral was a modest affair with no wreaths and only a few flowers.
Among the labour papers she wrote for were 'O Culinário Paulista', 'A Patrulha Operária', 'A Plebe', 'A Lanterna' and 'O Trabalhador Gráfico'. Among her closest friends were the anarchists Rodolfo Felipe, Angelo Guido, José Oiticica, Osvaldo José Salgueiro and Diamantino Augusto. Maria Lacerda de Moura led an intense life questing after genuine social equality: she was the first Brazilian feminist to express her thoughts in newspaper, review and book form. In Brazil she pioneered the spread of a stand against fascism and campaigned against experiments on animals. Her work reached out to the continents of America and Europe and yet her output and her story are glossed over and maliciously ignored by contemporary historians. All because in her life pride of place was given to honesty in that she had no interest in the party political game. Maria Lacerda de Moura was a real revolutionary in the full sense of the word. An exemplary woman whom today’s reformist feminists would rather forget.

1901 - Gustave Lefrancais (b. 1826), French revolutionary, member of the First International, of the Paris Commune, and a founder of the anarchist Jura Federation, dies.

1909 - Ricardo Flores Magón, Antonio I. Villarreal and Librado Rivera imprisoned for 18 months for alleged "violation" of the neutrality laws.

1910 - Henri Edmond Cross (Henri-Edmond-Joseph Delacroix; b. 1856), French Néo-Impressionist painter, illustrator, printmaker and anarchist, dies. [see: May 20]

1911 - Lorenzo Panepinto (b. 1865), Italian teacher, founder of the Fascio dei Lavoratori (Workers League) in his hometown Santo Stefano Quisquina, editor of the newspaper 'La Plebe' and member of the Comitato della Federazione Regionale Socialista, dies. [see: Jan. 4]

1914 - Hans Schmitz (d. 2007), German anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, militant anti-fascist and conscript to the Wehrmacht, born. Member of Freie Jugend Morgenröte (Free Youth Dawn), der SAJD Syndikalistisch-Anarchistische Jugend Deutschlands (SAJD; Anarcho-Syndicalist Youth of Germany) - the youth organisation of FAUD, the Freien Arbeiter Union Deutschland (FAUD; Free Workers Union of Germany) and in the Schwarzen Scharen (Black Bands) militant anarchsit anti-Nazi organisation.

[A] 1917 - [N.S. May 29] The Kronstadt Soviet declares independence from the Provisional Government. [see: May 29]
[,_Soviet_and_Post-Soviet_Studies_ _1983.pdf]

1920 - Jean Boldt (Johan Carl Emil Boldt; b. 1865), Finnish advocate, lawyer and journalist, who later became known as a theosophist and Tolstoyian Christian anarchist advocate of pacifism, animal welfare and vegetarianism, dies. [see: Apr. 19]

1933 - John Henry Mackay (b. 1864), Swiss-German individualist anarchist and gay writer, dies. Author of 'Die Anarchisten' (The Anarchists) (1891) and 'Der Freiheitsucher' (The Searcher for Freedom) (1921). [see: Feb. 6]

## 1933 - Filareto Kavernido (Heinrich Goldberg; b. 1880), German gynaecologist, philosophical Nietzschean, communist-anarchist, pacifist, idiste and passionate advocate of Esperanto (Ido), is kidnapped and murdered by state-sponsored actors in the Dominican Republic. [see: Jul. 24]

[B] 1943 - Jon Jost, American anarchist and independent filmmaker, born.

1968 - Mai '68: Strikes hit other factories throughout France, plus air transport, the RATP and the SNCF. Newspapers fail to be distributed.

2010 - Noam Chomsky barred from entering the West Bank by the Israeli state.

2012 - Three Occupy activists are arrested on the eve of the NATO summit in Chicago and charged under terrorist legislation with planning a molotov attack on Obama's campaign headquarters.
####1874 - Uchiyama Gudō (内山 愚童; d. 1911), Japanese Sōtō Zen Buddhist priest and anarcho-communist activist, who was one of twelve executed in the High Treason Case (幸徳事件 / Kōtoku Jiken), singled out for prosecution by reason that he had written the pamphlet 'Anarchist Communism' (無政府共産 / Museifu Kyōsan*; 1908), in which he denied the sacredness of the Emperor, and that he was one of few Buddhist leaders who spoke out against the Meiji government in its imperialist projects, born.
[* also known as 'Anarchist Communist Revolution' (無政府共産革命 / Museifu Kyōsan Kakumei), subtitled 'Why is life so hard for tenant farmers?']

## 1891 - Hiski Salomaa (Hiskias Möttö; d. 1957), Finnish-American singer and songwriter, Wobbly, anarcho-syndicalist and conscientious objector during WWI, who was known as the 'Finnish Woody Guthrie', born.

1897 - At the Erste Kongreß der lokalorganisierten oder auf des Grund des Vertrauensmännersystems zentralisierten Gewerkschaften Deutschlands (First Congress of Localist Trade Unions, Germany, and Centralised Trade Unions of Germany) on May 17-19, 1897, the Vertrauensmänner-Zentralization Deutschlands (German Confederation of Centralisation), an independent organisation of Lokalisten (Localist) unions across Germany is formed. The localists rejected the centralisation of the trade unions and following the expiry of the Sozialistengesetze (Socialist laws) in 1890, which prohibited socialist, social-democratic, communist associations, assemblies, and writings whose purpose was the overthrow of the existing state and social order, it was proposed that the organisation change its basic democratic structures. Thus, in 1901 it changed its name to the Freie Vereinigung Deutscher Gewerkschaften (Free Association of German Trade Unions) as it continued to develope towards a syndicalist trade union structure and practice. This culminated at the FVdG's 12th Congress, held in December 27-30, 1919, in the creation of the Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschland (Free Workers Union Germany).

1916 - José Borras Cascarosa aka 'Cantaclaro', 'Jacinto Barrera', 'Sergio', 'Sergio Mendoza' (d. 2002), militant Spanish anarchist and syndicalist, CNT, FIJL and Durruti Column member, born. [expand]

1923 - While the Spainsh city of León celebrates the Fiesta Mayor, anarchists Gregorio Suberviela and Antonio del Toto (Garzon Martinez) of the group Los Solidarios shoot the former governor Faustino González Regueral (he is responsible employer pistolerosism and fierce repression against the working class in the early 20s) as he comes out of a theatre. The two activists manage to escape despite the presence of security guards and police.

1934 - Pierre Clastres (d. 1977), French libertarian anthropologist and ethnologist, born. He is best known for his contributions to the field of political anthropology, with his fieldwork among the Guayaki in Paraguay and his theory of stateless societies, as laid out in his best known work 'La Société contre l'État' (1974)

1937 - Juan Negrin forms a communist government which excludes the anarchists and begins repressing those elements it cannot control (including assassinations and summary executions). Some earlier revolutionary reforms are rescinded. Republican attacks on Segovia and Huesca fail. The UGT Regional Committee for Catalonia demands that all POUM militants be expelled from its ranks and presses the C.N.T. [Confederacion Nacional del Trabajo] to mete out the same treatment to the Friends of Durruti.

1940 - Emma Goldman is buried in Waldheim Cemetery, Chicago, close to the Haymarket Martyrs, her casket covered by an SIA-FAI flag and bouquets of flowers sent by friends and organisations across the USA.

[D] 1968 - Mai '68: Today the Occupations Committee, including members of the Situationist International (SI) and the enragés from Nanterre University, send their famous telegrams to the Czech Marxist humanist philosopher Ivan Sviták, the Zengakuren Japanese revolutionary student movement, and the Politburos of the USSR and Chinese Communist Parties in Moscow and Beijing respectively.






[A] 1972 - Milan police chief Luigi Calabresi, in charge at the time police 'suicided' the anarchist Giuseppe Pinelli on December 15, 1969, is assassinated. Three militants of the extreme left, Adriano Sofri, Giorgio Pietrostefani and Ovidio Bompressi, get 22-year sentences.

[B] 1993 - Robert Lapoujade (b. 1921), French painter, radical experimental filmmaker, cinematographer, writer and libertarian Marxist, dies. Signatory of 'Manifeste des 121', who is best known for his portraits of French literary figures including Jean-Paul Sartre and Andre Breton. [see: Jan. 3]

2007 - Dolores Vimes Domínguez (b. 1911), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Mar. 7]

2012 - Laura Gómez, secretary of the CGT-Barcelona, is released from prison. Laura had been in jail since April 25, charged with arson and fire damage to the Barcelona Stock Exchange for having burned a cardboard box filled with false trading tickets in front of the Barcelona Stock Exchange, a symbolic action organised as part of the general strike protests in Spain on March 29.
##1827 - Josiah Warren (1798-1874), considered the first American individualist anarchist, puts into practice his ideas on the economic value of work as he opens his first Time Store in Cincinnati, Ohio - the first commercial cooperative.

1855 - George Speed (d. unknown), US anarchist agitator, active in the Haymarket defense of the falsely accused anarchists, Coxey's Army, the Pullman Strike, and as a labour organiser for the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), born. [expand]

[E] 1874 - Madeleine Pelletier (d. 1939), French doctor, franc-maçonne, feminist, member of the Socialist Party, briefly a Communist, then a libertarian, born. Founded the review 'La Suffragiste' and collaborated on other néo-Malthusian and anarchist publications.

[B] 1876 - Luigi 'Gigi' Damiani aka 'Ausinio Acrate' & 'Simplicio' (d. 1953), Italian journalist, poet, jobbing painter, anarchist activist and propagandist, who emigrated to Brazil and directs various publications ('La Battaglia', 'A Plebe', 'Guerra Sociale', etc.), born. Editor, with Errico Malatesta, of 'Umanita Nova' (the anarchist daily paper published by Malatesta in Milan, along with Damiani, Camillo Berneri, Nella Giacomelli, Armando Borghi, Luigi Fabbri, etc), born. Under attack by fascists, Damiani was exiled in Tunisia. Active there with Giuseppe Pasotti, then returned to Rome in 1946 and involved again with 'Umanita Nova' until his death.

1890 - The first issue of the anarchist newspaper 'El Perseguido' (The Persecuted) is published in Buenos Aires by a group of Spanish and French anarchists.

1913 - Paterson Silk Strike: With the Paterson police taking every opportunity to jail picketing workers and those attending strike meeting, every Sunday from the beginning of March until July 20, the IWW had held regular rallies in the nearby town of Haledon, New Jersey, outside Paterson's city limits. The town's Socialist mayor William Brueckmann was a strike sympathiser and allowed the strikers to organise without fear of police intervention. The regular venue for the meetings was outside the 12-room house of the Botto family, the head of the family being Pietro Botto, an Italian silk weaver at the Cedar Cliffs Mills in the town, with speakers able to use the balcony above the front door to address the gathered crowds from. The size of the crowds at Botto's house ranged from 5,000 to 6,000 up to 15,000 to 20,000 and the meeting held on May 18, 1913, was one of the largest. Patrick Quinlan had just been convicted of inciting a riot because of his speech at the funeral of a man killed by a security guard hired to protect one of the mills. The strikers cheered for fifteen minutes when he took his place on the Botto balcony. Other speakers that day included Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Carlo Tresca, Bill Haywood, Fred S. Mowell, a socialist from New York, Upton Sinclair, the famed author of the 1906 novel 'The Jungle', and Frederick S. Boyd, a leading socialist. One speaker rallied the strikers with the words "the Paterson silk mills are slaughter houses, where your blood is used to decorate the backs of the aristocratic women of the United States."

1925 - Robin Francis Blaser (d. 2009), US poet, essayist and anarchist, born. Associated with Jack Spicer and Robert Duncan, and was a key figure in the San Francisco Renaissance of the 1950s and early 1960s.

1935 - Poss. date [see also: May 21] of the death of François Segond Casteu (b. 1876), French anarchist who attended Sebastien Faure's 'Ruche' and a collaborator on 'Libertaire' and 'Germinal', a weekly magazine of the Somme. [see: Feb. 27]

1935 - The first issue of the anarchist weekly of "doctrine, criticism and combat", 'Proa' (Bow), is published in Elda (Alicante).

1949 - Raymond Espinose, French poet, writer, professor and academic, libertarian and Patapysician, born.

1951 - Gabriele 'Gabi' Kröcher-Tiedemann aka 'Nada' (1951–1995), German urban guerrilla, who was a member of the Bewegung 2. Juni (June 2 Movement) and the second generation Rote Armee Fraktion, born. Involved in leftist student circles at the Universität Bochum and the Freie Universität Berlin, including the West-Berliner Haschrebellen and possibly the Roten Ruhr-Armee, she went underground sometine in 1971-72. [expand]

1968 - Mai '68: In France, de Gaulle arrives back from Romania, 12 hours earlier than expected. Cinema professionals occupy the Cannes Film Festival. Major French directors withdraw their films from competition and the jury resigns, closing the festival.

[D] 1968 - 10,000 march in Madrid, Spain, erect barricades and clash with police, in solidarity with the May revolt in France, whilst other solidarity actions, including a concert by the Nova Cançó singer and anti-fascist Raimon (Ramón Pelegero Sanchis) take place at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, all adding to the daily student protests (strikes, boycott of examinations and daily demonstrations) that had already been taking place through out 1967 and 1968 against the Franco regime. The government responded to the latest 'provocation' by declaring a state of emergency throughout the University.

1989 - Louis Dorlet (aka Samuel Vergine, Louis Dey, Serge and Louis Dorival; b. 1905), militant French individualist anarchist and pacifist, dies. [see: Jan. 2]

1991 - Teresa Torrelles Espina [also known as Teresina Torrelles & Teresa Torrella] (1908-1991), Catalan anarcha-feminist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies. [see: May 27]

1984 - Maurice Catalogne, better known as Lashortes (b. 1898), French teacher, professor of philosophy, libertarian syndicalist and anarcho-pacifist, dies. [see: Jul. 15]

## 1995 - Henri Laborit (b. 1914), French surgeon, behavioural theorist, libertarian writer and philosopher, whose work revolutionised modern psychiatry and anaesthesia, dies in Paris. He appeared in the 1980 Alain Resnais film 'Mon Oncle d'Amérique', which is built around his ideas on evolutionary psychology. [see: Nov. 21]

2009 - Paul Parin (b. 1916), Austrian-Swiss psychoanalyst, anthropologist, writer and "moral anarchist" whose personal motto was "Ni Dieu, ni Roi", dies. He and his future wife, Goldy Parin-Matthey, were involved in the anarchist-socialist anti-fascist medical organisation Brüdergemeinde (Brethren). [see: Sep. 20]

2009 - Débora Céspedes (b. 1922), Uraguayan poet, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Jun. 8]
1888 - The first issue of the weekly 'Fair Play' is published by Edwin Cox Walker and Lillian Harmon in Valley Falls, Kansas. This publication discusses in particular the right of women, secularism, love, and free education. Free love activists Harmon and Cox Walker had publicly announced their 1886 "free-love marriage" (marriage law), concluded without the sanction of Kansas State. They were arrested the day after the ceremony and sentenced to prison.

##1904 - Daniel Guérin (d. 1988), one of France's best known revolutionary activists and thinkers, libertarian communist, anti-colonialist, Gay Rights activist, anti-militarist and anti-fascist, born. Author of numerous books, including 'Fascism and Big Business' (1936), 'Anarchism; From Theory to Practice' (1965) and 'No Gods No Masters: An Anthology of Anarchism' (1965). [expand]

1907 - The final issue of the newspaper 'La Alborada', which had been relaunched in Santiago in 1906 after an interruption caused by an earthquake in Valparaiso (and repositioned as a "publicación feminista"), is published. The paper ceases publication after it editor Carmela Jeria suffered a brutal assault.
The following year, the newspaper of the Asociación de Costureras, 'La Palanca', carried a story in its first edition, which explained that: "Carmela suffered the destruction of home and an uninterrupted series of misfortunes".. It is not known what happened to Carmela after this.

[C] 1912 - Kati Horna (Kati Deutsch; d. 2000), Hungarian photographer and anarchist sympathiser, born into a wealthy Jewish family. Durig her early years Hungary was to suffer many political upheavals including the persecution of Jews and Communists following the defeat of the Hungarian Soviet republic in 1919 and the seizing of power by Miklós Horthy. Sometime in the 1920s, she met the Hungarian anarchist poet, painter and thinker Lajos Kassák, who became a profound influence on her political and artistic thought, especially on her desire to take up photography. Aged 18, she moved to Berlin where she came into contact with the Bauhaus group and absorbed the influences of Dada, Surrealism, the Neue Sachlichkeit and the developing discipline of photojournalism. The latter was helped when she got a job as an assistant at the experimental Agencia Dephot photo studio run by Felix H. Man, a pioneer of modern photojournalism. However, her 3 year stay was cut short by the the Nazis gaining power and being forced to witness the burning of books, and in 1933 she returned to Budapest. Urged by her parents to get a job, she enrolled at the prestigious school of the renowned Hungarian photographer József Pécsi. There she learned the techniques of photography and re-encountered Endre Friedmann, a childhood friend who would later change his name to Robert Capa, and with whom she began a relationship. She also received her first Rolleiflex, a present from her parents. Later that year, she moved to Paris to escape the Nazis and to continue her training, working for the French news agency Agence Photo, and began assembling the first of her photo series including 'Marché aux Puces' (Flea market; 1933), 'Les Cafés de Paris' (The Cafes of Paris; 1934), 'L'Histoire d'amour dans la cuisine' (The History of Love in the Kitchen; 1935) and 'Hitlerei' (Hitler eye; 1937). With the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, she began travelling to Spain along with Capa, who she had met up with in Paris, and spent 2 years working in the country (1937-39). A member of various anarchist groups, including Mujeres Libres and Tierra y Libertad, she worked on numerous anarchist publications, amongst them 'Libre Studio', 'Mujeres Libres', 'Tierra y Libertad', 'Tiempos Nuevos' and 'Umbral'. Like Capa, she covered the war at the front, but she also recorded the everyday of the people right up til Franco's victory. Amongst those she got to know during this period were her fellow photographers Tina Modetti and Gerda Taro. In July 1937 she also met her future husband, the Andalusian artist José Horna, who she married the following year and who would become her partner in the making of collages as well. In February 1939, they both left the country for Paris but, with the expansion of Nazism in Europe, they fled Europe, embark on the De Grasse in October for exile in Mexico. There, she became on of the important figures in the exiled Surrealist circles that included Leonora Carrington, Benjamin Peret and Edward James, and befriended a fellow anarchist in Remedios Varo. Her circle also included many in the artistic, literary and architectural avant-garde in Mexico, such as Alejandro Jodorowsky, Mathias Goeritz, Germán Cueto, Pedro Friedeberg, Salvador Elizondo, Alfonso Reyes and Ricardo Legorreta. During the last 20 years of her life, she also taught photography at the Nacional de Artes Plásticas school and at the Universidad Iberoamericana. She died in October 2000, largely unknown though her work has progressively been rediscovered since then.

1914 - Luísa Adão (Luísa Do Carmo Franco Elias Adão; d. 1999), Portuguese anarchist and nurse, born. Daughter of the anarchist Francisco Franco and life-long partner of militant anarcho-syndicalist Acácio Tomás de Aquino.

1926 - Robert Brentano (d. 2002), US anarchist and longtime history professor, born.

[F] 1928 - In Geneva, Lucien Tronchet, anarchist and trade unionist, the anarcho-syndicalist militant Clovis-Abel Pignat and trade union organiser Augusto Vuattolo instigate a 15-day wildcat strike (widely referred to as a "grève sauvage") in the building sector, which results in a reduction of working hours, minimum wages, etc.

1937 - In Spain, issue No. 1 of 'El Amigo del Pueblo', newspaper of the Agrupación de los Amigos de Durruti, appears.

[B] 1941 - Lola Ridge (b. 1873), Irish-American anarchist poet, artist's model, illustrator and organiser for the Francisco Ferrer Association's Modern School, dies. An influential editor of avant-garde, feminist and Marxist publications best remembered for her long poems and poetic sequences, first published in Emma Goldman's 'Mother Earth'. [see: Dec. 12]

1957 - Otto van Rees (b. 1884), Dutch painter and Tolstoyian anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 20]

[D] 1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Wembley Conservative Association firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

## 1972 - Süreyyya Evren (born Süreyya Evren Türkeli), Turkish writer, cultural theorist and proponent of post-structuralist anarchism, born in Instanbul.

1975 - Nodoka Saitō (齋藤和; b. 1947), Japanese former member and de facto leader of the Fangs of the Earth (大地の牙 / Daichi no Kiba) cell of the East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front (東アジア反日武装戦線 / Higashi Ajia Hannichi Busō Sensen), along with his partner Yukiko Ekida [浴田由紀子], committed suicide with a potassium cyanide capsule after his arrest. [see: Nov. 14]

1980 - Vicente Ballester Marco (b. 1887) Spanish graphic designer, illustrator and poster artist, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist like his younger brother and fellow artist Arturo Ballester Marco (1892-1981), both of whom were known for their Spanish Civil War posters, dies.
[[ ]_ballester-a]

1991 - Takenaka Tsutomu [or Takenaka Rō](竹中労; b. 1930), Japanese reporter, critic and anarchist, dies in Tokyo of cancer. [see: Mar. 30]

1994 - Jacques Ellul (b. 1912), French philosopher, law professor, sociologist, lay theologian, and Christian anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 6]
## 1856 - Henri Edmond Cross (Henri-Edmond-Joseph Delacroix; d. 1910), French Neo-Impressionist painter, illustrator, printmaker and anarchist, born. Influenced Henri Matisse and his work was an instrumental influence in the development of Fauvism. Co-founded the Société des Artistes Indépendants in 1884 alongside Albert Dubois-Pillet, Odilon Redon, and the anarchist Georges Seurat and Paul Signac. Immerese in to anarchist and artistic milieu, he added Felix Feneon and Theo Van Rysselberghe to his circle and provided illustrations for Jean Grave's ' 'Les Temps Nouveaux', usually of an idealised future anarchist utopia. "Je veux peindre le bonheur, les êtres heureux que seront devenus les hommes dans quelques siècles quand la plus pure anarchie sera réalisée." (I want to paint happiness, the happy beings who will become the people in a few centuries when the purest anarchy will be realised.)

1872 - Izak Samson (d. 1928), Dutch beer merchant, diamond worker, anarchist propagandist and later social democrat, born.

[C] 1897 - Luigi Camillo Berneri (d. 1937), Italian professor of philosophy, anarchist militant, propagandist and theorist, born. A WWI veteran, University of Florence professor of humanities, and a member of the Unione Anarchica Italiana, he was active in the anti-fascist resistance in Italy until 1926, when he was forced to take refuge in France, then Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, and finally the Netherlands - spending time in prison before being expelled in most of these. Helped organsie the first Italian volunteers in Spain in 1936 and fought himself on the Aragonese front. Critical of the Madrid government, he was a victim of the Stalinist attacks that began in Barcelona on May 4th, dying in a hail of bullets as he left Radio Barcelona where he had been commemorating the death of Gramsci. [expand]

1897 - Diego Abad de Santillán (Sinesio Vaudilio García Fernández; d. 1983), Spanish author, economist, historian and leading figure in the Spanish and Argentine anarchist movements, born. [EXPAND]

1899 - The first issue of a weekly supplement to 'La Revista Blanca' [first published July 1898] appears in Madrid. It will become independent from January 25, 1902, under the final name of 'Tierra y Libertad'.

1903 - Gertrude Guillaume-Schack (b. 1845), German anarchist, socialist, theosophist and women's rights activist, who was prominent in the fight against state-regulated prostitution in Germany, dies from breast cancer that had gone untreated due to her theosophist beliefs. [see: Nov. 9]

1908 - Marguerite Liégeois (Marguerite Drach; d. 1989), French sociologist and anarchist, who was the companion of Gaston Leval, born.

[AA] 1910 - High Treason Incident [大逆事件 / Taigyaku Jiken] / Kōtoku Incident [Kōtoku Jiken / 幸徳事件]: Japanese police uncover what they claim is a socialist-anarchist plot to assassinate Emperor Meiji. During a police search of the room of Miyashita Takichi (宮下 太吉), a young lumbermill employee in Nagano Prefecture, materials which could be used to construct bombs are allegedly found. Mass arrests of leftists take place across the country. Amongst those caught up in the supposed 'conspiracy' were Nitta Tōru (新田 融, aka Yuzuru; 1880–1911), Niimura Tadao (新村忠雄; 1887–1911), Furukawa Rikisaku (古河力作; 1884–1911) and Kōtoku Shūsui (幸徳 秋水; 1871–1911) and his partner, feminist author Kanno Suga (管野 須賀子; 1881–1911).

[D] 1911 - Revolución Mexicana: The Partido Liberal Mexicano publish a proclamation calling for the peasants to take collective possession of the land in the territories of Lower California where they have driven out the government, for "a free and happy life, without Masters or Tyrant."

1913 - Emma Goldman and Dr. Ben Reitman are arrested on their arrival in that bastion of 'free speech', San Diego, California; vigilantes surround the police station. Police order Goldman and Reitman to board the afternoon train back to Los Angeles.

1916 - At an open air rally in Union Square in New York, anarchist Emma Goldman speaks from a car in front of a large crowd of workers to protest the incarceration of Dr. Ben Reitman for distributing information about birth control. Rauh Eastman, Jessie Ashley and Bolton Hall are be arrested at the event and also charged with the illegal distribution of anti-control propaganda.

1918 - Luigi Bertoni, editor of the anarchist bilingual 'Le Réveil-Il Risveglio', is arrested in Geneva for an alleged conspiracy in Zurich, where a bomb was allegedly found by the police - it turns out to be a fabrication, an attempt to silence the anti-war Bertoni and other Italian anarchists. Protests sweep Switzerland calling for the release of Bertoni and the Italian anarchists interned in labour camps under a Nov. 17, 1917 decree. [see: Jun. 2, 1919]

[E] 1936 - The first issue of the magazine 'Mujeres Libres: cultura y documentación social', organ of the militant anarcha-feminist group Mujeres Libres, is published. The magazine was born two months before the outbreak of the Revolution, and was quickly established by the quality of its texts – written exclusively by women (articles by Domenech Hernandez, Morales Guzman and Mariano Gallardo, were rejected) and directed exclusively at women – and the revolutionary spirit that it encouraged during the 13 issues that were published up til October 1938. The editors were Mercedes Comaposada Guillen, Amparo Poch y Gascón and Lucía Sánchez Saornil and those who contributed articles included Emma Goldman, Nita Nahuel, Frederica Montseny, Ada Martí, Pilar Grangel, Carmen Conde, Suceso Portales, Etta Federn, Mary Giménez, Carmen Gómez, Áurea Cuadrado, Ilse, among others. The magazine received little support from certain parts of the libertarian movement, such as Solidaritad Obrera', which even published propaganda agaisnt it, or Frederica Montseny, who branded it a "separatist project". The archive of the magazine 'Mujeres Libres' is the Civil War Section of the Archivo Histórico Nacional in Salamanca.
[ Historia/75Aniversario/Mujeres_Libres/mujereslibres.htm]

1945 - Friedrich 'Fritz' Kater (b. 1861), German trade unionist, publisher, socialist and then anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist in the FVdG and its successor FAUD, and editor of 'Die Einigkeit' (The Unity) and later 'Der Syndikalist', dies after having spent the past 12 days in hospital with burns to his face and chest after an incendiary bomb that had fallen into the garden of his house had exploded whilst he was trying to defuse it. [see: Dec. 19]

1948 - Marie Pitt (Marie Elizabeth Josephine Pitt; b. 1869), Australian poet, socialist, feminist, ecologist and anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 6]

1951 - Vaga de Tramvies / Huelga de Tranvías [Barcelona Tram Strike / General Strike]: A National Day of Protest called for May 20 result in failure. [expand][see: Mar. 1&12]

1968 - Mai '68: An estimated 10 million workers are on strike; France is practically paralysed.

1998 - Jaime Cubero (b. 1926), Brazilian intellectual, anarchist activist, journalist, educator and brother of Francisco 'Chico' Cuberos Neto, dies. [see: Apr. 5]

2003 - Domingo Trama (b. 1910), Argentine shipyard worker and militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Sep. 2]

2003 - Augusta Farvo (b. 1912), Italian anarchist militant and propagandist, and anti-fascist, who was a member of the Bruzzi-Malatesta anarchist partisan brigade, dies. [see: Mar. 24]

[B] 2013 - Flavio Costantini (b. 1926), Italian anarchist and graphic artist who chronicled the movement's history in a series of striking images, dies. [see: Sep. 21]
1855 - Primera Huelga General de España: A Royal Order on "freedom of contract" nullifies all the gains that had been achieved by the workers in the agreements of the previous summer. Around this time, workers discover that the Madrid government 'secret' revocation on August 9, 1854, of the order banning 'selfactines' following approached by the cotton manufacturers. [see: Jul. 2]

## 1866 - [O.S. May 9] David Edelstadt (Doṿid Edelshṭaṭ / דוד עדעלשטאַדט; d. 1892), American Yiddish anarchist and poet, born. One of the New York 'Sweatshop Poets' (who included Morris Rosenfeld, Morris Vinchevsky and Joseph Bovshover), poets who were themselves workers, slaving in horrible working conditions for twelve or more hours a day. Their most creative period was the 1890s and 1900s, writing poems based on their own experiences expressing working class solidarity and a desire for a revolutionary change in the workers' conditions.
Born in Kaluga, Russia and educated in the Russian language and literature, he began publishing Russian poems aged 12. After escaping the Kiev pogrom of May 8, 1881, he emigrated to America in 1882, first living in Cincinnati, working in the garment industry and became active in the developing anarchist movement. In 1888 he moved to New York where he continued working in sweatshops and participated in the first Jewish anarchist group in the city, the Pionire der Frayhayt (Pioneers of Liberty). He also began to write his first poems in Yiddish and was chosen in 1891 to become the editor of the main Yiddish anarchist paper, 'Di Freie Areibeter Stimme' (The Free Voice of Labour), which he edited until shortly before his death. He also collaborated on 'Die Wahrheit', 'Tfileh Zakeh', 'Varhayt' and 'Der Morgenshtern', often using the pseudonym Paskarel.
Edelshtat's lyrics, sung in sweatshops and on picket lines, depict the world's imperfections and the wondrous life to come after a social revolution, with many being dedicated to the Chicago Martyrs. He died on October 17, 1892, in Denver, aged just 25, of tuberculosis contracted in the difficult labour conditions he and his fellow sweatshop workers had to endure. He was buried in the Workmen's Circle in the Golden Hill Cemetery City in Denver. After his death many Edelstadt cultural groups sprung up in cities across America (Chicago, Boston, etc.) as well as the Edelstadt Singing Society in New York and an Edelstadt Group in Buenos Aires.

Vi lang, oy vi lang vet ir blaybn nokh shklafn
Un trogn di shendlekhe keyt?
Vi lang vet ir glentsende raykhtimer shafn
Far dem, vos baroybt ayer broyt?
Vi lang vet ir shteyn, ayer rukns geboygn
Derniderikt, heymloz, farshmakht?
Es togt shoyn! Vakht oyf un tse-efnt di oygn!
Derfilt ayer ayzerne makht!
Klingt umetum in di frayhayts-glokn!
Farzamlt di laydnde knekht!
Un kemft bagaystert, un kemft undershrokn
Far ayere heylikhe rekht!
Un ales vet lebn, un libn un bli-en,
In frayen, in goldenem may!
Brider! Genug far tiranen tsu knien,
Shvert, az ir must vern fray!

(How long, oh, how long will you suffer in bondage
In slavery still to remain?
How long will you toil to create all the riches
For those who reward you with pain?
How long, oh, how long, will you carry the yoke
Of oppression and sorrow and fear?
Awaken! And see the new day that is dawning
A free song is ringing mighty clear!
Ring out, bells of freedom! Let’s gather together
The suffering slaves in all lands
Let’s struggle for life and for love and for beauty
Created by hard-toiling hands
Then all things will live and will love and will bloom
In a free and a golden-bright May.
No more will we suffer a miserable doom
Now swear that you’ll bring forth this day.)
- 'Vakht Oyf' (Wake Up).


1869 - Hutchins Hapgood (d. 1944), US journalist, author, novelist, free love advocate and anarchist, born. He and his wife, the novelist, playwright and journalist Neith Boyce, collaborated on a novel, 'Enemies' (1916) which they later published as a one-act play in 1921. His other books include: 'The Spirit of the Ghetto' (1902), illustrated by Jacob Epstein; 'Autobiography of a Thief' (1903); 'The Spirit of Labor' (1907); 'An Anarchist Woman' (1909), a fictionalised account of his relationship with his lover 'Marie'; and the anonymously published 'The Story of a Lover' (1919), a frank account of his open marriage.

[A/D] 1871 - Semaine Sanglante [Bloody Week]: The beginning of 'Semaine Sanglante' as the horrendous repression and butchery during the suppression of the Paris Commune begins, with government massacres and summary executions leave 20,000-35,000 dead.

1877 - [O.S. May 9] One of the quoted d.o.b. for Kosta Nunkov [Коста Нунков], aka David Ognyanov [Нунков Огнянов](Konstantin Ivanov Nunkov [Константин Иванов Нунков]; d. 1905), Bulgarian revolutionary, anarchist, a member of the Macedonian Committee (Македонския комитет) and a Kumanov leader of the Inner Macedonian-Odrin Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешната македоно-одринска революционна организация). [see: Jun. 8]

1881 - The first issue of the newspaper 'I Malfattori' (The Perpetrators) - printed by Emilio Covelli and covering anarchist theoretical debates - is published in Geneva.

1886 - Stephen Pearl Andrews (b. 1812), US lawyer, individualist anarchist, linguist, political philosopher, outspoken abolitionist, free-love advocate, 'Modern Times' founder and author of several books on the labour movement and Individualist anarchism, dies in NYC. [see: Mar. 22]

1894 - Émile Henry (b. 1872), French anarchist proponent of propaganda by deed, who on February 12 detonated a bomb at the Café Terminus in the Parisian Gare Saint-Lazare killing one person and wounding twenty, is guillotined at dawn aged 21. His last words are: "Courage camarades, vive l'anarchie". [see: Sep. 26]

1894 - José Codina and Mariano Cerezuela are executed alongside four other Spanish anarchists . Codina and Cerezuela were believed responsible for the 1891 bombing of the Teatre Liceu, later determined to be the handiwork of Santiago Salvador Franch (executed on July 11th).

1899 - Louis-Émile Harel (d. unknown), French anarchist involved in the Stérilisés de Bordeaux case, born. Arrested in April 1935 for providing vasectomies. All those involved were found guilty on May 2, 1936 of 'premeditated violence' and Harel was sentenced to six months in prison with five months of banishment, later reduced on appeal.

1907 - At a cycle of lectures organised by the prominent anarcha-feminist militant Emma Goldman and editor of 'Mother Earth', together with the Social Science Club in Los Angeles, she presents her first lecture, 'Misconceptions of Anarchism', at Burbank Hall.

1911 - Revolución Mexicana: Cuernavaca is taken by Emiliano Zapata, Francisco Madero signs Treaty of Ciudad Juárez with Porfirio Diaz. Díaz agrees to abdicate his rule and be replaced by Madero.

1916 - Enrique and Ricardo Flores Magón go on trial. Arrested at their Community Farm near Los Angeles, California, Enrique was beaten by police and hospitalised. The Mexican anarquista Magon brothers are charged with mailing articles inciting "murder, arson and treason."

[B] 1930 - Dieter Roth (d. 1998), German-Swiss anarchist and artist-poet associated with the Fluxus movement, best known for his artist's books, editioned prints, sculptures, video installations and found materials assemblages, born. Also known as Dieter Rot and Diter Rot.

1935 - Poss. date [see also: May 18] of the death of François Segond Casteu (b. 1876), French anarchist who attended Sebastien Faure's 'Ruche' and a collaborator on 'Libertaire' and 'Germinal', a weekly magazine of the Somme. [see: Feb. 27]

1944 - René Daumal (b. 1908) French poet, critic, essayist, Indologist, French writer and playwright, dies. [see: Mar. 16]

###1952 - Daniel Barret (Rafael Spósito Balzarini; d. 2009), Uruguayan sociologist, journalist, university professor and prominent anarchist, born in Villa del Cerro, one of the traditional libertarian working-class districts of Montevideo. A dedicated militant anarchist since his adolescence, he engaged in diverse organisations and actions as a member of the student movement and later as a trade unionist. He joined the Federación Anarquista Uruguaya (FAU), but due to the abandonment of the anarchist tradition by this organization, he quit the group. Repression against leftist and anarchist groups forced him to leave Uruguay to live in Buenos Aires, Argentina. He returned to Uruguay in 1976 to rejoin the the FAU as part in the struggle to oust the dictatorship, but again quit because of strong ideological differences with it and left again for Argentina. He went on to participate independently on multiple libertarian projects, dedicating much of his energies to libertarian journalism and sociology, and contributing to various anarchist publications including '¡Libertad!' in Buenos Aires, 'El Libertario' (Venezuela) and 'Tierra y Tempestad' in Montevideo. He published hundreds of articles, pamphlets and books under various pseudonyms, and left three unpublished books: 'Los sediciosos despertares de la Anarquía' (The seditious awakenings of Anarchy; published in 2011), 'Cuba: el dolor de ya no ser. El dilema del socialismo y la libertad' (Cuba: the pain to no longer exist. The dilemma of the Socialism and Freedom) and 'La arquitectura del encierro' (The architecture of the bullring). He donated his libertarian library to the Ateneu Anarquista of El Cerro.

1968 - At a protest demonstration in Peking the group Sheng Wu Lian calls for the people to govern themselves directly, as in the the Paris Commune. The Red Guards, good Marxists they, accuse them of being anarchists!

1968 - Mai '68: The 'Workers-Students Action Committee-Citroen', forms.

2002 - Joan Call Bonet, aka Call (b. Sept. 1914), Catalan rationalist teacher, illustrator, satirical cartoonist, and militant anarchist, who worked mainly for the daily newspaper 'La Dépêche du Midi', dies in Toulouse.
1871 - Semaine Sanglante [Bloody Week]: Bells ring out across the city that has been caught largely unprepared for the invasion by government troops and, with no one expecteing the army to enter the city, there are only a handful of large barricades as yet in place. Already, the Versaillais occupy significant areas of the south-west of Paris, the 15th and 16th arrondissements and by evening will have advanced as far as the Place de l'Étoile and the Gare Saint-Lazaire. During the morning Louis Charles Delescluze, the Commune's military commander, issues a proclamation which appears on walls all over Paris:
"Aux armes! citoyens aux armes! il s’agit, vous le savez de vaincre ou de tomber dans les mains impitoyables des réactionnaires et des cléricaux de Versailles, de ces misérables qui ont, de parti pris, livré la France aux Prussiens et qui nous font payer la rançon de leurs trahisons!" ("It is a question, as you know, of conquering or falling into the merciless hands of the reactionaries and clerics of Versailles, of those miserable ones who have, by their actions, delivered France to the Prussians, and who want to make us pay the ransom for their treason!") However, the Communards are outnumbered five to one, and what little military organisation that existed breaks down as people return to their own neighbourhoods to build barricades there, abandoning any coordinated struggle. Barricades now appear in the square Saint-Jacques, in rues Auber, Châteaudun, Faubourg Montmartre, Notre-Dame de Lorette, in la Trinité, in La Chapelle, at the Bastille , the Buttes Chaumont, in the boulevard Saint-Michel, the Panthéon, etc. Later in the day an artillery duel breaks out between regular army batteries on the Quai d'Orsay, and the Madeleine, and Garde National batteries on the terrace of the Tuileries Palace. The Germans have also allowed Versailles troops to cross the neutral zone north of Paris and take the 17th arrondissement from the rear. By the evening much of the west of Paris is under the control of the Versailles government and the number of summary executions were on the increase, largely focused on the barracks on the Rue de Babylone.

##1880 - Hubertus 'Bertus' Zuurbier (d. 1962), Dutch bottle washer, anarchist street seller of his magazine 'De Vrije Socialist' (edited by Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis) and a municipal councilor in Amsterdam from 1921 to 1923 for the Rapalje Partij (the popular name for the Vrije Socialistische Groep aka the Sociaal-Anarchistische Actie in Nederland), born.

1881 - Anarchists split with the Parti des Travailleurs Socialistes de France, aka Parti Ouvrier, at the 2ème congrès régional du Centre in Paris, resulting in the birth in France of an autonomous anarchist movement divided into communist and individualist strands.

1886 - [N.S. Jul. 4] Olga Vladimirovna Rozanova (Ольга Владимировна Розанова; d. 1918), Russian Cubo-Futurist and Suprematist artist, painter, graphic artist, illustrator, designer, art theorist and poet, born. [see: Jul. 4]

[BB] 1887 - Arthur Cravan (born Fabian Avenarius Lloyd; d. 1918), Swiss-born pugilist, poet, lecturer, dancer, adventurer, a larger-than-life character, critic-provocateur, anarchist and an idol of the Dada and Surrealism movements, who claimed to be a nephew of Oscar Wilde (he was actually the son of Wilde’s brother-in-law), born. [expand]
With his pregnant wife Mina Loy watching from the shore, Cravan sailed from the coast of Mexico in November 1918 heading for Argentina and was never seen again.
"Every great artist has a sense of provocation."

1893 - Ezra Heywood (b. 1829), 19th century North American individualist anarchist, slavery abolitionist, free love advocate and feminist, dies. [see: Sep. 29]

1895 - Orestes Lucchesi, an anarchist who killed the director of the newspaper 'Il Telegrafo', Giuseppe Bandi, on July 1, 1894, in revenge for his anti-anarchist articles, is found guilty of murder along with his associates. He and Amerigo Franchi are sentneced to 30 years imprisonment.

1900* - Georgi Simeonov Popov (Георги Симеонов Попов; d. 1924), Bulgarian anarchist, poet, orator, anarchist organiser and insurrectionist guerrilla, born. His teacher father died of cholera when he was just 12 years old, and he went on to teach after his graduation but was sacked due to his participation in a railway strike in Gorna Oryahovitsa. He then became a bank clerk but was again sacked after just 3 months, becoming a labour constructing roads and working in vineyards. A member of the Bulgarian Communist Anarchist Federation (FACB), in 1920 he created the anarchist newspaper 'Бунт' (Rebellion) with Georgi Sheitanov (Георги Шейтанов). Following the announcement of a military coup against the Stamboliyski government on June 9, 1923, at a meeting the following day he was elected as a member of the Revolutionary Action Committee (Въстанически военен съвет) which organised the insurrectionary movement [June Uprising] against the coup. He helped organise armed peasant militias in Kilifarevo (Килифарево) and Debelec (Дебелец), took part in the capture of nearby Dryanovo (Дряново), and the battles at Ganchovets (Килифарево) and Sokolov (Дебелец). On June 13, 1923, a militia was formed in Kilifarevo and 4 days later Popov, togther with Totyu Saraliev (Тотю Саралиев) was involved in the assassination of the mayor of Dzhurovtsi (Джуровци ). He also took part in the capture of Sokolov (Соколово) and the disruption of the main railway line.
During this period the Bulgarian Communist Party, which had a strong militia organisation, maintained a pointed neutrality (viewing the uprising and the coup as a "struggle for power between the urban and rural bourgeoisie") - a position eventually condemned by the Comitern - which effectively allowed the new government to crush the rebels and consolidate its power.
On January 30, 1924, Popov's detachment was surrounded by the army and his lieutenant Hristo Kisyov (Христо Кисьов) was wounded and captured. To prevent his own capture he takes his own life.
[* not enough information is available to ascertain if the date has been corrected for the Julian / Gregorian calendar change]
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1901 - Gaetano Bresci (b. 1869), Italian-American anarchist who assassinated Umberto I, King of Italy in revenge for the army's crushing of the 1898 worker's insurrection in Milan, is found hanging in his prison cell at Santo Stefano, believed 'suicided' by his guards. [see: Nov. 10]

1901 - [O.S. May 9] Sofia Gitmanovna Kaplun-Spassky (Софья Гитмановна Каплун-Спасская; d. 1962), Russian sculptor, anarchist and anthroposophist, who suffered a decade of imprisonment and internal exile (1937 or 1938-1948) for her views, born.

1901 - Ricardo and Jesús Flores Magón are arrested and sentenced to 12 months in Belén prison

1909 - Germinal de Sousa (or Souza) (d. 1968), Portuguese anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Son of the famous anarchist Manuel Joaquin de Sousa.

##1914 - Giovanni Baldelli, aka 'Basco' (d. 1986), Italian school teacher, anarchist theorist and anti-fascist, best known for his 1971 work 'Social Anarchism', born in Milan.
"…in order to be truly social one has to be anarchist."
"…in order to be truly anarchist one has to be social."
['Social Anarchism', 1971]

1918 - Dolores Jiménez Álvarez aka 'Blanca', Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and militant in the Spanish and French anti-fascist resistance movements, born in Abejuela, Aragón. The eldest in a large family which migrated to Catalonia in the mid 1920s, she stared work aged 11 and quickly became involved in the libertarian movement. At the age of 16, along with her father and sister, she joined the Peña Abisinia theatre group, where she met he lifelong companion Teofilo Navarro Fadrique. In August 1936, she joined the Durruti Column on the Aragon front and throughout the attacks by the Stalinists against the anarchist movement, and the Franco offensive, she refused to leave the front. Based in Lanaja, in the Huesca province, she participated in cultural activities and theatrical performances, she was later arrested in Mollerusa by communist troops of Valentín González González (El Campesino) but escaped to Lleida where she rejoined the confederales forces and her partner Navarro. Following the defeat of the Republic, they crossed into France via Puigcerda and Le Perthus, where she was interned in the Couvent Saugues, a religious asylum run by nuns in Saugus. In 1940, she was reunited with Teofilo Navarro and both settled in Cordes, where she particiapted in the reorganisation of the Spanish anarchist movement, as well as the anti-Nazi Résistance and struggle against Franco as part of groups Sabaté and Facerías. She also had 3 children, Helios and the twins Juno and Blanca, with Navarro. [expand]

1919 - Criminal Syndicalism: The first arrest under California's criminal syndicalism law take place in San Francisco, only a few weeks after the statute went into effect and amid considerable but unfounded hysteria about impending IWW terror campaigns and other outrages. Initial scattered arrests in the Bay Area were followed by a raid on an IWW hall in Stockton on June 29, in which nineteen Wobblies were arrested for criminal syndicalism. This was followed a few days later by a raid in Oakland, in which several men and a woman were arrested, and another in San Francisco, which netted several more people. Most of those arrested were released after a short time and never charged. And yet, before the summer was over, authorities in the Bay Area charged more than sixty people, all but two of whom were Wobblies or alleged Wobblies. In Fresno in June, the union's secretary for the state was arrested. Later that fall and winter, authorities in Los Angeles followed suit, launching their own campaign against the IWW. By February 1, 1920, the California police had arrested ninety IWW members.

[B] 1925 - Jean Tinguely (d. 1991), Swiss painter, sculptor and anarchist, born. Best known for metamechanics: his kinetic sculptural machines, created in both the Dada tradition and as an anarchist critique of capitalism and the consumer society. In 1947 he joined the circle of the Basel anarchist Heiner Koechlin, read all the anarchist classics and would go on to dedicate his art to the anarchist cause.

1937 - A plenary session of the C.N.T.'s Local and Comarcal Federations hears a proposal that the Friends of Durruti be expelled.

1938 - Grigori Maximovich Borzenko [Григорий Максимович Борзенко] aka Leonid Mikhailovich Moskalenko [ Леонид Михайлович Москаленко] (b. 1888), Russian merchant sailor, anarchist communist, Wobbly, anti-White combattant, and member of the Odessa anarchist underground, is executed by firing squad.

