1842 - Afghan guerrillas defeat the British imperial army at Kabul.

1886 - Ethel Carnie Holdsworth (d. 1962), English working class writer, socialist and feminist who started in the mills in Lancashire at the age of 11. Her poetry brought her to the attention of the editor of The Clarion, Robert Blatchford, who helped her to get work as a writer . She wrote poetry, novels and children's stories, edited the 'Woman Worker' as well as the anti-fascist monthly magazine 'The Clear Light' (1920-25), with her husband Alfred. Her 1913 novel, 'Miss Nobody', is widely believed to be the first published novel written by a working-class woman in Britain and another of her novels, 'Helen of Four Gates', was filmed in 1920. She was also national organiser for the anti-fascist organisation the National Union for Combating Fascismo (NUCF), formed in 1924 by E. Burton Dancy.
The composer Ethel Smyth set two of Holdsworth's poems in the song cycle 'Three Songs' (1913). Smyth dedicated 'Possession' to Emmeline Pankhurst and 'On the Road: a marching tune' to Christabel Pankhurst. She also published a series of sonnets in the early 1920s in the anarchist journal 'Freedom', protesting at the imprisonment of anarchists in Soviet jails.
Her works include poetry: 'Rhymes from the Factory' (1907), 'Songs of a Factory Girl' (1911), and 'Voices of Womanhood' (1914); children stories: 'Lazy-Land, And Other Delightful Stories' (1911), 'The Magic Shoe And Other Tales' (1912), and 'The Lamp Girl, and other stories' (1913); and novels: 'Miss Nobody' (1913), 'Helen of Four Gates' (1917), 'The Taming of Nan' (1919), 'The Marriage of Elizabeth' (1920), 'The House that Jill Built' (1920), 'General Belinda' (1924), 'This Slavery' (1925), 'The Quest of the Golden Garter' (1927), 'Eagles' Crag' (1928), 'All On Her Own' (1929), and 'Barbara Dennison' (1929).

[C2] 1888 - Jules Dumont (d. 1943), French Communist militant, who fought in the Spanish Civil War and in the Résistance during WWII, born. He commanded a century in the Commune de Paris Battalion of XIV International Brigade, earning the nickname of 'Colonel Kodak' for his penchant for striking heroic poses during the Civil War when photos were being taken. He was also active in the French Résistance during the war under the nom de guerre of 'Colonel Paul'. Arrested by the Gestapo, he was shot at the Fort du Mont-Valérien, Suresnes, near Paris, on June 15, 1943.

[CC] 1898 - Viktor Ullmann (d. 1944), Silesia-born Austrian-Jewish composer, conductor and pianist, born. On September 8, 1942 he was deported to the Theresienstadt (Terezín) concentration camp. Theresienstadt was something of an anomaly within the Nazi death camp infrastructure. Like other ghettos, it had its own Jewish Council which nominally ran the ghetto, provided their own police force (that reported directly to the SS) and made the selection of people, when required by the German authorities, for transport to the extermination camps. It also provided slave labour for the nearby industry - mica works, making boxes and coffins or uniforms for the Eastern front. And it acted as a transit camp for Treblinka and Auschwitz. However, its most important role was as a part of the Nazi propaganda machine, a "model Jewish settlement" created to try and camouflage what was really taking place in concentration camps across Nazi occupied Europe. To this end, many of the Jews specifically singled out for being sent there were what they termed Jews of "special merit", which included artists, musicians and scholars who were able to continue their creative activities. Amongst those was Ullmann, and it was in Theresienstadt that he wrote his last work, 'Der Kaiser von Atlantis oder Die Tod-Verweigerung' (The Emperor of Atlantis or The Disobedience of Death), a one-act opera or "legend in four scenes" by Viktor Ullmann with a libretto by Peter Kien. Written in 1943 and rehearsed in March 1944, it was due to be premièred that autumn but the SS camp commander, seeing that it was an obvious allegory of the Third Reich with Hitler as the Kaiser von Atlantis, that he banned it. Both Ullmann and Kien were deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau on on October 16, 1944, and Ullman died there in the gas chambers two days later. The opera received its world première in Amsterdam on 16 December, 1975.

[B1] 1919 - Sara Berenguer Laosa (d. 2010), Catalan poet, anarchist and member of Mujeres Libres, is born in Barcelona. Wrote a narrative autobiography 'Entre El Sol y la Tormenta' (Between the Sun and the Storm; 1988). [expand]

1921 - Sarah Goldberg (d. 2003), Belgian Jew, member of the Rote Kappelle (Red Orchestra) anti-Nazi resistance network and founding member of Amnesty International in Belgium, born. In 1936, aged 15, under the influence of her sister Esther and her brother-in-law Marcus Lustbader, she joined the militant communist organised Unité sports club and participated in the solidarity campaigns for the International Brigades in Spain. Following the fall of Belgium, she took refuge in France in St. Ironwood, near Revel in Haute-Garonne, getting a job as a clerk in the local police station. There she copied lists of wanted persons, mostly people who had participated in the Spanish Civil War alongside the Republican forces and who had managed to evade detention in the camps at Gurs and Saint-Cyprien. After returning to Belgium, she joined friends involved in the Jeunes Gardes socialistes unifiés, participating in the distribution of leaflets and underground newspapers. In June 1941, she was contacted by Hermann Izbutski, a former member in the International Brigades' Jewish Botwin Company in Spain, and asked to work illegally under the name 'Lilly' for the Soviet military intelligence network, becoming a radio operator.
Following the arrest of Hermann Izbutski in August 1942, Sarah Goldberg lost contact with the network. Meanwhile, her brother Marcus was arrested and sent to Breendonk , where he was tortured by the Gestapo; he was later deported to Auschwitz and then to Buchenwald and was repatriated in 1945. Her father and step-mother were also deported to Germany (on September 26, 1942) but were killed in the Auschwitz gas chambers 2 days later. A few months later she managed to reconnect with her friends from the Unité group, and Leibke Rabinowiz ('Rosa') contacted Jacob Gutfrajnd ('Albin'), commander of the 1re Compagnie Juive du Corps mobile des Partisans Armés (1st company of the Mobile Jewish Partisan Armed Corps), part of the Front de l'Indépendance (FI), in Brusselles. Given permission to join actions to assassinate traitors, collaborators and German officers, seh was invilved in the death of a Jewish informer, I. Glogowski aka 'Jacques', working for the Gestapo and helped move Jacob Gutfrajnd to Etterbeek hospital on April 26 1943 following his wounding during a Partisans Armés action.
She was arrested on June 4, 1943, together with her ​​fiancé Henri Wajnberg (Jules) and her friend Laja Bryftreger-Rabinowitch, following a denunciation, the day before a major sabotage action against the rail route to Germany. Deported on July 31, 1943, tegether with 'Jules' (killed in a gas chamber on January 25, 1944) to Auschwitz-Birkenau, she ended up wrking for the Schuh-Kommando, surving numerous selections, typhoid, dysentery, boils, scurvy. She also took part in the January 18, 1945, death march to Ravensbrück (arriving on January 22), on February 26 to Malchow, a commando at Ravensbrück and then to Leipzig, finally to be liberated on April 23 on the banks of the Elbe by the Red Army. Back in Belgium, she recovered in the Blankenberge home of the Solidarité organisation, affilated to the Front de l'Indépendance, later working for Aide aux Israélites victimes de la guerre. She would later become one of the first members of the Belgian section of Amnesty International. During the last years of her life, she devoted herself to the Comités de défense des sans-papiers (Committees for the Defence of undocumented migrants) locked up in detention centres and also gave talks in schools on the deportations to Nazi camps.

1924 - The first issue of the magazine 'Pensiero e Volontà' (Thought and Will) appears in Rome. This review of social studies and general culture is managed by Errico Malatesta and appears fortnightly. Its final issue will appear on 10 October 1926.

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: The insurrection planned by the Comité de Defensa Regional de Cataluña for the 8th begins early in a number of locations. In La Felguera, the home of the CNT in Asturias, a number of powerful explosions occur between 7-9 in the evening. Simultaneously, in Sevilla , street riots occur and are assaulted shops and bars. In the town of Real de la Jara rioters set fire to the local church. Looting also occur Lleida and confrontations take place in Pedro Muñoz (Ciudad Real), where trade unionists seize the city, proclaiming libertarian communism.

[C1] 1937 - The Public Order Act (1936): "An Act to prohibit the wearing of uniforms in connection with political objects and the maintenance by private persons of associations of military or similar character; and to make further provision for the preservation of public order on the occasion of public processions and meetings and in public places", comes into force.

1942 - Jean Moulin, the former mayor of Chartes, parachutes into France in an effort to coordinate and unify Résistance groups.

1976 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: The Polícia de Segurança Pública (Public Security Police) intervene close to Custóias prison to disperse a demonstration of solidarity with the November 25 military prisoners, leaving three dead and six wounded.

1962 - Orli Wald (b. 1914), member of the German Resistance in Nazi Germany, who was sentenced to 4.5 years hard labour for high treason and later sent to Ravensbrück concentration camp, where she was held in "protective custody" as a danger to the Third Reich, dies in a psychiatric clinic, having suffered from depressions and later a complete mental breakdown as a result of her wartime experiences. [see: Jul. 1]

1972 - The Commonwealth Immigration Act of 1971 comes into force, severely cutting back on Commonwealth immigrants' entry and settlement rights.

1984 - Augustin Souchy (b. 1892), German anarchist pacifist, dies. [see: Aug. 28]

2000 - Arthur Lehning (b. 1899), Dutch anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-militarist, archivist and historian of the anarchist movement internationally, dies. Co-founded in December 1919, with Rudolf Rocker and Augustin Souchy of FAUD (Freie Arbeiter Union Deutschland). Founder of the IISH (International Institute of Social History). [see: Oct. 23]
1886 - Gaetano Gervasio (d. 1964), Italian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, carpenter, painter and sculptor, born.

1905 - Louis Dorlet (aka Samuel Vergine, Louis Dey, Serge and Louis Dorival; d 1989), militant French individualist anarchist, labour organiser and pacifist, born. Sent to prison in 1925 for desertion. Member of l'Union Anarchiste, organised among the unemployed and founded a consumer co-op. Dorlet wrote for many libertarian publications and was a co-editor of 'Le Libertaire'. Mobilized in 1939, he was captured and sent to a stalag. Released in 1945, he resumed his work with 'Le Libertaire'.

[C1] 1918 - Willi Graf (d. 1943), German medical student and member of the Weiße Rose (White Rose) resistance group in Nazi Germany, born. At the age of eleven, he joined the Bund Neudeutschland, a Catholic youth movement for young men in schools of higher learning, which was banned after Hitler and the Nazis came to power in 1933. In 1934, Graf joined the Grauer Orden (Grey Order), another Catholic movement which became known for its anti-Nazi rhetoric. It too was banned and, unlike many of his future White Rose comrades, refused to associate with the Hitler Youth. After gaining his Abitur (high school qualification), he did 8 months in the Reichsarbeitsdienst (Reich Labour Service; RAD) and then started his medical studies. In 1938, he was arrested along with other members of the Grauer Orden and charged with illegal youth league activities. He was detained for 3 months but the charges were later dismissed as part of a general amnesty declared to celebrate the Anschluss. In early 1940, he was drafted into the army as a medic and witnessed first hand the horrors of the Holocaust and the eastern front.
During a 1942 study leave back in Munich, Graf met White Rose resistance figures Hans and Sophie Scholl and began participating in the distribution of illicit anti-Nazi leaflets and in anti-Nazi and anti-Hitler graffiti campaigns. On February 18, 1943, Willi Graf and his sister Anneliese were arrested and he was condemned to death on April 19, 1943 by the People's Court for high treason, undermining the troops' spirit, and furthering the enemy's cause. Graf was beheaded on October 12, 1943 at Stadelheim Prison in Munich, after six months of solitary confinement and torture by the Gestapo to extract information on White Rose members and other anti-Nazi movements. He yielded no names and claimed all White Rose activities for himself.
Many German schools have been named after him.

[C2] 1920 - Anne-Sofie Østvedt (d. 2009), Norwegian university student active in the anti-Nazi resistance, who was one of the leaders of the Norwegian intelligence organisation XU, born. A 20-year-old chemistry student at the University of Oslo, she wasted no time in becoming involved in the Norwegian resistance, first by writing, editing, and distributing an underground, illegal newspaper and later by formally joining the resistance. In December 1941 XU recruited her, and she later became second in command of the organisation. However, her identity was a strict secret and almost none within the XU knew her except for her cover name 'Aslak', a male name in Norway, leading many to assume she was a man. Even the Gestapo, who began hunting her in the Autumn of 1942, forcing her to live undercover for the rest of the war, thought so.

