Anarchists Nov-Dec

1530 - Étienne de La Boétie (d. 1563), French aristocrat and proto-anarchist, author of the classic work on tyranny 'Discours Sur la Servitude Volontaire' (The Politics of Obedience: The Discourse of Voluntary Servitude; 1548), born.

1841 - Charles-Ange Laisant (d. 1920), French soldier, mathematician, left-wing MP, Freemason, who later became an anarchist, teacher rationalist, freethinker and Esperantist, born. Father to Albert and grandfather of Maurice and Charles, all anarchists like him.

[A / D] 1870 - Proclamation of a 'Revolutionary Commune' in Marseille. It lasts a mere 3 days.

1882 - Lorenzo Viani (d. 1936), Italian painter, printmaker journalist, critic and anarchist, born in Viareggio, Tuscany.

1890 - The first issue of the French language newspaper 'Le Réveil des Mineurs', "Nous réclamons le droit à l'aisance" (We demand the right to affluence) - changing in January 1892 to "Organe des travailleurs de langue française de l'Amérique" and later to "Organe des travailleurs de langue française des États-Unis", is published in Hastings, Pennsylvania.

## 1893 - John Anderson (d. 1962), Scottish philosopher, founder of the empirical brand of philosophy known as Australian realism, communist, then anti-authoritarian libertarian and anarchist, who was an important influence on the Sydney Libertarians and the Sydney Push, born.

1897 - The first issue of the German language anarchist communist fortnightly newspaper 'Sturmvogel', which carries the subtitle "Lewwer duad wheels Slavv" (Rather death that slave), is published in New York.

1901 - Gino 'Nino' Balestri (d. 1983), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist fighter, who fought as a volunteer in the Italian Section of the Columna Ascaso, born.

1902 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Le Flambeau', "Organe de combat révolutionnaire", is published in Brussels. A lawsuit brought against the newspaper means that only 2 issues and a special edition are ever published.

1903 - The first issue of the anarchist magazine 'Los Nuevos Horizontes' is published in Santiago de Chile.

##1905 - Paul-Émile Borduas (d. 1960), French-Canadian abstract artist, teacher and anarchist, who was the leader of the Automatistes and main author of the manifesto 'Refus Global' (1948), Borduas had a profound influence on both Québécois and Canadian art, born.

1907 - Alfred Jarry (b. 1873), French writer, novelist, playwright, anarchist, freelance scoundrel, proto-surrealist inventor of Pere Ubu and of Pataphysics, the science of imaginary solutions and the laws governing exceptions, dies. [see: Sep. 8]

##1909 - Abraham 'Abe' Bluestein (Dec. 3 1997), US anarchist, reporter, editor, and health and social services administrator, born in Philadelphia.

1910 - L'Ecole Ferrer school founded in Lausanne by the anarchist podiatrist Jean Wintsch and Émile Durand, inspired by l'Escuela Moderna of Francisco Ferrer.

1910 - At the Palacio de Bellas Artes in Barcelona, the second Congress of the regional Confederation of Solidaridad Obrera (Oct. 30 - Nov. 1) decides to the constituent congress of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo.

1915 - The first issue of the Italian language anarchist newspaper 'L'Allarme', "Contro ogni forma di autorita' e di sfruttamento" (Against all forms of authority and exploitation), is published in Chicago.

1920 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: In the aftermath of WWI, the price of wool had dropped significantly, provoking an economic crisis in sheep-breeding Argentine Patagonia. In August and September 1920 there had been a number of strikes in the province of Santa Cruz, organised by the Sociedad Obrera de Río Gallegos, affilated to the Federación Obrera Regional Argentina an led by Spanish anarchist Antonio Soto, against police repression and in support of better working conditions and increased wages. The bosses organisation, the Sociedad Rural, rejected the demands and a general strike (the first Patagonia Rebelde strike) was declared on November 1, with most of the strikers being shearers and rural workers.

1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: The car that is carrying Antonio Soto's comrades Luis Sambucetti, Severino Fernández and Pedro Mongilnitzki into Rio Gallegos is stopped by the Police and they are taken prisoner.

1922 - Mollie Steimer and Senya Fleshin, who had earlier help set up the Society to Help Anarchist Prisoners, are arrested on charges of aiding criminal elements in Russia and maintaining ties with anarchists abroad (they had been corresponding with Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman, then in Berlin). Sentenced to two years’ exile in Siberia, they declared a hunger strike on November 17 in their Petrograd jail, and were released the next day. They were forbidden, however, to leave the city and were ordered to report to the authorities every forty-eight hours.

1922 - Lima Barreto (Alfonso Henriques de Lima Barreto; b. 1881), important Brazilian libertarian, novelist, journalist and social critic, dies. He wrote for the labour and anarchist press. Author of the classic novel 'Triste Fim de Policarpo Quaresma', a satire of the first years of the República Velha in Brazil. [see: May 13]

1924 - The first issue of the exiled Italian language anarchist weekly 'Umanità Nova', "Quotidiano Anarchico" is published in Brooklyn, NY.

1927 - The Union Anarchiste Communiste congress in Paris (Oct. 30 - Nov. 1) splits to create to 2 separate organisations, the majority Union Anarchiste Communiste Révolutionnaire (U.A.C.R) and the Association des Fédéralistes Anarchistes (A.F.A), the latter grouped around Sebastien Faure.

1936 - In advance of the publication of the decree militarising the militias, the Comitè de Guerra de la Columna Durruti rejects the order and demands that the Consell de la Generalitat de Catalunya allow them the freedom to self-organise. The statement is signed by Buenaventura Durruti and will become headline new in the libertarian and confederal press. The following day Durruti made a speech on radio, reproduced in the confederal press, which was almost literally a reading out of the document in question.

1936 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Semáforo' (Traffic Light), "Revista del Comitè Ejecutivo de Espectáculos Públicos de Valencia y provincia UGT-CNT" (Magazine of the Executive Committee of Public Entertainment of Valencia and province UGT-CNT) is published in Valencia.

1937 - The first and only known number of the monthly 'Anarquía' bulletin, "Juventudes Libertarias Barriada Carolinas. FIJL. JJLL." is published in Alicante.

1939 - The 40th anniversary of New York's Yiddish anarchist weekly, the 'Freie Arbeiter Stimme' (Free Voice of Labour).

1951 - Gustave Virgile Cauvin (b. 1886) French anarchist, anti-militarist, revolutionary trade unionist and anti-alcoholist, Néo-Malthusien and social-cinema propagandist, dies in hospital in Vienne, Isère. [see: Jan. 4]

1952 - Andre Breton's 'La Luminosa Torre' appears in 'Le Libertaire'. Published by the Federacion Anarquista Francesa, the surrealists previously published articles here, including a manifesto, May 22, 1947, 'Freedom is a Vietnamese word', signed by Bonnefoy, Bousquet, Breton, Péret, Tanguy and 10 others.

1960 - Tito Livio Foppa (b. 1884), Argentinian journalist, writer, dramatist and theatrical critic, anarchist, and then diplomat, dies in Buenos Aires. [see: Jun. 18]

1965 - The first issue of the trilingual newspaper (Spanish, French and English) 'Mujeres Libres', "Portavoz de la Federación de Mujeres Libres de España en el Exilio" (Mouthpiece of the Federation of Free Women of Spain in Exile ) is released in London.

1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Army Tank HQ in Everton Street, London, bombed by the Angry Brigade.

1993 - Georges Navel (Charles François Victor Navel; b. 1904), French writer, novelist and libertarian, dies. [see: Oct. 30]

2001 - An Anarchist Platform event against the war in Afghanistan and capitalist exploitation takes place in Istanbul. The protesters forced the gates of the park Beyazit (a hotbed of protest in Turkey) and burn American flags, but whilst a statement is being read, the police attack the crowd. Sixty activists are arrested and beaten.

2011 - Fanny Edelman (Fanny Jabcovsky; b. 1911), Argentine textile worker, music teacher, Communist and feminist, who was active in International Red Aid and a member of the International Brigades in defence of the Second Spanish Republic, as well as honorary president of the Communist Party of Argentina, dies just four months short of her 101st birthday. [see: Feb. 27]

[B] 2012 - Agustín García Calvo (b. 1926), Spanish philologist, translator, linguist, playwright, poet, philosopher and anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 15]
1847 - Georges Sorel (d. 1922), French anarcho-communist, theorist of revolutionary syndicalism and direct action, author of 'Reflections on Violence', born.
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## 1859 - Baldomer[o] Oller i Tarafa (d. Sept. 1936), Catalan journalist, dirigible inventor, and anarchist, who was forced into exile in England (against the will of the British government) in 1900 after criticising the Procés de Montjuïc executions, born.

1872 - Henri Zisly (d. 1945), French individualist anarchist, libertarian naturist, proto-primivitist and writer, active in the Milieux libres, born. Considered vegetarianism as 'unscientific': "si les animaux pullulent, ils nous mangent à leur tour" (if animals proliferate, they will eat us in turn).
"A bas la Civilisation! Vive la Nature!"

1876 - Francis Jourdain (Francis René Marie André Achille Jourdain; d. 1958), French painter, engraver, furniture designer, ceramist, architect-decorator, interior designer, writer, biographer, theatre and film set decorator (including on Jean Vigo's 'L'Atalante'), anarchist and later a communist, born.

1882 - La Mano Negra: A key event takes place in the run up to the La Mano Negra trials.
During the disasterous winter of 1882, there was widespread starvation in Andalusia with day labourers' families flocking into the region's towns to beg and assail the officers in the town hall, gatherings which soon turned ugly, with the with day labourers breaking into town halls a demanding bread and work. That July and August saw gangs attaking rural estates, liberating all kinds of food (sacks of flour, chickpeas, eggs, chickens, sheep or pigs) to fead their families. The situation worsened with the arrival of autumn, when the thefts of bread became general in the streets of Jerez and Sanlúcar de Barrameda, attaining a character that the authorities began to consider was not spontaneous.
The events in Jerez de la Frontera on November 2 marked a turning point in the situation. The day began with around a thousand day labourers mounting a noisy demonstration in front of the doors of the Casas Consistoriales, demanding that the aldermen provide work for all and not just for half of those unemployed as they had been offered. With no agreement reached the protest broke up into small groups dedicated to assault all the bakeries and flour mills and any food shops that stood in their path.
The government response was immediate. Several dozen workers were arrested as alleged participants and participants in the assaults. At the same time it was decided to increase the police and military presence, the latter having been patrolling the countryside since the summer.
Other forces would now seek to exploit the situation. The commander in chief of the Guàrdia Rural, Tomás Pérez Monforte, saw to it that his network of spy and agent provoctuers became more active, whilst the press also played its part with pages filled with disturbing articles on the situation calling for a "hard hand". Also widely featured at the time was news of the sensational La Bande Noire trial in Lyon then taking place.

1890 - Moa Martinson (Helga Maria Swarts; d. 1964), Swedish kitchen maid, pantry chef, journalist, novelist, syndicalist and feminist, who was one of Sweden's most noted authors of proletarian literature, born.

1892 - Jean Roumilhac (d. 1949), French libertarian activist, born. Fought in the Spanish Revolution and was first president of the French section of the S.I.A. (International Solidarity Antifascist). In the 1940s Roumilhac created an agricultural company in the Rhone delta, enabling Spanish anarchist refugees to obtain legal residence permits. [expand]
[ ROUMILHAC&x=0&y=0]

1906 - Following her October 30 arrest, Emma Goldman pleads not guilty to criminal anarchy charges before the New York City magistrate.

####1907 - Lorenza Sarsa Hernández (d. 1982), Spanish libertarian schoolteacher and member of the Résistance, is born into a well-to-do family in Huesca, Aragon. She studied medicine in Madrid but serious fever attacks had made it impossible for her to continue her education far from the family home. Back in Huesca she entered the Teacher Training School there, where she too came under the direct sway of Ramón Acín and became acquainted with the rest of his disciples, including Ponzán and Viñuales Larroy Evaristo (1912-1939), her future partner. Having decided not to continue an attachment to a young count that she had met in Madrid, she told her father of her plans to make Evaristo her life partner. By then Evaristo was well known in Huesca as an anarchist activist. Lorenza’s father’s reaction was quite simply against her having anything to do with him. Lorenza returned to Berbegal and Evaristo, setting up home together. Alongside working as a schoolteacher, she set up a people’s kitchen to help those most in need. Every pupil would bring along a handful of beans and she would add the bacon and see to it that the dish of the day was prepared on the school stove while she got on with her teaching.
In December 1933 she had had to flee Berbegal and moved to Barcelona. There she became head of the Rationalist School in the Bonanova barrio up until 1939: and it was there that she gave birth to their daughter, Zeika Sonia Viñuales Sarsa, born on November 11, 1938. Two months after surviving the heavy air raids inflicted on the city, they crossed the border into France along with several hundred thousand other refugees. Interned in the Vigan concentration camp, they spent nearly a year there with the rest of the female prisoners, many of whom were Barcelona workers and prostitutes from the Barrio Chino.
Meanwhile, with the war lost on the battlefield, it fell to Evaristo to serve on the National Committee of the Spanish Libertarian Movement (MLE) set in Valencia on 7 March 1939. Defeat inevitable and trapped along with thousands of republican fighters, Evaristo committed suicide in a left-handed handshake with his friend Máximo Franco, in the rat-trap that the port of Alicante had become. The promised fleet of ships due to ferry them all into exile failed to arrive at the port. His tragic end (not without its grandeur) has often been remembered by lots of surviving eye-witnesses and writers: the double suicide of Evarisato and Máximo came on 1 April 1939 by way of one last protest against fascism from Upper Aragon’s Máximo Franco and Evaristo Viñuales. Soon the living, incarcerated and tortured in Francoist concentration camps, would come to envy their dead comrades. Alone and in confinement, Lorenza took the news of Evaristo’s death badly: after reading the news she became hysterical: his cousin Mariano Viñuales Farina confirmed the deadly news in a letter.
She and Zeika were rescued from the camp by Francisco Ponzán and taken to Toulouse and from there on to Varilhes, half way to Andorra. She was reunited with the libertarian teacher Pilar Ponzán (sister of Francisco Ponzán) and like many other women, together Pilar and Lorenza joined the anti-Nazi resistance and both were issued with the papers and back-up they needed to survive thanks to the underground resistance network formed by Paco Ponzán, whose internal security practice was to produce a baby picture of Zeika Viñuales as the recognition code between all the members of the Ponzán underground network. As a result of her activities, Lorenza was arrested by the Gestapo but was freed en route whilst being taken to the St Michel prison in Toulouse under an escort of Vichy gendarmes. Paco Ponzán himself was to be murdered shortly after that. It was August 17, 1944, the Second World War was drawing to an end but in their retreat from Toulouse the Nazis executed him and a sizeable group of captured resisters. Like the rest of the refugees who had risked their lives fighting the Nazis she had another tough blow coming, as hard as or harder than the loss of Evaristo: The Allied armies of the USA, Britain and France reneged on promises they had made to the Spanish people and dropped any thoughts of wiping out General Franco’s fascist regime. Lorenza was to build herself a new life at the side of the anarchist writer and journalist Felipe Alaiz de Pablo (1887-1959) who became a father figure to Zeika. So she shared her time in exile with Alaiz and other leading Aragonese libertarians like Ramón Liarte and Amparo Poch from whom she was to learn so much. Lorenza died in exile in 1982. Her daughter Zeika also died in exile, in Toulouse on August 1, 2009.

1909 - Spokane Free Speech Fight: The Industrial Workers of the World formally begins the Spokane free-speech fight – the first of a series of free speech fights that lasted up til the wartime repression of the IWW began in 1917 – begin a continuous series of street speeches in defiance of the recently introduced ordinance that banned street speeches, an ordinance directed against IWW organising. On this day, one by one, IWW members mount a soapbox (an overturned crate) and begin speaking, upon which Spokane police yank them off the box and take them to jail. On the first day, 103 Wobblies are arrested, beaten, and incarcerated. Within a month, arrests will mount to 500, including the fiery young Wobbly orator Elizabeth Gurley Flynn. The Spokane free-speech fight will end with the City revoking the ordinance. It will inaugurate free-speech fights in other cities, and is considered one of the most significant battles to protect freedom of speech in American history. [expand]

1910 - Paul Berthelot aka Marcelo Verema (b. 1881), French Esperantist, anarchist, journalist, writer, scientist and anthropologist, dies. [see: Jul. 26]

1915 - Emilio Covelli (b. 1846), Italian anarchist organiser involved in the Matese insurrection of 1877, member of the Fédération Italienne de l'AIT, dies. [see: Aug. 5]

1919 - Laurent Tailhade (b. 1854), French satirical poet, writer, anarchist polemicist, opium addict ('La Noire Idole', after de Quincey) and translator ('Satyricon de Pétrone'), dies. [see: Apr. 16]

[B] 1923 - Robert Bodanzky, aka Danton (born Isidor Bodanskie; b. 1879), Austrian journalist, essayist, playwright, poet, librettist, artist, anti-militarist and anarcho-communist, dies. [see: Mar. 18]

##1927 - Assault by the Portuguese government on the anarchist Confederação Geral do Trabalho (General Confederation of Labour), including arrests, attacks on union offices, and restriction of labour activities. [expand]

1936 - Lorenzo Viani (b. 1882), Italian painter, printmaker journalist, critic and anarchist, dies in Ostia following cardiac arrest. [see: Nov. 1]

2002 - Brian Behan (b. 1926), Irish writer, playwright, novelist, public speaker, lecturer, trade unionist., anarcho-syndicalist, later a communist and then Trotskyist, who was never as celebrated as his brother Brendan, dies following a heart attack in Brighton aged 75. [see: Nov. 10]
## 1848 - José García Viñas (d. 1931), Spanish physician and anarchist, who was a member of the Federación Regional Española de la Asociación Internacional de Trabajadores (1870-1881) and the Bakuninist Alianza Internacional de la Democracia Socialista (International Alliance of Socialist Democracy), born in Málaga.

1858 - Alfred Marsh (d. 1914), English anarchist communist, 'Freedom' editor and journalist, born.
dies in Hasting of an inoperable cancer.

##1886 - Kurt Gustav Wilckens (d. 1923), German anarchist, member of the IWW and a pacifist, born. [EXPAND]
assassin of the Carnicero de la Patagonia, Lieutenant Colonel Hector Benigno Varela

1888 - [O.S. Oct. 22] Konstantin Vasilievich Akashev (Константи́н Васи́льевич Ака́шев; d. 1931), Russian Socialist-Revolutionary and later anarchist communist, who defected to the Bolsheviks during the October Revolution and became the first commander of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Air Force Fleet (Glavvozduhoflot) [Рабоче-Крестьянского Красного Военно-воздушного Флота (Главвоздухофлот)], and was arrested during the 'Spring' Case (Дело «Весна») of 1930-31 against an alleged "anti-Soviet military conspiracy" and was sentenced to "the highest level of social protection" (высшей мере социальной защиты) i.e. shot, born.

1890 - Kikue Yamakawa (山川菊栄) (Kikuei Morita [森田菊栄]; d. 1980), Japanese writer, and socialist and feminist activist, born. She attended a lecture by the anarchist Sakae Ōsugi (大杉 栄) in 1915, which put her on the path to socialism, and, three years later, met Hiratsuka Raichō (平塚 らいちょう), which led to her writing articles for the monthly feminist arts and culture magazine 'Seitō' (青鞜 / Blue Stocking) and joining the anarchist-influenced feminist group Seitō-sha (青鞜社 / Bluestocking Society). However, she is probably best known for being one of the founding members of the socialist group Sekirankai (赤らん会 / Red Wave Society) in 1921.

1891 - Pasquale Fancello, aka Pascale Crodazzu (d. 1953), Sardinian bricklayer, anarchist and anti-fascist militant active during the Spanish Revolution, born.

1892 - Pierre Chardon (Maurice Charron) (d. 1919), French militant individualist anarchist and anti-militarist, born.

1898 - Concha Monrás Casas (María de la Concepción Monrás y Casas; 1898 - 1936), Catalan Esperantist, life-long partner of Ramón Acín and mother of the artist Katia Acín Monràs, born.

1904 - Nikola Kostadinov Yurukov (Никола Костадинов Юруков; d. 1927), member of the Koprivshtitsa (Копривщенска) and Trojan (Троянската) anarcho-communist cheta (анархо-комунистическа чета) alongside his brother Rashko (Рашко), born in Koprivshtitsa.

[B] 1913 - Albert Cossery (d. 2008), Egyptian-born French novelist, self-proclaimed anarchist and "lazy old sod", writing only one book per decade, born. Cossery was a dandy who practised a type of contemplative idleness and lived most of his life unemployed. His novels, which explore the political and cultural pitfalls of the Middle East, display a biting wit and characters that display a common outlook: the only true recourse against a world governed by "scoundrels" is an utter disregard for convention.

1914 - Pierre Chabert (d. 2012), French professor of French, Latin and Greek, poet and anarchist, born.

1916 - The first issue of the Italian language political arts and literature journal 'Il Martello' (The Hammer) is published in New York. Initially put out by Luigi Preziosi, but is taken over at the end of 1917 by Carlo Tresca.

[D] 1920 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: Antonio Soto, organiser of the Sociedad Obrera de Río Gallegos and leader of the ongoing strike in Patagonia, survives an assassination attempt.

#### 1938 - Jean Michel Rollin Roth Le Gentil (d. 2010), French cult erotic horror filmmaker, actor, novelist and anarchist, born. Rollin is best known for his work in the fantastique genre such as the vampire films 'Le Viol du Vampire' (The Rape of the Vampire; 1968) and 'Lèvres de Sang' (Lips of Blood; 1974); the erotic horror 'Les Démoniaques' aka 'Deux Vierges pour Satan' (The Deamoneses; 1974); as well as the first French gore film 'Les Raisins de la Mort' (1978) and the rare thriller 'La Nuit des Traquées' (Night of the Hunted; 1980). His pseudonyms included Michel Gentil, Michael Gentle, J.A. Laser, J.A. Lazar, J.A. Lazer, Jean Pierre Sammut and Robert Xavier.

1983 - May (Marie-Jeanne) Picqueray (b. 1898), French militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, feminist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Jul. 8]

1986 - Giovanni Baldelli, aka 'Basco' (b. 1914), Italian school teacher, anarchist theorist and anti-fascist, best known for his 1971 work 'Social Anarchism', dies in Southampton. [see: May 22]

[A] 2006 - Anarchist Black Cross activists invade the Philippines embassy in Kensington Palace Gardens, London in support of the Sagada 11 and are eventually removed by armed police.
1837 - Jean-François Varlet (b. 1764), French revolutionary considered by many an anarchist precursor, involved with Les Enragés faction in the French Revolution, dies. [see: Jul. 14]

## 1858 - Pierre Alfred Fromentin, aka 'L'anarchiste millionnaire' or 'Le millionnaire rouge' (d. 1917), French anarcho-individualist philanthropist based on his great fortune that he accrued in various ways, including a successful marriage, insurance payments following a series of "fortuitous" fires in a number of his villas, etc., born.

1877 - Theodor Bartošek (d. 1954), Czech lawyer, freethinker, anarchist fellow traveller and then communist politician, born. Destined to become a priest, he rebelled against his family and co-found the Svazu Českého Studentstva (Union of Czech Students), forming a close association with the Czech anarchist movement including his life-long friend Bohuslav Vrbenský. In 1903 he co-founded, with the anarchist poet S.K. Neumann, the Spolek Volných Myslitelů Augustin Smetana (Augustin Smetana Association of Free Thinkers) in honour of the Czech Hegelian philosopher and ex-communicated priest of the same name - the organisation would be banned in 1909. In 1905 he became editor of the group's newly founded monthly magazine 'Volné Myšlenky' (Free Thought), which in 1915 was also banned [its header was designed by František Kupka]. During WWI Volných Myslitelů was officially disbanded and its members interned including alongside Bartošek, Bohuslav Vrbenský, Vlastimil Borek, Václav Krampera, František J. Havelka, Emil Špatný and the nationalist politician Václav Klofáč.
Post-WWI, he sat in the Revoluční Národní Shromáždění (Revolutionary National Assembly), winning a parliamentary seat for the new Česká Strana Socialistická (Czech Socialist Party), of which he became a representative in the National Assembly for the České Socialistické Straně (Czech Socialist Party, or ČSS), formed from the merger of the Federaci Českých Anarchistů Komunistů (Federation of Czech Anarchist Communists, or FČAK) with the Česká Strana Národně Sociální (Czech National Social Party; ČSNS). Expelled from the ČSS, along with the rest of the Vrbenský group, for voting against the Law on Protection of the Republic and helped found the Independent Socialist Workers Party (Neodvislá Socialistickou Stranu, or NZS) in 1924 as the principal author of its programme statement.
He was also a co-creator of the first Constitution of the Czechoslovak Republic, later joining the KSČ and was a member of both the Svazu Proletářských Bezvěrců (Union of Proletarian Atheists) and of Mezinárodní rudá pomoc (International Red Aid ). After the rise of fascism in neighbouring Germany, he became the president of the Spolku na Ochranu ak Podpoře Obětí Boje Proti Fašismu (Society for the Protection and Support of Victims of the Fight Against Fascism). On the first day of the Nazi occupation, the Gestapo smashed up his apartment, arresting and interrogating him. Arrested and interned a number of times, he also defended anti-Nazi resistance fighters in court, later defending those persecuted by Communism as well.

[B] 1885 - Delfín Lévano (Delfín Amador Lévano Goméz; d. 1941), Peruvian anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist agitator, journalist, poet, musician and lecturer, born. Son of another prominent activist, anarchist, Manuel Caracciolo Lévano and founder of the newspaper 'La Protesta' in its first phase (1911-26).

1889 - Vittorio Pini (1860-1903) is sentenced to 20 years in prison for political banditry. An Italian shoemaker and illegalist living in Paris, his expropriations supported Intransigenti groups and their propaganda efforts. He also supported the 'Cloche de Bois', an organisation discreetly helping those unable to pay their landlords: "Nous, anarchistes, c'est avec l'entière conscience d'accomplir un devoir, que nous attaquons la propriété."

1890 - Klabund (psedonym of Alfred Henschke; d. 1928), German Expressionist poet, playwright, novelist, consumptive and anarchist, who influenced German literature with his adaptations and translations of Oriental literature, born. His pseudonym derived from a conflation of the words Klabautermann (hobgoblin) and Vagabund (vagabond) which appeared in the title of his first volume of poetry 'Morgenrot! Klabund! Die Tage Dämmern!' (Dawn! Klabund! The Days Break!), and which stuck. A close friend of Hugo Ball, they went on to collaborate on poems under the joint pseudonym of Klarinetta Klaball following the 1913 confiscation of copies of 'Die Revolution' and 'PAN' for allegedly obscene poems by both (Ball, for the poem 'Der Henker', in the first and Klabund in 'PAN'). It is also claimed (one of the many attributions to the name's origins) that Dada first appeared in one of their jointly authored poems first performed by Marietta di Monaco in 1914 at the Simplicissimus cabaret in Munich.
Amongst his 25 plays, 14 novels,17 volumes of poetry and his adaptations from the Chinese is his 1925 drama 'Der Kreidekreis' (The Chalk Circle), based upon some of his Chinese poetry translations, that went on to be the inspiration for both Alexander von Zemlinsky's opera 'Der Kreidekreis' (1933) and Bertolt Brecht's play 'Der Kaukasische Kreidekreis' (The Caucasian Chalk Circle; 1948).

1897 - Cipriano Mera Sanz (d. 1975), French anarcho-syndicalist, militia leader and army commander in the Spanish Revolution, born. [EXPAND]

1897 - Giuseppe Ciancabilla (1872-1904) publicly declares himself an anarchist, in Malatesta's paper, 'L'Agitazione'. In October, Ciancabilla met Malatesta to do an interview for 'Avanti!'. This meeting and the response of the PSI (Italian Socialist Party) leadership to the discussion led Ciancabilla to leave the socialist party in disgust and to declare himself an anarchist. Ciancabilla was one of the important Italian figures of the anarchist movement that emigrated to the US in the late 1800s. [see: Sep. 16]

1905 - Felix Carrasquer Launed (d. 1993), Spanish baker and pastry chef, anarchist pedagogue and anarcho-syndicalist militant, and writer known by the pen name Carles Launed, who lost his sight very young, but that did not stop him from continuing with cultural activities and social struggles, born.

1917 - Carlos Vidal Pasanau (d. 1950), Catalan mechanic, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist member of Francisco Sabate Llopart 'El Quico' guerrilla group, born [expand]

1921 - Victorine Brocher-Rouchy aka Victorine B (Victorine Malenfant; 1838-1921), French member of the International, Communard, militant anarchist and and socialist educator, dies. [see: Sep. 4]

1929 - Maurício Tragtenberg (November 17 , 1998), Brazilian sociologist, autodidact, professor, communist, Trotskyist and then libertarian socialist, who wrote extensively on the theory and practice of libertarian education (pedagogia libertária), born.

1931 - Luigi Galleani (b. 1861), influential Italian anarchist, dies at the age of 70 of a heart attack. [see: Aug. 12]

1936 - Four leaders of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT - Juan Garcia Oliver (Justice), Juan Peiro (Industry) Juan Lopez Sanchez (Trade), Federica Montseny (Health; she is the first woman minister in a Spanish cabinet) - split the Spanish anarchist movement by joining the new Republican Popular Front government as Cabinet Ministers.

1942 - Václav Tomek, Czech historian and anarchist philosopher, poet, painter and collagist, born in Tábor.

1954 - Stig Dagerman, (b. 1923), Swedish playwright, novelist, poet and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Oct. 5]

1960 - First session of the Situationist International's Central Council in Alsemberg, near Brussels, November 4-6th. Participants: Guy Debord, Attila Kotànyi, Jørgen Nash, Helmut Sturm and Maurice Wyckaert (Asger Jorn absent).

1985 - Ado (Adonis) Kyrou (b. 1923), Greek-born French filmmaker, cinematographer, critic, author and anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 18]

1995 - Gilles Deleuze (b. 1925), influential libertarian anti-capitalist French philosopher, commits suicide by throwing himself out of a window. [see: Jan. 18]

2005 - Simon Watson Taylor (b. 1923), English anarchist, actor and translator, closely associated with the Surrealist movement, dies. [see: May 15]
1849 - Louis Dejoux (d. unknown), French anarchist activist and brother of François Dejoux, born. [see: Mar. 19]

1851 - Jenő Henrik Schmitt (d. 1916), Hungarian government librarian Christian anarchist and Gnostic philosopher, born.

#### 1871 - Kōtoku Shūsui (幸徳秋水), pen name of Kōtoku Denjirō (幸徳傳次郎; Kōtoku Denjirō; d. 1911), Japanese journalist, writer, and one of the most outstanding figures of Japanese anarchism, who translated many works of contemporary European and Russian anarchists, such as Peter Kropotkin, into Japanese, born. Partner of Kanno Sugako (管野須賀子), he would dies alongside her following their supposed involvement in the High Treason Incident (大逆事件; Taigyaku Jiken) or Kōtoku Incident (幸徳事件; Kōtoku Jiken) plot against the Japanese Emperor's life. [see: May 20] Wrote '廿世紀之怪物帝国主義' (Imperialism, Monster of the 20th Century; 1901). NB: Some sources claim Sept. 22 as his birth date.

[B] 1878 - Mikhail Petrovich Artsybashev (Михаи́л Петро́вич Арцыба́шев; d. 1927), Russian writer, playwright and individualist anarchist, who was a major proponent of the literary style known as naturalism, born. Best remembered by the clearly Stirner-influenced novel 'Sanin' (1907). A staunch enemy of the Bolshevik regime, he published his anti-Bolshevik work 'Notes of a Writer' n 1917-18 before gaining Polish citizenship in 1923, where he edited the newspaper 'За свободу!' (For Liberty!).

1885 - Diego Rodríguez Barbosa (d. 1936), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist militant, anarcho-naturalist propagandist, writer, poet and novelist, born. Wrote under a selection of pseudonyms (including Ile Gales, Juan de la Barre and Silvestre del Campo) for the libertarian press e.g. 'Ética', 'Germinal', 'Iniciales', 'El Luchador', 'La Madre Tierra', 'La Revista Blanca', 'La Semana', 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Solidaridad Proletaria', 'Tierra y Libertad', 'La Voz del Campesino', etc. His output included poetry and 5 novels, published in the 'La Novela Libre' and 'La Novela Ideal' series: 'La Hija del Sepulturero' (The Gravedigger's Daughter; 1929), 'Desahuciados' (Homeless; 1933), 'Pastora' (Shepherd; 1933), 'Amor , Sacrificio y Venganza' (Love, Sacrifice and Revenge; 1935) and 'Bohemia' (1935) - all written whilst he was in prison and published by La Novela Libre and La Novela Ideal.

1886 - Guy Aldred (d. 1963), British anarchist-communist, anti-militarist and key member of the Anti-Parliamentary Communist Federation, born. Founded the Bakunin Press and edited five Glasgow-based anarchist periodicals - 'The Herald of Revolt', 'The Spur', 'The Commune', 'The Council', and 'The Word'.

##1887 - Robert van 't Hoff (Robbert van 't Hoff; d. 1979), Dutch architect and furniture designer, and utopian anarchist, who was an influential member of the De Stijl movement, born. A member of the Communistische Partij Nederland in the years following WWI who, following the failure of Pieter Jelles Troelstra's call for a socialist revolution in the Netherlands in 1919 (De Roode Week/Vergissing van Troelstra [Red Week/Troelstra's mistake]), quit De Stijl and withdrew from artistic activity, declaring himself an "ex-architect" in 1922, and spending much of the rest of his life promoting utopian anarchist communities.

1894 - [O.S. Oct. 22] Varvara Fyodorovna Stepanova (Варва́ра Фёдоровна Степа́нова; d. 1958), Russian-Lithuanian painter and designer initially associated with the Cubo-Futurists and zaum poets, but later a Constructivist, born. Like her partner Aleksandr Rodchenko, she was involved in the newspaper 'Anarkhiia' but, unlike him, appears to not have been an active anarchist.

1898 - Ricard Sanz i García aka Ricardo Sanz Asensio (d. 1986), Valencian anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist fighter against Franco, born. He participated in the founding of the anarchist group Los Solidarios with Buenaventura Durruti and Juan Garcia Oliver. Author. [expand]

1898 - Benoit Perrier (d. unknown), French insurance inspector, anarchist activist and pacifist, born.

1905 - Eugène Guillot, aka Jacques Sallès, 'Antonio' (d. 1978), French cement worker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, born in Paris.
Dies in November 1978 of a myocardial infarction.

1909 - The first issue of 'La Cloche Anarchiste', an irreuglar news circular, is published by the Francisco Ferrer Club in Bourges.

1911 - The unveiling in Brussels of a monument dedicated to Francisco Ferrer, made by the sculptor Robert Gnyslens and erected thanks to an international subscription. The inscription reads: "For Francisco Ferrer shot at Montjuic on October 13, 1909. Martyr of freedom of consciousness." The Germans were to remove the monument during the WWI Occupation and it was not until 1984 that it was replaced.

1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: The business of every Estancia in southern Santa Cruz is paralyzed by the strike. Workers dominate the roads, moving in columns of 60, 100 and 200 men marching with red and black flag.

[E] 1921 - Jeanne Humbert and Eugène Humbert, militant anarchists, pacifists, néo-malthusians and naturists are sentenced to prison. Under the terms of the new laws (voted in 1920) to repress anti-natalist propaganda, Jeanne and Eugene are each sentenced to one to two years in prison and fined 3000 francs.

1923 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: In the Sacco and Vanzetti case, the Proctor motion for a new trial is made.

1933 - Rogelio Madrigal Torres (d. 1960), Spanish anarchist guerrillero, born. In 1956 he deserted the army in Seu d'Urgell and took refuge in France, settling in Dijon, where he became a mason. He entered the guerilla struggle against Franco in late December 1959, crossed the Pyrenees with group of Quico Sabaté (including Francisco Sabaté himself plus Antonio Miracle Guitart, Francisco Conesa Alcaráz and Martin Ruiz Montoya), but during the night of January 3-4, 1960, they were ambushed by the Civil Guard at Mas Clarà, Sarria de Ter, near Girona in Catalonia. The whole group, except miraculously Sabaté who escaped , were shot dead while trying to escape.

1936 - Buenaventura Durruti makes a radio broadcast from the Madrid front, in which he opposes the decree issued by the Generalidad militarising the militias, and calls for greater commitment and sacrifice from the rearguard if the war is to be won.

1937 - Julius Nolden, a car plant worker from Duisburg was sentenced by the 'The People's Court' in Berlin to a ten year prison term for "preparing an act of high treason with aggravating circumstances". Nolden had been at the head of the FAUD (anarcho-syndicalist Free Union of German Workers) in the Rhineland when that underground Organisation was dismantled by the Gestapo in January 1937. Arrested with him were 88 other male and female anarcho-syndicalists who stood trial in the Rhineland in early 1938.

## 1942 - João Freire (João Carlos de Oliveira Moreira Freire), Portuguese former Naval officer, sociologist, professor, writer, fencing master and freelance historian, and libertarian, born in Lisbon. [EXPAND]

1944 - Members of the Communist-led Union Nationale Espagnole shoot 4 activists in Montfort-sur-Boulzane who had refused to join their organisation. The four are the Spanish socialists Pedro Perez and José Ibanez, and the libertarians Antonio Rodriguez (aka Victoriano Vonilla), and Miguel Gonzales Espada. The latter had fought in the Jeunesses Libertaires de Calanda, Teruel, where he had been a farmer, and later in the Durruti Column. As a refugee in France he had been a lumberjack, dying at the hands of the Stalinists rather than the Fascists.

1974 - Angela Nathalie Gossow, German lead vocalist for the Swedish melodic death metal band Arch Enemy, born. A vegan, she also considers herself to be an anarchist.

1980 - Ida Pilat Isca (b. 1896), Ukrainian-American anarchist writer, translator and activist, who was prominent in the Sacco and Vanzetti campaign in New York and later joined the Socialist Party, dies. [see: Apr. 28]

1983 - Jean-Marc Reiser (b. 1941), one of France's foremost cartoonists and comic artists, dies. [see: Apr. 13]

2007 - Eight simultanious demonstrations in solidarity with prison uprisings in Athens, Thessaloniki, Patra, Heraklion Crete, Larisa, Volos, Ioannina, and Komotini. In Athens the riot police attacked the demo of 800-1.000 anarchists, which resulted to clashes and tear gas.
1886 - First issue of 'Die Autonomie', a German language anarchist weekly edited by Josef Peukert and published in London. The Autonomy group opposed Johann Most's Freiheit group, advocating instead the ideas of Kropotkin.

1887 - Eugène Edine Pottier (b. 1816), French transport worker, anarchist, poet, Freemason, member of the municipal council during the Paris Commune and author of the poem 'L'Internationale', which became the anthem of the AIT, dies of a stroke in Paris. [see: Oct. 4]

1903 - François Michel Diana (d. 1993), French electrician, peintre Prolétarien and anarchist, who was appointed professor of painting at the École des Beaux Arts in Marseille after WWII (1946-73), born.

[B] 1915 - María Bruguera Pérez (d. 1992), Spanish member of Mujeres Libres, anarchist, anti-fascist fighter, born. Daughter and sister of anarchists, she joined the Juventudes Libertarias (Libertarian Youth) since its foundation in 1932 and is particularly involved in the activities of the artistic and theatrical group called Ni No Amo Dios (Neither God Nor Master).

1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: In southern Santa Cruz workers now dominated the roads, moving in columns of 60, 100 and 200 men marching with red and black flag, and the business of every Estancia was paralyzed by the strike. Meanwhile, Lieutenant Colonel Héctor Benigno Varela and 200 troops well-armed troops of the Regimiento 10° de Caballería (10th Cavalry Regiment), the 'Húsares de Pueyrredón', were rapidly approaching the strike area. At a meeting of strikers called during the night of November 6-7, Chilean worker Juan Farina proposed surrender and the vast majority of rural labourers supported his motion. Another worker, Pablo Schulz, argued that they should fight the army. Antonio Soto, seeing that such a fight was unlikely, argued that it is necessary to continue the strike, and finally suggested that they send two men with a white flag to parley with army troops to discuss conditions and guarantees, in addition to demanding compliance with the terms of the agreement negotiated last year.

1922 - Huelga General de Guayaquil: The coastal city and the main port of the country, Guayaquil, known as the 'Perla del Pacífico', was a centre of rank and file workers struggle in Ecuador, with a strong anarcho-syndicalist stream. Its economy was based almost exclusively on cacao exportation for its export revenue and the collapse of international prices during and after WWI and the increased [the price of 100 pounds of cocoa fell from 26 sucres, in January of 1920, to 5.75 sucres, in December of 1921] competition from other cacao-producing countries led to deteriorating economic conditions in Ecuador, and especially in Guayaquil. Added to that, the loss in value of the sucre (Ecuador’s national currency) and rampant inflation meant that by 1922 the prices of basic foodstuffs such as flour, rice, and sugar were astronomical, rent rates rose, and employment opportunities fell.
On October 15, 1922, the Federación de Trabajadores Regional Ecuatoriana (Ecuadorian Regional Federation Of Workers), Ecuador’s largest radical labour federation, was formed at the initiative of the Sociedad Cosmopolita de Cacahueros 'Tomás Briones' (Cosmopolitan Society Of Cacahueros 'Tomás Briones') in Guayaquil in opposition to the reformist artisan-orientated Confederación Obrera del Guayas (Guayas Confederation of Workers), who had largely ignored the rural and industrial workers. Two days later on October 17, the workers of the U.S.-owned Guayaquil and Quito Railway Company in the neighbouring city of Durán issued a set of demands, drawn up on their behalf by the assembly of Trabajadores del Ferrocarril del Sur (Southern Railroad Workers), that they presented to the United States company that owned and managed the railroad. When no response was forthcoming, the workers went on strike on October 19th. The General Manager J.C. Dobbie refused to negotiate and brought in strikebreakers, but the workers continued to strike which, with the support of the Federación Regional de Trabajadores del Ecuador – the country’s largest radical labour federation, which had been formed earlier that year in opposition to the reformist artisan-orientated Confederación Obrera del Guaya, who had largely ignored the rural and industrial workers – motivated the other associations to join in. Hundreds of workers from Guayaquil also came to show their support and after a few days, Dobbie agreed to meet their demands.
The workers of Guayaquil took inspiration from this successful show of worker solidarity. From November 6-8, 1922, workers from Empresa de Carros Urbanos (Urban Tram Company), Empresa de Luz y Fuerza Eléctrica (Light and Electrical Power Company), the gas and water works, and shipyard workers met, largely led by a man named Adolfo Villacrés, president of the Asamblea General de Trabajadores, and issued a set of demands on the 8th. Tram workers were in a particularly bad position, earning barely subsistence wages, working long hours, and being required to watch the trolleys on Sundays (the one day they did not have to work), because any damage to them was paid for by their wages. The assembly of workers issued 28 demands in total, which were swiftly rejected by company management. In response, the workers struck, shutting down public transportation and much of the city’s power. Meanwhile, the military moved soldiers into the city.

1924 - CNT militants (including Durruti) attempt a revolt in Vera de Bidassoa, as cenetistas attack the Atarazanas barracks in Barcelona. Anarchists and civil guards clash for two days. A guard is killed, two militants die, four wounded, 19 taken prisoner.

1933 - Jehan-Rictus (b. 1867), French poet and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 23]

## 1935 - Toma Bebić (February 4, 1990), Croatian/Dalmatian multidisciplinary artist (musician, writer, actor, painter and poet), humanist and anarchist, born.

[D] 1936 - The Republic's government (along with the four new anarcho-syndicalist ministers) flees Madrid for the safety of Valencia. The populace of Madrid's response is the cry of "¡Viva Madrid sin gobierno!" (Long live Madrid without government!). The "defensa de la capital a toda costa" (defence of the capital at all costs, ordered by Largo Caballero) is left in the hands of the newly constitued Junta de Defensa de Madrid.

1960 - Olivia Rossetti Agresti (b. 1875), British author, editor and interpreter, dies. [see: Sep. 30]

1996 - Carabinieri raid the home of Italino Rossi, editor of the anarchist weekly 'Umanita Nova' and member of the Italian anarchist Federation (FAI), looking for weapons connected with attacks on electric pylons in Tuscany.

1970 - Henri Jeanson (b.1900), French libertarian pacifist, journalist, screenwriter, pataphysician and author, dies. [see: Mar. 6]

[A] 1971 - Stoke Newington Eight: Attacks are carried out against a Lloyds Bank in Amsterdam, the Italian Consulate in Basle, the British Embassies in Rome and Barcelona, all in support of the Stoke Newington Eight and the Italian anarchists imprisoned on trumped-up charges of 'conspiracy' and subversion.

2011 - Pussy Riot's 'Osvobodi Bruschatku' [Освободи брусчатку](Release the Cobblestones) video is released. The song calls on Russians to protest upcoming parliamentary elections, by throwing cobblestones during street clashes. On their blog, Pussy Riot worn that: "Your ballots will be used as toilet paper by the Presidential Administration".

2013 - António Ferreira de Jesus (b. 1940), Portuguese libertarian autodidact, long-term prisoner and prisoner rights activist, dies. [see: Oct. 30]
1876 - Marie Murjas (Marie-Yvonne Kamoal; d. unknown), French Trapist nun and later a free-thinker, anarchist and co-founder of the Ligue des droits de l’homme, born.

1879 - Benoît Broutchoux (d. 1944), French miner, labourer, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist propagandist, neo-Malthusian, 'free love' advocate & folk hero of the Pas-de-Calais, born.

1884 - La Bande Noire: The miner Brenin, who had been recruited as a police spy and agent provocateur by police Commissioner Thévénin, persuades Gueslaff to try a second attempt on the life of Etienney, the publican from Ciry-le-Noble who is a prosecution witness in the Montceau trial. However, Brenin had set up a trap for Gueslaff and, ambushed by gendarmes, he opens fire on the police, seriously wounding three officers. Knowing himself betrayed, Gueslaff denounced many of his Bande comrades. Many are arrested and appear at a second trial of the Bandes Noire in May 1885, and eleven of the 30 or so in the dock are found guilty and sentenced to between 2 and 20 years - the longer sentences being of forced labour.

1886 - Carlo Molaschi (d. 1953), Italian anarchist individualist, editor and journalist, born. Youthful attraction to anarchist circles, he was arrested in 1901 for handing out leaflets during a strike. Loosing his job as a result, he is ostracised by his family and takes up with Luigi Molinari, founder of the Università Popolare, on whose newspaper (of the same name) he starts his journalistic career, using several pseudonyms (Charles l' Ermite, Iperboreo, Dottor Stockmann, etc.) as his militancy and propagandist activities intensify. This continues with his own publications: 'Grido della Folla' (Cry of the Crowd) 1907; 'La Rivolta' (The Uprising) 1911, and 'La Libertà' (Freedom) 1913-14; as well as starting a publishing project called Editrice Sociale between 1910-1915.
At the outbreak of WWI, he and many of his comrades leave for Switzerland and face the inevitable Fascist persecution and arrest upon their return. He begins a second publishing project called Casa Editrice Sociale (1919-1926), which changes its name to Casa Editrice Monanni (1926-1933), surviving Fascism and financial hardship and publishing all the anarchist classics, the complete works of Nietzsche, Darwin, and many others. In June 1921 he also launched the review 'Pagine Libertarie' and helped co-founded the 'L'Università Libera' (Free University) review with Joseph Monanni in 1925.
In 1941 he was arrested and sent into internal exile in Istonio Marino, on the Abruzzo coast, returning to the anti-fascist fight after 9 months. After the liberation he joined the Italian Socialist Party (PSI).

## 1889 - Stanisław Kubicki (d. ca. 1943), Polish painter, printmaker, poet, translator, and anarchist, member of the Expressionist movement in the arts and literature, whose partner was the graphic artist, painter and poet Margarete Kubicka (Schuster) aka 'Małgorzata', born in Zeigenhain.
close friend of Ernst Mühsam
He disappeared in Berlin in 1942, proably perishing at the hands of the Gestapo. [expand]

###### 1888* - [O.S. Oct. 26] Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (Не́стор Іва́нович Махно́ [uk] Не́стор Ива́нович Махно́ [rus]) aka батько Махно [father Makhno](d. 1934), Ukrainian anarcho-communist guerilla leader, born. [expand]
[* His father listed the date as 1889 on official documents as a commonly used method of postponing the date of army conscription by a year.]

1891 - Gregor Gog (d. 1945), German anarchist, anti-militarist and founder of the FAUD-aligned international movement Bruderschaft der Vagabunden (Brotherhood of Vagrants), born.

1891 - Santiago Salvador Franch tosses two bombs into the audience at Teatre Liceu opera house during a performance of the opera William Tell, killing 22 people. The bombing was initially blamed on the anarquista José Codina, then on Mariano Cerezuela (both executed on May 21, 1894) and and finally attributed to Salvador.

1891 - [O.S. Oct. 26] Sophia Mikhaylovna Ginsberg (Софья Михайловна Гинсбург; b. 1863), Russian revolutionary, member of Narodnaya Volya, commits suicide by cutting her neck with scissors after being sentenced to perpetual servitude (internal exile plus hard labour). [see: Mar. 20]

1893 - Felice Orsini tosses two bombs into a Barcelona opera house to avenge the execution of Pauli Pallas (who killed a civil guard during an rebellion September 24, 1893). 20 dead and several casualties. A state of siege is declared in the city and hundreds of anarquistas arrested and tortured by the army.

1906 - [O.S. Oct. 25] Ivanka Hristova Boteva (Иванка Христова Ботева; b. 1876), Bulgarian anarchist, who was the daughter of the legendary poet-revolutionary Hristo Botev and his wife Veneta Boteva, dies in Sofia from what is thought to have been anthrax. [see: Apr. 13]

1910 - Florencio Sánchez (Florencio Antonio Sánchez Mussante; b. 1875), Uruguayan playwright, journalist and anarchist, who was considered one of the main figures in theatre in both Uraguay and Argentina, dies in the Fate Bene Fratelli charity hospital in Milan as a consequence of his tuberculosis. [see: Jan. 17]

[BB / C] 1913 - Albert Camus (d. 1960), French novelist, playwright, journalist, libertarian sympathiser, opponent of totalitarianism and campaigner against capital punishment, born into a poor French 'pied-noir' settler family in Algeria. His father was killed in WWI and Camus spent much of his time with his uncle, butcher and anarchist Gustave Acault, who was a great influence on him. His high school philosophy teacher Jean Grenier also introduced him to revolutionary syndicalist theories. In 1935, he joined the French Communist Party and, when the independence-orientated Algerian Communist Party (BCP) was formed the following year, joined its rank. However, he also became involved with the Le Parti du Peuple Algérien (Algerian People's Party), which got him denounced as a Trotskyite and expelled from the party in 1937.
During WWII, Camus joined the French Resistance cell Combat, which published an underground newspaper of the same name, assuming the nom de guerre Beauchard. Camus became the paper's editor in 1943 and, when the Allies liberated Paris in August 1944, Camus witnessed and reported the last of the fighting.
In 1948 anarchist André Prudhommeaux introduced Camus to the Cercle des Étudiants Anarchistes (Anarchist Student Circle) and Camus went on to write for anarchist publications including 'Le Libertaire', 'La Révolution Proletarienne' and 'Solidaridad Obrera'. He also supported the anarchists' stand support for the uprising of 1953 in East Germany, the 1956 workers’ uprising in Poznań, Poland and, later the same year, the Hungarian Revolution.
"L'histoire d'aujourd'hui nous force à dire que la révolte est l'une des dimensions essentielles de l'homme." ("Present history forces us to say that revolt is one of the essential dimensions of man.") - 'L'Homme Révolté' (1951).

1915 - Emiliano Zapata finally issues a proposed labour law. It includes an 8-hour day, prohibition of work for children under age14, worker cooperatives to run factories abandoned by owners, and a fixed minimum wage. But "it failed to respond to some of the most important demands [of the] Mexican labour movement", and exposes Zapata's lack of understanding of his urban counterparts.

1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: Arriving at Cerro Comisión, the commander of the detachment of soldiers Captain Viñas Ibarra was surprised to find two Chilean delegates from the previous night's strikers' meeting calling for an interview with the head of the troops, as equals, to talk about the conditions of the arrangement. Outraged that two "ragged and smelly" foreign-raised bandits dared to ask for conditions, Viñas Ibarra had the two envoys immediately shot. When the troops reached the estancia La Anita, Viñas Ibarra demanded the unconditional surrender to all the strikers. Antonio Soto then made a dramatic speech encouraging them to continue the fight but he was ignored by most of the strikers, who decided to surrender and end their strike. Varela's troops would subsequently summarily execute a good number of these strikers. Soto and twelve men subsequebtly fled on horseback to Chile, evading capture by the authorities.

1922 - Huelga General de Guayaquil: In Guayaquil, Empresa de Carros Urbanos' tram (trolleybus) drivers and conductors are on strike, largely paralysing the city. They would be followed over the next few days by workers from the mule-pulled trolleybuses, tram maintenance, train drivers, gas, electricity, water, and shipyard workers, as large sections of the working class came out in support of their own demands or in solidarity with their fellow workers. At a meeting of workers, the Federación de Trabajadores Regional Ecuatoriana (Ecuadorian Regional Federation Of Workers), Ecuador’s largest radical labour federation, proposes setting up a Gran Asamblea de Trabajadores that, together with the existing workers in dispute, would draw up a list of demands for all the guayaquileños workers. Meanwhile, Empresa de Luz y Fuerza Eléctrica (Light and Electrical Power Company) workers come forward with their own set of demands: 8 hours of work, salary improvement, notice in case of dismissal with 30 days notice, etc.

1925 - The first issue of the Barcelona anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist weekly 'El Productor', "Periódico de ideas y crítica", is published by the group of the same name. The paper will be banned by the authorities in March 1926 and cease publishing.

1925 - Henri Roorda van Eysinga (b. 1870), Swiss libertarian educator, writer, journalist, polemicist and a great humourist, commits suicide. [see: Nov. 30]

1925 - Luís Andrés Edo (d. 2009), Spanish anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-militarist, deserter, anti-Francoist fighter, born.

1925 - The first issue of the Barcelona anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist weekly 'El Productor', "Periódico de ideas y crítica", is published by the group of the same name. The paper will be banned by the authorities in March 1926 and cease publishing.

1931 - The first issue of the pacifist weekly 'La Patrie Humaine' is published in Paris by Victor Meric.

1931 - Giuseppe Guidi (b. 1881), Italian painter, printmaker/etcher and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 15]

1937 - Hugo Cores (d. 2006), Uruguayan anarchist and influential political activist. Born in Argentina, he went to Uruguay as a child. As a student, he joined the Federacion Anarquista Uruguaya, the anarchist organisation set up by exiled Spanish and Italian anarchists. When the military seized power in 1973, Cores was one of thousands of radical political activists who left for Argentina, where he helped to found the anti-capitalist, anti-authoritarian and socialist Partido por la Victoria del Pueblo (PVP) and became a target of Operation Condor. [expand]

1938 - Ethel Mannin, Irish novelist and anarchist, successfully assumes Emma Goldman's role as SIA representative in London.

