1845 - Félicien Bonnet (d. unknown), French carpenter and anarchist militant, born.

1846 - Carlo Cafiero (d. 1892), Italian anarchist, member of the International and champion of Bakunin, born. [expand]

##1855* - Teresa Fabbrini (Teresa Maria Anna Carolina Fabbrini Ballerini; b. 1855), Italian anarchist and feminist, who from a young age was distinguished both as a tireless propagandist of anarchist ideas and as a lecturer and writer in favour of anarchism and women's rights, born. She was also recognised by the police as playing an important role in anarchist propaganda circles, they also dismissed her in typical misogynistic terms as being a "woman of easy virtue". Amongst her most important works ii 'Dalla schiavitù alla libertà' (From slavery to freedom; 1904)
[* NB: some sources give the date as August 1, 1855]

1856 - Joseph Jean-Baptiste Trenta (d. unknown), French maker of precision mechanical and optical instruments and anarchist militant, born.

1869 - Julio Chavez Lopez (b. unknown), Mexican peasant and libertarian revolutionary propagandist, is captured by the army and shot in the courtyard of the Free and Modern School of Chaloco after being handed over to the police following 4 months of anarchist insurgency by a peasant army across Puebla and Veracruz.
"I am a socialist because I am an enemy of all governments and communist because with my brothers we want to work the land in common".

1873 - The Sixth General Congress of the International Workingmen's Association opens in Geneva (Sept. 1-8).

1882 - Sara Bard Field (d. 1974), American poet, pacifist, suffragist, Christian socialist and anarchist sympathiser, born. Partner to philosophical anarchist Charles Erskine Scott Wood, her work appeared in the anarchist periodical 'The Blast' alongside that of C.E.S. Wood.
[ C. Fremont&brand=calisphere]

[B] 1887 - Blaise Cendrars (born Frédéric-Louis Sauser; d. 1961), Swiss Modernist novelist, amputee left-handed poet, adventurer, soldier, failed film director and an anarchist fellow-traveller who never fully committed himself to the movement, born. A poor student, he left school early and in 1904 was apprenticed to a Swiss watchmaker in Moscow, where he frequented Russian anarchist circles and was present during the 1905 Revolution. In 1912, he and the anarchist writer Emil Szittya, who owned a clandestine printing press, started the journal 'Les Hommes Nouveaux' (also the name of his press where he published his early poems). In the same year Cendrars held a conference a few days after the death of Jules Bonnot on the theme 'La Beauté Devant l'Anarchisme', proclaiming "La vie est anarchisme. La Vie est beauté. La beauté est anarchisme. L'anarchisme est la vie." (Life is anarchism. Life is beauty. Beauty is anarchism. Anarchism is life.) Amongst those who attended was Kibaltchie, aka Victor Serge, who translated Cendrars' first novel, 'L'Or' (1925; published in English as 'Sutter's Gold'), into Russian.
His masterpiece is generally held to be the barely disguised autobiographical second novel 'Moravagine' (1926), which features the eponymous patient number 1731 at the Waldensee Sanatorium, a mental institution near Berne, Switzerland, who is last descendant of a degenerate East European noble lineage. The narrator, Dr. Raymond la Science, a young, brilliant, newly-graduated psychologist, who becomes his analyst, is fascinated by the personality of this "grand fauve humain" (great human beast) and subsequently engineers his patient's escape, accompanying him as he rampages around the world.
As with a significant number of foreign artists living in France and of anarchists who chose to fight in WWI, Cendrars joined the Foreign Legion and fought on the Western Front, which is where he lost his right arm in the Second Battle of Champagne in 1915, which in turn led to him having to learn to type left-handed.
"It is an outrage towards the masses.. ..It’s wanting to treat them as though they’re incapable of raising themselves up to this new realism (promoted by Léger and Le Corbusier) which is that of their area, which they’ve made with their hands.. ..To want to say to these men ‘the modern is not for you it’s an art for the rich bourgeoisie.." (attack on the notion of a social realist art, c. 1949)

##1895 - Gil Bel Mesonada (d. 1949), Spanish militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, writer, journalist, novelist and avant-garde arts theorist, born. On January 1, 1929 created a Biblioteca Popular in Utebo and creating a radical avant garde manifesto, printed on red and black paper. In 1930 he was editor of the anarchist journal 'Cultura y Acción' (Culture and Action) and published an article entitled 'Propositos', which is considered to be the first statement on the theoretical principles of the plastic arts issued in Catalonia. During the Civil War, he organised the Sindicato de Espectáculos (Entertainment Union) and created the anarchist colony at Torrelodones (Madrid), to which he invited Luis Buñuel. Following Franco's victory, he remined in Spain, working under the pseudonym of Vicente Gil for the film distributor and publisher UFILMS and as editor of 'Fermina Bonilla'. He also wrote under various other pseudonyms including Fray Luzbel, Luzbel (Lucifer) and G. Bellini on publications such as 'El Comunista', 'La Democracia', 'La Gaceta Literaria' (Literary Gazette), 'Lucha Social' (Social Control), 'Nueva Senda' (New Path), 'Pluma Aragonesa' (Aragonese Pen), 'Revista de la Casa de América-Galicia' (Journal of the House America-Galician), etc.. He is the author of 'El Último Atentado' (The Last Bombing; 1922), 'Nazarenos de Violencia' (Nazarene of Violence; 1923), 'Voces Interiores' (Inner Voices; 1923), 'Delicadeza' (Delicacy; 1923), 'Abajo lo Burgués' (Down with the Bourgeois; 1932), 'Fuego en el Mar' (Fire at Sea; 1942), amongst others.

1898 - The first issue of 'El Porvenir del Obrero' (The Future of the Workers) is published in Mahón, Menorca. Initially the newspaper of mutual co-operativist society of the same name, when Joan Mir y Mir took it over from number 15 on October 20, 1899, it takes a clear anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist orientation and becomes the mouthpiece for the Societat Llibertària Agrupació Germinal.

1901 - The first issue of the bi-monthly journal 'Le Flambeau', "Organe des ennemis de l'autorité", is published in Vienna. Its openly libertarian position results in its editor Georges Butaud being arrested.

1903 - Bernard Lazare (Lazare Marcus Manassé Bernard; b. 1865), French author, journalist, anarchist, polemicist and Dreyfusard, dies. [see: Jun. 14]

1909 - In the wake of the La Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa [see: Jul. 26] and the ensuing closure of the secular schools, the Spanish government, at the behest of the Catholic Church, arrested Francisco Ferrer. He is to be put on trial as the supposed instigator of the La Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa [see: Oct. 9] and will be shot on October 13.

[D] 1911 - Revolución Méxicana: Zapata manages to escape from the sugarcane fields, as General Huerta advances and takes Villa Ayala, which he finds deserted as the inhabitants of the town had left with Zapata as he fled south towards Puebla.

1912 - The first issue of Émile Aubin's bimonthly anti-militarist newspaper 'Le Cri du soldat', "Bulletin non officiel des Armées de Terre et de Mer", is published in Pantin, near Paris.

1912 - Paul Robin (b. 1837), wrongly forgotten French anarchist educator and néo-Malthusian whose libertarian legacy influences the educators Sébastien Faure and Francisco Ferrer, dies. [see: Apr. 3]

1917 - The first issue of the magazine 'Der Zeigelbrenner' (The Bricklayer) is published in Munich. Creat

1923 - A team from the action group Los Solidarios, consisting of Buenaventura Durruti Dumange, Gregorio Martínez Gazán aka 'El Toto', Rafael Torres Escartín, Miguel Garcia Vivancos, Adolfo Ballano Bueno, Gregorio Suberviela Baigorri and Eusebio Brau i Mestres, attack the Bank of Spain in Gijón at noon, seizing 650,000 pesetas but are intercepted by the Guardia Civil. Eusebio Brau and Rafael Torres Escartín cover the escape of their comrades but fail to escape themselves, being cornered the following day near Oviedo. Eusebio Brau is mortally wounded after they hold off the police for several hours but Torres Escartín is captured and tortured by the police before eventually being imprisoned.

###1929 - Eduardo Colombo (d. 2018), Argentine physician, psychoanalyst, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist activist, member of the French CNT and former member of the FORA, who was also professor of social psychology at the Universidade de Buenos Aires until the 1966 military coup forced him into exile in Paris, born.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: A two-day strike is called by the CNT in response to the killing of Isidro Floria Sánchez by the Guardia Civil the previous day. The strike, which would last 4 days, was characterised by numerous acts of sabotage and armed clashes with the Guardia Civil and the army, which the government had sent in along with cavalry units to guard government buildings, banks, Telefónica premises and the Central Market. The army and police fire on strikers on a number of occasions.
Strikes and sabotage spread across the country to town and cities including Cadiz, Huelva, Teruel, San Sebastián, Pozoblanco, Zamora, and Criptana. [see: Aug. 31]

1931 - In Valencia, during a waiters' strike, the CNT attacks premises that remain open.

1932 - The first edition of the journal '¡Tierra!', "Libre de Capitalismo Estado y Propiedad", is published in Montevideo.

1933 - The first issue of the monthly 'Acción Libertaria', paper of the Comité Regional de Relaciones Anarquistas, is published in Buenos Aires.

1936 - Pepita Laguarda Batet (b. 1919), teenage Catalan anarchist militant member of the Columna Ascaso, is shot in fighting on the Aragón front and dies later the same day.

1937 - The first issue of the newspaper 'L'Espagne Antifasciste', "Organe trimestriel au service de la Révolution Espagnole", is published in Bordeaux. A collaboration between Paul Lapeyre, Jean Barrué and Robert Louzon, some of its articles are published in Spanish. In early 1938, it merges with 'L'Espagne Nouvelle'.

1941 - Jiří Orten (Jiří Ohrenstein; b. 1919), Czech poet and nephew of the anarchist poet Josef Rosenzweig-Moir, dies 2 days after being knocked down in a Prague street by a German ambulance and refused hospital treatment as a Jew. [see: Aug. 30]

## 1952 - Jakub Polák (d. 2012), Czech anarchist and anti-racist activist, who was particularly involved in the rights of the Roma and the squatters movement, born.

1969 - Ninfa Baronio (b. 1874), Italian-American anarcha-feminist activist, who helped found Paterson's anarchist Gruppo Diritto all'Esistenza (Right to an Existence Group); co-founded a local feminist group and, with her companion Firmino Gallo, ran the Libreria Sociologica anarchist bookstore said to be "America's richest storehouse of extreme radical literature", dies aged 95 years old. [see: Jul. 2]

1971 - Jenny Hamilton Patrick (b. 1884), Scottish typesetter, printer and prominent Glasgow anarchist, dies in Drumchapel Hospital, Glasgow. [see: Feb. 11]

[E] 1975 - Nomy Lamm (Naomi Elizabeth Lamm), US singer-songwriter, musician, anarcha-feminist and LBGTQ campaigner, who has referred to herself as a "bad ass, fat ass, Jew, dyke amputee", born.

1981 - The first transmissions of Radio Libertaire 89.4 MHz, radio station of the Fédération Anarchiste, take to the airwaves.

1992 - Soledad Casilda Hernáez Vargas [sometimes cited as Casilda Méndez Hernáez], aka 'Casilda', 'la Miliciana', 'Kasilda', 'Kasi' (b. 1914), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, anarcho-feminist, anti-fascist, miliciana in the Columna Hilario-Zamora, and later a supporter of Euskadi Ta Askatasuna, dies of cancer in San Juan de Luz, Biarritz. [see: Apr. 9]

[EE] 1998 - Marina Padovese (b. 1958), Italian anarchist, feminist and anti-militarist, dies of leukaemia. Involved in the founding of the Pensiero e Volontà group in Como, part of the Gruppi Anarchici Federati. She was also involved in the editorial and graphic redesign of 'A-Rivista Anarchica', and during the Balkans conflict she was involved in the Donne in Nero (Women in Black) group, in solidarity with the women of the former Yugoslavia.
"Mi si ricordi come donna libera, anarchica, femminista, antimilitarista. Ho fortemente voluto una società di libere e di uguali, di pace, di giustizia e di solidarietà. Spero di averne lasciato traccia." ("I remember as a free woman, anarchist, feminist, anti-militarist. I really wanted a society of free and equal, of peace, justice and solidarity. I hope I have left these traces.") Marina Padovese's final testament.
[ Padovese]
1848 - The first issue of Proudhon's newspaper 'Le Peuple', "Journal de la République Démocratique et Social", is published in response to the banning of 'Représentant du Peuple' on July 10, 1848. The newspaper is published until June 13, 1849, when it is replaced by 'La Voix du Peuple' from October 1, 1849 to May 14, 1850 before resuming under its original title between June 15 and October 13, 1850.

## [B] 1854 - Hans Henrik Jaeger (d. 1910), Norwegian writer, playwright, novelist, bohemian and anarchist, an important friend and influence on Edvard Munch, born. Abused and driven out by the bourgeoisie and police in Kristiania, his portrait is Munch's final work. Member of the bohemian group Kristianiabohemen and friend of Edvard Munch, he was prosecuted for his novel 'Fra Kristiania-Bohêmen' (Scenes from Kristiania-Bohêmen; 1885) and sentenced to 60 days' imprisonment in 1886. His 1906 book, 'Anarkiets Bibel' (The Bible of Anarchism), advocating his philosophy of the expropriative general strike coupled with the need for individual and sexual liberation, encompassing a raging attack on religion, capitalism, private property and the state.

1872 - The fifth General Congress of the International Workingmen's Association opens in The Hague. In the aftermath of the Paris Commune and Bakunin characterisation of Marx's ideas as authoritarian, arguing that if a Marxist party came to power its leaders would end up as bad as the ruling class they had fought against (c.f. 'Statism and Anarchy'), it was inevitable that the Hague Congress of the First International would see the long-running conflict between anarchists and Marxists come to a head. It resulted in the expulsion of Bakunin and Guillaume and a split between the 'red' and 'black' internationals. The anarchist faction, including the Jura federation and the federations of Spain, Italy and Belgium, then held their own Congress of Saint-Imier a few days later on September 15-16, from which also emerged the Anarchist St. Imier International.

1876 - The second General Congress of the International Workingmen's Association opens in Lausanne (Sept. 2-7).

1885 - Henri Demaille aka 'Petit Breton' (d. unknown), French merchant and anarchist member of Groupe Libertaire Havrais, born.

1887 - Georges 'Émile' Dulac (d. 19??), French anarchist and chocolatier, born.

1888 - The only issue of the newssheet 'L'Urlo della Canaglia' (The Howl of the Scoundrel) is published in Padua. It bears the epigraphs of bears the inscriptions of Blanqui, "Neither God nor master", and Shetchley, "Having the right to vote, does not mean having the right to freedom."

1906 - Having chosen the date of September 16, 1906, the day that the Mexican Independence is celebrated, Ricardo Flores Magón and Juan Sarabia arrive in El Paso, Texas to coordinate plans for the uprising with Antonio I. Villarreal, Cesar E. Canales, Prisciliano G. Silva, Professor Lauro Aguirre and other members of PLM operating along the border. The plans involved 44 groups of guerrilleros, some involving with up to 300 (although the average was 50) who were to launch raids into México, capturing custom houses on the border, blowing up railways, cutting telegraph wires and raiding stores for weapons and supplies, fermenting a revolution across the country. However, US police began a series of raids over the following days in which they seized weapons and documents, and discovered the plans for the insurrection, which had to be postponed til September 26th.

1910 - The return of the editorial board to Los Angeles, and the third epoch of 'Regeneración' begins at 519 ½ E. 4th Street, Nelson Flats.

1910 - Domingo Trama (d. 2003), Argentine shipyard worker and militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1917 - Mass arrests of Wobblies and other radicals. [expand]

1920 - Occupazioni delle Fabbriche: The factory occupations extends to all the metal foundries in major Italian cities. In Rome, Bologna, La Spezia, Genoa and Turin, the occupations are carried out in the greatest enthusiasm. At the FIAT Lingotto factory in Turin, police try to enter under cover of darkness in order to capture new guns, but they are put to flight by the siren and repelled under heavy fire from the sentries. In Genoa, a guard opens fire as workers try to enter the Odero factory to occupy it. One worker is killed and five others injured.

1923 - Following yesterday's bank robbery by Los Solidarios, Rafael Torres Escartín, a member of the anarchist Los Solidarios, is arrested and tortured by the police. He manages to escape, but is later recaptured.

1931 - La Vaga de Lloguers de 1931 / La Huelga de Alquileres [1931 Barcelona Rent Strike]: Population pressure on Barcelona in the early 1930s had coincided with the proclamation of the Second Republic, resulting in a very expensive housing sector. [At the time Barcelona had the most expensive housing in Europe, according to the purchasing power of its population, representing between 30 and 40% of the average worker's wage labour, when it averaged 15% in most European cities.] This coupled with widespread unemployment and the precarious situation of the city's working classes, especially in the construction sector, led to numerous evictions by the republican police.
The lack of any response from the authorities led to a rent strike being called in April 1931 by the Comité de Defensa Económica del Sindicato de la Construcción de la CNT and the Federación Local de Sindicatos Únicos, just days after the establishment of the provisional government. The tactic was to stop paying rent indefinitely whilst demanding that the landlrds lower rents by 40% across the sector and the protests that had started in Barceloneta quickly spread to districts such as Sants, El Clot, Poblenou as well as L'Hospitalet and Santa Coloma de Gramenet. At its peak, 100,000 working families had stopped paying their monthly rent with the rebel tenants adopting flexible and imaginative tactics, such as their regular protests in front of the homes of landlords. Solidarity actions helped stop many eviction, and even when they did occur, within a few hours the evicted families had been helped to returned and reoccupy their homes. When electricity and water were cut off, other service workers helped reconnect them. To prevent the neighbours from replacing the furniture, for example, the Guardia de Asalto threw them out the window to break both the widows and the family's few precious possessions. Or they arrested those trying to rehouse the evicted.
The strike managed to hold firm, lasting the nine months until December 1931, thanks to the decisive role of women and children, the former having a major role as the administrators of their husbands' salary envelopes. However, the new Republican government together with the civil governor, Oriol Anguera de Sojo, and the president of the Cámara de la Propiedad (Chamber of Property), Juan Pich i Pon, reacted harshly, repressing the strikers and tenants who tried to return to their homes after being evicted and filled the Model prison and the floating prison ship 'Antonio López' in the city's harbour with hundreds of 'presos gubernativos' (government prisoners).
The repression triggered a hunger strike amongst some of the prisoners in the Modelo prison and their mistreatment in turn sparked a three day general strike, which was harshly repressed by the government and ended with eighteen workers killed and six policemen were injured, with over 300 workers arrested. The strong repressive climate led the union decided to call off the strike a few months later. But despite the repression, the rent strike achieved significant reductions in rents for many families and put on the table for the first time the debate about the right to property versus the right to housing.
During the morning of September 2, the Civil Governor of Barcelona, Oriol Anguera de Sojo , visits the 51 prisoners being held without trial and currently on hunger strike demanding their release. However, he tells them that he will not negotiate with them until they cease their protests. The prisoners refuse to give into his blackmail and the governor's intransigence provokes a rebellion, which extends to common prisoners, during which doors and mattresses are burned in the corridors of the prison, and the prison chapel and printing press burns down. The guardias de asaltos storm the jail and put down the mutiny within a few hours. The workers of Barcelona respond by launching an insurrectionary general strike the following day.

[E] 1942 - Ekaterina Ivanovna Gabrielts (Екатерина Ивановна Габриэльц; b. 1898), Russian accountant and anarcho-syndicalist (according to other sources an S-R Party [ПСР] member), dies in the women's special department of the Karaganda labour camp. First arrested in 1922, since that time constantly in prisons, camps and exile. Arrested on October 28, 1937 the NKVD and sentenced to 8 years by Special Council of the NKVD on December 29, 1937.

[A] 1964 - Stuart Christie and Fernando Carballo Blanco are sent to prison for planning to assassinate Franco during a Real Madrid football game, after Christie is arrested with a rucksack full of plastic explosives. Charged with Banditry and terrorism and tried by a drumhead court martial within two weeks of their arrest, Carballo gets 30 years and Christie 20.
1864 - Leo Tolstoy, Russian author and mystical anarchist, is seized with terror in a country inn and imagines he is confronting death, an incident that furnishes the basis for 'Notes of a Madman'.

1866 - The First General Congress of the International Workingmen's Association (Sept. 3-8) is held in Geneva. Fortyfive delegates, representing the Swiss, French and German Sections and the London General Council, set about debating the adoption of the organisation's General Statutes, including the adoption of the 8-hour work day as one of its fundamental demands.

1867 - Jehan-Rictus (Domitille-Camille-Gabrielle-Adine Randon de Saint-Amand; d. 1933), French poet and anarchist, born. His early Symbolist work was published under his birth name, Gabriel Randon, but he later adopted the pen name Jehan-Rictus and published more popular working class poems including his best known collection 'Les Soliloques du Pauvre' (1897), but by the time of WWI he had become a nationalist and Royalist. His early passion for anarchism resulted in an unpublished novel, 'l'Impostor' (c. 1892), recounting the return of Christ to France, a theme returned to in his most famous poem 'Le Revenant' about a meeting between a tramp and Jesus.

[B] 1878 - Madeleine Vernet (Madeleine Eugénie Clémentine Victorine Cavelier; d. 1949), French libertarian educator, novelist, poet, feminist, peace activist and propagandist, born. In 1888, Madeleine Vernet's parents moved to Barentin (Seine-Inférieure), where they opened a small business. Around 1900, Madeleine Vernet's then widowed mother moved to Pissy-Pôvilie (Seine-Inferieure) and, in order to survive, took charge of four orphan girls under the old 'enfants de l'Assistance publique' social welfare scheme. This event revealed to the young Vernet her vocation as a popular educator. She wrote a series of articles under the pen name 'Madeleine Vernet' on the "Bureautins" [children raised in the country at the expense of the charity office of Rouen] for Charles Guieysse's 'Pages libres' (Free Pages), denouncing the great misery of these fostered children and the abuses tolerated by the then Administration; in retaliation, the pupils entrusted to his mother were withdrawn. Madeleine Vernet tried to create a working-class orphanage managed by co-operatives in the Rouen region, but she failed. In 1904 Madeleine Vernet participated in founding the Ruche at Rambouillet, a school dedicated to avant-garde education and, at the end of that year, she moved to Paris to try to realise her plans. In order to subsist, Vernet worked as an accountant; whilst at the same time becoming tried to gain support for her plans from unions and cooperatives, journalists and deputies. It was then that she began frequenting libertarian circles, and met Albert Thomas, Marcel Sembat and Georges Yvetot. She also collaborated on 'Libertaire' and 'Temps Nouveaux', often writing about her opposition to the néo-Malthusian movement as well as her criticism of the then feminist movement, which she saw more concerned with their own personal struggles rather that the wider social struggle. Vernet also published a series of pamphlets, including the successful 'L'Amour Libre' [Monthly Pamphlet No. 30, April 1925] in which she denounced marriage, source of hypocrisy and sorrow, and affirmed the value of true love without chains or social obligations. She also published a novel, 'La Torine'.
On May 1, 1906, thanks in part to her mother's savings, and with the help from her sister and her partner Louis Tribier, whom she married on October 12, 1909, she founded the L'Avenir Social orphanage in a small house in Neuilly-Plaisance (Seine-et-Oise). In August, Madeleine Vernet rented a second house, since the orphanage now had twenty-four residents. In 1907 there were thirty: seventeen boys and thirteen girls. The orphanage was able to survive thanks to the donations of friends, the help provided by the cooperative La Bellevilloise, and subscriptions from 'Humanité' and 'Guerre Sociale'.
On April 14, 1908, L'Avenir Social was transferred to Épône (Seine-et-Oise). There, Madeleine Vernet continued her work in spite of the hostility of the clerical population and the harassment of the administration and the primary inspector of Mantes. Attacked for its "unhealthy coeducation", Madeleine was banned from teaching and the school fined and forced to close, but the orphanage survived thanks to the financial support of trade unions, cooperatives and various socialist and anarchist groups. In May 1914, L'Avenir Social officially became the 'l'Orphelinat du mouvement ouvrier français' (Orphanage of the French Labour Movement'.
The war forced Madeleine Vernet to leave Épône for the "colony of children of mobilised troops" in Etretat (Seine-Inferieure) but, as soon as the front was stabilised, she return to Épône. Throughout the war, Madeleine Vernet engaged in pacifist propaganda activities. She published poems, took in Johan, the eldest son of Marie and François Mayoux, who were in prison at the time for their anti-militarist propaganda activities, organised a defence committee for Hélène Brion, a schoolteacher and secretary of the board of Épône, who had been arrested for distributing pacifist propaganda. Madeleine Vernet distributed an underground pamphlet, and two numbers of Les Voix qu’on étrangle, a pacifist sheet. In 1916–17 she contributed to Sébastien Faure's journal 'Ce qu’il faut dire'. In April 1918 she published 'L'École laïque menacée' (The Lay School Threatened), and undertook a lecture tour in Lyon, Saint-Étienne, Firminy and Saint-Chamond. On her return to Épône she was charged with defeatist propaganda, but the charges were dropped with the armistice.
In October 1917 Madeleine Vernet founded 'La Mère Éducatrice', which she published until her death, as a platform to espouse her particular synthesis of feminism, pacifism and maternity, and collaborating with radical feminists such as Nelly Roussel, Louise Bodin and Hélène Brion. In 1921, Madeleine Vernet founded the Ligue des femmes contre la guerre (League of Women against War) in Paris, and continued her educational work in the orphanage at Épône for a while. However, by 1922 the majority of the board of directors of the orphanage were Communist and, disagreeing with their views, in January 1923 she resigned as director. On June 13, 1923, the pupils of Épône left for Mitry-Mory (Seine-et-Marne), new residence of the work. Two years later, L'Avenir Social was taken over by the Union départementale unitaire de la Seine. Transferred to La Villette-aux-Aulnes (Seine-et-Oise), it became L'Orphelinat Ouvrier, which ceased to function in 1938.
Madeleine then lived at 39 rue Chaptal in Levallois-Perret where from July 1923 she managed the bookshop Au Panthéon de la Pensée. In 1928, Madeleine Vernet was secretary-general of the Comité international d'action et propagande pour la paix et le désarmement (International Committee for Action and Propaganda for Peace and Disarmament), whose newspaper, 'La Volonté de Paix' (The Will to Peace) she founded in June 1927. The newspaper was banned in January 1936 following the trial of its manager, her partner Louis Tribier, who had been accused of incitement (of soldiers) to disobedience. In April 1935, Madeleine Vernet was elected to the Governing Board of the Ligue internationale des combattants de la Paix.
Madeleine Vernet died on October 5, 1949 and was buried in the cemetery of Barentin (Seine-Inférieure).

"What we want is to raise the child for himself (...) is to awaken to the ideas of association, solidarity, understanding, it is to give him the taste for work and to inspire him with the disgust of domesticity."


1906 - Thomas H. Rynningg leads Arizona Rangers and immigration officers in a raid on an underground cell of the Partido Liberal Méxicano during a meeting in Douglas. They discover dynamite, pistols and banners, and seven members are arrested for violation of the Neutrality Law. The group had been gathering weapons and ammunition for a major expedition into
México which included capturing custom houses on the border, blowing up railways, cutting telegraph wires and raiding stores for weapons and supplies as part of the planned insurrection of September 16.

[E] 1918 - Fanya Yefimovna Kaplan [Фа́нни Ефи́мовна Капла́н] (Feiga Haimovna Roytblat [Фейга Хаимовна Ройтблат]; b. 1890), Russian Socialist-Revolutionary and one-time anarchist, who unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate Lenin at the 'Hammer and Sickle' factory on August 31, 1918, is executed. [see: Feb. 22]

1920 - Joseph Lane (b. 1851), British anarchist, dies. One of the little-known founders of the libertarian socialist movement in Britain. Author of 'An Anti-statist, Communist Manifesto' (1887). [see: Apr. 2]

1920 - Occupazioni delle Fabbriche: In Spezia, nearly all the factories have been occupied and are under workers' control. [see: Sep. 2]

1921 - Italian anarchist Giuseppe Morelli is attacked by a group of Royal Guards and Fascists in Piombino whilst putting up Arditi del Popolo posters against the Patto di Pacificazione (Pact of Pacification), the peace treaty between Fascists and Socialists. A Deputy Commissioner of Police shoots him dead. During the night, in an attempt to pre-empt an anarchist backlash, the police raid homes and workplaces (during night shifts), arresting more than 200 comrades. Having eliminated the most politically active and militant anarchist trades unionists, the fascists understood that this was the time to launch their attack. Having attacked the Camera del Lavoro (Trade Union hall) and the printshop of the regional socialist newspaper 'La Fiamma', and then headed towards the Camera Confederale (Trade Union headquarters), they were intercepted by a patrol of young anarchists, who were soon reinforced by groups of workers, and the fascists had no choice but to surrender to the police in order to escape a severe dose of working class justice.

1923 - Foundry worker and anarchist guerilla Eusebio Brau (b. unknown), who was mortally wounded in the same firefight yesterday that resulted in Rafael Torres Escartín's capture, dies of his wounds.

1923 - Mario Castagna (1903-unknown), an exiled Italian anarchist militant and anti-fascist, is confronted in Paris by a group of fascists. Defending himself from attack, Castagna pulls a pistol and shoots dead one of the attackers. He is sentenced to 7 years in prison on June 28 1924, despite it clearly being a case of self-defence.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: Clashes continue in Zaragoza and across the country. Meanwhile, the CNT calls an assembly of the Frontón Zaragozano at 16:00, chaired by Mariano Andrés. A return to work is agreed and demand that the governor frees prisoners and opens trade union halls within 48 hours. Several thousand workers attend the meeting. [see: Jul. 6 & Aug. 31]

[D] 1931 - Vaga General de Barcelona / Huelga General de Barcelona: An insurrectionary general strike is launched in Barcelona in protest against the treatment of the hunger strike prisoners in the Modelo. The strike begins with the paralysis of industry, public transport and lighting of the city. Shops and restaurants open initially, but after a little persuasion from trade unionists, almost all acceed and close their blinds. Nothing moves in the port and even private car disappear from th roads. Earlier that morning, two cars on the Paseo de San Juan who had been seized by the authorities, were stopped by a group of strikers who did not know they contained police. The cops exited the cars and fired on the pickets, wounding four of them. Another incident occurred at 08:00 on Calle del Carmen, when a group of pickets tried to force a private car to return to the garage. A number of guardias de Seguridad, realising the situation proceeded to search them but they fired at the guards, seriously wounding one of them. In a further exchange of shots, several people are wounded. On the same morning, a group tried to set fire to the church in the Collblanc barrio, but the fire brigade quickly extinguished it. In L'Hospitalet (Barcelona) the church of San Ramón is also torched.
The gobernador civil de Barcelona, José Oriol Anguera de Sojo, responsible for public order in the province of Barcelona, stated that transgression of the law would be punished with adequate force, and that any act of hostility would be repressed. He also suspended the publication of the newspaper 'Solidaridad Obrera'.

1938 - Barthélemy De Ligt (b. 1883), Dutch anarcho-pacifist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Jul. 17]

1940 - Eduardo Hughes Galeano, Uraguayan libertarian writer, novelist and journalist, born. Author of 'Días y Noches de Amor y de Guerra' (Days and Nights of Love and War; 1982).

#### 1943 - Michael Anthony 'Mick' Farren (d. 2013), English journalist, writer, poet, musician, activist, agent provocateur and anarchist, born. Frontman for anarchist proto-punk band The Deviants (1967-69) plus various reunions/one-offs. Solo artist whose albums include the wonderfully titled 'Vampires Stole My Lunch Money' (1978). Co-writer on songs for The Pink Faries, Hawkwind and Motörhead. Organiser of the Phun City Festival in 1970.
Writer for, and briefly editor of, 'International Times' and later 'New Musical Express'. Columnist for 'Trouser Press' and 'LA CityBeat'. Author of 23 science fiction novels, including: the 'DNA Cowboys Trilogy' (actually a quartet; 1976-1989) and 'Jim Morrison's Adventures in the Afterlife' (1999); plus 11 non-fiction books, such as 'Conspiracies, Lies And Hidden Agendas: Our Deepest Secret Fears, from the Antichrist to the Trenchcoat Mafia' (1999), 'Who's Watching You?: The Chilling Truth about the State, Surveillance and Personal Freedom' (2007), 'Elvis Died for Somebody's Sins But Not Mine: A Lifetime's Collected Writing' (2013), and his 2001 memoir, 'Give The Anarchist A Cigarette'; and reams of poetry, including the collection 'Black Dogs Circled' (2012).
He was also a prominent activist in the White Panthers UK, helping organised free food and other support services for free festivals from the Windsor Free Festival in 1972 onwards.
"There I was, cocky and paranoid, yet another anarchist art student teenage asshole, rebel without a clue, too dumb to recognise the impossible but with that burning desire to do it. It was 1967, and all things seemed possible, we wanted the world and we wanted it now. Vietnam was getting ugly and LSD-25 was hitting the headlines." - Notes for 'PTOOFF!' [A thousand miles of barbed wire starts with the first barb…]

1950 - Zhang Renjie [張人傑] (born Zhang Jingjiang [張靜江]; b. 1877), Chinese political figure and financial entrepreneur in the Republic of China, who was a member of the Chinese anarchist group in Paris in the 1900s along side his friends Li Shizeng and Wu Zhihui, dies in New York City of heart failure at the age of 73. [see: Sep. 19]

1956 - Jean Le Gall (b. 1896), militant French libertarian and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Jun. 14]

1983 - 5000 pepole take part in a demonstration protesting the events of August 28 1983 when the CRS attacked the Radio Libertaire premises, wrecking equipment and beating and arresting staff.

## 1993 - Baltasar Lobo Casquero (b. 1910), Spanish artist, illustrator, sculptor, anarchist, and lifelong companion of poet and anarchist Mercedes Comaposada Guillén, dies in Paris. [see: Feb. 22]

2003 - Elias Petropoulos (Ηλίας Πετρόπουλος; b. 1928), Greek author, poet, musicologist, folklorist, self-described 'urban anthropologist', libertarian and vagabond philosopher, dies of cancer in Paris at the age of 75. [see: Jun. 26]
1846 - David de Gaudenzi (d. unknown), French tinsmith and anarchist, who was involved in the 1882 Montceau-les-Mines protests, born.

[DD] 1870 - Commune de Lyon: At 07:30 a crowd began to collect at reading posters announcing news of the capture of Emperor Napoleon III at the Battle of Sedan. The Hôtel de Ville is occupied and the préfet is taken prisoner. At 09:00, the Republic is proclaimed, half a day before Paris. The red flag flies from the top of the building and remains there until March 4, 1871. The insurgents set up a Comité de salut public (Committee of Public Safety), comprising a majority of radical, free-thinking néo-Jacobines, radicale, as well as a number of individual internationalistes and moderate Republicans included the former député Hénon.

[B] 1871 - Georges Delaw (Henri Georges Deleau; d. 1938), French anarchist, poet, artist, designer and illustrator, born.

1879 - Antoine Scipion Gauzy (d. 1963), French anarchist individualist and Bonnot gang member, born. [expand]

1882 - Leonhard Frank (d. 1961), German Expressionist novelist, short story writer, playwright, libertarian pacifist and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. A regular visitor to the Monte Verità libertarian writers colony at Ascona in Switzerland, he was heavily influenced by the ideas of the psychoanalyst Otto Gross and became close to the likes of Franz Jung, Karl Otten, Oskar Maria Graf and Erich Mühsam.

1885 - Louis Célestin Boisson (d. unknown), French plasterer, revolutionary syndicalist activist and anarchist, born. Secretary of the syndicat CGT du Bâtiment (builders section of the CGT) in Bouches-du-Rhône in 1913-14, secretary of the Fédération autonome du Bâtiment (Autonomous Federation of Building), member of the board of the CGT-SR and editor of its newspaper 'Le Combat Syndicaliste' (1928-32).

1887 - The first issue of the Italian language free newspaper 'Il Ciclone' (The Cyclone), "Bollettino rivoluzionario anarchico", is published in Paris by the Gli Intransigenti group of the anarchist illegalists Luigi Parmeggiani and Vittorio Pini. With its recipies for making explosives, its mottos are: "Mezzi of emancipazione: Espropirazione - PUGNALE - Dinamite" (Means of emancipation: expropriation - DAGGER - Dynamite) and "Più organizzazione my Bensi Autonomia completa dei dell'individuo and gruppi" (More organisation but the complete autonomy of the individual and groups).

1897 - The first issue of the newspaper 'La Revancha' (Revenge), "Periodico comunist-anárquico", is published in Reus, near Tarragona, Catalonia.

1914 - Charles Péguy (b. 1873), French poet, playwright, essayist, editor, libertarian socialist and anti-clericalist, dies. [see: Jan. 7]

##1926 - Ivan Illich (d. 2002), Austrian philosopher, Roman Catholic priest and libertarian-socialist social thinker, born.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: Workers return to work following yesterday's decision by the CNT in Zaragoza but industrial unrest continues across the Second Republic.

1931 - Vaga General de Barcelona / Huelga General de Barcelona: During the early hours of the morning, the guardia civil come across a number of people in the Calle Lope de Vega 'behaving suspiciously'. When they try to intervene, the group responds by firing at the guardia civil and fleeing, leaving behind a number of rifles, grenades and a pistol.
Elsewhere, the governor orders a raid on a meeting in the local of the Sindicato único de la Construcción on the Calle Mercaders. When the guards arrived, several shots are fired from the balconies and roofs at the cop, wounding two of them. The guards responded to the shooting and began a siege to the premises, setting up security cordons in the district. At 16:00, reinforcements from the army arrive. In an attempt to negotiate, the mayor, Jaime Aguadé and the head of the mozos de escuadra, Pérez Farrás, enter the local and persuade those present to surrender. The army then entered and detained about 150 people.
That same morning, in the neighborhood of the plaza de la República, there is a shootout between guards and strikers, as well as another one in the Calle Montcada, during which one person died. bout sixty workers were also arrested, but when they reached the Police Headquarters, they refused to enter the cells. When the guardias de seguridad attempted to intervene, three of the detainees were shot and killed and a further five wounded. The rest of the detainees were taken to the cells.
The strike had now spread to other towns and cities in the province and prisoners were now being held on the prison ship Dédalo, due to the poor state of the Model prison. The governor continues to insist that any attempt at resistance would be repressed with great vigour and praises the attitude of the security forces. Several representatives of the CNT meet with the mayor in order to manage a removal of the police from the siege to the local in the Calle Mercaders, but the governor refused to do so. However, the intercession of Francesc Macià i Llussà, President of the Generalitat of Catalonia, managed to convince José Oriol Anguera de Sojo, the gobernador civil de Barcelona, to facilitate the departure of the besieged in exchange for being detained. Maciá jumped the gun, claiming that the strike was over, when in reality lasted a further day. Likewise, the president of the Generalitat made a citizen address warning that any revolutionary and violent act as well as the failure to prevent such acts should be considered acts against Catalonia and the Spanish Republic.

## 1938 - Jacques Lesage de La Haye, French psychologist, Reichian psychotherapist and analyst, writer and anarchist, who served eleven years of a twenty year sentence for his teenage 'gangstérisme', during which he was active in the Comité d'action des prisonniers, born.

1956 - Francisco Tortosa (b. 1880), Spanish-Mexican anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and painter, dies.

1973 - Elise Ottesen-Jensen aka 'Ottar' (b. 1886), Norwegian-Swedish sex educator, journalist, feminist and anarchist agitator, who was a member of the Swedish anarcho-syndicalist union Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation and a pioneer of women's rights to understand and control their own body and sexuality, dies. [see: Jan. 2]

1982 - Biagio 'Gino' Cerrito (b. 1922), Italian militant anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist historian, dies. [see: Feb. 11]

1989 - Georges Simenon (b. 1903), Belgian author, creator of Inspector Maigret novels, dies. Though not an activist, during an interview he stated that he considered himself an anarchist from the age of 16: "Je me considère comme un anarchiste non violent, car l'anarchie n'est pas nécessairement violente, celui qui s'en réclame étant un homme qui refuse tout ce qu'on veut lui faire entrer de force dans la tête ; il est également contre ceux qui veulent se servir de lui au lieu de lui laisser sa liberté de penser." (I consider myself as a nonviolent anarchist, because anarchy is not inevitably violent, it does not claim that a man that refuses to change will be hit around the head; it is also against those who want to manipulate instead of allowing for the freedom of thought.) [see: Feb. 13]
1884 - André Augustin Bastelica (d. 1845), French typographer and printer, member of the First International, Communard, agitator, anarchist avant la lettre, supporter of Bakunin and organiser of the Marseilles working class, dies. [see: Dec. 14]

1885 - The first issue of 'Federación de Trabajadores' (Workers' Federation), "Semanario Anárquico-colectivista" is published in Montevideo.

1897 - Emma Neri (d. 1978), Italian primary teacher, anarchist and anti-fascist, born. She and her partner Nello Garavini escaped from fascist Italy and settled in Brazil.

1900 - Nguyen An Ninh (d. 1943), influential Vietnamese nationalist journalist, poet and libertarian communist, who was active in the revolutionary struggle against the French colonial empire, born.

1907 - Henri Storck (d. 1999), Belgian author, film-maker, documentarist, actor, Surrealist and anarchist, born. He co-founded the Cinémathèque Royale de Belgique (Royal Belgian Film Archive) and was an actor in Jean Vigo's 'Zéro de Conduite' (1933), playing the curé.

1908 - The first issue of 'Le Révolté', "Organe de propagande anarchiste, paraissant au moins une fois par mois" (Paper of anarchist propaganda, published at least once a month), publication of the libertarian communist colony L'Expérience, is published in Boitsfort, Belgium. It follows on from the newspaper 'Le Communiste', and ceases publication with the March 15, 1914 issue.

## 1912 - John Cage (d. 1992), American composer, music theorist, writer, poet, artist and anarchist, born.

[B] 1914 - Nicanor Parra, Chilean mathematician, theoretical physicist, social ecologist, philosophical anarchist in an age ''without brotherhood'' and a poet who writes what he calls 'anti-poetry', born.


Quien haya estudiado a fondo
El mundo actual
No puede dejar de hacerse
Quien haya estudiado a fondo
El partido comunista
No puede dejar de hacerse anarquista
Believe me
No ser idealista a los 20
Es no tener corazón
Seguir siéndolo a los cuarenta
Es no tener cabeza


Anyone who has studied thoroughly
The world today
You can not stop being
Anyone who has studied thoroughly
The Communist Party
You can not stop being anarchist
Believe me
Not to be idealistic at 20
Does not have a heart
Continue to be so at forty
Does not have a brain)

'Also Sprach Altazor', Stanza XIII

[ Parra Critical Analysi Gale Virtual Reference Library.pdf]

1919 - In Barcelona, Commissioner Manuel Bravo Portillo, head of the employers' pistoleros and who led the band of gunmen on July 17 that kidnapped and killed the militant centista Pau Sabater i Lliró aka 'el Tero', is found dead - riddled with bullets. The authorities react by immediately declaring a state of siege that allowed numerous arrests and the closure of the newspaper 'Solidaridad Obrera'.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: In Tolosa printing of the weekly 'Tradición Vasca' is suspended.

1931 - Vaga General de Barcelona / Huelga General de Barcelona: The general strike continues, albeit with less intensity. Public transport still does not work although many shops have reopened. In the port continued the total stoppage. As the day progressed, the city slowly returned to normal. The civil governor lets it b known that normality has returned to the city, and that during the day there had been no notable incidents. Annoyed by the criticism of some newspapers editorials, he insists that he had never abandoned any of his functions. The Generalitat de Catalunya, in the face of criticism for its passivity, reports that it has no powers over public order and expresses its full support for Francesc Macià and condemns the use of violence. The disagreements between Oriol Anguera de Sojo and Francesc Macià over the management of the strike were evident.

[C] 1936 -24-year-old Federico 'Taino' Borrell García (b. 1845), dies. Valencian anarquista, member of the FAI, made famous by the iconic photo 'The Fallen Soldier' (aka 'Loyalist Militiaman at the Moment of Death, Cerro Muriano, September 5, 1936') by Robert Capa, who captured his moment of death. Later attempts to discredit Capa and the photograph have themselves been discredited.
Founder of the local branch of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth) in Alcoi (Alcoy), and took part in the widespread sabotage carried out during the October insurrection by Asturian miners and others against the inclusion of fascists from the Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas (Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups). At the beginning of the fascist uprising, he took part in the storming of the infantry barracks in Alcoi and joined the local Republican militia, the Columna Alcoiana, led by the local anarchist activist, Enrique Vaño Nicomedes.
On the morning of September 5, 1936, Federico was one of fifty militia who arrived at the village of Cerro Muriano (Cordoba) to reinforce the militia’s frontline against the forces of Varela. In the afternoon Federico was defending the artillery battery in the rear of the detachment when Francoist troops infiltrated behind the lines and started shooting from behind as well as in front. Federico was shot at about 5pm and died instantly. According to records, he was the only member of the column to die in fighting that day.
In his honour and that of another anarchist from Alcoi, Juan Ruescas Ángel, who died on September 25, 1936 at Espejo, a militia column was named 'Ruescas-Taino'.
Much noise has been made since then about the authenticity of the shot(s), especially since a claim by José Manuel Susperregui in 2009 that the photo's were in fact taken near Espejo, 30 miles south of Cerro Muriano, something the likes of the Daily Mail and telegraph enthusiastically publicised. However, the arguments put forward by Capa's biographer Richard Whelan and the extensive work of José Manuel Serrano Esparza has effectively debunked this [see links below]. A recently discovered (in 2013) audio recording of Capa talking in 1947 about the taking of the shot tells a different different story. Make up your own mind.

1936 - Gustave Kahn (b. 1859), French Symbolist poet, novelist, playwright, art critic and anarchist, dies. [see: Dec. 21]

1945 - Wakamiya Masanori (若宮正則; d. 1990), Japanese worker and early member of the Communist Alliance Red Army (共産主義者同盟赤軍派), better known as the Red Army Faction (Sekigun-ha / 赤軍派), which was a precursor of the Moaist Japanese Red Army (日本赤軍 Nihon Sekigun), born. After a period in prison, where he became one of the co-founders in 1974 of the Unification Prisoners' Union (統一獄中者組合), he embraced anarchism and became an activist in the Kamagasaki day labourers district in Ōsaka. He was later killed by Shining Path guerrillas in Peru.

1954 - Theodor Bartošek (b. 1877), Czech lawyer, freethinker, anarchist fellow traveller and then communist politician, dies. [see: Nov. 4]

1964 - Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, 'The Rebel Girl', (b. 1890), US labour leader, activist, and feminist, who played a leading role in the Industrial Workers of the World, was a founding member of the American Civil Liberties Union and a visible proponent of women's rights, birth control, and women's suffrage, dies whilst visiting the Soviet Union. She given a state funeral in Red Square by the Soviet government, with over 25,000 people attending. [see: Aug. 7]

1964 - Melpomena Dimitrova Karnicheva [Мелпомена Димитрова Кърничева (bg) / Мелпомена Димитрова Крничева (mk)], popularly known as Mencha Karnichiu [Менча Кърничиу] or Carmen [Кармен](b. 1896), Bulgarian revolutionary of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешната македонска революционна организация), dies in Rome. [see: Mar. 28]

1972 - Juan Puig Elias (b. 1898), Spanish teacher and militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Jul. 30]

1986 - Maurice Pernette (b. 1913), French anarchist, small press publisher, poet and author, dies. [see: Jul. 13]

2003 - Revolutionary Struggle (Επαναστατικός Αγώνας / Epanastatikos Agonas) carry out their first action, a double bombing of the Courthouse in which a policeman is injured.

2014 - Bernd Kramer (b. 1940), German anarchist publisher and co-founder of the Karin Kramer publishing house, dies in Berlin at the age of 74. [see: Jan. 22]
1847 - Henry David Thoreau leaves Walden Pond and moves back into town, to Concord, Massachusetts.

1862 - Henri Delange (d. unknown), French shoemaker, militant revolutionary syndicalist and anarchist, born. In 1888, he participated on 'L'Egalité Sociale', the newspaper of the Lyon members of the Conseil National of the first Fédération Française des Syndicats Ouvriers (French Federation of Trade Unions). His anarchist opinions earned him to be charged with "incitement to murder and pillage" following a conference in February 1885 in Lyon.

1868 - The Third Congress of the International Workingmen's Association takes place in Brussels (Sept. 6-13).

1869 - The Fourth Congress of the International Workingmen's Association takes place in Basel (Sept. 6-12).

1870 - Commune de Lyon: Challemel-Lacour, who was appointed préfet of Rhône by the Gouvernement de la Défense Nationale arrives in Lyon. [see: Sep. 4]

###1880 - Jules Gustave Durand (d. 1926), French anarchist, revolutionary syndicalist and secretary of the Syndicat des Charbonniers in Le Harve, born. Durand was an initiator of the French general strike of 1910, and was wrongly charged with the murder of a blackleg in a brawl in a case called at the time the 'affaire Dreyfus du pauvre' (Dreyfus affair of the poor) or the 'affaire Dreyfus du monde ouvrier' (.. of the workers). On the back of a series of corrupt witnesses and a hate campaign by the press, he was sentenced to death on November 25, 1910. In a tremendous show of solidarity against this injustice protests and strikes closed the docks at Le Harve and spread across the channel to English ports and to some American ports. After further protests spearheaded by the League of Human Rights, he was released on February 15, 1911. Sadly, due to his inhumane treatment and spending 40 days restrained in a straightjacket he suffered a complete mental breakdown and spent the rest of his days in an asylum where he died in 1926. His case was re-opened and his name was cleared and on June 15, 1918, it was stated that he had been completely innocent of the charge.

1892 - Manuel Pérez Feliu (d. 1940), Spanish cabinetmaker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, born. Member of the Sindicat de la Fusta of the CNT, in May 1921 he was arrested, along with Bernardino Alonso García (El Porra), for having allegedly place a firecracker in a striking basketmaking workshop on April 1. In 1932, he was arrested and deported to Villa Cisneros, Rio de Oro, and then to Fuerteventura in the Canary Islands. He was also chair of the Faros Agrupació Pro Cultura in Barcelona. In January 1934, he was arrested in Barcelona with 23 comrades at a clandestine meeting and was not released until April because he was refusing to pay a fine of 20,000 pesetas for possession of explosives and demanding a trial instead. Following the fascist coup in July 1936, he was appointed to the CNT representative to the Guardia Popular Antifascista (Brigadas Populares de Policía) in Valencia, vice president of the Consell Provincial de Seguretat (Provincial Security Council) and the Tribunal Especial de Justícia del Comitè Executiu Popular (Comitè de Salvació Pública) (Special Court of Justice of the People's Executive Committee (Committee Public Safety)). During the war he was also a member of the East Regional Committees of the CNT and the Iberian Anarchist Federation (FAI). In 1938, he worked on the Valencia newspaper 'Fragua Social'. That same year, he stood in for Torres Domingo Maeso, performing the duties of mayor of Valencia, replacing him permanently in 1939. With the triumph of Franco, he was arrested and locked up in a concentration camp Albatera, along side his friend Manuel Pérez Fernández. Identified by the fascist authorities, he was imprisoned in Valencia. Tried and sentenced to death, Manuel Pérez Feliu was shot on the August 27 1940 at the Paterna camp along with 20 other detainees.

1893 - A New York Grand Jury indicts Emma Goldman on three charges following her Aug. 21 speech. She is returned from Philadelphia to New York on Sept. 9, where she is placed in confinement. On Sept. 11, pleads not guilty; released on bail Sept. 14. Benefit concert on Sept. 23 intended to raise money for Goldman's defence is a financial failure.

1899 - In the mining town of Spring Valley, Illinois, Emma Goldman heads a Labor Day procession, which ends with a meeting in the central market place, a direct violation of the mayor's denial of authorisation to do so.

1901 - The Polish anarchist individualist Leon Czolgosz (1873-1901) shoots the U.S. President William McKinley twice in the abdomen at point blank range during a walkabout by the politician at the Pan-American Exposition. Seriously wounded, McKnley dies eight days later from an infection. A grand jury indicted Czolgosz on September 16 with one count of first-degree murder. Czolgosz refused to speak to his appointed lawyers and they went on to try and convince the jury that Czolgosz is insane. However, Czolgosz was convicted on September 24, 1901 after the jury deliberated for only one hour. Two days later, they unanimously recommended the death penalty and Czolgosz was executed in the electric chair at Auburn State Prison on October 29, 1901.

1908 - The First Congress of the labour organisation Solidaridad Obrera is held in Barcelona (Sept. 6-8) and take the decision to establish a Confederació Regional de Societats de Resistència - Solidaritat Obrera based on the principle of direct action.

## 1911 - André Arru (Jean-René Saulière; d. 1999), French anarchist, pacifist and underground organiser during WWII, born. Already an anti-militarist in 1931 when he did his compulsory military service, he encountered anarchism for the first time whilst assisting at a conference where Sébastien Faure was speaking. He went on to participate in the anti-fascist solidarity with Spanish anarchists and discovered Stirner's 'The Ego and His Own'. At the start of WWII, he went underground, moving from Bordeaux to Marseilles, the city of his birth. There he helped form an anarchist group, which included Voline and one Marcel-André Arru who gave him his army discharge papers, allowing him to change is name from Saulière to Arru. He also participated in the underground Résistance, producing propaganda and helping hide those being pursued by authorities.
Post-WWII, Arru became the general secretary for the French SIA (International Antifascist Solidarity) and in the 1950s he participates in the establishment of the Fédération Anarchiste. In addition to his pacifist engagement, he was an active organiser of the Libre Pensée and the publication of the quarterly review 'La Libre Pensée des Bouches-du-Rhône' (1969-1980). In addition, he was a member, since 1983, of the ADMD (an association for the right to die in dignity) and, in 1999 at the age of 87, he voluntarily ended his life, refusing to subject himself to the risks and dependency of advancing age and disease.

1916 - Benito Milla Navarro (d. 1987), Spanish militant anarchist propaganist, editor and anti-fascist combatant, born. A member of the libertarian movement in the Alicante area, he moved to Barcelona in the early 1930s where he became a well-known activist. A member of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias, in July 1936 he joined the Durruti Column, organising FIJL groups at the front as the organisation's secretary within the Column. In 1938, he returned to Barcelona, ​​becoming the manager of 'Ruta', the Libertarian Youth's newspaper and served as a delegate of the 121st Brigade's FIJL groups at the 2nd national congress of the FIJL in Valencia. Exiled in France during the retirada, he was interned in various camps before settling in Marseilles during the Occupation and participating in the reorganisation of movement. After the liberation, he was elected general secretary of the FIJL in exile in April 1945. At he 2nd Congress in March 1946, he was appointed Secretario de relaciones internacionales and took over editing 'Ruta', published weekly in Toulouse and Paris. During this period he was also firmly opposed to the tactics of the action groups of the Mouvement Libertaire de Résistance (MLR). In 1949 he left France for America and, in 1951, he moved to Montevideo where he founded and led several journals - 'Cuadernos Internacionales', with Nicolas Sanchez Albornoz and Germinal Gracia, 'Deslinde' (1956-61) and 'Temas' (1965-67) - and collaborated on the periodicals 'En Marcha' and 'Accion'. In 1958, he founded the publishing house Alfa, which would publish more than 400 titles, and in 1968 he emigrated to Venezuela, where he founded the publishing houses Monte Ávila Editores and, in 1971, Nuevo Tiempo. He returned to Spain in 1977 after the death of Franco, becoming a well-known publisher and was appointed director in Barcelona of the publishers Editions Laia, where he promoted the publishing of many anarchist books.

1920 - Àngel Pestaña leaves Russia profoundly disillusioned by all that he has observed after having spent several months in Moscow as a CNT delegate to the Second Congress of the Third International. He tells the congress, which opened in Moscow on July 15, 1920: "You tell us that the revolution cannot take place without a communist party and that without the conquest of political power emancipation is not possible, and that without dictatorship one cannot destroy the bourgeoisie: all these assertions are absolutely gratuitous."

1921 - Giuseppe Rose (d. 1975), Italian anarchist , painter and poet, born.

1930 - Bram Reens, aka Otto van Meurs (Abraham Mozes Reens; b. 1870), Dutch magazine publisher, organiser, author and propagandist for revolutionary socialism and anarchism in the Netherlands, dies in Amsterdam. [see: Sep. 16]

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: In Doña Mencia, the mayor leads an assault against the Guardia Civil post, leaving two guards and three attackers wounded.
In the city of Toledo and in several towns in the province, six killed and forty wounded in anti-anarchist reprisals by the Communists.

1941 - Julia Romera Yañez (b. 1916), working class Spanish anarchist, dies in Barcelona's Les Corts women prison from tuberculosis, which had been aggravated by the continuous beatings to which she was subjected by her fascist prison guards. Born into a working class family in Mazarrón, Murcia, the family moved to Barcelona in 1921. She began working as a teenager, joining the CNT in 1931 and, from 1934 onwards, becoming active in FIJL. When the revolution broke out in 1936, she was appointed secretary of the Santa Coloma FIJL Santa Coloma and was responsible for the newspaper 'Aurora Libre' (Free Dawn; 1936, 2 numbers).
In May and June 1939, a few months after Santa Coloma had fallen to the fascists, she and 20 other members (aged 15 - 22 years old) and seven sympathisers of the Unió de Joventuts Antifeixistes (Union of Antifascist Youth), which had been formed in February 1939 by militants of the FIJL in Santa Coloma de Gramenet and Sant Adrià de Besos (Barcelona) to continue the resistance against Franco, and of which she was treasurer, were arrested. On July 2 that year she was taken to the Teatre Cervantes in Badalona, which had been commandeered for use as a women’s prison. At the Consell de Guerra Sumaríssim i d'Urgència (Emergency Summary Court-Martial) in Badalona on January 2, 1940, five death sentences were pronounced (Manuel Campeny Pueyo, Bernabé García Valero, Enrique Vilella Trepart, Jesús Cárceles García and Joaquin Miguel Montes), of which only the main group leader, Manuel Pueyo Campeny, was eventually executed [shot in the Parc del Camp de la Bota, Barcelona, ​​on July 29, 1940]. Julia Romera Yañez was convicted with seven others and given life imprisonment.
Towards the end of the summer of 1941, after a number of fever attacks, the Les Corts prison doctor diagnosed her with TB, a disease exacerbated by the repeated beatings to which she was subjected. Julia Romera Yañez eventually died at 22:00 on 6 September 1941, having declined 'spiritual comfort', in the infirmary of the Les Corts female prison in Barcelona. She is commemorated by the Ateneu Popular Julia Romera in Santa Coloma de Gramanet.

[B] 1949 - Lucien Descaves (b. 1861), French libertarian novelist, dies. [see: Mar. 18]

##1966 - Margaret Higgins Sanger (b. 1879), US birth control activist, sex educator, nurse and anarchist, dies. [see: Sept. 14]

[F] 1976 - Gerardo Gatti Antuña (b. 1931), Uruguayan anarchist militant and head of the Uruguayan graphic workers' union, is disappeared by the Argentine government. One of the founders and the first secretary of the Plenario Intersindical de Trabajadores - Convención Nacional de Trabajadores (PIT-CNT; Intersyndical Plenary of Workers - National Convention of Workers), a leader of Resistencia Obrero Estudiantil (ROE; Student Worker Resistance), the Federación Anarquista Uruguyaya (FAU) and the Partido por la Victoria del Pueblo (Party for the People's Victory).
He will be tortured in the Automotores Orletti, the clandestine detention and torture centre that operated in Buenos Aires, and an attempt made to ransom him for $2m, before his death (date unknown). [see: Apr. 4]
1844 - Francesco Natta (d. 1914), Italian mechanic, anarchist militant and internationalist, born. [expand]

1857 - Charles Malato (d. 1938), French revolutionary, journalist, theoretician and anarchist propagandist, born. Though from a 'noble' Neapolitan family, his father fought for the insurrectionist side in the 1848 Italian revolution, and later supported and fought to defend the Paris Commune, for which he was banished to the penal colony of New Caledonia, where Charles was born. After the 1881 amnesty, the family returned to France. In 1886 he founded the revolutionary paper 'La Révolution Cosmopolite' as his politics shifted decidedly towards anarchism. In 1897, he published 'The Philosophy of Anarchy' in which he laid out his anarchist communist views. His journalism at the time appeared in numerous papers including 'L'Art Social', 'La Société Nouvelle', 'L'Aurore', 'Le Réveil Lyonnais', as well as Ernest Gégout's journal 'L'Attaque' where one of his articles earned him a fifteen months sentence in prison in April 1890 for "incitement to murder, looting and arson". Exiled as a non-French citizen, he went into exile in London. [expand]

1859 - Paul Vigné d'Octon (Paul-Étienne Vigné; d. 1943), French physician, writer, poet, journalist, libertarian, rationalist, anticlerical, neo-Malthusian, freethinker and anti-colonialist, born.

##1870 - Regina de Lamo y Jiménez (d. 1947), Spanish intellectual, music and singing teacher, writer, journalist, feminist and women's rights activist, advocate of birth control, the right to abortion, eugenics, euthanasia and free love, promoter of the cooperative economic model, defender of unionism and anarchist propagandist, who used the pen names Regina Lamo Jiménez, Regina de Lamo Ximénez, Regina Lamo de O'Neill and, following the fall of the Republic, continued to write novels under the pseudonym Nora Avante, born.

1872 - During the Hague Congress, Mikhail Bakunin is expelled from the First International.

## 1881 - Nils Axel Holmström (d. 1947), Swedish book publisher, anarchist, anti-militarist and youthful socialist, who was editor of the anarchist paper 'Brand' (Fire) and was jailed in 1906 for his anti-militarist statements, born.

1907 - Roberto Barreto Pedroso das Neves aka Ernst Izgur (d. 1981), Portuguese-born Brazilian writer, journalist, poet, historian, Freemason, Esperantist, graphologist, anarchist individualist, vegetarian and naturist, born. Having worked on the anarchist journals 'A Batalha' and 'O Libertario', and been persecuted by the Salazar police (13 arrests), he left Portugal in 1942 for Brazil. There he founded and led the Editora Germinal (Editions Germinal), which published anarchist books, and collaborated on the anarchist publications 'Relações Anarquistas', 'Acção Directa' and 'A Plebe'.
His works include the poetry collection 'Assim Cantava um Cidadão do Mundo - poemas que levaram o autor treze vezes aos cárceres do Santo Oficio de Salazar' (Just One Song of a World Citizen - poems that led the author thirteen times the prisons of Salazar's Inquisition; 1952) and the anti-religion polemic 'O Diário do Dr. Satã. Comentários subversivos às escorrências cotidianas da sifilização cristã' (The diary of Dr. Satan. Subversive comments on the daily seepage of christian syphilisation; 1954) [NB Satã was the name das Neves used when he joined the Masons].

1908 - Ben Reitman delivers speech on the meaning of Labor Day at Cooper Union. When the audience learns that the speech was written by Goldman, there is a tremendous uproar; Berkman and young anarchist Becky Edelsohn arrested.

1911 - Guillaume Apollinaire is arrested and jailed on suspicion of aiding and abetting the theft of the 'Mona Lisa' from the Louvre. Five days later his innocence is proved. Though Apollinaire was a friend of Géry Piéret, someone who had been stealing artifacts from right under the guards' noses for quite a while, there was no evidence that he had any knowledge or had in any way participated in the theft of the 'Mona Lisa'.

####1917 - Louise Olivereau, a Seattle anarchist working as a stenographer for the Seattle Lumber Workers branch of the IWW, is arrested in Seattle, Washington after she had gone to the local FBI office to retrieve her property taken in a raid on the Seattle IWW local two days earlier. She steadfastly stuck to her statement that she alone had mailed a circular in August to drafted men urging them to be obedient to their own conscience but not to resist the draft if they believed it was right, despite the FBI agents attempts to get her to admit that the IWW was behind the circulars.

1919 - Bruno Filippi (b. 1900), Italian individualist anarchist writer and activist, dies when the bomb he is carrying explodes as he attempts to attack the Café Biffi in the gallery Vittorio Emanuele in Milan where the 'Circolo dei Nobili (club of nobles), the richest people of the city, are having a meeting. His foot is all that remains amongst the rubble but it will lead to his identification and the arrest of a number of his comrades. [see: Mar. 30]

1927 - François Malicet (b. 1843), French barber, lifelong anarchist, member of Les Déshérités group in Nouzon, is killed by a burglar. [see: May 15]

[B] 1929 - Gil J. Wolman (born Gil Joseph; d. 1995), French film-maker, writer, political activist and Internationale Lettriste, born. An active agent provocateur from an early age, by 24 he had been: a member of the Young Communists, journalist for the magazine 'Combat', drug trafficker in the Algiers Casbah, long-distance lorry driver from Greenland to Pompeii, merchant marine captain, published poet and accomplished knitter. In 1950, he and Isidor Isou developed the principles of Lettrisme
In February 1952, the showing of his second film 'L'Anticoncept' (1951), at a Letterist film screening causes a major scandal. His first experiment in his new 'Cinematochrone' process, abolishing images altogether in a violent flurry of black and white strobes projected on a weather balloon, and accompanied by a soundtrack of his poems, brief reflections and syncopated texts. 'L'Anticoncept' was banned by the French censors; its screening at the Cannes Film Festival the month after it was completed was only open to the press and the banning prompts Wolman to lead a systematic disruption of the Cannes Film Festival the Letterists and he is only saved by a police escort.
In June 1952, Wolman and Debord formed the Letterist International and co-write 'A User's Guide to Détournement' and 'Theory of the Dérive' (both 1956) and published in the Belgian surrealist review 'Les Lèvres Nues' (Naked Lips). In 1955, Wolman and Debord wrote 'Why Lettrism?', published in Potlatch no. 22, and Wolman went on to represent the Letterist International at the World Congress of Artists in Alba, Italy, establishing important links between the Letterist International and others (e.g. Asger Jorn and Pinot-Gallizio of the International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus) who would go on to collaborate on forming the Situationist International.
Other Wolman innovations include the devising of his 'Scotch Art' in 1963, a process which consists in tearing off bands of printed matter and using adhesive tape to reposition them on fabrics or wood. He later developed 'dühring dühring', 'decompositions' and finally 'depicted painting' in a long line of artistic innovations and genius - "genius is what we all have when we stop improving one thing in order to make something else. When we only refuse to have talent".

1931 - José García Viñas (b. 1848), Spanish physician and anarchist, who was a member of the Federación Regional Española de la Asociación Internacional de Trabajadores (1870-1881) and the Bakuninist Alianza Internacional de la Democracia Socialista (International Alliance of Socialist Democracy), dies in his native Málaga. [see: Nov. 3]

1936 - Communist Josep Renau is named Director General of Fine Arts by Jesus Hernández, Minister of Public Instruction in the government of Largo Caballero. One of the artists most heavily involved in the Civil War, Renau's duties included the safeguarding of the artistic heritage of Spain. He was in charge of evacuating from Madrid to Valencia the paintings in the Prado Museum, which were threatened by the bombings.

1937 - Joseph Thomas Deakin (b. 1858), English ticket office worker, socialist and anarchist, who is best known for his part in the so-called 'Walsall bomb plot', a provocation organised by Chief Inspector William Melville (1883-1917), superintendent of the Metropolitan Police Special Branch, and for which Deakin was sentenced to five years in prison, dies. [see: Aug. 11]

1949 - José Clemente Orozco (b. 1883), Mexican social realist painter, muralist and lithographer, dies. [see: Nov. 23]

1957 - Francisco Ballester Orovitg aka 'El Explorador' aka Sebastián Grado Ortega (b. 1920), Catalan carpernter, anarchist, anti-Franco guerrilla and Esperanto speaker, dies during a derailment of the Paris-Nîmes train. [see: Sep. 12]
1870 - Commune de Lyon: Ten commissioners are nominated for the "intermédiaires du peuple lyonnais auprès du Comité de Salut public" (intermediary for the people of Lyon to the public Salvation Committee). [see: Sep. 4]

[B] 1873 - Alfred Jarry (d. 1907), French writer, novelist, playwright, anarchist, freelance scoundrel, proto-surrealist inventer of Pere Ubu and of Pataphysics, the science of imaginary solutions and the laws governing exceptions, born.
"Nous sommes libres de faire ce que nous voulons, même d’obéir ; d’aller partout où il nous plaît, même en prison! La liberté, c’est l’esclavage!" (We are free to do as we please, even free to obey, free to go everywhere we want, even to prison! True freedom lays in slavery!) - 'Ubu Enchainé' (1899)
"The great merit of 'Pataphysics is to have confirmed that there is no metaphysical justification for forcing everybody to believe in the same absurdity, possibilities for the absurd and in art are legion. The only logical deduction that can be made from this principle is the anarchist thesis: to each his own absurdities. The negation of this principle is expressed in the legal power of the state, which forces all citizens to submit to an identical set of political absurdities." - from 'Pataphysics - A Religion In The Making' by Asger Jorn, originally appeared in 'Internationale Situationniste' No.6 (August 1961)

1873 - Sante Geronimo Caserio (Sante Jeronimo) (d. 1894), Italian anarchist who stabbed French President Sadi Carnot to avenge the execution of Auguste Valliant, born. [some give the date as Sep. 9][expand]

1879 - Jules Ardouin (Georges Eugène Ardouin; d. 1917), French florist, anarchist and anti-militarist, born. [NB Dates given are September 8 or poss. 9.]