[C] 1939 - Ernst Toller (b. 1893), German Expressionist playwright, poet, pacifist, anarchist and Munich Soviet leader, dies. Driven out of Germany by the Nazis, destitute from his efforts caring for the children of refugees in Spain, and suffering from deep depression having witnessed the defeat of the Republic and seen his sister and brother arrested and sent to concentration camps, Toller commits suicide in a New York hotel room. [see: Dec. 1]

1939 - Jiří Mahen (real name Antonín Vančura; b. 1882), Czech poet, novelist, journalist, dramaturge, librarian, director, theatre critic, anarchist and anti-militarist, depressed following the Nazi invasion, commits suicide in Brno. [see: Dec. 12]

##1942 - Christopher Gray (May 14 2009), English anarchist, activist, writer, member of the British Section of the Situationist International and of King Mob, who is best remembered as editor of 'Leaving the 20th Century' (1974), born.

1955 - Babar (Roger Noël), Belgian anarchist, typographer, publisher and printer of the 'Alternative Libertaire', the French language monthly Belgian critical magazine, born.

1968 - Mai '68: In the Latin Quarter of Paris the police and the students clash following the withdrawal of Daniel Cohn-Bendit's residence permit for France.

1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: High explosive device discovered at a new police station in Paddington. This was later claimed by the prosecution in the trial of the Stoke Newington Eight to be the first action undertaken by 'The Angry Brigade'.

[D] 1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Bomb attack on Scotland Yard Computer Room at Tintagel House, London. This is accompanied by simultaneous attacks by the Angry Brigade, the International Solidarity Movement, and the Marius Jacob group against British Rail, Rolls Royce and Rover offices in Paris.

## 1974 - Canek Sanchez Guevara (d. 2015), Cuban writer, musician, photographer, graphic designer, and anarchist eldest grandson of Ernesto Che Guevara, born in Havana.

1979 - Jairus Khan, Canadian anarchist and frontman for the industrial band Ad·ver·sary, born.

2009 - 27-year-old Chilean anarchist Mauricio Morales is killed early this morning as the bomb he was transporting in a planned attack on the Prison Guards' School in downtown Santiago prematurely explodes.
1871 - Semaine Sanglante [Bloody Week]: The 'Bloody Week' continues, the citizens of the Paris Commune are bathed in blood by the troops of Thiers. The Comité de Salut Public and the Comité central de la Garde Nationale put out calls to the Versailles troops to fraternise with the Communards. These fall on deaf ears. Montmartre falls with little resistance and, according to Prosper-Olivier Lissagaray's 'Histoire de la Commune de 1871' (1896), forty-two men, three women and four children are randomly chosen from the citizens and taken to the wall in the Rue des Rosiers at which the generals Jacques Léon Clément-Thomas and Claude Lecomte were executed on March 18, forced to kneel bareheaded and shot. At the barricade on Chaussée Clignancourt, defended in part by a battalion of about thirty women, including Louise Michel, the later is seized by regular soldiers and thrown into the trench in front of the barricade and left for dead. She survived and surrendered the following day to the army, fearing that her mother would be arrested in her stead.
Elsewhere, the resistance to the government invasion continued in the Panthéon, in the rues de l'Université, Saint-Dominique, Vavin, de Rennes and at the Gare de l'Est. Versailles troops now occupy l'Opéra, the faubourg Montmartre and the Concorde, they reach the Observatoire and carry out mass executions in Montmartre, the Parc Monceau and at the Madeleine. Major fires break out at several Parisian monuments, including the Tuileries Palace which had been doused with oil and tar and ordered set on fire by the commander of the garrison, Jules Bergeret. The fire lasted 48 hours and gutted the palace, except for the southernmost part, the Pavillon de Flore. Some public buildings including those near the Rue Royale, the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré, on the Rue Saint-Florentin, Rue de Rivoli, Rue de Bac and Rue de Lille, were targetted by the Garde Nationale but many others were set on fire by the French army artillery fire. In the evening, the Pantheon quarter falls into the hands of Versailles.
One significant casualty is Gustave Chaudey, a lawyer and member of the International, who had defended Pierre-Joseph Proudhon at his trial in 1858 following the publication of 'De la justice dans la Révolution et dans l'Église'. As deputy mayor of Paris' 9th arrondissement, he had ordered troops to suppress the riots on January 22, 1871, at the Hôtel de Ville following the capitulation of the city to the Prussians, is taken from Sainte-Pelagie prison and executed by communards. Another was Jaroslaw Dombrowski, one of the military leaders of the Commune, is shot at the the foot of the barricade on the Rue Myrrha (Rue des Poissonniers), to the east of Montmartre as he prepares to lead a counter-offensive. Carried unconscious to the Hôtel de Ville, he dies several hours later.

1871 - Ramón Dionisio José de la Sagra y Periz (b. 1798), Spanish anarchist, politician, economist, writer and botanist, dies. [see: Apr. 8]

[B] 1876 - Sanshiro Ishikawa (石川 三四郎; d. 1956), Japanese anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist theorist, historian, translator and novelist, born. Founded and became editor-in-chief of the magazine 'Shin Kigen' (New Era; 1905-1906). The following year he became the director of both 'Sekai Fujin' (Women in the World) and of the newspaper 'Heimin Shinbun' (Newspaper of the Man of the People Society [Heimin Sha]). Arrested a number of times for his writings, he fled the government repression of radicals in 1911, arriving in Europe in 1913. Spending his time in Belgium and France he comes to know Edward Carpenter and Paul Reclus, spending time with them in England and Brussels respectively. He finally returns to Japan in 1920 and founds an anarchist group and a newspaper, 'Kokusen'. His anarcho-syndicalism however divides Japanese anarchist and in 1927 he co-founds the Society of Mutual Education and the magazine 'Dinamikku' (Dynamic), translating and publishing the works of Kropotkin and penning countless articles. In 1946 he takes part in the founding of the Japanese Anarchist League and its official organ, 'Heimin Shinbun'.
Author of the anarchist utopia 'Go-ju Nen ato no Nihon' (Japan Fifty Years Later; c. 1946): "He imagined Japanese society organised on a co-operative basis (with Proudhonist mutual exchange banks) to enable each individual to live a life of artistic creation. His celebration of nudity reflected Carpenter's influence, but the idea of retaining the Japanese emperor as the symbol of communal affection was his very own." [Peter Marshall - 'Demanding the Impossible. A History of Anarchism' (1992/2008)]

1885 - The first issue of the fortnightly newspaper 'Ni Dieu Ni Maitre', "organe communiste anarchiste", is published in Brussels. Banned in France, the newspaper is published until May 1886, and is then replaced by 'La Guerre Sociale'.

1887 - Felipe Alaiz de Pablo (d. 1959), Spanish individualist anarchist and journalist, born. Director of Revista de Aragon, writer for 'El Sol de Madrid', 'Heraldo de Aragon' and 'La Revista Blanca'. Published novels, translations and works on anarchism. Died in exile in France.

###1899 - Kyōjirō Hagiwara (萩原恭次郎; d. 1938), Japanese poet of the Taisho and Showa eras, Dadaist and anarchist, born.

1909 - NY Police break up Emma Goldman's Sunday lecture series, claiming she did not follow the subject of her lecture on 'Henrik Ibsen as the Pioneer of Modern Drama'; two arrests made.

[C] 1928 - To protest the Italian dictatorship, the anarchists Severino Di Giovanni and the Scarfó brothers explode a bomb at the Italian Consulate in Buenos Aires, killing 9 fascists and wounding 34.

1933 - José María Vargas Vila (José María de la Concepción Apolinar Vargas Vila Bonilla; b. 1860), Colombian writer, autodidact, libertarian and public intellectual, who was excommunicated by the Holy See following the publication of his 1900 novel 'Ibis', rejoicing upon receipt of the news, dies in Barcelona aged 72. [see: Jun. 23]

1956 - Anti-fascist guerrillero Francisco Sabaté (El Quico) and a companion rob the Central Bank in the Calle Fusina.

1968 - Mai '68: New confrontations with the Latin Quarter, between students and CRS with government attempts to shut down or muzzle radio stations.

1974 - Maria Soledad Rosas (d. 1998), Argentinian anarchist militant and member of the Italian squatter movement, who took her own life in the wake of the self-inflicted death of her partner Edoardo Massari aka 'Baleno' whilst they awaited trial (along with their comrade Silvano Pelissero) on absurd charges of "terrorist association" in connection with the NO TAV campaign, born. Arrested, along with Silvano Pelissero and Edoardo Massari, on March 5, 1974 by Italian police on serious charges of subversive association for the purpose of constituting an armed gang, they are accused of various cases of direct action linked to the popular struggle against the construction of the High Speed Train Project (TAV) through the Val Di Susa in Piemonte. Edoardo Massari, a 38-year-old anarchist from Ivrea, died in the Vallette prison in Turin on March 28, 1998. The authorities claim that he had hanged himself with a bed sheet. Maria Soledad Rosas, would go on to hang herself, choosing the same weekday and time to die as her partner and comrade Eduardo. The surviving prisoner, Silvano Pelissero, undertook a month long hungerstrike until on July 22, 1998 he was finally transferred from the maximum security prison of Novara to house arrest. On January 31, 2000, he was sentenced to six years and 10 months. On appeal in Jan. 2001 his sentence was reduced by 9 months but on in Nov. 2001 the Court of Cassation in Rome invalidated the main charge (of terrorist activity with subversive purposes). Released in Mar. 2002, the Court of Cassation in Rome in the end reduces Silvano's penalty to 3 years and 10 months.

##1982 - A joint Crass & Poison Girls ‎gig at Bristol Town Hall is recorded and will later be released in Germany as the C90 cassette 'Anarchy Live'.

1985 - Maya Jeane Marcel-Keyes, US anarchist and gay rights activist and daughter of Alan Keyes, a candidate for the 2008 Republican presidential nomination, born.

## 2008 - Bruse Duncan 'Utah' Phillips (b. 1935), US anarchist, labour organiser, Wobbly, protest poet and folk singer, dies.
The state can't give you freedom, and the state can't take it away. You're born with it, like your eyes, like your ears. Freedom is something you assume, then you wait for someone to try to take it away. The degree to which you resist is the degree to which you are free...
1864 - Zo D'Axa aka Alphonse Gallaud de la Pérouse (d. 1930), French lampoonist, publisher, writer, adventurer and anarchist propagandist, born. Published 'La Feuille' and 'L'EnDehors' magazines, and ran as an ass called Nul in the 1898 elections, causing mass street brawls.

[B] 1869 - Ivan Aguéli (John Gustaf Agelii; d. 1917), Swedish anarchist, animal rights activist, painter and Sufi, born. Travelled to Paris in 1890 to study art and becomes the student of the Symbolist painter Émile Bernard. Before returning to Sweden in 1890 he made a detour to London, where he met the Russian anarchist scholar Prince Kropotkin. Returning to Paris in 1892, where he met Marie Huot (1846-1930), the French poet, writer, feminist and animal rights activist, and became involved in anarchist circles and is arrested and involved in the Procès des Trente in 1984. Acquitted, he left France for Egypt and, upon returning to Paris in 1898, he converts to Islam, taking the name Abd al-Hadi. Following a trip to Ceylon, he returns to France and is active in Anarchist and Dreyfusard circles of Paris. At a bullfight outside of Paris, Aguéli shoots and wounds a bullfighter. A Symbolist and Neo-Impressionist influenced artist, he was also an art critic who was an early champion of Picasso's Cubism.

1871 - Semaine Sanglante [Bloody Week]: Many of yesterday's fires, which had been set by guardsmen led by Paul Brunel, one of the original leaders of the Commune, continue to burn. At two in the morning, Brunel and his men make their way to the Hôtel de Ville, headquarters of the Conseil de la Commune and then full of the wounded from the defence of the city, with orders from Jean-Louis Pindy [a member of the anarchist minority faction on the Commune Council that had signed the May 15 déclaration de la minorité denouncing the dictatorship of the Comité de Salut Public (Public Saferty Committee): "La Commune de Paris a abdiqué son pouvoir entre les mains d'une dictature à laquelle elle a donné le nom de Salut public" (The Paris Commune has abdicated its power in the hands of a dictatorship to which she gave the name of public safety)] to evacuate the building and torch it. The final order for evacuation was given by the Council's chief executive, Louis Charles Delescluze, a journalist with no military experience, who had been made the Commune's military commander (délégué à la Guerre) on May 11, and Brunel's men set it on fire. At the same time, the Blanquist Théophile Ferré, a member of the Comité de Salut Public and the Commune's newly appointed prosecutor, ordered the same fate for the Préfecture de police and Palais de Justice, thereby destroying one of France's major archives of the period.
At dawn the battle recommenced. Much of the Gardes Nationaux had disintigrated and are now fleeing the city, leaving between 10,000 and 15,000 Communards to defend the barricades. Government forces now occupy the Banque de France, the Palais-Royal, the Louvre, the Rue d’Assas and Notre-Dame des Champs. The Latin Quarter comes under attack and is taken that night, with around 700 of its defenders being executed in the Rue Saint-Jacques. The Luxembourg arms depot is hit by French Army artillery and blows up. At the end of the day, the Communards had also lost control of the 9th, 12th, 19th and 20th arrondissements, plus some sections of the 3rd, 5th and 13th (the Butte-aux-Cailles).
The government side continues its repression, as informal military courts are established at the École Polytechnique, Chatelet, the Luxembourg Palace, Parc Monceau, and other locations around Paris. The hands of captured prisoners, both suspected Communards and Gardes Nationales, are examined to see if they have fired weapons. So identified, their names are taken and the sentence is pronounced by a court of two or three gendarme officers. The prisoners are then taken out and immediately shot. In a desperate and futile attempt at mounting some sort of retaliation against the government atrocities, Gardes Nationaux and some Communards carried out their own executions. A delegation of national guardsmen and Gustave Genton, a member of the Comité de Salut Public, came to the new headquarters of the Commune at the hôtel de ville of the 11th arrondissment and demanded the immediate execution of the "hostages of the people of Paris", arrested at the beginning of April in the hope of using as hostages in an exchange for Louis-Auguste Blanqui, the honourary President of the Commune, who had been arrested by the French government on March 15, and was currently being held at La Roquette prison. Théophile Ferré wrote out the orders ['Order to the Citizen Director of La Roquette to execute six hostages'] and Genton and his firing squad went to La Roquette. There he choose six names, including Georges Darboy, the Archbishop of Paris, and three Jesuit priests. However, the director of the prison refused to release Darboy with a specific order from the Commune. Genton was forced to send back to Ferré for this 'official permission', with Ferré adding "and especially the archbishop" at the bottom of the original order. The six hostages were then taken out into the courtyard of the prison, lined up against the wall, and shot. Both Ferré and Genton would themselves would later be executed for their roles in the killing of the hostages.

1895 - Marcel Janco (d. 1984), anarchist-influenced Romanian and Israeli visual artist, architect and art theorist, born. Known originally for his time with Dada but whose work embraced a wide range of artistic schools including post-Impressionism, Expressionisn, Constructivism and Futurism, he was also instrumental for forming other arts collectives including Das Neue Leben and the Romanian political and arts magazine 'Contimporanul'.

1907 - The second lecture in a series organised by the prominent anarcha-feminist militant Emma Goldman and editor of 'Mother Earth', together with the Social Science Club in Los Angeles, 'The Building of True Character', takes place at Burbank Hall.

1920 - Amadeo Ramón Valledor (aka 'El Asturiano' and 'Ramón'; d. 1963), Spanish miner militant anarcho-syndicalist and libertarian anti-fascist fighter, born. Member of the CNT, as were his brothers and father, Amadeo Ramón Chachón. Following the fascist coup of July 1936, he managed to escape and arrived in Asturias. Following the deafeat on the Gijón Front, he and a number of comrades were captured whilst trying to escape by boat. Tried, he received a harsh prison sentence. On the night of 25-26 December 1942, he and others members of the 'Minas de Moro' Society managed to escape from the prison mines at Fabero (Lleó), joining the guerrilla group organised by his cousín Serafín Fernández Ramón (O Santeiro). [expand]

1921 - Beginning of the trial of Sacco and Vanzetti.

##1922 - Juan Portales Casamar (d. 1973), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born into a libertarian family. From an early age, he particiapted, like his brothers and his sister Suceso, in the clandestine struggle with the Andalusian Juventuedes Libertarias (JJLL). In February 1944, during a regional plenum held by the CNT in Seville, he was appointed to the Andalusian Regional Committee of the CNT. From January 1947, he was, with his brother Luis, a member of the Fédération Ibérique des Jeunesses Libertaires (FIJL) and was especially responsible for the distribution of the underground newspapers 'Juventud Libre' (FIJL) and 'Tierra y Libertad' (FAI) - getting paper to the clandestine printing press in the Madrid house of Juan Gomez Casas and then preparing shipments to various regional organisation. He was also defence secretary of the Comitè Peninsular.
At the end of 1947, he was arrested in Madrid along with Liberto Sarrau, as was Gómez Casas together with his printing press. The arrest of Gómez Casas was considered by some to be the result of an act of betrayal and that he was 'allowed' to escape in return for information on the printing press. In France he maintained his links with the Peninsular Committee of FIJL and was one of the founders of the Regional Federation of the CNT in Cachan.

1926 - The founding conference of the Zenkoku Rôdô Kumiai Jiyû Rengôkaii (the All~]apan Libertarian Federation of Labour Unions - Zenkoku Jiren for short) takes place in Tokyo. Attended by some 400 delegates, representing 8,372 workers from 25 unions, Zenkoku Jiren was the anarchist answer to the social-democratic Sôdômei and the Communist Party’s Hyôgikai union federations.

## 1928 - Louis Ségeral (d. 1988), French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, engineer, Résistance fighter, poet, painter and novelist, born. [expand]

1937 - "On May 24 of this year two persons, accompanied by the Communist mayor, appeared at the home of [Francisco] González Moreno, secretary of the C.N.T. of Mascaraque, and told Moreno that they were messengers from the Lister Brigade and were under orders to arrest him and take him to the city of Mora de Toledo. Moreno at first refused to obey the order, until the Communist mayor of Mascaraque promised to accompany him. But when Moreno had climbed into the waiting auto, the mayor calmly walked off. Next day Moreno was shot behind the Christ Church in Mora de Toledo. In this case there was involved just an ordinary act of revenge, for Moreno, who had formerly been a member of the Communist Party, had left it to join the C.N.T. 'Solidaridad Obrera', from which we take this account, commented:
"Including this new victim there have now been sixty people murdered in Mora de Toledo. Among them were men and women who had done nothing except to belong to the C.N.T. and to condemn the criminal acts of the Communists which kept the neighborhood in terror. Such horrors are not to be explained by the antagonism of different political convictions, nor even by the lust for power of certain advocates of revolution. The perpetrators of crimes so base are simply provocateurs in the service of Fascism. We demand the punishment of the guilty persons. Those in responsible positions in our organization have always admonished the comrades to dignity and self-control. Now, however, we feel ourselves obliged to bring the horrible crimes which threaten to plunge anti-Fascist Spain into a fraternal war to the knowledge of the public, so that the Spanish people may know who are the real provocateurs among the working class." ('Solidaridad Obrera', July 1, 1937.)" [Rudolf Rocker - 'The Tragedy of Spain' (1937)]
[íster [haigography]]

1968 - Mai '68: By today – barely two weeks after the great demonstration of May 13 – approximately 10 million workers are on strike. Immense demonstrations continue to occur, while the government plans to call out the army. In the evening battles break out in the streets and on the barricades near the Lyon Station in the Latin Quarter. In the provincial towns street fights break out. De Gaulle goes on TV to announce a referendum. Overnight rioting in Paris sees 795 arrests, and 456 injured. An attempt to torch the Bourse is made. Other incidents throughout France; a Commissaire de Police is killed in Lyon by a truck. Committees for the Defense of the Republic (CDR) are launched.

1971 - Hiratsuka Raichō (平塚 らいちょう) (Hiratsuka Haru [平塚 明]; b. 1886), Japanese writer, journalist, political activist, anarchist and pioneer of feminism in Japan, who founded the monthly feminist magazine 'Seitō' (青鞜 / Bluestocking), dies. [see: Feb. 10]

[A] 1978 - Iris Mills and Ronan Bennett are arrested in Bayswater. They, together with Vince Stevenson, Trevor Dawton, Dafydd Ladd and Stewart Carr are collectively charged with conspiracy in what becomes known as the 'Persons Unknown' case.

1986 - Cinta Blanch (b. 1905), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, who was one of the pillars of the Aldover agricultural community during the Spanish Revolution along with her partner Agustí Pons, her brother Joan Blanc and other comrades, dies.

2007 - Pura López Mingorance (Purificación López Mingorance; b. 1920), Catalan anarchist, dies. Following the fascist uprising of July 1936, her father, Manuel López López, and brother, Miguel López Mingorance, were shot by the Francoists and she herself was imprisoned. Her other brother, Germinal López Mingorance, was shot in 1945 in Grenada. In December 1946, she was arrested in Barcelona in a raid against the clandestine press of 'Ruta', run by her comrade Francisco López Ibáñez. She later had a relationship with the prominent underground militant Manuel Fernández Rodríguez. In 2004, she applied to various institutions about possible exhumation and reburial of her brother and father, who were executed and buried in a mass grave in the ravine of El Carrizal, in the Granadan town of Granadan Órgiva, but received no responses. In 2010, her testimony was included in Eulàlia Vega's book 'Pioneras y revolucionarias. Mujeres libertarias durante la República, la Guerra Civil y el Franquismo' (Pioneras and revolutionaries. Libertarias Women during the Republic, Civil War and Franchoism).

2017 - Masashi Daidōji (大道寺将司; b. 1948), Japanese former member and effective leader of the Wolf (狼 / Ōkami) cell of the East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front (東アジア反日武装戦線 / Higashi Ajia Hannichi Busō Sensen), and later haiku poet, who was convicted of a series of bombings at companies in 1974 and 1975 and sentenced to death, dies in Tokyo Prison (多発性骨髄腫) of multiple myeloma. [see: Jun. 5]
## 1858 - Paul Reclus, aka Georges Guyou (d. 1941), French anarchist militant & propagandist, engineer, cartographer, and teacher, born. [expand]

1864 - The Loi Ollivier is passed, repealing the Loi Le Chapelier of June 14, 1791, thereby abolishing the 'Délit de Coalition' (the Offence of Coalition), which forbid workers' organisations, most notably trade guilds of the period, but also peasant and worker assemblies.

1871 - Semaine Sanglante [Bloody Week]: On the fifth day of the fighting inside Paris the Versailles government troops now hold 60% of the capital, with the Communards still holding out in the 11th, 12th, 19th and 20th arrondissements, and parts of the 3rd, 5th, and 13th. In the latter, fierce fighting is focused on the Butte-aux-Cailles where 1,500 gardes nationaux from the 13th arrondissement and the Mouffetard district under Walery Wroblewski, a Polish national exiled to France following the Polish uprising of 1863 and the Commune's commander of the fortifications between Ivry and Arcueil. Heavily outnumbered by the three divisions facing them, and already having been ordered during the morning to withdraw to the 11th arrondissement, Wroblewski and the national guardsmen are finally forced to abandon their positions mid afternoon despite their brave resistance. They withdraw to the barricade on Place Jeanne-d'Arc, where later in the day 700 of their number are taken prisoner. Visiting the new headquarters of the Commune at the hôtel de ville in the 11th arrondissment Wroblewski is offered command of the remaining Commune forces by Louis Charles Delescluze, the Commune's military commander (délégué à la Guerre). Wroblewski declines the offer, saying that he prefers to fight on as a private soldier. Which he did, surviving the fall of the Commune and escaping to London, where he joined the General Council of the International Workingmen's Association. Another focus of fierce fighting was the Place du Chateau d'Eau, where at about 19:00 an exhausted and dejected Delescluze, who refuses to be taken alive, in a final act of defiance climbs the barricade wearing his red sash of office and, showing himself to the besieging troops, is shot down.
The repression being carried out by the invading forces continues unabated, with government troops now picking up the wounded in ambulances to feed the ever multiplying number of summary executions. Knowing their inevitable fate, the majority of the fédérés who had not fled the city and chose to remain defending the barricades, refused to surrender. In one such inciden at around 10:00 that morning the barricade on the Faubourg-Saint-Denis is outflanked and the seventeen remaining fédérés ordered to surrender. The gardes nationaux refuse and, barely having time to shout "Vive la Commune", are shot. In one notorious incident, five Dominicans monks from the college in Arcueil and nine of their employees who had been arrested on May 19, suspected of working for Versailles, are shot under confused circumstances in the Avenue d'Italie. Anti-Commune propagandists quickly seized on the event to blame the Communards with having deliberately executing them in an act of revenge. However, those historians more sympathetic to the Commune argue that they died as a result of the 'fog of war', caught up in the fighting around the Butte-aux-Cailles during their transfer to a safer prison.
At the end of the day, the Bastille and the Chateau d'Eau still remain in the hands of the fédérés.

1871 - Ramón de la Sagra y Periz (b. 1798), Spanish anarchist, politician, writer and botanist, who founded the world's first anarchist journal, 'El Porvenir' (The Future), dies (some sources say the 23rd).

1879 - Varban Kilifarski (d. 1923), Bulgarian anarchist, anti-militarist and libertarian teacher, born.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1885 - La Bande Noire: The second trial of the Bandes Noire opens at Chalon with around 30 in the dock. Eleven are eventually convicted with Gueslaff and Hériot being sentenced to 10 and 20 years of forced labour respectively. Brenin, abandoned by Thévénin and now insane, is sentenced to 5 years forced labour, commuted to 5 years imprisonment. The others get between 2 and 12 years.

1885 - At Père-Lachaise police bayonet charge an anniversary commemoration of the Commune inside the cemetry, whilst outside cavalry disperse demonstrators. 40 people are injured and 60 arrests are made.

1885 - The first of only two issues of the newspaper 'La Boje!: Grido dei Lavatori' (Uprising!: Cry of the Workers) is published in in Vercelli (Piedmont, Italy).

##1893 - Emilio López Arango, aka 'Xáxara' (October 25, 1929), Argentine anarcho-syndicalist organiser and theoritician, who was probably assassinated in an ideological feud by fellow anarchist Severino Di Giovanni, who had already threatened Arango for accusing him in his newspaper of "fascist agent" and "police infiltrator", born.

1900 - Francesco Carmagnola (d. 1986), Italian anarchist and labour organiser, born. Forced in 1922 into exile in Australia for his radical ideas and political record. Pivotal anarchist/anti-fascist in the Italian community in Australia, Carmagnola led the 1934 Canecutters' strike.

1901 - Founding congress of the Federación Obrera Argentine (FOA) is held in Buenos Aires. [today and tomorrow]

1907 - The third lecture in a series organised by the prominent anarcha-feminist militant Emma Goldman and editor of 'Mother Earth', together with the Social Science Club in Los Angeles,'Crimes of Parents and Educators', takes place at the Naturopathic Hall.

1913 - Meeting Casa del Obrero Mundial in Mexico results in the arrests of Luis Méndez, Pioquinto Roldán, Jacinto Huitrón and deportation of José Santos Chocano, Eloy Armenta and José Collado.

1923 - Karl Hess (d. 1994), US political philosopher, journalist, editor, tax resister, gun smuggler, atheist and libertarian activist, who was often described as the “most beloved libertarian" and vacilated between right-wing and leftist politics before embracing oxymoronic 'Free-market anarchism', born. [expand]

1923 - Following the events surrounding the Plateau killing, an unemployed anarchist metalworker Georges-Lucien Taupin enters the offices of 'L'Action Française' and fires a shot into the ceiling of the waiting room after trying to see the nationalist Charles Maurras. "This is a warning from the anarchists," he shouts, "We are always ready for the Action Française!"

[C] 1926 - Samuel Schwartzbard, a young Jewish anarchist poet and watchmaker, assassinates Simon Petliura (Petlyura) in Paris in revenge for the Ukraine pogroms of 1919-1920 against Jews (directed by Petliura, a rightwing nationalist and former Hetman of Ukrainian armies) and the murder of his own family members.

##1937 - Francisco González Moreno (b. unknow), Secretary of the Sindicato Único de Oficios Varios of the CNT in Mascaraque (Toledo) and an ex-communist, is shot by members of the Lister Brigade (XLVI Brigada Mixta) behind the Christus Church in Mora de Toledo, the 60th CNT member to be executed by the Stalinist hatchetman Enrique Líster Forján and his troops. González Moreno had made a number of unsuccessful attempts at escape since his 'arrest' the previous day. [see: May 24]
NB: Lister would go on to lead the attacks on the anarchist rural collectives in Aragon in August 1937, part of the Communist-dominated Generalitat's plans of erradicating all, especially anarchist, opposition to the PCE's domination of the Revolution.
[íster [haigography]]

1945 - Yanase Masamu (柳瀬正梦; b. 1900), Japanese manga artist and cartoonist, dies. [see: Jan. 12]

[D] 1968 - Mai '68: Fearing the soldiers will fight side-by-side with the workers and students, and fearing radicalisation of the military, the French government had called up reservists and kept the soldiers in isolation. The government, employers' federation and unions met to negotiate a country-wide pact called the Grenelle accords. France's state radio and television goes on strike: no TV-news at 20:00.

1977 - José Ledo Limia (b. 1900), Galician anarchist agitator and Civil War fighter, dies. [see: Aug. 30]

1995 - Aida Issakhorovna Basevich (Аида Иссахаровна Басевич; b. 1905), Russian engineering technician and lifelong anarchist militant, who suffered repeated repression by the Soviet regime, dies in St. Petersburg. [see: Jul. 31]

[B] 2000 - Alfred Levitt (b. 1894), Belarus-born American anarchist, humanist, renowned artist, storyteller, spelunker and adventurer, dies. [see: Sep. 15]
## 1837 - Leon Warnerke (Władysław Małachowski; d. 1900), Polish-Lithuanian engineer and inventor in the field of photography, revolutionary and highly successful anarchist forger of European banknotes, born. Leon Warnerke was the pseudonym he adopted when he went into exile in England following the crushing of the 1863 January Uprising (Powstanie styczniowe).

#1851 - Sir Walter William Strickland, 9th Baronet (Aug 9 1938), English translator, atheist and libertarian, known as the 'Anarchist Baronet', born.

1855 - Felice Vezzani, aka V. Enizza, Félix, Lux (February 11, 1930), Italian painter, decorator, artist, writer and anarchist propagandist, who was active in Italy, the US, Argentina and France, born.

1864 - Francis Vielé-Griffin (d. 1937), US-born French symbolist poet and anarchist, born. He founded the highly influential journal 'Entretiens Politiques et Littéraires' (1890–92) and turned it into an organ of literary anarchism, whose contributors included Paul Valéry, Henri de Régnier, Remy de Gourmont, and Stéphane Mallarmé. Following his first poetry collection, 'Cueille d'Avril' (1885), he became a prodigious writer, publishing at least one new collection of poems ever year between 1893 and 1900, with many also appearing in the French press.

1871 - Semaine Sanglante [Bloody Week]: The fighting now is concentrated in the east of the city. The Gardes Nationaux still hold parts of the 3rd arrondissment, from the Carreau du Temple to the Arts-et-Metiers, and still have artillery at their strong points at the Buttes-Chaumont and Père-Lachaise, from which they continued to bombard the regular army forces along the Canal Saint-Martin. The Bastille also still holds out but is now is surrounded and, after six hours of heavy fighting, eventually falls to the army in the early afternnoon. The remaining defenders are summarily shot.
Massacres of Communards are now taking place in the Lobau barracks, at the École Militaire, the Jardin des Plantes, the Square Montholon, at the Gares de l'Est et du Nord and the Luxembourg Gardens. Many are shot using shot by mitrailleuses, hand-cranked machineguns firing grapeshot.
At the Panthéon, 700 Communards are massacred. Amongst them the journalist and editor of the 'La Marseillaise' newspaper, Jean-Baptiste Millière. During the siege of Paris by Prussian troops, he commanded the 108th battalion of the Garde Nationale and participated in the uprising of October 31, 1870, against the government. He was elected to the Assemblée Nationale in February 1871 and supported the Paris Commune when it was declared, but did not take part in the hostilities. He was visiting his stepfather in the Rue d'Ulm, close to the Panthéon, when the Versailles forces invaded Paris. Recognised amongst those arrested, he was taken there by order of General Cissey and forced to kneel at the foot of the monument, to 'atone for his sins'. Openning his coat, Millière shouted "Long live humanity!", before being shot . Mortally wounded, he was finished off with a coup de grâce in what amounted to an unlawful summary execution due to his parliamentary immunity.
The exact numbers of those killed in summary executions during the Semaine Sanglante is unknown but, given that the accepted estimate of those Parians and Communards killed during the bloody week is 20,000, it certainly numbers in the thousands. On the other side, a total of 63 people were executed by the Commune during the same period. Amongst those were those of the so-called 'otages de la rue Haxo' episode, when 50 people detained in the La Roquette prison – 11 priests, 36 Versailles prisoners soldiers and 4 civilians working for or acting as agent for the police – were taken initially to the hôtel de ville in the 20th arrondissement. However, the Commune leader of that district refused to allow his city hall to be used as a place of execution and, followed by a large boisterous crowd, who insulted, spat upon, and struck the hostages, they then to the edge of the fortifications on the Rue Haxo, where the hostages were shot from all sides by the gardes nationaux in the crowd, despite the desperate pleadings of Eugène Varlin (anarchist bookbinder, member of the Paris section of the International Workers' Association and commander of the Garde Nationale Parisienne, who was elected a member of the Commune) and the Communard Colonel Hippolyte Parent, who stood on the ramparts waving their red sashes of office as they tried to prevent the killings. Another incident rendered infamous by the post-Commune propaganda effort, the Église Notre-Dame-des-Otages was later built on the site as a monument to the brutality of those who choose to defend their rights to live free from the overweening power of the State.
Another notorious event in the history of the Semaine Sanglante also took place on May 25, when the Polish exiles Adolf Rozwadowski and Michał Szeweycer were executed by the invading side for supposedly harbouring Communards. Described as "one of the most horrific" incidents of the bloody week by the Polish exile and writer Władysław Mickiewicz, the proof of their 'crimes' being that they had left the light on where they were living, a sign attributed to the Communard side. Executed, their bodies were left lying in the street for two days afterwards.
By evening, the Communards now only held an area in the east of the city bound by the canal de l’Ourcq, bassin de la Villette, canal Saint-Martin, boulevard Richard-Lenoir, rue du Faubourg Saint-Antoine and the porte de Vincennes. At seven o'clock that evening, the Versailles forces entered the Faubourg Saint-Antoine itself as the last refuges of the Commune threatened to fall within the next few days.

##1878 - Chris Lebeau (Joris Johannes Christiaan Lebeau; d. 1945), Dutch artist, designer, painter, art teacher, theosophist and anarchist, born. After the Nazis came to power in Germany, Lebeau entered into a sham marriage with a Jewish refugee who had fled Nazi Germany and later during the occupation, he used his artistic knowledge for forging documents. On November 3, 1943 he and his wife were arrested for helping Dutch Jews. He was offered his freedom if he promised to refrain from illegal work, but he refused. He was transferred from Kamp Vught to Dachau concentration camp on May 25, 1944, where he died of exhaustion April 2, 1945.

1886 - Felipe Emilio Sandoval Cabrerizo, aka 'Doctor Muñiz' (July 6, 1939), Spanish bricklayer,anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, expropriator and spy, who is known for his leadership of the dreaded Czech anarchist police centre installed in the Cinema Europe of the district of Cuatro Caminos, the Fleet Street of Madrid, born.

[B] 1900 - Vítězslav Nezval (d. 1958), Czech poet, writer, dramatist, translator, Dadaist, co-founder of Poetism and a leading personality of Czech Surrealism, born. Like many of his milieu, an anarchist in early life was perhaps the most prolific writer in Prague during the 1920s and 30s. An original member of the anarchist-influenced avant-garde group of artists Devětsil (Nine Forces), he was a founding figure of the Poetist movement. His output consists of a number of poetry collections, experimental plays and novels, memoirs, essays, and translations. His best work is from the inter-war period. Along with Karel Teige, Jindrich Styrsky, and Toyen, Nezval frequently travelled to Paris, engaging with the French surrealists. Forging a friendship with André Breton and Paul Eluard, he was instrumental in founding The Surrealist Group of Czechoslovakia in 1934 (the first such group outside of France), serving as editor of the group's journal 'Surrealismus'.
In 1922 he joined the Devětsil (along with Karel Teige), becoming a dramtaurge for the Osvobozeného Divadla (Liberated Theatre) and of the (anarchist) Union of Communist Groups in 1924. With the demise of Devětsil, and the formation of an official Moscow-leaning Czeck Communist Party (ČSK), he joined that and helped form the communist arts group Levá Fronta (Left Front) in 1929. Nezval also wrote for many leftist papers e.g. 'Rudém Právu' (Red Truth), 'Tvorbě' (Creation), 'Odeonu' (Odeaon), 'Nové Scéně' (New Stage), 'Lidových Novinách' (The People's Newspaper), etc.
Post-WWII, he was active within the ČSK, becoming head of the film department of the Ministry of Information and ending up as its Stalinist laureate, named National Artist of the Czechoslovak Republic in 1953.
Amongst his poetry collections, 'Pantomima' (Pantomime; 1924), which is considered to be the pinnacle of poetic creation, and more erotic and ultimately Surrealist verse such as 'Menší Rùžová Zahrada' (A Small Rose Garden; 1926) and 'Dobrodružství Noci a Vìjíøe' (Romantic Nights and Fans; 1927), the more militant collections 'Sklenìný Havelok' (The Glass Cloak; 1932) and '52 Hoøkých Balad Vìèeného Studenta Roberta Davida' (52 Bitter Ballads of the Eternal Student Robert David; 1936). Nezval also wrote everything from children stories such as 'Anička Skřítek a Slaměný Klobouk' (Elf Anna and the Straw Hat; 1936) and 'Slamìný Hubert' (Hubert the Straw Man, 1936) reminiscent of Lewis Carrol's 'Alice in Wonderland'; dramas and 'poetic scenes' (for the Liberated Theatre) including the Surrealist 'Strach' (Fear; 1930) and the allegorical anti-nuclear war 'Dnes Ještě Zapadá Slunce Nad Atlantidou' (Today, the Sun Still Sets Over Atlantis; 1956); and even a series of screen plays for films that were never made (although Gustav Machatý directed the film 'Erotikon' which was based on an uncredited Nezval story).

I heard the secrets in a kiss
the words around it circling like a line of coloured butterflies
saw thousands of bacteria
in a sick man's body
& every one of them looked like a spiky chestnut
like a cosmos making war
with a skin of scaly armour

I saw a human break free from his dying comrades
in the pit of history that has no bottom.

'The Seventh Chant' (1924)


1901 - The first issue of the Lyon workers daily 'Le Quotidien' is published by Sébastien Faure. It ends publication in March 1902 after 294 issues.

1906 - Pierre Prévert (d. 1988), French filmmaker, actor, director, writer and libertarian, born. Younger brother of Jacques Prévert, he learned his trade under the likes of Buñuel, Jean Renoir and Jean Vigo, and co-directed his first film, 'Souvenir de Paris' in 1928, with Marcel Duhamel and his brother Jacques. His own films never proved that successful and he ended up working on other people's projects, as well as being the artistic director for the Left Bank cabaret La Fontaine des Quatre Saisons, before working in TV during the '60s.

1907 - The fourth and final lecture in a series organised by the prominent anarcha-feminist militant Emma Goldman and editor of 'Mother Earth', together with the Social Science Club in Los Angeles,'The Revolutionary Spirit of Modern Drama', takes place during the afternoon at Burbank Hall. It is followed that evening by discussion with the doctor and Socialist Claude Riddle on 'Direct Action versus Political Action'. After several discussions between Goldman and Riddle, the latter abandoned socialism and declared himself an anarchist.

1908 - President Theodore Roosevelt signs a decree law to try to silence the anarchist press. Postal services are obliged to block any printed matter whose content meets the new criteria of state censorship.

1910 - Against a background of on-going social unrest, the government pass new repressive legislation to complement the clauses of the Residence Act . Clearly displaying its intentions, the Social Defence Law: "denied entry into the country are any alien who has been convicted for common crimes, as well as anarchists and all those who profess attacks against officials, government or institutions (...) Any association or meeting of persons for the purpose of anarchist propagnand or the preparation of acts condemned by the law shall be prohibited."

1914 - alternative date for the birth of the Portuguese anarchist and nurse Luísa Adão (Luísa Do Carmo Franco Elias Adão; d. 1999). [see: Jun. 19]

1926 - A motion is filed for a new trial for the anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti case based upon Medeiros’ confession and information about the Morelli gang, an Italian gang that robbed freight cars in Providence, R.I. and New Bedford, Mass.

1952 - Winston Smith, anarchist, "Punk Art Surrealist and master of 'hand-carved' collage" in his own words, born. Probably best known for the artwork he has produced for the American punk rock group Dead Kennedys.

1954 - Franz Pfemfert (b. 1879), German anarchist, publisher, editor of the mass-circulation anti-war paper 'Die Aktion', poet, literary critic and portrait photographer, dies. [see: Nov. 20]

1962 - René Darsouze (b. 1876), French typographer and anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 22]

1968 - Mai '68: The May Days continue. A General Strike has essentially paralysed the government which is on the verge of collapse.

2009 - Jean Préposiet (b. 1926), French anarchist and historian of its ideas and of individuals such as Spinoza, dies. See: 'Spinoza et la Liberté des Hommes' (1967); 'Histoire de l'Anarchisme' (1993); and 'La Profanation du Monde: Destin de l'Occident' (2000).

#### 2014 - At 02:00, Rafael Sebastián Guillén Vicente appeared in front of the media in the La Realidad community in Chiapas, where he announces the end of the character 'Subcomandante Marcos' to make way for the 'Subcomandante Insurgente Galeano', in homage to a Zapatista teacher named Galeano who had recently been assassinated. [see: Jun. 19]
1857 - Heinrich Emil Maximilian (Max) Hödel (d. 1878), German anarchist who tried to assassinate Kaiser Wilhelm I on May 11 1878, born.

1871 - Semaine Sanglante [Bloody Week]. Fogs envelops the city as the Versailles forces launch their offensive at dawn. The Montreuil and Bagnolet Gates are taken with little resistance; Charonne is occupied and, at 07:00, the army reachrs the Place du Trône, which the gardes nationaux are now forced to abandon. The hôtel de ville in the 11th arrondissment, the final headquarters of the Commune, now comes under artillery fire. An attack on the National Guard artillery on the heights of the Buttes-Chaumont is also launched and the heights are capture in the late afternoon, the Commune gunners having run out of ammunition and left to fight elsewhere. The last remaining position of strength of the gardes nationaux is the Père-Lachaise cemetery, which is defended by about 200 men. This too comes under sustained attack and, at 18:00, the main gates are destroyed by cannon-fire. Savage hand-to-hand amongst the graves and tombstones ensues and around nightfall, the last 150 guardsmen, many of them wounded and left with only knives and bayonets with which to defend themselves, are surrounded and surrender. They are then lined up against the cemetery wall – now know as the Mur des Fédérés in honour to their memory – and shot. During the night the Versailles artillery fires on the Belleville district, trying to set it on fire.

1877* - [N.S. Jun 8] Kosta Nunkov [Коста Нунков], aka David Ognyanov [Нунков Огнянов](Konstantin Ivanov Nunkov [Константин Иванов Нунков]; d. 1905), Bulgarian revolutionary, anarchist, a member of the Macedonian Committee (Македонския комитет) and a Kumanov leader of the Inner Macedonian-Odrin Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешната македоно-одринска революционна организация), born in Chirpan. [see: Jun. 8]
[* May 21 [O.S. May 9], 1877 also quoted as his d.o.b.]

1879 - Alberto Meschi (d. 1958), Italian anarchist, trade union organiser, writer, and anti-fascist, who fought in Spain with the Rosselli Column from 1936 up to the fall of the Republic, born.

1884 - Max Brod (d. 1968), Czech author, composer, journalist and one-time anarchist fellow traveller who was the friend, literary executor and biographer of Franz Kafka, born. Both Brod and Kafka frequented the Karolinenthal public house, Zum Kanonenkreuz, a well-known anarchist meeting place and took part to in meetings of the anarchist Club of the Young, which were disguised as a mandolin club to escape police surveillance. Though less than sympathetic to Kafka's anarchism, he later wrote a novel, 'Stefan Rott oder Das Jahr der Entscheidung' (Stefan Rott or the Decisive Year; 1931), which depicted the radical atmosphere in the Zum Kanonenkreuz, retaining the real names of many of those present. Despite his prodigious literary output and occasional success - his first novel 'Schloß Nornepygge' (Nornepygge Castle; 1908) was hailed as a masterpiece of Expressionism - he is mainly remembered for his promotion of others such as Jaroslav Hašek's 'The Good Soldier Svejk' and Leoš Janáček's operas, in addition to Kafka.
In later life, Brod became a pronounced Zionist.

1890 - André René Valet (d. 1912), French illegalist member of the Bonnot Gang, born. Met the circle of anarchistes involved in the paper 'L'Anarchie', edited by Victor Serge and Rirette Maitrejean, some of whom were also future Gang members. Valet was killed in a shootout with the police and the army, 15 May 1912 in the Paris suburb of Nogent-sur-Marne.

[EE] 1893 - [O.S. May 15] Nellie Dick (Naomi Ploschansky; d. 1995), Anglo-American anarchist pedagogue, is born in Kiev, Ukraine. When she was just nine months old, her parents moved with her to London. In June 1912, as a eighteen-year-old Nellie set up a Modern School, based on the values and ideas of Francisco Ferrer, in Whitechapel in the East End of London. Within a year the school had one hundred children aged five to fifteen. The school, which was run by the children, supported the Suffragists during their public protests, protecting the women from violence, invited guest speakers to teach them and took an active part in the politics of their community.
Nellie went to America in January 1917 with her husband Jim, who she had met at a May Day demonstration in 1913 and had previously set up the Liverpool Anarchist Communist Sunday School, and became involved in the Stelton libertarian colony and the Modern School, which had moved there in 1915. Nelly Dick took over the kindergarten and, in 1923, when another libertarian community started in Mohegan, New York State, founding and running the Modern School there. In June 1928 they returned to Stelton. In these years she made two trips to the USSR to see her family, where her father Salomon Ploschansky had returned in 1917 to join the revolution, becoming communist; but two of her sisters spent a total of 15 years in Stalin's concentration camps between the 1930s and 1960s.
In 1933 she and Jim founded their own modern school in Lakewood, New Jersey, which was active until 1958, the year in which the couple settled in Miami, Florida, where in 1965 Jim died. In 1973 Nellie sold her house, moved to an apartment and began to carry out activities related to the elderly. Her testimony was collected by Pau Avrich in books 'The Modern School Movement. Anarchism and Education in the United States' (1980) and 'Anarchist Voices. An Oral History of Anarchism in America' (1995). In 1989 Jerry Mintz premiered the documentary interview 'Nellie Dick and the Modern School Movement'. In 1990n Nellie left Miami and moved to Oyster Bay to live with her only son James 'Jimmy' Dick (1919-2006), a Long Island pediatrician. Nellie Dick died on October 31, 1995 in Oyster Bay, Nassau County, New York.

## 1905 - Helios Gómez Rodríguez (d. 1956), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, painter, poster artist, poet and militant activist, known as the 'artista de corbata roja' (artist with the red tie), born. Representative of the Spanish avant-garde movement of the early twentieth century alongside the likes of Luis Buñuel , Salvador Dalí and Federico García Lorca, and who joined the Aliança d'Intellectuals Antifeixistes de Catalunya. [expand]

[B] 1907 - Nicolas Calas (Νικόλαος Κάλας), pseudonym of Nikos Kalamaris (Νίκος Καλαμάρης; d. 1988), Greek-American poet, art critic, surrealist and anarchist, who also used the pseudonyms Nikitas Randos (Νικήτας Ράντος) and M. Spieros (Μ. Σπιέρος), born.