1938 - Charles Malato (b. 1857), French revolutionary, journalist, theoritician and anarchist propagandist, dies. [see: Sep. 7]

1949 - Judi Bari (d. 1997), US environmentalist and labour activist, feminist, musician and the principal organiser of Earth First! campaigns against logging in the ancient redwood forests of Northern California in the 1980s and '90s. She also organised efforts through the EF!-IWW Local 1 to bring timber workers and environmentalists together in common cause, born.
On May 24, 1990, in Oakland, California, the vehicle used by Bari and her partner, fellow musician and environmentalist Darryl Cherney, with whom she wrote 'Spike a Tree for Jesus' and 'Will This Fetus Be Aborted', was blown up by a powerful pipe bomb, seriously injuring Bari. She was arrested by the FBI whilst still in critical condition in hospital with a fractured pelvis and other major injuries, as the Bureau tried to pin eco-terrorism charges on the pair, accusing them of knowingly carrying a bomb for use in an act of terrorism. However, despite a full-blown FBI investigation, no evidence against the pair of non-violent activists was ever found or charges filed. Eventually, the charges against Bari and Cherney were dropped, the FBI having discovered that the bomb was placed directly under Bari's seat and after someone signing themselves 'The Lord's Avenger' had claimed the attack, having targetted Bari followig her defence of a Planned Parenthood clinic in Ukiah, California.
In May, 1991, a year after the bomb blast, Bari and Cherney filed a federal civil rights lawsuit against the "illegal, politically-motivated instigation of the FBI."
Judi Bari died of breast cancer on March 2, 1997.

1960 - Charles d'Avray (Charles Henri Jean; b. 1878), French anarchist poet and prolific propagandist songwriter, dies. His concerts (conférences chantées) were advertised with the slogan 'Avec le passé détruisont le présent pour devancer l'avenir' (With the past destroy the present and anticipate the future). [see: Sep. 9]

1971 - Joseph Spivak (b. 1882), Russian-born American anarchist, dies. Co-founder of the Libertarian Book Club in NY City. [see: Mar. 4]

1971 - Paweł Lew Marek (born Melajach Lew; b. 1902), Polish journalist, anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist, co-founder of the Anarchistycznej Federacji Polski during the Second Republic, dies. [see: Aug. 16]

[E] 1989 - Nadezhda Andreyevna Tolokonnikova [Наде́жда Андре́евна Толоко́нникова] aka 'Nadya Tolokno' [Надя Толокно], Russian conceptual artist, political activist, and ex-member of the anti-Putinist punk rock group Pussy Riot [Пусси Райот] and the street art group Voina [Война](War), born. She is also the cofounder (along with Maria Alyokhina [Марией Алёхиной]) organisation to protect the rights of prisoners Zona Prava (Зона Права / Zone of Rights) and the media network MediaZona [Медиазона].

1990 - Lawrence George Durrell (b. 1912), British-born novelist, poet, dramatist, biographer, travel writer and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies. [see: Feb. 27]
##1867 - Carl Sadakichi Hartmann (d. 1944), US critic, poet and playwright of German and Japanese descent, born. Helped found the magazine 'Mother Earth' with Emma Goldman, Edwin Bjorkman, and John R. Coryell.
"One of the strangest and most original men of letters of the day — in the United States at all events — is Sadakichi Hartmann, the poet, art critic, and lecturer. He was born in the land of wistarias and chrysanthemums, and he sees life with that Japanese anarchy of perspective." - Vance Thompson, 'Paris Herald', (September 1906)

1884 - In today's issue of the 'Chicago Alarm' (edited by Albert Parsons): "Workers of America, learn the manufacture and use of dynamite ... Then use it unstintingly, unsparingly. The battle for bread is the battle for life ... Death and destruction to the system and its upholders, which plunders and enslaves the men, women, and children of toil".

1892 - Anarchist Émile Henry places a bomb at the Carmaux Mining Company in Paris. It is discovered and taken to a police station, where it explodes, killing five officers.

##1892 - Erminio Blotta (b. 1976), Argentine self-taught sculptor and anarchist of Italian origin, who since the age of 34 was blind in one eye following an accident, born in Morano Calabro, Calabria.

1897 - Dorothy Day (d. 1980), American journalist, social activist, pacifist anarchist and Catholic Worker founder, born.

1909 - Gérard Bernard Leretour, French anarchistic activist, conscientious objector and pacifist propagandist, born.

1917 - Pierre Alfred Fromentin, aka 'L'anarchiste millionnaire' or 'Le millionnaire rouge' (b. 1858), French anarcho-individualist philanthropist based on his great fortune that he acrued in various ways, including a successful marriage, insurance payments following a series of "fortuitous" fires in a number of his villas, etc., dies in Geneva in somewhat mysterious circumstaces following a short hopitalisation. The Swiss police gave his wife his death mask but, according to his grandchildren, she could not see his remains, nor know where he had been buried. A mystery that always tormented them. Contrary to the announcement published in 'Ce Qu'il Faut Dire' on November 10, 1917, Fromentin did not die in poverty – even if much of his fortune had been dissipated, in no small part to the largesse that many of his comrades had benefitted from – a good part of the fortune remained as a legacy for his wife. [see: Nov. 4]

1918 - IWW & Espionage Act: Suffering from the Spanish influenza, the trial of Dr. Marie Equi on charges of violating the Espionage Act begins in Portland, Oregon.

1918 - Olga Vladimirovna Rozanova (Ольга Владимировна Розанова; b. 1886), Russian Cubo-Futurist and Suprematist painter, graphic artist, illustrator, designer, art theorist and poet, associated with early C20th Moscow anarchist circles, dies of diphtheria. [see: Jul. 4]

1920 - The head of the Spanish Government Eduardo Dato appoints Severiano Martínez Anido to the civil and military governorship posts following pressure from the Sometent, the Lliga Regionalista, the Unió Monàrquica, the Foment del Treball Nacional and the Cambra Mercantil for the appointment of a strongman with the same widereaching powers then in practice in Valencia and Zaragoza. Thus begins one of the darkest period of repression of the working class, revolutionary and anarchist movements in Spanish history. Between November 11 and 14, more than 400 trades unionists were detained, with a policy of arbitary detention and deportation quickly developing into one of murder and summary execution. [expand]

1921 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: In the Sacco and Vanzetti case, the Ripley motion for a new trial is made.

1922 - Huelga General de Guayaquil: Workers from the Empresa de Luz y Fuerza Eléctrica (Light and Electrical Power Company) and those of the Empresa de Carros Urbanos (Urban Tram Company) present their employers with their demands. The claims submitted by electric tram drivers and conductors were in essence the same as those of the Durán rail workers submitted on October 17:
The law of 8 hours, and payment of overtime;
Increase in wages;
Employment stability;
Strict compliance with the Ley de Accidentes de Trabajo (Law for Accidents at Work);
Specific approaches: regulation on number of routes, permits, tickets, cars, drivers' responsibilities, etc.
Workers on trolleybuses pulled by mule also submitted demands: to establish shifts every 12 hours with 6 alternatives given, payment of overtime that exceeded 8 hours, cessation of layoffs, wage increase, compliance with insurance law and accidents. Over the next few days more and more sectors were added to the strikes. One of the signatories to the demands document said: "There is a law that determines the daily working time, eight hours in most situations, and yet we are forced to work 18 and 20 hours a day."
The management then agreed to talk with the strikers' represntatives, so the Gran Asamblea de Trabajadores selected two lawyers, Dr. J. José Vicente Trujillo and Dr. Carlos Puig Vilazar, to represent them.
The city's newspapers, 'El Universo', 'El Telégrafo' and 'El Globo', all of a liberal persuasion picked up on the story with coverage largely sympathetic to the plight of the workers. The railway workers of Durán also sent representatives to join the assembly. However, from the beginning, the assembly did not have much control over the working population of the city. Without consulting the assembly, the printers union printed leaflets encouraging all workers (unionised and not unionised) to join the strike. A group of drunken workers also tried to make their way into the power plant to turn off the city’s power, but assembly members stopped them. Within the first few days, the Gran Asamblea de Trabajadores had grown to 3000 members, and they began holding large outdoor rallies.
Negotiations were proceeding well and an agreement was close, but the assembly then raised the issue of the devaluation of the sucre. Pay raises would become meaningless within a few months due to its decreasing value. Hence, they proposed an artificial control on the exchange rate, a suggestion that 'El Universo', one of the daily newspapers, swiftly endorsed. President of Ecuador José Luis Tamayo was then prompted to make his way from Quito to Guayaquil to address the exchange rate issue.
On November 10, factory workers joined the strike, followed the next day by artisans and builders.

1930 - Alexander Berkman, is denied renewal of his visa once again, is given 15 days to leave France; by mid-month he receives another three-month extension.

1936 - General Varela orders the beginning of the offensive by Nationalist forces to retake the capital.

1949 - Group of Italian anarchists attack the Spanish consulate with grenades in Genoa. Eugenio De Lucchi (21), Gaspare Mancuso (26), and Gaetano Busico (25).

1951 - Ezequiel Endériz Olaverri (b. 1889), Spanish libertarian journalist, poet, novelist, playwright, libreticist, etc., dies. [see: Nov. 30]

1951 - Josef Mach (b. 1883), Czech poet, translator and journalist, satirist and parodist from the circle of anarchističtí buřiči (anarchist writers), later a long-time worker of the Czechoslovak Ministry of Foreign Affairs, dies in Prague. [see: Feb. 5]

1976 - Jean-Pierre Lajournade (b. 1937), French anarchist filmmaker, dies. [see: Apr. 19]

## 1980 - Laura Jane Grace, founder, lead singer, songwriter and guitarist of the anarcho-punk band Against Me!, born. Born Thomas James Gabel, Grace publicly came out as a transgender woman in 2012, having dealt with gender dysphoria since childhood.

1991 - Bronislawa Rosloniec (Bronislawa Frydman; b. 1912), Polish anarchist activist of Anarchistyczna Federacja Polski (AFP: Anarchist Federation of Poland), dies in Uppsala, Sweden. Before WWII, she worked as a clerk. During the occupation, evicted to ghetto from where she fled and was hidden by her husband (Stefan Rosloniec). After WWII lived in Lodz (central Poland).

2004 - Marie-Christine Mikhailo (b. 1916), Swiss anarchist who was instrumental in the creation of the Centre International de Recherches sur l'Anarchisme (CIRA), dies. [see: Oct. 11]

2007 - US green anarchist Eric McDavid begins a hunger strike because he is being denied medical treatment and all inmates in his jail are denied nutritional vegan meals.

[B] 2012 - The kids book 'A Rule Is To Break: A Child's Guide To Anarchy' by writer John Seven and illustrator Jana Christy is published by Manic D Press, to the consternation of the Tea Party.
1845 - Gertrude Guillaume-Schack (d. 1903), German anarchist, socialist, theosophist and women's rights activist, who was prominent in the fight against state-regulated prostitution in Germany, born. Sometimes referred to as the 'anarchist countess', her father Graf Alexander Schack von Wittenau's family belonged to the old nobility of Lower Silesia and her mother was Elizabeth Countess of Königsdorf.

## 1871 - Felipe Cortiella i Ferrer (b. 1937), prominent Catalan author, poet, translator and dramatist, born. An anarchist militant and CNT fighter, the chief focus of his literary and cultural effort was the theatre (he founded the Agrupació Avenir company) which he sought to place in the service of the common people. In Cortiella’s view theatre has a duty to set out a libertarian project for society, so he rejected theatre as mere entertainment, which explains why so many of his characters embody the virtues of honesty, justice and integrity that he saw in anarchism. Thus, society should not turn a blind eye to society but indeed should have a didactic function to perform. He is mistakenly regarded by some as a Catalanist; Cortiella drew a precise distinction between language and culture on the one hand and political independence movements and creation of borders on the other; he was a dyed-in-the-wool internationalist. It is a fact, though, that some of the positions he espoused caused surprise because of the zeal he displayed in championing the Catalan tongue (he refused the editorship of 'Solidaridad Obrera' because the CNT would not accept his suggestion that it be printed in Catalan only). He contributed to the labour press ('La Revista Blanca', 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Avenir', etc.) and a school of thought grew up around him (it included Mas Gomeri, Albert, Claudio and Bausà) and was the author of: 'Els Artistes de la Vida' (1898), 'La Brava Joventut' (an anti-Lerrouxist piece from 1933), 'Dolora' (1903), 'El Morenet' (1904), 'El Cantor de l’Ideal' (1901), 'El Plor del Alba', 'El Teatro y el Arte Dramático', 'La Vida que jo he Viscut', 'La Vida Gloriosa' 2 vols. (1918-1927). These in addition to poetry ('Anarquines', published in 1908) and translations in which his enthusiasm for Ibsen was evident.

1872 - Carl Windhoff (d. 1941), German tiler, anarchist, and FAUD organiser, born in Düsseldorf.

1880 - Louise Michel is freed by amnesty after nine years in prison, is met in Gare Saint-Lazare by an enormous crowd cheering her with cries of:
"Vive Louise Michel, vive la Commune, A bas les assassins!"

1885* - Delfín Lévano (Delfín Amador Lévano Gómez; d.1941), Peruvian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, journalist and baker worker, as well as a poet, clarinetist and lecturer, born. His parents were the prominent anarchist activist, Manuel Caracciolo Lévano, aka Manuel Chumpitás or Comnalevich, and Hermelinda Gómez, a worker and social activist. Lévano was founder and editor of the newspapers 'La Protesta' (1911-21) and 'El Proletariado', founded in 1921, in addition to other publications and anarchist groups. Alongside his father, and despite suffering persecution and imprisonment, he was a constant campaigner and prolithetiser for the eight-hour day, which the Limean unions – led by the Federación de Obreros Panaderos "Estrella del Perú" (Federation of Baker Workers "Star of Peru"), of which Lévano was a leader – would succeed in securing in 1919 after years of arduous struggle. He was also prominent in the founding of the .Federación Obrera Regional del Perú in 1912. [expand]
[* some sources mention Nov. 4]

1899 - Mezz Mezzrow (Milton Mesirow; d. 1972), American jazz clarinetist and saxophonist, who claimed that a "creative musician is an anarchist with a horn, and you can't put any shackles on him", born. His identification of jazz and freedom strectched to his personal life, where his disregard for the law and his prolific dealing of marijuana earned him 3 spells in jail and the nickname of the 'Muggles King' [muggles being slang for marijuana. He also married a black woman and declared himself a "voluntary Negro", something that he insisted upon when he was jailed in 1940 for the possession of sixty joints whilst trying to enter a jazz club, resulting in his transfer to the segregated prison's black section.

1899 - Acácio Tomás de Aquino (d. 1998), militant Portuguese anarco-syndicalist who was active in the Confederação Geral do Trabalho and the Organização Libertária Prisional, born. He spent the period 1933-1949 in various prisons and concentration camps after having been sentenced to 12 years in exile by a Military Tribunal for being involved in an attempted inssurection (it was claimed he was delivering bombs to another militant when arrested). [see: Dec. 11]

1925 - Perez Millan, the rightwing nationalist who killed the anarchist Kurt Gustav Wilckens whilst he was in his prison cell, is killed in an asylum in Buenos Aires. Boris Vladimirovitch, a doctor and biologist serving time for an "expropriation", feigned madness so as to be transferred to Millan's asylum. Vladimirovitch was unable to get close enough (Millan was "protected"), so pursuaded another internee to kill him.

1926 - Ettore Molinari (b. 1867), Italian chemist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 14]

1928 - At 04:00 in Montevideo, 300 Uruguayan police and soldiers encircle the house at 41-J.J . Rousseau street, trapping a group of anarchist illegalists inside that had been involved in the currency exchange robbery taht took place on October 25. They include the 3 Catalans - glazier Jaime Tadeo Peña (22 years old), cabinetmaker Agustin Garcia Capdevilla (23) and glazier Pedro Boadas Rivas (32), plus brothers Antonio and Vicente Moretti and their companions Pura Ruiz and Dolores Rom. To avoid certain death, they decide to surrender, all except Antonio Moretti, who burns the robbery money and shoots himself in the head. Those sent to prison escape on March 18, 1931 thanks to a tunnel built by anarchist comrades.

1928 - Paul Florent Gourmelon (aka 'Paulus' & 'Mahurec'; b. 1881), French militant, neo-Malthusian and, according to the police, a "dangerous anarchist", dies of tuberculosis whilst in prison. [see: Dec. 20]

1929 - Sidney 'S.E.' Parker (d. 2012), British philosopher and historian of Individualist Anarchism and Egoism, born in Birmingham.

[C] 1932 - Fusillade du 9 Novembre 1932 / Blutnacht von Genf: In Geneva, the army opens fire on a crowd of thousands gathered for an anti-fascist demonstration,
killing 13 and wounding nearly a hundred others.
On the night of November 5-6 a poster from the Union Nationale (the Swiss fascist party founded by Georges Oltramare in 1930, whose members wore a uniform of berets and grey shirts) appeared on the streets announcing public indictment of the leaders of the Parti Socialiste Suisse (PSS), Léon Nicole and Jacques Dickers, on November 9 at 20:30 in the Plainpalais community hall in Geneva. A demand by the PSS on the 6th for the UN meeting to be banned was refused by the state adviser to the justice and police department, Frédéric Martin, on the grounds of freedom of assembly. The following day, the Socialist newspaper 'Le Travail' called for mobilisation: "The fascist rabble trying get tough in Geneva... These gentlemen want to talk... We will fight them with the weapons that they themselves have chosen." That same day an anonymous leaflet hit the streets: "The foul Nicoulaz, the Jew Dicker and their clique are preparing civil war. They are the servants of the Soviets. Cut them down! Down the revolutionary clique."
On the morning of November 9, at the request of Frédéric Martin the State Council appealed to the military to send troops to reinforce the city's gendarmes and those police drafted in from the surrounding countryside. The decision was taken to dispatch 610 recruits, just in their sixth week of training, together with thirty officers under the leadership of Major Ernest Lederrey. A select number of troops were told that "the revolution had erupted in Geneva" and given live ammunition. When four soldiers refused to follow the orders, they were immediately placed under arrest.
By later afternoon, the first anti-fascist protesters (around 4-5,000) had already converged on the Plainpalais and were being refused entry by the gendarmes as they lacked official UN invitations. Meanwhile, roadblocks were being set up by police in nearby streets to prevent protesters from approaching the hall and at 17:30 the 610 raw recruits arrived in Geneva to support the city's police.
At 18:45, 15 minutes after the meeting had commenced, a number of socialists, communists and anarchists had managed to gain entry to the Plainpalais but were quickly ejected. Outside the hall, standing on the shoulders of a militant a voluble Nicole, who would later leave the PSS to set up his own Stalinist grouping after the party refused to form a united front with the communists, harangued the waiting crowd. At 21:15, the 108 men of the Première Compagnie, which had been ordered into position to strengthen the police roadblocks when they had begun to be breached by the protests, encountered a crowd of counter-demonstrators. Eighteen of their number were disarmed and called upon to refuse orders and join the crowds. The officer in charge, Lieutenant Raymond Burnat, ordered the troops to fall back to the entrance of the Palais des Expositions where, after a bugle call, he gave the order to open fire: "A coup, tirez bas feu!" In the following 12 seconds, 20 soldiers fired 150 rounds, killing thirteen protestors and wounding 65 more, three of whom would later succumb to their injuries. Many of those shot were bystanders (only 3 of the dead were active militants) who had not taken part in the disarming of the soldiers. The crowds quickly dispersed as more troops were sent in to set up further roadblocks nay of which were manned with machineguns.
On November 10, the committee of the Union des Syndicats du Canton de Genève (USCG; Union of Trade Unions of the Canton of Geneva) and the various unions affiliated to the Union Syndicale Suisse rejected the Communists' call for a general strike but the following day a meeting of 225 USCG delegates voted in favour of a general strike to honour the dead, whose funerals were scheduled for November 12.
The funerals for the victims attracted thousands of angry Genevois but there were no clashes. The general strike was only partially successful, as the Christian unions did not participate.
In the opinion of the Geneva authorities, blame for the bloodshed itself laid fairly and squarely at the door of Léon Nicole and the communists. On November 10, the State Council "prohibited any gathering or procession on public roads", placed certain public buildings under the protection of the Geneva regiment, and decreed the application of military law to civilians. Frédéric Martin issued warrants for the arrest of Nicole and 39 other leftists. In June of the following year, Nicole received a 6-month sentence for riot. Others tried alongside him got 4-month terms. The cases brought against the officers and soldiers involved in the massacre all ended in acquittals, as they were held to have acted in self-defence.
In December 1932, the Geneva State Council decreed a series of laws on public order with penalties up to 10 years of imprisonment to be imposed against anyone who participates in, or writes in favour of, collective acts that tend not only to change through the means of violence the constitutional order, but also to "disrupt" public services and "break into a building site!". In addition, State officials enrolled in the Communist Party and all civil servants participating in the demonstration on November 9 were sacked in early 1933 and excluded from public office. This 'Berufverbot' (professional ban) against communist employees would last for decades in Switzerland.
[à_Genève [bizarre anti-communist website]

1933 - The first issue of the fortnightly journal 'L'Action Libertaire', "Organe révolutionnaire", is published in Paris.

1939 - Karin Kramer (d. 2014), German anarchist publisher and co-founder of the Karin Kramer publishing house, born.

[B] 1950 - The première of Luis Buñuel's 'Los Olvidados' in Mexico where the film was shot.

1962 - Wolfgang Wendland, German musician, filmmaker, actor, politician and satirist, born. Singer in the German anarchist punk band Die Kassierer. A member of the Anarchistische Pogo-Partei Deutschlands (AAPD), he stood as their 2005 candidate for the chancellorship and joined the Pogoanarchistischen Pogo-Partei (POP) when they split from the AAPD.

1980 - Toyen (Marie Cermínová; b. 1902), Czech-born Surrealist painter, printmaker, and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 21]

1988 - John Cage reads from 'On Anarchism' at the Cooper Union in New York City.

2015 - Bottled Wasp hero, the Russian conceptual artist and political activist Pyotr Pavlensky, has been at it again. This time round in an action he called 'Menace', he set fire to the door of Federal Security Service's Lubyanka headquarters in Moscow yesterday in protest against the architecture of repression and the "never-ending terror" of the state security system. He then posed in front of the burning door holding his petrol can before being arrested for vandalism.
Previous Actions included the 2012 'Seam', where he sewed his lips up in front to Kazan Cathedral, St. Petersburg in protest against the imprisonment of members of Pussy Riot. In May 2013 and the 'Carcass' action he was encased naked in barbed wire in Red Square in protest against repressive government policies and on November 10 that year he nailed his scrotum to stone pavement in front of the Lenin's Mausoleum on the Red Square, again naked, on Russian Police Day, in an action entitled 'Fixation'. The following year saw his pro-Maidan action, 'Freedom', where he and a number of collaborators burned tires, beat drums and shouted Maidan slogans on Little Konushennaya bridge in Saint Petersburg. This was followed in October 2014 by 'Segregation', during which he cut off his earlobe with a chef's knife while sitting naked on the wall outside the Serbsky Institute of Psychiatry in Moscow in protest against political abuse of psychiatry in Russia, and no doubt the State's continued attempts to have him committed to psychiatric prison as an attempt to silence him and rid themselves of his regular acts of provocation.
[BB] 1859 - Théophile Alexandre Steinlen (d. 1923), Swiss-born French Art Nouveau painter and printmaker, born. His anti-bourgeois, anti-militarist, socialist and anarchist sympathies led him to become a regular contributor to the anarchist press, including the magazine 'Temps Nouveau' - alongside Aristide Delannoy, Maximilien Luce, Theo van Rysselberghe, Camille Pissarro, Paul Signac, Van Dongen, George Willaume, etc. - as well a other radical and satirical newspaper and magazines.

1869 - Gaetano Bresci (d. 1901), Italian-American anarchist who assassinated the King of Italy in revenge of the army's butchery in repressing the 1898 Milan massacre (300 demonstrators were slaughtered protesting bread prices; see May 7-8), born.

1871 - In the worldwide atmosphere of hysteria that followed in the wake of the Paris Commune, a vote is taken in the Cortes, in which 192 deputies - Unionists, 'Sagastinos' Progressives and Carlists - are in favour of the prohibition of the FRE-AIT and 38 (Federal Republicans) against. However, in a circular issued by the Tribunal Supremo prosecutor on Nov. 23, it was pointed out that the right of association of the AIT was enshrined in the Constitución de 1869. The Minister of Justice responded by dismissing the prosecutor.

1886 - Virgilio Gozzoli (d. 1964 ), Italian anarchist, anti-fascist, poet, playwright, publisher and Futurist artist, born. [expand]
Co-wrote play, 'L'Aquila e il Cigno' (The Eagle and the Swan) with Enrico Arrigoni.

1887 - Chicago Haymarket defendant Louis Lingg (b. 1864), cheats the state the day before he and the other anarchist's scheduled execution, commiting suicide in his prison cell with the use of a blasting cap smuggled in by another prisoner, which he places in his mouth and lights. [see: Sep. 9]
"...I despise you. I despise your order, your laws, your force-propped authority. Hang me for it!"

1889 - The Certamen Segundo Socialista (second Socialist Competition) takes place in the Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts) in Barcelona. The work of many anarchists are made presented, including those of Fernando Tarrida del Marmol, Ricardo Mella, Anselmo Lorenzo, Soledad Gustavo, Josep Llunas, etc.

#### 1891 - Simón Radowitzky (Szymon Radowicki / Симон Радовицький; d. 1956), aka 'The Martyr of Ushuaia', Ukrainian-born legendary Polish anarchist freedom fighter, born. One of the best-known prisoners of the penal colony in Ushuaia, where he was held for the November 14, 1909, assassination of Ramón Lorenzo Falcón, a head of police responsible for the brutal repression of Red Week in 1909 in Buenos Aires. Radowitzky was pardoned after 21 years, he left Argentina and fought with the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War. [poss. alternate d.o.b. Sep. 10]

1891 - Arthur Rimbaud (b. 1854), French poet, anti-bourgeois anarchist, deserter and gun-runner, dies. [see: Oct. 20]

1893 - [N.S. Nov. 22] Grigori Petrovitch Maximoff (Grigóriy Petróvich Maksímov [Григо́рий Петро́вич Макси́мов]) aka Gr. Lapot [Гр. Лапоть] (d. 1950), Russian-American agronomist and anarcho-syndicalist, member of the Nabat Confederation until his expulsion from the Soviet Union in 1921, who is best known for 'The Guillotine at Work: Twenty Years of Terror in Russia' (1920), his expose of Bolshevik repression, born. [see: Nov. 22]
[NB: Some sources give d.o.b. as Nov. 11]

1913 - Karl Shapiro (d. 2000), American poet, Pulitzer Prize-winner in 1945 and Gandhian anarchist, born.

"I am an atheist who says his prayers.

I am an anarchist, and a full professor at that. I take the loyalty oath.

I am a deviate. I fondle and contribute, backscuttle and brown, father of three.

I stand high in the community. My name is in Who’s Who. People argue about my modesty.

I drink my share and yours and never have enough. I free-load officially and unofficially.

A physical coward, I take on all intellectuals, established poets, popes, rabbis, chiefs of staff.

I am a mystic. I will take an oath that I have seen the Virgin. Under the dry pandanus, to the scratching of kangaroo rats, I achieve psychic onanism. My tree of nerves electrocutes itself.

I uphold the image of America and force my luck. I write my own ticket to oblivion.

I am of the race wrecked by success. The audience brings me news of my death. I write out of boredom, despise solemnity. The wrong reason is good enough for me.

I am of the race of the prematurely desperate. In poverty of comfort I lay gunpowder plots. I lapse my insurance.

I am the Babbitt metal of the future. I never read more than half of a book. But that half I read forever.

I love the palimpsest, statues without heads, fertility dolls of the continent of Mu. I dream prehistory, the invention of dye. The palms of the dancers’ hands are vermillion. Their heads oscillate like the cobra. High-caste woman smelling of earth and silk, you can dry my feet with your hair.

I take my place beside the Philistine and unfold my napkin. This afternoon I defend the Marines. I goggle at long cars.

Without compassion I attack the insane. Give them the horsewhip!

The homosexual lectures me brilliantly in the beer booth. I can feel my muscles soften. He smiles at my terror.

Pitchpots flicker in the lemon groves. I gaze down on the plains of Hollywood. My fine tan and my arrogance, my gray hair and my sneakers, O Israel!

Wherever I am I become. The power of entry is with me. In the doctor’s office a patient, calm and humiliated. In the foreign movies a native, shabby enough. In the art gallery a person of authority (there’s a secret way of approaching a picture. Others move off). The high official insults me to my face. I say nothing and accept the job. He offers me whiskey.

How beautifully I fake! I convince myself with men’s room jokes and epigrams. I paint myself into a corner and escape on pulleys of the unknown. Whatever I think at the moment is true. Turn me around in my tracks; I will take your side.

For the rest, I improvise and am not spiteful and water the plants on the cocktail table."

'I Am an Atheist Who Says His Prayers'


1913 - Miguel Grau Caldú (d. 2011), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist resister and poet, born. Partner of the FILJ, MLE and CNT member Antonia Lisbona Celma. Author of 2 books of poems 'El Abuelo de los Doce' (The Grandfather of Twelve) and 'Poemas de un Campesino Aragonés' (Poems of an Aragonese Peasant).

1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: Colonel Varela returns to Rio Gallegos, where striking labourers and workers ending up before firing squads. With the Chilean government working with Argentine forces, the army pursues fleeing strikers, with those caught subject to summary execution. In total, around 1500 workers and strikers were killed.

1922 - Huelga General de Guayaquil: Factory workers join the strike. [see: Nov. 6 & 8]

1924 - CNT militants 26-year-old José Llacer and 19-year-old Juan Montejo, are executed following the November 6th attack on the Atarazanas barracks. Both were also implicated in assassinating Rogelio Pérez, the 'Torturer of Barcelona', on May 28 1924.

## 1926 - Brian Behan (d. 2002), Irish writer, playwright, novelist, public speaker, lecturer, trade unionist, anarcho-syndicalist, later a communist and then Trotskyist, who was never as celebrated as his brother Brendan, born.

1938 - The first issue of the weekly 'S.I.A.', "Organe de la Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste", is published in Paris under the editorship of Louis Lecoin Nicolas Faucier and Fernand Vintrigner. Aimed at poltical refugees, it is written in French, Spanish and Italian and operates from the 'Le Libertaire' offices. Its circulation will reach a height of 50,000 copies.

1944 - Wang Jingwei (or Wang Ching-wei [汪精衛]), born Wang Zhaoming (or Wang Chao-ming [汪精衛]), but widely known by his pen name 'Jingwei' [精卫](b. 1883), youthful Chinese anarchist and member of the left wing of the Kuomintang, before becoming a right-wing collaborator with the Japanese as the president of the Nanjing government (1940-44), dies in Nagoya, Japan. [see: May 4]

1949 - Louis Rimbault (b. 1877), French anarchist and propagandist for vegetarianism, dies. [see: Apr. 9]

[B] 1973 - Kurt Vonnegut's novel 'Slaughterhouse 5' is burned as "tool of the Devil" by the school board in Drake, North Dakota, and the teacher who assigned it for reading is fired.

1973 - Guelfo Guelfi, aka 'Zaffa', 'Figlio di Tacchi' (b. 1895), Italian alabastraio (alabaster craftsman), sculptor and anarchist individualist, who was one of the key organisers of the Settimana Rossa in June 1914, dies in Schaerbeek, Brussels. [see: Jan. 27]

[A] 1976 - London Murray Defence Group occupy Aer Lingus offices in Regent Street. Similar protests are made in Madrid and Sydney, the first 'reciprocal' protest to be made in Spain for years.

2001 - Julián Ángel Aransáez Caicedo (b. 1916), Basque anarchist, anarcho-communist and anti-Francoist and anti-Nazi fighter, dies. [see: Oct. 18]

2006 - Around a hundred Romanian anarchists hold an anti-fascist march in Bucharest under the legal cover of 'Asociaţii Aquarius'.

2008 - Seven days into the first organised widespread protest against Greek prison conditions, 4,500 prisoners are now on hunger strike.

2010 - María Martínez Sorroche (b. 1914), Adalusian textile worker, baker, maid, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Sep. 9]

2013 - Russian conceptual artist and political activist Pyotr Pavlensky, in an act timed to coincide with Russian Police Day, nails his testicles with the hammer to the stone pavement of the Red Square in Moscow in a protest against the Russian "police state". After the police pried him loose, he was arrested and charged with 'hooliganism'. However, in April 2014 the charge was dropped after an expert report on the performance found "a lack of motive of political, ideological, racist, ethnic or religious hatred or enmity, or a motive of hatred against any social group. Considering this, the investigating officer decided to close the case due to the lack of a crime."
1813 - Saverio Friscia (d. 1886), Sicilian physician and anarchist, born. One of Michael Bakunin's most ardent advocates in Italy at the time, along with Carlo Gambuzzi, Giuseppe Fanelli and Alberto Tucci, who together formed the Neapolitan section of the First International.

1821 - [O.S. Oct. 10] Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky (Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский; d. 1881), Russian novelist, short story writer and essayist, born. His most famous works are 'Записки из подполья' or 'Zapiski iz podpol'ya' (Notes from Underground; 1864), 'Преступлéние и наказáние' or 'Prestupleniye i nakazaniye' (Crime and Punishment; 1866), 'Идиот' or 'Idiot' (The Idiot; 1869), 'Бесы' or 'Bésy' (Demons aka The Possessed; 1872) and 'Братья Карамазовы' or 'Brat'ya Karamazovy' (The Brothers Karamazov; 1880). One of the main protagonists in 'Demons' is Pyotr Stepanovich Verkhovensky, who was inspired by the revolutionary Sergey Nechayev, is used by Dostoyevsky to critique the Russian radical movement.

1863 - Paul Victor Jules Signac (d. 1935), French neo-Impressionist painter and anarchist, born.[expand]
"The anarchist painter is not the one who will create anarchist pictures, but the one who will fight with all his individuality against official conventions."

1871 - Joan Mir i Mir (d. 1930), Spanish anarchist intellectual, syndicalist, libertarian educator and Mason, born.

##1875 - [O.S. Oct. 30] Alexei Alexeyevich Borovoi (Алексей Алексеевич Боровой; d. 1935), Russian philosopher, lawyer, economist, journalist, theorist and propagandist of anarchism, initially as an adherent to anarcho-individualistic and later to anarcho-syndicalism, born.

1876 - Georges Willaume (d. ca. 1920), French neo-Impressionist painter, anarchist and syndicalist, whose art directly reflected his anti-authoritarian, anti-State, anti-religion, etc., and often appeared in anarchist publications, born. Part of the neo-Impressionist circles, he was a particilarly close friend of Theo van Rysselberghe.

[A] 1887 - Haymarket Martyrs August Spies [see: Dec. 10], Albert Parsons [see: Jun. 20], Adolph Fischer [see below] and George Engel [see: Apr. 15] are hanged. [expand]

1887 - Adolph Fischer (b. 1858), German- born American anarchist propagandist and Haymarket Martyr, dies.

1890 - Attilio Bulzamini (d. 1938), Spanish anarchist militant and member of the Ascaso column, born. [expand]

1890 - The first issue of the jornal 'Freedom', "A Revolutionary Anarchist-Communist Monthly", which is edited by Lucy E. Parsons, is published in Chicago on the third anniversary of the execution of the Haymarket Martyrs. Amongst the employees of the newspaper are John Arthur Andrews, Lizzie Holmes, William T. Holmes and Johann Most.

1894 - Emma Goldman speaks at a poorly attended commemoration of the Haymarket martyrs in New York; other speakers include Charles Mowbray, German anarchist and barkeeper Justus Schwab, Voltairine de Cleyre, Max Baginski, and John Edelmann, editor of the anarchist journal 'Solidarity'.

1894 - Juan Bautista Vairoleto (d. 1941), Argentine anarchist and bandit, born.

1895 - Umberto Nicola Palmiotti (d. 1969), Italian-American anarchist, who emigrated to America to avoid fighting in WWI, born.

####1898 - Antonio Cieri (d. 1937), Italian anarchist rail worker, anti-fascist militant and Spanish Civil War fighter, born. He served as an officer in the Italian Army during World War I and was decorated. After the war he became active in the anarchist movement in Ancona and worked as a technical designer for the Italian railways. Because of his participation in the mass working class resistance to Italy's imperialist intervention in Albania, in 1921 he was disciplined and transferred to Parma. There he became a leading light in the anti-fascist Arditi del Popolo in the working class neighbourhood of Borgo Naviglio, defending it and the neighbouring areas against fascist provocations. Sacked from the railways in 1923 and forced into exile, he finally arrived in Paris together with his wife in 1925 where he continued his anarchist activity. He founded the anarchist paper 'Umanita Nova' with Camillo Berneri and others and for a long time was its editor. In 1936 he moved to Spain and enlisted in a military column. He was one of the founders of the Italian Column which became attached to the Ascaso Column and was one of its commanders alongside fellow anarchist Giuseppe Bifolchi from December 1936 until April 1937 (both refused to continue with the positions upon militarisation). On April 7th (or possibly the 8th), he was killed leading a team of Bomberos during the assault on Huesca. There were strong suspicions that he had been shot in the back by a Stalinist and this allegation was made in 'Guerra di Classe', Berneri’s paper.
His two children, Ubaldo and Renee, were adopted and brought up by Giovanna Caleffi, the companion of Camillo Berneri.

[E] 1902 - Miquelina Sardinha (Miquelina Maria Possante Sardinha; d. 1966), Portuguese educationalist and militant anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1922 - Huelga General de Guayaquil: Artisans and builders now join the strike. [see: Nov. 6 & 8]

1929 - Hans Magnus Enzensberger, German author, poet, playwright, essayist, translator and editor, born. A utopian anarchist because he believes that all political systems are systems of domination: "politics equals crime!" ['Politik und Verbrechen'; 1964] He has also written under the pseudonym Andreas Thalmayr. Expelled from the Hitler Youth for being, in his own words, "incapable of being a good comrade".
He wrote 2 novels on Spanish anarchism: 'Das Verhor von Habana' (Hearings from Havana; 1970) and 'Der Kurze Sommer der Anarchie. Buenaventura Durrutis Leben und Tod' (The Short Summer of Anarchy. Buenaventura Durruti's Life and Death; 1972), the later he also made into a film, 'Durruti – Biographie einer Legende' (1972), writing, producing and directing it.

1949 - Juan Vilella Peralba aka 'Moreno', his daugter Lourdes Vilella Soler and son-in-law José Bertobillo Moles Delgado, José Puertas Puertas, and Miguel and Jaime Guitó Gramunt are arrested. Vilella Peralba was accused of allowing his farm to used as a base for the anarchist guerilla Marcelino Massana Bancells aka 'Pancho', and the rest of collaborating with Pancho in his failed attack on the Figols mine on Nov. 9th. All were horribly tortured by the Guardia Civil in Berga and, on November 14, Juan Vilella, José Bartobillo and José Puertas were taken to the nearby Vilada bridge and murdered (ley de fugas).

## 1964 - Juan de Dios Filiberto (Oscar Juan de Dios Filiberti Rubaglio; b. 1885), Argentine anarcho-syndicalist, instrumentalist (piano, guitar, violin and harmonium), conductor, poet and composer, who became prominent in the Argentine tango genre, dies. [see: Mar. 8]

[B] 1968 - Gorki Águila (Gorki Luis Águila Carrasco), Cuban punk rock musician, dissident and anarchist sympathiser, born. He is leader of the band Porno para Ricardo.

1970 - Declaration by Guy Debord, René Riesel and René Viénet announcing the formation of a tendency within the Situationist International.
"As for us here, we can take part in the SI only if we don’t need it. We must first of all be self-sufficient; then, secondarily, we may lucidly combine our specific (and specified) desires and possibilities for a collective action which, on that condition, may be the correct continuation of the SI..." - Guy Debord, 28 January 1971.

1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Haverstock Street, Islington, raided. Angie Weir arrested, taken to Albany Street and charged with conspiracy to cause explosions. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1989 - Esther Dolgoff (Esther Miller; d. 1989), US anarchist activist, member of the IWW and life companion of Sam Dolgoff, dies. [see: Jan. 7 / Dec. 25]

2000 - Julia Miravé Barrau [sometimes rendered as Miravet, Mirabé Vallejo, Mirabé Barreau, etc.] (b. 1911), Spainish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Franco resistance, dies. [see: Jan. 20]

2008 - Robert Dehoux (b. 1925), Belgian locksmith, writer, actor and libertarian socialist, who was involved in the councillist group Pouvoir Ouvrier Belgique, a spin-off from Socialisme ou Barbarie, dies.
"C'est moins le bruit des bottes qu'il nous faut craindre aujourd'hui que le silence des pantoufles." (It is less the noise of the boots that we must fear today than the silence of the slippers.)
[ Dehoux]
##[B] 1853 - Leopold Hermann Oskar Panizza (d. 1921), German anarchist, psychiatrist, avant-garde author, playwright, novelist, poet, essayist, publisher and literary journal editor, born.

1871 - The anarchist Jura Federation adopts a constitution designed to counter the Marxist influence within the First International.

1893 - The first issue of the satirical newspaper 'L'Escarmouche', created by Georges Darien involving Henri-Gabriel Ibels, is published in Paris.

1895 - The first issue of the French language 'Le Cyclone', "Organe Communiste Anarchiste", is published in Buenos Aires.

## 1908 - Albert Libertad, aka Albert Joseph (b. 1875), French individualist anarchist militant, one-legged street orator and rough-and-tumble brawler, who used his crutches as a weapon, dies. Founded the influential anarchist publication 'L’Anarchie'.
​[Costantini pic]

1912 - In Madrid, Spanish anarchist Manuel Pardiñas assassinates President José Canalejas, then commits suicide in revenge for Canalejas' actions the previous September, when he had ended a general railways strike by conscripting all railway-workers into the army.

1914 - Revolución Mexicana: Emiliano Zapata declares war on Venustiano Carranza.

1920 - Vladimiro Muñoz (d. 2004), Spanish anarchist propagandist and historian, born.

1922 - Huelga General de Guayaquil: The two lawyers chosen to represnt the strikers' Gran Asamblea de Trabajadores returned to the assembly to get the workers' approval of a settlement in which the management agreed to their demands, but would double trolley fares. At the same time, members of Confederación Obrera del Guayas (Guayas Confederation of Workers) presented a petition to the assembly calling for a moratorium (limit) on exchange rates. The assembly rejected the settlement, and added the call for the moratorium to their list of demands, in addition to a call for a seven-person governmental committee (four of whom would be workers) to work on helping solve the economic crisis. Governor Pareja promised to send this new demand on to President Tamayo. [see: Nov. 6 & 8]

1924 - The Anarchist Red Cross hold a benefit show at the Jewish Art Theater at 27th St. and Fourth Avenue in New York. Outings and dinners were also organised for the benefit of the political prisoners in Russia.

1926 - José Nakens Pérez (b. 141), Spanish journalist, radical republican, insurectionist, anticlerical, writer and poet, dies. [see: Nov. 21]

1931 - William Barbotin (pseudonym of Joseph Barbotin; b. 1861), French painter, sculptor, engraver and libertarian, linked to anarchist geographer Elisée Reclus, dies. [see: Aug. 25]

1937 - Francis Vielé-Griffin (b. 1864), US-born French symbolist poet and anarchist, dies. [see: May 26]

1940 - Jacky Toublet (b. 1940), French anarcho-syndicalist, militant, director of the weekly 'Le Monde Libertaire', son of Julien Toublet, born. He worked on Radio Libertaire and on the CNT's 'Les Temps Maudits'.

1946 - Elisa Acuña y Rossetti (María Elisa Brígida Lucía Acuña Rosete; b. 1872), Mexican professor, journalist, revolutionary and anarcha-feminist, dies of cancer. [see: Oct. 8]

1961 - The first issue of 'Despertar', the internal newsletter of the Spanish CNT in exile and dedicated to the culture and social information, whose editor is Federica Montseny, is produced in Toulouse.

1968 - Jules-Félix Grandjouan (b. 1875), French libertarian, revolutionary syndicalist, painter, caricaturist, illustrator and poster artist, dies. [see: Dec. 22]

1984 - Marcel Body (Jean Alexandre Body; b. 1894), French typographer, Bolshevik, translator and later, anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 23]

1992 - Lucien Bernizet (b. 1903), French militant anarchist, pacifist and Mason, dies. [see: Jun. 16]

1998 - Renato Lacquaniti (b. 1932), Italian anarchist, anti-militarist and painter, dies. One of the co-founders of the artistic group 'Atoma' (created in the local group of the Anarchist Federation of Livorno) and in 1960 painted 'Composizioni Anarchiche'. [see: Mar. 6]

2005 - The International Centre for Research on Anarchism (CIRA) celebrates its fortieth anniversary in Marseilles, along with the chance to commemorate the hundredth anniversary of the famous trial of Alexandre Marius Jacob.

2010 - Carmen Bueno Uribes (b. 1918), Spanish nurse and midwife, and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: May 11]
1879 - Antonio Ramón Ramón (d. ca. 1924), Spanish anarchist worker known for being part of the assassination attempt on the Chilean general Roberto Silva Renard on December 14 , 1914, to avenge the Matanza de la Escuela Santa María de Iquique (Slaughter at the Santa María de Iquique School) and the death of his half-brother Manuel Vaca, Silva having commanded the troops involved, born.

1882 - François Le Levé (d. 1945), French militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. One of the 15 who signed the 'Manifeste des Seize', along with Kropotkin, Grave and others, favouring the Allies during WWI. A member of the Résistance during WWII, he was captured and interned.
[ leve]

1887 - Over 20,000 workers join the funeral march for the Haymarket anarchists. [expand]

[B] 1887 - William Morris' 'A Dream of John Ball' begins serialisation in 'The Commonweal' [Nov. 13, 1886 - Jan. 22, 1887].

1893 - Leon-Jules Léauthier, a young anarchist shoe-maker, stabs and seriously wounds the minister of Serbia in Paris. Condemned (23 February 1894) to life in prison, where he was killed during the suppression of the October 21, 1894 prison uprising at Iles du Salut.

1903 - Camille Pissarro (b. 1830), French Impressionist painter, anarchist, contributor to the magazine 'Le Temps Nouveaux', dies. [see: Jul. 10]

1909 - The first issue of 'Solidaridad Obrera', "Periódico Sindicalista - Organo de las Sociedades Resistencia Gijónesas", is published in Gijón. It replaces the paper of the same name published in Barcelona which was forced to move after the Semaine Tragique. Initilly fortnightly, it becomes a weekly from issue number eight (29 January 1910).

1912 - Wiesław Protschke aka 'Wieslaw' (d. 1945), Polish syndicalist and anti-Soviet and anti-Nazi fighter, born in Lemberg, Lwiw, the son of an architect. Graduated from the law faculty of Jan Kazimierz University in Lwiw. During his studies, he co-operated with the 'Sygnaly' (Signals) periodical. From 1935-39, he was an activist in Związku Polskiej Młodzieży Demokratycznej (ZPMD; Union of Polish Democratic Youth) and the Robotniczego Instytutu Oświaty i Kultury (RIOK; Workers Institute of Education and Culture). Great propagator of cooperative ideas of the political philosopher Edward Abramowski (a famous Polish anti-state socialist). A member of the Związku Związków Zawodowych (ZZZ; Union of Workers Unions) and of the editorial staff of 'Front Robotniczy' (Workers’ Front), 'Głos Pracownika Umysłowego' (Intellectual Workers’ Voice), the ZZZ paper (1934-37), and 'Przebudowa' (Reconstruction), the ZPMD paper. His article 'Bakunin – the freedom fighter' in 'Front Robotniczy' was the cause of his conflict with Stanisław 'Cat' Mackiewicz (famous conservative and monarchist editor of the paper 'Słowo') who appealed for police intervention against "Bolsheviks in ZZZ". In November 1939, together with Bolesław Stein, he founded the underground anti-Soviet organization Rewolucyjny Zwiazek Niepodleglosci i Wolnosci (Revolutionary Union of Independence and Freedom) which was created by syndicalists, socialists and peasant organisation members. The organisation was destroyed in January 1940 as a result of the arrests of the NKVD. From 1940, Protschke was chair of the Central Committee of the Syndykalistyczna Organizacja 'Wolność' (SOW-a; Syndicalist Organisation 'Freedom'). During WWII, he was working in publishing cooperative Czytelnik (Reader) in Krakow. Protschke, together with Tomasz Pilarski aka 'Tomasz Pilarski', represented SOW-a on the Centralny Komitet Ludowy (CKL; Central Committee of the People). After unification of the military division of SOW-a with the Armia Krajowa (AK; Home Army), he became a political officer of AK. In September 1944, during Warsaw Uprising he was arrested and sent to Auschwitz concentration camp, then to Mauthausen, where he was murdered in the Melk sub-camp in January 1945.

1922 - Huelga General de Guayaquil: The Federación Regional de Trabajadores del Ecuador seizes control of the city's urban centre of the city, assuming the functions of police security, although they did not force the withdrawal of the public force. The Assembly declares a general strike across the city. [see: Nov. 6 & 8]

1962 - Kidnap of Spanish Vice-Consul Isu Elias: On the first day of the trial of the kidnappers of the Spanish vice-consul in Milan, fugitive Amedeo Bertolo manages to get right inside the courtroom in Varese, despite the massive presence of Carabinieri. There he surrenders to the judges.

1964 - Georges Marie Valentin Vidal (b. 1903), French anarchist, poet, novelist and proofreader, dies. [see: Apr. 24]

1968 - André Prudhommeaux (b. 1902), French communist, then an anarchist, agronomist, editor of 'Le Libertaire' and 'Le Monde Libertaire', dies after a long illness. [see: Oct. 15]

1984 - Valentina Sáez Izquierdo aka Valentina del Olmo (d. 1984), Spanish anarchist militant, dies. [see: Feb. 14]

#### 1986 - Jock Palfreeman, Australian anti-fascist, anarchist, prisons rights activist and organiser of the Bulgarian Prisoners Association (Българско Затворническо Сдружение), who is currently serving 20 years in a Bulgarian prison after being convicted for murder with hooligan intent and attempted murder after coming to the defence of two Roma boys who were being attacked by a group of neo-fascist football hooligans, born.

1991 - Catina Ciullo (Caterina D'Amico Willman; d. 1991), Italian-American anarchist and anti-fascist activist, dies. [see: Apr. 26]

1994 - Enrique Marco Nadal (b. 1914), Valencian CNT militant and anti-fascist, who fought with the Iron Column during the Spanish Revolution of 1936, dies. After leaving Spain he fought with other exiles for the Allies during WWII, captured at Colmar and sent to the Langwasser camp in Nurenberg. Following the war Marco joined the anti-fascist underground in Spain and was secretary of the clandestine National Committee of CNT inside Spain from May 1946 to April 1947. Betrayed, he was arrested on May 27, 1947, and condemned to death in 1949, but his sentence was commuted to 30 years imprisonment. He then spent 17 years in Franco’s jails. Author of 'Todos contra Franco. La Alianza Nacional de Fuerzas Democráticas, 1944-1947' (All against Franco: National Alliance of Democratic Forces, 1944-1947; 1982) and the autobiographical 'Condenado a Muerte' (Sentenced to Death; 1966).

2010 - Luis García-Berlanga Martí (b. 1921), Spanish screenwriter, film director, actor and anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 12]

## 2010 - Piedad Moscoso (María Piedad Moscoso Serrano; b. 1932), Ecuadorian educator, doctor, anarchist and feminist activist, dies in Cuenca.
##1848 - Zamfir Arbure, aka Zamfir Arbore, Zemphiri Ralli, 'Aivaza' (Zamfir Constantin Ralli-Arbore; d. 1933), Romanian writer, journalist, historian, geographer, ethnographer, member of the International Workingmen's Association and international anarchist agitator, born in Chernowitz in the Duchy of Bukovina.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

## 1874 - Adolf Brand (d. 1945), German writer, poet, photographer, individualist anarchist, editor of the journal 'Der Eigene' (The Unique) and pioneering campaigner for the acceptance of male bisexuality and homosexuality, born in Berlin.

1897 - The first issue of 'Free Society', which replaces 'The Firebrand', is published in San Francisco. It goes on to be published in Chicago from February 1901 and finally in New York where the last issue is on November 20, 1904.

1897 - The first issue of the weekly newspaper 'La Cravache' (The Whip), "Organe International des Travailleurs", is published in Roubaix.

[B] 1898 - Benjamin Fondane or Benjamin Fundoianu (born Benjamin Wechsler, Wexler or Vecsler; d. 1944), Romanian-born French poet, critic and existentialist philosopher, also noted for his work in film and theatre, born. Influenced by libertarian and anarchist thought, and fiercely anti-communist and anti-fascist, he opposed the move by the Paris Surrealist group to affiliate themselves with the French Communist Party and became involved in a prolonged conflict with Breton and Aragon, and those associated with them. He later became involved with the 'Le Grand Jeu' group and a follower of the existentialist philosopher Lev Shestov.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1907 - In Rome the republican, socialist, and anarchist leagues threaten to hold a General Strike unless the government releases 50 anarchists.

1909 - Simón Radowitzky (Szymon Radowicki; 1891-1956), aka 'The Martyr of Ushuaia', legendary Ukrainian-born anarchist freedom fighter, assassinates the Argentine capital's police chief Ramón Lorenzo Falcón with a bomb in Buenos Aires. Falcon had ruthlessly suppressed the July 1907 rent strike (during the southern hemisphere winter) and the 1909 Semana Roja (Red Week) workers' May Day celebrations in Buenos Aires (the brutal suppression of a FORA-organised demonstration resulted in 11 people killed and more than 105 wounded, many of whom died over the following days, and around 80 dead over the following week). [see: May 1 & Nov. 10]

1920 - The founding congress of the Union Anarchiste, the first national anarchist organisation after the war.

1920 - The Turin anarchist weekly 'Cronaca Sovversiva' announces that it will cease publication as its editor, Luigi Galleani, and manager, Piero Rayneri, have been arrested.

##1920 - Audrey Goodfriend (d. 2013), US lifelong anarchist militant, radical educator and "black diaper baby" (her parents were anarchists, and she was raised in that culture), who was was instrumental in the formation of the Walden Center and School in Berkeley, California, born. She grew up speaking Yiddish as a first language, and when she started school, could not yet speak a word of English. [expand]

1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: In the vicinity of Punta Alta the Regimiento 10° de Caballería (10th Cavalry Regiment), the 'Húsares de Pueyrredón' commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Héctor Benigno Varela, attack a poorly armed (with a few firearms, most having only knives) group of a hundred strikers with, killing 5 strikers and taking prisoners about 80, of which they shot about half.