## 1893 - Teresa Wilms Montt (María Teresa de las Mercedes Wilms Montt; d. 1921), Chilean writer, poet, and anarcha-feminist, who in her short life was locked in a convent by her family, escaping with the help of the anarchist-sympathiser Vicente Huidobro, and was deported from New York to Spain, accused of being a German spy, born.

[F] 1911 - The first conference of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo / Confederació Nacional del Treball is held in the Palau de les Belles Arts in Barcelona [Sep. 8-10]. It is attended by 121 delegates representing 99 workers' organisations or societats obreres (59 of Catalonia) and six local federations (4 Catalonia) from 29 localities (12 in Catalonia). However, there was no representation for Madrid by a significant labour organisation.
[ó_Nacional_del_Treballón_Nacional_del_Trabajoón_Nacional_del_Trabajo - cnt.htm]

1914 - Hans Leybold (b. 1892), German expressionist poet and anarchist fellow traveller, whose small body of work was a major inspiration behind Berlin Dada, and in particular the works of his close friend Hugo Ball, dies. [see: Apr. 2]

1918 - Teresa Turon Turon (d. unkown), Spainsh anarchist militant and feminist member of the Mujeres Libres group in the Pueblo Nuevo neighborhood of Barcelona, born.

1939 - The Gómez Talón grupo de acción - Salvador and Rafael Gómez Talón, Juan Baeza Delgado, José Tarín Marchuet, Fulgencio Rosaledo Martinez, Juan Tarrazón Hernando, Pascual López Laguarta, Genaro Solsona Ronda, Mario Marcelino Goyeneche, Manuel Benet Beltrán, Rafael Valverde Cerdán, Alfonso Martí González, Juan Pallarés Mena, Pilar López Xiprés, Dolores Tarín Marchuet, Anita López López, Donato Sánchez Heredia, José Gómez Bujes and Magdalena Farrés Cortina - are arrested. Numerous weapons and ammunition are seized at nº 83 rue Cerdeña.

1944 - Gérard Hervé Coatmeur aka C. Hervé (b. 1879), French militant anarchist individualist propagandist, naturist, writer, docker, porter, bookseller and fairground showman, dies. [see: Oct. 28]

1969 - Alexandra David-Néel (born Louise Eugénie Alexandrine Marie David; b. 1897), Belgian-French explorer, spiritualist, Buddhist, anarchist, Freemason, opera singer, writer, lecturer, photographer, dies at almost 101 years of age. [see: Oct. 24]

1969 - Emilio Vilardaga Peralba (b. 1912), Catalan militant anarcho-syndicalist and member of the 'Tierra y Libertad' column, who was imprisoned under Franco, dies in an industrial accident. [see: Jan. 26]

[A] 1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: The London home of Attorney General, Sir Peter Rawlinson, in Chelsea, is bombed. Again this goes unreported . [Angry Brigade chronology]

1972 - Lucien van der Walt, South African writer and professor of Sociology, whose research engages the anarchist/syndicalist tradition of Mikhail Bakunin and Peter Kropotkin; trade unionism, particularly in southern Africa, born in Krugersdorp.

1976 - Robert Louzon (b. 1882), French engineer, anarchist, revolutionary syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Jun. 30]

1979 - The 'infamous' Crass and Poison Girls concert at Conway Hall in London, and a period where British Movement/National Front activity at punk gigs was particularly prominent. The gig was a fundraiser for 'Persons Unknown' and there were a number of fascists present, who Red Action and SWP members attacked and ejected. Crass' response was to issue the Conway Hall Statement Flyer and a pamphlet criticising Rock Against Racism and anti-fascist violence. Many anarchist groups, including Class War, react negatively to Crass' stance.

2006 - Première of 'Salvador' or 'Salvador (Puig Antich)', a Spanish film directed by Manuel Huerga and based on Francesc Escribano's 'Compte Enrere. La Història de Salvador Puig Antich', which describes the execution of Salvador Puig Antich, the last person executed by garrote under the dictatorship of Francisco Franco. The film is widely despised amongst anarchist as a "slick, commercial melodrama offers us no explanation of Salvador Puig Antich's actual battle, the reasons why he fought and perished, what he believed in, the process whereby he became radicalised politically and his commitment to the struggle alongside what was then the most radically anti-capitalist strand of the workers' movement." [KSL: Bulletin of the Kate Sharpley Library, #46-7, (July 2006)]
1828 - Leo Tolstoy (d. 1910), famed Russian novelist, religious pacifist and anarchist, born.

1855 - Ludovic Ménard (Charles Ménard; d. 1935), French anarchist, syndicalist and founder of the slate workers union, born. Signatory of the Charter of Amiens, adopted by the Confédération Générale du Travail in 1906. His efforts on behalf of his fellow slate workers won them the same standing as miners. The inscription on a monument to him in Trélazé reads: "Syndicaliste pacifiste, fondateur des syndicats ardoisiers. Sa vie au service des travailleurs fut un combat permanent pour la justice sociale et la paix." (Pacifist unionist, founder of slate workers unions. His life in the service of workers was a constant struggle for social justice and peace.)

1856 - Possible date [see also: Sep. 15] for the birth of Francisco Saverio Merlino (d. 1930), Italian lawyer, theorist, propagandist of Italian anarchism, then a libertarian socialist - though he continued to defend anarchists.

## 1864 - Louis Lingg (d. 1887), German-American carpenter, trades unionist, anarchist and Haymarket martyr, born. [expand]

1876 - The first Congress of the Ligue Internationale de la Paix et de la Liberté (Spe. 9-12) is held in Geneva. Many of those who attended the second General Congress of the International Workingmen's Association in Lausanne (Sep. 2-7) also attend this congress.

[B] 1878 - Charles d'Avray (Charles Henri Jean; d. 1960), French anarchist poet and prolific propagandist songwriter, born. His concerts (conférences chantées) were advertised with the slogan "Avec le passé détruisont le présent pour devancer l'avenir" (With the past destroy the present and anticipate the future).

1880 - Marie Guillot (d. 1934), French teacher, anarcho-syndicalist, pacifist and feminist activist, born.

1983 - The first issue of the newspaper 'El Rebelde', "Periódico comunista anáchico", is published in Zaragoza. Six issues of the paper appear up til November 25, 1893, when it is forced to close. The newspaper 'El Eco del Rebelde' replaces it in May 1895.

1894 - The first issue of 'El Oprimido' (The Oppressed), an Argentinian bimonthly published by the anarchist John Creaghe, appears.

1898 - Stéphane Mallarmé (real name Étienne Mallarmé; b. 1842), French Symbolist poet, critic and an anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Mar. 18]

[E] 1900 - In the atmosphere of intense anti-anarchist hysteria generated following Leon Czolgosz's assassination of President William McKinley on the 6th at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, NY, and with police claim that Czolgosz was inspired by one of her lectures, Emma Goldman goes into temporary hiding at the home of American-born anarchist sympathisers.

1909 - The anarchist weekly 'La Questione Sociale', first published by Errico Malatesta in December 1883 in Florence, begins printing again under the auspices of Giuseppe Monanni and Leda Rafanelli, and continues until October 23, 1909.

1911 - Paul Goodman (d. 1972), American anarchist cultural critic, poet, playwright, novelist and psychotherapist, born. [expand]

[AA] 1917 - Anarchist Antonio Fornasier is killed by Milwaukee police whilst he and others are heckling a priest at an open-air meeting, precipitating a riot. His comrade Augusta Marinelli is wounded and dies five days later. Ten men and a woman are arrested for inciting the riot. Whilst still in prison a bomb explodes in the police station on November 24 and the eleven are charged for the explosion. They are all found guilty and sentenced to between 11-25 years imprisonment.

1918 - Guillaume Apollinaire (born Wilhelm Albert Włodzimierz Apolinary Kostrowicki ; b. 1880), French poet, playwright, short story writer, novelist, art critic, youthful anarchist and proto-Surrealist, dies. [see: Aug. 26]

1930* - Joaquim Penina Sucarrats (b. 1905), Catalan bricklayer, Tolstoyan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, naturist and vegetarian, who established himself in Argentina, is summarily executed in the ravines above the Paraná River close to Puente de Saladillo by the de facto police chief of the city of Rosario, Lieutenant Colonel Lebrero, following the September 6th coup by José Félix Uriburu. His body was never recovered. [see: May 1]
[* or poss. Sept. 10]
[ May 1, 1910 and Apr. 14, 1910 are alternate dates given]

1939 - The Gómez Talón grupo de acción are brought before a court martial chargd with armed robbery and freeing prisoners. Salvador Gómez Talón, his brother Rafael, Fulgencio Rosaledo Martinez, José Tarín Marchuet, Juan Baeza Delgado and Juan Pallarés Mena are sentenced to death. Pascual López Laguarta, Rafael Giménez Otal and Rafael Valverde Cerdán are sentenced to 20 years in prison, and Alfonso González Martí to 30 years.

[EE] 1945 - Elena Quinteros (d. 1976), Uruguayan teacher, and member of the Federação Anarquista Uruguaia (FAU) and the Resistência Operária Estudantil (Workers' Student Resistance), who was disappeared and presumably murdered by the junta, born. On June 26, 1976 Elena was arrested and taken to the '300 Carlos' torture centre run by the División de Ejército I. On the morning of June 28 she was taken away under escort but managed to escape near the Venezuelan Embassy, climbing over its wall and begin demanding asylum. However, the escort invaded the embassy gardens, from where they kidnapped Elena after a struggle with embassy staff (during which her leg was broken) and took her to the Batalhão nº 13 de Infantaria (No. 13 Infantry Battalion) barracks. A few days later she was tortured and killed, despite a diplomatic protest by the Venezuelan government, who broke off diplomatic relations on July 5 after the Consejo de Seguridad Nacional (National Security Council) had refused to hand her over two days earlier.

1946 - Mynona aka Salomo Friedlaender (b. 1871), German philosopher, author and anarchist individualist, associated with Expressionism and Dada, dies. [see: May 4]

##1990 - Grigory Yakovlevich Kobets (Рыгор Якаўлевіч Кобец [be] / Григорій Якович Кобець [uk] / Григорий Яковлевич Кобец [ru]), aka Hryša Lachmaty (Грыша Лахматы [be]), Gregory Lachmaty (Рыгор Лахматы [be]), Grisha Lokhmatiy (Гриша Лохматый [ru]); real name Mikhail Museyovych Drach-Sandig (Михайло Мусійович Драч-Сандига [uk]) (b. 1898), celebrated Bielorussian journalist, playwright, screenwriter and anarchist, who fought with the Makhnovshchyna (Махновщина) and later became president of the Belarusian Association of Victims of Political Repressions (Беларуская асацыяцыя ахвяраў палітычных рэпрэсій), dies in Minsk aged 92. [see: Jul. 24]

1999 - Henri Bouyé aka André Deval (b. 1912), French florist and anarchist, who was instrumental in rebuilding and restoring the French anarchist movement after the Nazi occupation, dies. [see: Oct. 12]
##1676 - Gerrard Winstanley (b. 1609), English religious reformer and political thinker, a precursor of libertarian communism and Christian anarchism, dies in London. [see: Oct. 10]

1862 - Jean-Marie Giraudon (d. unknown), French locksmith, anarchist and revolutionary syndicalist, born.

1887 - The first issue of the weekly 'L'Idée Ouvrière' is publsihed in Le Harve. This Saturday newspaper includes editorials by Émile Pouget and is published until June 9, 1888.

1878 - Karl Eduard Nobiling (b. 1848) German anarchist and doctor of philosophy, having mortally wounded himself (a shot to the head) following his failed assassination attempt on Kaiser Wilhelm I on June 2, 1878, succumbs to his injuries. [see: Apr. 10]

## [B] 1890 - Franz Viktor Werfel (d. 1945), Czech-born, Austrian-Jewish novelist, playwright and poet, born. Werfel had identified himself as being an atheist and anarchist by the time of his bar mitzvah (i.e. 13-years-old), although his anarchism, like many of his fellow Expressionists, had a distinctly messianic or mystical edge to it and ended up veering towards a Tolstoyian pacifist anarchism. He was also another of the Expressionists to fall under the influence of Otto Gross. Werfel began writing at an early age and published his first book of poems, 'Der Weltfreund', (The Friend to the World) in 1911, and had befriended other German Jewish writers who frequented Prague’s Café Arco, chief among them Max Brod and Franz Kafka.
At the outbreak of WWI, Werfel served in the Austro-Hungarian Army on the Russian front in relative safety as a telephone operator, and he continue writing Expressionist poems, plays and kept up a voluminous correspondence. In 1917 he left the front-line for the Military Press Bureau in Vienna, where he joined other notable Austrian writers serving as propagandists, among them Robert Musil, Rainer Maria Rilke and Stefan Zweig. After the war he continued writing, publishing amongst others: a poetry collection; 'Der Gerichtstag' (Judgment Day; 1919); the short story collections 'Nicht der Mörder, der Ermordete ist Schuldig' (Not the Murderer, it is the Victim who is Guilty; 1920) and
'Der Tod des Kleinbürgers' (The Death of the Petty Bourgeois aka 'The Man Who Conquered Death'; 1928); novels such as 'Der Abituriententag: Geschichte einer Jugendschuld' (Class Reunion: History of a Boy's Guilt; 1928) and 'Der Veruntreute Himmel' (Embezzled Heaven; 1939); and a large number of plays, which included 'Paulus unter den Juden' (Paul among the Jews; 1926) and 'Das Reich Gottes in Böhmen' (The Kingdom of Bohemia; 1930).
He married Alma Mahler (widow of composer Gustav Mahler) in 1929, with whom he journeyed to the Middle East in 1930, encountering starving refugees which inspired his 2 volume novel 'Die Vierzig Tage des Musa Dagh' (The Forty Days of Musa Dagh) which drew world attention to the Armenian Genocide at the hands of the Turks.
After the Anschluss, Franz and Alma fled Vienna for France, only to have to flee in 1940 on foot across the Pyrenees to Spain, accompanied by Heinrich Mann, and from there to the United States. While living in Southern California, Werfel completed his most famous novel 'The Song of Bernadette' (Das Lied von Bernadette; 1941), fulfilling a vow made in 1940 in Lourdes for a safe escape. The novel was made later into the film 'The Song of Bernadette' (1943).

1891 - One of two possible birth dates (along with November 10, the more widely accepted) of Simón Radowitzky (Szymon Radowicki / Симон Радовицький; d. 1956), aka 'The Martyr of Ushuaia', Ukrainian-born anarchist freedom fighter, born. One of the best-known prisoners of the penal colony in Ushuaia, where he was held for the assassination of Ramón Lorenzo Falcón, a head of police responsible for the brutal repression of Red Week in 1909 in Buenos Aires. Radowitzky was pardoned after 21 years, he left Argentina and fought with the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War. [see: Nov. 10]

1891 - The first issue of 'El Revolucionario', "Quincenario anarquista-comunista acérimo partidario de la transformación social" (Anarchist-communist biweekly staunch supporter of social transformation), is publsihed in Gracia, Barcelona. Only one other issue (October 1,1891) is ever published.

1898 - Anarchist Luigi Luccheni stabs Empress Elizabeth of Austria, in Geneva, using a frayed file, to strike against "the persecutors of the workers". The Swiss courts condemned him to forced labour. Found hung in prison in 1910.
[Costantini pic]

1899 - Gabriella 'Ella' Antolini (d. 1984), Italian-American agricultural worker and Galleanist anarchist, who earned the nickname the Dynamite Girl when she was arrested on a train from Steubenville to Chicago in January 1918 carrying a black leather case containing thirty-six sticks of dynamite and a .32 caliber Colt automatic, which were to be used to carry out revenge attacks for the arrests and persecution of the Milwaukee anarchists and the death in custody of Augusto Marinell on September 15, 1917, born. On October 21, 1918 Gabriella Antolini was sentenced to 18 months to be served at the Missouri State Penitentiary in Jefferson City and a $2000 fine. In prison she befriended Emma Goldman and socialist Kate O'Hare , the three becoming known as 'The Trinity'.

1900 - Having gone into hiding the previous day, Emma Goldman is arrested by Chicago police and subjected to intensive interrogation. Though initially denied, bail is set at $20,000.

1905 - The first edition of Chile's first feminist workers newspaper, the bimonthly 'La Alborada' (The Dawn), "Pulicación quincenal - defensora de las clases proletarias" (fortnightly champion of the proletarian classes) (1905-1907), is published in Valparaíso by the anarchist and feminist Carmela Jería, who worked as a typographer in the Gillbert lithograph works until she made a speech during a May Day demostration. The declared purpose of the anarchist-leaning newspaper is to be a "defender muy en particular a las vejadas trabajadoras..." (in particular to champion the cause of harried working women). It would survive until 1907 having put out 42 issues.

1917 - Alexander Berkman is released from prison on $25,000 bail, having been falsely accused and arrested for murder in connection with the Preparedness Day bombing in San Francisco.

1943 - Battaglia di Piombino: In Piombino, an Italian steel town with a great libertarian tradition and, in particular, a tradition of revolutionary syndicalism, a popular uprising against the Nazis takes place. Earlier that year popular protests had taken place following the announcement of the fall of Mussolini when, on the morning of July 26, Piombino workers from the ILVA and Magona steel plants, hotbeds of anarchist and communist agitation, mounted a mass celebratory demonstration. The army and police meanwhile had been ordered by General Pietro Badoglio, head of the new government, to stop any such event: "proceed in combat formation, open fire at distance, even using mortars and artillery, without warning of any kind, as if action was being taken against enemy troops ..." However, the 200 police and marines were overwhelmed by the 15,000 workers taking part and decided that caution was the best part of valour, and left the workers to it. The latter attacked the City Hall and local Fascist headquarters (Casa del Fascio), seizing guns and hand grenades. They also decided that they should mount patrols of their own in the port and at Campiglia train station. The following day Badoglio ordered dusk to dawn curfews across Italy and in Piombino a group of fascisti including the mayor and the captain of the guard, Murzi Francesco, one of the murders of the anarchist Amaddio Lucarelli on July 9, 1922, had barricaded themselves in the City Hall and had to be rescued by the military authorities, who had to fire upon those trying to revenge themselves upon the fascists.
With the announcement on September 8, 1943 of the Armistice of Cassibile between the Allies and the Kingdom of Italy [signed in secret on Sept. 3 and broadcast over the radio at 19.42 on the 8th], German forces moved rapidly to put in place Operation Achse [the codename of the German plans to forcibly disarm the Italian armed forces following the expected armistice with the Allied forces], taking over the Italian zones of occupation in the Balkans and southern France, and disarming all Italian forces in Italy. At the same time, the announcement of the armistice and news of the flight of the Italian King and Marshal Badoglio from Rome for the south of the country brought about the disintegration of the Italian army, as troops quit their units and returned to their homes towns.
Meanwhile, in Piombino the Germans attempted to seize the town during night of 8-9, occupying parts of the port, disarming some Italian seamen and seizing their weapons. Other Italian units fought back and shore batteries fired on the large force of German ships in the harbour, sinking two landing craft (Marinefährprahme), disabling another along with the barge (péniche) Karin. The Italian response forced the Germans to hand back the seized weapons and retreat. Around noon on September 9, all the German troops began leaving Piombino for Livorno on board their naval flotilla. The Karin, too damaged to be of any use, was scuttled in the harbour entrance in an attempt to block it.
In addition to the general concerns of Operation Achse, the Germans had a more pressing need, to secure the port of Piombino, together with that of Bastia, in order to be able to prepare for the evacuation of their forces from Sardinia and Corsica. To that end, the following day [10th] at 04:30 two German torpedo boats/destroyers, the TA 9 and TA 11 under the command of Captain Karl-Wolf Albrand, attempted to pass themselves off as an Italian convoy, asking to dock to stock up on water and coal. The commander of the Navy in Piombino, Captain Amedeo Capuano, denied them access. However, the commander of the Italian coastal forces, General Cesare Maria De Vecchi, a former Fascist Gerarca ("Member of a hierarchy"), at 09:30 gave the order to grant access to the German convoy to refuel. The German ships (accompanied by four anti-submarine patrol boats) immediately took up positions at the north and south parts of the harbour, covering the entire port with their guns. These units were followed at 12:00 by four anti-submarine patrol boats, four Marinefährprahme (naval ferry barges), two Flugbetriebsboote (Flight operations boats), two more torpedo boats and two péniches (the Mainz and Meise), plus various speedboats. A second flotilla of five anti-submarine patrol boats were intercepted by Italian ships en route to Piombino at 13:00 and forced to turn back, but a third much larger convoy entered the port that evening.
Sometime prior to the later arrivals, General Fortunato Perni, commander of the Piombino Presidio, had given the Germans permission to station two unarmed Wehrmacht signallers at the maritime signal station, who actually turned up fully armed at the nearby anti-aircraft battery, and the Germans had also begun to land armed patrols, clearly aiming to seize the port. Alerted to this, the town's population and the ILVA and Magona workers reacted by mounting protests in front of the Presidio, located in the stadio Magona, demanding immediate and decisive action by the Italian military to halt the Nazi invasion or they would take matters into their own hands and mount an insurrection. In response, Perni agreed to call in tanks from the XIX Battaglione to defend the town. However, inspired by General De Vecchi, his true intention was to use them to restore order in the city.
In Piombino, the civilian and military had set to organising the city's defences, with the two German signallers seized and disarmed. At the same time the Germans were preparing for assaults on three main objectives: seizing the maritime signal station, the occupation of the port, and the occupation of key points within the city itself.
As the protests grew louder in Piombino, a crowd tried to raid the Casa del Fascio looking for weapons but were driven of by troops firing into the air. With the arrival of 20 M15/42 tanks, the order was given by Perni to fire on the protesters, the General having warned Captain Albrand not to be alarmed by any shooting that he might hear from the port, as it was only his tanks firing on civilians. Failing to be intimidated, the population continued their protests, joining with the port commander, Captain Amedeo Capuano, and his officers, who wished to fight off the German attack. De Vecchi and Perni responded to this insubordination by turning up in Piombino to dismiss Capuano personally.
In the power vacuum that ensued some of the workers, either independently or at the prompting of the Comitato di Concentrazione Antifascista, which had been formed in the preceding weeks to defend the city, entrusted the command of the resistance to the German attack to Captain Giorgio Bacherini, head of the DICAT [Territorial Anti-aircraft Defence Militia] anti-aircraft battery and an anti-fascist sympathiser, whilst seizing control of the various batteries and gun emplacements and preventing their personnel from leaving, whilst trying to persuade their junior officers to turn the tanks against the German invaders, who had in the meantime disembarked and begun to enter the town and move towards the industrial zone.
As darkness fell around 21:15, someone on the Italian side launched a flare in order to illuminate the harbour and Captain Albrand, believing it to be a signal to attack, ordered his ships to open fire. The battle would last several hours with the Germans suffering the majority of the casualties as the armed citizens and workers, together with the naval batteries and tanks fired on the flotilla of German ships at anchor in the harbour. At midnight, the heavily damaged TA 9 fled the harbour as ships all around it sank, spilling burning diesel fuel into the waters. At dawn on Saturday September 11, the remaining German forces surrendered. 120 Germans had been killed and around 200-300 captured, 120 of them wounded. On the Italian side there were four dead with a dozen wounded. The Italian tanks and artillery had sunk the TA 11, seven Marinefährprahme, the péniches Mainz and Meise, six Luftwaffe service boats and the former Italian steamers Carbet and Capitano Sauro (who were both scuttled because of the damage they had suffered). Four Italian anti-submarine patrol boats had also been sunk during the battle. The German minesweeper R 185 (one of the last ships to arrive the previous day) also managed to escape unscathed.
Unfortunately, the struggle of the town's people and anti-fascists amongst the military had been in vain as Gen. De Vecchi ordered [communicated to Captain Bacherini via Gen. Perni] the release of all the German prisoners and the returning of their weapons. Later that afternoon the freed German soldiers left Piombino en rote to Livorno on board the remaining seaworthy craft. To add further insult to injury, the divisional headquarters in Massa Marittima agreed a truce with the Germans allowing them to take possession of Piombino on September 12.
Many of the soldiers and sailors who had fought to repel the German attack only found out at the last minute, fleeing their post with just enough time to sabotage what equipment that they could not carry away with them. With little chance of finding transport home, many fled into the surrounding woods with anti-fascist workers and towns people in order to continue the fight against the Germans and the inevitable return of fascists to the city, giving birth to the first partisan groups such as the banda di Poggio alla Marruca, which would go on to form part of the third Brigata Garibaldi.
Among the anarchists who took part in the uprising was Adriano Vanni, a partisan who operated in the Maremma and who was called upon to join the local Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale (National Liberation Committee, a body made up of a spectrum of anti-fascist organisations).

1950 - Belén de Sárraga Hernández (b. 1872), Spanish teacher, doctor, journalist, Freemason, freethinker, Spiritist, anticlerical feminist and anarchist propagandist, who toured and agitated extensively across Latin America, was involved in the Mexican Revolution and the establsihment of the Second Republic in Spain, dies in exile in Mexico. [see: Jul. 10]

1969 - Jorge Majfud, Uraguayan novelist, essayist and anarchist, born. Professor at Georgia, Lincoln and Jacksonville Universities. [expand]
1893 - In court on charges following her Aug. 21 speech, Emma Goldman pleads not guilty. She is released on bail on Sept. 14.

1895 - Vinoba Bhave (Vinayak Narahari Bhave; d. 1982), Indian leading figure in Sarvodaya, the post-Ghandi his social philosophy, his social philosophy was fundamentally anarchist and communitarian. He argued for absolute nonviolence, social organisation based on universal love, decision making by consensus, the replacement of coercion by the recognition of moral authority, and the minimisation and eventual abolition of state power.
"If you want to cut down a tree, it is no use to climb into its branches."
"If there is a disease from which the entire world suffers, it is this disease called government."

1902 - Norbert Bartošek (d. unknown), Austrian doctor and libertarian promoter of volunatry sterilisation by vasectomy in France and Spain, born.

#### 1913 - Maruja Lara (Angustias Lara Sanchez; d. 2012), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, miliciana, nurse and activist in the clandestine prisoners support group, Unión de Mujeres Demócratas, born. When she was three, her family emigrated to Brazil and then Argentina, where her father was a militant in the syndicalist Federación Obrera Regional Argentina. In January 1932 she returned to Granada, where she joined the Sindicato de Minyones (domestic workers union) of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT), of which she became secretary, and the Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL), at the age of fourteen.
With the fascist coup, she fled Granada for Tocón, Baza and Guadix, fighting nominally as a miliciana in the Columna Maroto. In mid-1937, she moved to València, joining the Sindicat d'Infermeres (Nurses Union) and working in Hospital Número 1 near Torres de Quart, València. In Valencia she became branch treasurer of the Mujeres Libres and got to know militants like Amelia Torres, Lucia Sánchez Saornil, Suceso Portales, Carmen Pons, Natacha Cabezas, Paquita Domínguez, America Barroso, Pura Pérez, etc. and especially became a good friend of Isabel Mesa. When the war ended in March 1939, she and Mesa got on to a truck for Almeria to catch a ship for Algeria, but she ended up in the port of Alicante and then was imprisoned in the infamous Francoist concentration camp of Albatera. Here 25,000 were murdered by the Francoists and thrown into mass graves.
She finally managed to escape from Albatera to Almeria and then Granada. She worked for a while in a caramel factory there. In late 1939 she returned to Valencia. With Isabel Mesa she set up a newspaper kiosk in Valencia, which secretly distributed the anarchist press. In 1942 with Isabel and others, she set up the underground group the Unión de Mujeres Demócratas (Union of Democratic Women) to help prisoners and their families. In 1955 she was arrested because of her anarchist activities. Except for a few months in Palma, Mallorca, in 1940 and a year in France in 1960 to escape repression, she always lived in Valencia. After the death of Franco, she was actively involved in the reconstruction of the CNT and supported the creation of the free radio station Radio Klara. In 1997 she contributed to the anarchist journal 'El Chico'.
She died on February 29, 2012.

1920 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Sacco and Vanzetti indicted for the events in South Braintree.

1925 - Manuel Millán Calvo (d. 2003), Aragonese libertarian anti-Francoist guerrillero, born. Already a CNT militant when called up for national service in the Utrillas mines, he deserted with fellow CNTista Modesto Llueve Vera and the socialist Emilio Azuara Navarro aka 'Doroteo'. In 1947, all three joined the Agrupación Guerrillera de Levante (AGL), operating in the mountains of Utrillas, but were captured later that year. In May 6, 1947, he ended up in the prison of Zaragoza and was court-martialed on November 7 bythe Consejo de Guerra. He was sentenced to death for "rebellion, banditry and terrorism", but the sentence was later commuted to 30 years in prison. On November 16, 1949, he was transferred to the prison of San Miguel de los Reyes, learning both the trade of carpenter and to play the trombone in the orchestra assembled by prisoners. In 1959, he married in prison. Desperate at seeing his companions being released whilst he remained in prison, he attempted suicide, cutting the veins in his wrists, ending up interned for a year in a Madrid asylum. He was then sent to Laayoune (Sahara Spanish) for military service. In the mid sixties he was released under an amnesty.

1926 - In Rome, the individualist anarchist Gino Lucetti makes a failed attempt on the life of Mussolini. One of the founding members of the Arditi del Popolo, he became a militant anti-fascist and was active in the violent clashes during the Biennio Rosso (1919-20). Involved in numerous armed clashes with local fascisti, on September 26, 1925, during one armed confrontation in Carrara he shot and wounded a fascist, Alessandro Perfetti, but was in turn wounded in the neck and ear by a second. Unable to find a doctor to treat his wounds, he went into hiding until he could be smuggled on board a ship bound for Marseille, where he finally received treatment from a doctor. In France he plotted his ill-fated attentat on the prime minister with exiled Italian anti-fascists from various groups [Lucetti would later claim under interrogation that he hatched the plot on his own and carried it out unaided], returning to Italy on a number of occasions during the planning.
Finally, with all the components in place, he returned to Italy where, on September 11, 1923, he waited near the Porta Pia in Rome for the Duce's car to pass. However, the bomb that he threw failed to explode then it his Mussolini's car. Instead it bounced off the windscreen onto the running board and landed on the pavement nearby, where it belatedly detonated a few seconds later, wounding eight passers-by. Hiding in a doorway nearby, Lucetti was grabbed by a pedestrian, Ettore Perondi, and handed over to Mussolini's bodyguards. Having handed out a stiff beating, they found a second bomb, a handgun with six dumdum bullets poisoned with muriatic acid, and a dagger on him. Commenting to the police on all the weapons, Lucetti is claimed to have said: "I did not come with a bunch of flowers for Mussolini. I was willing to use my pistol if I had not achieved my aim with the bomb."
Under interrogation, he gave his name as Ermete Giovannini from Castelnuovo Garfagnana and the authorities set out on a wild goose chase, trying to track down his fellow conspirators. Eventually, Lucetti revealed his true identity and the police were forced to resort to rounding up two of Lucetti's friends, Leandro Sorio and Stefano Vatteroni, and charging them as supposed accomplices. Tried in June 1927, Gino Lucetti was sentenced to life in prison (30 years), the death penalty not then being on the statutes. and Sorio and Vatteroni were sentenced to 20 years and 19 years 9 months respectively.
Gino Lucetti spent nearly 17 years in Santo Stefano prison before he was freed by the Allies, who had just liberated Naples. He then set up home on the island of Ischia, but on September 17, 1943, during a raid by German bombers, the houseboat he was on was hit and Lucetti was killed.

## 1927 - Carlos Molina, aka the Bardo de Tacuarí, and also Gaucho Molina & the Payador Libertario (d. 1998), Uruguayan poet, payador and anarchist, who is considered the most important artist of the genre in the Rio de la Plata region of the second half of the C20th, born in the city of Melo.

1941 - Generoso Gran Pérez a member of the CNT's Sindicato de la alimentación (Foodworker's Union) is captured. He had returned from France to act as a go-between exile groups and those in Spain.

1953 - Paul 'Ovide' Ducauroy (b. 1887), French weaver, anarchist individualist activist and propagandist, commits suicide. [see: Aug. 3]

1978 - Joan Ferrer i Farriol (b. 1896), anarchist and prominent Catalan anarcho-syndicalist leader, who was a regular contributor to the libertarian press and author of several books, dies. [see: Jun. 21]

[E] 1998 - Claudia López Benaiges (b. 1972), Chilean anarchist militant and dance student at the Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano in Santiago, is shot in the back and killed by Carabineros in the village of La Pincoya, Santiago, whilst taking part in a protest on the 25th anniversary of coup of September 11, 1973. Two of the comrades on the barricade with her were also wounded by the burst of machinegun fire. No one was ever charged in connection with her death.
Claudia would become a symbol for the young of the Chilean anarchist movement,for the student and youth movements and social organisations in Chile, and proof that the Chilean regime remained very much under the control of those who ran the dictatorship. [see: Nov. 28]
1874 - Frans Drion (Franciscus Johannes Wilhelmus Drion; d. 1948), Dutch author, editor, accountant, teacher of economics and government, insurance consultant and anarchist, who published under the pseudonyms 'A' and 'Akrates', born.

1880 - The first issue of 'La Révolution Sociale' is published in Paris. Supposedly an "Organe anarchiste", it was in fact created and financed by the Préfet de police of Paris, Louis Andrieux, in order to infiltrate the anarchist movement via an undercover agent (Aegis Spilleux), who claimed that the money came from a wealthy English supporter. Fifty six issue were published (up til September 18, 1881), many including the names and addresses of active anarchists and attempts at provocations.

## 1891 - Genara Pagán (d. 1963), Puerto Rican tobacco worker, seamstress, feminist, libertarian labour activist and one of the leaders of the 1914 unión de tabaqueras strike, born. In 1919, she and Emilia Hernández organised, under the auspices of the Federación Libre de Trabajadores (Free Workers’ Federation), the Primer Congreso de Trabajadoras de Puerto Rico (First Congress of Puerto Rican Working Women). One resolution passed called for equal rights for men and women, including the right to vote.

1892 - Adriano Inácio Botelho (d. 1983), Portuguese anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist militant, born. A member of the O Semeador (The Sower) anarchist group, he worked as a translator and on the newspaper 'A Batalha' in Lisbon. As a member of the Portuguese anarcho-syndicalist CGT, he and his comrades were subject to fierce repression during the Salazar dictatorship and he was critical of the anarchist participation in the government during the Spanish civil war. Post-Salazar, he participated in the reconstruction of the anarchist movement and founded the Almada newspaper 'Voz Anarquista'.

###1897 - Herminia Catalina Brumana (d. 1954), Argentinian teacher, writer, journalist, playwright, anarchist and feminist activist, born.

1909 - The elders of Anenecuilco, the village where he was born, vote Emiliano Zapata calpuleque (a Náhuatl word signifyling jefe, leader or president) de la junta de defensa de las tierras de Anenecuilco (defence committee of the lands), an age-old group charged with defending the community's interests. In this position, it was Zapata's duty to represent his village's rights before the president-dictator of México, Porfirio Díaz, and the governor of Morelos, Pablo Escandón.

##1914 - Stefan Kozakiewicz aka 'Marcinek' (d. 1974), Polish professor, arts historian and syndicalist, born. Before WWII, worked in the National Museum in Warsaw. During occupation took part in so-called 'Pruszkow action' – saving cultural relics. Member of the radio monitoring section of syndicalist bulletin 'Iskra' (Spark). In 'Iskra' he edited a bulletin section instructing how to protect art relics during battles. After WWII vice-director of National Museum in Warsaw and lecturer in Warsaw University. Author of many publications on the history of art, incuding: 'Warszawskie wystawy sztuk pięknych w latach 1819-1845' (The Warsaw exhibition pieces beautiful in the years 1819-1845; 1952), 'Canaletto' (1955), 'Warszawska "cyganeria" malarska' (Warsaw "bohemian" painting; 1955), with Andrew Ryszkiewicz, and 'Renesans w Polsce' (The Renaissance in Poland; 1984), with his wife Helena Kozakiewicz.

1920 - Francesc Ballester Orovitg aka 'El Explorador' aka Sebastián Grado Ortega (d. 1957), Catalan carpernter, anarchist, anti-Franco guerrilla and Esperanto speaker, born. At the beginning of the Civil War, Ballester was an activist in the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL) in l'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona and fought in the 143rd Brigade Mixte in Vilanova de la Barca during the June 1938 offensive in Aragon. Taken prisoner at the end of the war and interned in Tortosa. After he managed to escape and cross over into France, he joined the action groups and recrossed the Pyrenees to fight the Franco regime in the Barcelona area. In 1945, he joined the FIJL in Catalonia and, in July 1947, was a delegate at the clandestine Catalan regional FIJL congress in a factory on the outskirts of Madrid, also joining the Movimiento Libertario de Resistencia (MLR), the anti-Franco guerilla group with which he participated in many actions of the revolutionary struggle, especially bank expropriations.
In late October 1947, he went to Toulouse with José Lluís Facérias and Manuel Fernández Fernández as FIJL delegates at the Second Congress of the MLR in exile, where they defended the activities of the action groups. They are back in Spain a month later, after a shot spell in a French prison followed by a greande accident, during which Ballester injured his knee and Mariano Puzo Cabero lost part of his arm. On December 18, 1947, he took part, alongside Facerias, Celedonio Garcia Casino and Pedro Adrover Font, in an expropriation of the Banco de Bilbao in the calle Mallorca in Barcelona, locking its employees and customers in the manager's office and seizing nearly 180,000 pesetas. However, with increasing repression, the MLR dissolved in February 1948 following numerous arrests. Ballester was arrested on May 24, 1948 in Barcelona, ​​and took advantage of his stay in the Modelo prison to identify imprisoned comrades and, following his release in January 12, 1949, he began organising, along with Francisco Sabaté Llopart (El Quico), assistance to prisoners and a lawyer to help in their defence. New groups sprang up to help finance this via more appropriations. Constantly the subject of police harrassment, he was arrested again and tortured to try and get information about Sabaté and his group. He eventually gave up erroneous information under that torture, sending police to the wrong location (the America cinema) of a proposed meeting, thereby allowing the Sabaté brothers to escape as only 3 police were at the Condal cinema (shooting an agent, Oswaldo Blanco, that they had recognised. At his trial on March 16, 1950, Francisco Ballester was sentenced to six years in prison for the use of forged documents. Receiving leniency, he was released August 10, 1953 and went to France. Ironically, after risking his life in the armed struggle, he died on September 7, 1957 in a derailment of the Paris-Nîmes train after giving up his seat to a woman who emerged unscathed from the accident.

1922 - At 21:00 at the premises of the Sociedad Cosmopolita de Cacahueros 'Tomás Briones' (Cosmopolitan Society Of Cacao Workers 'Tomás Briones'), the first meeting of the group drafting the founding principles of the Federación de Trabajadores Regional Ecuatoriana (Ecuadorian Regional Federation Of Workers) is held at 21:00 in the premises of the cacao workers' Sociedad Cosmopolita de Cacahueros 'Tomás Briones' (Cosmopolitan Society Of Cacao Workers 'Tomás Briones') in Guayaquil, the coastal city and the main port of Ecuador.

[B] 1922 - Jackson Mac Low (d. 2004), American anarchist, pacifist, poet, Fluxus performance artist, composer and playwright, born.

1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание]: Following criticism from the Comitern of their inactivity during the June Uprising (Юнско въстание) [see: Jun. 10, 1923 post et al], and under pressure from young and radical activists of the party, headed by Georgi Dimitrov (Георги Димитров) and Vassil Kolarov (Васил Коларов), the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party (Българската комунистическа партия) had taken the decision [see: Aug. 5, 1923] to attempt to overthrow the Alexander Tsankov's new government of Bulgaria, which had come to power with the coup d'état of June 9. This plan was supported by the anarchist and agrarian forces that the BCP singularly failed to support during the June Uprising. However, having received information about the preparations for that rebellion, the proto-fascist Tsankov government begins arresting about 2,000 BCP activists and liquidates the headquarters of the uprising in Sofia as aprt of a massive campaign to try and prevent the insurrection.
In reaction to mass arrest of BCP members, communist members in the village of Maglizh near Kazanlak begin insurrectionary activity the following day, which continues into the 14th as they seize Maglizh and Golyamo Dryanovo. However, having received no support from the neighbouring branches, who decide to wait until the official proclamation of the uprising, withdrew into the mountains Golyamo Dryanovo several hours after seizing the villages. Their actions are backed by the BCP branch in Golyamo Dryanovo.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: A bomb explodes in the central telephone exchange in Seville. Official strike statistics for between April and June are published. In just two months the total number exceeds three hundred.

1932 - The first issue of 'Cultura Obrera', "Una publicació de reflexió i de lluita", is published in Palma. This is the second series of the anarcho-syndicalist title (42 issues up til July 9, 1932), was first published between August 16, 1919 and June 28, 1924 (254 issues).

1939 - Gómez Talón group members Salvador Gómez Talón, his brother Rafael, Fulgencio Rosaledo Martinez, José Tarín Marchuet, Juan Baeza Delgado and Juan Pallarés Mena are executed at the Campo de la Bota in Barcelona.

##1944 - Raoul Lion (b. 1897), French anarchist typographer, who operated an underground anti-fascist printing press along with his brother Henri during the Nazi occupation, is murdered by the Nazis, gassed in the Schloss Hartheim Euthanasia Centre (NS-Tötungsanstalt Hartheim) in Austrian. [see: Jul. 5]

1948 - Marial Quintane (b. 1892), French construction worker, anarchist and revolutionary syndicalist, dies. [see: Sep. 14]

##1948 - Antonio Ortiz, Primitivo Gomez and José Perez using a small private plane attempt to bomb the official platform in San Sebastien where Franco is making a speech.

[BB] 1951 - 'Surréalisme et Anarchisme - Déclaration Préalable' (Surrealism and Anarchism - Preliminary Statement), signed by Jean-Louis Bédouin, Robert Benayoun, André Breton, Roland Brudieux, Adrien Dax, Guy Doumayrou, Jacqueline & Jean-Pierre Duprey, Jean Ferry, Geoges Goldfayn, Alain Lebreton, Gérard Legrand, Jehan Mayoux, Benjamin Péret, Bernard Roger, Anne Seghers, Jean Schuster, Clovis Trouille "et leurs camarades étrangers actuellement à Paris", appears in the pages of 'Le Libertaire'. It announces the future engagement of the once Communist Party supporting Surrealist Group with the Fédération Anarchiste.

1997 - Amèlia Jover Velasco (b. 1910), Spanish secretary, chef, home schooler and anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies in Paris. [see: Dec. 10]

2001 - Dolores Prat Coll aka pequeña Montseny (little Montseny)(b. 1905), Catalan textile worker and militant anarcho-syndicalist member of the CNT from the age of 15, dies. [see: Mar. 8]
[B] 1885 - Aquilino Gomes Ribeiro (d. 1963), Portuguese novelist, writer and anarchist, born. A militant anarchist in his youth, he remained very attached to his libertarian principles through out his lfe. In 1907 he was arrested when a cache of explosives in his room at the Carrião Street, in Lisbon, exploded, killing two comrades, Gonçalves Lopes and Belmonte de Lemos. On January 12 1908, he managed to escape from prison and went underground in Lisbon. He then went into exile in Paris, studying at the Sorbonne. During WWI, he returned to Portugal where he taught at the Camões College and published his first novel 'A Via Sinuosa' (The Winding Way; 1918). Took part in the failed Republican revolt of February 7, 1927, in Lisbon against the recently installed fascist Estado Novo government of Salazar and returned to exile in Paris. At the end of the year he returned to Portugal clandestinely, participating in 1928 Pinhel revolt. Incarcerated in Fontelo prison, he again managed to escape and returned to Paris. He was tried in absentia in a Lisbon military court and sentenced.
Nominated in 1960 for a Nobel Prize in literature.
[ and the Modernists.pdf]

1893 - Benoît Malon (b. 1841), French Bakuninist, member of the International, Communard and then a socialist, dies. [see: Jun. 23]

1895 - At an event in Finsbury, London, Emma Goldman appears on a platform along with several other speakers including James Tochatti of the British anarchist journal 'Liberty' and the French anarchist Louise Michel. Goldman lectures on 'Political Justice in England and America', highlighting Alexander Berkman's case.

##1899 - Anton Levien Constandse (d. 1985), Dutch author, editor, magazine publisher, freethinker, atheist, anti-fascist and, above all, an anarchist, born.

1914 - In Parma, the anarcho-syndicalist Unione Sindacale Italiana (USI) meet in council to decide their position on the war. Two trends clash, interventionist and anti-militarist, and it is ultimately the latter that prevail safter the passage of a motion by fellow Armando Borghi , Aiò, Niccolini, Pace and Nencini. Two trends clash, interventionist and anti-militarist. It is ultimately the latter will prevail after the passage of a motion by Armando Borghi , Aiò, Niccolini, Pace and Nencini.

1917 - [N.S. Sep. 26] The first edition of the weekly newspaper 'Anarkhiia' (Анархия), "Social and literary anarchist newspaper" (Общественно-литературная анархическая газета) organ of the Federation of Anarchist Groups of Moscow (Федерации Анархи-ческих Групп Москвы), is published. [see: Sep. 26]

1917 - Jules Ardouin (Georges Eugène Ardouin; b. 1879), French florist, anarchist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Sep. 8]

[F] 1919 - The Confederação Geral do Trabalho (CGT), with its roots in the União Operária Nacional (National Workers Union), is founded, replacing the União Operária Nacional. The CGT's daily newspaper is 'A Batalha'. Greatly influenced by the anarcho-syndicalist movement, it was the only Portuguese trade union at the time. It went on to affiliate with the International Workers Association (IWA) in 1922. The coup d'état of May 28 1926 and continued repression, ultimately led to its decline, and in 1938, Emídio Santana, the secretary-general of the federation, took part in a failed assassination attempt on Salazar. The ensuing repression killed off the CGT completely.
[ção_Geral_do_Trabalho_(Portugal)ão Operária Nacional]

[C] 1923 - Today and tomorrow, the military in Spain, headed by Primo de Rivera, seizes power in a coup. King Alfonso XIII and the various deposed politicians stand down without any fight. The CNT calls for a general strike for tomorrow, which fails to materialise. In a published statement , the CNT states: "En esta hora cuando estalla la cobardía general y donde el poder civil renuncia sin lucha al poder de los militares, es a la clase obrera a la que incumbe hacer sentir su presencia y de no dejarse patalear por hombres que, transgrediendo todas las formas de derecho, quieren reducir a cero todas las conquistas obreras obtenidas después de luchas largas y difíciles." ("In this time when the general cowardice and where the civil power abandons struggle against the power of the military, it is the working class's responsibility to make its presence felt and not to be trampled by men who, transgressing all forms of law, want to reduce to zero all workers gains obtained after long and difficult struggles.")

1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание]: In reaction to mass arrest of BCP members, communist members in the village of Maglizh near Kazanlak begin insurrectionary late in the day, continuing into the following day. Their actions are backed by the BCP branch in Golyamo Dryanovo.

1927 - Gustave Jeanneret (b. 1847), Swiss painter, member of the International Council of the Jura Federation, brother of the libertarian engraver and writer Georges-Edouard Jeanneret and uncle of Le Corbusier, dies. [see: Apr. 6]

1934 - Jean Vigo's film 'L'Atalante', his last before his early death early next month, premières in Paris.

1939 - Nicolò (Nicolantonio) Converti (b. 1858), Italian anarchist propagandist, surgeon, typographer, dies. [see: Mar. 16]

## 1945 - Noël Godin, Belgian writer, critic, actor and anarcho-humourist, whose alter ego is the entarteur Georges Le Gloupier (a name appropriated from Jean-Pierre Bouyxou), born.

1946 - The founding congress of the Fédération des Jeunesses Anarchistes (FJA) is held in Dijon.

1946 - The second congress of the Fédération Anarchiste (FA) is held in Dijon (September 13-15). George Fontenis is appointed General Secretary.

1951 - Iris Pavón (b. 1906), Argentine writer, poet, journalist, and militant anarchist, feminist, anti-fascist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Sep. 15]

[A] 1958 - Rudolf Rocker (b. 1873), German-American anarcho-syndicalist theorist, organiser and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Mar. 25]

1971 - Leda Rafanelli (b. 1880), Italian anarchist, feminist, anti-militarist, writer, artist and member of the Futurists, who was known as the 'Gypsy anarchist', dies. [see: Jul. 4]
1879 - Krsta Cicvarić (Крста Цицварић; d. 1944), Serbian journalist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-communist and later an anti-Semite, who was shot by the Yugoslav Partisans for alleged collaboration with the Nazis, born.

[EE] 1879 - Margaret Higgins Sanger (Margaret Louise Higgins; d. 1966), US birth control activist, sex educator, nurse and anarchist, born. Influenced by her friend Emma Goldman, she was a member of the Liberal Club and a supporter of the anarchist-run Ferrer Centre and Modern School. She was also a lover of the Greek anarchist and publisher John Rompapas. "My own personal feelings drew me toward the individualist, anarchist philosophy. . .but it seemed necessary to approach the idea by way of Socialism." [*NB: Some give the year of her d.o.b. as 1884.]

1892 - Marial Quintane (b. 1892), French construction worker, anarchist and revolutionary syndicalist, born. Secretary of the Syndicat CGT du bâtiment (Building workers union) in Reims and the Comités Syndicalistes révolutionnaires locaux (local committee of revolutionary Unionists) in the early 1920s, he was also a member of the Terre et Liberté anarchist group and active in the local Sacco and Vanzetti support campaign and protests against repression in Spain in the '20s. Later he was a member of the anarcho-syndicalist and revolutionary syndicalist minority in the CGTU and was elected secretary of the UL-CGTU in July 1922. Following the communist takeover of the union in 1925, he took the rump of the building workers into an autonomous building union.

1896 - Jeong Hwa-am (정화암; d. 1981), leading Korean anarchist in 1920s and 1930s China and independent activist during the Japanese colonial rule, who became a socialist politician after the liberation of Korea in 1945, born.

1903 - Jules-César Rozental (b. 1872), Bulgarian militant anarchist, guerilla and poet, dies. [see: Jun. 14]
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1914 - Revolución Méxicana: Emiliano Zapata breaks with Venustiano Carranza for not implementing stronger social reforms, begins to distribute land to peasants.

1916 - Jenő Henrik Schmitt (b. 1851), Hungarian government librarian Christian anarchist and Gnostic philosopher, dies in Berlin at the age of 64. [see: Nov. 5]

[C] 1923 - The general strike called by the CNT in reaction to yesterday's military coup in Spain fails (the socialists and UGT refuse to participate) and the CNT is forced underground.

1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание]: Following the spontaneous uprising in Maglizh in reaction to mass arrest of BCP members, rebels seize Maglizh and Golyamo Dryanovo. However, receiving no support from the neighbouring branches, who had decided to wait until the official proclamation of the uprising, the insurrectionists withdrew into the mountains Golyamo Dryanovo several hours after seizing the villages.

1925 - Pedro Esteve (b. 1866), Spanish-born French typographer, anarchist propaganist and militant, dies. [see: Feb. 29]

1927 - Hugo Ball (b. 1886), German author, poet, philosopher, literary critic and one of the leading Dada artists, anarchist and Bakunist, dies. [see: Feb. 22]

[B] 1931 - Alain Cavalier, French film director and anarchist, born. Amongst his films are 'Le Combat dans l'île' (The Fight on the Island; 1961), 'L'Insoumis' (Crossfire; 1964) and 'Les Braves' (The Braves; 2008), which deal with the Algerian War, and 'Libera Me' (1993), torture and oppression.

1934 - Yves Peyraut aka Yvo Pero (d. 2002), French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, Esperantist and prominent figure on Radio Libertaire, born.

1939 - Nicolò (Nicolantonio) Converti (b. 1855), Italian surgeon, anarchist propagandist, militant internationalist and typographer, dies. [see: Mar. 18]

1941 - Juan Bautista Vairoleto (b. 1894), Argentine anarchist and bandit, dies. [see: Nov. 11]

## 1943 - Presumed date of the murder of the Greek anarcho-syndicalist Konstantinos Speras (Κωνσταντίνος Σπέρας; b. 1893), one of the pioneers of the working class trade-union movement in Greece, who was killed (beheaded) by elements of the KKE and ELAS Communist-led partisans under the command of Christos Moudrihas (Ανδρέα Μούντριχα) aka Captain Orestis (Ορέστη). They then decapitated him and scattered his remains somewhere in Western Attica.

1954 - Michael 'Mikey' Smith (d. 1983), Jamaican dub poet and anti-authoritarian, who identified with anarchism and was a victim of the Jamaican JLP-PNP inter-party political violence, born.

1958 - Michel Némitz, French anarchist, who participated in the founding in 1978 of the Fédération Libertaire des Montagnes, heir to the Jura Federation, born.

1973 - Dafydd Ladd and Michael Tristram arrested in Bristol, charged with three attacks on Portuguese vice-consulates in Bristol and Cardiff (Wales), and outside the British Army Officers Club at Aldershot, claimed by a group calling itself 'Freedom Fighters for All', but manifestly part of the same spontaneous wave of actions during this period. In February 1974 Ladd is sentenced to seven years, Tristram to six.

##1979 - Andrew O'Neill, comedian, musician, presenter, writer, transvestite, vegan, anarchist, occultist and metalhead, born in Portsmouth.

1985 - Julian Beck (b. 1925), US actor, director, poet, and Abstract Expressionist painter, dies. [see: May 31]

1991 - In the Mexican province of Cuernavaca, the 'first international meeting of anarchists' takes place (September 14-16). Eighty delegates are present, mainly from the United States and Spain, including the editors of the magazines 'Guángara Libertaria' from Miami, 'Amor y Rabia' from New York, the San Francisco library Bound Together, the WSA-AIT union from Texas and from Spain, representatives of the CNT-AIT, CGT, and the Salvador Segui Foundation.

2011 - Sue Richardson (Sarah Fenwick Owen; b. 1941), Irish feminist and anarchist, dies aged seventy, sitting at her kitchen table, waiting for the kettle to boil. Wanted in connection with 'Angry Brigade' activities, Sarah move to Dublin and became Sue and got involved in the burgeoning Irish feminist movement and joined the Dublin Anarchist Group. Her life changed once more, when on February the 22nd 1978, a man entered the Bank of Ireland on Drumcondra road and passed a note to the teller saying "I am armed, push out all the money to me. Hurry. No delay. Return note". He left with a bag of money and disappeared. Sue was found nearby, holding the bag, and was arrested. At her trial, at the Special Criminal Court she refused to identify the robber and so was sentenced to three years in jail on a charge of receiving money knowing it was stolen. In Mountjoy Women’s prison she took on the prison authorities over prison conditions, taking a case to the Irish High Court and winning. Released in 1980 after serving 16 months, she was told not to communicate with newspapers, radio or television or to engage in public controversy. If she did, she would be considered in breech of prison discipline and returned to jail. Sue went to the High Court and successfully contested the gagging order. On release she remained active in Prisoners Rights Organisation and supported other prisoners, when she could, organising friends to visit prisoners when she could not. Sue also became involved in the grassroots anti-drug campaign known as Concerned Parents Against Drugs, organising against the heroin dealers in Dublin and, with Noreen O’Donohue, Sue wrote 'Pure Murder: a book about drug use', which exposed the effect of addiction on the area she lived in. It was published by the Women’s Community Press, which she helped to set up, in 1983. Her other political activites included the Residents Against Racism group and CAFE, the local community arts organisation.
In later life Sue's health was bad - the damp and strain of prison having damaged her lungs - which, together with her smoking, added to her emphysema and led to a heart-lung transplant and later a kidney transplant (the anti-rejection drugs having damaged her kidneys).
1846 - Warlaam Dzon Aslanovic Tcherkesoff (or Tcherkezov; or Varlam Cherkezov; d. 1925), Georgian Prince, anarchist militant and collaborator with Kropotkin, helped found the Anarchist Red Cross, born. Born Prince Varlam Cherkezishvili (ვარლამ ჩერქეზიშვილი) in a Georgian noble family before being sent to be educated in Russia, where he joined the socialist movement. [expand]

1856 - Possible date [see also: Sep. 9] for the birth of Francisco Saverio Merlino (d. 1930), Italian lawyer, theorist, propagandist of Italian anarchism, then a libertarian socialist - though he continued to defend anarchists.

1867 - Petr Bezruč (pseudonym of Vladimir Vasek; d. 1958), Czech writer, poet and anarchist, born. A representative of the turn of the century generation of Czech Anarchističtí Buřiči, "básníci života a vzdoru" (Anarchist Rebels, "the poets of life and defiance"), Petr Bezruč was one of the most famous of his many pseudonyms, all used because of his subject matter and his fear of death because of his political activities.
He cared for his poor family by working in a post office rather than pursuing a career in philology, and was said to speak eight languages. His poems, initially published in various newspapers and magazines, hold a unique place in Czech poetry, describing the tragic stories of the Silesian people, often in offensive and incendiary language to address the social and political interests of the people, as well as lyrical love poetry. Initially collected in 'Slezským Číslem' (Silesian Numbers), they went to form the 79 poems of 'Slezské Písně' (Silesian Songs; 1958), his only poetry collection. [NB: There is speculation, however, that he is not the author of most of the poems, which were supposedly by his friend Peter Ondřej Boleslav, who committed suicide in 1893.]
'Maryčka Magdonová' is one of the most famous poems from 'Silesian Songs', written about a girl from the mountains and her very tragic fate. Her father dies in a pub brawl and mother is killed by a coal lorry. Maryčka and her four siblings are orphaned. The children are hungry and are cold. Maryčka, the oldest, has to go to the forest for logs , but the gamekeeper catches her and wants to send her to the police station. But Maryčka is ashamed and jumps into the wild river and dies.
At the beginning of WWI, a French magazine published some anti-Hapsburg poems signed with the initials PB. Vladimir Vasek was arrested and imprisoned, threatened with the death penalty for treason, but he denied authorship, eventually managing to prove otherwise.

Tak málo mám krve a ještě mi teče
z úst.
Až bude růst
nade mnou tráva, až budu hnít,
kdo na moje místo,
kdo zdvihne můj štít?
V dým zahalen vítkovských pecí jsem stál,
Noc zřela mi z očí, plam z nozdry mi vál,
nech zářilo slunce, nech večer se šeřil,
já semknutou brvou jsem vrahy ty měřil:
ty bohaté židy, ty grófy ze šlachty,
já škaredy kovkop, jak vyskočil z šachty.

(So I have a little blood still flows through me
from the mouth.
When the growth
grass above me, until I rot,
who at my place
who pulled my shield?
Shrouded in smoke ovens Vítkov I stood,
Night saw my face, plam of my nostrils blowing,
Let the sun shine, let the evening twilight,
I'm a killer compact little muscle the measure:
those rich Jews, those of Grof Šlachta,
I kovkop unsightly, as he jumped out of the shaft.)

- 'Kdo na moje místo' (Who's at my place)


1870 - Commune de Lyon: Michel Bakunin arrives in Lyon. He is unhappy to see the International collaborating with Republicans, and, together with Lyonnais International members Albert Richard, Eugène Saignes and Gaspard Blanc, holds a series of meetings that bring together hundreds of people, during which an event is decided for September 28, in front of the Hôtel de Ville. [see: Sep. 4]

1872 - The International Congress of the Bakuninist section of the AIT takes place in St. Imier, Switzerland (September 15-16) following the anarchists' expulsion from the Conress in The Hague (Sep. 2-7). The Congress begins after the 16 delegates of the Jura Federation have met. Present are Charles Alarini, Rafael Farga Pellicer, Nicolas Alonso Marselau and Tomàs Gonzáles Morago representing the Spanish Federation; Giuseppe Fanelli, Ludovico Nabruzzi, Andrea Costa, Carlo Cafiero and Mikhail Bakunin from the Italian Federation; Jean-Louis Pindy and Camille Camet represnting the French sections; Gustave Lefrancais from America; and James Guillaume and Adémar Schwitzguebel from the Jura Federation.

1881 - Giuseppe Guidi (d. 1931), Italian painter, printmaker/etcher and anarchist, born.

1881 - Maximilian 'Max' Nacht, aka Max Nomad (d. 1973), Austro-American anarchist, journalist and historian of the revolutionary movements, who also published under the pseudonyms 'Podolsky', Stephen Naft and Max Norton, born.

[B] 1893 - Tintino Persio Rasi (d. 1963), Italian individualist anarchist activist and propagandist, journalist, writer and Futurist poet, born. Used the pseudonyms of Auro d'Arcola, Tatiano d'Arcola, Gold O' Bay and Carlo Carli. After elementary school, Tintino Rasi started working at the post office and had joined, still very young, the anarchist movement. In 1914 he was a postman in Genoa and was stuck as anarchist "properly supervised." Participating in the activities of the movement, speaking at various meetings and working with the press, including 'Il Libertario', he was transferred in 1917 to Iglesias in Sardinia, where he continued his activism.
Located in Cagliari, he worked under the pseudonym of Auro d'Arcola socialist newspaper 'Il Risveglio dell'isola' and became a member of the Executive Committee of the Cagliari Camera del Lavoro (Chamber of Local Labour). Called up during WWI, he refuses to fight and during the same period the police report (January 1918) that he and Alberto Silicani are trying to (unsuccessfully) form an anarchist group (Fascio Anarchico).
Involved throughout the period Biennio Rosso in workers' struggles and organised a large number of meetings and conferences. During one of his lectures, in June 1919 in Santo Stefano Magra, he and 3 other anarchist speakers incite a riot during which a rifleman was killed and another seriously injured. Denounced as responsible for the acts, Rasi and his companions go into hiding. However, in June 1920 he is acquitted of that charge.
In 1921, along with Renzo Renzo Ferrari Novatore and Giovanni Battista Governato, he helps form an anarcho-futurist group based in La Spezia and becomes editor of its magazine 'Vertice' (Summit). However, he is forced to temporarily flee to America following the issuing of an arrest warrant for subversive activities. In 1922 the warrant is revoked and he returns to live in Clivio at the rationalist anarchist Scuola Moderna, helping with the distribution of the school's newspaper. That year he also founds, with Renato Siglich Suvarin, the journal 'Anarchismo'.
With the rise of fascism, he left for France with his wife Ave Superna and their daughter Fossati in April 1923, firstly to Nice and then to the Paris region. Responsible as the director of many of the exiled Italian anarchist newspapers such as 'La Rivendicazione' (The Claim; Paris, 1923-25); 'La Nostra Polemicha' (Paris, 1925), where he denounces the adventurism of comrades engaged in Garibaldi Legion, particularly Ricciotti Garibaldi (who he later learned was an undercover political police agent); 'La Quale' (Paris, 1926); and 'Veglia' (Paris). He was also editor of the Italian section of the 'International Anarchist Review' (Paris, 1924-25) with Ugo Fedeli and Virgilio Gozzoli. The thre would later merge their individual papers to form 'La Tempra' (Paris, 1925-26). Under the pseudonym Gold O'Bay he also worked at 'Il Commento' (London, 1924) where he called for "the right to defend ourselves and to kill fascists."
In 1929 he was producing an anarchist paper 'Il Monito' (The Reminder) when he was arrested and expelled from France. under pressure from the Italian authorities. He subsequently disappeared - possibly living in hiding either in Belgium, France of the US or working in Switzerland under the pseudonym Tatiano at the 'L'Adunata dei Refrattari' - before reappearing in 1935 in Saint-Michel-sur-Orge. On June 20-21 1936 he participated in the Paris International Conference for the right to asylum which also involved Sébastien Faure, C. Berneri Gilioli, Marzocchi, Mastrodicasa, and others. From the beginning of the Civil War he was part of the Paris Committee for aid to Spain.
Constantly monitored by agents of the fascist police and often arrested, he eventually emigrated to the United States in 1938 where he settled in Philadelphia. Under the pseudonym of Carlo Carli, he collaborated during the war on the antifascist magazine 'Chanteclair' (New York, 1942-45), co-editing it with V. Gozzoli., and supporting what he saw as a necessary war by the Allies against fascism.

1894 - Alfred Levitt (d. 2000), Belarus-born American anarchist, humanist, renowned artist, storyteller, spelunker and adventurer, born. His friends and colleagues included the likes of Jack London, Marcel Duchamp and Emma Goldman. Influenced by American artist and teacher Robert Henri, he modelled nude at the Ferrer Modern School so he could hear Henri's lectures for free. He was attracted to Cubism after studying under modernist artist Hans Hofmann. A prolific painter, Levitt was part of a group of artists, including Milton Avery and Mark Rothko, who painted together and adapted Cubism to US themes.

1904 - Giuseppe Ciancabilla (b. 1872), Italian journalist, who was the leader of the PSI but, after extensive discussions with Malatesta, became an anarchist, dies.

1906 - In San Luis, Librado Rivera is arrested and the 'Regeneración' print works smashed up by the combined forces of the United States Department of Justice, immigration officials and Pinkerton detectives.

##1906 - Iris Pavón (d. 1951), Argentine writer, poet, journalist, and militant anarchist, feminist, anti-fascist and anti-militarist, born. Known for her speeches at events requesting the release of the 'Presos de Bragado' (workers from the town of Bragado who were victims of the Década Infame (1930-1942), falsely accused of having planted of having planted a bomb on August 5, 1931) and in defence of the Republic during the Spanish Civil War. In the 1940s she joined the Agrupación Femenina Antiguerra and following the 1943 coup she was arrested several months in the women's prison in Cordoba.

1923 - Neno Vasco (Gregório Nazianzeno Moreira de Queiroz e Vasconcelos; b. 1878), Portuguese lawyer, journalist, poet, playwright and militant anarcho-syndicalist writer, dies. [NB: Many sources give the year as 1920, but this is thought to be the correct date.][see: May 9]

1924 - Fernando O'Neill Cuesta aka 'Zapicán' and 'Finito' (d. 2005), Uraguayan revolutionary and historian of anarchism in Uruguay, who later became a member of the Tupamaros, born. Spent much of his early years in various prisons and was befriended in Miguelete Prison by the Catalan anarchist Pedro Boadas Rivas and later in Punta Carretas by militant anarchists Domingo Aquino and José González Mentrosse. Previously apolitical, upon leaving prison in 1952, he joined the Joventut Llibertària in Montevideo. [expand]

1933 - At the Plaza Monumental de Barcelona, over 100,000 people attend an important CNT meeting which is addressses by Valeriano Orobón Fernández and Buenaventura Durruti, the latter fresh from prison.

1939 - Louis Lecoin and Nicolas Faucier's anti-war tract, 'Paix Immédiate' (Immediate Peace), is published in 'Le Libertaire'.

## 1940 - Norman Spinrad, US science fiction author, essayist, critic and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Author of 'The Iron Dream' (1972), Adolph Hitler's "unwritten science fiction novel", and 'A World Between' (1979) examination of direct democracy which includes a SCUM-based civilisation.
In a 1999 interview Spinrad confirmed that he was "an anarchist, but I'm a syndicalist. You have to have organised anarchy, because otherwise it doesn't work."

1943 - Gino Lucetti (b. 1900), Italian anarchist who attempted to assassinate Mussolini in September 1926, for which he got 30 years in prison, dies during a German bombing raid on Ischia. [NB: Some sources give the date as September 17.][see: Aug. 31]

1945 - The founding congress of the new Federazione Italiana Anarchica (Italian Anarchist Federation) takes place (September 15-19) in Carrara.

##1954 - Dimitris Karampilias (Δημήτρης Καραμπίλιας; b. 1872), Greek cigarette maker, tailor and anarchist, who was active in anarchist movements in Egypt and France as well as his native Greece, dies at the age of 82.