1908 - Teresa Torrelles Espina [also known as Teresina Torrelles & Teresa Torrella] (1908-1991), Catalan anarcha-feminist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, born.

1911 - Jerzy Zbigniew Złotowski aka 'Poręba' (d. 1944), Polish architectural engineer, syndicalist and anti-Nazi fighter, born. He part in the defence of Poland during the Nazi invasion as a member of Armia Krajowa (AK; Home Army)[Grupa 'Północ' (Group 'North')]. From November 1939, he was a member of Central Committee of the Związek Syndykalistów Polskich (ZSP; Union of Polish Syndicalists). Lieutenant and then commanding officer of the ZSP Headquarters Combat Units. During Warsaw Uprising, he was an officer in 104 Kompania Związku Syndykalistów Polskich (Company 104 of the Union of Polish Syndicalists) in the Old Town and of the Syndicalist Brigade (PAL) in Śródmieście. On September 30, 1944, he fell in combat on the corner of Krucza St. and Wspolna St.

[E] 1918 - Gràcia 'Gracieta' Ventura Fortea (Maria Gràcia Ventura Fortea), Spanish seamstress and anarchist, who was sentenced to 20 years in prison for "joining the rebellion, desecration of tombs and participating in the funeral Buenaventura Durruti in a military uniform", born.

1934 - Heimrad Prem (d. 1978), German painter and one-time Situationist, born. Formed the Gruppe SPUR with Lothar Fischer, Helmut Sturm, and Hans-Peter Zimmer. After meeting Asger Jorn, SPUR joined the Situationist International but the group were expelled in 1962. From 1960-62 he co-edited the magazine 'SPUR'.

#### 1935 - Luud Schimmelpennink (Laurens Maria Hendrikus Schimmelpennink), Dutch industrial designer, libertarian and later a social democrat politician, who was one of the most famous members of Provo and is known for his witte fietsenplan (white bicycle plan) and the Witkar (white cart) three-wheeled electric vehicle intended as a collective means of transport in the city centre of Amsterdam, born.
On the eve of the marriage of Princess Beatrix and Prince Claus, Schimmelpennink supplied the ingredients for the famous smoke bomb of March 10, 1966

1936 - Just a month before his death, Alexander Berkman is released from a hospital in France.

1942 - Pierre Ramus (aka Rudolf Grossman) (b. 1882) Austrian writer, pacifist and propagandist of anarchist ideas, dies fleeing from Nazi-occupied Europe. Wrote for Johann Most's newspaper and organised the German FKAD (Federation of Anarchist Communists of Germany) parallel to Rudolf Rocker's FAUD. Fleeing Nazi-occupied Europe, he had boarded a ship on the 20th, enroute to Veracruz, Mexico.

1944 - Park Cha-jeong [박차정], aka Yim Cheol-ae [임철애], Yim Cheol-san [임철산] (b. 1909), Korean anarchist, communist, independence activist and the first wife of Kim Won-bong [김원봉], chief of the Korean Revolutionary Army, dies at Chongqing, China at the age of 34. [see: May 7]

1947 - Anarchist guerrillero Enrique Marco Nadal arrested. Condemned to death in 1949, his sentence is commuted to 30 years imprisonment.

1957 - Maria Paulina Orsetti (b. 1880), Polish educator, Doctor of Social Sciences, pioneer of the cooperative movement, theorist of cooperativism, socialist and anarchist sympathiser, who co-founded the Cooperatives League (Ligi Kooperatystek) in Poland, dies in Warsaw. [see: Jun. 22]

1960 - Emilia Pérez Pazos aka 'Manchada' (b. 1894), Galician libertarian anti-Francoist militant, dies. [see: Jan. 10]

1963 - Aquilino Gomes Ribeiro (b. 1885), Portuguese novelist, writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 13]

1968 - Mai '68: The Upheavals of May '68 continue. The agreements of Grenelle (signed between employers and the trade unions), ratifies a wage increase, but is rejected by the workers who heap abuse on the trade-union representatives.

1976 - Leonor Silvestri, Argentine poet, performer, essayist , philosopher, anarchist and gender activist, who is prominent in Latin American queer politics, born. She is a member of the editorial board of the magazine 'Anarquista Antimilitarista Periférica', which is published in Chile, Argentina and Paraguay, and is the founder of the collective Ludditas Sexxxuales, whose agenda is the "deconstrucción o la destrucción de los mandatos sexuales, del statu quo sobre el amor sentimentaloide y romanticón almibarado, de los estereotipos sexuales y de género" (deconstruction or destruction of sexual mandates, of the status quo of mushy love and syrupy romanticism, of sexual and gender stereotypes).

1977 - 'God Save The Queen' by the Sex Pistols released.

2006 - Paul Zilsel (b. 1923), US theoretical physicist, militant activist, anarchist and co-founder of Left Bank Books in Seattle, Washington, dies. [see: May 6]

2013 - Pierre Morain (b. 1930), French tile, syndicalist, libertarian communist militant and anti-colonialist, dies at the age of 83 in Verrieres in the Occitanie. [see: Apr. 12]
[A/D] 1871 - Semaine Sanglante [Bloody Week]: The Communards are allowed no respite by the Versailles side and from 05:00 the army resume its assault. Moving along the city walls to the Romainville gate, they occupy the barricade on the Rue Rebeval and, outflanking the positions on the Rue de Paris, attack from the rear and, heroically, five or six fédérés managed to hold the barricade for several hours. At 08:00, the army occupies the hôtel de ville in the 20th arrondissement and, an hour, later the now evacuated La Roquette prison, freeing the remaining 150 prisoners held there – sergents de ville, gendarmes, priests and other "ennemis de la Commune". In the 20th and 21st arrondissements, small groups of insurgents also still hold out, at the Rue Ramponeau in the 20th and around the Rue du Faubourg-du-Temple, Rue de la Fontaine-aux-Rois, and the Boulevard de Belleville. A small battalion of Communards, led by the the few elected members of the Commune still remain active in the fight – the anarchist bookbinder, member of the Paris section of the International Workers' Association and commander of the Garde Nationale Parisienne Eugène Varlin (and who was probably, along with Louise Miche,l one of the central figures of the Commune), and the Comité de Salut Public members Théophile Ferré and Charles Ferdinand Gambon – girded with their red sashes of office, holding positions on barricades in the 11th arrondissements. Many of the defenders soon run out of ammunition and are forced to surrender; only to be shot on the spot. On the Rue Ramponeau, the last barricade of the Commune stands, defended by a single fédéré, holding the line so that the last few Communards can safely make their escape.
Varlin, who had managed to escape, was subsequently recognised on the Place Cadet by a priest, who alerted a nearby Versailles officer, Lieutenant Sicre. Arrested, Varlin's hands were tied behind his back and and he is dragged for an hour through the streets of Montmartre. The crowd of jeering soldiers, gardes nationaux de l'ordre, Versailles supporters and other reactionaries attempted to lynch this courageous man who had risked his life to try and save the Rue Haxo hostages. Badly beaten with one eye hanging out of its orbit, he is virtually unrecognisable when her arrived at the execution ground in the Rue des Rosiers and has to be carried as he is no longer able to stand unaided. In fact, in order to be shot, they have to sit him down. After his execution, the surrounding infantrymen attack his dead body, beating it with their rifle-butts. Sicre grabs Varlin's watch, which he goes on to ostentatiously wear as a trophy, a medal of his lack of valour.

## 1875 - Fernand Elosu (d. 1941), French anarchist, neo-Malthusian, MD and social pioneer (contraception, free love, etc), born. Active in the defence of des Stérilisés de Bordeaux in 1935. A pacifist, he was condemned as a communist in 1940 and died in prison in 1941 of pneumonia.

1882 - Fortuné Henry (b. 1821), French libertarian journalist and poet, who was one of the most influential figures in the Paris Commune, dies. [see: Jul. 20]

1894 - [N.S.Jun. 9] Nina Aleksandrovna Nikitina (Нина Александровна Никитина; 1894-1942), Russian officer worker [Second Moscow State Secretary of Finance and Accounting Department] and anarcho-mystic, born. [see: Jun. 9]

1897 - Carl Nold and Henry Bauer are convicted and imprisoned for aiding in Alexander Berkman's attempt to assassinate Henry Frick, are released from the Western State Penitentiary in Pittsburgh. Berkman remained in prison for many years and his book 'Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist' is now considered one of the masterpieces of prison literature.

1897 - Camillo Berneri (d. 1937), Italian professor of philosophy, propagandist and anarchist militant and theorist, born. [expand]

1897 - Lambertus Johannes Bot (December 6, 1988), Dutch carpenter, anti-militarist, communist, syndicalist and anarchist, born.

1897 - The Rome Assize Court sentences the young anarchist Pietro Acciarito to life with hard labour for his failed attempt to stab King Umberto I on April 22, 1897.

1910 - Paul Lapeyre (d. 1991), French anarchist, along with his brothers Aristide Lapeyre and Laurent, born.

##1924* - Rogelio Pérez Vicario (b. 1879), the notoriously incompetent ejecutor de la justicia (state torturer and executioner) for Barcelona and Valencia, who was also a former cobbler and nurse, is assassinated on the Carrer de la Riereta in the Barcelona barrio of Raval by anarchists in revenge for the execution of those responsible for the robbery to the Savings Bank of Terrasa. The government reacted by outlawing the CNT and Solidaritat Obrera, closing down union locals and staging mass arrests of anarchists and anarcho-syndicalists. Two anarcho-syndicalist militants Juan Montejo Arranz and Josep Llàcer Bertran were accused of his killing, in addtion to an attack the Atarazanas barracks on November 6 during the Fets de Bera uprising [November 5-7, 1924], and executed four days later on November 10, 1924 in the Modelo prison in Barcelona.
[* some confusion over the date as the May 7 (c.f. wikipedia) is regularly quoted whereas the anarchist media (who should know best) exclusively use May 28]

1925 - Mariola Milkova Sirakov (Мариола Милкова Сиракова; b. 1904), Bulgarian actor and anarcho-communist revolutionary, is shot at Belovo railway station along side her partner Gueorgui Cheitanov and 12 other anti-fascist prisoners. [see: Aug. 28]

1926 - A military coup today forces Portuguese anarchists to move their planned congress and relocate it to Valencia, Spain, where it proceeds surreptitiously on July 25, 1927.

1931 - Italian-American anarchist and anti-fascist Michele Schirru (b. 1899), having acknowledged his intention to kill Mussolini, is quickly found guilty and sentenced to death. He is shot early tomorrow morning at Fort Braschi.

1937 - In Spain POUM's newspaper 'La Batalla' is shut down by the Republic's government, as is the POUM's radio station. The Friends of Durruti's social premises in the Ramblas are also ordered to be shut down.

1941 - Carl Windhoff (b. 1872), German tiler, anarchist, and FAUD organiser, having suffered several strokes due to the awful conditions inside Luettringhausen prison and been released due to his severe physical and mental decline, dies at home. [see: Nov. 9]

1945 - Urania Mella (María Urania Mella Serrano; b. 1899), Spanish anarchist, anarcha-feminist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies from the abuse she suffered from her long period of imprisonment after the Civil War. [see: Nov. 15]
[* some sources give the date as May 26]

1968 - Daniel Cohn-Bendit makes a clandestine return to France. Mitterrand proposed a transitional government headed by Mendès France.

1968 - Kees van Dongen (Cornelis Theodorus Maria van Dongen; b. 1877), Dutch painter, cartoonist on the anarchist magazine 'La Revue Blanche' and one of the founders of Fauvism, dies. [see: Jan. 26]

[C] 1974 - Piazza della Loggia Bombing: Livia Bottardi Milani, 32, and Clementina Calzari Trebeschi, 31, both teachers, are amongst the eight Italian anti-Fascists are killed and over ninety injured in a bomb attack on an anti-Fascist demo in Brescia, Italy.

1999 - Inés Güida de Impemba, aka 'la Negra' (b. 1914), Argeninian teacher, feminist and anarchist of Italian origin, who at various times taught at the Universidade Popular, Universidade do Trabalho and the Seção Feminina de Ensino Secundário (Female Secondary Education Section), dies.

2000 - Anarchist History Tour: In drizzling rain, several van loads of London and Metropolitan police officers, a couple of motorcycle cops and a group of our flat footed friends trail behind (as usual!) 30-40 people through the streets of London's East End.

[B] 2004 - Étienne Roda-Gil (Esteve Roda Gil; b. 1941), French-born poet, songwriter, screenwriter, libertarian and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 1]

2007 - Eduardo Pons Prades, aka Floreado Barsino (b. 1920) Spanish writer specialising in contemporary Spanish history of the twentieth century, documentary screenwriter, lecturer, active participant in the Partido Sindicalista of Angel Pestaña, anarcho-syndicalist militant and anti-fascist, dies in Barcelona's Hospital de Sant Pau. [see: Dec. 19]

2009 - Julien Coupat (alleged author of 'The Coming Insurrection') is released on bail by French police.
[E] 1830 - Louise Michel (Clémence-Louise Michel; d. 1905), French anarchist, Paris Communard and revolutionary hero, born at the Chateau of Vroncourt, where her mother, Marianne Michel, was a maidservant. Her father was reputed to have been Laurent Demahis, the owner's son, but her father may have been the owner himself, Etienne-Charles Demahis. Anyway, her grandparents raised her as a Demahis, and she received a liberal education from them. Her grandfather had her read Voltaire, Rousseau, and the Encyclopédistes, and her grandmother taught her to sing and play piano. Louise Michel's 'Mémoirs' describe her early years as idyllic. In 1850, following her grandparents' and father's deaths, her stepmother drove her from the castle.
She was forced to look for a way to earn her own living. She chose to become an elementary teacher and so attended a teacher's training academy in Chaumont. In 1852, after obtaining her diploma, she opened a private school in Audeloncourt, not far from Vroncourt. But many parents didn't like her methods: she took her pupils outdoors so they could discover nature and she also taught them to sing the Marseillaise. These actions led to her repeatedly being called to the Préfet's office for a reprimand. Later, together with her friend Julie Longchamp, whom she had met in Chaumont, she opened a girl's school in Millières, where she taught for two years.
In 1856 she went to Paris, which always attracted her, to teach in a pension. Nine years later, she bought a private day-school in Montmartre. In this period she attended political meetings, where she met Théophile Ferré and his sister Marie, and became violently anticlerical. She also opposed the Second Empire. On July 12, 1870, along with 100,000 others, she went to the funeral of the journalist Victor Noir, who was killed by Pierre Bonaparte. Afterwards, in July, Napoleon III declared the war on Prussia. His troops were quickly overcome and he became a prisoner.
The Third Republic was proclaimed on September 4, and soon thereafter the Prussians lay siege to Paris. She tried to keep her school open and find food for her students. Her friend Georges Clemenceau, Mayor of Montmartre, helped her.
Louise Michel was very politically engaged in this period; she even created with friends Le Comité de Vigilance des Citoyennes du XVIIIème arrondissement [the Vigilance Committee of the eighteenth arrondissement]. When the bourgeois republic tried to forcibly disarm Parisians, it led to the proclamation of the Paris Commune on March 28, 1871. Louise Michel became an ambulance nurse and soldier, belonging to the Montmartre sixty-first battalion. She was everywhere where she could feel the danger. Finally, she surrendered on May 24 because the Versaillais - current name of the authorities who were refugees in Versailles - arrested her mother and threatened to kill her. Her mother was then released, and Louise Michel was incarcerated in Satory prison.
On December 16, 1871, at the age of 41, she was brought to trial by the Versailles Government, accused of:
1. Trying to overthrow the government.
2. Encouraging citizens to arm themselves.
3. Possession and use of weapons, and wearing a military uniform.
4. Forgery of a document.
5. Using a false document.
6. Planning to assassinate hostages.
7. Illegal arrests, torturing and killing.
When she was asked if she had anything to say in her defence, she replied:
"I do not wish to defend myself, I do not wish to be defended. I belong completely to the social responsibility for all my actions. I accept it completely and without reservations. I wished to oppose the invader from Versailles with a barrier of flames. I had no accomplices in this action. I acted on my own initiative.
I am told that I am an accomplice of the Commune. Certainly, yes, since the Commune wanted more than anything else the social revolution, and since the social revolution is the dearest of my desires . . . the Commune, which by the way had nothing to do with murders and arson.
. . . since it seems that any heart which beats for freedom has the right only to a lump of lead, I too claim my share. If you let me live, I shall never stop crying for revenge and l shall avenge my brothers. I have finished. If you are not cowards, kill me!"
Louise Michel was sentenced to lifetime deportation. While awaiting deportation to New Caledonia, Louise Michel and other prisoners from the Commune were imprisoned in Auberive (Haute-Marne). These included Beatrix Excoffon and Nathalie Lemel. On August 28, 1873, she embarked on the Virginie, arriving four months later at the fortress of Numbo, in the Ducos peninsula. Although life was difficult there, especially with respect to hygiene and food, she enjoyed it. When she was moved to West Bay, in May 1875, she came in contact with the native people and taught them to read and write. She even helped them withstand the French authorities. But she also assisted to their defeat. Later, in 1879, she left West Bay for Nouméa to become a teacher. In the years in exile she became more receptive to anarchist thoughts.
Following the general amnesty for Commune prisoners, she returned to France. At that time, her mother just had a paralysis attack. Louise Michel was triumphantly welcomed by 10 000 persons on November 9, 1880, at St Lazare station in Paris. In this period she attended many meetings in France and abroad, where she spoke about her struggle for Social Revolution and anarchism. While such meetings were expensive, Louise Michel viewed them as a way for the middle-classes to contribute to the workers.
On March 9, 1883, she and Emile Pouget led a demonstration of unemployed workers. She was arrested a month later and imprisoned in St Lazare. Again she defended herself at the trial, but was sentenced to six years in prison. She was transferred to the Clermont detention centre (in Oise), which was strictly directed by Versaillais . However, in December 1884, she was authorised to join her mother's bedside thanks to her friends Clemenceau, Rochefort and Vaughan. Her mother died on January 3, 1885. Louise Michel was released a year later, when she was 56.
The next five years were spent alternating between attending meetings or in prison. There was even an attempt on her life during a meeting in Le Havre, in 1888, when the extremist Pierre Lucas shot her (hit behind the left ear (the bullet was never removed) as she was giving a speech, but she quickly recovered. In 1890, tired of the gossip and calumny against her, she moved to London. Five years later, her friend Charlotte Vauvelle, who came from the anarchist circle of London, joined her and became a very precious help in her travels. She began to teach again and to lecture. She also gave free lessons of French. As an anarchist, she agreed with the anarchists' attempts in France. In the last ten years of her life, she travelled between London and Paris, participating in many political meetings and conferences. She also visited comrades in the Netherlands and Belgium. She died on January 9, 1905, having fallen seriously ill in Marseilles, partly due to the bullet remaining lodged in her skull, while on a lecture tour in the south of France.
As well as the numerous theoretical texts and essays that she wrote, she also published a number of books of poems, including 'À Travers la Vie' (Through Life; 1894), 'La Fille du Peuple' (1883) and 'L'Ère Nouvelle, Pensée Dernière, Souvenirs de Calédonie' (The New Era, Final Thought , Memories of Caledonia; 1887) [prisoners' songs and poems]. But, probably the most surprising of all her oeuvre are her science fiction novels. 'Les Microbes Humains' (The Human Microbes; 1886), 'Le Monde Nouveau' (The New World; 1888) and 'Le Claque-dents' (1890)[a rather untranslatable phrase, referring to the clacking or chattering of teeth, and metaphorically to beggars, or the sort of poorly heated spaces where the poor might congregate, including brothels or workers' cafés, and as an evocation of teeth snapping after flesh] are Jules Verne-style tales, and it is known that she sold Verne a number of outlines for stories that he later went on to publish. In fact, it has been claimed that she was wholly or in partly author of his novel ‘Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea’.
[ femmes/gdes-femmes3.html]

1869 - Émile Armand 'Gabat' Bidault (d. 1938), French anarchist activist, propagandist, anti-militarist and pacifist, born.

1881 - Li Shizeng [李石曾], aka Li Shi [李煜瀛] (d. 1973), Chinese educator, promoter of anarchist doctrines, political activist, and member of the Chinese Nationalist Party in early Republican China, born. Headed the anarchist Jinde Hui (進德會 / Society for Progress and Virtue or Society to Advance Morality) group aka Babu Hui (八不會 / 'Eight Nots' or 'Eight Prohibitions' Society), along with Wu Zhihui (吳稚暉), and Zhang Ji (張繼). Also a key figure in the attempt to turn the Guomindang (Kuomintang) on an anarchist course. One of the 'Four Elders' of the Nationalist Party in the 1920s.
[李石曾李石曾 › 黨史頻道]

1883 - Eugène Bizeau (d. 1989), French vine-grower, pacifist, anarchist poet and songwriter, born. Member of the 'Muse Rouge' who fought for his ideals until his death at 105. The subject of a Bernard Baissat film: 'Ecoutez Eugène Bizeau' (1981).

1900 - René Michaud (d. 1979), French anarchist and author of the Parisian working class memoir of 'J'avais Vingt Ans: Un Jeune Ouvrier Au Debut Du Siecle' (1967), born.

1900 - Émilie Carles (Émile Allais; d. 1979), French teacher, militant anarchist and pacifist, born. Companion of Jean Carles, together they converted a mansion into a hôtel (les Arcades), housing many anarchists. Emilie recounted her life and activities in 'Une Soupe aux Herbes Sauvages' (A Soup with Wild Herbs; 1977).

##1906 - Artür Harfaux (born Arthur Julien René Harfaux; d. 1995), French designer, photographer, writer and screenwriter, born. Initially a member of Les Phrères Simplistes and involved with the anarchist-influenced 'Le Grand Jeu' group, which operated in opposition to the André Breton-dominated Communist Party-supporting Paris Surrealist group, he later quit Le Grand Jeu for Breton's group in 1932. He also followed Breton's move towards anarchism after WWII.

1917 - [O.S. May 16] The Kronstadt Soviet declares independence from the Provisional Government. [expand]
[,_Soviet_and_Post-Soviet_Studies_ _1983.pdf]

1917 - Antònia Fontanillas Borràs (d. 2014), Catalan militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist fighter, born. The daughter of militants and granddaughter of prominent libertarians Francesca Saperas Miró and Martín Borrás Jover, she emigrated to Mexico with her mother and siblings at the age of eight. She received six years of schooling and became a voracious reader, especially of socially-themed libertarian literature. After her father was expelled from Mexico in 1933 the whole family returned to Catalonia. Antonia found work in a lithography studio and joined the CNT and the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias and was elected as the FIJL delegate from the Printing Trades sector. When the civil war broke out she tried to sign on as a militia on the expedition to Majorca and finished up as administrator with Barcelona’s 'Solidaridad Obrera' newspaper. After Franco’s victory she stayed behind in Barcelona, taking part in FIJL activities in her home where a number of editions of the underground 'Solidaridad Obrera' were put together – at least 14 of them between January and November 1945. The copy came from Joan Doménech, Josep Lamesa and Arturo Benedicto, all members of the Printing Trades Union; it was typeset by FIJL members (José Nieto, Meana, Marina Herreros, and Antonia Fontanillas) and then printed off on a small press belonging to comrade Armengol in the Gracia barrio. Later she worked with the underground (1946-1948) and was in charge of liaising between prisoners and their lawyers. It was during those underground years that she became the partner of Diego Camacho Escámez (aka Abel Paz). When the latter was released from prison and went into exile in France in 1953, Antonia too crossed the border a few months later and the couple settled in Brezolles and then in Clermont d’Auvergne, where they were active in the CNT, in the MLE and in the local arts group. At that time she was in touch with Quico Sabaté’s guerrilla group. In 1957 she was one of the people in charge of the FIJL Regional Bulletin ['Boletín Ródano-Alpes' (Bulletin Rhone-Alpes)], taking an active part in the annual camps organised by the French and Spanish Libertarian Youth. In 1958 she and Diego Camacho split up and Antonia settled in Dreux with their son, Ariel (Ariel later produced the documentary, 'Ortiz, General sin Dios ni Amo', about Los Solidarios member Antonio Ortiz). In 1960 she took up with Antonio Cañete Rodríguez and carried on with her multi-faceted organisational and cultural pursuits. In addition to taking part in a drama group, she edited the review 'Surco' (1966-1967) which was published in French, Spanish and Esperanto. And she was active in the Dreux local CNT federation right up until it was wound up. Cañete was jailed from 1966 to 1969 in Spain and they were to stay together right up until his death in 1979. Antonia was active with the Agrupaciones Confederales, the umbrella for those comrades who published the Frente Libertario newspaper. Following Franco’s death, she took part in all of the CNT’s congresses between 1979 and 1983, then in the congresses of the escindidos (breakaways) and in those held by the Confederación General del Trabajo (CGT) between 1983 and 1997. She also took part in countless talks, exhibitions, libertarian festivals and book launches in Spain and across Europe (France, Italy, Luxembourg, etc,). And did a variety of jobs with the International Centre for Research into Anarchism (CIRA), of which she was a member and in numerous historical investigations into the libertarian movement. In keeping with her anarchist beliefs, she remained independent and critical and lobbied for a rapprochement between all of the different libertarian factions, stressing what united rather than what divided them. Under a range of aliases (including Tona, A F Borras, etc.) she contributed to many publications including 'Action Libertaire', 'Anthropos', 'Boletín Amicale', 'Boletín Ródano-Alpes', 'CIRA', 'Le Combat Syndicaliste', 'Confrontaciones', 'Espoir', 'Mujeres Libertarias', 'El Chico', 'Nueva Senda', 'Rojo y Negro', 'Ruta', 'Surco', 'Volontá', 'CNT', 'Solidaridad Obrera', etc. She penned lots of books such as 'Testimonio sobre Germinal Gracia' (1992, unpublished), 'Desde uno y otro lados de los Pirineos' (1993, unpublished), 'Francisca Saperas' (1995, unpublished), 'De lo aprendido y vividos' (1996, unpublished in Spanish but published in Italian by Volontá), 'Mujeres Libres. Luchadoras libertarias' (jointly authored, 1998), 'Lola Iturbe: vida e ideal de una luchadora anarquista' (2006, with Sonya Torres), and she also wrote an introduction for Victor Garcia’s book 'Contribución a una biografia de Raúl Carballeira' (1961) and her testimony is included in the book 'Clandestinité libertaire en Espagne: la presse' (1994) and she had a hand in the Luce Fabbri anthology, 'La libertad entre la Historia y la utopia' (1998). She also contributed to the 'Solidaridad Obrera' special edition (No 344, May 2007) produced by the CNT and took part in CGT-organised symposia on the history of the Mujeres Libres in October 2007.
Antonia has died at the age of 97 in Dreux on September 23, 2014. Spanish historian José Luis Gutiérrez Molina has said of her that "between her own activities and her family line, she encapsulates the history of anarchism in Spain."

1923 - Bernard Clavel (d. 2010), French novelist, poet, essayist, anarchist and pacifist, born. Author of over 100 books, he was closely associated with Louis Lecoin and the Union pacifiste de France, writing the anti-war novel 'Le Silence des Armes' (1974) and denouncing the Algerian war in 'Lettre à un Képi Blanc' (1975).

1927 - Georges Eekhoud (b. 1854), Belgian novelist and anarchist, dies. [see: Mar. 27]

[C] 1931 - Michele Schirru (b. 1899), 32-year-old Italian-American anarchist and anti-fascist, is executed by a fascist firing squad in Rome having admitted his intention to assassinate Mussolini. [see: Oct. 19]

1937 - Maximino Nardo Imbernón Cano (d. 2008), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. The son of Jesus Imbernón, he remained in Barcelona with his mother at the end of the Civil War (and taking the Catholic saint's name Maximino for safety sake), they were unable to join his father in Paris until the border reopened in 1948. Attracted to libertarian ideas, by the early 1950s he was a member of the FIJL. With the reunification of the CNT in exile in 1960, which had followed the creation of Defensa Interior (DI) 2 years earlier, his Parisian home became a focus for the clandestine activities of DI. On 21 September 1963, following the execution of Joaquín Delgado and Francisco Granado in Madrid and collaboration between the French and Spanish police, he was arrested along with a dozen other FIJL militants. On October 19, he and Cipriano Mera were released and he rejoined the solidarity campaigns for those comrades imprisoned in Spain and France. In the late 1960s, he was one of the groups and activists who, having been excluded from the CNT following the split occurred at the 1965 Congress in Montpellier, began publishing the newspaper 'Frente Libertario' then formed at a conference in Narbonne the Grupos de Presencia Confederal y Libertaria (GPCL). Following the death of Franco, he was involved in the reintergration of the CNT in Spain.
[ Gomez Frente Libertario FIJL.htm]

##1937 - Irmin Schmidt, German keyboardist, composer and founding member of the band Can, born. Has identified himself as an anarchist and said of Can, "We were never a normal rock group. Can was an anarchist community", jokingly adding that the band's name stood for "Communism, Anarchism, and Nihilism". [NB: Comment also attributed to the band's drummer Jaki Liebezeit.]

[B] 1938 - Alberto Grifi (d. 2007), Italian film director, painter and anarchist, born. One of the foremost exponents of underground cinema and pioneer of video film in Italy, films were hailed by John Cage, Man Ray and Max Ernst in the mid 1960s. The documentary 'Anna' (1975), co-directed with Massimo Sarchielli, is probably his best known film.

## 1955 - Ekaterina 'Katina' Alekseyevna Boronina (Екатерина Алексеевна Боронина; d. 1907), Russian writer, anarchist and anti-Soviet resister, who was active in the anarchist underground and Anarchist Black Cross in the inter-war years, dies. [see: Apr. 3]]

2010 - Yoshiaki Makita [牧田吉明], aka Bakudan'ya [爆弾屋] (b. 1947), Japanese anarchist, new left wing (新左翼) activist, and latterly a nationalist of the 'new right wing (新右翼 / Shinuyoku) variety, dies following an earlier myocardial infarction, having discharged himself from hospital against the recommendation of doctors. [see: Mar. 7]

2011 - Rosa Laviña i Carreras (b. 1918), Catalan anti-fascist militant, cenetista, secretary of the Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth (FIJL), National Committee member and Treasurer of SIA, dies. [see: Jan 14 or 19]
1814 - [O.S. May 18] Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Михаи́л Алекса́ндрович Баку́нин; d. 1876), anarchist theorist and assassin of God, born in the village of Pryamukhino near Moscow. [expand]
[Costantini pic]

??1838 - Léon Metchnikoff (Lev Mechnikov; d. 1888), Russian geographer, anarchist and secretary to Élisée Reclus, born.

[B] 1862 - Franz Held (Franz Herzfeld; d. 1908), German anarchist poet, playwright and novelist, born. Married to the textile worker and anarchist Alice Stolzenberg and father of four, including John Heartfield and Wieland Herzfelde. Accused of blasphemy in 1895, he fled the country with his wife and 3 children to Switzerland where they lived in poverty. Expelled from Switzerland, they lived in a mountain hut near Salzburg. In the summer of 1899, both disappeared, abandoning their children.
His works include: 'Ein Fest auf der Bastilla. Vorspiel zu der Revolutions-Trilogie "Massen"' (A Feast on the Bastilla. Prelude to the Revolution Trilogy "Masses"; 1891), 'Manometer auf 99!: Soziales Drama in 5 Akten' (1893), and 'Groß-Natur. Ausgewählte Gedichte' (Wholesale Natural. Selected Poems; 1893).

1878 - William Batchelder Greene (b. 1819), US individualist anarchist, Unitarian minister, soldier and promotor of free banking, dies. [see: Apr. 4]

1885 - The first issue of the anarchist communist fortnightly 'L'Égalitaire' is published in Geneva.

1886 - Randolph Silliman Bourne (d. 1918), American literary radical, essayist and anarchist, born. Wrote on literary subjects for 'The Dial', 'The Seven Arts' and the 'New Republic'. Eulogised by John Dos Passos in the chapter 'Randolph Bourne' in the novel '1919' which drew heavily on the ideas presented in Bourne's 'War Is The Health of the State', part of the unfinished essay 'The State'.

1902 - Hem Day (Marcel Camille Dieu / Henri Day; d. 1969), Belgian scholar, secondhand bookseller, pacifist, anarchist and writer, born.

1906 - Pio Turroni (d. 1982), Italian anarchist and long-time anti-fascist militant, born. Fled to Belgium in 1923, to escape the repression of the Italian fascist government, then to France in 1925. He also fought in the Spanish Revolution of 1936, and long-time publisher of 'Volontà'.

## 1911 - Goldy Parin-Matthèy (d. 1997), Swiss psychoanalyst and anarchist, born.
"Ich glaube, daß die anarchistische Utopie die menschlichen kreativen Möglichkeiten und den Respekt vor dem Menschen am besten gewährleistet, besser als das kommunistische Modell, an dessen Gerechtigkeit ich früher geglaubt habe." (I believe that the anarchist utopia of human creative potential and respect for the people on the best way to ensure better than the communist model, to the justice I had believed before.)

1913 - Revolución Mexicana: Emiliano Zapata declares war on Victoriano Huerta. Pancho Villa defeats federal force at San Andres.

1930 - Alternate d.o.b. for Takenaka Tsutomu [or Takenaka Rō](竹中労; d. 1991), Japanese reporter, critic and anarchist. [see: Mar. 30]

1933 - Sergio Citti (d. 2005), Italian actor, film director, screenwriter and libertarian, who was closely linked artistically to Pier Paolo Pasolini, born. Citti directed 'Ostia' (1970), with a screenplay co-written with Pier Paolo Pasolini, featuring Bandiera and Rabbino, two anarchist brothers trying to recover from their Catholic upbringing.

1948 - Salvador Puig Antich (b. 1974), Spanish anarchist militant and member of the Movimiento Ibérico de Liberación (MIL), who was executed by garrote vil despite worldwide protests after being found guilty of the death of a Guardia Civil policeman, born. [expand]

##1964 - Vadim Yuryevich Kurylev (Вадим Юрьевич Курылёв), veteran Russian rock musician, poet, composer, arranger, multi-instrumentalist and anarchist, who fronts the non-commercial and explicitly anarchist rock band Elektropartizany or Electropartisans (Электрические Партизаны), born.

1968 - Mai '68: In France, the trains don't run, airports closed; millions of workers have barricaded themselves within their factories and offices; football players have occupied their stadiums; there is no mail and it is almost impossible to make a phone call; Universities are closed; France is in the middle of a massive General Strike.
By radio, de Gaulle announces the dissolution of the National Assembly and says the elections will take place within the normal timetable. Georges Pompidou remain Prime Minister. An allusion is made that force will be used to maintain order, if necessary. Tens of thousands of government supporters march from Concorde to the Etoile.

1970 - Georges Thomas (b. 1883), French teacher, anarchist, syndicalist and the socialist politician, dies. [see: Dec. 8]

[A] 1972 - Trial of Stoke Newington Eight: Hilary Creek, Anna Mendleson, Kate McLean, Angela Weir [now known as Angela Mason], Jim Greenfield, John Barker, Stuart Christie and Chris Bott - accused of conspiracy to cause Angry Brigade bombings, begins in No 1 Court at the Old Bailey in London. This was to be the longest trial in the history of the British legal system.

[C] 1977 - Lewisham 21: As part of 'Operation PNH' (Police Nigger Hunt), dawn raids are carried out at 30 homes in New Cross and Lewisham and 21 young black people are arrested, accused of being involved in street robberies. Following the arrests, police claim that they were the "gang" were responsible "for 90 per cent of the street crime in south London over the past six months." They were to appear at Camberwell Green Magistrates' Court the following day, charged with various offences of 'conspiracy to rob'. During the hearings, some of the defendants fought with the police while spectators in the public gallery attempted to invade the court.

1977- Claire Goll (Klara Liliane Aischmann; b. 1890), German-French poet, writer, journalist and translator, who was married to the poet and anarchist Yvan Goll, dies. [see: Oct. 29]

1999 - Aurelio Lolli (b. 1899), lifelong Italian anarchist, WWI deserter, anti-fascist militant and one of the founders of the Biblioteca Llibertària de Castel Bolognese, dies in Castel Bolognese, just over two months after his 100th birthday. [see: Aug. 10]
1819 - Walt Whitman (d. 1862), American Transcendentalist poet and proto-libertarian, born.

##1836 - Jean-Baptiste Clément (d. 1903), French Communard, poet, singer and author of the famous Commune songs 'Le Temps des Cerises' (The Time of Cherries) and 'La Semaine Sanglante' (The Bloody Week) - though most of his other songs have been lost, born. Prior to 1870 he had spent several periods in prison for his newspaper articles (in Jules Vallès' 'Le Cri du Peuple' amongst others), his own (single issue?) satirical political magazine 'Les Carmagnoles' (1868) and pamphlets such as 'La Lanterne du Peuple' and '89 !... Les Souris. Dansons la Capucine' (both 1868). On May 20 he was with Varlin and Ferré on the last of the Commune barricades but manages to evade capture, before finding refuge in England, via Belgium. Sentenced to death in absentia in 1874, he returned to France after the amnesty of 1879. A militant in the Parti Ouvrier Socialiste Révolutionnaire, he died in Paris on February 23, 1903 and was buried in the cimetière du Père-Lachaise three days later. 4-5000 mourners attended the ceremony.ément]

1856 - [N.S. Jun. 12] Spiro Gulabchev [Спиро Гулабчев](Spiridon Konstantinov Gulabchev [Спиридон Константинов Гулабчев; d. Jan. 1918), prominent Bulgarian political figure and publicist, founder of Siromahomilism (Сиромахомилство), a petty bourgeois form of socialism prominent in Bulgaria at the turn of the C19th, and later an anarchist collectivist and one of the first ideologues of anarchism in Bulgaria, who also promoted a new, phonetic spelling of the Bulgarian language, born. [see: Jun. 12]

1887 - [O.S. Jun. 12] Iustin Petrovich Zhuk (Иусти́н Петро́вич Жук; d. 1919), Ukranian chemistry technician, member of the anarchist underground during the Tsarist era, anarcho-syndicalist and participant in the factory committees’ movement in 1917, and Shlissel'burg Red Guard, who died fighting against the White Army on the Finnish frontier, born. [see: Jun. 12]

1905 - In Paris a bomb is tossed into a procession headed by French President Loubet and the King of Spain, Alphonse XIII at the corner of the Rue de Rohan and the Rue de Rivoli. They were not hurt, but several people were wounded and a horse killed. A Spanish anarchist living in France under the false name of Alejandro Farras (who police subsequently thought might be one Eduardo Avino) is responsible, but never caught. Four of the five anarchists arrested in connection with the attentat, including Charles Malato, were tried on November 27 and acquitted of complicity in the attack. On the same day the following year, Alphonso XIII was again targeted - the third of five known attempts on his life. This time a young Catalan anarchist named Mateo Morral tosses a bomb (hidden in a bunch of flowers) at the king's royal wedding party on the Calle Mayor in Madrid, killing or injuring several bystanders and members of the procession. Alphonso escaped yet again. Morral too managed to evade capture, loosing himself in the crowd. José Nakens, editor of the satirical anti-clerical republican magazine 'El Motín', helped him escape Madrid but he was recognised by several people in a tavern next to the station in Torrejón de Ardoz en route to Barcelona. The official version of what happened next was that he surrendered peacefully but, as he was being led away to the Guardia Civil barracks, he shot the guard using a concealed pistol and then committed suicide. However, a forensic study of the four photographs taken of his body indicates that the hole in his chest was incompatible with a self-inflicted wound. At a subsequent trial (in the absence of a jury) on June 3, 1907, José Nakens and two other anarchists (Isidro Ibarra and Bernardo Mata) were sentenced to nine years in prison for facilitating Morral's escape, while Francisco Ferrer (a perpetual target of the Spanish state at the time when any anarchist complicity in a crime was suspected) and three other defendants were acquitted.

1906 - In Madrid the young anarchist Mateo Morral tosses a bomb (hidden in a bunch of flowers) at King Alphonso XIII's royal wedding party.

1914 - American anarchist Rebecca 'Becky' Edelsohn (ca. 1892 - 1973) is arrested, along with Arthur Caron, Charles Plunkett, and twelve other anarchist and IWW members during an anti-Rockefeller demonstration in Tarrytown, New York, that she had help organise. Charged with 'disorderly conduct', "the time-worn cloak to cover suppression of unpopular ideas" [Alexander Berkman in 'Mother Earth', August 1914], at their trial before a police magistrate, she and the other arrestees rejected legal counsel and carried out their own defence, with Becky labelling John D. Rockefeller, Jr. a "multi-murderer". The Court sentenced her to give a bond of $300 "to keep the peace" for three months. Refusing to pay the bond, she was sent to prison "for a period not to exceed 90 days". [ibid] There she immediately went on hunger strike, adopting the tactic then in use by British suffragettes, becoming the first American woman to use the hunger strike as a political campaign tool. She continued to refuse both food and to put up a bond for good behaviour.
In a letter smuggled to Alexander Berkman, she wrote, "I am still sticking to my programme, having fasted over twenty-seven days. I am very weak." This letter prompted her friends to raise the $300 needed to post a bond for her release. Released on August 20, 1914, a 'New York Times' article the following day reported that plans for her funeral were finally called off when she was released, weakened and very thin, after serving a month of her sentence.
Born in Odessa, Ukraine but whose parents had move to the US when she was one or two years old. She had ended up living in the Hebrew Orphan Asylum of New York and, after her discharge from the orphanage in 1902, live in Emma Goldman's home, becoming active in unemployment protests, anti-militarism, and solidarity actions with both the Mexican Revolution and the Colorado miners strike at the time of Rockerfeller's notorious Ludlow Massacre. Edelsohn married fellow anarchist Charles Plunkett after WWI, with whom she had a son, and died of emphysema in 1973.

1916 - Hugo Ball's 'Simultan Krippenspiel (Concert bruitiste)' is performed at Cabaret Voltaire featuring Marietta di Monaco, Hans Arp Hugo Ball, Emmy Hennings, Marcel Janco and Tristan Tzara.

1921 - Beginning of the 'trial' of Sacco and Vanzetti, anarchist labour organisers, in Massachusetts.

1922 - The first issue of a relaunched 'L'En Dehors', "Organe de pratique, de réalisation, de camaraderie individualiste anarchiste" reappears in Orleans, published by E. Armand as a fortnightly journal of individualist anarchism. It is published until Oct. 1939 and succeeeded in 1945 by 'L'Unique'.

[BB] 1925 - Julian Beck (d. 1985), US actor, director, poet and Abstract Expressionist painter, born. Founded The Living Theatre with Judith Malina in 1947. Published several volumes of poetry reflecting his anarchist principals: 'Songs of the Revolution 1-35' (1963), '21 Songs of the Revolution' (1969) and 'Songs of the Revolution 36-89' (1974); two non-fiction books: 'The Life of the Theatre' (1972) and 'Theandric: Julian Beck's Last Notebooks' (1992) and had several film appearances, including the role of Kane the evil preacher in the 1986 film 'Poltergeist II: The Other Side'.

"the breasts of all the women crumpled like gas bags when
neruda wrote his hymn celebrating the explosion of a
hydrogen bomb by soviet authorities
children died of the blistrs of ignorance for a century when
siqueiros tried to assassinate trotsky himself a killer
with gun and ice
pound shimmering his incantations to adams benito and
kung prolonging the state with great translation
cut in crystal
claudel slaying tupi guarani as he flourished cultured
documents and pearls in rio de janeiro when he
served france as ambassador to brazil
melville served by looking for contraband as he worked
in the customs house how many taxes did he requite
how many pillars of the state did he cement in
place tell me tell me tell me stone
spenser serving the faerie queene as a colonial secretary
in ireland sinking the irish back for ten times
forty years no less under the beau monde's brack
seneca served by advising nero on how to strengthen the
state with philosophy's accomplishments
aeschylus served slaying persians at marathon and salamis
aristotle served as tutor putting visions of trigonometrics
in alexander's head
dali and eliot served crowning monarchs with their gold
wallace stevens served as insurance company executive
making poems out of profits
euclides da cunha served as army captain baritoning troops
and d h lawrence served praising the unique potential of
a king

these are the epics of western culture
these are the flutes of china and the east

everything must be rewritten then

goethe served as a member of the weimar council of state
and condemned even to death

this is the saga of the state which is served

even to death"

'the state will be served / even by poets' - Julian Beck.


1930 - Juan Genovés, Spanish painter and graphic artist, born. Greatly influenced by his cousin Ramon a militant anarchist who takes shelter in their home following the defeat of the Republic and who recounts stirring stories of war and solidarity, and instills in Juan the importance of culture for the workers.

1940 - A Memorial Meeting to honour "the outstanding woman of our time" Emma Goldman, "anarchist, author, speaker, journalist", who had died on May 14 in Toronto, is held at the Town Hall in New York. The event, chaired by Leonard D. Abbott, included tributes by John Haynes Holmes, Roger Baldwin, Norman Thomas, Harry Weinberger Pesotta Rose, Harry Kelly, Martin Gudell Petrowsky (Goldman's guide and translator during her visit to revolutionary Spain), Rudolf Rocker (who made his speech in Yiddish), and Dorothy Rogers Eliot White.

1945 - Otello Gaggi (b. 1896), Italian worker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-militarist and anti-fascist persecuted by both fascism and Stalinism, who was condemned to the Soviet gulags and whose case became an international cause célèbre, dies. The date of his death was only revealed with the opening of the archives following the fall of the Soviet Union. [see: May 6]

1951 - Jean Marestan (aka Gaston Havard) (b. 1874), Belgian pacifist, author, anarchist and militant néo-Malthusian, dies. [see: May 5]

1968 - Mai '68: In France, the cabinet is reshuffled and elections are announced for June 23 & 30. Exchange controls are re-established and demonstrations of support for the government are held throughout France.

## 1972 - Hanin Elias, Syrian German industrial/techno artist and anarcha-feminist, who is a former member of the seminal anarchist/anti-fascist digital hardcore band Atari Teenage Riot, born.

1980 - Andrew John Hurley, US straight edge hardcore punk and rock drummer, and anarcho-primitivist, born.

1982 - Canadian anarchists Direct Action blow up a BC Hydro power substation.

1985 - Doug Wright, US anarchist and Occupy movement activist, and ex-heroin addict, who is currently serving eleven and a half years in a federal penitentiary after taking a non-cooperating plea deal during the FBI-sting Clevland 4 trial, born.

2000 - The convictions of first degree of the Processo Marini handed down. [expand]

2010 - Steef Davidson (aka Steve Davidson; b. 1943), Dutch Provo activist, anarchist propagandist, documentary filmmaker, historian of social movements, collector of posters and comics and poster designer and printer, dies. [see: Sep. 16]

1867 - Jules Valles, French novelist, journalist, anarchist propagandist, launches the weekly magazine 'La Rue', involving artists and writers such as Émile Zola and Gustave Courbet before being suppressed.

1873 - Albert Laisant (d. 1928), French anarchist, Freemason and libertarian pedagogue, born. Son of Charles Ange Laisant (1841-1920). Author of the children's novel 'Magojana: le Maître du Secret' (Magojana: Master of the Secret; 1925). Introduced to anarchist ideas by Sébastien Faure, Albert turns the whole family into anarchists, including his father and his two sons, Maurice and Charles.

1876 - The first issue of the 'Chicagoer Arbeiter-Zeitung' (Chicago German Worker's Journal) is published.

1903 - Alternative d.o.b. of Joaquín Ascaso Budría (b. 1977), Zaragozan construction worker, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist [see: Jun. 5]

## 1905 - Libertaire-Plage, a libertarian holiday colony for adults and children, is set up in Châtelaillon-Plage, Charente-Maritime, by a group of individualist anarchists close to the newspaper 'L'Anarchie', opening for the summer months (June 1 to Oct. 1).