1922 - Huelga General de Guayaquil: The city of Guayaquil is totally paralysed, with the whole city now engaged in what was Ecuador's first general strike. Businesses were closed, electricity and gas were turned off, and all transportation stopped. Even the newspapers had ceased publication. Workers took to the streets, holding large rallies downtown, and passed out leaflets calling for the moratorium, an end to tobacco and salt taxes, the turning over of unused farmland to landless peasants, and opposition to the proposed trolleybus fare rises.
At 14:00, more than thirty thousand striking workers marched to the Governorate, and handed over to Jorge Pareja, the governor, a manifesto with their petitions. They gave a deadline of 24 hours for a response from President José Luis Tamayo.
However, Tamayo had already decided upon his response. As Fernando Falconí wrote in an editorial in the 'El Telégrafo' newspaper at the time: "The 'gran cacao', the bankers and merchants ordered their puppet, Jose Luis Tamayo, to restore 'order' in Guayaquil. Obediently, he did." On November 14, 1922, he ordered the head of the Zona de Guayaquil, General Enrique Barriga, by telegram [as revealed by José Alejo Capelo Cabello, one of the FRTE leaders, in his book 'El 15 de Noviembre de 1922' (Dec. 1922)]: "I hope that tomorrow, at six o'clock in the afternoon, you will inform me that you have restored tranquility to Guayaquil, by whatever means necessary, for which you are authorised." Later in the day 3,000 troops of the Batallón Marañón and Cazadores de los Ríos arrived in the city.

1927 - A rally takes place in Quadrado do Congresso (Congress Square) in Buenos Aires demanding the release of Simon Radowitzky on the eighteenth anniversary of his gesture of social revenge.

1940 - Jacques Mesnil (pseudonym of Jean-Jacques Dwelshauvers; b. 1872), Belgian anarchist, historian, journalist and scholar of Florentine Renaissance art, dies. [see: Jul. 9]

1947 - Nodoka Saitō (齋藤和; d. 1975), Japanese former member and de facto leader of the Fangs of the Earth (大地の牙 / Daichi no Kiba) cell of the East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front (東アジア反日武装戦線 / Higashi Ajia Hannichi Busō Sensen), along with his partner Yukiko Ekida [浴田由紀子], born in Muroran City (室蘭市), Hokkaido.
committed suicide with a potassium cyanide capsule after his arrest

1949 - Juan Vilella, José Bartobillo and José Puertas are taken to the nearby Vilada bridge and murdered (ley de fugas). [see: Nov. 11]

1951 - 75 members of the CNT are tried in Seville prison, accused of reorganising their union and aiding guerrilleros, in particular the attempted evacuation a group of guerillas by sea in 1949. Two are sentenced to death, others get eight to thirty years’ imprisonment.

1952 - Agustín Rueda Sierra (d. 1978), Spanish militant anarchist, who was active in the Coordinadora de Presos en Lucha (COPEL) whilst imprisoned following his arrest together with a number of his comrades on explosive charges following their betrayal by an informer, born. Following the discovery of an escape tunnel at Carabanchel prison, he was beaten and tortured together with 7 other prisoners and dies from his injuries in the early hours of March 14, 1978.

1966 - Fritz Benner (b. 1906), German belt operator, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, member of the anarchist anti-Nazi underground and Columna Durruti miliciano, dies in Stockholm. [see: Apr. 6]

1967 - 'The Society of the Spectacle' by Guy Debord, the primary theoretical text of the Situationist International, is published in Paris.

1970 - The resignation of Raoul Vaneigem from the French section of the Situationist International.

1971 - Luciano Bianciardi (b. 1922), Italian journalist, translator, novelist, short story writer, and individualist anarchist, who was the first Italian translator of Henry Miller's 'Tropic of Cancer' and 'Tropic of Capricorn', Saul Bellow's 'Henderson the Rain King' and J.P. Donleavy's 'The Ginger Man' amongst many others, dies in Milan from cirrhosis of the liver, the consequnce of his long dependence on alcohol. [see: Dec. 14]

1984 - Teodora Badell (b. 1893), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies.

1988 - Akiyama Kiyoshi [秋山 清], aka Tsubone Kiyoshi, Takayama Keitarō (b. 1904), Japanese poet and anarchist thinker, dies in Kokura, now Kitakyushu, Fukuoka. [see: Apr. 20]

1990 - Wakamiya Masanori (若宮正則; b. 1945), Japanese worker and early member of the Communist Alliance Red Army (共産主義者同盟赤軍派), better known as the Red Army Faction (Sekigun-ha / 赤軍派), which was a precursor of the Moaist Japanese Red Army (日本赤軍 Nihon Sekigun), born. After a period in prison, where he became one of the co-founders in 1974 of the Unification Prisoners' Union (統一獄中者組合), is killed by Shining Path guerrillas in Peru. [see: Sep. 5]

1992 - Pedro Calvo Calvo (b. 1908), Aragonese basketmaker, railway worker, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Aug. 23]

2003 - Ramón Álvarez Palomo 'Ramonín' (b. 1913), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Mar. 7]

2003 - Jacques Perdereau (b. 1953), French libertarian activist, member of the Anarchist Federation, technical manager and producer on Radio Libertaire, dies.
1862 - Alfred Marpaux (d. 1934), French militant federalist, syndicalist, co-operativist and typographer, born. Author of 'L'Évolution Naturelle et l'Évolution Sociale' (1894).

1891 - The first issue of the newspaper 'El Porvenir Anarquista' (The Anarchist Future), "órgano comunista-anarchico", led by the Italian anarchist Paolo Schicchi, is published in Gracia, Barcelona.

1899 - Urania Mella (María Urania Mella Serrano; d. 1945), Spanish anarchist, anarcha-feminist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1901 - Francisco Ferrer publishes the first issue of 'La Huelga General', "Periódico Libertario", is published in Barcelona. Printed 3 times a month, is promotes revolutionary syndicalism and the wider workers' struggle through the tactic of the general strike.

1902 - In Brussels, Gennaro Rubino, an Italian individualist anarchist attempts to kill King Léopold II with the cry "Long live the social revolution Long live anarchy!" Firing three shots from his revolver at the wrong carriage, the king is oblivious to the attack and the only injury is to a royal official, cut in the face by broken glass. Seized by the crowd, Rubino barely escaped with his life. Rubino's ill-fated and ill-thought-out plan stemmed from his having been exposed as a spy for the Italian Secret Service whilst living in exile in London (he had in fact been dismissed from his position when the Italian embassy discovered his anarchist sympathies, having fled Milan in the wake of the 1898 bread riots and facing a lengthy prison sentence) and had decided to commit the assassination in order to prove his allegiance to the anarchist cause.

##1908 - Ricardo Peña Vallespín (d. 1956), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, and novelist, who was part of the artistic and theatrical group Mistral, born. He wrote a large number of novels which were published by La Novela Libre and La Novela Ideal. Among these were: 'Llamas de Odio' (Flames of Hate; 1926), 'La Virgen Tonta' (The Silly Virgen; 1927), 'El Asedio' (The Siege; 1929), 'Cerebro y Corazón' (Mind and Heart; 1930), 'La Propia Obra' (The Work Itself; 1930), '¡Qué Salga el Autor!' (The Exit of the Author; 1930), 'La Hechizada' (The Bewitched; 1931), 'El Amo' (Master; 1932), 'Índice Rojo. Novela Histórica' (Red Index. Historical novel; 1933), 'Redención' (Redemption; 1933), 'De la Vida que Pasa' (The Life that Passes; 1934), 'Tribunal de Amor' (The Court of Love; 1934), 'Cómo se Debe Amar' (How to love ; 1935), 'Las Leyes del Mal' (Las Laws of Evil; 1936), etc.

1910 - The first issue of 'The Agitator', "A Bimonthly Advocate of the Modern School, Industrial Unionism and Individual Freedom", is published in Home (Lakebay, Washington) by the members of the Home anarchist colony.

1915 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Pendant la Mêlée', "acrate, individualiste et éclectique" (a-cratie = total absence of authority), is published in Paris. From January 1916, the newspaper is published i Orléans and changes its name to 'Par delà la Mêlée' (Beyond the Fray).

1922 - Guayaquil Massacre / Huelga General de Guayaquil: The city had now been without electricity for three days, food essentials were running low and the atmosphere in the city was becoming increasingly restless. By 13:00, 30,000 men, women, and children had gathered downtown for a scheduled 15:00 rally, one of two massive strikers' rallies. Whilst en route to Guayaquil, President Tamayo had appointed a commission of government officials and workers in Guayaquil to write up a moratorium decree on the 15th. By 13:00, they had drawn up the decree and sent it as a telegram to Tamayo for approval. Dr. Carlos Puig Vilazar now read the decree to the assembly and was met with cheers. The assembly then sent Governor Pareja a note saying the rally and strike would stop once Tamayo signed the decree into law.
Meanwhile, Dr. Jose Vicente Trujillo had delivered a fiery political speech, in which he said: "¡Compañeros! Ha llegado el día de estar hoy día ya no vestidos de lana de borregos sino con piel de tigre" (Conrades! The day has come to be today no longer dressed in sheep's wool but in tiger's skin), which he followed up by announcing that the government had decided to release two labour leaders from jail. The crowd then set off toward the police station in celebration. Members of the military were there and grew increasingly nervous as the crowd approached. One soldier fired his weapon, and the others soldiers joined in. As soon as the crowd began to panic, the soldiers opened fire on the crowd, shooting down anyone they could, putting Tamayo's order to General Barriga into full effect. Affluent members of the city also joined in from their balconies, firing on workers in the street.
Oscar Efrén Reyes, in his 'Historia del Ecuador', says of the massacre: "The masses were surrounded and the soldiers carried out a terrible carnage in the streets, in the squares and inside the houses and warehouses. The massacre did not end until late in the afternoon. As many groups as possible were saved only by a speedy escape. Then, at night, numerous trucks and carts were dedicated to pick up the corpses and throw them into the estuary."
Elsewhere other groups of workers decided to try and disarm the public force, whilst others allegedly incited looting of stores. On Avenida 9 de Octubre the looting was answered by the police, first with shots in the air and then with lethal fire. By 17:00, the violence had lessened. 15 soldiers were wounded, though none had been killed. The civilian death toll was unclear, but estimated range from 300 at the low end up to a more realistic 1000-1500. With the Police and military now in control, the bullet-riddled corpses were gathered up and buried in hastily dug common graves, which up to today still have not been located, or their bellies opened up so that they did not float when they were thrown to the river Guayas. Subsequently, those who had demanded that the full might of the state be used to control the excesses of the workers were silent when they saw the magnitude of the repression, forcing General Enrique Barriga to declare "I am the sole responsible for these events". José Luis Tamayo would even go as far as later claiming that the Guayaquil massacre was justified on the grounds that "looters" and "delinquents" had fired first.
After the massacre, the assembly broke up and the strike subsided. Within a few days, the majority of the city was functioning again. However, the events in Guayaquil had stirred workers elsewhere, who staged a series of strikes across the country from November 15-20.
The people of Guayaquil commemorate the massacre every November 15th, when they launch crowns of flowers and buoys with crosses on the Guayas River.

1926 - The founding congress (15th-16th) of the Confédération Générale du Travail - Syndicaliste Révolutionnaire (C.G.T-S.R), the new Pierre Besnard instigated anarcho-syndicalist reaction against the power of the stalinist CGTU. Its newspaper, 'Le Combat Syndicaliste', will go on to produce important analysis of the Spanish Revolution.

1932 - 'Cвободно Oбщество' (Free Society) is republished [see: Feb. 15] as the monthly theoretical magazine of the FACB (Bulgarian Communist Anarchist Federation). It will be banned again following the fascist coup d'état on May 19, 1934.

[D] 1936 - 1,800 Durruti Column militiamen from the Aragon front arrive in Madrid at 09:00 to help defend it from the Nationalist forces that had launched their offensive on November 8, entering the Casa de Campo park via the Puerta de Rodajo and penetrating as far as the banks of the Manzanares river by the Nov. 13th. November 14 had seen little by way of combat, as both sides prepared for their own planned offensives the following day. General Varela planned to ford the river and press the attack on the defensive positions at the Ciudad Universitaria (University City). The Junta de Defensa de Madrid meanwhile ordered the Columna Libertad, together with the Brigada Catalana and Brigada Sabio, to retake the Cerro Garabitas, the high point in the Casa de Campo overlooking the Manzanares, whilst reinforcing the Ciudad Universitaria against possible further attacks.
Upon his arrival, Durruti immediately requested that his men and women be placed in the forefront of the fighting, and they were sent to positions in front of the Hospital Clínico to be ready for action.

[C] 1939 - Twenty seven Republicans are shot in secret and buried in a mass grave in the Alicante cemetery, with the dictatorship later putting date of "death" as 1942:
Ricardo Baeza Sancleto (Ricardo Baeza Sandeto), soldier 28 years old; Francisco Berenguer Estenaga, 29, a mason from Banyeres; Evaristo Botella Jordá, clerk, 29 years old; Raimundo Cots Alonso, 32; al papelero de Cocentaina; Salustiano Espí Reig, 24, a furrier and socialista from Elda; Rafael García Segura, 47; a farmer from Tibi; Carlos Jorquera Martínez, barber from Alicante, 25 years old; Francisco Maestre Payá, Elda lawyer and member of the Tribunal Popular nº2 de Alicante, 46 years old; Antonio Rech Picó, 30, bricklayer from Relleu; Vicente Rico Mollá, jornalist and CNT militant from Castalla, 36 years old; Emilio Rodríguez Carbonell, empleado de 28 years old; and Francisco Salort Cristóbal, 23, mason from El Vergel; plus 4 anti-fascist militants from Elche: Pedro Escalante Coves (Pedro Escalante Cores), shoemaker, 32 years old; Manuel Granados Irles, chauffeur, 54; Onofre Núñez Cantos (José Núñez Cantos), 39 years old worker; Francisco Valero Quiles, baker, 27 years old; six anti-fascists from Rojales: Jesús Cartagena Gil, carpenter, 48 years old; Manuel García León, farmer worker, 35 years old; Manuel Hurtado Huerta, 30 years old, an agricultural worker from Almoradí; Cayetano Manchón Sarabia, 37 years old, a farmer from nearby Callosa de Segura; Antonio Martínez Sala, 28 years old, a carpenter from Torrevieja; and José Pastor Navarro, 38 years old labourer from Rojales. Also were shot with them a group of prisoners from other locales: José Acosta Téllez, 25, a worker from Jerez; Francisco Boades Soler, 22 year old weaver from Girona; José Feliu Fernández (José Felín Fernández), 27, weaver from Formentera; José Martí Guillen, 56, metalworker from Nules and Etelvino Vega Martínez, 33 years old metalworker from Mieres, who was also a central committee of the PCE and military commander of Alicante.
On March 27, 2005, a monument was erected to their memory.

1939 - Jaume Soler Lloret (b. 1898), Alicante born CNT member, teacher and town clerk in Manresa during the war, is shot at Camp de la Bota Barcelona.

##1941 - Heathcote Williams, English poet, actor, playwright, one-time anarchist, resident of Frestonia and 'International Times' stalwart, born.

1956 - Grigori Vladimirovich Gorelik, aka Anatolii [Анатолий](Григорий Владимирович Горелик; b. 1890), Ukrainian anarchist, who was active in the anarcho-syndicalist movement in France, USA and later in Argentina, participated in the Russian Revolution and was an organiser of the All-Russian Black Cross (Всероссийского Черного Креста), before deportation from Russia along with other anarcho-syndicalists in 1922, dies in a Buenos Aires hospital, having withdrawn from public life in 1940 after becoming paralysed and spent the folliwng 16 years in difficult and straitened circumstances, cared for only by his companion Fany. [see: Mar. 12]

## 1973 - José Alejo Capelo (b. late C19th), Ecuadorian anarchist writer, typographer, historian and militant, dies in Guayaquil on the annivesary of the notorious 1922 massacre. Alejo Capelo took part in the founding of the Federación Regional de Trabajadores del Ecuador (Regional Federation of Workers of Ecuador), Luz y Acción (Light and Action) Group, and the A.G.A. (Astillero Shipyard Association). He was an editor and contributor to anarchist and worker publications such as 'Tribuna Obrera', 'El Proletario', 'El Hambriento', 'Germinal', 'El Federal', and the Mexican newspaper 'Tierra y Libertad'. He also published the pamphlet '15 de Noviembre de 1922 : Una jornada sangrienta', in which he recounte the events of the general strike of November 1922.

1987 - Joan Borràs Casanova (b. 1909), Spanish anarchist, proletarian painter, poster artist and writer, dies. [see: Apr. 3]

2009 - Anna Mendleson (or Mendelssohn; b. 1948), English poet, painter, musician, actor, anarchist, activist in the Claimants Union, etc., and Stoke Newington Eight’ defendant, dies after a long battle with a brain tumour.

##2016 - 'Tranny: Confessions of Punk Rock's Most Infamous Anarchist Sellout', the autobiography of Laura Jane Grace, founder, lead singer, songwriter and guitarist of the anarcho-punk band Against Me! (co-written with 'Noisey' editor Dan Ozzi), is published.
1861 - Arvid Järnefelt (d. 1932), Finnish lawyer, jurist, writer (novels, plays, essays, etc), farmer, fossil hunter and Tolstoyan Christian anarchist, born in Pulkkala, St. Petersburg.

1871 - Élisée Reclus is sentenced to transportation for life for his role in the Paris Commune; but, largely at the instance of influential deputations from England, the famed geographer and anarchist had his sentence commuted in January 1872 to perpetual banishment.

[F] 1883 - Arthur Caron (d. 1914), French Canadian anarchist and an organiser for the Industrial Workers of the World, born. Caron was at the forefront of the anti-Rockefeller protests that took place in response to the Ludlow Massacre in Colorado on April 20, 1914. During the massacre - the deadliest event in the Colorado Coalfield War, the bloody southern Colorado Coal Strike, which took place between September 1913 and December 1914 and in which more than 200 striking miners and their supporters were killed. The strike had begun when the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, owned by 'the richest man in the world' industrialist John D. Rockefeller Jr., refused to accede to the demands of the United Mine Workers of America. The UMWA had begun organising the southern coal field workers and wanted CF&I to adhere to Federal mining regulations and introduce an eight-hour working day. Rockefeller and the company refused and, when the miners went out on strike, brought in strike-breakers and Baldwin-Felts detectives instead. When clashes broke out between strikers and the local sheriffs and deputy sheriffs, most of whom were in the pay of CF&I and were the frontline against the strikers, the Colorado National Guard was sent in to back up the companies hired goons. In October, the CF&I threw the miners and their mostly poor Greek and Italian immigrant families out of company housing, the latter set up a number of tent colonies, the largest of which was the one at Ludlow. It was this tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families that was attacked on the morning of April 20, 1914, initially by the Colorado National Guard armed with a machinegun and rifles, and later in the day by reinforcements of Colorado Fuel & Iron Company camp guards. By dusk many of the miners and their families had managed to escape into the nearby Black Hills, when the militia and mine guards entered to finish off the job, looting and setting fire to the camp. Some of those captured in the camp were summarily executed by the Militia. The attack resulted in the murder of at least 25 people, including two women and eleven children, asphyxiated and burned to death under a single tent. Some reports state that a minimum of forty-five people, including thirty women and children, had in fact been killed, and that the exact number would never be known as many of the bodies were completely destroyed in an oil-fueled blaze and the fact that government agencies deliberately restricted access to the campsite in the aftermath.
In New York City, there were protests against Rockefeller. A 'mourning picket' was set up on Broadway outside Rockefeller's Standard Oil offices and outside his house on West Fifty-Fourth Street. Large numbers of protesters were dragged off and arrested by the police. Others including IWW members and anarchists such as Arthur Caron decided to take their protests to the Rockefeller estate at Tarrytown, New York. Permits for the protest were refused but they went ahead anyway. On May 30, the IWW set up a soapbox in Tarrytown’s Fountain Square and one-by-one eleven IWW speakers including Caron and the only woman speaker Rebecca Edelson were arrested. They were released on bail on June 12 to stand trial in early July on charges that included being disorderly, disturbing the peace, blocking traffic and endangering health(!?). On July 3, two days before the trial was due, Alexander Berkman called a meeting at the Ferrer Center to discuss support for the defendants. Caron was amongst those who showed up for the meeting and went off for drinks at a nearby saloon afterward. The gathering broke up by midnight.
At 09:16 the following morning, a massive explosion tore through the top three floors of the six-story apartment house at 1626 Lexington Avenue, between 102nd and 103rd Streets. Centred on the apartment of Anarchist Black Cross member, Louise Berger, the explosion killed four and injured twenty others. Amongst those died were Caron and two members of the Lettish section of the Anarchist Black Cross, Carl Hanson and Charles Berg, who had been constructing a dynamite bomb believed to be destined for Rockefeller's Tarrytown mansion. Also killed was Marie Chavez, who was renting a room in the flat but not involved in the plot. On Saturday July 11, 12,000 people gathered in New York's Union Square, where Alexander Berkman, IWW leaders Carlo Tresca and Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, and Rebecca Edelson spoke in memory of those who died.
Alexander Berkman to the crowd on July 11: "We are here to honour our dead comrades, murdered by the capitalists, Rockefeller and his agents. There are two presumptions as to how these men met death. One is that they were the victims of the capitalists and their agents; another is that they manufactured the bomb themselves to be used. It is the fault of the capitalists if they did manufacture that bomb, and I want to go on record that if they did so then they were going to use it. We are ready to do anything and everything in demand of our rights. I believe in resistance and all the results therefrom. These men were murdered in the cause of humanity. As I said before, Rockefeller and his class would stop at nothing. To them it would mean only a few more cold-blooded murders to their credit."
[ Caron]

1884 - Clovis-Abel Pignat (aka Tschombine Pategnon) (d. 1950), Swiss militant anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, born.

1895 - At the iniative of Sebastien Faure and Louise Michel, the first issue of the weekly newspaper 'Le Libertare' is published in Paris - the title has been borrowed from the newspaper that Joseph Déjacque published in New York between 1858 and 1861. The newspaper will cease publication on August 1, 1914 at the start of the war.

1898 - Anthelme Girier aka Jean Baptiste Lorion (b. 1869), French anarchist orator, who was imprisoned and involved in the revolt at the Iles du Salut penal colony, dies. [see: Apr. 21]

1910 - Ricardo Flores Magón issues a circular to all Liberal Party members informing them of the timing of Francisco Madero’s revolt, but warning them of the difference between themselves and Madero’s movement.

1913 - Tosca Tantini (d. 1940), Italian ice cream maker, anarchist and miliciana, who fought in the Columna Ascaso, born. [expand]

1918 - The first general conference of the Nabat (Набат) Confederation of Anarchist Organisations of the Ukraine, better known simply as Nabat (Alarm), the name of its journal, is held in Kursk.

#### 1920 - Antonio Navarro Velázquez (d. 1999), Castillian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist and Résistance fighter, born. Known as 'Antonio el Zapatero' or simply 'Zapatero', he was 12 years old he joined the CNT in Caravaca de la Cruz. In 1935 he moved to Barcelona, where he became a militant in an anarchist group. With the fascist military coup in July 1936, he tried to join the CNT militia, but one had to be at least 17 ​​years old, and from 1937 served in the Ejército Popular (People's Army) of the Second Republic. With Franco's victory went to France and took part in the Résistance, fighting against the Nazi occupation. In 1947 re-entered the Peninsula but was arrested the following year. He was sentenced to a long prison term, spending time prison in Zaragoza, San Miguel de los Reyes and finally in Burgos. In 1960 he was paroled.
In Barcelona, ​​with José Navarro Muñoz and Joaquín Amores Ortiz, participated in the organisation of the anarchist group Perseverancia (Perseverance) which, until 1970, helped colleagues sought by Franco's police to escape to France. A few months before the death of dictator Franco, went himself returned to France fleeing arrest. He was also a member of the National Committee of the CNT, and was close to Manuel Saldaña de la Cruz. In the mid seventies he participated in the reorganisation of the CNT in Barcelona. On March 30, 1978 he was arrested, along with three other colleagues (Francisco Rodríguez Meroño , José Luis López Moreno and Ana María Álvarez López ), accused of being the 'brains' of a "specific group" (Grupos Autónomos Libertarios) of the FAI and of shooting-up, on March 19, 1978, the barracks of the Policía Armada (Armed Police) in Cornellà de Llobregat, Barcelona. In the nineties he was active in the CNT in Barcelona and, shortly before his death, in the Local Federation of the CNT in Cornellà with the intention, with Manuel Saldaña, of forming a new union.
His partner was Carmen Edo.

##1922 - José de Sousa Saramago (d. 2010), Portuguese writer of novels, short stories, poetry, plays, memoirs and travelogues, atheist and libertarian communist, born.
"A unique and authentic human freedom is that of the spirit, a spirit not contaminated by irrational beliefs and superstitions perhaps poetic in some case, but that distort the perception of reality and should offend the most basic reason."

'Não me Peçam Razões'

Não me peçam razões, que não as tenho,
Ou darei quantas queiram: bem sabemos
Que razões são palavras, todas nascem
Da mansa hipocrisia que aprendemos.

Não me peçam razões por que se entenda
A força de maré que me enche o peito,
Este estar mal no mundo e nesta lei:
Não fiz a lei e o mundo não aceito.

Não me peçam razões, ou que as desculpe,
Deste modo de amar e destruir:
Quando a noite é de mais é que amanhece
A cor de primavera que há-de vir.

'Do not ask me for reasons'

Do not ask me for reasons, I do not have them,
Or give you what you want: well we know
That reasons are words, all born
From the gentle hypocrisy we have learned.

Do not ask me for reasons if you understand
The tidal force that fills my chest,
Being evil in this world and in this law:
I was not the law and the world I do not accept.

Do not ask me the reasons, or the excuse,
This way of loving and destruction:
When the night is over and then it dawns
The colour of springtime is coming.

From: 'Nesta esquina do tempo' (In this corner of time)


1938 - The Republican army of Catalonia, made up of anarchist and communist forces, is defeated after three months by pro-Franco forces, leaving tens of thousands dead or casualties. The Republican forces had held for three months during the great battle on the front at the Ebre River.

## 1939 - Tor Åge Bringsværd, Norwegian author, playwright, editor, translator and anarchist, who is considered to have been the first Norwegian (along with his partner and co-author Jon Bing) to have written science fiction, collected in the 1967 'Rundt solen i ring' (Ring round the Sun) anthology, born

[C] 1942 - Italian-Australian anarchist Francesco Fantin (b. 1901) is murdered by fascist fellow internees in an Australian internment camp. [see: Jan. 20]

1944 - Panait Muşoiu (b. 1864), Romanian anarchist and socialist ideologist, editor and publicist, author of the first Romanian translation of 'The Communist Manifesto', dies in Bucharest aged 80. [see: Nov. 18]

[B] 1945 - Jan Bucquoy, Belgian anarchist film-maker, cartoonist and author, born.

1952 - Román Delgado (b. 1894), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist who was active in Cuba (expelled for inciting the workers of the sugar to go on strike), North America and Mexico, dies. [see: Feb. 2]

1953 - Luigi 'Gigi' Damiani (aka 'Ausinio Acrate' & 'Simplicio'; b. 1876), Italian journalist, poet, novelist, jobbing painter, anarchist activist and propagandist, dies. [see: May 18]

1966 - University of Strasbourg students, sympathetic to the Situationists, blow the entire yearly student union's budget on printing 10,000 copies of 'De la Misère en Milieu Étudiant' (On The Poverty Of Student Life), causing a massive scandal and court case.

1981 - Felisa de Castro Sampedro (d. 1981), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and femnist militant, who was involved in the founding of the Grupo Cultural Femenino and of Mujeres Libres, dies in Caracas, Venezuela. [see: Feb. 21]

1984 - Teodora Badell (b. 1893), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [expand]

2008 - Ruben G. Prieto (b. 1930), Uruguayan anarchist, dies. One of the founders in the 1950's of the Comunidad del Sur, a co-operative self-managed community. [see: Dec. 19]

[A] 2009 - Ivan Igorevich Khutorskoy, aka Vanya Kostolom [Ваня Костолом], 'Kostolom' (Bonecrusher)(Ива́н И́горевич Хуторско́й; b. 1983), Russian RASH (Red and Anarchist Skinheads) anti-fascist skinhead and prominent member of the country's anti-fascist movement, is murdered. Well known for working security at anti-fascist concerts and press conferences of the Russian human rights lawyer Stanislav Markelov, he was shot dead at his home in Khabarovsk street in eastern Moscow. [see: Feb. 17]
[E] 1866 - Voltairine de Cleyre (d. 1912), American anarchist, feminist, teacher and poet, born. [expand]

1878 - In Naples 29-year-old Italian anarchist Giovanni Passannante attempts to assassinate King Umberto I as he is being driven along the Via Carriera Grande during a tour of major Italian cities following his accession to the Savoy throne. Shouting "Long live Orsini*! Long live the Universal Republic." [*Italian revolutionary and leader of the Carbonari who tried to assassinate Napoleon III in 1858], Passannante climbed up into Umberto's carriage, drew a knife that he had wrapped in a red cloth, attached to which was a note that Passannante had written: "Death to the King, Long live the Universal Republic, Long live Orsini.", and attacked the king. However, Passannante only managed to stab him in the right arm, as he was swiftly grabbed by the Prime Minister Benedetto Cairoli, who was riding alongside Umberto and received a wound to his right thigh for his trouble. At the same time, the captain of cuirassiers, Stefano De Giovanni, hit Paissanante over his head with the flat of his sabre the head, stunning and arresting him.
Under interrogation, the unemployed cook from Salvia claimed that he had formed his plan two days earlier and obtained a knife, which had an 8cm blade that was "good only for peeling apples" according to the owner of the store where Passannante had obtained it, bartering for it with his jacket as he didn't have the half a lira it should have cost. Asked why he had carried out the attack, he gave a number of reasons: the betrayal of the Risorgimento (the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy of March 17, 1861); as a protest against poverty and taxes (especially the hated flour tax); and claimed that his "bosses have always treated me as scum" and, having come to dislike life, had decided to commit suicide by attacking and assassinating the King, hoping to be killed in the act. He stated that he had nothing personal against Umberto himself, but that he simply hated all monarchs. Despite his continued claim that he had acted alone, his interrogators tortured him in an attempt to force him to confess to an alleged conspiracy.
His trial on March 6-7, 1879, attracted a deal of controversy around the appointment of the jury and his lawyer, Leopoldo Tarantini, was ineffectual (Luigi Galleani later claimed that Passannante had been "abandoned to the executioner by his lawyer"). Giovanni Passannante was sentenced to death, despite the fact that the Penal Code provided for the death penalty only in the case of the death of the king and not his injury. His mother and siblings were also jailed, and the name of his hometown in the Basilicata region of southern Italy was changed from Salvia to Savoia di Lucania to escape its notoriety.
On March 29, 1879, Passannante's sentence was commuted by Royal Decree to life imprisonment, to be served in Portoferraio's 'bagno penale', on the island of Elba. Passannante's cell was located in the Torre della Linguella (later renamed the Torre di Passannante). Just 140cm high (Passannante stood 160cm tall), it was dark and damp (it was located below sea level and sea water seeped in turning the dirt floor into a sea of mud), had no latrine, and he was unable to talk to anyone (except on very rare occasions when visited by a number of socialist parliamentarians, who communicated via a peep hole – his guards were under strict orders not to answer his questions or communicate with him in any fashion), being held in full Isolation for 10 years whilst chained up with a short 18kg chain around his ankles.
The conditions eventually took their toll on his mental and physical health: he suffered from scurry, was infested by tapeworms, he lost his body hair, and went mad, coming to eat his own excrement. In 1889 he was secretly transferred to the Villa Medici dell'Ambrogiana, a criminal asylum in Montelupo Fiorentino, and though his material conditions improved, the deterioration in his mental and physical condition was irreversible. He was allowed to cultivate a small vegetable garden, which he ended up clearing of everything except a single plant, and to write in his notebooks.
In 1908 he went blind and died two years later on February 14, 1910 in the mental hospital at the age of 60, 5 days short of his 61st birthday.
Umberto I, Giovanni Passannante's intended victim, was ultimately assassinated on July 29, 1900, by another anarchist, Gaetano Bresci, who shot him four times with a revolver.
[Costantini pic]

[A] 1887 - Anarchist Johann Most is arrested for his use of "incendiary language" and sentenced to a year in prison in the USA.

1904 - Gustav Doster, aka 'Gustl' (d. 1977), German metalworker, farmer, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, who organised underground anarchist networks under Nazism, fought in the Spanish Revolution, before going into exile in Sweden and becoming active in the Sveriges Arbetarens Centralorganisation, born.

1920 - Monty Miller (Montague David Miller; b. 1839), Australian anarchist, secularist, militant labour organiser and industrial unionist in the IWW, who took part in the Eureka Rebellion at the age of fifteen and was a founding member of the Melbourne Anarchist Club in 1886, dies in Perth "in atheistic fortitude, and in the strength derived from the glory of a materialistic philosophy, as he wanted it known. [see: Jul. 7]

1932 - Lee Hoe-Yeong [이회영], also known by his pen name Woodang [우당], (b. 1867) Korean teacher, independence activist, anarchist and one of the founders of Shinheung Military Academy (신흥 무관 학교) in Manchuria, dies at the age of 65 in Lüshun Prison in mysterious circumstaces – probably from the effects of torture – with the Japanese authorities claiming that he hung himself. [see: Mar. 17]

1942 - Ben Reitman (b. 1879), US anarchist fellow traveller, one-time hobo and physician to the poor, advocate of women's right to control their own bodies and lover of Emma Goldman, dies. [see: Jan. 1]

1945 - Emilio Canzi (b. 1893), Italian partisan, anarchist and anti-fascist combattant in the Spanish Civil War, dies. [see: Mar. 14]

## 1947 - Regina de Lamo y Jiménez (b. 1870), Spanish intellectual, music and singing teacher, writer, journalist, feminist and women's rights activist, advocate of birth control, the right to abortion, eugenics, euthanasia and free love, promoter of the cooperative economic model, defender of unionism and anarchist propagandist, who used the pen names Regina Lamo Jiménez, Regina de Lamo Ximénez, Regina Lamo de O'Neill and, following the fall of the Republic, continued to write novels under the pseudonym Nora Avante, dies in Barcelona. [see: Sep. 7]

1947 - Victor Lvovich Kibalchich aka Victor Serge (b. 1890), novelist, poet, historian and one-time French individualist anarchist who went over to the Bolsheviks, before they purged him, dies. [see: Dec. 30]

1950 - Miquel-Dídac Piñero i Costa, aka 'Bombetes', 'Bombilla', 'Quim', Catalan anarchist, bookseller, and scholar and author of archeology in defence of historical heritage and architecture, who co-founded the Federació Anarquista Comunista Catalana, the first recognisably post-Franco anarchist organisation in Spain, born.

1971 - 89 Talbot Road Raided: Chris Allen charged with conspiracy to cause explosions. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1998 - Maurício Tragtenberg (b. 1929), Brazilian sociologist, autodidact, professor, communist, Trotskyist and then libertarian socialist, who wrote extensively on the theory and practice of libertarian education (pedagogia libertária), dies in São Paulo. [see: Nov. 4]

2008 - Antonio García Barón, aka Antonié, 'El Rubio' (b. 1922), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, miliciano in the Columna Durruti, and survivor of Mauthausen, going blind and having refused food for the past two weeks, dies in San Buenaventura, La Paz, Bolivia. [see: May 10]
##1864 - [O.S. Nov. 6] Panait Mușoiu (d. 1944), Romanian anarchist and socialist ideologist, editor and publicist, who was the author of the first Romanian translation of 'The Communist Manifesto', born. Aopulariser of science and philosophy, and propagator of Marxist ideas in Romania, he was one of the main figures of anarchism in Romanian and the founder of several left-wing magazines including 'Munca' (Work), 'Mișcarea Socială' (Social Movements) and 'Revista Ideei' (Ideas Magazine) in which he published articles on political and social issues.

1887 - Henrik Ibsen's anarchist-influenced play 'Samfundets Støtter' (The Pillars of Society) premières at the Odense Teater in Copenhagen.

## 1904 - Reinhold Wilhelm 'Willy' Huppertz (d. 1978), German mechanic/fitter, and militant anarchist communist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was a member of FAUD and the Allgemeine Arbeiter-Union - Einheitsorganisation (General Workers Union - Unity Organisation), born.

1910 - The first issue of the pro-CNT weekly 'Acción Libertaria' is published in Gijon, Spain. The first 27 issues are edited by José Machargo (Avelino Iglesias), Eleuterio Quintanilla and Pedro Sierra. It is then published by Ricardo Mella in Vigo from September to November 1911, and returns to Gijon from 8 January 1915 to 4 February 1916.

#### 1912 - América Scarfò aka 'Fina' (América Josefina Scarfó; d. 2006), Argentinian teacher, anarchist and pioneer of the anarcha-feminist movement, who used the pseudonym of Josefina Rinaldi de Dionisi, born. Sister of Paulino Orlando Scarfò and companion of the revolutionary anarchist Severino Di Giovanni, both executed, after enduring torture, by the Uriburu regime in Argentina in February 1931. América was only 17 when she left home to live with Di Giovanni, who was then in his 30s. Within months, Di Giovanni had been tracked down by police after a spree of bomb attacks on US and fascist targets. As Osvaldo Bayer, Di Giovanni’s biographer has put it: "Severino was an antifascist and he was convinced that the only counter to violence from above was violence from below." Love letters exchanged between Severino and América were confiscated by the police. For years they formed a prize exhibit in the Police Museum in Buenos Aires. Many years later, América later went into partnership with a like-minded comrade to run the Americalee publishing house specialising in anarchist and libertarian materials. Thanks to lobbying by Osvaldo Bayer, during the Menem government (1989-1999) the love letters from Di Giovanni were returned to América Scarfó by the police authorities.
She died in Buenos Aires on August 19, 2006, [not Aug. 26 as many sources erroneously cite] and her remains were cremated and her ashes buried in the small garden adjoining the HQ of the Federación Libertaria Argentina in the southern part of Buenos Aires.

1914 - Revolución Mexicana: Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata advance on Venustiano Carranza, who departs for Veracruz.

1919 - Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis (b. 1846), Bakuninist and pioneer of Dutch anarchism and active in the International Anti-Militarist Association, dies. [see: Dec. 31]

1928 - Harold Whitmore Williams (b. 1876), New Zealand journalist, foreign editor of 'The Times', Tolstoyan Christian anarchist and polyglot, who is said to have known over 58 languages, dies. [see: Apr. 6]

1939 - José Luis González Bernal (b. 1908), Aragonese Surrealist painter and draftsman, and anarchist, dies in La Malmaison, Picardie. [see: Mar. 30]

[B] 1953 - Alan Moore, comic writer, novelist, screenwriter, musician, cartoonist, neo-Pagan and anarchist, born. His works include 'V for Vendetta' (1982–1985); 'Watchmen' (1986–1987) and 'The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen' (1999–present).

1976 - Man Ray (Emmanuel Rudnitzky; b. 1890), American Surrealist photographer, painter, film-maker, chess-player and anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 27]

2002 - Britta Gröndahl (b. 1914), Swedish writer, French language teacher, editor, translator, feminist and anarcho-syndicalist militant in the Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation, dies. [see: Mar. 8]
1862 - Liard-Courtois (Auguste Courtois; 1918), French painter and decorator, anarchist activist, neo-Malthusian and propagandist for the tactic of the general strike, born. [expand]

1899 - Emma Goldman, 'The Anarchist Orator' as she is billed, delivers a lecture at the Athenaeum Hall in London on the subject of 'The Aim of Humanity'. She follows this up with a second lecture entitled 'Woman' the following Sunday (26th) at the same venue.

1901 - Pavlos Argyriadis (Παύλος Αργυριάδης; b. 1849), Greek journalist, writer, libertarian socialist and member of the Paris Commune, dies. [see: Aug. 15]

1904 - The first issue of the bimonthly 'Germinal', "Journal du Peuple, Libertaire", is published in Amiens by Georges Bastien and comrades. It ceases printing at the outbreak of WWI in August 1914 but reapears on 29 August 1919.

1914 - Carlo Doglio (d. 1995), Italian architect, urban planner, editor, lawyer, university professor, anarchist, anti-fascist and pacifist, born. [expand]

[A / F] 1915 - Joel Emmanuel Hägglund, better known as Joe Hill (b. 1879), Swedish-American labour organiser, folk-poet, songwriter and member of the Industrial Workers of the World, is executed by firing squad in Utah. His final word? "Fire!" [Popular sentiment has it that his final words were: "Don't mourn, organise", but these were taken from a telegram to Big Bill Haywood: "Goodbye, Bill, I die like a true blue rebel. Don't waste any time mourning. Organise!"]

1919 - An order is given to the teacher and anarchist João Penteado to close the Modern School No. 1 in São Paulo, which had opened on May 13, 1912. This follows the detonation of a bomb in a house in São Paulo that killed four anarchists, including José Alvés director of Modern School of São Caetano, a suburb of São Paulo.

1935 - Tinko Simov (Тинко Симов; b. 1887), Bulgarian anarchist, who was the subject of constant harrassment and regualr imprisonment for his anarchist views and ultimately forced underground, where he formed his own cheta, the anarchist guerrilla group Guéroïa, dies. Heavily wounded following a police ambush earlier on in the day and now hiding in the barn of a relative in his native village, he is surrounded by police once again following a betrayal and, after another shoot out, rather than be captured he kills himself.

1936 - Buenaventura Durruti is mortally wounded at around 13:00 in uncertain circumstances in Madrid. He dies the following day. [see: Nov. 20]

## 1941 - Antonio Blanco Blanch (b. 1902), Spanish chocolatier, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was exiled to France after the defeat of the Spanish Republic, dies in Mauthausen's Gusen subcamp. [see: Feb. 16]

1944 - Hutchins Hapgood (b. 1869), US journalist, author, novelist, free love advocate and anarchist, dies. [see: May 21]

[B] 1949 - James Ensor (b. 1860), Belgian symbolist painter and anarchist, whose work was a major influence on both expressionism and surrealism, dies. [see: Apr. 13]

[D] 1999 - Tens of thousands of people welcome President Bill Clinton to Greece, fighting running street battles with riot police as banks and shops in the heart of Athens are set on fire. As the president's motorcade swept past posters likening him to Adolf Hitler, anti-American slogans were shouted and teargas canisters were fired to disperse protesters. Clinton also arrived at his hotel to see a banner denouncing him as a "fascist murderer" for the bombing campaign against Yugoslavia. At the airport he had been greeted by a small crowd waving American and Greek flags and told reporters, without any evident irony: "I know that a lot of people in Greece disagree with my position on Kosovo, and they have a right to their opinion and I have a right to mine."

2006 - Members of various anarchist, syndicalist and anarcho-feminist organisations, gather at the Montjuïc cemetry in Barcelona to pay tribute to Buenaventura Durruti on the 70th anniversary of his death.
1862 - Georges Palante (Georges Toussaint Léon Palante; d. 1925), French philosopher and sociologist, who advocated an aristocratic libertarian individualism, born. Influenced by Schopenhauer, Nietzsche and Max Stirner, he developed a radical anarchist philosophy (even though he rejected the label) and "une morale désespérée, mais élégante, de la résistance" (a desperate, but elegant morality, of resistance).

1870 - Hermann Steinacker (Johann Baptist Steinacker; d. 1944), German tailor, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Nazi anarchist underground, born in Odenheim.]

[B] 1879 - Franz Pfemfert (d. 1954), German anarchist, publisher, editor of the mass-circulation anti-war paper 'Die Aktion', poet, literary critic and portrait photographer, born. Occasionally wrote under the pseudonym U. Gaday. His first poems appeared in Senna Hoy’s paper 'Der Kampf' (The Struggle) and in another anarchist paper 'Die Arme Teufel' (The Poor Devil) in 1904. Hoy also introduced Pfemfert to Alexandra Ramm, his future wife. In 1910, he became an editor of the radical democratic magazine 'Die Demokrat' but fell out with its publisher, quiting to set up his own magazine, 'Die Aktion'. In 1915 he created the Antinationale Sozialistenpartei (Anti-National Socialist Party), which secretly worked with other anti-war groups. At the end of the war Franz joined the Spartakusbund and the pages of 'Die Aktion' were thrown open to the various revolutionary currents. However, he broke with the KPD, joining the KAPD and, shortly afterwards in 1921, the AAUD-E (United General Workers Union). In 1926 he took part in the creation of the second Spartakusbund whilst maintaining his links with the anarcho-syndicalist union the FAUD. [expand]

1884 - The first issue of the monthly international review 'La Société Nouvelle' (Sociologie, Arts, Scienses, Lettres), whose motto is "Paix et rénovation sociale", is published in Brussels by Pierre Brouez (and who is succeed his son Fernand).

1896 - [N.S. Dec. 2] Rose Pesotta (Rakhel Peisoty; d. 1965), US seamstress, labour activist, anarcho-syndicalist and feminist, born. From a family of grain merchants, Pesotta was well educated and influenced by the Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), and eventually adopted anarchist views. Pesotta emigrated to New York City at the age of 17 (1913), and found employment in a shirtwaist factory, she joined the International Ladies' Garment Workers Uion very soon after. The ILGWU was a union that represented mostly Jewish and Latina female garment workers. She was elected to the all male executive board of ILGWU Local 25 in 1920. Pesotta went to Brookwood Labor College for two years in the 1920s. In 1933 the union sent her to Los Angeles to organise the garment workers there. The organising of the Mexican immigrant garment workers lead to the Los Angeles Garment workers Strike of 1933. As a result of this success, she was made vice-president of the union in 1934, and sent to Puerto Rico to organise seamstresses. In 1944, she resigned from the General Executive Board of the union in protest of the fact that, despite 85% of the union's memebership were women, she was the sole female executive member. She returned to shopfloor organising in disgust.
Rose Pesotta died in Miami, Florida on December 6, 1965.

1898 - The first issue of the voluntary subscription 'El Rebelde', "Periódico Anarquista", is published in Santiago, Chile. The first openly anarchist periodical in Chile, it is the paper of the anarchist group of the same name and appears irreuglarly.

[BB] 1902 - Jean Painlevé (d. 1989), French biologist turned film director, actor, translator, animator, critic and theorist, anti-fascist and anarchist, born. Noted documentarist, often on scientific subjects, in particular underwater marine biology, his credo was "science is fiction". He was also the son of mathematician and twice prime-minister of France, Paul Painlevé. One of his closest friends and biggest influences on his films was fellow anarchist and film director Jean Vigo and he was associated with Surrealism, collaborating on Ivan Goll's monthly revue 'Surrealisme', without ever really being considered part of the Surrealist movement (despite self-identifying as a surrealist). After a short period as an actor and assisstant director, Painlevé directed his first short, a version of Goll's play 'Mathusalem' (1927), which he followed up with his first scientific films, 'La Pieuvre' (The Octopus; 1928) and 'Oeufs d'Épinoche' (Stickelback Eggs; 1929). He was also credited during the same period as "chief ant handler" on Luis Buñuel's 'Un Chien Andalou' (1928). The Académie des sciences rejected his efforts but his films were embraced by the avant garde of France and Man Ray, for example, used Painlevé's footage of underwater starfish in his film 'L'Etoile de Mer' (1928). The rejection also spurred hin on to co-founded L'Institut du Cinema Scientifique in 1930, which helped distribute and show documentary films made all over the world. An active ananrchist, Painlevé took part in anti-Nazi demonstrations throughout WWII and his 1945 film 'Le Vampire' was expressly anti-fascist. He also served as director of the Committee for the Liberation of French Cinema (which he co-founded during the war) which sought help ressurect the post-war French film industry.

1906 - Lucile Pelletier (Lucile Louise Simone Pelletier; d. 1991), French public service worker, anarchist and revolutionary syndicalist, born.

1910 - Leo Tolstoy (b. 1820), famed Russian novelist, religious pacifist and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 9]

1916 - James Guillaume (b. 1844), English-born historian of the First International and anarchist active in the Swiss Jura Federation, dies. [see: Feb. 16]

1919 - Liu Shipei (劉師培), aka Shen Shu [申叔] (b. 1884), Chinese philologist, Taoist anarchist, and revolutionary activist, who used the pen names Wei Yi (韋裔) and Guang Hanzi (光漢子), dies of tuberculosis in Beijing at the age of 35. [see: Jun. 24]

1920 - The Spanish government declares the anarcho-syndicalist CNT illegal and 64 union leaders are jailed.

##1934 - Paco Ibañez (Francisco Ibáñez Gorostidi), Spanish cabinetmaker, anti-Francoist and libertarian cantor - an anarchist who refuses the name, who was known as 'la voz libre de España' in the 1960s and '70s, born.

[A] 1936 - José Buenaventura Durruti Dumange (b. 1896), legendary Catalan sindicalista y revolucionario anarquista, dies in the Hotel Ritz (then a field hospital for those wounded in the defence of the capital) at around 13:00 from the bullet wound to the chest that he had sustained in mysterious circumstances the previous day during the Battle for Madrid. What is clear is that Durruti had decided to go to the site of the battle to retake the Hospital Clínico, then in the hands of Franco's Moorish troops, and which had begun in the early hours of November 19. The fighting had been fierce, carried out floor by floor, room by room, with much confusion. After several hours, and having spent the previous four days since their arrival almost constantly involved in the fighting, with little chance to sleep or eat, the militiamen decide to retreat and return to their original positions. When the news that morale amongst the Columna Durruti fighters was low and that many were considering abandoning their positions reached Durruti himself, he decided to go to the front immediately.
Driven by Julio Graves, and accompanied by his bodyguard/adviser sergeant José Manzana (who sat beside him in the back of the car, which was led out by a second car carrying three people: Antonio Bonilla, driver Lorente, and Miguel Doga. When they arrived in the Avenida de Pablo Iglesias a few blocks away from the Hospital Clínico, Durruti encountered a group of militiamen who seem to be retreating, having abandoned their positions. He ordered Graves to stop the vehicle and got out of the car (accompanied by Manzana) with the intention of encouraging them to turn around. After a brief conversation with them, he headed back to the car. Then Julio Graves, who had remained in the driver's seat, claimed that he heard a shot and saw Durruti collapse with blood on his chest. Driven to the Hotel Ritz at full speed, where he was attended by a medical team headed by doctors Manuel Bastos Ansart and José Santamaría Jaume, who decided that an operation would not save him as he drifted in and out of consciousness, dying at dawn the following day. The official cause of the death was pleural haemorrhage caused by a gunshot wounds.
There are various versions of what actually took place, some of which clearly contradict themselves and the evidence of his wound. The ‘official’ version of event [allegedly prompted by García Oliver himself] was that, as Durruti’s car stopped in the University district of the City (the scene of the fiercest fighting) Durruti was struck by a Nationalist machine-gun bullet fired from a high window in the nearby Hospital Clínico. There were also claims that the fatal wounding occurred at 16:00, throwing further confusion over the incident. However, almost immediately the 'official' version began to be disputed, as rumours spread and suspicions were aired, with many people seriously questioning the manner of his death. Many claimed that it was part of a Stalinist plot to rid the revolution of one of its most popular commanders, just as they would later carry out the purges and assassinations of the May Days the following year and those around the militarisation of the militias.
Dr Santamaría, who later carried out the autopsy on Durruti’s body, stated that the shot was fired from a distance of just 35cm, totally discrediting the long-range sniper explanation. According to Joan Llarch: "there is a fallacy here, a shot fired from such a distance could not have left a powder residue around the entry point of it’s target. There has been sufficient evidence to suggest that Durruti’s leather coat bore significant powder residue around the entry point of the chest region. this would make the long-range sniper theory untenable". ['The Death of Durruti' (1973)]
The version given by Julio Graves, the driver that fateful day, was that Durruti had in fact accidentally shot himself in the chest with the Naranjero (Schmeisser MP28 II sub-machinegun, popular amongst the fighters of the Columna Durruti) which he was supposedly carrying. Notorious for its 'hair trigger', Graves claimed that it must have gone off as Durruti was climbing back into the car, fatally wounding himself. Yet Durruti never used the Naranjero. He always carried his trusty Colt pistol and only ever used a Mauser rifle. José Manzana however, who accompanied Durruti, and whose right arm was in a sling at the time, did use a Naranjero and was carrying it with him that day.
Buenaventura Durruti's close comrade Antonio Bonilla Albadalejo, driver of the famous Columna Durruti tiznado King Kong and later temporary commander of the column itself following Durruti's death, who had witnessed these events later claimed that: "There is no doubt that the bullet that killed Durruti came out of the Naranjero that was carried by Manzana. It could be casual or intentional. Today, in view of what happened next, I choose to believe that the shot was intended." [quoted in 'Posible', nº 80] It should however be added that Manzana, who had the full confidence of Durruti, later tried unsuccessfully to commit suicide in the wake of Durruti's death and later disappeared into anonymity in Mexico, never explaining his side of the story.
Whether Durruti's wound was the result of a deliberate action or an accident on Manzana's part, it definitely appears as though he fired the fatal shot that resulted in the death of one of the most popular anarchist revolutionaries that Catalonia and Spain has ever produced. And when his body was returned to Barcelona, over 500,000 people took to the streets to follow the funeral procession on November 22, 1936, with Durruti’s coffin draped with the familiar diagonal red-and-black FAI-CNT flag. [see: Jul. 14]

1943 - Paul Vigné d'Octon (Paul-Étienne Vigné; b. 1859), French physician, writer, poet, journalist, libertarian, rationalist, anticlerical, neo-Malthusian, freethinker and anti-colonialist, dies. [see: Sep. 7]

1957 - Jean-Baptiste Knockaert (b. 1877), Belgian anarcho-syndicalist, communist and free thinker, dies. [see: Mar. 25]

## 1962 - Mary Horgan Mowbray-Clarke (b. 1874), US art critic, writer, publisher, instructor, landscape architect, anarchist and the proprietor of the famous NY bookshop Sunwise Turn, dies.

[E] 1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade:A BBC van outside the Albert Hall in London covering the Miss World contest is bombed at 2,30 am. The prosecution claimed that Jake Prescott was responsible for this explosion, but also brought a witness who vouched that Jake was in fact in Edinburgh at the time. They were forced to drop this charge. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1977 - Louis Mercier Vega (or Luis) (born Charles Cortvrint; pseud., Charles Riedel, Santiago Parane, etc.; b. 1914), Belgian journalist, activist, propagandist and libertarian thinker, who joined the movement at age 16, dies. [see: May 6]

1991 - Working class anarchist poet Philip Levine's 'What Work Is' wins the U.S. National Book Award for poetry.

2004 - Antonio Artero Coduras (b. 1936), Spanish libertarian filmmaker and essayist, dies. [see: Apr. 30]

2009 - The unveiling of the Santa Ana Memorial 'Halito Durruti', carved by sculptor Diego Segura.
1841 - José Nakens Pérez (d. 1926), Spanish journalist, radical republican, insurectionist, anticlerical, writer and poet, born.

[B] 1855 - Émile Gravelle (d. 1920), French individualist anarchist and naturist activist, writer and painter, born.

1855 - Anarchist author Leo Tolstoy and Ivan Turgenev meet, the beginning a long and often tempestuous friendship.