1972 - Suzy Chevet (Suzanne Chevet; b. 1905), French teacher, militant socialist, Résistance member, libertarian syndicalist and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 25]

1973 - Spanish anarchist militant members of the Movimiento Ibérico de Liberación-Grupos Autónomos de Combate (MIL), Oriol Solé Sugranyes and José Luis Pons Llobet, are captured near the French border after clashing with the Guardia Civil.

1988 - Celso Persici (d. 1896), Italian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Oct. 9]

1992 - Release date of Hal Hartley's film 'Simple Men' (1992), a fictional tale about the children of an anarchist on the run from the law.

2001 - The Pinelli Centre in the Genoa district of Molassana is devastated in a petrol bomb attack, which completely destroys the Centre's electrical system and equipment. The Centre had been used as a logistics base for anarchists during the protests against the G8 summit in Genoa. Another Molotov cocktail was used to destroy tributes left to Carlo Giuliano in the Piazza Gaetano Alimonda.
1870 - Several Mexican workers groups come together to form the Grand Obreros Círculo de México (GCO) due to the efforts of the libertarian activist Santiago Villanuev and members of the Proletarian Circle, which he had founded a year earlier.

1870 - Bram Reens, aka Otto van Meurs (Abraham Mozes Reens; d. 1930), Dutch magazine publisher, organiser, author and propagandist for revolutionary socialism and anarchism in the Netherlands, born in Hoorn.

## 1874 - Cipriano Ricardo Flores Magón (d. 1922), noted Mexican anarchist, revolutionary, co-founder of the Partido Liberal Mexicano, IWW organiser, author and journalist, brother of Enrique and Jesús, born. [expand]

1879 - Herwarth Walden (pseudonym of Georg Lewin; d. 1941), German Expressionist artist and gallery owner, art expert, who was the founder of the radical German Expressionist magazine 'Der Sturm', born. He was married to the German Expressionist poet Else Lasker-Schüler, who invented his pseudonym, inspired by Thoreau’s 'Walden' (1854). He was also an early collaborator on Pfemfert's anarchist magazine 'Der Kampf'. In 1919 he joined the German Communist Party (KPD) and, in 1924, he was divorced from Lasker-Schüler. With the economic depression of the 1930s and the subsequent rise of National Socialism, his activities were compromised. In 1932, he married again and left Germany shortly later because of the threat of the Gestapo. He went to Moscow, where he worked as a teacher and publisher. His sympathies for the avant-garde soon aroused the suspicion of the Stalinist Soviet government, and he had to repeatedly defend against the equation of avant-garde and fascism. Walden died in October 1941 in a Soviet prison in Saratov.

1887 - Charles-Ferdinand Gambon (b. 1820), French lawyer, magistrate, initially a moderate republican, Gambon became a socialist, anarchist and pacifist revolutionary, dies. [see: Mar. 19]

1888 - Silvia Pisacane (b. 1852), Italian daughter of the famous revolutionary Carlo Pisacane, who was involved with the Matese anarchist insurrection in 1877, dies. Through her contacts with Giovanni Nicotera, who had survived the Sapri expedition and become a leftist parliamentarian, the lawyer Carlo Gambuzzi managed to get the 26 arrested anarchists accused of the death of a policeman during the failed 1874 insurrection in Bologna found not guilty and applied an amnesty on the other charges they faced (conspiracy with the object of removing and destroying the form of government, encouraging the people to arm themselves against the powers of the State, provoking civil war, etc.).
[NB. Some sources give the date as September 17. Many sources also give her d.o.b. as 1853 based upon a letter her father wrote to Carlo Cattaneo in Jan. 1853 with news of Silvia's birth. However, she was most likely born the previous year on September 28, 1852.]

1893 - The first issue of 'El Derecho a la Vida', "Periódico anarquista", is pulished in Montevideo. It is published irregularly up til April 1897 (number 35). A second series of 17 numbers was published between October 1898 and August 1900.

1897 - Following a lecture tour of France and Belgium in the company of Charlotte Vauvelle and Sébastien Faure, Louise Michel is detained in Brussels and expelled from the country.

1899 - The first issue of the Italian language bimonthly 'L'Aurora' (The Dawn), "Periodico anarchico", is published in Paterson, New Jersey by the Circolo di Propaganda Libertaria, an anti-organisational Italian-American anarchist group headed by Giuseppe Ciancabilla.

1906 - The date (on which the Independence of México is traditionally celebrated) is chosen by the Partido Liberal Méxicano to launch the start of the Revolution, seizing customs posts on the US-Mexican border so as to maintain the supply of weapons into México, supplementing those the 44 groups of guerrilleros, some involving with up to 300 (although the average was 50) had managed to seize in-country. However, between September 2nd and 5th US police raids seized weapons and documents, and discovered plans of insurrection, which had to be postponed til September 26th.

##1906 - Jacques Brunius (d. 1967), French actor, director, writer, poet, anarchist and Surrealist, born. His film work and writings are credited under various pseudonyms: Borel, Jacques Borel, Brunius, JB Brunius, Jacques B. Brunius, Jacques-Bernard Brunius, John La Montagne, Olaf Apollonius, Jacques Berne. He appeared in more than 30 films, including many of the early, more political, movies by his friend Jean Renoir e.g. 'Une Partie de Campagne' and 'Le Crime de Monsieur Lange' (both 1936), and 'L'affaire est Dans le Sac' (1932) by Jacques and Pierre Prévert.
He also directed 13 films including 'Autour d'une Évasion' (Around an Escape; 1934), based on a screenplay by Jean Vigo about the anarchist Dieudonné and his escape from prison in Guyana, and 'Violin d'Ingres' (1939), about l'art brut and 'Le Palais Idéal' of postman turned sculptor, Ferdinand Cheval, and the Surrealists.
Friend of André Breton and member of both the French and the English Surrealist groups, becoming a well-known defender of the movement on the radio in both countries, in addition to having been a radio announce of the famous coded messages to the French Résistance during WWII.

[EEE] 1919 - Date of the trail (field court-martial) of the Ukrainian anarchist partisan Maria Grigorevna Nikiforova [Марія Григорівна Никифорова (uk) / Мария Григорьевна Никифорова (ru)] or Nykyforovna [Никифоровна / Никифорова] aka Marusya, then known as Maria Bzhosteka [Марія Бжостек / Мария Бжостек] before General Subbotin, commandant of the Sevastopol Fortress, at which she is found guilty on the following charges: that during the period 1918-1919, while commanding a detachment of anarcho-communists, she carried out shootings of officers and peaceful inhabitants, and she called for bloody, merciless reprisals against the bourgeoisie and counter-revolutionaries. For example:
  • in 1918 between the stations of Pereyezdna and Leshchiska by her order several officers were shot, in particular, the officer Grigorenko;
in November 1918 she entered the city of Rostov-on-Don with detachments of anarchists and incited a mob with an appeal to carry out bloody reprisals against the bourgeoisie and counter-revolutionaries;
  • in December 1918, while commanding an armed detachment, she participated together with the troops of Petliura in the capture of Odessa, after which she took part in burning down the Odessa prison, where the chief warden Pereleshin was killed in the fire;
  • in June 1919 in the city of Melitopol' 26 persons were shot on her order, including a certain Timofei Rozhkov.

These charges involve crimes specified in Articles 108 and 109 of the criminal code of the Volunteer Army.
She was found guilty and sentenced to hang, whilst her husband, Witold Stanislav Bzhostek (or Brzostek), who was arrested along side her, was found guilty of of shielding Marusya, and ordered to be shot. [see: Sep 23 + 24]

1920 - Galleanists (Italian anarchists) set off a bomb on Wall Street in front of J.P. Morgan’s bank. The explosion kills 38 and seriously injures 143. Most of the dead and injured are young workers working at poorly paid jobs in the area; the presumed target, banker J.P. Morgan, is not in his office: he is several thousand miles away, in Scotland.

[E] 1923 - Noe Itō (伊藤野枝; b. 1895), Japanese anarchist, social critic, author, novelist, translator and feminist, is murdered, along with her partner Sakae Ōsugi and his six-year-old nephew, by military police. Their battered bodies are discovered four days later where they had been dumped in a well. This provoked outrage throughout Japan and became known as the 'Amakasu Incident' (甘粕事件 / Amakasu jiken) or 'Ōsugi Massacre' (大杉虐殺 / Ōsugi gyakusatsu). [see: Jan. 21]

1923 - Anarchist Sakae Ōsugi (b. 1855), together his companion the anarcho-feminist Noe Itō and a six-year-old nephew, are murdered by military police. Their battered bodies are discovered four days later where they had been dumped in a well. This provoked outrage throughout Japan and became known as the 'Amakasu Incident' (甘粕事件 / Amakasu jiken) or 'Ōsugi Massacre' (大杉虐殺 / Ōsugi gyakusatsu). [see: Jan. 17]

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: Communists in the Zaragoza municipality of El Molón, attack the Guardia Civil headquarters resulting in one death. Communist in the Sevillian town of Olivares assault their local Guardia Civil barracks resulting in several injuries.

1933 - The first issue of the newspaper 'Acracia', "semanario anarquista", is published in Lleida, Catalonia. At least 35 issues are published, the last dated June 23, 1934, and a second run begins in July 1936.

1936 - Based in Barcelona, Emma Goldmann begins to help write the English-language edition of the CNT-FAI's information bulletin. She will also go on to visit collectivised farms and factories, and to travel to the Aragon front, Valencia, and Madrid. She also works closely with Martin Gudell of the CNT-FAI's Foreign Propaganda Department and broadcasts two English-language radio addresses.

[B] 1943 - Steef Davidson (aka Steve Davidson; d. 2010), Dutch Provo activist, anarchist propagandist, documentary filmmaker, historian of social movements, collector of posters and comics and poster designer and printer, born.

1945 - Gabriel Giroud (b. 1870), French anarchist militant and néo-Malthusian propagandist, who also wrote under the pseudonyms Georges Hardy and C. Lyon, dies. [see: Aug. 29]

1962 - Hubertus 'Bertus' Zuurbier (b. 1880), Dutch bottle washer, anarchist street seller of his magazine 'De Vrije Socialist' (edited by Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis) and a municipal councilor in Amsterdam from 1921 to 1923 for the Rapalje Partij (the popular name for the Vrije Socialistische Groep aka the Sociaal-Anarchistische Actie in Nederland), dies at the age of 82 in Amsterdam. [see: May 22]

[A] 1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Bomb discovered in officers' mess inside Dartmoor prison. (News not released for two weeks). [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]
1887 - 'La Révolte' first appears. Jean Grave, director of 'Le Révolte' in Switzerland since 1883, moved the paper to Paris and changed the name slightly to avoid possible legal prosecution. 326 issues were published until it was forced to shut down under state repression (lois scélérates) in 1894. [GIF]

1893 - Camille Laberche (d. 1962), French ceramics worker, clerk, anarchist and trade union activist, born.

1895 - Kléber Nadaud (d. 1942), French anarchist militant, born.

1897 - José Santos González Vera (d. 1970), Chilean writer, novelist, journalist and anarchist, born.

1902 - Otto Reimers (d. 1984), German engineering worker, author, magazine publisher and anarcho-syndicalist, who survived being drafted through his employment exemption and avoided the concentration camps and Nazi persecution during WWII, born.

1917 - Cesare Fuochi (d. 2003), Italian anarchist, syndicalist railway worker and anti-fascist partisan, born.

1918 - Maria Rosa Alorda Gràcia (d. 2006), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, born. From the age of 11 she began working in a clothing factory as a seamstress, learning to read and write in the rationalist school of the Calle Verdi de Gràcia and at the Ateneu Popular Vila, where she later worked as a teacher. A member of the Juventudes Libertarias, with the fascist coup of 1936 she enlisted in the Ferrer Carod, going to the Aragon front, where she taught militiamen who had not gone to school to read and write. Pregnant with her daughter Blanca, Blesa leaves and returns to Barcelona, ​​where postpartum she worked at the ammunition and weapons factory located in the former 'La Voz de su Amo' (Voice of his Master) record factory. During the Franco era she was the liaison between the committees of the underground CNT and sheltered many on-the-run comrades. Federica Montseny stayed in her home during her visit she made to Barcelona afterFranco's death. Maria Rosa Alorda Gràcia died January 11, 2006 in Barcelona. Her partner, Alfonso Sanchez Cruzado – who was interned in the Albatera concentration camp and after his release worked as a driver, using his vehicle to transport clandestine propaganda – and her daughter, Blanca Cruzado Alorda, were also anarchist militants.

## [BBB] 1919 - Mystag (Robert François; d. 1988), French illusionist, anarchist propagandist, neo-Malthusian, pacifist and freethinker, born. In 1975 he appeared (as himself) in Agnes Varda's TV film 'Daguerréotypes' and was the basis for one of the characters in Patrick Pécherot's tribute to Léo Malet's policiers 'Belleville-Barcelone' (2003).

1925 - Mosko Atanasov Rashev (or Rachev)(b. 1903), Bulgarian anarchist guerilla, is ambushed and killed by police and army units near Béderliy after a fierce firefight. [see: Aug. 27]

1931 - Industrial Unrest in Second Republic: In Las Palmas, the newspaper 'El Defensor' is seized. In Cuenca, the 'El Centro' newspaper is fined.

1943 - Gino Lucetti (b. 1900), Italian anarchist who attempted to assassinate Mussolini in September 1926, for which he got 30 years in prison, dies during a German bombing raid on Ischia. [NB: Some sources give the date as September 15.][see: Aug. 31]

[B] 1945 - Patrice Énard, French radical filmmaker, cinematographer, director, actor, film theorist and critic, journalist and libertarian, born.

1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Jake Prescott paroled from Albany Prison, Isle of Wight. Political prisoner, member of the anarchist Angry Brigade. One of the crimes police tried to pin on him was the bombing of the Miss World contest.

1999 - Henri Storck (b. 1907), Belgian author, film-maker, documentarist, actor, Surrealist and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 5]

[D] 2008 - Enric Duran publicly announced that he had 'robbed' dozens of Spanish banks of nearly half a million euros as part of a political action to denounce "el depredador sistema capitalista" (the predatory capitalist system) and to finance various anti-capitalist social movements - among the projects financed was the free newspaper publication 'Crisi', 200,000 copies of which were distributed throughout Catalonia by volunteers. [see: Apr. 23]
1857 - François Juillet (d. unknown), French miner, trade union activist and anarchist member of La Bande Noire, born. Involved in the fight against Chagot through the creation of trade associations alongside Dumay. He was sentenced in the first trial of La Bande Noire in 1882. Upon his release from prison in December 1883, he moved closer to libertarian circles.

1878 - [O.S. Sep. 6] Georgii Ilyich Gogelia [Георгий Ильич Гогелия], aka A. Gogelia [А.Гогелия], K. Orgeiani [К.Оргеиани], K.Iliashvili [К.Илиашвили], et al. (d. 1924), once famous Russian anarchist, who stood at the forefront of theorists and practitioners of the anarchist movement during the era of the struggle against tsarism, born.

#### 1885 - Paul Henri Roussenq aka 'L'Inco' (d. 1949), French vagabond and itinerant, known as the "anarchist convict" for the long prison sentences he endured (including on the notorious Devil's Island in Guyana) following various offences against authority, born. [expand]

1896 - Lucien Georges Luther Charbonneau (d. 1984), French roofer and lead worker, militant anarcho-syndicalist and trade unionist, born. Board member of the Syndicat Général des Plombiers Couvreurs and, in 1923, secretary of the Syndicat Unique du Bâtiment (SUB) as well a joining, in July of that year, the executive committee of the Comité de Défense Syndicaliste, founded by Pierre Besnard. In 1924, he participated in the defence campaign for revolutionaries imprisoned in Russia, and was "officially" in charge of theFrench-based Spanish newspaper 'Liberion' (renamed 'Iberion' after a ministerial ban in March 1924), directed by Liberto Callejas and funded by the expropriations of the group Los Solidarios. During the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera in Spain, Lucien Charbonneau was a dead-letter drop for exiled activists of the Spanish CNT. He was alos involved in the founding of the CGT-SR and was treasurer of the Groupe des Amis de l'Encyclopédie Anarchiste of Sébastien Faure.

1911 - Pierre-Valentin Berthier (d. 2012), French individualist anarchist, peace activist, poet, novelist and journalist, born. Author of novels which include: 'Sitting Bull' (1952); 'Chéri-Bonhomme' - Vol. 1: 'L'Enfant Derrière le Grillage' (with woodcuts by Germain Delatousche) and Vol. 2: 'Mademoiselle Dictateur' (both 1956); 'L'Enfant des Ombres' (1957); 'On a Tué M. Système' (1957); and poems: 'Le Spectre...' (1936) and 'La Chair et la Flamme' (1956).

1924 - Attila Kotányi (d. 2003), Hungarian poet, philosopher, writer, architect-urbanist, member of the Internationale Situationniste and Zen Buddhist, born.

## 1930 - Pietro Michele Stefano Ferrua, Italian author, essayist, translator/interpreter, mixed media artist, academic, scholar of the artistic and literary avant-gardes, anarchist propagandist and founder of CIRA (Centre International de Recherches sur l'Anarchisme), born. [expand]
He is the author of numerous works and studies such as 'Gli Anarchica nella Rivoluzione Messicana: Práxedes G. Guerrero' (Anarchism in the Mexican Revolution: Práxedes G. Guerrero; 1976), 'Surréalisme et Anarchisme' (1982), 'Anarchists in Film' (1983), 'John Kenneth Turner: a Portlander in Mexican Revolution' (1983), 'Ricardo Flores Magon e la Rivoluzione Messicana' (Ricardo Flores Magon and the Mexican Revolution; 1983), 'Avanguardia Cinematografica Lettrista' (Letterist Avantgarde Cinema; 1984) 'Entretiens sur le Lettrisme' (Conversations on Letterism; with Maurice Lemaitre, 1985), 'Appunti sul Nero American Cinema' (Notes on Black American Cinema; 1987), 'Anarchists seen by Painters' (1988), 'Italo Calvino in Sanremo' (1991), 'L'obiezione di Coscienza Anarchica in Italia' (Anarchist Conscientious Objectors in Italy; 1997), 'Iphigenia in Utopia. Four Acts' (2000), etc.. His articles are found in numerous libertarian publications and international academic journals.
See also: Ursula K. Le Guin - 'L'Anarchismo : un ideale necessario' (1994), co-interviewer, editor and translator Pietro Ferrua.

1945 - Voline (Во́лин)(Vsévolod Mikhailovich Eikhenbaum or Eichenbaum [Все́волод Миха́йлович Эйхенба́ум]; b. 1882), Russian anarchist, Makhnovist revolutionary and historian, dies aged 63 of tuberculosis in a Parisian hospital. Trotsky had ordered his execution in 1921, but a hunger strike by the anarchists in prison publicly embarrassed the Bolsheviks and embroiled them in scandal, and Voline was among those released on condition they leave the country. It was the first time political prisoners were deported from the vaunted Red Fatherland of the Proletariat. [see: Aug. 23]

##1959 - Benjamin Péret (b. 1899), French poet, Parisian Dadaist, founder member of the French Surrealist movement, automatism and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 4]

[EE] 1974 - Flora Sanhueza Rebolledo (b. 1911), Chilean teacher, anarchist and social activist, who founded the Ateneo Libertario Luisa Michel in her home city of Iquique in 1947, dies as a result of the torture she had suffered at the hands of the Pinochet regime. A life-long anarchist activist, she travelled to Spain in 1935 and took part in the social revolution during the Civil War. Following the fascist victory, she fled to France, where she remained as a political prisoner until 1942. She returned to Chile and, inspired by libertarians ateneos of the earlier part of the century, she founded Ateneo Libertario Luisa Michel in Iquique to "address the needs of female weavers". Given the fact that this was during the dictatorship of Gabriel Gonzalez Videla and the fascist persecution of anarchists and communists, much of her work virtually took place in hiding. In 1953 it opened its door to children of working women too, changing its name to the Escuela Libertaria Luisa Michel. At its peak, it had more than 70 regular students, but it closed its doors in 1957.
Flora was arrested and tortured following the Pinochet coup. Placed under house arrest, she subsequently died as a result of the injuries she sustained under torture.

[BB] 1983 - José Pérez Ocaña (b. 1947), Andalusian naive painter, performance artist, LGBT activist and anarchist, known simply as Ocaña, dies following medical complications arising from severe burns sustained a week earlier in an unfortunate accident occurred when his Sun King costume, made ​​from paper and fabrics, occidentally caught on fire at a children's party in his home town.

2001 - The Italian authorities organise a series of raids across Italy against a hypothetical insurgent anarchist organisation. After a hundred premises had been searched and 60 people questioned, 17 people were charged with "subversive association". The 'crime' of most suspects? Supporting Greek and Spanish prisoners.
1862 - Jean-Pierre Buisson (d. unknown), French textile worker and anarchist, born.

##1877 - Zhang Renjie [張人傑] (born Zhang Jingjiang [張靜江]; d. 1950), Chinese political figure and financial entrepreneur in the Republic of China, who was a member of the Chinese anarchist group in Paris in the 1900s along side his friends Li Shizeng and Wu Zhihui, born. He became wealthy trading Chinese artworks in the West and investing on the Shanghai stock exchange. giving generous financial support to Sun Yat-sen and was an early patron of Chiang Kai-shek, as well as being one of the 'Four Elders' of the Nationalist Party in the 1920s, later becoming chairman of the Standing Committee of the Central Executive Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang .

1885 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Le Forçat du Travail' (Convict Labour), "Organe communiste-anarchiste", is published in Bordeaux.

1892 - Alexander Berkman found guilty on all counts in his attempt to assassinate Henry Frick and sentenced to 22 years in prison; Emma Goldman learns of this sentence while lecturing in Baltimore. The announcement prompts audience pandemonium, police action and Emma's consequent arrest.

[B] 1894 - Miguel Campuzano García (d. 1964), Spanish anarchist teacher, journalist and author of the 1927 novel 'Armonía' (Harmony), published in the 'La Novela Ideal' series, born. Wrote for numerous libertarian publications such as 'Acción y Cultura', 'Acción Social Obrera', 'Albada', 'Butlletí de la Societat Ateneu Popular de Mataró', 'CNT', 'Cultura Ferroviaria', 'Llibertat', 'El Luchador', 'El Pueblo', 'La Revista Blanca', 'Solidaridad', 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'La Tierra', 'Voluntad', etc. and under a number of different pseudonyms including Luz de Castilla, Araceli, Fernando Martorell, Fermín Pinardell, Modesto Educador, Amador de la Paz, etc..

1894 - In Lugano, the Italian anarchist Pietro Gori, a political refugee in Switzerland, is the victim of an attack by unidemtified individuals. Though suffering several bullet wounds, he manages to drive off his attackers.

1903 - Attilio Bortolotto aka 'Tilio' and Arthur Bartell (d. 1995), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, born. An apprentice blacksmith and potter in 1915, he emigrated to Canada with his brother Umberto and two friends in September 1920, settling in Windsor where he lived his brother Guglielmo (William) and worked for a Ukrainian blacksmith. In 1922 he joined the anarchist movement in Windsor. In Detroit, where he worked in the Chrysler factory, he participated actively in the agitation in favor of Sacco and Vanzetti. In 1924, in a symbolic act to protest the death of Giacomo Matteotti, he burnt his passport in opposition to the fascist regime in his country. In 1926, as the militant member of Il Gruppo i Refrattari he attended a meeting involving the Italian consul and, to the surprise of all, smashed up the portrait of the King of Italy, causing a massive fight. Between 1927 and 1929 he worked at Ford Motor Company as an adjuster and took part in union agitation. On October 12, 1928 (Columbus Day), he was involved in a clash with a group of Blackshirts marching in Detroit and which resulted in the death of anarchist Antonio Barra. In 1929 he was arrested in Detroit for distributing leaflets announcing a rally in memory of Sacco and Vanzetti and the process of deportation to Italy was started against him. However, he broke bail ($3,000) and fled to Toronto, where he got a job as a car mechanic. Between 1933 and 1935, he directed and coordinated Il Libertarian theatre company of Il Gruppo Libertario, presenting works by Pietro Gori, Gigi Damiani and others. In 1934 he met Emma Goldman and became an activist in the Toronto Libertarian Group. In 1939, during a workers' picnic, he brought along some self-made dolls to be shot at with bow and arrow as a bit of fun: the figures represented Franco, Hitler, Mussolini and Stalin, which disturb some passing communist militants, resulting in a noisy altercation. On 4 October 1939 he was arrested by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in Toronto with three other Italian comrades and accused of "spreading revolutionary propaganda" during the Canadian Anti-Deportation Campaign against anti-Fascist activists supporting the Spanish Revolution; two were released, but it was proposed that Bortolotto and Marco Joachim, who had both entered Canada illegally, were to be deported to Italy. Finally, after a long campaign led by Goldman, they were released. Joachim, instead of being deported to Italy, managed a get visa for Mexico, and Bortolotto, after paying a fine of $400, was placed on probation in Toronto on January 14, 1940 - just four months later on May 14, 1940, Goldman died. As a result of his imprisonment, he fell seriously ill and Goldman had to nurse him. In 1959 he founded Bartell Industries Inc. and the profits of the company went to fund propaganda libertarian ('Antistato', 'A Rivista Anarchica', Cienfuegos Press, Galzerano Editore, etc.). During the Vietnam War, he gave refuge to many American deserters who had illegally crossed the border into Canada. Between 1968 and 1969 he directed 'The Libertarian', paper of the Toronto Libertarian Group. In 1984 he participated in the Incontro Internazionale Anarchica in Venice. Bortolotto Attilio died on February 11, 1995, in Toronto.
[ Bortolotti&f=false]

1904 - [O.S. Sep. 4] Mikhail Dinchev Tsitselkov (Михаил Динчев Цицелков; d. 1924), Bulgarian anarcho-communist revolutionary, born in Koprivshtitsa (Копривщица).

1908 - In Parc Saint-Maur, the first issue of 'La Mère Peinard', "Réflections hebdomadaires d'une lavandière" (Weekly reflections of a washerwoman), is published by Fortuné Henry under the inspiration of Pouget's 'Père Peinard'.

## 1916 - Philip Sansom (d. 1999), English commercial artist, anarchist, pacifist and co-editor of 'War Commentary', which led to 9 months in prison accused of inciting agitation among soldiers alongside fellow editors Vernon Richards and John Hewetson, born.

1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание]: During the night of September 19-20 uprisings break out as planned in and around Stara Zagora, Nova Zagora, and around Chirpan.

1923 - Ernst Toller's play 'Der Deutsche Hinkemann' (The Limping German) premières in Leipzig.

1929 - Moisés Santiago Bertoni (Mosè Giacomo Bertoni; b. 1857), Italian speaking Swiss naturalist, botanist and anarchist writer, who was popularly known as 'El Sabio Bertoni' in Paraguay following his emigration to South America in 1884, dies of malaria in the town of Foz do Iguazu, Brazil, aged 72. [see: Jun. 15]

1935 - Friedrich 'Fritz' Oerter aka Bernhard Rothmann (b. 1869), German lithographic worker and anarchist, dies. Along with his younger brother Sepp, he was active in the youth wing of the Social-Democratic Party but were expelled, joining the anarchist movement and smuggling anarchist literature into the country. Both brothers were arrested for delivering “seditious speeches” at a meeting of the unemployed in Mainz. On Oct 25th 1893 Sepp was sentenced to 8 years in prison and Fritz to 1 year. Fritz was badly affected by prison and spent the next decade in poor health. Both the brothers participated in the Anarchistischen Föderation Deutschlands (German Anarchist Federation) and contributed to the paper 'Der Freie Arbeiter' (Free Worker).
In 1918/1919 Fritz participated in the activities of the Workers and Soldiers Councils in Fürth and he joined the FAUD, becoming influential within it as a leading proponent of the doctrine of passive resistance, and as editor of the FAUD paper 'Der Syndikalist'. He also had close friendships Gustav Landauer, the playwright Ernst Toller and Erich Muehsam.
In 1935 Fritz was arrested by the SA (Nazi stormtroopers) and detained. Following his interrogation he died a week later in hospital at the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, apparently of pneumonia. [see: Feb. 19]

1936 - Vicente Ballester Tinoco (b. 1903), Spanish carpenter, cabinetmaker, writer, journalist, and prominent Andalusian anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies. [see: Jun. 13]

1944 - The first issue of the Spanish language newspaper 'Ruta', "Órgano de la FIJL en Francia", is published in Marseille, continuing the anti-collaborationist and anti-reformist of the CNT-FAI in exile. From July 1945, it will be published in Toulouse and then Paris from November 1947, before returning to Toulouse. It supports actions against Franco, and is officially banned in France on February 17, 1953.

##1944 - Josefa 'Pepita' Martín Luengo (Maria Josefa Martín Luengo; d. 2009), Spanish teacher, libertarian pedagogy researcher and militant advocate, and anarcho-feminist, who co-founded the Escuela Libre Paideia in Mérida (Badajoz) in 1978 with fellow libertarian education activists Concepción Castaño Casaseca i María Jesús Checa Simó, born. [expand]

1946 - Jules Chazanoff aka 'Chazoff' (b. 1891), French electrical worker, proofreader, anarchist, syndicalist, anti-fascist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Jan. 25]

1956 - Helios Gómez Rodríguez (b. 1905), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, painter, poster artist, poet and militant activist, known as the 'artista de corbata roja' (artist with the red tie), dies in Barcelona 2 years after being released from prison for the last time (despite the release order signed in 1950, he contined to be held in prison illegally for four further years until his release in 1954). [see: May 7]

[A] 1995 - The Unabomber manifesto published by 'Washington Post' and the 'New York Times'.
[D] 1870 - Commune de Lyon: Establishment of the Lyon Commune sparks the revolutionary upsurge throughout the Rhone valley, giving the impetus to the Marseilles and Paris Communes.

[C] 1878 - Upton Beall Sinclair, Jr. (d. 1968), American novelist, writer, journalist, socialist and later Democratic candidate for governor of California, born. Upton Sinclair was a supporter of Sacco and Vanzetti and his 'documentary novel', 'Boston' (1928), was an indictment of the American system of justice set against the background of the prosecution and execution of the two anarchists, who themselves feature as characters. He was also an active supporter of the IWW free speech campaigns and strikes and in his anthology, 'The Cry for Justice: An Anthology of the Literature of Social Protest' (1915) he collected selections from the likes of Alexander Berkman ('Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist'), Peter Kropotkin ('Memoirs of a Revolutionist'), Voltairine De Cleyre, Francisco Ferrer, Auguste Vaillant, Henry David Thoreau, Octave Mirbeau, Leo Tolstoy, etc.
Sinclair wrote extensively on fascism in the 1930s and 40s, both in essay and fiction form, including in 'The Flivver King' (1937), 'No Pasaran!: A Novel of the Battle of Madrid' (1937) and the eleven volume Lanny Budd anti-fascist spy series (1940-53).
"Fascism is capitalism plus murder."

1882 - Léon Bonneff (d. 1914), French proletarian writer, autodidact and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. He and his brother Maurice met the old Communard Gustave Lefrançais and the libertarian novelist Lucien Descaves shortly after their family moved to Paris in 1900. They quickly resolved to write, both together and individually, about the conditions in which the Parisian working class lived.
His works include: 'Le Soldat-phénomène: monologue militaire, dit par Polin' (The soldier phenomenon: miltary monologue, told by Polin; 1906); 'Fine carotte, comédie en 1 acte' (Thin carrot, comedy in 1 act; 1906); 'Le Cambrioleur malgré lui, comédie en un acte' (The burglar despite himself, comedy in one act; 1908); and his famous novel 'Aubervilliers' (1949); plus the works written with Maurice: 'Les Métiers qui tuent, enquête auprès des syndicats ouvriers sur les maladies professionnelles' (The trades that kill, survey for labour unions on occupational diseases; 1906); 'La Vie Tragique des Travailleurs: enquêtes sur la condition économique et morale des ouvriers et ouvrières d'industrie' (The tragic life of workers: investigations into the economic condition and morale of workers and industrial workers; 1908); 'La Classe Ouvrière: les Boulangers, les Employés de Magasin, les Terrassiers, les Travailleurs du Restaurant, les Cheminots, les Pêcheurs Bretons, les Postiers, les Compagnons du Bâtiment, les Blessés' (The working class: bakers, store employees, navvies, restaurant workers, railway workers, Breton fishermen, postal workers, building workers, the injured; 1910); 'Marchands de Folie: Cabaret des Halles et des Faubourgs - Cabaret-Tâcheron - Cabaret-Cantinier - Cabaret-Placeur - Cabaret de Luxe - L'Estaminet des Mineurs - Au pays du "Petit Sou" : sur les quais de Rouen - Au pays de l'Absinthe - De l'Infirmerie spéciale du Dépôt à la Maison de fous' ( Merchants of Madness; 1913). - which describes the employees in pubs, cabarets, on the banks of Rouen, the effects of absinthe (which will be banned in 1917) on the workers.

[E] 1886 - Lillian Harman (1869-1950) American anarchist feminist, and proponent of sex radicalism and free love, who wrote for and was the compositor on her father Moses’ anarchist/feminist/freethought journal 'Lucifer', enters into a 'free marriage', or "autonomistic sex-relation or union" as she put it, with fellow anarchist Edwin Cox Walker. The ceremony was held in front of friends and family without the benefit of a state license as Lillian refused to sign any legal documents and rejected the involvement of church and state in her private life. Moses, who conducted the ceremony, declared that he did not "give away" Lillian because she was her own person, whilst Lillian retained her surname (as it was her 'duty' to do so), her "free will and choice", and declined to take any vow that promised ‘obedience’ to a man. Instead, she pledged, "I make no promises that it may become impossible or immoral for me to fulfill, but retain the right to act always as my conscience and best judgment shall dictate."
The couple became a cause célèbre in anarchist and free love circles when they were arrested and a month later a jury found them guilty on October 20, 1886, of breaking Kansas state marriage law. Walker was sentenced to 75 days in jail and Harman to 45; they were also ordered to pay a fine and court costs. The two refused to admit guilt by paying any fines or fees and therefore remained in jail. The two were finally released from prison on April 3, 1887 after Moses Harman paid their fees.

1895 - A successful protest movement leads to the amnesty of Luigi Molinari. A military tribunal, on January 31, 1894, condemned Molinari to 23-years imprisonment for instigating an insurrection in Lunigiana, where anarchist bands armed themselves in support of the Sicilian victims of a State of Siege (a repressive attempt to put down revolts against increased flour prices).

[B] 1896 - Scarlat Callimachi or Calimachi (nicknamed Prinţul Roşu, the Red Prince; d. 1975), Romanian journalist, essayist, Futurist poet, trade unionist, youthful anarchist and later a communist activist, born.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]


1898 - In Sao Paulo, police open fire on a demonstration. Italian anarchist Polonice Mattei is wounded by the gun fire and dies of his injuries two days later. He is the first anarchist to be murdered by the police in Brazil, who mount guard over the body and, alongside a squadron of cavalry, over the funeral in the cemetery of Araçá to prevent any public demonstration.

## 1916 - Paul Parin (d. 2009), Austrian-Swiss psychoanalyst, anthropologist, writer and "moral anarchist" whose personal motto was "Ni Dieu, ni Roi", born. He and his future wife, Goldy Parin-Matthey, were involved in the anarchist-socialist anti-fascist medical organisation Brüdergemeinde (Brethren).

##1918 - Eizens Avgustovich Berg (Эйжен Августовичb Берг; b. 1892), Russian mechanic, sailor and anarchist, is one of the '26 baku Commissars' (26 бакинских комиссаров) shot on the orders of the British military mission and the Socialist-Revolutionary Government following the fall of the Baku Commune (Бакинская коммуна).

[DD] 1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание]: During the night of September 19-20 uprisings break out in and around Stara Zagora, Nova Zagora, and Chirpan, in advance of the main uprising planned for two days later (22-23) following a decision taken by the local action committee. The lack of an organised uprising around Burgas allowed the government to mobilise strong forces and quickly crush the uprising around Stara Zagora, though there is particularly hard battles fought at Maglizh, Enina and Shipka. The city of Nova Zagora and the surrounding county are almost all controlled by the rebels, as are the villages in the vicinity of Chirpan. The city itself does not fall to the insurgents.
The same day the Bulgarian Communist Party Central Committee hold a meeting, during which a decision is reached to also proclaim an uprising on the night of September 22-23.

1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: A support of the Chelsea Bridge opposite the army barracks is bombed. (Blast heard three miles away.) [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]

1984 - Juan Manuel Molina Mateo aka 'Juanelo' (b. 1901), important Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 4]

2004 - Dominique Joubert (b. 1947), French poet, writer, libertarian and anarchist, who helped set up the cooperative printing house, Edit 71, dies in Paris of lung cancer, a consequence of his life-long smoking habit. [see: Mar. 8]

2010 - Jose Antonio Labordeta Subias (b. 1935), Aragonese singer-songwriter, poet, novelist, one-time libertarian who later became a resolutely non-sectarian liberal socialist politician, dies. [see: Mar. 35]
1862 - Henri Cler (d. 1910), French cabinet maker and anarchist, born. [expand]

1868 - The Second Congress of the Ligue de la Paix et de la Liberté is held in Berne (September 21-25). The meeting was marked by a series of heated debates on the "rapports de la question économique et sociale avec celle de la paix et de la liberté" (reports of the economic and social issue with that of peace and of freedom). The socialist minority, including Bakunin and Reclus, decide to leave the League and form the Alliance Internationale de la Démocratie Socialiste .

1881 - Ernst Frick (d. 1956), Swiss painter, autodidact, amateur archaeologist, scholar of primitive languages and anarchist, who had a long association with the libetarian commune of Monte Verità at Ascona, born.

1881 - Andrea Salsedo (d. 1920), Sicilian typographer and Galleanist anarchist, born. A committed anarchist since his youth, he soon became involved in local politics, and was part of anarchist club Circolo Sociale founded by Luigi Galleani. On November 11, 1900, he was tried for the subversive views that he had expressed in a letter published in the Messina newspaper 'L'Avvenire Sociale', but the charges against him were dismissed. He emigrated to New York City in 1910 and renewed contacts with his friend Galleani, supporting him in the creation and distribution of his magazine, 'Cronaca Sovversiva'. He was later included on a Justice Department of New York list of anarchists, which included Nicola Sacco, Bartolomeo Vanzetti, Roberto Elia and Luigi Galleani, who had fled to Mexico in order to avoid military service. He and the other Galleanists, considered to be dangerous and possible terrorists, were put under surveillance, and on February 25, 1920 Salsedo, was arrested whilst typesetting in the Canzani Printshop aand taken to the Justice Department's Bureau of Investigation (BOI) offices on Park Row. Considered as one of the writers of radical pamphlet 'Plain Words', Salsedo was brutally interrogated and denied his right to phone his lawyer and his family. Held incommunicado for 8 weeks, he was defenestrated from the 14th floor of the BOI on May 3. The Boston Herald reported that before he died, Salsedo had given up the names of "all terrorist plotters" and that he committed suicide but, given the length of time that he was tortured for, it is more likely that he was either thrown from the window by his interrogators a la Pinelli or, as Roberto Elia suggested, Salsedo killed himself for fear of betraying his fellow anarchists.

1885 - Ángel Falco (d. 1971), Uruguayan career soldier, diplomat, journalist, writer, poet, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist propagandist, born into a Quaker family.

1887 - Paul Schreyer, aka 'Luigi' (d. 1918), German anarchist who opposed the First World War, born. A member of the Hamburg Anarchist Federation, he was editor of its weekly paper 'Kampf' (1912-1914). At the outbreak of WWI, he escapes conscription and flees to Switzerland. In December 1914 his leaflet 'Die Sozialdemokratie und der Krieg' (Social Democracy and War) attacking the complicity of the Social Democrats with the war, is published in Copenhagen and distributed in Germany. The German government pressures the Swiss government who hand him over and he is thrown into jail for desertion. The appalling prison conditions ruin his health and he dies in the Spandau prison fortress possibly on April 26, 1918.

[GGG] 1902 - Toyen (Marie Čermínová; d. 1980), Czech Surrealist painter, printmaker, illustrator, feminist and anarchist, born. A leading member of the inter-war Czech avant-garde, an innovator in painting techniques and pioneering woman artist who broke many taboos including the artistic representation of female sexuality. An anarchist from an early age, Toyen constantly sought to undermine gender roles: cross-dressing, adopting a gender-neutral name and always referring to herself in the masculine case, as well as maintaining a vehemently anti-bourgeois attitude.
She met and fell in love with fellow painter, photographer and poet, Jindřich Štyrský in 1922 and they worked closely together until his death in 1942. They joined the Czech avant-garde Devětsil 'proletarian art' group in 1923, painting in a Cubist-influenced style and co-designing book covers for some of the most prominent Czech authors. In the autumn of 1925 Toyen and Štyrský left for Paris, spending three years there and inventing their own fusion of Abstraction and Surrealism, dubbed Artificialism. After returning to Prague, they established a fashion studio where they experimented with techniques including spray-painting textiles.
Her art had a strong erotic content and she contributed a number of sketches for Štyrský's 'Erotika Revue' (1930-33) and contributed to his 6 volume series of erotic literature and illustration 'Edice 69' (Edition 69), founded in 1931. A member of the Spolku Výtvarných Umělců Mánes (the Association of Fine Artists) and associate member of the Surrealist group around André Breton and Paul Eluard, she and Štyrský also became founding members of the Skupiny Surrealistů v ČSR (Czech Surrealist Group) in Prague in 1934. In 1935, Andre Breton and the poet Paul Eluard came to Prague and began a lifelong friendship with Toyen.
She and Štyrský were forced underground during the Nazi occupation and Second World War, during which Štyrský was to die of a long-term heart condition. Whilst in hiding, she continued her artistic endeavours and also hid fellow Surrealist poet and Jew Jindřich Heisler, who would become her second artistic partner and with whom she fled to Paris before the Communist takeover of Czechoslovakia in 1948. Back in Paris, she worked until the end of her life with Breton and the French poet Benjamin Peret.
[ [dead]ů_v_ČSR]

1915 - Jacinto Pérez Merino aka 'Pinilla' (d. 2007), Basque metalworker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, and anti-Francoist and Résistance fighter, born. [expand]

[B] 1921 - Lev Chernyi (Лев Чёрный) psuedonym of Pavel Dmitrievich Turchaninov (Павел Дмитриевич Турчанинов; b. c. 1878), Russian anarchist theorist, activist and poet, is shot by the Cheka. As head of the Black Guard, an anarchist workers' militia, he served in the so-called Third Russian Revolution resistance against the Bolsheviks.
[NB: d.o.b. given as either Feb. 16 or 19, 1878 + some sources also give d.o.d. as Sept. 27 or 29]

1923 - Mollie Steimer and Senya Fleshin join Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman in Berlin following their deportation from Russia, where they were imprisoned for anarchist activities.

1926 - Flavio Costantini (d. 2013), Italian anarchist and graphic artist who chronicled the movement's history in a series of striking images, born.

1936 - "One group of people really get on my nerves, it is the volunteers who have come as observers (French for the most part). They come here with the airs of priests and got up like cowboys to spend half the time in cafes." - Camillo Berneri quoted today.

1937 - In Barcelona, ​​the Republican government under orders from the Communist, having already disarmed the workers' militias, sends its police against the local CNT (La Casa de los Escolapios de San Antonio) which has been the seat of the Comité de Defensa del Centro of the CNT July 36 to May 37, and from the administrative headquarters of the Sindicato de Alimentación. In the building were arms stored to protect the union and to cope with a possible Communist putsch. FIJL youths guarding the building attempted to stop the search and a gunfight quickly broke out, bringing reinforcements from both sides including tanks and artillery. Juan José Domenech and Juan Garcia Oliver step in to mediate and try and avoid further bloodshed, fearing a repeat of the May Days fighting. However, the discovery and seizure of the hidden arms provided the ideal excuse for the intensification of Stalinist repression against anarchists.

## 1944 - Henri Lion (Antonin Lion; b. 1895), French master-printer, free-thinker, Freemason and militant anarchist, who operated an underground anti-fascist printing press along with his brother Raoul during the Nazi occupation, is gassed in the Schloss Hartheim Euthanasia Centre (NS-Tötungsanstalt Hartheim). [see: May 13]

1962 - Camille Laberche (b. 1893), French ceramics worker, clerk, anarchist and trade union activist, dies. [see: Sep. 17]

[A] 1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Wimbledon Conservative Association firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1970 - Yannis Youlountas, Franco-Greek anarchist philosopher, poet and writer, born.

1970 - Publication of the 'Formation of the 'The Tendency for the Truth of our Practice'' by Jon Horelick and Tony Verlaan, Situationist International American section. They are excluded from the SI in late November.

1972 - Jean Lébédeff (Ivan Konstantinovich Lebedev; b. 1884), Russian-born French anarchist artist, Illustrator and printmaker, dies. [see: Nov. 25]
1880 - Heinrich Bartling (d. 1940), German locksmith, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Alongside Willi Paul, he left the Kassel Spartakusbund, he helped found a local group of the anarchosyndicalist Free Workers' Union of Germany (FAUD) in 1920, and in which he became a member of the executive committee. . In 1925, Bartling was also active in the Kassel group of the Föderation Kommunistischer Anarchisten Deutschlands (FKAD). After the Nazi seixure of power and the repression against the Kassel FAUD, Bartling continued his activities thanks to a clandestine printing press hidden on his allotment. On September 1, 1939, he organised an anti-war action and was arrested on September 16 and placed in "protective custody" as prisoner number 002 493 in house block 25 in Sachsenhausen concentration camp. He did not survive the brutal treatment and appalling conditions there for long and on January 30, 1940, he died there.

1892 - Kléber Hoche Bernard (d. unknown), French tailor, anarcho-naturist and member of the illegalist Bonnot gang, born. Arrested for his involved in the theft of weapons on the night of January 9-10 1912 in Paris, in prison, he unsuccessfully tried to commit suicide "Parce que j'abhorre la prison. Le régime du prisonnier m'est odieux. J'aimerais mieux être condamné à mort qu'à six mois de prison." (Because I loathe prison. The regime of the prisoner is odious to me. I would rather be sentenced to death than spend six months in prison.) On February 27, 1912 , along with other surviving members of the Bande de Bonnot, he is accused of concealing stolen weapons, complicity in weapons theft and conspiracy and the following day sentenced to six years in prison and five years of banishment.

1894 - The Italian government of Francesco Crispi, enacts the dissolution of all anarchist, socialist and workers' associations.

1912 - Jean Bonafous (b. 1887), French anarchist militant active in the Comité de Défense Sociale, dies. [expand]

1912 - The anarcho-syndicalist Casa del Obrero Mundial (COM; House of the World Worker) is established despite harassment from the Madero regime.

##1916 - Miguel Jiménez Rodriguez, Spanish chemist, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist activist, born. In May 1935, he joined the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) and the Juventudes Libertarias. At the outbreak of the civil war, he fought with the XIII Brigada Internacional until he was wounded in Pozoblanco (Córdoba, Andalusia, Spain). Hospitalised in Barcelona and Mollà, where he remained an active militant. He later lent his support to the CNT in Albacete until the end of the war. With Franco's victory, he hid out in a farmhouse in his hometown and remained safe because of his having saved the life of an apothecary in Motril in 1937. In the early 1940s, he earned a living teaching science and also worked on the clandestine manufacture of soap. In 1943, he moved to Barcelona and continued his clandestine soap manufacturing activities, as well as joining the Juventudes Libertarias and the Sindicato de Artes Gráficas of the CNT. In 1946, he and José Luis Facerías were jointly appointed secretary of Propaganda of the Comité Regional de Cataluña of the CNT and the proceeds of his soap project financed the printing of the periodical 'Ruta', which he directed and wrote for under the pseudonym Cherimoya. In December 1946 he was arrested and imprisoned in Barcelona's Modelo prison, where he was responsible for the underground newsletters 'Esfuerzo' and 'Acarus Sciaberi'. Later, with Liberto Sarrau, Raul Carballeira and Joaquina Dorado, he formed the 3 de Mayo anarchist group.

1916 - Cipriano Damiano Gonzalez (d. 1986), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Franco underground resistance, born. Member of the CNT and Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth (FIJL). Following the defeat of the Republic, he was arrested and spent time in the concentration camps of Los Almendros and Albatera, the Porta Coeli prison in Valencia and the Gardeny Lleida castle. He eventually managed to assume a false identity and help the guerrillas, later joining the Comitè Nacional de Manuel Vallejo (as Deputy Secretary) and going underground himself. He was arrest on June 6, 1953 in Madrid. was sentenced to 15 years in martial held in Madrid on February 5 1954, who served in Carabanchel and Guadalajara prisons.

[DD] 1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание]: The Revolutionary Committee, composed of Georgi Dimitrov, Vasil Kolarov and Gavril Genov, announces the uprising, despite opposition by the supporters of legal activity. The plan involves a mass uprising around Vratsa followed by the formation of an organised militia which would capture the capital Sofia.
In response, Aleksandar Tsankov's government, which does not enjoy wide popular support and has to rely on the army, declares martial law and mobilises sizeable forces to suppress the uprising. Groups of volunteers organised in Shpitskomandi (paramilitary formations) also fight against the rebels. Despite the government mobilisation, the uprising breaks out over night.

1966 - Valentin Fedorovich Bulgakov (Валентин Фёдорович Булгаков; b. 1886), Russian writer, Tolstoyan anarchist, anti-militarist, the biographer and last secretary of Leo Tolstoy, who subsequently headed a number of literary museums, having survived both the tsarist dungeons and a German concentration camp, dies in Yasnaya Polyana (Ясная Поляна) at the age of 80. [see: Nov. 25]

[AA] 1967 - Charles Radcliffe of the Situationist International's English section is charged in London with counterfeiting; he has in fact been printing and distributing an anti-Vietnam War tract on a facsimile of a US Dollar. [Turns out not to be exact date!]

1973 - Salvador Puig Antich arrested in Spain. A young anarchist militant in the guerilla MIL (Iberian Liberation Movement) fighting the yoke of Francoism, he had slipped back into the country in 1972. Despite international protests, Antich is executed March 2, 1974. Extensive militant reaction to Spanish government targets follows throughout British, Irish and European cities.

## 1973 - Rafał Górski (d. 2010), Polish anarcho-syndicalist writer and activist in the Ogólnopolski Związek Zawodowy „Inicjatywa Pracownicza” ("Worker's Initiative" Trade Union), in the defence of tenant rights, and in the wider anarchist movement, as well as being the author of numerous articles and books on the history of syndicalism and anarchism, born.

[B] 1979 - Roberto Saviano, radical Italian journalist, writer and essayist, born. Saviano claims to be influenced by Errico Malatesta and Mikhail Bakunin, as well as the Italian anti-fascist politician Giustino Fortunato and Gaetano Salvemini, although he had regularly criticised those, like the 'Black Bloc', who use direct action politics and has publicly praised the State of Israel. Because of his anti-Maffia journalism he was placed under police protection in 2006, leaving Italy "for his own protection" 2 years later. Author of the non-fiction novel 'Gomorrah: Viaggio nell'Impero Economico e nel Sogno di Dominio della Camorra' (Gomorrah: Journey into the Economic Empire and the Dream of Domination of the Camorra; 2006) and co-creator of the TV programmes 'Vieni via con me' (Come away with me; 2010) and 'Quello che (non) ho' (What (not) I; 2012).

1987 - Benito Milla Navarro (b. 1916), Spanish militant anarchist propaganist, editor and anti-fascist combatant, dies. [see: Sep. 6]

2003 - Gilles Durou (b. 1954), French anarchist, anti-militarist, feminist and environmentalist, dies. [expand]

2008 - Teofilo Navarro Fadrique aka 'Negro', 'Le Vieux'and 'Zapatero' (b. 1915), Spanish shoemaker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Franco resistance, dies. [see: Feb. 6]
[B] 1871 - František Kupka (d. 1957), Czech Abstract painter, anarchist, satirist, book and magazine illustrator, born. [expand]

1878 - Karl Eduard Nobiling (b. 1848), German Doctor of Philosophy, supporter of propaganda by deed, who on June 5 1878 tries unsuccessfully to kill the German Kaiser Wilhelm I, dies in his prison cell. [see: Apr. 10]

1887 - Alternative d.o.b. for Salvador Segui Rubinat, aka 'El Noi del Sucre' (The Sugar Boy)(d. 1923), anarcho-syndicalist in the Catalonian CNT. [see: Dec. 23]

1880 - Gaston Couté (d. 1911), French anarchist poet and songwriter, born. [expand]

1890 - "45 year old Florentine Lombard passed away today from heart disease. She was an anarchist, English by nationality. And had settled in Naples. During the cholera epidemic of 1884 she served as a volunteer nurse with the Red Cross. She spent her life close to the poor, going without in order to do so. On the 1st of May last she was arrested in the Canalone district… " [quote from unknown Italian neswpaper article]

[E] 1893* - Llibertat Ródenas Domínguez (d. 1970), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anarcha-feminist member of the Mujeres Libres, who fought with the Durruti Column, born. The youngest of three children – her brothers were named Volney^ and Progreso – she was a product of a 'free union' between Custodio Ródenas, a Voltarian free thinker, who had spent time in Paris and had abandoned Christianity to become an anti-clerical liberal republican, and Emeteria Domínguez. Llibertad spent five year in a lay school, but had to give up on a formal education, though she would later study photography, whilst continuing to self-educate by avidly devouring books. She was also employed as a carer for a sick girl and learnt dressmaking. That era was characterised by mass political-social agitation against the monarchist regime and against the prime minister Cánovas del Castillo. By this time, Libertad had already began to frequent political meetings and actions and quickly became involved with the Socialists, all the time honing her talent for exposition and oratory, taking part in various meetings and conferences, whilst progressively adopting anarchist ideas.
In 1918, she moved with her family to Barcelona, ​​where as a member of the Sindicat del Tèxtil she took part in the Congreso de la Confederación Regional de la Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) of Sants. Later she participated in organised propaganda tours to publicise and explain the important agreements of that congress and also to help set up unions in new locales. During one of these tours, in Valls in 1920, she met the anarcho-syndicalist Josep Viadiu, who would later become her partner. Her Barcelona home became a meeting and centre of refuge for those persecuted by the authorities; it also served as a cache for weapons that would be used in defence against the attacks of the pistoleros of the Sindicat Lliure (Free Trade Union), the paid thugs employed by the bosses who operated in conjunction with the repressive apparatus of the State against the CNT. Volney and a cousin, Armando, were detained and one night they were subjected to the ley de fugas, the so-called 'law of escape' where detainees were shot whilst supposedly trying to escape: Armando died from his would days later whilst Volney managed to escape to safety and went into hiding. In a separate shooting, her brother Progreso (like Volney and Libertad, also a member of the grupos de defensa) was also wounded. On December 13, 1920, following the killing of a police inspector named Espejo, she was arrested and taken to the police station where, in the presence of the head of police in Barcelona Miguel Arlegui y Bayonés, she rejected an attempt to bribe her to reject her militancy, which cost her three months in prison. Once released, she and fellow anarchist Rosario Dulcet traveled to Madrid, where they spoke at the Ateneo Cientifico and other public meetings, denouncing the terror being carried out in Catalonia by the bosses and their pistoleros against the workers. On November 11, 1921, she held another noted talk at the Ateneo de Madrid entitled 'La situació actual de la dona' (The current situation of women). She continued to make propaganda tours around the peninsula, often involved arrest, and she was detained along with Joan Peiró following a talk in Guadalajara. She took part in the Brises Llibertàries group in Sants along with Rosario Segarra, and later with Rosario Dulcet, Miralles, García and others. She also participated in the Barcelona prisoner support committees and a number of escapees from Tarrasa prison took refuge in her home during the presidency of Eduardo Dato e Iradier. She also took part in the November 1922 meeting held at the Palau d'Arts Modernes in Montjuïc at which the CNT affirmed its adherence to revolutionary syndicalism.
Having begun her relationship with Viadiu, she dropped out of revolutionary activities to bring up and educate her three children until 1930, when she resumed her speaking engagements at numerous meetings, becoming involved in the Federación Anarquista Ibérica and playing a significant role in promoting the membership of women within the CNT – the liberal republican lawyer and journalist Ángel Samblancat y Salanova called her the "palida vestal del sindicalismo rojo" (the pale vestal of red trade unionism).
In July 1936, she left with the Columna Durruti for the Aragon front, where as a miliciana she took part in the conquest of Pina de Ebro. Under the instigation of Durruti, she helped organise the evacuation of Aragonese children evacuated from the war fronts to Barcelona. At the beginning of 1937 and following the militarisation of the militias and the accompanying banning of women from the columns, she became an active member of Mujeres Libres when it applied for membership of the FAI, contributing to its paper and participating in the literacy campaigns of the Casa de la Mujer Trabajadora in Barcelona. She also participated in the Solidaridad Internacional Antifascista evacuation of children from besieged Madrid.
With the collapse of the republican government and the Retirada, she was able to cross the French border, ending up in Bordeaux. There, together with Viadiu, Eusebio Carbo and his family, and José Peirats, she embarked for Santo Domingo, where the group set up an agricultural collective. Having survived a brush with death from either a spider's bite or a bout of malaria, she and Viadiu spent a short time in Havana before sailing for Mexico, disembarking at Veracruz on February 14, 1942. There they continued to be active in the CNT in exile.
One of the great tragedies of her life was her sending of her three children to the USSR for safety during the Civil War. Only the youngest, Ismael, managed to rejoin her in 1946 and she never heard from the other two children ever again. After her death it was discovered that the other two had died in 1941during the battle for Leningrad in 1941, after being inducted into the Soviet defence units.
Libertad Ródenas died on January 19, 1970 in Mexico.

[*some sources give her year of brith as 1891 or 1892.
^a contraction of Voltaire and Ferney (Voltaire's residence) after her father's philosophic 'teacher'. Volney is coincidentally also old German for "of the volk".]


[F] 1895 - The Confédération Générale du Travail (General Confederation of Labour) is formed in Limoges from the merger of the Fédération des Bourses du Travail (Federation of Labour Councils) and the Fédération Nationale des Syndicats (National Federation of Trade Unions). Up until 1919 the CGT was dominated by anarcho-syndicalist tendencies, with Émile Pouget being the vice-secretary and leader of the union from 1906 to 1909.

[C] 1901 - Jaroslav Seifert (d. 1986), Czech poet, writer, journalist and translator, born. The only Czech "proletarian" poet of working class origins, he helped set up Umělecký Svaz Devětsil (Devětsil Artistic Federation), an initially anarchist avant-garde artists association, in 1920 and was a co-founder of Poetism. A youthful adherent to anarchism, he joined the initially non-Bolshevik Komunistické Strany Československa (KSČ) and went on the fight against Bolshevik tendencies within the party, signing the 'Proclamation of the Seven' in 1929. He was a regular contributor to left wing and communist journals and newspapers in the early 1920s including 'Červen' (June), 'Proletkult' (Proletarian Culture) and 'Rudé Právo' (Red Truth). Seifert's strong political inclinations, showing sympathy for the proletarian cause and for anarchism, were present in his first two, and arguably his best, poetry collections: 'Město v Slzách' (A City in Tears; 1921) and 'Samá Láska' (Nothing but Love; 1923).
His later collections 'Ruce Venušiny' (The Hands of Venus; 1936) and 'Jaro, s Bohem' (Spring, Goodbye; 1937) would address the problems of the rising tide of fascism in Europe. 'Zhasněte Světla' (Put Out the Lights; 1938), one of his most famous poems, also deals with fascism, expressly the Nazi threat hanging over Prague following the betrayal of Czechoslovakia at the Munich conference. Another poem, 'Vějíř Boženy Němcové' (1940), is a passionate protest against the Nazi occupation of Prague in the guise of a celebration of the 120th anniversary of Božena Němcová, considered the founder of modern Czech prose. These poems went some way to rehabilitating Seifert in the eyes of the Communist Party. His later collection 'Přilba z Hlíny' (Clay Helmet; 1945) celebrated the Prague uprising of 1945 against the Nazis and earned Seifert the stature as a Czech national poet.
Seifert was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1984.
"Mr. Seifert has never become a writer with a Party program. The state is there for the people and not vice versa. There is an element of anarchy in his philosophy of life - a protest against everything that cuts down life's possibilities and reduces human beings to cogs in some ideological machine or yokes them to the harness of some dogma." - Nobel Prize for Literature 1984 announcement.

1911 - In Los Angeles, the Junta Organizadora of the Liberal Party publishes a new manifesto aims in the pages of 'Regeneración'. Under the title 'Tierra y Libertad', its expressly anarchist principals, which would be echoed in Zapata's 'Plan de Ayala' on November 28th, were intended to differentiate the PLM from the Maderists: "All others are offering you political liberty when they have triumphed. We Liberals invite you to take immediate possession of the land, the machinery, the means of transportation and the buildings, without expecting anyone to give them to you and without waiting for any law to decree it."

[D] 1913 - Ohrid–Debar Uprising [Охридско-Дебърско въстание (Bul) / Охридско-Дебaрско вoстание (Mkd) / Kryengritja e Dibër-Ohrit (Alb)]: An Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation ( Вътрешната македоно-одринска революционна организация въстание) organised uprising of the Bulgarians, Macedonians and Albanians against the new Serbian government breaks out in the western part of Vardar Macedonia. After a fortnight (Sep. 23 - Oct. 7, 1913) of fierce fighting, a Serbian army of 100,000 regulars suppressed the uprising. Thousands were killed, and tens of thousands of local inhabitants fled for Bulgaria and Albania to save their lives.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

[EEE] 1919 - The presumed date* of the execution by hanging of the Ukrainian anarchist partisan Maria Grigorevna Nikiforova [Марія Григорівна Никифорова (uk) / Мария Григорьевна Никифорова (ru)] or Nykyforovna [Никифоровна / Никифорова] aka Marusya, then known as Maria Bzhosteka [Марія Бжостек / Мария Бжостек], Ukrainian anarcho-communist, public speaker and revolutionary fighter, who led a Black Guard (Чорна гвардія [uk] / Чёрная Гвардия [ru]) detachments in the Ukraine during the Russian revolution. [see: Sep. 16 + 24]
[* The Kiev newspaper 'Kievskaya Life' (Киевская жизнь) of September 11 (24), 1919, under the headline 'In Liberated Russia' (У звільненій Росії) it announced the headline 'Execution M. Nikifirovoy' (Страта М. Нікіфіровой): "In Sevastopol, the sentence of a court-martial, the execution of Mary Nikoforova (Mary Brzhostska) the leader of a group "anarchists-communists" that carried out bloody shootings and killings. The indictment alleged that she participated in such massacres: in Rostov, Odessa, in the capture of the city Petlyura, Melitopol and other places. Nikiforov remained defiant in court and, after reading the sentence, started to berate the judges. She burst into tears only upon parting with her husband. Her husband, the Polish anarcho-communist Witold Brzhostek (Witold Bżestoka), who was accused of concealing her, was shot."]

1920 - Possible date of the death of Ludovico Giardino Nabruzzi (b. 1846), Italian anarchist lawyer, known as 'Rubicone Nabruzzi' or 'Rubicone'. [see: Oct. 12 & Jun. 27]

1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание]: The rebellion, which began overnight, see the seizure of Ferdinand (Фердинанд), now Montana (Монтана), where the Main Military Revolutionary Committee is located. The government response by dispatching military units from Shumen (Шумен) to the Vratsa (Враца) district.
The uprising is particularly strong in northwestern Bulgaria, where in several districts, power passed to worker-peasant committees, which along with communists included members of the Bulgarian Agrarian People’s Union (Bǎlgarski Zemedelski Naroden Sǎjuz). The uprising also spread to other regions, primarily southern Bulgaria. Detachments of insurgents fought stubbornly with government troops and captured district capitals and railway stations. The uprising lasted until September 29, except in Stara Zagora, where it had begun earlier on the night of September 20 and was quickly suppressed by government forces over the following two days.
The Tsankov government dealt brutally with the insurgents: more than 20,000 were killed or tortured. The uprising was a turning point in the bolshevisation of the Bulgarian Communist Party, and it had a considerable impact on the political and social development of the country as a whole, especially in clearing the way for the establishment of fascism as a powerful force there.
It should also be noted that part of the post-bolshevisation are the stories of units of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) having taken part in the post-uprisng massacres against the civilian population, as well as insurgents from the BCP and BAPU. Much larger and better armed that the BCP, the IMRO had been in regular conflict with the BCP [it was a broad organisation and had some more right wing, ultra-nationalist elements in it ranks], but had agreed a truce and support of the September uprising, and there is little evidence of such atrocities being carried out by the IMRO. In fact, the following year the Comitern and Soviet Union was engaged in attempts to collaborate directly with the IMRO in order to destabilise the Bulkan monarchies, whilst of course piggy-backing an expansion of the BCP on the backs of the much larger revolutionary organisation, something that it would successfully repeat time again across the globe.

1936 - Emma Goldman gives a talk on the CNT-FAI radio station 'ECN 1' in Barcelona entitled 'My first impressions of the Spanish Revolution' (Les meves primeres impressions sobre la Revolució Espanyola).

1936 - Robert Capa’s seminal photograph 'The Falling Soldier', which captures the moment of death of 24-year-old anarchist Federico Borrell, appears in 'Vu' as part of a photo essay on the Alcoy local militia at Cerro Muriano during the Spanish Revolution.

## 1941 - Delfín Lévano (Delfín Amador Lévano Gómez; b. 1885), Peruvian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, journalist and bakery worker, as well as a poet, clarinetist and lecturer, dies in a poorhouse in the Barrios Altos in Lima. [see: Nov. 9]

1950 - Hanon Reznikov (born Howard Reznick; d. 2008), American anarchist, theatre and film actor, writer and co-director of The Living Theatre in New York City (with Judith Malina) following Julian Beck's death in 1985, born.

1963 - Margarethe Faas-Hardegger (d. 1882), Swiss anarchist, syndicalist, feminist, anti-fascist and peace militant, who preached and practised free love, and established an anarchist-communist agricultural community at Minusio, dies. [see: Feb. 20]

1973 - A.S. (Alexander Sutherland) Neill (b. 1883), Scottish anti-authoritarian educator, author and founder of Summerhill school, dies. [see: Oct. 17]

##1973 - Pablo Neruda (Neftali Ricardo Reyes Basoalto; b. 1904), Chilean poet, youthful anarchist, then a communist and subsequently socialist diplomat and politician, dies. [see: Jul. 12]

1978 - Juan Ferrer Garcia (b. ca. 1914), Catalan anarcho-syndicalist, dies during the night (Sep. 22-23). Whilst doing his military service in Mahon, Minorca, his unit was transfered to Barcelona where he enlisted in the militia, fighting on the Aragon front. Exiled in France during the Retirada, during the German occupation in 1942, he participated in the illegal reconstruction of the MLE in the Puy-de-Dôme.

1997 - Shirley Clarke (b 1919), American independent filmmaker, who studied under Hans Richter, dies. [see: Oct. 2]

2014 - Antònia Fontanillas Borràs (b. 1917), Catalan militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist fighter, dies. [see: May 29]
1860 - Ana Aurora do Amaral Lisboa (d. 1952), Brazilian educator, poet, writer, playwright, and libertarian and feminist activist, born in Rio pardo.

1866 - Thomas H. Keell (d. 1938), English compositor and anarchist, who edited the anarchist periodical of 'Freedom', born.

1870 - Josef 'Sepp' Oerter (d. 1928), German bookbinder and anarchist, born. [expand]

1876 - In one of series of monster trials (Bologna , Perguia, Leghorn, Massa Carrara, etc), the trial of 33 Umbrian anarchists and internationalists, held in Perguia, ends.

1881 - I Congreso de la FTRE: A Congreso Obrero (workers' congress) is held in the Teatro Circo de Barcelona [Sep. 24-25] at which the Federación de Trabajadores de la Región Española is established based on the 'Manifiesto a los trabajadores de la Región Española' approved by the congress, which reaffimed the movement's principles of 'anti-politicismo' and 'anarchocollectivismo'. [expand]

1882 - II Congreso de la FTRE [Second Congress of the FTRE]: At the Congreso de Sevilla [Sep. 24-26] the anarcocolectivistas and 'legalistas', headed by the Catalan Josep Llunas — who was elected to the Comisión Federal — and the Galician Ricardo Mella, faced the anarcocomunistas and insurreccionalistas, headed by the Andalusian Miguel Rubio for the first time. Much of the debate during the congress focused on maintaining the Federation in legality, with the Catalan trade unionists wanted it to be a public leagal work focused movement whilst others, especially many Andalusians wanted to maintain its secret and revolutionary character with a focus on propaganda by deed. The former won the day and shortly afterwards the illegalists left to form a new federation under the name Los Desheredados (The Disinherited).