1907 - In Los Angeles, Ricardo Flores Magón, Librado Rivera and Antonio I. Villarreal, all on the run with bounties on their heads (25,000 dollars for Ricardo), clandestinely publish the première issue of 'Revolución' in Los Angeles. Arrested without warrants on August 23rd, the paper was continued by other Mexican revolutionary anarchists, Praxedis G. Guerrero, Manuel Sarabia and Lazano Gutierrez de Lara, until January 1908 when US authorities arrest Gutierrez de Lara ad Sarabia and 'Revolución' is suppressed.

1911 - The first issue of the monthly magazine 'La Vie Anarchiste' is published in Reims.

1911 - Rebelión de Baja California / Revolución Mexicana: In the abscence of Caryl ap Rhys Pryce in Tijuana, Richard Wells Ferris, a former actor and chancer employed by the city of San Diego to promote the Panama-California Exposition, declared himself general of the Magonist army and advised the soldiers to give up socialism and embrace capitalism.

1913 - The first issue of the monthly newspaper 'Haro!' is published in Uccle-Bruxelles by the illustrator Albert Daenens, bringing together avant-garde artists and writers. Seven issues came out up til Jan. 1914 and reappears after the war, with the first issue dated July 5 1919 as a fortnightly.

1921 - The first issue of 'Le Bulletin Libertaire' is published in Brussels.

1938 - Attilio Bulzamini (d. 1890), Spanish anarchist militant, dies of typhoid. [see: Nov. 11]

[B] 1940 - Katerina Gogou (Κατερίνα Γώγου; d. 1993), Greek anarchist poet, author and actress, born. [expand]

1948 - Toshiaki Masunaga [益永利明], real name Toshiaki Kataoka [片岡利明], Japanese former member of the Wolf (狼 / Ōkami) cell of the East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front (東アジア反日武装戦線 / Higashi Ajia Hannichi Busō Sensen) and the groups bomb maker, who was sentenced to death on March 24, 1987 by the Supreme Court, born.

1963 - Mario Buda (b. 1884), Italian-born American anarchist and Galleanist associate of Sacco and Vanzetti, dies. Considered by some as the inventor of the car bomb when a car he owned was used in the September 16, 1920 Wall Street bombing. [see: Oct. 13]

1977 - Émile Coulaudon aka Colonel Gaspard (b. 1907), French socialist, who was one of the principal leaders of the Résistance in Auvergne, dies. [see: Dec. 29]

1981 - Ivan Tsvetkov Balev (Иван Цветков Балев; b. 1900), Bulgarian physician and anarchist - one of the first anarchists to be persecuted by the post-war Communist regime, dies in Sofia. [see: Feb. 26]
1876 - [O.S. May 21] Hristo Botev [Христо Ботев] (Hristo Botyov Petkov [Христо Ботьов Петков]; b. 1848), Bulgarian poet, writer, early anarchist, propagandist and revolutionary, dies in battle having led a partisan army of 200 fighters into Bulgaria in an attempt to overthrow Ottoman rule.[see: Jan. 6]

1877 - The first issue of 'L'Avant-Garde', "Organe de la Fédération Française de l'Association Internationale des Travailleurs", changing in April 1878 to "Organe Collectiviste et Anarchiste", is published in La Chaux-de-Fonds by Paul Brousse.

1878 - A month after Maximilian Hoëdel tries to kill Kaiser Wilhelm I in Berlin, Karl Eduard Nobiling (b. 1848) German anarchist and doctor of philosophy, takes his turn, wounding Wilhelm I. Having failed, Nobiling turns his gun upon himself shooting himself in the head. Mortally wounded, he will die in prison on Sept. 10.

1886 - Johann Most is sentenced to one year in prison for inflammatory comments and inciting riots, he allegedly made at the Workingmen's Rifle Club of New York on May 11.

1888 - The first issue of the newspaper fortnightly anarcho-communist newspaper 'Tierra y Libertad' is published in Gracia, Barcelona.

1906 - Spanish anarchist Mateo Morral, who on May 31st tried to assassinate King Alphonse XIII, is spotted by police and shoots himself. The government uses Morral's attempt as a pretext to imprison Francisco Ferrer and shut down The Modern School.

[REWRITE] [1911 - Rebelión de Baja California / Revolución Mexicana: Arch-opportunist Richard 'Daredevil Dick' Wells Ferris [stooge to Welsh soldier of fortune Caryl ap Rhys Pryce and alleged spy] held a meeting and declared himself the new president of the Republic of Baja California. He advised the rebels to haul down the Red Flag and abandon socialism, anarchism "and every other ism you have got into." He then created his own flag.
Ferris was not a Magonista and had done none of the fighting. He was merely an opportunist, and the Wobblies were not pleased. The ruling Junta of the PLM declared him persona non grata and had his flag burned.]

1913 - Futurist painter and anarchist Luigi Russolo introduces a prototype of his intonarumori noise machine to a completely unprepared audience at the Teatro Storchi in Modena. Preceded by a rather solemn lecture by introduction, which is interrupted by jeers and shouting.

1919 - Luigi Bertoni and Italian anarchists, implicated in the 'Plot of Zurich', appear in court today, after being held in detention the past 13 months. The so-called 'plot' was a political pretext to arrest Bertoni, publisher of 'Le Réveil Communiste Anarchiste', and others opposing WWI. A countrywide protest movement agitated for their release.

1919 - On the night of June 2, 1919 at about 23:15, the home of United States Attorney General Mitchell Palmer is bombed. Palmer had just gone upstairs about 15 minutes before the bomb exploded, destroying the downstairs of the home. Mitchell and his family escaped being killed or injured because they were all upstairs. The bomb was so powerful it blew out the windows of the home of the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Franklin D. Roosevelt who lived across the street. Roosevelt rushed to help and he and Palmer found remains of a dead body and anarchist literature leading to the conclusion that the bomb went off prematurely killing one of the perpetrators. Within an hour of the attack on Palmer's house, bombs exploded in seven other cities killing two people. The intended targets were a mayor, state legislator, three judges, two businessmen, a police officer and a Catholic priest. In response to the bombings, Palmer launched a series raids and round-ups of suspected radicals and immigrants from 1919 to 1921. The raids, carried out by the US Department of Justice and the Bureau of Immigration, have come to be called 'Palmer Raids'.

1919 - Pipe bombs timed to explode almost simultaneously around midnight are planted on the porches or at the foundations of buildings in New York City, Paterson, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh (two bombs), Cleveland, Washington, Boston, and Newton, Massachusetts. In Philadelphia the target was the rectory of a Roman Catholic Church in an Italian neighborhood. In Paterson it was the home of a silk manufacturer. In Cleveland it was the residence of Mayor Harry L. Davis, in Boston the home of federal judge Albert F. Hayden; and in Newton the home of state representative Leland W. Powers. In Pittsburgh the upscale abode of federal judge W. H. S. Thompson and the modest dwelling of federal Immigration Inspector W. W. Sibray were the targets. The Pittsburgh bombings were unique in that investigators had to deduce the identity of one of the intended victims. The bomb intended for Sibray’s dwelling exploded at a house across the street. The New York explosion took place at the home of municipal court judge Charles C. Nott. The most politically powerful blast ruined the front of acting US. attorney general A. Mitchell Palmer’s spacious Washington townhouse. It was in a fashionable neighborhood near Dupont Circle inhabited largely by government officials including Undersecretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt. Property damage was heavy at each site and there were two deaths. A night watchman was killed at Judge Nott’s house in New York and an unidentified man, presumably the bomber, was blown to bits in front of Palmer’s residence. Although these events were not the prime cause of the Red Scare, they triggered and were used to justify the Justice Department’s extreme and, at the very least, extra-legal attack on the radical left over the next nine months.
The May and June 1919 bombings failed to stop the deportation of Galleani. On June 24, he departed for Italy along with eight of his followers. Because the immigration laws made no provision for families to accompany deportees, he left behind in Wrentham his wife and children. [Charles Howard McCormick - 'Hopeless Cases: The Hunt for the Red Scare Terrorist Bombers' (2005)]

[C] 1925 - Gueorgui Vassilev Cheïtanov or Georgi Sheĭtanov [Sheytanov](Георги Василев Шейтанов; b. 1896), Bulgarian anarchist militant, is executed, along with his companion Mariola Sirakova and others, by the fascist government during a crackdown on leftists following a Communist bombing in Sofia. [see: Feb. 14]

## [E] 1925 - Mariola Milkova Sirakova (Мариола Милкова Сиракова; b. 1904), Bulgarian student-actress and anarchist militant, is executed, along with her companion Gueorgui Cheitanov (b. 1896), and others, by the fascist government during a crackdown on leftists following a Communist bombing in Sofia. [expand]

1944 - Benoît Broutchoux (b. 1879), French anarchist, adherent of neo-Malthusian ideas and a 'free love' advocate, dies. [see: Nov. 7]

##1947 - Stepan Maximovich Petrichenko (Степа́н Макси́мович Петриче́нко; b. 1892), Russian revolutionary sailor, RCP(b) member but purged, anarchist sympathiser, the head of the Soviet Republic of Soldiers and Fortress-Builders of Nargen and in 1921, de facto leader of the Kronstadt Commune, and the leader of the revolutionary committee which led the Kronstadt rebellion of 1921, dies during a transfer from the Solikamsk (Соликамск) gulag to Vladimir Central (Влади́мирский центра́л) prison.
Senior scribe of the battleship Petropavlovsk, the main leader of the insurrection. He was a regular sailor since 1914. Originally from Poltava. He was in the RCP (b) since 1919, but he left the party during the "re-registration" (a veiled purge). In the summer of 1920 he visited his homeland, and on his return approvingly spoke about the movement of batko Makhno, but he did not become an anarchist by conviction. He was a "leader of the uprising", but he did not show any political talents. After suppressing the insurrection with thousands of its members, he left for Finland..
Author of 'Правда о кронштадтских событиях' (The truth about the Kronstadt events; 1921)

1970 - Giuseppe Ungaretti (b. 1888), Italian modernist poet, journalist, essayist, critic and academic, dies. A one-time anarchist sympathiser who later became an active fascist. [see: Feb. 10]

##1970 - Lucia Sanchez Saornil (b. 1895), Spanish poet, painter and militant anarchist-feminist, dies. A founder of the famed Mujeres Libres. [see: Dec. 13]

1975 - Scarlat Callimachi or Calimachi (nicknamed Prinţul Roşu, the Red Prince; b. 1896), Romanian journalist, essayist, Futurist poet, trade unionist, youthful anarchist and later a communist activist, dies. [see: Sep. 20]

1991 - Procession in Sofia to the monument of Christo Botev, the first Bulgarian anarchist and a national hero, who perished in the struggle for liberation of Bulgaria from Turkish power today in 1876.

1997 - Richard 'Tet' Tetenbaum (b. unknown), US anarchist activist, co-founder of Bound Together Anarchist Books in San Francisco, where he worked for 20 years, dies. 200 attend his memorial.

[B] 2008 - Arthur Adrién Porchet (b. 1907), Swiss filmmaker, cinematographer and libertarian, who made propaganda films for the CNT during the Spanish Civil War, dies. [see: Oct. 14]
1840 - Jean-Louis Pindy (d. 1917), French member of the Internationale, communard, anarchist and carpenter, born. In 1877, he founded with Paul Brousse and Dumartheray François, the French section of the AIT, and his newspaper 'L'Avant-Garde'.
"L'autorité en quelques mains qu'elle soit placée, est toujours pernicieuse à l'avancement de l'humanité" (When authority is placed in the hands of a few, it is always pernicious to the advancement of humanity)

1886 - A large solidarity meeting in support of 3,500 Decazeville miners who had been out on strike since January is held in Paris at the Chateau d’Eau Theatre. Among the people who spoke was Louise Michel, Jules Guesde, Paul Lafargue and Dr. Paul Susini. The meeting ran a lively course and was widely reported on by the press. 1500 people attended according to a police informant who was present and the spy alleged that Lafargue had threatened Baron Alphonse de Rothschild, head of the French branch of the banking family, with bodily injury. The four speakers were prosecuted on the basis of the Loi du 29 juillet 1881 sur la liberté de la presse (the law of July 29, 1881 on the freedom of the press) and, on August 12, 1886, they were sentenced to between 4 and 6 months in prison with a 100 franc fine. Lafargue, Guesde and Susini refused to attend and were sentenced in absentia. They successfullt appealled, much to thier surprise, on September 24. Louise Michel refused to appeal and, after serving her sentence, was released with remission in November 1886.

1887 - Ramona Berni i Toldrà (d. unknown), Catalan weaver, anarcho-syndicalist militant and member of the Los Solidarios group, born.

1896 - Isaac Puente Amestoy (d. 1936), Spanish anarchist, CNT member and physician, born. [expand]

1902 - In Washington, the House of Representatives deates a bill that would make it a specific offence to kill the President or anyone in the line of the presidential succession, and to also prevent the entry Into the United States or the naturalisation of persons who "preach anarchy or forcible destruction of government". Called the Anti-Anarchy (or Anti-Anarchist) Bill, it was presented as an alternative to the then Senate bill drawn up in response to the Czolgosz assassination of President William McKinley.

1919 - Palmer Raids: According to 'The New York Times', 67 anarchists are arrested and face deportation in the wake of a bomb explosion marking the beginning of the infamous 'Palmer raids' in the US, which ultimately led to the deportations and imprisonment of thousands of union members, communists and anarchists. ['The New York Times', June 4, 1919]

1924 - Franz Kafka (b. 1883), Czech dystopian allegorist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Jul. 3]

1925 - Matanza de La Coruña [La Coruña Massacre]: At the beginning of 1925, workers in the Tarapacá salitreras (nitrate mines) initiated a series of mobilisations demanding improvements in the working and economic conditions. Local strikes began in different mines and camps along the Tamarugal pampa, which led to a general strike and the demand of the Federación Obrera de Chile (FOCH) for the nationalisation of the nitrate industry. After reaching a partial agreement that allowed the lifting of some strikes, the government led a clampdown, shutting down the Communist newspapers 'El Despertar de los Trabajadores' and 'El Surco' and arresting several FOCH leaders, transfering them to Valparaiso.
On June 3 , 1925 the workers of La Coruña decided to occupy the salitreras. Headed by the anarchist Carlos Garrido, secretary general of FOCH at La Coruña, they seized the mine offices, the powder magazine and the pulpería (company stores, which doubles as bars and cock fighting pits), finding in the latter final element of any armed opposition they would meet, the administrator, a Spaniard named Luis Gómez Cervela, who was dispatched by some of the more radical workers. The stores, warehouses and depots were looted by the workers and their provisions redistributed among the families of the camp.
Meanwhile, FOCH declared a 24-hour general strike of workers in the Province of Tarapacá for June 4, and called for protests in Huara, San Antonio de Zapiga and the pueblo of Alto San Antonio. In Alto San Antonio there were clashes between the workers and the police, when the latter broke into the FOCH offices where a rally was being held, resulting in the deaths of two policemen. After these events, the workers occupied the mines at Galicia and La Coruña, distributing the provisions of the pulperías between the families and beginning a general strike that resulted in the taking of 124 nitrate mines by their workers and the paralysis of the port of Iquique, with railway workers and wagon drivers ‌in the province also joining the strike.
Recaredo Amengual, the intendant (military administrator) of Tarapacá, communicated to the Minister of War, Colonel Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, that "había estallado la revolución soviética" (the Soviet revolution had broken out" on the Pampas. Alarmed by the nature of the events in the north, the government declared a state of siege in the provinces of Tarapacá and Antofagasta, the Chilean president Arturo Alessandri ordered General Florentino de la Guarda, commandant of the First Division, to crush any resistance. Military reinforcements were sent to the ports of Iquique, Pisagua and Mejillones on the warships Zenteno, O'Higgins, Lynch, Riquelme and Williams Rebolledo.
When news of the events in La Coruña reached Amengual, he immediately ordered the dispatch of a company of infantry, a squadron of cavalry and some sailors under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Acacio Rodriguez to put down the insurrection. After leaving Iquique on June 4, the troops arrived at La Coruña, encountering a fierce defence by the workers, who had entrenched themselves in the calicheras and in building, from where they threw dynamite bombs and improvised grenades at the military. Rodriguez requested reinforcements, including additional two batteries of artillery, which began to bombard the nitrate mine buildings, demolishing most of the positions of the rebels and sending some of them fleeing on to the pampas. The bombardment also set fire to the nitrate drying grounds and the stored nitrate, producing a huge fire that quickly consumed wooden houses, workshops, warehouses, sheds and food stores. Men, women and children were fired on by the troops as they tried to escape. This motivated to Garrido to send through an emissary a message to Rodriguez offering a ceasefire. He refused and continued to direct the withering attack of the artillery and machineguns that fired at targets less than three hundred metres away, despite white flags being displayed.
On the morning of June 5, Rodriguez directed the infantry and cavalry in a final assault on La Coruña. Carlos Garrido surrender voluntarily, declaring that he was solely responsible for the events at La Coruña, hoping to save the lives of those left alive. He was shot that same night on a nearby football field.
The death toll was extremely high but the exact figure is unknown. The popular press spoke of 2,000, including those shot, burned alive or thrown alive into the mine. Some of those detained were forced to dig their ow graves before being summarily shot. According to Peter DeShazo, "British diplomats estimated that between 600 and 800 workers were killed in the massacre, while the army suffered no casualties" ['Urban Workers and Labor Unions in Chile 1902-1927' (1983)]. 600 survivors were rounded up and imprisoned in a slaughterhouse. They were joined by groups of survivors who were captured in the pampa by the cavalry forces. They were sent to the velodrome of Iquique where they were tortured and tried in a military court.

## [B] 1926 - Allen Ginsberg (d. 1997), American Beat poet, one-time Wobbly and Buddhist anarchist, born.

1928 - Donald Clarence Judd (d. 1994), US anarchist, Minimalist painter and sculptor, born.

1967 - René-Louis Lafforgue (b. 1928), French singer, songwriter, actor, interpreter and anarchist, dies in a car accident in southern France. [see Mar 13]

1995 - Jean-Patrick Manchette (b. 1942), French crime novelist, screenwriter and libertarian, dies. [see: Dec. 19]

##2005 - Mary Frohman (b. 1947), American anarchist, member of the Industrial Workers of the World, singer, guitarist, dies, of a heart attack while waiting for a bus. A member of the 'filk outfit' DeHorn Crew - the Chicago IWW's house band and lover of fellow anarchist and band member Leslie Fish, the fortune-telling character Mama Sutra in the novel 'Illuminatus!' is probably based on her.
1852 - Pierre-Joseph Proudhon is released from the prison of Sainte-Pelagie having served his sentence of three years imprisonment (since June 7, 1849) for articles in 'Le Peuple' "insulting the President of the Republic". [see: Jun. 7]

1855 - Josep Barceló Cassadó (b. 1824), leader of a militant group of workers within the Societat de Filadors i de Teixidors de Cotó opposed to the introduction of automation in the cotton spinning industry, who had successfully negotiated the agreement to ban the controversial 'selfactines' cotton spinning machines with Ramon de La Rocha, the Captain General of Barcelona, during the strike the previous year, stands trial before a military tribunal as the alleged 'instigator' a robbery and murder committed on March 29 in the Mas de Sant Jaume, near d'Olesa de Montserrat. Arrested on April 27, 1855, in the Carrer Barberà in Barcelona, the only evidence at the was the belated declaration of one of the seven perpetrators of the robbery and murder as he was waiting to be executed four days earlier on April 23. Barceló was convicted the same day and sentenced to death. He was garrotted two days later in the Plaça del Portal de Sant Antoni in Barcelona. The day of his public execution, the Catalan capital was occupied by the military commander in chief, Juan Zapatero, who had declared a state of war.

1857 - J. William Lloyd (d. 1940), American individualist anarchist, poet and doctor, born. Editor of 'Free Comrade', he wrote for Benjamin Tucker's 'Liberty'. He was known as the 'drugless physician'.

[GGG] 1862 - Teresa Claramunt i Creus, 'the Spanish Louise Michel' (d. 1931), Catalan textile worker, militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and feminist pioneer, born. As a textile worker, she participated in the 'Vaga de les set setmanes' (seven-week strike) of 1883, which mobilised thousands of workers and textile workers in Sabadell to demand pay raises, the eight-hour day and better working conditions. Claramunt organised an anarchist group in the district in 1884, influenced by the engineer Tárrida del Mármol. On October 26, 1884, the textile workers of Sabadell, who had gathered at the Ateneo Obrero, decided to join the Federació de Treballadors de la Regió Espanyola (Federation of Workers of the Spanish Region) and Teresa was elected its secretary. In 1885 she attended its Congrés Comarcal de Catalunya (Regional Congress of Catalonia) in Barcelona. Between 1888 and 1889 had to exile in Portugal. In early 1891 she moved to Barcelona district of Gràcia. In 1892, with Angela Lopez de Ayala and Amàlia Domingo, she helped create the Societat Autònoma de Dones de Barcelona (Society of Independent Women of Barcelona), the ​​first feminist society in the region. Teresa was arrested in 1893 following the bombing of the Gran Teatre del Liceo. This bombing, carried out by one individual, was used as a pretext to attack the whole anarchist movement. Teresa was in no way implicated, and she herself, influenced by Tarrida del Mármol, disapproved of such tactics. In 1896, however, she and her husband Antoni Gurri had to move to Camprodon for work reasons. On June 7 of that year, a bomb exploded during the Corpus procession in the Carrer Canvis Nous (Cambios Nuevos) in Barcelona, leaving 12 dead and 35 wounded. As a result of this, Claramunt and her partner were arrested, tortured and tried, along with other anarchists, during the so-called rocés de Montjuïc. Their death sentences commuted to exile, Claramunt and Gurri went into exile in London and later in Paris and Roubaix. In 1889 Claramunt and Gurri's only surviving child, their daughter Proletària Lliure, died (Teresa had given birth five times but all the children had died shortly after birth). She returned to Catalonia in early 1898 and during the following years Teresa Claramunt, with her new partner Leopoldo Bonafulla, lived in Gràcia. In the village, she took part in numerous activities with fellow feminist, unionist, free-thought and anarchist comrades. Among the various organisations she was involved in was the Cercle Espiritista 'La Buena Nueva' de Gràcia with Amalia Domingo Soler.
In 1901, she and Leopoldo Bonafulla founded the newspaper 'El Productor', and collaborated on several publications including 'La Anarquía', 'La Tramontana', 'La Revista Blanca', 'El Rebelde', 'El Porvenir del Obrero' and even 'Freedom' in London. During the big labour rally held in the Circ Barcelonès on February 16, 1902, she called for solidarity with the strikers of the metallurgical union, which was one of the basic factors of the great general strike in Barcelona of February 17-24 that year. That year also involved a propaganda tour of Andalusia, which ending with her arrest in Ronda and subsequent expulsion from Màlaga. During the following years she participated in numerous meetings, propaganda tours, etc., always showing her great ability to inspire and mobilise people. Arrested again, on this occasion during the events of the Setmana Tràgica (Tragic Week) in 1909, she was banished to Zaragoza, where she was able to help organize the Aragonese anarcho-syndicalist movement. She played a leading role in the general strike there in 1911, five days after the CNT had held it first Congress and her role in the strike resulted in yet another period in prison, and the inevitable round of beatings that over the years led to her developing a progressive paralysis. Her home became a place of pilgrimage for young anarchist and exerted a strong influence on many of the members of the Los Solidarios group. Later she lived in Seville with the support of Antonio Ojeda, whose children she took on educating, in the hope that the climate would improve her health while maintaining her activism conducting meetings. Already very sick, following the attack against Cardinal Soldevila on June 4, 1923 in Zaragoza, the police searched his house with her lying on the bed, in which she was hiding weapons. Teresa returned to Barcelona in 1924, where she lived for a time at the home of Francesca Saperas, but greatly affected by the paralysis that distanced her from public life - 1929 was the last time she was able to participate in a rally.
Teresa Claramunt died on April 12, 1931 in Barcelona. Her funeral on April 14, which coincided with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic was a great opportunity for anarchist demonstration in Barcelona and the first day of the Republican flag flew freely in the city it did so at half-mast for Teresa Claramunt. Amusingly, the street in Sabadell near Barcelona's harbour that was named after her by the new Republican authorities managed to escape the Francoist censor and the Carrer de Teresa Claramunt remained throughout the fascist era.
She was the author of the pamphlet 'La mujer. Consideraciones generales sobre su estado ante las prerrogativas del hombre' (Woman. General considerations about her status before the prerogatives of man), published in 'El Porvenir Obrero' in 1905, which lays claim to the rights of women to participate in the social, political and economic spheres; the play 'El mundo que muere y el mundo que nace' (The world that dies and the world that is born), which premièred in Barcelona in 1896. She also wrote for numerous magazines and newspapers anarchists of the time: 'La Alarma', 'Buena Semilla', 'El Combate', 'Cultura Libertaria', 'Fraternidad', 'Generación Consciente', 'El Porvenir del Obrero', 'El Productor', 'El Productor Literario', 'El Proletario', 'El Rebelde', 'La Tramontana', 'Tribuna Libre', etc.

1877 - Arcole Louis Vauloup (1920), French electrician, anarchist and anti-militarist, born. Described by the police as a "dangerous anarchist anti-militarist", he was constantly in trouble with the authorities, being arrested and sent to prison or to military discipline companies. In 1907, he signed an anti-militarist poser 'To the Soldiers' but escaped prosecution. In 1908, after the bloody repression of the Draveil-Villeneuve strikes, he took refuge in Belgium, where he frequented libertarians and anti-militarist circles. In May 1910 he created, with Émile Aubin, the Groupe des Libérés des Bagnes Militaires (Military Prison Colonies Freedom Group), of which he was treasurer. In 1911 he joined the Fédération Communiste Révolutionnaire and became the manage of the anti-militarist 'Le Cri du Soldat' launched on Sept. 1 1912.

## 1882 - Karl Valentin (Valentin Ludwig Fey; d. 1948), German comedian, cabaret performer, clown, author, film producer and anarchist, born. A significant influence on German Weimar culture, Valentin was also the star of many silent films in the 1920's, earning him the sobriquet the 'Charlie Chaplin of Germany'. Known for his 'linguistic anarchism', which was based around linguistic dexterity and wordplay, his work parallels that of Dadaism and the social expressionism of the Neue Sachlichkeit. Bertolt Brecht was greatly influenced by Valentin, and Brecht scripted Valentin's slapstick film 'Mysterien eines Friseursalons' (Mysteries of a Barbershop; 1923). A German TV film, 'Liesl Karlstadt und Karl Valentin' (2008), was made about Valentin and his relationship with stage partner and long-term lover, Liesl Karlstadt (Elisabeth Wellano; 1892-1960).

1898 - Laurance Labadie (d. 1975), American individualist and mutualist anarchist writer and theorist, son of Joseph Labadie, born.

1899 - The unveiling of the statue by the anarchist sculptor Émile Derré of Charles Fourier on the central reservation of the Boulevard de Clichy in Paris. The monument was erected by a subscription launched in 1896 by members of l'École Sociétaire and l'Union Phalanstérienne. It will be melted down by the Vichy regime during the Nazi occupation.

1919 - The 4th (Ukrainian) Congress of Free Soviets, to which rank and file members of the Red Army have been invited to send representatives, is banned by Trotsky. Bolshevist troops are sent to destroy the Rosa Luxemburg Commune near Provkovski and the Ukrainian anarchist insurgent Nestor Makhno is declared an outlaw.

1921 - The first issue of 'Regeneracion', a monthly journal of revolutionary anarchist and libertarian communist social studies is published in Lleida, Catalonia.

1923 - In Zaragoza, Francisco Ascaso and Rafael Torres Escartín, members of Los Solidarios, help the militants Juliana López and Esteban Salamero shoot the cardinal archbishop Don Juan Soldevila Romero and an accompanying priest, riddling their car with bullets. Cardinal Soldevila was the principal financier and recruiter employers pistoleros and of the yellow Free Union of Zaragoza.

1925 - Matanza de La Coruña [La Coruña Massacre]: Following the recent clampdown by the government on the workers' movement, which had included the arrest of several Federación Obrera de Chile leaders, FOCH declared a 24-hour general strike of workers in the Province of Tarapacá on June 4, and called for protests in Huara, San Antonio de Zapiga and the pueblo of Alto San Antonio. In Alto San Antonio there were clashes between the workers and the police, when the latter broke into the FOCH offices where a rally was being held, resulting in the deaths of two policemen. After these events, the workers occupied the mines at Galicia and La Coruña, distributing the provisions of the pulperías between the families and beginning a general strike that resulted in the taking of 124 nitrate mines by their workers and the paralysis of the port of Iquique, with railway workers and wagon drivers ‌in the province also joining the strike.
Recaredo Amengual, the intendant (military administrator) of Tarapacá, communicated to the Minister of War, Colonel Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, that "había estallado la revolución soviética" (the Soviet revolution had broken out" on the Pampas. Alarmed by the nature of the events in the north, the government declared a state of siege in the provinces of Tarapacá and Antofagasta, the Chilean president Arturo Alessandri ordered General Florentino de la Guarda, commandant of the First Division, to crush any resistance. Military reinforcements were sent to the ports of Iquique, Pisagua and Mejillones on the warships Zenteno, O'Higgins, Lynch, Riquelme and Williams Rebolledo.
When news of the events in La Coruña reached Amengual, he immediately ordered the dispatch of a company of infantry, a squadron of cavalry and some sailors under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Acacio Rodriguez to put down the insurrection. After leaving Iquique on June 4, the troops arrived at La Coruña, encountering a fierce defence by the workers, who had entrenched themselves in the calicheras and in building, from where they threw dynamite bombs and improvised grenades at the military. Rodriguez requested reinforcements, including additional two batteries of artillery, which began to bombard the nitrate mine buildings, demolishing most of the positions of the rebels and sending some of them fleeing on to the pampas. The bomardment also set fire to the nitrate drying grounds and the stored nitrate, producing a huge fire that quickly consumed wooden houses, workshops, warehouses, sheds and food stores. Men, women and children were fired on by the troops as they tried to escape. This motivated to Garrido to send through an emissary a message to Rodriguez offering a ceasefire. He refused and continued to direct the withering attack of the artillery and machineguns that fired at targets less than three hundred metres away, despite white flags being displayed. [see: Jun. 5]

[B] 1926 - Judith Malina, German-born American theatre and film actress, writer, director, anarchist and pacifist, born. One of the founders of The Living Theatre alongside her long-time collaborator and husband, Julian Beck. Also noted for playing Grandma in 'The Addams Family' movie (1991); and her roles in the films 'Awakenings' (1990), 'Radio Days' (1987) and 'Dog Day Afternoon' (1975).

1932 - Angelo Pellegrino Sbardellotto is arrested in Rome under a false identity following the discovery of two guns and bombs during a search of his home. He will be tried and summarily executed on June 17 for attempting to assassinate Mussolini.

1937 - Emma Goldman and Fenner Brockway, of the Independent Labour Party, appeared at a meeting organised by the Anarcho-Syndicalist Union held at Conway Hall in London, speaking about the conditions in Spain during the Revolution. Also speaking was the 'Spain and the World' journalist, Sonia Clements, who spoke on hehalf of the Anarcho-Syndicalist Union.

1938 - Pepita (Josepa) Not (b. 1900), Spanish militant anarchist, who was involved in the 1920s in transporting mail, money and weapons for the Los Solidarios group, dies in childbirth. [expand]

1945 - Georg Kaiser (b. 1878), German Expressionist playwright, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Nov. 25]

1953 - Guy Allix, French poet and libertarian writer, born. [expand]

#### 1974 - Julien Coupat, French theatre troupe director and anarchist theoretician, who co-founded a radical philosophy magazine 'Tiqqun' before setting up a commune in the village of Tarnac in 2005, running a farm and an all-purpose store, and is the alleged author of 'L'Insurrection qui vient' (The Coming Insurrection; 2007), born. Arrested in 2008 as part of the Tarnac Nine case who supposedly conspired to sabotage TGV lines, he was charged with "direction d'une association de malfaiteurs et dégradations en relation avec une entreprise terroriste" (leading an association of criminals and dishonourable individuals in connection with a terrorist company), the prosecutor's so-called "cellule invisible", Coupat spent six months in jail before, like the other members of the Tarnac Nine, he was released on bail.
On August 7, 2015, French judge Jeanne Duyé ordered that the specifically terrorist related charges against the group and against Coupat be dropped, a decision upheld by the French Supreme Court on January 10, 2017. When the case fianllly came to trial, Julien Coupat and Yldune Lévy were acquitted by the Paris Criminal Court on April 12, 2018, of all charges except those of refusing to give DNA samples. Ehe president of the 14th Chamber of the Paris Criminal Court, Corinne Goetzmann, stated that: "L'audience a permis de comprendre que le groupe de Tarnac était une fiction." (The hearing made it possible to understand that the group of Tarnac was a fiction.)]

1986 - Umberto Marzocchi (b. 1900), Italian shipyard worker, anarchist and anti-fascist fighter in the Arditi del Popolo, who fought on the Aragon front during the Spanish Civil War and, following the Retirada, joined the Foreign Legion (to gain French papers) and fought with the Maquis during WWII, dies. [see: Oct. 10]
1871 - Michele Angiolillo Lombardi (d. 1897), Italian anarchist and typographer, proponent of 'Propaganda by the Deed', born. [expand]

1873 - Proclamation of the First Spanish Republic: Francisco Pi y Margall assumes Presidency. Advocates Federalist program inspired by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, becoming popular among Spanish anarchists. Andalusia and several cities in the southeast establish a libertarian federalism. Pi y Margall is promptly overthrown by Monarchist forces. The town of Carthagène resists a government takeover for several months.

## [B] 1875 - Stanislav Kostka Neumann (d. 1947), Czech journalist, poet, literary and art critic, translator and anarchist, born. A representative of the turn of the century generation of Czech Anarchističtí Buřiči, "básníci života a vzdoru" (Anarchist Rebels, "the poets of life and defiance"). Expelled from business college, he participated in the clandestine youth movement, Omladina, for which he was arrested in 1893, standing trial in the notorious Proces s Omladinou (Trial of the Teenagers) and spending 14 months in Plzen-Bory prison. After returning from prison, he published his first poetry collection of 'Latinsky Nemesis, Strážkyně Dobrých / Majetku' (Latin Nemesis, Guardian of Good / Assets; 1895) and contributed to the Symbolisti magazine 'Moderní Revue' (Modern Revue). He also became publisher and editor of the anarchist literary magazine 'Nový Kult' (The New Cult) in 1897, and was active in anarchist circles and writing for movement magazines such as 'Práce' (Labour). In 1902 he co-founded the Prague Esperanto club and began to write poetry in the langauge, as well as helping form, with Michal Kácha, the Česká Anarchistická Federace (Czech Anarchist Federation, or ČAF) and the Česká Federace Va̧ech Odborů (Czech Federation of All Unions, or ČFVO).
Around this time he started to work for the Brno paper 'Lidové Noviny' (People’s Newspaper) and, thanks to the brothers Čapek, he came into a closer contact with the pre-war art group founded around the 'Almanach na Rok 1914' (Almanac for the Year 1914), which rejected Symbolism and signalled the beginning of a shift by Neumann away from anarchism. During WWI he was on the Albanian front as ambulance driver and just before the end of the war he started publishing the magazine 'Červen' (June; 1918-22), co-edited with Michal Kácha, which brought together the pre-war "moderns" (the brothers Čapek and others) and authors from the upcoming generation who dedicated themselves to "proletarian art" (e.g. Jaroslav Seifert, Vladislav Vančura, Jiří Wolker, Jindřich Hořejší).
He joined the new Česká Strana Socialistická (Czech Socialist Party), of which he became a representative in the Revoluční Národní Shromáždění (Revolutionary National Assembly) and became a high official at the Ministry of Education. In 1919 he withdrew from his parliament seat and in 1920 he left the party. He started setting up communist cells together with former anarchists in the North of Bohemia. The cells integrated in 1921 in the new KSČ (Communist Party of Czechoslovakia). He would go on to have a stormy relationship with the KSČ, leaving or being expelled on numerous occasions and during the Nazi occupation he went into hiding rather than fleeing the country due to sever ill health.
His poetry collections include: 'Sen o Zástupu Zoufajících a Jiné Básně' (Dreaming of a Despairing Crowd and Other Poems; 1903); 'Socialism a Svoboda: (1904–1908)' (Socialism and Freedom; 1909) and 'Kniha Mládí a Vzdoru' (Book of Youth and Rebellion; 1920).
NB: the decades-long feud between the proletarian poet S. K. Neumann and the avant-garde theorist Karel Teige.

1883 - La Bande Noire: Second of three blasts blows up the bedroom at the engineer Michalovski's house but he escapes uninjured again. [see: May 12 & Oct. 30]

1887 - Herbert Müller-Guttenbrunn (April 10, 1945), Austrian publicist, writer, playwright and satirist, best known as the publisher of 'Das Nebelhorn' (The Foghorn), born.

1892 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'It Grido degli Oppressi' (The Cry of the Oppressed), paper of "the [Italian] communist-anarchist groups of New York and surrounding areas" is published in NYC.

1906* - Joaquín Ascaso Budría (b. 1977), Zaragozan construction worker, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was president of the Consejo Regional de Defensa de Aragón (Jan. 17 - Aug. 10, 1937), born. [expand]
[* June 1, 1903 is also given as his d.o.b. by some sources]

1915 - Henri Gaudier-Brzeska (b. 1891), French anarchist, sculptor, painter and draughtsman associated with the Vorticists, dies. [see: Oct. 4]

1922 - Madeleine Briselance (d. 2009), French bookbinder, libertarian and anti-militarist activist, born.

[F] 1925 - Matanza de La Coruña [La Coruña Massacre]: On the morning of June 5, Lieutenant Colonel Acacio Rodriguez directed the infantry and cavalry in a final assault on the few miners at La Coruña who had not already been killed of fled on to the pampa. Carlos Garrido, the anarchist secretary general of FOCH at La Coruña, surrendered voluntarily, declaring that he was solely responsible for the events at La Coruña, hoping to save the lives of those still left alive. He was shot that same night on a nearby foolball field.
The death toll was extremely high but the exact figure is unknown. The popular press spoke of 2,000, including those shot, burned alive or thrown alive into the mine. Some of those detained were forced to dig their ow graves before being summarily shot. According to Peter DeShazo, "British diplomats estimated that between 600 and 800 workers were killed in the massacre, while the army suffered no casualties" ['Urban Workers and Labor Unions in Chile 1902-1927' (1983)]. 600 survivors were rounded up and imprisoned in a slaughterhouse. They were joined by groups of survivors who were captured in the pampa by the cavalry forces. They were sent to the velodrome of Iquique where they were tortured and tried in a military court.

1934 - Ralph Rumney (d. 2002), English artist, writer and lifelong conscientious objector, born. One of the co-founders of the London Psychogeographical Association and a founding member of the Situationist International, he was the first to be expelled ('amiably' 7 months later) by Guy Debord. He produced a vast body of work despite living most of his life in destitution.

1948 - Masashi Daidōji (大道寺将司; May 24, 2017), Japanese former member and effective leader of the Wolf (狼 / Ōkami) cell of the East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front (東アジア反日武装戦線 / Higashi Ajia Hannichi Busō Sensen), and later haiku poet, who was convicted of a series of bombings at companies in 1974 and 1975 and sentenced to death, born.

1951 - The Japanese Anarchist Federation (日本アナキスト連盟) reconstituted this month. Simultaneously, the anarchist communists set up the Japan Anarchist Club (Nihon Anakisuto Kurabu / 日本アナキスト・クラブ).

1962 - A bomb explodes at the Vicariat Militaire in Madrid. This is followed by another at the HQ of the Banco Popular, owned by Opus Dei. Four other vehicle bombs follow before the end of the month: June 12 at the Instituto Nacional de Previsión (Phalange) in Madrid, and three other bombs in Barcelona on June 29 at the Colegio Mayor Monterola (Opus Dei) and at the Institution Nacional de Previsión, and on June 30 at the headquarters of the Phalange. These acts against the Francoist regime and its supporters are the work of the secret Interior Defence section of the CNT-FAI in exile.

1998 - Dieter Roth (b. 1930), German-Swiss anarchist and artist-poet associated with the Fluxus movement, best known for his artist's books, editioned prints, sculptures, video installations and found materials assemblages, dies. [see: Apr. 21]

2005 - Pepita Carpeña (Josefa Carpena-Amat; b. 1919), Catalant anarcho-syndicalsist and anarcha-feminist militant, who in exile became one of the mainstays of the Centre Internacional de Recerques sobre l'Anarquisme (CIRA) in Marseille, dies. [see: Dec. 19]
1868 - Georges Butaud (d. 1926), French anarchist communard, partisan of the 'Milieux Libres', born. He was the publisher of 'Flambeau' ("an enemy of authority") in 1901 and of the monthly 'La Vie Anarchiste' (1912-14) in Vienne, Isère. His key activity was the creation of libertarian communities: Saint Symphorien d'Ozon, in Isère (1899), the Milieu libre de Vaux near Chateau-Thierry (1902-06) and Saint Maur (Seine) in 1913, a community farm dedicated to agriculture and livestock. However, becoming aware of the problems of food production, he became a supporter of veganism, a principle he put into practice at the Bascon (Aisne) colony.

## 1897 - Arnaldo Simões Januário (d. 1938), Portuguese barber, militant syndicalist and anarchist propagandist, born. Typographer and writer for the libertarian press on 'A Batalha' (The Battle, paper of the Portuguese CGT), 'A Communa', 'O Anarquismo', 'O Libertário' and the review 'Aurora'. In 1927, as a member of the União Anarquista Portuguesa, he was arrested, spending time in prisons at Coimbra, Aljube and Trafaria, before being deported to various concentration camps (Angola, Azores, Cape Verde and Oikussi on Timor).
Released in 1933, he returned to clandestine activities in Portugal, helping prepare for the insurrectionary general strike on 18 January 1934. Arrested and tortured, he was sentenced to 20 years in prison. He died from a lack of medical care at Camp Tarrafal on Cape Verde in 1938.

1900 - Silvia Secchiari (d. 1959), Italian anarchist mulitant and anti-fascist, born. The daughter of anarchist militants, she was left paralysed by fascist violence and maintained her commitment to the anarchist cause by writing songs based on the history of her family and the local anarchist movement.

1903 - The first issue of the Italian language anarchist journal 'Cronaca Sovversiva' is published in Barre, Vermont. A victim of anti-anarchist repression during the war, the newspaper is finally banned in July 1918 and its editor, Luigi Galleani, is arrested and deported.

1903 - The first issue of 'L'Insurgé', a weekly newspaper of anarchist communist propaganda, is published in Herstal, Liege.

1909 - Émilie Lamotte (b. 1876), French teacher, miniatures painter, neo-Malthusian and anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 21]

1911 - Rebelión de Baja California / Revolución Mexicana: The Mexican Government requests US permission (which is swiftly granted) to send troops from Chihuahua to Baja California (through US territory and in US trains) to fight "bandits". Francisco Madero (a revolutionary opportunist seeking power), wins US support to send troops into lower California to crush the experimental Libertarian Commune whose rallying cry has been "Tierra y Libertad". Two days later on June 8, the US State Department gave permission for at least 1,500 Mexican soldiers to cross American territory. The troops would be disarmed as soon as they crossed into Arizona, and their weapons and ammunition would be returned to them after they crossed from California back into Mexico.

1922 - The mountain that overlooks the town of Osoyoos in British Columbia is officially named 'The Anarchist Mountain' after an Irish settler named Richard G. Sidley who came to settle in the area around 1889. He ran the first post office in the area in 1895, later becoming a magistrate and customs officer. But his later political opinions earned him the sobriquet 'anarchist', and he was relieved of his duties.

1933 - Willy Braque, French libertarian, actor, director, producer and writer, born.

[B] 1939 - Louis Andriessen, Dutch composer, pianist, anarchist and Marxist, born. Involved in the late sixties radical student movement and anti-Vietnam protests, he led the notorious Actie Notenkrakers (Nutcrackers Action) on 17 November, 1969 in which a group of activists interrupted a concert by the Concertgebouw Orchestra, demanding an open discussion of music policy. That same year, Schat contributed, together with the composers Reinbert de Leeuw, Louis Andriessen, Jan van Vlijmen, and Misha Mengelberg, and the writers Harry Mulisch and Hugo Claus, in 'Reconstructie', a sort of co-operative opera, or 'morality' theatre work, about the conflict between American imperialism and liberation. He was later to set up the political street band, Orkest de Volharding (Perseverance Orchestra), with Willem Breuker in 1972. An early piece of his, 'Volkslied' (1971), feature the Dutch national anthem, 'Wilhelmus', slowly giving way to 'The International', but his most overtly anarchist-influenced piece is the central part of his major trilogy of works 'Die Staat' (1976), 'Mausoleum' (1979) and 'De Tijd' (1979–81). The first uses texts by Plato and the latter by St. Augustine, but 'Mausoleum' was written to commemorate the centennial of Bakunin’s death and sets texts by him to music.

[D] 1968 - Mai '68: France goes back to work after the lengthy May 1968 holidays!

1978 - Kitasono Katue (北園 克衛; b. 1902), renowned Japanese poet, painter, photographer, critic and anarchist, who helped introduced Dada and Surrealism into Japan, dies. [see: Oct. 29]

##1982 - Kenneth Rexroth (b. 1905), poet, essayist, critic, translator, anarchist, Wobbly, pacifist and conscientious objector, dies. [see: Dec. 22]

[E] 1988 - Maria Vladimirovna Alyokhina [Мари́я Влади́мировна Алёхина], Russian poet, journalist, political activist, and ex-member of the anti-Putinist punk rock group Pussy Riot [Пусси Райот] and the street art group Voina (War/Война), born. She is also the cofounder (along with Nadezhda Tolokonnikova [Наде́жда Толоко́нникова]) organisation to protect the rights of prisoners Zona Prava [Зона Права](Zone of Rights) and the media network MediaZona [Медиазона].

1989 - The funeral of Franco-Spanish militant anarchist Hortensia Torres Cuadrado (b. 1924). Born into an anarchist family (her father taught in a Ferrer school before being deported to Germany by the Nazis where he died in 1941). Hortensia herself was interned in early 1939 at the Argelès camp in France, then turned over to Spain. In 1957, she returned to Toulouse as an employee of the Red Cross and worked with the SIA (International Solidarity Anti-fascist). On May 1, 1988, she participated in the re-establishing of the CNT in Madrid. It should be noted too that her son was imprisoned as a member of the GARI (Groupe d'action révolutionnaire internationaliste).

1997 - Juan José Sacramento García (b. 1915), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, dies. [see: Aug. 26]
1849 - Pierre-Joseph Proudhon is imprisoned in the prison of Sainte-Pelagie where he serves a sentence of three years imprisonment (since June 7, 1849) for articles in 'Le Peuple' "insulting the President of the Republic". [see: Jun. 4]

1862 - Jules Alexandre Sadier (d. 1936), Franco-Argentine anarchist militant propagandist and anti-militarist, born. Refusing military service, he fled France for Switzerland, where he encountered Kropotkin in Geneva and became an active anarchist. In 1887 he moved to Belgium, where his son Gilbert was born, and was imprisoned in Liege before being expelled. He then moved to London, before leaving for Argentina in 1889. In Buenos Aires, he started working at the International Library of Émile Piette, which goes on to become a rallying point for progressive forces in the country. Sadier also worked in the anarchist newspaper 'El Perseguido' (The Persecuted) between 1890-97, and on January 23, 1893, he and Piette published the first issue of the Buenos Aires French-language weekly 'La Liberté', which they co-founded with Pierre Quiroule (pseudonym of Alexandre Falconnet, another French refuge who would form a close friendship with Sadier). Auguste Vaillant would also at one point collaborate on 'La Liberté'.
Sadier carried out an extensive correspondence with Nettlau Max and Jean Grave on the progress of the Argentine anarchist movement and financially helped a number of European publications ('Revolte', 'Les Temps Nouveaux', etc.). In 1910 he returned to France and eventually settled in Nice in 1927, collaborating on 'L'Emancipateur', 'La Voix Libertaire' and the magazine 'Plus Loin'. An amateur chemist, he invented a recipe for food colouring made from turmeric. In November 1935, and suffering from gastric cancer, he returned to his son in Buenos Aires, where he died. His partner, Carolina Kinclaven, survive him by three years, dying of colon cancer. Among his published works were 'Un Congrès dit Anarchiste' (1922), 'À Mes Camarades' (1922), 'Patriotisme Capitaliste' (1932) and 'Dans l'Internationale Anarchiste' (1932).