1870 - [N.S. Dec. 3] Alexander Berkman (Alexander Obsay Osipovich Berkman [Александр Овсей Осипович Беркман [ru] אלכסנדר אובסיי אוסיפוביץ' ברקמן [he]; d. 1936), Vilnius-born lifelong anarchist and companion of Emma Goldman, born. Wrote one of the classics of prison literature, 'Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist' (1912). [see: Dec. 3]

1878 - Ludovic-Rodolphe 'Ludovic-Rodo' Pissarro (d. 1952), French post-Impressionist painter and anarchist sympathiser, born. Camille Pissarro's fourth son, at the age of sixteen, Rodo published his first wood engravings in the anarchist journal, 'Le Pere Peinard'. His work also appeared in other anarchist publications, including 'Almanach Illustré de la Révolution', 'Les Humbles' and 'Temps Nouveaux'.

1894 - Santiago Salvador Franch (b. 1862), is executed in Barcelona. He threw two bombs into the audience at Teatre Liceu during a performance of the opera 'William Tell', killing 22 people. [see: Nov. 7]

1897 - [N.S. Dec. 3] Mollie Steimer (Marthe Alperine; d. 1980), Russian-American-Jewish-Mexican anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist labour activist, born. Her militant activities got her deported from both the US in 1921 (after getting 15 years of prison for publishing a leaflet opposing the landing of US troops in Russia), and by Lenin in Russia (1923). Arrested as a German Jew in France, then escaped a Nazi internment camp and fled to Mexico with long-time companion Senya Fleshin.

1899 - Fosco Falaschi (d. 1936), Italian brickmaker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. As a child, his family emigrated to Argentina and settled in Buenos Aires. In 1916, he began working in a brick factory. In 1919, he became a member of the Societat Obrera dels Treballadors in Bòbila, affilated to the anarcho-syndicalist Federación Obrera Regional Argentina (Argentine Regional Workers' Federation; FORA), becoming secretary of the union in 1923 as well as editor of it newspaper 'El Obrero Ladrillero', "Órgano del Sindicato de Obreros Ladrilleros y Anexos". That same year, he was arrested for the first time for "incitement to strike" and went on to be arrested numerous times between 1929 and 1933. He was also a member of Umanità Nova, the coalition of anarcho-syndicalist, militant and anarchist groups, of the Alleanza Antifascista Italiana (AAI) and worked on the newspaper 'La Protesta' and its literary supplements. The authorities linked him to the group of Severino Di Giovanni who was, in December 1932, involved with other anarchist groups in the uprising organised by Colonel Atilio Cattáneo. Arrested in January 1933, he was expelled on June 23 that year for "subversive activities". Disembarking in Genoa, he was moved against his will to Città di Castello. A few days later, he fled but in September 1933 he was arrested by Carabinieri in Moncenisio as he tried to cross illegally in France. After another unsuccessful attempt to leave Città di Castello, he managed to cross into France in August 1934 and then on to Spain. In Barcelona, he worked on 'Solidaridad Obrera' and 'Tierra y Libertad', where he used the pseudonyms 'FF' and 'Gino Fosco'. Francisco Ascaso, of the Catalonia Regional Committee of the CNT, proposed him as director of 'Solidaridad Obrera' when its then editor, Manuel Villar, was imprisoned after the anarchist uprising in December 1933. After moving to Madrid, he worked on 'Revolución Social'. After the events of October 1934, he was arrested and jailed in Madrid. Following a broad support campaign, he was released in early 1936 after the amnesty that led to the triumph of the electoral Popular Front. Back in Barcelona, he joined the Ascaso Column following the military coup. On August 28, 1936, he was one of the first Italians (along with Mario Angeloni, Michele Centrone and Vicenzo Perrone) to die in the fighting in the Battle of Monte Pelado on the Aragon Front.

1914 - Henri Laborit (d. 1995), French surgeon, behavioural theorist, libertarian writer and philosopher, whose work revolutionised modern psychiatry and anaesthesia, born in Hanoi. He appeared in the 1980 Alain Resnais film 'Mon Oncle d'Amérique', which is built around his study of human behaviour and ideas on evolutionary psychology.
[ philosophes/Laborit.htm]

1922 - Huelga General de Guayaquil: Management and workers settle the strike, with the workers gaining their pay raises, shorter hours, and the rest of their demands, though the fare increase that had prevented the agreement being accepted on November 12 was also part of the settlement.

1935 - Alexei Alexeyevich Borovoi (Алексей Алексеевич Боровой; b. 1875), Russian philosopher, lawyer, economist, journalist, theorist and propagandist of anarchism, initially as an adherent to anarcho-individualistic and later to anarcho-syndicalism, dies of a heart attack in Vladimir (Владимир). [see: Nov. 11]

##1922 - Cipriano Ricardo Flores Magón (b. 1874), noted Mexican anarchist, dies in Leavenworth Penitentiary in Kansas whilst serving 20 years for "obstructing the war effort", a violation of the Espionage Act of 1917. [see: Sep. 16]

1936 - The first issue of the weekly anarcho-syndicalist newspaper 'El Productor', "Órgano de la Federación Local y Comarcal de Sindicatos Únicos", is published by the CNT in Onteniente.

1960 - Guy Debord is questioned by a police tribunal about his participation in the 'Manifeste des 121' or 'Déclaration sur le droit à l’insoumission dans la guerre d’Algérie' (Declaration on the Right to Insubordination in the Algerian War), and has it recorded in his deposition that by the fact of having signed the declaration alone, assuming complete responsibility for publication and distribution.

1962 - Kidnap of Spanish Vice-Consul Isu Elias: The jury delivers their verdicts after just 2 hours and sentences of 8-5 months are handed down, which are then suspended, as the accused had "acted for reasons of particular moral and social value".
Conill Valls himself ended up becoming a communist whilst in prison and, when he was released, he was appointed political secretary of the Partit Socialista Unificat of Catalonia (PSUC).

2002 - Robert Brentano (b. 1926), US anarchist and long-time history professor, dies.

## 2007 - Fernando Fernán-Gómez (b. 1921), Argentine-born Spanish actor, screenwriter, film director, theatre director, novelist, anarcho-syndicalist and lifelong anarchist, dies. During his funeral his coffin will be draped in the flag of the CNT. [see: Aug. 28]
1850 - Camille Camet (d. unknown), Lyon weaver, anarchist and member of the International Workers Association, born.

## ##nov301856 - Cornelis 'Nelis' de Gelder, aka Had-je-me-maar (Did-you-know-me), Hadt-je-me-maar or Hadjememaar (d. 1931), Dutch bricklayer, fairground artist, homeless street musician and party leader of the Rapaille Partij (Rapaille Party) aka the Free Socialist Group (Vrije Socialistische Groep) or Social-Anarchist Action in the Netherlands (Sociaal-Anarchistische Actie in Nederland), for whom he was elected to the Amsterdam city ​​council in 1921, born.

1871 - Georges Henri Manzana Pissarro (d. 1961), French Impressionist and Post-Impressionist painter, engraver and anarchist sympathiser, born. The second son of anarchist artist Camille Pissarro.

1872 - Ettore Luigi Bonometti (d. 1961), Italian shoemaker and anarchist, born. [expand]
[NB: some sources claim his d.o.b. as Dec. 22]

1876 - René Darsouze (d. 1962), French militant anarchist propagandist, union activist and typographer, born. Co-founder, in 1908, of the Le Phalanstère du Clos-des-Brunes community, near Limoges. Member of the l'Association des Fédérations Anarchistes founded by Sébastien Faure, and from 1929 to 1932 a writer for that organisation's newspaper, 'La Voix Libertaire'.

[B] 1880 - Edmundo Bianchi (d. 1965), Uruguayan playwright, screenwriter, poet, writer, translator, composer of tango lyrics and diplomat, born. Collaborator in the anarchist press of Uruguay and Argentina, sometimes under the pseudonym of Espindola Lucretius. [expand]
'Nobleza de Esclavo' published in 'La Rebelión' (supplement to 'Futuro'; 1904)?
Wrote the lyrics to Osvaldo Fresedo's 'Pampero'.

1889 - The first issue of 'La Alarma', "Anarquia, Federalismo", is published by Ricardo Mella in Seville. It replaces the 'La Solidaridad' newspaper and is also printed (in Spanish) in America as 'The Alarm'.

## 1893 - [O.S. Nov. 10] Grigori Petrovitch Maximoff (Grigóriy Petróvich Maksímov [Григо́рий Петро́вич Макси́мов]) aka Gr. Lapot [Гр. Лапоть] (November 10, 1893 - March 16 , 1950), Russian-American agronomist and anarcho-syndicalist, member of the Nabat Confederation until his expulsion from the Soviet Union in 1921, who is best known for 'The Guillotine at Work: Twenty Years of Terror in Russia' (1920), his expose of Bolshevik repression, born. Editor and writer during the Russian Revolution for 'Golos Truda' (The Voice of Labour), and its short-lived successor 'Volny Colos Truda' (The Free Voice of Labor), both suppressed by the Bolsheviks. [expand]

[C] 1900 - Benigno Dominguez Bejarano (d. 1940), Spanish anarchist writer and journalist, born. Prolific author of literary, scientific, critical and humorous articles; short stories, novels and utopian fiction, much of it published under the pseudonyms Lazarillo de Tormes and Dionisiere. Arrested by the Gestapo in 1942, he was interned in France and transfered to the Neuengamme and then the Salzgitter-Watenstedt concentration camps. Suffering from lung disease, he was gassed by the Nazis in a 'ghost truck' in the summer of 1944.

1901 - Alexandre Breffort (1971), French journalist, screenwriter, playwright, writer, anarchist and anti-militarist, born.

1902 - In Buenos Aires the Argentine government passes a so-called 'law of residence' which will allow it to persecute any social movement that acts against the apparatus of state, and therefore the anarchist movement. The law creates the ability "to expel any foreigner whose conduct might jeopardize national security, public order or disrupt social peace (...)", via arrests and mass deportations. On 26 May 1910, it will be reinforced by another new repressive law the "Social Protection Act".

1904 - David Antona Domínguez (d. 1945), Spanish bricklayer, militant anarcho-syndicalist and one-time Secretariado del Comité Nacional CNT, born. [expand]

1905 - Jo Ann Wheeler Burbank (d. 2000), US anarchist educator, born. She taught at Stelton and Mohegan Modern schools; she wrote for the anarchist journal 'Discussion' and co-edited a new 'Mother Earth' in 1930s.

1924 - Nicolas Walter (d. 2000), British journalist, philosopher, atheist, anarchist, born. A founding member of the Committee of 100 and of Spies for Peace as well as author of 'About Anarchism' (1969).

1936 - Over 500,000 attend the funeral of the anarchist Buenaventura Durruti in Barcelona.

##1937 - April Carter, English academic, politics lecturer, senior editor of 'The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace', pacifist and anarchist, born.

1938 - Kyōjirō Hagiwara (萩原恭次郎; b. 1899), Japanese poet of the Taisho and Showa eras, Dadaist and anarchist, dies from haemolytic anemia at the age of 40. [see: May 23]

1944 - Carl Sadakichi Hartmann (b. 1867), US critic, poet and playwright of German and Japanese descent, dies. [see: Nov. 8]

1966 - Distribution of 'De la Misère en Milieu Étudiant' (On The Poverty Of Student Life) at the official opening of Strasbourg University.

1995 - Norman Potter (b 1923), English Christian anarchist, designer, craftsman, writer and poet, born. [see: Apr. 17]

2011 - Horacio 'Gamexane' Villafañe (Horacio Carlos Oscar Villafañe; b. 1963), Argentine musician, guitarist, singer and songwriter in Los Laxantes, one of the first Argentine punk bands, and the rasta-punk band Todos Tus Muertos, who declared "Soy libertario y anarquista" (I am libertarian and anarchist), dies from internal bleeding after having spent the past fifteen days in a coma in the Sanatorio Güemes in Buenos Aires. [see: Oct. 20]
1760 - Gracchus (François-Noël) Babeuf (d. 1797), French political agitator, proto-anarchist and journalist of the French Revolutionary period, born.

1859 - Gennaro Rubino (d. 1918), Italian anarchist who unsuccessfully tried to assassinate King Leopold II of Belgium on November 15 1902, born.

## 1862 - Théo van Rysselberghe (d. 1926), Belgian Impressionist, neo-Impressionist and then Pointillist painter, member of Les XX and anarchist, born. Of a rebellious and independent spirit, he treated 'official' artists as "putains de l'art" (whores of art) and, when he moved to Paris in 1897, was swift to adopt the anarchist ideas of his new friends Paul Signac, Camille Pissarro and the art critic Félix Fénéon. Along with Signac, Pissarro, Maximilien Luce, Aristide Delannoy, Alexandre Steinlen, Van Dongen, George Willaume, etc., he contributed to the anarchist magazine 'Les Temps Nouveaux' as well as Émile Pouget's 'Le Père Peinard'. He also made the cover design Peter Kropotkin's 1898 pamphlet 'La Morale Anarchiste', illustrated Jean Grave's children's book 'Les Adventures de Nono' (1901) and turned his hand to decorative artworks including posters in the Art Nouveau style.

1885 - The first issue of the fortnightly newspaper 'La Guerre Sociale', "Organe communiste-anarchiste", is published in Brussels succeeding 'Ni dieu ni maître'.

1891 - [N.S. Dec. 5] Aleksander Mikhailovich Rodchenko (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ро́дченко; d. 1956), Russian artist, sculptor, photographer, photo-montagist, graphic designer and one-time anarchist, born. [see: Dec. 5]

#####1893 - Carl Paivio (Karl Einar Päiviö; d. 1952), Finnish American labour activist, Wobbly and anarchist, who was a Red Scare victim, ending up being sentenced with Gust Alonen, his fellow editor of the Finnish language anarchist paper 'Luokkataistelu' (Class Stuggle), to not less than four years and not more than eight years hard labour in Sing Sing prison for "criminal anarchy", born.

[C] 1911 - Socialists Benito Mussolini and Pietro Nenni, and the anarchist Aurelio Lolli, arrested on October 14th in connection with the September 27th general strike, are convicted on all charges - attack on the freedom to work (picketing), resisting the police (forza pubblica) and inciting class hatred - and transferred to prison to await the appeal in Bologna. [see: Feb. 19]

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: Joseph Ettor and Arturo Giovannitti both deliver closing statements at the end of the two-month trial.

[B] 1920 - Paul Celan (Paul Antschel; (d. 1970), Romanian poet, translator and utopian socialist, born. Described himself as "one who grew up with the writings of Peter Kropotkin and Gustav Landauer", in 1933 he joined a largely Jewish communist anti-Fascist group which produced a mimeographed magazine 'Red Student' and helped collect money in support of the Spanish Republic in 1936. He eventually gave up his communist affiliations but remained a utopian socialist with distinct anarchist leanings.

1928 - Albert Laisant (b. 1873), French anarchist, Freemason and libertarian pedagogue, dies. [see: Jun. 1]

1955 - Milly Witkop Rocker (b. 1877), Ukrainian-born Jewish anarcho-syndicalist and anarcha-feminist writer and activist, dies from a heart attack. [see: Mar. 15]

1987 - Max Sartin (Raffaele Schiavina) (b. 1894), Italian-American individualist anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 8]

1995 - Louis Malle (b. 1932), French film director, screenwriter and producer, dies. [see: Oct. 30]
1864 - Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (d. 1901), French painter, printmaker, draughtsman and illustrator, born. Whilst never expressly identifying himself as an anarchist he was part of the Parisian anarchist milieu, worked with Félix Fénéon on 'La Revue Blanche' and contributed set designs to a number of plays by anarchist authors including Jarry's 'Ubu Roi'. He also painted 9 portraits of his close friend Oscar Wilde.

## 1866 - Malvina Tavares (Júlia Malvina Hailliot Tavares; d. 1939), one of the most active of Brazil's anarchist militants, as well as being a poet and pioneer of modern education in southern Brazil, born. She was responsible for the creation of a secular Escola Moderna de Francisco Ferrer in the municipality of São Gabriel do Lajeado, in which subsequent generations of Brazil's libertarians received their education.

##1875 - Albert Libertad (aka Albert Joseph) (d. 1908), French individualist anarchist militant, one-legged street orator and rough-and-tumble brawler, who used his crutches as a weapon, born. Founded the influential anarchist publication 'L’Anarchie'.

1883 - Manuel Joaquim de Sousa (d. 1944), Portuguese shoemaker, who was one of the outstanding figures of the anarcho-syndicalist movement - speaker, writer, polemecist and organiser – and an important trade union leader of the First Republic, born.

1886 - Margaret Caroline Anderson (d. 1973), American anarchist and lesbian, founder, editor and publisher of the anarchist art and literary magazine 'The Little Review', born. Margaret Anderson and 'The Little Review' are renown for having published the first thirteen chapters of James Joyce's then-unpublished novel, 'Ulysses', beginning in 1918. The U.S. Post Office seized and burned four issues of the magazine, and Anderson and her lover and associate editor, Jane Heap, were later convicted of obscenity charges.
"Life is just one ecstasy after another."
"I felt a resentment against God or man for having imposed an incredible stupidity upon the world. And the world had accepted it..."
"Laws haven’t the slightest interest for me — except in the world of being in which they are, for the most part, unknown."

1893 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti is forced to resign as a result of the Banca Romana scandal and is replaced by Francesco Crispi. He however is unable to form a government for another 3 weeks, during which the rioting that had spread through Italy triggered by the killing of a number of migrant workers in the salt pans of Aigues Mortes in southern France on August 16-17, and which then had escalated into a more generalised working-class revolt supported by anarchists an violent riots in Rome and Naples, together with the unrest in Sicily, had brought Italy near to collapse. As a result, he launches a campaign of severe repression in Sicily based on bogus evidence of an international conspiracy and impending insurrection. [see: Jan 3 & Feb. 28]

1897 - María Remedios Beruat (d. 1979), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, who fought in the in guerrilla battalion Agustín Remiro Manero during the Civil War, born.

1898 - International Anti-Anarchist Conference, prompted by the assassination of the Empress of Austria, is convened by Italian government officials in Rome; attended by fifty-four delegates representing twenty-one countries, including police chiefs from several European countries and major cities. Conference marks the development of strategic international surveillance of and exchange of information about anarchist activities.

####[B] 1910 - Jean Meckert, aka Jean or John Amila, Edouard Duret, Edmond Duret, Guy Duret, Albert Duvivier, Mariodile, Marcel Pivert (d. 1995), French libertarian novelist, screenwriter and anti-militarist, born. His libertarian father was shot for mutiny in 1917 and his mother, interned for two years, ended up only able to find work as a charwoman for the rest of her life. As a consequence Meckert grew up in a Protestant orphanage in Courbevoie. Apprenticed to a workshop building electric motors, he drifts into various jibs before joining the army, because he claims he was "starving". Post-army, he again drifts from job to job - street peddle, fairground photographer, detective agency operative, etc. until called up for WWII. He also beings to write short stories, novels and plays, in the 1930s. Following his 1941 demobilisation, his second novel 'Les Coups' (The Blows), written in 1936, is accepted for publishing. It is hailed by critics - including André Gide and Raymond Queneau - and quickly becoming a commercial success, with the first edition sold out.
He then quits his job as a minor town hall functionary and writes full time. Following his next novel, 'L'Homme au Marteau' (Man With a Hammer; 1943), he begins a prolific career writing popular fiction under a series of pseudonyms: Edouard Duret, Edmond Duret, Guy Duret and Mariodile; and thrillers under the pen names of Albert Duvivier and Marcel Pivert. Following a meeting with Marcel Duhamel , Meckert also began writing thrillers for the Série Noire (Black Series) starting with 'Y'a Pas de Bon Dieu!' (There Is No God!; 1950) and 'Motus!' (Mum's the Word!; 1953), going on to write 21 thrillers, many expounding his anarchist and anti-militarist beliefs. He also wrote a sci-fi novel, 'Le 9 de Pique' (1956), the only time he used the pseudonym John Amila.
A number of his works were adapted for film, such as 'Sans Attendre Godot' (Not Waiting for Godot; 1956) for the Yves Allégret film 'Quand la Femme s'en Mêle' (When a Woman Gets Involved; 1957); and TV e.g. 'Pitié Pour les Rats' (Pity the Poor Rats) for the 1964 novel of the same name.
Following a visit to Tahiti scouting for film locations, he published 'La Vierge et le Taureau' (The Virgin and the Bull) in 1971, a novel which denounced colonialism, nuclear testing, the army and the French secret services, and sought to defend "a people without rights". It was eventually withdrawn from sale and pulped and thought the publishers refused to give a reason, it is thought to tie into a 1974 attack on Meckert that left him hospitalised. Leaving the ORTF studios one night he was attacked by unknown assailants. Clubbed to the ground, he was found unconscious, in a pool of blood.Waking up in hospital, he did not know his name or address, but had a strange sense of "feel brand new". When questioned by the doctor as to his profession, he was able to respond: "I write thrillers." It is believed that the attack, which left him with prolonged amnesia and depression, was directly related to the publication of 'La Vierge et le Taureau'. He wrote an autobiographical novel, 'Comme un Écho Errant' (As a Wandering Echo; 1986).
[ for MCF anarchism issue-final submitted.pdf]

[E] 1913 - Margarita Ortega Valdés (b. unknown), Mexican anarchist member of the Partido Liberal Mexicano in Baja California who participated in the armed revolt against Porfirio Diaz as guerrilla, propagandist, smuggler and nurse, is shot by Victoriano Huerta's federales after four days of torture, during which she refused to betray her comrades who were then preparing a revolt north of Sonora. [expand]

1916 - Concha Liaño (Concepción Liaño Gil; d. 2014), Spanish anarcha-feminist militant, who was one of the founders of the Agrupación Cultural Femenina (Women’s Cultural Association) and the magazine 'Mujeres Libres' (Free Women), born [expand]

1921 - Mollie Steimer, after serving 18 months of a 15-year sentence for handing out leaflets opposing US intervention in Soviet Russia, is deported to Soviet Russia alongside three other radicals (Jacob Abrams, Samuel Lipman, and Hyman Lachowsky).

1923 - Philippe Daudet, the French anarchist son of Léon Daudet (leader of fascist 'Ligue de l'Action Française'), dies under mysterious circumstances, presumed assassinated by police. [see: Jan 7]

1931 - Première of Eduard Borràs's 'El Proceso Ferrer' at the Teatre Talia in Barcelona, a historical drama in three acts based on the story of Francisco Ferrer y Guardia and the Tragic Week, is performed by the Companyia d'Anito Tormo.

1943 - Max Baginski (b. 1864), German-American Social Democrat turned anarchist, dies. Editor of the German Social Democratic Party newspaper 'Proletarier aus dem Eulengebrige', a member of the New Free Popular Theatre in Berlin and a roommate of Gerhardt Hauptmann, he helped the author research the 1844 weaver's revolt in Silesia for his drama 'Die Weber' (The Weavers; 1892). He was also closely associated with the Friedrichshagener Dichterkreis (Friedrichshagener circle of poets) naturalist writers circle, whose members included Gustav Landauer, Erich Mühsam, Gerhart Hauptmann, August Strindberg, Knut Hamsun and Rudolf Steiner. In 1891 he was sentenced to 2.5 years in prison for "violation of the press laws", and left Germany in 1893. In America he met Emma Goldman and was appointed editor of 'Chicagoer Arbeiter-Zeitung' in 1894. In 1896, he started his owb newspaper, 'Die Sturmglocken', and worked on Johan Most's paper, 'Freiheit', 'as publicity agent for Emma Goldman's newspaper, 'Mother Earth'.

1944 - Jun Tsuji (辻 潤; b. 1884), Japanese individualist anarchist, avant garde writer, Dadaist poet, essayist, playwright, editor, translator, teacher, nihilist, epicurean, shakuhachi musician, actor, feminist and bohemian, dies. [see: Oct. 4]

1947 - Nils Axel Holmström (b. 1881), Swedish book publisher, anarchist, anti-militarist and youthful socialist, who was editor of the anarchist paper 'Brand' (Fire) and was jailed in 1906 for his anti-militarist statements, dies in Stockholm. [see: Sep. 7]

2001 - David Gascoyne (b. 1916), English poet, novelist, Surrealist, one-time communist and later an anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 10]

2006 - Antonia Ugeda Fuentes (b. 1917), Spanish furniture worker, nurse and anarchist activist, dies. [see: Aug. 21]
1878 - Georg Kaiser (d. 1945), German Expressionist playwright, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, born. Influenced by the ideas of Gustav Landauer, as was his friend Ernst Toller, who both frequented Landauer's anarchist-communist Neue Gemeinschaft (New Community), and together were probably the 2 most prominent German Expressionist playwrights [although Gerhart Hauptmann's and Kaiser's plays were performed in the Weimar Republic more often than Toller's].
His first major play 'Von Morgens bis Mitternachts' (From Morning to Midnight; 1912), was one of the most influential German drama of the era (both Toller and Brecht cited it as a major influence) and it went on to be made into one of the classic examples of cinematic Expressionism by Karl Heinz Martin in 1920. Other politically charged and influential plays followed: 'Die Bürger von Calais' (The Burghers of Calais; 1913/1923); and the 'Gas' trilogy, 'Die Koralle' (The Coral; 1917); 'Gas' (1918); and 'Gas II' (1920). Immersed in Weimar artistic circles, he was close to Brecht, Weill and Lotte Lenya, and collaborated with Kurt Weill on his one-act operas 'Der Protagonist' (1926) and 'Der Zar lässt sich Photographieren' (1928), as well as 'Der Silbersee' (1933), and his 1923 Volksstück (people's play), 'Nebeneinander' (Side by Side), had stage designs courtesy of George Grosz.
In 1925 Georg Kaiser provided the financial backing that allowed a monument in honour of Gustav Landauer to be erected by the Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands in Munich but this was later torn down by the Nazis. Kaiser's work was also a victim of Nazi book burning on May 10 1933 and he was involved in resistance circles, writing clandestine pamphlets. Shortly before a Gestapo-house search in 1938, he fled to Switzerland, remaining there in exile. In 1940 his play 'Der Soldat Tanaka', which was critical of Japanese militarism, was passed by the Swiss censor but, under pressure from the Japanese ambassador, the performance was cancelled.

1884 - Jean Lébédeff (d. 1970), Russian-born French anarchist artist, Illustrator and printmaker, born. His book illustrations of Kropotkin, Ferrer, etc., are well-known.

## 1886 - [O.S. Nov. 13] Valentin Fedorovich Bulgakov (Валентин Фёдорович Булгаков; b. 1966), Russian writer, Tolstoyan anarchist, anti-militarist, the biographer and last secretary of Leo Tolstoy, who subsequently headed a number of literary museums, having survived both the Tsarist dungeons and a German concentration camp, born.

1901 - The Federación Obrera Argentina, the pluralist forerunner of the Federación Obrera Regional Argentina, is founded as Argentina's first national labour confederation at a meeting in Buenos Aires of around 50 delegates representing 35 workers' societies. With the socialist elements within FOA becoming increasingly isolate, from FOA's fifth congress, held on August 26-30, 1905, it renamed itself the Federación Obrera Regional Argentina to express its internationalism and fully adopted an anarcho-communist position.

[B] 1904 - Ba Jin [巴金](aka Pa Chin, Li Fei-Kan, Li Pei-Kan, Pa Kin), pseud. of Li Yaotang [李尧棠](d. 2005), born. Chinese novelist and short story writer who discovered anarchism with the reading of Peter Kropotkin and Emma Goldman, and it is erroneously claimed that his pseudonym was taken from the first syllable of the Chinese for Bakunin (巴) and and the last for Kropotkin [金]. However, this is apocryphal and it actually derives from the surname of a Pakistani classmate of his named Pa [巴] who he had studied along side in France (1927-28) and who he had heard had commited suicide as he was writing his first novella 'Destruction' (Miewang / 灭亡) in August 1928, combining it with Jīn (金) or Gold, which he had made a note of whilst translating Kropotkin's 'Ethics'. He combined the two to form a signature made up of a short number of strokes.
Ba Jin was constantly harassed by the Communists and, in 1949, was forced by them to rewrite his stories, removing or replacing all anarchist references with Communist ones. In 1966 he was again in disgrace, branded "A great poisonous weed", and his writings were condemned as seditious. [EXPAND]
[巴金巴金 d'anars.htm]

[BB] 1904 - Jehan Mayoux (d. 1975), French Surrealist poet, teacher, pacifist, anti-militarist and libertarian, born. Teacher and inspector of primary education, he was drawn towards the new education methods of the Freinet movement. A trade unionist, he actively participated in the events of the Popular Front, was Assistant Secretary of the Bourse du Travail (Dunkirk region), then secretary of the Committee of the Popular Front in 1935. In 1939 he was imprisoned for refusing to respond to the mobilisation order and, when he managed to escape during the bombing of the Clairvaux prison, he was captured by the Germans and held as a prisoner of war in the Ukraine for five years. When he was repatriated after the war, he returned to teaching and, in 1951, began working on 'Libertaire'. Having signed the 'Manifeste des 121', he was suspended from duty as and Education Inspector from 1960 until 1965. He retired in 1967, participating in the May 68 movement, but was disgusted by the attitude of the unions.
He first came into contact with the Surrealists after sending André Breton and Paul Eluard "a surrealist game" in 1933 to be published in 'Le Surréalisme au Service de la Révolution' (Surrealism in the service of the revolution). A great friend of Yves Tanguy and Benjamin Peret, he remained in the Surrealist group until excluded without debate in 1967.

"Question-réponse :

Quand je serai porte de prison
je pêcherai à la dynamite

Quand je serai lapin de garenne
j'écrirai avec de l'encre de seiche

Quand je serai enclume
je laverai mon linge à la rivière

ou cette suite d'images décrivant la femme aimée :
plus spirituelle que la marée
plus sage que la hâte des suicides
plus nue que la mousse
plus discrète que l'écorce du tonnerre
plus silencieuse que Paris
plus gaie qu'un grain de sel
plus légère qu'un couteau"

(Question & Answer:

When I am prison door
I offend with dynamite

When I am rabbit
I write with squid ink

When I am anvil
I will wash my clothes in the river

or this series of images depicting the beloved:
more spiritual than the tide
wiser than hastily suicide
more naked than the foam
more discreet than the bark of thunder
quieter than Paris
gayer than a grain of salt
lighter than a knife)


1910 - Jules Durand, liberterian and revolutionary trade unionist, is sentenced to death in Le Havre, a victim of corrupt witnesses and smears by the local press. He was retied in 1918 and was fully exonerated. Unfortunately, by this time he had gone insane from being kept subdued in a strait jacket for 40 days, and he spent the rest of his life in an asylum.

1911 - Revolución Mexicana: Emiliano Zapata proclaims Plan of Ayala land reform to take hacienda lands. Hacienda owners pressure Francisco Madero to subdue Zapata.

1915 - The funeral service for Joe Hill is held in Chicago at the West Side Auditorium, drawing 30,000 mourners. His body was then cremated the following day at the city's Graceland Cemetery and his ashes were divided up and placed in small packages. His remains were sent to IWW halls and other workers' groups in every U.S. state except Utah. Accompanying the packages was a note that said: "Fellow Worker: In compliance with the last will of Joe Hill, his body was cremated at Graceland Cemetery, Chicago, Illinois, November 20 [sic], 1915. It was his request that his ashes be distributed. This package has been confined to your care for the fulfillment of this last will." The note ended with a request asking that a letter be sent to Big Bill Haywood with details of how the ashes were scattered.

1918 - Second All-Russian Conference of Anarcho-Syndicalists meets in Moscow (November 25-December 1).

1918 - Kurt Wafner (March 10, 2007), German publisher, editor, radio play author, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, born.

1919 - Department of Labor orders anti-war activist and anarchist Alexander Berkman's deportation to Russia. Emma Goldman's deportation order follows on Nov. 29.

1931 - The first issue of 'L'Action Libre', "parait tout les 20 jours", is printed to a series of popular lectures in Paris.

1944 - Bohuslav Vrbenský (b. 1882), Czech dentist , journalist, anarcho-communist, then communist politician and minister, dies. [see: Mar. 30]

1956 - At its foundation in Brussels, the Alliance Ouvriere Anarchiste (AOA) adopts the 'circled-A' symbol.

1964 - Gaetano Gervasio (b. 1886), Italian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, carpenter, painter and sculptor, dies. [see: Jan. 2]

1969 - Henri 'Dayen' Fabre (b. 1876), French anarchist (then socialist) and pacifist journalist, dies. [see: Jul. 14]

1988 - Louis Ségeral (b. 1928), French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, engineer, Résistance fighter, poet, painter and novelist, dies of a work-related cancer. [see: May 24]

1997 - Sergio David Urrego Reyes (d. 2014), Colombian student and anarchist member of the Unión Libertaria Estudiantil, who committed suicide after being a victim of homophobia, born in Bogotá.

2014 - Geoff Mullen (Geoffrey Richard Mullen; b. 1947), Australian computer programmer, anarchist and draft resister whose jailing in 1971 became a focal point of opposition to conscription for the Vietnam War, dies in St Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW. [see: Mar. 16]
1860 - Gabrielle Petit (Gabrielle Mathieu; 1952), French militant feminist, anti-clericist, Neo-Malthusian and libertarian socialist, who founded the newspaper 'La Femme Affranchie' (The Emancipated Woman), "organe du féminisme ouvrier socialiste et libre-penseur", born.

[B] 1888 - Franz Jung (d. 1963), German Expressionist then Dadaist writer, novelist, playwright, economist, journalist and one-time anarchist, born. Helped introduce the theories of the psychoanalyst and anarchist Otto Gross into the Berlin Dadaist group and ran the anarchist and Dadaist paper 'Die Freie Straße' (1915-18) with Raoul Hausmann. Expelled from the KPD in 1920 and joined the Kommunistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands (Communist Workers Party) published under the pseudonym Francis Larsz and Frank Ryberg.

1895 - Arthur Arnould (b. 1833), French anarchist, journalist, novelist, member of First International and the Paris Commune, friend of Michael Bakunin, dies. [see: Apr. 17]

1899 - Emma Goldman, 'The Anarchist Orator' as she is billed, delivers a second lecture at the Athenaeum Hall in London on the subject of 'Woman'. The previous Sunday (19th) she gave a talk entitled 'The Aim of Humanity'.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: Union leaders Joseph Ettor and Arturo Giovannitti and their co-defendant Giuseppe Caruso, all charged with the murder of Anna LoPizzo, a striking textile worker taking part in a peaceful protest on January 29, 1912 during the Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike are acquitted and released,

1916 - In response to the Conde de Romanones (Álvaro Figueroa y Torres Mendieta) government having ordered the arrest of the signatories of the 'Pacto de Zaragoza', signed by representatives of the UGT and CNT on July 17, 1916, both organisations call for a 24-hour general strike on December 18 in protest.

[AA/D] 1920 - Less than two weeks after assisting Red Army units to defeat Wrangel's White Army forces, Nestor Makhno's headquarters staff and many of his subordinate commanders are arrested at a Red Army planning conference to which they had been invited by Moscow, and executed. Makhno himself manages to escape the latest act of Bolshevik duplicity.

1964 - Emil Szittya (Adolf Schenk; b. 1886), Hungarian anarchist, writer, journalist, painter, art critic, traveler and vagabond, dies. [see: Aug. 18]

1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade:Pauline Conroy arrested in her flat in Powis Square and charged. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1971 - Ángel Falco (b. 1885), Uruguayan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist propagandist, one-time career soldier, diplomat, journalist, writer and poet, dies. [see: Sep. 21]

1973 - Miguel Giménez Igualada, aka Miguel Ramos Giménez, Juan de Iniesta (b. 1888), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist and individualist anarchist thinker and writer, dies in Ciudad de México. [see: Jan.

1976 - 'Anarchy In The UK' released by the Sex Pistols.

## 1989 - Alexandr Olexandrovych Kolchenko, aka 'Tundra' (Олександр Олександрович Кольченко [uk] / Александр Александрович Кольченко [ru]), Ukrainian anarchist, anti-fascist and anti-imperialist, who was convicted on trumped-up terrorism charges for his opposition to the Russian annexation of Crimea and sentenced to ten years in prison, born. Detained in Crimea on May 17, 2014, on suspicion of participation in a "terrorist group", which planned explosions near the eternal fire memorial and the Lenin monument in Simferopol on May 8th and 9th, and of having sabotaged railway tracks and electricity lines. Kolchenko is also suspected of having carried out two arson attacks: against the headquarters of the Russian Unity-party and Russian Community of Crimea on April 14th, and the office of the United Russia party in Simferopol on April 18th. The case is run by the FSB, the former KGB.
On August 25, 2015 the board of military judges chaired by the judge Sergey Mikhailyuk sentenced Olexandr Kolchenko and Oleg Sentsov to 10 and 20 years respectively.

1992 - Néstor Osvaldo Perlongher (b. 1949), Argentinian sociologist, anthropologist, poet, writer, gay rights activist and anarchist, dies in São Paulo of an AIDS-related illness. [see: Dec. 24]
1841 - Jean Celestin 'Cointot' Renaud (d. 1904), French anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Member of the Fédération Révolutionnaire Lyonnaise.

## [A] 1884 - The first appearance of the black flag in America as an explicitly anarchist symbol, at a demonstration in Chicago. [see: March 9, 1883]

1901 - [O.S. Nov. 14] Slavi (or Slavcho) Merdzhanov [Слави (Славчо) Мерджанов], aka Vasil Stoyanov [Васил Стоянов](Svetoslav Chanev Merdzhanov [Светослав Чанев Мерджанов]; b. 1876), Bulgarian anarchist and revolutionary in the Macedonian Secret Revolutionary Committee (Македонски Таен Революционен Комитет) aka the Geneva Group (Женевската група) and later member of the Supreme Macedonian-Adrianople Committee (Върховния македоно-одрински комитет), the governing body of the IMARO (ВМОРО), is hanged in Edrine following an ill-fated kidnapping attempt. [see: Jul. 16]

[D] 1911 - Revolución Mexicana: Emiliano Zapata disavows support for Francisco Madero for not giving land to peasants.

[C] 1917 - Juan Fernández Ayala aka Juanín (b. 1917), Spanish miliciano and anti-Francoist guerrillero, born. Juan fought with republican Ochandía Battalion in the Civil War, and after the fall of the northern front, he was arrested and sentenced to death, later commuted to 12 years in prison following the intervention of his Phlangist brothers. He was interned in the prison of Tabacalera (Santander), then in 1941 was transferred to Portacceli (Valencia) where following an amnesty he was released on bail early 1943. Refusing to report weekly to the barracks of the Guardia Civil, he escaped to the mountains and joined the anti-Francoist maquis in the group of anarchist Ceferino Campo Roiz aka Machado fighting in the Santander area. The Brigada Machado, which had up to 37 men, which changed its mane to the Brigada de los Picos de Europa some time in 1943, saw action in the area located on the border of Leon, Asturias, Palencia and Santander. Following the denunciation and arrest of Machado on April 22, 1945, Juanín who took command of the group. He was shot dead on April 24, 1957 in an ambush near the Vega de Liebana (Santander) by Guardia Civil corporal Leopoldo Rollan Arenales and guard Angel Agüeros Rodríguez de Cabarceno. His comrade Francisco Gutierrez Bedoya aka Paco was also injured, but managed to escape back into the mountains and ended up taking his own life rather than be captured that December.

1920 - Andrés Nin and Josep (or José) Canela attacked by pistoleros (death squads directed by Barcelona Governor Martinez Anido as part of the campaign to establish pro-capital syndicat libre, 'free' unions', against the power of the CNT) in Plaza Buensuceso, Barcelona. Nin is unscathed but Canela dies.

1920 - Following yesterday's arrest and execution of Makhno's anarchist commanders whilst under a flag of truce, Trotsky orders an attack on Makhno's headquarters itself. The Cheka simultaneously arrests members of the Nabat Confederation in Kharkov and raids anarchist clubs and organisations throughout Russia.

1937 - Frida Davydovna Glagolovskaya (Фрида Давыдовна Глаголовская (1894-1937), Russian anarchist-communist, who had been an active participant in the anarcho-syndicalist movement in Moscow and other Russian cities since the Revolution of 1917, and has suffered repeated arrests, is shot in Yaroslavl (Ярославле).

1941 - José Lavín Cobo aka Pepín or Pin el Cariñoso (Pin the Affectionate) (b. unknown), Spanish anarchist, renowned Cantabrian anti-Francoist guerrillero and member of the Brigada Malumbres, is killed by security forces. Julio Llamazares' book, 'Luna de Lobos' (Wolf's Moon; 1985), is based on Pin el Cariñoso's story and it was made into a film directed by Julio Sánchez Valdés in 1987.

[B] 1953 - Eugene Gladstone O'Neill (b. 1888), Irish American playwright, Wobbly, socialist and philosophical anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 16]
1757 - William Blake (d. 1872), English Romantic poet, visionary radical, mystic, printer, engraver, subversive, proto-anarchist, born.
[ texts/PDF-versions/Blake, William - Songs of innocence and experience.pdf]

1852 - The probable date for the birth of Silvia Pisacane (d. 1888), daughter of the famous Italian revolutionary Carlo Pisacane, she was involved with the Matese anarchist insurrection in 1877. [see: Sep. 16]

[1864 - Adelmo Smorti (d. 1921) [expand]

1880 - Alexander Alexandrovich Blok (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Бло́к; d. 1921), Russian Symbolist poet and important figure in the so-called Silver Age of Russian Poetry, born. Early supporter of Georgy Chulkov's Mystical Anarchism, he welcomed the October Revolution as the final resolution of these apocalyptic yearnings. However, he later became disillusioned with the Russian Revolution and tried repeated to leave, only being granted permission 3 days after his death.

1888 - Nikolay Nikolayevich Punin (Russian: Никола́й Никола́евич Пу́нин; d. 1953), Russian art scholar and writer, born. Lifelong friend and a later partner of poet Anna Akhmatova, he was also associated with the 'Anarkhiia' and Futurist circles but later became the People's Commissar of the Russian Museum and the Hermitage Museum and head of the Petrograd Committee for Education (Narkompros). In a civil union with poet Anna Akhmatova during the 1920s and 1930s, who was influential in getting Punin released following his first arrest in the '30s. In 1949 Punin was arrested on accusations of "anti-Soviet" activity and sent to the gulags, where he died in 1953, just months after Stalin's own death.

[1889 - Antonio Rosado López (d. 1978) [expand]

1895 - Maria Girolimetti aka 'Sdazarina' (d. 1981), Italian maid/houseworker, peddler and anarchist, born. Three of her four children (Carlo, Mario and Ferrucio) were also militant anarchists.

1895 - Louisa Sarah Bevington (b. 1845), English poet, journalist, essayist, Darwinist and anarchist communist, dies. [see: May 14]

1911 - Plan de Ayala: In Ayoxuxtla, Puebla, Mexican revolutionary leader Emiliano Zapata, issues his political proclamation, the 'Plan de Ayala'. In it he accuses the government of President Francisco I. Madero of betraying the peasant cause.

## 1917 - Mikelis Avlichos (Μικέλης Άβλιχος; b. 1844) Greek scholar, humourist and satirical poet, atheist, anarchist and radical, dies. [see: Mar. 18]

1921 - Marie Laffranque (d. 2006), French linguist, philological scholar, anti-militarist and libertarian, who was an expert on the life and works of Federico García Lorca, born.

1930 - Buñuel and Dali's second film 'L'Age d'Or' premières at Studio 28 in Paris. [NB: There is much confusion about the sequence of events surrounding this film and the listings we have used are the best 'guesses' based on all the various versions extant.]

1940 - Miguel Abós Serena (b. 1889), metalworker and prominent Zaragozan CNT militant, who was one of thirty five anarcho-syndicalists sentenced for their roles in the La Canadiense strike of 1919, dies during a severe asthmatic attack in the hospital at the Camp de Judas at Septfonds, Languedoc, the day before his 51st birthday. [see: Sep. 29]

####1942 - Emmett Grogan (d. 1978), co-founder, with Peter Coyote and Peter Berg, of the Haight-Ashbury anarchist improv group the Diggers, born. 'Ringolevio: A Life Played for Keeps' (1972) is his account of his time in the San Francisco counter culture and with the Diggers, and it is especially critical of such counterculture luminaries Timothy Leary, Jerry Rubin and, especially, Abbie Hoffman.
"So many people showed up at the Avenue B loft that night that the Anarchists' Ball had to be relocated across the street to Tompkin's Square Park with everyone telling everyone else they had been invited by "Emmett Grogan" whom nobody could find because he wasn't there. He went to the movies to see 'The Thief', a modern quasi-silent film starring Ray Milland, which has only a bit of dialogue and is seldom revived in theaters since it was made over twenty years ago. The estimated crowd of three to four thousand at the Anarchists' Ball had the cops freaked and thinking that there was about to be a riot or that some sort of gang war was going to happen. The Anarchists were delighted that their Anarchists' Ball had really turned into something chaotic and a true expression of their love for Kropotkin, Proudhon, and nihilist Dadaism, and they all agreed that Emmett Grogan was an anarchist extraordinaire. Since so many people who didn't know what he looked like were looking for him, one of the head Anarchists, Paulsky, assumed the name "Grogan" and went around through the gathering, passing as Emmett and shaking hands and making cracks about how the cops, who encircled the streets bordering the park with lines of bluecoated reinforcements from neighbouring precincts, were all scared shitless by the mob." - from 'Ringolevio: A Life Played for Keeps' (1972).

1956 - Sanshiro Ishikawa (石川三四郎; d. 1956), Japanese anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist theorist, historian, translator and novelist, dies. [see: May 23]

1972 - Claudia López Benaiges (d. 1998), Chilean anarchist militant and dance student at the Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano in Santiago, who was notoriously shot dead by Carabineros during protests on the 25th anniversary of the Pinochet coup, born. She became a symbol for the young of the Chilean anarchist movement,for the student and youth movements and social organisations in Chile, and proof that the Chilean regime remained very much under the control of those who ran the dictatorship.

1990 - Rudolf Michaelis, aka Rudolf Michel, Hans Bronner (b. 1907), German archaeologist, primary school teacher, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who fought in the Centúria Erich Mühsam in the Columna Ascaso and whose partner was the photographer Margarethe Gross, better know by her married name Margaret Michaelis-Sachs, dies in Berlin. [see: Mar 31]

1993 - La Société Octave Mirbeau is founded to contribute to the knowledge of the life, the battles and the works of the great French novelist, journalist and anarchist.

2000 - Carol Bolt (b. 1941), Canadian playwright, author of the Emma Goldmann play 'Red Emma, Queen of the Anarchists' (1974), dies. [see: Aug. 25]
1847 - At a banquet in Paris commemorating the Polish insurrection of 1830, Mikhail Bakunin delivers a speech denouncing the Russian government and is subsequently expelled from France.

1851 - Andrea Costa (d. 1910), Italian anarchist participant in the national conference under the direction of Bakunin, before giving up on anarchism and becoming a socialist deputy in the Italian parliament, born.

#### 1865 - Teresa Mañé i Miravet aka Soledad Gustavo (d. 1939), Catalan anarchist militant, freethinker, educator, translator, journalist, born. One of the first lay teachers in Spain, she and her future partner Joan Montseny i Carret aka Federico Urales founded a school in Reus but it was forced to close following Montseny's arrest during the June 1896 anti-anarchist repression [he spent a year in prison and was expelled from Spain, living in London]. Following Joan's clandestine return in 1898 (using the pseudonym Federico Urales), the pair started the celebrated 'La Revista Blanca'. Teresa also contributed to Virginia Bolten's Argentine based anarcha-feminist publication 'La Voz de la Mujer', with its famous motto "Ni dios, ni patrón, ni marido" (No god, no boss, no husband), under her pseudonym Soledad Gustavo. On February 12, 1905, she gave birth to a daughter, Federica, who would become famed as an anarchist poet, novelist, essayist, children's writer, promoter of anarcha-feminism and anarcho-naturism, and Minister of Health in the Republican government.

1867 - Ōishi Seinosuke (大石 誠之助; d.1911), Japanese physician, libertarian socialist and Christian, who one of the twelve alleged conspirators executed in the High Treason Case (大逆事件 / Taigyaku Jiken), born.

1886 - Nadezhda Andreeva Udaltsova (Наде́жда Андре́евна Удальцо́ва; d. 1961), Russian Cubo-Futurist and Suprematist artist and painter associated with the anarchist movement during the 1917 Revolution, born. Member of the pre-Revolution Soyuz Molodyozhi (Union of the Youth) and later of Malevich's Supremus. Associated with the 'Tvorchestvo' (Creativity or Creative Work) section specialising in art and literature in 'Anarkhiia'. Partner of Latvian artist Aleksandr Drevin.

1893 - Arrest of the French anarchist Edmond Aubin Marpaux, a member of the Ligue des Antipatriotes, charged with the killing of a flic. He receives life in prison despite his denials of the crime, and is killed (October 23) following a prison revolt on Devil's Island on October 21-22 1894.

1896 - Raoul Chenard (d. 1960), French militant anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1899 - Hanns-Erich Kaminsk (d. 1963), German journalist and writer who also wrote in French, anti-Fascist, Social Democrat and then an anarchist, born. Journalist career with the German left-wing press, particularly with Carl von Ossietzky and Kurt Tucholsky's newspaper, 'Die Weltbühne' and wrote 'Fascismus in Italien' (1925). In February 1933, Kaminski left Germany for Paris after the Nazi victory. Disappointed by the bankruptcy of the Social Democrats in Germany, he moved closer to anarchist circles and especially the AIT, taking part in the struggle in Spain. He wrote about the Revolution in 'Ceux de Barcelone' (1937), a Bakunin biograph 'Bakounine , la Vie d'un Révolutionnaire' (1938) and 'El Problema como Nazismo Sexual, Ensayo of Psicopatologia' (1940)

1901 - Francesc Pi i Margall (b. 1824), Catalan liberal statesman, historian, journalist, art critic, philosopher, economist and romanticist writer, who was influenced by Proudhon, dies. [see: Apr. 27]

1916 - Volga Marcos Calvo (d. 2004), Castillian writer, poet, playwright and anarchist, born.

1922 - Renzo Novatore, pseudonym of Abele Ricieri Ferrari (b. 1890), Italian individualist anarchist, illegalist and anti-fascist poet, philosopher and militant, dies. [see: May 12]

[B] 1926 - Jean Sénac (d. 1973), gay Algerian poet, Christian infidel, socialist, libertarian and friend of Albert Camus, who was known as the "poet who signed with a sun", born.

1950 - Gerhard Rijnders (b. 1876), Dutch plumber, mechanic of electric doorbells, cinema technician, publisher and anarchist propagandist, dies in Heemstede, Noord-Holland. [see: Jul. 21]

1965 - Edmundo Bianchi (b. 1880), Uruguayan playwright, screenwriter, poet, writer, translator, composer of tango lyrics and diplomat, dies. [see: Nov. 22]

1980 - Dorothy Day (d. 1897), American journalist, social activist, pacifist anarchist and Catholic Worker founder, dies. [see: Nov. 8]

1997 - Manuel Chiapuso Hualde (b. 1912), Basque anarcho-syndicalist writer, teacher, historian and activist, dies. [see: Apr. 14]

## 2004 - Luigi Veronelli (b. 1926), Italian anarcho-oenologue and theorist of peasant-hood, cook, gastronomist, philosopher and activist, writer and publisher, who is remembered as one of the central figures in the enhancement and dissemination of Italian food and wine heritage, dies following a long illnes that made him publicly come out in favour of euthenasia, becasue "vivere senza dignità è la pretesa – assurda e "satanica" – di estendere la morte". [see: Feb. 2]

[A/D] 2010 - Prisoners in 26 of the 33 prisons in Greece commence a co-ordinated collective refusal to eat prison food in protest against the appalling conditions in Greek prisons-hellholes.
[B] 1867 - Henri Gabriel Ibels (d. 1936), French illustrator, poster artist, printmaker, painter, author and anarchist, born. Founding member of Les Nabis alongside Gauguin, Utrillo, Félix Vallotton and Émile Bernard. From 1890, he worked for the newspaper 'Le Père Peinard', the 'Revue Anarchiste' with his brother André, a special edition of 'La Plume' dedicated to anarchism, along with 'Mirliton', 'L'Escarmouche', 'la Revue Blanche', 'Le Cri de Paris', 'le Courrier Français', 'l'Echo de Paris', and the Dreyfus defending 'Le Sifflet'.

##1870 - Henri Roorda van Eysinga (d. 1925), Swiss libertarian educator, writer, journalist, polemicist and a great humourist, born. Dutch by birth, Roorda grew up and remained in the Suisse romande, where his early exposure to the revolutionary intellectual idealism of the post-Commune exiles such as Kropotkin and (notably) Elisée Reclus, which had lasting consequences. A professor of mathematics, he was a passionate anti-authoritarian teacher and defender of libertarian pedagogy. An important influence on libertarian education theory, he wrote many articles for Francisco Ferrer's 'Bulletin of the Modern School' and was the Swiss representative of the International League for the Rational Education of Children. He commited suicide leaving behind a manuscript he wanted published under the title 'Le Pessimisme Joyeux' (Cheerful Pessimism), but it was changed to 'Mon Suicide' (1925).

1870 - Henri Beylie (psuedonym of Felix Beaulieu; d. 19??), French anarchist naturalist and anti-war activist, born.

1871 - Gaston Crémieux (Isaac Louis Gaston; b. 1836), French radical Républican, Proudhonian socialist and member of the Commune de Marseille, is executed at 07:00 by firing squad following his June 28 court-martial. [see: Jun. 22]

1876 - Tomás Júlio Leal da Câmara, aka Camara (July 21, 1948), Portuguese painter and caricaturist of the Paris of the Belle Epoque, illustrator of children's books and anti-monarchist, who was an active participant in the French anarchist movement, publishing drawings and cartoons in 'L'Assiette au Beurre', born.

1889 - Ezequiel Endériz Olaverri (d. 1951), Spanish libertarian journalist, poet, novelist, playwright, libreticist, etc., born. Wrote and broadcast under various pseudonyms including Goro Farolas and Tirso de Tudela.

1891 - [O.S. Nov. 18] Lazar Lipotkin [Лазарь Липоткин] (Eliezer Solomonovich Lazarev [Элиэзер Соломонович Лазарев]; d. 1959), Russian-American anarcho-communist, who played a prominent role in the exiled Russian anarchist movement in America, born in Odesssa.

1900 - Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (b. 1854), Irish writer, poet and anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 16]

1914 - Anselmo Lorenzo Asperillo (b. 1841), 'The Grandfather of Spanish anarchism', printer and prolific author of early anarchist theory in Spain, dies. [see: Apr. 21]

1917 - Louise Olivereau, a Seattle anarchist working as the stenographer for the Seattle Lumber Workers branch of the IWW, is found guilty on six counts of "attempting to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny and refusal of duty in the military" and three for unlawfully using the mails to distribute treasonable literature in Seattle, Washington. Earlier in August Olivereau had sent out a circular to drafted men in Seattle that urged them "obedience to your own conscience...we do not ask you to resist the draft IF YOU BELIEVE THE DRAFT IS RIGHT." [see: Dec. 3]

1920 - The CNT's labour lawyer Francesc Layret is assassinated and 36 more union leaders imprisoned (including Narcís Vidal, Miguel Abós Serena and Salvador Caracersa). Part of the government's bloody campaign to destroy the CNT. [see: Nov. 27]

####1931 - Cornelis 'Nelis' de Gelder, aka Had-je-me-maar (Did-you-know-me), Hadt-je-me-maar or Hadjememaar (b. 1856), Dutch bricklayer, fairground artist, homeless street musician and party leader of the Rapaille Partij (Rapaille Party) aka the Free Socialist Group (Vrije Socialistische Groep) or Social-Anarchist Action in the Netherlands (Sociaal-Anarchistische Actie in Nederland), for whom he was elected to the Amsterdam city ​​council in 1921, dies at the age of 75 in the Binnengasthuis in Amsterdam from the injuries sustained after being hit by a car a few days earlier. [see: Nov. 22]

1935 - Fernando Pessoa, born Fernando António Nogueira de Seabra Pessoa (b. 1888), Portuguese Modernist poet, writer, literary critic translator, publisher, philosopher and individualist, who dabbled in automatic writing and occultism, dies. [see: Jun. 13]

1935 - The first issue of the Catalan anarchist fortnightly 'Terra Lliure' (Free Land) is published in Barcelona.