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: The Guardia Civil in Barcelona discovers a cache of bombs which that attribute to the CNT.

1937 - The first issue of 'Alba Roja' (Red Dawn) appears in Premiá de Mar, Catalonia. Subtitled "Organe du Syndicat Unique des Travailleurs de Premiá de Mar" "Organe du Bureau de Propagande Local de la CNT - FAI - FIJL". Eight issues were published until July 1937.

1937 - In Reus (near Tarragona, Catalonia) the first issue of 'Adelante' (Front), "Paper of the CNT and FAI in Tarragona and Province, Spokesman of Workers in General". This anarcho-syndicalist weekly ceases publication on January 29, 1938 after 52 issues, including a special issue devoted to the first anniversary of the death of Durruti .

[B1] 1946 - Jean-Bernard Pouy, French creator of Gabriel Lecouvreur, a libertarian detective nicknamed 'The Octopus', born. Born into a family of Catalan anarchists, whilst he himself is not an activist, he retains a strong sympathy for anarchists and anarcho-syndicalist militants in particular.

1965 - Bomb explodes in Naples at the Spanish Consulate. The attack is claimed by the Spanish anarchists of the CNT, FAI and Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL) who declare:
"As long as the Iberian people continue to be oppressed by the fascist dictatorship, dynamite will recall that the voice of freedom cannot be choked. Long live anarchy."

1999 - André Arru (Jean-René Saulière; b. 1911), French anarchist and pacifist, underground organiser during WWII, and a member since 1983 of the ADMD (an association for the right to die in dignity), dies. He ended his life, at age 87, refusing to subject himself to the risks and dependency of advancing age and disease. [see: Sep. 6]

2015 - The death of Tanisha Anderson, a 37-year-old black schizophrenic woman who died after being restrained face down on the ground by Cleveland police after her family had requested that they escort her to a hospital to undergo a psychiatric evaluation on November 13, 2014, is ruled a homicide by the Cuyahoga County Medical Examiner's Office.
[C1] 1892 - John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (d. 1973), English writer, poet, and professor, known for his literary works, 'The Hobbit' and 'The Lord of the Rings', born. His anti-Communist views led to his condemnation of the Spanish Republic and his vocal support of the Spanish Nationalist and of Franco during and after the Spanish Civil War. It has been argued that this stemmed purely from his Catholicism but he maintained a twenty year subscription to 'Candour', the paper of A. K. Chesterton's British National Front but he also repudiated Hitler and Nazism and later apartheid. There is also the question of the latent racism in his early work but generally his political views were somewhat confused as can be seen in the following quote from a letter to his son Christopher in 1943: "My political opinions lean more and more to Anarchy (philosophically understood, meaning abolition of control not whiskered men with bombs) - or to 'unconstitutional' Monarchy. I would arrest anybody who uses the word State (in any sense other than the inanimate realm of England and its inhabitants, a thing that has neither power, rights nor mind); and after a chance of recantation, execute them if they remain obstinate!... Government is an abstract noun meaning the art and process of governing and it should be an offence to write it with a capital G or so as to refer to people... The most improper job of any man, even saints, is bossing other men. Not one in a million is fit for it, and least of all those who seek the opportunity."

1899 - Alphonse Sauveur Cannone (d. 1939), French anarchist militant, is born in Oran, Algeria. Took part in the 1919 Mutinerie des Marins de la Mer Noire (Mutiny of the Sailors in the Black Sea), refusing to fight against the Russian revolutionaries during the Allied intervention. Sentenced to 10 years in prison, he escaped, was recaptured and given another five years. Released August 1926, he was active with the international 'Black Group' (Groupe Noir) and a member of the CGT-SR. Cannone fought on the anarchist fronts with the CNT and FAI during the Spanish Revolution of 1936.

1901 - Miguel Chueca Cuartero (d. 1966), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1908 - Higinio Carrocera Mortera (d. 1938), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist who played a prominent role in both the 1934 Asturias uprising and the Civil War, earning the title the hero of Mazucu in the latter, born in a village in the Asturian mining area. He began working in the Sociedad Metalúrgica Duro Felguera rolling mills aged just 13 following the death of his father, using his brother's identity documents as he was too young to legally work there. He also joined the CNT, the majority union amongst metallurgists in La Felguera. During the Jaca Uprising of Decmember 12, 1930 precipitated by the army captains Fermín Galán Rodríguez and Ángel García Hernández, he and other La Felguera militants were involved in an armed class with the Guardia Civil in Sama de Langreo, for which he was imprisoned for the first time. According to his friend Solano Palacios, "From then until his assassination participated in numerous revolutionary strikes in La Felguera, the Nalón basin and the rest of Asturias, frequently suffering persecution and imprisonment."
During a 9-month strike in 1932, he was involved in a number of acts of sabotage on the powe grid and attacks on security forces. In July 1932, a month before the end of the strike, Carrocera was jailed for his part in these actions. At the beginning of the October Revolution of 1934, he actively participated in the attacks on the barracks of the Guardia Civil in La Felguera and Sama, and, as soon as the first armoured trucks bearing the emblems of the FAI, CNT and UHP painted white markings on their sides emerged from the Duro Felguera factory, he led a column of 200 anarcho-syndicalist fighter to Oviedo. Arriving on October 6, he was at the forefront of the fight and his militia group attacked the Carabineros headquarters and took the city's Fábrica de Armas (arms factory), and later halted the advance of government forces. At El Berrón he fought against forces commanded by the then Colonel Solchaga, who he would face again 3 years later in the Battle of Mazucu.
Following the surrender of the insurrectionary forces, he fled into the mountains, like many others, to try and escape the inevitable repression that followed, but not before he and his comrades buried dozens of rifles and several machine guns that he had liberated from the arms factory. These would prove essential in the early stages of the 1936 uprising. After a period in hiding, he travelled to Zaragoza with the intention of going into exile in France but was arrested there on August 7, 1935, along with Constantino Antuña Huerta by Investigación y Vigilancia police. The 'ABC' newspaper announced his capture: "According to sources, Higinio Carrocera acted in Asturias as a revolutionary leader and signed several documents. He is considered a dangerous bomber." Charged with promoting and being a leader of the revolution, he was taken to the prison in Gijón to await judgement.
However, he gained his freedom after he participated in a mutiny of prisoners in the aftermath of the victory on February 16, 1936, of the Popular Front. An amnesty for those convicted of political or social crimes was a key part of its election manifesto and in the days immediately following its win pressure built for it to declare an amnesty date. The government officially decreed the amnesty on the 21st, but Carrocera and his fellow prisoners in Gijón had engineered their release a day earlier. Carrocera returned to La Felguera and spent the following months raising funds to support the families of political prisoners.
With the outbreak of the fascist uprising, he and his CNT comrades were ready. Having dug up their weapons cache, they positioned themselves in a church steeple overlooking the Guardia Civil Barracks in La Felguera and their decisive action prevented the guards from being able to set up defensive positions outside the barracks. They eventually surrendered and, with La Felguera in their hands, Carrocera led a column of 400 centitas to Gijón where they were among the first proletarian reinforcements arrived there. In Gijón they laid siege to the Simancas infantry Barracks for the next month and, following it fall, they immediately set off for the Western Front to try to head off the Galician columns advancing dangerously towards Avilés and Grado. He was in all the heavy fighting that took place in the Malleza area and was injured quite serious in an attack on San Cristobal on the Luiña-Faedo front.
Back in La Felguera, he underwent surgery a number of times and took the opportunity to rebuild his unit, which took the name Battalion Carrocera. The battalion fought on Monte de los Pinos and then at Belmonte, where Carrocera was wounded twice. After 6 months on the front in Belmonte he was given command of a brigade, consisting of four battalions, and a few months later command of the 192 Brigada Móvil del Ejército Popular Asturiano, comprising 3 CNT batallions. All through this period he foungth on the fronts at La Espina, La Cabruñana, Grado and Prania. He also took part in the Battle of El Mazuco, one of the most brutal of the war. On September 1, 1937, more than 33,000 Nationalist troops supported by artillery and airpower, including German aircraft of the Condor Legion, began an advance against hugely outnumber Republican forces. The defenders never exceeded 6,000 troops but they held up the thrust of the Navarre Brigades for 15 days and Higinio Carrocera played a key role.
With the front lines under threat and the Condor Legion carpet-bombing the ridge [the first recorded instance of its use] that the republican occupied, Higinio Carrocera received the order on September 8, 1937, to take command of the troops in the frontline at El Mazuco, replacing José Fernández, the head of the 12th Brigade killed in action while covering with a machine gun withdrawal of his men. Higinio and his men managed to hold the Fascists off for a further week despite running short of ammunition, allowing their comrades to withdraw safely before the Republican leadership, aware that his troops were being massacred, ordered a retreat. On October 3, 1937, he was honoured as a hero for his courage in Battle of Mazucu with the Medalla de la Libertad.
A new Republican defensive line on the Eastern Front was established along the Sella River only to fall back under the Nationalist advance. Higinio Carrocera and his men were in position at the Siege of Oviedo when the Consejo Soberano de Asturias y León (Sovereign Council of Asturias and León) decided to give the evacuation order on October 20, 1937. Carrocera refused to evacuate with the rest of the Council and leave until all his men were safe. Instead he boarded on the steamer Llodio with two hundred other people, one fifth of them women and children, and was one of the last to leave El Musel. Off Cape Peñas the Llodio was intercepted by an Italian warship acting as part of Franco's navy. Having given his captors gave a false name: Vidal Fernández Fernández, he and the other prisoners were moved to Ribadeo and then to La Coruña. In the Romaní concentration camp was identified by some visiting Phlangists and on January 2, 1938, he was handed over to the Guardia Civil for transfer to Oviedo. On January 21, an Emergency Council of War similarily sentenced to death along with thirty-five other men and eight women.
On May 8, shortly before being transferred to the cemetery to be executed, he removed his four gold teeth from his jaws with a spoon in order to get them sent to his mother, still safe in Catalonia. He also hastily wrote a short note in a locket with a picture of her niece Olga containing the date of his death and the text: "I die for freedom". His final words before before he stood in front of the firing squad were: "I die with the greatest peace of mind that in you can have in moments like these, since nothing is on my conscience, other than the condition that my mother and my sisters remain in." Higinio Carrocera was then buried in a mass grave with 260 other anti-fascists.

1921 - Robert Lapoujade (d. 1993), French painter, radical experimental filmmaker, cinematographer, writer and libertarian Marxist, born. Signatory of 'Manifeste des 121', who is best known for his portraits of French literary figures including Jean-Paul Sartre and Andre Breton. Amongst his short films are 'Prison' (1962), 'Trois portraits d'un oiseau qui n'existait pas' (1964) and 'Un Comedien Sans Paradoxe' (1974). [expand]

1924 - Ulyana Mateevna Gromova (Улья́на Матве́евна Гро́мова; d. 1943), Ukrainian leader of the underground Komsomol partisan group the 'Young Guards', born. She took part in military operations, distributed leaflets and agitating the local population against the occupiers. On January 10, 1943, she was arrested by the Gestapo. During her interrogations, she refused to give evidence on the activities of the underground. After her torture, on January 16, 1943, she was executed and thrown into a mine.

1925 - Mussolini puts an end to the parliamentary system and issues a decree ordering the dissolution of the anarcho-syndicalist USI (Unione Sindacala Italiana).

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: Another arsenal of explosives is discovered by the Guardia Civil in a garage in Barcelona: ​​five boxes full of bombs, ready to be sent to various locations; a car bomb and cartridges, and in several rooms, devices, ammunition clips, fuses and 10 carbines.

1937 - The first issue of 'Cultura y Porvenir' (Culture and Future), the weekly paper of the anarchist Libertarian Youth (JJLL) in the Alto Urgel region appears. It was discontinued on May 16, 1937 after 18 issues.

1937 - In Valencia (Spain), the first issue of the newspaper 'L'Indomptable' (The Indomitable), organ of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo and the Federación Anarquista Ibérica, appears. Published weekly in French. At least 39 issues appeared until 7 October 1937. Issue number 19 (13 May 1937) containing an article on the recent murder of Camillo Berneri by the Communists was heavily censored by Republican authorities.