1886 - Paul Lafargue, Jules Guesde and Dr. Paul Susini, who had also been convicted on August 12 in absentia for their part in the June 3 meeting at the Chateau d’Eau Theatre in Paris in support of the striking Decazeville miners, have their convictions overturned on appeal. Louise Michel refused to do so and remained in prison, much to the embarrassment of the Government is very embarrassed. Michel was eventually released with the benefit of remission in November 1886.

1893 - The Catalan anarchist Paulí Pallàs i Latorre [Paulino Pallás Latorre] throws two Orsini bombs at the notorious Commander General (military governor) of Catalonia, General Arsenio Martínez Campos, during the Corpus Christi parade in the Gran Via in Barcelona. A guardia civil is killed, hit by a bomb, but the general is only slightly injured with shrapnel wounds to one of his legs (the horse he was riding took the full weight of the blast and was killed outright). In the confusion, eight others also died, either trampled by horses or shot by the gardia civil. Having thrown his hat in the air and shouted "Long live anarchy", Pallás put up no resistance as he was arrest. He would later claim that he had targeted Campos because of his persecution of anarchists across Catalonia and in revenge for the executions and mass imprisonment of anarchists and workers during the repression and trials that followed the Sucesos de Jerez de la Frontera (Xérès) in January 1892.
His court martial was held five days after the attack, at which he claimed that he had acted alone though the bombs that he used had been supplied by an Italian anarchist, Francesco Momo, who had died earlier that year on March 13 when one of his bombs had occidentally detonated. Pallás was condemned to death and shot in the northwest ditch of Montjuïc on October 6, 1893 with cries of Long live the social revolution! Long live anarchy! ". When reading the death sentence before the investigating judge, he refused to kneel, refused any intervention by a representative of the church and told his children, who had been allowed to see him: "If one day you hear that I am dead criminal, saying that it is a lie and I died for my family and for the needy." He also promised that the "vengeance will be terrible" for the execution of his and his fellow anarchists' executions. A month later, on November 7, Santiago Salvador Franch threw two bombs into the crowd in the Teatre Liceu, to avenge Pallas' death. Twenty people were killed and many more injured.
Amongst the hundreds arrested in the repression that followed the attempt on Campos were a number of Pallás' fellow workers Manuel Ars i Solanellas, Mariano Cerezuela i Subia, Josep Bernat i Sirerol and Martí Borràs i Jover, who were tried and condemned to death as his supposed accomplices in the Campos attentat. Borràs i Jover committed suicide in his Modelo prison cell on May 9, 1894, but the other three were executed on May 21, 1894 at Montjuïc prison. Executed along side them were three fellow anarchists, Josep Codina i Juncà, Josep Sàbat i Ollé and Jaume Sogas i Martí, who had been sentenced to death in connection with the Teatre Liceu attentat. The author of the Liceu attack, Santiago Salvador Franch, was executed by garrote vil in the plaza de los Cordeleros in Barcelona on November 21, 1894.

## 1897 - Fosca Corsinovi, aka Marie Thérèse Noblino & Fosca Barbieri (d. 1972), Italian anarchist, who volunteered in the Spanish Civil War as a nurse with the CNT-FAI, born. In late 1923, she and her daughter joined her partner and father of her child, Dario Castellani (1894-1969), a Unione Anarchica Florentina member who had participated in the struggles of the red biennium and the insurrection of Florence of 1921 and had since been exiled in France, in Marseille. Following Castellani's expulsion from France, Fosca, who had now separated from him, moved to Toulon and later settled in Grenoble, where she worked in the library of Ettore Carrozza. Attempts to expel her were abandoned following the efforts of a support campaign conducted by Italian anarchists in the area. In 1934, she met the Italian anarchist Francesco Barbieri (1895-1937), who had been exiled in Argentina where he had been part of the group around Severino Di Giovanni. Arrested for a number of bank robberies, he had been deported back to Italy but had managed to escape to France on a false passport. After serving eight months in Toulon for the false passport, he moved to Geneva where Fosco was working with Italian refugees and earning a living as a cook in the refugee dining room in the Bureau du Travail.
At the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, like many other Italian anarchists, Fosca did not hesitate to join the revolution, travelling in late July 1936 to Barcelona with Barbieri where she volunteered as a nurse in the Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI) in the Italian Columna Rosselli on the Aragon front. In October 1936, at the initiative of Professor Oltremare and Dr. Fischer and at the request of the Swiss trade unions, she and five Swiss doctors from Bern surgical ambulance transferred to the Comitè Regional de Catalunya (Regional Committee of Catalonia) of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo and the Comité Peninsular of the FAI to help injured anti-fascists.
On May 4, 1937, she and Tosca Tantini visited Camillo Berneri and Francesco Barbieri in detention. Two days later, on May 6, 1937, she was part of the group (Emilio Canzi, Vincenzo Mazzone Umberto Marzocchi) that identified Barbieri's body at the Hospital Clinic in Barcelona, killed by Stalinist police. Fosca remained in Barcelona after the death of her partner, becoming one of the main cheerleaders, along with Armand Schoffer (Armando Rodríguez), Eusebi Carbó Carbó and Enrico Zambonini, of the Colònia Infantil at Pins del Vallès (Sant Cugat del Vallès) in Catalonia, open in November 7, 1938 and financed by an internation subscription set up by the Italian-Amercian publication 'L'Adunata dei Refrattari'.
At the end of January, just a few hours before the entry of Franco's troops in Barcelona, she managed to cross into France under the name of Marie Thérèse Noblino, ​​but in October 1941 she was arrested, charged, tried and sentenced to three years in prison. her daughter Luce and Luce's partner Memo were given one years sentences. All three were taken to the prison in Aix-en-Provence and later interned in the Récébédou and Brens concentration camps. Luce remianed in France but Fosca was handed over by the Vichy regime to the Italian fascist authorities on October 15, 1942 and sentenced to five years confinement in the Isole Tremiti archipelago. In September 1943, she was released and managed to get to Florence, where she was reunited with Dario Castellani and later with her daughter. After the liberation of Florence, she actively participated in the reestablishmentn of the libertarian movement in the area. Fosca Corsinovi died on January 4, 1972.

[E] 1901 - Emma Goldman released from after the case linking her to the assassination of President McKinley is dropped due to the lack of evidence.

1905 - An unknown anarchist carries out a bomb attack on a train in Beijing carrying a ministerial delegation from the Chinese government. The bomber and three others are killed, and twenty wounded including Prince Tsai Ting-Fang Or, the Minister of Ways and Communications.

1907 - With Emma Goldman having travelled to Amsterdam in mid-August to attend the International Anarchist Congress on August 25-30, followed by an anti-militarist congress organised by Dutch pacifist anarchists and a talking tour of major European cities, in anticipation of her return the US Bureau of Immigration and Naturalisation directs the East Coast commissioners of immigration to fully verify Goldman's US citizenship before allowing her to cross the border.

1908 - Clara Thalmann (Clara Ensner; d. 1987), Swiss revolutionary and anarchist, who fought in the Spanish Revolution with the Columna Durruti and founded the Serena Commune in Nice in 1953 with her partner Pavel (Paul) Thalmann, born. [expand]

1910 - André Prevotel (d. 1958), French postal/telegraph service worker, anarchist and néo-Malthusian, born. Member in the early thirties of the Bordeaux anarchist group 'Sébastien Faure' and worked on the fortnightly 'La Révolte' of Aristide Lapeyre. At the end of March 1935, he was arrested along with his wife Andrée, Aristide Lapeyre and Louis Harel in the case of the stérilisés de Bordeaux aka the 'affaire Bartosek' and imprisoned at Fort du Hâ, all accused of having performed vasectomies on 15 men as assistants of Dr. Norbert Bartosek at the Prevotel's house (Bartosek took refuge in Belgium). After an intense campaign, he was released on bail July 6, 1935. At their trial on May 2, 1936, for "castration and violence" Bartosek was sentenced to 3 years in prison and the other defendants were sentenced to 6 months (Andrée spent 12 days in the Fort du Ha before being released after the charges against her were dismissed). Prevotel's sentence was reduced on appeal to four months (and Bartosek to one year).
In 1939, Andrée was arrested and held incommunicado for 50 days for "defeatist and incitement to military disobedience" (André had managed to avoidbeing called up) and spent the Occupation semi-clandestinitely. After the Liberation, based in Langon (Gironde), he helped reconstruct a section of Solidarité internationale antifasciste (SIA) and assumed the presidency of the local Libre Pensée group, which took the name 'André-Prevotel' at his death.

1914 - Maurice Bonneff (d. 1884), French proletarian writer, autodidact and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies in the trenches of WWI. [see: Dec. 28]

[EEE] 1919 - The Kiev newspaper 'Kievskaya Life' (Киевская жизнь) carries the news of the execution of Ukrainian anarchist Maria Grigorevna Nikiforova [Марія Григорівна Никифорова (uk) / Мария Григорьевна Никифорова (ru)] aka Marusya, then known as Maria Bzhosteka [Марія Бжостек (uk) / Мария Бжостек (ru)]. Under the headline 'In Liberated Russia' (У звільненій Росії) it announced the headline 'Execution M. Nikifirovoy' (Страта М. Нікіфіровой): "In Sevastopol, the sentence of a court-martial, the execution of Mary Nikoforova (Mary Brzhostska) the leader of a group "anarchists-communists" that carried out bloody shootings and killings. The indictment alleged that she participated in such massacres: in Rostov, Odessa, in the capture of the city Petlyura, Melitopol and other places. Nikiforov remained defiant in court and, after reading the sentence, started to berate the judges. She burst into tears only upon parting with her husband. Her husband, Witold Brzhostek, who was accused of concealing her, was shot."
The same day, another Ukrainian newspaper, the 'Aleksandrovsk Telegraph' (the city was then under White control) crowed about her death: "One more pillar of anarchism has been broken, one more idol of blackness has crashed down from its pedestal... . Legends formed around this ‘tsaritsa of anarchism'. Several times she was wounded, several times her head was cut off but, like the legendary Hydra, she always grew a new one. She survived and turned up again, ready to spill more blood... . And if now in our uyezd (administrative district) the offspring of the Makhnovshchina, the remnants of this poisonous evil, are still trying to prevent the rebirth of normal society and are straining themselves to rebuild once more the bloody rule of Makhno, this latest blow means we are witnessing the funeral feast at the grave of the Makhnovshchina." [see: Sep. 16 + 23]

1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание]: Government troops arrive in the Vratsa (Враца) district by rail from Shumen (Шумен). With additional reinforcements, they begin the attack on Ferdinand (Фердинанд), now Montana (Монтана), and the surrounding villages seized by the rebels. On September 27 government troops are able to enter Ferdinand and the uprising is effectively over 2 days later.

1931 - Luciano Farinelli (d. 1995), Italian journalist and anarchist militant, born into a libertarian family. Farinelli joined the anarchist movement around 1943 and, after the Liberation, he was a member of Ancona's Germinal group of the Federazione Anarchica Italiana (FAI) and participated in major national conferences, working for the newspapers 'Umanità Nova' and 'Seme Anarchico'. In 1964, with Bruno Fattori he founded the Casa Malatesta libertarian cultural centre, which also took an active role in the struggle for secularism. Fascinated by the history of the libertarian movement, he worked for the recovery and conservation of our historical memory and, with his wife Fernanda Bonivento, he was behind several commemorations in Ancona, marking the anniversary of the Settimana Rossa in 1964 and 1994 and, in 1982, the fiftieth anniversary of the death of Errico Malatesta. He also had at that time a small shop plaza del papa Ancona.
In 1965, at the 8th Congress of the FAI in Carrara (October 31 to November 5), along with Armando Borghi , Primo Bassi, Aurelio Chessa, Michele Damiano, Pio Turroni and others, he was opposed to the FAI's associative and organisational pact, and was one of the promoters of a split that led to the formation of Gruppi di Intiziativa Anarchica (GIA) and its newspaper 'L'Internazionale', which he directed for 25 years, signing many of its editorials under the pseudonym 'L'Orso' (The Bear).
After the murder of Giuseppe Pinelli (with whom he was a friend), he helped launch a counter-information campaign against the State for its denial of responsibility in the death of the anarchist railway worker. He continued his libertarian activism and committed the last years of his life to the Comitato Nazionale pro Vittime Politiche (National Committee to Support Political Victims) as a member of the Commissione di Corrispondenza (CdC) and the GIA. Luciano Farinelli died at Ancona 22 in June 1995, having donated his archives to the Centro Studi Pinelli in Milan.

[B] 1934 - John Kilian Houston Brunner (d. 1995), prolific British libertarian socialist-orientated science fiction author, who was active in CND and wrote the CND marching song 'H-Bomb's Thunder', born. Of his novels, the dystopian 'The Shockwave Rider' (1975) features a clearly anarchist-based city, Precipice, which is run on a form of direct democracy, and where the main characters take refuge from the corporate State. Other similar novels include 'Stand on Zanzibar' (1968) and 'The Sheep Look Up' (1972).
"If you had to classify me, you'd have to put me in some vague area like 'fellow-travelling idealistic anarchist.'"

##1936 - José Villaverde Velo (b. 1894) Galician carver of religious images, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was secretary general of the Confederación Regional Galaica of the CNT, is shot in Arteixo for refusing to lead the new Falangist unions. [see: Jul. 12]

[C] 1944 - Ignacy Głuchowski aka ‘Morus’ (b. 1892), Polish anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Nazi resistance, dies in the fighting in Central Warsaw. A worker in the Państwowy Monopol Tytoniowy (State Tobacco Monopoly) factory and a syndicalist activist in Związek Związków Zawodowych (ZZZ: Union of Workers Unions) and the Robotniczy Instytut Oświaty i Kultury (Workers Institute of Education and Culture). In October 1939, he became vice-chairman of workers section in the Związek Syndykalistów Polskich (ZSP: Union of Polish Syndicalists). Sergeant, chief of 104 ZSP Company, he took part in the fighting in Warsaw's Stare Misato (Old Town) and Śródmieście and died on September 24, 1944, during the fighting there.

1963 - Eugène Léon Tricheux (b. 1901) French building worker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist activist, dies. [see: Apr. 1]

1963 - Yves Pagès, French novelist, essayist, journalist, scriptwriter, editor and anarchist, born.

1964 - Miguel Campuzano García (b. 1894), Spanish anarchist teacher, journalist and author of the 1927 novel 'Armonía' (Harmony), published in the 'La Novela Ideal' series, dies. [see: Sep. 19]

1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: During the council workers strike, a bomb explodes in the cleansing department head office in Greenford, England. [Angry Brigade chronolgy]

[A] 1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Despite the fact that the police claim to have arrested all the Angry Brigade, the Albany Street Army Barracks (near the Bomb Squad HQ) is bombed by the Angry Brigade in protest against the actions of the British Army in Northern Ireland.

1975 - Camille Clovis Trouille (b. 1889), French make-up artist in a window mannequins manufacturer, painter, anti-clerical, anti-militarist and anarchist, dies in Neuilly-sur-Marne aged 85. [see: Oct. 24]
1838 - François Perroncel (or poss. Péroncel; d. unknown), Lyons silk weaver, anarchist member of the Croix-Rousse of the International and trade unionist, born.

1865 - Henri Lebasque (d. 1937), French Post-Impressionist painter and anarchist sympathiser, born. He met Maximilien Luce and Paul Signac, whilst studying in Paris at the Académie Colarossi, and through them Camille Pissarro, who would go on to become a great influence upon him. Between 1900 and 1906, he donated a number of lithographs including 'Provocation' and 'Ceux qui mangent du pain noir' (Those who eat black bread) to Jean Grave's 'Les Temps Nouveaux' as well as supporting it financially with other donations. He also illustrated the cover of the 1903 'Almanach du Libertaire' and collaborated on 'Patriotisme-Colonisation', a book published that year by 'Les Temps Nouveaux'. That year also saw him found, together with his friend Matisse and other artists, the Salon d'Automne, which would be a centre for the exhibition of works by Les Fauves.

1868 - Mikhail Bakunin founds the anarchist International Alliance of Socialist Democracy. At the Congress of the League of Peace and of Freedom held in Bern today, the Alliance is formed by dissidents who break with the League when decides against "the economic and social equalisation of the classes and individuals". The Alliance goes on to form a section of the First International.

[D] 1870 - The armed workers of the Commune de Marseille declare the abolition of the state and all debt. [source?]

1886 - Louise Michel, Jules Guesde, Paul Lafargue and Dr. Susini appear before the Assize Court of the Seine charged with "incitement to murder and pillage" for their part in a meeting which took place on June 3, 1886, in Paris at the hall of Théâtre du Château d'Eau in support of the Decazeville miners' strike. They will eventually all be acquitted by the jury, to the loud applause of the audience.

1887 - The first issue of the Flemish weekly 'De Opstand' (Revolt), "Socialistisch - Communistisch en Revolutionair orgaan", is published in Ghent.

1895 - Erik Hjalmar Eriksson (d. 1973), Swedish miner, writer, novelist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Member and organiser in the Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation (SAC), Hjalmar Eriksson's novels depict working class mining communities: 'Järn och Bröd : en bergslagshistoria' (Iron and Bread: a mining history; 1946), 'Arbetets Melodi' (Work Melody: a miner's novel; 1946), 'Folket i Loälvsdalen' (The People of Loälvsdalen; 1960), 'Du Trygga Folk' (You Safeguard People; 1968), 'Gruvans Sång' (The Mine's Song; 1969) and 'Lille Hugo : berättelser från gruvorna och skogarna' (Lille Hugo: stories from the mines and forests; 1972).

1896 - Paolo Lega (b. 1868), Italian anarchist illegalist who attempted to assassinate Prime Minister Francesco Crispi in Rome in 1894, for which he sentenced 20 years in prison, dies in Cagliari at the agricultural penal colony of St. Bartholomew. [see: Dec. 9]

#### 1903 - Mark Rothko (Marcus Yakovlevich Rothkowitz [Маркус Яковлевич Роткович]; d. 1970), American abstract expressionist / colour field painter, poet and anarchist, born to Jewish parents in Czarist Russia (now part of Latvia). His father, taking Marcus' elder brothers, emigrated to America so his sons could escape being drafted into the Imperial Russian Army. Marcus, together with his mother and sister, joined them in 1913. In Portland, Oregon, he learned English (his fourth language after Russian, Yiddish and Hebrew) and joined in the political debates in the local Jewish community centre, becoming passionate about the worker's movement and women's right to contraception. It was in this atmosphere of radical workers' and IWW meetings, with speeches by the likes of Bill Haywood and Emma Goldman (attending her lectures in Portland in August 1915), that his anarchism was founded. I was also where he also developed his strong oratorical skills, something he would later deploy in defence of Surrealism.
In the early 1930s, he joined the anti-fascist, anti-capitalist Artists Union.
Shortly before his death from suicide (cutting his arms with a razor), and as he grappled with health problems, tormented by depression and physically debilitated, he declared: "I am still an anarchist!"

[C/E] 1905 - Suzy Chevet (Suzanne Chevet; d. 1972), French teacher, militant socialist, Résistance member, libertarian syndicalist and anarchist, born. Trained as a teacher, she was a member of Marceau Pivert's Parti Socialiste but, in 1938, she joined the Parti Socialiste Ouvrier et Paysan (Socialist Workers and Peasants Party) and was active in the Saint Malo and Trélazé committees supporting the Spanish Revolution, helping many refugees find work and housing during the Retirada. In 1941, she was put under house arrest in Saint Malo and banned from teaching by the Vichy regime. After find a safe refuge for her daughter, she went to Jersey in the Channel islands, where she helped organise escape routes for Dutch sailors. Arrested by the Gestapo in 1942, she was transferred to Rennes for questioning and then taken to Angers, but managed to escape and went to Lorient. Under a new identity, she entered the offices of the Service du Travail Obligatoire (STO) and until the liberation passed information to the local Résistance. In 1945, she joined the Fédération Anarchiste through which she met the anarchist theoritican Maurice Joyeux and they became partners. She also joined the Groupe libertaire Louise-Michel and edited its paper, 'La Rue', "revue culturelle et littéraire d'expression anarchiste".

1911 - The first issue of the monthly '... hors du troupeau...', previously 'L'Ère Nouvelle', "recueil d'idées, de faits, de commentaires" (a collection of ideas, facts, comments), is published in Orléans by Émile Armand.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: In advance of the trial of Joseph Ettor, Arturo Giovannitti, and Joseph Caruso, various mass meetings had been held by the Lawrence workers, IWW members and their supporters to discuss the situation and prepare for action. "The authorities tried to suppress all large meetings – in fact, everything productive of mass action. But such was the pressure of events that finally they gave a permit for a mass meeting to be held on Amesbury Street, south of Essex, on Wednesday, Sept. 25. Long before the hour appointed, these thoroughfares were jammed with thousands of interested workmen and women. But no meeting was held. Instead all present adjourned to Lexington Hall, I. W. W. headquarters, on Lawrence Street. Here, from the windows, an immense gathering was addressed in various tongues by Miss Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Carlo Tresca and others. They read letters from Ettor and Giovannitti, urging that the general strike be abandoned for the present. Ettor argued that the general strike "would tend to prejudice public opinion"; Giovannitti thought the price in misery to the workers too great to pay and counseled delay until the trial would demonstrate its necessity. The general committee of Local 20, I. W. W., endorsed the advice thus given "in order that the Massachusetts courts might have an opportunity to demonstrate the fairness that the master class boasts they have."
The following morning the Lawrence newspapers could not hide their elation. They came out in big headlines, "No Strike; General Committee, I. W. W., Votes Against It." And the business element of Lawrence could almost be heard to heave a sigh of relief. "No general strike" meant continued mill exploitation and profits in sales to the mill workers for them. But all concerned reckoned without their hosts. Though the workers had apparently acquiesced in the advice given by Ettor and Giovannitti, whom they revered, they were plainly disappointed, deeply so. They were so set on action in behalf of their imprisoned leaders and fellow-workers that to be denied the opportunity were worse than defeat by the enemy. They did not believe in the letters read; so a committee visited Lawrence Jail to find out if they were genuine. They got others, of the same kind. The workers thereupon proceeded to act on their own account; they ignored the advice, they set aside the action of the Central Committee and their affection and proceeded with determination—the industrial democracy reasserted itself once more, the general strike took place..." [Justus Ebert - 'The Trial of a New Society' (1913)]

[A] 1919 - Left Socialist-Revolutionaries and members of the anarchist underground bomb the headquarters of the Moscow Committee of the Communist Party in Leontief Lane (Леонтьевском Переулке) in protest at the growing repression being carried out by the Bolsheviks, including Cheka raids on anarchist groups and the banning of the Anarchist Congress. Twelve communists are killed and 55 others wounded, including the Bolshevik theorist and 'Pravda' editor Nikolai Bukharin. One of the attack's main targets had been Lenin but he had failed to attend the meeting.
The September 29 edition of 'Anarkhiia' (Анархия) newspaper later carried a statement announcing the beginning of a campaign of attacks by the underground and explaining that they had attacked the Moscow RCP(b) meeting because it had "examined ways to wage a war against the people [currently] in revolt. The Bolsheviks masters had voted unanimously in favour of using the most extreme measures against workers, peasants and Red Army rebels, anarchists and Socialist-Revolutionaries, of wanting to introduce a state of emergency in Moscow mass shootings (...) Our task is to clear the land of the rule of the commissariocratis and Cheka, and introduce a free all-Russian federation of unions of workers and the oppressed masses. We call for an immediate insurrection for bread and freedom, and we will defend freedom with the weapons of liberty and not with those of slavery."

1919 - Battle of Peregonovka: This evening, greatly outnumbered and completely surrounded by Denikin's troops, the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, which had been marching westwards, suddenly turns east and outflanks the White Army at the small Ukranian town of Peregonovka and, aided by the townsfolk, tomorrow scores a decisive victory against the massed might of General Denikin's army. The first encounter took place late in the evening near the village of Kruten'koe, where the Makhnovist first brigade attacked a Denikinist unit. Denikin's troops retreated to take up better positions and to draw the Makhnovists after them. But the Makhnovists did not pursue them. This misled the vigilance of the enemy, who concluded that the insurgents were still moving westward. However, in the middle of the night, all the Makhnovist forces, stationed in several villages, began marching eastward. The enemy's principal forces were concentrated near the village of Peregonovka; the village itself being occupied by the Makhnovists.

1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание] / Battle of Boychinovski [Бойчиновски бой]: Government troops from the Shumen (Шуменския) garrison armed with artillery pieces, who had occupied the Boychinovtsi railway station in Krivodol (Криводол) the previous day, are attacked at 04:00 by poorly armed rebels; so poorly armed that less than half had rifles and tore sunflower stems from the surrounding fields so they looked in the morning twilight as they were carrying guns. Yet despite their disadvantage, they eventually forced the government troops to retreat and eventually surrender.

1936 - Emma Goldman speaks before a crowd of 10,000 in Barcelona.

1938 - Lev Nikolaevich Zadov (Лев Николаевич Задо [rus] / Льова Миколайович Задов [uk]), aka Lev Zinkovsky (Лев Зиньковский / Левко Зіньковський) aka Leva aka Levka the Bandit (Leib ben Yehuda Zadov [Лейб бен Иехуда Задов / Лейб бен Ієхуда Задов]; b. 1893), Ukrainian metalworker, anarchist communist and chief of military intelligence of the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine (Революционной повстанческой армии Украины / Революційна повстанська армія України), who later changed sides to become an OGPU operative, is tried alongside his brother Daniel and convicted of "collaboration with foreign secret services" in a trial that lasted just fifteen minutes, before both were shot in the cellar of the Kiev NKVD headquarters. [see: Apr. 23]

1960 - The 4th conference [Sept. 25th-28th] of the International Situationists begins in London.

1973 - Anarchist militants and members of Movimiento Ibérico de Liberación (MIL) Salvador Puig Antich and Xavier Garriga Paituví are caught in a carefully arranged police ambush. A shootout occurs, during which a Guardia Civil officer, Francisco Anguas Barragán, is killed and Puig is wounded. Both anarchist are arrested and Puig charged with Anguas Barragan's death. Tried at a court martial (using a false witness statement from Garriga that he signed after torture, Puig is condemned to death and garrotted on March 2 1974.

1976 - Gonzalo Arango Arias (b. 1931), Colombian poet, journalist and philosopher, who led the libertarian and atheist anti-political literary movement known as Nadaísmo (Nothing-ism) under the influence of the Colombian philosopher Fernando González Ochoa during a particularly repressive period at the end of the 1950s, dies in a raod traffic accident in Tocancipá, Colombia. [see: Jan. 18]

## [B] 1977 - Sole (Tim Holland), American hip-hop artist, producer, co-founder of the record label Anticon and anarchist, who's "too Bakunin for your backpack rap", born. [expand]

2012 - Jakub Polák (b. 1952), Czech anarchist and anti-racist activist, who was particularly involved in the rights of the Roma and the squatters movement, dies of cancer. [see: Sep. 1]
[F] 1840 - The Asociación de Tejedores de Barcelona, which had been founded clandetinely the previous summer by the cotton weavers of Barcelona and adjoining populations in support of 'resistance' activities and then had approx. 3000 members, takes advantage of a February 1839 Royal Order and the May 23, 1840 order of Barcelona's 'jefe político' to form a legal mutual aid society titled the Sociedad Mutua de Tejedores de Barcelona (Mutual Society of Weavers of Barcelona).

1856 - Jean-Marie Bourdon (d. unknown), French French locksmith and anarchist, born. Member of the Fédération Révolutionnaire de la Région de l'Est, which included anarchist groups including St-Étienne, Villefranche, Roanne and Lyon. With Claude Crestin and Antoine Cyvoct, he managed the journal 'L'Etendard Révolutionnaire', which replaced the 'Droit Social' (Employment Law), Lyon's first anarchist newspaper, following its closure by the forces of law and order. Bourdon was later sentenced in absentia on December 6, 1882, by the Rhone Assize Court as manager of the newspaper for its publishing of an anti-militarist manifesto 'Les Ouvriers de la septième compagnie d'artillerie de Lyon à leurs frères de l'armée' (The workers of the Seventh Artillery Lyon company of their brothers the army) - Bourdon was in Switzerland, having taken refuge there following the mass arrests of anarchists in the wake of the La Bande Noire events at Montceau-les-Mines [see: Aug. 5 & 13] and the attack on the Théâtre Bellecour in Lyon on October 22, 1882. He was also tried in absentia during the Procès des 66 in January 1883, and sentenced to 5 years in prison with a 2000 francs fine a the removal of civic rights for 5 years.

1869 - Carl Nold (d. 1934), German-American anarchist propagandist, born. [expand]

1870 - Commune de Lyon: At the Rotonde Hall in the Brotteaux neighbourhood a meeting involving 6000 people discusses the urgent need to enact a mandatory loan (emprunt forcé), to impose the death penalty on wealthy fugitives and the removal all the officers, but first and most importantly, the removal of the préfet Challemel-Lacour and the Conseil Municipal (Municipal Council) from City Hall. A Call to Arms declaring the formation of a Fédération Révolutionnaire des Communes and signed by 26 persons including Albert Richard, Michel Bakunin, Gustave Blanc and Eugène-Bertrand Saignes, is turned into a red poster, which is pasted up all over the city the following day.

The disastrous situation in which the Country finds itself; the impotence of the official powers and the indifference of the privileged classes have put the French nation on the edge of the abyss.
If the People organised in a revolutionary manner do not make haste to act, their future is lost, the Revolution is lost, all is lost. Inspired by the immensity of the danger, and considering that the People’s desperate action can not be delayed for a single moment, the delegates of the Federated Committees for the Salvation of France, gathered in the Central Committee, propose the immediate adoption of the following resolutions:
Article 1. – The administrative and governmental machine of the State, having become powerless, is abolished.
The people of France return to full possession of themselves.
Article 2. – All the criminal and civil courts are suspended and replaced by the justice of the people.
Art. 3. – The payment of taxes and mortgages is suspended. Taxation is replaced by the contributions of the federated communes, levied on the wealthy classes, proportional to the needs of the salvation of France.
Art. 4. – The State, being deposed, can no longer intervene in the payment of private debts.
Art. 5. – All the existing municipal organizations are quashed and replaced in all the federated communes by some Committees for the Salvation of France, which will exercise all the powers under the direct control of the People.
Art. 6. – Each committee from each Departmental center will send two delegates to form the Revolutionary Convention for the Salvation of France.
Art. 7. – This Convention will immediately gather at the Town Hall of Lyon, as the second city of France and the closest to contribute energetically to the defence of the country.
This Convention, supported by the entire People, will save France.
To arms!!!

1872 - Émile Henry (d. 1894), French anarchist and advocate of 'propaganda by deed', born in Spain to a Communard father exiled in Spain. Upon the family's return to Paris, he was cccepted into the prestigious École Polytechnique but was expelled and found work in a draper’s shop. Possibly under the influence of his older brother Fortune, he became an active anarchist which led to him loosing his job, but he will find a job making drawings for an architectural sculptor. He also began contributing to various anarchist journals including 'Le Père Peinard' and was active in the management of 'L'Endehors'. Suspected by the police, he was arrested on May 30, 1892 after a meeting in honour of Ravachol but the search of his home revealled nothing, and he was released shortly afterwards. Having travelled to support the strike of mine workers in Carmaux, he was appalled by the conditions he found there and further enraged following the defeat of the strike. Henry, whose father had also been a miner, decided to bomb the mining company’s offices. The bomb was discovered before it detonated, and inept police officers brought the bomb back to the police station on the Rue des Bons-enfants without defusing it first. It exploded, killing several officers.
After the bombing, he took refuge in London, returning to Paris at the end of December 1893 and, under a false identity, he rented a room and began to manufacture explosives. Determined to strike at the insolent bourgeoisie in a random attack and avenge the execution of Auguste Vaillant, he threw his bomb into the Café Terminus at the Gare Saint-Lazare on the evening of February 12, 1894. Twenty people were injured in the explosion, one later dying from his injuries. Émile Henry fled but was immediately pursued by constomers and the police who he fired his gun at, but he was finally arrested. On February 14, 1894, a police agent dicovered the location of his room and it bomb factory. During his trial at the Seine Assizes on April 27-28, 1894, he boasted of his exploits, claiming the attack which ended in the deaths in the Rue des Bons-enfants, asking in a statement to the court: "But why, you ask, attack those peaceful café guests, who sat listening to music and who, no doubt, were neither judges nor deputies nor bureaucrats? Why? It is very simple. The bourgeoisie did not distinguish among the anarchists….Those good bourgeois who hold no office but who reap their dividends and live idly on the profits of the workers’ toil, they also must take their share in the reprisals."
He happily welcomed his death sentence and May 21, at dawn, he was guillotined in the Place de la Roquette surrounded by soldiers. His final words: "Courage camarades, vive l'anarchie" (Courage comrades, long live anarchy).

1892 - Julien Claude Marcel Content (d. 1927), French miltant anarchist, anti-militarist and revolutionary syndicalist, born. [expand]

1892 - Maria Giaconi aka Maria Ligia (d. unknown), Italian anarchist, born.

1903 - [O.S. Sep. 13] Nadezhda (Esther) Markovna Ulanovskaya [Надежда (Эстер) Марковна Улановская] (d. 1986), Russian anarchist, anti-White partisan, Soviet intelligence officer, interpreter and English language teacher, born

1906 - The new start date for the Partido Liberal Mexicano's Revolution (postponed following police raids at the beginning of the month), Juan Jose Arredondo and León Ibarra, with 30 other rebel guerrilleros took the main square in Jiménez Coahuila, cut the main telephone lines and seized the village Treasury. However, after a few hours federal forces arrived and, outnumbered, they retreated. Other attacks produced similar results in Monclova, Zaragoza, Ciudad Porfirio Diaz (Piedras Negras) and other small towns in Coahuila.

1907 - Trial of Ricardo Flores Magón, Librado Rivera, and Antonio I. Villarreal. [expand]

1908 - In Paris, a jury condemns the designer Aristide Delannoy, and Victor Meric to one year in prison and a fine of 3,000 francs for a caricatured in 'Les Hommes du Jour' of General Albert d'Amade depicted as a butcher following his brutal suppression of an uprising in Morocco. Both will be incarcerated in La Santé prison. Delannoy, who was suffering from tuberculosis, gained early release on June 21, 1909 following the intervention of his cell mates with the prison director and a support campaign meeting held on June 9, 1909. This stay in prison considerably worsened the health of Aristide, who died on May 5, 1911.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: Following the previous day's general committee of IWW Local 20, which endorsed Ettor and Giovannitti's call for a general strike "in order that the Massachusetts courts might have an opportunity to demonstrate the fairness that the master class boasts they have", the Lawrence newspapers display their elation with headlines such as, "No Strike; General Committee, I.W.W., Votes Against It."

1914 - David Stetner (d. 2002), Romanian-Jewish anarchist, who founded Yiddish anarchist journal 'Der Freie Gedank' and fully experienced a life of vagrancy, prison, hunger, humiliation and punishment, born. He became interested in anarchist ideas at the age of 17 and started attending secret meetings held in the woods outside the town of Czernovitz. He read and discussed the works of Mikhail Bakunin and Rudolf Rocker, among others. He deserted from the Romanian army on two occasions: the first time having decided to leave for Republican Spain in 1934 but was refused a passport and decided to leave clandestinely for Poland, only to becaught and court martialled. Released from jail in January 1937, he was enlisted in the navy, only to desert in June of that year, crossing through Europe and arriving illegally in France. Forced to live the desperate life of a sans-papiers in Paris, he wanted to volunteer to join the anarchist militias in the civil war in Spain, but was dissuaded by the secretary of the Federacion Anarquista Iberica in France, who explained that the Francoist victories and the Stalinist betrayals had already drastically undermined the Spanish social revolution. Shortly before the outbreak of WWII met Golda Konstantin, who became his companion for the rest of his life. When France was attacked by the Germans, he joined the first foreign volunteer unit and was demobbed the following year. During the German occupation, both being political activists, Jewish and without papers, both were under serious threat but managed to hide and escape from deportation. His family, however, had remained in Romania, all died except one sister, in the Nazi extermination camp. However, Golda was arrested following a round up all the Jews in the 11th arrondissement, being arrested at a checkpoint because of her identity card’s being so obviously a forgery. She was sentenced to 18 months in prison in Caen and Stetner went to ground in Paris. [expand]

1917 - [O.S. Sep. 13] The first edition of the weekly newspaper 'Anarkhiia' (Анархия), "Social and literary anarchist newspaper" (Общественно-литературная анархическая газета) organ of the Federation of Anarchist Groups of Moscow (Федерации Анархи-ческих Групп Москвы), is published. Editor-in-chief Vladimir Vladimirovich Barmash (Владимир Владимирович Бармаш), aka 'Gorbonos' (Горбонос), 'Vanya' (Ваня), 'Lenya' (Леня), the editorial staff included P. Arshinov, G. Askarov, A. Gordin, L. Cherny, and others. From November 6, 1917 (issue No. 9), 'Anarkhiia' began to appear daily. During this period the circulation was 20,000 copies. and the newspaper spread beyond Moscow into the provinces, being the leading anarchist newspaper.
Closed by the Cheka on April 12, 1918 during the defeat of the Moscow anarchist groups.
Around April 20, 1918 (or May 1, 1918) the publication was resumed at issue No. 42, still as a daily. The last issue was released around July 1, 1918 (No. 99). The Cheka was again closed on July 2, 1918, during a crackdown on "bourgeois and petty-bourgeois publications".
In 1919, the successor to 'Anarkhiia' appeared under the same name, as the "Newspaper of the All-Russian and Moscow Organization of Anarchists of the Underground" (Газета Всероссийской и Московской организации анархистов подполья).

[DD] 1919 - Battle of Peregonovka [Битва під Перегонівкою (uk) / Битва под Перегоновкой (ru)]: After months of retreat, and having turned on its pursuers the previous evening, the anarchist Ukrainian Insurrectionary Army, headed by Nestor Makhno, between 3 and 4 a.m. join battle with the White Army. The battle rages for most of the morning and by 9 o'clock the Makhnovists began to lose ground. However, the combined forces of the Ukrainian Insurrectionary Army and the armed peasants of Peregonovka (Перегонівка [uk] / Перегоновка [ru]) begin to turn the tide and, as the First Officers' Regiment of Simferopol begin to retreat, the whole White Army breaks ranks and goes into full retreat. Makhno sends his cavalry and artillery at full speed in pursuit of the retreating enemy, and he himself takes his best mounted to outflank Denikin’s troops at the Sinyukha River crossing. He manages to surprise Denikinist staff and the reserve regiment on the far bank, taking them prisoner and, against all conceivable odds, Makhno's army of Ukrainian peasants rout General Denikin’s elite imperialist forces, killing many and scattering the rest.
The Insurrectionary Army later destroyed the White Army’s key ammunition base, artillery depot and severed railway lines – thus terminating Denekin’s seemingly unstoppable advance toward Moscow, where the seizure of power from the Bolshevik government had for some time appeared inevitable.

1936 - Fernando Demetrio Mata Povedano (b. 1901), Aragonese rationalist teacher, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, and mayor of Montemayor, is assassinated in Córdoba prison and buried in a mass grave in the city's San Rafael cemetery. [see: Dec. 22]

[C] 1940 - Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (b. 1892), German philosopher and "Romantic anarchist", who made influential contributions to aesthetic theory, Western Marxism and anti-fascist thought, and is associated with the Frankfurt School, and was also a respected literary and cultural critic, essayist and translator during the Weimar Republic, is found dead after having killed himself with an overdose of morphine tablets taken the previous night. Whilst fleeing France and the approaching Nazis, he safely crossed the French-Spanish border and arrived at the coastal town of Portbou, in Catalonia. However, the Franco government had cancelled all transit visas and ordered the Spanish police to return people to France, including the Jewish refugee group Benjamin had joined, thwarting his chances of travelling to the United States. [see: Jul. 15]
[ Paper - Benjamin and Anarchism.pdf]

1941 - José Sampériz Janina (b. 1910), Spanish journalist, writer and anarchist sympathiser, dies in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp. [see: Apr. 23]

## 1946 - Andrea Rita Dworkin (d. 2005), American radical feminist and writer, as well as anti-war activist and anarchist in the 1960s, best known for her criticism of pornography, which she argued was linked to rape and other forms of violence against women, born.

1950 - Gustave Franssen (b. 1874), French copyreader, revolutionary syndicalist and libertarian, dies. [see: Mar. 21]

1969 - 8th Situationist International Conference, Venice.

1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Simultaneous bomb attacks against Iberia in Geneva, Frankfurt, Paris and London airports. [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]

[D] 1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Hampstead Conservative Association firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

[D] 1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Bomb exploded outside Barclays Bank, Heathrow. [Angry Brigade chronology]

[B] 1973 - Alessio Lega, Italian singer-songwriter, writer and anarchist militant, born.

[E] 2008 - Kirsten Brydum, a 25-year-old American anarchist community activist, is murdered as she cycles through New Orleans in the early hours of the morning, just 36 hours into the latest stage of her “collective autonomy” tour that she had begun in July that year to exchange ideas with others around the country about alternative economic and social models.
1884 - La Bande Noire: A dynamite cartridge explodes in the house of Bornet, the special guard of Jules Chagot, the owner of the Chagot frères et Cie mines. The attacks continue into September, with the chapel at Magny being the victim of multiple blasts.

1864 - Jozef Alexander Cohen aka 'Sandro' (d. 1961), Dutch anarchist publicist, anti-militarist, anti-colonialist and, in the 1930s, a monarchist, born.

##1872 - [O.S. Sep. 15] Leopold Antonovich Sulerzhitsky (Леопольд Антонович Сулержицкий; d. 1916), Russian theatre director, painter, educator and Tolstoyan anarchist, who dealt extensively with the printing and distribution of Tolstoy's banned works, born.

1903 - [O.S. Sep. 14] Krastovdensko Uprising [Кръстовденско въстание]: Another series of insurgent actions linked to the Ilinden–Preobrazhenie uprisings (Илинденско-Преображенско въстания) begin on the day of the Feast of the Cross, Krastovden (Кръстовден) in Bulgarian, across almost the whole territory of the Serres Revolutionary District (Серски революционен окръг), south western Bulgaria around the Pirin Mountains area. Militias active in the Serres region, led by Yane Sandanski (Яне Сандански), and an insurgent detachment of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation's (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) Supreme Committee, hold down a large Turkish force. These do not involve the local population as much as in other regions, and are well to the east of Monastir and to the west of Thrace.
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1904 - Monny de Boully (Solomon or Salmon Moni de Buli; d. 1968) Serbian-French Surrealist writer, poet and anarchist, born. Purged from the Paris Surrealist group in 1928 following his prolonged opposition to the group's communist line. The same year, he started the magazine 'Discontinuité' with Arthur Adamov and Claude Sernet, and participated in group around the anarchist-influenced literary magazine 'Le Grand Jeu' which was established in opposition to the Surrealists.

1907 - Fermín Salvochea y Álvarez (b. 1842), Andalusian teacher, writer, insurrectionist, early and important anarchist, dies. 50,000 people attended his burial and his tomb has never lacked a daily renewal of fresh flowers. [see: Mar. 1]

[F] 1908 - On the fourth day of the Fourth Annual Convention of the Industrial Workers of the World in Chicago results in a split between political actionists who sought to gain control of the organisation, led by Daniel DeLeon of the SLP, and direct actionists, led by Vincent St. John (elected General Secretary-Treasurer ) and J.H. Walsh (National Organiser). DeLeonists set up rival IWW in Detroit (Workers' International Industrial Union), accusing the Chicago IWW as being "anarchist usurpers".

1911 - In protest against the possibility of war, a 24 hour general strike called for by the Italian Confederazione Generale del Lavoro takes place.

1915 - Remy de Gourmont (b. 1858), French Symbolist poet, novelist, journalist, art critic, anti-nationalist and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 4]

1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание]: Government troops are able to enter Ferdinand (Фердинанд), now Montana (Монтана), and after 2 days of sporadic fighting between retreating rebels and the army, the uprising is effectively over September 29th.

#1923 - Todor Andonov Chovov (Тодор Андонов Чопов; b. 1892), Macedonian poet, actor, revolutionary, anarchist and member of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (United) (Вътрешна македонска революционна организация [bg] / Внатрешна македонска револуционерна организација (обединета) [mk]), born in Kukush (Κιλκίς) in modern day Greece.

1923 - Mollie Steimer and Senya Fleshin, members of The Society to Aid Anarchist Prisoners in Russia, are officially deported, and placed aboard a ship bound for Germany. Their henious crime? Protesting the Bolsheviks' persecution of anarchists in Russia. [see: Jul. 9]

1930 - The Confederación General del Trabajo de la República Argentina (General Confederation of Labour of the Argentine Republic) is founded as the result of an initial agreement between the socialist Confederación Obrera Argentina and the revolutionary syndicalist Unión Sindical Argentina (USA), a continuation of the FORA del IX Congreso, to generate a united and plural union. Smaller communist and independent unions join up later. In 1935, conflicts between the two main socialist and revolutionary syndicalist sectors led to the CGT spliting in two: CGT-Independencia (socialists and communists) and CGT-Catamarca (revolutionary trade unionists).

1936 - Armand Guerra and his film crew set off for the front to begin recording what became the two-part lost film 'Estampas Guerreras' (1937).

1960 - The 'Resolution of the Fourth Conference of the Situationist International Concerning the Imprisonment of Alexander Trocchi' denounces the arrest and detention in the United States of the situationist and novelist Alexander Trocchi for alleged drug use and trafficking.

[A] 1960 - Sylvia Pankhurst (b. 1882), English suffragist, prominent left communist and anti-fascist, who was the leader of East London Federation, which sought to unite British labour and woman's suffrage movement, dies. [see: May 5]

1974 - Augustus Marcel Le Lann (b. 1904), Breton boilermaker, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Feb. 16]

1979 - Pascal Pia (born Pierre Durand; b. 1903), French writer, poet, journalist, illustrator, scholar and anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 15]

1993 - The inaugural 'Anarquisme: Exposició Internacional' (Anarchism: International Exhibition) is held in Barcelona (Ser. 27 - Oct. 10) at the iniative of the Fundación Anselmo Lorenzo (CNT); Ateneu enciclopèdic popular; Ateneu llibertari 'Poble Sec'; Fundació d’estudis llibertaris i anarcosindicalistes (CNT Catalunya); Centre international de recherches sur l’anarchisme (Marseille); Centre international de recherches sur l’anarchisme (Lausanne); Centro studi libertari 'Giuseppe Pinelli' (Milan); and Ajuntament de Barcelona.

## 1996 - Ciriaco Duarte (b. 1908), Paraguayan trade union leader, anarcho-syndicalist, anarchist, writer and journalist, dies in Asunción, the last towering figure in Paraguayan anarchism. [see: Aug. 8]

1998 - Berlin Reclaim the Streets event: "Resistance has no vote! No cars. No cops."

2006 - Bradley Roland 'Brad' Will (b. 1970), US anarchist, documentary filmmaker and a journalist with Indymedia New York City, is shot and killed whilst filming during the teachers' strike in the Mexican city of Oaxaca. [see: Jun. 14]

2007 - Ilse Schwipper (Ilse Nikolaus; b. 1937), German anarcha-feminist, anti-fascist and anti-imperalist, who was a co-founder of Kommune 3 in Wolfsburg, dies. [see: Jun. 24]
1852 - probable date for the birth of Silvia Pisacane (d. 1888), Italian daughter of the famous revolutionary Carlo Pisacane, who was involved with the Matese anarchist insurrection in 1877. [see: Sep. 9]

1856 - Léon Prouvost (aka the 'Libertarian Philanthropist'; d. 1921), French individualist anarchist, anti-militarist and anti-clericalist, born. A propserous buisness man, he discovers libertarian ideas in 1904 and in 1906 became secretary of L'Emancipatrice, the local section of the Libre Pensée de Raphaël. He also edited and published the journals 'La Revue Sociale' and 'L'Idée Libre', and sponsored a mobile library. During and after WWI, he collaborated with Jules Vignes on the individualist 'La Feuille', on Émile Armand's 'Réveil de l'Esclave', with Pierre Chardon on 'La Mêlée' and with Pierre Chardon and Maurice Charron on 'La Plèbe'.
He was harrassed on several occasions for his anti-militarist propaganda and for inciting desertion or disobedience amongst soldiers - in 1915 he was sent to prison for a year. A member of the Comité de Défense des marins de la Mer Noire, Prouvost was raided on July 27, 1921, for his "communist and anti-militarist" beliefs. A few days later, he committed suicide by jumping into the well of his property, having bequeathed part of his fortune to André Lorulot.

[F] 1864 - The International Workingmen's Association is founded at a meeting held in Saint Martin's Hall, London. [expand]

1870 - Commune de Lyon: The same day as the AIT/IWA-planned protest in front to the Hôtel de Ville, chantiers nationaux (national projects) workers, engaged in building fortification works, also decide to demonstrate in the Place des Terreaux in protest against the decision by city council to reduce their daily wage by 50 centimes. The City Hall is occupied by protesters and from the balcony, Saignes reads a statement announcing the creation of a Fédération Révolutionnaire des Communes. The préfet Challemel-Lacour is taken prisoner. Cluseret, responsible for the call to arms for the Guardes Nationaux de la Croix-Rousse, asks them to go to the City Hall, but without their weapons. Later in the day, at the instigation of the mayor, troops and the National Guard from the bourgeois districts of the city intervene and the unarmed insurrectionists are forced to flee.
The popular uprising in Lyon has been suppressed. Michael Bakunin, freshly arrived on the September 15th, is now forced to flee in the face of an arrest warrant. [see: Sep. 4]

1893 - Emma Goldman goes on trial in NY City. Found guilty of incitement to riot, she is sent back to the Tombs (Manhattan's city prison) until October 18, when she is sentenced to a year in Blackwell's Island Penitentiary.

####1898 - André Gaudérique Jean Respaut (d. 1973), French author, Résistance activist, anarchist, survivor of Buchenwald, born. Mobilised in 1918 following the death 2 of his elder brothers and the fleeing of a third to Spain to avoid conscription, he joined up, despite his anarchist principles, to avoid problems for his mother with the authorities. Following the was, he worked in various jobs including as a gardener, cafe manager and gym teacher. He also helped found the Narbonne anarchist group in 1920 and cooperated with the CNT in south Catalonia. Between 1924-25 he was a member of the Fédération Révolutionnaire du Languedoc, founded in Béziers on October 19, 1924 and worked on the trilingual journal 'La Revue Internationale Anarchiste'. In 1934, he moved to Paris to study philosophy at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Sociales with Félicien Challaye, an anti-colonialist and pacifist for who he held a lifelong admiration. During the Spanish civil war, in which his brother Fortuné fought as a volunteer, he was an organiser in the Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste (SIA), helping secure the passage of many trucks of arms and supplies for the benefit of the CNT. After the war, he returned to Narbonne with his Spanish partner, Teri Sisquella, who was ordered interned in the Argelès camp by the ssub-prefect of Narbonne.
During the German occupation, he came into contact with the Combat movement and joined the Résistance, first distributing leaflets and from late 1942 as an intelligence officer. Meanwhile, with anarchist militants from Ales, Perpignan and the Spanish CNT, he participated in crossing into Spain. On October 18, 1943, he was arrested by the Gestapo. Knowing of his imminent arrest he had prepared an escape plan, but he abandoned this fearing that the Germans did arrest his aged mother. Extensively interrogated and tortured, André Respaut did not speak, and was later transferred to the camp at Compiegne, where on December 12, 1943, he was deported in sealed wagons to Buchenwald concentration camp. Due to its physical fitness, courage and generosity, he survived the horrors of the camp and managed to save several fellow deportees from certain death. After the camp was liberated April 11, 1945 by U.S. troops, André Respaut was repatriated to France at the end of the month.
Back in Narbonne, he helped found the Fédération Nationale des Déportés Internés Résistants (FNDIR), an association of former prisoners and deportees, and was its regional president for several years. He also helped reform the Narbonne anarchist group, as part of the Fédération anarchiste (FA), and the local section of the CNTF, contributed to the Franco-Spanish magazine 'Universo' and Louis Louvet's 'Défense de l'Homme', and was a member of the Narbonne Fédération Communiste Libertaire (FCL) group. He was also author of 'Buchenwald Terre Maudite' (Buchenwald Cursed Earth; 1946) and 'Sociologie Fédéraliste Libertaire' (1961).

1905 - The Junta Organizadora del Partido Liberal Mexicano is formed in St. Louis, Mo. with Ricardo Flores Magón as chairman; Juan Sarabia, vice president; Antonio I. Villarreal, Secretary; Enrique Flores Magón, treasurer; plus Librado Rivera, Manuel Sarbia, and Rosalío Bustamante.

1917 - 166 prominent IWW members, including union head Big Bill Haywood, are indicted by a Chicago grand jury after an investigation of papers seized from a nationwide raid of IWW offices on September 5, 1917. The indictment named every member of the union executive board, the officers of every individual union, editors of every IWW publication, and the union's most popular lecturers. They were charged with conspiracy to sabotage the war effort, seize control of industry, overthrow the U.S. government, hinder registration of the draft and the violation of postal laws (this charge was later thrown out). Their cases were assigned to Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis. Some 47 of the indicted men could not be found; a few others had charges dismissed against them. Ultimately, Landis presided over a trial against 113 defendants, the largest federal criminal trial to that point.

1921 - Leopold Hermann Oskar Panizza (b. 1853), German anarchist, psychiatrist, avant-garde author, playwright, novelist, poet, essayist, publisher and literary journal editor, dies. [see: Nov. 12]

[B] 1923 - Naphtali 'Tuli' Kupferberg (d. 2010), American counter-culture poet, author, cartoonist, pacifist anarchist, publisher and co-founder of the band The Fugs, born.

1934 - Piero Ciampi (d. 1980) Italian anarchist singer-songwriter and poet, born.

[BB] 1942 - Pierre Clémenti (d. 1999), French actor, director and libertarian, born. He played Catherine Deneuve's gangster lover in Luis Buñuel's 'Belle de Jour' (1967) and the Devil in his 'La Voie Lactée' (The Milky Way; 1969), as well as appearing in Luchino Visconti's 'The Leopard' (1962), Pier Paolo Pasolini's 'Pigsty' (1969), Liliana Cavani's reworking of 'Antigone', 'The Cannibals' (1970) and Fred Haines' 'Steppenwolf' (1974).

## 1943 - Mike Lesser (d. 2015), British mathematical philosopher, author, computer graphics expert, anarcho-communist and the youngest member of the Committee of 100 and of Spies For Peace, ending up in Wormwood Scrubs along with most of the rest of the Committee at the age of just sixteen, born.

1950 - John Thomas Sayles, American independent film director, screenwriter, actor and author, born. His film production company is called Anarchist's Convention Films after the lead short story (about a group of aged anarchists come together, squabbling about past internal conflicts, uniting only when someone calls the police) in his collection 'The Anarchists Convention and Other Stories' (1979). His film 'Matewan', which he wrote and directed, as well as playing the part of Hardshell Preacher, is based upon the 1920 coal miners' strike (known as the Battle of Matewan) in 1920 in West Virginia.

[CC] 1955 - During a visit by Franco to Barcelona, Francisco Sabaté hails a cab and blithely drives around the Catalan capital firing anti-regime leaflets through the sun-roof from a mortar he had assembled from inside his suitcase on the back seat. He reassures a worried driver: "Don't worry, I work for the government and I am distributing informational materials." He leaves the cab driver with a generous tip.
"Pueblo antifascista: Son ya demasiados los años que soportas Franco y sus sicarios. No basta con hacer la crítica de este corrompido régimen de miseria y de terror. Las palabras son palabras. La acción es necesaria. Fuera la tiranía! Viva la unión del pueblo! Movimiento Libertario. Comité de Relaciones"

1966 - A Congreso de Unificación Sindical is held [Sep. 28 - Oct. 1, 1966] during which the Central de Trabajadores del Uruguay is dissolved and the Convención Nacional de Trabajadores (National Workers Convention) becomes the unifying federation of Uruguayan trade unions, with the adoption of the CNT's 'Declaración de Principios', the 'Programa de Soluciones a la Crisis', and the organisation's statutes.

##1966 - André Breton (b. 1896), French writer, poet, Dadaist, founder of Surrealism, member of the PCF and later an anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 19]

1968 - Edgard Frederico Leuenroth (b. 1881), Brazilian typesetter journalist, publisher, writer, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist propagandist, dies in São Paulo from liver cancer at the age of 87

1981 - Roberto Barreto Pedroso das Neves aka Ernst Izgur (b. 1907), Portuguese-born Brazilian writer, journalist, poet, historian, Freemason, Esperantist, graphologist, anarchist individualist, vegetarian and naturist, dies. [see: Sep. 7]

1988 - Shirai [or Shiirai] Shinpei (白井新平; b. 1907), Japanese anarchist, social activist, horse racing critic, and founder of the horse racing newspaper 'KeisyuNEWS' [ケイシュウNEWS], who wrote under the pennames Yamamoto Saburō [山本三郎] and Aki Yamamoto [山本秋], dies at the Toranomon Hospital (虎の門病院) in Tokyo from gastric cancer. [see: Aug. 18]

1992 - Martha Wüstemann, aka Martha Lewin, Julia Alino (b. 1908), German seamstress, tailor, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, first in the SAJ, then FAUD and, after its banning, in Deutsche Anarchosyndikalisten (DAS) in Spain during the revolution, dies. [see: Jun. 17]

1996 - The anarchist Reclaim the Future alliance throws its weight alongside sacked Liverpool dockers, their trade union and socialist supporters. A massive anniversary demo triggered a 24 hour strike by tugboat men.
##1829 - Ezra Heywood (d. 1893), 19th century North American individualist anarchist, slavery abolitionist, free love advocate and feminist, born. [expand]

1879 - Alexandre Marius Jacob (d. 1954), French anarchist illegalist burglar who was the inspiration for Maurice Leblanc's fictional gentleman thief and detective Arsène Lupin, born. [expand]

1883 - English language publication of anarchist Johann Most's song 'The Hymn of the Proletariat'.

1889 - Miguel Abós Serena (d. 1940), metalworker and prominent Zaragozan CNT militant, who was one of thirty five anarcho-syndicalists sentenced for their roles in the La Canadiense strike of 1919, born.

1892 - Aurelio Fernández Sánchez aka 'El Jerez', 'El Cojo', 'Charles Abella', 'Colas', 'Marini', 'González', etc. (d. 1974), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, member of Los Solidarios, born. [expand]

1898 - Berthe Faber-Guillot (Berthe Suzanne Fabert; d. 1983), French concierge and anarchist activist in Paris, Lyon, Brussels and Barcelona with her partners, Severin Férandel, Francisco Ascaso and Eugène Guillot, born. With her companion the anarchist Séveran Ferandel, she ran the Librarie Sociale Internationale radical bookstore in Basses-Alpes, France. She later had a long-term relationship with Francisco Ascaso, living with him when he went into exile in France and Belgium, moving to Spain after the proclamation of the Republic in April 1931. There she took part in the social struggle, enduring period of Ascaso's imprisonment and exile. After Ascaso's death on July 20, 1936, during the assault on the Atarazanas barracks in Barcelona, she remained living in city through out the Revolution, eventually forming a relationship with the French conscientious objector Eugène Guillot, then in exile under the name Jacques Sallès. In early 1939, she left Spain with her companion during the Retirada. Back in Paris, she fell foul of the police during a raid on the headquarters of the Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste and had to go into hiding. After the war, she and Guillot became members of the radical group Amis de Sebastien Faure.

## 1907 - Samuel 'Sam' Mainwaring (b. 1841), Welsh engineer, union organiser, anarchist orator and anarcho-syndicalist (it is claimed that Sam was the first person to coin the term 'anarcho-syndicalism'), who was one of the original members of the Socialist League and personal friend of William Morris, dies while addressing an open-air meeting on Parliament Hill Fields. [see: Dec. 1]

[F] 1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: The beginning of the trial of Joseph Ettor, Arturo Giovannitti, and Joseph Caruso were held as "accessories before the fact" and charged with inciting and procuring the commission of the crime in pursuit of an unlawful conspiracy with murderer or murderers unknown, they were held as “accessories before the fact.”
"Joseph Caruso is held in the Lawrence jail as a principal in the murder of Anna Lopizzo [sic] who was killed during a clash between strikers and policemen. The state's claim, so far as it is known, is that Caruso aided Scuito who, it is alleged, did the actual shooting. ... The prisoners, who are charged with being accessories to the murder, were not present when Anna Lopizzo was shot. The commonwealth contended at their arraignment before Police Magistrate Mahoney, in Lawrence, February 9, that the defendants had spread ‘a propaganda of violence’. It was this propaganda, said the district attorney, which inspired the person actually guilty of the murder to fire at the police. According to the state's witnesses the shot missed its mark and killed the woman..." [James Heaton - 'Legal Aftermath of Lawrence Strike','The Survey', July 6, 1912]
A one-day strike is held in Lawrence with 15,000 to 20,000 textile workers demanding that Caruso, Ettor, and Giovannitti be released. The city's Woolen Trust and other big mills are closed down, and more than 20,000 demonstrators gathered at the city's rail station for a march to the graves of Anna LoPizzo and John Ramay. Clashes between protesters and police ensued as the latter tried to prevent the 'illegal' march. Carlo Tresca was arrested by de-arrested shortly afterwards through the action of the crowd. Protests also took place in other large cities, especially in Massachusetts.

1917 - Huelga General Revolucionaria [Revolutionary General Strike] / Vaga General Espanyola [Spanish General Strike]: Facing a court-martial charged with the crime of sedition, the members of the Strike Committee of Francisco Largo Caballero, Julián Besteiro, Daniel Anguiano and Andrés Saborit are found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment, ending up in Cartagena prison. [see: Aug. 15]

1918 - Ervin Szabó (Ármin Sámuel Schlesinger; b. 1877), Hungarian social scientist, librarian and Marxist anarcho-syndicalist revolutionary, dies. [see: Aug. 23]

1920 - José Domingo Gómez Rojas (b. 1896), Chilean anarchist poet, who was detained and torture in prison during the mass repression of the Guerra de don Ladislao, only to be transferred to a lunatic asylum when his mental health deteriorated, dies of undiagnosed meningitis. [see: Jun. 19]

1921 - The Cheka execute Fanya Baron and nine other anarchist prisoners. (Fanya's execution was on the personal order of Lenin.) These executions follow that of the anarchist and poet Lev Chernyi on the 21st. Leon Trotsky remarks at the time: "We do not imprison the real anarchists, but criminals and bandits who cover themselves by claiming to be anarchists".

[E] 1921 - Fanya Anisimovna Baron (Фа́ня Ани́симовна Ба́рон) aka Fanny Grefenson (Freida Nisanovna Greck; b. 1887*), Lithuanian-Russian anarchist revolutionary, is executed by the Cheka. Active in the Lithuanian anarchist movement, she went into exile in order to escape arrest for her activities. Initailly living in Paris, she later moved to the US, where she was active in the Industrial Workers of the World (1912-17). In Chicago she met a fellow exile, the Ukrainian anarchist and baker Aron Davidovich Baron (Аро́н Дави́дович Ба́рон), the brother of her sister Sarah's husband Nahum. Alongside Lucy Parsons and Aron, she was involved in the hunger demonstrations of 1915 in the city (Aron and Parsons worked as co-editors of the Chicago anarchist paper 'Alarm' during this period). During one of the demonstrations, at which she and Aron were at the forefront, they were attacked by the police and Fanya was knocked unconscious by the cops, and ended up amongst those arrested.
In 1917, she, Aron and Boris Yelensky, returned to her homeland to help build a post-revolutionary society, where she was active as a propagandist in Kiev in 1917 and was from late 1918 she wasa participant of the creation of the Confederation of Anarchists of Ukraine (Конфедерации анархистов Украины), also known as the Nabat Anarchist Confederation after its newspaper 'Nabat' (Набат / Alarm), which was closely allied to the Makhnovtchina.
She was arrested with many other anarchists by the Cheka at a conference held in Kharkhov on the November 25, 1920. On February 13, after Peter Kropotkin's death, seven anarchists, including Baron and his wife, were released from the notorious Butyrka prison for the day of the funeral. This event was to become the last public demonstration by anarchists in Russia until 1988. On July 10, 1921, Fanya escaped from Ryazan prison, along with 9 other anarchists, with the help of the clandestine Underground Anarchists network. Planning to help Aron escape from prison in Moscow, she sought refuge with Aron's brother Semion, a member of the Bolshevik Party but was arrested by the Cheka on August 17 at his home. It is unclear who betrayed her (the Cheka had agents planted among the Underground Anarchists, and had regularly arranged acts of provocation in order to expose anarchists to arrest and execution), but Semion was executed on the spot.
Held along side twelve other anarchist without charges at Taganka prison, they went on hunger strike that same month, attracting the attention of visiting French, Spanish and Russian syndicalists who argued for their release. Leon Trotsky remarked at the time "We do not imprison the real anarchists, but criminals and bandits who cover themselves by claiming to be anarchists". Ten of the 13 anarchists were released and deported on September 17, 1921: Voline, Vorobiov, Mratchny, Michailov, Maximoff, Ioudine, Iartchouk, Gorelik, Feldman and Fedorov. Fanya Baron and the poet Lev Chernyi were detained, to be executed later that month. Her execution was personally ordered by Lenin himself.
Fanya was shot by the Cheka on September 29, 1921 after having been found guilty of being an "accomplice of anti-Soviet criminal acts". She refused to go to her death meekly, fighting her executioners all the way. Aron remined alive in the gulag system and exile until his execution on August 12, 1937. [*NB: Some sources give the year as 1888.]

1926 - Belgium-born Russian militant anarcho-syndicalist Nicolas Lazarevitch is expelled from Russia after being held in prison for 2 years without trial (he refused to recognise the court after being arrested by the GPU in 1924. His release and expulsion followed an international campaign mounted by anarcho-syndicalists and the French newspaper 'La Revolution Proletarienne'.

1939 - Louis Lecoin is arrested for his part in the distribution on September 12 of 100,000 copies of the anti-war leaflet 'Paix Immédiate' (Immediate Peace) which he authored. In the days that follow, a number of signatories on the tract repudiate it leaving him disillusioned.

[B] 1951 - Etta Federn (Marietta Federn; b. 1883), Austrian writer (essays, biographies, novels, poems, etc.), translator, journalist, educator, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and member of Mujeres Libres, dies. She also published under her married names Etta Federn-Kohlhaas and Etta Kirmsse, and the pseudonym Esperanza. [see: Apr. 28]

1962 - Kidnap of Spanish Vice-Consul Isu Elias: A group of four anarchists – Amedeo Bertolo, Luigi Gerli, Gianfranco Pedron and Aimone Fornaciari – mostly members of Bandiera Nera/Croce Nera Anarchica, together with four extra-parliamentary left socialist revolutionaries – Alberto Tomiolo, Vittorio De Tassis, Giorgio Bertani and Giambattista Novello-Paglianti – kidnap the Spanish vice-consul Isu Elias in Milan. The action is taken to try and save the life of Jorge Conill Valls, a Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias member and chemistry student facing death in Franco's Spain, having been found guilty of planting three bombs during the night of June 29-30, 1962. The bombs had caused no casualties and no significant material damage.
The kidnapping dominated the front pages of the international press for days and triggered a campaign of anti-Francoist solidarity that brought considerable pressure to bear on the Franco regime at several levels – from street demonstrations to the 'humanitarian' intervention by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini, the future Pope Paul VI (1963-78). Conill’s death sentence was commuted after three days to one of thirty years imprisonment and Isu Elias was immediately released on October 2nd. The following day kidnappers Gianfranco Pedron, Alberto Tomiolo, Luigi Gerli and Vittorio De Tassis, along with three journalists, were arrested after a tip-off from a Communist journalist. Amedeo Bertolo escapes and took refuge in Paris. On November 13, the first day of the trial of the Elias kidnappers, Bertolo managed to get right inside the courtroom in Varese, despite the massive presence of Carabinieri. There he surrendered to the judges. On November 21 the jury delivered their verdicts after just two hours and sentences of between five and eight months were handed down, which were then suspended, as the accused had "acted for reasons of particular moral and social value".
Conill Valls himself ended up becoming a communist whilst in prison and, when he was released, he was appointed political secretary of the Partit Socialista Unificat of Catalonia (PSUC).