1936 - Abbot 'Abbie' Hoffman (d. 1989), Yippie founder and author of every bookshop owner's favourite tome 'Steal This Book' (1971), born.

1938 - Pierre Quiroule (pseudonym of Joaquin Alejo Falconnet; b. 1867), French-born Argentinian militant anarchist, writer, playwright, journalist and novelist, dies. Born in Lyon, his family moved to Argentina when he was a child, possibly because of the post-Commune repression. There he joined a number of Kropotkin-inspired anarchist groups. With the arrival of Malatesta in Buenos Aires, where he organised guilds of shoemakers and bakers, many groups changed to a more pro-propaganda by deed line. This was reflected in the pages of 'El Perseguido' (The Hunted), on which Quirole worked between 1890 and 1897, and the French language 'La Liberté', which he co-founded in 1893 with Jules Alexandre Sadier and Émile Piette, and which he edited for a year. He also worked on 'La Revista Blanca', 'Sembrando Ideas: revista quincenal de divulgación sociológica' (Planting Ideas: biweekly journal of sociological outreach) and other libertarian and anarchist journals.
His anarchist ideals are reflected in the 3 utopian novels that he wrote: 'La Ruta de la Anarquía' (The Path of Anarchy; 1909), 'La Ciudad Anarquista Americana' (The American Anarchist City; 1914) and 'En la Soñada Tierra del Ideal' (In the Fabled Land of the Ideal; 1920); and, to an extent, the numerous plays, essays and works of philosophical and scientific, as well as environmentalism (of which he can be considered a precursor), stories and detective novels that he wrote later in life, after he had ceased to be an active militant.

[C] 1943 - Todor Angelov Dzekov (Тодор Ангелов Дзеков / Théodore Angheloff; d. 1943), Bulgarian anarcho-communist revolutionary and anti-fascist, who was active for a long time in Western Europe and headed a Brussels-based group of the Belgian Resistance against Nazi Germany, is executed by the Nazis. [see: Jan. 12]

1953 - Francis Picabia (Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; b. 1879), French painter, illustrator, designer, poet, writer, editor and "congenial anarchist", dies. [see: Jan. 22]

1967 - Raoul Vaneigem's 'Traité de Savoir-Vivre à l’Usage des Jeunes Générations' aka 'The Revolution of Everyday Life' is published in Paris.

## 1983 - Anastasia Eduardovna Baburova (Анастасия Эдуардовна Бабурова; d. 2009), Russian journalist, anarchist and ecological activist, who was shot dead, together with Russian lawyer and human rights activist Stanislav Markelov, by a neo-Nazi militant outside a press conference in Moscow, born. [see: Jan. 19]

1994 - Guy Debord (b. 1931), member of the Situationist International, film-maker and writer, best know for his book 'The Society of the Spectacle', dies, a suicide. His ashes are scattered on the point of Ile de la Cite, Paris. [see: Dec. 28]

1998 - Acácio Tomás de Aquino (b. 1899), militant Portuguese anarcho-syndicalist who was active in the Confederação Geral do Trabalho and the Organização Libertária Prisional, dies. [see: Nov 9 & Dec 11]

1870 - In France Victor Hugo obtains the release of Louise Michel.

1890 - [O.S. Nov. 19] Faina 'Fanny' Efremovna Stavskaya (Фаина 'Фанни' Ефремовна Ставская; d. 1937), Russian revolutionary, anarchist, then Socialist-Revolutionary, trade union worker, communist director of the State Historical Library, born.

## [B] 1893 - Ernst Toller (d. 1939), German Expressionist playwright, poet, pacifist, anarchist and one of the leaders of the Munich Soviet, born. He volunteered for military duty during WWI, spending 13 months on the Western Front, suffering a complete physical and psychological collapse, experiences which informed his first play 'Die Wandlung' (Transformation; 1919). In 1917, and no longer considered to be fit for combat, he attended the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, meeting Thomas Mann and Rainer Maria Rilke, and later the sociologist Max Weber. Around the same time he became involved in radical politics via a Munich discussion group involving Kurt Eisner, Felix Fechenbach, Oskar Maria Graf and Erich Mühsam, and joined the Independent Social Democratic Party (Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands - USPD). In Munich he was involved with Kurt Eisner in organising a munitions workers' strike, for which they and other trade union leaders were arrested and sent to Leonrodstrasse military prison. Charged with "attempted treason" but was released in May 1918 and returned to the German Army. Expecting to be sent to the Western Front, he was instead committed to a psychiatric clinic, only once again to be diagnosed as being unfit for active service and discharged from the army.
Following the 1918 overthrow of the Kaiser, and despite now being a convinced pacifist, Toller participated alongside Gustav Landauer, Erich Mühsam and Ret Marut (aka B. Traven) in the establishment of the Munich Soviet, becoming its President from April 6 to April 12 until the communist putsch overthrew his "Bavarian Revolution of Love", with its short-lived Workers' Councils and self-managed co-operatives.
Following the defeat of the Soviet by the Freikorps, Toller was arrested and charged with high treason. Toller expected to be found guilty and sentenced to death but his friends began an international campaign to save his life.
At his trial Toller argued: "We revolutionaries acknowledge the right to revolution when we see that the situation is no longer tolerable, that it has become a frozen. Then we have the right to overthrow it." Weber and Thomas Mann gave character references and, found guilty of high treason, the judge acknowledged his "honourable motives" and sentenced him to only five years in the prisons of Stadelheim, Neuburg, Eichstätt and, from February 1920 until his release, in the fortress of Niederschönenfeld where he spent 149 days in solitary confinement and 24 days on hunger strike.
While imprisoned, he completed work on 'Die Wandlung' (The Transformation; 1919) and wrote his Expressionist classics 'Masse Mensch' (Mass Man; 1920), 'Die Maschinenstürmer' (The Machine Breakers; 1922) and 'Der Deutsche Hinkemann' (Hinkemann, the German; 1923), along with many of his better known poems. Post-release he continued to write plays, including 'Hoppla, wir Leben!' (Hoppla, We're Alive!; 1925), a drama about a revolutionary who is discharged from a mental hospital after eight years only to discover that his once-revolutionary comrades have grown complacent and hopelessly compromised within the system they once opposed. In despair, he kills himself. 'Bourgeois bleibt Bourgeois' (Once a Bourgeois Always a Bourgeois; 1927) was his attempt to follow Brecht and 'Die Dreigroschenoper' (Threepenny Opera). He also remained active in politics, becoming a prominent figure within the League for Human Rights and the Group of Revolutionary Pacifists.
When Hitler came to power, Toller was personally denounced by Josef Goebbels, and his work was banned on the same list that included Marx, Freud, Brecht, and Mann. He was fortunate to be travelling outside of Germany when Storm Troopers arrested most of the league's members. He sought refuge in England an was able to complete his autobiography, 'I Was a German' (1933). In October 1936 Toller left London for a lecture tour of North America, where he was offered a contract to write film-scripts for MGM. While in the States, Toller became active in the campaign to raise funds to help the Spanish Republic's Civil War effort and went to Spain as a journalist. Depressed by the defeat of the Republic and the rise of Fascism in Europe, penniless from having given all his money to Spanish Republican causes, and discovering that his sister and brother had both been arrested and sent to concentration camps, he committed suicide in his hotel room in New York City.

1898 - The first issue of 'La Cuña' (The Cradle), "Periódico defensor de los obreros del ramo de elaborar madera de España" (Supporting newspaper of the workers of the wood processing branch of Spain) is published in Sabadell, Catalonia. It lasted 138 issues, the last on February 1, 1913.

1900 - The first edition of 'La Voix du Peuple', "journal syndicaliste: organe de la Confédération générale du travail", is published.

1907 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Le Combat Social', subtitled "Organe révolutionnaire des syndicalistes, socialistes antiparlementaires et libertaires", is published in Limoges.

1908 - Whilst politicians in Brazil and Argentina threaten war between the two countries, worker's organisations and anarcho-syndicalists in both countries jointly organise a day of protest against the possibility of a conflict.

1911 - The first issue of André Lorulot's neo-Malthusian libertarian publication 'L'Idée Libre', "Revue Mensuelle d'Éducation Sociale" and later "Revue Mensuelle de Culture Individuelle et de Rénovation Sociale" (Monthly Review of Individual Culture and Social Renewal), is published.

[D] 1914 - Revolución Mexicana: Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata meet in the San Gregorio neighbourhood of Xochimilco near México City, where they sign a formal alliance called the Pacto de Xochimilco four days later.. Their combined armies of 50,000 march into the city, seizing control of the capital. Some Villiaistas rob churches and rape. Villa himself rapes a Frenchwoman manager at the luxury Hotel Palicio and was reported worldwide. The Zapaista army is mostly orderly.

##1914 - Silvia Mistral (Hortensia Blanc[h] Pita; d. 2004), Cuban-Spanish writer, novelist, film critic, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who lived in Spain and Cuba, born. Best known by her pen name Silvia Mistral, though she also published under the names Silvia M. Robledo, Ana María Muriá and María Luisa Algarra.

1915 - Stuart Merrill (b. 1863), American Symbolist poet, who wrote mostly in French, and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Aug. 1]

[A] 1921 - Under the pretext of representing the Kropotkin Museum at an anarchist conference in Berlin, Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman are authorized to leave/escape the Soviet Union.

1925 - Joseph Jean-Marie Tortelier (b. 1854), French carpenter, anarcho-syndicalist, ardent proponent and speaker for the General Strike, organiser of La Ligue des Antipatriotes (League of Anti-patriots) and member of the Panthère des Batignolles, dies. [see: Dec. 26]

1931 - The anarcho-syndicalist Confederación General de Trabajadores is founded in Chile by various anarchist and syndicalist groups including the defunct Federación Obrera Regional de Chile and the Chilean section of the IWW. At its peak it exerted great influence in guilds such as graphic workers, leather and footwear, electricians, carpenters, etc. and had around 20,000 members. [see: Dec. 27]

1932 - In a plenary session of the Regional CNT held in Madrid, the sindicato de ferroviarios (railway union) requested support to declare a general strike in support of wage increases. In the end the sindicato backed out as more than half of their union locals thought the strike would be a failure, but the Comité de Defensa Regional de Cataluña (Regional Defence Committee of Catalonia) having taken up the idea of an insurrectionary general strike, as proposed by Joan Garcia Oliver, was ready to implement the "gimnasia revolucionaria" (revolutionary gymnastics) that would precipitate the insurrectionary action needed to prevent the consolidation of the República Burguesa (bourgeois republic). The date chosen was January 8, 1933.

[EEE] 1960 - Ethel MacDonald (b.1909), Glasgow-based anarchist activist, labelled the 'Scots Scarlet Pimpernel' by the British press, dies. During the Spanish Revolution, she was a prisoner aid militant and propagandist on Barcelona Loyalist radio. Visiting comrades captured imprisoned following the May 1937 Stalinist crackdown, she smuggled letters and food into prison and helped many anarchists escape Spain. Eventually arrested by the Communist police, she went underground in Barcelona upon her release but later escaped to France. [see: Feb. 24]

1960 - Ada Martí (Maria de la Concepció Martí Fuster; d. 1960), Catalan writer, journalist and anarchist intellectual, dies from an overdose of sleeping pills, after a horrific night of insomnia, delusions and anxiety. [see: Jul. 1]

1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Trial of Ian Purdie and Jake Prescott ends. Ian Purdie found not guilty on all charges. Jake Prescott found not guilty of specific bombings, but guilty of conspiracy to cause bombings on the basis of having written three envelopes, and was sentenced to fifteen years.

1976 - The infamous Sex Pistols' Bill Grundy interview.

1999 - Carme Millà i Tersol (b. 1911*), Catalan artist (line drawing), designer, publicist and anarcho-syndicalist poster artist, dies. [see: Jan. 25]
[* many sources cite 1907]

2001 - Two anarchists arrested by the Ushak police (in western Anatolia, Turkey), after distributing 'illegal' leaflets at a trade union meeting. Later, another three are arrested. All are charged with "membership in an illegal organisation" - in this case, the Autonomous Anarchists of Ankara.

2009 - Josefa 'Pepita' Martín Luengo (Maria Josefa Martín Luengo; b. 1944), Spanish libertarian education activist and anarcha-feminist, dies. [see: Sep. 19]
1883 - Henri Arthur Gaston Quesnel (d. 1966), French metal turner, libertarian trades union activist and anarchist, who was secretary of the Le Havre UL-CGTU from June 1922 to June 1923 and of the UL-CGT after the Liberation, born. [expand]

1889 - Nathan Isaevich Altman (Натан Исаевич Альтман; d. 1970), Russian-Jewish and Soviet avant-garde artist, Cubist painter, stage designer and book illustrator, born. Associated with the anarchist circles around the weekly newspaper 'Anarkhiia', he managed to survive the Sovietisation of the Arts by focusing on stage design and was even allowed to move to Paris in 1928. He returned to Leningrad in 1936, where he worked mainly for the theatre, as well as a illustrating books and writing essays about art.

[A] 1889 - Octave Garnier aka 'Le Terrassier' (d. 1912), as a 13-year old he became a member of the anarchist Bonnot Gang, stealing cars and robbing banks, born. [expand]
[ Parry - The Bonno Gang.pdf]

###### 1896 - [O.S. Nov. 20] Rose Pesotta (Rakhel Peisoty; d. 1965), US seamstress, labour activist, anarcho-syndicalist and feminist, born. From a family of grain merchants, Pesotta was well educated and influenced by the Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), and eventually adopted anarchist views. She emigrated to New York City at the age of 17 (1913), and found employment in a shirtwaist factory, she joined the International Ladies' Garment Workers Union very soon after. The ILGWU was a union that represented mostly Jewish and Latina female garment workers. She was elected to the all male executive board of ILGWU Local 25 in 1920 and attended Brookwood Labor College for two years in the 1920s. In 1933 the union sent her to Los Angeles to organise the garment workers there. The organising of the Mexican immigrant garment workers lead to the Los Angeles Garment workers Strike of 1933. As a result of this success, she was made vice-president of the union in 1934, and sent to Puerto Rico to organise seamstresses. In 1944, she resigned from the General Executive Board of the union in protest of the fact that, despite 85% of the union's membership were women, she was the sole female executive member. She returned to shopfloor organising in disgust. Rose also wrote and published two memoirs, 'Bread Upon the Waters' (1944) and 'Days of Our Lives' (1958).
Rose Pesotta died in Miami, Florida on December 6, 1965.

1909 - 'Le Libertaire' brings out a special edition with the headline 'The Tragic Death of Philippe Daudet, Anarchist. Léon Daudet, his father, hushes up the truth', following the mysterious death of the young anarchist and posthumous poet. [see: Jan 7]

#### 1923 - Chris Pallis, aka Maurice Brinton, Martin Grainger, N. Kastings, et al (Christopher Agamemnon Pallis; d. 2005) Anglo-Greek neurologist and libertarian-socialist intellectual, writer and historian on the left, translator and mainstay in the London Solidarity group, born. Under the pen-names Martin Grainger and Maurice Brinton, he wrote and translated for the British libertarian socialist group Solidarity from 1960 until the early 1980s – 'Paris: May ’68' (1968), 'The Bolsheviks and Workers' Control: The State and Counter-Revolution' (1970), 'The Commune: Paris 1871' (1971) [with P. Guillaume as Martin Grainger], and 'The Irrational in Politics' (1975); as well as translating works by Cornelius Castoriadis, the main thinker of the French group Socialisme ou Barbarie. As a neurologist, he produced the accepted criteria for brainstem death.

1926 - Première issue of 'Combat Syndicaliste', journal of the Confédération Générale duTravail - Syndicaliste Révolutionnaire (CGT-SR), French anarcho-syndicalist section of the AIT.

1943 - Oreste Antonio Maria Ristori (b. 1874), Italian journalist, militant individualist anarchist, anarcho-communist and anti-fascist, is executed by a fascist firing squad (he and his four comrades were tied to chairs and shot in the back as a sign of their being 'traitors') whilst singing 'the Internationale'. [see: Aug. 12]

1944 - Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (b. 1876), Italian Symbolist poet, editor and the founder of the Futurist movement, dies. [see: Dec. 22]

1946 - Oakland General Strike: Following yesterday's attempts by the Retail Merchants Association to break the month-long retail clerks strike and economic blockade of two downtown Oakland stores – Hastings, a haberdashery, and Kahn's, a department store – when large crowds had taken to the streets after police had attacked pickets and passersby indiscrimiately as they tried to clear the streets for the dilivery of merchanise by blackleg drivers, large crowds once again take to the downtown streets, with at one point an estimated 10,000 people showing their support for the hundreds of Retail Clerks’ pickets around the two stores. The strike meeting that had been suspended yesterday, is reconvened at the Labor Temple at 10:00 by union officials in the knowledge that the calls for a general strike, which had spread out overnight across the city to its factories, shops and freight terminals, had now gained an irresistible momentum amongst the rank and file. Finally, after twelve hours of disagreement, a strike call was made. However, with the local leaderships of the various unions equivocating amid fears of reprisals and the potential loss of control over the increasingly militant street-level feeling, the meeting was unable to agree a unified position. The turnout of the 'Labor Holiday' the following day would be massive, as the workers seized control of the city's streets in a joyous celebration of solidarity. [see: Dec. 3]

1951 - Neith Boyce Hapgood (b. 1872), U.S. novelist, playwright and journalist, dies. [see: Mar. 21]

1959 - Silvia Secchiari (b. 1900), Italian anarchist militant and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Jun. 6]

1962 - José da Silva Santos Arranha (b. 1890), Portuguese joiner, and important trade union activist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was the second general secretary of the Confederação Geral do Trabalho, dies. [see: Mar. 1]

## 1978 - Christian Lagant aka 'Cri Cri', Christian Lag & Christian Lague (b. 1926), French anarchist militant, one-time surrealist and one of chief editors of 'Noir et Rouge', takes his own life, not wishing to live any longer in a society that in his view had returned to 'normality' after the period of unrest that had its climax in May-June 1968. A talented writer and artist, he contributed articles and drawings to the Fédération Anarchiste paper 'Le Libertaire' and was later one of the founders of the Groupes Anarchistes d'Action Révolutionnaires (GAAR), taking an active part in editing its magazine 'Noir et Rouge' over a period of fifteen years.

2002 - Ivan Illich (b. 1936), Austrian philosopher, libertarian-socialist social thinker, polymath and polemicist, dies. [see: Sep. 4]
1848 - José García Viñas (d. 1931), Spanish militant internationalist, medical doctor, pioneering advocate of anarchism in Spain, editor of 'La Federacíon' (1869) and 'La Revista Social' (1872-1880), born.

1857 - Józef Teodor Konrad ‪Nałęcz‬ Korzeniowski (aka Joseph Conrad; d. 1924), Polish author of the English language novel on/against anarchist attentats (based loosely on the 1894 Greenwich Bombing), 'The Secret Agent' (1907) and the anarchist-related short stories 'An Anarchist' and 'The Informer' (both 1906) [allegedly based upon the circle around Olivia and Helen Rossetti and the anarchist journal 'The Torch', born.

1870 - [O.S. Nov. 21] Alexander Berkman (Alexander Obsay Osipovich Berkman [Александр Овсей Осипович Беркман [ru] אלכסנדר אובסיי אוסיפוביץ' ברקמן [he]; d. 1936), Vilnius-born lifelong anarchist and companion of Emma Goldman, born. Wrote one of the classics of prison literature, 'Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist' (1912).​ [expand]

1897 - William Victor 'Bill' Gropper (d. 1977), U.S. cartoonist, Social Realist painter associated with the Ash-Can Group, lithographer, muralist left (libertarian) communist and anti-fascist, born. Took his first art lessons at the Ferrer School in NYC and studied under Robert Henri and George Bellows, both philosophical anarchists if not particularly politically active.
One of the most significant American artists of his generation, he contributed to several mainstream newspapers and magazines including 'The New Yorker', 'Vanity Fair' and the 'New York Post', as well as numerous radical publications, including 'The Masses', 'The Revolutionary Age', 'The Rebel Worker', 'The Liberator', 'The New Masses', 'The Worker', and 'Morgen Freiheit' (Morning Freiheit).

[E] 1897 - [O.S. Nov. 21] Mollie Steimer (Marthe Alperine; d. 1980), Russian-American-Jewish-Mexican anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist labour activist, born. Her militant activities got her deported from both the US in 1921 (after getting 15 years of prison for publishing a leaflet opposing the landing of US troops in Russia), and by Lenin in Russia (1923). Arrested as a German Jew in France, then escaped a Nazi internment camp and fled to Mexico with long-time companion Senya Fleshin.

1901 - President Theodore Roosevelt gives a speech urging the exclusion and deportation of anarchist immigrants in his first address to Congress.

1903 - Cooper Union mass meeting protests in NY City against anti-anarchist proceedings against John Turner, who is still awaiting deportation from the United States, as the first person to be procescuted for violating the 1903 Anarchist Exclusion Act, having declared hinself to be an anarchist during a speech he gave earlier that year in October at the Murray Hill Lyceum in New York.

## 1912 - Irma Götze (d. 1980), German paediatric nurse, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, born. The daughter of Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands (Free Workers’ Union of Germany) members Anna Götze and Karl Brauner, she too was a FAUD member and was active in the Leipziger Meute, an opposition group of mainly young people. She acted as an underground courier, taking messages to and from Czechoslovakia, and helped produce illegal flyers and leaflets. In 1935, Irma Götze fled Germany for Spain, taking part in the Spanish Civil War in Catalonia in 1936. She was particularly involved in the political work of the German anarcho-syndicalists in Barcelona, and providing supplies for the militia. She was arrested by the Soviet secret police GPU in May 1937, taken to the notorious secret prison at Puerta del Angel, and later transferred to a women’s prison. After her release, Irma Götze emigrated to France in 1938. She was interned in the Gurs, Argelès-sur-Mer, and Rivesaltes camps as an “enemy alien” in 1940 and 1941, eventually ending up in the hands of the Gestapo. In 1942 the Dresden Higher Regional Court sentenced her to two years and six months in a penitentiary for her illegal work for the FAUD. After serving this term at Waldheim penitentiary, she was taken to Ravensbrück concentration camp. There, Irma Götze met her mother Anna for the first time in nine years, after the older woman had spent eight years in imprisonment. Both mother and daughter survived the war.

1917 - Louise Olivereau, who was convicted on November 30 1917 for mailing out a circular which questioned the draft, is sentenced to ten years in prison at Cañon City, Colorado, the only federal prison for women in the west of the United States. She served 28 months in the state penitentiary in Cañon City, Colorado, before being paroled. The IWW provided no support for Olivereau or her case because of her anarchist pronouncements. Her case was barely mentioned in IWW newspapers.
After her release, Olivereau worked at a variety of clerical and sales jobs in Oregon and California. She settled in San Francisco in 1929 and worked as a stenographer. She died there in 1963.

1921 - Anti-authoritarian educator A.S. Neill establishes his school, Summerhill, at Lyme Regis in England. Moves it three years later to Leiston (Suffolk). Proponent of children sharing in running schools, Neill told of this anarchist experiment in numerous books.

[B] 1930 - The right-wing Ligue des Patriotes (League of Patriots), outrages by the great popular success of 'L'Age d'Or', interrupt the screening by throwing ink at the cinema screen and assaulting viewers who opposed them; they then go to the lobby and destroy art works by Dalí, Joan Miró, Man Ray, Yves Tanguy, and others.

[CC] 1931 - Franz Josef Degenhardt (d. 2011), German poet, satirist, novelist, screenwriter, folk-singer/songwriter (Liedermacher), lawyer and leftist, born. His early songs were anarchist-romantic in the tradition of Villon and the anonymous Bänkelsang (broadsheet ballad) but after 1967 his politics became more communist, joining the German Communist Party (DKP). During the events of 1968, he defended many of those on trial from the German student movement and in 1972-73, defended members of the Red Army Faction. His first novel 'Zündschnüre' (Fuses; 1973) is about working-class youths who join an anti-Nazi resistance group in 1944, and the second, 'Brandstellen' (Burn Marks; 1974), also made into a 1978 film of the same name, tells the story of a community's resistance against a NATO military training ground. His 1986 album 'Junge Paare Auf Bänken' (Young Couples on the Benches) features his translations into German of French singer-songwriter Georges Brassens, and one of his last albums was entitled 'Krieg Gegen den Krieg' (War against the War; 2003).
He also wrote the anti-fascist song 'Edelweisspiraten' (Edelweiss pirates) based on the World War II era German working class anti-Nazi network of youth groups, which emerged out of the German Youth Movement of the late 1930s in response to the strict regimentation of the Hitler Youth.

1937 - Attila József (b. 1905), one of the most important and well-known Hungarian poets, dies. [see: Apr. 11]

1940 - On the eve of Vichy premier Pétain's visit to Marseilles, Andre Breton is arrested and held for four days. An official report describes him as a "dangerous anarchist sought for a long time by the French police."

1945 - Augustin Frédéric Adolphe Hamon (b. 1862), French sociologist and anarchist, who later became a socialist, dies. Participated in the July 27, 1896, International Congress in London with Malatesta, Pelloutier, etc. Also collaborated on Jean Grave's newspaper, 'Les Temps Nouveaux'. Wrote 'Les Hommes et les Théories du l'Anarchie' (1893), 'Psychologie de l'Anarchiste-Socialiste' (1895), 'Patrie et Internationalisme' (1896) and 'Un Anarchisme, Fraction du Socialisme' (1896). [see: Jan. 20]

1956 - Aleksander Mikhailovich Rodchenko (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ро́дченко; b. 1891), Russian Constructivist artist, sculptor, photographer, photo-montagist, graphic designer and one-time anarchist, dies. Influenced by Cubism, Russian Futurism and Suprematism, he later became a member of the post-Revolutionary Productivist group. [see: Dec. 5]

1965 - João de Camargo Penteado (b. 1876), one of the leading Brazilian anarchist pedagogues of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, he co-founded the first Escola Moderna in Brazil, collaborated on and edited numerous libertarian periodicals, and was editor of the 'Boletim da Escola Moderna' (Escola Moderna Bulletin), dies in São Paulo, aged 88. [see: Aug. 4]

1969 - Lucien Haussard (b. 1893), French militant, anarchist advocate and free thinker, dies. Joined Marc Pierrot's review, 'Plus Loin', which he managed from 1931 until arrested and interned in 1939. Involved in the S.I.A. (Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste) and in providing false documents to Spanish anti-fascists. [see: Jul. 11]

[D] 1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Spanish Embassy in London machine gunned following international protests against the trial of the Basque nationalists, the Burgos Six. This was not reported. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1997 - Abraham 'Abe' Bluestein (b. 1909), US anarchist, reporter, editor, and heath and social services administrator, dies in a nursing home in Croton-on-Hudson, N.Y. He was 88. [see: Nov. 1]

2009 - Madeleine Briselance (b. 1922), French bookbinder, feminist, anti-miltarist and libertarian activist, dies. [see: Jun. 5]
## 1868 - Clara Gilbert Cole (d. 1956), English anti-militarist, anarchist and militant suffragette in the Women’s Social and Political Union, alongside her husband the artist Herbert Cole, born. A passionate opponent of WWI; pre-empting the State call for conscription she founded a League Against War and Conscription in early 1915 which published an 8 page pamphlet written by her, 'War Won’t Pay', in 1916. She also produced a book of poems, Prison Impressions, based on her own experiences and those of others, in 1918. She later gravitated to anarchism and was active in the support of the Spanish Revolution and in anti-war agitation, and wrote anti-war articles in 'War Commentary' and Guy Aldred's 'The Word'.

[B] 1886 - André Colomer (d. 1931), Catalonian poet and anarchist, born. Involved in the review 'L'Action d'Art' and also the trade union of writers and dramatic authors. Also a founder of 'Libertaire' and manager of 'La Revue Anarchiste', before he broke with anarchism in 1927.

1878 - Juan Oliva Moncasi, a young Catalan anarchist worker in Tarragone who attempted to kill King Alphonse XII in Madrid on October 25 1878, and refused a commutation of his death sentence, is executed.

1893 - Herbert Read (d. 1968), English poet, art critic, anarchist and political philosopher, born. Wrote 'Anarchy & Order; Poetry & Anarchism' (1938); 'Philosophy of Anarchism' (1940); 'Revolution & Reason' (1953); 'My Anarchism' (1966), etc. Early champion of Surrealism. Accepted a knighthood which caused much consternation and ridicule among the anarchist milieu.

1912 - María Mañas Zubero (d. 1991), Spanish anarchist militant and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1914 - Revolución Mexicana: Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa sign a formal alliance, the Pacto de Xochimilco, merging the Northern Division and the Southern Liberation Army into a single entity to fight against Venustiano Carranza. The joint force them marches on the capital, seizing control of it on the 6th.

1923 - Maurice Barrès (Auguste-Maurice Barrès; b. 1862), French Symbolist novelist and journalist, dies. [see: Aug. 19]

1933* - Alexander Atabekian (Alexander Movsesi Atabekian [Ալեքսանդր Մովսեսի Աթաբեկյան]; b. 1868), Armenian physician and prominent anarchist, author and publisher of anarchist literature in Russian, who was also close friend of Peter Kropotkin, is believed to have died in the Soviet gulag system. [see: Feb. 14]
[* there is some confussion over the exact date of his death, with some sources suggesting the year as being 1940]

##1935 - In Geneva, anarchists begin destroying slum housing, smashing windows and tearing up roofs this evening as part of an intense FOBB (Federation of Wood and Construction Workers) campaign of agitation over workers' homes which were little better than hovels.

1937 - Fierce fighting between the Fascist army and Republican troops near the province capital of Teruel.

1944 - Louis Louvet and Simone Larcher begin publishing 'Ce Qu’il Faut Dire' (What Must Be Said) in France.

1952 - Giuseppe Monanni (b.1887), Italian editor, self-taught journalist, publisher and propagandist of individualist anarchism (a la Nietzsche and Palante), dies. A typesetter by profession, he founded the anarchist journal 'Vir' in 1907 in Florence. Alongside his wife Leda Rafanelli (whom Mussolini famously slobbered over whilst still editor-in-chief of the daily socialist newspaper 'Avanti!'), he collaborated on various newspapers and publications including 'La Questione Sociale' (1909); 'La Rivolta' (1911) and 'La Libertà' (1913-1914). In addition to his journalism, Monanni was editor of the Libreria Editrice Sociale (Social Publishing Library; 1910 to 1915), the Casa Editrice Sociale (Social Publishing House; 1919 to 1926), and finally the Casa Editor Monanni (Monanni Publishing House; 1926 to 1933), as well as publishing works on individual anarchism by Palante and Nietzsche. His editorial work suffered the interruption of WWI and temporary refuge in Switzerland. Upon his return to Italy, and like many others, he suffered increasing repression with the rise of fascism but managed with Carlo Molaschi to found L'Università Libera (Free University) whose work was subsequently limited to general educational work following the passing of special laws, and ceased all together due to financial and further political restraints. After the end of the war and the fall of Fascism in Italy, he collaborated again on the newspaper 'Libertario' under the pseudonym of 'Mony'.

[A] 1971 - Georg von Rauch (b. 1947), German anarchist and founder of the Anarchist Black Cross in Germany and June 2nd Movement, is ambushed (along with Michael 'Bommi' Baumann , Hans Peter Knoll and Heinz Brockmann) by plainclothes armed police and shot in the eye, killing him instantly, despite being unarmed and having his hands raised. [see: May 12]

1972 - Anthony Lorry (d. 2014), French social historian and anarchist, who was the librarian, webmaster, staff delegate at the CEDIAS-Musée Social (Centre d’études, de documentation, d’information et d’action sociales) and one of the main actors in the team behind the 'Dictionnaire biographique du mouvement libertaire francophone', born in Clichy-la-Garenne.

1981 - Miguel García García, aka Miguel Ferrer (b. 1908), Catalan anarcho-syndicalist militant and anti-Francoist guerrilla, who served 20 years in prison for those anti-Franco activities and went on in exile to play an important role in the European anarchist movement, not least for his part in the revival of the Anarchist Black Cross network along side Albert Meltzer and Stuart Christie, dies of the tuberculosis that he (like many other) contracted as a prisoner in Franco's hellholes. [see: Feb. 3]

1988 - Teresa Pons Tomàs (d. 1988), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Apr. 10]
1848 - Alexandre Eugène Tennevin (d. 1908), French anarchist activist, born. [expand]

1869 - Temistocle Monticelli (d. 1936), Italian anarchist militant and anti-militarist, member of the Comité de Défense Libertaire, as secretary of the underground Comitato di Azione Internazionalista Anarchica he was arrested during WWI, born. [expand]

1885 - Louise Bryant (d. 1936), US journalist and writer, born. An anarchist and Marxist, she contributed articles and essays to Berkman's 'The Blast' and other radical journals on a number of radical political and feminist themes.

##1885 - Maria Anna Rygier (also Maria Corradi-Rygier or Maria Rygier Corradi; d. 1953), Italian anti-militarist, syndicalist, anarchist propagandist, anti-fascist activist, and later a monarchist, born in Krakow into a wealthy Polish family. Her sculptor father, Teodoro Rygier, who had become popular in Rome society and become a naturalised Italian, would continue to support her later in life despite her radical politics in the hope that she would return to the conservative fold. Educated as a child in a rigid and austere college run by nuns, a strict, austere and conformist environment that had a profound and lasting effect on her character, but one where she also gained a wide knowledge of culture and of different foreign languages. In 1904 Maria moved with her mother Rozycka Sabina from Rome to Milan, where Maria began attending political circles and Milan radical, remaining fascinated. Working as a shop assistant, she became secretary of the women's section of the Federazione fra gli Impiegato e Commessi d'Aziende Private d'Italia (Italian Federation of Clerks and Salespeople of Private Companies) and, together with Gino Pesci, she was a delegate for the organisation at the International Conference for the fight against unemployment held in Milan on October 2-3, 1906. She also began collaborating on many of the period's socialists and libertarian newspapers, including the Federation's fortnightly 'L'Unione', an article in which shortly after the general strike of September 1904 led to her first prosecution, for "incitement to hatred between different classes". In January 1905, she participated in the Congress of Camere del Lavoro and the syndicalist Leghe di Resistenza (Resistance Leagues) in Genoa, where she met Virginio Corradi, the representative of the revolutionary syndicalist leadership of the Camere del Lavoro in Milan, whom she married the following year. 1905 also saw her join the Commissione di controllo of the Milan Camera del Lavoro.
Throughout this period she remained close to the group around Arturo Labriola, Walter Mocchi and the 'Avantguarda Socialista' (Socialist Vanguard) and, with the defeat of the revolutionary syndicalists within the Camera del Lavoro and the Unione degli Impiegati e Commessi, she took up journalism full-time. In December 1906, she was appointed editor-in-charge of the new Milanese syndicalist periodical 'La Lotta di Classe' (The Class Struggle). She also intensified her anti-militarist activities, starting a bimonthly anti-militarist propaganda sheet 'Rompete le File!' (Break the Line!; 1907-13) at the beginning of 1907 with Filippo Corridoni, Edmondo Mazzuccato and Edmondo Rossoni and also taking part in the setting up of the Italian section of the Alleanza Internazionale Antimilitarista (International Anti-militarist Alliance). Based on Gustave Hervé's 'Guerre Sociale', 'Rompete le File!' openly incited desertion, and was clandestinely distributed in barracks and in places frequented by young people or where recruitment was taking place.
The reaction of the military authorities was swift and soon the convict battalions were enriched with new recruits, amongst them in 1908 the entire editorial staff of the magazine. Maria Rygier herself had to answer for twenty-two articles published in the 'Rompete le File!', a journal which the Prefect of Milan claimed was targeted "for its revolutionary and rebellious nature, contemptuous of every principle of authority." Rygier ended up serving time in prison, something that would become a regular occurrence for this fiery and combative character. Her incendiary newspaper articles were passed from hand to hand, appropriated as slogans of struggle and transcribed into speeches, becoming powerful and deadly weapons at the disposal of revolutionaries of every political tendency.
Amongst the other newspaper that she wrote for was 'Avanti' and 'La Demolizione' (Demolition), Ottavio Dinale's newspaper based on the revolutionary syndicalist of Georges Sorel, which was published between 1907 and 1911, first in France, in Annemasse, and then in Italy, in Milan. Maria also embraced with enthusiasm and conviction the cause of universal suffrage and women's empowerment, urging women to "overcome the apathy and resignation imposed [on them] for centuries by their fathers and husbands". 1907 also saw her face arrest and imprisonment for her activism (a demonstration at the Prefecture on July 4 and the invasion of the Archbishopric on July 21 to protest against acts of paedophilia by some priests): sentenced to twenty months imprisonment on August 3, six months on August 22, six months and twelve days on September 10, and two years on February 14, 1908. Described by police as suffering from an "intimate fever to make herself famous", the superintendent of Milan denied the request for a pardon made by her father, who was concerned about the health consequences of prison of his daughter, stating instead that "the rest, peace and quiet" in the custody would have positive health benefits for her. On May 1, 1908, the Parma syndicalist newspaper 'L’Internazionale' published a postcard with a picture on it depicting her as a new 'heroine' as she languished in Santa Viridiana prison in Florence. She also began to be widely referred to the "Luisa Michel d'Italia".
Following the amnesty of February 1909, she was freed and on her return to Milan on February 14, a procession accompanied her from the station to her home in the via S. Gregorio, where about four hundred people sang the 'L'Inno dei Lavoratori' (Hymn of the Workers) for her. That same year, Maria began an intense campaign in the columns of 'Il Secolo' (The Century) on the conditions of the detainees: the abuse, lack of hygiene, poor sanitary conditions, non-compliance with regulations, sadistic nuns, etc. in the local prison in Milan, the judicial prisons in Bologna, Florence and Turin, and the reformatory in Perugia, which was closed in June 1910 following the Maria's complaints. 1909 also saw her break with Corradi and move to Bologna, having witnessed Armando Borghi present the agenda for the proclamation of a general strike on the occasion of the National Congress of the Leghe di Resistenza. In Bologna she joined the local Camera del Lavoro and aligned herself within the anarchist movement. The reasons for her transition from revolutionary syndicalism to anarchism were laid out in her pamphlet 'Il Sindacalismo alla Sbarra: Riflessioni d'una ex-sindacalista sul Congresso omonimo di Bologna' (Unionism in the Dock: Reflections of an ex-syndicalist on the eponymous Congress of Bologna) published in 1911.
A popular lecturer, she toured the country speaking on her usual theme of anti-militarism and prisons, as well as religion, free thought, the role of women, anarchist organisation, and the figures of Giordano Bruno and Francisco Ferrer. On July 29, the tenth anniversary of the death of Umberto I, at a private conference held in the hall of Modern Art in Milan, and in front of almost all of Milan's anarchists, she argued that the regicide in Monza was "necessary and proper". During the same period he collaborated on 'L’Agitatore' (The Agitator), which she was editor of twice (at the end of 1911 and in early 1913). Returning from a speaking trip to Switzerland in May 1911, she was arrested again when a bottle of white phosphorus that she was carrying caught fire. The arest sparked widespread protests from the anarchist, socialist and trades union press. 'L’Alleanza Libertaria' in an article 'Pro vittime politiche e per la liberazione della nostra Maria Rygier' (For political prisoners and for the liberation of our Maria Rygier) on July 20, 1991 called her the "heroine of anarchy". In response, the Interior ministry expedited her trial and, found guilty, appealed and was granted parole.
At the outbreak of the war in Libya, she plunges back with undiminished fervour into her anti-militarist propaganda activities. And when Augusto Masetti on October 30, 1911, famously shot Colonel Stroppa in Cialdini barracks in Bologna, shouting "long live anarchy" in an act of rebellion whilst inciting his fellow recruits to also refuse to fight in Lybia. Masetti's act prompted a major campaign of solidarity and anti-militarist propaganda, during which Maria celebrated his gesture in the columns of 'L’Agitatore', resulting in the arrest of the entire editorial staff of the magazine, excluding Armando Borghi who managed to flee abroad. Thus began another period in prison, during which she expressed a desire to be involved in the failed assassination attempt on Victor Emmanuel III made by the anarchist Antonio D'Alba on March 14, 1912 in Rome. Although ending up playing no material part in the plot, she was still sentenced to three years in connection with it. The influence of her support campaign spread as far as France, where 'La Bataille Syndicaliste', 'La Guerre Sociale' and 'Le Libertaire' all publish articles in her support. With a new amnesty in December 1912, the staff of 'L’Agitatore' were released and Maria regained the editorship from Domenico Zavattero, beginning a conflict which would split the Italian anarchist movement and cause widespread disgust at Zavattero's attacks on Rygier.
In the latter half of 1913, Maria once again began campaigning on Masetti's behalf, who in the meantime had been locked up in a mental hospital. With the help of Borghi, she organised a visit to France to give lectures in support of Masetti. In Paris she joined in the "grandiose but useless" campaign launched by the SFIO, the CGT and the anarchists against the 'Loi des trois ans' (Law of three years), which increased the term of military conscription from two to three years. During a visit to London she made sure that she publicly attacked the "odious monarchy", with the 'The Daily Citizen' publishing a short biography, describing her as a heroine who had renounced the life of luxury for the labour movement. Back in Paris, she attended the French Anarchist Communist Congress in August, and returned to Bologna in early September.
Meanwhile, Maria Rygier had become involved in the Masons, who had granted her membership, and continued her pro-Maseeti campaigning, support for whom had spread across the Atlantic to America, where on April 12, 1914, an international meeting promoted by Italian anarchists was held in New York. The Comitato Nazionale pro Masetti, of which Maria was secretary, decided to organise on June 7, 1914, the date of the Festa dello Statuto Republican celebrations, anti-military rallies across Italy. In Ancona, the tragic outcome of the rally there kicked off the 'Settimana Rossa' (Red Week). On June 10, following a speech by Rygier in Imola, demonstrators set fire to the district court and attacked the police barracks. That same evening, Rygier spoke in Faenza and again an angry mob tried to set fire to the cathedral and other churches. Following the 'Settimana Rossa', Malatesta fled to London and Fabbri to Lugano, whilst Rygier returned to France, where she held a series of meetings and gave interviews, first in 'La Guerre Sociale' and then in 'République Italienne'.
At the outbreak of the war, she returned to Italy and, though at first appearing to take a neutralist position, whilst expressing the deepest sympathy for France, on September 14 in Rome during the commemoration of Caesar Colizza and the young Republicans fallen in Serbia, she expressed the need for Italian intervention in the "war of liberation". Now, firmly in the interventionist camp (something that she shared with her new French Masonic friends), she helped draft the manifesto 'Per la Francia e per la Libertà' (For France and for Freedom). The anarchist press responded by attacking her: the 'heroine' had become a mere 'scribbler' (scribacchina), a "false anarchist", "a crook [...] who had returned to the bourgeoisie", "Marietta the warmongering viper", etc.
Rygier continued her pro-interventionist activities, writing in the pro-interventionist press such as 'L’Internazionale', 'La Guerra Sociale', 'L’Iniziativa', Milan's 'L'Avanguardia', 'Il Libertario di La Spezia', Benito Mussolini's socialist newspaper 'Il Popolo d'Italia', and 'La Riscossa', the newspaper of the interventionist Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria in Bologna. She also participated in the Congresso Nazionale dei Fasci Interventisti (National Congress of Interventional Fasci [= workers leagues]) as president, alongside Angelo Oliviero Olivetti and the French revolutionary Madame Sorgue. The organisers of the congress were Mussolini and Alceste De Ambris, head of the interventionist section of the Unione Sindacale Italiana, both of whom had jointly founded the Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria movement in December 1914, to promote the interventionist within the workers' movement.
In 1915 he published 'La Nostra Patria. Sulla Soglia di un'Epoca' (Our Homeland. On the Threshold of an Era) and, at the end of 1915, and with her creditability in anarchist and revolutionary syndicalist circles ruined, Rygier moved to Genoa and in February 1916 participated in the Republican Congress in Rome. In 1917, she was secretary of the Rome Camera del Lavoro but was forced out due to her bad relations with the workers' leagues. After the war, she did not become part of the fascist movement, defining herself as a nationalist and anti-Bolshevik. In 1923, she eschewed nationalism and three years later in 1926, following public criticism of Mussolini, the police searched her home and was arrested and confined to a psychiatric hospital. Threatened with death on March 30 that year, she went into exile in Paris, expressing open opposition to the fascist regime, and published a pamphlet in Brussels in 1928 (later reprinted in 1945 in Italy), entitled 'Mussolini indicateur de la police française: ou les raisons de sa occultes "conversion"', which claiming that since the early 1910s he had been funded by the French police and / or the secret services (Bleus), firstly to bring Italy to an anti-militarist and neutralist positions and then to at least bring some of the Socialist movement there to a pro-French / anti-German interventionist position. She was awarded the International Prize for Literature Against War for the publication. In 1930, she published 'La Franc-Maçonnerie Italienne devant la Guerre et devant le Fascisme' and in 1935 'Démagogie Rouge et Démagogie Fasciste', as well as being active in the Ligue des Droits de l'Homme. She remained in France through out the war, living in hardship and difficulty. , living in hardship and difficulty. Back in Italy after WWII, she proclaimed herself a liberal monarchist and in 1946 published the controversial book 'Rivelazioni sul Fuoruscitismo italiano in Francia' (Revelations about Anti-fascist Exiles in France).
Maria Rygier died in Rome February 10, 1953.

## 1891 - [O.S. Nov. 23] Aleksander Mikhailovich Rodchenko (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ро́дченко; d. 1956), Russian artist, sculptor, photographer, photo-montagist, graphic designer and one-time anarchist, born. One of the founders of Constructivism and Russian design; he founded the Profsoiuz (Professional'nyi soiuz khudozhnikov-zhivopistsev, Professional Union of Artist-Painters) and was secretary of its left or avant-garde division, the Young Federation (Molodaia federatsiia). Married to fellow artist Varvara Stepanova.
An early anarchist active in various Moscow anarchist groups, including the Activist Group of the Moskovskija Associacija Anarchistov alongside Vladimir Tatlin, he was a close associate of Malevich, publishing regularly in 'Anarkhiia' under the pseudonyms 'Anti' and Aleksandr. On April 2, 1918, the newspaper published a salute to Rodchenko, Olga Rozanova, Udaltsova and others among the avant-garde: "With pride we look upon your creative rebellion.... We congratulate the creator Rodchenko on his spirited three-dimensional constructions of coloured forms..."
In an April 1919 catalogue for an exhibit in which he exhibited his black-on-black paintings (which many have interpreted as symbols of his anarchist views), Rodchenko assembled quotations from figures including Max Stirner ("That I destroy myself only shows that I exist") and poet Walt Whitman ("What invigorates life invigorates death"). Yet later that year he had already helped form Asskranov (Assotsiatsiia krainikh novatorov, Association of Radical Innovators), in opposition to Malevich's Suprematism, and by 1921, when the artistic avant garde had officially been dropped by the Bolshevik government, he had fully embraced the Communist/official Constructivism line that artistic endeavour - the intellectual production - of artist-engineers should entail the "mechanisation of creative methods and the reduction of the creative process to rational operations" (Gassner, p. 307) - when, in March of that year he, Aleksei Gan and Stepanova joined with Konstantin Nledunetskii, Karl Ioganson, Gregorii Stenberg and Vladimir Stenberg to form The First Working Group of Constructivists.
"Three artists spent the night in the mansion, since outside the museum a studio was set aside fur making art. As the artists told it, that memorial morning, 'We were awakened by shouts of, "We'll shoot! Hands up!''' Armed soldiers ordered them to get dressed, took them out to the courtyard and together with anarchists sent them off to the Kremlin." - Rodchenko's description of a government raid on the anarchist-held Morozov mansion in Moscow in the early morning of April 12, 1918, published in 'Anarkhiia'.

[BB] 1896 - Henry Poulaille (d. 1980), French novelist, anarchist, director of Éditions Grasset, the journal 'Le Nouvel Âge Littéraire', founder of Le Musée du Soir [a room for workers, which included a library of books, magazines, newspapers and brochures, organised exhibitions of photographs and engravings, as well as meetings with writers], born into a poor working class anarchist family. Avidly devoured his father's library of anarchist books. Orphaned at 13, his brother and sister went to relatives but he chose to fend for himself selling newspapers and other unskilled jobs. Eventually he became friends with Jules Erlebach, known as Ducret, who ran an anarchist bookshop L’idée Libre (The Free Idea). Others he met around the same time were Jean Grave, Paul Delesalle, Victor Serge and Rirette Maîtrejean. During WWI he was wounded (Oct. 1917) and following his demob (Apr. 1919) he ended up working at the newspaper of the Commune Libre of Montmartre, 'La Vache Enragée' (The Angry Cow), wrote for other papers including L’Humanité and also signed the Manifesto of The International Union of Progressive Artists launched by the Dutch group De Stijl in 1922.
Later he became secretary of its press service and then its director. This helped him publish his own writings and those of other anarchist authors. He continued writing for the anarchist press (including 'La Revue Anarchiste' and 'L’Insurgé', edited by André Colomer) and promoting the idea of proletarian literature, creating the Prize Without A Name, which he promoted in his paper Journal 'Sans Nom' in 1925. The same year he published his first novel 'Ils Etaient Quatre' (They Were Four). [expand]
Many of his other novels are autobiographical: 'Le Pain Quotidien' (Daily Bread, covering the years 1903-1906; 1931); 'Les Damnés de la Terre' [Le Pain Quotidien 2: 1906-1909] (The Wretched of the Earth; 1935); 'Pain de Soldat' [1914-1917] (Soldier's Bread; 1937); 'Les Rescapés' [Pain de soldat 2, 1917-1920] (The Survivors; 1938) and, unpublished in his lifetime, 'Seul Dans la Vie à 14 Ans' [1909-1914] (Alone in the Life of a 14-year-old'; 1980) - all featuring a working class family: the Magneux; with the character of Loulou Magneux being his literary double.
During and after WWII, Poulaille also anthologised numerous stories, carols and songs, and many of these books still remain in use as reference tools.

1908 - The newspaper 'Bezvlastie' (Безвластие / Anarchy) first appears, in Razgrad, Bulgaria. Founded by Varban Kilifarski, it represents the largest diffusion of anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist thought in the country before the First World War.

1919 - Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman are detained on Ellis Island in NYC.

1920 - In Barcelona, ​​following a general strike in protest against the deportation of about thirty anarcho-syndicalist militants to the Mola de Mahón in Minorca, a group of cenetistas stationed in a strategic place of the Campo del Arpa opened fire against pickets of Guardia Civil that patrolled the area. The guards were able to arrest Gregorio Daura Raduá [Gregorio Dora in the Castillian language Madrid press], whom they took to the police station, which was heavily handcuffed, but halfway behind the Plaza de Toros de la Monumental, they applied the 'ley de fugas' – the right to shoot to kill 'fleeing prisoners'. According to the note that appeared in the press, Daura had tried to flee and was then shot him down by the Guardia Civil. Thus Gregorio Daura Raduá became the first victim of the application of this 'ley de fugas', even though Eduardo Dato, the president of the Consejo de Ministros, did not formally sign the Ley de Fugas legislation into law until January 20, 1921. From that day the 'law' would become the default tactic for ridding the authorities of troublesome workers.
However, this first execution of the 'ley de fugas' did not turn out as the guards had planned when, in the belief that Daura was dead and had taken his body to the Depósito Judicial del Hospital Clínico de Barcelona, ​​the doctors there discovered that Daura was still alive and managed to save the life.

1924 - Mikhail Dinchev Tsitselkov (Михаил Динчев Цицелков; b. 1904), Bulgarian anarcho-communist revolutionary, is discovered and surrounded by the police in Zlatitsa (Златица) following betrayal by Misho Tsitselkov (Мишо Цицелков). Refusing to surrender, he begins a firefight with the police. Rather than falling into the hands of the police again and having to endure a second bout of brutal torture, he killed himself with his last bullet. [see: Sep. 19]

1943 - National Plenem of the Regionals of the CNT in Exile in France is held in Marseille.

1946 - Alexander 'Sanja' Schapiro (Alexander Moissejewitsch Schapiro [Александр Моисеевич Шапиро]; b. 1882), Russian Jewish anarcho-syndicalist militant active in the international anarchist movement, dies. Secretary of the London branch of the Anarchist Red Cross and of the anti-authoritarian A.I.T. (Association Internationale des Travailleurs). Worked on the Russian anarcho-syndicalist newspaper 'Rabochii Put'' (The Workers Voice) and the French anarcho-syndicalist paper, 'La Voix du Travail' (The Voice of Labour).

1957 - Christian Mahieux, railway worker, anarcho-syndicalist, pacifist and anti-militarist , who was one of the founders of the SUD-Rail union in 1996, as well as one of its federal secretaries and is a member of the Secrétariat National of the Union Syndicale Solidaires (which brings together all the syndicats SUD), born.

1967 - Creation of the American section of the SI, composed of Robert Chasse and Tony Verlaan.

[B] 1970 - 'Accidental Death of an Anarchist' premières in Varerse, Italy.

1984 - Ethel Mannin (b. 1900), Irish anarchist, novelist and author, dies. Her writing career began in copy-writing and journalism but she later became a prolific author and novelist (100 plus books published in her lifetime), encompassing many aspects of anarchism and feminism as well as her travel writing. [see: Oct. 6]

2002 - José Borras Cascarosa aka 'Cantaclaro', 'Jacinto Barrera', 'Sergio', 'Sergio Mendoza' (b. 1916), militant Spanish anarchist and syndicalist, CNT, FIJL and Durruti Column member, dies. [see: May 17]
1878 - Nicolás Reveles (d. 1947), Mexican artist, engraver, illustrator and anarchist, who was based in Los Angeles and collaborated with the Junta Organizadora of the Partido Liberal Mexicano on its weekly newspaper 'Regeneración', born.

## 1888* - George Powell Ballard, aka George Barrett (d. 1917), English anarchist orator and organiser, "who flashed like a brilliant meteor over our horizon" according to George Cores, born.
[* some sources state 1883]

1889 - The trial of the Chicago Haymarket anarchists begins. [EXPAND]

1909 - [O.S. Nov. 23] Outraged at the reports of the cruel tortures prisoners in Vilinus are being subjected to, attempts to assassinate General Sergei Konstantinovich Gershelman (Серге́й Константинович Гершельман), the military commander in Vilinus, who he held responsible for the torture, Moishe Tokar (משה טאָקאַר; unknown - 1910) fires at Gershelman's carriage as he passes in the street. Gershelman is uninjued but a second General acompanying him is wounded. Tokar was tried and sentenced to death on January 13, 1910, but a couple of days before he was due to be executed, Tokar douses himself in paraffin from the lamp in his prison cell and burns himself alive.