[C2] 1946 - William Joyce aka 'Lord Haw-Haw' (b. 1906), Irish-American fascist politician and Nazi propagandist, is hung in Wandsworth Prison for treason following his English-language Nazi propaganda broadcasts during WWII. Despite his Catholic upbringing, he was a strong Unionist and bragged of aiding the Black and Tans during the Irish War for Independence. A bully, braggart and rabid anti-Semite, he was an early adherent to fascism, working with Rotha Lintorn-Orman's British Fascisti but never joining them. Never shy of using his fists, Joyce became involved in a fracas with an opposing left-wingers at a Conservative Party meeting in October 1924, and received a deep razor slash that ran across his right cheek, leaving a permanent scar (to add to his broken nose picked up fighting during his school days). Joyce was convinced that his assailant was a "Jewish Communist" and the injury made his anti-Semitic stance even more implacable. Disillusioned with the BF's boy scout mentality, he joined the Tory Party in 1925. He later joined the British Union of Fascists (BUF) under Sir Oswald Mosley in 1932, and swiftly became one of its leading speakers. In 1934 he became BUF's director of propaganda and spearheaded the BUF's policy shift from campaigning for economic revival through corporatism to a focus on anti-Semitism. He was also instrumental in changing the name of the BUF to the British Union of Fascists and National Socialists in 1936, and stood as a party candidate in the 1937 elections to the London County Council. In 1937, Mosley sacked Joyce from his paid position, which prompted him to form a breakaway organisation, the National Socialist League. After the departure of Joyce, the BUF turned its focus away from anti-Semitism and towards activism, opposing a war with Nazi Germany.
In late August 1939, shortly before war was declared, Joyce and his wife Margaret fled to Germany after he had been tipped off that the British authorities intended to detain him under Defence Regulation 18B. Joyce became a naturalised German citizen in 1940. It was his fellow Mosleyite, Dorothy Eckersley, that got him his audition at the Rundfunkhaus and was recruited immediately for radio announcements and script writing at German radio's English service.
Joyce recorded his final broadcast on 30 April 1945, during the Battle of Berlin. Rambling and audibly drunk, he chided Britain for pursuing the war beyond mere containment of Germany, and warned repeatedly of the "menace" of the Soviet Union. He signed off with a final defiant "Heil Hitler and farewell". On May 28, 1945, Joyce was captured by British forces at Flensburg, near the German border with Denmark. Tried on three counts of high treason and, despite his American citizenship leading to his being acquitted on 2 of the 3 charges, he was convicted because he illegally obtained a British passport [falsely claiming that he had been born a British subject after joining BUF in 1933, with the expectation that he might accompany Mosley on a visit to Hitler] which entitled him (until it expired) to British diplomatic protection in Germany and therefore he owed allegiance to the king at the time he commenced working for the Germans. It was on this basis that Joyce was convicted of the third charge and sentenced to death on September 19, 1945. His conviction was upheld by the Court of Appeal on November 1, 1945, and by the House of Lords on December 13, 1945.
His unrepentant gallows statement was read out on BBC Radio: "In death as in life, I defy the Jews who caused this last war, and I defy the power of darkness which they represent. I warn the British people against the crushing imperialism of the Soviet Union. May Britain be great once again and the hour of the greatest danger in the West may the standard be raised from the dust, crowned with the words — you have conquered nevertheless. I am proud to die for my ideals and I am sorry for the sons of Britain who have died without knowing why."

1952 - Harriette Vyda Simms Moore (b. 1902), African-American teacher and civil rights worker, dies of the injuries sustained by her following a bomb attack on her and her husband, Harry T. Moore (November 18, 1905 - December 25, 1951), founder of the first branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP) in Brevard County, Florida, on Christmas night, 1951 - their twenty-fifth wedding anniversary. [see: Jun. 19]

1972 - Frans Masereel (b. 1889), Belgian radical woodcut artist, printmaker, illustrator, draughtsman, libertarian, communist, pacifist and Master of the wordless novel, dies, age 82. [see: Jul. 30]

2006 - Urbano Lazzaro aka 'Bill' (b. 1924), Italian communist partisan who played an important role in capturing Benito Mussolini near the end of World War II, dies. [see: Nov. 4]
[C] 1886 - Armand Guerra aka José Silavitse (José Maria Estivalis Cabo; d. 1939), Spanish anarchist, scenario writer, filmmaker, actor, typesetter and member of the young C.N.T., born. In 1913 he created the Paris film co-operative Le Cinéma du Peuple, which made a number of films social nature, including 'La Commune' (1914) and 'The Old Docker'. Guerra was both a producer and actor in these films and used old Communards and anarchists in them. After a 12 year period living in Germany, working on all aspects of the film industry (editor, dubbing director, producer, director, screenwriter, actor), he returned to Spain following the rise of Hitler. There he made his first full-length film during the summer of 1936, before going to the front to fight fascism with a camera. 'Carne de Fieras' (Meat of Wild Animals) was never released, and thought lost forever, until a negative was discovered and released in 1993. He also wrote a diary of his Civil War years entitled 37 'A Través de la Metralla: Escenas Vividas en Los Frentes y en La Retaguardia' (Through Shrapnel. Vivid scenes at the Fronts and in the Rearguard), 1937.
Filmography: 'Un cri dans la jungle' (A cry in the jungle; 1913); 'Les Misères de l'Aiguille' (The miseries of the needle; Dec. 1913), the story of a seamstress who, after the death of her husband, to escape misery, attempts suicide with her ​​baby, staring the rench actress, film director and writer, Musidora (Jeanne Roques) in her first role; 'Le Vieux Docker' (The Old Docker; Feb. 1914); 'La Commune' part 1 (1914); 'Sommernachtstraum' (A Midsummer Night's Dream; 1925), as actor; 'Luis Candelas o El bandido de Madrid' (Luis Candelas or The Bandit of Madrid; 1926); 'Batalla de Damas' (1928); 'Die Geschenkte Loge' (The Gift of the Lodge; 1928), banned by the German censors on the pretext that a gardener busy watering his garden appeared to be urinating; 'El Amor Solfeando' (1930); 'La Alegría que Pasa' (Joy Happens; 1934), playing the part of a clown; 'Carne de Fieras' (Flesh of Beasts; 1936); and 'Estampas Guerreras' Nos. 1&2 (Warrior Prints; 1937), shot with the 'España Libre' Column. [see also: Mar. 10]

[B1] 1896 - André-Aimé-René Masson aka André Masson (d. 1987), French Surrealist painter, sculptor, illustrator, designer, writer and anarchist, born. Masson studied painting in Brussels and then in Paris. He fought in World War I and was severely wounded. He joined the emergent Surrealist group in the mid-1920s after one of his paintings had attracted the attention of André Breton. Masson soon became the foremost practitioner of automatic writing, which, when applied to drawing, was a form of spontaneous composition intended to express impulses and images arising directly from the unconscious. However, Masson rejected Breton's increasingly egotistic and dogmatic political stance, and especially the notion of having to join the PCF if he remained in the Surrealist group, and he left the Breton's circle.
Masson’s paintings and drawings from the late 1920s and the ’30s are turbulent, suggestive renderings of scenes of violence, eroticism, and physical metamorphosis. A natural draftsman, he used sinuous, expressive lines to delineate biomorphic forms that border on the totally abstract. The fascist riots in Paris on February 6, 1934 prompted Masson and his wife-to-be, Rose Maklès, to depart for Spain. They eventually settled in Tossa de Mar, where they immersed themselves in Spanish culture and politics. Masson supported the Republican government's attempts to create educational reforms, redistribute land, and improve living conditions for factory workers and rural labourers. He also joined an anarchist syndicate and designed the flags of the German and British forces in the International Brigades. His art from this period reveals his concern about the rising threat of Franco and Fascism [see: 'The Barcelona Acéphale: Spain and the Politics of Violence in the Work of André Masson' by Robin Greeley]. After Franco staged his 1936 coup, Masson and his family returned to France when civil war broke out in 1936, but the artist remained deeply concerned for the Spanish people. With the German occupation of France in 1939, Masson was in danger of persecution by the Nazis because of his degenerate art and the Surrealists had ties to the Communist Party, and the fact that his wife Rose was Jewish. In 1941, Masson managed to travel to the Caribbean island of Martinique, and from there to enter the United States.
Although Masson never learned English, he used his years in exile to educate Americans about contemporary French art, lecturing and collaborated with other European exiles on conferences and publications. The American critic Clement Greenberg believed that Masson's visit to America and his exhibitions played a pivotal role in the development of Abstract Expressionism in New York.
With the end of the war in 1945, Masson returned to his native France. He developed an interest in Japanese and Chinese calligraphy (as well as the Impressionist paintings of Monet and the Romantic landscapes of J. M. W. Turner) and was also drawn to the philosophy of Zen Buddhism.
"Painful contradictions are sometimes the source of the greatest riches".

[CCC] 1903 - Johann Georg Elser (d. 1945), German carpenter, communist sympathiser and member of the Roten Frontkämpferbund (Red Front Fighters' Union), who singlehandedly tried to assassinate Adolf Hitler and other high-ranking Nazi leaders, on November 8, 1939 - the anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch - at the Bürgerbräukeller in Munich via a homemade bomb, born. He was captured and interrogated but never tried for the act. Instead he was kept in special custody (known as special security prisoner 'Eller') in Sachsenhausen concentration camp between early 1941 and early 1945. He was then transferred to the bunker at Dachau concentration camp where, on 9 April 1945, four weeks before the end of the war in Europe, Georg Elser was shot dead and his fully dressed body immediately burned in the crematorium. [expand]

1915 - Adolf Opálka (d. 1942), Czech soldier and resistance fighter, one of a team of Czechoslovak British-trained paratroopers who took part in Operation Anthropoid, the assassination of acting Reichsprotektor (Reich-Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia, SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, on May 27, 1942, born.

1917 - Léo Voline (Léo Eichenbaum; d. 2002), third child of anarchist poet, historian and Russian refugee, Voline (Vsevolod Eichenbaum), born. In 1937, Léo, a committed anarchist, went to Spain to fight in one of the military columns of the C.N.T.. In February 1938, his unit was encircled and decimated by the fascists but Léo survived.

1918 - José Expósito Leiva (b. 1918), Andalusian journalist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, born. During the Civil War, he joined the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL), becoming secretary of the propganda committee in 1938 and editor of 'Juventud Libre'. In 1938 he published a lecture on Buenaventura Durruti in the collective book 'Hora Durruti. Conferencias pronunciadas ante el micrófono de Unión Radio'. At the end of the conflict, he was arrested at the port of Alicante and imprisoned in the fortress of Santa Bàrbara. Sentenced to death on 24 February 1940 before a court martial in Madrid, the penalty was commuted to 30 years in prison in the October of that year because of his youth. In September 1943, he was released on parole and joined the clandestine struggle with the CNT and the Aliança Nacional de Forces Democràtiques (National Alliance of Democratic Forces; ANFD). Secretary General of the Ninth National Committee of the CNT between May and July 1945, after the arrest of his predecessor Sigfredo Catalá Tineo.
Then he went to occupied France and then to Mexico on behalf of the CNT, where he was given the portfolio of the Minister of Agriculture in José Giral Pereira's first (August 1945 - March 1946) and second (April 1946 - January 1947) governments of the Second Republic in exile in Mexico, which drove a wedge between anarchist militants and the collaborationist wings of the CNT/MLE. He also signed a declaration of support for the call for a plebiscite in Spain and one in 1948 in favour of turning the MLE into a political party. In 1949 he settled in Venezuela, where he remained on the margins of the CNT.

1943 - Częstochowa Ghetto Uprising: During the 'selection' in the 'Large Ghetto', established by the Germans in April 1941, of some 500 Jews to be deported to the ghetto in Radomsko (and ultimately to Treblinka), shooting breaks out at the Warsaw Square (Ghetto Heroes Square) in which Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Fighting Organisation) fighters Izsha Fayner and Mendel Fishelevitsh are killed. 25 (or 50) young Jews are executed in reprisal.

1944 - Henri 'Hans' Herman Flu (b. 1912), Dutch Indonesian family doctor and antifascist, is shot by the Nazis.

1944 - Kaj Munk (Kaj Harald Leininger Petersen; 1898), Danish Lutheran pastor and anti-fascist playwright, is taken from his home by the Gestapo and shot on the road to Silkeborg.

1945 - In Raguse, Sicily, Maria Occhipinti, lies down in front of army trucks which come to find new young conscripts to incorporate into the new Italian army. Within minutes, a crowd surrounds the soldiers, forcing them to release their recruits, but they also kill a demonstrator, setting off a major revolt.

1948 - Oriol Solé Sugranyes (d. 1976), Spanish libertarian, member of the MIL (Iberian Liberation Movement) who practised expropriation policies (bank robberies) along with Salvador Puig Antich , Jean-Marc Rouillan, etc., under the dictatorship in 70s Spain, born. On 24 July 1974, he was condemned by Franco's council of war to 48 years in prison. Incarcerated in Segovia prison, he escaped with thirty members of ETA on April 6, 1976 but was shot a few hours later by the Guardia Civil as he tried to cross the Franco-Spanish border.