1991 - Maurice Laisant (b. 1909), French author, anarchist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Mar. 11]

####1995 - Madalyn Murray O'Hair (Madalyn Mays; b. 1919), US psychiatric social worker, anarchist, feminist and atheist activist, who was founder of American Atheists and a woman of many pseudonyms, her favourite being M. Bible, who 'Life' magazine in 1964 called "the most hated woman in America", is murdered and dismembered along with her two children, her son Jon and daughter Robin. The three had been kidnapped by David Ronald Waters, an ex-employee of American Atheists, and two accomplices named Danny Fry and Gary Karr, and Jon forced to liquidate AA monies to buy $600,000 worth of gold coins. Waters had then went to the press claining that O'Hair and her children had fled the country with millions of Atheist dollars. It was not until 2001 that Waters was finally convicted for the murders and he revealed where the O'Hairs were buried. [see: Apr. 13]

2008 - Hayden Carruth (b. 1921), American poet, literary critic, "old-line anarchist" and "rural communist with a small c", dies. [see: Aug. 3]
1869 - Henrik Ibsen's anarchist-influenced play 'De Unges Forbund' (The League of Youth) is published in Copenhagen.

## 1873 - Dominique Lagru (d. 1960), French shepherd, coal miner, ornamental plasterer, naïve painter, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born in Perrecy-les-Forges. Dominique Lagru became a shepherd at age twelve, then, for several years, a miner in Montceau-les-Mines. During his miltary service (Nov. 1894 - Feb. 1896) he contracted ganglionic tuberculosis and nearly lost his life. Released from the army, he was rehired by the mine and became passionately involved in the labour movement. After the 1899 Montceau strike, he lost his job and was elected as a municipal councilor of Saint-Vallier in 1900. Disgusted with party-political intrigues, in 1902 he left for Paris where he worked in the construction worker, later becoming an ornamental plasterer in the Paris region. It was around this time that he became a committed anarchist and grass-roots trade union activist. He set up an inter-union library and began to learn, reading with devouring passion. In 1948, at age 75, the idea came to him to express in paintings the history of the universe he read. He then devotes his life to painting. Most striking are his paintings of prehistoric landscapes filled with the dinosaurs he had seen in books and at the natural history museum. In 1951, he had his first one-man show in Paris. Many of his paintings are part of collections of naïve art museums.

[EE] 1875 - Olivia Rossetti Agresti (d. 1960), British author, editor and interpreter, born. Daughter of William Michael Rossetti, one of the founding members of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and granddaughter of Gabriele Rossetti and Ford Madox Brown.
In June 1891, Olive (16 years old), her brother Arthur (14) and sister, the future Helen Rossetti Angeli (1879-1969), began publishing an anarchist journal, 'The Torch: A Journal of International Socialism', in the basement of their family home. Handmade, they acquired a printing press the following year and the subtitle of the paper was changed to "A Journal of Anarchist-Communism" in June 1893. Later name changes included to "A Revolutionary Journal of Anarchist-Communism" and finally to 'The Torch of Anarchy: A Monthly Revolutionary Journal'. All told, the paper was in circulation for 5 years and gather a circle of prominent anarchist around it, including Peter Kropotkin and Sergei Kravchinski, and contributors included Louise Michel and Errico Malatesta, with picture supplements from Lucien Pissaro. Their publishing coups included the pamphlet 'Why I Am an Anarchist' by George Bernard Shaw and their circle is believed to have inspired Joseph Conrad's stories 'The Informer' and 'An Anarchist' (1906), as well as parts of 'The Secret Agent'. Olivia and Helen would later publish, using the pseudonym "Isabel Meredith", 'A Girl Among the Anarchists' (1903), a somewhat fictionalised memoir of their days as precocious child revolutionaries.
Olivia would later move to Italy and become an enthusiastic supporter of corporatism, as well as Mussolini's corporatist reorganisation of the Italian economy. She was also associated with the Associazione fra le Società per Azioni, a group then closely allied with the Fascists, and in 1938 co-authored the theoretical work 'The Organisation of the Arts and Professions in the Fascist Guild State' with the Fascist journalist Mario Missiroli. She also developed a close friendship with fascist fellow-traveller Ezra Pound.

##1875 - Miyashita Takichi (宮下太吉; d. 1911), Japanese mechanical engineer, lumbermill employee, socialist and anarchist, who was one of the supposed masterminds behind the High Treason Incident (大逆事件 / Taigyaku Jiken) and was one of the 12 alleged conspirators executed in 1911, born.

1880 - Bianca Sbriccoli Pichioni aka 'Rosa Salvadè', also known as Bianca Fabbri & Bianca Fabbri-Sbriccoli (d. 1972), Italian anarchist, who married her cousin, the prominent anarchist intellectual Luigi Fabbri, born.

1888 - Louis Lecoin (d. 1971), French militant anarcho-pacifist, born. [expand]

[B] 1896 - Panagiotis Panas (Παναγιώτης Πανάς; b. 1832), Greek anarchist revolutionary, writer, journalist, poet, theorist and anarchist, dies.

1909 - Maria Luisa Cobos Peña (Ignacia Cobos Peña; d. 1973), Spanish housemaid, market worker, anarchist and Mujeres Libres militant, born in Jerez de la Frontera.

1906 - Rebelión de Acayucan: Considered a precursor to the Mexican Revolution of 1910. Uprisings break out in Acayucan, Minatitlán and Puerto México led by Hilario C. Salas and Cándido Donato Padu, PLM delegates in Veracruz and Tabasco. Salas and 300 men attack Acayucan, Veracruz as part of an overall plan involving 1,000 Partido Liberal rebels to seize Veracruz as part of their plans to overthrow the dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz, as well as establishing other demands such as the eight-hour day, the prohibition of child labour, minimum wage, compensation for accidents at work, and compulsory free secular education. However, the plans are discovered and the forces attacking Minatitlan and Puerto México are ambushed and arrested by government troops. In Acayucan, the palacio municipal is seized but the rebels run out of ammunition after four days and, with many killed or wounded including Salas, are forced to retreat to the mountains of Soteapan, where they continued their guerrilla war until 1911. Others were arrested and taken to the political prison of San Juan de Ulua.

1919 - Edward Wołonciej aka 'Czemier' (d. 1999), Polish solicitor, author, syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, born. During WWII, he attended clandestine classes, fought as a syndicalist soldier and joined the Armia Krajowa (AK; Home Army) in 1941. Took part in Warsaw Uprising and between September 1-15, 1944, he was a member of the Gustaw-Harnas battalion. After the capitulation of Warsaw Old Town, he was the captain commanding the Syndicalist Brigade [formed under the under the Syndykalistycznym Porozumieniem Powstańczym (Syndicalist Uprising Agreement)] in Śródmieście. After the surrender of the Uprising, he was imprisoned in Pruszkow camp, from where he fled to Krakow. In 1947, he became a student in the law faculty in Jagiellonian University, becoming an Organizacja Młodzieży Towarzystwa Uniwersytetu Robotniczego (OM TUR; Youth Organisation of Workers University Association] and Polska Partia Socjalistyczna (PPS; Polish Socialist Party) activist. In 1950, he graduated from the diplomatic department of Academy of Political Science. Since 1953 he has been a solicitor. He also studied at the Ludwik Solski Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Teatralna (State Higher Theatre School) in the Director’s Faculty. He wrote diaries, stories and plays which he was unable to publish during the communist regime for their "incorrect content". He was victimized for taking part in the anti-communist struggle. Died February 3, 1999 in Warsaw.

1944 - Jerzy Zbigniew Złotowski aka 'Poręba' (b. 1911), Polish architectural engineer, syndicalist and anti-Nazi fighter, is shot and killed in fighting during the Uprising. [see: May 27]

1950 - Mary Reynolds (Mary Louise Hubachekb; b. 1891), American Dadaist and Surrealist bookbinder and partner of Marcel Duchamp, dies. She remained in Paris when Duchamp left and the Nazis occupied the city, joining the Résistance but later had to flee France when she came under Gestapo surveillance.

1970 - Maurice César François Fayolle (b. 1909), French electrician and veteran libertarian communist, dies of lung cancer following a long hospitalisation in the Pitié-Salpêtrière, Versailles. [see: Mar. 8]

1973 - Li Shizeng [李石曾], aka Li Shi [李煜瀛] (b. 1881), Chinese educator, promoter of anarchist doctrines, political activist, and member of the Chinese Nationalist Party in early Republican China, dies in Taipei, aged 92. [see: May 29]

1912 - Federación Obrera Regional del Perú (Regional Workers' Federation of Peru) formed some time this month, composed of the Sociedad de resistencia de los obreros galleteros y anexos (Resistance Society of Gallete Workers and Annexes), the Federación de Electricistas (Federation of Electricians), the Federación de Obreros Panaderos "Estrella del Perú", the Unificación Textil de Vitarte (Textile Unification of Vitarte), the Unificación Proletaria de Santa Catalina, and other anarcho-syndicalist organisations.
1849 - The first issue of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's newspaper 'La Voix du Peuple', run from the prison of Sainte-Pelagie, where he is serving a sentence of three years imprisonment (since June 7, 1849) for articles in which he attacked the Prince-President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte. It replaces his previous paper, 'Le Peuple'.

#### 1867 - Fernand Pelloutier (d. 1901), French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist activist, journalist, poet and founder of the Federation of Bourses du Travail, born. A revolutionary syndicalist, he rejected propaganda by deed in favour of genuinely revolutionary unions participating in direct action, sabotage and the general strike, all independent of political parties.
Pelloutier's poems, published under the pseudonym Jean Reflec, were frequently to be found amongst the pages of 'L’Ouvrier des Deux Mondes' and were reprinted in book form with the melancholic title 'De la Colere, de l’Amour, de la Haine' (Anger, Love, Hatred; 1898).
"Partisans de la suppression de la propriété individuelle, nous sommes en outre ce que ne sont pas les politiciens, des révoltés de toutes les heures, hommes vraiment sans dieu, sans maître et sans patrie, les ennemis irréconciliables de tout despotisme, moral ou collectif, c'est-à-dire des lois et des dictatures (y compris celle du prolétariat), et les amants passionnés de la culture de soi-même" (Supporters of the elimination of private property, we are moreover not what the politicians are, rebels of every hour, really godless men, homeless and without a master, the irreconcilable enemy of all despotism, moral or collective, that is to say the laws and dictatorships (including the proletariat), and passionate lovers of the culture itself.)

1875 - Eugeen Van Mieghem (d. 1930), Belgian artist and anarchist, whose subjects were the poor, the working class and, above all, the docks of his home city Antwerp, born.

1889 - Walery Karłowicz Mroczkowski, aka Valerien Ostroga (b. 1840), Polish nationalist insurgent in the 1863 January Uprising, Bakuninite anarchist and portrait photographer working in France under the name of Valerien Ostroga, dies in Paris. [see: Apr. 6]

1904 - Folke Ivar Valter Fridell (d. 1985), Swedish textile mill worker, proletarian writer and anarcho-syndicalist, born in Berga Township, Småland.

1910 - Antonio Moreno Ronchas (d. 2006), Spanish railway worker, militant anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Franco combatant, born. The third of 13 children, his family emigrated to Paris when he was 4 years old. His father, Antonio Moreno Fernández, libertarian and anti-militarist, joined the Confederació General del Treball Sindicalista Revolucionària (CGTSR). In 1925 he met both Buenaventura Durruti and Nestor Makhno during their Parisian exile. In 1930 he returned to Valladolid, intending to perform military service, but his father dissuaded him. Upon his return, he worked in the Basque Country and Castellón but his rebellious nature lost him many jobs.
At the outbreak of civil war in 1936, while his brothers Isidore and Lazarus fought in the Durruti Column and a communist unit, respectively, Antonio Moreno volunteered in the milicias confederales de Guipúzcoa (Guipúzcoa confederal militias), fighting firstly in San Sebastián in Guipúzcoa confederal militias, first in San Sebastián and later in Oyarzun, slowing the fascist advance. After the fall of Irun, he managed to cross into France via Hendaye and then onto Barcelona, where he enlisted in Column Rojo y Negra. After its militarisation, to which he was opposed, he remained a member of the 3rd Battalion of the 127th Brigada Mixta, and later became a driver with the 4th Battalion of the 4th Compañía de Transportes (Transport Company).
With the loss of the war, he made it to France where his knowledge of the language, the country and its geography helped him and a number of other refugees to escape the concentration camps as soon as the first opportunity arose. He remained in the Barcarès and Bram area until the Nazi invasion, when he enlisted in the 3rd Battalion of Foreig Legion and was sent to the Middle East (Syria and Lebanon). After the armistice, he was demobilised and returned to France, where he went to work in the construction of the submarine base in Brest, helping many Spanish forced labour prisoners to escape. This led to his arrest by the Gestapo, but a sympathetic judge freed him.
After the liberation of France, Antonio was mainly devoted to propaganda in the local federation of the MLE/CNT in exile in Saint-Denis, Paris. In the 1960s, he participated in the French CNT and was very active during the events of May 1968. Speaking French with the accent of Parisian street urchin, he actively participated in the formation of the Organisation Révolutionnaire Anarchiste (ORA) and took part in numerous editorial meetings of the 'Front Libertaire'. After Franco's death, he tried in vain to open a local CNT in Medina de Rioseco where his father Antonio Moreno Fernandez was the main leader of the anarcho-syndicalism before being assassinated by Franco in July 1936. He died on August 24, 2006 in a retirement home in Morcenx, leaving all his property in his will to the Valladolid CNT to be sold to raise funds for it.

1910 - Émile Aubin delivers a speech in Lagny for which he is arrested for "antimilitarisme et outrages à Chef d'Etat", and sent to prison for 18 months. Just out of the military a few months (where he was serving punishment in a disciplinary battalion), Aubin was a member of the anti-militarist Groupe des Libérés des Bagnes Militaires which published the poster 'Galonnés assassins' (Braided assassins).

1910 - The Partido Liberal Mexicano changes its motto to "Tierra y Libertad". In an editorial in 'Regeneración', Ricardo Flores Magón writes: "The Land! shouted Bakunin, the Land! shouted Ferrer, the Land! shouts the Mexican Revolution."

[B] 1911 - Aguigui Mouna (aka André Dupont; d. 1999), French anarcho-prankster, agitator, pacifist propagandist, philosopher and anarchist individualist, born. Master of the slogan and aphorism, he repeatedly stood as a 'non-candidate' in the presidential elections. Bernard Baissat made a documentary, 'Mouna', about him in 1989 and he recorded the track 'Proclamation D'Aguigui Mouna' on the French punk band Gogol Premier Et La Horde's album 'Ennemi Public N°1' (1989). The subject of a biography 'Aguigui Mouna, Gueule ou Crève' (2004) by Cabu Cavanna and Anne Galois.

1917 - Ivan Aguéli (John Gustaf Agelii; b. 1869), Swedish anarchist, animal rights activist, painter and Sufi, is killed on a village railway crossing at L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, near Barcelona. [see: May 24]

1920 - Inés Ajuria de la Torre (d. 2007), Basque militant anarcho-syndicalist, born in Guernica where her mother and a brother were killed in the infamous fascist bombing. She enter the libertarian movement shortly after the crushing of the revolution, when she met Francisco Martinez de Lahidalga, a member of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) y de la Federación Ibèrica de las Juventudess Libertarias (FIJL) and her future partner, moved to Guernica. Fed up with the persistent arrests and persecution, at the end of 1946 they fled to France on foot through the Pyrenees. They lived in Paris until 1951; in Chile, between 1951 and 1957; in Uruguay, between 1957 and 1964; and again in Paris. In 1975, shortly before Franco's death, they returned to the mainland, settling in Vitoria, where they played an important role in the reconstruction of the CNT between 1976 and 1977, as members of the initial group, with Macario Illera, Vicente Cuesta, Atanasio Gainzarain, Miguel Iniguez, Manuel Gutierrez, José María Izquierdo, among others. During the decade of the 80s, after the death of her partner, she participated in the Asociación Isaac Puente. Always affiliated to the CNT, Inés Ajuria de la Torre died on August 4, 2007 in Vitoria (Alava, Basque Country) and two days later she was buried in the city's El Salvador cemetery with her CNT membership card in the coffin and the red and black flag on top.

1925 - The first issue of the newspaper 'L'Éveil des Jeunes Libertaires', "Organe de la Fédération des Jeunesses Anarchistes", is published in Paris. The editors of the publications are Louis Louvet and Simone Larcher. A dispute breaks out between the Fédération des Jeunesses Anarchiste and the Union Anarchiste and the publication ceases after seven issues, to be replaced with 'L'Anarchie'.

1926 - Plácida Aranda Yus, Spanish anarchist who was a member of the FIJL in the 1950s and a member of the arts collective Iberia in Toulouse, which specialised in perfoming plays, born. Partner of the anarcho-syndicalist militant José Luis Sos Yagüe and the couple's apartment served refuge and arms depot for the Moviment Popular de Resistència – Comitè d'Ajuda a la Resistència Espanyola (MPR-CARE) and the Defensa Interior (DI). On September 11, 1963, she and José Luis were arrested and charged with having raised money in support of Jordi Conill Valls, then facing death for causing explosions outside three official buildings in the Catalan capital and in the Valle de los Caídos (Valley of the Fallen). In 1965 she helped organise the Congreso Intercontinental de Federaciones Locales of the CNT in exile held in Montpelier. On April 6, 1968, the French government opened expulsion proceedings against her and other anarchists including José Luis Sos, Josep Peirats and Makno Cuevas, but the case was eventually dropped.

1927 - The first issue of the fortnightly Italian language anarchist newspaper 'La Lotta Umnana' (The Human Struggle) is published in Paris by the Italian anarchist refugees Ugo Fedeli , Luigi Fabbri and Torquato Gobbi.

1927 - At the Rawson Hospital in Buenos Aires, anarchists expropriators Miguel Arcangel Roscigna and the brothers Andres Vazquez Paredes and Vicente Antonio Moretti, attack a payroll delivery. The police escort is mortally wounded before he can draw his weapon and the anarchists seize the briefcase containing 141,000 pesos.

1934 - Revolución de 1934: The 1933 elections in Spain had seen a massive victory delivered to the right, represented by the Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas (CEDA), a coalition of largely Catholic conservative groups and Monarchists. Led by José María Gil-Robles, the CEDA soon allied itself with the close runner up of the elections, the Radical Republican Party, led by Alejandro Lerroux.
Pushing Lerroux into the position of prime minister so as not to offend liberal sensibilities in the Constiuent Cortes (many liberals were wary of the often ultra-reactionary platitudes of Robles), the CEDA and the Radical Party soon found themselves embroiled in internal strife. Finding itself the focus of these disputes, the Lerroux cabinet soon collapsed on itself, only to be replaced by another Radical, Ricardo Samper.
Continuing until the next year, the conflict within the coalition soon came to a head with the opening of the Cortes on October 1, 1934. After having denied cabinet positions to the CEDA for nearly a year, the Radical Party saw the Samper government collapse after a campaign of intense pressure from the right. Asked to form a new cabinet by the president, Lerroux had no choice but to give three ministries to the CEDA. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1936 - The first issue of the newspaper 'Frente Libertario', "Organo de las milicias confederales", is published in Madrid by the Defence Committee of the Central Region. Initially printed 3 times a week, it goes daily from Dec. 6, 1936. The anarcho-syndicalist newspaper is published by José García Pradas in collaboration with Mauro Bajatierra, and 40,000 copies are distributed free of charge to the fighters at the front.

1951 - Karel Teige (b. 1900), Czech graphic artist, photographer, typographer and "poet-anarchist", dies. [see: Dec. 13]

1962 - Kidnap of Spanish Vice-Consul Isu Elias: The anarchists amongst the kidnappers send a press statement to the ANSA agency:
"Young people of the free world can not ignore the crimes committed by the Franco government against the freedom and lives of the poor Spanish. The kidnapping was organized to draw the attention of world public about the sad fate of the three young anarchists sentenced to Barcelona. Our goal is to arouse the honest and democratic people of the world, a movement of moral and material solidarity against the Spanish people. We issue, as promised, the Vice-Consul, to show that our methods are not as those using Franco and his Falangist police. Milan, 1st of October."
[original Italian: Comunicato della Fijl (Feceración Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias):
"I giovani del mondo libero non possono ignorare i crimini che commette il governo franchista contro la libertà e la vita dei poveri spagnoli. Il sequestro è stato organizzato per richiamare l'attenzione dell'opinione pubblica mondiale riguardo alla triste sorte dei tre giovani anarchici condannati a Barcellona. Nostro obbiettivo è quello di suscitare alle persone oneste e democratiche del mondo intero, un moto di solidarietà morale e materiale nei confronti del popolo spagnolo. Rilasciamo, come promesso, il viceconsole, per dimostrare che i nostri metodi non sono come quelli che utilizzano Franco e la sua polizia falangista. Milano, 1º di ottobre."]

1964 - Andrey Konstantinovich Isayev (Андре́й Константи́нович Иса́ев), Russian history teacher, anarcho-syndicalist trade union activist, and later social democrat, Deputy and one of the leaders of the United Russia (Единая Россия) faction in the State Duma, born.

## 1968 - Laura Quilter, US "librarian, lawyer, information law and policy geek, computer geek, feminist SF fan, atheist, anarchist, queer, parent", born.

[E] 2011 - At a Voina lecture, members Nadezhda Tolokonnikova and Yekaterina Samutsevich play a recording of the song 'Ubey seksista' [Убей сексиста](Kill the Sexist) by "a new Russian punk band called Pussy Riot".
1461 - Poet François Villon is freed from prison. His crime is not known, but is supposed to have been church-robbing. Villon owed his release to a general amnesty at the accession of King Louis XI. He had also killed a priest 6-years previously during a brawl.

1866 - Anne de Koe (d. 1941), Dutch architect, Tolstoyan Christian, anarcho-communist and director of Vereniging Ons Huis in Rotterdam, born in Lemmer.

1866 - [N.S. Oct. 14] Louise Louis (d. unknown), Russian anarchist militant and maid, born in Oriol. In the early 1890s she and her companion, the Russian anarchist Nikolai Nikitin, lived in Levallois-Perret, Ile de France. On September 23, 1893 both were expelled from France and took refuge in London. The following year they appeared on the anarchist watch-lists of the French border railway police.

1883 - Louis Laurent (d. 1972), French libertarian militant and revolutionary trade unionist, member of the Revolutionary Anarchist Union and the Anarchist Federation of Languedoc in the 30s, born. Helped publish various libertarian journals, worked with league of conscientious objectors and the CGT-SR (revolutionary trade union). Helped found 'Le Libertaire' in 1968.

1913 - End of the First International Syndicalist Congress in London.

1915 - José Pérez Montes (d. 1947), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist who fought in the Civil War and helped organising the clandestine resistance, born.

1919 - Shirley Clarke (d. 1997), American independent filmmaker who studied under Hans Richter, born. Her best known films include 'Skyscraper' (1960); 'The Connection' (1961), based on Jack Gelber's play by about heroin-addicted jazz musicians; 'Robert Frost: A Lover's Quarrel With the World' (1963) and her last film, 'Ornette: Made in America' (1985).
"I was once a member of the Communist Party when I was very young. I was always that kind of person: always involved. I did the early marches against the atom bomb. We'd take petitions to ban the bomb to the factories after the World War II. Basically, I am against the establishment, the state. I'm an anarchist, I've finally decided. But an anarchist in a somewhat gentle way. I'll go on a march, but I'm not going to bomb something. To me, a kind of society that would work has to be anarchistic. We have to survive: I help you and you help me."

1936 - The Central Anti-Fascist Militias Committee (CAMC), originally founded on July 21, 1936 in Catalonia, is wound up.

[B] 1941 - John Sinclair, American poet, one-time manager of the band MC5, anarchist and co-founder of the White Panther Party, born. Involved with the Detroit underground newspaper, 'Fifth Estate', in the late '60s and as a jazz writer for Down Beat (1964-65). Managed the proto-punk band MC5 (1966-69), the only band who managed to perform at the free concert outside the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago before riot police broke up the anti-Vietnam war rally. In 1969 he was sentenced to 10 years in prison for selling two Joints to an undercover cop. His imprisonment became a cause célèbre, sparking protests which culminated in the landmark John Sinclair Freedom Rally at Ann Arbor's Crisler Arena in December 1971.
A poet, he has performed and recorded his spoken word pieces with his band The Blues Scholars alongside the MC5's Wayne Kramer, as well as recording his poems with various jazz ensembles.

1943 - Franklin Rosemont (d. 2009), American anarchist, poet, artist, street speaker, co-founder of the Chicago Surrealist Group and historian of anarchist movement, born.
"I am a revolutionary mammal, an alchemical atheist, and an aquatic-aerial anarchist as well as a poet."

1944 - Benjamin Fondane or Benjamin Fundoianu (born Benjamin Wechsler, Wexler or Vecsler; b. 1898), Romanian-born French poet, critic and existentialist philosopher, also noted for his work in film and theatre, dies. [see: Nov. 14]

1947 - Ward LeRoy Churchill, American author and political activist, born. [expand]

1953 - Émilie Busquant (b. 1901), French feminist, militant anarcho-syndicalist and anti-colonial activist who was partner of the Algerian nationalist leader Messali Hadj. helped design and actually sewed the first Algerian national flag, dies in Algiers. [see: Mar. 3]

## 1954 - Julie McCrossin, Australian radio broadcaster, journalist, comedian, political commentator, anarcha-feminist and gay rights activist, born.

1962 - Kidnap of Spanish Vice-Consul Isu Elias: Following the commuting of Jorge Conill Valls’ death sentence to 30 years in prison, the kinappers release Isu Elias. [see: Sep. 29]

1968 - Marcel Duchamp (b. 1887), French-American artist, painter, sculptor, writer, chess player and individualist anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 28]

1978 - Demetrio Urruchúa (b. 1902), Argentinian painter, printmaker, muralist, libertarian and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Apr. 19]

1991 - Henry Le Fèvre (b. 1894), French vegetarian, pacifist, anarchist and publisher of 'Le Néo Naturien', "revue des idées philosophiques et naturiennes", dies. [see: Feb. 22]
[B] 1867 - Pierre Bonnard (d. 1947), French Post-Impressionist painter and printmaker, and a founding member of Les Nabis, born. Despite a youthful flirtation with anarchism as a student, having a number of active anarchist friends and colleagues such as Félix Fénéon and Félix Vallotton, and his works appearing in a number of anarchist and anarchist associated publications, Bonnard was never active within the movement in France.

1881 - Louis Bara (or Barra; d. unknown), French anarchist, anti-militarist and trades union activist, born.

1896 - William Morris (b. 1834), English utopian socialist, poet, artist, designer, printer and founder of the Arts and Crafts Movement, dies. Best known for 'News From Nowhere' (1890).

1905 - Hirabayashi Taiko (平林 たい子; d. 1972), pen-name of Hirabayashi Tai (平林タイ), Japanese fiction writer, feminist and one-time anarchist, born.

1909 - Lois Waisbrooker (b. 1826), American anarchist and feminist author, novelist, editor, publisher, spiritualist and campaigner on birth control, women's rights and free speech, dies. [see: Feb. 21]

1920 - The dissident 'minorité révolutionnaire' within the Confédération Générale du Travail, which included members of the Section Française de l'Internationale Communiste (soon to reconstitute itself as the PCF), anarcho-syndicalists and others wishing to join the Profintern, the Red International of Labour Unions (Красный интернационал профсоюзов), form the Comités Syndicalistes Révolutionnaires, the forerunner of the Confédération Générale du Travail Unitaire.

1923 - Simón Gracia Fleringán aka 'Miguel Montllor' & 'Aniceto Borrel' (d. 1950), Zaragozan anarchist member of the 'Los Maños' guerilla group in the resistance to Franco following the fascist victory in the Civil War, born. [expand]

1936 - The first issue of the weekly newspaper of the C.N.T.-F.A.I. 'Via Libre' is published in Badalona, near Barcelona. Sixty-nine issues of the anarcho-syndicalist periodical appear up til 10 February 1938.

1947 - John Perry Barlow, American poet, essayist, former lyricist for the Grateful Dead, cyber-libertarian and founding member of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, born. Has on many occasions declared his adherence to anarchism.

1962 - Kidnap of Spanish Vice-Consul Isu Elias: Following a tip-off from a Communist journalist, kidnappers Gianfranco Pedron, Alberto Tomiolo, Luigi Gerli and Vittorio De Tassis are arrested, together with 3 journalists. Amedeo Bertolo escapes and takes refuge in Paris. [see: Sep. 29]

1981 - Walter Mehring (b. 1896), German-Jewish Expressionist poet and prose writer, anti-militarist and anarchist, who was one of the most prominent satirical authors in the Weimar Republic, dies. [expand] [see: Apr. 29]

## 1988 - Anarchist and Occupy activist Joshua 'Skelly' Stafford, born. Skelly is one of the group known as the Cleveland 4 – along with fellow defendants Douglas Wright, Brandon Baxter and Connor Stevens [a fifth person, Anthony Hayne, had cooperated with the prosecution in return for a lighter sentence – who had fallen victim to state entrapment, where the government creates a terrorist plot and then foils their own plot and then a jury convicts the government created "terrorists". Connor, Doug, and Brandon took non-cooperating plea deals and pled guilty to all charges. The judge applied a "terrorist enhancement" charge to each of them, increasing their sentences as well as subjecting them to harsher prison conditions. Doug received an 11.5 year sentence, Brandon 9 years 9 months, and Connor 8 years 1 month, all with life probation. Hayne got 6 years with life probation.
Skelley chose to go to trial, acting as his own lawyer. In response, the FBI offered him a non-cooperating plea deal with a 3 year sentence, if he would plead guilty. Josh refused. Totally out of depth in court, he was found guilty on all counts by the jury 10 years in prison and life probation for his involvement in a terrorist plot to blow up a bridge near Cleveland, even though he played the most minimal role in the fabricated conspiracy.

1993 - Katerina Gogou (Κατερίνα Γώγου; b. 1940), Greek anarchist poet, author and actress, dies. [see: Jun. 1]

2010 - Claude Lefort (b. 1924) French philosopher and libertarian socialist member of Socialisme ou Barbarie, dies in Paris aged 86 years old. [see: Apr. 21]
##1816 - Eugène Edine Pottier (d. 1887), French transport worker, anarchist, poet, Freemason, member of the municipal council during the Paris Commune and author of the poem 'L'Internationale', which became the anthem of the AIT, born.

1837 - Jean-François Varlet (b. 1764), French revolutionary considered by many an anarchist precursor, involved with Les Enragés faction in the French Revolution, dies. [see: Jul. 14]

[C] 1864 - ERROR

1879 - The first edition of Johann Most's 'Freheit' is published in London.

1883 - The III Congreso de la FTRE convened in Valencia [Oct. 4-8], held in the shadow of the La Mano Negra trial in Jerez de la Frontera, give dramatic evidence of the knock-on effects that the illegalistas' campaign were having on the movement, with attendance down on the previous one held in Seville: 152 delegates representing 88 local Federations and 62 trade sections - out of a total of 14 regional federations, 218 local federations and 550 sections. The congress involve a confrontation between the supporters of maintaining the Federation within a legal framework and those who thought that 'legality' left them under the control of a government who imprisoned and tortured them. There remained a serious threat that they might have to dissolve the organisation if they could not continue to operate 'legally'.

1884 - The first issue of the anarchist newspaper 'The Alarm', paper of the International Working People's Association, is published in Chicago by Richard and Lucy Parsons.

[BB] 1884 - Jun Tsuji (辻 潤; d. 1944), Japanese individualist anarchist, avant garde writer, Dadaist poet, essayist, playwright, editor, translator, teacher, nihilist, epicurean, shakuhachi musician, actor, feminist and bohemian, born. Later known as Ryūkitsu Mizushima. Initially a Tolstoyan Humanist influenced by Shūsui Kōtoku's socialist anarchism became a fervent proponent of Stirnerite egoist anarchism and translated 'The Ego and Its Own' into Japanese. He married Noe Itō, who he had taught English. She was to leave him for his close friend Sakae Ōsugi.
Following what populalry became known as the 'Tengu Incident', Jun was institutionalised in 1932 in a psychiatric hospital and eventually became a Buddhist monk. He was later depicted a film biography, 'Erosu Purasu Gyakusatsu' (Eros + Massacre; 1969), directed by Yoshishige Yoshida. Amongst his works are 'Dada no Hanashi' (Dada Talk; 1922), his own introduction to Dada, and his Dadaist play 'Death of an Epicurean' (「享楽主義者の死」 / Kyōraku-shugi-sha no Shi). He also wrote one of the prologues for famed feminist poet Hayashi Fumiko's 'I Saw a Pale Horse' (『蒼馬を見たり』 / Ao Uma wo Mitari; 1929).

[B] 1891 - Henri Gaudier-Brzeska (d. 1915), French anarchist, sculptor, painter and draughtsman associated with the Vorticists, born. [expand]

1893 - Emma Goldman appears in court [Oct. 4-9] on charges stemming from her Aug. 21 speech to about three thousand people in Union Square, NY, where, speaking in German and English, she repeated her belief that workers have a right to take bread if they are hungry, and to demonstrate their needs "before the palaces of the rich". Defended by ex-mayor of New York A. Oakey Hall, she denies speaking the words attributed to her by police detectives who monitored her speech. The jury finds Goldman guilty of aiding and abetting an unlawful assemblage. On October 16 she is sentenced to Blackwell's Island penitentiary for one year.

1893 - Francesco Ghezzi (d. 1942), Italian individualist anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who died in a Soviet gulag, born. [expand]

1901 - Renée Lamberet (Jeanne Renée Yvonne Lamberet; d. 1980), French professor of history and geography, activist and anarchist historian, born. Lamberet collaborated with Max Nettlau. Went to Spain during the Revolution of 1936, helping to produce libertarian propaganda for the CNT and was involved in helping organise various collectivisations. At this time she met her companion Bernardo Pou-Riera. After the fascist victory, Lamberet supported clandestine anarchist activity in France and Spain during the occupation. Wrote 'Mouvements Ouvriers et Socialistes' (1953) and 'La Première Internationale en Espagne 1868-1888' (1969). Died in 1980 before completing an anarchist biographical dictionary. [expand]

1902 - Lucien Tronchet (d. 1982), Swiss anarchist and trade unionist whose anti-fascist activities landed him in prison, born. As a youngster, he joined FOBB (Federation of Wood and Building Workers) with Clovis Abel Pignat. Tronchet went to Spain in 1936 with Luigi Bertoni to fight with the anarchists against Franco. Following WWII, he was an active militant trade unionist, and fought for abortion rights, anti-militarism and the creation of co-operatives. Supported the squatters movement in Geneva. Tronchet wrote the biography of his friend, Clovis Pignat, 'Une Vocation Syndicale Internationale' (1971).

1928 - Jacques Gross (b. 1855), French anarchist, freethinker, Freemason and member of the Jura Federation, dies.

[DD / F] 1934 - Revolución d'Octubre de 1934: Following the massive victory of the right in the November 19, 1933 elections in Spain, the close runners-up the Partido Republicano Radical (Radical Republican Party), led by Alejandro Lerroux y García, formed a loose alliance with the winners, the recently formed Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas (CEDA; Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups), a coalition of largely Catholic conservative groups and Monarchists led by José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones, and which would progressively begin to ape the NSDAP. Lerroux was appointed Prime Minister and the PRR filled all the government posts as the liberals in the Cortes clearly would not accept Robles and his grouping, with its expressed aim of defending Spain and "Christian civilization" from Marxism. However, the CEDA-PRR alliance soon found itself embroiled in internal strife and the Lerroux cabinet soon collapsed. It was replaced by another one drawn from the PRR and led by Ricardo Samper. When the Cortes opened on October 1, 1934, it too fell under right-wing pressure and CEDA ended up with 3 ministries. The new cabinet then proceeded to suspended most of the reforms of the previous Manuel Azaña government.
The immediate response of the left was for the socialists of the Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE), and its industrial wing, the Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT), to propose a Popular Front-style alliance of leftist parties and workers organisations of Spain under the guise of the Alianza Obrera (Workers Alliance). The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo demurred, unlike in Asturias where such an alliance, the Uníos Hermanos Proletarios (UHP; Union of Proletarian Brothers or Unite! Proletarian Brothers) aka Uníos Hijos del Proletariado (Unite! Children of the Proletariat) had been formed in February 1934. The UGT called a general strike, to begin on the evening of October 4, in the name of the Alianza Obrera and, despite the CNT's declared non-involvement, numerous CNT workers centres across Catalonia were raided on the 3rd, with hundreds of anarchist militants being taken away by the police. Efforts to reopen union buildings by force in Barcelona were repelled by armed groups of escamots, the paramilitary youths of the Esquerra, Catalonia's leading nationalist party. Disenchanted with the strike and suffering repeated attacks from the police, the CNT ordered its members back to work, forcing the collapse of the strike in Catalonia.
The strike was not faring much better in other parts of the country. Owing to poor coordination and swift police action, the entire socialist leadership had been arrested in Madrid before the strike could take off. Following this, the poorly armed CNT workers in the capital were left largely to their own devices. Repeated attacks from the police and the unwillingness of the socialist committees to coordinate effectively forced them back to work. A suspicious interception by government troops of much needed arms heading towards Madrid only added to CNT mistrust towards the socialists.
While the strike was falling apart across Spain, in the mining towns of Asturias things were very different. Having negotiated the Pacto CNT-UGT de Asturias and formed the UHP, the high levels of cooperation between miners of both organisations led to a much more successful outcome. By nightfall on the 4th, miners had occupied towns along the Aller and Nalón rivers, attacking and seizing local Civil and Assault Guard barracks. The following day saw columns of the miners advancing along the road to Oviedo, the provincial capital. With the exception of two barracks where fighting with government troops continued, the city was taken by October 6. The following days saw many outlying towns captured amidst heavy fighting, including the large industrial centre of La Felguera.
In these liberated areas it quickly became clear that practical cooperation between the CNT and UGT would be difficult, with the UGT leadership wanting to retain full control over its strongholds, freezing out CNT involvement despite the willingness of UGT rank-and-file workers to cooperate with their counterparts in the CNT. As a result, on October 7 delegates from the anarchist controlled seaport towns of Gijón and Avilés arrived in Oviedo requesting urgently needed weapons to defend against a landing of government troops sent by Generals Manuel Goded and Francisco Franco. The socialists in Oviedo ignored their pleas and they returned empty handed. Gijón and Avilés fell the next day. Constant attacks out of the two ports over the coming week sealed the fate of Asturias, and the uprising was savagely crushed by the Spanish Navy and the Spanish Republican Army, the latter using mainly Moorish troops from Spanish Morocco. 3,000 miners had been killed in the fighting, and another 35,000 taken prisoner during the wave of repression that followed.

1935 - Francisco Granado Gata (d. 1936), Spanish metalworker, anarcho-syndicalist member of the FIJL and CNT, born. During his military service he was diagnosed with leukemia and hospitalised. In 1960 he left for France and settled in Alès, where he worked as a blacksmith. Knowing that he had little time left to live because of his leukemia, he decided to participate in the anti-Franco action groups. In the summer of 1963 he went to Spain with the intention of preparing an attack against Franco in San Sebastien. Arrested in Madrid with Joaquin Delgado Martinez on 31 July, they were accused of having participated in an attack against the headquarters of the Police (DGS), an action which was actually carried out by two other militants, Antonio Martin and Sergio Bellido Hernandez. Despite an international campaign of protest, Francisco Granado Gata and Joaquin Delgado were both sentenced to death and garrotéd on August 16, 1963.

## 1937* - Vladimir Sergeevich Shatov [Влади́мир Серге́евич Ша́тов], aka 'Big Bill' Shatov (b. 1888), Russian anarcho-syndicalist, Wobbly, railway worker and head of the construction of the Turkestan-Siberian Railway (Туркестано-Сибирской железной дороги), is shot by the NKVD. [see: Jan. 5]
[* Some sources claim that he died in prison in 1943]

1939 - Under provisions of Canada's War Measures Act, three Italian immigrant anarchists, Arthur Bortolotti (aka Attilio Bortolotti, Arthur Bartell), Ruggero Benvenuti, Ernest Gava, and a Cuban, Marco Joachim, are arrested for possession of antifascist "subversive literature", including anarchist classics.

1941 - René Bianco (d. 2005), French anarchist activist and historian, free-thinker and Freemason, born.

1943 - The Alianza Obrera (Workers Alliance) de Cataluña calls for a general strike, which quickly spreads across the country lasting in Madrid, for example, for 9 days. CNT members support the strike in various places despite their non-membership of the Alliance. At the same time the separatist movement was flexing its muscles. The Catalan government armed its supporters and they chased many CNT workers out of their offices and places of work by force of arms. The same day the Catalan minister of the interior ordered the arrest of a large number of well-known anarchists, hoping to prevent the CNT from 'interfering' in the strike and to intimidate it into supporting the separatist movement's cause. as the Alianza Obrera was already doing. The CNT released a statement saying that they supported the struggle against fascism but would not support party political aims or the separatists.

1961 - Max Weber (b. 1881), Jewish-American Cubist painter, poet, and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 18]

2005 - Fernando O'Neill Cuesta aka 'Zapicán', 'Finito' (b. 1924), Uraguayan revolutionary and historian of anarchism in Uruguay, who later became a member of the Tupamaros, dies. [see: Sep. 15]

2009 - Alfredo Bonanno is arrested with Greek anarchist Christos Stratigopolous in Trikala, central Greece on suspicion of having carried out an armed robbery in a local bank. [expand]
1713 - Denis Diderot (d. 1784), French essayist, philosopher and playwright, claimed to be a forebearer of anarchism, born.

1839 - Eugène Varlin (d. 1871, French bookbinder, labour activist, internationalist communard and libertarian, born. [expand]

1858 - Whilst exiled in Tomsk, Siberia, for his part in the Dresden uprising in 1849, Mikhail Bakunin marries Antonia Ksaverievna Kwiatkowska, the daughter of a Polish merchant.

1903 - Germinal Esgleas (Josep Esgleas i Jaume; d. 1981), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Companion of Federica Montseny.

1909 - The first issue of Pierre Monatte's 'La Vie Ouvrière' is published in Paris. Initially a fortnightly, it goes on to become the official weekly paper of the revolutionary CGT. Initially an anarchist and syndicalist journal in the period up til July 20 1914, anarchist continue to collaborate on it after WWI up til the early '20s. From then on it becomes a French Communist Party organ.

##1909 - Leopold Kohr (d. 1994), Austrian social philosopher, economist, lecturer and philosophical anarchist known both for his opposition to the "cult of bigness" in social organisation and as a proponent of the small is beautiful movement, born. His most influential work was 'The Breakdown of Nations' (1957).

[E] 1917 - The 'Mother Earth Bulletin' is published for the first time by a collective including Emma Goldman, her niece Stella Ballantine and M. Eleanor Fitzgerald.

1919 - Giliana Berneri (d. 1998), Franco-Italian anarchist activist, born. Daughter of Camillo Berneri and Giovannina Caleffi and sister of Marie-Louise Berneri.

##1923 - Stig Dagerman (d. 1954), Swedish playwright, novelist, poet and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1934 - Jean Vigo (b. 1934), French anarchist film-maker, dies. [see: Apr. 24]

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: The strike and the insurrection due to begin at midnight (Oct. 4-5) has been in preparation for months but, owing to poor coordination and swift police action, the entire socialist leadership is arrested in Madrid before the strike could take off. Following this, the poorly armed CNT workers in the capital are left largely to their own devices. Repeated attacks from the police and the unwillingness of the socialist committees to coordinate effectively force the workers back to work. A suspicious interception by government troops of much needed arms heading towards Madrid only adds to CNT mistrust towards the socialists. The Basque Country also took part with a week-long insurrection strike (Oct. 5-12), during which there were forty deaths (most of them insurgents). In Catalonia, with the labour sector of the alliance not having the CNT-FAI in its ranks, the uprising is barely noticed except in industrial towns like Sabadell. The strike, however, does take place even with the mass arrest of anarchists and CNT members.
While the strike is falling apart in Madrid and elsewhere across Spain, workers of the mining towns of Asturias are taking up what little arms they have, intent on carrying the strike through. The province had long been a UGT stronghold, although the CNT also exercised a considerable influence of its own. Widely seen as being on the moderate wing of the union, the Asturian CNT has for many years been at the forefront of calls for CNT-UGT collaboration. The lack of antagonism (in comparison to relations between the unions in other parts of the country), and history of common action in Asturias results in high levels of cooperation between miners of both organisations during the insurrection.
Before dawn in Asturias, all the Guardia Civil barracks throughout the villages of the province are called upon to surrender, and then attacked. Despite fierce resistance, 40 of the 90 these fall to the insurgents. Once overcome, revolutionary groups are set up in Sama, La Felguera and Mieres and columns of miners (around 1,000) advance along the road to attack Oviedo, the provincial capital, where there had only been uprisings in one or two barrios, and where the government forces had seized strategic positions.
Attempts by the authorities through the advance of a company of police from the south runs into trouble in the vicinity of Campomanes and half their numbers are killed in a clash with workers. Resistance in this area around Vega del Rey also holds up a large military force for days.

[B] 1939 - A. R. Penck (aka Ralf Winkler), German painter, draughtsman, printmaker, sculptor, film maker, writer and musician, one-time East German dissident and "anarchist par excellence", born. He was the drummer in the Free Jazz/Improv band 'TTT' which he co-founded with Frank and Heinz Wollny and during the 1980s palyed with some of the foremost jazz and improvising musicians including Butch Morris, Frank Wright, Billy Bang, Louis Moholo, Alan Silva and Frank Lowe.
[ [discog]]

1947 - Giuseppe Emanuele Modigliani (b. 1872), Italian anarchist, socialist, trades union organiser, pacifist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Oct. 28]

1949 - Madeleine Vernet (Madeleine Cavelier; b. 1878), French libertarian educator, novelist, feminist, peace activist and propagandist, dies. [see: Sep. 3]

1955 - Josep Lluís Pons Llobet, aka 'Queso', militant anarchist member of Movimiento Ibérico de Liberación (Moviment Ibèric d'Alliberament) and later helicopter pilot, born in Barcelona. During the course 1971-1972, Whilst studying the University Orientation Course (Curs d'Orientació Universitària) at the Institut Milà i Fontanals in Barcelona (1971-72), he was active in the Joventuts Universitàries Revolucionàries (Revolutionary University Youth) and was expelled for his part in various student struggles. In 1972 he established contacts with the clandestine MIL and, at the beginning of 1973, he joined its Grups Autònoms de Combat (Autonomous Combat Groups), actively participating in bank robberies: September 14, 1972 at the Caixa de Ahorros de Bellver de Cerdanya (1,000,000 pesetas); November 18, 1972 at the La Caixa branch of Escorial Street in Barcelona (169,000 pesetas); January 19, 1973 at the Caixa d'Estalvis Provincial de Barcelona (658,000 ptas.); January 27, 1973 at a branch of the Bank of Vizcaya (2,500,000 pesetas); March 2, 1973 in a branch of the Hispanic-American Bank (300,000 pesetas); June 6, 1973 at a branch of the Bank of Bilbao (244,000 pesetas), where he was severely wounded; June 19, 1973 at a branch of the Banco Español de Crédito (3,000,000 pesetas); and on September 5, 1973 at the Caja de Ahorros de Bellver de Cerdanya (580,000 pesetas).
Sought along side Oriol Solé Sugranyes by the Guardia Civil, he was arrested on September 17, 1973 in a forest near Alp, Baixa Cerdanya, Catalonia. The following day, his partner, María Angustias Mateos Fernández, was arrested at her home address. Two seperate couts-martial sentenced him to 51 years in prison and he was locked up with Solé Sugranyes in Segovia prison. On April 5, 1976, they both took part in the so-called 'Fuga de Segòvia' (Segovia Escape) with 27 members of Euskadi Ta Askatasuna and the Front d'Alliberament de Catalunya (Liberation Front of Catalonia), but was captured on September 17 in Auritz, Navarra, while Oriol was shot the next day by members of the Benemérita (i.e. Guardia Civil). He was placed in high security conciditions in San Antón de Cartagena prison, where he carried out a number of hunger strikes demanding an amnesty. In May 1977, he tried to stand as number two on the list of candidates for membership of the as number two of the candidacy list for Barcelona for the Congrés as part of the Unitat Popular pel Socialisme coalition Popular Unit for Socialism, although he did not share his its political line at all, in order to expedite the amnesty, during the first post-Franco elections due to take place on June 15 that year. However, it was officially declared that prisoners were not eligible. On July 17 that year, he was finally released thanks to the 1977 general amnesty decree. When he left prison he began to study journalism, but left during his second year, going on to work as a helicopter pilot instead.

## 1957 - Abraham Yehudah Khein (אברהם יהודה חן; b. 1878), Ukrainian-Israeli Hasidic Rabbi, writer and pacifist anarchist, dies in the Ziv Hospital in Jerusalem. Best known for his three-volume collection of essays, 'במלכות היהדות' (In the Kingdom of Judaism)

1996 - A day of cultural activities to mark the 120th anniversary of the death of Michael Bakunin is held in Locarno, Switzerland. The day is organised by the city's Department of Museums and Culture, in collaboration with the Monte Verita Foundation and the Ministry of Education and Culture.

2010 - Bernard Clavel (b. 1923), French novelist, poet, essayist, anarchist and pacifist, dies. [see: May 29]
1876 - Attilio Sassi, aka 'Bestione' (d. 1957), Italian bricklayer, miner, anarcho-syndicalist and revolutionary trade union organiser, who was persecuted by the fascist regime, founder with Giuseppe Di Vittorio of the Unione Sindacale Italiana in 1912 and national director of the CGIL after WWII, born.

1889 - The first issue of the Italian language weekly newspaper 'L'Associazione' is published by Errico Malatesta in Nice. From issue 4 (Nov. 30, 1889) it is published in London but ceases publication on Jan. 23, 1890 after 7 issues.

1893 - Paulino Pallas (b. 1862), Catalonian militant anarchist, is executed by firing squad at Fort Montjuic for the attempted assassination of Commander General (military governor) of Catalonia, General Arsenio Martínez Campos, during a military parade in the Gran Via in Barcelona on September 24, 1893.

1894 - A new initiative to have the prison sentence of Alexander Berkman commuted is launched by Emma Goldman.

1897 - The first issue of Zo Axa's newspaper 'La Feuille' makes it début in Paris. It will be illustrated front and back by a number of talented artists including René Hermann-Paul, Maximilien Luce, Théophile Steinlen, Adolphe Willette, etc.

[B] 1900 - Ethel Edith Mannin (d. 1984), Irish novelist, journalist, travel writer anti-imperialist, 'Tolstoyan anarchist', anti-fascist activist, anti-Stalinist, feminist, and anti-militarist, born. Her writing career began in copy-writing and journalism but she later became a prolific author and novelist (100 plus books published in her lifetime), encompassing many aspects of anarchism and feminism as well as her travel writing. A member of the Solidaridad Internacional Antifascista, taking over Emma Goldman's as the London SIA representative, she listed Bart de Ligt and A. S. Neill as thinkers who influenced her ideas. Amongst her works were her biography of Emma Goldman, 'Red Rose: A Novel based on the Life of Emma Goldman' (1941); her first (of 6) autobiographical volumes 'Confessions and Impressions' (1930), one of the first Penguin paperbacks; 'Song of the Bomber' (1936), a book of poetry whose title poem was written in response to the fascist bombing raids during the Spanish Revolution; 'Spain and Us' (with J.B. Priestley, Rebecca West, Stephen Spender, Francis Meynell, Louis Golding, T. F. Powys, J. Langdon-Davies, Catherine Carswell; 1936); 'Against Race-Hatred and for a Socialist Peace' (with Richard Acland, Vera Brittain, G. D. H. Cole, Victor Gollancz, Augustus John, James Maxton and J. B Priestley; 1940); 'Bread and Roses: An Utopian Survey and Blue-Print' (1944); 'Rebels' Ride. A Consideration of the Revolt of the Individual' (1964); 'Jungle Journey: 7000 Miles through India and Pakistan' (1950); etc..
Ethel Mannin died on December 5, 1984 in Teignmouth, Devon.

1901 - Les Travailleurs de la Nuit robbery at Bourdin's jewelers in an apartment on the 4th floor of the building located at 76 rue Quincampoix in Paris. They enter through a hole in the ceiling, break into the safe and completely empty it. Six days later, the rogatory commission launched by Judge Joseph Leydet claims that the booty carried away by thieves amounted to 121,486 francs.

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: Oviedo is taken by the insurgents, with the exception of sites such as two barracks and an arms factory, where fighting with government troops continues. The Repubblica Socialista Asturiana is proclaimed in the city.
The following days see the capture of many outlying towns amidst heavy fighting, including the large industrial centre of La Felguera. Many of these also see the formation of town assemblies or 'revolutionary committees', and it is in these bodies that practical differences between the socialists and anarchists become apparent. In areas under CNT control, popular assemblies of industrial workers (or peasants in rural areas) are formed, organising such things as food distribution. In contrast, areas under socialist control are characterised by highly centralised committees which keep any decision making largely in the hands of the local UGT bureaucracy. Often excluding CNT delegates to their committees, the determination of the socialist leadership to keep the strike strictly under their control significantly contributes to the defeat of the revolt in Asturias. Despite this, the willingness of UGT rank-and-file workers to cooperate with their counterparts in the CNT is demonstrated continuously throughout the uprising.
In the south of the province, a significant contingent of army troops arrived, forcing groups of insurgents to fall back towards Vega del Rey, after destroying the railway line. Campomanes saw the arrival of a battalion Infantry Regiment No. 36, based on Leon; a section of rifles of the No. 12 Lugo Infantry Regiment and a Palencia cyclist battalion consisting of 400 men. By sundown, revolutionary forces had seized key positions on the higher areas around Vega del Rey overlooking the railway and highway, and government forces led by General Bosch had fallen into a trap from which they would not be able to extracate themselves for days. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1934 - Revolución de 1934: Following the mass arrest of anarchists and anarcho-syndicalists on the 3rd in advance of the general strike called by the UGT for the evening of October 4, in various parts of Barcelona, the CNT takes matters into their own hands and start to reopen union branch offices and halls that the police had closed 10 months previously. Armed groups of escamots, the paramilitary youths of the Esquerra, Catalonia's leading nationalist party, and the police then attacked the barnches, forcing the syndicalists to withdraw. [see: Oct. 4]

1934 - Revolución de 1934: During the evening and night, rebels take control of the town of Alguazas in Mucia, seizing the central Teléfonos y Telégrafos building and arresting at gunpoint the civil and ecclesiastical authorities of the municipality. The revolutionaries then proclaimed a Socialist Republic and raised the red flag on the balcony of the town hall. [expand]

1945 - The founding congress of the Fédération Anarchiste (FA) begins in Paris.

1957 - Alphonse Tricheux (b. 1880), French militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and pacifist, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

[A] 1969 - Weathermen dynamite a statue of a policeman in Haymarket Square, Chicago in the run up to the Days Of Rage.

[A] 1970 - The rebuilt Haymarket police statue is blown up yet again by the Weather Underground.

1977 - The once monthly newspaper 'Le Monde Libertaire' goes weekly. [expand]

## 1979 - D.D. Johnston (Michael Darren David Johnston), Scottish labourer, dishwasher, nightclub bouncer, burger jockey, political novelist, University Teaching Fellow and a senior lecturer in Creative Writing at the University of Gloucestershire, and libertarian communist, born in Edinburgh.
##1820 - Edgar Bauer (d. 1886), German political philosopher and a member of the Young Hegelians, who is credited by German anarchists such as Max Nettlau and Gustav Landauer with founding the anarchist tradition in Germany, born. He also published under the pseudonyms of Martin von Geismar and Radge.

[B] 1864 - Victor Barrucand (d. 1934), French anarchist poet, musician, writer and journalist, born. A musician, he played the flute and oboe in Parisian cafés and frequent bohemian Paris. His meeting and subsequent friendship with Felix Fénéon is critical for his new commitment to art (especially his interest in the theatre) but also his anarchism, working on Zo Axa's newspaper 'L'Endehors' at the time. In 1893, he participated in the conference group l'Idée Nouvelle and is involved in the trial of Émile Henry. He also wrote Jean Grave's newspaper 'Les Temps Nouveaux' and launched in 1895, a national campaign for free bread for all measures deemed by some anarchists to be reformist (the idea was taken up in 1906 by Charles Dhooghe) . In 1897, he moved towards a socialist federalist position and in 1899 was one of the delegates of the Socialist Congress in Paris, as well as working at 'La Revue Blanche'. An ardent supporter of Dreyfus, he was sent to Algeria by the League of Human Rights to counter anti-Semitism. In 1902 he became editor of 'L'Akhbar' (The News) and a columnist for literary and artistic newspaper 'La Depeche Algerian'.
His poetry works include: 'Rythmes et Rimes à Mettre en Musique' (Rhythms and Rhymes Set to Music; 1886); 'Amour Idéal, Poème en Vingt-Quatre Sonnets' (Ideal Love, Poem in Twenty-Four Sonnets; 1889)
'Une Partie d'Échecs, Poème Scénique' (A chess game, scenic poem; 1889); a novel - 'Avec le Feu' (With Fire; 1900, reissued in 2005); plays - 'Pour le Roi' (1897); 'Le Chariot de Terre Cuite, 5 Actes d'Après la Pièce du Théâtre Indien Attribuée au Roi Soudraka' (The Chariot of terracotta; 1895) - an adaptation of Sanskrit Theatre; and journalism, etc.: 'D'un Pays Plus Beau : Afrique, Espagne, Italie, heures de France, Variations sur des Thèmes Étrangers...' (In a country more beautiful...; 1910) and 'L'Algérie et les Peintres Orientalistes' (Algeria and Orientalist Painters; 1930).

1879 - Joel Emmanuel Hägglund, better known as Joe Hill (d. 1915), Swedish-American labour organiser, folk-poet, songwriter and member of the Industrial Workers of the World, born. [expand]

1881 - The Comisión Federal of the Federación de Trabajadores de la Región Española is formed around the internationalist group from Barcelona that had taken the initiative to end FRE - Josep Llunas i Pujals , Rafael Farga Pellicer and Antoni Pellicer i Paraire - plus Francisco Tomás Oliver.

1900 - Leon Warnerke (Władysław Małachowski; b. 1837), Polish-Lithuanian engineer and inventor in the field of photography, revolutionary and highly successful anarchist forger of European banknotes, dies in Geneva – though rumours abounded that he had in fact faked his own death. [see: May 26]

1911 - Zapatista revolutionaries take Axochiapan, Morelos, from government forces during the Mexican Revolution.

1919 - Nicolas Thomassin (b. 1849), French weaver, socialist and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 24]

1931 - André Colomer (b. 1886), Catalonian poet and individualist anarchist, dies. [see: Dec. 4]

1933 - Charles Joseph Antoine 'Jo' Labadie (b. 1850), US labour activist, writer, poet, printer, non-violent individualist anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 18]

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: Delegates from the anarchist controlled seaport towns of Gijón (outside of which legionnaires and regular Army Africa troops commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Yagüe had landed) and Avilés arrive in Oviedo requesting urgently needed weapons to defend against a landing of government troops. Ignored by the socialist committee, the delegates returned to their town empty handed. Lacking even the basic arms needed to defend against the attacking troops, Gijón and Avilés fell the next day. Constant attacks out of the two ports over the coming week sealed the fate of Asturias, and the uprising was savagely crushed. 3,000 miners had been killed in the fighting, and another 35,000 taken prisoner during the wave of repression that followed. In Oviedo, the Northern Railways Police Headquarters, the Carabinieri barracks and the railway station fall to the insurgents. In the port of Avilés, the Agadir, a three thousand ton Basque merchant ship is sunk in the entrance to the Ria de Avilés to prevent the rumoured arrival of troops ships to launch an attack on Oviedo.
In the south, the military launch artillery attack on the rebel positions around Vega del Rey. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1945 - Gregor Gog (b. 1891), German anarchist, anti-militarist and founder of the FAUD-aligned international movement Bruderschaft der Vagabunden (Brotherhood of Vagrants), dies. [see: Nov. 7]

1968 - Ülo Voitka, Estonian anti-Soviet guerilla legend and proto-anarchist member of Metsavendlus Eestis (Forest Brothers), born. His brother is Aivar Voitka. The documentary 'Voitka - Metsän Veljet' (Warriors of Independence; 2004) directed by Pekka Lehto, was made about their exploits.

## 1977 - Gustav Doster, aka 'Gustl' (b. 1904), German metalworker, farmer, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, who organised underground anarchist networks under Nazism, fought in the Spanish Revolution, before going into exile in Sweden and becoming active in the Sveriges Arbetarens Centralorganisation, dies in Hallstavik, Sweden. [see: Nov. 17]

1977 - Eric McDavid, US green anarchist who was convicted of conspiring to use fire or explosives to damage corporate and government property, born.

1993 - Felix Carrasquer Launed (b. 1905), Spanish baker and pastry chef, anarchist pedagogue and anarcho-syndicalist militant, and writer known by the pen name Carles Launed, who lost his sight very young, but that did not stop him from continuing with cultural activities and social struggles, dies in Thil, near Tolosa in the Languedoc. [see: Nov. 4]

1995 - Gabriele 'Gabi' Kröcher-Tiedemann aka 'Nada' (b. 1951), German urban guerrilla, who was a member of the Bewegung 2. Juni (June 2 Movement) and the second generation Rote Armee Fraktion, dies of cancer, having undergone a series of operations in the previous three years following her diagnosis shortly after her release from prison. [see: May 18]

2014 - Félix Padín Gallo (b. 1916), Spanish construction worker, prominent anarcho-syndicalist, member of the Sindicato de la Construcción de Bilbao (Construction Union of Bilbao)and the JJ.LL., lieutenant of the Isaac Puente and Durruti battalions, dies in hospital in Miranda de Ebro. [see: Jul. 9]
1863 - Adolphe Tabarant (d. 1950), French libertarian socialist, journalist, writer and art critic, who wrote numerous studies on Impressionist painters and helped organise their exhibitions, born.

[B] 1872 - John Cowper Powys (d. 1963), Welsh novelist, essayist, poet and individualist anarchist, born. He was a long-term friend and correspondent of Emma Goldmann.

##1872 - Elisa Acuña y Rossetti (María Elisa Brígida Lucía Acuña Rosete; d. 1946), Mexican professor, journalist, revolutionary and anarcha-feminist, born.
With Juana Belén Gutiérrez de Mendoza, she launch the newspaper 'Fiat Lux'. Elisa Acuña was a member of the ‘Ponciano Arriaga’ Co-ordinating Centre of the Confederation of Liberal Clubs. Their paper becomes the official mouthpiece of the Women’s Mutual Society.

1883 - Eugene Gaspard Marin, aka Gassy Marin (d. 1969), Belgian painter decorator, typographer, libertarian, Esperantist, anthropologist and pioneer of the libertarian communities movement, who ended his days in the former Tolstoyan settlement of Whiteway, near Stroud, born.

1886 - Pierre Besnard (d. 1947), French railway worker and anarcho-syndicalist, who was co-founder and Secretary of the Confédération Générale du Travail-Syndicaliste Révolutionnaire (CGT-SR), prominent in the setting up in August 1936 of the Comité anarcho-syndicaliste pour la défense du prolétariat espagnol (which provided financial and material support to the CNT-FAI), became secretary of the Conference of these committees in October 1936 and later Secretary of the Association Internationale des Travailleurs, and co-founder of the Confédération Nationale du Travail in December 1946, born. [expand]

1893 - The first issue of the anarchist fortnightly 'L'Avenir', "Organe Ouvrier indépendant de la Suisse romande", is published in Geneva.

1897 - Antonio 'El Gallego' Soto Canalejo (d. 1963), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. He is the subject of Xan Leira's documentary film 'Patagonia Utopía Liberataria' (1998). [expand]

1901 - The opening of the Escuela Moderna (Modern School) in Barcelona by libertarian educator Francisco Ferrer. Strongly influenced by Paul Robin, Francisco Ferrer overcame many obstacles to open today a mixed primary with thirty students a school directly inspired by the integral education conducted at Cempuis. Three months later there were 86 students. This bold experiment in coeducation was considered a revolutionary heresy and, under the pretext of the bomb attack on the King by Mateo Morral, Ferrer was imprisoned and the school shut down in 1906. However, Ferrer's experiment would have a lasting worldwide influence on education.

1910 - Heinrich Friedetzky (d. 1998), German electrician and anarcho-syndicalist, who participated in the armed antifascist organisation Schwarze Scharen set up by Ratibor FAUD, fought in the Spanish Revolution, survived the Sachsenhausen and Ravensbrueck concentration camps, born.
[ friedetzky.jpg/view]

1917 - Andre Senez (d. 1998), French shoemaker and militant in the Jeunesse Anarchiste Communiste (Anarchist Communist Youth), born.

## 1927 - César Milstein (March 24, 2002), Anglo-Argentine chemist and youthful anarchist, winner of the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1984 for his research on monoclonal antibodies, born in Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: The troops holed up the La Vega arms factory quit their positions and retreat to the Pelayo barracks. The city's Guardia Civil barracks falls.
General López Ochoa (who would henceforth be known as 'el verdugo de Asturias' [the butcher of Asturias] and end up decapitated when captured during the Civil War in 1936) and his troops leave from Aviles en route to Oviedo, protected by 21 aircraft and with human shields, manacled prisoners in the front of the column (many of whom died, including the Socialist leader Bonifacio Martín).
In the south the military, at a distinct disadvantage with their inferior positions, are driven back in fierce fighting around Vega del Rey. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1936 - Suzanne Hans aka Suzanne Girbe (d. 1914), French anarchist and miliciana, dies alongside her partner Louis Recoule and a number of other comrades in the Centúria Sébastian Faure of the Columna Durruti, such as Émile Cottin and Pietro Ranieri, during the fascist offensive at Farlete [though it is possible that both she and Louis in fact died at Perdiguera eight days later]. [see: Apr. 3 & Oct. 16]

1936 - Émile Cottin (b. 1896), French carpenter-cabinet maker and militant anarchist who tried to assassinate Clémenceau in 1919, dies whilst fighting with the international group of the anarchist Durruti Column during the Spanish Revolution. [see: Mar. 14]

1939 - Nicolas Faucier is arrested, having been sentenced in absentia to two years in prison for "inciting soldiers to disobedience" (for the publication of anti-militarist articles in the journal 'SIA'). Still at large at the outbreak of war, he organised with Louis Lecoin the production of the first manifesto against war, the leaflet 'Paix Immédiate' (Immediate Peace). Following his arrest, he is also sentenced to three years in prison for insubordination after he had written on September 3 to the governor of Paris to inform him of his refusal to obey this mobilisation orders.

1943 - Otto Wolf (b. 1902), German labourer, Spartacist, anarcho-syndicalist and member of the FAUD underground, is amongst those members of the Wehrmacht's Strafdivision (Criminla Division) 999 punishment batallion, in which he and other political prisoners were drafted, killed when their transport is torpedoed in the Aegean Sea. [see: Mar. 1]

1963 - Remedios Varo (María de los Remedios Alicia Rodriga Varo y Uranga; b. 1908), Catalan-Mexican anarchist, anti-fascist and Surrealist painter, dies. [see: Dec. 16]

1966 - Célestin Freinet (b. 1896), French anarchist pacifist educator and Ferrer School activist, dies. [see: Oct. 15]

[D] 1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Second explosion at the London home of Attorney General, Sir Peter Rawlinson. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1970 - Jean Giono (b. 1895), French author (novels, poetry, essays, journalism, plays) and, like his Italian-born shoemaker-father, Jean-Antoine, he was a self-taught libertarian, dies. [see: Mar. 30]
1870 - The Jura Federation, the anti-authoritarian and anarchist section of the First International is founded at a meeting in Saint-Imier, Switzerland, of local sections of the IWA.

1880 - At its final meeting (9-10 October), in La Chaux-de-Fonds, the Jura Federation adopts an anarchist communist possition, as a "necessary consequence of the inevitability of the social revolution".

1896 - Celso Persici (d. 1988), Italian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, born.

[C] 1900 - Oscar Ihlebæk (d. 1945), Norwegian newspaper editor and resistance member, who died in Bergen-Belsen, born. Fired by the Nazis as editor-in-chief of the 'Bergens Arbeiderblad' newspaper, he was arrested in January 1943, he spent time in Espeland concentration camp before being moved to Grini concentration camp in May 1943. In the winter of 1943, he was sent to Germany moving from Sachsenhausen to Gross-Rosen concentration camp in December 1944. He was later transferred to Bergen-Belsen, where he died.

1905 - [O.S. Sep. 26] October All-Russian Political Strike [Октябрьская всероссийская политическая стачка]: Cossack soldiers open fire on protestors in Moscow; ten people die. All Moscow publishers have been shut down by strikes

##1907 - Jacobo Maguid, aka Jacinto Cimazo, 'Macizo' (d. 1997), Argentinean civil engineer, and anarchist writer and militant, born in Santa Fé, Argentina.