1868 - André Veidaux (anagrammic pseudonym of Jean-Baptiste Adrien Devaux; d. 1927), French Symbolist writer, poet, critic and anarchist sympathiser, born. Wrote for numerous anarchist journals including: 'L'Attaque', 'L'en Dehors', 'Revue Anarchiste', 'La Revue Libertaire', 'Le Libertaire', 'Le Journal du Peuple', 'L'Education Libertaire', 'L'Homme Libre', 'Le Réveil de l'Esclave', etc.

[E] 1881 - Kanno Sugako (管野 スガ; d. 1911), also called Suga, Japanese anarcho-feminist journalist, writer and activist, born. Also used the pen names Yūgetsujo and Yūgetsu. Partner of Kōtoku Shūsui (幸徳秋水), she would dies alongside him following their supposed involvement in the High Treason Incident (大逆事件 / Taigyaku Jiken) or Kōtoku Incident (幸徳事件; Kōtoku Jiken) plot against the Japanese Emperor's life. [see: May 20]

1896 - A bomb explodes during a religious parade in Barcelona, killing a dozen people and wounding 30. In response the government totally represses the anarchist movement, torturing hundreds of people in the Montjuich Prison. Spanish authorities imprison over 400 people, including anarchists, suspected of involvement in the bombing. The severity of the punishment sparks international protests. Of the 87 prisoners taken to the tribunal, eight received death sentences and nine were condemned to long imprisonment. The other seventy-one were declared innocent but were deported to Río de Oro, a Spanish colony in West Africa, on the orders of Antonio Cánovas, Spain’s Prime Minister.

1898 - In Chicago, Emma Goldman attends the first convention of Eugene Debs's Social Democracy movement; in her view it is a "fiasco." When she is at first prevented from speaking at the event, Debs personally invites Goldman to address the convention.

##1898 - Antonio Casanova Prado (d. 1966), Spanish-born Argentinian baker, editor, translator and anarchist combatant in the Spanish Civil War and French Résistance, born. Emigrated to Argentina at an early age, but returned and fought during the Spanish Revolution in the 28th Division. After the defeat of the Republic he helped reorganise the CNT in exile in France, fighting with the Résistance during WWII and took part in the liberation of Paris.

[B/EEE] 1902 - Germaine Berton (d. 1942), French trade union militant and anarchist, born. Previously a member of the Communist Party, she joined l'Union Anarchiste in Paris in 1922 but left to join an individualist group. That year she joined the defence committee of the 1919 Mutinerie des Marins de la Mer Noire (Mutiny of the Sailors in the Black Sea) and was also imprisoned for insulting the secretary of the Police Commissioner.
On January 22, 1923, Berton had planned to kill Leon Daudet, a notorious right-wing extremist/propagandist of l'Action Française, but instead she ended up shooting Marius Plateau, Chef des Camelots du Roi [see: Jan. 22]. She later attempted to commit suicide to escape the judgement but, defended by Henry Torres, she was acquitted on Dec. 24, 1923. 'Le Libertaire' has declared her a hero, running a vociferous support campaign which led to her adoption by the Surrealists and featuring in a famous 'La Révolution Surréaliste' collage.
Following her aquittal, Germaine undertook a lecture tour, one date (Bordeaux) was prohibited by the police, leading to a fight and mass arrests - more than 150 people, including Berton. Sentenced to four months in prison plus a 100 franc fine, she was interned at Fort du Hâ where she pursued a hunger strike and was hospitalised. Upon her release her mental health deteriorated, quit political activities and later attempted suicide on Philippe Daudet's grave at the Père Lachaise cemetry.

'Why I shot a Royalist'
Germaine Berton
Le Flambeau, Algiers

Amongst the enemies of the proletariat, I have always had a particular hatred for the Royalists and their agents provocateurs; I could hardly contain my anger when I recalled the abject attitude of MM. Maurras and Daudet towards workers’ organisations. The articles and the media campaign by the Action Française in 1920 through which the King’s Camelots became strike breakers; the incessant call to violence; the shameful slander of some Anarchists and Communists; the threats of repression and fascism. Towards the end of 1922 I was pushed to the limit, I would have been a coward if I hadn’t had the courage to express, in my own way, my rancour and my disgust.

At that time, while Poincaré was busy with the invasion of the Ruhr, the Royalists were actively preparing their social war, hiding their resentment and their unhealthy appetites under a hypocritical jingoism of dubious tatste. The facts prove this. It is none other than the Action Française who demanded the arrest of French Syndicalists and Communists with whom they had old affairs to settle; it is the Action Française who demanded the lifting of the parliamentary immunity of the Deputy Cachin; it is them, lastly, who never stopped, in their columns, to stir up hatreds in the attempt of creating fascist politics, – Daudet was the main instigator of all this. I recalled his entire life spent fighting workers’ organisations. This is when I decided to kill him.

I am not insensitive, and I had to overcome great reluctance before killing a human being, even my enemy.

However, in no way do I regret the act I committed and my conscience feels no remorse. Because, in killing the leader of the King’s Camelots, I only obeyed my heart, torn by the suffering of all unfortunate proletarians, hounded and enslaved pariahs.


## 1908 - Pierre Guillaume Mélet (d. 1991), French militant anarchist, pacifist, syndicalist, teacher, shepherd and peasant writer, who followed in the steps of another shepherd-militant, Gaston Britel (Gaston Michaud), born. Initially a teacher in Loire-Inferieure (including Touvois) from 1927 to 1941, then, influenced by Jean Giono, retrained as a shepherd and settled near Gap in the Hautes-Alpes in 1944.

[D] 1914 - Settimana Rossa di Ancona: Around 18:00 in the evening at the end of an anti-war meeting where Errico Malatesta had made a speech outside the Villa Rossa (Partito Repubblicano HQ) in the Italian port city of Ancona, police open fire, killing three people and wounding about 20.
The meeting had been called on the 'Festa dello Statuto' (Constitution Day, which celebrated the 1861 treaty establishing the Kingdom of Italy) by what amounted to an anti-militarist united front of far-left parties, republicans, anarchists and socialists [including 'maximalists' from the PSI, whose splits and divisions would prove significant later in events], to protest against militarism and against the war in Libya, to demand the abolition of the Compagnie di Disciplina nell'Esercito (the Army's Punishment Batallions) and in support of two conscripts, Augusto Masetti (who had shot his commanding officer in Lybia whilst shouting "Viva l'Anarchia, Abbasso la guerra" (Long live Anarchism, Down with the war) and Antonio Moroni, a revolutionary syndicalist sent to a disciplinary company because of his political activities. The Liberal government saw the 'front' as a threat to its 'Trasformismo' project (a centrist platform that sought to isolate the 'extremes' of left and right whilst co-opting their potential support bases) as the potential basis for a revolutionary 'Red bloc' and had therefore deployed police units to prevent and potential protests following the meeting. Thus, when some of those attending tried to march into the centre of Ancona, the police opened fire killing a 22-year-old anarchist Attilio Giambrignani on the spot and two Republicans, 24-year-old Nello Budini and Antonio Casaccia aged 17, who both died soon after in hospital.
The following day the anarcho-syndicalist trade union, the Unione Sindacale Italiana, and the Confederazione del Lavoro called a general strike across Italy starting that morning. In Ancona 30,000 people follow the coffins of the three killed. A revolutionary committee of those involved in the anti-militarist 'front' is formed to help coordinate the insurrectionary actions that had already broken our spontaneously across the Emilia-Romagna and Marche regions, where anarchists were particularly numerous. Armouries were stormed and their weapons seized, as were the ports and railways stations; telegraph lines were cut and railway tracks torn up, slowing the arrival of more soldiers called in as reinforcement; tax offices torched; and public buildings are taken by the protesters, in what many saw as a wildcat strike to the bitter end. Barricades sprang up in the northern industrial centres. Self-governing communes were declared in smaller towns and government officials forced to flee. About a million people participated and for ten days the city of Ancona was under the control of rebel workers and peasants.
Over the following days the numbers of clashes with the security forces began to increase, as parts of Italy move towards insurrection. Nationalist gangs also siezed the opportunity to attack workers and 'reds' in some areas. By June 10, the fourth day of the Settimana Rossa, the general strike has spread throughout Italy, with violent clashes between workers and the forces of law and order in Romagna, in Milan, Turin, Bologna, Florence, Naples, Palermo and Rome, as the carabinieri and army were overwhelmed by revolutionary actions against symbols of authority and the Church. The Confederazione Generale del Lavoro, the socialist trade union that had initially supported the general strike and now under pressure from the reformists within the PSI, then sent a telegram throughout the country encouraging the resumption of work.
The same day in the Arena di Milano, a certain Benito Mussolini (then a prominent PSI Maximalist who still considering himself to be a revolutionary socialist) and the revolutionary syndicalist Filippo Corridoni, who led a strike of the workers of the car, gas, and clothing sector in May 1914, spoke before a gathering of 60,000 protesters. Mussolini: "In Florence, Turin, Fabriano there are others dead and others wounded, it is necessary to work in the army because it is not firing on workers, we need to make sure that the penny of the soldier will soon be a fait accompli."
By June 12, cities such as Rimini, Ravenna and Romagna the strike was over without a fight as the army had moved in overwhelming numbers. However, insurrectionary activities carried on in isolated pockets for a few days longer and by June 14 'The Red Week of Ancona' general strike was over, brought to an end in large part by the complicity of the Socialists and their trade union, as much as by the ten thousand troops deployed to regain control of the country and, in particular, Ancona.
Many of the high-profile participants chose to leave the country to avoid arrest. Some like Giuseppe Bellini, Cino Macrelli and Armando Casalini sought refuge in San Marino. Others escaped to Switzerland. Errico Malatesta was one of these, escaping to Geneva, where he worked on Luigi Bertoni's 'Le Réveil - Il Risveglio' before leaving for London.

1920 - The first issue of the eclectic fortnightly individualist libertarian newspaper 'Un' is published in Paris by Marcel Sauvage.

1964 - Takamure Itsue (高群 逸枝; b. 1894), Japanese poet, activist-writer, feminist, anarchist, ethnologist and the first historian of Japanese women, dies of cancerous peritonitis. [see: Jan. 18]

1968 - Mai '68: Violent clashes occur between French workers and police at the Flins Renault plant near Paris.

1977 - The police board a boat on the River Thames, where the Sex Pistols are giving live Royal Jubilee concert, arresting the band and their manager Malcolm McLaren.

1980 - Henry Valentine Miller (b. 1891), American writer, banned novelist, memoirist, critic, painter, individualist anarchist and champion of free speech, dies. [see: Dec. 26]
1865 - Claude-François Georges Etiévant (d. 1900), French typographer, anarchist and anti-militarist, born. [expand]
He died on February 6, 1900, in the Îles du Salut penal colony in French Guiana having had his death sentence for a revenge attack on police in January 1898, that left 3 officers with only slight wounds, communicated to life.

1877* - [O.S. May 27] Kosta Nunkov [Коста Нунков], aka David Ognyanov [Нунков Огнянов](Konstantin Ivanov Nunkov [Константин Иванов Нунков]; d. 1905), Bulgarian revolutionary, anarchist, a member of the Macedonian Committee (Македонския комитет) and a Kumanov leader of the Inner Macedonian-Odrin Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешната македоно-одринска революционна организация), born in Chirpan.
[* May 21 [O.S. May 9], 1877 also quoted as his d.o.b.]

1884 - The first issue of the weekly Sunday newspaper 'Le Droit Anarchique' is published in Lyon, the last in a series of publications that commenced with 'Le Droit Social' in February 1882.

1884 - Pilade Cecchi, editor of the Italian anarchist publication 'La Questione Sociale' is sent to prison for 21 months and fined 2,000 lire.

1902 - The first issue of the initially fortnightly, then weekly, sociological newspaper 'El Corsario' is published in Valencia, replacing José Alarcón's anarcho-feminist periodical 'La Humanidad Libre'.

1903 - Vittorio Pini (b. 1860), Italian shoemaker and illegalist, dies. Pini got 20 years in prison in 1889 for his political 'expropriations' supporting Intransigenti groups and anarchist propaganda. [see: Nov. 4]

1913 - The first issue of the journal of anarchist propaganda 'Volontà' is published in Ancona, Italy.

1914 - Settimana Rossa di Ancona: The second day of the uprising in Ancona sees the proclaimation of a general strike in the Romagna, Marche and Emilia regions where anarchists are particularly numerous, as parts of Italy move towards insurrection.

1915 - Ettore Mattei (b. 1851 or 1857), Italian accountant and anarchist, who went on to be a prominent activist and organiser in the Argentine anarchist and workers movements, dies in Buenos Aires.

1921 - Félix (Felicísimo) Álvarez Ferreras (d. 2009), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, Civil War and Résistance fighter, writer and polyglot, born in France. [expand]

1922 - Débora Céspedes (d. 2009), Uraguayan poet, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1930 - Antoine Antignac (b. 1864), French anarchist, speaker, bookstore manager, writer for numerous libertarian publications, dies. [expand]

1939 - Emmy Eckstein (Emilia Eckstein; b. 1900), German anarchist Alexander Berkman's longtime companion, dies after a series of operations on her stomach. [see: Oct. 10]

1942 - José Pellicer-Gandia, aka the 'Durruti valenciano' (b. 1912), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist revolutionary, who co-founded the Columna de Hierro (Iron Column) during the Spanish Revolution, having been denounced anonymoulsy on the false charge murdering the brother of a Francoist army officer, he was condemned to death and shot, together with his Brother Pedro and other libertarian militants, at the shooting range of Paterna, Valencia, after being subjected to the torture of twelve simulated executions! [see: Apr. 27]

## 1943 - Jeremy John Ratter, aka Penny 'Lapsang' Rimbaud, English writer, poet, philosopher, painter, musician and activist, who was a member of the performance art groups EXIT and Ceres Confusion, co-founder of both the Stonehenge Free Festival with Wally Hope (Phil Russell) in 1972, and the seminal anarchist punk band Crass alongside Steve Ignorant, in 1977, born.

[C] 1945 - Robert Desnos (b. 1900), French poet, author, anti-fascist and anarchist, who was one of the most important figures of the French surrealist movement in the 1920s and 30s, dies in Terezín from typhoid at 5.30 in the morning, only weeks after the camp’s liberation and less than a month short of his 45th birthday. [see: Jul. 4]

[B] 1961 - Uno Laur aka Kohtla-Järve Uno (a nickname derived from his hometown Kohtla-Järve), Estonian-Jewish anarchist and iconoclastic ex-lead singer of the Must Mamba (Black Mamba) and Röövel Ööbik (Robber Nightingale), born. "The oldest punk in Estonia".

1982 - Joshua Selassie 'Josh' Wolf, US freelance journalist and internet videoblogger, who was jailed by a Federal district court on August 1, 2006 for refusing to turn over a collection of videotapes he recorded during a July 2005 demonstration in San Francisco, California, born.

1986 - Elfie Gidlow (b. 1898), British-born, Canadian-American feminist poet, freelance journalist, philosophical anarchist, lesbian and Taoist, dies. [see: Dec. 29]

##1993 - Deolinda Lopes Vieira, aka Deolinda Quartim (b. 1888), Portuguese primary school teacher, militant anarcho-syndicalist, feminist and Freemason, who taught at the anarchist and libertarian-influenced Escola-Oficina N.º 1 in Lisbon, dies in her home city, aged 104 years old. [see: Jul. 8]

[BB] 2009 - Joachim Gatti (b. unknown), French libertarian cinematographer, director and writer is shot in the face by police flash-ball, loosing an eye, during a peaceful demonstration in Montreal against the eviction of the Clinic squatted social centre. Joachim is the grandson of French playwright, poet, journalist, screenwriter, filmmaker and anarchist Armand Gatti and the son of French libertarian filmmaker Stéphane Gatti.
Gatti played the part of Joachim Rivière in Peter Watkins' 2000 film 'La Commune (Paris, 1871)'.

2010 - Sara Berenguer Laosa (b. 1919), Catalan poet, anarchist and member of Mujeres Libres, dies. Wrote a narrative autobiography 'Entre El Sol y la Tormenta' (Between the Sun and the Storm; 1988). [see: Jan. 1]
1858 - The first issue of 'Le Libertaire', "Journal du Mouvement Social", is published in New York by Joseph Déjacque.

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: At 21:00, an extraordinary meeting of the municipal council is called, at which a petition is presented by the day labourers, pointing out the refusal of the owners of the hacendados (rural estates) to give them work in them, and demanding that the city council needs to find them paid work or support then and their families financially in or avoiding serious unrest. Determined to uphold public order and to enforce the exercise of individual freedoms, González Peña contacted the civil governor of the province, informing him that in the face of potential breakdowns in public order, the municipal authority lacked sufficient security forces to ensure order. In addition, he informed the Juzgado de 1ª Instancia (Court of the First Instance) about the 'abuses' that had supposedly been committed in the city's Asociación de Obreros (Workers' Association).

1883 - La Bande Noire: Nearly two hundred cartridges of explosives are subtracted from a load destined for the mines of Blanzy. Jacob and Serprix steal precious booty from Perrecy.

1887 - [N.S. Jun. 21] Alexei Vasilyevich Mokrousov [Алексей Васильевич Мокроусов] (Thomas Matveyevich [Фома́ Матве́евич]; d. 1959), Russian anarchist guerrilla commander who fought for the Bolsheviks against the Whites and the Makhnovshchyna (Махновщина), later doing the Stalinists' bidding during the Spanish Revolution and as a divisive guerrilla commander fighting against the Nazis during WWII, dismissed for drunkeness and brutality, born. [see: Jun. 21]

1894 - [O.S. May 28] Nina Aleksandrovna Nikitina (Нина Александровна Никитина; d. 1942), Russian officer worker [Second Moscow State Secretary of Finance and Accounting Department] and anarcho-mystic, born. The sister of the stage designer and artist Leonid Alexandrovich Nikitin (Леонид Александрович Никитин; 1896-1942), who had worked with Sergei Eisenstein on Valentin Smyshlyaev's production of 'The Mexican' in 1921, based on a Jack London short story. She was arrested on September 12, 1930, for her membership of the anarcho-mystic organisation Order of the World (Орден Света), and charges with membership of an illegal organisation and anti-Soviet agitation. On January 13, 1931, she was sentenced to three years' deportation to Central Asia (Tashkent). Released on Sept. 19, 1933, after which she worked as a stenographer in the Commissariat of the Uzbek SSR until 1937, after which she worked with sick children in the children's tuberculosis hospital in the German occupied city of Kalinin (Tver) until her death from exhaustion during the German occupation. Her brother Leonid was arrested and stood trial alongside Nina, and was sentenced to five years in the camps on the White Sea-Baltic Canal (Беломоро-Балтийском канале). Released in 1934, he was arrested again in June 1941 and sentenced to ten years in the gulags, dying in October 1942 of scurvy and pellagra in the camp hospital of Kansk (Канска) in the Krasnoyarsk Territory.

1899 - Robert Jospin (d. 1990), French militant socialist, pacifist and one-time anarchist, born. Father of French socialist Prime Minister Lionel Jospin, he was deeply affected by WWI and became a pacifist. He began writing for the anarchist press ('La Patrie Humaine', 'Le Réfractaire', 'Le Libertaire', etc.) after meeting Victor Meric and Roger Monclin in the early Twenties while with the Pacifist Union. A visceral anti-communist, he also joined the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and, in the Thirties, the secretary of the Ligue Internationale des Combattants de la Paix. Bernard Baissat made an 80 minutes film, 'Robert Jospin', about him in 1990.

[1902 - Washington state passes anti-anarchist law. [unable to find source or reference to a Wash. State anti-Anarchy law before 1909 - see: Mar. 22]]

1908 - Alexandre Eugène Tennevin (b. 1848), French anarchist activist, is cremated at the Père Lachaise crematorium. [see: Dec. 5]

1912 - Mass protest in London's Trafalgar Square, demanding the release of Errico Malatesta. Earlier in the year Malatesta was sentenced to three months imprisonment and recommended for deportation for criminal libel. Only a massive public outcry, such as today, prevents the latter sentence from being carried out.

1917 - Octave Jahn (b. 1869), French anarchist who founded, with Joseph Tortelier and others, the 'League of the Anti-Patriots' in 1886, dies. [see: Feb. 10]

1921 - In the Sacco and Vanzetti trial, eyewitnesses Carrigan, Bostock and Wade testify they are unable to identify any of the bandits they had seen at the crime.

[D] 1923 - Devetoyunski Coup [Деветоюнски преврат]: During the night of June 8-9 a coup d'état is implemented by armed forces under General Ivan Valkov (Иван Вълков) and his Military Union (Деветоюнския преврат), overthrowing the government of the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union (Българския земеделски народен съюз) headed by Aleksandar Stamboliyski (Александър Стамболийски) and replaced it with one under Aleksandar Tsankov (Александър Цанков), who would later become a leading Bulgarian Fascist politician. The coup in turn provoked the June Uprising (Юнско въстание), an armed rebellion centred on Kilifarevo (Килифарево), Debelets (Дебелец), Veliko Tarnovo (Велико Търново) and Elena (Елена), as agrarian activists, the anarchist Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) and some communist groups fought back. However, due to the lack of support from the Bulgarian Communist Party (Българска Комунистическа Партия), the uprising was defeated.
Meanwhile, when news of the Devetoyunski Coup reached Kilifarevo (Килифарево) the anarchist group there held a secret meeting that evening to plan a protests for the following day, one that would turn into an armed uprising.

1923 - June Uprising [Юнско въстание]: When news of the Devetoyunski Coup (Деветоюнски преврат) reaches Kilifarevo (Килифарево) the anarchist group there hold a secret meeting during the evening to plan a protests for the following day, one that would turn into an armed uprising.

##1923 - Arishima Takeo (有島 武郎; b. 1878), Japanese novelist, short-story writer and essayist during the late Meiji and Taishō periods, Tolstoyan Christian and later a Kropotkin-influenced anarchist, commits suicide along side his lover Akiko Hatano (波多野秋子), hanging themselves and leaving behind notes for their families and friends, after Akiko's husband discovered the pair's affair. [see: Mar. 4]

##1940 - Gérard Terronès (d. 2017), Moroccan-French jazz producer and anarchist, who founded the Disques Futura et Marge jazz record label, born.

1945 - Ervin Batthyány (Count Ervin Ágoston Károly Ferenc Batthyány; b. 1877), Hungarian-English free school founder and advocate, journalist and anarchist, dies in Stroud, Gloucestershire. [see: Oct. 15]

1966 - Helmut Rüdiger aka Rodriguez, Ivar Bergegren; Dashar, Stefan Stralsund (b. 1903), German author, journalist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist and staunch anti-communist, and theorist of federalism, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

1972 - Rote Armee Fraktion member (and original member of the SPK) Brigitte Mohnhaupt and Bewegung 2. Juni (June 2 Movement) member Bernhard Braun are captured in Berlin.

1974 - Umberto Lanciotti (b. 1894). Italian anarchist expropriator, who spent time in America, Britian and Argentina, only to fall foul of the Ley de Residencia and be rendered to the Italian fascist regime, spending seven years in Moussolini's prisons as an "anarchico pericoloso e attentatore" (dangerous anarchist and bomber), dies in Follonica, Italy. [see: Apr. 1]

[A] 1976 - Anarchists Noel and Marie Murray sentenced to hang by a Dublin court for the killing of a Gardai during an attempted bank robbery.

1978 - Matthew James 'Matt' Bellamy, English musician and the lead vocalist, guitarist, pianist and principal songwriter of rock band Muse, and self-described "left-leaning libertarian", born.

## 1979 - Antti Rautiainen, Finnish IT specialist, anarchist and anti-fascist militant, writer and long-term Anarchist Black Cross activist, who was expelled from Russia in 2012, where he had been living for three years, because of his activism, born.

[B] 2013 - Iain Banks (b. 1954), Scottish novelist and self-described "evangelical atheist", who, using the pen name Iain M Banks, was the author of the Culture series of sci-fi novels that feature a pan-galactic anarchist society, dies. [see: Feb. 15]
[B] 1819 - Gustave Courbet (d. 1877), French painter, revolutionary anarchist, Communard, essayist and leader of the Realist school of art, born. A close friend of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, he was elected to the Paris Commune and participated in the anarchist congress of the Jura Federation. Probably his most notorious painting is 'L'Origine du Monde' (1866), not publicly exhibited until 122 years after it was painted.

1863 - Jean Ajalbert (d. 1947), French lawyer, Impressionist poet, naturalist writer and anarchist, born.

1865 - Pierre Desgranges (aka Grange; d. 1898), French anarchist militant, born.

## 1866 - Juan De Marchi (born Giovanni De Marchi; d. unknown), Italian shoemaker and anarchist, who emigrated from Turin to Valparaíso in Chile, where he formed a deep friendship with Salvador Allende, on whom he had an important early political influence, born.

1904 - Maria Zazzi (d. 1993), Italian life-long anarchist militant, born. She was in the front line in the campaign for Sacco and Vanzetti. In 1932 she moved to Paris, where she met the Russian anarchist Ida Mett and her companion Nicolas Lazarevitch, the Spanish anarchists Buenaventura Durruti and Francisco Ascaso, the Ukrainian anarchist Nestor Makhno and the Russian Volin.
When her then partner, the Bolognese anarchist Armando Malaguti, enrolled in the Ascaso Column in Spain and fought at Monte Pelato on the Aragon Front, Maria moved to Barcelona to take part in the Revolution.
In Bologna, in the late 1950s, she began a relationship with the anarchist Alfonso 'Libero' Fantazzini, the father of Horst, the future 'gentleman bank-robber' anarchist illegalist. [expand]

1906 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Le Cubilot', "Journal International d'Education et de Lutte Ouvrière", the newspaper of the L'Essai communist colony, is published in Aiglemont.

[E] 1907 - The first edition of 'Tiān yì bào' (天义报; 'Journal of Natural Justice'), the journal of the Chinese anarcha-feminist Society for the Restoration of Women's Rights (女子復權會), is published. The Society was formed by He Ban [何班]; ca. 1884 - ca. 1920), better known by her taken name He Zhen (何震; He 'Thunderclap') and her penname He-Yin Zhen (何殷震), following the move by her and her partner Liu Shipei (劉師培) to Tokyo, where He Zhen became one of the mainstays of the Chinese anarchist group there.

1914 - Settimana Rossa di Ancona: The fourth day of the Settimana Rossa, and the general strike has spread throughout Italy. The carabinieri and army are overwhelmed by revolutionary actions against symbols of authority and the Church. The Confederazione Generale del Lavoro (CGL), the socialist trade union, sends a telegram throughout the country encouraging the resumption of work.

1914 - Settimana Rossa di Ancona: In response to the killing by police of three demonstrators on June 7, 1914, at an antiwar protest in the Italian port city of Ancona, Benito Mussolini (then still considering himself to be a revolutionary socialist) and the revolutionary syndicalist Filippo Corridoni, who leads a strike of the workers of the car, gas, and clothing sector in May 1914, speak before a gathering of 60,000 protesters in the Arena di Milano. Mussolini: "In Florence, Turin, Fabriano there are others dead and others wounded, it is necessary to work in the army because it is not firing on workers, we need to make sure that the penny of the soldier will soon be a fait accompli."

1921 - In the Sacco and Vanzetti trial, Mr. Pelser testifies Sacco was the “dead image” of the man in the getaway car. He admits in cross-examination that he earlier told the police that he had not witnessed the robbery and had run away because he was scared.

[DD] 1923 - June Uprising [Юнско въстание]: During the morning in the centre of Kilifarevo (Килифарево) a big rally is held, at which members and supporters of the anarchist Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация), the Bulgarian Communist Party (Българска Комунистическа Партия) and the overthrown Bulgarian Agrarian National Union (Българския земеделски народен съюз) are present. Anarchist Georgi Popov (Георги Симеонов Попов) calls on people to rise up in arms. After his speech the rebellion is declared and a group of armed rebels head to the assembly point in the Mochura (Мочура) region. There a concentration of around 120 Kilifarevo rebels assemble together with armed villagers from Debelec (Дебелец), Yalova (Ялово) and Plakovo (Плаково). In Kilifarevo a Revolutionary Council (Революционен съвет) is formed with anarchist, communist and agrarian members.
The following day, a large group of rebels attacked and seized Drianovo (Дряново), setting up its own Revolutionary Council after rejecting the new government of plotters. On June 12, insurgent peasants became involved in fighting a number of heavy battles against the army and police arriving at the Ganchovets (Ганчовец) and Sokolov (Соколово) stations in the Mochura (Мочура) oblast, as the rebel forces came under increasing pressure from the new Tsankov government. At Kilifarevo newly arrived artillery pieces begin firing on the last positions of the rebels around Usoynata (Усойната) and Butora (Бутора) on June 14, and over the following few days the uprising was suppressed. The remaining guerrillas immediately set about forming the Kilifarevo Band (Килифаревската чета [четата]), a sort of insurrectionary 'united front' of the three rebel strands, that would remain active for the next couple of years despite the loss of leading lights such as Georgi Popov (Георги С. Попов) and Georgi Sheytanov (Георги Шейтанов).
[Due to the strong anarchist foundations to the June Uprising and the prevailing post-1994 Communist historiography, the exact details of the events of the June Uprising (especially when compared to the September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание], which coincided with the bolshevisation of the BCP, and was therefore promoted as the 'First' Antifascist Uprising) have been largely hidden or lost, and much of the modern research into the events is not readily available, especially to the non-Bulgarian speaker.]

1927 - The trial (June 8-10) of anarchist Gino Lucetti concludes. He attempted to assassinate Mussolini on September 11, 1926. He is sentenced to 30 years in prison; two others receive 12 years. Antifascist partisan formations during WWII took group names, and two in the Carrara area proudly adopted the names ‘G. Lucetti’ (60-80 guerrillas) and ‘Lucetti bis’ (58 strong).

1940 - René Maurice Frémont (b. 1903), French anarcho-communist and syndicalist, dies. [see: Dec. 23]

##1966 - Henry Treece (b. 1911), British poet, novelist, short story writer, essayist, playwright, editor, teacher, pacifist and philosophical anarchist, dies. [see: Dec. 22]

1968 - Mai '68: After the clearing of the Renault factory at Flins during the night of June 6-7, fights with the police continue and today a high school student, Gilles Tautin, drowns while trying to escape police batons.

1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Brixton Conservative Association firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]
1832 - Jules Vallès (d. 1885), French novelist, journalist, anarchist propagandist, born. A revolutionary from an early age, he took part in revolutionary agitation in Nantes in 1848, leading to his being expelled from school and moving to Paris. After taking part in the uprising against Napoleon III during the French coup of 1851, he flees back to Nantes where his father has him committed to a mental institution (he does not share his son's political beliefs). Thanks to help from a friend, he managed to escape a few months later and returns to Paris, joining the staff of 'Le Figaro', and becoming a regular contributor to the other leading journals.
In 1853 he was arrested for conspiring against Napoleon III, but was later freed due to a lack of evidence. Living in poverty and writing journalism for bread (the stock market page of 'Le Figaro', which fires him for his bias against capitalism). It was around this time that he wrote his first book, 'L'Argent' (1857).
Fascinated by the writings of Proudhon, he becomes a journalist and continues to write novels. On 1 June 1867, he launched the weekly 'La Rue' in collaboration with a number of artists, including Zola and Courbert. Banned after only 6 months, Vallès is imprisoned in Sainte-Pelagie for 2 months in prison for articles critical of the police. There he founds the 'Journal de Sainte-Pelagie'. Released, in 1869 he founds in quick succession 'Le Peuple', 'Le Réfractaire', resurrects 'La Rue' in 1870, and on Feb. 22, 1871, publishes the first issue of 'Le Cri du Peuple'. Condemned to 6 months in prison for his part in the October 1870 Blanquist plot, he manages to escape before arrest but his paper is banned, but will eventually become the official journal of the Commune. One of the 4 editors of the 'L'Affiche Rouge' posted on Jan. 7, he is elected to the Commune on March 26, 1871. A supporter of the minority (signing the manifesto of the minority ande publishing it in his newspaper on May 15), he opposes the Comité de Salut. He fought on the barricades during the Semaine Sanglante, making a last stand in the rue de Paris (now rue de Belleville) on May 28. He managed to escape (2 'false' Vallès are executed by the army in error) and take refuge in England. Sentenced to death in absentia, he will not return to Paris until the amnesty of 1880, when he restarts publication in 1883 of 'Le Cri du Peuple' as a voice for libertarian and Blanquist ideas. During his exile he begins writing 'Jacques Vingtras', his major autobiographical trilogy - 'L'Enfant' (1879), 'Le Bachelier' (1881), and 'L'Insurgé', published in 1886, the year after he dies, exhausted and suffering from diabetes. 60,000 follow his coffin to the Père Lachaise Cemetery.

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: Judge Tomás Solanich Fuster appeared at the premises of the Asociación de Obreros, accompanied by a couple of rural guards, and ordered the eviction of the local, sealing its doors and confiscating its keys. Federación Local de Sanlúcar de Barrameda responded by issuing a manifesto "en nombre de todos los trabajadores del mundo civilizado" (on behalf of all the workers of the civilized world). In it, they branded the Government of Spain and the mayor Antonio González Peñaas as bourgeois, and stated categorically that the city council had trampled upon the very laws emanating from Congress, from which the workers now distanced themselves further ideologically. The manifesto also denounced the city's use of brute force against the local, when the only purpose of the Asociación was to deal with matters relating to work and organisation of workers, while the bourgeois city council apparently had no other purpose than to exploit the working class.
It ended with an open and obvious threat: the Ayuntamiento, a representative of the bourgeoisie of Sanlúcar, had committed an illegal and violent act, and declared that there was now war "entre los pobres y los ricos, entre los señores y los esclavos, entre los opresores y los oprimidos" (between the poor and the rich, between the lords and the slaves, between the oppressors and the oppressed). For these reasons, it called on the workers of the city to assemble, organise, ready arms and prepare for the impending struggle.
That night, Antonio Cuevas Jurado (a member of the Guardia Municipal and one of the principal actors in the impending revolution) met judge Solanich Fuster in secret to explain the views of the workers. The meeting resulted in a friendship, which helped prevent the revolt from getting 'out of hand' and ending up with fratricidal revenge or looting.

## 1888 - Bartolomeo Vanzetti (d. 1927), Italian-American anarchist – the poor fish-peddler to Nicola Sacco's good shoemaker, who was framed and executed alongside his comrade following a facical trial that became an international cause célèbre, born. [expand]
[, Sacco-Vanzetti and the Anarchists.pdf]

1898 At a public meeting in the Salle de L'Harmonie in Paris, the anarchist, Louise Michel, Laurent Tailhade and Charles Malato discuss the big political issues of the moment: famine, mass repression of workers in Italy, the processes of Montjuïc in Catalonia, the war in Cuba and the deception of universal suffrage, and the price of bread; all from a libertarian perspective.

1904 - Joaquín Miguel Artal, a 19-year-old anarchist, who tried to stab Spanish Conservative politician Antonio Maura he is sentenced to 17 years in prison and sent to prison in Ceuta, where he will die in 1909 of inhuman treatment standard to Spanish prisons. Anarchist newspapers such as 'El Libertario' and 'Tierra y Libertad' honour him, referring to him as El Rebelde following his death.

1920 - Bartolomeo Vanzetti - despite having no previous criminal record - is indicted for the Bridgewater hold-up. The anarchist is quickly brought to trial, convicted, and sentenced to the maximum sentence of 12-15 years.

1922 - The anarcho-syndicalist Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) withdraws its provisional affiliation with the Third International in favor of the International Workers Association (IWA).

1923 - June Uprising [Юнско въстание]: A large group of rebels attack and seize Drianovo (Дряново), which sets up its own Revolutionary Council, rejecting the new government of plotters.

1927 - Italian anarchist Gino Lucetti is tried before the Tribunale Speciale per la Difesa dello Stato (Special Tribunal for the Defense of the State) and sentenced to the maximum penalty, 30 years in prison, for attempting to assassinate Mussolini on September 11, 1926. The bomb he threw at him bounced off the car to the ground and exploded, wounding eight passersby.

1931 - III Congreso de la CNT: Held in the Teatro del Conservatorio in Madrid [Jun. 11-16], it was the first after the end of the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, and after the establishment of the Second Republic, and as such it addressed the organic restructuring of the organisation. The congress was attended by delegates from 511 unions totaling a figure of 535,000 represented members, with approximately 800,000 the total number of FRE members. This congress approves the Federaciones Nacionales de Industria (National Federation of Industry), as a complement to the classic structures of trade unions and sectoral federations, the UGT 'corporate' union model that the Republic was now trying to impose, even though the model had already been rejected at the II Congress of 1919.

1937 - Robert Ramsay 'Bob' Smillie (b. 1917), Scottish left-wing, anti-authoritarian socialist, who volunteered with the Independent Labour Party (ILP) contingent in the Spanish Civil War, allegedly dies from peritonitis whilst under arrests by the Stalinist police in Valencia. As an university chemistry student, he took part in hunger marches and fought against Oswald Mosley and the British Union of Fascists. At the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, he travelled to Barcelona and in October 1936 he joined the Executive Committee of the International Revolutionary Youth Bureau, developing strong links with the Workers Party of Marxist Unification (POUM). In January 1937, he volunteered to go to the Aragón Front with other ILP members such as Bob Edwards and George Orwell, serving alongside POUM forces. In April 1937, he travelled with the ILP contingent to Barcelona on leave. There he procured official POUM papers to go to a International Bureau meeting in Paris and on a speaking tour of Scotland. However, when he got to Figueras he was arrested by Spanish Communist Party (PCE) police and charged with carrying "materials of war" (two discharged grenades intended as war souvenirs). In prison in Valencia, the more serious charge of "rebellion against the authorities" was later added. POUM and ILP officials unsuccessfully lobied for his release. According to the official record, on June 4 Smillie began complaining of stomach pains. He was eventually diagnosed with appendicitis and taken to hospital. However, he was not operated on because of "ward congestion" and was not examined until the 12th, when the doctor said it was too late to do anything for him. He died later that day. Another version had it that he died following a beating by guards in his cell, one of the many victims of the Stalinist repression. Amongst those that believed this version were George Orwell and Scottish anarchist Ethel MacDonald, who began writing newspaper articles and making radio broadcasts after Smillie's death claiming that he had been executed by the secret police, something that led to her own arrest.

##1940 - Antonio de Hoyos y Vinent (b. 1884), Spanish aristocrat (who held the title of Marquis de Vinent), openly homosexual dandy, writer and journalist allied to decadentismo, and anarchist militant in the Federación Anarquista Ibérica, dies poor, blind, deaf, almost paralyzed and abandoned by his old acquaintances and his family in Porlier prison.

##1942 - Vitorino Salomé Vieira, popular Portuguese cantor, and anarchist, who is known simply by his first name and who helps keeps alive the songs of the Portuguese working class and of the Spanish revolution, as a display of his "personalidade mais interventiva, marginal, anarquista e republicana", born.

1944 - The Federación Sindical de Trabajadores Mineros de Bolivia (Union Federation of Bolivian Mine Workers) is founded at a congress held in Huanuni, Oruro [Jun. 10-13] in the wake of a violent clash between government troops and striking tin miners in Oruro and Potosí in 1942. The Huanuni Congress included delegates from 25 local unions, the Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario (Revolutionary Nationalist Movement), and the Trotskyist Partido Obrero Revolucionario de Bolivia (Revolutionary Workers' Party). The newly formed union had a membership of 60,000 miners.

#### 1953 - José (Joseph) Bové, French farmer and anti-globalization activist, libertarian, pacifist and anti-militarist, born. He fled France rather than do military service or claim the status of conscientious objector, took part in the resistance to the proposed Larzac military camp in the late 1970s/early 1980s and has been involved in Alternative Libertaire and spent time on the Rainbow Warrior in 1995 oppositing nuclear weapons testing in the Pacific Ocean
In 1987, he participated in the creation of the Confédération Paysanne, becoming one of its five national secretaries and came to countrywide fame on August 12, 1999 when he and several militant peasants 'dismantled' a McDonald's restaurant under construction in Millau, Aveyron. He was sentenced to three months in prison or his efforts.

1959 - Dolores Rodríguez Fernández (b. 1915), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies in exile in France. [see: Dec. 16]

1968 - Mai '68: Violent incidents continue with a demonstrator is shot and killed at Montbéliard, while two striking workers are killed by the hated CRS at the Peugeot factory in Sochaux (one with a bullet fired from submachine gun by CRS).
In Paris, a demonstration departing from the Gare de l'Est descends into riots and barricades, with 266 wounded and 1500 arrests, violent demonstrations will also take place in the provinces.

[B] 1969 - Marco Rovelli, Italian musician, writer, poet, history and philosophy teacher, and anarchist, born. His band Les Anarchistes recorded 2 albums: 'Figli di Origine Oscura' (Children of Obscure Origin; 2002) and 'La Musica Nelle Strade!' (The Music in the Streets!; 2005). He also recorded a 2009 record 'LibertAria'. In addition to his books of poetry such as 'Corpo Esposto' (Exposed Body; 2004) and 'L'Inappartenenza' (Not Belonging; 2009); are his non-fiction works such as 'Lager Italiani' (Italian Lager; 2006), about Italian immigration detention centres, and 'Servi' (Servants; 2009), in which he recounts the stories of immigrants and places they work; plus 'Lavorare Uccide' (Working Kills; 2008), a novel about working place deaths.

1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Stuart Christie's home raided with explosives warrant. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1984 - Matilde Saiz Alonso (b. 1917), Spanish anarchist and miliciana, who fought with the Columna Roja i Negra and was the partner of fellow anarchist Francisco Sansano Navarro, dies. [see: Apr. 11]

[D] 1990 - Bulgaria: June 11-18, barricades and anarchists in the streets of Sofia against the election manipulations of the various political forces.

2001 - Jeff Luers sentenced to 22 years for burning 3 SUVs.
1856 - [N.S. Jun. 24] Anna Vasilevna Yakimova-Dikovsky (Анна Васильевна Якимова-Диковская; d. 1942), Russian anarchist-influenced revolutionary, member of Zemlya i Volya (Land and Liberty), of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), its fighting group Freedom or Death (Свобода или Смерть), and the Socialist Revolutionary Party, writer and historian, born. [see: Jun. 24]

##1856 - [O.S. May 31] Spiro Gulabchev [Спиро Гулабчев](Spiridon Konstantinov Gulabchev [Спиридон Константинов Гулабчев; d. Jan. 1918), prominent Bulgarian political figure and publicist, founder of Siromahomilism (Сиромахомилство), a petty bourgeois form of socialism prominent in Bulgaria at the turn of the C19th, and later an anarchist collectivist and one of the first ideologues of anarchism in Bulgaria, who also promoted a new, phonetic spelling of the Bulgarian language, born.

1873 - Pasquale Binazzi (d. 1944), Italian anarchist, secretary of the Chambre du Travail and organiser of the Syndicat de l'Arsenal in Spezia, born. Founded the weekly magazine 'Il Libertario' in 1903, which printed 10,000 copies at its peak until closed by the Fascists in 1922. He died whilst helping organise anarchist guerilla groups in Liguria and Tuscany.

## 1876 - Leonor Villegas de Magnón (d. 1955), Mexican anarchist, teacher and journalist, who founded the international Mexican American relief service, La Cruz Blanca, in 1913 during the Mexican revolution, born. [expand]

1885 - Adrienne Montégudet (born Victorine Valentine Augustine Amélie Valdant; d. 1948), French teacher, militant communist, revolutionary syndicalist and ultimately a libertarian, born.

###1887 - [O.S. May 31] Iustin Petrovich Zhuk (Иусти́н Петро́вич Жук; d. 1919), Ukranian chemistry technician, member of the anarchist underground during the Tsarist era, anarcho-syndicalist and participant in the factory committees’ movement in 1917, and Shlissel'burg Red Guard, who died fighting against the White Army on the Finnish frontier, born.

1900 - Jules Regis (aka Siger) (b. 1858), Turkish-born revolutionary socialist and anarchist, dies. [see: May 10]

[B] 1921 - Luis García-Berlanga Martí (d. 2010), Spanish screenwriter, film director, actor and anarchist, born. The son and grandson of republican politicians and land owners, his family fled to Tangiers after criticising the anarchists, and was later arrested by fascist regime following Franco's victory. García Berlanga was called up to fight and found himself at the Battle of Teruel. He later volunteered for the División Azul, it was claimed in order to save his father from the death penalty (elsewhere he claimed it was to stay with his falanguist friends), and fought on the Eastern Front. In 1951 he directed his first film, 'Esa Pareja Feliz' (That Happy Couple) with Juan Antonio Bardem, released in 1953, as was his first solo effort 'Bienvenido Mister Marshall' (Welcome Mr. Marshall; 1953). Many of his films, such as 'El Verdugo' (The Executioner; 1963), ended up with him being hauled before Franco's censors to explain. Following Franco's death he released his trilogy 'La Escopeta Nacional' (The National Shotgun; 1977), 'Patrimonio Nacional' (National Heritage; 1981) and 'Nacional III' (National III; 1982), whose philosophy was contrary to family, church and nation - everything Franco stood for.

1923 - June Uprising [Юнско въстание]: Insurgent peasants fight heavy battles against the army and police from the Ganchovets (Ганчовец) and Sokolov (Соколово) stations in the area Mochura (Мочура).

1931 - In Avellaneda, Argentina, a group of anarchists led by Juan Antonio Moran kills Major Rosasco, a zealous servant of the dictatorship of General Uriburu who was responsible for the deaths of many militants, as he dines in a restaurant. The anarchist Lacunza aka Bébé dies during the operation.

1934 - Flávio Aristides Hailliot Freitas Tavares, Brazilian journalist and libertarian socialist, who is the grandson of Malvina Tavares and has lived in exile since 1969, born. In 1967, he was arrested by the Brazilian military dictatorship, accused of being Dr. Falcão, mentor of a guerrilla in the Triângulo Mineiro. Released after seven months, he was arrested agains in 1969, accused of participating in an armed action to free political prisoners at the Lemos de Brito Penitentiary in Rio de Janeiro. Badly tortured, he was released after 30 days, becoming one of the political prisoners exchanged for the kidnapped American ambassador Charles Burke Elbrick.