1960 - Albert Camus (b. 1913) killed at age 46, in an automobile accident near Sens. [see: Nov. 7]

1960 - In the early hours of the morning, Spanish guérilla Francisco Sabaté is wounded as his anarchist action group is trapped in a shoot-out with the Guardia Civil at Sarria de Ter, a town near Girona in Catalonia. Antonio Miracle Guitart, Rogelio Madrigal Torres, Francisco Conesa Alcaráz and Martin Ruiz Montoya die in the exchange. Sabaté is the sole survivor but is killed the following day.

1975 - Carlo Levi (b. 1902), Italian-Jewish painter, writer, activist, anti-fascist and doctor, dies. [see: Nov. 29]

1976 - A wave of wildcat strikes, which at its height involves more than 500,000 workers, begins in Spain.

2007 - Carles Fontserè (b. 1916), one of the important Catalan anarchist poster artists of the Spanish Revolution, dies. Active in the Sindicato de Dibujantes Profesionales de Barcelona (Union of Professional Illustrators; SPD), whose posters plastered the walls of Barcelona - as George Orwell noted on his arrival in the city that December: "The revolutionary posters were everywhere, flaming from the walls in clean reds and blues that made the few remaining advertisements look like daubs of mud." Fontserè was to bemoan the loss of vitality of these posters once they became 'official' productions of the Republic. The F.A.I. poster 'Llibertat!' (Freedom), with the sickle-waving farmer and the red and black flag in the background, is his work. [see: Mar. 9]
1895 - French Captain Alfred Dreyfus, convicted of treason, publicly stripped of his rank.

1898 - Federico García Lorca (d. 1936) born. [expand]

1912 - Jacques Ellul (d. 1994), French philosopher, law professor, sociologist, lay theologian, and Christian anarchist, born.

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: More bombs go off in La Felguera and Gijón , and the strikes in Valencia amongst typographers, metallurgical and employees of the Electra company worsen.

1937 - Poss. date for the formation of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade composed of American volunteers to fight against the Fascist forces in the Spanish Civil War.

1942 - Tina Modotti (Assunta Adelaide Luigia Modotti Mondini; b. 1896), Italian photographer, model, actress and revolutionary political activist, dies. [see: Aug. 16]

1945 - The first issue of the magazine 'Tiempos Nuevos', a publication of Spanish anarchist exiles in France, appears in Toulouse.

[C] 1945 - Róża Robota [or Rojza, Rozia, Rosa](Shohanah Robota; b. 1921), Ala Gertner [Alla, Alina, Ella, Ela](b. 1912), Regina Safirsztajn [sometimes given as Safir, Safirstein, or Saphirstein (b. 1915), and Estera Wajcblum (Estusia Wajcblum; b. 1924), members of the Jewish resistance movement in Auschwitz-Birkenau, are hung for their part in the Sonderkommando prisoner revolt of October 7, 1944, which saw the blowing up of Crematorium IV and uprisings and escape attempts in the other crematoria.
One of the roles of the Birkenau camp was to provide labour for the nearby Weichsel - Union Metallwerke ammunition factory and resistance members amongst the Sonderkommando, knowing that at some point they and their successors would be liquidated, began planning a mass uprising. One element of this entailed the long-term smuggling of small amounts of gunpowder out from the factory into the camp in order to make improvised grenades. Amongst those involved the smuggling operation were:

· Ester Wajcblum, who had previously been deported to Majdanek with her sister Hanka and their parents, Jakub and Rebeka, both deaf-mutes and who were murdered on arrival there, before arriving in Birkenau;
· Hanka Wajcblum [also refered as Hana Wajcblum or Chana Weissman, and who later became Anna Heilman](1928-2011), one of the few involved in the Sonderkommando uprising to survive the War;
· Ala Gertner, who was deported to the Geppersdorf labour camp in 1940 before being allowed back to the Sosnowiec Ghetto the following year, spending time in the Będzin ghetto before being sent to Birkenau in mid-1943;
· Regina Safirsztajn, the forewoman of the Gunpowder Room, who was recruited by her friend Ala Gertner to join the resistance movement, and about whom little is known; and
· Róża Robota, a member of Hashomer Hatzair Zionist-socialist youth movement, who joined that movement's underground upon the Nazi occupation but was arrested in 1942 and deported to the Birkenau women's camp. Róża worked in the clothing depot at Birkenau and helped get the gunpowder smuggled out of the factory by the women working there into the camp itself, passing it on the the resistance network established in the various parts of Auschwitz-Birkenau.
· Also involved in the smuggling operation were Hadassah Zlotnicka, Inge Frank, Genia Fischer, Marta Bindiger, Ruzia Grunapfel, and several other unnamed women.

Following the uprising and the destruction of Crematorium IV, an investigation into where the gunpowder had come from after a couple of weeks led back to the ammunition factory. Regina Safirsztajn, as the forewoman was arrested first, followed by all those from the gunpowder room. All were interrogated and tortured by the Gestapo in the infamous Bloc 23. Eventually Regina, Ala, Ester, and Róza were betrayed. They were tortured again and repeatedly raped but refused to reveal the names of others who participated in the smuggling operation. Ester Wajcblum and Regina Safirsztajn were hanged at the morning roll-call assembly and Ala Gertner and Róża Robota in the evening - in front of the rest of the camp prisoners just two weeks before the camp was evacuated.

1945 - Róża Robota [or Rojza, Rozia, Rosa](Shohanah Robota; b. 1921), Jewish participant in the resistance movement in Auschwitz-Birkenau, is hung along with 3 other women for their part in the Sonderkommando prisoner revolt of October 7, 1944. A member of Hashomer Hatzair Zionist-socialist youth movement, she joined that movement's underground upon the Nazi occupation and was arrested in 1942 and deported to the Birkenau women's camp. The camp also served as an ammunition factory and Róża, who worked in the clothing depot at Birkenau, helped get the gunpowder smuggled out of the factory by the women working there into the camp itself, passing it on the the resistance network established in the various parts of Auschwitz-Birkenau. Following the uprising and the destruction of Crematorium IV, Róża was arrested, along with Ala Gertner, Regina Saperstein [Regina Safirsztajn] and Estera Wajcblum [Estusia Wajcblum]. All four were tortured and repeatedly raped but refused to give up any information.

[A1] 1960 - Anarchist guérilla Francisco Sabaté (b. 1915), dies after a shoot-out with fascist Guardia Civil. Wounded yesterday, he escaped, but is killed today in San Celoni by a sometén (Catalan militia). [see: Mar. 30]

1990 - Lola Iturbe (Dolores Iturbe Arizcuren; b. 1902), Catalonian militant anarcho-syndicalist and member of Mujeres Libres, who wrote under the pseudonym Kyralina, in tribute to the famous novel by Panaït Istrati dies. [see: Aug. 1]

2006 - José Iglesias Paz (b. 1916), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, dies. [see: Aug. 26]

2015 - Thousands of Germans demonstrate in German cities, including Berlin, Stuttgart, Cologne and Dresden, in opposition to the weekly Pediga rallies in Dresden. In Cologne the square around the cathedral is plunged into darkness as thousands join the demonstration. Only about 250 Pegida supporters show up in Cologne, as compared to about 10 times that number of counter-demonstrators. Similarly in Berlin, around 5,000 counter-demonstrators block about 300 'Bärgida' supporters from marching along their planned route from the city hall to the Brandenburg Gate. Münich - 60 'Mügida' vs. 1500 counter-demonstrators; Würzburg - 300 'Pegida' vs. 1500 counter-demonstrators; Kassel - 200 Pegida vs. 250 counter-demonstrators. Another 28,000 anti-Pegida demonstrators rally in Stuttgart, Münster, Marburg, Weinheim, Rostock and Hamburg.
Pegida’s main demonstration in the eastern city of Dresden, a region that has few immigrants or Muslims, attracts 10,000 [press] - 18,000 [police], up from the 10,000-17,500 on 22-12-2014.
[C] 1920 - Josep (José) Lluis i Facerias aka 'Face' or 'Petronio' (d. 1957), Spanish anarchist who fought in the Civil War and guérilla resistance to Franco, born. A member of the Sindicat de la Fusta (Woodworkers Union) in the Confederació Nacional del Treball (CNT) and militant in the Joventuts Llibertàries de Catalunya (JLC/Libertarian Youth of Catalonia)[then a separate organisation from the Federació Ibèrica de Joventuts Llibertàries (FIJL)], when the Civil War broke out he enlisted in the Ascaso Column, a militia division formed by anarchists and which later became the 28th Division of the Army. He fought the whole war on the Aragon front until his captured in 1939 during the Retirada, the withdrawal from Catalonia. He also lost his partner and infant daughter, killed as they fled to France along with thousands of other refugees. He then spent the following years in various concentration camps and forced labour battalions in Zaragoza, Vitoria, Extremadura and Catalonia, until his release in late 1945. In Barcelona he immediately joined the Sindicat d'Indústries Gràfiques in the then clandestine CNT, whilst working as a waiter and cashier in a restaurant. He also engaged in other aspects of the underground anti-Franco resistance - robbing banks, factories, companies and jewellers to finance clandestine activities [eight robberies performed with his group in 1946 raised 3,000,000 pesetas for the CNT], and carrying out a series of acts of sabotage, including the shooting-up of the police station in Gracia Travessera de Dalt, destroying CAMPSA (the state-owned petroleum products company of Spain) storage tanks, and bomb blasts at the consulates of pro-Franco regime states (Bolivia, Brazil, Peru) - becoming one of the most active participants in actions and JLC activities.
At the Las Planas plenum of the FIJL in July 1946, he was appointed secretary of defence of the Regional Committee of Catalonia and the Balearics of the FIJL and also assumed the secretariat of the new underground organisation Movimiento Ibérico de Resistencia (MIR/Iberian Resistance Movement).
However, on August 17, 1946, Face was arrested along with most of the Regional Committee and other CNT activists. A total of 39 comrades ended up in prison. Upon his release from Barcelona's Modelo prison in June 1947, he became secretary of the Movimiento Libertario de Resistencia (MLR/Libertarian Movement of Resistance), participating in the Congress of the Movimiento Libertario en el Exilio (MLE/Libertarian Movement in Exile) in Toulouse. Intended to be the armed wing of Spanish anarcho-syndicalism, it was short-lived and was dissolved in February 1948.
However, he remained convinced that armed appropriations were still the best method of getting the money needed to support anarchist militant prisoners and their families, and he formed the Facerías maquis group. Its first action was the robbery of the Hispano-Olivetti factory in Barcelona and the group went on to conducted numerous expropriations, famously on 2 luxury brothels [the Pedralbes and La Casita Blanca] frequented by the Catalan bourgeoisie in August 1949 [returning to both in 1951 to rob them again], and sabotage actions, such as the burning of 20 vehicles at the bus garage of la Ronda de San Antonio and the attack on the police station in Gracia in August 1948. In May 1949 he participated in the bombing campaign organised by Francesc Sabaté Llopart, aka 'El Quico', and in March of that year in the attempt to assassinate the commissioner of the Brigada Político de Barcelona, Eduardo Quintela Bóveda. On August 26, 1949, he managed to escape a Guardia Civil ambush in the Pyrenees unharmed, but two of his companions were killed and one was seriously injured. On April 1, 1950, during the Fiesta de la Victoria commemorating Franco's victory, he placed a powerful bomb underneath a grandstand on the Paseo de Gracia whilst distributing thousands of anti-Franco leaflets throughout the city in a stolen car.
1950 also saw the beginning of deterioration in his relationship with the exiled CNT leadership as they became increasingly opposed to the armed struggle. At the same time, the maquis groups were suffering significant losses, including that of Facerías, who lost his best friend and comrade Guillermo Ganuza Navarro amongst others. On October 26, 1951, Face managed to escape from yet another ambush, killing one policeman and wounding nine. With the exiled CNT leadership's hostility to the armed struggle (which they eventually abandoning all together in 1953), even France was becoming a hostile environment for Face. Under the threat of arrest there (with potential deportation to Spain and certain death) and a lack of support from the so-called anarchist leadership, in June 1952 he travelled to Italy under the name of Alberto di Luigi. There he helped form the Grupos Anarquistas de Acción Proletaria (GAAP/Anarchist Proletarian Action Groups) and tried to restructure the Italian JL groups. He also carried out a series of expropriations with Jesus del Olmo Sáez aka 'Malatesta' to try and fund a series of international anarchist camping events.
Back in France, he contacted Sabaté in 1956 with the aim of carrying out join actions, but a series of disagreements put an end to the collaboration. Deciding to return to Barcelona, Face together with Luis Agustín Vicente aka 'El Metralla' (Shrapnel), a Murcian anarchist with whom he had worked in Italy, and the Italian anarchist Goliardo Fiaschi, in order to execute the traitor Aniceto Linnet Manzanero. Having managed to cross the border into Spain disguised as hikers despite the intense police activity, they split up aiming to meet-up in Barcelona. In the meantime, unknown to Facerías both El Metralla and Fiaschi had been arrested and, at a pre-planned rendezvous in the Saint Andreu district on Friday August 30, 1957 at 10:45 am, Face was ambushed by police hidden in nearby windows and on roofs at the confluence of the carrers Dr. Urrutia and Pi i Molist. Shot several times including in the leg breaking his ankle, he threw himself over a nearby barrier into a trench, falling twelve feet (4m). He then produced a hand-grenade from his pocket, but was fatally shot before he could pull the pin. Shot nine times, he died aged just 37. His death passed unnoted by the exiled libertarian press except for 'Atalaya', which remained critical of the CNT's stance on armed struggle. Face's death left the 'El Quico' Sabaté and Ramon Vila Capdevila 'Caraquemada' (Burnt-face) groups as the only active maquis guerrilla organisations left in Catalonia.