#### [B] 1908 - Harry Hooton (d. 1961), Australian poet, philosopher, anarchist, Wobbly and pacifist, who participated in the Sydney Push scene, is born in Doncaster, England. He arrived in Australia aged 16 in October 1924, with 59 other boys, as part of the Dreadnought Trust child migration scheme, part of the restrictive immigration policy known as the 'White Australia' policy. The boys worked on farms in the Outback from 7.30am to 5 pm, clearing land, milking, ploughing, etc. Hooton's first poetry began to be published in 1936, with his first self-financed book of poetry, 'These Poets', published in 1941 in a run of around 400 copies. 'Things You See When You Haven't Got A Gun' was also self-published two years later. His other verse was published as 'It is Great To Be Alive' (1961) and in 'Poet of the 21st Century - Collected Poems - Harry Hooton' (1990), in addition to appearing regularly in literary journals like 'Forward: A Australian Review', 'Bohemia', 'Pertinent', 'A Comment' and 'Meanjin Papers', as well as more mainstream publications like the Workers' Education Association's 'The Australian Highway' and the Australian Institute of Political Science's 'The Australian Quarterly'.
Hooton was at home in the post-war atmosphere of Sydney's intellectual circles, the 'Sydney Push', "Mecca of the Australian arts", where he formed a focus of opposition to the Libertarian Society and it's pro-Modernist poetics and, according to fellow poet Richard Appleton, "Hooton held that polemic was an art form and that all poetry should be didactic." Very much a bohemian, he corresponded with literary people and counter-culture figures across the world, including fellow anarchist Tuli Kupferberg of The Fugs.
Philosophically, he came up with the theory of Anarcho-technocracy, basically arguing that man must have power over things, including machines, but never over other men, and which was expounded in a series of essays and pamphlets: 'Anarcho - Technocracy. The Politics of Things' (four-page pamphlet; 1953), 'The Politics of Things' (1955 essay) and the U.S. collection 'Power Over Things' (1955). His philosophical treatise 'Militant Materialism', was never finished, though he did complete five of its eight chapters.
Sadly, during his lifetime his work was largely been dismissed by the critics, in terms such as: "an anarchist whose writings were without talent or coherent ideas"; "when we had read half-way through 'Things You See . . .' we had a crude impulse to put our hands to our ears and scream for God's sake, Harry, stop that noise" and "'Power Over Things' contains a few pages of alleged verse and a good deal of exclamatory prose in the interests of a new world theory Anarcho-Technocracy ... Anarchism with a Science Fiction face-lift", and even today he is seen by many as just another bohemian guru.
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1909 - Inside the Modelo prison in Barcelona, Francisco Ferrer appears before a court martial for his alleged responsibility in the Semaine Tragique. The one day show trial sentences him to death, which is carried out when he is shot in the moat of the Montjuic on October 13.

1909 - The first issue of the Spanish anarchist weekly 'Tierra y Libertad' is published (by José Estivalis aka Armand Guerra) in Nice following the banning of anarchist newspapers in the wake of the Semaine Tragique. Many are printed in France and smuggled into Spain instead.

1910 - The first issue of 'Le Révolté', "Organe hebdomadaire d'union, d'action et d'éducation révolutionnaire", is published in Lens.

1914 - María Martínez Sorroche (d. 2010), Adalusian textile worker, baker, maid, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

##1920 - Jens Ingvald Bjørneboe (d. 1976), Norwegian poet, novelist, playwright, essayist and anarchist, though he self-identified as an anarcho-nihilist, born in Kristiansand.

1922 - The International Anarchist Congress is held (9-10 October) in Paris, France.

1924 - Anthony Earnshaw (d. 2001), English Surrealist artist, author, illustrator and self-styled "armchair anarchist", born.

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: In Oviedo the La Vega arms factory is occupied and large numbers of arms are seized but little ammunition is found. The Cárcel Modelo is also stormed and it too is found to contain a huge quantity of rifles and machine guns but no ammunition. However, the government troops are forced to retreat. The city has been taken against the superior forces of the army and Civil Guard: 1,500 soldiers, 400 assault guards and 100 civilians and police guards, however the miners failed to take the barracks of Pelayo and Santa Clara despite them being surrounded by the insurgents. All the city garrison can do now is try and resist the attacks of the workers, in the hope that a relief arrives. Meanwhile, Gijon, where the insurrectionary movement is restricted by its lack of weapons and ammunition, comes under bombardment by the Regular Army and Navy. Other towns suffer the same fate.
In the south, army reinforcements from Zamora arrive via the Puerto de Pajares, allow General Bosch and his besieged troops, who were in serious condition without food and unable to care for the wounded, to withdraw to Campomanes on the 11th. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1936 - The first issue of the Italian anarcho-syndicalist weekly 'Guerra di Classe', newspaper of the AIT-affiliated Sindacale Unione Italiana, and founded by Camillo Berneri, is published in Barcelona.

1940 - Working Class Hero and defacto libertarian John Winston Ono Lennon (d. 1980), born.

## 1964 - Guillermo del Toro Gómez, Mexican director, scriptwriter, producer, novelist, libertarian and laterly a "raging atheist", born.
"I hate structure. I'm completely anti-structural in terms of believing in institutions. I hate them. I hate any institutionalised social, religious, or economic holding."

1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Italian Trade Centre, Exhibition Building, Cork Street, London, bombed. Attacks simultaneously in Manchester, Birmingham and Paris against Italian State buildings. The attacks were claimed on behalf of Giuseppe Pinelli the Italian anarchist murdered by the police in 1969. [Angry Brigade chronology]

[A] 1975 - Irish Anarchist Black Cross members Noel and Marie Murray are arrested for murder following a bank appropriation in which a Garda died.

1997 - The Italian playwright and actor Dario Fo, author of 'Accidental Death of an Anarchist', is awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in Stockholm.

1999 - Peter Miller (b. 1943), English anarchist, secularist and trade unionist, dies. [see: Apr. 5]
1609 - Gerrard Winstanley (d. 1676), English religious reformer and political thinker, a precursor of libertarian communism and Christian anarchism, born.

1889 - The anarchist periodical 'L'Associazione' is first issued in Nice by Errico Malatesta, who had returned from South America in September.

[C] 1900 - Umberto Marzocchi (d. 1986), Italian shipyard worker, anarchist and anti-fascist fighter in the Arditi del Popolo, who fought on the Aragon front during the Spanish Civil War and, following the Retirada, joined the Foreign Legion (to gain French papers) and fought with the Maquis during WWII, born. Marzocchi became an anarchist at a very early age and by 1917 was secretary of the metalworkers’ union affiliated to the Unione Sindacale Italiana (Italian Syndicalist Union), thanks to his youth which precluded his being mobilised for front-line service as a reprisal. During the 'Biennio Rosso' (Red Biennium of 1919-20) he took part in the struggles alongside the renowned La Spezia anarchist, Pasquale Binazzi, the director of 'Il Libertario' newspaper. In 1920 he was part of a gang of anarchists that attacked the La Spezia arsenal, overpowering the security guards and carrying off two machine guns and several rifles, in the, alas disappointed, hope of triggering a revolutionary uprising in the city. In 1921, visiting Rome to reach an agreement with Argo Secondari, he took over as organiser of the Arditi del Popolo (People’s Commandos) in the region; this organisation was to give good account of itself during the 'fatti di Sarzana' (events in Sarzana), the armed resistance of the civilian population and the Arditi del Popolo in and around Sarzana against fascist squadre d'azione groups backed up by the local Regio Esercito carabinieri. Moving to Savona, he organised the meeting between Malatesta and the pro-Bolshevik Russian anarchist Sandomirsky who arrived in Rapallo in the wake of the Chicherin delegation as its Press Officer. By 1922, wanted by the fascists, he left the country, playing an active part in the activities of the anarchist exiles in France and Belgium.
In 1936 he was in Spain with the Italian Column and there took part in the battle of Almudevar. After Camillo Berneri was murdered, he returned to France where he handled aid to Spanish refugees. After the Nazi occupation, he joined the Maquis in the Pyrenees, part of a mixed unit made up of anarchists, socialists and French and Spanish communists (Group 31, Area 5). In 1945 after the Liberation he returned to Italy where he became one of the most active publicists, speakers and lecturers of the newly formed Federazione Anarchica Italiana (Italian Anarchist Federation), which at that time was an umbrella for the whole of the Italian anarchist movement. In 1971 he was appointed secretary of the International of Anarchist Federations’ Liaison Committee, a post he filled for 12 years. In 1977, by then almost eighty, he was arrested in Spain during an international anarchist gathering. He died in Savona on 4 June 1986.

1900 - Emmy Eckstein (Emilia Eckstein; d. 1939), Alexander Berkman's longtime companion, born in Berlin. [EXPAND]

1901 - Anarchist polemicist Laurent Tailhade (1854–1919) is jailed for a year for inciting murder in the pages of 'Le Libertaire' on the occassion of a visit ot the Tsar to France.

1902 - [N.S. Oct. 23] Sam Dolgoff (Sholem Dolgopolsky; d. 1990), US anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist author, editor and militant, born in Byelorussia. [expand]

1907 - The first issue of the Russian language anarcho-communist newspaper 'Anarchist' (Анархuст) is published in Geneva.

[BB] 1916 - David Gascoyne (d. 2001), English poet, novelist, Surrealist, one-time communist and later an anarchist, born. He helped prepare the 'First English Surrealist Manifesto' (1935), which spoke in favour of "the proletarian revolution" and "the historic materialism of Marx, Engels, and Lenin", and came out against "humanism, liberalism, idealism, anarchist individualism." It was therefore inevitable that, like many surrealist of the period, he joined the Communist Party of Great Britain in 1936 and broadcast radio talks for the Barcelona-based propaganda ministry during the Spanish Revolution. However, he soon discovered "that the Communists hated the Anarchists and the POUM much more than they hated the Fascists", and left the party. On his return to England, he became involved in the Mass Observation movement and joined the Artists' International Association. He also moved closer to anarchism following contact with Henry Miller, Lawrence Durrell and those based around them at the Villa Seurat in Paris.

1922 - Date wrongly attributed for the death of Luisa Capetillo Perón (b. 1879), Puerto Rican writer, novelist, journalist, trade unionist, libertarian propagandist, women's rights activist and anarcha-femnist. [see: Oct. 28 & Apr. 10]

1933 - Victor Meric (aka Flax; b. 1876), French journalist, anarchist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: May 10]

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: In Oviedo, rebel ammuniton supplies are running very low but the insurgents still remain in control of the city. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

##[B] 1941 - Peter Coyote (born Rachmil Pinchus Ben Mosha Cohon), American actor, author, director, screenwriter, narrator and Buddhist anarchist, born. After a period in the San Francisco Actors' Workshop, he joined the San Francisco Mime Troupe, a radical political guerilla street theatre and later became one of the co-founders of the Haight-Ashbury anarchist improv group the Diggers. His radical politics led to him becoming a friend of Leonard Peltier in the 1960s as well as Gary Snyder. Through the latter he discovered the San Francisco Libertarian Circle and Zen Buddhism.

1958 - Opening of La Méthode, a cabaret operated by Michèle Bernstein and Guy Debord on the Rue Descartes, Paris.

1961 - Jean-Marc Leclercq aka JoMo, French musician, Esperantists and libertarian, born. Has played in numerous bands including Les Diam's, Les Gringos, Les Évadés d'Alcatraz, Dougherty, Les Vicomtes, Les Rosemary's Babies, Leclerq et les Mammouths, Black & Wesson and his current band Libertarios (originally Leclercq y los Libertarios), and in numerous styles from ska and reggae via punk to country and rockabilly. In 1999 he gave a concert with 22 songs in 22 languages ​​and ended up as the Guinness Book of World Records in 2000

1989 - Eliane Vincileone (b. 1930), Italian model, craftswoman, antiques dealer and anarchist, dies.

1996 - Ono Tozaburo (小野十三郎; b. 1903), Japanese poet and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 27]

2012 - Yekaterina Samutsevich [Екатери́на Самуце́вич], the third member of Pussy Riot, along with Maria Alyokhina and Nadezhda Tolokonnikova, to be arrested in the wake of February 21, 2012, performance of 'Punk Prayer: Mother of God, Chase Putin Away!' [Панк-молебен: Богородица, Путина прогони!] in the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow and later convicted and sentenced on August 17, 2012, to two years in a penal colony, is released on appeal, her sentence having been replaced with one of two years' probation. [see: Aug. 17]

2014 - The St. Petersburg Investigative Committee withdraws its motion on a mental examination of conceptual artist and political activist Pyotr Pavlensky following a number of his controversial performance pieces, including this February 23, 2014 “small-scale reconstruction of Maidan" 'Liberty'.

## 2015 - Pioneering Turkish anarcho-syndicalist organiser Ali Kitapçı (b. 1958) is one of 14 members of BTS-KESK (Birleşik Taşımacılık Çalışanları Sendikası - Kamu Emekçileri Sendikaları Konfederasyonu [United Transport Employees' Union - Public Workers' Union Confederation]) transportation union officials amongst the 128 people killed in the two successive blasts that struck Ankara just one day before the expected date of declaration of ceasefire by the PKK/KCK. More than 500 other people were injured in the blasts. [see: Apr. 27]
1877 - Henrik Ibsen's anarchist-influenced play 'Samfundets Støtter' (The Pillars of Society) is first published in Copenhagen.

1878 - Eugène Soullier (d. unknown), French typographer, militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1885 - Alicia Moreau de Justo (Alicia Moreau; d. 1986), Argentine physician, writer, editor, socialist, feminist, pacifist and human rights activist, born in London. Her father, Armand Moreau, was a French anarchist who had participated in the Paris Commune in 1871 but fled following the post-Commune repression. In 1890, Alicia and her mother, María Denanpont, emigrated to Argentina, where she beacme involved in the socialist and feminist struggles whilst still at school. In 1906, then still only 21, Alicia Moreau founded the Movimiento Feminista and began lecturing on the women's struggle, education, health, science, etc. in workers' and socialist centres and village halls, as well as supporting the Huelga de los inquilinos (tenant strikes) in tenaments and La marcha de las escobas (March of the brooms) by slum women.
In 1910, together Berta W. de Gerchunoff and her father Armand Moreau, she founded the magazine 'Ateneo Popular' to promoted secondary and higher education and was involved in international socialist publication 'Humanidad Nueva', for which she wrote on women's rights and issues.

1889* - [N.S. Oct. 23] Alexander Petrovich Shapiro [Александр Петрович Шапиро], aka Sacha Piotr or Sascha Pjotr, Alexander Tanarov, Sergei (d. August 1942), Ukrainian anarchist of Jewish descent and propagandist, who fought with the anarchists in Spain and was murdered by the Nazis in Auschwitz, born. [see: Oct. 23]
[* his d.o.b. is given by some sources as August 18 [6], 1890]

#####1894 - [O.S. Sep. 29] Boris Pilnyak [Бори́с Пильня́к](real name Boris Andreevich Vogau [Борис Андреевич Вогау]; d. 1938) Russian Soviet novelist and short story writer, and anarchist sympathiser, who spent time living in an anarchist commune, born. One of the most published of Soviet writers, despite the constant official criticism of his work for ideological mistakes, formalism, eroticism, mysticism, etc., his early novel 'The Naked Year' (Голый год) was his most explicitly anarchist work (based in part in his time spent in the anarchist commune near Peski [Пески], Kolomna district [Коломенский район] near Moscow in early summer of 1918, which was completed in 1920 but not published until 1922, and only then in Berlin) and also one of his most vehermently criticised – not least for his naive view that the 1918 Revolution had been a primarily agraian one.
Despite all the criticism, he remained as one of the leaders of the All-Russia Writers’ Union / All-Russian Union of Writers (Всероссийского союза писателей) until removed in 1929, and remained one of the most published of all Soviet writers until his arrest on October 28, 1937 on a fabricated charge of plotting to kill Stalin and Nikolai Yezhov (Николай Ежов), the head of the NKVD and Pilnyak's one-time protector, as well as espionage in support of Japan (he had visited the country in 1932) and Trotskyite association. He was sentenced to death on April 21, 1938 by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR and shot the same day.

1909 - Concha Estrig (Concepció Estrig; d. 1987), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, born. [EXPAND]

1914 - The first issue of 'A Revolta', the fortnightly anarcho-communist paper is published in Coimbra, Portugal.

1916 - Marie-Christine Mikhaïlo (Marie-Christine Söderhjelm; d. 2004), Finish-Swiss polyglot librarian and archivist with CIRA, born. An important figure in contemporary Swiss and international anarchism, she helped found Centre International de Recherches sur l'Anarchisme (CIRA) in 1957 and was one of the driving forces behind it.

1917 - Hipólito Marivela Torres aka Germán Marivela (d. 1980), Castillian carpenter, anarcho-syndicalist and fighter with the Durruti Column, born. He was still very young when he joined the CNT and was one of the organisers of the Sindicato de Oficios Varios (SOD). In 1936 , following the fascist uprising, left the first on the front enlisted as a volunteer in the Durruti Column, fighting in Madrid, Aragon and, later, in Catalonia. With Franco's victory in February 1939, he crossed the Pyrenees for Puigcerdà and was interned in the concentration camps Mont-Louis and Vernet, later joining the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers (CTE). With the German occupation, he fought in the Résistance but was arrested by the Nazis and sent on March 3, 1941, with the registration number 3525 to Mauthausen concentration camp, where he remained until the liberation of the Lager on May 5 1945. After World War II, he worked in the mines of the Grand Comba, becoming active in the CNT in Champclausson and Trescolí, where he actively campaigned in the CNT and occupied various official positions.

1917 - The trial, begun on October 4th in Paris, of a group of anarchists involved in publishing a clandestine issue of the newspaper 'Le Libertaire' ends, and the defendants are heavily sentenced for such audacity, receiving 1 to 3 years in prison.

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: General Lopez Ochoa and his troops, who had been laid up outside of Oviedo due to the strong resistance they faced, and now reinforced by the legionnaires and regular Army Africa troops commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Yagüe, enter Oviedo and, late in the day, the Comité Revolucionario Provincial orders the withdrawal from the capital and dissolves itself. However, the fighting in the city centre continues and a new Comité, composed mostly of young socialists and communists, is formed within hours, ready to continue the fight, when the troops of Lopez Ochoa and Yagüe began their first acts of violence and looting. Fighting continued for the next two days, in which the workers' militia attacked the enemy from higher ground and from working-class neighborhoods. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1935 - Founding congress in La Plata of the Federación Anarco-Comunista Argentina (FACA). Those involved include Antonio Casanova. The organisation changed its name in 1955, to the Federación Libertaria Argentina.

1936 - Amparo Barayón Miguel (b. 1904), Spanish, pianist, anarchist activist, feminist and partner of the anarchist novelist Ramón J. Sender, is shot after being betrayed to the falangists by her brother-in-law. [see: May 8]

1937 - Aniela Franciszka Wolberg (b. 1907), Polish Jewish chemist, anarchist activist and propagandist, dies. [see: Oct. 14]

1953 - Yael Langella (Yael Sylvie Langella-Klépov; d. 2007), French-Catalan polyglot teacher writer, poet, translator, photographer and libertarian activist, born.

1958 - Maurice de Vlaminck (b. 1876), French landscape and still-life painter, lithographer, wood-engraver, etcher, writer, poet, violinist and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 4]

[B] 1963 - Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (b. 1889), French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, playwright, artist and filmmaker, dies. His fiche policière labelled Cocteau a "poète anarchiste homosexuel à Paris". [see: Jul. 5]

1966 - Paweł Grossman (b. 1899), Polish Jewish libertarian socialist and anarchist militant, dies. [see: Aug. 26]

1982 - Elías Castelnuovo (b. 1893), Uruguayan journalist, storyteller, playwright, poet, essayist and anarchist, later joining the communists and becoming a Peronist, dies. [see: Aug. 6]

2005 - Sergio Citti (b. 1933), Italian actor, film director, screenwriter and libertarian, who was closely linked artistically to Pier Paolo Pasolini, dies. [see: May 30]

2006 - Jacques Sternberg (b. 1923), Belgian novelist, writer of science fiction and fantastique, pamphleteer, essayist, journalist, columnist, anti-competitive yatchsman and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 17]

## [A] 2008 - Harold H. Thompson (b. 1942), Irish-American anarchist activist and jailhouse lawyer, dies of a heart attack in West Tennessee State Penitentiary having served 29 years of a life plus 50 years sentence.
1830 - Moses Harman (January 30, 1910), US schoolteacher, publisher, advocate of women's rights, free love and eugenics, individualist anarchist, who was prosecuted under the Comstock Law for content published in his anarchist periodical 'Lucifer the Lightbearer', born. He was arrested and jailed multiple times for publishing allegedly obscene material. His daughter, Lillian Harman, was also a notable anarchist.

## 1860 - Émile Pouget (d. 1931), French anarcho-communist militant and propagandist, born. A key figure of French and international anarchism and revolutionary syndicalism between 1880 and 1914, one of the most vocal militants and cunning strategists, a prolific journalist and pamphlet-writer whose career spans three decades. In the late 1870s formed a shopkeepers' union in Paris, although he did not become a wholehearted advocate of revolutionary trade unionism until the early 1890s. In 1883 he was imprisoned for leading a demonstration of unemployed workers with Louise Michel at Les Invalides, which ended in a bout of rioting and looting. It was on this occasion that the anarchist black flag is believed to have appeared for the first time. In 1888 he founded 'Le Père Peinard', a fiercely anti-bourgeois, pro-strikes, and anti-colonial paper addressed to the worker, famous for its biting slang and artistic contributions. He was one of those indicted in the 1894 anti-anarchist Procès des Trente . He sought refuge in Britain and was condemned in absentia. Also author and signatory to the 'Charte d’Amiens' (Charter of Amiens; 1906), adopted by the CGT.
[Portrait by Aristide Delannoy]

1873 - In Switzerland the famed Russian revolutionary, Mikhail Bakunin retires from the struggle and resigns from the anarchist Jura Federation.

1905 - The 'Regeneración' offices at 107 North Channing Ave. are raided by Pinkerton detectives. Ricardo and Enrique Flores Magón and Juan Sarabia are imprisoned and all the newspaper's equipment (presses, typewriters, furniture, etc.) are seized by the US authorities and sold.

1915 - Robert Rizal Ballester (d. 1936), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, born. Active in the CNT in Badalona, he was arrested and jailed on May 8, 1934, along with Fernando Lozano Vicente, accused of coercion, insulting behaviour and use of armed force during a strike. He was also accused, based on French evidence, of being a member of an international band of thieves. On February 11, 1935, he tried to escape the dungeons of the Direcció Superior de Policia in Barcelona by simulating a suicide. On 23 November 1935, he was court martialed for the 1934 events and was sentenced to five years in correctional prison. His comrade Lozano was sentenced to four years. During the Fascist uprising in July 1936, he was a member of the Comitè de Milícies Antifeixistes (Committee of Antifascist Militias). Also, as a member of the Iberian Anarchist Federation (FAI), he led the Badalona magazine 'Vía Libre', organ of the CNT and FAI, during the civil war, collaborating on illustrations, collages and writings. With Franco's victory, he went to France, where he was eventually arrested by the Nazis, and sent to the death camps. Robert Rizal Ballester died on August 22, 1941 at Gusen concentration camp in Austria.

1920 - Possible date of the death of Ludovico Giardino Nabruzzi (b. 1846), Italian anarchist lawyer, known as 'Rubicone Nabruzzi' or 'Rubicone'. [see: Sep. 23 & Jun. 27]

1923 - Léandre Valéro (d. 2011), Algerian anarchist and anarchist, who fought in the Spanish Civil War and was active in the Algerian independence movement, born. [expand]

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: With most of Oviedo in the hands of the military and lacking ammunition, the Provincial Committee is forced to surrender. General Lopez Ochoa, commanding, demanded surrender of the weapons of the captive Guardia Civil and Guardia de Asalto, restoration of all arms, the lives of prisoners taken to be spared, and the committees to give themselves up. No shots were to be fired on the advancing troops. The committees’ conditions for workers to lay down their arms were for the Tercio and Regulares to be kept out of the mining towns and withdrawn from the front on account of their bloody reputation.
Ochoa agreed to these terms, and the Committee surrendered on condition that none of the committee were handed over. The agreement was read out to the population in Sama, who greeted it with cries of "treachery". They refused to surrender, knowing how vicious the repression would be. They said they would sooner take to the hills. In the end it was accepted as inevitable and when the troops entered the town there came the harshest repression yet known in Asturias. The wounded in the hospitals were rounded up and shot. They did not even enquire which side they were on. The prisoners were questioned and shot. A hundred would continue to hold out on Monte Naranco. In flushing them out, a young girl, 16 year old Aida de la Fuente was killed. Her friend was wounded and raped before being murdered. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1936 - In Spain a Generalidad decree dissolves the (revolutionary) Local Committees. These are shortly to be replaced by new, Popular Front-style town councils.

1957 - Steven T. Byington (b. 1869), American individualist anarchist, translator of 'The Ego and its Own' and populariser of the philosophy of Max Stirner, dies. [see: Dec. 10]

1995 - Pura Arcos (Purificació Pérez Benavent; 1995), Spanish nurse, author and anarcha-feminist militant, who worked as a teacher and tram driver during the Civil War as well as being active within Mujeres Libres, dies in Canada where she had lived since 1959. [see: Jun. 26]

1996 - Georgi Grigorov, a.k.a. Georges Balkanski, G. Grigoiev and G. Hadjiev (b. 1906), Bulgarian anarchist theorist and historian, dies. [see: Apr. 16]

1999 - Björn Söderberg (b. 1958), Swedish anarcho-syndicalist militant of the Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation (SAC) and anti-fascist activist, is assassinated by neo-Nazis (three bullets in the head) as he leaves his home in Sätra, Stockholm. He was targeted because of his anti-fascist activities in his union, specifically in exposing a fascist in his workplace. [see: Apr. 1]
1827 - Giuseppe Fanelli (d. 1877), Italian revolutionary Bakuninite anarchist involved in the establishing of the First International, born. A one-time nationalist and mason, he allegedly originated the 'circle A' symbol. [expand]

1883 - Mario Buda (d. 1963), Italian-born American anarchist and Galleanist associate of Sacco and Vanzetti, born. Considered by some as the inventor of the car bomb when a car he owned was used in the September 16, 1920 Wall Street bombing.

1893 - Fioravante Meniconi (d. 1945), Italian militant anarchist individualist and anti-militarist propagandist, born.

1897 - A well-attended event to raise money for the imprisoned editors of the anarchist newspaper 'Firebrand' is held in Chicago. Speakers include Max Baginski, Moses Harmon and Emma Goldman, who is on a speaking tour. Goldman speaks to the Lucifer Circle on the theme of 'Prostitution: Its Causes and Cure' and on 'Free Love'.

1906 - The first issue of the anarchist weekly newspaper 'La Protesta Umana' is published by Ettore Molinari and Nella Giacomelli in Milan.

## 1908 - Eduardo Val Bescós, aka 'El Serio' (d. 1992), Aragonese hotel waiter, anarcho-syndicalist militant and military strategist during the Spanish Revolution, born in La Coruña.

[A] 1909 - Francisco Ferrer (b. 1859), Catalan anarchist founder of the Modern School movement, is murdered in Spain by Catholic Monarchists. Framed for being the leader of the insurrection that led to La Semena Tragica [see: July 26 1909] despite not being in Barcelona at the time, he is sentenced to death and shot by firing squad in Montjuich Fortress.
[Costantini pic]

1910 - A memorial meeting is held for Francisco Ferrer y Guardia at the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art in Lower Manhattan, NY., organised by the American Ferrer Association to commemorate the first anniversary of the execution of anarchist educator. Thaddeus Burr Wakeman, president of the Thomas Paine Historical Association; Jaume Vidal, a personal friend of Ferrer and Spanish member of the Revolutionary Committee in New York; Jonas Alexander, founder and editor of the socialist newspaper the 'New Yorker Volkszeitung' and a member of the executive committee of the Free Speech League; Leonard Dalton Abbott, president of the AFA, and prominent anarcha-feminst Emma Goldman all spoke at the meeting.

1911 - Emma Goldman is amongst the speakers at a New York City commemoration of the second anniversary of the death of Francisco Ferrer. Other speakers include Leonard Abbott, James P. Morton, and Harry Kelly. Bayard Boyesen, professor at Columbia University and a teacher at the Ferrer School, is later fired by university administrators for having shared the platform with Goldman at this event.

##1912 - Evaristo Carriego (Evaristo Francisco Estanislao Carriego; b. 1883), Argentine modernista poet, short story writer and anarchist, who had a profound influence on the lyrics of tango porteña, dies from tuberculosis in Buenos Aires, aged just 29 years old. [see: May 7]

[D] 1914 - On the fifth anniversary of the execution of Francisco Ferrer, two bombs planted in St. Patrick's Cathedral and St. Alphonsus church in New York City's Bowery district explode during the afternoon. The bomb in the cathedral shatters a stained glass window and blows a hole in the floor. A boy is slightly injured, grazed by shrapnel. The second bomb in the St. Alphonsus church, where the IWW leader Frank Tannenbaum had been arrested in March that year and charged with inciting to riot following a march of unemployed workers as part of a campaign that demanded relief from New York City churches (Tannenbaum was jailed for a year and fined $500), caused little damage and no injuries. The police immediately blamed the explosions on an Industrial Workers of the World plot that "menaced many". The 'New York Tribune' the following day reported that the 'Reds' were rejoicing over this and other recent church bombings.
No one was arrested at the time but the following year an undercover New York City police officer, Amedeo Polignani, took part in the entrapment of two Italian anarchists, members of the Gruppo Gaetano Bresci aka the 'Bresci Circle', the group being another ongoing major target of police harassment and arrest. On March 2, 1915, Frank Abarno and Polignani placed two bombs in the cathedral and, as Arbano was about to light one of the fuses, he was grabbed and arrested by one of the 50 NYPD detectives secreted amongst the cathedral's congregation, some according the 'The Evening World' "disguised as women worshippers, two as scrubwomen, others as ushers". Fellow 'conspirator' Carmine Carbone was arrested the same day and on April 13, 1915, they were both convicted of conspiracy to cause explosions. Six days later on April 19, Frank Abarno and Carmine Carbone were sentenced to six-to-twelve years at Sing Sing Prison.

1914 - Alfred Marsh (b. 1858), English anarchist communist, 'Freedom' editor and journalist, dies in Hasting of an inoperable cancer. [see: Nov. 3]

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: Oviedo is now fully under military control and following its fall, many of the workers retreated to the coalfields, where the third and last Provincial Revolutionary Committee chaired by trained socialist Belarmino Tomás, based itself in Sama de Langreo, the capital of the Nalón basin. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1934 - The first issue of 'La Conquête du Pain' (Conquest of Bread) appears, as a libertarian review open to all the tendencies of anarchism. It was managed by Émile Bidault (1869-1938), a French anarchist and organiser of La Ligue des Antipatriotes, who had previously edited the 'Brochure Mensuelle'.

1945 - The first issue of the weekly 'Il Libertario', paper of the Libertarian Communist Federation of Lombard, which succeeded 'Il Comunista Libertario', is published in Milan.

[B] 1952 - The second showing (and the first full projection following the June 30th riot) of Debord's of 'Hurlements en faveur de Sade' (Howls for de Sade), at the Ciné-club du Quartier Latin, Paris.

1983 - Ignacio Núñez Soler (born Ignacio Soler Nuñez; b. 1891), prominent Paraguayan plastic artist and anarchist, dies in Asunción at 92 years of age. [see: Jul. 31]

2001 - Bill 'Ubi' Dwyer, aka William Ubique Dwyer (b. 1933), Irish anarchist, who was active in New Zealand, Australia and England, selling LSD to fund his anarchist activities, worked as a civil servant in London whilst involved with Freedom Press and 'Anarchy' magazine, but is best known as the originator and principal organiser of the Windsor Free Festival, dies after never having fully recovered from the critical head injuries that he sustained in an accident while cycling in the Dublin Mountains in the early 1990s. [see: Jan. 21]
1824 - Plotino Constantino Rhodakanaty (Πλωτίνος Ροδοκανάκης; d. unknown), Greek Mexican anarchist and socialist philosopher and mystic, born. A pioneer of Mexican anarchism and in the labour and campesino movements in the mid-nineteenth century. Arriving in Veracruz, Mexico in 1861, drawn by the possibilities for social experimentation afforded by colonisation, Rhodakanaty became a journalist, contributing to labor periodicals such as 'El Socialista', 'La Comuna Internacional', 'l Hijo del Trabajo' and 'La Internacional', as well as a schoolteacher, organising a series of institutions that would foster the first generation of the Mexican anarchist movement, notably, in 1865, the Escuela del Rayo y el Socialismo (School of Light and Socialism), students of his were instrumental in the Chalco peasant revolt of 1868, a precursor of later Magónista and Zapatista movements. He later became a mormon and returned to Europe in 1886, there after disappearing.

1858 - Oswald Heidbrinck (Oswald-Pierre Heidbrinck; d. 1914), French painter, watercolourist, draftsman, engraver and caricaturist of the Belle Epoque, and anarchist sympathiser, who collaborated on Jean Grave's 'Les Temps Nouveaux' and 'L'Assiette au Beurre', born .

1859 - Ravachol (François Claudius Koenigstein) (d. 1892), French anarchist bandit and advocate of propaganda of the deed, who was the subject of popular myth and song ('La Ravachole, Sur l'Air de la Carmagnole'), born. [expand]

[GGG] 1864 - Emidio Recchioni (d. 1934), Italian railway worker anarchist, anti-fascist and father of Vero Recchioni (Vernon Richards), born. He was originally a republican and follower of Giuseppe Mazzini, but moved towards anarchism under the influence of Cesare Agostinelli, the Ancona anarchist. He was active in anarchist activity in Ancona alongside Agostinelli, Romeo Tombolesi, Ariovisto Pezzotti and Polimanti. The group soon established contact with important anarchists like Malatesta, Pietro Gori and Amilcare Cipriani. He was active in organising railway workers and contributed satirical and polemical articles articles to the Livorno anarchist paper 'Siempre Avanti' (Forever Forwards) under the pen names of Rastignac and Savarin between 1890 and 1894. In 1894 he founded and was one of the editors of the Ancona weekly 'Articolo 248'. The police regarded him as the "most active and influential propagandist" and believed that he was involved in three bomb explosions in Ancona in January 1894.
In June 1894, he was arrested in connection with the shooting of the Italian Prime Minister Crispi but was acquitted on 30th November 1895. However, two days later he was put under house arrest and then transferred to the prison colony on the Tremiti islands. He organised a protest against the restrictions imposed on the anarchist prisoners by the prison governor and then suffered two months solitary confinement. He was then transferred to another prison in Ancona and then to Ustica. Released on bail at the end of November 1896, he was not allowed to return to his job as a railway worker. In November 1897 he, Errico Malatesta and other comrades launched another Ancona-based newspaper 'L’Agitazione' which led to his rearrest and deportation to the prison island of Ustica (one of Italy’s many island prison colonies) in the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Escaping in 1898, he fled to London where he opened a popular delicatessen in Soho’s Old Compton Street named King Bomba, an ironic reference to the tyrant King Ferdinand II of the two Sicilies (1810-1859), which specialised in Italian wine, pasta and smoked hams. He also traded in Carrara marble, Carrara being a centre of Italian anarchist activism, and supported financially - and wrote for under his pen name 'Nemo' - the Italian anarchist press, especially 'Umanita Nova' and the Galleanist paper 'L’Adunata dei Refrattari', and the Spanish language 'La Protesta' in Buenos Aires. Recchioni’s shop was frequented by British writers, intellectuals and political and literary exiles of the day and, later, following Mussolini’s accession to power, Italian anti-fascists. Recchioni’s influence, his wealth and his key role as a facilitator and funder of the Italian anarchist and anti-fascist movement (including the clandestine ‘Arditi del Popolo’ movement) made him a high-priority target for Mussolini’s secret police, the OVRA (Organizzazione per la Vigilanza e la Repressione dell’Antifascismo - Organisation for Vigilance and Repression of Anti-Fascism).
In 1913 he helped finance the anarchist paper Volonta in Ancona and was one of the signatories of the 'Manifeste des 35' international anarchist anti-war statement published on February15, 1915. With other anarchists like Pietro Gualducci, Calzitta and Enrico Defendi, he carried out a vigorous anti-militarist agitation, which nearly saw him expelled from Britain. At the end of the War, Recchioni moved from anti-militarist work to activity against the Fascist regime in Italy. Together with Silvio Corio, Gualducci, Decio Anzani, Francesco Galasso, and Vittorio Tabarelli, he produced the paper Il Comento which concentrated on anti-fascist agitation. This ran for six issues until 1924. He was also with Anzani and Alessandro Magri, he was most likely behind the founding of the London section of the Italian League for Human Rights. With the end of Il Comento, Recchioni and the others set up a secret grouping to inspire resistance against the Mussolini regime. Recchioni had always argued against socialists, communists and certain anarchists by asserting that fascist violence should be countered with a ferocious armed resistance. The Masonic lodge I Druidi was set up as a cover for this activity.
At the end of the 1920s and beginning of the 1930s he was heavily involved in several attempts on Mussolini’s life. In this period he acquired a British passport, partly to save himself from expulsion, but also to help him with travel abroad in connection with his activities. He obtained such a passport in 1930. However, his application had alerted the British secret state to his activities. Recchioni in this period had assumed great respectability, and this fooled many in Special Branch that he was now a reformed character. Except for one Superintendent O’Brien, who was convinced that he was still an anarchist and still involved in agitation against the Mussolini regime, but who was over ruled by his superiors. However, the OVRA began circulating stories in British and Italian political and newspaper circles that Recchioni was organising and funding plots to assassinate Mussolini, something that the Daily Telegraph and the Deputy Assistant Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, former MI5 officer and right-wing fanatic Colonel John Carter, seized on. The latter was able to successfully stymie Recchioni's application for British citizenship (something that was later overruled when Ramsay MacDonald, a personal friend of Recchioni via his frequenting of King Bomba, became Prime Minister.
In 1931 Recchioni travelled to Brussels on his new British passport, shadowed closely by a Special Branch officer. According to Special Branch, Recchioni travelled to meet with members of the Brussels-based International Anarchist Defence Committee (CIDA), and supposedly a 28-year-old Italian anarchist coalminer by the name of Angelo Sbardellotto. Sbardellotto was arrested in June the following year with two handgrenades, a pistol and a forged Swiss passport. His mission, according to his confession — extracted by OVRA officers under torture — had been to assassinate Mussolini. Recchioni, he claimed, had provided him with the money, weapons and plan for the attempt. The Italian secret police sent Sbardellotto’s signed confession to London with a list of the dates on which they were alleged to have met, and a request for Recchioni’s extradition. Coinciding with this extradition attempt, was the publication of an article by the 'Daily Telegraph', quoting Italian sources, that identified Recchioni as one of those involved in the alleged, and unsuccessful, assassination plot. Recchioni immediately sued the 'Daily Telegraph' for damages to his reputation, as a 'virtuous man'. The 'Telegraph' asked for Special Branch assistance but Carter would have had to expalin the source of his information if he appeared as a witness, something SB would not allow and the 'Telegraph' lost the court case. Recchioni, who spent, apparently, a mere £35 in paying Sbardellotto’s costs to kill Mussolini, received £1,177 in damages.
Two years later he was dead, having succumbed whilst undergoing an operation on his diseased vocal cords.

1866 - [O.S. Oct. 2] Louise Louis (d. unknown), Russian anarchist militant and maid, born in Oriol. In the early 1890s she and her companion, the Russian anarchist Nikolai Nikitin, lived in Levallois-Perret, Ile de France. On September 23, 1893 both were expelled from France and took refuge in London. The following year they appeared on the anarchist watch-lists of the French border railway police.

1876 - Jules Bonnot (d. 1912), French auto mechanic, vegetarian, tea-totaller, anarchist 'illegalist', of the Bonnot Gang – the most famous of the 'bandits tragiques', born. [expand]

1883 - In a show of solidarity between the trade unionists and the 'partisans de l'action directe', a meeting of the chambres demands that the Montceau and Blanzy syndicales each appoint a delegation of three members with mission to go to the management of the mines at Blanzy and request that the latter reinstates all the citizens who had been dismissed from their positions as a result of the insurrectional movement of August 1882.

1883 - Two-day founding congress (Oct. 12-14) of the International Working People's Association (IWPA) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Marks the beginning of the anarchist-trade union movement in the US. Endorses propaganda by the deed.

##1891 - Leopoldo Ramos Giménez (January 5, 1988), Paraguayan intellectual, youthful anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, journalist, poet, theatre writer, and later nationalist politician, born in Villarrica.

## 1894 - Sail Mohamed (Saïl Mohamed Ameriane ben Amerzaine (d. April 1953), Algerian anarchist, WWI deserter, anti-colonialist, staunch anti-Stalinist, and anti-fascist fighter in the Spanish Civil War, born. The French writer Jacques Prévert dedicated a poem to him. [expand]

[C] 1907 - Adrién Porchet (d. 2008), Swiss filmmaker, cinematographer and libertarian, who made propaganda films for the CNT during the Spanish Civil War, born. Son of the Swiss film pioneer Arturo-Adrien Porchet and brother of cinematographer Robert, who also worked on a number of his films for the CNT, including those made by Adrién. Amongst Porchet's Spanish films were 'Aguiluchos de la FAI por Tierras de Aragón. Estampas de la Revolución Antifascista' (1936), a trio of documentary shorts; 'La Toma de Sietamo' (1936) [both CNT - AIT, Sindicato Único de Espectáculos Públicos]; plus 'División Heroica (En El Frente de Huesca CNT)' (1937), 'Aurora de Esperanza' (Dawn of Hope; 1937) and 'Un Pueblo en Armas' (A People Armed; 1937 - English release title 'Fury over Spain'), a documentary on the activities of the Durruti Column that was later re-edited by Louis Frank as 'Amanecer sobre España' (Dawn Over Spain; 1938 - English release title 'The Will of a People'), all for the Sindicato de la Industria del Espectáculo (Entertainment Industry Union). He was also cinematographer on the prisoners of war documentary 'Le Drapeau de l'Humanité' (1942), made for the ICRC.
[ Database/anarquismo/details/10108.html]

####1907 - Aniela Franciszka Wolberg (d. 1937), Polish Jewish chemist, anarchist activist and propagandist, born. Aniela Wolberg became anarchist during her studies at the university of his native city where she came into contact with the Bulgarian student group whose the facilitator was Tazco Petrov who later died in prison. By 1925, she founded the underground anarchist monthly paper 'Proletarien' (Proletariat)' in Krakow and the following year became an active member of the Anarchistyczna Federacja Polski (AFP; Anarchist Federation of Poland). Later that year she moved to Paris to continue her studies, becoming the companion of Polish anarchist Benjamin Goldberg (Maxime Ranko). There she joined the Polish anarchist group based at the Librairie sociale internationale, 72 rue des Prairies, contributing articles and money to the Polish anarchist paper 'Walka' (Struggle), which was edited by Isaak Gurfinkiel (who, under the pseudonym of Valevsky, was one of the signatories of the Organisational Platform of the Libertarian Communists). Aniela also attended the international conference at Hay-les-Roses near Paris on April 20, 1927, in the cinema Les Roses, that established the Organisational Platform of the Libertarian Communists. She then studied at Montpellier University, where she gained an MSc in Chemistry. In France she established links with French anarchist groups, including with the CGT-SR and with Spanish anarchist groups. Returning to Paris, she worked as an engineer in a car factory. She was deported from France to Poland because of her anarchist activity in 1932. She became secretary of the AFP in the same year and edited the underground anarchist paper 'Walka Klas' (Class Struggle). She was arrested in 1934, but released for lack of evidence. However, with increasing repression against the anarchist movement, she was obliged to halt her activism. In 1936 she moved to Spain to aid the revolution there. She died in Warsaw from post-operative complications on October 11, 1937.

1911 - Socialists Benito Mussolini and Pietro Nenni, and the anarchist Aurelio Lolli, are arrested in connection with the September 27th general strike, are convicted on all charges and transferred to prison to await the appeal in Bologna. [see: Nov. 23]

[B] 1914 - Tony Gibson (d. 2001), British psychologist, BBC producer, writer and anarchist, born. His best known book was 'People Power: Community and Work Groups in Action' (1979). Active as an artist's model and posed for an advertisement of Brylcreem 1939 - in 1940 this advertisement was added a RAF cap plus the caption "For active service" but Gibson himself was at that time a conscientious objector working as an ambulance man and a farm labourer.

1918 - Jacob Schwartz (b. 18??), Russian-born anarchist member of a small group of Russian Jewish immigrant anarchists in New York associated with Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman, dies in his New York prison cell a month an a half after his arrest and brutal beating from which he never recovered.

1940 - Takis Fotopoulos (Τάκης Φωτόπουλος), Greek political philosopher, economist and libertarian, born.

1941 - Arthur Holitscher (b. 1869), Hungarian playwright, novelist, essayist, travel writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 22]

1981 - Charles-Auguste Bontemps (b. 1893), French 'Social Individualist' anarchist, pacifist, freethinker and naturist activist, prolific writer and poet, dies. Member of 'Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste' during the Spanish civil war.

1982 - Canadian urban guerrilla group Direct Action, whose members included anarchist Ann Hansen and Juliet Caroline Belmas, target a Litton Industries plant making guidance components for American cruise missiles in a symbolic action, bomb Litton Industries plant, which made guidance components for American cruise missiles. A stolen pick-up truck, which was packed with 550 kg of dynamite and that had an elaborate "warning box" duct taped to the bonnet, displaying a message, a digital clock counting down, and a single stick of dynamite to draw attention to the danger, was parked in full view of corporate security. The security desk was then rung and warned of the bomb, giving instructions on exactly what to do and where the danger area was. However, they thought it was a hoax and were slow in organising an evacuation, so that when the bomb went off minutes early, eight people were injured. The only damage was to a storage area and offices, not the production plant itself.

2003 - François Béranger (b. 1937), French libertarian singer, born. [see Aug. 28]

2007 - Derek Stanley Savage (pen name D.S. Savage; b. 1917), English poet, critic and Christian anarcho-pacifist, who became General Secretary of the Anglican Pacifist Fellowship, dies. [see: Mar. 6]

2010 - Robert Brayton Nichols (b. 1919), US political radical and anti-war activist, Beat poet, playwright, anarchist-themed sci-fi novelist and architect, who was married to the "cooperative anarchist" and writer Grace Paley, dies. [see: Jul. 15]
## 1877 - Ervin Batthyány (Count Ervin Ágoston Károly Ferenc Batthyány; June 9, 1945), Hungarian-English free school founder and advocate, journalist and anarchist, born in Bögöte. After studying at Budapest Grammar School, he studied at London and Cambridge universirties. Influenced by such authors as Edward Carpenter, William Morris, Leo Tolstoy, and Peter Kropotkin (who he also met), he had embraced anarchism by the age of 19, adhering to Kropotkin's communist anarchism and Morris's free communist ideals. Tolstoy's teachings would later influence his school-building activities. Due to his unusual views and behaviour, and his aristocratic family's fear that he would divide his property among the tenants, he was placed under guardianship and was committed in the Hollennder Institute in Vienna in 1901. It was only in 1903 that, with the help of Ervin Szabó, he was able leave the institute, regaining his freedom of action and the right to dispose of his property. He dived back into Hungarian intellectual life and in 1904 he set out his anarchist viewpoint at one of the debates of the Társadalomtudományi Társaság (Social Science Society) concerning the direction of social development.
On October 29, 1905, he opened his free school for the country workers' children in Bögöte, with Ervin Szabó giving an address at the opening ceremony. Based on the libertarian ideals of Spaniard Francisco Ferrer and Sebastian Faure, it was co-educational with no fees and textbooks, clothing, school meals and even study trips supplied free of charge. The school was attacked by the Catholic Church, the local landowners and the county authourity, and it was eventually forced to close in 1911 by the local authorities.
Batthyany also edited a number of anarchist newspapers including 'Testvériség' (Brotherhood) in 1906 ; 'Tārsadalmi Forradalom' (Social Revolution) in 1907-12, where he worked from time to time with Ervin Szabo despite their disagreements. In 1910, he emigrated to England, resigning his Hungarian citizenship and selling his estate in Bögöte three years later. During the First World War, he moved the non-interventionist British anarchist circles but ceased any political engagement at the war's end. He spent his last decades in Lyme Regis and later on his estate near Stroud, paying a short visit to his homeland in 1931.
Amongst his published works were a novel, 'Ország–Világban' (Country-World; 1898), and the non-fiction works: 'Edward Carpenter' (1903); 'Anarkizmus' (1904), with Migray József and Schmitt Jenő Henrik; 'A Nép Joga' (The Right of the People; 1905); and 'Szocializmus és Anarkizmus' (Socialism and Anarchism; 1906).

1884 - La Bande Noire: A young worker named Gueslaff carries out an unsuccessful attack on the house of the publican Etienney in Ciry-le-Noble, a prosecution witness in the Montceau trial, who is much disliked by the workers.

##1884 - Stephen Mac Say (d. 1972), French anarchist, professor, bee-keeper and partner of Marie-Adele Anciaux aka Mary Smiles [see: 8 March], born. Teacher at Sébastien Faure's libertarian school La Ruche until 1910, after which he becomes an itinerant and beekeeper. In 1909 he also founded the newspaper 'Le Fouet' (The Whip) "Organe du Groupe d'Action des Régions d'Avesnes, de Verviers et de Valenciennes", a monthly paper of education and class struggle. He also wrote for numerous libertarian publications: 'l'Anarchie', 'Le Combat', 'Le Combat Social', 'Le Cri Populaire', 'Le Cubillot', 'L'Ecole Rénovée', 'Hors du Troupeau', 'l'Idée Libre: Revue d'Éducation Sociale Fondée', 'L'Insurgé', 'Le Libertaire', 'Les Réfractaires', 'Les Temps Nouveaux', etc.
During WWI, as anti-militarists listed in 'Carnet B', he and Mary Smiles were forced to seek refuge in la Creuse. After the war he continued to make his living as a beekeeper, selling his honey in rural markets, and the couple returned to their activism, writing for numerous papers including 'L'Anarchie', 'Le Combat', 'Controverse', 'L'Emancipateur', 'l'En-Dehors', Émile Armand's individualist newspaper, 'Germinal', 'Le Réfractaire', newspaper of the Ligue des Réfractaires à Toutes Guerres, 'Le Semeur', 'La Vie Universelle', 'La Voix Libertaire', paper of l'Association des Fédéralistes Anarchistes (AFA), and collaborated on Sebastien Faure's 'L'Encyclopédie Anarchiste'.
During WWII he was denounced as a Jew and forced into hiding with Mary. Amongst his other writings, books and pamphlets were a number on vivisection, children's education and health ['Pour les Petits: Recueil de Chansons, Chœurs et Petites Comédies' (For Children: Songbook, Choruses and Small Comedies; 1907)], religion including 'The Buffoons of Faith. The Teaching of Christ' (1952) and poetry: 'Révoltes et Sanglots' (Revolts and Sobbings; 1913) and 'Emois et Révoltes' (Agitations and Revolts; 1950).

1896 - Célestin Freinet (d. 1966), French anarchist pacifist educator and Ferrer School activist, born. Célestin and Elise Freinet are depicted in René Frégni's 1994 autobiographical novel 'Le Maître qui Laissait les Enfants Rêver' (A Stolen Childhood (Denol, 1994) as 'Dad Freinet' and 'Mom Freinet' in his depiction of a troubled small boy named René-Jean who spends two school years at the school in Vence. [expand]

1902 - André Prudhommeaux (d. 1968), French communist, then an anarchist, agronomist, editor of 'Le Libertaire' and 'Le Monde Libertaire', writer, poet and publicist. is born in the Guise familistère. He founded a Paris bookshop specialising in social history, and the scene of many lively debates. Introduced Camus into the Cercle des Etudiants Anarchistes in 1948.

####1902 - Amparo Poch y Gascón (d. 1968), Spanish teacher, doctor, anarchist feminist, anti-fascist, propagandist for sexual freedom and co-founder of the Mujeres Libres, born. The oldest of five children and the only girl, her parents were an army sergeant and a house maid. A good student, she had wanted to study medicine at university but her father claimed that "No es carrera propia de mujer" (Its not a proper careers for a woman). So she ended up enrolling to study as a science teacher (1917-22) and, having graduated, went on to follow her true vocation, going on in 1929 to become only the second ever woman to graduate from the Faculty of Medicine at the Universitat de Zaragoza, earning a first class degree in medicine with honours in all 28 of her courses. During this period she wrote and had published in December 1923 a partly autobiographical short novella entitled 'Amour', in which she first set out some of her anarchist and feminist ideas.
On October 3, 1929, she enrolled in the Colegio de Médicos de Zaragoza and set to putting her learning to the service of women. Specialised in childcare, she ran a clinic for women and children, as well as teaching courses on sex education and responsible maternity at the university and in the ateneos. After she moved to Madrid in mid 1934, she went on to open her Clínica Médica para mujeres y niños (Medical Clinic for women and children) in October of the following year. In 1934, she also co-founded, along with Mercedes Comaposada and Lucía Sánchez Saornil among others, the 'Mujeres Libres' magazine and its linked organisation - to be written and published by and for women. In the same period she wrote a number of works including 'La cartilla de consejos a las madres' (Primer of Advice for Mothers; 1931), 'La vida sexual de la mujer. Pubertad, noviazgo, matrimonio' (The Sexual Life of Women. Puberty, engagement, marriage; 1932) and 'Elogio del amor libre' (Praise of Free Love; 1936), in addition to writing for several libertarian magazines such as 'Revista Blanca', 'Tiempos Nuevos', 'Tierra y Libertad', 'Generación Consciente' and 'Estudios', as well as 'Mujeres Libres' following its first issue in May 1936. Amparo founded and directed the 'neo-Malthusian-lite' Grup Ogino, which provided free contraceptive advice, promoting the rhythm method (aka 'ogino') of birth control, and promote a responsible motherhood. In 1936 she was also involved with fellow pacifist José Brocca Ramón in the creation of the Lliga Hispànica contra la Guerra (Spanish League against the War), Spanish section of War Resisters International and the Orden del Olivo (Order of the Olive Branch).
During the Revolution Amparo was appointed director of Asistencia Social in Valencia, with responsibility for the care of refugee children in the granjas-escuelas (farm schools) in France, personally leading one transport of children there in March 1937, and regularly paying inspection visits to them. She also organised the evacuation of children to Mexico and, on March 17, 1937 on borad the ship Ciudad de Cádiz, to Russia. In her post, she worked closely with Frederica Montseny in the Ministeri de Sanitat (Ministry of Health) –– the position of Minister of Health had been earmarked for her, but she was finally rejected due to her membership in the Federación Anarquista Ibérica.
Through her working in the Sindicato Único de Sanidad de la CNT, Amparo Poch participated in the organisation of sanitation in the disused buildings that the Republican government had requisitioned for the setting up, for example, of the Hospital de Sangre de la CNT in Madrid. Amparo also used her government position to promote the establishment of liberatorios de prostitución, liberation homes for prostitutes, where they could receive health care, psychotherapy and professional training to enable them to acquire economic independence through means other than prostitution. On July 25, 1936, Amparo Poch joined the ninth Batallón del Regimiento Ángel Pestaña as a doctora miliciana'. In November 1937, she moved to Barcelona and became director of the Casal de la Dona Treballadora, a meeting place that ran cultural, professional and social programs and lectures for the education of women. In Barcelona Amparo also participated in the organisation of field hospitals and directed the training program for the rescue squads, in which brigadistas were taught about 'CPR', trauma, haemorrhages and blood transfusions, whilst continuing her work for the care of children and refugees.
At the beginning of February of 1939, she crossed the border into France and was granted a 'laissez passer' by the French authorities that granted her residence but prevented her from working. With her then partner, she worked painting cards and handkerchiefs, embroidering and making raffia bags that were sold on the black market, as well as collaborating in a clandestine hat shop. Through this period, she was also active as clandestine medical worker, help thousands of refugees confined to the concentration camps through the offices of the Creu Roja República Espanyola (Spanish Republican Red Cross).
Having set up home in Toulouse at the end of the war, she worked at a Red Cross clinic in the city and in the Dispensary of the Warsaw Hospital, Amparo Poch continued to be active in the Spanish section of the Solidaridad Internacional Antifascista, providing medical assistance to the numerous Spanish guerrillas who passed through the city. Diagnosed with brain cancer in 1965, she wanted to return to Zaragoza and her family but her brothers had repudiated her (one had even tried to get her university records expunged) and he remained in Toulouse and went into a gradual physical and mental decline.
Amparo Poch y Gascón died on April 15, 1968 in Toulouse (Languedoc, Occitania). On April 18, 1968 over 200 Spanish exiles attended her burial in Cornebarrieu cemetery in Blagnac. Her will stipulated that her possessions be distributed amongst the poor. She died with just 16 francs 29 centimes to her name.

1904 - Oreste Lucchesi, in prison since 1894 for assassinating the editor of 'Il Telegrafo', whose articles resulted in the repression and arrest of numerous anarchists, dies.

1907 - Oscar Lawler files federal charges against Antonio I. Villarreal, Ricardo Flores Magón, and Librado Rivera for violation of Arizona's neutrality laws.

[B] 1913 - In his diary entry for today, Franz Kafka writes, "Don't forget Kropotkin!". Kropotkin's 'Memoirs of a Revolutionist' were amongst Kafka's favourite books, as were the memoirs of Alexander Herzen.

1915 - Paul Karl Wilhelm Scheerbart (b. 1863), German author of fantastic literature and drawings and an individualist anarchist, who was chosen as on of the 'saints' of Mynona and Anselm Ruest's 'Der Einzige' (he also contibuted an article to the first issue), dies. [see: Jan. 8]

1919 - The reappearence of the fortnightly 'L'Action d'Art', "organe de l'individualisme héroïque", published by André Colomer and Marcel Say.

1920 - Police raid the premises of the anarchist newspaper 'Nova Umanità', arresting the editors Alfredo Porcelli and Corrado Quaglino and the manager Dante Pagliai.

1920 - Possible date (Oct. 10-15) for the signing of an agreement between Bolshevik and Makhnovist forces to co-operate against the White Army general Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel during the Russian Civil War.

1925 - Daijiro Furuta (b. 1900), Japanese anarchist and member of the Guillotine Society (Girochin Sha), an anarchist terrorist group, is hanged after he refuses to appeal his death sentence. [see: Jan. 1]

1925 - Dolores Jiménez y Muro (b. 1848), Mexican schoolteacher, writer, poet, socialist activist, and Colonel in the Mexican Revolutionary Army, who was a supporter and associate of General Emiliano Zapata, dies aged 75. [see: Jun. 7]

1926 - Nakahama Tetsu (中浜 哲), born Tomioka Makoto (富岡 誠; b. 1897), Japanese anarchist militant and author, is executed for acts of propaganda of the deed, including a plan to assassinate Prince Hirohito. Member of the Girochin Sha. [see: Jan. 1]

1926 - Agustín García Calvo (d. 2012), Spanish philologist, translator, linguist, playwright, poet, philosopher and anarchist, born. Formed the student anarchist protest movement Acratas, also known as the 'anti-crats', at Complutense University of Madrid in 1967. His philosophical and linguistic works include: 'Del Lenguaje' (On Language; 1991), 'Contra la Paz. Contra la Democracia' (Against Peace. Against Democracy; 1993), 'Contra el Tiempo' (Against Time; 1993), 'Contra la Pareja' (Against the Couple; 1994), 'De Dios' (On God; 1996) and 'Contra la Realidad, Estudios de Lenguas y Cosas' (Against Reality, Studies of Language and Stuff; 2002).
A published poet, his collections include: 'Sermón de Ser y No Ser' (Sermon on Being and Not Being; 1972), 'Libro de Conjuros' (Book of Spells; 1979), 'Relato de Amor' (Story of love; 1980), 'Del Tren (83 Notas o Canciones)' (Of the Train (83 Notes or Songs); 1981), 'Canciones y Soliloquios' (Songs and Soliloquies; 1982), 'Más Canciones y Soliloquios' (More Songs and Soliloquies; 1988) and 'Ramo de Romances y Baladas' (Branch of Romances and Ballads; 1991). He is also the author of several dramatic pieces, such as the tragi-comedic musical 'Ismena' (1980), 'Rey de una Hora' (King of an Hour; 1984) and 'Baraja del Rey Don Pedro' (Deck of the King Don Pedro; 1998), which won the Premio Nacional de Literatura Dramática 1999.

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: The troops of General Balmes on the southern front manage to overcome the last resistance that prevented their way to Mieres, in the Caudal basin. The Provincial Revolutionary Committee decide to negotiate the surrender and send a Guardia Civil Lieutenant, Gabriel Torrens Llompart, who had been taken prisoner by the insurgents, to meet with General Lopez Ochoa, commander of the 25,000 troops who had deployed the government to crush the uprising. At a second meeting, this time between General Lopez Ochoa and Belarmino Tomás himself, the terms of surrender of the insurgents were set. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1949 - The first issue of the fortnightly newspaper 'Les Nouvelles Pacifistes', is published in Paris by the Confédération Générale Pacifiste. The editors of the newspaper will be Pierre Bergé and Louis Louvet.

1957 - Guy Debord's 'Remarques sur le Concept d'Art Expérimental' (Remarks on the Concept of Experimental Art), a critique of the text 'Pour un Concept d'Expérimentation Musicale' (Toward a Concept of Musical Experimentation) by Walter Olmo of the Situationist International's Italian Section, is published in Paris.

[D] 1969 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Imperial War Museum gutted by incendiary device. The attack is widely linked to other First of May Group/Angry Brigade actions.

1969 - 'Erosu Purasu Gyakusatsu' (Eros + Massacre), a film biography of anarchist Sakae Ōsugi directed by Yoshishige Yoshida is released (in France; 14 March 1970 in Japan).

1969 - 'Operations Within the French Section after October 1969', an internal document, is unanimously adopted at a meeting of the French section of the Situationist International.

1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Maryhill Barracks Army HQ, Glasgow, firebombed. [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]

1990 - Sam Dolgoff (Sholem Dolgopolsky; d. 1990), US anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist author, editor and militant, dies. [see: Oct 10 / 23]

1991 - Lucile Pelletier (Lucile Louise Simone Pelletier; b. 1906), French public service worker, anarchist and revolutionary syndicalist, dies. [see: Nov. 20]

2004 - David Edward 'Dave' Godin (b. 1936), English anarchist, anti-capitalist, vegan animal rights advocate, Esperantist and champion of black music, who coined the term 'northern soul', des in Rotherham, South Yorkshire. [see: Jun. 21]
###[B] 1854 - Jean Grave (d. 1939), a leading activist, writer and publisher in the French anarchist and avant-garde movements, born. Initially a socialist, he became an anarchist after 1880 and a populariser in France of Peter Kropotkin's ideas. Involved with Élisée Reclus' 'Le Révolté' and wrote 'Mouvement Libertaire Sous la IIIe République' (1930). Also wrote 'Les Aventures de Nono' (1901), a libertarian utopia for children, which was used by the Spanish écoles modernes in a translation by the militant anarchist and syndicalist Anselmo Lorenzo; novels, including 'Terre Libre: les Pionniers' (1908), a novel for young people featuring a group of prisoners shipwrecked on a desert island during their voyage to the New Caladionia prison colony; and even a play.

#### 1854 - Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (d. 1900), Irish writer, poet and anarchist, born. His 1891 essay, 'The Soul of Man under Socialism', expounds his anarchist world-view, which was based on his reading of the works of Peter Kropotkin. Wilde was the sole literary signatory of George Bernard Shaw's petition for a pardon of the anarchists arrested (and later executed) after the Haymarket massacre in Chicago in 1886.
"I was formerly a poet and a tyrant; now I'm an artist and an anarchist!" [in 'L'Ermitage'; July 1893]
"Progress in thought is the assertion of individualism against authority." [in his 'Commonplace Book']
"Art is individualism, and individualism is a disturbing and disintegrating force. There lies its immense value. For what it seeks is to disturb monotony of type, slavery of custom, tyranny of habit, and the reduction of man to the level of a machine." ['The Soul of Man under Socialism'; (1891)]

1888 - Eugene Gladstone O'Neill (d. 1953), Irish American playwright, Wobbly, socialist and philosophical anarchist, born. He was eighteen-year-old when he discovered Benjamin Tucker's anarchist bookstore in New York in 1906, and associated with anarchist and socialist during his early life: "Time was when I was an active socialist, and, after that, a philosophical anarchist." Many of his early plays and poems are expressly political in content and one of his most famous, 'The Iceman Cometh' (1940), set in Greenwich Village in 1912, contains numerous anarchist characters and highlights issues such as racism, the Boer War and the thought processes of police informers. Eugene O'Neill's expressionist play 'The Hairy Ape' (1922), which was first produced by the Provincetown Players in the same year, is expressly pro-IWW with its depiction of the oppressed industrial working class and capitalism.
Member of the Hollywood Anti-Fascist League alongside Humphrey Bogart, John Garfield, Dashiell Hammett, Lillian Hellman, Langston Hughes, Pablo Picasso, Paul Robeson, Donald Ogden Stewart and Orson Welles.

1893 - Emma Goldman is sentenced to Blackwell's Island penitentiary for one year. Begins her term on Oct. 18. In prison, Emma is initially put in charge of the sewing shop, but soon trained to serve as a nurse in the prison hospital.

1907 - Roger Vailland (d. 1965), French novelist, essayist, screenwriter, youthful anarchist and, having fought alongside Communists in the Résistance, a Communist Party member, born. Fellow-traveller of the Paris Surrealist group who fell out with Breton and Aragon and helped form 'Le Grand Jou' in 1928.

1918 - The United States Immigration Act (also known as the Dillingham-Hardwick Act) is enacted. It is specifically designed to tighten-up on the provisions of the 1903 Act, also known as the Anarchist Exclusion Act, which was seen to be not working, and to help rid the States of foreign-born anarchists and IWW members.

1936 - At Perdiguera, near Zaragoza in Aragon, the 250 fighters of the Grupo Internacional of the Columna Durruti support heavy fighting against the Moorish colonial troops of Franco. Dozens of foreign volunteers including a number of French militants are killed. Louis Berthomieu, a former artillery captain in the French army living in Barcelona, who was co-founder of the Grupo Internacional, along with Charles Ridel (Louis Mercier Vega) and François-Charles Carpentier, and general delegate of the Group on the Column's war committee, blows himself up with dynamite rather than fall into the hands of the fascists. Amongst the thirty six other international volunteers captured and/or killed behind enemy lines during the action were a number of female medical or canteen support workers, including Georgette Kokoczinski aka 'La Mimosa', the French anarchists Juliette Baudart (or Baubard) and Suzanne Girbe, and German socialists and POUM members Augusta Marx aka 'Trude' and Madeleine Gierth. There is much doubt about La Mimosa's death, with some sources claiming that she was in fact captured on the 16th and shot by firing squad alongside her male comrades the following day, with her body being burned in a barn. Another version has her and Augusta Marx, naked and disemboweled but still alive, thrown by the fascists into the front lines where a comrade put them out of their misery.