1914 - Revolución Mexicana: The troops of Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata seize control of México City. [see: Dec. 1]

1920 - First issue of the fortnightly paper 'L'Agitazione' (highest circulation 25 thousand copies) in Boston, Massachusetts.

1937 - The IWA meets in extra-ordinary congress in Paris (December 6 -17) to examine the CNT’s struggle in Spain, especially the problematic entry of anarchists into leading positions within the government. [expand]

1949 - Billo Zeledón aka 'Billo' & 'Merlín' (José María Pedro Zeledón y Brenes; b. 1877), Costa Rican journalist, poet, writer, accountant and anarchist intellectual, who bizarrely won the competition to write lyrics to the National Anthem, dies. [see: Apr. 26]

[B] 1955 - James Koehnline, Surrealism-influenced collage artist who designs and editor of the yearly 'Autonomedia Calendar of Jubilee Saints' who illustrates numerous US anarchist projects including 'Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed' and 'Fifth Estate', born. His work is probably more widely know through the CD cover art featuring on numerous Bill Laswell releases.

1965 - Rose Pesotta (Rakhel Peisoty; b. 1896), US seamstress, labour activist, anarcho-syndicalist and feminist, dies. [see: Nov. 20 / Dec. 2]

1970 - Taiji Yamaga (山鹿泰治; b. 1892), Japanese printer, manga artist, advocate of Esperanto, militant and long-time secretary of international relations for the Anarchist Federation of Japan, dies in Tokyo. [see: Jun. 26]

1972 - Stoke Newington Eight: The `Stoke Newington Eight' trial ends. Jim Greenfield, Anna Mendleson, Hilary Creek and John Barker are sentenced to 10 years for `conspiracy to cause explosions'. The other four charged are acquitted, and the sentence of Jake Prescott is reduced to 10 years.

1988 - Lambertus Johannes Bot (b. 1897), Dutch carpenter, antimilitarist, communist, syndicalist and anarchist, dies in The Hague. [see: May 28]

[A/D] 2008 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: Alexis Grigoropoulos is assassinated by Greek police in the Eksarhia district of Athens, becoming the trigger for the 2008 insurrection. That night up to 10,000 people take to the streets of Athens in spontaneous protests, burning and smashing banks, ministries and multinational shops.
##1822 - Émile Digeon (d. 1894), French revolutionary socialist journalist, born. Best remembered as the leader of the short-lived Narbonne Commune of late March 1871, libertarian free thinker and contributor to the anarchist journal 'L'insurgé'. In 1883 Digeon was an anarchist candidate(!) in the Narbonne elections, author of 'La Commune de Paris Devant les Anarchistes' (1885).

1837 - Charles Perron (d. 1909), Swiss-born anarchist, militant of the First International, Bakuninist propagandist and cartographer, born. [expand]

##1861 - Han Ryner (Jacques Élie Henri Ambroise Ner; d. 1938), French teacher, anti-clerical, pacifist, individualist anarchist, philosopher (called a "contemporary Socrates"), novelist and all-round prolific writer, born. He published more than 50 books including novels, such as 'L'Humeur Inquiète' (The Worried Humour; 1894) and 'La Folie de Misère' (The Insanity of Poverty; 1895), short stories, essays, plays and poetry [he was voted prince of storytellers by the readers of the Parisian newspaper 'L'Intransigeant' in 1912] as well as his works on political theory and practice.

1862 - Paul Adam (d. 1920), French author, novelist, art critic, editor of 'Entretiens Politiques et Littéraires' and leading writer in the French anarchist movement, born. Amongst his other works is the totalitarian dystopia 'Lettres de Malaisie' (Letters from Malaysia; 1898), reprinted in 1908 under the title 'La Cité Prochaine' (The Next City).

1893 - A Special Unit of the Guardia Civil is formed in Barcelona, charged with repressing the anarquistas.

1919 - Palmer Raids: At 21:00 on November 7, 1919, a date chosen because it was the second anniversary of the Bolshevik revolution, agents of the Bureau of Investigation, together with local police, executed a series of well-publicised and violent raids targetting the 4,000-strong members of the Union of Russian Workers (Союз Русских Рабочих) in 12 cities. Newspaper accounts reported some were "badly beaten" during the arrests. Many later swore they were threatened and beaten during questioning. Government agents cast a wide net, bringing in some American citizens, passers-by who admitted being Russian, some not members of the Russian Workers. Others were teachers conducting night school classes in space shared with the targeted radical group. Arrests far exceeded the number of warrants. Of 650 arrested in New York City, the government managed to have just 43 deported.

1928 - Noam Chomsky, American linguist, anarchist, social critic and activist, born. [expand]

1937* - Pyotr Petrovich Siuda (Пётр Петрович Сиуда; d. 1990), Russian factory worker, Soviet dissident, political prisoner, anarcho-syndicalist and historian, who took part in the 1962 events in Novocherkassk, born.
Novocherkassk striker and later anarcho-syndicalist
[* some sources give his d.o.b. as Dec. 13]

##1941 - Charles Radcliffe, English cultural critic, member of the Committee of 100 and Spies for Peace, anarchist, political activist and theorist known for the short-lived libertarian socialist journal 'Heatwave' and his membership of the English section of the Situationist International, born.

1943 - Bernardo Melacci (b. 1893), Italian mechanic, poet, anarchist and anti-fascist, who suffered political persecuted under the Fascist regime, dies in the prison at Nocera Inferiore in mysterious circumstance. [see: Jan. 19]

1946 - The founding conference of the anarcho-syndicalist Confédération Nationale du Travail (CNT-F) is held in Paris [Dec. 7-9. Its name is derived from its Spanish counterpart, the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, and is set up by exiled Spanish anarcho-syndicalists, former members of Confédération Générale du Travail-Syndicaliste Révolutionnaire (CGT-SR), as well as young people who participated in the Résistance and who had left the CGT because of its links to the PCF.

1972 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: After the Angry Brigade sentences the previous day, Scotland Yard names two more people they want in connection with the bombings: Gerry Osner and Sarah Poulikakou, both living abroad at the time. 300 people marched in protest to Holloway Prison.In all, 12 people were arrested and charged - 2 had the charges against them withdrawn, 5 were acquitted, five were convicted and imprisoned for conspiracy.

1979 - In Valencia-Córdoba, a militant of the CNT transport union is arrested, accused of belonging to the Grupos Autónomos Anarquistas implicated in the Vilamarí Street tunnel which aimed to free prisoners from the Modelo de Barcelona prison.

1986 - Enrico Arrigoni (aka Frank Brand; b. 1894) , Italian American individualist anarchist Lathe operator, house painter, bricklayer, dramatist and political activist influenced by the work of Max Stirner, dies. [see: Feb. 20]

1996 - A handful of squatters climb up on to the roof of Palazzo Reale (Royal Palace) in the centre of Turin. They hoist flags, place a puppet, hang a transparency and throw leaflets entitled ‘Anarchists have Wings’ to draw attention to the preliminary hearing of the strange investigation by public prosecutors Marini and Ionta and the general State repression against anarchists in Italy.

2006 - Hugo Cores (b. 1937), Uruguayan anarchist and influential political activist, dies. [see: Nov. 7]

2010 - Julian Assange, founder of Wikileaks, surrenders himself to police in England concerning charges of sexual assault made in Sweden.
[B] 1880 - Shin Chae-ho (신채호; d. 1936), Korean historian, Journalist, novelist, 'nationalist' independence activist, Bakuninist anarchist and social Darwinist, born. A writer of elegant prose, he composed the draft of the 'Korean Revolutionary Manifesto' issued by the Band of Heroes (Eiyuldan), a revolutionary terrorist group responsible for a campaign of anti-Japanese violence in the 1920's. His novels are collected in 'The Dream Sky. Anthology of Novels by Shin Chae-ho' (1990), containing 'The Dream Sky' (Kkum Haneul, c. 1916) and 'The War of the Dragons' (Yonggwa Yongui Daegyeokjeon, c. 1920s-30s). His works, including his historiography, are still read in Korea today, where he is still held up as a national (sic) hero.

1883 - Georges Thomas (d. 1970), French teacher, anarchist, syndicalist and the socialist politician, born. Involved in anarchist circles between 1910-14, collaborating on Jean Grave's 'Temps Nouveaux'. Post-WWI, he moved towards libertarian socialism but still collaborated with anarchist Charles Benoît on 'L'Avenir International'. However, he embraced the October Revolution, forming l'Association Ouvrière et Paysanne des Victimes de la Guerre d'Indre, joining Secció Francesa de la Internacional Obrera (SFIO) and ultimately the Parti Socialiste, where he denounced his previously held libertarian views.

1896 - John Neve (Johann Christoph Neve; b. 1844), Danish anarchist militant, who was active in the workers' movements in Denmark, Belgium, England, and Germany, dies from tuberculosis in the appaling conditions in Moabit Prison, Berlin. [see: Apr. 12]

##1911 - Sidney Solomon (d. 2004), Russian-born American painter, book designer, publisher and long-time anarchist, who lived in New York, born. With his wife, Clara, and others, Solomon was a co-founder of the Atlantic Anarchist Circle.

1919 - Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman appear in federal court before Judge Julius M. Mayer, who declares that as aliens, they have no constitutional rights. They remain in detention at Ellis Island.

1930 - Janos (John) Réty (d. 2010), Hungarian-British anarchist poet, translator, publisher, chess-player, activist, born.

1930 - Adolphe Retté (b. 1863), French Symbolist poet, writer and anarchist,dies. [see: Jul. 25]

1938 - Georges Delaw (Henri Georges Deleau; b. 1871), French anarchist, poet, artist, designer and illustrator, dies. [see: Sep. 4]

1939 - Jean Grave (b. 1854), an important activist, writer and publisher in the French anarchist and avant-garde movements, dies. Involved with Élisée Reclus' 'Le Révolté' and wrote 'Mouvement Libertaire Sous la IIIe République'. [see: Oct. 16]

## 1949 - Ezio Flavio Bazzo, Brazilian psychologist, writer, journalist and anarchist, born in Santa Catarina.

1961 - Adelaida Bou Cañalda (b. 1905), Catalan knitting machinst and anarcho-syndicalist, who was the partner of her fellow anarcho-syndicalist, Jaume Rosquillas Magrinyà (1901-1975), dies in Mexico.

1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Big demonstrations against the Tory Government's Industrial Relations Bill. In the early hours of December 9 the Department of Employment and Productivity in St James Square, London, is bombed. The police had searched the building and no sooner left it than it went off. Action claimed by the Angry Brigade.

1970 - Italian writer and Internationale situationniste Gianfranco Sanguinetti declares his solidarity with the group's November 11 tendency.

1977 - The CNT convenes a rally against trade union elections in the Palacio Municipal de Deportes in Barcelona with the attendance of more than 8000 people and in favour of freedom of association in factories, workshops, offices, etc.

[F] 1979 - V Congreso de CNT: First Congress of the CNT after the Dictatorship of Franco, and the long exile is held in the Casa de Campo in Madrid [Dec. 8-16]. Those years of exile and the recent return to electoral democracy had built up tensions within the libertarian movement, and many of the reformist elements within the CNT 'rump' (who included many Marxist 'entryists') were already at odds with what they contemptuously called the 'exilio-FAI'*, who they blamed for all the problems within the organisation. This 'factionalism' mirrored the treintista vs. faísta* [gradualist vs. revolutionary / unionism vs. anarcho-syndicalism] split precipitated following the publication of the Manifiesto de los Treinta (Manifesto of the Thirty) in 1931. The reformists wanted the CNT to participate in the elections for the Jurados Mixtos, the Comités Paritarios and Jurados de Empresa – the various levels of Works and Factory Council formats set up during Second republic for setting wages and working conditions, which had been revived during the transition of democracy. Taking part in these they argued would offer the CNT the opportunity to become the "tercera fuerza sindical" (third trade union force – after the socialist UGT and communist CCOO). On the other hand, the anarcho-syndicalist current argued that such a move would effectively incorporate bourgeois parliamentarism into the CNT. The reformist platform was rejected by a large majority of the congress in favour of the renewal of Spanish anarcho-syndicalism from top to bottom. The congress also voted by overwhelming majority for the maintenance of the fraternal relationship with the FAI and the FIJL and, internationally, it would affiliate with both the International of Anarchist Federations (IAF-IFA) and the International Workers' Association (AIT-IWA).
The hardening of the two opposing positions would ultimately provoke a rupture of the anarcho-syndicalist (union) centre into the CNT-AIT and the CNT-Congreso de Valencia aka CNT-U(nificación), giving rise to the dismemberment of the Spanish libertarian movement, with the latter changing its name to the CGT in 1989 having lost the legal battle for the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo name.
[*It should be noted that the majority of both these grouping had no links with the Federación Anarquista Ibérica and linking them with the FAI was merely an attempt to paint them as dangerous radicals.]
[ -breve-introduccion-historica-0 -especial-v-congreso-de-la-cnt-madrid-1979-0ón_Nacional_del_Trabajoía:CNTía:CGT_(España)]

1980 - Working Class Hero and de facto libertarian John Winston Ono Lennon (b. 1940), is assassinated outside his apartment building in NYC by Mark David Chapman.

##1991 - Lu Jianbo (卢剑波; b. 1904), Chinese historian, veteran anarchist and Esperantist, dies.

2004 - Jackson Mac Low (b. 1922), US anarchist, pacifist, poet, Fluxus performance artist, composer and playwright, dies. [see: Sep. 11]
1842 - [N.S. Dec. 21] Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin (Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин; d. 1921), Russian revolutionist, anarchist and landmark geographer who had a mountain range named after him (he posited a now accepted theory on mountain formation), born in Moscow. [see: Dec. 21]

1867 - Emma Ballerini (Maria Gemma Mennocchi; d. unknown), Italian dressmaker and anarcha-feminist, who became Gigi Damiani's long-time partner, emigrating to Brazil together in 1897, born.

1868 - Paolo Lega aka 'Marat' (d. 1896), Italian anarchist illegalist who attempted to assassinate Prime Minister Francesco Crispi in Rome in 1894, for which he sentenced 20 years in prison, born. At nine, he learned the trade of a carpenter which he later pursued in various locations. A Republican at the age of fifteen, he shortly thereafter became a socialist anarchist and internationalist. In 1886, he was in Bologna for work and three years later he moved to Genoa, where he became a tireless agitator and organiser of strikes and demonstrations according to police records, as well as a member of the executive board of the newspaper 'Primo Maggio'. It was for this activity that he was arrested and deported back to his home town of Lugo. It will be followed by many other such 'repatriations'. Acquitted in a trial at the Bologna assizes for further press offences, in 1892 he moved to Marseilles and then returned to Genoa due to poor health. He is again forcibly removed to Lugo in April and then again in October of that year. His activities in Genoa including as manager of several different newspapers under the pseudonym 'Marat', as well as involvement in Genoa and La Spezia anarchist groups. After a few months working in Bologna and Marseille, where he attended anarchist anti-organisationalists circles close to Paolo Schicchi, in June 1893 he was again in Genoa, from which is expelled in August and then again in March of the following year. On the latter occasion he was also sentenced to 45 days in jail, and it was during this period of imprisonment that the idea is an attempt on the life of Prime Minister Francesco Crispi. The event occurred on June 16, 1894 on the Via Gregoriana in Rome as Crispi's coach passed. The gun Crispi was using fails to fire at first but a second shot is fired, and misses and Crispi remains unharmed. Lega is arrested and tried on July 19, 1894, the same day that the Italian parliament passed "exceptional laws" against anarchists, and in fact against all opposition parties, at the behest of Crispi. Lega is sentenced to twenty years and 17 days in jail and just over two years later, he died in Cagliari at the agricultural penal colony of St. Bartholomew.
At the trial of his alleged accomplices, Domenico Francolini, Emidio Recchioni, Luisa Minguzzi and Francesco Pezzi, which took place on November 7-30, 1895, resulted in their acquittal due to lack of evidence, but they were sent into internal exile on the island of Lipari.

[D] 1893 - August Vaillant bombs the French Chamber of Deputies to avenge Ravachol. A symbolic gesture, meant to wound rather than kill, Vaillant is condemned to death and guillotined February 5, 1894.

[B] 1896 - First performance (dress rehearsal) of Alfred Jarry's subversive play 'Ubu Roi' sets off a riot. An even bigger one occurs at the première tomorrow.

1899 - Emma Goldman appears in London among a cast of international speakers, including Louise Michel and Kropotkin, at a 'Grand Meeting and Concert for the Benefit of the Agitation in Favour of the Political Victims in Italy'.

## 1949 - Silvia Rivera Cusicanqui, Bolivian/Aymaran feminist, anarchist, sociologist, historian, and subaltern (post-colonialism) theorist, born in La Paz. [expand]
[ Comunalidades anarquistas.pdf]

1976 - Sentences on Noel and Marie Murray commuted to life in prison.

[C] 1985 - Hugo Gellert (Gellért Hugó; b. 1892), Hungarian-born American artist, illustrator, muralist, socialist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: May 3]

1991 - Maurice Joyeux (b.1910), French anarchist active in the Committee of the Unemployed, l'Union Anarchiste, the occupations of factories, and a prison revolt at Montluc [he escaped after having fomented a mutiny; subject of the book 'Mutinerie à Montluc' (1971)], dies. Founded the newspaper 'Le Monde Libertaire' in 1953 and wrote a number of books including two volumes of memoirs, 'Sous les Plis du Drapeau Noir' and 'Souvenirs d'un Anarchiste' (both 1988). [see: Jan. 29]

1999 - Anarchist protesters climb onto the Lenin mausoleum in Moscow's Red Square in a rare demonstration at the holy of holies of the former Soviet Union. The protesters draped a white banner with the words "Against Everyone" scrawled on it over the large 'LENIN' inscription which fronts the mausoleum before being arrested.
## 1843 - Isabella Fyvie Mayo (d. 1914), Scottish poet, novelist, suffragist, Tolstoyan anarchist, pacifist, anti-vivisectionist, anti-imperialist and anti-racist campaigner, who is primarily known for her fiction under thepen-name Edward Garrett, born in London.

##1865 - August Spies (d. 1887), US upholsterer, radical labour organiser, editor of the 'Arbeiter Zeitung' anarchist journal and one of the Haymarket anarchists, born. [EXPAND]
Speaker at the May 3, 1866 meeting at the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company plant in Chicago and involved in the printing of the 'Vengeance' poster and rally the following day, at which he spoke before the bombing took place.

1869 - Steven T. Byington (d. 1957), American individualist anarchist and populariser of the philosophy of Max Stirner, born.

1896 - The première of Alfred Jarry's subversive play 'Ubu Roi' sets off a riot, with different sections of the crowd alternately booing, whistling and shouting their outrage prompted by its scatological references [its first word is "Merde"], pompous style and bastardised French, or cheering and applauding the reaction of the outraged bourgeoisie. This follows similar disturbances at the dress rehearsal yesterday and these would be the only 2 performances of the play during the author's lifetime.
Interestingly, Joan Miró would go on to produce a set of lithographs (the Barcelona Series, published in 1944 and which he would revisit in colour in 1966), whilst in internal exile in Mallorca, based on the Ubu character. Produced in reaction to his experiences of the Spanish Revolution and its aftermath, the lithographs clearly depict Franco and his generals as versions of the fictional tyrant.

1904 - The first and only edition of 'L'Effort', intended to replace the French language supplement in 'Protesta Umana', and published by the French anarchist group Germinal, appears in San Francisco, California.

1910 - Amèlia Jover Velasco (d. 1997), Spanish secretary, chef, home schooler and anarcho-syndicalist militant, born.

1919 - II Congreso de CNT: The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo hold their second congress at the Teatro de La Comedia in Madrid [Dec. 10-18]. It is attended by more than 450 delegates representing almost 800,000 affiliates. During the congress a declaration of principles in which libertarian communism is considered as an end is agreed upon; Also, in terms of tactics, an opinion is adopted that defends direct action, rejecting all types of arbitration, and the use of sabotage. the possibility of merging the confederation with the UGT and the Federaciones Nacionales de Industria (National Federations of Industry / FFNNI) in order to contribute to a greater unity of the Spanish labour movement is debated and rejected. Finally, the elephant in the corner, the Russian Revolution, is addressed. After much discussion (though little apparent opposition), the congress voted provisionally to join the Communist Third International because of its revolutionary character, expressing the hope, however, that a universal workers' congress would be called to determine the basis upon which a true workers' international could be built. It would withdraw from the International in June, 1922, after the Conferencia Nacional de Zaragoza.

1927 - Fernand Julian (b. 1877), French anarchist and syndicalist who help found the Cité Coopérative Paris-Jardin à Draveil, dies. [see: May. 6]

1930 - The Prefect of Police in Paris, Jean Chiappe, has 'L'Age d'Or' banned from further public exhibition after the regular organised disturbances that followed the mini-riot of the 3rd., by getting the Board of Censors to re-review the film.

1944 - The first public anarchist assembly following the Libération (WWII) is staged today. Organised by the editors of the newly revived newspaper 'Ce Qu’il Faut Dire' (What Must Be Said) and Charles Auguste Bontemps.

1955 - Basiliso Serrano Valero, a.k.a 'Fortuna' & 'El Manco de La Pesquera' (b. 1908), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist guerilla fighter, who later fought with the Maquis and joined the PCE, is executed in the Paterna military barracks in Valencia. [see: Apr. 15]

1970 - Dario Fo's 'Accidental Death of an Anarchist' is published in Italy.

1998 - Luisa Arnau Capaces (b. 1920), Spanish anarchist, who was active in the CNT in exile, dies in Montpellier.

2001 - Vernon Richards (d. 1915), Anglo-Italian anarchist, éminence grise of 'Freedom' for much of the second half of C20th and companion to Marie Louise Berneri until her tragic death during childbirth in 1949, dies. [see: Jul. 19]
1864 - Maurice Leblanc (d. 1941), French novelist and creator of the fictional gentleman thief and detective Arsène Lupin, who was based on the anarchist illegalist burglar Marius (Alexandre) Jacob, born.

1893 - The first in a series of votes (Dec. 11-15), two days after Auguste Vaillant's bombing of the National Assembly, passing the lois scélérates (villainous laws), a set of severe anti-anarchist laws aimed at curtailing propaganda by deed attentats.

1907 - Enrique Garcia Sanchiz (d. 1994), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. A member of the CNT, he joined the Columna de Ferro following the fascist uprising in July 1936 and fought until the end of the war in the 26th Division, the militarised Durruti Column. Seriously wounded, he managed to cross the Pyrenees and was interned in various concentration camps in France. Whilst trying to emigrate to Mexico, he was arrested by the French police in Saint-Hilaire and placed along with other Spanish refugees on a train to be deported to Spain. Halted at Montendre (Charente) on August 18, 1940, where he was interned in a camp which had been established to accommodate refugees from regions in eastern France. In the camp he met his future wife, a Basque native who had arrived at the camp on August 19. On January 28, 1941, he was hired by the Société Nouvelle to work at the German military base at Bussac and on July 22, 1941, he was assigned to the Entreprises Industrielles to work in Aytré, shipped daily to and from the camp. Enrique Garcia Sanchiz was released from the camp at its disbanding in December 1943. He remained a militant member of the CNT in exile in Carbon Blanc, close to Bordeaux, where he and his partner settled in 1992. He died there in August 23, 1994.

1911 - Yaqui Indians in the Sonora region, influenced by the Mexican Liberal Party of Ricardo Flores Magón's 'Tierra y Libertad', reclaim their stolen communal lands. Their war with government lasts, officially, until 1929.

1912 - Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman speak at the Chicago celebration of Peter Kropotkin's 70th birthday.

## 1922 - Grace Paley (d. 2007), US short story writer, poet, teacher, feminist and "somewhat combative pacifist and cooperative anarchist", born. Her works include three collections of fiction: 'The Little Disturbances of Man' (1959), 'Enormous Changes at the Last Minute' (1974), 'Later the Same Day' (1985) as well as 'The Collected Stories of Grace Paley' (1994); her collection of essays, 'Just As I Thought' (1998); and her poems appear in several collections, including 'Long Walks and Intimate Talks' (1991) and 'Begin Again: Collected Poems' (2002).

[B] 1930 - Jean-Louis Trintignant, French actor and leftist sympathiser, born. In 2012 declared himself: "contre l'autorité, la politique... plutôt socialiste. Voire anarchiste... L'idée de l'anarchie me plaît beaucoup, même si je sais qu'on ne sauvera pas le monde avec elle, born." (Against the authority, politics... rather socialist. Even anarchist... The idea of the anarchy pleases me a lot, even if I know that we will not save the world with it.)

1933 - Militant Portuguese anarcho-syndicalist Acácio Tomás de Aquino (1899-1998) is arrested and thrown into the the Trafaria penitentiary. He is later sent to Angra do Heroísmo (1934-1937) and then spends the next 10+ years in the Tarrafal concentration camp in the Cape Verde Islands until his release in September 1949.

1937 - Angel Pestaña Núñez (b. 1886), militant Spanish anarcho-syndicalist who later split with the CNT, dies. [see: Feb. 14]

1950 - Nicanor Fernández Alvarez aka 'El Canor', 'Canor de Santa Rosa' & 'El Chato' (b. 1922) and Luis Gonzalez Melendi aka 'Barranca' (b. 1921), both members of Adolfo Quintana Castañon's group, who were arrested by French police crossing the border, handed over to the Francoist authorities, brutally tortured and sentence to death, are garroted.

##1953 - Patrick Pécherot, French journalist, novelist and libertarian, born. Probably best known for his Série Noire detective fiction, including 'Tiurai' (1996), his début novel which was a tribute to anarchist writer Jean Meckert, and the trilogy of books featuring Léo Malet's character Nestor Burma: 'Les Brouillards de la Butte' (The Mists of the Hill 2002), 'Belleville Barcelone' (2003) and 'Boulevard des Branques' (2005). He has also written a novel about Bonnot gang member André Soudy, 'L'Homme à la Carabine' (The Man with the Rifle; 2011).

1958 - Alberto Meschi (b. 1879), prominent Italian anarchist, syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: May 27]

1979 - Maria Mestre Gibert (b. ca. 1915), Catalan anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies after along fight against cancer.

[E] 1994 - Anna Mikhailovna Garaseva (Анна Михайловна Гарасёва; b. 1902), Russian geologist, anarcho-syndicalist and later secretary to AIexander Solzhenitsyn whilst he was compiling 'The Gulag Archipelago' (Архипелаг ГУЛАГ; 1873), dies. [see: Dec. 20]
1872 - Johann Heinrich Vogeler (d. 1942), German painter, printmaker, architect, designer, educator, writer and communitarian, born. Member of the artistic community of Worpswede. Founder of the Barkenhoff artists commune. Having been a dandy and aesthete in the years before WWI, he volunteer for the German army in 1914 and became a pacifist in 1917. Influenced by utopian socialism and anarchism, and also by the English Garden City movement, he later became a member of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) and of the Rote Hilfe Deutschland. He emigrated to the Soviet Union in 1931.

#### 1873 - Lola Ridge (d. 1941), Irish-American anarcho-feminist poet, artist's model, illustrator and organiser for the Francisco Ferrer Association's Modern School, born. An influential editor of avant-garde, feminist and Marxist publications best remembered for her long poems and poetic sequences. She was particularly active in the campaign against the execution of Sacco and Vanzetti in 1927, for which she was arrested, and in support of Tom Mooney and Warren Billings, who had been framed for a bombing at the Preparedness Day Parade in San Francisco in 1916. Much of her political poetry is collected in 'Red Flag' (1927). Her other writings include 'The Ghetto, and Other Poems' (1918); 'Sun-Up: and Other Poems' (1920); 'Firehead' (1929); and 'Dance of Fire' (1935).

'The Ghetto'

Section I

Cool, inaccessible air
Is floating in velvety blackness shot with steel-blue lights,
But no breath stirs the heat
Leaning its ponderous bulk upon the Ghetto
And most on Hester street…

The heat…
Nosing in the body’s overflow,
Like a beast pressing its great steaming belly close,
Covering all avenues of air…

The heat in Hester street,
Heaped like a dray
With the garbage of the world.

Bodies dangle from the fire escapes
Or sprawl over the stoops…
Upturned faces glimmer pallidly–
Herring-yellow faces, spotted as with a mold,
And moist faces of girls
Like dank white lilies,
And infants’ faces with open parched mouths that suck at the air
as at empty teats.

Young women pass in groups,
Converging to the forums and meeting halls,
Surging indomitable, slow
Through the gross underbrush of heat.
Their heads are uncovered to the stars,
And they call to the young men and to one another
With a free camaraderie.
Only their eyes are ancient and alone…

The street crawls undulant,
Like a river addled
With its hot tide of flesh
That ever thickens.
Heavy surges of flesh
Break over the pavements,
Clavering like a surf–
Flesh of this abiding
Brood of those ancient mothers who saw the dawn break over Egypt…
And turned their cakes upon the dry hot stones
And went on
Till the gold of the Egyptians fell down off their arms…
Fasting and athirst…
And yet on…

Did they vision–with those eyes darkly clear,
That looked the sun in the face and were not blinded–
Across the centuries
The march of their enduring flesh?
Did they hear–
Under the molten silence
Of the desert like a stopped wheel–
(And the scorpions tick-ticking on the sand…)
The infinite procession of those feet?


[B] 1882 - Jiří Mahen (real name Antonín Vančura; d. 1939), Czech poet, novelist, journalist, dramaturge, librarian, director, theatre critic, anarchist and anti-militarist, born. Cousin of Vladislav Vančura. He was influenced by the turn of the century generation of Czech Anarchističtí Buřiči, "básníci života a vzdoru" (Anarchist Rebels, "the poets of life and defiance"), but later wrote in an Impressionist style.
He joined a group of anarchists around S.K. Neumann’s magazine 'Nový Kult' (New Cult) in 1902, along with his contemporary Rudolf Těsnohlídek. and wrote for a number of other anarchist and socialist journals including 'Novým Životem' (New Life) and 'Prací' (Work). In 'Nový Kult' he first used the pseudonym Mahen inspired by a character in Zola's novel 'Germinal'.
From 1907 he worked as a supply teacher at secondary schools in Moravia, and in 1910 he settled permanently in Brno. Between 1910 and 1919, he worked as an editor of Brno’s 'Lidové Noviny' (Popular Newspaper), as a director and dramaturge of Brno National Theatre (1918-22) and from 1920 to 1924 he taught at the Brno Conservatory. In 1921 he became librarian and later director of the Brno Municipal Library. Jiří Mahen sympathized with postwar literary generations especially with Vitezslav Nezval and Frantisek Halas, who were his pupils and friends for life. As a result of the German occupation and personal depression, Jiří Mahen committed suicide in 1939. He was later to have found to have been amongst the first on the Nazi's list of those destined to be sent to the concentration camps.
A prolific author, his most important texts are the novels 'Kamarádi Svobody' (Friends of Freedom; 1907, which depicts the material poverty and political activity of his student years) and 'Mesíc' (The Moon; 1920), a fantastic novel evoking the relaxed style of Poetism; the theatre plays 'Janosík' (Janosik; 1910), based on the popular legend of the highwayman Juraj Jánošík; 'Mrtve Moře' (Dead Sea; 1917); and the three strongly socially critical and anti-war dramas: 'Nebe, Peklo, Ráj' (Heaven, Hell, Paradise; 1919), 'Desertér' (1923) and 'Generace' (Generation; 1921). He was the author of many essay books; of them 'Rybařská Knízka' (Fishermen's Book; 1921) is the most well-known.
"Odstranění militarismu se dá provést jen absolutním odstraněním autority vůbec. Autority každé, tedy především i státu. Militarismus a autorita, militarismus a stát, tyto pojmy, které trvání své navzájem podmiňují, určují také jediný prospěšný způsob boje, jaký má být proti nim veden." (Removal of militarism can be done only by the total removal of all authority. Every authority, and particularly the State. Militarism and authority, militarism and the State, these notions are conditional on each other, and determine the only useful way of fighting the battle that has to be conducted against them.)

[E] 1909 - Emma Goldman speaks in Lyric Hall on Sixth Avenue in New York on 'Will the Vote Free Woman: Woman Suffrage' to an audience of three hundred women, many of whom are suffragists. She characterises it as "a wild goose chase". A collection is taken for Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, recently sentenced to a three-month prison term resulting from her arrest during a free-speech battle in Spokane.

1913 - Matilde 'Mati' Escuder Vicente (1913-2006), Spanish libertarian teacher and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1916 - Dr. Ben Reitman arrested in Cleveland for organising volunteers to distribute birth control information at Emma Goldman's lecture 'Is Birth Control Harmful - a Discussion of the Limitation of Offspring'.

1926 - Jean Richepin (b. 1849), French poet, dramatist, novelist, actor, sailor and stevedore, dies. [see: Feb. 4]

## 1930 - Ruben G. Prieto (d. 2008), Uraguayan anarchist, who was one of the founders in the 1950's of the Comunidad del Sur, a co-operative self-managed community, born.

1933 - Émile Ernest Girault (b.1871), French typographer, militant anarchist advocate and anti-militarist before becoming a communist, dies. [see: Jun. 15]

1950 - Paolo Schicchi aka 'il leone di Collesano' (b. 1865), Italian anarchist supporter of the spontaneous/anti-organisational current (anarchico-spontaneista/tendenza antiorganizzatrice), anti-militarist, anti-clericalist, who was prominent in the anti-fascist struggle, dies. [see: Aug. 31]

[A] 1969 - Piazza Fontana Bombing: A bomb explodes at the Banque Nationale d'Agriculture in Milan. 18 die, many injured. It is attributed to anarchist though it has all the hallmarks of Operation Gladio. More than 80 anarchist are arrested including Giuseppe Pinelli, an anarchist railway worker, who died after falling from the fourth floor window of the police station where he was being held.

[C] 1970 - At an anarchist protest on the anniversary of the 'strage di Stato' (Piazza Fontana bombing), and to show solidarity with the militants of ETA on trial in Burgos, in Via Larga, Milan, 22-year-old Italian anti-Fascist Saverio Saltarelli is killed during a police attack on the demonstration, when a tear canister hits him in the face. Dozens of injuries are sustained by protesters, among which the journalist Giuseppe Carpi who is hit by a bullet. Carabinieri captain Antonio Chirivi and police captain Alberto Antonietti are subsequently indicted the death of Saltarelli. Many believe neo-Fascists in the police ranks were behind the attack.

1970 - Nathan Isaevich Altman (Натан Исаевич Альтман; b. 1889), Russian-Jewish and Soviet avant-garde artist, Cubist painter, stage designer and book illustrator, dies. [see: Dec. 2]

1971 - The 'Research Group' (研究会) of the L-Class Struggle Committee (Lクラス闘争委員会), the forerunner of anarchist East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front (東アジア反日武装戦線), bombs the Koa Kannon (興亜観音) temple, destroying the Seven Martyrs Monument (殉国七士墓) stone as a protest aganst Japanese imperialism. The '1068 Monument' (1068の碑 or Great East Asia War Martyrs' Death Penalty Monument (大東亜戦争殉国刑死一〇六八柱供養碑) was also targetted but survived due to a second pipe bomb (both devices were constructed from fire extinguisher casings) failed to detonate properly, causing only minor damage.

1973 - Bewegung 2. Juni (June 2 Movement) member Gabi Kröcher-Tiedemann is sentenced to 8 years imprisonment for the attempted murder of a policeman on July 7, 1973.

1975 - Mochizuki Katsura (望月桂; d. 1887), Japanese anarchist, painter, designer, and manga artist, the latter under the penname Saikawa Bontarō (犀川凡太郎), dies aged 89. [see: Jan. 11]

1977 - Virginia Tabarroni aka 'Danda' (1888-1977), Italian typographer and anarchist, who was the aunt of Anteo Zamboni, the 15-year-old who attempted to assassinate Mussolini in Bologna on October 31, 1926, dies. [see: Mar. 11]
[NB. some sources give the date of her death as Dec. 29]

1986 - Juan García Durán, pseudonym of Luís Costa García, aka 'El Fuegos' (b. 1915), Galician librarian, historian, and militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies suddenly in Alicante of an aneurysm. [see: Feb. 26]
1881 - Jules Le Gall (d. 1944), French boilermaker, journalist, ironmonger, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and Freemason, born. Helped found in 1903 of the Jeunesse Syndicaliste in l'Arsenal de Brest and appointed secretary of the Bourse du Travail de Brest in 1904, he was charged with "inciting soldiers to disobedience" but acquitted in January 1906.
"The society is rotten and it should stop at nothing to overthrow! We are ready to make holes in the skin to maintain our rights and whether bloodshed, are spreading it!"
"I am neither a saint nor a bloodthirsty, I simply revolutionary and I claim. I am a revolutionary because I suffered because I have seen people suffer, because I see everywhere suffer. When at the age of ten I lost my father, I knew what suffering."

1890 - Jean Goldschild (aka Goldsky, or Jacques Guerrier)(d. 1969), French anti-militarist, militant anarchist and journalist, born. Collaborated with Miguel Almereyda and others to create the Fédération Révolutionnaire, which advocated the use of direct action for "the radical destruction of capitalist society and authority", and on 'Le Bonnet Rouge' during WWI, as well as working on Louis Lecoin's journal 'Liberté'.

## 1895 - Lucía Sánchez Saornil (d. 1970), Spanish poet, painter, anarchist and feminist, born. Her early highly erotic paeans to female beauty, which were written under the male psuedonym of Luciano de San-Saor, first appeared in the literary magazine 'Los Quijotes' in 1918. She was considered one of the foremost Ultraïsmo poets, an avant-garde literary movement of the era, and certainly the only female one. Becoming a convinced anarchist in the '20s, she was appointed editorial secretary of the CNT in Madrid and began having articles regularly published in 'Tierra y Libertad', 'La Revista Blanca' and 'Solidaridad Obrera', expounding on the centrality of the feminist cause to the class struggle. As a result of the resistance to these ideas amongst her male colleagues, she co-founded Mujeres Libres, along with Mercedes Comaposada and Amparo Poch y Gascon, in 1936. During the war some of her poems, now much less lyrical and more directed towards expressing her political views, were collected in 'Romancero de Mujeres Libres' (Ballads of Free Women; 1937), as were several of her articles in 'Horas de Revolución' (Hours of Revolution; 1938). In May 1938, she became general secretary of Solidaridad Internacional Antifascista (SIA) and later editor of the weekly 'Umbral' (Threshold), were she met her companion América Barroso. Following Franco's victory, they fled to Paris but were forced to return clandestinely to Spain after the Nazi invasion of France.

'Romance de Durruti'

¿Qué bala te cortó el paso
-¡Maldición de aquella hora!-
atardecer de noviembre
camino de la victoria?

Las sierras del Guadarrama
cortan la luz y sombra
un horizonte mojado
de agua turbia y sangre heroica.
Y a tus espaldas Madrid,
con el ojo atento a tu bota,
mordido por los incendios,
con jadeos de leona,
tus pasos iba midiendo
prietos el puño y la boca.

¡Atardecer de noviembre,
borrón negro de la historia!

Buenaventura Durruti,
¿Quién conoció otra congoja
más amarga que tu muerte
sobre tierra española?

Acaso estabas soñando
las calles de Zaragoza
y el agua espesa del Ebro
caminos de laurel rosa
cuando el grito de Madrid
cortó tu sueño en mal hora...

Gigante de las montañas
donde tallabas tu gloria,
hasta Castilla desnuda
bajaste como una tromba
para raer de las tierras
pardas la negra carroña,
y detrás de ti, en alud,
tu gente, como tu sombra.

Hasta los cielos de Iberia
te dispararon las bocas.
El aire agito tu nombre
entre banderas de gloria
-canto sonoro de guerra
y dura función de forja-

Y una tarde de noviembre
mojada de sangre heroica,
en cenizas de crepúsculo
caía tu vida rota.

Sólo hablaste estas palabras
al filo ya de tu hora:
Unidad y firmeza, amigos;
¡para vencer hais de sobra!

Durruti, hermano Durruti,
jamás se vió otra congoja
más amarga que tu muerte
sobre la tierra española.

Rostros curtidos del cierzo
quiebran su durez de roca;
como tallos quebradizos
hasta la tierra se doblan
hercules del mismo acero
¡Hombres de hierro, sollozan!

Fúnebres tambores baten
apisonando la fosa.

¡Durruti es muerto, soldados,
que nadie mengüe su obra!

Sen buscan manos tendidas,
los odios se desmoronan,
y en las trincheras profundas
cuajan realidades hondas
porque a la faz de la muerte
los imposibles se agotan.

-Aquí está mi diestra, hermano,
calma tu sed en mi boca,
mezcla tu sangre a la mía
y tu aliento a mi voz ronca.
Parte conmigo tu pan
y tus lágrimas si lloras.
Durruti bajo la tierra
en esto espera su honra.

Rugen los pechos hermanos.
Las armas al aire chocan.
Sobre las rudas cabezas
sólo una enseña tremola.

Durruti es muerto. ¡Malhaya
aquel que mengüe su obra!


[B] 1900 - Karel Teige (d. 1951), Czech graphic artist, photographer, typographer and "poet-anarchist", born. A major figure in the Czech avant-garde movement Devětsil (Nine Powers) in the 1920s, he edited and contributed graphics to the most influential avant-garde journals on Czech and international cultural affairs (including 'Revue Devětsilu', 'Disk' and 'Pásmo'), wrote essays and books on the theory and criticism of art and architecture. He also produced paintings, collages, photomontages, film scripts, book covers, and typefaces and participated in theatrical performances.
An anarchist communist aligned with the (anarchist) Union of Communist Groups, in 1929 he co-founded and chaired the communist arts group Levá Fronta (Left Front), which replaced the now defunct Svaz Moderní Kultury Devětsil (Devětsil Union of Modern Culture), which had split following fallout over the news of the Stalinist purges and trials in Russia. [At the time he had a running battle with fellow poet and hard-liner Josef Hora over keeping Devětsil independent of party influence, even though Teige's opportunism ended up with him as a party apparatchik and the more principled and independent Hora c.f. the 'Proclamation of the Seven', whose concept of proletarian art was much the broader, eventually outside of it.] And, despite his suspicions about the wider surrealist movement (he claimed that it neglected the political and was too anarchistic) he eventually became a member of the newly founded Czech Surrealist Group in 1934, serving time as its theoretical spokesman.
Following the Soviet takeover in 1948, Teige was first hailed as a progressive but then silenced by the Communist government, who prevented him from writing for official journals and study for a doctorate. Instead he published the samizdat 'Sborníku Znamení Zvěrokruhu' (Proceedings of the Zodiac). However, he committed suicide following a press campaign that labelled him a "Trotskyite degenerate", his papers were destroyed by the secret police, and his published work was suppressed for decades.
NB The decades-long feud between S. K. Neumann and Karel Teige.

[BB] 1911 - Kenneth Patchen (d. 1972), American anarchist and pacifist poet and novelist, born. Author of 'The Journal of Albion Moonlight' (1941) and 'Memoirs of a Shy Pornographer' (1945). [expand]

[E] 1913 - Matilde Escuder Vicente (d. 2006), Spanish libertarian teacher and follower of Francisco Ferrer, born. Member of the Durruti Column and participated in the Aragon collectist movement. Imprisoned after the war, she later participated in the anti-Franco underground.

##1914 - Ralph Digia (d. 2008), US anarchist, lifelong war resister, pacifist and social justice activist, who was a staffer for 52 years at the War Resisters League, born in the Bronx.

1933 - The beginning of a series of uprisings initiated by the anarchists in Spanish provinces (Andalusia, Aragon, Estremadure). In several villages, they declare anarchist-communism, destroy property files and abolish the currency. But these movements remain insulated and on December 10 the Republican government declares a State of Emergency and sends in the army who finally crush the insurrection by the 13th.

1935 - Richard Sylvan (Francis Richard Routley; d. 1996), New Zealand-Australia philosopher, logician, environmentalist and anarchist, born.

1939 - Gildardo Magaña Cerda (d. 1891), Mexican author, antirreeleccionista, revolutionary, anarcho-syndicalist and Zapatista general, who succeeded Zapata as head of the Ejército Libertador del Sur (Liberation Army of the South), dies in Ciudad de México. [see: Mar. 7]

1943 - Ivan Kliun (Иван Васильевич Клюн; b. 1873), Russian Suprematist and Constructivist painter, graphic artist and sculptor, dies. [see: Aug. 20]

1948 - Frans Drion (Franciscus Johannes Wilhelmus Drion; b. 1874), Dutch author, editor, accountant, teacher of economics and government, insurance consultant and anarchist, who published under the pseudonyms 'A' and 'Akrates', dies in The Hague. [see: Sep. 12]

1960 - Dora Marsden (b. 1882), British individualist anarchist, militant suffragette and literary publisher, dies. [see: Mar. 5]

1966 - The Strasbourg county court sequesters the offices and management of the Strasbourg Bureau of the local Student Association (AFGES) following the scandal surrounding the publishing of 'On the Poverty of Student Life, Considered in its Economic, Political, Psychological, Sexual & Especially Intellectual Aspects, with a Modest Proposal for Doing Away With It'. [See: Nov. 16 & 22]

1971 - White Panther Party founder, author, music critic and one-time manager of the band MC5, John Sinclair (sentenced to 10 years in jail for selling two marijuana joints) is freed.

2008 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: Large groups of demonstrators gathered in front of the Greek Parliament in central Athens. Despite the fact that the protest in front of the Greek parliament was relatively peaceful, the riot police attempted to dissolve it at 13:30 by using tear gas and violence. Around 300 anarchists attack the offices of the Ministry of Planning and Public Works in solidarity with the struggle of the people of the village of Leukimi in Corfu (a local woman was assassinated by the police there in the summer). Two banks are also smashed and burnt. High street shops are smashed. The police are nowhere to be seen.
Thousands of people gathered at the point of assassination of Alexandros (at the corner of Messologiou and Tzavella Street in Eksarhia) and about 100 protesters firebombed a police station nearby.
1841 - Samuel 'Sam' Mainwaring (d. 1907), Welsh engineer, union organiser, anarchist orator and anarcho-syndicalist (it is claimed that Sam was the first person to coin the term 'anarcho-syndicalism'), who was one of the original members of the Socialist League and personal friend of William Morris, born.

1845 - André Augustin Bastelica (d. 1884), French typographer and printer, member of the First International, Communard, agitator, anarchist avant la lettre, supporter of Bakunin and organiser of the Marseilles working class, born. Secretary of the Marseille section of the AIT, he was castigated by Marx for "preaching total abstention from politics"

## [A] 1853 - Errico Malatesta (d. 1932), Italian mechanic, anarcho-communist, theorist and editor, born in Italy. [EXPAND]

1864 - Thomas Cantwell (d. 1906), British militant anarchist active in the Socialist League, co-publisher of the 'The Commonweal' and manager of 'Freedom', born.

1895 - Francesco Barbieri (d. 1937), Italian anti-fascist and anarchist militant, born. During the Spanish Revolution in 1936 he joined the Italian column fighting in Huesca. While hospitalized in Barcelona in May 1937 Barbieri is arrested by cops under command of the Communists and his body is found full of bullet holes the next day, along with that of Camillo Berneri.

1897 - Octave Mirbeau's 'Les Mauvais Bergers' (The Bad Shepherds) premières at the Théâtre de la Renaissance in Paris.

###1910 - Bruno Salvadori, aka Antoine or Antonio Gimenez (d. 1986), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist fighter in Spain, born. [REWRITE]

1914 - Antonio Ramón Ramón attempts to kill Roberto Silva Renard, the General who directed the slaughter of 3,000+ unarmed women, children and workers in the Santa Maria School Massacre during a strike in Iquique in 1907.

1918 - The first issue of 'Der Syndikalist', the newspaper of the Freie Vereinigung Deutscher Gewerkschaft (FVdG, Free Association of German Trade Unions) and later of the Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands (Free Workers' Union of Germany), is published in Berlin with a first edition of 10,000 copies following the November Revolution. It replaces the banned publications 'Die Einigkeit' (Unity) and 'Der Pionier' (The Pioneer).

1922 - Luciano Bianciardi (d. 1971), Italian journalist, translator, novelist, short story writer, and individualist anarchist, who was the first Italian translator of Henry Miller's 'Tropic of Cancer' and 'Tropic of Capricorn', Saul Bellow's 'Henderson the Rain King' and J.P. Donleavy's 'The Ginger Man' amongst many others, born.

1923 - Théophile Alexandre Steinlen (b. 1859), Swiss-born French Art Nouveau painter, printmaker and contributor to the anarchist magazine 'Temps Nouveau', along with Aristide Delannoy, Maximilien Luce, Théo van Rysselberghe, Camille Pissarro, Paul Signac, Van Dongen, George Willaume, etc., dies. [see: Nov. 10]

1926 - Théo van Rysselberghe (b. 1862), Belgian Impressionist, neo-Impressionist and then Pointillist painter, Member of Les XX and anarchist, dies. Contributed to the anarchist magazine 'Temps Nouveaux'. [see: Nov. 23]

1928 - Josef 'Sepp' Oerter (b. 1870), German bookbinder and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 24]

1928 - Izak Samson (b. 1872), Dutch beer merchant, diamond worker, anarchist propagandist and later social democrat, dies in Antwerp. [see: May 20]

1937 - Republican offensive begins at Teruel. [expand]

1962 - Lluís Latorre Mestres (b. 1912), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was one of those responsible for the assassination as "dignitat confederal" of Lucio and Julio Ruano Segúndez, former prominent militants of the Columna Durruti accused of all kinds of excesses (robberies, murders, etc.) on the front, dies in Montevideo, Uruguay. [see: Apr. 8]

1968 - Axel Österberg, aka 'Kluck' (Axel Fritiof Gustaf Österberg; b. 1911), Swedish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, journalist, author and translator, who used the pen name Gluck and was one of the few Swedish eyewitness to report on the Spanish Revolution, publishing the book 'Bakom Barcelonas barrikader: Bilder från spanska inbördeskriget' (Behind Barcelona's barricades: Pictures of the Spanish Civil War; 1936), [see: Jan. 3]

2003 - Cesare Fuochi (b. 1917), Italian anarchist, syndicalist railway worker and anti-fascist partisan, dies. [see: Sep. 17]

##2011 - Pussy Riot perform 'Smert tyurme, svobodu protestu' [Смерть тюрьме, свободу протесту](Death to Prison, Freedom to Protests) from top a garage beside the Moscow Detention Center No. 1 prison [Cпецприёмника № 1 Москвы], where opposition activists from the December 5 rally against the State duma election results were among the prisoners being held. The prisoners loved it, applauding from the prison's windows.

[B] 2012 - State television channel CCTV-6 shows 'V for Vendetta' for the first time in China. Confusion reigns over whether it was previously officially banned but the newly dubbed into Chinese version was shown under a new title, 'V Special Forces', rather than the more lurid 'V the Revenge Killing Squad' rendering previously used in China.
1857 - Lucien Louis Guérineau aka 'Fleury' (d. 1940), French carpenter, cabinetmaker, anarchist propagandist and revolutionary syndicalist, born. Deeply affected by the Paris Commune he was apprenticed to a cabinetmakers. In 1879, he was introduced to Constant Martin, Émile Eudes and Louis-Auguste Blanqui and began to become interested in the libertarian movement. A convinced anti-militarist, he formed an anarchist along with a dozen soldiers. In 1884, he became a member of Drapeau Noir and collaborated on it journal 'Terre et Liberté'. In 1884, he was arrested after being found with copies of Jean Grave's statement of protest against July 14, and locked in the Parisian prison of Mazas. On August 9 he was sentenced to two months imprisonment for "violence and violence against agents of the state." In 1885, he collaborated on 'L'Audace' (Boldness) and on 'Tire-Pied' (literally knee-strap, a leather strap used by a cobbler). In 1887, he joined the anarchist group in Montreuil and later joined Les Communistes des Amandiers, a group fromed by ex-Communards (Parthenay, Coulet, Vory, Picardat, Bourges, Wagner) and that would go on to rename itself Les Communistes Anarquistes des Amandiers. He was also active in other groups, including Les Égaux, La Cloche de Bois (The Wooden Bell), the Syndicat des Hommes de Peine (Union of Handymen) or the Pieds-Plats (Flatfeet). In 1888, he was the founder of the militant Union Syndicale du Meuble Sculté et de l'Ébénisterie (Trade Union Carved Furniture and Joinery; USMSE) in opposition to the more moderate Cambra Sindical de l'Ebenisteria. In 1890 he worked on 'Révolution Future' and the following year founded the periodical 'Le Pot à Colle'. [expand]

1866 - Luigi Molinari (d. 1918), Italian lawyer, educator and anarchist militant, active with Errico Malatesta and Camillo Berneri, born. Molinari was arrested and convicted by a military tribunal for instigating an insurrection, in 1894, by armed bands of anarchists supporting Sicilian victims of the 'State of Siege' (the government was repressing revolts against increased flour prices). Sentenced to 23 years in prison, Molinari was released in 1895 as the result of massive protests.

1870 - Achille Daudé (Achille Daudé-Bancel; d. 1963), French trade union activist, anarchist and advocate of co-operatives, born. Wrote numerous works on cooperatism, as well as on food and social questions, including 'Le Coopératisme Devant les Ecoles Sociale' (1897); 'Une Coopérative de Consommation. "La Famille" Société de Consommation Coopérative, d'Epargne et de Prévoyance Sociale' (1905) and 'Pain Riche ou Pain Appauvri' (1916).

1893 - 'La Revue Libertaire', under the direction of Charles Chatel, Henri Gauche and Henri Guerin, begins publishing in Paris. Victim of the anti-anarchist laws (lois scélérates), the review is shut down, after a mere five issues, on February 20, 1894. The epigraph for the first number (which changed each issue) is from Henrik Ibsen: "The State is the curse of the individual".

1912 - The Federación Obrera Regional del Perú (Regional Workers' Federation of Peru), which had been formed earlier that year in October holds its second Assembly, adopting the demand for the eight-hour day. Since October, the Unión Local de Jornaleros (Local Union of Day Labourers) had joined the FORP's orginal members, the Sociedad de resistencia de los obreros galleteros y anexos (Resistance Society of Gallete Workers and Annexes), the Federación de Electricistas (Federation of Electricians), the Federación de Obreros Panaderos "Estrella del Perú", the Unificación Textil de Vitarte (Textile Unification of Vitarte), the Unificación Proletaria de Santa Catalina, and other anarcho-syndicalist organisations.[ón_Obrera_Regional_Peruana]

1913 - Muriel Rukeyser (d. 1980), US feminist poet, radical political activist, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, born.

1916 - Dr. Ben Reitman is again arrested for distributing illegal birth control literature at one of Emma Goldman's lectures in Rochester, NY.

1921 - Mollie Steimer, Jacob Abrams, Samuel Lipman and Hyman Lachowsky arrive in Moscow after being deported from the US as victims of the Red Scare in America. They find that Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman have already departed for the West, disillusioned by the turn the revolution has taken.