1937 - Poss. date for the formation of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade composed of American volunteers to fight against the Fascist forces in the Spanish Civil War.

1977 - William Victor 'Bill' Gropper (b. 1897), U.S. cartoonist, Social Realist painter associated with the Ash-Can Group, lithographer, muralist, left (libertarian) communist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Dec. 3]

2006 - C. J. Sansom's detective novel 'Winter in Madrid', is first published. Set in 1940 in the aftermath of Franco's victory, the novel describes Madrid under the yoke of political repression, food shortages, poverty, corruption, sadism and ignorance (religious and political), and puts the defeat of the Republic fully at the feet of the Communists.
1873 - Charles Péguy (d. 1914), French poet, playwright, essayist, editor, libertarian socialist and anti-clericalist, born. Strongly inspired by the anarchism of Jean Grave and, outraged at the anti-Semitism being displayed in the Dreyfus case, became an ardent Dreyfusard. His early political tracts were published in 'La Revue Socialiste' and 'La Revue Blanche', but he gradually moved towards mainstream socialist thought, nationalism and even Catholicism.

1884 - Arturo M. Giovannitti (d. 1959), Italian-American IWW activist, anarchist socialist, anti-fascist agitator and poet, born. He was involved in the IWW's organisation of the 1912 Lawrence 'Bread and Roses' textile strike (also known as the 'Strike for Three Loaves'), alongside Joseph Ettor, during which a woman striker named Anna LoPizzo, was killed as police broke up a picket line. Joseph Caruso, a striker, was charged with her murder (even though the fatal shot was fired by the police). Giovannitti and Ettor, who were not present, were later arrested and charged as accessories to murder as part of the authorities' attempts to break the union.

"A man may lose his soul for just one day
Of splendor and be still accounted wise,
Or he may waste his life in a disguise
Like kings and priests and jesters, and still may

Be saved and held a hero if the play
Is all he knew. But what of him who tries
With truth and fails and then wins fame with lies?
How shall he know what history will say?

By this: No man is great who does not find
A poet who will hail him as he is
With an almighty song that will unbind

Through his exploits eternal silences.
Duce, where is your bard? In all mankind
The only poem you inspired is this. "

- 'To Mussolini'


1900 - Ludovic Massé (d. 1982), Catalan proletarian writer, novelist and libertarian, born. Author of 'Le Refus' (1946), in praise of pacifism, and numerous other novels.

[AA] 1919 - The beginning of 'Bloody Week' (also known as the 'Tragic Week') in Argentina when, in response to a police ambush on workers, the anarchist inspired Argentine Regional Workers' Federation called a General Strike. Rightist agitators and the police fought anarchist and communists (as well as attacking exiled Russian Jews), precipitating the declaration of martial law. Hundreds of workers were killed and injured in the fighting (estimates range between 100-700 killed and 400-2,000 injured). The police lost 3 dead and 78 wounded.

[A] 1920 - Albert Meltzer (d. 1996), militant anarchist, boxer, bit-part actor, historian, author and publisher, born in Tottenham, London.

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: CNT militants manage to escape from the Modelo prison in Barcelona through a tunnel dug into the city's sewers, a prelude to the insurrectionary strike that was to break out across Spain the following day. [see: Jan. 8]

[C] 1944 - Johannes Adrianus Jozef 'Jan' Verleun (b. 1919), Dutch resistance fighter and member of the CS-6 group, who had shot and killed Dutch General and Rijkscommissaris, Hendrik Seyffardt, head of the Dutch SS volunteer group Vrijwilligers Legioen Nederland, is executed on the Waalsdorpervlakte in The Hague. One of the last of the Dutch resistance group CS-6 still at large, he had been arrested on November 4, 1943.

1945 - Halfdan Jønsson (b. 1891), Norwegian trade unionist, vice chair of the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions and resistance member, dies in the Dachau concentration camp. [see: May 15]

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: General Jacques Massu, commander of the 10e Division Parachutiste (10e DP; 10th Parachute Division) is given granted full responsibility for the maintenance of order in Algiers by the Governor-General Robert Lacoste as the Algiers police force has proved incapable of dealing with the FLN and controlling the Pied-noirs.
Massu is to control not only the 4 regiments of the 10e DP, but also the police Urbaine et Judiciaire (Urban and Judicial police); the DST (Direction de la surveillance du territoire, the Interior Ministry intelligence service); the SDECEE (Service de Documentation Extérieure et de Contre-Espionnagecons-Intelligence Service), France's external intteligence service, and its armed wing; the GRE (Groupe de Renseignements et d'Exploitation [Information and Exploitation Group] counter-intelligence service); the SDECEE's special Algerian department), the 11e Choc (3200 11th 'Shock' Regiment paratroopers); the 9e Régiment de Zouaves (Army of Africa infrantry), based in the Casbah; 350 men of the 5e Régiment de Chasseurs d'Afrique (5th Regiment of African Hunters) cavalry, 400 men of the 25e Régiment de Dragons; 650 men of the 650 Intervention et de Reconnaissance (Reconnaissance and Response) troops; plus 1,100 police officers, 55 gendarmes, 920 CRS and around 1500 men of the Unités Territoriales (UT), mainly composed of pied-noirs ultras.
They set about 'pacifying' the city, laying seige to the Casbah, which is surrounded with barbed wire; through the liberal use of mass arrests, searches and 'disappearences'; torture including the infamous Gégène electrical generator and waterboarding; and assasinations and the 'suiciding' of detainees - many summary executions were carried out via 'corvées de bois' (roughly 'wood duty' or 'fetching wood'), prisoners forced to dig their own graves before being shot or thrown into the sea from an helicopter, the 'crevettes Bigeard' (Bigeard shrimps). The Battle would continue until the following October and the capture of Yacef Saâdi, aka 'Si Djaâfa' or 'Réda Lee', head of the FLN in the Autonomous Zone of Algiers [Zone autonome d'Alger] and of the bombs network (réseau bombes) and the death of Ali la Pointe, Yacef Saâdi deputy.
www.histoire-en-questions.fr/guerre algerie/alger-premiere-arrivee de massu.html
www.histoire-en-questions.fr/guerre algerie/alger-premiere-interrogatoires.html

1994 - Leah Feldman, aka the Makhnovist Granny, (b. ca. 1899), anarchist, member of the Makhno's Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army and smuggler of arms into fascist Spain, is cremated in East London.
1898 - Tudor Vianu (d. 1964), Romanian literary critic, art critic, poet, philosopher, academic, and translator, known for his left-wing and anti-fascist convictions, born. Throughout the interwar period, Vianu was an adversary of the fascist Iron Guard, and was regularly a target of attacks in the right-wing press especially in 'Cuvântul', the newspaper of the fascist philosopher Nae Ionescu. Amongst his works are 'Dualismul Artei' (The Dualism of Art; 1925); 'Poezia lui Eminescu' (The Poetry of Eminescu; 1930); 'Arta şi Frumosul' (Art and Beauty; 1932); 'Idealul Clasic al Omului' (The Classic Idea of Man; 1934); 'Estetica' (Aesthetics), a work in two volumes, 1934 & 1936; 'Filosofie şi Poezie' (Philosophy and Poetry; 1937); 'Istorism și Naționalism' (Historicism and Nationalism; 1938); 'Introducere in Teoria Valorilor: : intemeiata pe observatia constiintei' (Introduction to the Theory of Values: founded on the observation of consciousness; 1942); 'Introducere in Teoria Valorilor' (Introduction to the Theory of Values;1942); 'Istoria Literaturii Române Moderne' (The History of Modern Romanian Literature; 1944), with Serban Cioculescu and Vladimir Streinu; and 'Dicţionar de Maxime (Comentat)' (Dictionary of Maxims (Annotated); 1962); etc.

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: The date chosen by the Comité de Defensa Regional de Cataluña (Regional Defence Committee of Catalonia), based upon an idea proposed by Joan Garcia Oliver, for an insurrectionary general stike in Catalonia. [see: Dec. 1]
The insurrection did not have a very wide following. The Army and Civil Guard took strategic positions in places where disorders and union leaders were detained were expected. In some neighborhoods of Barcelona there were clashes between anarchists and law enforcement. There were strikes, explosives incidents and proclamations of libertarian communism in some locations such as Aragón, Robres, Bellver de Cinca, the Comunidad Valenciana, Bugarra, Ribarroja, Bétera, Benaguacil, Utiel and Pedralba. In the latter town a guardia civil and a guardia de asalto (assault guard) were killed during the insurrection; when the Guardia Civil restored order it killed ten civilians.
The National Committee of CNT, which had not called the strike, said on January 10th that the insurrection had been "de pura significancia anarquista sin que para nada haya intervenido en ellos el organismo federal" (purely anarchist, without significance [and] that they, the federal agency, had not participated), although they or their confederal paper 'Solidaridad Obrera' [12/01/33] did not condemned it "con un deber de solidaridad y de conciencia" (out of a duty of solidarity and conscience). But that it was not the revolution that will "con garantías... a la luz del día" (guarantee... the light of day).
On January 9, the official journal of the CNT in Madrid published an editorial 'Esta revolución no es la nuestra' (that is not our revolution), followed up two days later with the claim "Ni vencidos ni humillados" (Neither loser nor humiliated), and blamed the uprising on "la política represiva… sectaria de los socialistas que detentan el poder y usan de él contra los intereses de los trabajadores" (the repressive sectarian politics ... the socialists who use power against the interests of the workers.) The riots "existen y aumentarán por razones de injusticia bien patentes" (exist and flourish because of patent injustice). Therefore, "vencida una insurrección surge otra, resuelta una huelga, otra se produce; apaciguado un motín, estalla otro mayor" (defeat one insurrection another pops up, settle a strike, another occurs; pacify a riot another major one breaks out.)
At the end of the insurrection, 9,000 CNT members have been jailed.

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: During the evening anarcho-syndicalist groups tried to approach the Carabanchel, Cuatro Vientos, de la Montaña and de María Cristina barracks in Madrid but are driven back.
Large explosions in Levante and in less than 2 hours during Sunday night more than 20 explosions are heard in Valencia, where the police prevented the burning of churches. There is unrest in many towns in the Valencia province, including Ribarroja , Bétera , Benaguacil and Utiel. In Gestalgar several bombs explode. In Bugarra after heavy fighting with the police, which leaves five guardia civil and guardia de asalto dead, the anarchists take the town and proclaim libertarian communism. Bloody fighting also takes place in Gandia, Tabernes de Valldigna and Pedralba. In Catalonia serious clashes occur in Sardañola, Tarrasa, Ripollet and Sallent. In Lérida an assault attempt is made on the barracks of the 25th Infantry Brigade, leaving one sergeant dead and seven sergeants and corporals injuried. Five attackers are killed.
In Barcelona attacks take place on the Cuartel de Atarazanas, calle de Arco de Teatro, the calle Castaños and at the Mercado de San José. At 20:05 an attack was launched on the San Agustín barracks of the regimiento de Infantería nº 10, setting off a bomb and commandeering a tram to use as a barricade in front of the barracks from which to fire from. At 21:00, two bombs explode in the basement of the police, wounding a guardia civil and two police drivers.
The turmoil also spreads to Zaragoza, Murcia, Oviedo and other provinces, reaching its greatest resonance in Andalucía, where numerous strikes break out. In Seville cars and trams are set on fire, and the police are shot at several time. In La Rinconada libertarian communism is proclaimed.

[C] 1934 - The Daily Mail, at the behest of its owner the media baron Lord Rothermere, enthusiastically backs Oswald Mosley with the infamous headline "Hurrah for the Blackshirts".