## 1936 - Georgette Léontine Roberte Augustine Kokoczinski aka 'La Mimosa' (Georgette Léontine Brivadis-Ango; b. 1907), French anarchist, actress and nurse, disappears during the Battle of Perdiguera, nera Zaragoza in Aragon, and dies in circumstances that are not entirely clear. It is possible that she was shot by firing squad alongside her comrades the following day and her body burned in a barn. Another version of her death see's her and the German socialist Augusta Marx aka 'Trude', both naked and still alive despite having been disemboweled, being thrown by the fascists into the front lines where a comrade put them out of their misery.
[see: Aug. 16]

1936 - Alternate date for the death of Suzanne Hans aka Suzanne Girbe [a Suzanne Girbe is recoded as having died that, Girbe being her maternal grandfather's surname was Girbe, a named that she often use] (d. 1914), French anarchist and miliciana, possibly killed alongside her partner Louis Recoule and a number of other comrades in the Grupo Internacional of the Columna Durruti in the Battle of Perdiguera. [see: Apr. 3 & Oct. 8]

1939 - Malvina Tavares (Júlia Malvina Hailliot Tavares; b. 1866), one of the most active of Brazil's anarchist militants, as well as being a poet and pioneer of modern education in southern Brazil, dies. [see: Nov. 24]

##1963 - Guy Aldred (b. 1886), British anarchist-communist, anti-militarist and key member of the Anti-Parliamentary Communist Federation, dies. Founded the Bakunin Press and edited five Glasgow-based anarchist periodicals - 'The Herald of Revolt', 'The Spur', 'The Commune', 'The Council', and 'The Word'. [see: Nov. 5]

1985 - Margaret Michaelis (Michaelis-Sachs) (born Margarethe Gross; b. 1902), Austrian, and then Australian, photographer and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 6]

1988 - Emidio Santana (b. 1906), leading Portuguese anarcho-syndicalist militant, writer and essayist, dies. [see: Jul. 4]

2005 - The inauguration in Mel, Belluno, Italy, of a monument in memory of the anarchist Angelo Sbardellotto shot by the fascists on June 17, 1932 in Rome.
1840 - André Gill (born Louis-Alexandre Gosset de Guînes; d. 1885), French republican and anti-clerical caricaturist, born. Took his pseudonym André Gill in homage to his hero, James Gillray. Part of the Parisian bohemian/anarchist milieu, frequenting Le Chat Noir, designed the sign for the anarchist cabaret haunt Le Lapin Agile and collaborated on a number of projects with anarchists including providing illustrations for Jules Vallès' socialist paper, 'La Rue', during the 1871 Commune. Member of the Fédération des Artistes alongside Gustave Courbet, Eugène Pottier, Honoré Daumier, Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, Jules Dalou, and Édouard Manet.

1866 - Edouard Aubin Marpeaux (d. 1894), French anarchist expropriator, and member of the Ligue des Antipatriotes, born. Convicted to life in prison for killing a policeman despite his denials of doing it. Marpaux was killed during a prison uprising on l'île du Salut. [see: Oct. 23]

1873 - Alfred Polgar (originally: Alfred Polak; d. 1955), Austrian-born journalist, short story writer, screenwriter, satirist, translator, essayist, who also wrote under the pseudonyms Archibald Douglas and L. A. Terne, born. One of the most renowned intellectuals of the Vienna literary cafés, he contributed to number of anarchist journals, particularly 'Die Zukunft'. Polgar fled to Prague in 1933 after the Nazis proscribed and burned his books, later going to Switzerland and France. At the invasion of France he moved with Heinrich Mann, Franz Werfel and Leonhard Frank across the Spanish frontier and finally reached New York in October 1940. He worked briefly in Hollywood for Metro Goldwyn Mayer, returning to Europe after the War.

##1883 - A.S. (Alexander Sutherland) Neill (d. 1973), Scottish anti-authoritarian educator, author and founder of Summerhill school, born. [expand]

[BB] 1888 - Maurice Eugène Marie Hallé (d. 1954), French anarchist activist, poet, songwriter and cabaret singer, born. At the age of 13 he began working in his father's blacksmiths. After a failed attempt to live in Paris, he returned to work in his father's workshop, and joins the local young poets group Gàs d'Cheu Nous. In 1910 he published a set of poems, 'Au Pays où qu'on Parl' Ben: Recueil de Monologues Beaucerons' and began singing in cabarets in the region, but his satirical verses were not much appreciated by the farmers of the region, who considered him arrogant. After the death of his parents, he returned to Paris, where he befriended other singers, especially Paul Besnard, and he began to sing the Parisian cabaret. He also frequented libertarian circles, for which he was persecuted and imprisoned by the police on several occasions. In 1913 he began to work with La Muse Rouge, a group of singers revolutionary poets and singers whose songs were published in proletarian newspapers such as 'La Guerre Sociale', 'La Bataille Syndicaliste', 'La Chanson du Peuple', 'La Vache Enragée', 'La Muse Rouge', etc..
During WWI his poor health helped him avoid conscription and he continued performing in cabarets (Théâtre de Montmartre, Caveau de la République, Lapin Agile, La Bolée, Quat'z-Arts, Noctambules, etc.), performing songs against war and injustice of all kinds. On 18 May, 1917, with Roger Toziny, he launched the satirical weekly 'La Vache Enragée' [using the title previously used by Adolphe Willette (1896-97)] and two years later founded the cabaret La Goguette de la Vache Enragée, which was especially frequented by artists and writers. This cabaret also became (after using a room in the Lapin Agile) the headquarters of the council of the Commune Libre de Montmartre (the artists' bohemian neighbourhood was declared to secede from the municipality of Paris and form a town of its own), which Hallé created with his fellow 'La Vache Enragée' editors: the painter, caricaturist, poet, and humorist Jules Depaquit, who was appointed mayor, and the poet and chansonnier Roger Toziny.
In 1921, the Commune created the Foire aux Croûtes, initially an outdoor art exhibition that went on to become a rauchous fair. That same year, Hallé published a collection of poems and songs, 'Par Grand'route et les Chemins Creux'. In 1928, after falling out with the owner of the premises, the cabaret was expelled and he ended up working as a proofreader at the 'Journal Officiel'. In 1935 he published 'Les Laveuses, Poésie Beauceronne' and in 1942 'Les Oeuvres de Maurice Hallé: Darrièr'la ch'vaille, poésie beauceronne créée par l'auteur à la Vache enragée, au Coucou, et par Lucie Touchais dans les cabarets'. His other works are 'Poésies Beauceronnes' (1934), 'J'veux pas qu'tu t'Marises, récit Beauceron' (1937), and 'Prière d'un p'tit alo au p'tit Jésus' (1942), amongst others.

1889 - Nikolai Chernyshevsky (b. 1828), Russian radical critic, dies. He helped lay the basis for revolutionary populism. Wrote 'What is to be Done?' (Что делать?), a political novel that influenced two generations of Russian intelligentsia, including many anarchists such as Emma Goldman. It served as the manifesto of the 19th Century Russian Nihilists.

1992 - Eduardo Val Bescós, aka 'El Serio' (b. 1908), Aragonese hotel waiter, anarcho-syndicalist militant and military strategist during the Spanish Revolution, dies in Baziège, near Toulouse. [see: Oct. 13]

1892 - David Edelstadt (Doṿid Edelshṭaṭ / דוד עדעלשטאַדט; b. 1866), American Yiddish anarchist and poet, dies. [see: May 9]

1901 - Pano Vassilev (d. 1933), Bulgarian anarcho-syndicalist militant, born. [expand]
[Jul.-Greg. correction?]

1909 - A new demonstration in Paris against the execution of Francisco Ferrer brings 60,000 demonstrators out onto the streets, marching from Place Clichy to la Concorde singing the Internationale and uttering cries of vengeance against the Spanish monarchy.

## 1915 - Conxa (Concha) Pérez (Concepció Pérez Collado; d. 2014), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, miliciana in the Columna Ortiz and anti-Franco resister, who took part in the assaults of the Pedralbes barracks and the Model Prison during the fascist uprising in July 1936 and fought on the Aragon front in the Columna Ortiz, born. The daughter of Joan Pérez Güell, an illiterate militant anarcho-syndicalist, who spent time in the Model (Presó Model / Cárcel Modelo) prison in Barcelona during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, her mother died of tuberculosis when she was just two years old. Unable to attend school, she began working at the age of 13 in a textile factory and later in a printing company. Following the proclamation of the Republic, she quit the graphic arts workshop where she worked became a full-time militant in the libertarian movement, attending the Ateneu Llibertari 'Agrupació Cultural Faros' in Barcelona and joining the Joventuts Llibertàries (Libertarian Youth), the CNT's Sindicat d'Arts Gràfiques and the Federació Anarquista Ibèrica (and later, in succession, the groups 'Sacco i Vanzetti' and 'Siempre Adelante'). Conxa took part in the anarchist insurrection of 1933, joined Joan García Oliver's 'Moviment 8 de Gener', and was detained and jailed for five months in the Amàlia women's prison for bringing a gun that she had hidden for a comrade to him whilst he was on a factory picket line. Whilst in prison she spent much of her time reading - Spanish prisons at that time were effectively anarchist universities , with clandestine libertarian books and tracts freely available. Towards the end of 1935 she became a member of the Ateneu Humanitat de les Corts and the self-management school 'Élisée Reclus', which had been set up by Félix Carrasquer, whilst working in a carpentry workshop..
A few days before the fascist uprising broke out in July 1936, she joined the Comitè Revolucionari in the Corts barrio, going on to ​​participate in the assaults of the barracks of Pedralbes and the Model prison. Immediately afterwards she went to the Aragon front (Zaida, Belchite, Fifth) as a militiana (one of only seven women in unit of 100) in the Els Aguilons de les Corts, part of the Columna Ortiz, where she remained for six months. Back in Barcelona, ​​she worked at the Maternitat's popular dining rooms and then returned to the front at Almudévar, incorporated into the Carlo Rosselli Italian anti-fascist column. Again in Barcelona, ​​she worked at an arms factory in Sants and participated in its Factory Council. During the Fets de Maig in 1937, she was wounded in an ambush by Stalinist forces on May 3, 1937, after having volunteered to reconnoitre the area around the ​​Plaça de Catalunya. She would carry around a bullet fragment embedded in her for many years.
In December of 1938, shortly before the Republic fell, she left Barcelona and crossed over into France via Girona and Portbou, ending up interred in the Argelès refugee camp. Later, she worked as a volunteer nurse in a refugee camp in Argelès, where she met Madrilenian doctor Isidoro Alonso, a socialist who for a time was her partner, and with whom she had her only child, a boy who was born in Marseille. In September 1942, Conxa and her then three-month-old son crossed the Spanish border into Spain. However, once in Barcelona she found that she could not afford to keep her son, so she left him temporarily in the care of a hospital orphanage and it was only with the assistance of the Jewish family who she worked for as a domestic worker, who helped persuade the institutions that she earned enough to feed her child on, that she was able to recover custody of her child.
In Barcelona, Conxa met a former Ateneu Faros comrade, Maurici Palau, with whom she had a relationship lasting 30 years. Together they set up stall in the Sant Antoni market, where they sold costume jewellery and underwear, and where they helped CNT members fresh out of prison. Conxa also actively participated in the clandestine cenetista group that met at Los Pajaritos bar on the Ronda de Sant Pau. She collaborated in the Associació de Veïns del Raval de Barcelona (Raval Neighbourhood Association) during the seventies and during the 'Transition' took part in the organisation of the Sindicat de Comerç of the CNT, since she ran a jewellery boutique. As of 1999, she will be part of the group 'Dones del 36' (Women of the 36), conducting talks in educational institutes. In 2004 she participated in the 'La Ruta de l'Anarquisme' (The Route to Anarchism) event organised by Turisme Tàctic. She also took part in various documentaries, including 'De toda la vida', 'Vivir la Utopía' and 'Mujeres del 36', and in the collective books 'Nosaltres que perdimos la paz' (We who lost the Peace; 2005), by the journalist Llum Quiñonero, and 'Dones contra Franco' (Women against Franco; 2007) by the historian Jordi Creus.
Conxa Pérez died aged 95 on April 17, 2014 in Barcelona.

1920 - In Italy Errico Malatesta, anarchist militant and writer, is arrested (along with 80 others). He is held responsible, along with Armando Borghi (arrested on October 13, shortly after his return from Russia), Corrado Quaglino, the local editor of 'Umanita Nova' and Virgilia d'Andrea, for the worker occupations of the factories in Milan during this past summer and in September.

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: Having begun negotiations on Oct. 15 with General Lopez Ochoa, commander of the 25,000 troops who had deployed the government to crush the uprising, a second meeting takes place between General Lopez Ochoa and the socialist Unión General de Trabajadores leader Belarmino Tomás Álvarez to set the terms of surrender of the insurgents on behalf of the Provincial Revolutionary Committee.

[B] 1934 - Christian Zeimert, French painter, illustrator and anarchist, born. Member in the '60s of the Mouvement Panique (Panic Movement), an anarchist avant-garde collective, with Fernando Arrabal, Alejandro Jodorowsky, Roland Topor, Jacques Sternberg and Olivier O. Olivier. In the '70s Zeimert founded, along with Henry Cueco, Lucien Fleury, Jean-Claude Latil, Michel Parré and Gérard Tisserand, the Front Révolutionnaire des Artistes Plasticiens (FRAP), which refused any involvement in mainstream cultural institution, preferring instead to attempt to subvert them. In the 1980’s, he also played an important part in the legendary French magazine 'Le Fou Parle', as well as 'Hara-Kiri', and for 3 years made a regular arts programme on Radio Libertaire alongside writer and 'Le Fou Parle' founder, Jacques Vallet. In his 70’s, he remained a major figure of the French art scene with his 'peinture calembourgeoise', paintings based on puns.

1936 - The first issue of the F.I.J.L. newspaper 'Ruta' is published in Barcelona. The newspaper goes on to oppose the reformist positions and compromises of the CNT-FAI during the Spanish Civil War. The last issue was on November 5, 1938, and was then smuggled into Barcelona under Franco between 1946 and 1947 (27 issues), sporadically in 1948 and between 1955 and 1958. It reappeared in Barcelona after Franco died between 1979-1982 and in 1988-1989.

1936 - The first issue of the anarcho-syndicalist journal 'Pueblo Libre', paper of the local CNT-AIT unions is published in Sueca, near Valencia.

[E] 1936 - Presumed date for the death, either by Fascist firing squad or following diembowelment, of Georgette Léontine Roberte Augustine Kokoczinski aka 'La Mimosa' (Georgette Léontine Brivadis-Ango; b. 1907), French anarchist, actress and nurse, who disappeared the previous day during the Battle of Perdiguera (Zaragoza). [see: Aug. 16]

1943 - André Respaut is arrested and tortured before being sent to Buchenwald, where he was known for his courage and generosity - saving several deportees from death. From 1939 to 1943, he was active in the resistance and the Combat group. A lifelong anarchist, he worked with an association of deportees, and wrote the books 'Buchenwald Terre Maudite' (1946) and 'Sociologie Fédéraliste Libertaire' (1961). André was released on April 11, 1945 by the Americans.

1949 - Josep (José) Sabaté i Llopart aka Pepe (b. 1909*), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, guerrilla fighter against Franco, and older brother of Francesc (Francisco) 'El Quico' Sabaté and Manuel aka Manolo, dies in a police ambush. Following a series ambushes of his comrades over the preceeding days during which Luciano Alpuente Hernández aka 'Madurga' was gunned down on the 14th and Eusebio Montes Brescos arrested two days later and brutally tortured. Earlier on October 17 Juan 'el Chofer' Serrano and Francisco Massip Valls aka 'Cisco de Lleida' were ambushed along the river Llobregat and el Chofer wounded, but both men had managed to escape. Meanwhile, thanks to an informer, an ambush had also been arranged for Pepe on the Calle del Bruch where he waited for a tram. However, having noticed the waiting police, he managed to open fire first and flee into the Calle Trafalgar, where he shot dead the Brigada Político-Social agent Luis García Dagas. Though wounded, Pepe continued his flight down the street he ran into two other BPS agaents and was arrested. He was transported to the nearby Dispensari Municipal on the Carrer Sepúlveda, where he died from his wounds. [see: Aug. 17]
[*NB: some sources give the year of birth as 1910]

1957 - French-Algerian author, and one-time anarchist, Albert Camus is awarded Nobel Prize for literature.

1960 - Thierry Maricourt, prolific French proletarian writer, poet, novelist, essayist, anarchist, anti-fascist and anti-militarist, with numerous reference works to his credit, born.

1966 - The anarchist collective, The Diggers, holds its first free street food handout in San Francisco.

2005 - Ba Jin (aka Pa Chin, Li Fei-Kan, Li Pei-Kan, Pa Kin [pseud. of Li Yaotang]) (b. 1904), Chinese novelist who discovered anarchism with the reading of Peter Kropotkin and Emma Goldman and created his pseudonym Ba (from Bakunin ) and Jin (from Kropotkin), dies. [see: Nov. 25]

2011 - Étienne O'Leary (b. 1944), Québécois actor, director and soundtrack composer of experimental short film, painter and libertarian, dies. [see: Oct. 24]
1831 - Première Révolte des Canuts: Against the backdrop of poor economic circumstances and a resultant drop in silk prices, which caused a drop in workers' wages, the canuts (master silk workers, often working on Jacquard looms) request that the préfet du Rhône, Louis Bouvier-Dumolart, help them negotiate with the manufacturers. The canuts wanted a fixed price to be established, which would stop the further decrease of the price of silk goods. The prefect organised a group of owners and workers, which was able to establish a fixed rate on October 26. A labour court, the Conseil de prud'hommes, was given the role of ensuring the rate was applied.
The intervention of the prefect was, however, poorly received by some manufacturers who considered his actions to be demagogic, and the concessions afforded by their representatives to be a sign of weakness. 104 of them refused to apply the rate, claiming it was against the principles of the French Revolution. Laws such as the Le Chapelier Law and the Allarde decree of 1791 established the principle of economic non-intervention by the state, in addition to explicitly banning guilds, and denying the right to strike. The manufacturers claimed the fixed rate was contrary to freedom of enterprise.

[E] 1843 - [O.S. Oct. 6] Anna or Anne Jaclard (Anna Vasilyevna Korvin-Krukovskaya [Анна Васильевна Корвин-Круковская]; d. 1887), Russian writer, journalist and translator, socialist and feminist revolutionary Pétroleuse, who participated in the Commune de Paris (1871) and the Association Internationale des Travailleurs, born. The daughter of Lieutenant-General Vasily Korvin-Krukovsky, one time head of the Moscow Artillery, and Yelizaveta Fedorovna Schubert, held progressive views and made sure Anna and her sister, the future famous mathematician Sophia Kovalevskaya, received a good education. Amongst their reading were the writings of so-called 'nihilist' and Narodnik social critics like Nikolai Chernyshevsky and Peter Lavrov, and both sisters became involved in radical Narodnik circles. In the 1860s, Anna was briefly engaged to the famous writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky, but the couple parted on good terms when they both realised that they were temperamentally unsuited, with the increasingly conservative and religious Dostoyevsky's youthful radicalism a thing of the past. In 1866, like many other young radical women, Anna left Russia for Switzerland to study medicine at Geneva University. In the radical circles there, Anna met a fellow medical student Victor Jaclard, a Blanquist who had been exiled from France, and in 1867 they married. Both were influenced by the revolutionary anarchism of Mikhail Bakunin and active in a number Bakunin-influenced political groups. They also joined the International Workingmen's Association (First International), Anna in the Russian section and Victor the French, and befriended Karl Marx, who would become important to the couple later after the suppression of the Paris Commune.
With the fall of Napoléon III in 1870, Jaclard returned to France, accompanied by Anna, and both became active participants in the Paris Commune the following year. Anna sat on the Comité de vigilance de Montmartre and a committee that oversaw the education of girls, as well as being active in organising the food supply for the besieged city; she also co-founded and wrote for the journal 'La Sociale'; acted as one of the representatives of the Russian section of the International and participated in a committee on women's rights. On the latter, she came into contact with many of thee leading feminist revolutionaries in the Commune, including Louise Michel, Nathalie Lemel, André Léo, Paule Mink and her fellow Russian, Elisaveta Dmitrieva. Together they founded the openly feminist and radical socialist Union des femmes pour la défense de Paris et les soins aux blessés, which fought for equal pay for women, female suffrage, the recognition of full civic status based on full civic and legal equality, measures against domestic violence and the closure of the legal brothels in Paris. Anna was also personally very much against the drunkenness (and the violence and brutality that often accompanied it) that was rife amongst certain sections of the Commune, arguing that "drunkards who have lost all self-respect should be arrested."
During the Semaine Sanglante, Anna fought on the barricades but after overthrow of the Paris Commune by the Versailles government of Adolphe Thiers, Anna and her husband were captured. He was sentenced to death, she, to hard labour in perpetuity in a penal colony in New Caledonia. However, in October 1871, the Jaclards managed to escape from prison with help from her sister Sophia and Sophia's husband, Vladimir Kovalevsky. They went to live in London and for a while stayed at the home of Karl Marx, Marx not holding their links to Bakunin against them. During this period, Anna began,but did not finish, translating the first volume of Marx's 'Das Capital' into Russian. Marx also helped organise Anna's trip to Heidelberg for study.
In 1874, Anna and Victor left for Russia, where Anna worked as a journalist and translator, translating some of the works of Fyodor Dostoyevsky into French, with whom she had renewed friendly relations. Victor found a job as a French teacher. Anna also renewed her contacts with revolutionary circles, including members of Khozhdeniye v narod (Хождение в народ) or Go to the people [a movement based loosely around Bakunin's statement "Go to the people, there is your field, your life, your science. Learn from the people how to serve them and how best to manage their affairs" that followed on from the 1860s students "drawing closer to the people" educational movement] and Narodnaya Volya (Народной Воли / People's Will). In 1881, Narodnaya Volya assassinated Alexander II but Anna and Victor were fortunate in having returned to France following the previous year's general amnesty of Communards and they avoided the mass repression that followed the Tsar's death. Anne and Victor Jaclard regularly visited Russia and in March 1887 Victor was given three days to leave Russia following an attempt on Tsar Alexander III . However, Anna was seriously ill at that time and Dostoevsky successfully intervened to gain an extension. Anna and her husband left for Paris in late May 1887, where Anna Korvin-Krukovskaya died on September 26 [O.S. Sep. 14], 1887 following a serious operation.
[Корвин-Круковская,_Анна_ВасильевнаМарксизм/Корвин-Круковская femmes/gdes-femmes4.html]

1844 - Amilcare Cipriani (d. 1918), Italian Garibaldian revolutionary, partisan internationalist, communard, anarchist and socialist, born.

1854 - Conflicte de les Selfactines: The strike formally ends with an agreement between manufacturers and workers sponsored by the new Civil Governor Pascual Madoz, according to which spinners would get half an hour extra for their lunch break, which meant a reduction of the working week from 75 to 72 hours.

1869 - Henrik Ibsen's play 'De Unges Forbund' (The League of Youth) premières in Christiania.

1875 - Marius Antoine Joseph Baudy (aka Oulié; d. 1912), French illegalist anarchist and jobbing sculptor, born. A member of Alexandre Jacob's Les Travailleurs de la Nuit burglar group. Famed for his 1905 texts 'Pourquoi J'ai Cambriolé' (Why I Rob) and 'Pourquoi je suis Anarchiste', both published in the newspaper 'Germinal'. Sentenced to 7 years imprisonment on October 1, 1905, he sailed to Guyana on December 23, 1909. Declared "fit to work all in all housing conditions", he died from physical exhaustion on January 2, 1912.

1881 - Amilcare Cipriani is arrested and imprisoned in Italy for the killing of an Italian in Alexandria in 1867. This incident was previously ruled self-defence but was invoked by Italian authorities to put the anarchist Cipriani out of commission during his revolutionary campaigning in 1881. Cipriani's imprisonment became a celebrated case across the left.

1882 - La Bande Noire: The first trial begins with the appearance of 23 defendants in the court in Chalon-sur-Saône. Amongst them are many members of the chambres syndicales such as Viennet, François Juillet and Antoine Bonnot, but also François Suchet, the former leader of La Marianne, the forerunner of the Bandes Noire. The trial began with the indictment: "This movement is manifestly connected with a series of revolutionary attempts, meditated and consolidated by the violent members of the "workers' party" and which, according to the likelihood, were took place at the same time in various places. They are closely linked to these mysterious assemblies, several times surprised or at least encountered, during the deliberations of so-called trade union chambers, centres of collectivist or anarchist propaganda."

1893 - In New York, Emma Goldman is sentenced to one year in prison for "inciting to riot".

1911 - Zapatistas in Mexico attack government troops in Huitzililla and Xalostoc.

## [C] 1912 - Henri Bouyé aka Henri or André Deval & André Vigne (d. 1999), French florist and anarchist, who was instrumental in rebuilding and restoring the French anarchist movement after the Nazi occupation, born. He joined the Federation Anarchiste when it was set up in 1933, co-founded the paper Terre Libre in 1934 and later the florists union section of the CGT.
At the outbreak of WWII, he was the treasurer of the Fédération Anarchiste de langue Française (FAF), a split from the Union Anarchiste, and when called up, he managed to be discharged on health grounds. Under the occupation he went underground under the alias of Henri Duval. In Paris on the Avenue de la Republique, he set up a florist shop run by his companion. It served as a cover for underground activities and, despite several visits from the Gestapo, the underground work remained undetected. In the cellar was equipment to manufacture false papers, and it served as a hideout for people about to be passed over the border, mostly to Spain. Scores of Jews had their lives saved by the Bouyé network. Henri also maintained the Paris anarchist movement's liaison and its contact with other liaisons in the rest of France. As the Liberation neared, he began work in resurrecting the anarchist movement in France, visiting the regions and printing the Manifeste de la Fédération Libertaire Unifiée. In late July 1944, during the fighting liberation in Paris, a Fédération Anarchiste leaflet and a poster titled 'Retour à la liberté' was released. As secretary of the Federation he prepared for the October 1945 Conference at Paris which put the organisation on a firm footing. He continued his involvement with the anarchist movement in France with the FA and the Union Federal Anarchiste.

1913 - The annual 'Mother Earth' reunion concert and ball takes place in New York to help support Emma Goldman's publication.

1914 - To decrease the financial burden, Emma Goldman relocates her residence and the 'Mother Earth' office from West 119th Street to smaller quarters located at 20 East 125th Street.

1915 - South American Anarchist Congress (Congresso Anarquista Sul-Americano) 18-20th in Rio de Janeiro, with delegates present from Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay.

1916 - Julián Ángel Aransáez Caicedo (d. 2001), Basque anarchist, anarcho-communist and anti-Francoist and anti-Nazi fighter, born.

[DDD / F] 1920 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: In the aftermath of WWI, the price of wool had dropped significantly, provoking an economic crisis in sheep-breeding Argentine Patagonia. In August and September 1920 there had been a number of strikes in the province of Santa Cruz, organised by the Sociedad Obrera de Río Gallegos, affiliated to the Federación Obrera Regional Argentina an led by Spanish anarchist Antonio Soto, against police repression and in support of better working conditions and increased wages. The bosses organisation, the Sociedad Rural, rejected the demands and the acting governor of Santa Cruz, Edelmiro Correa Falcón, ordered the raid and detention of all the workers gathered in Assembly in Rio Gallegos Workers' Society. Early on the morning of October 18 police surrounded the headquarters of the Federación Obrera and arrested 20 people including Antonio Soto, Antonio Fernández, Paulino Martínez and Fernando Ulacia. With their premises closed and their leaders imprisoned, the Federación Obrera immediately called a general strike throughout the Territory. From the Santa Cruz River in the south, columns of peons (shearers and rural workers) marched to Rio Gallegos. They demanded the immediate release of prisoners, improvements in wages and working conditions. The first strike Patagonia has begun.
The Sociedad Rural's immediate response was to organise a failed assassination attempt on Antonio Soto on November 3. Meanwhile, the strike spread to transport workers in a number of cities such as Puerto Deseado and Puerto San Julián, as anarchists carried out actions in solidarity with their comrades. The strike even spread across the border into the Chilean territory of Magallanes, prompting cooperation between the two governments to suppress the unrest. In Puerto Deseado the strike by railway and dock workers was brutally suppressed, with police shooting dead a striker, Domingo Olmedo, on December 17. However, in the rural areas the strike persisted into February the following year as strikers continued to take hostage police, ranchers and administrative staff of rural establishments, seizing weapons and food to feed the mobilised columns. On January 4, an anarchist group led by Alfredo Fonte aka 'El Toscano' (the Tuscan) attacked the El Campamento estancia in Patagonia. Two days later during the first armed confrontation of the general strike in rural Patagonia, four policemen and a worker were killed in an ambush by the strikers, and two policemen and a gendarme were taken hostage near El Cerrito. On January 21, striking workers seized the Estancia La Anita, making hostages of their owners and the Deputy Police Commissioner Pedro J. Micheri; they then seized the nearby Estancia La Primavera.
The appointment of a new governor, Captain Angel Ignacio Yza, on January 29 saw a change in policy as he sought to try and bring the two sides together. At the same time, Army troops commanded by the soon to be notorious Lieutenant Colonel Héctor Benigno Varela were dispatched, arriving in Puerto Santa Cruz on February 2 and moved immediately to Rio Gallegos. Yza prevailed upon Varela to avoid an immediate confrontation and the governor met with the strikers at the estancia El Tero on February 15. Having agreed to the conditions of laying down their arms and releasing the hostages, much of the demands of the workers were recognised with their acceptance of an agreement that employers had put forward on January 30. El Toscano and his men however refused to accept the compromise and went into hiding, taking much of their looted arms with them.
The following day the strike ended with the Sociedad Obrera believing that they had won an important victory. Having been accepted by the sides, the agreement was finally approved by the Department of Labour's Office on February 22, 1921. Varela and his troops returned to Buenos Aires in May 1921. Needless to say, the employers swiftly reneged on the agreement and began a campaign of reprisals against the strikers, setting up a vigilante police forces with reinforcements made up largely of members of the ultra-nationalist Liga Patriótica. The stage was set for the outbreak of a second strike later on in 1921.

[B] 1923 - Ado (Adonis) Kyrou (d. 1985), Greek-born French filmmaker, cinematographer, critic, author and anarchist, born. Active in the Greek resistance, he was wounded and left Greece for Paris. There he became involved with the Surrealists and worked on the magazine 'Le Surréalisme Même' and later collaborated on the Paris anarchist newspaper 'Libertaire', writing criticism and reviews under the pseudonym Jean Charlin. Kyrou wrote three major texts on the Surrealist cinema: 'Le Surréalisme au Cinéma' (1953), 'Amour - Érotisme et Cinéma' (1957) and 'L'Âge d'Or de la Carte Postale' (1966). His film work includes 10 shorts; a number of TV series and one-off programmes, includng the Swiss science fiction series 'Sial IV', and 2 full-length films: 'To Bloko' (The Roundup; 1965) about the Greek resistance and 'Le Moine' (The Monk; 1972) with a screenplay by Luis Buñuel based on Matthew Gregory Lewis' gothic novel, 'The Monk'.

1924 - The first issue of the weekly 'Solidaridad Proletaria', "Órgano de la Confederación Regional del Trabajo de Cataluña y portavoz de la Confederación Nacional", is published in Barcelona.

1924 - Jesús del Olmo Sáez (aka Malatesta; d. 1958), Spanish anarchist and anti-Francoist resistance fighter, born.

1927 - The trial of Sholom Schwartzbard began for killing Symon Petliura, who he blamed for the deaths of 15 members of his family in Pogroms in Ukraine.

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: With the terms for the surrender of the insurgents in Asturias having been set in a meeting with General Lopez Ochoa the previous day, the Unión General de Trabajadores leader Belarmino Tomás Álvarez attempts to persuade the workers and miners to end their fight. From the balcony of the city hall in Sama, Langreo he makes the following appeal:
"Comrades! Red soldiers! Before you, convinced that we have been faithful to the trust you have place in us, we come to tell you of the sad situation that our glorious insurrection movement has been reduced to. We must confess our peace talks with the commander of the enemy army. But we have been defeated only for a while. All we can say is that in the other provinces of Spain, workers have failed to fulfill their duty and have not helped us. Because of this, the government has been able to dominate the insurrection in Asturias. Moreover, although we have rifles, machine guns, and cannons, we lack ammunition. All we can do is make peace. But this does not mean abandoning the class struggle. Our surrender today will be nothing more than a halt along the way, which will help us to correct our mistakes and to prepare for the next battle, which will be completed in the final victory of the exploited."
The terms of the agreement, though not without some resistance, were accepted by the assemblies of the miners. Rather than give them up their weapons in line with the surrender agreement, many chose to hide them, others chose to flee through the mountains.
On October 18 , two weeks after starting the insurrection, the last stronghold surrendered and government troops occupied the coalfields. A few days later, the random uncontrolled repression previously practiced gave way to an official repression, with mass arrests and numerous summarrary executions. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1936 - The Amercian anarchist Emma Goldman together with Sébastien Faure, Augustin Souchy, Luigi Bertoni, Camillo Berneri, Fidel Miró, Félix Martí Ibáñez, Jacinto Toryho and Juan Francisco Asó, who presided over the event, speak at a rally of16,000 people organised by the CNT-FAI in the Teatre Olympia in Barcelona. The rally was broadcast by ECN1 - Radio CNT-FAI. During this month, Goldman also visited the Aragon front, where she met Buenaventura Durruti, and between October 20 and 26 in Valencia, with the Germans exiles Anita and Hanns-Erich Kaminski, Goldman made trips to villages and collective farms.

1940 - Paul-Pierre Roux aka Saint-Pol-Roux (b. 1861), French Symbolist poet, novelist, playwright and anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 15]

1966 - Miguel Chueca Cuartero (b. 1901), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies in Paris. [see: Jan. 3]

[CC] 1976 - Laureano Cerrada Santos (b. 1902), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist counterfeiter, facilitator and guerilla veteran of the plot to kill Franco and Hitler together, is murdered in Paris by a Spanish Nazi who was later given asylum in Canada. A student of José Alberola, he was a member of the CNT (railroad union) and anarchist organisations. Active under the republic, in 1936 he helped in the taking of the Atarazanas barracks and Captaincy-General building in Barcelona and, as the man in charge of the Central Railway Administration Fund, was a great help to the Aragon front. He really became popular, though, in exile in France after the civil war, becoming very active in the struggle against the Nazis. A key figure in the WWII anti-Nazi Resistance and escape and evasion networks, he organised extensive propaganda networks, clandestine arms dumps and safe houses and was also in contact with many underground guerillas and dabbled in arms-trafficking. Cerrada was also a master forger and an influential figure in France’s criminal demi-monde, especially the Parisian and Marseilles milieux, and was, undoubtedly, one of the most problematic, enigmatic and mysterious figures of the Spanish anarchist diaspora.
After the end of the Second World War, he enjoyed enormous prestige in CNT circles: he was secretary of the Paris regional committee (1945), but appears to have refused the position of CNT general secretary (declining to have his name included in the list of candidates) and some take the view that his refusal led to the success of Esgleas’s candidacy in 1945. He funded CNT propaganda and direct action activity against Franco and furnished forged papers to many victims of persecution. He also purchased a powerful US Navy Vedette speedboat used by the CNT’s defence committee to transport arms, propaganda and militants from France into Spain, and the high point in his war on Franco came in 1948 when, together with Ortiz, he prepared the aerial attack on Franco’s yacht in San Sebastian. He also tried to flood the country with counterfeit currency. His star began to wane in 1951: an informer brought him to the attention of the police who accused him of being a counterfeiter (of currency and official papers): many CNT personnel distanced themselves from him (and he was even expelled from the CNT for resorting to "unacceptable methods") and his life was lived on the blurred margins shared by criminality and anarchist idealism, torn between one and the other. Jailed again from 1970 to 1974, he was murdered in his old age. A very energetic man of tremendous daring, a born activist none too scrupulous in fighting the enemy, his style did not go down well with some people.

1979 - Prudencio Iguacel Piedrafita (b. 1913), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist resistance fighter, dies. [see: Apr. 28]

1983 - Diego Abad de Santillán (born Sinesio Vaudilio García Fernández; b 1897), Spanish author, economist, historian and leading figure in the Spanish and Argentine anarchist movements, dies. [see: May 20]

2000 - The Earth Liberation Front sabotages logging equipment in Martin County State Forest, Indiana.

2003 - Attila Kotányi (b. 1924), Hungarian poet, philosopher, writer, architect-urbanist, member of the Internationale Situationniste and Zen Buddhist, dies of complications following a stroke. [see: Sep. 18]

2004 - Fermin Rocker (b. 1907), English artist, book illustrator and anarchist daughter of Rudolf Rocker and Milly Witkop Rocker, dies. Wrote 'East End: A London Childhood' (1992). [see: Dec. 22]
1866 - Albert Louis Aernoult (d. 1909), French syndicalist, union activist and libertarian roofer, born.

1890 - In Baltimore Emma Goldman gives a lecture to members of the International Working People's Association in the afternoon. Later that day she speaks in German to the Workers' Educational Society at Canmakers' Hall. Michael Cohn and William Harvey also speak. This is the first lecture by Goldman to be reported in the mainstream press.

##1893 - Pilar Grangel (Maria del Pilar Grangel i Arrufat; d. 1987), Spanish rationalist educator and militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1897 - The St. Louis House of Delegates passes a resolution supporting the mayor's prohibition of Emma Goldman's open-air meetings. Goldman's lectures, including 'Revolution' and 'Why I Am an Anarchist and Communist', are held in private halls under police surveillance.

1899 - Michele Schirru (d. 1931), Italian-American anarchist and anti-fascist, born. Arrested in a hotel room in Rome on February 3, 1931, with two bombs intended for an assassination attempt on Mussolini's life, he attempts to kill himself before falling into police hands. On May 28, 1931 a Special Court rules that he has acknowledged having had the intention to kill Mussolini. Convicted, he is sentenced to death and is shot the following morning at Fort Braschi.

1906 - Juan Sarabia, vice-president of the PLM, Cesar B. Canales and Vincente de la Torre are arrested in Ciudad Juarez after being led into a trap by an old school friend of Sarabia, a trap instigated by the Governor of Chihuahua, Enrique C. Creel.
In El Paso, Antonio I. Villareal, Lauro Aguirre and a journalist José Cano are arrested by American police during a raid on the Junta, whilst Modesto Diaz and Ricardo Flores Magón, the latter by jumping through a window, manage to escape. These imprisonments seriously disrupted the insurrectional movement, forcing the PLM to go into a period of withdrawal before attempting new insurrections.

1907 - Consul Antonio Lozano, having initially brought libel charges against Ricardo Flores Magón and the others, filed an affidavit of complaint in the U.S. District Court at Los Angeles. Ricardo Flores Magón, Antonio I. Villarreal, and Librado Rivera were charged with murder and larceny for actions allegedly committed on September 15 1906 in Jiménez, Coahuila. Their detention was continued after mid-September by a temporary commitment based on a 'John Doe' murder charge.

1907 - The first issue of 'Solidaridad Obrera' (Workers' Solidarity),"Órgano de la Confederación Regional del Trabajo de Cataluña", the newspaper of the recently formed Solidaridad Obrera federation, is published in Barcelona
[ódico) - solidaridad obrera.htm Obrera.htm]

1910 - Luigi Lucheni (b. 1873), is found hanging in his cell. Anarchist advocate of propaganda by the deed, he killed the impératrice Elisabeth of Austria, (Sept. 10, 1878) and at age 25, received a life sentence with hard labour. [see: Apr. 22]

1920 - Clash between cenetistas and pistoleros del Libre (rightwing gunmen) on the street of Riera Alta in Madrid. CNT member Jaime Martínez Palau is arrested; also apprehended are Juan Lopez and Bartholomew Llabrés. The latter cenetistas are implicated in several atentados and end up spending six years in jail.

1920 - After a series of appeals and delays in connection with the conviction for sedition after her anti-war speech on June 27 at an IWW union Hall in Portland, Oregon, Dr. Marie Diana Equi is finally ordered to San Quentin to serve her sentence, which had since been commuted to a year and a half due to a pardon from US President Woodrow Wilson.

1922 - Durán Railworkers' Strike: When no reply was received, the railroad workers began a strike, backed by the Federación de Trabajadores Regional Ecuatoriana (Ecuadorian Regional Federation Of Workers), the Confederación Obrera del Guayas (Guayas Confederation of Workers) and the Asociación Gremial del Astillero (Association of Shipyard Guilds). In the following days, the solidarity of other workers' unions increased, with the workers in Guayaquil coming in large numbers to show solidarity their fellow workers. The Guayaquil FTRE sent a large delegation to help support the strike, to help organise and publicise the aims of the strikers and the misery of their current economic situation. Large demonstrations also took place in Guayaquil in solidarity with Durán's railway workers. During the strike itself women stood out for their role, as in the case of Tomasa Garcés, the companion of one of the railway union leaders. It is said that Tomasa laid down on the train rails, along with her three children, to prevent scabs from breaking the strike and to help calm the bloodlust of the military.
Ultimately, the demands that had led to the stoppage of the railways across the country, eventaully also forced the manager Dobbie to the negotiating table and to reach an agreement with the strikers, and on October 26 the parties signed an agreement accepting the workers' proposals.[]

1929 - Henri Cueco (d. 2017), French painter, stage designer, academic, writer, screenwriter, syndicalist, former communist, then libertairian, and co-founder of the anti-consumerist artists' collective Coopérative des Malassis, born.

## [B] 1973 - Margaret Caroline Anderson (b. 1886), US anarchist and lesbian, founder, editor and publisher of the anarchist art and literary magazine 'The Little Review', dies. [see: Nov. 24]

##1998 - Pier Carlo Masini (b. 1923), Italian anarchist historian and journalist, dies. [see: Mar. 26]

2000 - Kati Horna (Kati Deutsch; b 1912), Hungarian photographer and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: May 19]

2017 - Umberto Lenzi (b. 1931), Italian b-movie film director and screenwritting exponent of the giallo, poliziottesco and cannibalici genres, novelist and anarchist, dies in Rome's Grassi di Ostia hospital at the age of 86. [see: Aug. 6]
1823 - François Léopold Charles Ostyn (d. 1912), French woodturner, communard, Bakuninst and anarchist, born. Member of the first Central Committee of the National Guard. Elected March 26 to the Council of the Commune, he sat on the board of Subsistances, then the Utilities. He voted against the creation of a committee of public salvation.

1853 - Hélène Lecadieu (Hyacinthe Adolphine Lecadieu; d. 1916), French anarchist and anti-militarist, born.

[B] 1854 - Arthur Rimbaud (d. 1891), French poet, anti-bourgeois anarchist, deserter, gun-runner and notorious homosexual absinthe and hashish aficionado, born. He published his first poem at the age of 16 and quit writing aged 20. A rebel from an early age, he ran away from home three times – most notoriously, in February 1871, to join the anarchist insurgents of the Paris Commune. The precocious boy-poet of French symbolism, he wrote some of the most remarkable poetry and prose of the 19th century before he abandoned writing for gun-running.
"J'ai choisi d'attaquer les clichés, les a priori, les fantasmes, voire les mensonges publiés au sujet du poète. Le but de cet essai est d'essayer de savoir pourquoi l'adolescent, qui rassemblait tous les ingrédients de l'anarchie, s'écarta de la lutte sociale, de l'amour et enfin de la poésie, pour plonger dans un individualisme itinérant." ("I chose to tackle the stereotypes, assumptions, fantasies or lies published about the poet. The purpose of this test is to find out why the teenager, who brought together all the ingredients of anarchy, moved away from the social struggle, love poetry and finally, to dive into a travelling individualism.")

1859 - Carlo Abate (d. 1941), Italian anarchist sculptor and teacher, who was the printer and engraver for the militant Italian language journal 'Cronaca Sovversiva', born. Emigrated to America in 1896 and settled in the Italian neighborhood of Barre, Vermont, one of the cradles of U.S. granite industry and a hotbed of industrial militancy. One of the more active groups there were the small Italian anarchists grouped around a number of different Italian language newspapers, including the Galleanist 'Cronaca Sovversiva'. Abate also taught for many years in industrial design school.

1895 - Gaston Leval (born Pierre Robert Piller; also used the pseudonyms Max Stephan, Silvio Agreste, José Benito, Felipe Montblanc, Josep Venutto and Robert Le Franc; d. 1978), French anti-authoritarian writer, combatant and historian of the Spanish Revolution of 1936, born. Wrote 'The Collectives in Aragon' (1938), and 'Collectives in Spain' (1945).

[E] 1901 - Virginia Bolten aka 'the Louise Michel of Rosario' (1876 - ca. 1960), Uraguayan anarcha-feminist militant of German descent is arrested for distributing anarchist propaganda during a strike outside the gates of the Refineria, a huge sugar factory where she worked, and that employed thousands of workers, many of them European immigrants and many of them women.
Much of the previous version(s) of her early life, including the story of her having helped organise and led a May Day demonstration in 1890 aged just 14 years old, have been thrown into dispute following new evidence [see:]. We hope to have a full version of her life based upon this latest evidence ready for the birth date on December 26.
[, Virginia 1870-1960.pdf]

1902 - [O.S. Oct. 10] Sam Dolgoff (Sholem Dolgopolsky; d. 1990), US anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist author, editor and militant, born in Byelorussia. [expand]

1916 - Appearing in court to testify on behalf of Bolton Hall, anarchist-feminist Emma Goldman is arrested for having distributed birth control information. Her friend Margaret Sanger is also arrested, on the 26th, for distributing birth control information.

1917 - An anarchist-inspired motion is passed at the first Congress of Factory Councils in revolutionary Russia in favour of workers' self-management.

1922 - Anna Delso (Ana Camello Garia), Spanish-Canadian libertarian, anarcho-syndicalist and feminist activist, who was a member of Mujeres Libres before participating in the Résistance in France, born.]

1923 - Philip Whalen (d. 2002), America Beat poet and Zen anarchist, born. A close friend of Gary Snyder (and fellow Zen anarchist), they were both associated with the anarchist circle around fellow San Francisco poet Kenneth Rexroth. Jack Kerouac dramatised him as Ben Fagan in 'Big Sur' and as Warren Coughlin in 'Dharma Bums'.

1932 - The reappearance in the Italian anarchist fortnightly newspaper 'Nova Umanità' is published in exile in Puteaux, Hauts-de-Seine, France by the Italian anarchist Antonio Cieri in collaboration with Camillo Berneri and Rivoluzio Gilioli.

1935 - Aquilino Gómez Pozo (b. 1871), Basque anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies.

[C] 1945 - El Quico (Francisco Sabaté) and two other anarchist guerillas, Jaime 'Abisinio' Pares Adán and Juan 'Roget' Salas Millón, at the request of Committee of Resistance of the CNT, break three prisoners out of jail in Barcelona.

[EE] 1948 - Daidōji Ayako (大道寺 あや子), Japanese member of the 'Wolf' (狼 / Ōkami) cell of the Higashi Ajia Hannichi Busō Sensen (東アジア反日武装戦線), or East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front armed struggle organisation and of the now disbanded Nihon Sekigun (日本赤軍), or Japanese Red Army, born. She is currently on the run after being released along with eight other JRA members in the wake of the Japan Airlines Flight 472 hijacking in October 1977.

## 1963 - Horacio 'Gamexane' Villafañe (Horacio Carlos Oscar Villafañe; d. 2011), Argentine musician, guitarist, singer and songwriter in Los Laxantes, one of the first Argentine punk bands, and the rasta-punk band Todos Tus Muertos, who declared "Soy libertario y anarquista" (I am libertarian and anarchist), born.

[A] 1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Home of Bryant, Birmingham building boss, bombed while his workers are on strike. Communique issued by the Angry Brigade.

1971 - Eduard Vives (b. 1917), Catalan militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 15]

1975 - Joan Enseñat Rigo, aka 'El Periodista' (b. 1901), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [expand]

1983 - Juan Francisco Abad Fornieles (b. ca. 1921), Spanish anarchist, journalist, poet and writer, dies. In the libertarian ranks from an early age, he joined the war at fifteen years old together with his father and in 1938 served as a press correspondent, writing regularly in 'Solidaridad Obrera' (Workers Solidarity) and 'Tierra y Libertad' (Land and Freedom). Imprisoned by the Fascists on January 8, 1940, he spent time in a number of prisons including Torrero-Zaragoza (1942), Ocaña (1945) and Puerto de Santa Maria (1947), where he formed a lasting friendship with the social prisoner Vega Álvarez. Released in June 1951, survived like other anarchists (Guzman, Gomez Casas, Vega, Olcina) by writing western novels, policieres, war stories and romances (publishing more than two hundred under several pseudonyms, including Juan de España and Marsh Scrape) and from 1955 onwards he combined his "survival writing" with working in a factory until his emigration (first to France, where was not understood by the Toulouse libertarians, and then, since 1960, in Germany). In his German years he stopped writing and quit politics until well into the seventies, when animated by Cristóbal Vega he returned to the anarchist fold and to the pen. A poet from the age of eleven, he wrote much, but published very little and was a poet of "bitter sweetness" in the opinion of Vega Álvarez. He collaborated on 'Correo Literario', 'Espoir', 'Ideas-Ortho', 'Solidaridad Obrera' in Barcelona (during the war and in the post-Franco era), 'Tierra y Libertad' in Spain and Mexico and 'Umbral' (Threshold). He also wrote the preface to Raimundo Ramirez de Antón's poetry collection 'Antes de Ser el Alba' (Before the Dawn; 1984) and author of 'Tierra de olvido y seis poemas a norte fijo' (Land of oblivion and six poems of fixed north; 1981) and 'Pulsando mi Lira' (Playing my Lyre; 1982).

1985 - Jean-Roger Caussimon (b. 1918), French libertarian, comedian, actor, poet, singer and songwriter, dies. [see: Jul. 24]

1985 - Ines Lida Scarselli (b. 1906), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, dies of colon cancer. [see: Mar. 26]

1994 - Antonio Ramos Palomares (aka El Carbonero; b. 1905), Andalusian anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist fighter, dies.

2017 - Sergei Zalesov (Сергей Залесов; b. 1965), Ukrainian artist, poet and anarchist, founder of the Anarchist Union (Житомирского анархического союза) in Zhitomir, Ukraine and local organiser of the All-Union Confederation of Anarcho-Syndicalist (всесоюзной конфедерации анархо-синдикалистов), dies. [see: Feb. 1]
1858 - Henri Willems (d. unknown), Belgian sculptor/carver, anarchist and director of the Belgian newspaper 'Le Libertaire', born. [see: Aug. 11]

## 1867 - Václav Hradecký (d 1940), Czech painter, draftsman, cartoonist and anarchist, who collaborated with the anarchist press in France, born. After studying painting in Prague and a certain success at exhibitions in the United States, Hradecky moved to Paris in 1901 where he became friends with František Kupka and other painters associated with the French anarchist movement. From 1902 to 1905, he gave many drawings to 'L'Assiette au Beurre', notably on the bloody repressions of 1905 in Russia. He probably returned to Prague in 1908, and his painting then concentrated on Czech history. After WWI, he became increasingly isolated and did not exhibit again. However, following the 1938 Munich Accords, he surfaced again with a series of bitter politically motivated drawings.
He died suddenly on June 14, 1940. Adolf Hoffmeister devoted a monograph to his caricatures in 1953.

1868 - Mécislas Golberg (or Goldberg; d. 1908), Polish anarchist thinker and prolific writer (in French), born.

1876 - The third Congress of the Italain section of the IWA, orginally due to be held on the 22nd, takes place in Tosi near Florence. Despite the intervention of the police, the Congress adopts a motion abandoning collectivism in favour of anarchist-communism, proclaiming:
"The International should not be exclusively working association indeed the aim of the social revolution is not only in the emancipation of the working class but in that of all mankind...
The Italian Federation considers the collective property of the products of labour as the necessary complement to the collectivist programme, the aid of all for the satisfaction of the needs of each being the only rule of production and consumption which corresponds to the principle of solidarity. The federal congress at Florence has eloquently demonstrated the opinion of the Italian International on this point..."

1887 - Ramón Domínguez Basco (d. 1959), Basque militant anarcho-syndicalist, born.

[AA/DD] 1894 - Révolte de Forçats Sur les Îles du Salut: A large group of anarchist prisoners on Saint-Joseph, Îles du Salut, French Guyana organise a prison uprising. In September a guard named Mosca had killed the anarchist convict François Briens, and his comrades had sworn revenge. On the night of October 21, they seized their opportunity. Forcing open a newly unlocked cell door, they attacked and stabbed two guards (some sources claim three), freeing a number of other prisoners. They quickly sought out Mosca and killed him. Some escaped the prison grounds; others quietly returned to their cells, hoping to escape detection. However, informers had tipped off prison officials to the revolt and they were just waiting. The escapees were ruthlessly hunted down, their bullet-riddled bodies thrown into the sea. All told, four guards and 12 convicts, including ten anarchists, died during the uprising.
[’anarchistes-en-guyane/ de Guyane 1910.htm]

##[BB] 1896 - Pia Zanolli (Pia Zanolli-Misèfari; d. unknown), Italian anarchist, fashion designer, poet and writer, born. Companion of the Italian anarchist, philosopher, poet and engineer Bruno Misèfari, who she met whilst he was staying with her family as an exile in Switzerland as a deserter. In July 1919 Bruno Misèfari was expelled from Switzerland and she accompanied him first to Germany and then to Italy following an amnesty for Misèfari. She was to appeared on the list of dangerous subversives to be arrested in certain contingencies in the province of Reggio Calabria as the wife of a notorious anarchist [i.e. Misèfari], with whom she had been arrested in Domodossola in December 1919. She moved to Ponza in 1931 to be with Misèfari whilst he was in internal exile as a political prisoner, and they were married in a civil ceremony there on May 28, 1931. Once free, they settled in Calabria and, after Misèfari's death in 1936, she became his literary executor as well as publishing two memoirs of him, 'Tu o uno come te' (You or someone like you; nd) and 'L'Anarchico di Calabria' (The Anarchist of Calabria; 1967). Her own poetry was published in 2 volumes: 'Cinque Parole' (Five Words; 1965), 'Ruota del Mondo: Poesie sociali' (Wheel of the World: Social Poems; 1965)

1904 - Isabelle Eberhardt (b. 1877), the great anarchist writer and adventurer is swept away by a flash flood in the Algerian desert at the age 27. [see: Feb. 17]

[E] 1918 - Gabriella 'Ella' Antolini (1899 - 1984), Italian-American agricultural worker and Galleanist anarchist, is sentenced to 18 months to be served at the Missouri State Penitentiary in Jefferson City and a $2000 fine following her arrest on a train from Steubenville to Chicago in January 1918 carrying a black leather case containing thirty-six sticks of dynamite and a .32 caliber Colt automatic. The items were to be used to carry out revenge attacks for the arrests and persecution of the Milwaukee anarchists and the death in custody of Augusto Marinell on September 15, 1917. In prison she befriended Emma Goldman and socialist Kate O'Hare , the three becoming known as 'The Trinity'.

1920 - CNT activist Ramón Jaume Mateu is attacked by Pistoleros del Libre. Attacks by these right wing assassins, supported by anti-labour businessmen and the Catholic Church, against militant workers are common during this period.

1920 - Anarchist general Kim Jwa-jin draws Japanese forces into an ambush, leading to the victory of Korean nationalists in the Battle of Chingshanli

1921 - Massive demonstrations all over Europe in support of the anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti. In Paris 10,000 police and 18,000 soldiers attempt to control the crowds.

1922 - The first issue of 'L'Ouvrier du Bois et du Bâtiment', "organe officiel en langue française de la Fédération des Ouvriers du Bois et du Bâtiment (FOBB)", is published in Lausanne.

[A] 1928 - Giuseppe 'Pino' Pinelli (d. 1969), Italian railway worker, organiser in Gioventu Libertaria (Libertarian Youth) and secretary of Milan Anarchist Black Cross whose death whilst under police interrogation inspired the Dario Fo play 'Accidental Death of an Anarchist', born. [expand]

[B] 1929 - Ursula Kroeber Le Guin (d. 2018), US libertarian science fiction and fantasy novelist, short story writer, poet and essayist, born. Author of 'The Dispossessed' (1974), an anarchist dystopia, and 'The Left Hand of Darkness' (1969), an examination of gender and power politics. [expand]

1936 - Fascist siege of Madrid begins.

1939 - Serge Livrozet, French burglar sent to prison numerous times who became an anarchist and writer, born. Was active in the struggle against high-security prisons and the death penalty and, after meeting Michel Foucault, they formed the 'Comités d'Action des Prisonniers'.

1941 - Federica Montseny, pregnant and a refugee in France with her daughter Blanca, is arrested by the Vichy police and imprisoned in Perigueux, Dordogne. She will be transferred to Limoges (where she find Caballero) and is put on trial, narrowly avoiding extradition to Spain. Instead, she is placed under house arrest and banned from being able to give birth in the maternity ward at Périgueux hospital.

1949 - The anarchist Miguel García García is arrested. Tried and sentenced to death along with eight other companions, five of whom were executed. Garcia spent 38 days in the condemned cell until his sentence was commuted to 30 years imprisonment.

1949 - Julio Rodríguez Fernandez, aka 'El Cubano', a fighter with Catalan guerrilla groups, and his comrades José Barroso Ruiz and Francisco Martínez Márquez, aka 'Paco' (b. 1922), die in a clash with the fascist police in Barcelona.

1963 - Shooting on Buñuel's film version of the Mirbeau novel 'Diary of a Chambermaid' begins.

1969 - Bolesław Stein (d. 1907), Polish doctor, anarcho-syndicalist and WWII freedom fighter, dies. [see: Apr. 29]

1981 - Black anarchist Kuwasi Balagoon is finally captured by the state following the Brinks robbery

1981 - Germinal Esgleas (Josep Esgleas i Jaume; b. 1903), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Oct. 5]

1981 - Jeong Hwa-am (정화암; b. 1896), leading Korean anarchist in 1920s and 1930s China and independent activist during the Japanese colonial rule, who became a socialist politician after the liberation of Korea in 1945, dies in Seoul aged 85. [see: Sep. 14]

1984 - Maurice-Henry (b. 1907), French poet, painter, filmmaker and cartoonist, dies. [see: Dec. 29]

1992 - Anton Ciliga (b. 1898), Croatian philosopher, Left Communist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Feb. 20]

1994 - Anarchy in the UK 94: Ten Days That Shook The World, a massive anarchist festival (Oct 21- 30) with over 500 events throughout London, begins today.

1994 - Mariano Aguayo Morán (b. 1922), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist photographer and anti-Francoist anarchist guerrilla, who was a member of the Los Maños action group, dies in Céret, Pyrenees Orientale. [see: Jan. 27]
1851 - Joseph Dejacque, French anarchist, is sentenced to two years in prison for a volume of poetry 'Lazaréennes: Socialist Fables and Poems'.

1864 - José Sánchez Rosa (d. 1936), Spanish autodidact, teacher, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. A member of Mano Negra (1883), he was arrested several times and sentenced to various penalties, including death in 1892 as one of the supposed leaders of peasant revolt at Jerez de la Frontera, despite his avowed pacifism. The sentence was commuted to life imprisonment, during which he met his own teacher in anarchist thoughtFermín Salvochea, and in 1901 he was pardoned. Upon his release he became involved in the establishing of numerous rationalist schools across Andalusia, in which he also taught. He also undertook a speaking tour in 1904 on behalf of the Federació de Societats Obreres de la Regió Espanyola (Federation of Workers Societies of the Spanish Region; FSORE) and ended up in prison in Tangiers. Released in Jan. 1905, he settled in Aznalcóllar. In 1910 he moved to Seville, where taught in the district school in Triana and became director of the Agrupación Pro-Enseñanza Racionalista (Pro-Rationalist Education Association), as well as setting up a workers library in his home and founding and directing the anarchist newspapers 'El Productor' and 'La Anarquíay' (1919-1921). [expand]

1867 - Émile Derré (d. 1938), French sculptor, pacifist, Dreyfusard and anarchist sympathiser, born. An activist for a "brotherly and largely human art" . He frequented the Parisian anarchist and almost all his works have a political connotation. In 1905 he made the bust of Louise Michel that adorns her grave. A year later for the Salon des Artistes Français he created 'le Chapiteau des Baisers' (the Capital of Kisses), originally known as 'Rêve Pour une Maison du Peuple' (Dream House of the People) with its recognisable images of Louise Michel, Elisée Reclus and Auguste Blanqui.
After WWI, which deeply affected him, he made the monumental statue entitled 'Réconciliation. Tu ne tueras pas' (Reconciliation. Thou shalt not kill), representing the embrace of a French and a German soldier. Exhibited at the Salon d'Automne of 1932, it caused a scandal and caused its immediate withdrawal. With the threat on a new war, he killed himself in 1938.

1874 - Mina Schrader (Appoline Wilhelmine Schrader; d. unknown), French artist's model, sculptor and anarchist fellow-traveller, who used a number of pseudonyms including Mina de Nyzot, Mina Schrader de Nysold, Mina Schrader de Wegt de Nizeau, Ysolde Vouillard, etc., born.

1882 - During the night a bomb explodes at the restaurant of the Bellecour Theatre in Lyon, killing an employee. The anarchist Antoine Cyvoct is wrongly suspected because of an article published in the Lyon anarchist paper 'Le Droit Social'. Cyvoct was sentenced to death, despite no proof that he was responsible. His sentence was eventually commuted to forced labour and, despite an intense campaign by anarchists in 1895 to gain his release, Cyvoct was not amnestied until March 1898.

1888 - [N.S. Nov. 3] Konstantin Vasilievich Akashev (Константи́н Васи́льевич Ака́шев; d. 1931), Russian Socialist-Revolutionary and later anarchist communist, who defected to the Bolsheviks during the October Revolution and became the first commander of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Air Force Fleet (Glavvozduhoflot) [Рабоче-Крестьянского Красного Военно-воздушного Флота (Главвоздухофлот)], and was arrested during the 'Spring' Case (Дело «Весна») of 1930-31 against an alleged "anti-Soviet military conspiracy" and was sentenced to "the highest level of social protection" (высшей мере социальной защиты) i.e. shot, born. [see: Nov. 3]

1892 - The first issue of 'Ravachol', "Periódico anarquista", is published in Sabadell, Catalonia. The editor, Joaquim Pascual Soler, is prosecuted and imprisoned, but manages to escape from prison. The cover states "this paper will come out when it can" but only manages 2 issues. Banned, it will reappear as 'El Eco Ravachol'.

1893 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Le Libertaire', "Organe socialiste-révolutionnaire des groupes de St-Josse-ten-Noode", is published in Brussels. It replaces the newspaper 'L'Antipatriote', also published by Henri Willems.

[AA/DD] 1894 - Révolte de Forçats Sur les Îles du Salut: Ten* anarchists - Benoît Chevenet, Jules Stanislas Joseph Amboise Garnier, Léon Jules Léauthier, Luis Lebeau, Eugène dit Vulgo Mattei, Julien Mazarguil, Henri Pierre Meyrueis, Charles Achille Simon aka 'Biscuit', who took part alongside Ravachol on the attack against the president of the cour d'assises de la Seine, Benoit, and his deputy Bulot, Maxime François Thiervoz, and Edmond Aubin Marpaux - who had all taken part in yesterday's attempted uprising, are hunted down and summarily shot [Marpaux on the morning of the 23rd]. Simon, Léauthier, Lebault and Maservin's last words were to shout "Vive l'anarchie!" "Cold blood and no quarter given" were the orders of the Commander Bonafi, chief of Internal Security, whose men had gotten as drunk as pigs for the occasion. The following day their bullet ridden bodies were thrown into the sea for the sharks to eat, while the hurriedly appointed Commission of Inquiry continued the repression, putting in irons anyone who was even slightly suspected of helping the rebels. Of these, Jean-Baptiste Eugène Anthelme Girier aka 'Lorion', considered "the soul of the plot", and Bernard Mamert, alleged to have been one of the assassins of Mosca, plus five others, Forest, Heuzelin, Bonnacourci, Flameng, and Bernard, were later brought before the special maritime Court of Cayenne. Girier and Mamert were sentenced to death in June 1895 and all the others were acquitted.
Mamert died in prison on October 11, 1895, a few days after an appeal against his death sentence had been rejected. Girier's death sentence was commuted to five years in solitary confinement on January 16, 1896, though he did not hear about the commutation until a month later. He died on November 16, 1898.
[*There is some dispute over the exact number with some sources also giving the numbers of 11 & 12 dead, possibly due to two others (Jean-Baptiste Eugène Anthelme Girier aka 'Lorion' and Bernard Mamert) also having been given death sentences and later having died in prison.][
[’anarchistes-en-guyane/ de Guyane 1910.htm]

1894 - Léon Jules Léauthier (b. 1874), French anarchist shoe-maker who stabbed and seriously wounded the Minister of Serbia, dies during a prison uprising on the island of St. Joseph, Guyana. [see: Jan. 5]

1894 - [N.S. Nov. 5] Varvara Fyodorovna Stepanova (Варва́ра Фёдоровна Степа́нова; d. 1958), Russian-Lithuanian painter and designer initially associated with the Cubo-Futurists and zaum poets, but later a Constructivist, born. Like her partner Aleksandr Rodchenko, she was involved in the newspaper 'Anarkhiia' (Анархия) but, unlike him, appears to not have been an active anarchist. [see: Nov. 5]

[D] 1905 - Argentian police massacre some 200 demonstrators opposing a tax on cattle, called by the Comité Pro Abolición. Popular outrage sweeps the country and workers call a General Strike. The government declares a state of siege. Despite heavy military protection of the cowards who hide in the palace, insurreccionadas attempt to take the building.

1905 - Huelga de la Carne [Meat Strike] aka Semana Roja [Red Week]: Today, during the Semana Roja (Red Week), a crucial event in early Chilean workers' history, 30,000 people join the uprising in Santiago, inspired by the revolutionary ideas sweeping working class public opinion.

## 1907 - Miguel Pepe (b. 1892), young Argentine anarchist activist from Buenos Aires is killed by the police under the orders of the notorious Colonel Ramón Falcón for his participation in the Huelga de Inquilinos (Tenants Strike) of 1907.

1908 - Benigno Andrade García aka 'Foucellas' (d. 1952), Spanish locksmith, anarchist militant and anti-Francoist guerilla, born. He fought in the Civil War but with its end, he carried on with his guerilla activities alongside an autonomous band based in the Bacelo hills. Early in 1952, he was ambushed in Betanzos as a result of treachery and was wounded and arrested. Brutally tortured, he was sentenced to death and executed by garrote at 7 am on August 7, 1952 in the provincial prison of A Coruña, Galicia.

[B] 1921 - Georges Brassens (d. 1981), French anarchist singer-songwriter, poet and novelist, born. Already a published poet, 'Des Coups d’Épée dans l’Eau' (1941) and 'A la Venvole' (As the Wind Blows; 1942) having been working in a Renault car factory in Paris, he was forced by the Germans to work in a labour camp at a BMW aircraft engine plant in Basdorf near Berlin in Germany during WWII under the Service de Travail Obligatoire, but went AWOL on 10 days leave in Paris, hiding out with relatives till the end of the war.
In 1946 he joined the Fédération Anarchiste and wrote articles for 'Le Libertaire' under a number of pseudonyms, including Pépin Cadavre, Geo Cédille and Gilles Collin. He also wrote his first novel, 'La Lune Écoute aux Portes' (The Eavesdropping Moon), in 1947 and continued to write poetry and songs, performing them at fundraisers and for his friends. But it wasn't until 1952 that he actually started to perform his songs (accompanying himself on guitar) in public at cabarets such as the Caveau de la République, the Lapin Agile in Montmartre, Milord I'Arsouille and the Villa d'Este. Unsuccessful at first, it wasn't until he appeared at Les Trois Baudets (The Three Donkeys) and a Polydor recording cintract quickly followed, as did a second novel, 'La Tour des Miracles' (1953), and a part in René Clair's film 'Porte des Lilas' (Brassens also composed the film's music). A massive public success in France, he is little known elsewhere.
Amongst his best known songs are: 'La Mauvaise Réputation' (1952); 'Les Amoureux des Bancs Publics' (1952); 'Le Gorille' (1952); 'La Cane de Jeanne' (1953); 'Chanson pour l'Auvergnat' (1954); 'Les Copains d'Abord' (1964); 'Supplique pour être Enterré à la Plage de Sète' (1966); 'Fernande' (1972); and 'Mourir pour des Idées' (1972).

1949 - René de Marmande, pseudonym of Marie Constant Emmanuel de Rorthay de Saint Hilaire (b. 1875), French journalist, anti-militarist, syndicalist and anarchist, who contributed to 'Temps Nouveaux', 'La Guerre Sociale' and the bulletin of the Association internationale antimilitariste, dies. [see: Jan. 1]

1965 - Valery Evgenevich Skorodeod (Вале́рий Евге́ньевич Скороде́д), Soviet and Russian rock musician, leader of the band Mongol Shuudan (Монгол Шуудан), Orthodox Christian and anarchist, born.