1936 - Bruno Misefari (also known by the anagrammatical pseudonym Furio Sbarnemi; b. 1892), Italian anarchist , philosopher, poet, author, engineer and deserter, dies. [see: Jan. 17]

1942 - Anna Vasilevna Yakimova-Dikovsky (Анна Васильевна Якимова-Диковская; b. 1856), Russian anarchist-influenced revolutionary, member of Zemlya i Volya (Land and Liberty), of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), its fighting group Freedom or Death (Свобода или Смерть), and the Socialist Revolutionary Party, writer and historian, dies. [see: Jun. 24]

1943 - Hanns Heinz Ewers (Hans Heinrich Ewers; b. 1871), German writer, poet, novelist, playwright, song writer, filmmaker, globetrotter, comedian and Stirnerite individualist, dies. [see: Nov. 3]

1946 - Karel Toman (pen name of Antonín Bernášek; b. 1877), Czech poet, journalist, translator (from French) and representative of the generation of Anarchističtí Buřiči, dies. [see: Feb. 25]

1964 - Antoine Bertrand (b. 1877), French anarcho-syndicalist and member of La Jeunesse Libre (Free Youth) group, dies. [see: Mar. 16]

1968 - Herbert Read (b. 1893), English poet, art critic, anarchist and political philosopher, born. Wrote 'Anarchy & Order; Poetry & Anarchism' (1938); 'Philosophy of Anarchism' (1940); 'Revolution & Reason' (1953); 'My Anarchism' (1966), etc. Early champion of Surrealism. Accepted a knighthood which caused much consternation and ridicule among the anarchist milieu.

1968 - France '68: Henri Blanchet dies in the hospital following a beating at the hands of the CRS.
The government orders the dissolution of various ultra-leftist groups, including the Mouvement du 22 Mars, and prohibits all events during the election period.

#1987 - Maya Chase (formerly Jared 'Jay' Chase), US anarchist transgender prisoner currently serving eight years after being entrapped by undercover cops in the run-up to the 2012 NATO summit in Chicago, born.

#### 1991 - Anna Campbell, nom de guerre Hêlîn Qereçox (d. 2018), British queer anarchist feminist, prison abolition activist and plumber, who was active in Bristol Anarchist Black Cross, the Empty Cages Collective, HSA, etc., who joined the YPJ (Yekîneyên Parastina Jin‎ / Women's Protection Units) defending Rojava and was killed on Mar. 15, 2008, in Afrin during the Turkish military operation in northern Syria, born.
[B] 1870 - Alexandru Bogdan-Piteşti (also known as Ion Doican, Ion Duican and Al Dodan; d. 1922), Romanian Symbolist poet, essayist, art and literary critic, journalist and anarchist, born.
[şti 2011-Art 04-C. Teaca.pdf]

[BB] 1888 - Fernando Pessoa, born Fernando António Nogueira de Seabra Pessoa (d. 1935), Portuguese Modernist poet, writer, literary critic translator, publisher, philosopher and individualist, who dabbled in automatic writing and occultism, born. Published under a huge number (at least 72) of heteronyms (literary alter egos), a number of which e.g. Barão de Teive were used exclusively for his individualist works. The vast majority of his oeuvre remained unpublished upon his death, including his most renowned work 'Livro do Desassossego' (The Book of Disquiet; 1982), a "factless autobiography" found in an envelope and written under the name Bernardo Soares; 'O Banqueiro Anarquista' (The Anarchist Banker; 1996) and 'Educação do Stoica' (The Education of the Stoic: The Only Manuscript of the Baron of Teive; 2002).

"Tenho tanto sentimento
Que é freqüente persuadir-me
De que sou sentimental,
Mas reconheço, ao medir-me,
Que tudo isso é pensamento,
Que não senti afinal.

Temos, todos que vivemos,
Uma vida que é vivida
E outra vida que é pensada,
E a única vida que temos
É essa que é dividida
Entre a verdadeira e a errada.

Qual porém é a verdadeira
E qual errada, ninguém
Nos saberá explicar;
E vivemos de maneira
Que a vida que a gente tem
É a que tem que pensar."

(I have so much feeling
Which often persuades me
That I am sentimental,
But I recognise when measuring myself,
This is all thought,
I did not feel it at all.

We all have to live,
A life that is lived
And another life that is thought,
And the only life we ​​have
Is that this which is divided
Between right and wrong.

But what is the right
And what is wrong, no one
In the know can explain;
And so we live
The life we ​​have
You have to believe that.)

- 'Tenho tanto sentimento'

[* verdadeira: true, real; actual; natural, rightful; sincere, truthful; unfeigned, veracious; veritable.
errada: incorrect, wrong; awry, amiss.]


1892 - Ramon Plarromaní Mas aka 'Romaní' (d. 1957), Catalan textile worker and anarcho-syndicalist, born. He joined the CNT in the 1920s and during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera took part in the fighting against the pistolers of the Sindicat Lliure. In one of these incidents, he was shot in the lung and serious injured, something that has life-long health consequences. In March 1933, he was a representative of the Sindicat Únic de Treballadors (SUT) in Gironella at the plemary of the Regional de Sindicats Únics of the CNT in Catalonia. In October 1936, he was appointed by the CNT to the Consell Municipal Provisional and later took charge of the Ministry of Work. With Franco's victory, he went to France and from 1949 to 1957 lived in the Colònia de Malalts i Mutilats d'Aymare in Aquitaine, a libertarian agricultural community organised by the CNT and the SIA to welcome comrades who suffered from disabilities or old age.

1897 - The first issue of the anarchist periodical 'La Protesta Humana', created by the Catalan cabinetmaker Gregorio Inglán Lafarga, is published in Buenos Aires. Initially published fortnightly, it changes its name to 'La Protesta' and is published daily from April 1, 1904.

## 1903 - Vicente Ballester Tinoco (d. 1936), Spanish carpenter, cabinetmaker, writer, journalist, and prominent Andalusian anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, born. In 1920' he was a member of the anarchist group Fermín Salvochea, along with José Bonat, and in 1921 was a delegate in Cádiz anarchist underground plenum El Arahal, where it was decided that the anarchist groupings would enter the CNT. The following year he was named vice president of Ateneo Obrero and participated in the editorial group of the journal 'Alba Roja'. During the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, he became the president of the Sindicato de la Construcción of the CNT in Cadiz in 1924 and in 1926 joined the Fermin Salvochea Freemason lodge, where he was active until 1930, leaving following the trade union conference held in Seville in October.
In 1927, he married Ramona Sierra Estudillo whom he had five children (Aurora, Rafael Joaquin, Jose Antonio) and the following year was a member of the anarchist group Germinal, with Bonat, Elias Garcia, Lucero and Galé among others. He was arrested for the first time at Jerez in 1929 and was imprisoned for a month and a half. In 1930 he was Vice President of the Ateneo Popular Enciclopèdic where he hosted debates and lectured on Esperanto. In September 1932, he was appointed secretary of the Regional Committee of the CNT in Andalusia and Extremadura. During the insurrection of January 1933, Rafael Peña García (CNT) and Juan Arcas Moreda (FIJL), he was a member of the Comité Revolucionario Andaluz (Revolutionary Committee Andalusian). It was during this period that the massacre in Casas Viejas of 25 people, including Francisco Cruz 'Seisdedos', were burned alive by the Republican Guard assault, a crime that inspired his most famous work 'Han Hasado los Bárbaros. La Verdad Sobre Casas Viejas' (Gone are the barbarians. The Truth about Casas Viejas; 1933). Editor of 'CNT', he was arrested in 1934 in Madrid following the Asturian revolution and in 1935 he was one of the reorganisers of the CNT in Cadiz alongside Manuel Pérez.
In 1936 he lived 2 Calle de la Libertad in Cadiz and in May took part in a rally in the arena alongside the Socialist leader Largo Caballero. He was then Secretary of CR Andalusian. The same month of May was one of the delegates to the Congress of Cadiz CNT in Zaragoza where he participated in the development of the motion on libertarian communism came at the meeting and closing of the conference.
On July 18, 1936 shortly after the outbreak of the Civil War, his son Rafael warned him of the imminent arrival of the Assault Guards and he went into hiding, where he would live for several months in different houses. In the early morning of 19 September, he was arrested following his betrayal. He was summarily tried by court martial and shot that afternoon in the trenches of Las Puertas de Tierra.
His literary work includes the children's story 'Pepin' (1927) and the novels 'La Voz de la Sangre' (The Voice of Blood; 1930), 'El último Cacique' (The Last Political Boss; 1930), 'El asalto' (The assault; 1932), 'Escoria social' (Social Scum; 1932), 'Han Hasado los Bárbaros. La Verdad Sobre Casas Viejas' (1933) and 'La tragedia vulgar de un hombre libre' (The Tragedy of a Vulgar Free Man; 1934).

[F] 1909 - Congress of the labour federation Solidaridad Obrera today votes overwhelmingly to accept the general strike as a tactic of struggle, always "dependant upon the circumstances", marking the move towards the now dominant anarcho-syndicalist faction.

1910 - Fernand Rude (aka Pierre Froment; d. 1990), French social historian, sympathetic to libertarian and anarchist movements, born. Campaigned for the Communist Party in 1929 and visited the USSR a number of times, studying history and making translations. [expand]

[A] 1910 - In Paris, confrontations take place at Faubourg Saint-Anthony between cabinetmakers and police. The anarchist Henri Cler is wounded and dies from head injuries at the hospital Saint-Antoine on June 21.

1923 - June Uprising [Юнско въстание]: At Kilifarevo newly arrives artillery pieces begin firing on the last positions of the rebels in the Usoynata (Усойната) and Butora (Бутора) areas. In the following days the uprising is suppressed. The remaining guerrillas immediately set about forming the Kilifarevo Band (Килифаревската чета [четата]), a sort of insurrectionary 'united front', that would remain active for the next couple of years despite the loss of leading lights such as Georgi Popov (Георги С. Попов) and Georgi Sheytanov (Георги Шейтанов).

[E] 1964 - Lola Amorós (Dolors Amorós Santmartí; b. unknown), Catalan textile worker, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies in exile in Mexico. A militant in the Confederación Nacional del Trebajo, she was also partner of Domingo Rojas Fuentes (José Torres) and mother of the anarchist militants Eliseo and Floreal Rojas Amorós. With the defeat of the Republic, the family crossed the Pyrenees, settling in Perpignan. In 1940 her family was able to cross the Atlantic and settled in Havana, Cuba in 1942, and from 1943 in Mexico. In 1944 she participated in the founding of the editorial group of the Mexican newspaper 'Tierra y Libertad', taking care of correspondence and of various publishing tasks.

1982 - André Claudot (b. 1892), French anarchist, artist and teacher, dies. [see: Feb. 14]

1996 - Valerio Isca (b. 1900), Italian-American anarchist, co-founder of the Libertarian Book Club, dies. [see: Dec. 22]

2011 - Valerie Powles (Valerie Gay Powles; b. 1950), English teacher, vocational historian, local activist and anarcho-individualist, dies. [see: May 14]
1865 - Bernard Lazare (Lazare Marcus Manassé Bernard; d. 1903), French author, journalist, anarchist, polemicist and Dreyfusard, born. Collaborated on the journals 'Les Entretiens Politiques et Littéraires' and 'Temps Nouveaux'. Co-authored, with Ephraïm Mikhaël, 'La Fiancée de Corinthe' (1888), a mythological drama in three acts. He later became a literary critic and in his journalism he defended the anarchists Jean Grave and Félix Fénéon during the Procès des Trente in 1894, covered the 1895 miners’ revolt in Carmaux and, during the 1896 Socialist Congress in London, he denounced Karl Marx as "a jealous authoritarian, unfaithful to his own ideas, driving the Internationale away from its goals". His other works include: 'L’Antisémitisme, son Histoire et ses Cause' (Anti-semitism, its History and Causes; 1894) and the postumous 'Le Fumier de Job' (Job's Dungheap; 1998).

1872 (or poss. 1878) - Jules-César Rozental (d. 1903), Bulgarian militant anarchist and poet, born. Son of a Polish-born Russian revolutionary, doctor and refugee in Bulgaria, he became a libertarian partisan in Macedonia with the Stara Zagora group led by Nicolas Detchev. On the night of September 11 to 12, 1903, the local Macedonian population revolted together with various insurgent groups and engaged a battle near the village of Loukovo. More than 400 were killed along with 113 Turkish Bulgarian militia including Nicolas Detchev. Julius Caesar Rozental was also wounded and died a few days later on September 14. His poetry collection, 'Unfinished Songs' was posthumously published in 1904.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: A manifesto addressed to all workers in the city, written on behalf of the Local Federation of the AIT (International Association of Workers), and signed by Antonio Cuevas Jurado and fourteen other comrades, is published in Sanlúcar de Barrameda in answer to the one previously published the mayor González Peña. In it, they refuted one by one, each of the 'consejos' (pronouncements) that the mayor had offered the city's workers. It labelled the mayor González Peña as being a capitalist, because, having aquired some capital, he could afford to live without work. It also attacked his ideology, affirming, among other things: that he was nothing but a representative of authoritarian power; that, when anarchy arrived, he would know that there would no longer be any mayors of barrios; that he should not lose sight of the fact that the workers had declared war against the monopolisers of capital; that if the landlords risked something, the workers risked more having to work 10 to 15 hours a day; that private property was nothing more than legalised robbery; that only concord between labour and capital would be possible when it was the property of workers' collectivities; that there would be poor and rich while the poor failed to realise that the rich lived on the backs of the workers and the exploitation of the poor; that when it all resides in the hands of the workers' communities, it would only be necessary to work for 4 to 5 hours, leaving time for education and discovery ... The manifesto ended with a call to the workers to unite, thus enhancing the triumph of anarchy and of collectivism, and achieving the disappearance of all tyrannies (religious, political and economic), and build on their ruins "un mundo nuevo de productores libres".

##1884 - Furukawa Rikisaku (古河力作; b. 1911), Japanese horticulture and nursery worker, and anarchist during the Meiji era, who was one of twelve who was executed in the High Treason Case (大逆事件 / Taigyaku Jiken), born.

1896 - Jean Le Gall (d. 1956), militant French libertarian and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Militant trades union leader of the SGOP (Syndicat général des ouvriers du port), the independent dockworkers union in Le Harve.

1910 - Fritz Krüschedt (d. 1978), German anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, born.

1911 - Los Angeles police arrest the anarchists Ricardo and Enrique Flores Magón for violation of the US neutrality law.

1914 - Settimana Rossa di Ancona: 'The Red Week of Ancona' general strike ends with the complicity of the Socialists and their trade union. Errico Malatesta, escaping the police, is forced again to flee into exile, to London. [see: Jun. 21]

1915 - Anselmo L. Figueroa (b. 1861), Mexican-American journalist, anarchist and member of the Junta Organizadora of the Partido Liberal Mexicano, dies in poverty in Palomas, Arizona, due to the physical deterioration caused by the 23 months forced labour he was sentenced to in 1911 in McNeil Island federal penitentiary. [see: Apr. 21]

1919 - Trotsky drafts an order banning the Makhnovist Congress, accusing them of opposing Soviet power in the Ukraine. Trotsky calls for the arrest of the delegates.

1920 - Anna Maria 'Marianna' Mozzoni (b. 1837), Italian journalist, socialist and militant feminist, dies. [see: May 5]

1930 - The first issue of the weekly anarchist newspaper 'El Productor' is published in Barcelona. Only six issues will appear, the last dated 19 July 1930.

1930 - The first issue of the Italian language fortnightly 'L'Avanguardia Libertaria' is published in Melbourne.

1940 - Václav Hradecký (b. 1867), Czech painter, draftsman, cartoonist and anarchist, who collaborated with the anarchist press in France, dies in Domažlice, Czechoslovakia. [see: Oct. 21]

1942 - Johann Heinrich Vogeler (b. 1872), German painter, printmaker, architect, designer, educator, writer and communitarian, dies. [see: Dec. 12]

[C] 1944 - Jules Le Gall (b. 1881), French boilermaker, journalist, ironmonger, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and Freemason, dies at Buchenwald after deportation for his masonic membership. [see: Dec. 13]

[A] 1966 - Major Provo riots in Amsterdam.

1968 - Rirette Maîtrejean (Anna Henriette Estorges; b. 1887), French individualist anarchist activist and propagandist, dies. [see: Aug. 14]

## 1970 - Bradley Roland 'Brad' Will (d. 2006), US anarchist, poet, documentary filmmaker and a journalist with Indymedia New York City, born. He was shot and killed on October 27, 2006 during the teachers' strike in the Mexican city of Oaxaca.

1986 - Jorge Luis Borges (Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo; b. 1899), Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, opponent of fascism, totalitarianism and anti-Semitism, who delared himself to be "a modest Spencerian anarchist", something he inherited from his father Jorge Guillermo Borges, dies in Geneva of liver cancer, aged 86. [see: Aug. 24]

2002 - Jacky Toublet (b. 1940), French anarcho-syndicalist, militant, director of the weekly 'Le Monde Libertaire', son of Julien Toublet, dies. [see: Nov. 12]

2006 - Vicente Marti (b. 1926), Spanish militant anarchist and member Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL), dies. In the 1960s Marti was responsible for getting weapons from France into Spain to aid guerrilla actions against the fascist government.
1853 - [N.S. Jun. 27] Sophia Illarionovna Bardina aka 'Auntie' [Тётенька] (Софья Илларионовна Бардина; b. 1853), Russian anarchist revolutionary in the populist movement of the 1870s, who was influenced Kropotkin and Bakunin, born. [see: Jun. 27]

## 1857 - Moisés Santiago Bertoni (Mosè Giacomo Bertoni; b. 1929), Italian speaking Swiss naturalist, botanist and anarchist writer, who was popularly known as 'El Sabio Bertoni' in Paraguay following his emigration to South America in 1884, born.

1869 - [N.S. Jun. 27] Emma Goldman (d. 1940), world citizen, anarchist rebel, feminist, anti-militarist and force of nature, born in Lithuania. [see: Jun. 27]

1871 - 'Émile' Ernest Girault [also spelled Giraud] (d. 1933), French individualist anarchist and revolutionary anti-militarist, and, successively, a typographer, a chemist and an agronomist, who joined the Communists after the October Revolution, born. Active during the Dreyfus affair, he took part in the 1904 founding confrence in Amsterdam of the Association Internationale Antimilitariste. [expand]

1881 - The recently inaugurated statue of Adolphe Thiers in St-Germain-en-Laye is attacked with an anarchist bomb, made from a sardine tin packed with explosives. Unfortunately it does not cause much damage to the statue of the tyrant but this first attempt (failed) hails the beginning in France an era of propaganda by deed, even if it was a provocation organised by the Prefect of Police in Paris, Louis Andrieux, who also financed the anarchist journal 'La Révolution Sociale' with public funds.

1896 - Gérard Duvergé (also known as Fred Durtain, Chevalier à Monségur) (d. 1944), French libertarian teacher, anarchist and anti-fascist résistant, born. Fought in Spain and, as a member of the Résistance, was murdered by the Gestapo.

1900 - First issue of 'L'Education Libertaire', in Paris. A monthly international review sponsored by libertarian educational libraries, in conjunction with efforts, in February 1899, to found a libertarian school.

1900 - Première issue of 'Le Réveil des Travailleurs' (The Worker's Alarm Clock; semi-monthly, then weekly until April 1903) in Liège. Among those who ran the paper was the Belgian anarchist George Thonar.

1901 - In Mexico Jesus and Ricardo Flores Magón are arrested for subversive articles.

1901 - The first issue of Juana Belén Gutiérrez de Mendoza and Elisa Acuña Rosete's anti-porfirista women's weekly 'Vésper' in Guanajuato, central México.

1901 - Josep Lluís Pellicer i Fenyé (b. 1842), Catalan painter, illustrator and cartoonist, anarchist sympathiser and cousin of Rafael Farga Pellicer, dies in Barcelona. [see: May 12]

[DD] [1913 - [O.S. Jun. 2] Tikveš Uprising [Тиквешко въстание (Bul) / Тиквешко востание (Mkd)]: An uprising against the Serbian government in Vardar Macedonia, planned by the by the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation to take place behind the Serbian lines during the Second Balkan War after the Bulgarian Army had begun operations in the Tikveš region of Macedonia, starts prematurely after the secret uprising conspiracy had been betrayed to the local Serbian authorities.
[Jul.-Greg. correction reversed]Тиквешко_въстаниеТиквешко_востаниеš_Uprising]

1917 - Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman are arrested during a raid of their offices which yields "a wagon load of anarchist records and propaganda" for the authorities according to 'The New York Times'. The pair were charged with conspiracy to "induce persons not to register" under the newly enacted Espionage Act, and were held on US$25,000 bail each. Defending herself and Berkman during their trial, Goldman invoked the First Amendment, asking how the government could claim to fight for democracy abroad while suppressing free speech at home:
We say that if America has entered the war to make the world safe for democracy, she must first make democracy safe in America. How else is the world to take America seriously, when democracy at home is daily being outraged, free speech suppressed, peaceable assemblies broken up by overbearing and brutal gangsters in uniform; when free press is curtailed and every independent opinion gagged? Verily, poor as we are in democracy, how can we give of it to the world?
However, the jury found Goldman and Berkman guilty. Judge Julius Marshuetz Mayer imposed the maximum sentence: two years' imprisonment, a $10,000 fine each, and the possibility of deportation after their release from prison. Goldman was released on September 27, 1919 and Berkman on October 1, 1919, looking "haggard and pale"; according to Goldman - he had spent seven months in solitary confinement in the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary for protesting the beating of other inmates.

1918 - The anarchist Jules Durand, sentenced to death in November 1910 - a victim of corrupt witnesses and vilification by the local press for a crime he did not commit - is found innocent in a new trial.

1919 - Founding of the Federation of Anarchist Communists of Bulgaria (Федерация на анархо-комунистите в България), in Sofia, June 15-17th. Federation members included Ivan Nicolov, one of its most popular speakers and polemicists, and Gueorgui Cheitanov, a popular speaker and guerrilla. (Both were murdered by the fascist government in 1925.) The Federation published the theoretical review, 'Free Society' (Свободно общество).

1920 - Liberto Sarrau Royes (d. 2001), Spanish militant anarchist, anti-fascist fighter and writer, born. Active in the labour movement as a member of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT. Member of the Juventudes Libertarias (JJLL) and the famed Durruti Column. Liberto Sarrau whose regular column 'Retractos al minuto' (up to the minute portraits) gave a sort of tongue in cheek biographies of swollen headed libertarian militants or ones who had slipped down what Sébastien Faure called the "slippery slope." Along with Amador Franco, Liberto Sarrau made up the youngest duo of writers whose work appeared in 'Ruta', whose columns featured the finest pens of anarchist thinking during the 30s. A member of the anti-fascist resistance movement in Barcelona, in 1946 Liberto, his partner Joaquina Dorado and Raúl Carballeira formed the group 3 de Mayo. In 1948, he was arrested, tortured and sent to prison.
Sarrau appears in the film 'Vivir la Utopia' (Living Utopia) by Juan Gamero: "Liberto Sarrau evokes the injustice that led to the condemnation of Francisco Ferrer who was innocent of the crimes that were attributed to him. He praises the schools and the quality of teaching inspired by Ferrer. Sarrau then provides a logical explanation of the reasons for burning down some churches, which occurred only with priests who joined the police and soldiers shooting — from bell towers (as one can see in Ken Loach’s film, 'Tierra y Libertad') — anyone they could aim at, including women and children, instead of shooting armed enemies.

1921 - Isidre Guàrdia Abella aka Leopoldo Arribas, 'Codine', Juan Lorenzo, 'Viriato', Juan Ibérico, 'Isigual', etc. (d. 2012), Spanish writer, autodidact, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. Orphaned at 10 years old, he was forced to work in numerous jobs (bellhop, busboy (waiter's assistant), apprentice barber, labourer, cashier, etc.), all the time trying to make up for his lack of schooling. In 1935 he joined the Sindicat Gastronòmic of the CNT. With the fascist coup in 1936, he joined the militia and was a member of the Joventuts Llibertàries in the Barri del Centre de València. On 2 August 1936, he participated in the assault on the headquarters of the Regiment de Cavalleria Lleuger Cuirassat (Light Armored Cavalry Regiment) 'Lusitania' No. 8, located on Passeig d'Àlbers in Valencia. During the civil war, he fought as a volunteer in the Primera Columna Confederal de Llevant and, following the militarisation of the brigades, he was appointed, aged 17, a sergeant in the 82 Mixed Brigade on the Teruel front, also writing for the brigades news sheet under the pseudonym Isigual. After Franco's victory, he was held in the Utiel concentration camp. After his release, he joined the clandestine struggle, becoming a member of the Comité Provincial del Movimiento Libertario in Valencia and, from November 1939, head of the Organización del Comité Provincial de la Agrupación Libertaria (which included the CNT, FAI and FIJL). On his 19th birthday, he was arrested by Franco's police for his involvement in the distribution of an Alianza Democrática Española manifesto that Francisco Ponzán Vidal had printed in France. On 8 November 1941, along with 32 members of the CNT and the FIJL, he was tried by court martial and sentenced to death for "conspiracy against the regime" and membership of the Agrupació Llibertària. The sentence was commuted to 30 years in prison in January 1942. During the 8½ years he spent in the central prison of San Miguel de los Reyes in Valencia, he was secretary of the Juventudes Libertarias for 4 years and a member of the prison's Comité Libertario for 4 years. In this period, in addition to expand his knowledge of French and Italian, he studied accounting, published the Boletín de CNT (Bulletin of CNT), edited the newspaper of the Juventudes Libertarias and was a correspondent with the anarchist press in exile, thanks to the assistance of Castor Garcia Rojo, a prison official who smuggled out his mail. He was released on October 7, 1950, after serving ten years, three months and twenty three days. In 1974, his testimony (under the pseudonym Juan Lorenzo) was included in the Cuadernos de Ruedo Ibérico (Journal of Iberian Arean ) entitled 'El movimiento libertario español' (The Spanish libertarian movement). After the death of Franco, he participated in the reconstruction of the CNT and, from 1976, he was director of a chemical company, the same year as he was amongst the 10 finalists for the Planeta Prize for his unpublished autobiographical novel 'Saca', later published as 'Otoño de 1941' (1977). He was involved in various agricultural enterprises and continued to write for many libertarian publications e.g. 'España Libre',' Comunidad Iberica', 'Frente Libertario', 'Revista Iberoamericana de Autogestión y Acción Comunal', 'Sindicalismo', 'Umbral', 'La Verdad', etc. He is also author of 'Entre el ensayo y la historia' (Between phases and history; 1976); 'La CNT ante el presente, pasado y perspectiva' (The CNT to the past, present and perspective; 1977); 'Conversaciones sobre el movimiento obrero: Entrevistas con militantes de la CNT' (Talk about the labour movement: Interviews with members of the CNT; 1978); 'Escritos del silencio' (Writings of silence; 2005, articles written in prison); and 'Entre muros y sombras' (Between walls and shadows; 2006).

1930 - The first issue of the anarchist journal 'Libre Examen', financed by donation, is published in Buenos Aires. A total of 121 issues are published up til Jan. 23, 1932.

1930 - The first issue of the fortnightly anarcho-syndicalist newspaper 'El Sembrador' is published in Igualada, Barcelona.

1942 - Vera Nikolayevna Figner (Ве́ра Никола́евна Фи́гнер; b. 1852), Russian revolutionary, Bakuninist socialist, poet and memoirist, who plotted to blow up the Tsar and later directed the Kropotkin Museum, dies in Moscow at age 89. [see: Jul. 7]

1966 - End of three days of Dutch Provo rioting, Amsterdam.

1974 - Sara Bard Field (b. 1882), American poet, pacifist, suffragist, Christian socialist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Sep. 1]

[B] 2003 - Enrico Baj (b. 1924), Italian anarchist painter, sculptor, writer and activist, best known for his collages of ridiculous-looking generals made from shards of glass, scraps of flowery material and shells, dies aged 79. [see: Oct. 31]
1827 - Élie Reclus (Jean-Pierre Michel Reclus; d. 1904), anthropologist, journalist and militant anarchist. Participated in the Commune of Paris in 1871, born. Member of the great generational anarchist family, including Élisée Reclus and Paul Reclus.

1870 - Louis Segaud (d. unknown), French anarchist, member of Les Révoltés and correspondent for Émile Pouget's 'Père Peinard', born. Persecuted for his activities, in 1891 he took refuge in Luxembourg and England to avoid conscription, returning in 1903 to head the Syndicat des Ouvriers Couvreurs (Roofers Union) in Roanne.

1883 - The first issue of the Czech language anarchist newspaper 'Budoucnost' (The Future) is published in Chicago. It will be banned by the authorities in May 1886 during the repression that followed the Haymarket incident.

1894 - In Rome the anarchist Paolo Lega attempts to shoot the Italian prime minister, Francesco Crispi. Upon his first shot the pistol refuses to fire. The second shot misses and Lega is arrested. At his trial on July 19, 1894, he is sentenced to 20 years and 17 days in prison. [see: Dec. 9]

1903 - Lucien Bernizet (d. 1992), French militant anarchist, pacifist and Mason, born. Secretary of the Romans (Drôme) libertarian group and treasurer of the local Bourse du Travail. [expand]

1907 - Italian anarchists meet in congress in Rome (16-20).

1909 - The first issue of the fortnightly anarcho-syndicalist newspaper 'Nueva Aurora' (New Dawn), "Organo de las Sociedades Obreras", is published in Malaga.

1913 - Emma Goldman begins a lecture tour (June 16-July 9) in Los Angeles on anarchism and modern drama. General lecture topics include 'Friedrich Nietzsche, the Anti-Governmentalist', 'The Social Evil', and 'The Child and Its Enemies: The Revolutionary Developments in Modern Education'. Dramatists discussed include Henrik Ibsen, Hermann Sudermann, Otto Hartleben, J. M. Synge, William Butler Yeats, Lady Isabella Gregory, Lennox Robinson, Thomas C. Murray, and E. N. Chirikov.

1917 - Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman plead not guilty on conspiracy charges; bail set at $25,000 each. Emma Goldman disappointed by Ben Reitman's failure to return to New York to support their pending trial.

1921 - The first issue of the fortnightly magazine 'Pagine Libertarie' is published in Milan.

[A] 1923 - In Buenos Aires the anarchist Kurt Gustav Wilckens is shot in his cell by a fanatical right-wing prison guard. He dies the following day and, despite government attempts to cover up the crime, a countrywide General Strike is called in protest.

1925 - Lucie Cousturier (Lucie Brû; b. 1876), French painter and writer, libertarian, anti-colonialist and anarchist fellowtraveller, who studied under Paul Signac and Henri-Edmond Cross but is largely forgotten expect as a footnote to the post-Impressionists, dies in Paris. [see: Dec. 19]

1929 - Ronald Creagh, Anglo-French historian of the American anarchist movement, born. Author of 'Histoire de l'Anarchisme aux USA' (1981), 'Laboratoires de l'Utopie: Les Communautés Libertaires aux Etats Unis' (Laboratory of Utopia, Libertarian Communities in the United States; 1983), 'Sacco et Vanzetti' (1984), 'Terrorisme: Entre Spectacle et Sacré, Éléments pour un Débat' (Terrorism: Between Spectacle and Sacred, Elements for a Debate; 2001), 'Utopies Américaines - Expériences Libertaires du XIXe Siècle à Nos Jours' (American Utopias, Libertarians Experience of the Nineteenth Century to the Present Day; 2009), etc.

1938* - Olga Feodorovna Revzina (Ольга Фёдоровна Ревзина), better know as Elena Ferrari [Елена Константиновна Феррари] (b. 1899), Russian poet, Bolshevik, anarchist partisan, Red Army scout during the Civil War and Soviet spy, is shot after being found guilty of espionage and participation in a counter-revolutionary organisation.
[* some sources incorrectly give the date as July 16]

## 1945 - Vantzeti Dimitrov Vassilev (Ванцети Димитров Василев), Bulgarian chemical engineer, writer and libertarian, named after the Italian-American anarchist, Bartolomeo Vanzetti by his anarchist father, Dimitar Vassilev Stoyanov, who himself had been declared "an enemy of the people" by the communist government, born.

1969 - Marie Mayoux (aka Joséphine Bourgon; b. 1878), French teacher, militant syndicalist, pacifist and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 24]

1995 - Ramón Domingo (b. 1901), Spanish anarchist propagandist and Civil War combattant, dies. [see: Aug. 31]

1996 - Richard Sylvan (Francis Richard Routley; b. 1935), New Zealand-Australia philosopher, logician, environmentalist and anarchist, dies while on holiday in Bali. [see: Dec. 13]
[E] 1856 - Nannie Florence Dryhurst (Hannah Ann Robinson; d. 1930), Irish school governess, teacher, translator, anarchist communist and atheist, born in Dublin. Following her marriage, she moved to London, where she taught at the International School, the anarchist free school set up at 19 Fitzroy Square in the early 1890s by the French anarchist and Communard Louise Michel, and became involved in the Freedom group, becoming a close friend of Charlotte Wilsonand Peter Kropotkin. A French, German, and Irish Gaelic speaker, she used her language skills to translate article for 'Freedom' (also becoming its editor for a short period) and translated Kropotkin’s book 'The Great French Revolution' into English. Her articles regulalry appeared in both the anarchist and irish press under the penname N.F. Dryhurst.

1876 - Bologna anarchist trial ends. Malatesta and six others acquitted.

1891 - [N.S. Jun. 30] Fyodor Pavlovich Drugov (Федор Павлович Другов; d. February 23, 1934), Russian SR-Maximalist and anarcho-individualist, who was a member of the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee (Петроградского военно-революционного комитета) and the Cheka Collegium (Коллегию ВЧК), and played a key role in the storming of the Winter Palace, born. [see: Jun. 30]

##1893 - Djalma Fettermann (d. 1973), Brazilian metal worker, goldsmith, and post office worker, who was an important libertarian militant in the south of the country during the first two decades of the C20th, played an active role during the general strike of 1917, including throwning a bomb concealed in a wreath of flowers at cavalry charging a crowd, and was editor in the newspaper 'A Luta', born.

1906 - Alexander Berkman released from prison for attempted murder of Henry Clay Frick. Emma Goldman and others address a crowd of 2,000 people who gather to greet Berkman.

###1908 - Martha Wüstemann, aka Martha Lewin, Julia Alino (d. 1992), German seamstress, tailor, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, first in the SAJ, then FAUD and, after its banning, in Deutsche Anarchosyndikalisten (DAS) in Spain during the revolution, born.

[F] 1921 - Evelio Boal, Secretary General of the CNT, assassinated (ley de fugas) by the government. Part of the bloody repression of the anarcho-syndicalist union in the early 1920s, large numbers of cenetista leaders being jailed and/or assassinated.

1921 - The anarcho-syndicalist Salvador Sala Salsench attempts to assassinate Antonio Martínez Domingo, the mayor of Barcelona, in the Plaça St Jaume. The plan had been for a group of cenetistas to attack Severiano Martínez Anido, the Governor of Barcelona and the promoter of the ley de fugas, but he failed to show.

1923 - In Argentina Kurt Wilckens (b. 1886) dies after being shot in his prison cell yesterday by a rightwing guard. German anarchist, member of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), he was responsible for the attack on Varela (known as the 'Killer of Patagonia'). [see: Nov. 3]

[EE] 1926 - Eve Adams (or Addams) aka Eva Kotchever (Chava Zlocower; 1891 - 1943), a Polish-American Jew, lesbian and anarchist, is arrested in the lesbian speakeasy and tea room, Eve’s Hangout (it had a sign on the door that announced: "Men are admitted, but not welcome"), that she ran with her partner Ruth Norlander at 129 MacDougal Street in Greenwich Village. Friends of Emma Goldman, the couple had also previously run a gay-friendly anarchist café in Chicago called The Gray Cottage.
Eve's crime? Showing an undercover female police officer a collection of short stories she was writing called 'Lesbian Love'. Arrested as part of a mid-1920’s police crackdown on gay and lesbian clubs in the Village, Eve was charges with 'disorderly conduct' for allegedly making homosexual advances toward the officer, and her manuscript along with twelve other 'objectionable' books in her possession were seized as obscene material. Eve was sentenced to a year in the workhouse and was deported France in December 1926. There she ran a lesbian nightclub in Montmartre and later sold queer literature and porn to make ends meet, befriending Henry Miller and Anaiis Nin along the way. She later moved to Spain during the Civil War and, upon her subsequent return to France, studied at the Sorbonne. Rounded-up as a Jew, on December 17, 1943, Eve was deported from Drancy to Auchwitz where she was murdered.

1932 - Angelo Pellegrino Sbardellotto (b. 1907), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, summarily tried and executed by a fascist firing squad, having admitted to the Fascist Special Tribunal (for the Defence of the State) his plan to assassinate Mussolini. His final words: "Viva Anarchia!" [see: Aug. 1]

1937 - The Austrian anarchist Katia (or Katja) Landau (Julia Lipschutz; 1895 or 1905 - unknown) is amongst those POUM members arrested by the NKVD in the post-May Days crackdown on the opponents of the Stalinisation of the Revolution, including those amongst the anarchists and left communists opposing the militarisation of the militia. Prominent amongst them is Katia's partner, the prominent Austrian Marxist Kurt Landau, whom they hope to lure out of hiding - he was given refuge in the Barcelona CNT headquarters, secured for him by Augustin Souchy. Katia and the other POUM members were brutally tortured and attempts made to force them to sign various forms of confessions (being foreign agents, counter-revolutionaries, etc.).
On September 23, 1937, Kurt Landau was discovered hiding in the house of a POUM comrade, Carlotta Duran, and disappeared. In prison Katia Landau's prolonged attempts to gain news about the fate of her 'disappeared' husband fall on deaf ears and on November 8 she is forced to resort to a hunger strike. 500 other women, mostly Germans, in Barcelona's Carcel de Mujeres with her, mount hunger strike in solidarity. A visit to the prison by an international commissions of enquiry into the situation in the state prisons, the circumstances in which several foreign representatives of worker’s organisations, including Erwin Wolf, Marc Rhein and Kurt Landau, had disappeared, as well as the disappearance of Andrés Nin, was greeted by the singing of the 'Internationale' by hundreds of women prisoners – all "Fascist agents" according to the Stalinists.
[ Landau/katia_landau.htm]

##1943 - Fritz Teufel (d. 2010), West Berlin Communard, political activist, author and active participant in the West German anti-authoritarian student movement in the 1960s, born.
With Dieter Kunzelmann and Rainer Langhans, he was one of the founders of Kommune 1 which directed its activities against the prevailing social conditions and, mainly due to these deliberately provocative actions, attracted worldwide attention. He was also a leading member of the Bewegung 2. Juni (2nd June Movement). [expand]

1945 - Luigi Francesco Giovanni Parmeggiani aka Louis Marcy (d. 1945), Italian anarchist individualist expropriator, one-time apprentice typographer, shoemaker, and latterly a journalist, publisher, antiques dealer and forger of medieval and Renaissance caskets, jewellery and reliquaries, dies. [see: Apr. 2]

## 1947 - Chellis Glendinning, European-American non-fiction author, novelist, psychotherapist, pioneer in the field of ecopsychology, "feminist, bio-regionalist and anarchist", born.

##[B] 1958 - Jello Biafra (Eric Reed Boucher), American hardcore musician, spoken words artist, political activist and former lead singer and songwriter for San Francisco punk rock band Dead Kennedys, born. A self-declared anarchist who sees no contradictions in working with the Green Party.

1963 - John Cowper Powys (b. 1872), Welsh novelist, essayist, poet and individualist anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 8]

1963 - Pyotr Alexandrovich Raush (Пётр Александрович Рауш), Russian anarchist and anti-war activist, historian and propagandist, born. One of the few active Russian anarchists, who also included Anatoly Dubovik (Анатолий Дубовик), Vadim Damier (Вадим Дамье), Vladlen Tupikin (Владлен Тупикин) and Pyotr Ryabov (Пётр Рябов), that had a public profile in the late 1980s

1968 - Aleksei Eliseevich Kruchenykh (Russian: Алексе́й Елисе́евич Кручёных) (b. 1886), Russian Cubo-Futurist or zaum (‘transrational language') poet, critic and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 21]
1853 - [N.S. Jun. 30] Olga Spiridonovna Lyubatovich (Ольга Спиридоновна Любатович) aka 'Shaeek' (Акула), Olga Doroshenko (Ольга Дорошенко), (Maria Svyatskaya) Мария Святская (d. 1917), Russian anarchist-influenced revolutionary, narodnitsa and member of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya (Земля и воля / People's Will), born. [see: Jun. 30]

[F] 1870 - Primer Congreso Obrero Español: At the Congreso Obrero de Barcelona at the Teatro Circo de Barcelona attended by 89 delegates, 74 of them from various Catalan workers' societies, representing 15,000 members, the Federación Regional Española of the AIT (FRE de la AIT) is founded.
[ón_Regional_Española_de_la_AIT anarcosindicalismo y sus Congresos.Completo.pdf]

1873 - Marie Julienne Capderoque aka Marion Bachmann (d. unkown), French milliner, syndicalist, feminist and anarchist, born. In 1893 Capderoque founded the Comité d'Études des Femmes Socialistes Révolutionnaires.

1882 - La Bande Noire: At the beginning of 1882, the Montcellian workers' world was in turmoil following the great strike of Roanne in March 1882. Indeed, at the end of this one, a young worker, Fournier, had shot at his boss . This event, glorified by the anarchist press, is considered by the libertarians as the first authentic act of "propaganda by the fact" in France. It is in this context that the Bande Noire takes action against the religious and political oppression of the Chagots, the owners of the local mines, who stood at the head of the oppressive semi-fuedal paternalism of "le système Chagot". From June 1882, the Bandes Noire's main target would be the privileged auxiliary of the Chagots: the local clergy.
The first attack takes place during the night of June 17-18, when altars prepared for a religious procession are thrown into a local pond.

## 1884 - Tito Livio Foppa (d. 1988), Argentinian journalist, writer, dramatist and theatrical critic, anarchist, and then diplomat, born in Adrogué, Buenos Aires.

1892 - The first issue of the fortnightly newspaper 'Solidarity' is published in New York.

1921 - José Martínez Guerricabeitia (aka Felipe de Orero) (d. 1986), Spanish anarchist and founder of the Ruedo Ibérico (Iberian Circle) publishing house in 1961, born. Active in the Spanish underground 1945-1947.

1923 - On Saturday June 16 in Buenos Aires the German-born anarchist Kurt Gustav Wilckens (b. 1886), the assassin of Lt. Colonel Héctor Varela, 'the butcher of Patagonia' (during the Patagonia Rebelde agricultural workers strike and insurrection in 1920 he had been responsible for the summary executions of more than 1500 strikers and ordinary workers), had been shot in his cell by a fanatical right-wing prison guard. He died the following day and, despite government attempts to cover up the crime, a countrywide General Strike was immediately called in protest by the Bonaerense Federación Obrera Local (FOL), which today paralyses Argentina. In Buenos Aires the protest demonstration in the Plaza Once turns into a shoot-out when police attempt to raid the local offices of the anarcho-syndicalist FORA (Federación Obrera Regional Argentina). Two workers are killed, 17 wounded (including the Spanish anarchist Enrique Gombas) and 163 arrested; one policeman is killed and three wounded. The widely distrusted Unión Sindical Argentina [formed by the FORA del IX Congreso (socialist and communist minority group that had split from the anarchist majority FORA del V Congreso in 1915) together with several smaller unions in 1922], which was held to have betrayed the workers during the Patagonia Rebelde and had belatedly announced its support for the general strike on June 18 (calling its members out the following day at 18:00!), but quickly withdrew that support under pressure from the bourgeois press and Partido Comunista de la Argentina, leaving the Bonaerense FOL and FORA to continue with the fight. However, on June 20, the FOL and FORA decided to call and end to the strike for 18:00 the following day.

1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Lambeth Court, home of the Archbishop of Canterbury, is firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1977 - John Lydon aka Johnny Rotten is attacked in the street by a crazed bunch of pro-royalists in revenge for 'God Save the Queen'. Lydon is stabbed in the hand several times, damaging tendons.

[A] 1999 - The Carnival against Capital shuts down the City of London. There are solidarity protests in 40 other countries.

[B] 2010 - José de Sousa Saramago (b. 1922), Portuguese writer of novels, short stories, poetry, plays, memoirs and travelogues, atheist and libertarian communist, dies. [see: Nov. 16]
1856 - Elbert Green Hubbard (June 19, 1856 – May 7, 1915), US writer, publisher, artist, philosopher, and Christian anarchist, born.
"I am an Anarchist. All good men are Anarchists. All cultured, kindly men; all gentlemen; all just men are Anarchists. Jesus was an Anarchist." - 'A Message to Garcia and Thirteen Other Things' (1901)

1870 - Constituent Congress of the Spanish section of the First International: The Federación Española Región the Federación Regional Española (FRE) takes place (19-26 June) in the Circo theatre in Barcelona.

1881 - František Gellner (d. 1914), Czech poet, short story writer, artist and Bohemian anarchist, born. Wrote for 'Nový Kult' and was involved in Prague anarchist circles with S.K. Neumann, Karel Toman, Fráňa Šrámek and Marie Majerová. His poetry was deeply ironic and provocatively recorded his fleeting sexual exploits as well as being critical of society in terms similar to French anarchist chanson. Gellner died in the trenches of WWI and his body was never recovered.

[BB] 1884 - Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes (d. 1974), French writer (plays, poetry, manifestos and opera librettos), painter and libertarian associated with the Dada movement, born. One of the forefathers, along with Marcel Duchamp and Francis Picabia, of Paris Dada, following the arrival of Tristan Tzara and Hans Arp who carried the seeds of the Cabaret Voltaire from Zurich. His great-grandfather Jean-Philibert Dessaignes helped found the school of Vendôme. Close to Marcel Duchamp and Francis Picabia, he worked with the later on his '391' magazine in 1917, and the three founded the magazine 'Littérature' in May 1918. Ribemont-Dessaignes was involved in the bizarre trial of the reactionary and anti-Semitic writer Maurice Barrès, reluctantly playing the role of prosecutor, that signalled the end of Dada. He said afterwards, "Dada could be a criminal, a coward, a destroyer or a thief, but not a judge." He did not join the exodus to Surrealism in 1924 but went on to found the politics, arts and philosophy magazine 'BIFUR' in 1930, which brought together some of the writers excommunicated by the surrealist movement, as well as Marxist and anarchist contributors, both French and non-French. Condemned by Benjamin Péret as the Grand-Rat-Déjeté following his criticism of Péret's post-war pamphlet 'Le Déshonneur des Poètes' (1945) and his attack on those who stayed in France during WWII.
”We know what Dadaism had done with politics, it had destroyed it with a stroke of the pen, ignored it. The movement revolted against power of all sorts,in favor of liberties of all sorts”

[A] 1886 - Haymarket Trial: The Kangaroo trial of eight anarchists for the Haymarket bombing begins, Chicago. [EXPAND]

[B] 1891 - Helmut Franz Joseph Herzfeld (John Heartfield) (d. 1968), German painter, graphic artist, photomontage artist, anti-fascist propagandist, Dadaist and stage designer, born. His father was the anarchist poet, playwright and novelist Franz Held (pen name of Franz Herzfeld). Worked in printing designing advertising until he enlisted in the German army in 1915 but faked mental illness to be discharged (De. 1915). To protest the war and especially the propaganda against England, he Anglicised his name in 1916 to John Heartfield and later joined the Kommunistischen Partei Deutschlands (KPD) though had strong anarchist sympathies. In 1917, Heartfield became a member of Berlin Club Dada, helping to organise the Erste Internationale Dada-Messe (First International Dada Fair) in Berlin in 1920. In 1917 he co-founded the Malik-Verlag publishing house in Berlin with his brother Wieland Herzfelde. He would go on to design dust jackets and covers for Malik-Verlag and also built theatre sets for Erwin Piscator and Bertolt Brecht.
In 1919, Heartfield was dismissed from the Reichswehr film service because of his support for the strike that followed the assassination of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. With George Grosz, he founded the satirical magazine 'Die Pleite' (Bankruptcy; 1919-1924) and would later edit the satirical (KPD) magazine 'Der Knüppel' (The Truncheon).
His experiments with Grosz led to his political photomontage discoveries, honed at two publications: the daily 'Die Rote Fahne' and the weekly 'Arbeiter-Illustrierte-Zeitung' (AIZ). On April 4, 1933, the SS broke into his apartment, and he barely escaped by jumping from his balcony and fled to Czechoslovakia, where he continued his anti-fascist propaganda work (the work he left behind was confiscated and destroyed). With the imminent German occupation of Czechoslovakia, he fled to England, where he was interned for a time in England as an enemy alien, and his health began to seriously deteriorate. His brother Wieland was refused an English residency permit in 1939 and, with his family, left for the United States. John wished to accompany his brother but was refused entry.
He returned to East Berlin in 1950 but was unable to work as a artist and was denied health benefits as he was suspected of "collaboration" by the authorities. It was only through the intervention of Bertoldt Brecht and Stefan Heym that, after eight years of official neglect, Heartfield was formally admitted to the East German Akademie der Kúnste (Academy of the Arts) in 1956. However his health has deteriorated and, although he subsequently produced some memorable montages, he was never as prolific again.