1948 - Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters (b. 1887), German dadaist artist, whose unique collage work and sound poetry he labelled Merz, dies. [see: Jun. 20]

[B] 1996 - Carmen Conde Abellán aka Florentina (b. 1907), Spanish teacher, narrative writer, poet, children's author, militant anarcha-feminist and Mujeres Libres member, dies. [see: Aug. 15]

2012 - Gunnar Dyrberg (b. 1921), member of the Danish resistance movement during World War II, leading the Holger Danske, a Danish resistance group in the capital Copenhagen (1943-45), dies. [see: Nov. 12]
[C] 1890 - Karel Čapek (d. 1938), Czech playwright, writer, translator, journalist, photographer, philosopher and staunch anti-fascist, who is probably best known for his science fiction, especially his 1920 play 'R.U.R.' (Rossum's Universal Robots) which introduced the word robot, born. Many of his latter works, written just before the entry of Hitler into Czechoslovakia, deal with the rise of dictatorship and the terrible consequences of war. These include his anti-fascist novel 'War with the Newts' (Válka s Mloky; 1936), 'The White Scourge' [or 'The White Plague'] (Bílá Nemoc; 1937) and 'The Mother' (Matka; 1938). One of his later poems, 'Až my budem v tmavém hrobě spáti' (When we go to lie down in a dark grave), deals with the fascist bombing of Badajoz during the Spanish Civil War.

1890 - Kurt Tucholsky (d. 1935), German-Jewish pacifist, non-aligned socialist, journalist, satirist and writer, born. He also wrote under the pseudonyms Kaspar Hauser, Peter Panter, Theobald Tiger and Ignaz Wrobel. A member of the Gruppe Revolutionarer Pazifisten (Revolutionary Pacifist Group) alongside Ernst Friedrich, Walter Mehring and Ernst Toller. His books, which included 'Deutschland, Deutschland Über Alles' (1929), a strident piece of social criticism with illustrations by John Heartfield, were listed on the Nazi's censorship as Entartete Kunst and burned, and he lost his German citizenship.

1895 - Robert Proix (d. 1978), French socialist, anarchist and pacifist, born in Jean-Baptiste André Godin's Familistère de Guise, a industrial workers community based on the principles of Fourier. A friend of André Prudhommeaux and Albert Camus, who wrote for the libertarian review, 'Témoins' (Witness), that Proix edited. Proix also edited 'Albert Camus, ses Amis du Livre' (1962) [published in english as 'Albert Camus and the Men of the Stone' (1971)], a book of remembrances of Camus by members of the printing trade that knew him. He also worked on the newspapers 'Liberté', 'Union Pacifiste' and 'Monde Libertaire' and supported Louis Lecoin's conscientious objector / antiwar activities. During WWII, he was interned in the Fort du Hâ in Bordeaux for helping Jews escape persecution.

1904 - First issue in Berlin of 'Der Freie Arbeiter'.

1908 - Simone de Beauvoir (d. 1986) born. [expand]

[CC] 1915 - William Herrick (born William Horvitz; d. 2004), US author of the classic Spanish Civil War novel 'Hermanos!' (1969), which depicts the Communist Party's machinations during the Spanish Revolution through the eyes of various International Brigade members and CP apparatchiks, born. Born into a Jewish communist family, he too joined the Party, whose ideology he was later to characterise as "a kind of brainwashing, . . . a religion. The world's worst." In the '30s Depression he spent time in an anarchist utopian community in Michigan, later drifting across the country "on the bum" joining picket lines and protests wherever he found them. He was also involved in trying to organise black sharecroppers in the South, a CP policy that he later repudiated as a reckless propaganda exercise by the Communists that led to the deaths of too many Black workers, and nearly led to his own death when a secret meeting he was at was attacked by police and racists.
He joined the Abraham Lincoln Battalion and rapidly became disillusioned with the Communist Party's role in the Civil War, the incompetence of its officers and its treatment of others on the Republican side including the anarchists and POUM (Partit Obrer d'Unificació Marxista / Workers Party of Marxist Unification). The story of Oliver Law is a case in point: a black American promoted to a senior position for communists propaganda purposes, he was hopelessly inadequate in the field and caused the deaths of many of the men under his command. When he was killed in action the Party press had him dying a hero's death when leading an attack, but Herrick suggests that he was deliberately shot by some of his own troops.
On February 23, 1937, during fighting near Madrid, Herrick was shot in the neck. The bullet lodged millimetres from his spinal cord, and could not be removed. Recuperating in Spain, he had an affair with a nurse who also happened to be the wife of a top (Hungarian) Communist official. Already under suspicion, his loyalty was questioned and he was forced to watch POUM members and anarchists being executed. These experiences all formed the basis of the anti-Stalinist roman a clef, 'Hermanos!', Spanish for 'brothers'.
He returned to the United States because of his wounds and given a job in the Party-controlled Fur and Leather Workers' Union, but what he had seen in the ranks of the Communist forces made it impossible for him to remain much longer a loyal supporter of the movement. The Hitler-Stalin pact of August 1939 was the last straw. He protested against Moscow's new alliance and was blacklisted from the Furriers Union.
He went on to write 9 novels (in addition to 'Hermanos!'), including 'Shadows and Wolves' (1980), 'Love and Terror' (1981) and 'Kill Memory' (1983), all set in Spain, and a memoir, 'Jumping the Line: The Adventures and Misadventures of an American Radical' (1998).

1929 - Heiner Müller (d. 1995), German dramatist, director, poet, anarchist, born.

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: The official journal of the CNT in Madrid publishes an editorial 'Esta revolución no es la nuestra' (that is not our revolution), followed up two days later with the claim "Ni vencidos ni humillados" (Neither loser nor humiliated), and blamed the uprising on "la política represiva… sectaria de los socialistas que detentan el poder y usan de él contra los intereses de los trabajadores" (the repressive sectarian politics ... the socialists who use power against the interests of the workers.) The riots "existen y aumentarán por razones de injusticia bien patentes" (exist and flourish because of patent injustice). Therefore, "vencida una insurrección surge otra, resuelta una huelga, otra se produce; apaciguado un motín, estalla otro mayor" (defeat one insurrection another pops up, settle a strike, another occurs; pacify a riot another major one breaks out.)

1943 - Giovanni Rossi (aka Cardias) (b. 1856), Italian anarchist who founded the two cooperative communities of Cittadella (Italy) and La Cecilia (Brazil), dies. [see: Jan. 11]

1950 - Wenceslao Jimenez Orive aka 'Wences' & 'Jimeno' (b. 1922), Asturian industrial designer, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who led the 'Los Maños' guérilla group in the resistance to Franco following the fascist victory in the Civil War, is shot down in the street without any warning, Seriously injured, he had just enough strength left to take the cyanide capsule, which he always carried with him, so as not to fall into the hands of the police alive. [see: Jan. 28]

1950 - Following the death of Wenceslao Jimenez Orive aka 'Wences' & 'Jimeno' (b. 1922), two members of his 'Los Maños' group, Simón Gracia Fleringán aka 'Miguel Montllor' & 'Aniceto Borrel' (1923 - 1950) and Placido Ortiz Gratal aka 'Vicente Llop' & 'Vicente Lobo' (1921 - 1950), were arrested later the same day.
1859 - Francisco Ferrer i Guàrdia (d. 1909), Catalan anarchist and radical educator, born. [expand]

1885 - Vladimir Yevgraphovich Tatlin (Влади́мир Евгра́фович Та́тлин; d. 1953); Russian, and later Soviet, painter and architect, born. Initailly associated with the pre-Revolutionary anarchist movement around the Futurists, he was a member of a number of anarchist groups (including the Activist Group of the Moskovskija Associacija Anarchistov) and involved with the anarchist weekly newspaper 'Anarkhiia', alongside Malevich and Rodchenko. However, like a number of one-time anarchists who remained in Russia (rather than fleeing abroad) following the Bolshevik takeover, he joined the Constructivist orthodoxy along with the likes of Rodchenko and Aleksei Gan, which was in turn suppressed in favour of Socialist Realism.

1901 - Herrmann Karl Robert 'Henning' von Tresckow (d. 1944), German Generalmajor, who organised Wehrmacht resistance against Adolf Hitler, born. Initially an enthusiastic supporter of Nazism because of its opposition to the Treaty of Versailles, he was quickly disillusioned by 1934 with the extra-judicial murder by the Schutzstaffel (SS) of many SA leaders and political opponents, including two generals, in the Night of the Long Knives (June 30, 1934). Events like the 1938 Blomberg–Fritsch Affair, and especiilaly Kristallnacht, strengthened his antipathy to the Nazis (as later would the mass shootings of Jews in the east, the Commissar Order [the Richtlinien für die Behandlung politischer Kommissare (Guidelines for the Treatment of Political Commissars), ordering the summary execution of any captured Soviet political commissars] and the general treatment of Russian prisoners) and he sought out civilians and officers who opposed Hitler. It was decided that Tresckow's group would assassinate Hitler and thereby provide the 'spark' for the coup, and plans for Operation Spark began to be drawn up in 1940. However, it was not until 1943 when the first opportunity arose for the anti-Nazi conspiracy of German army officers and political conservatives, given the name Schwarze Kapelle (Black Band) by Tresckow, to carry out their plan. Hitler planned to visit the Army Group Centre (AGC) on the Eastern Front on his journey back to East Prussia from Ukraine [see: Feb. 17] and Tresckow had prepared three options:
  • intercept Hitler on his way from the airfield to the HQ area, overwhelming Hitler's SS escort and killing the Führer (rejected as the plotters did not want to fight fellow German soldiers and the escort might prove too strong);
  • a group of plotters were to shoot Hitler collectively at a signal in the officers' mess during lunch; or
  • to smuggle a timebomb (disguised as a box supposedly containing two bottles of cognac) on to Hitler's plane on the flight back.
Plan B was abandoned when Günther von Kluge (1882 - 1944), Commander of Army Group Centre, persuaded Kluge not to carry it out. Instead the third plan was attempted and Tresckow asked Lieutenant Colonel Heinz Brandt, who was travelling with Hitler, whether he would be good enough to take a bottle of Cointreau to (fellow conspirator) Colonel Helmuth Stieff (1901 - 1944). Unfortunately, the bomb failed to detonate.
Other assassination attempt, including the March 21, 1943, suicide bomb attempt by Colonel Rudolph-Christoph von Gersdorff (1905 - 1980) at the Zeughaus military museum in Berlin, the winter uniform suicide bomb attempts on November 16, 1943 and February 11, 1944 plus an attempted shooting (March 11) and a bomb in the water tower at the Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) all failed.
Meanwhile, Tresckow had continued to try and increase the circle of plotters, with many refusing to participate but also failing to report his treasonable activities. Instead, the plotters were forced to rely more on the Reserve Army in Berlin and other districts, and its commander General Friedrich Olbricht (1888 - 1944), suggested a new scheme, to adapt the Operation Walküre (Valkyrie) emergency operational plan as the basis for a coup plot. Tresckow set about redrafted the Valkyrie plan as part of what would become the July 20 plot against. This time the bomb did go off but it failed to kill Hitler and by the time the conspirators found that out their takeover plans were in full swing and they were discovered, arrested and most were ruthlessly eradicated. [see: Jul. 20] When Tresckow heard of the plot's failure, he committed suicide the following day on the Eastern Front. Eventually, Tresckow part in the plot was discovered, with the Gestapo labelling him as being the "prime mover" and the "evil spirit" behind it, and his body was dug up and taken to the crematorium in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. His wife was arrested on August 15 and her children taken away under Nazi policy of Sippenhaft, meaning shared family guilt, but early in October she was released again and survived the war.

1903 - Pierre Kaan (d. 1945), French professor of philosophy, Marxist essayist, and prominent member of the Résistance during WWII, using the pseudonyms Biran, Brulard, Cantal and Dupin, born. [expand]
Denounced by a close collaborator in the winter of 1945, Pierre Kaan was arrested by the Gestapo on December 29 on the steps of Port-Royal métro station in Paris, tortured and then deported to Buchenwald concentration camp. Liberated by Czech anti-fascist fighters from the Gleina subcamp, he died a few days later, exhausted and stricken by typhus and tuberculosis in Ceské Budejovice hospital.

[C] 1926 - The Executive Committee of the CPGB issues a statement calling for the setting up of Workers’ Defence Corps across the country to protect striking workers against the police, strike breakers and the fascists, who were part of the official strike-breaking and special police organisation.

1928 - Philip Levine, American working-class poet, anti-fascist and anarchist, born.