1927 - Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven (born Else Hildegard Plötz; b. 1874), German self-proclaimed anarchist [is there any other sort?], walking Dadaist art work, artist model and poet, dies. [see: Jul. 12]

1934 - Iza Zielińska (Iza Gąsowska; b. 1863), Polish journalist, educator, social activist and participant in the Polish and International anarchist and socialist movements, dies. [see: Mar. 11]

1947 - Zhang Ji (張繼; b. 1882), Chinese revolutionist against the Qing dynasty and early Chinese anarchist, who became a leading member of the right-wing in the Kuomintang, dies in Nanjing, aged 65 years old. [see: Aug. 31]

##1954 - Alex Cox, English film director, screenwriter, nonfiction author, broadcaster and sometime actor, with a distinctive anarchist and punk sensibility, who was inspired by the work of Luis Buñuel, born.

## [AA] 1969 - Anarchist Black Cross member Guiseppe Pinelli is thrown out of a window whilst being interrogated by Italian police. He dies, no one is ever charged with his murder.
[Costantini pic]

1994 - Raid on the house where the Italian anarchist weekly 'Canenero' [Blackdog] is edited and printed, with a warrant seeking "documentation concerning the committing of armed robberies". Part of a long, dragged out legal farce to suppress the Italian libertarian movement.

[B] 2010 - Jean Michel Rollin Roth Le Gentil (b. 1938), French cult erotic horror filmmaker, actor, novelist and anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 3]
[AA/E] 1871 - Louise Michel, a 36-year-old popular communard and teacher, is brought to trial before a military court by the Versailles Government. She is accused of:
1. Trying to overthrow the government.
2. Encouraging citizens to arm themselves.
3. Possession & use of weapons, & wearing a military uniform.
4. Forgery of a document.
5. Using a false document.
6. Planning to assassinate hostages.
7. Illegal arrests, torturing & killing.

1878 - Amédée Dunois (pseudonym for Amédée Gabriel Catonne; d. 1945), French anarchist militant, communist, and then a revolutionary socialist trade unionist, born. Arrested by the Nazis and sent to Bergen-Belsen, where he died March 21, 1945. Author of several works of history (in particular on the Paris Commune) and the chapter 'Marxism and Socialism' in Sébastien Faure's 'Anarchist Encyclopaedia'.

## 1889 - Kim Jwa-Jin or Kim Chwa-chin [김좌진], pen name Baekya [백야](d. 1930*), Korean anarchist guerrilla general, who is sometimes called the 'Korean Makhno' and played an important role in the attempt of development of anarchism in Korea, born. He fought against Japanese imperialism from an early stage, establishing the Northern Military Administration Office Army (북로군정서군 [ko] / 北路軍政署軍 [ja]).
Park Sang-sil (박상실 / 朴尙實), aka Choi Yeong-su (崔永錫),
[* Two dates are commonly given for his assassination, Jan. 20 and 24 - the latter being the most commonly accepted.]

1893 - A benefit concert and ball held in New York City for Emma Goldman and others imprisoned for speaking at the Aug. 21 demonstration. Voltairine de Cleyre delivers a speech, 'In Defense of Emma Goldman and the Right of Expropriation'.

1897 - Alphonse Daudet (b. 1840), French novelist, short story writer, playwright, poet and anarchist sympathiser, whose texts appeared in 'Le Révolté', dies. [see: May 13]

1899 - [N.S. Dec. 28] Tatiana Nikolayevna Lapshina (Татьяна Николаевна Ланшина; d. 1938), Polish anarchist, whose OGPU / NKVD files show that she was "of the nobility" and had attended "higher education", born in Lodz. [see: Dec. 28]

##[B] 1908 - Remedios Varo (María de los Remedios Alicia Rodriga Varo y Uranga; d. 1963), Catalan-Mexican anarchist, anti-fascist and Surrealist painter, born. A member of the Logicophobiste artists' group, she met the French Surrealist and libertarian communist poet Benjamin Peret in 1936, when he had come to Spain to fight in the POUM and anarchist militias, and became his companion and was active in the Spanish Revolution herself, collaborating with the Republican and Anti-fascist resistance. In 1937, they moved to Paris to escape the fighting, taking part in the activities of the French Surrealist group around André Breton (1937-1940). However, she later found herself unable to return to Spain following Franco's closure of the border in 1939 because of her anti-fascist work. When Paris fell to the Nazis, Varo and Peret were put in a concentration camp until 1941, when the Emergency Rescue Committee rescued her and she then fled to Mexico with Peret. During WWII, she also made dioramas for display in the windows of a British anti-fascist propaganda office. In 1948, when Benjamin returned to France, she remained in Mexico and became married the surrealist painter Gunther Gerzo.

1910 - 'Houndsditch Murders' in London's East End: Three policemen are shot dead and two others seriously wounded by a gang of Latvian anarchists who bungle a jewellery shop burglary. Investigators focus on the Anarchist Club in Jubilee Street and Malatesta is wrongly implicated. Prelude to the Sidney Street Siege in January.

1913 - Despite warnings by the Paterson, N.J., police forbidding Emma Goldman from speaking, she addresses members of the IWW on 'The Spirit of Anarchism in the Labor Struggle'. Emma is forced off the platform and audience members engage in a battle with the police to release her.

1915 - Dolores Rodríguez Fernández (d. 1959), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

[F] 1920 - A conference convened by the Dutch Nationaal Arbeids-Secretariaat and the German Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands is held in Berlin [Dec. 16-21] in order to create the foundations for the reconstruction of the International Workers Association.

1955 - María Ascaso Budría (b. 1900), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist activist, who was imprisoned several times in Zaragoza then Barcelona for her anarchist activities, dies in Paris following failed major surgery. [see: Jun. 29]

1959 - Tcheng Yu-hsiu (郑毓秀; b. 1891), aka Su Mei [蘇梅] also Madame Wei Tao-ming [魏道明], youthful Chinese anarchist, revolutionary and feminist, who later became the first female lawyer and judge in Chinese history during the Nationalist Chinese Republic, dies of cancer in Los Angeles. [see: Mar. 20]

[C] 1969 - Following yesterday's 'defenestration' of Giuseppe Pinelli, victim of the 'strategia della tensione', from the 4th floor of Milan police station, the police scramble for excuses, including the classic from one Superintendent Marcello Guida: "Improvvisamente il Pinelli ha compiuto un balzo felino verso la finestra che per il caldo era stata lasciata socchiusa e si è lanciato nel vuoto. Il gesto potrebbe equivalere a una confessione." (Suddenly Pinelli made a great cat-like leap towards the window that the heat had been left ajar, and he launched into the void. The gesture could amount to a confession.) On July 3, 1970, Giuseppi Pinelli's death was rulled a suicide. Five years later on October 27, 1975, after Pino's innocence of any involvement of the Piazza Fontana massacre, for which he had ended up in custody on December 15, and after three years of judicial investigation into his death, the magistrate in charge Gerardo D’Ambrosio explained the 'fall' away as following: "Pinelli lit up a cigarette offered to him by Mainardi. The air in the room was unbearably stale, so he opened the balcony window and went over to the rail for a breath of fresh air. He suddenly suffered a dizzy spell, made a clumsy attempt to save himself, and his body tumbled over the rail into the void."; thereby exonerating all those who had been involved in Pino's murder.

1989 - Émile de Antonio (b. 1919), American anarchist film director, producer, academic and author, who was the only filmmaker on Richard Nixon's enemies list, dies. [see: May 14]
1862 - Urbain Gohier (born Urbain Degoulet and used the pen name Isaac Blümchen; d. 1951), French author, journalist, anti-militarist, lawyer and one-time writer for the anarchist 'Le Libertaire', 'Cri de Paris' and 'L'Aurore', born. Though an ardent Dreyfusard, anarchist-socialist and anti-militarist - even being prosecuted for publishing the pamphlet 'L'Armée Contre la Nation' (1898), for which he was acquitted and being sentenced in Dec. 1905 to a year in prison for participation in an international anti-militarist action allied with anarchists, he eventually became a rabid anti-Semite, and is now best known for publishing a French edition of 'The Protocols of the Elders of Zion' (c. 1920).

1883 - Hoche Arthur Meurant (d. 1950), French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, born.

1885 - Alphonse Barbé (d. 1983), French anarchist and anti-war militant who fought in the Spanish Revolution, born.

1890 - Célestin Pierre Lentengre, aka Pierre Lentente (d. 1982), French mechanic, accountant, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, founder of a Parisian anarchist group and administrator of 'La Voix Libertaire' (1928-1939), born.

## 1910 - Rafael Barrett (Rafael Ángel Jorge Julián Barrett y Álvarez de Toledo; b. 1876), Spanish polymath, writer, essayist, journalist and anarchist thinker, who became an important figure of the Paraguayan literature during the twentieth century, suffering from tuberculosis, dies in Arcachon, France at the age of 34. [see: Jan. 7]

[E] 1941 - Josefina Lamua Broto (b. 1914), Aragonese anarcho-syndicalist in the CNT is shot by Franco's troops in Barbastro near Huesca.

1983 - The first screening of the film 'Écoutez May Picqueray' takes place in the Studio St. Severin in París. A biographical documentary film about the recntly deceased prominent anarchist activist and propagandist May Picqueray (1898-1983), it is produced and directed by Bernard Baissat. Amongst the friends and collegues of May Picqueray presnt are Léo Campion, P. M. Cardona, J. J. Combaut, Nicolas Faucier, Sylvain Garrel, Daniel Guerin, Denis Langlois, Franck Neveu and Rita Tabai. Many of the film's sequences were recorded at the headquarters of the newspaper 'Le Réfractaire', which she founded and directed, and at her home. The songs for the film, which won the Quality Award from the Centre Nacional de la Cinematografia Francès, were performed by May Picqueray's daughter, Sonia Malkine.

1997 - In Chechnya, five Poles, including members from the Polish Anarchist Federation (FA), are kidnapped while delivering medicine, food and other supplies from a Polish-Chechen friendship society. Their van was found 40 km west of Grozny with its two front tires shot out. They were attacked by a gang of fifteen. Two Chechen bodyguards (friends of one of the hostages) shot two of the attackers. Eventually freed in early February.
1900 - Justus Schwab (b. 1847), German-American saloon-keeper and anarchist propagandist, dies of tuberculosis.

1906 - Victoriano Crémer (d. 2009), Spanish poet, novelist, essayist, journalist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was called the "official chronicler of the city of León, Spain", born.

1916 - In response to the Spanish government having ordered the arrest of the signatories of the 'Pacto de Zaragoza', the UGT and CNT hold a 24-hour general strike, which is proves to be a success and according to Largo Caballero "had the support of the middle classes and widespread sympathy in the country."

1922 - Nelly Roussel (b. 1878), French free thinker, anarchist and feminist, dies of tuberculosis in the Buzenval sanatorium in Paris. [see: Jan. 5]

1922 - Pietro Ferrero (b. 1892), Italian syndicalist and anarchist, who was secretary in Turin of the Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro's metallurgists union, the Federazione Impiegati Operai Metallurgici, and organiser of the Councilist movement in the city's factories, is assassinated by the fascist squads of Piero Brandimarte during the Strage di Torino – brutally tortured, his bloddied and torn body tied to a cart and dragged through the streets of Turin as a victory trophy. [see: May 12]

[F] 1922 - Strage di Torino [Turin Massacre]: In Turin, the fascists attack the Camera del Lavoro, and set fire to the Circolo Anarchico dei Ferrovieri (Anarchist Railwaymen's club) and the home of the anarchist paper 'L'Ordine Nuovo'. Twenty two workmen – socialists, Communists and anarchists – are assassinated over the next three days, including nine on the 18th.

[B] 1939 - Michael Moorcock, Nebula award-winning science fiction author and anarchist, born.

## 1940 - Tomás Falcón Reyes, Canarian libertarian writer and anarchist activist, who was a leader of the Coordinadora de Organizaciones de Presos Españoles en Lucha (COPEL) in the old prison of Puerto de Santa María in the 1970s and 80s, born.

1969 - Áurea Cuadrado Castillón, also known as Áurea Cuadrado Alberola (b. 1894), Spanish militant anarcho-feminist and fashion designer, dies. [see: Aug. 23]

[EE] 1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Kate McLean arrested and charged along with Angela Weir, Chris Allen and Pauline Conroy, who had been arrested during the course of November of having conspired with the six people already arrested on conspiracy charges. Shortly before the opening of Committal proceedings against the ten militants, Attorney General, Sir Peter Rawlinson, the victim of one of the Angry Brigade attacks, decided there was insufficient evidence for a case to be made against Pauline Conroy and Chris Allen, and they were released from custody.

1974 - Dolores Morata Díaz (b. 1899), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Jan. 30]

1991 - Pierre Guillaume Mélet (b. 1908), French militant anarchist, pacifist, syndicalist, teacher, shepherd and peasant writer, who followed in the steps of another shepherd-militant, Gaston Britel (Gaston Michaud), dies in Antonaves, Hautes-Alpes, the town where he had been mayor (1959-71). [see: Jun. 7]

2012 - Pierre Chabert (b. 1914), French professor of French, Latin and Greek, poet and anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 3]
## 1861 - Fritz Kater (d. 1945), German anarcho-syndicalist active in the Freien Vereinigung deutscher Gewerkschaften (Free Association of German Trade Unions; FVdG) and its successor organisation, the Freien Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands (Free Workers' Union of Germany; FAUD) and editor of both organisation's newspapers, 'Die Einigkeit' (Unity) and 'Der Syndikalist' respectively, born. [expand]

1862 - Nicolas Stoïnoff (or Stoïnov)(d. 1963), 'patriarch' of Bulgarian anarchism, anti-militarist, writer, journalist and teacher, born. [expand]
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]
"People around the world, decide:
the elimination of militarism!
the abolition of military service!
education of youth in the spirit of humanism and peace!"
"This is also the conclusion of my life, the clamour of a hundred years old, my last words to men." - from 'A Centenarian Bulgarian Speaks'

##1876 - Lucie Cousturier (Lucie Brû; d. 1925), French painter and writer, libertarian, anti-colonialist and anarchist fellowtraveller, who studied under Paul Signac and Henri-Edmond Cross but is largely forgotten expect as a footnote to the post-Impressionists, born.
A friend and lover of Georges Seurat, he gave her the famous painting 'Sunday Afternoon on the Island of Grande Jatte' (1884).

1886* - Hatta Shūzō (八太舟三; jan. 30 1934), Japanese Christian pastor, philosopher and proponent of 'pure' (i.e. non-syndicalist) anarchism, born.
[* some debate over the exact date in December 1886]

1890 - César De Paepe (b. 1841), Belgian medical doctor, member of the First International and a prominent syndicalist, whose work strongly influenced the Industrial Workers of the World and the syndicalist movement in general, dies in Cannes. [see: Jul. 12]

[B] 1894 - Senya (Simon) Fléchine (alternate spellings, Flechin, Fleshine) (d. 1981), Ukranian anarchist activist, propagandist and photographer, born. He emigrated to the U.S. in 1910 and worked for 'Mother Earth' in New York, In 1917 he returned to Russia and joined the Nabat Confederation of Anarchist Organisations of Ukraine. In December 1921, he worked at the museum of the revolution in Petrograd, and met Mollie Steimer (also expelled from the USA) who became his companion in love and struggle.
After several arrests, including being senteced to two years in exile in Siberia an a hunger strike, they were released and, following another hunger strike, allowed to leave Russia in 1923. In Berlin, they became members of the Joint Committee for the Defence of the revolutionaries imprisoned in Russia (1923-26), the Relief Fund of the International Association Workers (AIT) for Anarchists and Syndicalists Imprisoned or Exiled in Russia (Paris and Berlin) (1926-1932), and a number of other aid groups for anarchists. They emigrated to Mexico in 1941, and their house became a meeting place for political refugees, and they corresponded with the anarchists worldwide.

1902 - Voltairine de Cleyre (b. 1866), American anarchist, feminist, teacher and poet, is shot by an enraged former student named Herman Helcher. She refused to testify against her assailant, who was a familiar face in the anarchist scene.

##1909 - Haniya Yutaka [埴谷 雄高](Yanaka Hanataka [般若豊]; d. 1997), noted Japanese novelist and critic, Stirnerite anarchist and later Marxist, born.

1919 - The car containing Arturo Luis Elizalde, son of the industrialist Arturo Elizalde is fired on by two individuals between the Calles Bailen and Corsica, close to the Passeig de Sant Joan in Barcelona, as he is returning home from his father's car factory. Elizalde is unharmed but his driver, Florencio Palomar Valero, is killed. Two anarchists, Ramon Casanellas Lluch and Pere Mateu Cusidó, employees of the Elizalde company, are accused by the police of having carried out the attack, possibly prompted by the rumours then circulating that Arturo Elizalde had financed the July 18 assassination of the anarcho-syndicalist Pau Sabater Lliró aka 'El Tero', who had been prominent during the La Canadiense earlier in the year. Florencio Palomar's burial was turned into a major demonstration by the bourgeoisie against 'terrorism'. Ramon Casanellas and Pere Mateu would later be arrested for the assassination of the Spanish Prime Minister Eduardo Dato e Iradier in Madrid on March 8, 1921, carried out in retaliation for the persecution and killing of trade unionists and workers in Catalonia.

[E] 1919 - Pepita Carpeña (Josefa Carpeña-Amat; d. 2005), Catalan anarcho-syndicalsist and anarcha-feminist militant, who in exile became one of the mainstays of the Centre Internacional de Recerques sobre l'Anarquisme (CIRA) in Marseille, born. Combattant during the Spanish Revolution, member of the CNT, Jeunesses Libertaires (JJLL) and Mujeres Libres. Wrote 'De Toda la Vida' and appeared in two films, Richard Prost's 'Un Autre Futur' and Lisa Berger and Carol Mazer's adaptation of her memoirs 'De Toda la Vida'. [expand]

1920 - Eduardo Pons Prades, aka Floreado Barsino (d. 2007) Spanish writer specialising in contemporary Spanish history of the twentieth century, documentary screenwriter, lecturer, active participant in the Partido Sindicalista of Angel Pestaña, anarcho-syndicalist militant and anti-fascist, born.

[BB] 1942 - Jean-Patrick Manchette (d. 1995), French crime novelist, screenwriter and libertarian, born. Widely recognised as the foremost French crime fiction author of the 1970s - 80s, he is credited with reinventing and reinvigorating the néo-polar genre of Leo Malet and Georges Simenon. Politically active during the Algerian War, he was particularly influenced by the writings of the Situationist International. Initially a screenwriter, he was later advised to take his first novel, 'L'Affaire N'Gustro' (The N'Gustro Affair; 1971) to the famous crime fiction imprint Série Noire at Gallimard publishers, who would go on to publish the majority of his novels. Amongst these was 'Nada' (1972), made by Claude Chabrol into a film with a Manchette screenplay in 1974. He also co-wrote the 1982 Franco-Hungarian animated science fiction feature film 'Les Maîtres du Temps', directed by René Laloux and designed by Mœbius; as well as writing science fiction brain teasers in 'Métal Hurlant', under the pseudonym Général-Baron Staff; film criticism for 'Charlie Hebdo'; was editor of the comic 'La Bande Dessinée'; had numerous novels turned into comics, collaborating with French cartoonist Jacques Tardi on the 'Griffu' series; as well as translating Alan Moore's 'Watchmen' into French. Manchette also wrote a novelisation of the Sacco and Vanzetti story ('Sacco and Vanzetti' under the pseudonym Pierre Duchesne) in 1971.

1950 - Yukiko Ekida (浴田由紀子), Japanese former member of the Fangs of the Earth (大地の牙 / Daichi no Kiba) cell of the East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front (東アジア反日武装戦線 / Higashi Ajia Hannichi Busō Sensen) armed struggle organisation, along with her partner Nodoka Saitō (齋藤和), born. Released part way through her trial following the September 28, 1977 hijacking of Japan Airlines Flight 472 by elements of the Japanese Red Army (日本赤軍 / Nihon Sekigun). She went on to become a leader of the group and gave birth to a son in 1981 but was arrested in Romania in 1995 on passport forgery charges and deported to Japan, where her trial resumed. Sentenced to 20 years hard labour for a series of EAAJAF bombings targeting large companies in 1974 and 1975, she went on to become a children's author and was released from prison in March 2017.

1966 - Pierre Mualdes (Pierre-Louis Beauchet; b.1885), French militant anarchist, collaborated on 'Le Libertaire', 'La Revue Anarchiste', 'La Revue Internationale Anarchiste', etc., dies, a victim of Parkinson disease. [see: Aug. 1]

[A] 1994 - Zapatista rebels in Southeastern México break through an army siege designed to contain and neutralize them, briefly occupying 38 towns, rebel outposts outside the original zone of conflict, in Chiapas state, crippling Wall Street investments in the Mexican bond market.
1881 - Paul Florent Gourmelon (aka 'Paulus' & 'Mahurec'; d. 1928), French militant, neo-Malthusian and, according to the police, a "dangerous anarchist", born.

1884 - Jean-Baptiste Victor Sipido (d. 1959), Belgian anarchist and tinsmith's apprentice, who attempted to assassinate the Prince of Wales at the Brussel-Noord railway station in Brussels on April 5, 1900, born. At his trial, Sipido is acquited despite his obvious guilt as he was less than 16 years old. The jury "held that by reason of his age he had not acted with discernment and could not be considered doli capax" or legally responsible, and he was not even detained in a reformatory.

1901 - Rafael Liberato Torres Escartín aka 'El Maño' (d. 1939), Aragonese anarchist militant, anarcho-syndicalist and guerrillo. born in the barracks of the Civil Guard in Bailo, where his father Pedro Torres Marco was stationed. His brother Benito, a member of the Unió General de Treballadors, was indicted because of the strike demanding better working conditions that paralyzed factories Sabiñánigo in 1932. He and nine other workers faced charges of arson, explosion and illegal possession of weapons and explosives, with the prosecution demanding 34 years in prison for each defendant. Defended by the famous lawyer Eduardo Barriobero, he managed to escape conviction. Another brother, Fidel, who was also an anarchist, was shot in Huesca on 23 August 1936. Torres Escartín came into contact with anarchism during his studies in Huesca, where he became a follower of Ramon Acin. After abandoning his studies, he became a baker in Zaragoza in 1919, having already become active in the Sindicat de l'Alimentació of the CNT the previous year. In this period, he began to read the great French thinkers and Russian, and was a strict vegetarian, not smoking or drinking alcohol. He also became involved with the action groups Voluntad (Will) and Los Justicieros, the latter with Francisco Ascaso, Cristobal Albadatrecu and Sancho Mangado, moving regularly in those years between Zaragoza and Barcelona, ​​where he began working as a confectioner at the Ritz Hotel in October, 1920. In his first known action, Suberviola, Durruti and he appropriated 300,000 pesetas in Eibar.
In August 1922 along with Francisco Ascaso and Marcelino del Campo, he helped create the Barcelona anarchist group Crisol, which expanded in October with new members Ricardo Sanz, García Oliver, Garcia Vivanco and others, to form Los Solidarios, one of the most prominent organisations of pre-war Spanish anarchism.
In response to the March 1923 murder of Salvador Seguí, the secretary of the CNT, by pistolers of Sindicat Lliure de la patronal, Los Solidarios went on the offensive. In May 1923, Torres Escartín, along with Ascaso and Aurelio Fernandez, travelled to San Sebastian and La Coruna to try and cary out attacks against the Military governor of Barcelona, General Martínez Anido, who led the anti-union repression. On June 4, 1923, Cardinal Soldevilla, Archbishop of Zaragoza and organiser of (financing and recruiting) the bosses' hired gunmen, was shot dead in his car by Rafael Torres Escartín and Francisco Ascaso. Ascaso was arrested on June 8, but was involved in a mass escape of prisoners away from Predicadores Prison on November 8, 1923. Torres Escartin however managed to elude the police, and he and other Los Solidarios members reappeared on September 1 robbing the Bank of Spain in Gijón, collecting 650,000 pts. After an armed confrontation with the Guardia Civil in Oviedo on September 9, his partner Eusebio Grau was killed and he was arrested on a train; beaten and interned in Oviedo, he escaped the following day along with seven other detainees. Hiding on Mount Narango, he was captured on the 11th, after being denounced by a radical member whom he had asked for help.
Tried in Predicadores prison in Saragossa on April 1-4, 1925, he denied all charges but was sentenced to death for the Soldevilas assassination, later commuted to life in prison. Two other defendants, Esteban Salamero and Julia López Mainar, were sentenced to 12 and six years respectively. Confined in Dueso prison, Santoña, in a special isolation cell, spending 15 months in the dark without any break, he pursued two hunger strikes. In these conditions his health and sanity suffered and he was transferred to the asylum of Sant Boi de Llobregat. Upon the reappearance of 'Solidaridad Obrera' in August 1930, the paper began a public campaign, led by the doctor and anarchist Isaac Puente, denouncing his situation and calling for an amnesty. With the advent of the Second Republic, he was released on 30 April 1931. In June 1931, he participated in the first conference of the FAI, prior to the 3rd Congress of the CNT. He was arrested and beaten in the dungeons of the Direcció General de Seguretat (General Directorate of Security) and, arriving in Barcelona, he was arrested again, going on to become a spokesman for social prisoners. Having again gained his freedom, his comrades committed him to the Institut Pere Mata Psychiatric Hospital in Reus, from which he escaped three times, once getting as far as Ayerbe, where he was arrested at the home of his brother Fidel.
Labelled as an "extremist" by the government, he was put in prison in Huesca. During this period, he stated that he preferred death to being in the asylum. His family asked to take charge of the patient, and 'Solidaridad Obrera' also campaigned for his freedom, but he was admitted to a psychiatric hospital. On 23 November 1936, he appeared in the second row at the massive funeral his friend and partner Buenaventura Durruti, looking haggard and aged beyond his years. However, he still continued to participate in various charities helping children and refugees. He met his end when Fascist troops took him from his asylum cell and shot him on January 21, 1939 in Barcelona. His comrades had hoped that his obvious insanity would save him from that fate but the fascists thought otherwise.

## 1902 - [O.S. Dec. 7] Anna Mikhailovna Garaseva (Анна Михайловна Гарасёва; d. 1994) Russian geologist, anarcho-syndicalist and later secretary to AIexander Solzhenitsyn whilst he was compiling 'The Gulag Archipelago' (Архипелаг ГУЛАГ; 1873), born. Active in the anarcho-syndicalist movement in Moscow and, with her older sister Tatyana Mikhailovna Garaseva (Татьяна Михайловна Гарасёва; 1901 - post-1997), a librarian, in their home city Ryazan and in Petrograd where they both worked as nurses. [expand]
Her brother, Sergei Mikhailovich Garas (Сергей Михайлович Гарасёва; dates unknown), was also involved in the anarchist movement and, like the sister, subject to regular arrests.

1915 - Cecilia García de Guilarte (d. 1989), Basque journalist, writer - novels, plays, narrative history, etc., university professor and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

[B] 1920 - George Leite (d. 1985), American libertarian author, poet and publisher, dies. A close associate of Henry Miller and Kenneth Rexroth, he published the anti-war, anarchist and anti-authoritarian arts magazine 'Circle' and 'Circle Editions', its companion literature magazine.

1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: An armed confrontation takes place between the Argentine Army commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Hector Varela and strikers led by anarcho-syndicalist labourer and wagon driver José Font aka 'Facón Grande' in the vicinity of the Estación Tehuelches, where the rebels are camped. One soldier is killed an another two wounded while the strikers suffer 3 dead and several wounded. Varela and his troops return to the Estación Jaramillo.

1941 - Alberto Augusto Guabello, aka Bartolomeo Livorno, Albert Zurbello, Uno Sfruttato, etc. (b. 1874), Italian-American bricklayer, weaver, galochier (maker of gallsohes), typographer, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, dies in Patterson, New Jersey. [see: Apr. 27]

1957 - Edward Joris (b. 1876), Belgian clerk and anarchist, who was involved in the July 21, 1905, assassination attempt on Sultan Abdülhamit II at the Yıldız Hamidiye Mosque in Constantinople, for which he was sentenced to death and later pardoned, dies in Antwerp. [see: Feb. 11]

1967 - António Gonçalves Correia (b. 1886), Portuguese anarchist, humanist, vegetarian, poet and essayist, dies. [see: Aug. 3]

1968 - Max Brod (b. 1884), Czech author, composer, journalist and one-time anarchist fellow traveller who was the friend, literary executor and biographer of Franz Kafka, dies. [see: May 27]

1969 - Giuseppe Pinelli's funeral takes place at the Musocco cemetery in Milan. Hundreds of people turn out for the procession and burial, despite the widespread police intimidation.

1977 - Second generation RAF members Gabi Kröcher-Tiedemann and Christian Möller are arrested in Delémont, Switzerland after a shoot-out with Swiss police, during which two officers were injured, as they try to cross the border into France with a cargo of weapons and explosives. They were later tried and sentenced to 15 years in prison.

2008 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: In Greece protesters attacked a large city-sponsored Christmas tree in Syntagma Square in central Athens, tossing garbage and hanging trash bags from its branches, before setting light to it and clashing with riot police.
##1842 - [O.S. Dec. 9] Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin (Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин; d. 1921), Russian revolutionist, anarchist and landmark geographer who had a mountain range named after him (he posited a now accepted theory on mountain formation), born in Moscow. [EXPAND]

#### 1850 - Lizzie Holmes (Sarah Elizabeth Mary Hunt; d. 1926), American music teacher, seamstress, labour organiser, journalist, socialist and militant anarchist, born. Also known as Elizabeth Swank (after her first husband Hiram Swank, who died in 1877), which she used as a pen name, along with May Huntley. After the death of her first husband, she moved to Chicago, where she became a member of the Working Women's Union, campaigning to organise her fellow seamstresses and denouncing their miserable working conditions. A member of the Socialist Labor Party and working on 'The Radical Review', she gravitated to anarchism in 1883. Two years later she married the English anarchist William H. Holmes. The Holmeses worked closely with Albert and Lucy Parsons in Chicago's American Group of the International Working People's Association. Lizzie served as assistant editor of 'The Alarm', and the day before the Haymarket meeting she led a march of 300-400 working women demanding the eight-hour day. When the authorities suppressed 'The Alarm', Lizzie was one of those arrested; in 1887 Dyer D. Lum revived the paper and appointed Lizzie as associate editor. She was also active in the Knights of Labor and participated in the founding of the Ladies' Federal Labor Union (1888) under the auspices of the AFL. In the mid-1890s, William and Lizzie Holmes moved to Colorado, living in La Yeta, where Samuel Fielden was a neighbour, and in Denver. Still later they went to Farmington, New Mexico; there Lizzie died in 1926. Until about 1908 she contributed regularly to anarchist papers, especially 'Free Society', and wrote for a variety of labour journals, including 'The Industrial Advocate', edited and published with her partner William, and the AFL's 'American Federationist'. Her syndicated articles for the Associated Labor Press appeared in labour papers across the country.

[B] 1859 - Gustave Kahn (d. 1936), French Symbolist poet, novelist, playwright, art critic, Dreyfusard and anarchist, born. Used the pseudonyms: Cabrun, MH, Walter Linden, Pip, and Hixe. A close friend of Felix Fénéon, he edited the anarchist review 'La Société Nouvelle' and played a major role editing and writing for the likes of 'La Revue Blanche'. He was also prominent amongst those that publicly supported Auguste Vaillant in a prominent article in 'La Société Nouvelle'. He was an early supporter of the Impressionists and much of his work is Symbolist in style, including one of the few examples (along with Paul Adam's 'Les Demoiselles Goubert' co-written with Jean Moréas), of Symbolist novel, 'Le Roi Fou' (The Mad King; 1896), a biting humorous social and political critique the collusion of governments and financiers and the fleecing of the poor and of the colonies.

## 1916 - Emma Tenayuca (d. 1999), fearless and largely unsung Mexican-American labour leader, union organiser, libertarian communist and educator, who played a prominent role in the 1938 Texan Pecan Shellers Strike, born. Influenced by the Flores Magón brothers and the Wobblies from a very early age, attending political rallies from 6 or 7 years old, she became a labour organiser, founding two international ladies' garment workers unions and becoming involved in many of the most famous conflicts of Texas labour history. She was also active in the Worker’s Alliance of America, the Woman’s League for Peace and Freedom and joined the Communist Party in 1936.

[F] 1919 - Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman deported from USA alongside 250 fellow labour activists, anarchists [Ethel Bernstein (1898 - ??), Dora Lipkin] and radicals on board the S.S. Buford bound for Russia.

1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: At the Estación Jaramillo, Lieutenant Colonel Hector Varela sends for Mario Mesa, the Pico Truncado manager of the local stores company La Anónima, to send him to parley with 'Facón Grande' and tell him that he will respect the lives of all who accede to his demand to surrender. After a meeting, the workers decided to surrender in Tehuelches station the following day.
The following day, surviving strikers of the columna Facón Grande, including José Font himself, surrender at the Estación Jaramillo. Contrary to Varela's assurances, Facón Grande and at least fifty workers are shot by firing squad later that same day.

[A] 1924 - After five years of prison for his participation in the Republic of the Workers Councils, anarchist Erich Mühsam is released under amnesty. Thousands of workers turn out for his release.

1937 - In Spain, the first Republican soldiers enter Teruel.

1943 - Ateo Tommaso Garemi i Gagno (d. 1943), Italian-French communist, then anarchist and anti-fascist combattant, is executed for his involvement in the killing of Domenico Giardina. [see: Mar. 6]

1944 - The anarchist paper 'Le Libertaire', originally founded in 1895 by Sébastien Faure and Louise Michel, then as the organ of the l’Union Anarchiste (1920-1939), resumes publishing once again following the defeat of the Nazis.

1952 - Vlastimil Borek (b. 1886), Czech journalist, translator, anarchist and later a Communist politician, dies. [see: Dec. 24]

1959 - Antonia Maymón (b. 1881), Spanish militant activist, rationalist teacher, naturalist, libertarian and feminist, dies. Maymón collaborated in numerous congresses and publications, such as 'Generación Consciente', and was a founder of the FAI. [see: Jul. 18]

1974 - Silvano Ceccherini, (b. 1915), Italian longshoreman, anarchist, vagabond, robber and bandit of the Tombolo pine forest, soldier in the French Foreign Legion, and autobiographical novelist, who was nicknamed the "Italian Jean Genet", dies in Minusio, Switzerland. [see: Mar. 24]

2009 - Harry Johannes Järv (b. 1921), Finnish Swedish librarian, author, translator and anarcho-syndicalist, dies in Stockholm aged 88. [see: Nov. 27]

2014 - Walter De Buck (b. 1934), Flemish artist, painter, sculptor, folk musian, libertarian, socialist and the founder of the modern Gentse Feesten, the Ghent music and theatre festival, dies of oesophageal cancer at the age of 80. [see: Jul. 13]
[A] 1849 - Fyodor Dostoyevsky is led out for execution, then pardoned at the last moment. Dostoyevsky and his comrades in the Petrashevsky Circle were under sentence of death for a mere 10 minutes.

1872 - Erroneous and frequently quoted date for the birth of Ettore Bonometti (d. 1961), Italian anarchist militant. [see: Nov. 22]

1875 - Lilian Wolfe (Lilian Gertrude Woolf; d. 1974), English pacifist, anarcha-feminist and member of the Freedom Press publishing collective, born. [expand]

##1875 - Jules-Félix Grandjouan (d. 1968), French libertarian, revolutionary syndicalist, painter, caricaturist, illustrator and poster artist, born. Participated prominently on 'L'Assiette au Beurre' from 1901-1912 with his favourite themes including anti-militarism, anti-patriotism and anti-clericalism. His caricatures and illustrations, executed mainly in pastels, feature both in political papers such as 'Le Libertaire', 'La Voix du Peuple', 'Les Temps Nouveaux', 'La Guerre Sociale', 'La Bataille Syndicaliste', 'Le Travailleur du Bâtiment', 'Le Conscrit', etc. and the more satirical press, including 'Le Rire', 'Le Sourire' and 'Le Charivari'. Tried and sentenced to 18 months in prison for his caricature drawings of Clemenceau. He moved to Germany, where he met Isadora Duncan, who became his mistress and muse.
"Shame on those who do not revolt against social injustice"

1876 - Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (d. 1944), Italian Symbolist poet, editor and the founder of the Futurist movement, born. He spent much of the 1900s in Paris, associating with the anarchist and artistic milieu and was to become a regular at the Abbaye de Créteil utopian community. Although an Italian nationalist, he was avowedly anarchist and socialist, and strongly influenced by the writings of the French syndicalist theorist Sorel, himself inclined towards Proudhonian anarchism. These elements, together with his anti-clerical and Malthusian tendencies, all helped form his early leftist Futurism, already on display in his 1904 poem 'Destruction', his "erotic and anarchist poem", an eulogy to the "avenging sea" as a symbol of revolution.
Marinetti's debt to anarchism can also be seen in his dedication of his satirical tragedy 'Le Roi Bombance' (1905) to the anarchist Paul Adam (Henri de Régnier was another Marinetti dedicatee). Heavily influenced by Alfred Jarry (and from whom he stole much of his image/demeanour), the play was not performed until 1909, when its première at the Théâtre de l’Oeuvre in Paris provoked a riot. By this time he was already working on the 'Futurist Manifesto', written in French and published that year on the front page of 'Le Figaro', and was reprinted in the Italian anarcho-syndicalist newspaper of Ottavio Dinale, 'La Demolizione'.
In 1910, Marinetti forged links with the pro-labour, proto-syndicalist wing of the Italian Nationalist Association (ANI), but the rise of nationalism in Italy ultimately led to the progressive abandonment of Futurism's radical and avant garde elements in order to shoe-horning it into the ideology of another ex-fellow traveller of anarchism, Mussolini's Fascism. Marinetti even went as far as becoming a Catholic, in part to try and get Futurism adopted as the national Catholic art movement.
"9. Nous voulons glorifier la guerre – seule hygiène du monde -, le militarisme, le patriotisme, le geste destructeur des anarchistes, les belles Idées qui tuent et le mépris de la femme." (We will glorify war—the world’s only hygiene—militarism, patriotism, the destructive gesture of freedom-bringers, beautiful ideas worth dying for, and scorn for woman.) - 'Manifeste du Futurisme' (1909).
"We love the indomitable bellicose patriotism that sets you apart; we love the national pride that guides your muscularly courageous race; we love the potent individualism that doesn't prevent you from opening your arms to individualists of every land, whether libertarians or anarchists." - 'Futurist Speech to the English' (1910), Lyceum Club, London.

[1884 - German anarchists Emil Küchler, Franz Reinhold Rupsch and Auguste Reinsdorf, implicated in the failed assassination attempt against the German Kaiser and Princes at the unveiling ceremony of the Niederwald Monument to the glory of the German armies on September 28, 1883, are sentenced to death.

1886 - José Tato Lorenzo (d. 1969), Spanish anarchist militant propagandist, who was an important figure of the Uruguayan anarchist movement, born in Galicia. Tato Lorenzo began working aged 10 and in November 1900 he emigrated to Brazil, where he joined his father. Between August 1902 and September 1903 he lived in Montevideo, later settling in Rosario, Argentina where, in August 1904, he was jailed for anarchist activities. The following year he went to Buenos Aires, earning a living selling newspapers and edited the newspaper 'La Protesta'. In 1910, he was imprisoned and the following year expelled from Argentina and deported to Spain. [expand]

1900 - Jaime Rebelo (January 7, 1975), Portuguese anarchist and anti-fascist activist, who co-founded the Associação de Classe dos Trabalhadores do Mar (Sea Workers' Class Association) of Setúbal, better known as the 'Casa dos Pescadores' (House of Fishermen), born.

1900 - Valerio Isca (d. 1996), Italian-American anarchist, co-founder of the Libertarian Book Club, born.
[ Isca]

1901 - Fernando Demetrio Mata Povedano (d. 1936), Aragonese rationalist teacher, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Destined for the priesthood, instead he joined the anarchist Centro Instructivo Obrero de Oficios Varios (Centre for Workers Instruction for Various Crafts) in 1918 and, in 1924 during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, was named its president. He also gained permission to start a school - the Escuela de Niños Nueva (New Children's School) or the Colegio de Educación Científica y Racional (College of Scientific and Rational Education). He also corresponded with the Librería Luque in Montemayor, acquiring many books that he then distributed in the villages of the region where he traveled by bicycle. Married in 1927 to Maria de los Aneles Basilia Mata Carmona and in 1928 started sending money to a campaign by 'La Revista Blanca' for prisoner support. [expand]
On February 22, 1936, he was elected mayor of Montemayor, following the resignation of Antonio Carmona Jiménez, and was president of the Comisión de Hacienda (Committee on Finance), combining these posts with his teaching work. During his time as mayor he urged public works and land reform, developing arbitration between employers and workers. During his tenure the construction of the Grupo Escolar 'Francisco Ferrer Guardia' was also launched, with the first stone being laid on June 1, 1936, but which was halted due to the Francoist coup. On the night of July 18, 1936, a platoon of Guardia Civil from Fernán-Núñez, commanded by Lieutenant Cristóbal Jiménez, Fernando Mata Povedano and eight colleagues. Transferred to the prison in Córdoba, Fernando Mata was assassinated there on on September 26, 1936, and buried in a common grave in thecity's San Rafael cemetery.

##1905 - Kenneth Rexroth (d. 1982), US poet, essayist, critic, translator, anarchist, Wobbly, pacifist and conscientious objector, born. He active in groups like the Randolph Bourne Council (an anarchist group), the John Reed Club, the Libertarian Circle, and the Waterfront Workers Association in San Francisco. Apart from his numerous books of poems and his collections of essays, his 2 most important works which describe his libertarianism are 'Communalism: From Its Origins to the Twentieth Century' (1974) and 'An Autobiographical Novel' (1991). [expand]

1907 - Fermin Rocker (d. 2004), English artist, book illustrator and anarchist, born. Wrote 'East End: A London Childhood' (1992). [expand]
[ rocker]

[B] 1911 - Henry Treece (d. 1966), British poet, novelist, short story writer, essayist, playwright, editor, teacher, pacifist and philosophical anarchist, born. Member of the post-war New Apocalyptics poetry group, a fusion of anarchism and surrealism, alongside the likes of Alex Comfort, Ruthven Todd, Dylan Thomas and Vernon Watkins.
"The only way Left, as I see it is that of anarchism."

1918 - Randolph Silliman Bourne (b. 1886), American literary radical, essayist and anarchist, who was the originator of the phrase "War is the health of the State", coined in his unpublished work 'The State' (1918), dies in the Spanish flu epidemic. [see: May 30]

1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: The surviving strikers of the columna Facón Grande, including José Font himself, surrender at the Estación Jaramillo. Contrary to Varela's assurances, Facón Grande and at least fifty workers are shot by firing squad the same day.

## 1921 - José Font, better known as Facón Grande (b. 1883), Argentine anarcho-syndicalist worker and carrero (cart driver) best known for his part in the events of the Patagonia Rebelde uprising in 1921, is summarily executed along side his comrades, despite the assurances of saftey given by Lieutenant Colonel Hector Varela to Facón Grande and his men before their surrender the previous day.

1922 - International Congress of Revolutionary Syndicalists in Berlin. Founding of the anarcho-syndicalist International Workers Association (AIT/ IWA), on the initiative of Rudolf Rocker.

1924 - Georgii Ilyich Gogelia [Георгий Ильич Гогелия], aka A. Gogelia [А.Гогелия], K. Orgeiani [К.Оргеиани], K.Iliashvili [К.Илиашвили], et al. (b. 1878), once famous Russian anarchist, who stood at the forefront of theorists and practitioners of the anarchist movement during the era of the struggle against tsarism, died in Tiflis tuberculosis hospital. [see: Sep. 18]

1942 - Gerhard Wartenberg, aka H. W. Gerhard, G. Berg, 'Ägide' (b. 1904), German chemist, author, editor, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist organiser in the Freien Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands, dies in Sachsenhausen concentration camp. [see: Feb. 1]

[E] 1942 - Espertirina Martins (b. 1902), Brazilian anarchist and working class militant, dies due to complications from a premature birth and appendicitis. In January 1917, when still only fifteen, she had carried the bomb, hidden in a bunch of flowers, that Djalma Fettermann used to counter a Brigada Militar cavalry charge on the funeral procession of a worker who had been murdered by the forces of repression, and which resulted in a pitched battle the Varzea (where the Avenida João Pessoa is today) between anarchists and brigadianos in January 1917.

1946 - Kuwasi Balagoon (born Donald Weems; d. 1986), US Black Panther, a member of the Black Liberation Army, a New Afrikan anarchist and prison writer, born. He was a defendant in the Panther 21 case in the late 1960s and was involved in the 1981 Brinks robbery, for which he was convicted of murber and other charges and sentenced to life.

1947 - Otto Weidt (b. 1883), German anarchist and pacifist, who ran a workshop in Berlin for the blind and deaf and fought to protect his Jewish workers against deportation during the Holocaust, dies. [see: May 2]

1951 - Georges Gustave Gillet (b. 1876), French militant syndicalist, anarchist propagandist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Aug. 17]

1982 - Felix Likiniano, aka Liki (Felix Liquiniano Heriz; b. 1909), Basque anarchist civil war veteran and later ETA fellow-traveller, who was the companion of Soledad Casilda Hernáez, dies in Saint-Jean-de-Luz. [see: Jan. 14]

1997 - Zapatista Uprising: Paramilitaries associated with the ruling PRI party massacre 45 peasants, the majority of whom are children and women belonging to the civil group 'Las Abejas', refugees in Acteal, Chiapas. The government uses this event to occupy and suppress the population with over 70,000 troops and expels humanitarian observers stationed in the area.

2000 - Ian Heavens (b. 1957), Scottish anarchist and co-founder of the punk/samba band Bloco Vomit, dies.

2003 - Bernard Voyenne (b. 1920), French anarcho-syndicalist activist, federalist, Résistance fighter, journalist, professor and writer on Proudhon, dies. [see: Aug. 12]

2006 - Richard Boston (b. 1938), English journalist, author, marathon runner, biographer, artist, movie extra, anarchist, pacifist and founder of the magazine 'VOLE', dies aged 67. [see: Dec. 29]
[A] 1877 - Luigi Fabbri (d. 1935), Italian writer, professor and theorist of the Italian anarchist movement, born.
For anarchists: "Le devoir de s'opposer, même violemment, à la dictature révolutionnaire qui constitue toujours une régression conservatrice." ["The duty is to oppose, even violently, revolutionary dictatorship which is always a conservative regression."]

1878 - [N.S. Jan. 4, 1879] Mikheil 'Mikhako' Tsereteli [მიხეილ 'მიხაკო' წერეთელი], aka 'Baton', M. Sangala [მ. სანგალა], 'Alarodieli' [ალაროდიელი], Vrasti [ვრაცი](d. March 2, 1965), Georgian prince, historian, philologist, sociologist, political and public figure, who was intially an anarchist close to Varlam Cherkezishvili and Peter Kropotkin, but later became a nationalist, born. [see: Jan. 4]

1882 - La Bande Noire: The trail postponed on October 24 in the wake of the intimidation of the jury and the attack on the Théâtre Bellecour's L'Assommoir restaurant in Lyon reached its conclusion in the court of assize in Puy-de-Dôme, with nine defendants receiving between one and five years in prison.

##1886* - Salvador Segui i Rubinat, aka 'El Noi del Sucre' (The Sugar Boy)(d. 1923), anarcho-syndicalist in the Catalonian CNT, born. He was assassinated in 1923 along with another trade unionist, Francesc Comes, the murders financed by the governor of Catalonia. [expand]
[*NB: some sources give his d.o.b. as Sep. 23, 1887]

1896 - Isabel Vilà i Pujo (d. 1843), Catalan nurse, syndicalist, member of the International and rationalist educator, who is considered to have been a pioneer of syndicalism in Catalonia, dies. [see: Aug. 3]

1898 - Claudia 'Cordiet' Gacon (b. 1877), French anarchist militant, who condemned propaganda by deed (political assassination) because it would harm the libertarian movement, dies. She was the partner of Lucien Weil aka 'Dhorr' who worked with Sébastien Faure.

1902 - René Maurice Frémont (d. 1940), French anarcho-communist and syndicalist, born.

1906 - [N.S. Jan. 5 1907] Peter Arshinov and several comrades blow up a police station in the workers’ district of Amur, near Ekaterinoslav. The explosion kills three Cossack officers, as well as police officers and guards of the punitive detachment. Due to the painstaking preparation of this act, neither Arshinov nor his comrades are discovered by the police.

1908 - Fortunato Serantoni (b. 1856), Italian barber, stonemason, typographer, bookshop manager and important anarchist propagandist both in Italy and later in Argentina, dies in Florence. Founded 'La Questione Social' in Buenos Aires.

1931 - Alexander Kiprov [Александър Кипров], aka Antim Cholakov [Антим Чолаков], 'Delibash' [Делибаш], 'Memish Aga' [Мемиш ага], Novov [Новов] (Alexander Dimitrov [Александър Димитров]; b. 1880 ), Bulgarian journalist, fiction writer, playwright, public figure, anarchist, member of the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна македоно-одринска революционна организация) and participant in the 1903 Thessaloniki bombings, dies in Svilengrad. [see: Mar. 13]

1938 - Franco's fascist forces launch an offensive in Catalonia.

1943 - Dario Cagno (b. 1899), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, is executed for his involvement in the killing of Domenico Giardina. [see: Aug. 11]

[B] 1952 - Vasily Eroshenko (b. 1890), a blind Russian anarchist, novelist, translator and an important activist in the Esperanto Movement, dies. [see: Jan. 12]

1976 - Josep Viadiu Valls, aka Juan d'Agramunt, Pep del Noia, Buelna, Hermes , etc. (Josep Joan Enric Viadiu Valls; b. 1890), Catalan anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist, union activist, journalist and author, dies in Mexico City. [see: Apr. 6]

## 2013 - Having served 21 months, Nadezhda Tolokonnikova and Maria Alyokhina are released after the State Duma approved an amnesty. [see: Aug. 17]
[F] 1865 - A Workers Congress is held at the Saló Universal in Barcelona [Dec. 24-26] during the respite produced by the relative atmosphere of tolerance during the government of General Domingo Dulce y Garay between 1864-66 when workers' organisations were allowed to operate openly. Originally an idea of the editors of the newspaper 'El Obrero' and its director Antoni Gusart i Vila, "to promote the cooperative movement, that implanted in England a few years ago, has spread with fast flight by all the European nations". The first such congress to be held in Spain, though it was effectively limited to Catalan organisations with about 300 delegates, representing 22 Catalan workers' societies in addition to 'sociedades de resistencia', cooperatives and mutual aid associations participating. The key decisions to come out of the events were the formation of federations of workers 'societies (federación de sociedades obreras) and workers' centers (centros obreros), and the addressing of a petition to the Government to recognise freedom of association.

1869 - Members of the Associació Internacional del Treballadors in Madrid sign the 'Manifest dels treballadors internacionals de la Secció de Madrid als treballadors d'Espanya' (Manifesto of the international workers' of the Madrid section of Spanish workers)

1886 - Vlastimil Borek (d. 1952), Czech journalist, translator and politician, born. Anarcho-communist, anti-miliatrist and anti-clerical activist pre-WWI, and was imprisoned for these activities 1910-12. Interned from 1914-17. Member of the Česká Strana Národně Sociální (Czech National Social Party; ČSNS 1918-23 and editor of 'Českého Slova' (Czech Words). Expelled from the ČSNS along with fellow Vrbenský group and joined Independent Socialist Workers Party (Neodvislá Socialistickou Stranu, or NZS) in 1923, later joining KSČ (initially non-Bolshevik Komunistické Strany Československa) in 1925, he worked in the editorial offices of 'Rudé Právo' (Red Truth). Went on to become a Communist politician and functionary.

1894 - Andrés Capdevila i Puig (d. 1987), alternate birth date. [see: Dec. 25]

1914 - Léon Bonneff (b. 1882), French proletarian writer, autodidact and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies as the result of injuries he received on December 13 during fighting in Lorraine. [see: Sep. 20]

1915 - Serafín Aliaga (d. 1990), Spanish anarchist, head of AJA (Alianza Juvenil Antifascista) and delegate to the founding congress of Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL), born.

1919 - The Federación Obrera Local de Santiago organises a meeting [Dec. 24-27] during which the Chilean section of the Industrial Workers of the World is constituted.

1921 - Teresa Wilms Montt (María Teresa de las Mercedes Wilms Montt; September 8 1893 - December 24 1921), Chilean writer, poet, and anarcha-feminist, who in her short life was locked in a convent by her family, escaping with the help of the anarchis-sympathiser Vicente Huidobro, and was deported from New York to Spain, accused of being a German spy, depressed at her separation from her children, commits suicide with an overdose of Veronal at the Hotel Laenaec in Paris. [see: Sep. 8]

[E] 1923 - Germaine Berton, the young individualist is acquitted for her attempt to kill Leon Daudet (father of the anarchist Philippe Daudet), the extreme rightwing propagandist for l'Action Française.

1927 - In Buenos Aires, the National City Bank is bombed, killing two and wounding 23 American and Argentinean customers: it is the work of anarchist (Giovanni and the brothers Scarfo) proponents of violent action. [REWRITE]

1936 - Zelmira Peroni or Zelmira Binazzi (Carlotta Germina Peroni; b. 1865), Italian designer and anarchist propagandist, dies. [see: Jul. 19]

1938 - Bruno Taut (Bruno Julius Florian Taut; b. 1880) German architect, urban planner and author of the Weimar period, dies. He was also a social reformer, anarchist and anti-militarist, whose ideas, including his architectural work, were influenced by the ideas of Kropotkin and Landauer, especially the latter's 'Die Auflösung der Städt' (Call to Socialism; 1911). [see: May 4]

1946 - Karl Max Kreuger (d. 1999), Dutch anarchist activist and founding member of the Vrije Bond (Free Union) after it split with the OVB (independent union), born.

[B] 1949 - [ERROR]

1950 - Zaragozan anarchist guerrilleros Simón Gracia Fleringán aka 'Miguel Montllor' & 'Aniceto Borrel' (b. 1923) and Placido Ortiz Gratal aka 'Vicente Llop' & 'Vicente Lobo' (b. 1921), the two members of the 'Los Maños' group arrested on January 9, 1950, are executed by firing squad. [see: Jun. 27 & Oct. 3]

1965 - Bernd Drücke, German sociologist and editor of the anarcho-pacifist journal 'Graswurzelrevolution', born.