1984 - Otto Reimers (b. 1902), German engineering worker, author, magazine publisher and anarcho-syndicalist, who survived being drafted through his employment exemption and avoided the concentration camps and Nazi persecution during WWII, dies in Laufenburg, Baden Württemberg. [see: Sep. 17]

1989 - Ida Scarselli (b. 1897), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist militant, dies in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. [see: Jul. 17]
1885 - André Lorulot (aka André Georges Roulot) (d. 1963), French free-thinker, anarchist individualist, lecturer, propagandist and playwright, born. Lorulot began writing for Libertad’s journal 'l’Anarchie' from the first issue (13 April 1905), adopting the pseudonym Lorulot and essentially devoting his life, until 1914, to the cause of individualist anarchist propaganda.
In 1906 he and his partner Émilie Lamotte joined the Libertaire anarchist commune in Saint-Germain-en-Laye and in 1907 he was exempted from military service for "heart disease and deafness". The colony lasted 2 years, during which time he lectured through out the country, resulting in his arrest in May 1907 for 'incitement to murder' and being sentenced to one year in prison on Aug. 9. Then his pamphlet 'L'Idole Patrie et ses Conséquences' resulted in another prison sentence on Nov. 16 1907, of 115 months for encouraging military disobedience. Fortunately the authorities mixed up the sentence and he was paroled early in Feb. 1908.
Following the death of Libertad on November 12 1908, Lorulot took over the editorship of 'l’Anarchie' and continued extensive travels with Émilie, lecturing in France, Algeria and Switzerland. Émilie died on June 6 1909 whilst they were travelling via caravan across France and Lorulot decided to set up printing of the newspaper Romainville, where he founded and edited the magazine 'L’Idée Libre' on Dec. 1 1911 (having quit 'l’Anarchie'). The magazine developed into a combination propaganda organ for individualism and anti-clericalism, and resulted in his becoming embroiled in the case of the Bonnot Gang because of his advocacy of illegality, but is not charged during the Feb. 1913 trial.In Jan 1915 he is again arrested, this time on a counter feit currency charge as well as for insulting and defaming the army. The charges are dropped in July 1915 but his is banished from Paris for 4 years. He moved to Lyon and then Saint-Étienne, where he resumed the publication 'L’Idée Libre' in 1917.
Despite his individualism, his long term opposition to syndicalist thought (unions were mere "boîtes à cotisations") and denial of the division of society into classes, he became enamoured of the Bolshevik revolution, defending the idea of the need for "some dictatorship", even after the events at Kronstadt.
From then on his principle activities focused on his anti-clerical/free thought activities, becoming on of the main speakers for the Fédération Nationale de la Libre Pensée (Federation of Free Thinkers) and writing for the journal 'l'Antireligieux', as well as 'Réveil de l'Esclave' (The Awakening Slave; 1920-25); 'l'Action Antireligieuse' (1925); 'La Libre Pensée' (1928); and the satirical magazine 'La Calotte' (The Skullcap; 1930). In the Thirties he also participated in Sébastien Faure's 'l'Encyclopédie Anarchiste'.
In 1958 Lorulot became president of the Fédération Nationale de la Libre Pensée. A prolific writer, his misanthropy is perhaps best expressed by the title of his 1939 pamphlet: 'Les Hommes me Dégoutent' (Men Disgust Me). Amongst his other writings are: 'Le Mensonge Électoral' (The Electoral Falsehood; 1908); 'Chez les Loups' (Among Wolves; 1920); 'Méditations et Souvenirs d'un Prisonnier' (Meditations and Memories of a Prisoner; 1921); 'L'Église et la Guerre' (The Church and War; 1930); 'Histoire de Ma Vie et de Mes Idées' (Story of My Life and My Ideas; 1939); 'Histoire Populaire du Socialisme Mondial' (People's History of World Socialism; 1945); etc.
He also wrote a number of plays, including: 'Mon Royaume N'est Pas de Ce Monde' (My Kingdom is Not of This World; 1934); 'Dans les Geôles de France' (In French Jails; 1938); 'La Toile d'Araignée' (The Spider's Web; 1938); and 'La Morale de Croquemitaine' (The Moral Bogeyman; 1936).

1886 - The first issue of the Brussels newspaper 'La Liberté', "Organe communiste - anarchiste", published every Saturday.

1887 - Salvador Cordón Avellán (d. 1958), Andalusian writer, journalist, rationalist teacher, propagandist anarchist, playwright and novelist, born. [expand]
His fictional works include: 'Pedazos de mi Alma: girones de mi vida' (Pieces of my Soul: shreds of my life; 1911), 'La Familia Política: drama en tres actos y en prosa' (The Family Policy: drama in three acts and in prose; 1913) (with Isabel Pereyra), 'La Virgen Roja: drama social en tres actos y un cuadro, en prosa' (The Red Virgin: social drama three acts and a picture in prose; 1913), 'La Caída: novela social' (The Fall: social novel; 1915), 'País al Rojo: tragedia social en tres actos, divididos en siete cuadros' (The Red Country: social tragedy in three acts, Divided into seven tables; 1922), 'Entre Rejas: novela' (Behind Bars: novel; 1924) and '¡Al jabalí! La Novela Ideal' (The boar! The ideal novel; 1925).
Amongst his other writings are 'Andalucía Bajo el Látigo de Suspensión Negreros' (Andalusia under the lash of slave trader; 1919), 'Frente al Estado' (Against the State; 1919), 'Frente a la Masa' (Facing the Masses; 1920), 'El Grito' (The Cry; 1920), 'La Siega que Viene' (The harvest to come; 1920), 'De mí Bohemia Revolucionaria' (From A Bohemian Revolutionary; 1921), 'Hermanos!' (Brothers!; 1925), 'Locos' (Crazy; 1925) and 'Pueblo en la Sombra' (People in the Shadows; 1928), plus numerous other unpublished works.

1887 - [O.S. Oct. 11] Alexei Alexandrovich Solonovich (Алексей Александрович Солонович; d. 1937), Russian poet, mathematician, philosopher, and one of the leaders and theorist of the anarcho-mystical movement in Moscow, born.

1889* - [O.S. Oct. 11] Alexander Petrovich Shapiro [Александр Петрович Шапиро], aka Sacha Piotr or Sascha Pjotr, Alexander Tanarov, Sergei (d. August 1942), Ukrainian anarchist of Jewish descent and propagandist, who fought with the anarchists in Spain and was murdered by the Nazis in Auschwitz, born. He was the birth father of mathematician Alexander Grothendieck.
[* his d.o.b. is given by some sources as August 18 [6], 1890]

1894 - Révolte de Forçats Sur les Îles du Salut: Edouard Aubin Marpeaux (b. 1866), French anarchist expropriator, and member of the Ligue des Antipatriotes, dies during a prison mutiny on l'île du Salut. [see: Oct. 17]

1894 - Marcel Body (Jean Alexandre Body (d. 1984), French typographer, Bolshevik, translator and later, anarchist, born.

## 1899 - Arthur Lehning (Paul Arthur Müller-Lehning; d. 2000), Dutch anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, and archivist and historian of the international anarchist movement, born. Co-founder, with Rudolf Rocker and Augustin Souchy, in December 1919 of FAUD (Freie Arbeiter Union Deutschland). Establishes and becomes curator of the monumental Bakunin Files, with the International Institute of Social History (IISH) of Amsterdam, in 1971.

1903 - First attempt to test anti-anarchist immigration act: At an event at Murray Hill Lyceum, where Emma Goldman is scheduled to speak, English anarchist John Turner is arrested and charged with promoting anarchism in violation of the 1903 Anarchist Exclusion Act. Turner was held on Ellis Island until his deportation, with the words "Let freedom ring" burning in his ears.

[F] 1905 - Huelga de la Carne [Meat Strike] aka Semana Roja [Red Week]: Following the previous day's massive protest in Santiago, Chile – an estimated 50,000 in a city of 320,000 residents – against the tariffs imposed on Argentinian livestock imports, workers at the Libertad foundry, la Maestranza and other railway workshops, the Cervecerías Unidas brewery, in the sewerage, construction and slaughterhouse sectors go on strike. Elsewhere, groups of striker roam the city trying to enforce shutdown in other business, facing frequent clashes with the police.

1921 - Massive demonstrations all over Europe in support of Sacco and Vanzetti. The demonstration in Paris is barely contained by 10,000 police and 18,000 soldiers.

##[B] 1927 - Philip Lamantia (d. 2005), Sicilian-American anarchist and Surrealist poet, born. A key link between the Surrealists and, as an influence, the Beats. Expelled from a junior high school for "intellectual delinquency", Lamantia discovered Surrealism as a teenager. He was immediately drawn to this movement and began to write poetry, leaving California for NY to meet André Breton, who recognised his talent and began publishing his poems. Lamantia's work appeared in Breton's 'VVV', as well as Charles Henri Ford's 'View' and other experimental journals.
Married to Nancy Peters, a surrealist poet and co-owner, with Lawrence Ferlinghetti, of City Lights Books publishers.

1940 - J. William Lloyd (b. 1857), American individualist anarchist, poet and writer, dies. [see: Jun 4]

1972 - The 'Research Group' (研究会) of the L-Class Struggle Committee (Lクラス闘争委員会), the forerunner of anarchist East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front (東アジア反日武装戦線), bombs the Fusetsu no Gunzo (風雪の群像), a bronze monument celebrating the Japanese colonisation of the Ainu, and the Institute of Northern Cultures (北方文化研究施設), two targets symbols of Japan’s imperialistic aggression against the Ainu Moshiri (アイヌモシリ) or Ainu homeland problem

1990 - Elvira Trull i Ventura (b. ca. 1896), Catalan textile worker, maid and anarcho-syndicalist, dies.

1999 - A massive demonstration in Stockholm commemorates Björn Söderberg, a Sveriges Arbetates Centralorganisation activist and anti-fascist murdered by neo-Nazis on October 12, 1999.
#### [B] 1868 - Alexandra David-Néel (born Louise Eugénie Alexandrine Marie David; d. 1969), Belgian-French explorer, spiritualist, Buddhist, anarchist, Freemason, opera singer, writer, lecturer, photographer, born. Known for her writings on her travels (many disguised as a man) to India in 1890-91; Sikkim and Nepal in 1911-16 (where she met the Dalai Lama, lives in a cave for 2 years and adopts a young Sikkimese monk, Aphur Yongden, who becomes her travelling companion); Japan in 1916; Korea and China in (1916-21); spend 3 years on the route to Tibet, arriving in Lhasa (1924-28) [her most famous and beloved work, Mystiques et Magiciens du Tibet (Magic and Mystery in Tibet; 1929)] and the eastern Tibetan highlands in early 1937. She and Aphur Yongden remain trapped in China and the Tibetan marches following the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War later that year and war in Europe in 1939, only returning to France in 1946.
At the age of 18, having already visited England (to study Eastern philosophies), Switzerland (walking and mountain climbing) and Spain (cycling tour), all on her own, she moved to Paris and became involved with Madame Blavatsky's Theosophical Society. She also joined various secret societies, reaching the thirtieth degree in the mixed Scottish Rite of Freemasonry and moved with anarchist and circles, writing a number of feminist articles and in 1899, Alexandra composed an anarchist treatise with a preface by the French geographer and anarchist Elisée Reclus (a great friend of her father, anarchist teacher and journalist Louis David). Publishers were, however, too terrified to publish a book written by a woman so proud she could not accept any abuses by the State, army, Church or high finance. Her friend the composer Jean Haustont however printed copies himself and it was eventually translated into five languages.
As a young woman (and following family financial problems) Alexandra tried to make a living as an opera singer (1894-1900), touring Europe, Africa and Asia, including one stint touring Indochina with a French opera company (1895-97), appearing at the Hanoi Opera House and elsewhere as La Traviata and Carmen. But by 1900 her career was going nowhere and she accepted a job with the municipal opera in Tunis, where she met railway engineer, Philip Neel, whom she married in 1904, but never travelled with (divorcing him in 1928). She is also the author of the murder mystery 'La Puissance de Néant' (The Power of Nothingness; 1954), a Buddhist whodunnit set in Tibet and co-written with her adopted son, Aphur Yongden.

1870 - Mikhail Bakunin manages to escape from France, having been in hiding since the end of the Lyon Commune and the issuing of a warrant for his arrest, sailing from Marseilles to Locarno.

1882 - La Bande Noire: On the sixth day of the trial, the prosecutor ask for the postponement of the hearing due to the pressure exerted on the jury by means of threatening letters and the attacks on the night of October 22-23 at the Théâtre Bellecour's L'Assommoir restaurant in Lyon (for which Antoine Cyvoct was wrongly convicted). [see: Oct. 18]

1886 - A letter by French anarchist militant Clément Duval of La Panthère des Batignolles justifying the group's activities appears in 'Le Révolté': "Le vol n'est que la restitution, opéré à son profit par un individu conscient des richesses produites collectivement, et indûment accaparée par quelques-uns." (The theft is only restitution, operated on their behalf by an individual conscious of the wealth produced collectively and unduly monopolised by a few.)

## 1889 - Camille Clovis Trouille (September 24 , 1975), French fashion and advertising designer, make-up artist for a fashion house mannequins manufacturer, painter, anti-clerical, anti-militarist and anarchist, born. [expand]

1907 - Ana María Cruzado Sánchez (d. 1982), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist militant, born. Active member of the Sindicat del Vestir of thea CNT and in the Joventuts Llibertàries, where she met her future partner and fellow anarcho-syndicalist militant Antonio Zapata Córdoba (1908-2000). In February 1939 at the end the Civil War, they went into exile in France and lived in Font Romeu and Toulouse. In 1945, she returned clandestinely to Spain and was arrested. Following her release, she continued her underground activities in the CNT in Barcelona and was again arrested. In 1946, she went into exile in France and finally settled in Toulouse, where she participated in the freedom movement until her death. Her brother, Alfonso Cruzado Sánchez (1910-​​1983)[see: Oct. 27], was a member of the Sindicat del Transport of the CNT in Barcelona.

1914 - In Milan anarchists produce a new fortnightly anti-militarist newspaper, 'Il Ribelle', as part of the increasing resistence to the war and, despite many difficulties, the paper remains in print until Feb. 1915.

[DDD] 1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: The offices of the Federación Obrera Regional Argentina (Argentine Regional Workers' Federation) in Río Gallegos, Puerto Deseado, San Julián and Puerto Santa Cruz are searched and closed, and labour leaders arrested. Antonio Paris, general secretary of the FORA is detained and tortured by the police, and deported along with other labour leaders. A second general strike is declared in Santa Cruz (the previous one had been called on Nov. 1, 1920, and the reneging by the employers on the agreement reached in Feb. 1921 led directly to this new latest dispute). [see: Oct. 18, 1920 post] Meanwhile, Antonio Soto, general secretary of the FORA branch in Río Gallegos and the 'Líder de la patagonia rebelde', had set out with his fellow anarchists Luis Sambucetti, Severino Fernández and Pedro Mongilnitzkiof on September 15 on a recruitment and propaganda tour, via car and horseback, of the estancias in the mountain region. Hearing the news of the general strike whilst on the Bella Vista estancia, where he was then staying, Soto hoisted a red and black flag of anarchism and began to promote the strike around the farms he was visiting.
Within days the general strike called by the Federación Obrera Regional Argentina in Puerto Santa Cruz has spread and developed into a second national general strike. By October 28, Antonio Soto had managed to ferment a revolt across a wide section of the southwestern territory of Santa Cruz; the workers on the Buitreras, Alquinta, Rincon de los Morros, Glencross, La Esperanza and Bella Vista estancias had been pursuaded to join the rural workers movement. This first part was achieved absolutely peacefully: entering the estancias, talking with the peons, requisitioning weapons and provisions, which are documented with Soto's signed receipts, and when owners or managers are present, taking them hostage.
The rebels were then organised into two large groups, the columna Antonio Soto and the columna José Font, better known as the columna Facón Grande after José Font's nickname. Based at the estancia La Anita in the Punta Alta with a force of around 600 strikers, Soto resolved that while he continue leading the movement in the country and that his fellow militants, with whom he had set out from Río Gallegos on September 15, should try to enter Rio Gallegos to replace the strike leaders recently imprisoned there and try and re-establish a foothold in the city. When the three anarchists arrived in Rio Gallegos on November 1 they were swiftly arrested and beaten by the police.

1923 - Denise Levertov (d. 1997), British-born American poet, anti-war activist and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. Socially committed from an early age (he father was a Jewish refugee and members of the family campaigned against Italy's invasion of Abyssinia, Britian's lack of support for Republican Spain and worked on behalf of refugees from Facism), and became renowned as one of the better English Neo-Romantic poets, who included the likes of Alex Comfort, George Woodcock and Herbert Read. Moving to the States, she became influenced by the Black Mountain poets and became involved with the San Francisco poets around Rexroth, Ferlinghetti and Robert Duncan, whom she carried out a long correspondence with and who famously criticised he pacifism from an anarchist viewpoint [see: 'The Letters of Robert Duncan and Denise Levertov', ed. by Robert J. Bertholf and Albert Gelpi. Stanford (2004) and 'Decision at the Apogee : Robert Duncan's anarchist critique of Denise Levertov' (2006) - Robert J. Bertholf]
"In the '40s, when I was an anarchist activist, Denise Levertov was perhaps loyal in sentiment to the cause, although not herself in any way active. During the '60s she became an activist, and her actions certainly proved her sincerity. What disappoints one in her writing on this subject, however, is that it rarely goes beyond emotional generalities." - George Woodcock, 'Pilgrimage of a Poet', in 'New Leader', March 4, 1974, (pp. 19-20).

Two girls discover
the secret of life
in a sudden line of

I who don’t know the
secret wrote
the line. They
told me

(through a third person)
they had found it
but not what it was
not even

what line it was. No doubt
by now, more than a week
later, they have forgotten
the secret,

the line, the name of
the poem. I love them
for finding what
I can’t find,

and for loving me
for the line I wrote,
and for forgetting it
so that

a thousand times, till death
finds them, they may
discover it again, in other

in other
happenings. And for
wanting to know it,

assuming there is
such a secret, yes,
for that
most of all.

'The Secret' [in 'O Taste and See: New Poems' (1964)]


[C] 1924 - Italian anarchist militant Ernesto Bonomini (aka Dick Perry) is sentenced to eight years hard labour (later commuted to prison time) for killing fascist Nicola Bonservizi, a writer for Mussolini's fascist newspaper 'Popolo d' Italia', in a Paris restaurant. He originally faced the death penalty but the murder of Giacomo Matteotti, an Italian antifascist politician, by Mussolini's henchmen on June 10, 1924, created a sympathetic atmosphere at the time of his sentencing.

1925 - The first issue of Italian language anarchist and anti-fascist weekly 'Il Monito' (The Warning) is published in Paris by Raffaele Schiavina. It will go on to support Gino Lucetti, vilified by the Communists, and also denounced the neo-Bolshevism of the Plate-forme d'Organisation de l'Union générale des anarchistes advocated by Archinov and Makhno. In 1926 Schiavina was issued with a decree of expulsion from France for his agitation activities following the attack on the Italian consulate in Paris and in March 1928 he eventually returned clandestinely to the United States. 'Il Monito' ceased publishing between November 20, 1926 and January 22, 1927, but returned on August 1, 1929, under the title 'Il Monito anarchico' with Marcel Morot-Gaudry as editor.

1930 - Vicente Garcia, aka 'Palmiro', Martin Zalacaín (Vicente García y García Díez Varona; b. 1866), one of the first Spanish anarchist communists, who was also active in South Wales, France and Britain, dies in London. [see: Jul. 18]

1932 - Adrian Mitchell (d. 2008), English poet, novelist, playwright, librettist, anti-authoritarian social-anarchist and anti-war activist, born.

My brain socialist
My heart anarchist
My eyes pacifist
My blood revolutionary

- 'Loose Leaf Poem' [in 'Ride the Nightmare' (1971)]

I was run over by the truth one day.
Ever since the accident I’ve walked this way
So stick my legs in plaster
Tell me lies about Vietnam.

Heard the alarm clock screaming with pain,
Couldn’t find myself so I went back to sleep again
So fill my ears with silver
Stick my legs in plaster
Tell me lies about Vietnam.

Every time I shut my eyes all I see is flames.
Made a marble phone book and I carved out all the names
So coat my eyes with butter
Fill my ears with silver
Stick my legs in plaster
Tell me lies about Vietnam.

I smell something burning, hope it’s just my brains.
They’re only dropping peppermints and daisy-chains
So stuff my nose with garlic
Coat my eyes with butter
Fill my ears with silver
Stick my legs in plaster
Tell me lies about Vietnam.

Where were you at the time of the crime?
Down by the Cenotaph drinking slime
So chain my tongue with whisky
Stuff my nose with garlic
Coat my eyes with butter
Fill my ears with silver
Stick my legs in plaster
Tell me lies about Vietnam.

You put your bombers in, you put your conscience out,
You take the human being and you twist it all about
So scrub my skin with women
Chain my tongue with whisky
Stuff my nose with garlic
Coat my eyes with butter
Fill my ears with silver
Stick my legs in plaster
Tell me lies about Vietnam.

'To Whom It May Concern' (1964)?


1933 - Johannes Methöfer (Johannes Cornelis Hendrik Philip Methöfer; b. 1863), Dutch editor, author, propagandist and anarchist, who is considered one of the first anarchists active in the Netherlands and was an active promoter of the Dutch produktiecoöperaties movement, dies in Blaricum, Netherlands. [see: Aug. 17]

1944 - Étienne O'Leary (d. 2011), Québécois actor, director and soundtrack composer of experimental short film, painter and libertarian, born.

1955 - Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown (born Alfred Reginald Brown; b. 1881), English social anthropologist who developed the theory of structural functionalism and co-adaptation, and who earned the nickname 'Anarchy Brown' as a student for his close interest in the writings of Peter Kropotkin, dies in London. [see: Jan. 17]

#1969 - Peter Dolving, Swedish musician, songwriter, visual artist, spoken word poet and anarchist, best known as the former frontman of the metal band, the Haunted, and now living in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, born.

1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: During the Council workers' strike a bomb explodes in the cleansing department head office, Greenford. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1975 - Ricard Sanz i García aka Cipriano Mera Sanz (b. 1897), French anarcho-syndicalist, militia leader and army commander in the Spanish Revolution, dies. [see: Nov. 4]

1999 - Philip Sansom (b. 1916), English anarchist pacifist and co-editor of 'War Commentary', which led to 9 months in prison accused of inciting agitation among soldiers alongside fellow editors Vernon Richards and John Hewetson, dies. [see: Sep. 19]
1806 - Max Stirner (d. 1856), German philosopher, theorist of individualist anarchism and author of 'Der Einzige und sein Eigentum' (The Ego and It's Own; 1844), born.

1862 - Ernest Coeurderoy (b. 1825), French medical doctor, writer, journalist and anarchistic Socialist, who forced into exile because of his radical positions, commits suicide. [see: Jan. 22]

[A] 1870 - The Marseilles Commune declares the abolition of both the state and all debt. [source?]

1878 - Spanish anarchist Juan Oliva Moncasi attempts to shoot Alfonso XII of Spain, but is disarmed by the crowd, and executed several weeks later, after refusing to be pardoned. The attack is used as an excuse to arrest many internationalist militants, especially in Andalusia. [see: Dec. 4]

[B] 1881 - Pablo Ruiz y Picasso (d. 1973), Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, anarchist and later communist, born. At the age of 13 his family move to Barcelona, where he first encountered anarchism and began associating with anarchists in Madrid when he attended the Royal Academy of San Fernando. In 1901, and inspired by his first trip to Paris the previous year, he founded the magazine 'Arte Joven' (Young Art) with his friend the anarchist writer Francisco de Asís Soler [painting]. It was during this time, the Blue Period, that his art most clearly displays an anarchist influenc with its working class subject matter and method of depiction. Picasso would later be denied French citizenship because of his association with the anarchist and art dealer Pedro Mañach [painting] who was an important financial supporter during the Blue Period, signing a contract with Picasso guaranteeing to take his pictures for two years and to pay 150 francs per month by way of fixed income. He also floated the idea of a first Paris Picasso exhibition at the Galerie Vollard in 1901.

1886 - Eleuterio Quintanilla Prieto (d. 1966), Asturian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, Freemason and rationalist eductor, active in the Spanish Revolution of 1936 and the Orto group in the FAI, born.

1886 - The anarchist burglar Clément Duval is arrested for breaking into a rich woman's apartment, stealing her jewels, and setting the place on fire (accidentally). It all ends badly. [see: Jan 11/Feb. 11 & 28/Mar. 25]

1891 - Gregorio Jover Cortés (d. 1964), Spanish militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist activist and fighter against Franco, born. [expand]

1893 - Josef 'Sepp' Oerter is sentenced to 8 years in prison and his brother Fritz to 1 year for delivering "seditious speeches" at a meeting of the unemployed in Mainz in Dec. 1892.

1893 - Friedrich Liebling (Salomon Liebling; d. 1982), Austrian anarchist, pacifist and non-academic trained libertarian psychologist from the school of individual psychology Alfred Adler, who advocated nonviolent education and mutual aid, and founded the Zürcher Schule für Psychotherapie, born.

## 1919 - [O.S. May 31] Iustin Petrovich Zhuk (Иусти́н Петро́вич Жук; b. 1887), Ukranian chemistry technician, member of the anarchist underground during the Tsarist era, anarcho-syndicalist and participant in the factory committees’ movement in 1917, and Shlissel'burg Red Guard, dies fighting against the White Army on the Finnish frontier. [see: Jun. 12]

1928 - Catalan anarchists Jaime Tadeo Peña, Agustin Garcia Capdevilla and Pedro Boadas Rivas along with the Argentinians Antonio and Vicente Moretti rob the currency exchange in Messina, Montevideo, of 4,000 pesos. In the attack the director of the agency, an employee and a taxi driver are killed. Three others are wounded. All five anarchists are arrested on November 5.

1928 - Paul Eltzbacher (b. 1868), Jewish German anarchist academic, law professor, Bolshevik and member of the Reichstag, best known for his early writings upon anarchism, dies in Berlin. [see: Feb. 18]

1929 - Emilio López Arango, aka 'Xáxara' (b. 1893), Argentine anarcho-syndicalist organiser and theoritician, is assassinated, shot three times as he opens his front door in Buenos Aires, probably the victim of the internecine anarchist ideological feuds then prevalent in Argentina. His assassin remained unidentified but suspicion fell chiefly on Severino Di Giovanni, who had already threatened Arango for accusing him in his newspaper of "fascist agent" and "police infiltrator". [see: May 25]

##1936 - Bernard Thomas (d. 2012), French libertarian journalist, including theatre critic and columnist for 'Canard Enchaîné', born. Wrote 'Alexandre Marius Jacob' (1970), 'Les Provocations Policières' (1972), 'Aurore ou la Génération Perdue' (1984), 'Anarchism and Violence: Severino di Giovanni', etc.

1946 - Artur Streiter (b. 1905), German graphic artist, painter, writer, literary critic, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Jan. 17]

1955 - Ettore Cropalti (b. 1900), Italian shoemaker, anarchist and anti-fascist militant, dies. [see: Jul. 8]

1956 - 1956-os Forradalom [Hungarian Revolution] / Véres Csütörtök [Bloody Thursday]: In Kossuth Square, where a number of Soviet tanks have been stationed since yesterday, a protest of about 5,000 peaceful demonstrators had gathered in front of the Parliament building. Some of the Russians are fraternising with the Hungarians when, according to an American eyewitness (the building contained American diplomatic apartments), around 11:00 an ordnance charge ia dropped from an apartment building roof near the Széchenyi Rakpart, onto the Russian tanks below. [Other versiosn have the tanks firing, causing the 'loud explosion'.] Nobody knows who dropped the ordnance, but firing by ÁVH secret police snipers from the roof of the Agriculture Building across the square into the demonstrators. ÁVH units also began shooting from the rooftops of other neighbouring buildings. Some Soviet soldiers began returning fire on the ÁVH, mistakenly believing that they are the intended targets. Supplied by arms taken from the ÁVH or given by Hungarian soldiers who have joined the uprising, some in the crowd start shooting back. The crowd in the square found it difficult to escape. The massacre killed 61 and wounded more than 300 according to a report by the United Nation. Other sources claim upto 800-1,000 died.
Armed insurrection became inevitable and the Corvin (Budapest VIII. district) insurgents began attacking with renewed vigor against the Soviet troops and secret police units. Units led by Béla Király, after attacking the building of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, carry out the killings of dozens of suspected communists, state security members, and military personnel. Photographs showed victims with signs of torture.

1986 - Ricardo Sanz Asensio (b. 1898), Valencian anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist fighter against Franco, dies. [see: Oct. 25]

2011 - Police arrested more than 100 people as they forcefully evicted the Occupy Oakland encampment in Frank H. Ogawa Plaza, renamed Oscar Grant Plaza by protesters in honor of the unarmed, handcuffed 22-year-old father slain by Bay Area Rapid Transit police officer Johannes Mehserle in 2009.
1876 - The 8th congress of the A.I.T. is held, Bern (26-28 Oct.).

## [B] 1879 - Biófilo Panclasta (born Vicente Rojas Lizcano; d. 1942), Colombian writer, poet, militant individualist anarchist and agitator, born. Biófilo Panclasta translates as "over of life, enemy of all", his pen name. A prolific propagandist for his Stirnerite and Nietszchean views, he visited more than fifty countries - bannished from many, imprisoned in others - carrying the anarchist message, participating in demonstrations and workers' protests and in the process meeting the likes of Kropotkin, Ravanchol, Lenin and Maxim Gorky. Author of numerous articles published in the world's press, of a series of memoirs on his many years in prison including 'Mis prisiones, mis destierros y mi vida' (My prisons, my destiny and my life; 1929) and 'Siete años enterrado vivo en una de las mazmorras de Gomezuela: Horripilante relato de un resucitado' (Seven years buried alive in one of the dungeons of Gomezuela: A harrowing tale of one of the resurrected; 1932), and a series of letters in the form of prose poems.

Your beautifully expressed sympathies have come to comfort my spirit in this, the sad solitude of the prisoner.

But it was not the solitude of things that sunk it in its long and nostalgic meditations.

It was the solitude of thought.

Believing oneself a defender without anyone to defend.

A liberator without anyone liberated.

A man of heart among heartless beings.

To feel alone is to feel useless.

Therefore your letter transcends for me, in a very superior way, the kind of fraternal palliative usually shared in times of misfortune.

My suffering has something of greatness.

I am not I who suffers; it is the living and suffering humanity that paints on the sensible canvas of my soul all the sufferings of its uncomprehended misery.

I am not imprisoned by myself.

If I am feared, it is because they know that my word, as the miraculous medicine of a doctor of the soul, can remove from the eyes of the prejudiced the blindfold that keeps them in the land of the “dark barbarians.”

To be persecuted is to be feared.

And I who can teach nothing and preach nothing, I am feared because like the “firefly fleeing from the light, carrying the light, I illuminate the same shadows that I go seeking.”

For me, prison cannot exist.

Like all tyrannies, it is only in the heart of slaves.

I consider my guardians to be beings of a prehistoric nature. And I despise them.

They are too human!

I am not in the habit of making feline madness logical, and I leave its proof to the empire of force; force is the reason of beasts.

As such, even behind walls I believe myself, and am, free.

Free, free as my thought, neither limitless nor incommunicable.

And as this thought is the language of our souls, I send from here, to you, to that place, all the psychic wealth of my evoked feeling as a tribute of reciprocity on the altar of love that the god of Harmony has erected.

We struggle, but we struggle like Prometheus, for being beginnings...

We struggle against death, that Christianity of life.

Let us live.

For life and with it.

Art and freedom.

That is a path.

Let us live for ourselves.

And let us unite, yes, let us unite against everything weak, everything small, everything vile.

To be a Christian is to be defeated.

Let us be biófilos (lovers of life).

Let us be strong. Like crystal. Light and hardness, hardness and light.

And may others learn.

Without us teaching. To be a teacher is to be a tyrant. Leave thought out like meat.

Have no duties. Leave that to the moralists.

We alone, among those who go alone, let us each walk our path; personally; intensifying life, increasing pleasure, feeling existence...


For man is not born but to live.

And to live is not to suffer.

Because life is beautiful!

It can be beautiful!

Let us make it beautiful!

Be biófilos!

Let us be that!


Biófilo Panclasta.

Barranquilla Police Station, April 19, 1910.

[published as 'Carcelarias' (Prisons) by the editors of 'Biófilo Panclasta, el eterno prisionero' (Biófilo Panclasta, the eternal prisoner; 1992)]


1886 - Justin Olive (d. 1962), French militant anarchist and revolutionary syndicalist, born.

1888* - [N.S. Nov. 7] Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (Не́стор Іва́нович Махно́ [uk] Не́стор Ива́нович Махно́ [rus]) aka батько Махно [father Makhno](d. 1934), Ukrainian anarcho-communist guerilla leader, born. [see: Nov. 7]
[* His father listed the date as 1889 on official documents as a commonly used method of postponing the date of army conscription by a year.]

##1895 - Marcel Pierre Léon Sauvage (d. 1988), French journalist, essayist, poet, novelist and individualist anarchist, who was the author of 'Les mémoires de Joséphine Baker' (1927), born.

[C] 1913 - José Ester i Borrás (d. 1980), Spanish anarchist, arrested by the communists in Spain, then the Nazis in France, born. Active in the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias anarchist youth movement and the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, he fought in the famous Colonna Tierra y Libertad during the Spanish Civil War, seeing combat on the Aagon front, in Madrid and catalonia. In May 1938 he was arrested by the Communists and accused with two other of having killed a member of the brigade, remaining imprisoned until the fall of the front. He later fled to France after the fall of the Spanish Republic, where fought in the Résistance against the Nazis and was arrested and deported to the Mauthausen concentration camp.
Ester returned to France in 1945 and founded the Federación Española de Deportados e Internados Políticos (Spanish Federation of Former Political Prisoners and Camp Inmates), which campaigned for political prisoners in Franco's Spain, but also for the Spanish antifascists who were deported to labour camps in the Soviet Union after the Civil War. These prisoners were released only in 1956. Ester also worked, from 1953 onwards, for the Office Français de Protection des Réfugiés et Apatrides (French Office for the Protection of Refugees and Stateless Persons) and remained active until well into the 1970s, and died in 1980.

1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Barclays Bank at Stoke Newington firebombed. Newspaper report says: "Police are investigating several similar incidents at other branches".
Today there are also simultaneous bomb attacks against Iberia Airlines in Geneva, Frankfurt, Paris and London airports. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1996 - Aurelio Chessa (b. 1913), Italian anarchist baker, journalist and historian, dies. [see: Oct. 30]

2011 - Hundreds of Occupy Oakland demonstrators take to the streets in response to yesterday's evictions and are attacked by police using rubber-coated steel bullets, chemical agents including tear gas, concussion grenades and other 'less lethal' projectiles.
1857 - François-Louis Duprat aka 'Paul' or 'Pilloux' (d. unknown), French journeyman tailor, wine merchant , and anarchist activist and propagandist, who was charged in the Procès des Trente, born.

## 1865 - John Arthur 'Jack' or 'J.A.' Andrews (d. 1903), Australian clerical worker, anarchist theoretician, agitator and journalist, poet, fiction writer, polyglot, and inventor, born in Bendigo, Victoria.

1895 - Comasco Comaschi (d. 1922), Italian master cabinetmaker, anarchist and leader of the Arditi del Popolo in his home town of Cascina in Pisa, who was ambushed and murdered by local fascisti, born.

[B] 1898 - Germain Delatousche (d. 1966), French painter and wood engraver, born. He illustrated numerous newspapers and magazines including: 'La Vache Enragée'; 'L'Internationale'; 'Les Chansons de la Butte'; 'La Revue Anarchiste'; 'L'Art Vivant'; 'La Revue Anarchiste'; 'Le Quotidien'; 'Les Humbles'; 'L'En Dehors'; 'L'Almanach de la Paix' (1934); 'Le Libertaire' (1945-50); etc.. Plus books by Maurice Hallé, Gaston Couté, CA Bontemps, Eugene Bizeau, Georges Vidal and Regis Messac.

1908 - Antonio Zapata Córdoba (d. 2000), Spanish construction worker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and Spanish Civil War fighter, born. The youngest of four brothers of a family of day labourers, he attended a rationalist school set up by miners from the age of 5, which had a profound effect on him. At the age of 9 he had to start work in the fields. He went to Barcelona at the age of 12 here his brothers were working. There he worked first as a market gardener, then in a belt buckle factory, before going on to the building sites. He became involved in the anarcho-syndicalist trade union, the CNT, taking part in activities during the years of repression under the Primo de Rivera dictatorship. He was imprisoned for his activities for the first time at the age of 22. Here, he came in contact with the flower of the militants of the Spanish anarchist movement, which was a school for his own anarchism.
With the declaration of the Republic in 1931, he was freed and militated in the CNT in the shanty town of Gracia. He was a member of the Groups of Confederal Defence, which physically defended the CNT from the attacks of the bosses and the State. He took part in the building workers strike, and then in the Civil War of 1936-9 joined in the fighting against the right-wing coup led by General Franco. He became a member of the Control and Administration Commission of Urban Property in Barcelona. He fought on the front, and like so many others had to flee to France with his then partner, Ana María Cruzado Sánchez (1907-1982)[see: Oct. 24]. He settled in Toulouse, remaining a supporter of the CNT until his death in on the night of January 12-13, 2000.

1919 - At her deportation hearing Emma Goldman refuses to answer questions about her beliefs on the grounds that her American citizenship invalidated any attempt to deport her under the Anarchist Exclusion Act, which could be enforced only against non-citizens of the US. She presented a written statement instead: "Today so-called aliens are deported. Tomorrow native Americans will be banished. Already some patrioteers are suggesting that native American sons to whom democracy is a sacred ideal should be exiled." Louis Post at the Department of Labor, which had ultimate authority over deportation decisions, determined that the revocation of her husband's American citizenship in 1908 had revoked hers as well. After initially promising a court fight, she decided not to appeal his ruling.

1925 - Anastasia Ivanovna Galayeva (Анастасия Ивановна Галаева) aka Anastasia Stepanova-Galayeva (Ивановна Степанова-Галаева; b. 1885), active Ukrainian anarchist-communist and former popular primary school teacher, dies of a terminal illness, having been released from prison under special surveillance of the Cheka in Moscow. [expand]

1936 - A Generalidad decree orders militarisation of Spain's People's Militias.

1937 - Natan Yakovlevich Futerfas (Натан Яковлевич Футерфас; b. 1896), Polish-Russian clerk, polyglot and anarchist, who was a prominent figure in the Esperanto movement in the USSR, is shot four days after being condemned to death by the NKVD of the Arkhangelsk region. [see: Aug. 9]

1948 - Albert Camus' play 'L'Etat de Siege' premières in Paris.

1958 - Gusto Gräser (Gustav Arthur Gräser; b. 1879), German nomadic 'poet-prophet' who, with his brother Karl Gräser (1875–1920), co-founded the Monte Verità utopian anarchist vegetarian community in Ascona, Switzerland, dies. [see: Feb. 16]

1963 - Exclusion of Attila Kotànyi from the Belgian section of the Situationist International.

1966 - Miquelina Sardinha (Miquelina Maria Possante Sardinha; b. 1902), Portuguese educationalist and militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Nov. 11]

1968 - Rosario (Roser) Dulcet Martí aka 'Dolcet' (b. 1881), Catalan textile worker, anacrho-syndicalist militant and propagandist, dies. [see: Feb. 2]

1991 - In Peru anarchist Andrés Villaverde arrested for sabotage. Sent to prison without trial and held for years despite a total lack of proof to substantiate charges of membership of the Maoist Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) guerilla group.

2001 - Liberto Sarrau Royes (b. 1920), Spanish militant anarchist, anti-fascist fighter and writer, dies age of 81. [see: Oct. 27]

##2002 - John Moore (b. 1957), British anarchist author, teacher, organiser, member of the Anarchist Research Group, and theorist of the pro-Situ anarchism, dies of a heart attack. Author of 'Anarchy and Ecstasy: Visions of Halcyon Days' (1988), 'Lovebite: Mythology and the Semiotics of Culture' (1990), 'Book of Levelling' (1995) and 'An Introduction to Anarcho-primitivism' (1996).
1846 - Albert Dubois-Pillet (d. 1890), French neo-Impresssionist and Pointillist painter and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. Fought the Franco-Prussian War, during which he was made prisoner by the Germans but took up art after the war, adding his mother's maiden name (Pillet) to disguise his art activities from the military. A friend of Georges Seurat, he become one of the first artists to adopt Pointillism. His association with anarchists and anti-militarists such as Seurat, Angrand and Signac is thought to have led to his posting to Le Puy in south central France in 1889 as commander of the local gendarmerie. He died there during a smallpox outbreak in 1890.

1868 - The Groupe Genevois de l'Alliance de la Démocratie Socialiste is set up in Geneva by Bakunin.

##1872 - Giuseppe Emanuele Modigliani (d. 1947), Italian anarchist, socialist, trades union organiser, pacifist and anti-fascist, born. Brother of the artist Amedeo Modigliani. In 1894 he co-founded the Livorno section of the Italian Socialist Party and was imprisoned for 6 months in 1898 for running an anarchist newspaper in Piacenza. He was also the Italian representative on the executive of the Sozialistische Arbeiter-Internationale (SAI) between 1923 and 1940.
[ Modigliani]

## 1875 - Silvio Celestino Corio, aka 'Crastinus', 'Qualunque' (d. 1954), Italian printer, typographer, anarchist propagandist and partner of Sylvia Pankhurst, born.

1879 - Gérard Hervé Coatmeur aka C. Hervé (d. 1944), French militant anarchist individualist propagandist, writer, naturist, docker, porter, bookseller and fairground showman, born.

1879 - Luisa Capetillo Perón (d. 1922), Puerto Rican writer, novelist, journalist, trade unionist, libertarian propagandist, women's rights activist and anarcha-feminist, is born in the then Spanish colony to a French maid, Louise Marguerite Perone, and a Basque labourer, Luis Capetillo Echevarría. One of Puerto Rico's most famous labour organisers, her parent had come to Puerto Rico to seek their fortunes but had to settle for employment below their aspirations. Both held liberal and progressive ideas and never married. Thier only daughter Luisa was educated at the Maria Siera Soler private school, considered one of the best in the country, and also learnt French from her mother. [expand]

[E] 1901 - Émilienne Léontine 'Mimi' Morin (b. 1901), French stenographer, militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and companion of Buenaventura Durruti, born. Daughter of Étienne Morin, a militant anarcho-syndicalist in the construction industry, in 1916 she became secretary of Sébastien Faure's journal 'Ce Qu'il Faut Dire'. Following a failed marriage to an Italian anarchist named Mario Cascari, she met Durruti in July 1927 and accompnied his clandestine travels around Europe (Durruti is persona non grata in many European countries), escaping numerous threats and attempts at deportation or extradition.
Eventually, with the advent of the Republic, they moved to Spain in 1931. Active in the CNT and revolutionary struggle, she gave birth on December 4, 1931, to a daughter named Colette, who she raised almost singlehanded as Durruti was in hiding most of the time. With the advent of the Durruti Column, she worked as a secretary and head of the press department for the column. She eventually quit the front to care for her daughter in Barcelona, whilst Durruti went to a Madrid to help in the defence against the Fascists, where he was killed on November 20.
After the funeral, she worked for the Defence Council for a while, but returns to France in 1938. There she works in the Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste (SIA) and writes about her experiences on the Aragon Front in Libertaire.

1902 - Kate Cooper Austin (b. 1864), American anarchist, feminist and journalist who wrote for many working class and radical papers, dies. [see: Jul. 25]

1904 - François-Charles Carpentier (d. 1988), French militant anarchist and combatant during the Spanish Revolution, born.

[B] 1913 - Le Cinéma du Peuple, a co-operative film company, is created by a group of Parisian anarchists. They would produce the first full length film on the Paris Commune.

[D] 1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: The general strike called by the Federación Obrera Regional Argentina in Puerto Santa Cruz has spread and developed into a second national general strike. [see: Oct. 24]

1930 - Károly Krausz (b. 1855), Hungarian journalist, anarchist propagandist, agitator and later accountant, born. dies of pancreatic cancer. [see: Feb. 28]

1954 - Enrique Flores Magón (b. 1877), Mexican revolutionary anarchist and brother to the better known Ricardo Flores Magón, dies. [see: Apr. 13]

1959 - Alexei Vasilyevich Mokrousov [Алексей Васильевич Мокроусов] (Thomas Matveyevich [Фома́ Матве́евич]; b. 1887), Russian anarchist guerrilla commander who fought for the Bolsheviks against the Whites and the Makhnovshchyna (Махновщина), later doing the Stalinists' bidding during the Spanish Revolution and as a divisive guerrilla commander fighting against the Nazis during WWII, dismissed for drunkeness and brutality, dies in Simferopol (Симферополь). [see: Jun. 21]

1959 - Camilo Cienfuegos (b. 1932) dies when his small plane disappears. Raised in a family of Spanish anarchist emigres, he became a key figure of the Cuban Revolution. [see: Feb. 6]

1968 - Publication of 'Enragés & Situationists in the Occupations Movement', signed by René Viénet, Gallimard, Paris.

1984 - Sicilian anarchist Pippo Scarso is arrested and sentenced to a year in prison for refusing Italian military service.
1854 - Jean-Marie Guyau (d. 1888), French poet and libertarian philosopher, born. Kropotkin labelled him as being "unconsciously anarchist".

1866 - Victor Loquier (d. 1944), French hairdresser, anarchist activist and propagandist, born.

1890 - Claire Goll (Klara Liliane Aischmann; d. 1977), German-French poet, writer, journalist and translator, who was married to the poet and anarchist Yvan Goll, born. [expand]

1901 - Leon Czolgosz (b. 1873), self-proclaimed anarchist (the 'Free Society' newspaper carried a warning that he might be a police spy and doubts persisted about his motives), is electrocuted for the assassination of US President McKinley.

##[B] 1902 - Kitasono Katue (北園克衛; d. 1978), real name Hashimoto Kenkichi (橋本健吉), renowned Japanese poet, painter, photographer, critic and anarchist, who helped introduced Dada and Surrealism into Japan, born. Editor and graphic designer for more than 500 magazines and poetry books, and created numerous covers for novels, trade journals, commercial magazines, etc.. Chief among the magazines were his own journal 'VOU', published from 1935 to 1940, and then again from 1945 until his death in 1978; the Dadaist magazine 'GE GJMGJGAM PRRR GJMGEM' and later issues of 'MAVO'. Introduced to poetry and art by his brother the sculptor Hashimoto Heihachi (橋本平八), he became an early master of the haiku, later expanding his art to embrace Dadaist, Surrealist and Futurist poetics;. He later began creating his coloured drawings or 'katto' (cuts), took up photography in the 1950s, and began his Plastic Poems (造型詩), a form of visual poetry inspired in the mid 1960s by the work of some of his fellow photographers involved in 'VOU'.
Nicknamed Kit Kat by Ezra Pound, he was considered by many of his contemporaries to be one of the most important world poets and famously designed the first four covers of the Black Mountain Review. Amongst his volumes of poetry are 'White Album / Shiro in Arubamu' (白のアルバム; 1929); 'Black Fire / Hi Kuroi' (黒い火; 1951); and 'Black Rain' (1954). 'Monotonous Space / Tanchona Kukan' (単調な空間; in 'VOU' no. 58, 1957), considered by many to be his masterpiece.

'Monotonous Space'

white square
within it
white square
within it
black square
within it
black square
within it
yellow square
within it
yellow square
within it
white square
within it
white square

within it
within it
within it
within it
within it
within it
within it

's glass
's umbrella
's building
's handkerchief

white square
within it
white square
within it
white square
within it
white square
within it
white square

'Night Mechanist' (1924)

the café girl
is completely transparent
continuing her pink breathing
she makes her expensive finger shine
and hides mint-coloured talk
in a lobelia leaf
while playing the table’s piano
dreamer of chairs and curtains
bohemian of a pitiful city.
from the shadow of curacao
and peppermint
she flashes a seven-coloured heart
seducer with stunning matches
on stove chimneys
ties passion ribbons
and dissolves her lovers
into cash register buttons—
mechanist of splendid night

from 'Human Dismantled Poems' (1926)


on the back of the face
insert a blue lens
and peep everyday


burn sulphur
and weird smoke fills it up
a triangular ornament
tinplate nose
twist it
stuff a brush inside
and drag that spiral out from the rear!

'Dessin du Poéte'

Opening a thick, oval window, a Latin round-body
pronounces the following. Acts. Signals.
* It is said, "How could a self be rational which isn't even
conscious of itself as emotional?" A movement to
awaken people to that.
* A movement to make innocent friends perceive the
degree that we love loss of innocence.
* It is said, "How could you who haven't even passed
through anarchism become communists? And you who
haven't even comprehended futility. A magical
movement to stress that.
* It is said, "In a socialist world there is no room for
sneers, scorn and deceptive logic." This is deceptive
logic to sneer and scorn at not even understanding that.
* It is said, "A small bird."
* As for the saying, "Your limitless, orderly negativity
doesn't even have an affirmative value," if one says,
"How civilized?" it's the logic of you boarding a soap
bubble and being able to fly outside the earth's orbit. Yet
you are educated for an airship. For that overly physical
airship you try to imagine even a soap bubble space
expedition. Such an affirmatively affirmative you. You
don't perceive that.
* Materialistic. Materialistic art.
* Noblelady where small birds live.
* Noblelady where fish live.
* Gavo . . . Gavo . . . Gavo . . . Gavo . . . pon pon pon . . . pan . . .
pim . . . pum . . . Gattan . . . GovoGovoGovo? . . . I am lonely.
* Noblelady where fish and small birds live.
* The time you can say "Lonely, lonely" isn't lonely at all.
* The story of a boy on a dirigible balloon.
* A glass dish gathering tears.
* A bulb that doesn't breathe.
* Red curtain.
* Red.
* Mephistopheles with parasol today also displays a white
heel through the window of a high-rise building. The
view of an ocean that wants to smoke tobacco.
* Metaphysics without kangaroos.
* Brontasaurus.
* Sincerity, in moderation, speaks of lies. At least. That's
what becomes of it.
* If truth is so necessary, let me teach you one inventive
art. That is to search for the most stupid thing. But now.
Could anything be the most stupid?
* Roses and books.
* Midair-falling-doll.
* The surface where pressure operates. The surface where
pressure doesn't operate.

The Latin round-body completely quit his tactics of low-
altitude flying. Then he closed the thick, oval window. Space
stretched out infinitely. Insects within white gas probably
sing acetylene tunes. He doesn't know. Probably no one gets
to know.


1905 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'L'Ordre', "Organe Communiste-Anarchiste", is published by Armand Beaure in Limoges. The title is based upon Henri Beylie's apposite question "l'anarchie n'est-elle pas la plus haute expression de l'ordre?" (anarchism, is it not the highest expression of order?)

[F] 1916 - Norsk Syndikalistisk Forbund (Norwegian Syndicalist League) founded in Kristiania, Oslo under the influence of blacklisted Swedish syndicalists from the Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation and its daughter Lokal Samorganisation (Local Co-operation) syndicates, who had been forced to go to Norway after the general strike of 1909 (the Storstrejken or Great Strike) and had established Lokale Samorganisasjoner (the Norwegian version of the syndicates) linked to the SAC.

1932 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Le Réveil Syndicaliste', newspaper of the Groupes d'Action Syndicaliste, is published in Jupille-Liege by Jean De Boe, Nicolas Lazarevitch and Ida Mett.

1935 - Peter Watkins, radical English film and television screenwriter and director, whose films have included biographical films on explicitly anarchist subjects including 'Edvard Munch' (1974) and 'La Commune (Paris, 1871)' (2000), born. Amongst his other films are classics such as 'Culloden' (1964), 'The War Game' (1965) and 'Punishment Park' (1970).

1978 - Recording of anarcho-punk band Crass's second album 'The Feeding of the 5000' by English sound engineer and record producer John Loder at Southern Studios.

## 1981 - Georges Brassens (b. 1921), French anarchist singer-songwriter and poet, dies. [see: Oct. 22]
"Je suis anarchiste au point de toujours traverser dans les clous afin de n'avoir pas à discuter avec la maréchaussée." ("I'm an anarchist, so much so that I always cross at the zebra crossing to avoid arguing with the police.")

2011 - The first day (of two) of celebrations in Paris of 30 years of Radio Libertaire.
##1871 - Paul Valéry (d. 1945), French poet, essayist, philosopher, polymath and non-doctrinal anarchiste, born. Considered to be the last of the French Symbolists (or Anarcho-Symbolists).
His 'Les Principes d'Anarchie Pure et Appliquée' (1984), which features his thoughts on an-archie as he termed it, was published posthumously.

1884 - La Bande Noire: The third of three blasts blows up the engineer Michalovski's bedroom but he escapes uninjured again. [see: May 12 & Jun. 5]

1889 - Marcelo Salinas (d. 1976), Cuban anarchist, playwright and journalist, who was forced into exile by the Castro regime, born.

1904 - The Leon Czolgosz issue [see Oct. 29, 1901] continues unabated and Emma Goldman is arrested for articles published in 'Mother Earth' defending Czolgosz and for 'inciting to riot'. She is due to speak at a meeting to protest the arrests of several anarchists who had debated on Oct.27th whether Czolgosz was an anarchist.

[B] 1904 - Georges Navel (Charles François Victor Navel; d. 1993), French proletarian writer, novelist and libertarian, born. His works include the autobiographical novel 'Travaux' (Work; 1945). He was involved with Émile Malespine and his (post-Dadaist/pre-Surrealist) Suridéalist magazine 'Manomètre' (Revue trimestrielle, mçlange les langues, enregistre les idées, indique la pression sur tous les méridiens, est polyglotte et supranational; 1922-28).

1906 - Scheduled to speak at a meeting to protest the Oct. 27 arrests of several anarchists for debating whether Czolgosz was an anarchist, Emma Goldman is arrested for articles published in 'Mother Earth' and for inciting to riot. Nine others are also arrested on the same charge. Goldman is released on $1,000 bail the following day.

1908 - Marcel Béalu (d. 1993), French poet, writer and anarchist, born. His first collection of poetry, 'Poèmes sur un Même Thème' (Poems on a Similar Theme) in 1932 and later met the influential Cubist poet Max Jacob in 1937 as well as discovering the Surrealist poets the following year. When mobilised at the beginning of WWII, his papers warned "un anarchiste dangereux, à surveiller".

1910 - Congreso de Constitución de la CNT [Constitutional Congress of the CNT]: Following the Semana Trágica / Setmana Tràgica (Tragic Week) and the mass repression of the anarchist movement in Spain, the decimated ranks of Solidaridad Obrera / Solidaritat Obrera (Workers' Solidarity) holds its second congress [Oct. 30-Nov. 1] at the Salon des Beaux Arts in Barcelona with the objective of helping re-establish the workers' movement. Former and current members of the Federació Regional Espanyola de l'AIT and its successor organisations, the Federació de Treballadors de la Regió Espanyola, the Confederació Regional de Societats de Resistència, and Solidaritat Obrera attend with 136 delegates from 119 societies (77 from Catalonia) and local federations Badalona, Sabadell, Terrace, Valls, Vilafranca and Zaragoza present. At this meeting, the decision (by 84 votes in favour, 14 against and 3 abstentions) is taken to establish a new Confederació General del Treball, known as the Confederació Nacional del Treball, with the provisional regulations that had been submitted to the workers' organisations present being approved. The congress also debated the organisational structure of the CNT (by unions and federations of trades), its ideological pinning (revolutionary syndicalist) and tactics, as well as its initial basic demands: abolition of piecework, abusive rents, the 8-hour day, women's work rights (equal wages, maternal leave one month before and one after childbirth, etc.) and a minimum wage.
[ón_de_la_CNTó_Nacional_del_Treballón_Nacional_del_Trabajoón_Nacional_del_Trabajoórico) - cnt.htm Solidaridad Obrera 1907 1919.pdf anarcosindicalismo y sus Congresos.Completo.pdf]

1911 - Italian conscript trooper and anarchist Augusto Masetti fires a gunshot at his colonel on the parade ground of the Cialdini barracks, in Bologna, while shouting out "Down with the war! Long live Anarchy!" in protest of the war in Libya.

1912 - Little Falls Textile Strike: Following their daily parade under the IWW banner in Little Falls, New York, mounted police attack picketing textile workers – mostly immigrant women and girls – when they fail to clear a path for scab workers, beating some of the strikers unconscious.
"As Chief Long and his deputies clashed with the strikers, special police and patrolmen mounted on horses closed in on the largely unarmed pickets with their clubs. During the riot, a local police officer was shot in the leg, a special policeman furnished by the Humphrey Detective Agency of Albany was stabbed several times, and numerous strikers were beaten, some into unconsciousness." [Robert Snyder - 'Women, Wobblies and Workers Rights; the 1912 Textile Strike in Little Falls NY' (1979)]
A running battle ensued, with the police pursuing strikers across the river into the south side, where most of them lived. The police then broke into the strike headquarters at the Slovak Hall, smashed the place up, destroying their union charter, and proceeded to make mass arrests. All 24 members of the Strike Committee were taken into custody, and some were held for over a year. Helen Schloss, by now considered a ringleader, was arrested a mile away. The police brought in three doctors to "examine her sanity" but she had a lawyer who soon secured her release.
The strike however continued. Matilda Rabinowitz, a Russian-born IWW organiser, soon arrived and joined forces with Helen Schloss. Together, the two women had an entirely female picket line up within a day of the mass arrests. 'Big Bill' Haywood, a founder of the IWW arrived few days later to organise the Little Falls Defense League to provide living expenses and legal support for the strikers. Haywood, Schloss and Rabinowitz set off on a speaking tour of the north east that month to raise the funds that kept the strike going into the winter months. The anarchists Carlo Tresca and Filippo Bocchino also came to Little Falls to help organise the Italian-speaking strikers.
Matilda Rabinowitz and Helen Schloss later won a public relations victory by announcing that the children of strikers would be sent away for the Xmas holidays to join Socialist families in Schenectady. With the newspapers publishing reports of the embattled mothers and their children, Albany politicians were moved to act. Just after Christmas, the state Board of Mediation and Arbitration held three days of public hearings in Little Falls. [see: Oct. 9]

1913 - Aurelio Chessa (d. 1966), Italian anarchist baker, journalist and historian, born. Militant in Gruppi of Iniziativa Anarchica (GIA), created following the 1965 split in the Federazione Anarchica Italiana (FAI), and infatigable editor of the Berneri Family Archive, a role taken over by his daughter Fiamma.

1932 - Louis Malle (d. 1995), French film director, screenwriter and producer, born. His 1967 film 'Le Voleur' (The Thief of Paris), a fierce attack on bourgeois society, is based on the anarchist novelist Georges Darien's book of the same name and was responsible for the rediscovery of this largely forgotten writer. Much of his work bears the influence of his friend Luis Buñuel.
Malle's films 'Le Voleur' (The Thief of Paris; 1967), 'Lacombe Lucien' (1974) and 'Au Revoir, les Enfants' (1987) all address anti-Semitism (and Dreyfus - 'Le Voleur', in passing) and/or the Résistance and the Nazi occupation.

1937 - At the congress of the Union Anarchiste in Paris (Oct. 30 - Nov. 1) the Comité pour l'Espagne Libre created by Lecoin, Faucier, Odéon and Le Meillour is transformed (at the request of the CNT-FAI) into the French section of the Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste (SIA).

1940 - António Ferreira de Jesus (d. 2013), Portuguese libertarian autodidact, long-term prisoner and prisoner rights activist,

1953 - Wu Zhihui [or Wu Jingheng or Wu Shi-Fee] (吳稚暉; b. 1865), Chinese linguist, philosopher, youthful anarchist and later one of the 'Four Elders' of the Nationalist Party in the 1920s, who was chair of the 1912–13 Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation that created Zhuyin and standardised Guoyu pronunciation, dies in Taipei at the age of 88. [see: Mar. 25]

## 1956 - Victor S. Yarros (b. 1865), US individualist anarchist, lawyer, and author, who was law partner of Clarence Darrow for 11 years in Chicago, and partner of the feminist gynecologist Rachelle Slobodinsky Yarros, dies in Lajolla, California. [see: Apr. 20]

1969 - Pedro Alvarez Sierra (b. 1888), Spanish woodworker, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was opposed to the use of vilonce, dies. [see: Jun. 20]

[A] 1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Post Office Tower in London is bombed by the Angry Brigade.

2011 - The second day of celebrations in Paris of 30 years of Radio Libertaire.
1858 - Georges Mathias aka Paraf-Javal (d. 1942), French individualist anarchist, scientist and prolific author, who founded the Ligue Antimilitariste with Émile Armand, born.

1870 - French national guards revolt on this date during the siege of Paris. There is also a massive demonstration in front of the Town hall supporting the Paris Commune. Louise Michel is a participant.

##1881 - Edgard Frederico Leuenroth (d. 1968), Brazilian typesetter journalist, publisher, writer, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist propagandist, born. [expand]

1889 - Rolf Engert (d. 1962), German poet, playwright, publisher and writer on Stirner and Ibsen, born. Wrote under the pseudonyms Angelus Saxonicus and Maximus, and co-founded the Vereinigung der Stirnerfreunde (Friends of Stirner Association) with John Henry Mackay in 1918. A figure in the anti-Nazi Inner Emigration underground. Was excluded from the Deutscher Schriftstellerverband (East German Writers' Association) in 1950.

1892 - Maurizio Garino (d. 1977), Italian anarchist and syndicalist, who was involved in the Biennio Rosso and the Italian factory council movement, born.

1894 - In Paris, the Procès des Trente (Trial of the Thirty), which began August 6, comes to a close.

1905 - [O.S. Oct. 18] 1905 Kronstadt Mutiny / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: In the summer of 1905 revolutionary ferment grew stronger in the Kronstadt garrison, which had been reinforced by a large number of reservists, many of whom were revolutionary-minded workers. In addition, more than 2,000 'unreliable' sailors and soldiers from other garrisons had been transferred to Kronstadt. Following the destruction of the fleet by the Japanese in the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-1905, Kronstadt joined the general uprising which swept the demoralised country, and widespread agitation began to manifest itself in September 1905.
Following a call by the Kronstadt Committee of the RSDLP, reacting to the publication of the 'October Manifesto', sailors, soldiers, and workers held an anti-government demonstration in Kronstadt. Further protests would following in the next days, resulting in a spontaneous uprising on November 8th-9th.

[B] 1913 - Jesús Guillén Bertolín aka Guillembert (d. 1999), Spanish anarchist, painter and designer, partner of Sara Berenguer, born.

[F] 1919 - In Turin the Shop Stewards Program, which dictated that their primary purpose was "to set in train in Italy a practical exercise in the realisation of communist society", is adopted. [expand]

[DDD] 1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: Within seven days of the beginning of the strike in Patagonia, Antonio Soto had managed to ferment a revolt across a wide section of the southwestern territory of Santa Cruz. So far, the workers on the Buitreras, Alquinta, Rincon de los Morros, Glencross, La Esperanza and Bella Vista estancias had been pursuaded to join the rural workers movement. This first part was achieved absolutely peacefully: entering the estancias, talking with the peons, requisitioning weapons and provisions, which are documented with Soto's signed receipts, and when owners or managers are present, taking them hostage.
The rebels are organised into 2 large groups, the columna Antonio Soto and the columna José Font, better known as the columna Facón Grande after José Font's nickname. Based at the estancia La Anita in the Punta Alta with a force of around 600 strikers, Soto resolved that while he continued leading the movement in the country, his fellow militants on September 15 on a recruitment and propaganda tour, by car and on horseback, should try to enter Rio Gallegos to replace the strike leaders recently imprisoned there and try and reestablish a foothold in the city. When the 3 anarchists arrive in Rio Gallegos are swiftly arrested and beaten by the police.

1922 - The headquarters of the Italian anarchist newspaper 'Umanità Nova' are ransacked by fascists after Benito Mussolini is announced as prime minister.

1922 - Victor Dave (b. 1845), Belgian anarchist and member of the International, dies. [see: Feb. 25]

1922 - Clément Pansaers (b. 1885), Belgian poet, artist (painting, engraving and sculpture), libertarian, internationalist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: May 1]

1924 - Enrico Baj (d. 2003), Italian anarchist painter, sculptor, writer and activist, best known for his collages of ridiculous-looking generals made from shards of glass, scraps of flowery material and shells, born. He fled Italy in 1944 for Geneva to avoid being enlisted in Mussolini's army. Following the conclusion of the Second World War and after having joined the radical COBRA group in the late 1940s, he founded the Nuclear Art Movement with Sergio Dangelo with the goal of "demolishing all the 'isms' of painting that inevitably lapses into academicism, whatever their origins might be." One of his major works is his 1972 painting 'Funeral Of The Anarchist Pinelli'.

[(CCC)] 1926 - Anteo Zamboni (b. 1911), 15-year old Italian anarchist, who having just attempted to assassinate Benito Mussolini in Bologna by shooting at him during the parade celebrating the March on Rome, is immediately attacked and lynched by nearby squadristi. The man who first detained him and identified him as the would-be assassin was cavalry officer Carlo Alberto Pasolini, father of film director Pier Paolo Pasolini. The event was used as political leverage by the fascist government to abolish liberties and dissolve the remaining opposition parties. The son of a former anarcho-syndicalist (and now fascist) Mammolo Zamboni, his extended family is arrested and his father Mamolo and his aunt Virginia Tabarroni were both sentenced to 30 years in prison after being found guilty of "guilty of complicity in failed premeditated murder". [see: Apr. 11]

## 1935 - David Harvey, British radical geographer and libertarian Marxist social theorist, whose work draws very much on the anarchist tradition, born. "Being a geographer, the traditional radicalism in geography was always anarchist, and the anarchists have a long history, particularly the social anarchists, of being much more interested in environmental and urban issues than the Marxists."

1941 - Herwarth Walden (pseudonym of Georg Lewin; b. 1879), German Expressionist artist and gallery owner, art expert, who was the founder of the radical German Expressionist magazine 'Der Sturm', dies in a Soviet prison in Saratov. [see: Sep. 16]

1944 - Krsta Cicvarić (Крста Цицварић; b. 1879), Serbian journalist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-communist and later an anti-Semite, is shot by Yugoslav Partisans during the night of Oct. 30-31 after being accused of being a collabrationist. [see: Sep. 14]

1955 - François-Henri Jolivet (b. 1875), French worker-poet, anarchist and pacifist songwriter, dies. [see: Aug. 1]

1956 - 1956-os Forradalom [Hungarian Revolution]: Imre Nagy broadcast that Hungary would begin negotiations on Hungary's withdraw from the Warsaw Pact and becoming a neutral state. This was pushing the Russians too far and János Kádár left the government in disgust, establishing a rival government in eastern Hungary which was supported by Soviet tanks. The Soviets had already been told of the Hungarian position the previous day and had decided to intervene in the country again. A 'Pravda' article states that: "The Soviet Government is ready to begin the necessary negotiations with the Government of the Hungarian People's Republic and other Member States of the Warsaw Pact on the question of Soviet troops remaining in Hungary."
The MDP is disbanded and replaced by the Magyar Szocialista Munkáspárt (Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party). Political prisoners also begin to be released from prisons.

1961 - Augustus Edwin John (b. 1878), Welsh Post-Impressionist painter, draughtsman and etcher, dies. [see: Jan. 4]

1966 - Germain Delatousche (b. 1898), French painter and wood engraver, dies. [see: Oct. 27]

1969 - Juana Rouco Buela (d. 1889), Spanish-Argentinian dress maker, autodidact, anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist and anarcha-feminist pioneer, who helped create the Centro Femenino Anarquista (Women’s Anarchist Centre), with Virginia Bolten, Teresa Caporaletti, Marta Newelstein and Maria Collazo, and others, dies. [see: Apr. 19]

[A] 1977 - The Free State of Frestonia declares independence from the UK.

1991 - Nikita Kalin (Никита Калин; d. 2012), Russian student, anarchist and anti-fascist activist, born. Kidnapped by a fascist squadists, his body was found on February 9, 2012 near the Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of the Sciences [FIAN] in Samara. Kalin had 61 stab wounds, several fractured ribs and head injuries. His murder was clearly concealed by the Russian police. A human rights organisation facilitated legal support to his family and Moscow Anarchist Black Cross launched a fundraising campaign to pay for his funeral. A few weeks later, on February 24, an attack on fascists in Kallithea (Attica, Greece) was held in his memory. Finally, Nicholas Zalivako a neo-Nazi was arrested, but the attack was obviously perpetuated by a group, not one person in isolation.

1995 - Nellie Dick (Naomi Ploschansky; d. 1995), Anglo-American anarchist pedagogue, dies. [see: May 15]

[C] 2002 - Bernard Konrad Świerczyński aka 'Aniela' & 'Kondek' (b. 1922), Polish journalist, libertarian and a key figure in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, dies. [see: Aug. 20]
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C] 2016 [D] 2017 [E] 2018 [F]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC] 2016 [DD] 2017 [EE] 2018 [FF]
Monthly features: 2013 [AAA] 2014 [BBB] 2015 [CCC] 2016 [DDD] 2017 [EEE] 2018 [FFF]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)


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