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: Rioting, bombings and gunfighting continue throughout the country as the Revolution spreads to the southern cities. Anarchists and Syndicalists besiege Barcelona. Armed anarchist risings in Barcelona (January-February) and several other cities are defeated by the Republican government; left-right polarisation develops further in Spain. The insurrection breaks out in Castellón de la Plana following the killing of a guardia civil and an assault guard. [see: Jan. 7 & 8]

1933 - Sucesos de Casas Viejas: On the night of January 10 and in the early hours of January 11, a group of CNT-affiliated farm labourers gather in the Ateneo Libertario in Casas Viejas, a town of about 2000 inhabitants, and quite unaware that they were isolated and that the uprising had failed in other nearby locations, embark upon an uprising during the January 1933 anarchist insurrection. Telephone wires are cut, trenches dug to prevent the movement of vehicles and control points set up at intersections and roads into the town.
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Sucesos de Casas Viejas
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Las fotografías de los Sucesos de Casas Viejas

1933 - Sucesos de Casas Viejas: Following rioting in the province of Cádiz organised by the anarchists, the government decide to send in a company of guardias de asalto under the command of Captain Manuel Rojas Feijespán.
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Sucesos de Casas Viejas
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Las fotografías de los Sucesos de Casas Viejas

[A] 1934 - Marinus van der Lubbe (b. 1909), Dutch council communist, is guillotined for setting fire to the Reichstag building.

1938 - The final edition (issue 13) of 'Informa Bulteno', the "Information Bulletin of the CNT - AIT - ISP" in Esperanto, is published.

1943 - Uprising in the Forced Labour Camp of Mińsk-Mazowiecki: The final liquidation of the Mińsk-Mazowiecki Ghetto is ordered but when the first group of around 300 of the remaining Jews resist their German overseers at the Camp Kopernikus as they are being taken to be killed at the nearby Jewish cemetery. The remained lock themselves in the building, throwing bricks, tools and stones at Germans. The building is shelled and they are burned alive in their barracks.

1949 - A.J. Alexandrovich (Alexander Joseph)(b.1873), prolific Russian-born French libertarian artist (portraiture and landscape) in paint, ink, charcoal, as well as etching and lithograph, dies. Painted many allegorical compostions as well as portraits of all the well known contemporary anarchist figures. [Mar 11]

1957 - Bombings of four Montgomery, Alabama, churches and two local black community leaders' homes.

1965 - The ad hoc 'organisation of organisations' formed by the numerous Commonwealth migrant groups to represent and fight on behalf of all 'coloured' people in Britain, adopts the name the Campaign Against Racial Discrimination (CARD). Their inaugural meeting in February 1965 would be invaded by 35 neo-Nazis. [PR]

1986 - Jaroslav Seifert (b. 1901), Czech poet, writer, journalist and translator, dies. [see: Sep. 23]

2004 - Ramón Liarte Viu (b. 1918), Spanish anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist militant, autodidact, journalist and writer, dies. [see: Aug. 28]
1856 - Giovanni Rossi (aka Cardias) (d. 1943), Italian anarchist who founded the two cooperative communities of Cittadella (Italy) and La Cecilia (Brazil), born.

1907 - Joan Dalmau Ferran aka Joan de la Castanyola (d. 1941), Catalan farmer, Master builder and anarcho-syndicalsit militant, born. Member of the CNT, during the revolution he was a mamber of the CNT agricultural collective in Puigpelat. On May 25, 1937 he was a delegate to the plenary of the Régional de Sindicats, Seccions i Collectivitats and to the regaiona plenum of the CNT on January 8-9, 1938, both held in Barcelona. After the war, he went into exile in France and eventually enlisted in a Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers (CTE) to work on the fortifications of the Maginot Line. Taken prisoner by the Germans, he was deported to Mauthausen concentration camp and died on August 28, 1941 in the Gusen concentration camp (aka Mauthausen II) in Austria.

1933 - Sucesos de Casas Viejas: In Casas Viejas libertarian communism and common ownership of the land is declared, the town's archive and the property deeds are set on fire and its food store distributed. Early that morning María Silva Cruz aka 'La Libertaria' and her friend Manuela Lago y Gallinito, both anarchist militants, march through the village with a red and black flag. The town's mayor is dismissed and, armed with shotguns and the odd handgun, the insurgents surround the Guardia Civil barracks, and its three guards and one sergeant are called upon to to surrender. When they refused, an exchange of gunshots erupts and the sergeant and one of the guards are seriously wounded.
At 14:00, a team of twelve Guardia Civil under a Sergeant Anarte arrive in Casas Viejas, free their colleagues, who had been left behind in the barracks and take over the village. Three hours after that, a further batch of police reinforcements arrive under the command of Lieutenant Gregorio Fernández Artal: they comprise 4 Guardia Civil and 12 Guardias de Asalto. They promptly set about arresting those allegedly responsible for the attack on the civil guards barracks, two of whom after torture, point the finger at two sons and a son-in-law of Francisco Cruz Gutierrez, nicknamed Seisdedos (Six Fingers), a 70 year old charcoal maker and CNT member, who had sought refuge in his home, a mud-and-stone shack, alongside his family. On attempting to break down the door to Seisdedos’s home, one assault guard is shot dead on the doorstep and another is seriously wounded. An unsuccessful attempt to storm the shack is made at ten o’clock that night. Sometime after midnight, Captain Rojas ordered his men to open up on the shack with their rifles and machine-guns and later gave the order for it to be torched, killing all but one inhabitant. [see: Jan. 12]
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Sucesos de Casas Viejas
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Las fotografías de los Sucesos de Casas Viejas

[C] 1943 - Assassination of the Italian-born anarchist militant Carlo Tresca (b. 1879) in New York City by unknown assailants. Forced into exile following his involvement in the newspaper 'Il Germe' (The Origin), he emigrated to the USA via Switzerland. In New York he published an Italian language paper, 'La Plèbe', became involved in IWW union activities and in 1917 started 'Il Martello' (The Hammer), a newspaper he published until his death. In 1923, he was sentenced to one year in prison for publishing a book on birth control, but due to large demonstrations in his support his sentence was reduced to four months. Later he organised resistance to Italian blackshirts in America. Tresca's funeral, which was held on January 16 in Manhattan Center, was attended by over 5000 anti-facists. [see: Mar. 9]
1876 - Jack London (d. 1916), US author of 'The Iron Heel', 'The Sea-Wolf' and 'People Of The Abyss' amongst other works, born. A passionate advocate of unionism, socialism and considered by many as a "pre-mature anti-fascist" though, like many of his peers, he too feared the "the yellow peril".

[C/CCC] 1900 - Todor Angelov Dzekov (Тодор Ангелов Дзеков / Théodore Angheloff; d. 1943), Bulgarian anarcho-communist revolutionary and anti-fascist, who was active for a long time in Western Europe and headed a Brussels-based group of the Belgian Resistance against Nazi Germany, born. A member of the anarchist left wing of Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) and the Bulgarian Communist Party from an early age; in 1923 he took part in the failed and suppressed September Uprising. In 1923, he settled in Belgium with his wife Aleksandra Sharlandzhieva (Александра Шарланджиева) and daughter, the screenwriter and editor Svoboda Bachvarova (Свобода Тодорова Бъчварова; b. 1925) Between 1936–1938, he joined the XV Brigade's Georgi Dimitrov Battalion of Bulgarian volunteers and fought in the Spanish Civil War. Wounded, he spent time recuperating in a hospital in Murcia and was interned in Gurs concentration camp following the defeat of the republic. Upon returning to Belgium Angelov was an active supporter of the Communist Party of Belgium. In 1942, he organised a resistance group of around 25 people, mostly Central European Jewish immigrants; the group was mostly active around Brussels. Angelov was referred to as Terrorist X by the Nazi authorities and led over 200 actions against the Nazis, including the destruction of a train carrying military machinery and the burning of records of Jews to be deported. During a single year, around half of the group's members were killed or arrested. Angelov was arrested in early 1943 and interned in the Fort Breendonk concentration camp, where he was executed in late November 1943. The Nazis never knew who they had caught despite the 11 months of torture that they subjected him to.

1911 - Robert Abshagen (d. 1944), German insurance agent, sailor, construction worker, Communist and resistance fighter against National Socialism, who was a member of the the Bästlein-Jacob-Abshagen Group, the largest resistance organisation in the Hamburg area, born.

1933 - Sucesos de Casas Viejas: Sometime after midnight, a company of 40 Guardias de Asalto arrives in Casas Viejas under the command of Captain Rojas who is under orders from the Director-General of Security, Arturo Menéndez, to close in from Jérez and stamp out the uprising by pouring "merciless fire at any who open fire on the troops".
Captain Rojas orders his men to open up on the shack with their rifles and machine-guns and later gives the order for it to be torched. Two of the occupants, a man and a woman, are cut down as they ran outside to escape the flames. Six people are burnt to death inside the shack: Seisdedos; his two sons, Perico Jiménez aka Pedro (36 years old) and Francisco 'Paco' Cruz Jiménez (43); Josefa Franco Moya, Seisdedos' 41-year-old widowed daughter; her children Francisco (18) and Manuel García (almost 13 years); Jerónimo Silva González aka 'Zorrito' (38, CNT treasurer); and Manuela Lago Estudillo (17 years old), Maria Silva Cruz's friend and comrade from their anarchist youth group Amor y Aarmonía. María Silva, Seisdedos‘s grand-daughter, who was known as 'La Libertaria', one of only two survivors of the conflagration (the other being a neighbour's child who Maria rescued from the flames).
At around 04:00, Rojas orders three patrols to scour the village and arrest all the leading militants, instructing his men to shoot at the first sign of resistance. They go on to kill a 74-year-old man, Antonio Barberán Castellar, and arrest a dozen others, leading them in handcuffs to the burnt-out shell of Seisdedos‘s shack. There, Captain Rojas and his men murdered them in cold blood in the little pen. Only one of the 12, Fernando Lago, had actually taken part in the attack on the barracks on the 11th. Shortly after that, they pulled out of the village. The slaughter was over. Nineteen men, two women and a child had perished. As had three guards. All told, 28 people including 2 from heart failure, died during the insurrection and ensuing retribution.
As a result of these events lots of locals were later subjected to torture and wholly arbitrary imprisonment. The last victim was María Silva Cruz, 'La Libertaria', Seisdedos‘s grand-daughter; in July 1936, the area fell into the clutches of the fascist rebels. María was then living in Paterna, a nearby village. They sought her out there, carried her off and murdered her.
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historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Las fotografías de los Sucesos de Casas Viejas

1983 - Colin Roach, a 21-year-old black Londoner, dies from a gunshot wound at the entrance to Stoke Newington police station. A coroner's jury was to later return a majority verdict of suicide despite a mass of inconsistencies.

1991 - Vasco Pratolini (b. 1913), Italian novelist, screenwriter, communist, anti-Nazi partisan and a major figure in Italian Neorealism, dies. [see: Oct. 19]

2000 - Antonio Zapata Córdoba (b. 1908), Spanish construction worker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and Spanish Civil War fighter, dies during the night of Jan 12-13. [see: Oct. 27]
1898 - Émile Zola's polemic against rampant French anti-Semitism and the military cover up in the Dreyfus Affair 'J'accuse!' is published.

1909 - Marinus van der Lubbe (d. 1934), a Dutch council communist who was guillotined for setting fire to the Reichstag building, born.

1925 - Anna Maria Pietroni (d. 1974), Italian anarchist activist, born. From a family of anarchists (her father was a comrade of Malatesta and her brother Manilo was sentenced to 9 years imprisonment by a special court in 1940 for anarchist activities. She took part in the anti-fascist resistance as a messenger of the Maquis but later left the Communist Party and returned to anarchism, working on the weekly 'Umanità Nova'. Active in the post-Piazza Fontana bombing [see: Dec. 12] support campaigns for Valpreda and other arrested anarchists, and that for Marini.

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: 'Solidaridad Obrera' fails to condemned the January insurrection "con un deber de solidaridad y de conciencia" (out of a duty of solidarity and conscience).

[C] 1957 - Kadar government in Hungary declares that striking workers will face the death penalty.

1958 - Moroccan Liberation Army ambushes Spanish patrol in the Battle of Edchera, during the Ifni War, sometimes called the Forgotten War in Spain (la Guerra Olvidada).
1892 - Friedrich Gustav Emil Martin Niemöller (d. 1984), German anti-Nazi theologian and Lutheran pastor, born. A WWI submarine captain and battalion commander in the paramilitary Freikorps during the Ruhr Uprising in 1920, he was ordained as a Lutheran pastor on June 29, 1924. He initially welcomed Hitler's election in 1933, but later decided to oppose the Nazi's Arierparagraph (Aryan Paragraph), founding the Pfarrernotbund, an organisation of pastors to "combat rising discrimination against Christians of Jewish background". In 1934, with Karl Barth and Dietrich Bonhoeffer, he cofounded the Confessional Church, a Protestant group that opposed the Nazification of the German Protestant churches and signed the 1936 Protestant petition that declared the Aryan Paragraph incompatible with the Christian virtue of charity. Arrested on July 1, 1937, he was tried for activities against the State by a 'Special Court' on March 2, 1938, and sentenced to seven months in prison and fined 2,000 Reichmarks. Released from court because of time served, he was immediately rearrested by the Gestapo and interned in Sachsenhausen and, later, Dachau concentration camps until 1945.
Post WWII, he repented his previous pro-NSDAP views and the Church's lack of support for the Jews and went on to become a prominent anti-militarist and campaigner for nuclear disarmament.
"I began my political responsibility as an ultra-conservative. I wanted the Kaiser to come back; and now I am a revolutionary. I really mean that. If I live to be a hundred I shall maybe be an anarchist, for an anarchist wants to do without all government."