## 1975 - Nicolas Ivanovitch Lazarévitch (Николай Иванович Лазаревич; b. 1895), Russo-Belgian electrician, construction worker, farm labourer, proof-reader, trade unionist, anarchist and anti-militarist, co-writer of the 1926 'Organisational Platform of the General Union of Anarchists (Draft)' and husband of Ida Mett (Ida Gilman), dies in Paris. [see: Aug. 17]

[A] 2001 - Horst Fantazzini, aka 'The Kind Bandit' (b. 1939) Italian-German anarcho-individualist illegalist and writer, who conducted non-violent bank robberies across northern Italy during the 1960s and '70s and was involved in an infamous prison escape attempt (subsequently made into a film),dies in the hospital wing of Dozza prison of an abdominal aortic aneurism, five days after being arrested attempting to flee on a bicycle during his last bank robbery. [see: Mar. 4]

2012 - Sidney 'S.E.' Parker (b. 1929), British philosopher and historian of Individualist Anarchism and Egoism, dies in London. [see: Nov. 9]
1872 - Congreso de Córdoba: III Congreso de la Federación Regional Española de la Asociación Internacional de Trabajadores is held in the Teatro Moratín from December 25, 1872 to January 3, 1873. It involved 50 delegates representing 42 local Federations and 10 trade unions - at that time the FRE had 29,000 members. During the congress the FRE adopts an expressly anarchist structure and organisational position of the Internationale Anti-Autoritaire de Saint Imier.
[órdobaón_Regional_Española_de_la_AIT anarcosindicalismo y sus Congresos.Completo.pdfórdoba-de-1872]

1884 - Los Desheredados (The Disinherited), a dissident group from within the Associació Internacional dels Treballadors de la Regió Espanyola, organise its III Congrés Revolucionari [Dec. 25-28] in Cadiz. Attended by representatives of 34 organisations (24 in Andalusia), the delegates declared: "...the emancipation of the proletariat can not achieve peaceful..."

1889 - Octavius Albert Garnier (d. 1912), French individualist anarchist and illegalist, member of the Bonnot gang, born.

1889 - (Jean Valérien) Maurice Mac-Nab (b. 1856), French poet, songwriter, performer and postal worker, dies. Famed for his ironic songs of working-class life performed at the Club des Hydropathes, at the the literary club Café de l'Avenir, in the Latin Quarter, and at Le Chat Noir in Montmartre. Many of his songs, such as 'L'Expulsion' and 'Le Grand Métingue du Métropolitain', were explicitly anarchist in sentiment and were popularly sung at demonstrations.

1889 - Wilhelm (Willi) Jelinek (d. 1952), militant German anarchist-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1894 - Andreu Capdevila i Puig (d. 1987), Catalan dye worker, militant in the CNT, the Spanish Revolution and in France, where he wrote for most of the exile papers ('Terra Lliure', 'Le Combat Syndicaliste', 'Umbral', etc.), born. Minister of Economy in the Generalitat de Catalunya and President of the Economic Council of Catalonia during the Republic.

1904 - [N.S. Jan. 7, 1905] Esther Dolgoff (Esther Miller; d. 1989), US anarchist activist and member of the IWW, born in Russia. A friend of Emma Goldman, Rudolf Rocker, Augustin Souchy and other noted anarchists, Esther Dolgoff was active in the anarchist movement since her teens, she met Sam, her life companion, in Cleveland in 1930 whilst he was on an IWW speaking tour. Together they founded Libertarian League in 1955 and were active in the Libertarian Book Club and the Industrial Workers of the World. A contributor to many anarchist movement publications, she was co-editor of the New York anarchist journal 'Views and Comments' and translated important anarchist works into English, most notably Joseph Cohen's 'Di yidish-anarkhistishe bavegung in Amerike : historisher iberblik un perzenlekhe iberlebungen' (The Jewish Anarchist Movement In The United States: A Historical Review And Personal Reminiscences; 1945).

1911 - Louise Joséphine Bourgeois (d. 2010), French-American autobiographical artist, sculptor and feminist icon, born. Bourgeois' mother was a follower of the militant feminist anarchist Louise Michel in the late 1800s and named her daughter after Michel.

1922 - The clandestine founding conference in Berlin [Dec. 25, 1922 - Jan. 2, 1923 ] of the International Workers Association [AIT-Association Internationale des Travailleurs; AIT-Asociación Internacional de los Trabajadores; IAA-Internationale ArbeiterInnen Assoziation; AIL-Associazione Internazionale dei Lavoratori; KTI-Kansainvälinen Työväen Liitto; IAA-Internationella Arbetar-Associationen], the international federation of anarcho-syndicalist labour unions - the direct descendent of the International Workingmen's Association (IWMA) of First International. [expand]

#### 1922 - Celedonio García Casino aka 'Celes' or 'El Llarg' (d. 1949), Catalan anarchist and anti-Francoist guerrilla, born. After the Phalangist victory, the then seventeen-year-old Celedonio decided to participate in the anti-fascist guerilla movement, entering the ranks of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL) in Gracia, Barcelona and as a member of the organisation's Comité Regional de Cataluña. On June 14, 1939, he and sixteen other activists were arrested. Tried on September 19, 1940 for "illegal association and propaganda and possession of illegal weapons", he was imprisoned in Barcelona's Modelo prison, where he was part of one of three groups formed by Manuel Aguilar Martínez, Secretary of the Comité Peninsular of the Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI). His group whose head was Enrique Gómez Laborda included Manuel Graupera Rodilla, Ángel Bernal Lozano and Blas Fuster Carreter. These groups went on to become active in the clandestine struggle as they were progressively released.
Paroled on November 23, 1945, Celedonio García Casino Celes immediately rejoined the FIJL in Gracia and then in Carmel, later joining José Lluis 'Face' Facérias' action group, often crossing the border between 1947 and 1949 on expropriation missions and attacks on Franco's forces. In March 1946, he attended the Congress of the FIJL in exile in Toulouse, recovered materials and returned to Spain on March 15. In September 1946, he was appointed Secretary of Defence of the Regional Committee of Catalonia and the Balearic Islands of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias at a clandestine plenum. In 1947, he was a member of the short-lived Moviment Llibertari de Resistència (Libertarian Movement of Resistance; MLR – intended to be the military wing of Spanish anarcho-syndicalism, it effectively folded when Liberto Sarrau Royes and Joaquina Dorado Pita were arrested in February 1948), he organised a bomb attack in May 1947 against the barracks of the Guardia Civil in Gracia, which the communists tried to claim it as their own. On July 6, he was appointed, with Manuel Ramos Fernández and Manuel Tomas Llaster as the FIJL Catalonia delegates to the national plenum to be held on July 15 and the plenary of the FAI to be held in Madrid three days later.
In early November 1947, he crossed into Spain with José Lluís Facerias, Ramón González Sanmarti, Francisco Ballester Orovigt, Domingo Ibars Juanias and Juan Pedrero Cazorla aka 'Tom Mix'. With Facerias, he participated in the 1949 attempted kidnapping of the chief of police Eduardo Quintela Bóveda. Celedonio García Casino Celes was killed along with Enrique 'Quique' Martinez Marin near the French border on August 26, 1949. He was buried at the cemetery Espolla (Figueras) in the part reserved for non-believers. He left his companion, Remedies Falceto and a daughter, Olga.

1936 - The Generalitat de Catalogne publishes a decree legalising abortion. Pushed for by the women's anarchist group Mujeres Libres and enacted because of the strong presence of the libertarians. Article 4 specifies abortions should not exceed three months pregnancy, except in the event of therapeutic need.

1948 - The Bulgarian Communist Party outlaws the anarchist founders of the FACB (Federation Bulgare Anarcho-Communist) and its newspaper 'Rabotnitche Skamisal'.

## 1949 - Néstor Osvaldo Perlongher (d. 1992), Argentinian sociologist, anthropologist, poet, writer, militant Queer activist and theorist, and anarchist, born. As a student, he was a member of the trotskyist Partit Obrer and a delegate to the Student Assembly responsible for self defence during his university's Faculty of Philosophy and Letters student demonstrations. He later particpated in various anarchist and May 68-influenced autonomist groups. In 1971, he was one of the founders of the Frentre de Liberación Homosexual Argentino (FLHA), the first gay political organization in Latin America, and the libertarian Eros group. He also edited the FLHA magazine 'Somos' and Eros' publication 'Sexo y Revolución'. In 1976, he was arrested during the Argentine dictatorship's suppression of the FLHA. He graduated in sociology in 1982, later moving to São Paulo, where he received a doctorate in urban anthropology at the University of Campinas, and there became Professor of Anthropology in 1985. He died of AIDS in São Paulo on November 26, 1992.
Perlongher's poetry was integral to his political activity, and was quoted as saying that "poetry emerged in the late '70s because of the way in which the military dictatorship of the time closed down other spheres of political debate and cultural intervention in politics. Poetry was one of the few areas of oppositional discourse that survived," becoming a key avenue in which to express individual opinion at the time. He published six volumes of his poetry in his lifetime: 'Austria-Hungría' (1980); 'Alambres' (Wires; 1987), which won the Boris Vian Prize for Literature in Argentina; 'Hule' (Rubber; 1989), 'Parque Lezama' (Lezama Park; 1990); 'Aguas Aéreas' (Air Water; 1990); and 'Chorreo de las Iluminaciones' (Drips from the Illuminations; 1992), in which he created his own literary style "neobarroso", which he claimed merged the neo-Baroque with the language of the slums of the Rio de la Plata. The 'message' of this neobarroso poetry was rendered opaque by the use of 'hidden meanings' - cultural allusions and plays-on-words - which meant that the poems did not reveal their true meanings at first reading - they had to be 'decoded'. This makes translation of his poetry into other languages difficult.
His other books included: 'O Que é AIDS?' (What is AIDS?; 1987); 'El Fantasma del SIDA' (The Phantom of AIDS; 1988); 'Territórios Marginais' (Marginal Territories; 1989); 'Poesía Neobarroca Cubana y Rioplatense' (Neobarroca Poetry Cuban and River Plate; 1991); 'La Prostitución Masculina' (Male Prostitution; 1993); and 'Prosa Plebeya' (Plebeian Prose; 1997). Perlongher also contributed to publications such as 'El Porteño' (Of Buenos Aires), 'Alfonsina', 'Último Reino' (Last Kingdom), 'Cerdos & Peces' (Pigs & Fishes), 'Fin de Siglo' (End of Century), 'Folha de São Paulo' (São Paulo Sheet), 'Parque' (Garden), 'Utopía', 'Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia' (Brazilian Archives of Psychology), 'Chimères' (Chimeras), 'Xul', 'Sociétes', and the 'Diario de Poesía' (Poetry Diary).

1953 - The Anarchist Federation and the Libertarian Communist Federation founded by the FAF (French Anarchist Federation).

1955 - Aurèle Patorni (b. 1880), French anarchist, writer (plays, operettas, etc.), journalist, pacifist and néo-malthusien, dies of complications following surgery. [see: Jun. 26]

1958 - Baldo aka Baldomero Jose-Luis Ortas, Spanish-born French artist, musician and libertarian, born. Son of a bohemian anarchist artist.

1962 - Jean Souvenance (pseudonym of Serge Grégoire; b. 1903), French writer, libertarian, militant pacifist and free thinker, dies. [see: Oct. 6]

[B] 1972 - Staceyann Chin "poet, performer, and anarchist extraordinaire", LGBT rights political activist, born.

1983 - Joan Miró i Ferrà (b. 1893), Catalan painter, sculptor and ceramicist, dies. [see: Apr. 20]

1995 - Emmanuel Levinas (b. 1906), French philosopher of Lithuanian Jewish ancestry known for his work related to Jewish philosophy, existentialism, ethics, phenomenology and ontology, whose writtings have touched extensively on egoism and anarchism, dies shortly before his 90th birthday. [see: Jan. 12]
1854 - Joseph Jean-Marie Tortelier (d. 1925), French carpenter, anarcho-syndicalist, ardent proponent and speaker for the General Strike, organiser of La Ligue des Antipatriotes (League of Anti-patriots) and member of the Panthère des Batignolles, born.

1861 - Mikhail Bakunin disembarks in Liverpool enroute to London, having travelled the long way around the globe (via Japan and across the Pacific, USA and Atlantic) escaping from exile in Siberia.

1861 - Paul Auguste Bernard (d. 1934), French bakery worker, metallurgist, anarchist and trade unionist, born.

[EE] 1876 - Virginia Bolten aka 'the Louise Michel of Rosario' (d. ca. 1960), Argentinian shoemaker, sugar factory worker, labour organiser, anarchist and feminist orator and agitator, born in either the province of San Luis or in the city of San Juan [a third version has her born in Uruguay during a period of exile for her family]* the daughter of an German street vendor who opposed the militaristic German regime and had emigrated. Virginia's parents split up hen she and her sister and two brothers were still teenagers, and she eventually moved to Rosario. Known as the 'Barcelona of Argentina' because of the concentration of heavy industry, it was also a hotbed of radical political and industrial agitation. There she worked in a shoe factory and then in a massive sugar factory, the Refinería Argentina de Azúcar, which employed thousands of workers, many of them European immigrants and many of them women. She married Marquez, an organiser of a shoe workers' union. In 1888, Bolten became one of the editors (along with fellow anarchist Romulo Ovidi and Francisco Berri) of 'El Obrero Panadero de Rosario' (The Working Baker of Rosario), one of the first anarchist newspapers in Argentina. In 1889 she organised the seamstresses' demonstration and consequent strike in Rosario, probably the first strike by female workers in Argentina. In 1890, Bolten, Ovidi and Berri were the main organisers of the first May Day demonstration in the city - Domingo Lodi, Juan Ibaldi, Rafael Torrent, Teresa Marchisio and Maria Calvia were also involved. The day before (April 30, 1890), she was detained and interrogated, by local police forces, for distributing leaflets outside the major factories of the area. Not to be deterred she was at the head of a march of thousands of workers which proceeded to the main square of Montevideo, the Plaza Lopez, on the First of May. She carried a large red flag with black lettering proclaiming: "Primero de Mayo - Fraternidad Universal" (First Of May - Universal Brotherhood). At the Plaza Lopez her fiery speech entranced the crowd. She is credited as being the first woman in Argentina to address a workers rally (it should be borne in mind that she was twenty years old at the time). She was instrumental in publishing 'La Voz de la Mujer' (Woman’s Voice, 1896-1897), 'Periódico comunista - anárquico', whose motto was "Ni Dios, ni patrón ni marido" (Neither god nor master nor husband), which was published nine times in Rosario between January 8, 1896 and January 1, 1897, and was revived, briefly, in 1901. [expand]
[* Recent research ahs thrown doubt upon some of the details of her early life, possibly including the events around May Day 1890.]

##[BB] 1891 - Henry Valentine Miller (d. 1980), US writer, banned novelist, memoirist, critic, painter, individualist anarchist and champion of free speech, born. Miller's grandfather, Valentin Nieting, who regularly looked after him was an anarchist sympathiser whose anti-war ideals was a significant initial catalyst in his politics. However, Miller claimed that his attending of a 1912 lecture by Emma Goldman and later personally meeting her in 1913 was "a turning point in my life". At the lecture he purchased books there Nietzsche and Max Stirner and would come to embrace an individualist anarchism. However, he also began to read Kropotkin, Bakunin and other anarchist classics which would eventually temper his individualist outlook. Kropotkin's mutualism would become especially important in moderating Miller's individualist outlook.
His is best known for the novels 'Tropic of Cancer' (1934), 'Black Spring' (1936), 'Tropic of Capricorn' (1939) and 'The Rosy Crucifixion' trilogy: 'Sexus' (1949), 'Plexus' (1953) and 'Nexus' (1960) - all of which clearly display strong elements of his anarchist individualism, one tempered by his desire for community and compassion. The early books, 'Tropic of Cancer' and 'Black Spring', together with his resolutely anti-communist/pro-anarchist 'An Open Letter to Surrealists Everywhere' (1938), was a primary influence in turning the English Surrealists, which included Herbert Read and David Gascoyne and fellow travellers like Alex Comfort, away from Surrealism's André Breton-inspired communist orthodoxy towards an anti-authoritarian politics. This influence, via the literary community that had sprung up around Miller at the Villa Seurat in Paris (and which included Anais Nin and Lawrence George Durrell), would also affect the likes of Robert Duncan and George Woodcock?
"I have no money, no resources, no hopes. I am the happiest man alive. A year ago, six months ago, I thought that I was an artist. I no longer think about it, I am. Everything that was literature has fallen from me. There are no more books to be written, thank God. This then? This is not a book. This is libel, slander, and defamation of character. This is not a book, in the ordinary sense of the word. No, this is a prolonged insult, a gob of spit in the face of Art, a kick in the pants of God, Man, Destiny, Time, Love, Beauty." - 'Tropic of Cancer' (1934) pp. 1-2.
"There are barely a half-dozen names in the history of America which have meaning for me. Thoreau's is one of them ... that rarest thing on earth: an individual. He is nearer to being an anarchist than democrat, socialist or communist. However he was not interested in politics; he was the sort of person who, if there were more of his kind, would soon cause governments to become non-existent. This to my mind is the highest type of man a community can produce. And that is why I have an unbounded respect and admiration for Thoreau." - Letter to Herbert Read (1936)

## 1891 - Stefan Szwedowski aka 'Wojciech', 'Szwed', 'Błażej', 'Cezary', 'Sosiński', 'Stolarski' and a host of other pseudoynms/nom de guerre (d. 1973), Polish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Nazi fighter, born. During the 1905 revolution in Poland he participated in a school strike and was active in a youth independence movement, leading to his being interrogated by Tsarist secret police, the Ochrana. First time arrested in 1913 in connection with its activity in the Galician independence movement, he was deported to Russia where he spent 2 years in prison. Thanks to the intercession of Polish deputies in the Duma, he was released in 1915 and returned illegally to Warsaw where he joined ‘Warsaw Battalion’ of the Polish Legions. Seroisly injured in the battle of Optowąz, he was invalided out of the army and in 1917 he returned to Warsaw. At the end of WWII he belonged to the leadership of the clandestine Polish Youth Association, Zet. In 1919, he finished his studies at the Warsaw University's law faculty. In 1922 he was one of the organisers of Związek Obrony Kresow Zachodnich (Western Frontier Defence Association) and Związek Rad Ludowych (People’s Councils Union). From 1931 onwards he was involved in the Związku Związków Zawodowych (ZZZ; Union of Workers Unions) and from 1935-39 was a member of the organisation's Central Department of Vocational Training. In October 1939 one of the founders of the underground Zwiazek Syndykalistow Polski (ZSP: Union of Polish Syndicalists). At the outbreak of WWII, he founded the clandestine Koło Związku Patriotycznego (Patriotic Union Circle, later known as the Związek "Wolność i Lud" ("Freedom and People" Association). In 1943 he became the central secretary of the ZSP, and was co-founder and the ZSP delegate on the Council for Aid to Jews (Radzie Pomocy Żydom "Żegota"). From February 1944 vice-chair of the Centralizacja Stronnictw Demokratycznych, Socjalistycznych i Syndykalistycznych (Centralisation of Democratic, Socialists and Syndicalist Groups). During the Warsaw Uprising he fought in the Old Town area as a member of the 104 Kompanii Syndykalistów (104 Company of Syndicalists). In Śródmieście he was co-initiator of Syndykalistyczne Porozumienie Powstańcze (Syndicalist Uprising Agreement – a syndicalist and anarcho-syndicalist coalition). After WWII together with anarchists and co-operative activists worked in Spoldzielczy Instytut Wydawniczy 'Słowo' ('Word' Cooperative Publishers Institute) and other cooperatives.

[B] 1899 - Georges Charensol (d. 1995), French journalist, arts, literary and film critic, film extra and individualist anarchist, born. Worked on fellow anarchist individualist Florent Fels' journal 'L'Art Vivant' and befriended many writers and artists including Maurice de Vlaminck, André Derain, Marc Chagall and especially Rene Clair, working as an extra in 'Entr'acte'. Foreseeing the revolution, he went to Spain in 1930 a correspondent for 'Vu' and 'Le Soir' He later became literary editor of the individualist anarchist paper 'L'Intransigeant'.

1986 - Bruno Salvadori, aka Antoine or Antonio Gimenez (b. 1910), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist fighter in Spain, dies. [see: Dec. 14]

1992 - María Bruguera Pérez (b. 1915), Spanish member of Mujeres Libres, anarchist, anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Nov. 6]

1997 - Cornelius Castoriadis, aka Pierre Chaulieu, Paul Cardan, Jean-Marc Coudray, etc. (Κορνήλιος Καστοριάδης; b. 1922), Greek-French philosopher, social critic, economist, psychoanalyst, author of 'The Imaginary Institution of Society', and co-founder of the French libertarian socialist group Socialisme ou Barbarie, dies from complications following heart surgery. [see: Mar. 11]

2010 - Ramón Cambra aka 'Mona' (b. 1917), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-militarist, printer and poet, dies. [see: Mar. 28]
[B] 1821 - Joseph Déjacque (d. 1864), early French anarcho-communist poet and writer, born. The first recorded person to employ the term libertarian (libertaire) for himself in a political sense, in a letter written in May 1857 criticizing Pierre-Joseph Proudhon for his sexist views on women, his support of individual ownership of the product of labour, and of a market economy, saying: "it is not the product of his or her labour that the worker has a right to, but to the satisfaction of his or her needs, whatever may be their nature."
Arrested and imprisoned for a time for socialist agitation during the revolutionary upheavals in France in 1848, he was released but rearrested in 1851, and sentenced to two years of prison (plus a fine of 2000 francs) for his collection of poems 'Les Lazaréennes, Fables et Poésies Sociales'. He fled to Jersey, by way of Brussels and London, around the time of the December 2, 1851 coup d'état, publishing 'La Question Révolutionnaire' (1854), an exposition of anarchism. Moving the the States in 1854, he he wrote his famous anarchist utopia 'L'Humanisphère, Utopie Anarchique', but failed to find a publisher. However he serialised his book in his periodical 'Le Libertaire: Journal du Mouvement Social'. Published in 27 issues from June 9, 1858 to February 4, 1861, 'Le Libertaire' was the first anarcho-communist journal published in America and the first to use the term "libertarian".

1831* - Olivier [or Olliver] Marie Souêtre [or Olivier Souvestre](d. 1896), Breton poet and chansonnier, who took an active part in the Paris Commune and the anarchist movement, writing and performing revolutionary and anarchist songs including 'La Marianne' and 'Massacre de Fourmies', born.
[* some sources give February 28, 1831]

1864 - René Georges Hermann-Paul, known as Hermann-Paul (d. 1940), French painter, engraver and illustrator, Dreyfusard and anarchist sympathiser, who contributed to numerous anarchist and revolutionary publications including Émile Pouget's 'Le Père Peinard', Zo d'Axa's 'La Feuille', Jean Grave's 'Les Temps Nouveaux', 'La Question Sociale', 'La Guerre Sociale', etc., born.

1866 - [N.S. Jan. 7, 1867] Jan Wacław Machajski, aka A. Wolski (d. February 19, 1926), Polish revolutionary and theorist of the Makhaevism (Machajewszczyzny), a synthesis of anarchism and Marxism, born. [see: Jan.]

1912 - Conroy Maddox (d. 2005), English Surrealist painter, collagist, writer, lecturer and anarchist sympathiser, born. He discovered Surrealism in 1935 and dived into the mileau head first, visiting the International Surrealist Exhibition in London in 1936, spending the summer of 1937 in Paris, where he took art classes, and getting involved in the British surrealsi scene. Passionately anti-war and anti-clericial, both views he gained from his father, he escaped military duties during WWII through his 'reserved' occupation as a draughtsman of aircraft parts for a Birmingham design firm. At the height of the war, several of his collages were seized by the special branch during a raid on the home of Simon Watson Taylor (they were looking for John Olday), on suspicion of being coded messages to the enemy or anarchist propaganda. Whilst not politically active, he did contribute to the various London and Birmingham Surrealist groups' interventions (e.g. support for Cohn-Bendit in 1968) and contibuted alongside George Melly to issue number 3 of 'The Raven' anarchist quarterly.
When he died he had been the last surviving Surrealist painter from the original pre-war British avant-garde.

[F] 1919 - On the initiative of Rudolf Rocker, the founding Congress of the Freie Arbeiter Union Deutschland (Free Union of German Workers), is held in Berlin, from the 27th-30th.

[E] 1925 - Anna Kuliscioff or Kulischov, Kulisciov (Анна Кулишёва) (Anna Moiseyeva Rosenstein [Анна Моисеевна Розенштейн]; b. 1857), Russian Jewish revolutionary, prominent feminist, Bakunin-influenced anarchist, and eventually a Marxist socialist militant in Italy, dies. Her funeral procession was attacked by fascists enroute to the Cimitero Monumentale in Milan. [see: Jan. 9]

## 1932 - Arvid Järnefelt (b. 1861), Finnish lawyer, jurist, writer (novels, plays, essays, etc), farmer, fossil hunter and Tolstoyan Christian anarchist, dies in Helsinki aged 71 years. [see: Nov. 16]

1936 - The Confederación de Trabajadores de Chile is founded by the anarcho-syndicalist Confederación General de Trabajadores (CGT, anarcosindicalista), the communist Federación Obrera de Chile and the socialist Confederación Nacional de Sindicatos (CNS socialista) during the unification congress held from December 25 to 27 in Santiago. The Congreso de Unidad Sindical had been called by the Frente de Unidad Sindical, which the organisations had formed in the wake of the violent repression perpetrated by the Arturo Alessandri government against the 1934 national railway strike. At that same event, it was decided to support the formation of an anti-fascist Frente Popular (Popular Front).

1941 - Clara Lida (Clara Eugenia Lida), Argentinan writer, professor and historian of the anarchist and social movement in the 19th century, and Spanish emigration and Republican exile, born.

1958 - Following a meeting of the Federación Libertaria Argentina, three old friends and comrades of international anarchism, the Germnan Augustin Souchy (1892-1984), the Italian Luce Fabbri (1908-2000) and the Spaniard Diego Abad de Santillán (1897-1983), meet to exchange memories of the Spanish Revolution and their clandestine activities during the repression that followed it. [photo]

1992 - Kay Boyle (b. 1902), American writer, novelist, poet, educator, political activist and anarchist fellow traveller, dies. [see: Feb. 19]

1999 - Pierre Clémenti (b. 1942), French actor, director and libertarian, dies. [see: Sep. 28]

1999 - Horst Matthai Quelle (b. 1912), Spanish-speaking German post-Stirnerite philosopher, dies in Tijuana, Mexico. [see: Jan. 30]

2003 - Manuel Millán Calvo (b. 1925), Aragonese libertarian anti-Francoist guerrilla member of the Agrupación Guerrillera de Levante (AGL), dies. [see: Sep. 11]
1856 - [N.S. Jan. 9, 1857] Anna Kuliscioff or Kulischov, Kulisciov (Анна Кулишёва) (Anna Moiseyeva Rosenstein [Анна Моисеевна Розенштейн]; d. 1925), Russian Jewish revolutionary, prominent feminist, Bakunin-influenced anarchist, and eventually a Marxist socialist militant in Italy, born.

[A] 1863 - In Russia, 'nihilists' assassinate Georgy Sudeykin, Chief of the Okhrana (political police) in revenge for a series on mass arrests.

1884 - Maurice Bonneff (d. 1914), French proletarian writer, autodidact and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. He and his brother Léon met the old Communard Gustave Lefrançais and the libertarian novelist Lucien Descaves shortly after their family moved to Paris in 1900. They quickly resolved to write, both together and individually, about the conditions in which the Parisian working class lived.
He wrote 'Didier, homme du peuple' (Didier, man of the people; 1914); together with the studies jointly authored with Léon: 'Les Métiers qui tuent, enquête auprès des syndicats ouvriers sur les maladies professionnelles' (The trades that kill, survey for labor unions on occupational diseases; 1906); 'La Vie Tragique des Travailleurs: enquêtes sur la condition économique et morale des ouvriers et ouvrières d'industrie' (The tragic life of workers: investigations into the economic condition and morale of workers and industrial workers; 1908); 'La Classe Ouvrière: les Boulangers, les Employés de Magasin, les Terrassiers, les Travailleurs du Restaurant, les Cheminots, les Pêcheurs Bretons, les Postiers, les Compagnons du Bâtiment, les Blessés' (The working class: bakers, store employees, navvies, restaurant workers, railway workers, Breton fishermen, postal workers, building workers, the injured; 1910); 'Marchands de Folie: Cabaret des Halles et des Faubourgs - Cabaret-Tâcheron - Cabaret-Cantinier - Cabaret-Placeur - Cabaret de Luxe - L'Estaminet des Mineurs - Au pays du "Petit Sou" : sur les quais de Rouen - Au pays de l'Absinthe - De l'Infirmerie spéciale du Dépôt à la Maison de fous' ( Merchants of Madness; 1913). - which describes the employees in pubs, cabarets, on the banks of Rouen, the effects of absinthe (which will be banned in 1917) on the workers.

1899 - [O.S. Dec. 16] Tatiana Nikolayevna Lapshina (Татьяна Николаевна Ланшина; d. 1938), Polish anarchist, whose OGPU / NKVD files show that she was "of the nobility" and had attended "higher education", born in Lodz.
She joined the Moscow anarchist underground in 1929 and was arrested later that year on November 5 for "belonging to the anarchist underground circles" [whilst being "unemployed"], she was sentenced on December 23, 1929, to 3 years political isolation, served in Verkhneuralsk. Paroled on August 18, 1931, she was then exiled to Kazakhstan for 3 years. In November 1934, she was arrested by the Crimean OGPU in Simferopol [still "unemployed"] and charged under Art. 58-10, 11 RSFSR Criminal Code: membership of an anarchist group preparing the overthrow of the Soviet regime. On May 9, 1935, she was condemned by a NKVD court to 3 years in a labour camp. Arrested for a fourth time on September 26, 1937, and held in Minusinsk prison. Charged with counter-revolutionary activities, she was sentenced to death on April 11, 1938, by a NKVD tribual and shot on May 4, 1938 in Minusinsk.
Her father was convicted of counter-revolutionary activities in 1927, and her husband S.S. Tuzhilkin (C.C. Тужилкин) was convicted of counter-revolutionary activity on three occasions.

1903 - Celestino Alvarado Quirós (d. 1936), Andalusian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, secretary of the Sindicat del Metall of the CNT, member of the Germinal group of the FAI and Freemason, born. He was arrested during the strike of May 1932 and, in April 1935, he was also arrested in a group of students and accused of "stealing weapons". On 18 August 1936, he and his brother Narciso José were betrayed to the Falangists whilst attempting to escape from the port of Puntales by ship. They were arrested and taken to the Casino Gadità, headquarters of the fascists. The following day his corpse is seen in a mass grave on the beach and probably ended up being buried in a mass grave in the cemetery of San Jose. His brother and fellow anarcho-syndicalist Narciso José Alvarado Quirós was imprisoned in the Cárcel Real in Cádiz and later in Miraflores prison. Twenty days after his arrest, he disappeared and was never heard of again.

1907 - Mécislas Golberg (or Goldberg) (b. 1869), Polish anarchist thinker and prolific writer (in French), dies of TB. [see: Oct. 21]

1910 - Revolución Mexicana: The Praxedis Guerrero group takes the town of Casas Grandes, Chihuahua.

1912 - The Federación Obrera Regional del Perú (Regional Workers' Federation of Peru) holds its third Assembly and draws up a list of demands to accompany that of the eight-hour day adopted early that month on December 15.

1916 - Founding congress in Oslo of the anarcho-syndicalist Norsk Syndikalistisk Forbund (Norwegian Syndicalist League), the Norwegian section of the AIT. Many of its early members were Swedes forced to move to Noway after being blacklisted in the wake of the 1909 Storstrejken or Great Strike. [see: Oct. 29]

1917 - [N.S. Jan. 10, 1918] Olga Spiridonovna Lyubatovich (Ольга Спиридоновна Любатович) aka 'Shaeek' (Акула), Olga Doroshenko (Ольга Дорошенко), (Maria Svyatskaya) Мария Святская (b. 1853), Russian anarchist-influenced revolutionary, narodnitsa and member of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya (Земля и воля / People's Will), dies. [see: Jun. 30]

1920 - The U.S. resume the deportation of communists, suspected communists and other radicals suspended during WWI.

1920 - Pepita Estruch (d. 2011), Spanish militant anarcho-feminist fought in the French WWII anti-Nazi resistance, participant in the reformed Comité de Mujeres Libres in París in the '60s, born.

1931 - Guy Debord (d. 1994), French Marxist theorist, writer, filmmaker, member of the Letterist International and founding member of the Situationist International, born.

1945 - Theodore Herman Albert Dreiser (b. 1871), American novelist, poet and journalist of the naturalist school, dies. [see: Aug. 27]

## 1945 - Daniel Reeves Carter, American free jazz saxophone, flute, clarinet and trumpet player and anarchist, born. Best known for his work alongside bassist William Parker and pianist Matthew Shipp, but has played with a plethora of other musicians including Sun Ra, Billy Bang, Medeski Martin & Wood, Sam Rivers, Sunny Murray, Hamiet Bluiett, Cecil Taylor, Gunther Hampel, Sam Rivers, Sunny Murray, Hamiet Bluiett, David S. Ware, Butch Morris, Other Dimensions In Music, The Celestrial Communication Orchestra, Talibam!, the Merce Cunningham dancers, string trios, punk bands and many others.

1952 - Hisaichi Ugajin (宇賀神寿一), aka Shako (シャコ), Japanese anarchist and former member of the Scorpion (さそり / Sasori) cell of the East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front (東アジア反日武装戦線 / Higashi Ajia Hannichi Busō Sensen), born. He escape the initial mass arrest but in July 1982, Hisaichi was arrested and sentenced to 18 years imprisonment with hard labour. Released on June 11, 2003, he now works in the Kyūen Renraku Sentā (救援連絡センター / Relief Liaison Centre, or Kyuen Renraku Centre), a radical legal aid organisation.

[B] 2008 - Adrian Mitchell (b. 1932), English poet, novelist, playwright, librettist, anti-authoritarian social-anarchist and anti-war activist, dies. [see: Oct. 24]
"My brain socialist
My heart anarchist
My eyes pacifist
My blood revolutionary"

- 'Loose Leaf Poem' [in 'Ride the Nightmare' (1971)]
1846 - Maurice Rollinat (d. 1903), French poet, habitué of Le Chat Noir and member of Les Hydropathes, born. Although not an an anarchist, he did associate with anarchists, especially at Le Chat Noir and his poems appeared in 'La Revue Anarchiste'.

1855 - The 'Exposición presentada por la clase obrera a las Cortes Constituyentes' (Exposition presented by the working class to the Constituent Cortes), written by the prominent Catalan libertarian socialist Francesc Pi i Margall and now with 33,000 worker's signatures attached is handed to a parliamentary commission chaired by Pascual Madoz in a ceremony attended by two representatives of the workers from Catalonia, one from Malaga and one from Madrid, together with the director of the newspaper 'El Eco de la Clase Obrera', who had launched the initiative.

1872 - Camille Mauclair (pseudonym of Séverin Faust; d. 1945), French Symbolist poet, novelist, biographer, travel writer, art critic and anarchist, born. Prolific author and critic of the avant-guard arts, whose work appeared in numerous mainstream and anarchist publications including: 'L'En Dehors', 'La Revue Blanche', 'Le Mercure de France', 'Les Essais d'Art Libre', 'Les Entretiens Politiques et Littéraires', 'La Société Nouvelle', 'L'Aurore', 'La Dépêche de Toulouse', etc. He was also an anti-Semite and anti-Dreyfusard, becoming a nationalist during the thirties and an active supporter of the Vichy government. His best known work is 'Le Soleil des Mort' (1898), a roman à clef featuring fictionalised portraits of the literary and anarchist fin de siècle.
"L'exécution de Vaillant m'inclina à l'anarchisme." (The execution of Vaillant [which he attended] tilted me towards anarchism.)

[BB] 1896 - David Alfaro Siqueiros (born José de Jesús Alfaro Siqueiros; d. 1974), Mexican social realist painter, muralist, trades union organiser and one-time anarchist, born. Exposed to anarcho-syndicalist writings at an early age, he was also involved in the Mexican revolution, bizarrely fighting for Venustiano Carranza’s Constitutional Army against both the Huerta government and the political factions of Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata. In 1919 he travelled to Paris and reacquainted himself with Diego Rivera, who introduced to Georges Braque and other Cubists. He also discovered and was strongly influenced by Cezanne. Returning to Mexico in 1922, he began his first mural, The Elements (1922), painted in a stairway of the National Preparatory School. The following year, having gravitated towards Marxism, he joined the recently-formed Mexican Communist Party (PCM) and gathered a group of artists to form the Sindicato de Trabajadores Técnicos, Pintores y Escultores (Syndicate of Revolutionary Mexican Painters, Sculptors and Engravers), of which he was elected secretary general. In 1924, they began to publish the newspaper 'El Machete', with a stated goal of safeguarding the revolution and protecting the interests of the working class. Continuing his union activities, he quickly became persona non grata with the government, and was harassed and detained several times by the police. In 1928, he visited the Soviet Union to attend the Congress of Red Trade Unions. Around this time, he met Uruguayan writer and fellow Communist Blanca Luz Blum, who loyalty was questioned by the PCM, leading to Siqueiros being expelled from the Party.
In 1930, he was arrested while participating in a May Day parade and thrown into prison, without trial or hearing of any sort. After several months in limbo, he was allowed to go free, on condition that he would leave Mexico City and settle in the town of Taxco, without the right to travel. In 1932, he had his first one-man exhibition in Mexico City, which included such politically-charged paintings as 'Mine Accident', 'Peasant Mother', 'Proletarian Mother' and 'Portrait of a Dead Child'. That year he secured a six-month visa to L.A. but the U.S. authorities refused to extend his stay. Expelled from America, he traveled to Montevideo in February of 1933, and by the end of May in that same year he had established himself in Buenos Aires only to be expelled that December.
In January 1936, Siqueiros was sent as a delegate to the American Artists' Congress in NYC, where he exhibited two works, 'The Birth of Fascism' (1936) and 'Stop the War' (1936), painted using pyroxylin paint and a spray gun, using techniques which still today influences grafitti artists.
He left America and arrived in Valencia in January 1937, six months after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War and enlisted in the Fifth Regiment, a part of the International Brigades. Restored to his Mexican Civil War rank of Captain, he passed up the ranks and commanded the Spanish anarchists 82nd Brigade amongst others. Now a fuly fledged Stalinist, whilst in Spain he had worked closely with members of the Comintern and even petitioned President Cardenas and the Mexican government to expel Trotsky, to whom they had granted asylum. Back in Mexico, he continued to try and get Trotsky expelled, to no avail. So he took matters into his own hands, when he organised 25 men with Comitern finances to assassinate Trotsky. On the night of May 23-24th, 1940, Siqueiros and his men overpowered the police guard posted around the exterior of Trotsky's house, they gained access to the building via a traitor among Trotsky's bodyguards. Once inside, the would-be assassins opened indiscriminate fire with automatic firearms. In his bedroom, Trotsky and his wife Natalya hid behind their heavy bed as the house around them was riddled with bullets. Fearing being caught by police reinforcements, they fled. Some of Siqueiros' men were arrested and implicated hime, forcing him to flee via Ecuador and Peru to Chile.
'Del Porfirismo a la Revolución' (The Porphyria to the Revolution; 1957-1966) is by far one of Siqueiros' most iconic works and in it it included the images of Kropotkin (with his hands bound in front of him), Proudhon and Ricardo Flores Magón, all standing next to Marx with the good red book in his hand.

[B] 1898 - Elfie 'Elsa' Gidlow (d. 1986), British-born, Canadian-American feminist poet, freelance journalist, philosophical anarchist, lesbian and Taoist, born. Known as 'The Poet Warrior', she is the author of 'On A Grey Thread' (1923), possibly the first volume of openly lesbian love poetry published in North America. The author of thirteen books, she appeared as herself in the documentary film, 'Word Is Out: Stories of Some of Our Lives' (1977) and published her autobiography, 'Elsa, I Come With My Songs' (1986), a month before she died. Amongst her other works are 'California Valley with Girls' (1932); 'From Alba Hill' (1933); 'Bridge Builders' (1938); 'Wild Swan Singing' (1954); 'Letters from Limbo' (1956); 'Moods of Eros' (1970); 'Makings for Meditation: Parapoems Reverent and Irreverent' (1973); 'Wise Man's Gold' (1974); 'Ask No Man Pardon: The Philosophic Significance of Being Lesbian' (1975); 'Shattering the Mirror' (1976); 'Sapphic Songs: Seventeen to Seventy' (1976); 'Sapphic Songs: Eighteen to Eighty, the Love Poetry of Elsa Gidlow' (1982); and 'A Creed for Free Women' (n.d.).

'Chains Of Fires'

Each dawn, kneeling before my hearth,
Placing stick, crossing stick
On dry eucalyptus bark
Now the larger boughs, the log
(With thanks to the tree for its life)
Touching the match, waiting for creeping flame.
I know myself linked by chains of fire
To every woman who has kept a hearth

In the resinous smoke
I smell hut and castle and cave,
Mansion and hovel.
See in the shifting flame my mother
And grandmothers out over the world
Time through, back to the Paleolithic
In rock shelters where flint struck first sparks
(Sparks aeons later alive on my hearth)
I see mothers , grandmothers back to beginnings,
Huddled beside holes in the earth
of igloo, tipi, cabin,
Guarding the magic no other being has learned,
Awed, reverent, before the sacred fire
Sharing live coals with the tribe.

For no one owns or can own fire,
it ]ends itself.
Every hearth-keeper has known this.
Hearth-less, lighting one candle in the dark
We know it today.
Fire lends itself,
Serving our life
Serving fire.

At Winter solstice, kindling new fire
With sparks of the old
From black coals of the old,
Seeing them glow again,
Shuddering with the mystery,
We know the terror of rebirth.


1902 - Horacio Martínez Prieto (d. 1985), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist of the moderate possibilista tendency within the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, he was twice General Secretary of the organisation, born in Bilbao.

1906 - Thomas Cantwell (b. 1864), British militant anarchist active in the Socialist League, co-publisher of the 'The Commonweal' and manager of 'Freedom', dies. [see: Dec. 14]

1907 - Maurice-Henry (d. 1984), French poet, painter, filmmaker and cartoonist, born. Initially a member of Les Phrères Simplistes and involved with the anarchist-influenced Le Grand Jeu group, which operated in opposition to the André Breton-dominated Communist Party-supporting Paris Surrealist group, he later quit Le Grand Jeu for Breton's group in 1933. He also followed Breton's move towards anarchism after WWII.

1937 - Massive counterattack at Teruel by Fascist troops supported by the Condor legion.

## 1938 - Richard Boston (d. 2006), English journalist, author, marathon runner, biographer, artist, movie extra, anarchist, pacifist and founder of the magazine 'VOLE', born.

1939 - Madeleine Pelletier (b. 1874), French doctor, intellectual, lesbian, anthropologist, psychiatrist, pacifist and militant feminist, one-time socialist and then a communist, latterly an anarchist, dies. Founded the review 'La Suffragiste' and collaborated on other néo-Malthusian and libertarian newspapers.

1977 - Alternative date for the death of Virginia Tabarroni aka 'Danda' (1888-1977), Italian typographer and anarchist, who was the aunt of Anteo Zamboni, the 15-year-old who attempted to assassinate Mussolini in Bologna on October 31, 1926. [see: Dec. 12]

1992 - Ramona Viver Tudó (b. ca. 1908), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, who was widowed in the Civil War – her partnner was shot on the Teruel front whilst fighting with the Columna Roja i Negra – and was later involved in the anti-Franco underground, dies in Toulouse.

2001 - Giovanni Marini (b. 1942), Italian working class poet, writer and anarchist, dies. Caught up in Italy's Strategy of Tension, he was framed for the murder of a fascist in 1974.

2002 - Esteban Navarrete Berbel (b. 1916), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 19]
[C2] 1879 - Michele Centrone (d. 1936), Italian carpenter, anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. He was prosecuted in Italy for his anarchist activities around 1898 and emigrated to the United States in 1905. In San Francisco, he worked at 'La Protesta Umana', directed by Enrico Travaglio, and collaborating on the newspaper 'Cronaca Sovversiva', published by Luigi Galleani. An Individualist, he was a member of Nihil and manager of its paper 'Nihil' (San Francisco, 9 issues January 4 to September 6, 1909). He also held positions in the 'Latin Union' of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America and was also affiliated with the Industrial Workers of the World. Arrested a number of times for "disturbing the peace", and for "foreign anarchist propaganda", he spent time in prison and broke bail, fleeing to Mexico under the name of Francesco Paglia. Arrested again in April 1920, along with Luigi and Giuseppe Ciancabilla Galleani, was expelled from the U.S. and deported to Italy. Wanted in Italy, he went to Canada and tried to return to the United States; arrested crossing the border, he was deported in 1924 to Europe and settled in France, where he was expelled in December 1928. Spending time in Belgium, Switzerland and Luxembourg, he was active in the Comitè d'Ajuda per les Víctimes Polítiques. In 1936, he was back living in Paris and, in July of that year, he was in the first group of Italian anarchists (including Camillo Berneri, Mario Girotti, Giuseppe Bifolchi, Vincenzo Perrone, Ernesto Bonomini, Enzo Fantozzi, etc.) who went to Catalonia to fight the fascist uprising. He enlisted in the Italian section of the Ascaso Column, led by Carlo Roselli and Mario Angeloni, and fought on the Aragon front. On August 28, 1936, he was one of the first Italians (along with Mario Angeloni, Fosco Falaschi and Vicenzo Perrone) to die in the fighting in the Battle of Monte Pelado.

1890 - [N.S. Jan. 11, 1891] Victor Lvovich Kibalchich (Ви́ктор Льво́вич Киба́льчич) aka Victor Serge (Викто́р Серж) aka 'the Bolsheviks' pet anarchist' (d. 1947), one time anarchist before he became a Bolshevik lackey, born.

1896 - Olivier [or Olliver] Marie Souêtre [or Olivier Souvestre](b. 1831), Breton poet and chansonnier, who took an active part in the Paris Commune and the anarchist movement, writing and performing revolutionary and anarchist songs including 'La Marianne' and 'Massacre de Fourmies', dies in Paris. [see: Dec. 27]

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 17] The notorious attack on the Libman Café in Odessa [EXPAND]

## 1907 - Nils 'Nisse' Lätt (d. 1988), Swedish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, agitator and journalist, who fought with the Columna Durruti, loosing the sight in an eye due to shrapnel, born.

1910 - Práxedis Gilberto Guerrero Hurtado (b. 1882), Mexican journalist, poet, anarchist propagandist and secretary to the Junta Organizadora del Partido liberal Mexicano, who served as an insurgent leader during the 1910 Revolution, is the first Mexican anarchist to give his life for Land and Liberty, when he is killed, at the early age of only 28, leading a small band in capturing the town of Janos, Chihuahua, in the early months of the Mexican Revolution. He now has a town in the state named after him. [see: Aug. 28]

Nils 'Nisse' Lätt1913 - Isabel Mesa Delgado (d. 2002), Spanish seamstress, militant anarcho-syndicalist and member of the CNT, born. At the age of 11 she began working as a seamstress and, following a move to Cueta at age 14, she joined the CNT Crafts Guild (Sindicato de Oficios Varios) local and the Ateneu Llibertari, as well as becoming secretary of Valencian Mujeres Libres. Isabel also help found a Union of Needleworkers (Gremio de la Aguja), becoming member No. 1.
Worked as a nurse during the Revolution / participated in the founding conference of the Mujeres Libres in September 1937 and, following the defeat of the revolution, organized a clandestine resistance group and provided aid to prisoners and their families under the fascist dictatorship. With the death of Franco Isabel helped with new libertarian projects, like Radio Klara and the ateneo Al Margen. [expand]
[NB: Dec. 31 also given as birth date]

1916 - Leopold Antonovich Sulerzhitsky (Леопольд Антонович Сулержицкий; b. 1872), Russian theatre director, painter, educator and Tolstoyan anarchist, who dealt extensively with the printing and distribution of Tolstoy's banned works, dies in Moscow of acute nephritis. [see: Sep. 27]

1919 - In Berlin, under the impulse of Rudolf Rocker, the founding Congress of the anarcho-syndicalist FAUD (Freie Arbeiter Union Deutschland) rejects the State and parliamentarism. It will have up to 125,000 members. [see: Dec. 27]

####?? 1946 - Raymond 'Mong' Rosseel, Belgian musician, dramatist and 'theatermaker', anarchist and bricoleur, best known for his work at the small-scale and the theater group (and former 'beatmuziek' band) Vuile Mong en zijn Vieze Gaste (Dirty Mong and his Filthy Guests), born. Politically inspired by the aftermath of the student uprisings of May '68, in 1970 he and some friends founded the Kontakt anarchist community centre, where students and workers could meet.

[C1] 1959 - Francisco 'Quico' Sabaté and his guérilla group (Antonio Miracle, Rogelio Madrigal, Francisco Conesa and Martín Ruiz) cross the French border into Spain for the last time. All will be killed within a week.

1969 - Umberto Nicola Palmiotti (b. 1895), Italian-American anarchist, who emigrated to America to avoid fighting in WWI, dies. [see: Nov. 11]

1971 - Nicholas Turčinović aka Nicolas (or Nicolò) Turcinovich or Nicola Turcini (b. 1911), Croatian anarchist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Aug. 21]

[B2] 1995 - Heiner Müller (b. 1929), German dramatist, director, poet, anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 9]

[B1] 1997 - Denise Levertov (b. 1923), British-born American poet, anti-war activist and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies. [see: Oct. 24]

1998 - Joan Brossa i Cuervo (b. 1919), Catalan language poet Dadaist-influenced, playwright, graphic designer and plastic artist, dies. [see: Jan. 19]

2014 - André Devriendt, aka 'Flamand la Simplicité' (b. 1920), French sadler, proofreader, anarchist militant and libertarian syndicalist director of the publication 'Monde Libertaire' and officer in the Fédération des travailleurs des industries du livre, du papier et de la communication CGT (Union of Correctors of the Federation of Workers of the Book, Paper and Communication Industries), died in Limeil-Brevannes in Val-de-Marne at the age of 94 years. [see: Jul. 9]
1846 - Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis (d. 1919), Bakuninist and pioneer of Dutch anarchism and active in the International Anti-Militarist Association, born.

1877 - Viktor Dyk (d. 1931), Czech poet, novelist, playwright, journalist, youthful member of the generation of the Czech Anarchističtí Buřiči, "básníci života a vzdoru" (Anarchist Rebels, "the poets of life and defiance") and later a right-wing nationalist, born.

1883 - Eusebio Carbó Carbó (d. 1958), Spanish militant anarchist, editor and director of 'Solidaridad Obrera' in 1930s as well as secretary of the IWA, born. Active and very much a globe-trotting internationalist, he saw the inside of nearly sixty prisons around the world from the age of 18 onwards. [expand]

1908* - Roc Llop i Convalia (d. 1997), Catalan teacher, poet, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, born in Miravet.
[* Anarcoefemerides give the year as 1909]

1913 - Alternative date for the birth of Isabel Mesa Delgado (d. 2002), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist and member of the CNT. [see: Dec. 30]

[E2] 1918 - The anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist Dr. Marie D. Equi is sentenced to three years in prison and a fine of $500 for sedition in connection with her June 27 anti-war speech in Portland, Oregon.

1921 - The Life and Labour Commune, a Tolstoyan agricultural commune, is founded near Moscow.

[B1] 1925 - Alfredo Guevara Valdés (d. 2013), Cuban founder of the Cuban Institute for the Arts and Industry of Cinematography (ICAIC) and the Havana Film Festival, and a key figure in the New Latin American Cinema, born. An anarchist in his youth, he became a Marxist at the university, supporting what he called "Fidel’s Revolution" after the topplong of the Batista government. Initially a theatre director until he participated in the making of 'El Mégano', a documentary about the poor vegetable carbon makers in the Zapata swamps, which went on to become a seminal part of Cuba’s film history. And in 1958 he worked as assistant director for Luis Buñuel on 'Nazarín'.

####?? [B2] 1928 - Maurice Albert Sinet aka Siné, French anarchist, anti-capitalist, anti-colonialist and anti-clerical cartoonist, writer, ex-cabaret singer [in the group Garçons de la Rue (1946-48)] and régent in the Collège de Pataphysique, born. He published his first drawing in France Dimanche in 1952 and went on to win the Grand Prix de l'Humour Noir in 1955 for his collection 'Complainte sans Paroles'. He later became the political cartoonist at 'L'Express', but his anti-colonialist views caused friction within the paper during the Algeria War and he left in 1962 to start his own newspaper, 'Siné Massacre', as a platform his anti-colonialist, anti-Zionist, anti-capitalist, anti-clericalist and pro-anarchism views.
In May 1968 , he founded the satirical newspaper 'L’Enragé' with Jean-Jacques Pauvert, covering the May 68 events and their immediate aftermath. In 1981, he also joined the team on 'Charlie Hebdo' and, in 1984, the weekly 'Hara-Kiri Hebdo' but was ousted from the former in 2008 as a result of l'Affaire Siné, the events surrounding his published attack on Sarkozy's son Jean, and the cartoonist's perceived anti-Semitism, He then went on to launch his own weekly 'Siné Hebdo', replaced in 2010 by the monthly 'Siné Mensuel'. His deep love of jazz also led him to publish a 'Sinéclopédie du Jazz' in 1996 as well as a series of album selections of his favourite tracks and to illustrate numerous jazz album covers.

##1 1938 - Monica Sjöö (d. 2005), Anglo-Swedish painter, writer and radical anarcho/eco-feminist, who was an early exponent of the Goddess movement, born.

1947 - Nicolás Reveles (b. 1878), Mexican artist, engraver, illustrator and anarchist, who was based in Los Angeles and collaborated with the Junta Organizadora of the Partido Liberal Mexicano on its weekly newspaper 'Regeneración', dies in Los Angeles. [see: Dec. 6]

##2 1958 - Francis Jourdain (Francis René Marie André Achille Jourdain; b. 1876), French painter, engraver, furniture designer, ceramist, architect-decorator, interior designer, writer, biographer, theatre and film set decorator, anarchist and later a communist, dies in Paris at the age of 82. [see: Nov. 2]

1959 - Arturo M. Giovannitti (b. 1884), Italian-American IWW activist, anarchist socialist, anti-fascist agitator and poet, dies. [see: Jan. 7]

1967 - Paulette Brupbacher (nee Raygrodski; b. 1880), Swiss physician, militant feminist, anarchist, author of numerous books and articles, dies. [see: Jan. 16]

1988 - Nicolas Calas (Νικόλαος Κάλας), pseudonym of Nikos Kalamaris (Νίκος Καλαμάρης; b. 1907), Greek-American poet, art critic, surrealist and anarchist, who also used the pseudonyms Nikitas Randos (Νικήτας Ράντος) and M. Spieros (Μ. Σπιέρος), dies. [see: May 27]

1995 - Maria Malla Fàbregas (b. 1918), Catalan writer, poet, and anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies. [see: May 2]

2004 - Alan Barlow (b. 1928), British trade unionist and anarcho-syndicalist, arrested, charged and imprisoned in 1969 for his role in the 1st of May Group bombing of the Francoist Banco de Bilbao in London, dies. [see: Mar. 28]
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C] 2016 [D] 2017 [E] 2018 [F]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC] 2016 [DD] 2017 [EE] 2018 [FF]
Monthly features: 2013 [AAA] 2014 [BBB] 2015 [CCC] 2016 [DDD] 2017 [EEE] 2018 [FFF]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism//' - Dave Hann (2012)