## 1896 - José Domingo Gómez Rojas (d. 1920), Chilean anarchist poet, who was detained and tortured in prison during the mass repression of the Guerra de don Ladislao, only to be transferred to an asylum when his mental health deteriorated, where he died of undiagnosed meningitis, born. His funeral was attended by more than 50,000 people and he went on to become a symbol of the resistance to state repression in Chile.

1900 - María Ascaso Budría (d. 1955), [ERROR]

1914 - Revolución Mexicana: Zapatistas ratify the Plan de Ayala, whilst Pancho Villa and his forces arrive at Calera to begin the siege of Zacatecas.

1914 - Luísa Do Carmo Franco Elias Adão (d. 1999), Portuguese anarchist and nurse, born. Daughter of the anarchist Francisco Franco and life-long partner of militant anarcho-syndicalist Acácio Tomás de Aquino.

[D] [1917 - [O.S. Jun. 6] In Sevastopol sailors arrest and disarm their officers as the Russian Black Sea fleet mutinies. [expand]

1917 - [N.S. Jul. 2] Shlema Aronovich Asnin (Шлёма АроновичАснина; b. unknown), Russian petty thief and colourful anarchist communist activist, who is remembered for his role in the June-July days of 1917 in Krondstadt, is shot and killed during the Kerensky regime's suppression of the uprising. [see: Jul. 2]

1922 - La Grève du Havre: A 110-day long strike by metalworkers in Le Havre begins following the decision by factory owners, who had gottten shamelessly rich through the war and buying up German companies under receivership cheaply, to cut workers wages.
In early June, the Chambre Syndicale Patronale de la Métallurgie (Metallurgy Employers Trade Association) in Le Havre informed its workers that, from June 22nd, wages will be reduced by 10% on average. However, despite an already long revolutionary tradition, the metal workers in the city are not unionised. Furthermore, it begins at almost the same time as the founding congress of the CGTU signals the first major split in the French labour movement since 1914, dividing between a reformist CGT, headed by former anarchist Jouhaux, and the new confederation, founded by the minority of the organisation, communists and libertarians. The latter quickly establishes a metallurgy syndicate in Le Havre, which is still run by revolutionary trade unionists, as the Communists are still in the minority, which helps co-ordinate the strike.
On Tuesday June 20, workers form a strike committee and the next day, 900 steelworkers on strike hold their first public meeting. The initial response of the bosses' Comité des Forges is to refuse to negotiate, betting on the strike's swift collapse. Additionally, the Préfet prohibits any public gatherings, to try and thwart the strikers' attempts at organising wider support for their actions.
On June 23, 10,000 people, men and women march peacefully through the streets of Le Havre in what is the first of a long series of street protests. In the following days, the movement spreads quickly to all major sites in Le Havre. In protest against the military being summoned to the city and the ban on demonstrations, a general strike breaks out on August 25. Driven by a huge wave of solidarity, the city's radical socialist mayor and Freemason, Léon Meyer, pressed the municipality into running a free canteen to feed the children of strikers (and giving free milk to the under fours). And at the start of the school holidays, the old union tactic of having the children of strikers welcomed into the homes of supporters in surrounding towns, especially in Rouen and Quevilly, but even as far afield as Paris, was employed.
as the steelworkers of Le Havre seek to continue their brave and stubborn struggle against the Forges Committee, as well as the combined forces of the state and its watchdogs, police, military and judiciary.
On August 26, the Salle Franklin - the traditional seat of the Bourse du Travail and the trade unions - is ordered closed. As protesters gather outside the building, mounted police charge into crowds. The strikers respond by throwing stones and troops are ordered fix bayonets and load their rifles. The mounted police charge results in the death of three demonstrators aged 18, 21 and 22. A fourth died of his injuries a few days later. Many others are left injured. The following day many of the strike organisers are arrested and the city is placed in state of siege.
With the closure of the Salle Franklin, steelworkers are forced to hold their meetings in the Forêt de Montgeon, the 'trou des métallos' (steelworkers hole), a grassed arena able to accomodate up to 20,000 people, and now a municipal park. The general strike in solidarity with the steelworkers continued until September 1st; but, with the prospect of the new school year and the threat of schools not opening their doors to the children of workers who had not returned to work, together with a hardeneding in the positions of some employers and their friends, including the landlords of some workers who threatened to evict them if they continued their strike, the Strike Committee decided that it was time to stop the struugle.
The strike by the steelworkers of Le Harve however continued until October 9, 1922, when they to returned to work, after 110 days on strike, not having gained any concessions.

1957 - Subcomandante Insurgente Marcos, aka Subcomandante Insurgente Galeano, the former and current nom de guerre (respectively) of Rafael Sebastián Guillén Vicente, Mexican former university lecturer, insurgent and ex-leader and spokesman of the Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, born. [expand]

1981 - Senya (Simon) Fléchine (b. 1894), Ukranian anarchist activist, propagandist and photographer, dies. [see: Dec. 19]

1993 - Paul (Pol or Paulo) Chenard (b. 1932), French anarcho-individualist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: May 1]

1993 - Marcel Béalu (b. 1908), French poet, writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 30]

1997 - On the night of June 19-20, 1997, security forces carry out raids on anarchist centres and private homes all over Italy. The Italian Anarchist Federation denounces the raids as a thinly veiled attempt to intimidate and criminalise the movement. At least 29 arrest warrants were issued and at least 39 people were informed that they were under official investigation including Jean Weir, Antonio Budini, Christos Stratigopulos, Eva Tziutzia and Carlo Tesseri, who were already in prison following a 1994 bank robbery near Trento.
Alfredo Bonanno is also one of hundreds of Italian anarchists swept up and arrested on the night of June 19, 1997, as part of the 'Inchiesta Marini' following the bombing of Palazzo Marino in Milan on April 25, 1997
1848 - Albert Richard Parsons (d. 1887), American anarchist, Haymarket Martyr, husband of Lucy Parsons, born.

1878 - [N.S. Jul. 2] Ivan Sergeevich Knizhnik-Vetrov [Ива́н Серге́евич Кни́жник-Ве́тров] (Israel Samuilovich (Shmuilovich) Knizhnik [Израиль Самуилович (Шмуйлович) Книжник]; d. 1965), Jewish Russian anarchist theorist, historian, later a Christian socialist and Bolshevik sympathiser and Prolekult propagandist, born. [see: Jul. 2]

1888 - Pedro Alvarez Sierra (d. 1969), Spanish woodworker, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was opposed to the use of vilonce, born. Delegate at the founding congress of the CNT in Barcelona in 1910, he was very active in the anarchist press and was editor, often alongside Quintanilla, of a number of tiles including 'Solidaridad', 'El Libertario' (1912), 'Accion Libertaria', 'La Cuña' (paper of the Federation of Woodworkers, 1915-17, 22 issues), 'Renovacion', etc.

1888 - The first issue of the weekly newspaper 'L'Attaque', "Organe socialiste révolutionnaire de la jeunesse" (changed to "Organe hebdomadaire Anarchiste" July 25, 1889) is published in Paris. Its editor Ernest Gégout will be charged alongside Charles Malato for articles in the newspaper.
"Nous commençons L' ATTAQUE, Attaque contre les intriguants politiques, les corrompus et les traîtres, comme les exploiteurs du peuple, les oppresseurs de la classe ouvrières, ..."

1891 - Margarete Kubicka, aka Małgorzata Kubicka (Margarete Schuster; d. 1984), German drawing teacher, Expressionist graphic artist, painter, and anarchist partner of the Polish artist, poet and anarchist Stanisław Kubicki, born.
In 1934 she helped Zenzl Mühsam escape from Germany

[B] 1912 - Voltairine de Cleyre (b. 1866), anarchist-feminist, atheist, poet and free-thinker, dies. Two thousand attended the funeral at Waldheim cemetery where she was buried next to the Haymarket Martyrs. [see: Nov. 17]

1922 - La Grève du Havre: Le Harve steelworkers form a strike committee. [see: Jun. 19]

1925 - Vasil Bonĉev Ikonomov (Васил Бончев Икономов; b. 1898), Bulgarian anti-fascist anarchist guerilla fighter and an important figure in the early 1920s Bulgarian movement, is ambushed by Public Security (Обществена безопасност) agents near the village of Belitsa (Белица), Ihtiman (Ихтиман) province and killed. [see: Aug. 9]

## 1935 - Vi Subversa (Frances Sokolov; d. 2016), English ceramicist, social worker, cabaret artist, anarcha-feminist, and singer and guitarist of British anarcho-punk band Poison Girls, born.

1945 - François Le Levé (b. 1882), French militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies on his way home after being released from internment. One of the 15 who signed The Manifeste des Seize, along with Kropotkin, Grave and others, favouring the Allies during WWI. A member of the Resistance during WWII, he was captured and interned. [see: Nov. 13]

##1980 - Neil Campau, US musician, visual artist, anarchist founder of and author of the zine 'Building: A DIY Guide to Creating Spaces, Hosting Events, and Fostering Radical Communities', born.

[A] 1985 - The TGV train lines are sabotaged in France in support of countrywide prison mutinies.

1992 - Nicolas Faucier (b. 1900), French anarchiste, trade unionist and pacifist, dies. Faucier ran the bookshop La Librairie Sociale and, with Louis Lecoin, formed the Comité pour l'Espagne Libre, later the SIA (Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste). [see: Mar. 30]
#### [E] 1852 - Maria Luisa 'Gigia' Minguzzi (d. 1911), Italian seamstress, anarchist and feminist, who was an important figure in the Italian anarchist movement, and played a leading role in the development of the female workers' movement in Italy, born. The long-term companion of Francesco Pezzi, their house in Florence was the stopping off point for numerous international visitors as well as a meeting place for local craft and tobacco workers. In this revolutionary environment the first women's section of the International (AIT), with its membership of around one hundred local women, was founded in 1872. Many of these would take part in the city's first great cigarette strike two years later, which she also helped organise. With Assunta Pedoni and Amalia Migliorini, she wrote the 'Manifesto a tutte le operaie d'Italia' (Manifesto to all Italian Women Workers), which appeared in the October 1876 edition of 'La Plebe', and is considered to be the founding act of a female workers' movement in Italy.
"Comrades, victims, just like us, of privileges and prejudiced; Kept as we, in ignorance and damned to work at a job that wears us out and doesn't feed us, you will, we believe, lend us a friendly ear to our words, and following our example, join us, because the cause of the oppressed is everywhere the same; their rights are the same everywhere; and to effectively enforce them, we have to strive everywhere. What do we want? Nothing but what we must have; what nature gave us and society denies us. We want our rights as human beings recognised; our dignity respected; our love and our standing as women properly appreciated; Our freedom and our life assured through our work. But it is not the woman's bourgeois emancipation what we want; But human emancipation - the same for which workers around the world join today to fight tomorrow. We want it - the fruits of our work Being assured - our life is no longer at the mercy of the case and the whims of men; But we can live instead free and equal. We want to love: to be affectionate companions of men, whose inclination drives us; Be allied to them in the struggles they will have against the privileges; But do not be slaves. [...] Present day society demands it of us: or we will go hungry. Or have to sell ourselves. The society of the future tells us: Live, work and love."

1864 - Émile Louvigny (d. unknown), Franco-Belgian anarchist and socialist activist, born.

1874 - The IV Congreso de la Federación Regional Española de la AIT is held clandestinely in Madrid [Jun. 21-27] in the wake of the Pavía coup on January 3, 1874, after which workers' associations in general and the FRE de la AIT in particular had been banned. Attended by representatives of 47 of the 320 local federations comprising the FRE. In order to deal an the underground FRE, it decides to organise over 10 regions (Eastern Andalusia, Western Andalusia, Aragon, Catalonia, New Castile, Old Castile, Extramadura, Murcia, Valencia, and Basque-Navarra-Santanderina). And instead of the congresses of the FRE, one would hold regional conferences to which a delegate of the Federal Commission would attend. It also ratified the agreements reached at the Geneva Congress of the Saint-Imier International held in September of the previous year.
[ón_Regional_Española_de_la_AIT anarcosindicalismo y sus Congresos.Completo.pdf]

1876 - Émilie Lamotte (d. 1909), French lecturer, educator, artist, activist, anarchist and neo-Malthusian, dies. In 1905, she worked on the anarchist newspapers 'Le Libertaire' and 'L'Anarchie'. In 1906 she helped found the libertarian colony Saint-Germain-en-Laye with her partner, the anarchist propagandist and free thinker André Lorulot.

1882 - Rockwell Kent (d. 1971), US painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, born. [expand]

1887 - [O.S. Jun. 9] Alexei Vasilyevich Mokrousov [Алексей Васильевич Мокроусов] (Thomas Matveyevich [Фома́ Матве́евич]; d. 1959), Russian anarchist guerrilla commander who fought for the Bolsheviks against the Whites and the Makhnovshchyna (Махновщина), later doing the Stalinists' bidding during the Spanish Revolution and as a divisive guerrilla commander fighting against the Nazis during WWII, dismissed for drunkeness and brutality, born.

1892 - Ravachol returns to court at the Loire Court of Assizes, two months after his April 26 for the restaurant Véry bombing. This time his is charged with the murder of the old hermit Chambles at St Étienne (18 June 1891), which he admits, and two others which he denies emphatically. He is convicted of all three and sentenced to death. He will be guillotined on July 11, 1892. Beala and Mariette Soubère who were tried as accomplices are acquitted.

1896 - Joan Ferrer i Farriol (d. 1978), anarchist and prominent Catalan anarcho-syndicalist leader, who was a regular contributor to the libertarian press and author of several books, born. [expand]

[A] 1903 - In London, anarchists organise a massive demonstration among the Jewish labour movement to protest the Russian pogrom in Kishineff.

##1903 - Rivoluzio Gilioli (d. 1937) Italian construction worker and anarchist militant, who was active in Italy and France, who fought and died during the Spain Civil War, born.

##1905 - Jean-Paul-Charles-Aymard Sartre (d. 1980), French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, literary critic, anti-colonialist, one-time Marxist, and latterly an anarchist, born.
"If one rereads all my books, one will realize that I have not changed profoundly, and that I have always remained an anarchist." ['The New York Review of Books', August 7, 1975]

1910 - Henri Cler (b. 1862), French cabinet maker and anarchist, dies following a blow to the head, delivered by the police during a strike protest on June 13. Thes of thousands attend his funeral on June 26. [see: Sep. 21]

1914 - Errico Malatesta, wanted for his role in the Settimana Rossa, manages to flee Italy en route to Geneva, where his will work on Luigi Bertoni's 'Le Réveil - Il Risveglio' before leaving for London.

1914 - Arthur Moyse (d. 2003), English anarchist, artist, bus conductor and stalwart of Freedom (Press, Bookshop and newspaper), born.

1918 - Edward Abramowski (b. 1868), Libertarian socialist, cooperativist, psychologist and philosopher, born. Author of 'Socialism & State'; 'The Republic of Friends' and 'General Collusion Against the Government'..

1922 - La Grève du Havre: 900 striking Le Harve steelworkers hold their first public meeting. [see: Jun. 19]

1934 - El Juicio a los Campesinos de Casas Viejas [The Trial of the Casas Viejas Peasants]: The preliminary taking of the prosecution evidence takes place before the Consejo de Guerra (court-martial) in the Castillo de San Roque in Cadiz. [see: Jun. 25 & 26]

## 1936 - David Edward 'Dave' Godin (d. 2004), English anarchist, anti-capitalist, vegan animal rights advocate, Esperantist and champion of black music, who coined the term 'northern soul', born.

1937 - Rivoluzio Gilioli (b. 1903) Italian construction worker and anarchist militant, who was active in Italy and France, dies in hospital in Barcelona on his 34th birthday, having been wounded five days earlier whilst performing an inspection tour at Terraza Carrascal on the Huesca front. [see: Jun. 21]

1939 - Salvador Gómez Talón aka 'Felipe de la Cruz Torres', Juan Baeza Delgado and José Tarín Marchuet, return to Spain to attempt to free Talon's brother Rafael and others from prison. Francisco Ponzán Vidal, aka 'Paco', 'Gurriato' & 'El gafas', and Juan Manuel Molina Mateo, aka 'Juanelo' (delegate of the Comissió General of the Moviment Llibertari Espanyol for the French concentration camps) had drawn up a plan to help. They were accompanied into Spain by three members of the Ponzán network - Pascual López Lagarta aka 'El Navarro', Francisco Ponzán and the guide Joan Català Balañà. As well as freeing prisoners, the job of the Gómez Talón group was to prepare the ground for CNT activity outside Barcelona. The printer Mario Marcelino Goyeneche and the engraver Manuel Benet Beltrán forged seals, stamps and official documents for the group. The cost of this was funded from hold ups the group carried out. Using the forged papers and dressed as Guardia Civil, the group managed to free dozens of prisoners. Eventually they were discovered and two soldiers were killed in the ensuing shoot out. The group then took to freeing prisoners as they were on the way to prison or were being transferred between prisons. One time ten prisoners on their way to execution were released from a van driven by Guardia Civil. On September 8, 1939, the group were arrested along with others, including Gomez's brother whom they had managed to free.

1942 - Agustín Remiro Manero (b. 1904), Spanish anarchist and member of the Durruti Column, is killed during an attempted escape from Madrid's Porlier prison. He was instrumental in setting up the guerrilla unit 'Los Iguales'. [see: Aug. 28]

1974 - 'Nada', Claude Chabrol's classic film about an anarchist group's kidnapping of an American Ambassador, is released.

##1981 - Arturo Ballester Marco (b. 1892) Spanish graphic designer, illustrator and poster artist, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist like his older brother and fellow artist Vicente Ballester Marco (1887-1980), both of whom were known for their Spanish Civil War posters, dies.
[[ ]_ballester-a]

2002 - 75th anniversary of the foundation of the Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI) in Spain.

2002 - The congress (21-23 June) and 30th anniversary celebration of the anarcho-pacifist monthly 'Graswurzelrevolution' (GWR) is held in Münster.
1836 - Gaston Crémieux (Isaac Louis Gaston; d. 1871), French radical Républican, Proudhonian socialist and member of the Commune de Marseille, born. Court-martialled and executed on November 30, 1871.

##1861 - Félix Fénéon (d. 1944), French art critic, anarchist and friend of Seurat, Paul Signac, Theo van Rysselberghe, Henri-Edmond Cross, André Gide, et al., born. The remarkable Fénéon was the first French publisher of James Joyce and the 'discoverer' of the artist Seurat - he coined the term neo-Impressionsits to identify the group of artists around Seurat, when he wrote his 'Les Impressionnistes en 1886'.
Fénéon worked in the Ministry of War between 1881 to 1894, where he put his talent for writing to use creating reports on a wide range of subjects, all in perfect 'administrativese'. From 1886 he also worked for numerous anarchist newspapers and magazines including 'L' Endehors' (assuming the editorship when Zo d'Axa was in exile in London), 'La Renaissance', 'La Revue Anarchiste', etc.. He also co-founded 'La Libre Revue' and 'La Revue Indépendante' (1884); one of the main editors of the C19th literary magazine 'Vogue'; writer, translator and copy editor for the 'La Revue Blanche' (1894 - 1903; see below); as well as collaborating on 'La Revue Moderniste', 'Le Symboliste', 'La Cravache', 'La Plume', 'Le Chat Noir'; 'Les Entretiens Politiques et Littéraires' with the Symbolist poet Francis Vielé-Griffin; and on Émile Pouget's anarchist weekly newspaper, 'Père Peinard'. He helped discover or first published authors such as Jules Laforgue, Alfred Jarry, Mallarmé, Apollinaire, Rimbaud, etc..
Instigated for the April 4, 1894 bomb attack on the Foyot restaurant, he was arrested when a search of his home and his office at the War Department discovered materials, including mercury, which the police claimed could be used to build a bomb, and stood trial in the Procès des Trente. Numerous authors including Stéphane Mallarmé and Octave Mirbeau, gave evidence in his defence whilst Fénéon himself ridiculed the prosecution. He was acquitted but fired by the Ministry of Defence.
His lawyer at the trial Thadee Natanson, co-owner of the 'La Revue Blanche', hired him as a copy editor on the basis of his performance in the witness box, later becoming the managing editor of the magazine, one of the most important literary journals of its time. Fénéon was also involved in the defence of Alfred Dreyfus and later started writing his grand guignol stories of true crime, suicide and everyday occurrences, which appeared anonymously in 'Le Matin' and 'Le Figaro', later collected in 'Nouvelles en Trois Lignes' (News in Three Lines; 2007).
Giving up journalism in late 1906, he became director of the Bernheim-Jeune art gallery (until 1925) and helped raise awareness initially about established artists such as Seurat (he saw Seurat's 'La Grande Jatte' at the eighth and final Impressionist exhibition in 1886) and Pissarro, and subsequently Pierre Bonnard, Paul Signac, Van Dongen, Henri Matisse, Maurice Denis, Émile Compard. etc..
"Strange as it might seem to us now, many artists, including Paul Signac, Camille Pissarro and Lucien Pissarro, Maximilien Luce, Théo van Rysselberghe, and others not only justified and glorified Anarchists, but supported them financially."

[E] 1880 - Maria Paulina Orsetti (d. 1957), Polish educator, Doctor of Social Sciences, pioneer of the cooperatives movement, theorist of cooperativism, socialist and anarchist sympathiser, who co-founded the Cooperatives League (Ligi Kooperatystek) in Poland, born. She used the pseudonym of Edward Godwin for her translations of Peter Kropotkin, 'Państwo i jego rola historyczna' (The state and its historical role; 1924), 'Zdobycie chleba' (The Conquest of Bread; 1925), and 'Spólnictwo a socjalizm wolnościowy' (Community and libertarian socialism; 1930). [expand]

[B] 1882 - José Rodrigues Oiticica (d. 1957), Brazilian anarchist, poet and activist, born. He was founder and editor of the anarchist journal 'Ação Direta' (Direct Action). [expand]

1883 - Louise Michel, who was arrested following the looting of Paris bakeries on March 9, appears before the Seine Court of Assizes.
Le président: "Vous prenez donc part à toutes les manifestations?" (So you took part in all the events?)
Louise: "Hélas ! oui... je suis toujours avec les misérables. (...) Le peuple meurt de faim, et il n'a pas même le droit de dire qu'il meurt de faim. Eh bien! moi, j'ai pris le drapeau noir et j'ai été dire que le peuple était sans travail et sans pain. Voilà mon crime; vous le jugerez comme vous voudrez." (Alas, yes ... I'm still with the miserable. (...) The people are starving, and they did not even have the right to say they are starving. Well! me, I took the black flag, and I was saying that the people were without work and without bread. It's my crime, judge me as you like.)
She is sentenced to six years in prison, followed by 10 years monitoring by the haute (political) police.

1907 - First appearance of the Chinese anarchist weekly 'Hsin Shih-chi' (or 'Xin Shiji' - The New Century) in Paris.

1908 - Red Flag Incident [赤旗 事件 Akahata Jiken]: Tokyo anarchists who had gathered to greet a comrade being released from jail, mount a demonstration and are attacked by police. 14 participants are arrested and imprisoned; they begin conspiring in what was to become 'The High Treason Incident' (幸徳事件 / Kōtoku Jiken). [see: May 20 1910]

[D] 1911 - Revolución Mexicana / Second Battle of Tijuana: Outnumbered and outflanked by a large federal force, and seriously low on supplies, the Magónistas [150 Wobblies and 75 Mexicans led by Jack Mosby] holding Tijuana fought hard but are routed in only three hours as Tijuana is recaptured by 560 of Diaz's former Federal troops, now lead by Madero. The American Magónista Foreign Legion fled north to California and across the border where they were interned, having decided to surrender to the United States Army rather than facing a Madero firing squad. Among those getting away is Mosby's fellow IWW member, the famed hobo songwriter Joe Hill. Mosby was arrested and, having refused to incriminate Magón in court, was shot supposedly trying to escape - the the infamous ley de fuega excuse.
The Mexican Magónista's, who included some native Americans in their number, slipped away into the surrounding countryside. In the battle only a few federal troops had been wounded but the Magónistas had suffered over thirty dead, most of whom were left on the battlefield when the Magónistas retreated.
With the Partido Liberal Mexicano's power base in serious decline, Ricardo Flores Magón is told that: "It would take a forest of trees to hang all the Judases." Magón's dream of Baja California becoming the launching ground of an International Anarchist revolution had turned into a nightmare.

1914 - After numerous calls by some of the anarchist press for revenge on Standard Oil for the Ludlow Massacre, a bomb intended for the Rockefeller Mansion unintentionally detonates in the Ferrer Center today, killing three anarchists.

1920 - Bartolomeo Vanzetti goes on trial for the Bridgewater robbery.

1921 - In the Sacco and Vanzetti trial, the defence begins to present their case.

## 1927 - Stan Iverson (d. 1985), US anarchist, ex-communist and ex-Trotskyite, born. Co-founder in 1971 of Mother Earth Books and in 1973 Red & Black Books Collective.

1934 - El Juicio a los Campesinos de Casas Viejas [The Trial of the Casas Viejas Peasants]: "Once, when barbarism rules over the world after the Courts came sometimes the bonfires. Now are the bonfires, crimes, murders, preceding sentences. Casas Viejas was destroyed by the police. Casas Viejas witnessed terrified the murder of twenty peasants. who were the dead? According to Casares, according to Azaña, according to Rojas himself, it was the rebels, those who fired at the headquarters of the Guardia Civil, who caused the death of a sergeant and a guard. But those twenty corpses that were intended to avenge the death of two guards were not enough. They had to find more responsible; had to find someone to unload the full weight of the law upon. And they sought amongst who escaped, amongst those who had managed to escape death, among those who taken to the mountains to avoid the flames they reached them and shot ... " - Eduardo de Guzmán in 'Tierra', June 22, 1934

1939 - Benjamin Tucker (b. 1854), American individualist anarchist, publisher and journalist, dies in Monaco. [see: Apr. 17]

1940 - Walter Hasenclever (b. 1890), radical German Expressionist poet, playwright, anti-militarist and anarchist fellow traveller, commits suicide in a Vichy detention camp rather than falling into the hands of the Nazis.

1995 - Luciano Farinelli (b. 1931), Italian journalist and anarchist militant, dies. [see: Sep. 24]

1998 - Pierre Martin (b. 1912), French writer, ecomonist, libertarian and peace activist, dies.

2002 - Première of 'Voyage', the first part of Tom Stoppard's trilogy of plays, 'The Coast of Utopia' ('Shipwreck' and 'Salvage' being the other 2 plays), set in Tsarist Russia amongst a group of 19th-century Russian revolutionaries - Mikhail Bakunin, Alexander Herzen, Ivan Turgenev, and Vissarion Belinsky, at the National Theatre's Olivier auditorium.

2008 - Albert Cossery (b. 1913), Egyptian-born French novelist, self-proclaimed anarchist and "lazy old sod", writing only one book per decade, dies. [see: Nov. 3]
1841 - Benoît Malon (d. 1893), French Bakuninist, member of the International, Communard and then a socialist, born. Author of the Commune history 'La Troisième Défaite du Prolétariat Français' (1871).

## 1860 - José María Vargas Vila (José María de la Concepción Apolinar Vargas Vila Bonilla; d. 1933), Colombian writer, autodidact, libertarian and public intellectual, who was excommunicated by the Holy See following the publication of his 1900 novel 'Ibis', rejoicing upon receipt of the news, born.

1871 - Marc Pierrot (d. 1950), French doctor of medicine, anarchist propagandist and publisher of the long-running libertarian review 'Plus Loin', born. One of the main collaborators on Jean Grave's 'Les Temps Nouveaux' newspaper. Signatory of the Manifeste des Seize in 1916. He revived 'Les Temps Nouveaux' between 1919 and 1921, and later founded the magazine 'Plus Loin' that ran from 1925 to 1939. In 1936 he went to Spain and took part in SIA (International Solidarity Antifascist) created by Louis Lecoin. During WWII, he was (wrongly) denounced as a Jew and he and his Lithuanian doctor wife had to go into hiding.

[B] 1884 - José Martins Fontes (d. 1937), Brazilian doctor, lecturer, prolific poet, anarchist, militant activist in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, born.

1889 - Anna Akhmatova (Анна Ахматова;), pen name of Anna Andreyevna Gorenko (d. 1966), Russian modernist poet and important figure in the so-called Silver Age of Russian Poetry, who is widely recognised as the greatest woman poet in Russian literature, born. She suffered greatly under Stalinism and one of her most famous works is the lyrical cycle 'Requiem' (1935–40), where "one hundred million voices shout" through her "tortured mouth", giving witness to the Stalinist terror.
Her early poetry was championed by the founder of Mystical Anarchism, Georgy Chulkov, and his fellow poet and foolwer Vyacheslav Ivanov, and she was involved in the circle around 'Anarkhiia' and had poems published in its pages. Following the 1917 Revolution and the success of the Bolshevik takeover, she refused to leave the country unlike many she knew and her first husband, the influential poet and anti-Bolshevik
Nikolay Gumilev (or Gumilyov), was arrested and executed by Cheka in 1921 as part of the non-existent monarchist Tagantsev conspiracy that was fabricated to cover up the post-Kronstadt uprising repression. Her son by Gumilev, Lev, was imprisoned on numerous occasions through the 1930s by the Stalinist regime, accused of counter-revolutionary activity because of his parentage. At the end of 1949 he was again arrested and sentenced to 10 years in a Siberian prison camp. Many of her friends and associates, included her close friend and fellow poet Mandelstam (who died in the gulags), were also sent to the camps, often dying there, or committing suicide to avoid the purges.
Akhmatova's poetry was deemed to represent an introspective "bourgeois aesthetic", reflecting only trivial "female" preoccupations, not in keeping with these new revolutionary politics of the time and her work was unofficially banned by a party resolution of 1925. Despite the constant suspicion and persecution by the Soviet authorities, she herself avoided the camps, but a later partner and lifelong friend, the art scholar Nikolai Punin, was also repeatedly arrested and he too died in the Gulags in 1953. Other relationship included marriage to the prominent Assyriologist and poet Vladimir Shilejko and affairs with the poet Osip Mandelstam, possibly the lyric poet Alexander Blok, mosaic artist and poet Boris Anrep, theatre director Mikhail Zimmerman and composer Arthur Lourié.

1908 - Anti-Diaz Magonista anarchist rebels attack Viesca, Coahuila.

1912 - A public meeting takes palce in the Labor Lyceum Hall in Philadelphia to honour the memory of the noted freethinker, anti-militarist and militant anarcha-feminist Voltairine de Cleyre, who had died three days earlier in Chicago.

1913 - [O.S. Jun. 10] Tikveš Uprising [Тиквешко въстание (Bul) / Тиквешко востание (Mkd)]: The headquarters of the uprising sent an appeal to the Bulgarian High Command to send help. But rebel detachments received orders to retreat as Bulgarian army retreat to the east.
[Jul.-Greg. correction reversed]

1915 - Jules Lermina (b. 1839), French prolific novelist, journalist and anarchist, whose early novels appeared under the pseudonym William Cobb, dies. [see: Mar. 27]

1934 - El Juicio a los Campesinos de Casas Viejas[(The Trial of the Casas Viejas Peasants]: "The prosecutor read his report exposing the anarchic situation in Spain at the time and referring specifically to the case of Casas Viejas says it was a movement prepared and organised by the leaders who will end pointing and calling the facts under the Code of Military Justice, having carried out constituent acts of aggression against the armed force. Consequently, he requested penalties of twenty-five years' imprisonment for Antonio Cabañas, Cristóbal Toro Domínguez, Francisco Rocha, Manuel Moreno, Salvador Jordan and Sebastian Pavon; six years for Manuel Vera, José Moreno, Antonio Pavón, Francisco Quijada, Miguel Pavón, Manuel Sánchez, Juan Jiménez, José Pérez, José González, Francisco Cantero, Esteban Moreno, Antonio Durán, José Monroy, Jose Rodriguez Quiros, and Francisco Quintero; and three years for Antonio Cornejo, Antonio Cruz and Diego Fernández, Francisco Quijada, Sebastián Cornejo and Sebastián Rodríguez." 'La Época' June 23, 1934

[C] 1937 - Following the Communist suppression of the anarchists and P.O.U.M., George Orwell flees Spain with his wife, Eileen O'Shaughnessy.

1940 - René Georges Hermann-Paul, known as Hermann-Paul (b. 1864), French painter, engraver and illustrator, Dreyfusard and anarchist sympathiser, who contributed to numerous anarchist and revolutionary publications including Émile Pouget's 'Le Père Peinard', Zo d'Axa's 'La Feuille', Jean Grave's 'Les Temps Nouveaux', 'La Question Sociale', 'La Guerre Sociale', etc., dies in Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer. [see: Dec. 27]

####1943 - Kyōji Asakura [朝倉 喬司], real name Ōshima Keiji (大島 啓司; late Nov. 2010), Japanese non-fiction writer, crime reporter, entertainment critic and anarchist, who was a member of the anarchist-based Vietnam Anti-War Direct Action Council (ベトナム反戦直接行動委員会), born.
He is believed to have died some time in later November 2101, but his body was not found until December 9th that year.

1971 - Louis Lecoin (b. 1888), French anti-militarist, pacifist, anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 30]

1983 - Isabel Hernández Marichal, aka 'La Tabaquera' (The Tobacco Worker) (b. 1914), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist active in the Canary Islands, dies. [see: Feb. 23]
1856 - [O.S. Jun. 12] Anna Vasilevna Yakimova-Dikovsky (Анна Васильевна Якимова-Диковская; d. 1942), Russian anarchist-influenced revolutionary, member of Zemlya i Volya (Land and Liberty), of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), its fighting group Freedom or Death (Свобода или Смерть), and the Socialist Revolutionary Party, writer and historian, born. In 1880, she was part of three failed plots to assassinate Tsar Alexander II. In April 1881, she was arrested and tried in the Trial of 20 (процессе 20-ти) on February 21-27 [9-15], 1882, and sentenced to death. Her sentence commuted was to indefinite hard labour in Siberia and in 1899 she was released into the post-penal settlement in Chita. After the 1917 October Revolution, she lived in Moscow and worked for various cooperative organisations.

1880 - Georges Durupt (d. 1941), French anarchist and co-founder of the 'Fédération Révolutionnaire' alongside the likes of Miguel Almereyda, born.

1882 - François Mayoux (d. 1967), French teacher, author, pacifist and libertarian trades unionist, born. Partner of Marie Mayoux and father of Jehan Mayoux. François and Marie joined the socialist SFIO in 1915, earning places in the 'Carnet B'. They were heavily fined and sentenced to 2 years in prison for the pacifist pamphlet 'Les Instituteurs Syndicalistes et la Guerre' (The Teachers Union and War) in 1917 and were excluded from the French Communist party in 1922 during the purge of syndicalists. Both participated in the anarchist press including 'La Revue Anarchiste', 'La Voix Libertaire', 'CQFD', 'Défense de l'Homme', 'Le Monde Libertaire', etc. Excluded from the CGTU in 1929, they went on to support the Spanish Revolution and denounced the Stalinist repression.

1882 - [N.S. Jul. 6] German Karlovich Askarov [Герман Карлович Аскаров] aka Herman Kleiner [Герман Клейнер], Oskar Burritt [Оскар Буррит] (German Karlovich Jakobson [Герман Карлович Якобсон]; d. unknown), prominent Russian anarchist communist, who was a proponent of the Anarcho-Universalist position following the Russian Revolution, arguing that it was necessary for the anarchists to support the socialist state and to refrain from criticising Bolshevik power in order to protect Russia from the White counter-revolution, born. [see: Jul. 6]

## 1884 - Liu Shipei [劉師培], aka Shen Shu [申叔] (d. 1919), Chinese philologist, Taoist anarchist, and revolutionary activist, who used the pen names Wei Yi (韋裔) and Guang Hanzi (光漢子), born. Forced to go into exile in Japan with his wife, He Zhen (何震) in 1907 in order to avoid government repression, he became a fervent nationalist, believing that he could reconcile the position with his advocay of anarchism, feminism and communism.
[劉師培刘师培 › 人民網 › 文史]

1894 - In Lyon, the Italian anarchist Santo Geronimo Caserio (Sante Jeronimo Caserio) stabs French president Sadi Carnot to avenge the execution of Auguste Vaillant. Carnot dies from the wounds and an hysterical mob plunders Italian stores. Caserio is arrested and guillotined on August 16, 1894.
[Costantini pic]

1899 - The first issue of the weekly newspaper 'L'Homme Libre', "Révolutionnaire, Sociologique, Artistique, Scientifique", is published in Paris by Ernest Girault.

1912 - At a meeting organised by Ben Reitman in Bute, Montana, Emma Goldman gives one of her most famous and widely discussed lectures: 'Why the poor should not have children'.

1913 - [N.S. Jul. 6] Tikveš Uprising [Тиквешко въстание (Bul) / Тиквешко востание (Mkd)]: Realising that help will not be arriving, the rebels leave their positions and, as Serb troops enter Kavadarci, the entire population and all the refugees gathered there from nearby villages flee into the mountains.
[Jul.-Greg. correction reverse]

1915 - Charles Gogumus (b. 1873), French shopworker, revolutionary syndicalist militant, anarchist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Aug. 25]

1917 - Jean-Louis Pindy (b. 1840), French carpenter, member of the Internationale, communard and anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 3]

[B] 1924 - Michel Ragon, prolific French writer, poet, novelist, art and architecture critic, art historian, historian of proletarian literature, anarchist and autodidact, born. Author of the controversial 'Dictionnaire de l'Anarchie' (2008).

1935 - Luigi Fabbri (b. 1877), Italian writer, professor and theorist of the Italian anarchist movement, born. Fabbri and Pietro Gori participated in the review 'Il Pensiero'. [see: Dec. 23]

[E] 1937 - Ilse Schwipper (Ilse Nikolaus; d. 2007), German anarcha-feminist, anti-fascist and anti-imperialist, who was a co-founder of Kommune 3 in Wolfsburg, born. Also know as Ilse Bongartz and Ilse Jandt, having taken various husband's names, and was regulalry called Rote Ilse in the press. The illegitimate child of accountant Clara Schwipper in Berlin, she grew up with her great-aunt and her great uncle. He was an anarchist active in the anti-fascist opposition to the Hitler regime. However, in 1944 her mother married an active Nazi and she and her mother moved to Wolfsburg. Ilse began work as an office junior in the Volkswagenwerk there and, in 1955, married a colleague, Helmut Bongartz, with whom she had four children. In the early 1960s, she began her activism, campaigning about the poor living conditions of Italian guest workers of the VW factory. It was the death of her eldest daughter in 1968 at the age of twelve that sparked the beginning of her political activism, first with Jusos, the SPD's youth organisation, and the SPD itself, but was expelled for collecting signatures for a Deutsche Kommunistische Partei petition. Then, having split with her husband, in March 1970, Ilse decided to set up Kommune 3 (K3) in her former conjugal apartment in Breslauer Strasse in Wolfsburg, putting her growing anarchist political outlook into practice. She became the effective head of the commune, being more than a decade older than her fellow communards. She was also the only woman, living there with her 3 children. The foundation of the commune took place parallel to a campaign to support an imprisoned member of the mens commune in Morse, a village about 5 miles from Wolfsburg. Amid the fluctuation in the membership of the commune, but there was always a solid core of communards. All the members came from a working class background. The group were interested in antiauthoritarian education, self-management, and 'cultural revolution'. They also discussed the ideas of armed struggle.
At the end of 1970, the police in Wolfsburg began to suspect members of the Kommune 3 of committing a number of politically motivated crimes. After a series of actions in April and May 1971, including arson attacks, and bomb threats against neo-nazis, politicians and police, the police raided the commune and a second commune nearby on June 10. Nine members of the commune were arrested and held without bail until their trial. Five of those arrested pleaded guilty, Ilse and two others not guilty. One of the commune members lead the police to a site in the woods in Wolfsburg-Detmerode where small arms and ammunition were hidden.
The court case in Hildersheim, which the press refered to as the 'Bongartz-Prozess', lasted seven weeks, from February to April 1972. The commune's supporters claimed that its members were being targetted because of their political activities, which included helping deserters from the German army, prisoners and runaways from childrens homes. The prosecution claimed that there was no political background to the trial. During the trial Ilse demanded "Freispruch für die Kommune 3 und für das Leben" (acquittal for Kommune 3 and for life) and that she had not committed any offenses and had merely wanted to give children and adolescents an antiauthoritarian education. Ilse was sentenced to 3 years in prison and the young communards, who were tried as juveniles, were given probationary sentences.
On her release from prison in 1973, Ilse started a second commune in an old farm house in Wolfsburg-Hesslingen, the Kommune Bäckergasse. Again, most of the commune members were young people who were active in the radical-left. This second commune had links to the Movement 2nd. June urban guerrillas. After the death in June 1974 of a member of the Bewegung 2. Juni (June 2nd. Movement), Ulrich Schmücker, who had been suspected of being a police agent, Ilse and the five other communards were arrested under suspicion of being connected with the murder. One of the arrested, Jürgen Bodeux, became the chief witness for the prosecution. At the end of the first trial, June 1976, the young commune members were convicted under the JÖSchG 'youth laws' to jail sentences of between 4 and 8 years juvenile detention, and Ilse was given a life sentence. She was released for reasons of bad health in 1982 – of the total of 12 years that she spent in prison, more than 6 were spent in solitary confinement/isolation. After a number of appeals, the 4th court case was finally ended in 1991 with freedom for the accused based on no clear decision of guilt; it was no longer possible to reach a verdict, partly because of the involvement of police agents in the radical left. It had become the longest trial in West German history.
In an interview in the anarcho-pacifist magazine 'Graswurzelrevolution' in 2002 Ilse Schwipper said: "My conditions of imprisonment were 6.5 years of isolation with a total of nearly 12 years, with all the characteristics of the 'Weiße Folter' (Clean i.e. psychological Torture)... These detention conditions have resulted in serious physical and mental disorders, so after I was released in an incompetent manner at 15:15 on May 2, 1982, I became seriously ill. To this day, I often struggle with the flashbacks."
Ilse Schwipper remained a committed anarchist and prisoner support campaigner up til her death in Berlin on September 27, 2007.

1957 - Attilio Sassi, aka 'Bestione' (d. 1876), Italian bricklayer, miner, anarcho-syndicalist and revolutionary trade union organiser, who was persecuted by the fascist regime, founder with Giuseppe Di Vittorio of the Unione Sindacale Italiana in 1912 and national director of the CGIL after WWII, dies in Rome. [see: Oct. 6]

1957 - František Kupka (b. 1871), Czech Abstract painter, anarchist, satirist, book and magazine illustrator, dies. [see: Sep. 23]

1959 - Boris Vian (b. 1920), French polymath: writer, poet, jazz musician, singer, translator, critic, actor, inventor, engineer and 'apolitical anarchist', dies. [see: Mar. 20]

[BB] 1995 - André Laude (b. 1936), French anarchist, anti-colonial journalist, Surrealist, Situationist, writer and "soleil noir de la poésie" (black sun of poetry), dies. Barely out of the womb Laude was subject to the torments of history - his communist father went off to Spain in the International Brigades, and then, in 1942, his Polish-Jewish stepmother was sent to Auschwitz (where she died).
In 1953, Laude discovered anarchist ideas and joined the Libertarian Communist Federation. In 1954, as an anti-colonialist journalist, he supported the Algerian revolutionists and was arrested in Paris and imprisoned for a year in a camp in the South-Sahara, where he underwent torture.
When he was freed, Laude joined a news service in Algiers, returning to France only after the fall of Ben Bella (1965) and was again arrested, this time for "collaborating with the enemy". The surrealists, especially Benjamin Péret and André Breton (who testified in his behalf) took up his cause, and Laude joined their movement.
Poetry now became Laude's "raison de vivre", rather than journalism. Politically he was briefly involved with the PSU (Left Socialist Unified), but in 1968, as a friend of Raoul Vaneigem, Guy Debord and Dany Cohn-Bendit, he participated in the l'Internationale Situationniste. He remained, basically, a libertarian and a true poet until his death.
His poetry includes: 'Testament de Ravachol' (1975), 'Le Bleu de la Nuit Crie Au Secours' (The Blue of the Night Crying For Help; 1975), 'Un Temps à S’ouvrir les Veines' (A Time to Open the Veins; 1979), 'Riverain de la Douleur' (Bordering on Pain; 1981), 'Roi Nu Roi Mort' (Naked King Dead King; 1983), 'Journaux de Voyages' (Travel Journals; 1992), 'Feux Cris & Diamants' (Lights, Cries & Diamonds; 1993); as well as short stories: 'Joyeuse Apocalypse' (Joyful Apocalypse; 1973) and 'Rue des Merguez' (1979); and children's books: 'Éléfantaisies' (1974) and 'Les Aventures de Planti l'Ourson' (The Adventures of Planti the Pooh; 1975).

"Je longe le long sillon qui conduit aux morts muets.
Je songe à la neige, aux chevaux de feu,
à l’hiver des paroles.
Je vois des bois brûlés, des vaisseaux échoués,
des mouettes prises par le gel.
Je longe le fleuve de sang et de larmes
qui traverse les inquiétantes ruines.
Je sens l’odeur des prédateurs, l’urine
de la hyène, la matière fécale des jeunes bébés.
J’écris à partir d’un noyau de nuit.
J’écris à partir d’une tranchée noyée de boue.
J’écris corde au cou.
La trappe déjà tremble sous mes pieds.
Je longe le marbre froid qui donne le frisson
et chante une très étrange et vieille chanson,
qui dit qu’aujourd’hui et pour toujours
le ver est dans le fruit."

(I follow the long path that leads to dead silent.
I think of snow, of horses on fire,
of the winter of words.
I see wood burnt, vessels stranded,
seagulls taken by frost.
I follow the river of blood and tears
which crosses the disturbing ruins.
I smell the odour of predators, the urine
Of the hyena, the faeces of young babies.
I write from a night's heart.
I write from a mud-filled trench.
I write the noose around my neck.
The trapdoor already shaking under my feet.
I walked along the cold marble which makes me shiver
and sings a very strange and old song
who say that today and forever
the worm is in the fruit.)

- 'Le ver dans le fruit' (The worm is in the fruit)

"Only the poets who preach disorder are, in my eyes, authentic poets." - 'Comme une Blessure Rapprochée du Soleil' (1979).


1997 - Serge Michel (pseudonym of Lucien Douchet; b. 1922), French libertarian journalist, novelist, poet, painter and anti-colonialist, dies. [see: Jul. 22]

1999 - Adelita del Campo (nickname of Adela Carreras Taurà; b. 1916), Catalan dancer, actress, feminist and anarchist militant, and later a communist, dies in the village of Perpinyà near Mutxamel. [see: Aug. 3]

2002 - Massive countrywide anarchist CGT demonstrations in Spain.

[A] 2002 - Long-term British anarchist prisoner Mark Barsnley released from prison following his railroading for the 'Pomona Incident'.

##2013 - Michael Antony Aston (b. 1946), English Professor of archaeology specialising in Early Medieval landscape archaeology, vegetarian,naturist, anarchist and atheist, who was best known for the Channel 4 programme 'Time Team', dies unexpectedly at his home in Somerset. [see: Jul. 1]
1852 - [N.S. Jul. 7] Vera Nikolayevna Figner (Ве́ра Никола́евна Фи́гнер; d. 1942), Russian revolutionary, Bakuninist socialist, poet and memoirist, who plotted to blow up the Tsar and later directed the Kropotkin Museum, born. [see: Jul. 7]

1856 - Johann Kaspar Schmidt aka Max Stirner (b. 1806), German individualist anarchist and author of 'The Ego & Its Own' (1844) and 'The False Principle of our Education' (1842), dies.

##1865 - Robert Henri (d. 1929), US painter, teacher and anarchist sympathiser, who taught Man Ray at the Ferrer Modern School in New York, born. He was a leading figure of the Ashcan School of American realism and an organiser of the group known as The Eight, a loose association of artists who protested the restrictive exhibition practices of the powerful, conservative National Academy of Design. His friend Emma Goldman once called the painter: "an anarchist in his conception of art and its relation to life."
"Art is art whether on a canvas, on stone, on a book cover, on advertisement, or a piece of furniture."

1875 - The Federación Regional de la República Oriental del Uruguay (Regional Federation of the Eastern Republic of Uruguay) is formed at a meeting in Montevideo. It aligns itself with the anti-authoritarian AIT and in August 1876 becomes a section of the Internationale at the Congress of Verviers.

1878 - Individualist anarchist Ezra Heywood gets two years hard labour in the USA for advocating free love / sexual emancipation as part of women's rights. Released on 19 December 1878. President Rutherford B. Hayes issued a pardon the following day.

1893 - The Haymarket Martyrs Monument is dedicated at Forest Home Cemetery in Forest Park, Illinois, to honor those framed and executed for the bombing at Chicago’s Haymarket Square on May 4, 1886. More than 8,000 people attended the dedication ceremony. At the base of the monument are the last words of Haymarket martyr August Spies: "The day will come when our silence will be more powerful than the voices you are throttling today."

1896 - The first issue of the French language 'La Tribune Libre' newspaper, initially subtitled "Organe hebdomadaire des travailleurs de langue française" then from November 17, 1898, "Organe socialiste libertaire", is published in Charleroi, Pennsylvania.

1916 - Clandestine meeting of the Council general of the militant Unione Sindacale Italiana (USI; anarcho-syndicalist labour union) in Florence, Italy, June 25-27. The government has outlawed all opposition to WWI. The Council meeting reaffirms its opposition to the war.

1917 - Joaquina 'Maria' Dorado Pita, Galician anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, who was active in the anti-Franco underground, born.

## 1920 - Luca Nikiforovich Bondarets (Bondarenko) [Лука Никифорович Бондарец (Бондаренко)], aka Luca Bondar [Лука Бондарь](b. 1892), Ukrainian joiner, anarchist-communist commander in the Makhnovshchyna (Махновщина), the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine (Революційна Повстанська Армія України), is killed in a battle with units of the Red Army at Dibrovka.

1922 - The 1er Congrès of the Confédération Générale du Travail 'Unitaire' is held in Saint-Etienne (Jun. 25 - Jul. 1, 1922), at which the bureau provisoire of the the Comités Syndicalistes Révolutionnaires, established in December the previous year and composed of three members, all of anarchist tendency: Paul Cadeau, Labrousse and Pierre Totti, is removed in favour of a coalition which united unions without joining the SFIC. However, the anarcho-syndicalist minority is effectively sidelined and even ridiculed by Alexandre Lozovski, Secretary General of the RILU, coining the term 'anarcho-réformisme' to refer to the minority.

[D] 1926 - In Paris, three Spanish anarchists are arrested, accused of preparing to assassinate the Spanish king Alphonse XIII: Ascaso, Durruti and Jover. Louis Lecoin mounts a major protest campaign to prevent their extradition and gains their release in July of 1927.

1934 - El Juicio a los Campesinos de Casas Viejas [The Trial of the Casas Viejas Peasants]: Preliminary evidence from the prosecution side in the trial of those arrested following the January 1933 uprising in Casas Viejas [you'll have to look back at the January 10-12 posts on this for further background] had already begun being taken before the Consejo de Guerra (court-martial) in the Castillo de San Roque in Cadiz on June 21: "The prosecutor read his report exposing the anarchic situation in Spain at the time and referring specifically to the case of Casas Viejas says it was a movement prepared and organised by the leaders who will end pointing and calling the facts under the Code of Military Justice, having carried out constituent acts of aggression against the armed force. Consequently, he requested penalties of twenty-five years' imprisonment for Antonio Cabañas, Cristóbal Toro Domínguez, Francisco Rocha, Manuel Moreno, Salvador Jordan and Sebastian Pavon; six years for Manuel Vera, José Moreno, Antonio Pavón, Francisco Quijada, Miguel Pavón, Manuel Sánchez, Juan Jiménez, José Pérez, José González, Francisco Cantero, Esteban Moreno, Antonio Durán, José Monroy, Jose Rodriguez Quiros, and Francisco Quintero; and three years for Antonio Cornejo, Antonio Cruz and Diego Fernández, Francisco Quijada, Sebastián Cornejo and Sebastián Rodríguez." 'La Época' June 23, 1934.
Now, the Consejo de Guerra begins in earnest. Standing trial are 26 of the 100 or so farmers and peasants that had original been arrested. Two other campesinos, Francisco Gutiérrez Rodríguez aka 'Currestaca' and Juan Rodríguez Guillén, had also been charged but do not take part in the trial. At the end of the two day hearing, the Consejo de Guerra imposed a six year sentence of imprisonment on Antonio Cabañas Salvador aka 'El Gallilnito' (The Cockerel), held to be the most dangerous of the defendants. Manuel Moreno Cabañas (or Cabeza) aka 'Rompemonte', Francisco 'Migel' Rocha (or Rosa) Acevedo, Sebastián Pavón (or Pabón) Pérez and Cristóbal Toro Domínguez [also refered to as Antonio Toro Rodríguez] were sentenced to 5 years each; Salvador Jordán Aragón and José Monroy Romero aka 'Bailaor' (Dancer) got 3 years; José (or Juan) Jiménez Fernández aka 'el Boticario' (the Apothecary), Manuel Vera Moya aka 'Tragarranas', Francisco Cantero (or Quintero) Esquivel aka 'Pinganillo', Francisco Durán Fernández, Esteban Moreno Cano (or Caro) and Miguel Pavón Pérez all received 2 years; and José Moreno Cabeza, Antonio Durán Fernández and José Rodríguez Quiros aka 'Pepe Pareja' received 1 years imprisonment. Diego Fernández Ruiz aka 'el Tullido' (the Cripple), Francisco Quijada Pino, José Pérez Franco aka 'Patas de Paño', José González Pérez aka 'Pepe Pilar', Manuel Sánchez Olivencia aka 'Sardiguera', Antonio Pavón Pérez, Antonio Cornejo Delgado, Antonio Cruz García aka 'Tariero', Sebastián Cornejo Bancalero and Sebastián Rodríguez Quiros aka 'Pareja' were all acquitted. Those farmers who had been sentenced to two years or more, were sent to the prisons of Ocaña and Puerto de Santa María.

1937 - José Martins Fontes (b. 1884), Brazilian doctor, lecturer, poet, anarchist militant activist, dies. [see: Jun. 23]

1944 - Eugène Humbert (b. 1870), militant pacifist, néo-Malthusian, anarchist, and companion of Jeanne Humbert, is killed in prison during WWII during an Allied bombing raid, the day before he was due to be released.

1947 - The first issue of 'Juventud Libre', the newspaper of the JJ.LL FIJL in exile, is published in Paris, replacing 'Ruta' which was banned by the French authorities in February 1953. It too will be banned in June 1960.

##1979 - Valentín González Ramírez (b. 1958), Spanish labourer and anarcho-syndicalist militant in the CNT's sindical de carga y descarga (lit. loading and unloading), is shot and killed by a Policia Naciona rubber bullet fired at point-blank range as he came to the aid of his father who was being brutally beaten by the police during a strike at the Mercado de Abastos Frontal in Valencia where they both worked, prompting a general strike in the city. [see: Jul. 1]
1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: Little by little, Antonio Cuevas Jurado had taken over the office of mayor and, as laid out in the manifesto of June 26, 1873, now became president of the Comité Republicano Federal Social (Republican Federal Social Committee), along with Juan Millán as secretary and six vocales (speakers), after the committee had been elected by popular vote. Realising that their position was not an easy one, and conscious of the internationalist's 'ill-repute', the mainfesto laid out their strong belief that the republican cause had to exist in alliance with modern socialism. Therefore, in order for libertarian communism to triumph in Sanlúcar, it was necessary for everyone to unite all under the flag of the Federal Social Republic, from the most ardent internationalist to the mildest Republican.
Having made their ideological declaration was made, the manifesto laid out their program of action, under the motto: "Libertad, Igualdad, Fraternidad, Verdad, Justicia y Moral" (Freedom, Equality, Fraternity, Truth, Justice and Morality). The objectives: to fight the protagonists of obscurantism, reproach and the shame of the century; arm and enlist all the Voluntarios de la República; dedicate two Companies to fight those who burned, killed and robbed in the name of a God of peace; to support unconditionally a city council that was republican-federal-social; not to vote in the next elections for any individual who did not share these ideas. They planned to make it possible for workers to receive the whole product of their work; establish a jury that understood the disputes between workers and capitalists; create as many adult schools as there were unused buildings in the city; create agricultural banks to end the business of the usurers; to decentralise the government; to secularise the cemetery, since the Church-State separation was already an unquestionable fact. The manifesto concluded by making a call to the working class not to abandon the Republican Federal Social Committee, because it was a form of government that could guarantee the rights of workers who were in danger, subject to the action of fanaticism, to those who call themselves the people of order, to the hypocrites, to the same ambitious Republicans, who are capable of demolishing the very foundations of the Republic.

1880 - Aurèle Patorni (d. 1955), French anarchist, writer (plays, operettas, etc.), journalist, pacifist and néo-Malthusien, born. Collaborated on many, many journals and reviews, including Eugène Humbert's 'La Grande Réforme', with Louis Lecoin on 'SIA' (organe de la Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste), Louis Louvet's 'CQFD' and Lecoin's 'Défense de l'Homme'.

1886 - Charles Gallo, in court for sentencing for his attack of March 5, 1886 on the Stock Exchange, is expelled from the courtroom shouting "Death to bourgeois judges! Long live dynamite! Long live anarchy!" On July 15 Gallo receives a 20-year prison sentence.

##1892 - Taiji Yamaga (山鹿泰治; d. 1970), Japanese printer, manga artist, advocate of Esperanto, militant and long-time secretary of international relations for the Anarchist Federation of Japan, born.

1893 - The Imprisoned Haymarket anarchists - Oscar Neebe, Michael Schwab and Samuel Fielden - not executed the previous November (or, in the case of Louis Lingg, dead at their ownd hands) are pardoned by Illinois Governor Altgeld.

1903 - Paul Louis Joseph Estève (d. 1987), French trade unionist and bricklayer's mate, secretary of the Anarchist Federation of Languedoc (1926), born.

1903 - John Arthur 'Jack' or 'J.A.' Andrews (b. 1865), Australian clerical worker, anarchist heoretician, agitator and journalist, poet, fiction writer, polyglot, and inventor, dies of tuberculosis aged just 37 years old. [see: Oct. 27]

1910 - In Paris, at the Pantin cemetary, funeral ceremonies are held for the anarchiste Henri Cler (killed during a series of confrontations between police and striking cabinetmakers on June 13) are marked by violence, once again, by a mass of police attempting to disperse the thousands of people present.

1919 - Pura Arcos (Purificació Pérez Benavent; 1995), Spanish nurse, author and anarcha-feminist militant, who worked as a teacher and tram driver during the Civil War as well as being active within Mujeres Libres, born.

## 1928 - Elias Petropoulos (Ηλίας Πετρόπουλος; September 3, 2003), Greek author, poet, musicologist, folklorist, self-described 'urban anthropologist', libertarian and vagabond philosopher, born.

1934 - El Juicio a los Campesinos de Casas Viejas [The Trial of the Casas Viejas Peasants]: At the end of the two-day trial, the Consejo de Guerra impose a six year sentence of imprisonment on Antonio Cabañas Salvador aka 'El Gallilnito' (The Cockerel), held to be the most dangerous of the defendants. Manuel Moreno Cabañas (or Cabeza) aka 'Rompemonte', Francisco 'Migel' Rocha (or Rosa) Acevedo, Sebastián Pavón (or Pabón) Pérez and Cristóbal Toro Domínguez [also refered to as Antonio Toro Rodríguez] are sentenced to 5 years each; Salvador Jordán Aragón and José Monroy Romero aka 'Bailaor' (Dancer) get 3 years; José (or Juan) Jiménez Fernández aka 'el Boticario' (the Apothecary), Manuel Vera Moya aka 'Tragarranas', Francisco Cantero (or Quintero) Esquivel aka 'Pinganillo', Francisco Durán Fernández, Esteban Moreno Cano (or Caro) and Miguel Pavón Pérez all receive 2 years; and José Moreno Cabeza, Antonio Durán Fernández and José Rodríguez Quiros aka 'Pepe Pareja' receive 1 years imprisonment. Diego Fernández Ruiz aka 'el Tullido' (the Cripple), Francisco Quijada Pino, José Pérez Franco aka 'Patas de Paño', José González Pérez aka 'Pepe Pilar', Manuel Sánchez Olivencia aka 'Sardiguera', Antonio Pavón Pérez, Antonio Cornejo Delgado, Antonio Cruz García aka 'Tariero', Sebastián Cornejo Bancalero and Sebastián Rodríguez Quiros aka 'Pareja' are all acquitted. Those farmers who had been sentenced to two years or more, were sent to the prisons of Ocaña and Puerto de Santa María.

1936 - Régis Meunier (b. 1864), French militant syndicalist and anarchist propagandist, dies. [see: Apr. 26]

1937 - Showing solidarity with P.O.U.M. militants being persecuted by the Stalinists and the Republic's police, the Bolshevik-Leninist Section calls for concerted action by the Section, the left of the P.O.U.M. and the anarchist Friends of Durruti.

1938 - Thomas Henry Keell (b. 1866), English compositor, who edited the anarchist periodical 'Freedom', dies in the Whiteway Colony in the Cotswolds, near Stroud, Gloucestershire. [see: Sep. 24]

1948 - Raul Carbeillera Lacunza (b. 1918 [or poss. 1917]), an Argentinian anarchist who led CNT action groups against Franco's fascist state, is surrounded by police and the Guardia Civil in Barcelona's Montjuïc gardens, and dies at his own hands rather than face recapture by the police. Carbeillera had several times slipped into Spain to fight with the Resistance. [see: Feb. 28]

[B] 1957 - Bruno Alfred Döblin (b. 1878), German Expressionist novelist, essayist, doctor, and Landauerian Christian socialist with a strong affiliation with anarchist thought, especially Kropotkin (though he was never active), dies. [see: Aug. 10]

1959 - Joëlle Aubron (d. 2006), French libertarian member of Action Directe, born. On April 9, 1982, she was arrested and imprisoned for possession of weapons. Released, she resumed the armed struggle and barely escaped another arrest in December 1984. On January 25, 1985, she was a member of the commando that shot the General Audran, Director of International Affairs at the Ministère de la Défense (responsible for the sales of French arms) and on November 17, 1986, the CEO of Renault, Georges Besse.
On February 21, 1987, at a farm at Vitry-aux-Loges, Loiret, Aubron was arrested along with Nathalie Ménigon, Georges Cipriani and Jean-Marc Rouillan, all members of AD. At thrials in 1898 and 1994, she was sentenced to life in prison, with a minimum of 18 years.
After undergoing operations for a brain tumour, she was released on June 16, 2004 and her sentence suspended for medical reasons. She died two years later on March 1, 2006, of cancer.

1991 - The Anarchist Youth Federation (F.A.M.) pickets at Bulgarian DS (State Security) for the release of A. Radionov and A. Kuznetsov, two young Russian anarchists,members of Anarcho-Radical Union of Youth (A.R.O.M.), who were arrested in Moscow in February.

2002 - Philip Whalen (b. 1923), America Beat poet and Zen anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 20]
1846 - Ludovico Giardino Nabruzzi (d. 1920), Italian anarchist lawyer, known as Rubicone Nabruzzi or Rubicone, born.

1853 - [O.S. Jun. 15] Sophia Illarionovna Bardina aka 'Auntie' [Тётенька] (Софья Илларионовна Бардина; d. 1883), Russian anarchist revolutionary in the populist movement of the 1870s, who was influenced Kropotkin and Bakunin, born. Like many young Russian women of this period, she had to go to Switzerland to study, joining the medical faculty of the University of Zurich with her friend Olga Liubatovich. There she became part of the Fritsche circle, a group of young Russian radical women, including Vera and Lydia Figner, Olga Liubatovich, Anna Toporkova, Berta Kaminskaya, Alexandra Khorzhevskaya, Anna and Vera Lyubatovich, and the Subbotina sisters Evgeniya, Maria and Nadezhda, some of whom like her would become important members of the All-Russian Social Revolutionary Organisation (Muscovites Circle) [Всероссийской социально-революционной организации (Кружок москвичей)]. Older than her 17-18 year old comrades, she quickly earned the nickname 'Auntie' (Тётенька) and became the de facto leader.
At the end of 1874, like many of her fellow Fritsche circle members, she returned to Russia following an edict from the Russian government banning attendance at foreign univerities to conduct revolutionary propaganda amongst the workers, in her case whilst working in a Moscow factory.
Arrested on April 16 [4], 1875 , she became a party to the Trial of the 50 (процесса 50-ти) aka "The case of various persons accused of the state crime of creating an illegal organisation and the dissemination of criminal works" (Дело о разных лицах, обвиняемых в государственном преступлении по составлению противозаконнаго сообщества и распространению преступных сочинений), which took place from March 5 [Feb. 21] to March 26 [14], 1877, in the Special Tribunal of the Ruling Senate (Особого Присутствия Правительствующего Сената). On March 21 [9], 1877, she delivered her famous speech at the trial; "I am convinced that our country, now asleep, will awake, and its awakening will be terrible.... It will no longer allow its rights to be trampled under foot, and its children to be buried alive in the mines of Siberia.... Society will shake off its infamous yoke, and avenge us. And this revenge will be terrible.... Persecute, assassinate us, judges and executioners, as long as you command material force, we shall resist you with moral force ;... for we have with us the ideas of liberty and equality, and your bayonets cannot pierce them!"
She was sentenced to ten years of hard labour, but at the confirmation hearing, this verdict was replaced by a exile to Siberia. She arrived in Ishim (Ишиме) in the Tobolsk (Тобольской) province on January 21 [9], 1878, where she "refused any financial help in exile from her parents or from prisoners' aid organizations, and she existed for three years in a Siberian village in utter poverty." [Cathy Porter - 'Fathers and Daughters: Russian Women in Revolution' (1976)] On January 8 1881 [Dec. 27, 1880] "she managed to escape to Kazan where, broken in spirits and health, she wandered for a few months around the countryside. All her old optimism had gone, and she was unwilling to return to her friends who were so eagerly awaiting her in the capital. In three years political events had moved far beyond her moderate socialist ideals, and she felt totally isolated from the revolutionary movement. In the spring she left for Geneva, and this time she did not return." [ibid]
In an interview in 'L'Express' whilst in her self-imposed exile, she defended the 1881 attentat against Alexander II i, saying that "for us, anarchy does not signify disorder, but harmony in all social relations; for us, anarchy is nothing but the negation of oppressions which stifle the development of free societies".
Sophia Bardina committed suicide in Geneva on April 14, 1883, shooting herself in the head.

1869 - [O.S. Jun. 15] Emma Goldman (d. 1940), world citizen, anarchist rebel, feminist, anti-militarist and force of nature, born in Lithuania. Author of 'Anarchism and Other Essays' (1910), which contained the essay 'The Modern Drama: A Powerful Disseminator of Radical Thought'; 'My Disillusionment in Russia' (1923) and 'Living My Life' (1931).

1890 - Jacques Raoul Pierre Émile Long aka Jacklon (d. 1921), French anarchist and partner of Jane Morand, born. [expand]

1917 - Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman act as independent counsels in their conspiracy trial for anti-war activities; Emma denies the charge that she stated, "We believe in violence and we will use violence" at a May 18 meeting.

1918 - The anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist Dr. Marie D. Equi makes an anti-war speech in an IWW union Hall in Portland, Oregon, for which she was secretly indicted two days later, charged with insulting the flag, soldiers, and the ally Great Britain. At her nine day trial, which bagan on November 12, she found guilty of sedition and sentenced to three years in prison.

1921 - Wenceslao Jimenez Orive aka 'Wences' or 'Jimeno' (d. 1950), Zaragozan anarchist member of the 'Los Maños' guerrilla group in the resistance to Franco following the fascist victory in the Civil War, born. [expand]

1925 - On her birthday, Emma Goldman marries James Colton, an elderly anarchist acquaintence and trade unionist from Wales, who had offered to marry her and provide British citizenship so she could avoid deportation from England.

##1960 - Pierre Monatte, aka Pierre Lémont ( b. 1881), a central figure of French anarcho-syndicalist movement, dies. Influenced by Émile Pouget, friends with Albert Camus, and a former Communist Party member, he fought the Stalinist influence and reformist positions of the trade unions. [see: Jan. 15]

[B] 1961 - Harry Hooton (b. 1908), Australian poet, philosopher, anarchist, Wobbly and pacifist, dies. [see: Oct. 9]

1962 - Ralf Burnicki, German educator, author, post-anarchist theorist and poet, born.

1973 - Ida Mett [Ида Метт] (Ida Meyerovna Gilman [Ида Мееровна Гилман]; b. 1901), Belarusian-born anarchist, syndicalist and author, dies. [see: Aug. 2]

1987 - Aurélio Pereira da Silva Quintanilha (b. 1892), Portuguese university professor, scientist, and anarcho-syndicalist, who was an internationally renowned researcher in the areas of genetics, fungal biology and the genus Gossypium (the cotton plant), dies in Lisbon at the age of 95. [see: Apr. 24]

## 2009 - Victoriano Crémer (b. 1906), Spanish poet, novelist, essayist, journalist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was awarded the title 'Cronista Oficial de la Ciudad de León' (Official Chronicler of the City of León), dies in León aged 102, the longest lived of all Spain's poets. [see: Dec. 18]
1846 - Marie Huot (Mathilde Marie Constance Ménétrier; d. 1930), French poet, writer, journalist, lecturer, anarchist, feminist néo-Maltusian, Theosophist, vegetarian propagandist, and activist for animal rights and against vaccination, who was known as 'La mère aux chats' and wrote uner the penname of Edward Mill, born. The wife of Anatole-Théodore-Marie Huot, editor for the leftist Parisian magazine 'L'Encyclopédie Contemporaine Illustrée', with whom she had a child. At the same time, she maintained an intense relationship that lasted for nearly twenty years with the Swedish Impressionist painter, anarchist and Sufi mystic Ivan Agueli, to whom she dedicated her book of Symbolist poems, 'Missel de Notre-Dame des Solitudes' (1908). [expand]

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: Backed by police, a Sanlúcar judge crosses town, up the long narrow street that divided the established authority from the menu peuple (common people), to the International’s headquarters. He dramatically entered the workers’ centre and declared all its members outlaws on the grounds that they violated sacred rights to work. A hush fell over the town. The streets emptied. Municipal officials, fearing violence, sent to Sevilla and Cédiz for arms, which arrived the next day. Meanwhile, enraged by the judge’s provocation, large groups of vine workers, agricultural wage labourers, shoemakers, barbers, and other syndicalists assembled in the Plaza, surrounded on three sides by government offices.
By 10:00 that night, all was quiet. Terrified city councilors, large landowners, estate stewards, and the thirteen British merchants who lived in town vanished, leaving the city to those who dated to keep it. Even the Guardia Civil and the excise police, fearing themselves outnumbered, had withdrawn. At around 22:00 that evening, dinner time, the city’s silence was broken only by shouts of "Long live the Revolution"; "Long live the International"; "Down with the city council". One man, a barkeeper, was accidentally shot. The Provincial authorities in Cadiz sent Sanlúcar’s representative, Gutierrez Enriquez, home to set matters straight, but the local petty bourgeoisie and working class, including the peasants who resided in town, were united against him and against Republicans of all kinds. The local FRE leaders seized the town hall and constituted themselves a Committee of Public Safety. Clearly democratic in intent, the committee’s first act was to hold elections to choose a permanent revolutionary commission. The International was now in charge.[ública_Española]

1904 - L'Association Internationale Antimilitariste (AIA) is formed following the international anti-militarist conference held in Amsterdam on June 26.

1911 - Gaston Couté (b. 1880), French anarchist songster, dies. [see: Sep. 23]

1913 - [O.S. Jun. 15] Tikveš Uprising [Тиквешко въстание (Bul) / Тиквешко востание (Mkd)]: An uprising against the Serbian government in Vardar Macedonia, planned by the by the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation to take place behind the Serbian lines during the Second Balkan War after the Bulgarian Army had begun operations in the Tikveš region of Macedonia, starts prematurely after the secret uprising conspiracy had been betrayed to the local Serbian authorities.
[Jul.-Greg. correction error]Тиквешко_въстаниеТиквешко_востаниеš_Uprising]

1918 - El Congreso de Sans aka Primer Congreso de la Confederación Regional del Trabajo de Cataluña: Called by the Comité Regional de Cataluña de la Confederación Regional del Trabajo, the congress [Jun. 28 - Jul. 1] is held at the local of the Ateneo Racionalista de Sans, where trade unions and workers' associations throughout Catalonia discussed the most relevant aspects that the Catalan proletariat suffered at that time. There were several decisions reached, but two stand out as amongst the most important of the labour movement: the creation of the revolutionary Sindicato Único (Unified Union), bringing together all the workers from the same industrial sector in a single organisation that served to overcome the lack of solidarity that Capital tried to propagate, and the adhesion of these new workers' organisations to the CNT, which became the most important labour and libertarian organisation in Catalonia. From then on the CNT begins to fight against the bosses and to expand throughout Catalonia, taking on the truly anarchist and revolutionary character that its militants had conferred upon it. The eight-hour day was to be reclaimed and it was decided that professional politicians could never represent workers' societies. It was also recommended that the Juntas Administrativas de los Sindicatos (Administrative Boards of Trade Unions) should become mixed: "... so that women become interested in their struggles and directly defend their economic emancipation."

1921 - In the Sacco and Vanzetti trial, defence expert witnesses testify that Sacco’s gun did not fire the bullet that killed Berardelli. Mr. Kurlansky testifies that Mrs. Andrews had told him she could not identify the defendants but a government agent was forcing her to do so.

##1929 - Edward Carpenter (b. 1844), US homosexual and early proponent of gay rights, utopian and anarchist, poet, songwriter, philosopher and pacifist, dies. Sheffield propagandist who ran the Socialist Centre, wrote the socialist marching song 'England Arise', and books such as 'Civilisation, Its Cause and Cure' (1889) and 'Non-Governmental Society' (1911).

1934 - Anarchist poet Kenneth Patchen marries his life-long muse Miriam Oikemus.

[B] 1935 - Dieter Schrage (Herman Dieter Schrage; d. 2011), Austrian art historian, cultural scientist, ceramicist and anarchist activist, who was involved in 1976 in the Vienna Arena Movement and went on to become member of and policy wonk for Die Grüne Alternative in 1987, born.

1936 - In the early hours of the day, unable to continue enduring the physical pain of a longstanding ailment, Alexander Berkman (Alexander Obsay Osipovich Berkman [Александр Овсей Осипович Беркман [ru] / אלכסנדר אובסיי אוסיפוביץ' ברקמן [he]; b. 1870) shoots himself; the bullet lodges in his spinal column, paralysing him. Emma Goldman rushes to Nice to be at his side. He sinks into a coma in the afternoon and dies at 10pm. [see: Nov. 21 & Dec. 3]

1936 - Valeriano Orobón Fernánez (b. 1901), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist theoretician, trade-union activist, translator and poet, who wrote the lyrics of the CNT anthem 'A Las Barricadas', dies shortly after having been released from prison, his health destroyed by numerous prison sentences and fatally weakened by tuberculosis. [see: Apr. 14]

1940 - Matilde Sabaté Grisó (or Gusó) (b. 1904), Catalan teacher and anarcho-syndicalist militant, is shot in Girona cemetry after being condemned to death for "joining the rebellion" as a member of an armed militia, being the secretary of the Comitè Revolucionari de Sils, looting, destroying religious images and having participated in several murders.

1945 - In their first action, the Vigilantes aka the Secret Committee of Ex-Servicemen, a group of around 40 ex-servicemen, anarchists and anti-fascist activist, squat a house in Roundhill Crescent, Brighton, housing a homeless sailor's wife and her two children. They soon struck again seizing a long empty house in Freshfield road. On Sunday, 8 July they held an open air meeting on the Level which attracted several hundred people. By this stage they already had 400 members. Two days later members went up to a meeting in London where a similar organisation was being formed, as well as in Clacton, Hove, Worthing, and elsewhere, beginning a countrywide squatting movement.

1947 - Stanislav Kostka Neumann (b. 1875), Czech journalist, poet, literary and art critic, translator and anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 5]

1967 - Oskar Maria Graf (b. 1894), Bavarian author, poet, novelist and anarchist, who occassionally used the pseudonym Oskar Graf-Berg, dies. [see: Jul. 22]

## 1967 - Nikolaĭ (Nikolay) Telalov [Николай Теллалов], aka Sharkan [Шаркан], Bulgarian sci-fi writer, editor, translator and anarchist, on editorial board of 'Free Thought' (Свободна мисъл'а), the monthly newspaper of the Bulgarian Anarchist Federation (Федерацията на анархистите в България), born.

1974 - Maurice Vandamme (aka Mauricius) (b. 1886), French anarchist, architect's clerk and biologist, born. He was an anarchist individualist candidate in the municipal elections in Clignancourt 1925; discovered the therapeutic properties of the ozone and founded a medical centre in Paris in 1936 working with ozone insufflations. [see: Feb. 24]

1976 - Elena Quinteros (b. 1945), Uruguayan teacher, militant of the Federación Anarquista Uruguaya (FAU) and Partido por la Victoria del Pueblo, is kidnapped on the grounds of the Embassy of Venezuela in Montevideo having escaped from military custody four days earlier. In August 1976 she is last seen in a military detention centre and subjected to torture before she is "disappeared" permanently. [see: Sep. 9]

2005 - The Zapatistas present the Sixth Declaration of the Lacandon Jungle.

2006 - Léo Ferré performs at the Teatro Calabresi in San Benedetto del Tronto.
1864 - Naum Tufekchiev (Наум А. Тюфекчиев ; d. 1916), Bulgarian revolutionary, member of the Supreme Macedonian-Adrianople Committee, and organiser of the assassination of Stefan Stambolov and agent provocateur in the Feb. 14, 1915 attack on the Sofia City Casino, born.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1879 - Albert Otto Jensen (d. 1957), Swedish journalist and publicist, anarchist, syndicalist and agitator, born.

#### 1879 - Pedro Vallina Martinez (d. 1970), Sevillian medical doctor, prominent figure of Andalusian anarchism, Civil War fighter and militant, who was involved in the labour movement and spent much of his life in and out of prison and exile for his opposition to Spanish repression and fascism, born. [expand]

1900 - María Ascaso Budría (d. 1955), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist activist, who was imprisoned several times in Zaragoza and in Barcelona for her anarchist activities, born. Cousin of the Asacaso Abadia family, María Ascaso Budría was the sister of the prominent anarcho-syndicalist Joaquín and José Ascaso, and her son Miguel Jiménez Herrero would also become an anarcho-syndicalist militant. Her partner was the prominent FAI activist Miguel Jimenez Herrero, with whom she went into exile in France during the Retirada. After the Liberation she settled with him in Paris and died at the Broussais hospital in Paris on December 16, 1955.
Numerous sources confuse her with Maria Ascaso Abadia, the sister of Francisco and Domingo Ascaso, who was exiled in Mexico.

[B] 1905 - Jean Émile Louis Scutenaire (d. 1987), Belgian poet, anarchist, atheist, surrealist and civil servant, born. One of the central figure in the Belgian Surrealist movement, along with his close friend René Magritte, Paul Nougé, Marcel Lecomte and his wife, Irène Hamoir. Sympathetic to communism during the 1930s and '40s but as the truth about Stalin's regime became more apparent, he grew disenchanted with it and became an anarchist.

1906 - The US Congress renews the 1903 Anarchist Exclusion Act.

## 1915 - Carl Heinrich Løgstrup Petersen (August 8, 1988), Danish cigar maker, labour movement historian, anarchist and author of the anarchist movement in Denmark, born. One of the leading figures in Sammenslutningen af Bevidst Arbejdssky Elementer (SABAE - Association of Conscious Workers' Shadow Elements), an anti-political / anti-capitalist / anti-work organisation.

1918 - Federal agents raid the apartment of Emma Goldman's associate, M. Eleanor Fitzgerald, seizing mailing lists and other relevant material. Emma's associates, Carl Newlander and William Bales, are arrested for draft evasion following the raid.

1919 - Auguste Spichiger (b. 1842), Swiss clockmaker (guillocheur - decorative engraver of clock parts), militant libertarian and anarchist, who was a prominent member of the Fédération Jurassienne (Jura Federation) and the (anti-authoritarian) International, dies in Lyon. One of the leading anarchist figures of the era.

1919 - Pedro Fernández Eleta aka 'El Taxista' (the Driver)(d. 2006), Spanish taxi driver, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combattant, born. One of eight children, he began work as a baker and then as a mechanic. On July 19, 1936, he and his brother Cándido were distributing leaflets in Zaragoza calling for a general strike as the same time as the fascist uprising occurred. They had to go into hiding from the Fascists in the city for two months and witnessed the executions of their comrades by Franco's troops. On September 30, 1936, a group of 10 members of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) - among them Pedro and Cándido Fernández, Ángel Marí, Ángel Cebrián, Francisco Sanclemente Bernal, Ramón Maza and Santiago 'el Autobuserico' - armed with two pistols and a revolver, undertook the dangerous task of escaping to the Republican zone along the Utrillas railway line in the direction of Fuendetodos. They managed to reach the town the next day, after coming under machinegun fire from the Carlist militia and thanks to a group of CNT-FAI fighters who came out to meet them - amongst his rescuers was Francisco Fuster, a CNT comrade from Valdealgorfa, Teruel. Having recovered from his wounds, he joined the Regeneración century, the first Confederal Regiment.
A proposal by Saturnino Carod Lerin and Buenaventura Durruti for a Aragonese Hundred of 300 militiamen trained in Puebla de Hijar for guerrilla attacks inside Zaragoza was dismissed by the High Command, in favour of classical war tactics and frontal attacks, which would exhaust all hope of military victory on the Aragon front. With the forced militarisation, he left the front and for Barcelona, ​​whilst his brother Cándido joined the Second Company of the Second Battalion as a lieutenant in the XXV Divisió Ortíz. Cándido Eleta Fernandez, fell in combat, aged 27, fell in La Batalla de Belchite, the failed offensive against Zaragoza in August 1937, during an attempt to take a position on Monte Sillero. Pedro Fernandez, meanwhile, toured all the war fronts as a driver in the Cos de Tren (Train Corps), which later became the Batalló de Transport Confederal. Based between Barcelona and Madrid, he was attached to the Combatiente del Este of the XXVI Divisió Durruti, accompanying two French journalists during the battle of Teruel, he transported supplies and troops from Mora to the Battle of the Ebro, and in the withdrawal tfrom Catalonia, he crossed the French border with a ​​truckload of refugees. Interned in the camps at Agde, St. Cyprian and Argeles, he was a forced labourer building a gunpowder factory in Saint Librade. Later, he was deported to Figueres by train, where everybody in the convoy was handed over to the Guàrdia Civil. Interned in several concentration camps (La Carbonera, Miranda de Ebro and Valdenocada), finally imprisoned in the dreaded Torrero prison in Zaragoza, where he was subjected to court martial and sentenced to death. This was later commuted to 30 years, then to 20 and having served nearly three years, he was released on probation attached to the Batallón Disciplinario no. 35, forced to build the rail connection to the airport. Finally, he was forced to do three years of compulsory military service in Jaca. In 1977, he went with a group of old CNT activists to participate in a rally in Toulouse, where he found colleagues who he had not seen for decades. Working as a taxi driver, he was actively involved in the reconstruction of the CNT in Aragón as a militant in the Sindicat de Transports. His life was the source of inspiration for the novel 'Los inocentes de Ginel' (2005) by the writer Ricardo Vázquez-Prada.

1951 - Urbain Gohier (born Urbain Degoulet and used the pen name Isaac Blümchen; b. 1862), French author, journalist, anti-militarist, lawyer, one-time writer for the anarchist 'Le Libertaire' and latterly a rabid anti-Semite, dies. [see: Dec. 17]

1992 - Pierre Boujut (b. 1913), French cooper, writer, poet, pacifist and libertarian, dies. [see: Feb. 27]

2011 - Dieter Schrage (b. 1935), Austrian art historian, cultural scientist, ceramicist and anarchist activist, who was involved in 1976 in the Vienna Arena Movement and went on to become member of and policy wonk for Die Grüne Alternative in 1987, dies in Vienna. [see: Jun. 28]
1840 - Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's 'Qu'est-ce que la propriété? ou Recherche Sur le Principe du Droit et du Gouvernement' first published.

[E] 1853 - [O.S. Jun. 18] Olga Spiridonovna Lyubatovich [Ольга Спиридоновна Любатович] aka 'Shaeek' [Акула], Olga Doroshenko [Ольга Дорошенко], Maria Svyatskaya [Мария Святская] (d. 1917), Russian anarchist-influenced revolutionary, narodnitsa and member of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya (Земля и воля / People's Will), born. Unable to train as a doctor in Russia, like many other well-to-do young women, in May 1871 she travelled to Switzerland with her sister Vera, where she enrolled in the Medical Faculty of the University of Zurich. There she met Vera Figner and joined the Fritsche circle of young Russian female radicals such as Sofia Bardina, Vera and Lydia Figner, Olga Liubatovich, Anna Toporkova, Berta Kaminskaya, Alexandra Khorzhevskaya, and the Subbotina sisters Evgeniya, Maria and Nadezhda. In 1875, she returned to Russia as an ordinary worker in a cotton mill in the vicinity of Moscow and Tula, where she attempted to spread socialist propaganda among industrial workers. In January 1875 the former Fritsche circle members, who had all by now returned to Russia and engaged in revolutionary activities, began distributing the newspaper, 'Rabotnik' (The Worker), that was being produced in Berne by Mikhail Bakunin, whom the women had met whilst in Zurich. Thier activities had also come to the notice of the Tsarist secret police and Olga, Vera and many of the others were arrested in August that year. They went on to stand trial in the Trial of the 50 (процесса 50-ти) of the members of the All-Russian Social-Revolutionary Organisation (Всероссийской социально-революционной организации) aka the Muscovites Circle (Кружок москвичей). Olga was sentenced to nine years hard labour but this was reduced to banishment to Tobolsk in Siberia, where she was able to use her medical knowledge to help the local people and became known as the "miracle worker". In August 1876, Lyubatovich fled from Yalutorovsk and went into hiding in St. Petersburg and joined the recently formed Zemlya i Volya (Земля и Воля / Land and Liberty). She later went abroad, spending time in the Russian émigré group there, who included Vera Zasulich, who had fled abroad before she could be retried for her assassination attempt on the Police chief of St. Petersburg, General Trepov.
In October 1879, Zemlya i Volya split into two factions. The majority of members, who favoured a policy of terrorism, established Narodnaya Volya (Народной Воли / People's Will). Others, such as George Plekhanov formed Black Partition (Чёрный передел), who rejected terrorism and supported a socialist propaganda campaign among workers and peasants. Olga joined Narodnaya Volya, with a place on its executive committee who, on September 7 [Aug. 26], 1879, decided that the organisation should attempt to assassinate Tsar Alexander II. This led to Lyubatovich taking part in three unsuccessful attempts on the Tsar's life.
In 1880 there was strong disagreement in People's Will about the purposes of terrorism. One group that included Liubatovich and her husband, Nikolai Alexandrovich Morozov (Николай Александрович Морозов), argued that the main objective was to force the government to grant democratic rights to the people of Russia. However, another faction, led by Lev Tikhomirov (Лев Тихомиров), who had been deeply influenced by the ideas of Sergi Nechayev (Сергeй Нечaев), believed that it was possible for a small group of revolutionaries to gain control and then hand over its powers to the people. Lyubatovich and Morozov strongly disagreed with Tikhomirov, and argued that this was an example of Jacobinism and would thus result in the kind of dictatorship seen in the French Revolution. Then pregnant, she and Morozov left Narodnaya Volya and went to live in Geneva. While in exile Morozov wrote 'The Terrorist Struggle' (Террористическая борьба), setting out his and Olga's views.
In October Olga gave birth to a daughter (who would die the following summer of meningitis) whilst Morozov left for Russia to distribute his pamphlet. He was arrested soon after arrival and was then imprisoned in Sulvalki (Сувалки). In May 1881, leaving her daughter with her friends, Lyubatovich returned from abroad to St. Petersburg to try and liberate Morozova, In mid-October, she left for Moscow, where she was arrested on November 18 [6], 1881 in Moscow, at the Grand Hotel under the name of Maria Svyatskaya (Марии Святской). Exiled to Tobolsk province once again, where she remained until 1888. She was finally released following the 1905 Revolution, as part of a political amnesty. After her return to St. Petersburg she wrote her memoirs. Later on she withdrew from public and political activities, remarried and move to Georgia where she died in Tiflis on Jan. 10, 1918 [O.S. Dec. 28, 1917].

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: Not wishing to usurp power longer than necessary, they held the elections at 02:00 on the morning of June 30. It has not been recorded how many of Sanliicar’s citizens were willing or able to overcome fear or sleep to get out and vote, but the newspapers reported that those FRE members who had been deposed by the judge were elected by acclamation. Aware of the consequences of their act, between 1,000 and 1,500 armed townspeopIe began to erect barricades throughout the city, digging in to defend themselves against the army that would certainly come to depose them.
Meanwhile, two provincial Republican delegates, Pedro Bohórquez and Eduardo Gutiérrez Enríquez, had arrived and approved the appointments to interim council of Manuel Galán, Antonio Vázquez, Antonio Galán, Manuel Muñoz, Miguel Cervantes, José Galán, Antonio Rodríguez, Antonio Morales, Alfonso García, Francisco Carrero, Isidro Caparro, José Delgado, Manuel Zafra and Manuel Ávila, as councilmen; Jacinto Domínguez, Juan Millán, Manuel Pedrote, José Enríquez, and José Muñiz, as lieutenants tto the mayor; and Antonio Cuevas Jurado, as acting mayor, the latter being elected by a vote among the councilors, by 19 votes in favour to one against. The new councilors were appointed to take charge of the City until the holding of the next municipal elections scheduled for July 12.
The new mayor accepted petitions from the neighbours and they stated that the owners of the vineyards had to present their property titles and that the assets of those who did not present themselves in the village within the next three days were confiscated. Among the owners were Antonio de Orleans Duke of Montpensier and the Duke of Medina-Sidonia. They also asked for the seizure of Church assets and for 25,000 hard workers to arm themselves. At that moment, the wise neighbours, and some municipal officers began to leave the city, just in time to avoid witnessing the sacking of the city's churches in which furniture and statues were destroyed, and the College of the Piarists razed, amidst claims the the latter building had been given to the city for a high school but that the priests had appropriated the school. The Piarist had also become targets as it was said that the priests had given money to the Carlists, money that belonged to the city.

## 1874 - Fritz Brupbacher (d. 1945), Swiss physician, anti-militarist, revolutionary syndicalist and libertarian socialist, born. [expand]

1882 - Robert Louzon (d. 1976), French engineer, revolutionary syndicalist and anarchist, born.
In August 1936, commissioned by the CNT in Spain, he went to Morocco in order to try and prevent the recruitment of troops by Franco. In February 1937, he joined the Republican army and fought at the front as one of the oldest milicianos. On his return to France, he worked helping Spanish Republicans, as well as Italian and German emigrants as a member of the SIA (International Antifascist Solidarity) and working on its weekly. In 1939, he signed Louis Lecoin's leaflet 'Paix immédiate', which earned him a trial before the council of war despite having been awarded a Légion d'honneur. Arrested in 1940, he was interned in a camp in Algeria for a year. In 1947, he resumed his militant activity in Révolution Prolétarienne.

1888 - Léon Metchnikoff (Lev Mechnikov; b. 1838), Russian geographer, anarchist and secretary to Élisée Reclus, dies. [see: May 30]

##1891 - [O.S. Jun. 17] Fyodor Pavlovich Drugov (Федор Павлович Другов; d. 1934), Russian SR-Maximalist and anarcho-individualist, who was a member of the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee (Петроградского военно-революционного комитета) and the Cheka Collegium (Коллегию ВЧК), and played a key role in the storming of the Winter Palace, born

1901 - Renzo 'Bruno' Cavani, aka Aldo Rossi, Mario Branchi, Bruno Figuera, Evelino Eglesias, Sebastiano Poli, etc. (d. 1966), Italian stonemason, anarchist, anti-fascist and fighter in the Columna Ascaso, born.

1912 - In Mexico City, a group formed by Luis Méndez, Jacinto Huitrón and the Colombian anarchist Juan Francisco Moncaleano, takes the name Grupo Luz. This group is responsible for the creation of a school based on the École Moderne model of the Spaniard, Francisco Ferrer, and the publication of the '¡Luz!' (Light) newspaper.

1913 - Violeta Fernández Saavedra (d. 2005), Spanish-Mexican teacher, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, is born in Mexico. The grandaughter of the anarchist intellectual and pedagogue Abelardo Saavedra del Toro, her parents had been expelled from Spain. [expand]

1920 - Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman travel to Moscow to collect permits necessary for their museum expedition through Russia to gather historical material.

1930 - Francisco Saverio Merlino (b. 1856), Italian lawyer, theorist, propagandist of Italian anarchism, then a libertarian socialist - though he continued to defend anarchists, dies. [see: Sep. 9 or 15]

1936 - Alexander Berkman is buried in Nice.

[B] 1952 - During the first showing of Guy Debord's film 'Hurlement en Faveur de Sade' (Howls in Favour of de Sade; 1952; 75mins, with voice-overs by Gil J. Wolman, Guy Debord, Serge Berna, Barbara Rosenthal and Jean-Isidore Isou), which is dedicated to Gil Wolman, a mass brawl involving the audience and the film club managers breaks out after a few minutes, leading to police intervention, and it does not receive a full showing until October 13. Several Lettrists then dissociated themselves from such a crudely extremist film.

1957 - José Rodrigues Oiticica (b. 1882), lawyer, student of medicine, teacher, poet and an influential figure in the Brazilian anarchist and labour movement, dies. [see: Jun. 22]

1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Kimber Road Army depot in London is firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1998 - A group of 100 people manages to enter the buildings of the Constitutional Council of France. One of them seizes an original specimen of the constitution, tears it, declaring: "The dictatorship of capitalism is abolished. The workers declare anarchist communism."
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C] 2016 [D] 2017 [E] 2018 [F]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC] 2016 [DD] 2017 [EE] 2018 [FF]
Monthly features: 2013 [AAA] 2014 [BBB] 2015 [CCC] 2016 [DDD] 2017 [EEE] 2018 [FFF]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)