1896 - John Roderigo Dos Passos (d. 1970), US novelist and artist, born. His anti-militarist and radical outlook was cemented by the time he spent as an ambulance driver in WWI in France and Italy, becoming involved in anarchist and IWW circles after the war. Arrested for handing out leaflets in support of Sacco and Vanzetti. [expand]

[B] 1904 - Henri-Georges Adam (d. 1967), French engraver, non-figurative sculptor, tapestry maker, anarchist, pacifist, anti-militarist and anti-clerical, born. An associate of the Paris Surrealists, in 1936 he joined the Association des Écrivains et Artistes Révolutionnaires (AEAR) and created a set of violent impressionistic engravings entitled 'Désastres de la Guerre' (Disaster of War) in response to the Spanish Civil War.

1909 - Félix Likiniano (d. 1983), Basque anarchist and Civil War militia member, who would later join ETA, born.

[C] 1914 - Emmy Eugenie Andriesse (d. 1953), Dutch photographer and resistance fighter, who was part of the De Ondergedoken Camera (The Underground Camera) group that documented the Nazi Occupation, born. Emmy Andriesse was the only child of liberal Jewish parents, who both worked in the textile/fashion industries. At fifteen, she lost her mother and, since her father was an international representative and often travelled abroad, she was raised by several aunts. The aunts, all independent career women, inspired Emmy in her early interest in women's and leftist political ideas. After high school she studied advertising design at the Academy of Fine Arts in The Hague with its radical curriculum based on non-authoritarian teaching methods and functionalist ideas about the fair use of materials and the application of contemporary techniques, including photography and film.
Although initially enrolled to train as a graphic designer, from her second year she focused almost exclusively on photography, gaining the nickname 'Emma Leica' - though her preferred camera would soon become the Rolleiflex that she and many other Ondergedoken Camera network members would use during the War.
At the academy Emmy belonged to the group of students gathered around the left-wing designer Paul Schuitem, some of who lived together in a 'community centre' in Voorburg. The residents maintained close contacts with various anti-fascist and communist organisations, such as the Holland Section of International Red Aid and Nederland-Nieuw Rusland [Netherlands-New Russia, a pro-Soviet Union but anti-Dutch CP grouping]. After the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War Emmy became involved in the Spaanse Burgeroorlog (Help to Spain) committee and established contact with the Bond van Kunstenaars voor Kulturele Rechten (Union of Artists for Cultural Rights), a grouping composed of various anti-fascist artists organisations. Through the latter she met a number of socially committed Nieuwe Fotografie reportage photographers based in Amsterdam, such as Eva Besnyö, Cas Oorthuys and Carel Blazer, who would all go on to be involved with her in De Ondergedoken Camera.
Following the showing of Emmy Andriesse's first major series of reportage photos, 'In de Jordaan' (In Jordaan [the Amsterdam neighbourhood]), at the Photo '37 international exhibition in the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam and her graduation, she settled in Amsterdam, where she worked as a freelance photographer for various newspapers and magazines, including the journal of the Social Democratic Party 'Wij, Ons Werk, Ons Leven' (We, Our Work, Our Lives). Her photographs for the latter were very much in the Nieuwe Fotografie (New Photography) style, displaying a strong attention to detail (portraying what the eye actually sees rather than previous more 'painterly' images photographers made), utilising surprising camera angles, close-ups, the repetition of shapes and patterns, as well as displaying the movement's penchant for diagonal structure in their documentary photographs of working class lives in cities and villages, machinery, landscape, etc.
In 1941 Emmy married with the artist and graphic designer Dick Elffers, with whom she had two sons, Cas and Joost, the eldest of whom, Cas, drowned on holiday in 1945 died at the age of two. During the German occupation, as the daughter of Jewish parents she could not work and had to go into hiding until, in 1944, her anthropologist friend Arie de Froe arranged a forged Aryan declaration for her and she could rejoin the public life. She immediately joined the clandestine resistance being carried out by her fellow Dutch photographers, which became known after the war as De Ondergedoken Camera group. The images such as 'Jongen met pannetje' (Boy with pan), 'De doodgraver' (The gravedigger) and 'Kinderen op Kattenburg' (Children on Kattenburg) that she captured during the horrific conditions of the Hongerwinter (hunger winter) of 1944-45 in Amsterdam would become iconic, not just as representatives of her work but the whole of the Ondergedoken Camera output.
After the war, she continued to photograph the cities and landscapes of the Netherlands and its peoples, producing the well-known 'Amsterdam, its beauty and character' (1949), as well as producing the series of portraits of French, Belgian and Swiss sculptors and painters taken in their studios (1947-51), a commission by the Stedelijk Museum, and the 'De Wereld van Van Gogh' (The World of Van Gogh; 1951) photos she took in Provence, and contributing to the 'Family of Man' exhibition at the New York Museum of Modern Art in 1955. She was also a member of the Vereniging van Beoefenaars van Gebonden Kunsten (Association of Practitioners of Bound Arts), founded in the immediate post-liberation period, taking part in the 'Photo '48' group show and, along with Blazer, Besnyö and Oorthuys, the 'Photographie' exhibition, both held in Amsterdam's Stedelijk Museum. She also worked as a fashion photographer and her photos of fabrics, fashion design and clothing appeared in many fashion and women's magazines, and brochures around the world.
Shortly after finishing the 'De Wereld van Van Gogh' commission she became seriously ill and died on February 20, 1953, after a long battle with cancer aged just 39 years of age.

1918 - Rosa Laviña i Carreras (d. 2011), Catalan anti-fascist militant, cenetista, secretary of the Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth (FIJL), National Committee member and Treasurer of SIA, born. [expand][NB: d.o.b. also given as 19th]

1938 - Ethel Mannin and Emma Goldman speak on 'The Betrayal of the Spanish People' at a CNT-FAI program in London; the audience turns against the Communists when they attempt to break up the meeting.

1970 - Spanish government drafts 55,000 postal workers to crush strike.

1970 - Riots in Polish Baltic ports begin, continuing until the 18th. Sparked by a strike in the Lenin shipyard in Gdansk against the dismissal of militant crane driver Anna Walentinowicz.

1972 - Adrien Perrissaguet (b. 1898), French militant anarchist propagandist, shoemaker, founder of Groupe des Amis du Combat Syndicaliste and l'Association des Fédéralistes Anarchistes, dies. [see: Apr. 22]

1976 - Wildcat strike wave spreads across the nation to Barcelona, resulting in the formation of workers' general assemblies and defiance of the unions and government.

1978 - The Sex Pistols' final concert at the Winterland, San Francisco.

1994 - Federica Montseny (b. 1905), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, anarcha-feminist, poet and Minister of Health during the Civil War, dies. The daughter of Catalan libertarian activists and educators Joan Montseny (Federico Urales) and Soledad Gustavo (Teresa Mañé), who also co-edited the anarchists journal, 'La Revista Blanca' (1898-1905), she joined the CNT at seventeen years old. She wrote for anarchist journals such as 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Tierra y Libertad' and 'Nueva Senda', and published her first novel under the name 'Blanca Montsan' in the series 'La Novela Roja'. In 1923 she urged her parents to relaunch 'La Revista Blanca', which led to the family to establishing in the publishing firm Ediciones de La Revista Blanca, specialising in promoting libertarian ideals throughout the 1920s and 1930s. Federica Montseny participated as an editor of the serials 'La Novela Ideal' and 'La Novela Libre', writing many of the novels herself. The 'Novela Ideal' appeared in a weekly edition of 50,000 and the 'Novela Libre' a monthly 64-page publication with a print run of 20,000. [see: Feb. 12]
1870 - The first issue of 'Solidaridad', the first newspaper published by the Spanish anarchist section of the A.I.T., appears in Madrid.

1881 - Pierre Monatte (d. 1960), French anarcho-syndicalist and founder of Révolution Prolétarienne, born. [expand]

1889 - Walter Serner (born Walter Eduard Seligmann; d. 1942), Czech-born German-language writer, essayist, Dadaist and anarchist, born. Also wrote under the pen names Vladimir Senakowski, A.D. and also used the name of his friend Christian Schad. His manifesto 'Letzte Lockerung. Manifest Dada' (Last Loosening. Dada Manifesto; 1918) was an important text of Dadaism. During World War I he was the editor of the magazines 'Sirius' and 'Zeltweg', and a writer for 'Die Aktion'. With the outbreak of World War I, he escaped to Switzerland in 1914 and participated in Dada activities in Zürich, Geneva, and Paris until 1920. From 1925, Serner became the target of anti-Semitism, having been born Jewish and converted to Catholicism in 1913 when he changed his name to Serner. His play 'Posada' premièred in Berlin in 1927, its only performance as it was then banned. In 1933 Serner's books, including 'Handbrevier für Hochstapler' (Handbook for Swindlers; 1928), were also banned by the government of Nazi Germany. Presumed to have died in Theresienstadt concentration camp sometime after 20 Aug. 1942. Serner's most successful novel 'Die Tigerin' (The Tigress) was made into an English-language feature film by writer/director Karin Howard and released in 1992'
"The Anarchists are the mere victims of spiritual collapse."
"Revolution is merely a hysterical skirmish between totally untalented beings with organic defects."

1920 - Ivan Vasilyevich Turkenich (d. 1944), Ukrainian partisan, who was one of the leaders of the underground anti-Nazi Komsomol organisation the Young Guard, which operated in Krasnodon district during the German-Soviet War (1941-44), born. On August 13, 1944 Ivan Turkenich was mortally wounded in a battle near Głogów, Poland. He died in the field hospital a day later on August 14, 1944.

1923 - In Paris the first issue of 'La Brochure Mensuelle' (The Monthly Brochure) appears, published by Émile Bidault and the 'Groupe de Propagande par la Brochure'. It is published up until December 1937, with more than 190 issues devoted to the writings of over a hundred authors.

1933 - Agustin Gomez Arcos (d. 1998), Spanish anarchist, gay novelist and dramatist, born. He began writing plays but was forced into exile, first to England and then to Paris, because of censorship. He went on to write numerous novels about Franco's Spain: 'L'Agneau Carnivore' (The Carnivorous Lamb; 1975), 'Maria Republica' (1976), 'Ana Non' (1977), 'L'Enfant Pain' (1983), 'Un Oiseau Brûlé Vif' (A Bird Burned Alive; 1984), etc.

1943 - Procès des 42: The trial by a German Army Council of War of what were in fact 45 members - 43 men and 2 women - of the Francs-tireurs et partisans (FTP; Partisan irregular riflemen), mostly veterans of the International Brigades in Spain and young Parisian communists who had previously been recruited to the para-military Organisation Spéciale of the Parti Communiste Français, begins. They face 49 counts of terrorism - ranging from attacks against the occupying forces to the execution of collaborators and the theft of food stamps. [see: Jan. 28]

1944 - Zina Portnova (Zinaida Martynovna Portnova [Зина Портнова / Зинаида Мартыновна Портнова]; b. 1926), Russian teenager and Soviet partisan, born. She was on school holiday at her grandmothers house in the Vitebsk region when Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union, is either killed during torture or is taken into the woods and shot after being tortured and blinded. [see: Feb. 20]

[C] 1948 - John Wimbourne and Gerry Flamberg, two members of the 43 Group are freed from court after having been held on charges of the attempted murder of John Preen (a prominent fascist, ex-BUF member, Section 18B detainee, founder of the Britons Action Party and the British Vigilantes Action League, and fascist bookshop owner). In December, Preen had claimed that he had been shot at and had given the police the registration number of Flamberg's rental car. Flamberg was charged with attempted murder and remanded in prison along with another founder member of the 43 Group, John Wimborne. The preciding magistrate declared Preen's testimony unreliable, and the 43 Group members were released. In March 1948, the 43 Group's paper 'On Guard' reported: "The 43 Group have received a great volume of applications for membership of their organisation as a direct result of the Preen case".

1978 - Demonstration organised by the C.N.T., the Spanish anarchist trade union now legalised for six months, draws 10,000 protesters in Barcelona, opposing the Moncloa pacts (allowing only the C.C.O.O (communist) and U.G.T (socialist) the right to represent workers).

1994 - The Ian Stuart Memorial Gig in London, already having lost its original venue in Beaconsfield a few days before the event after a visit from anti-fascists and now planned to take place in the Wellington near Waterloo Station, is cancelled after the pub is trashed when police prevent Combat 18 and Blood & Honour skins from exiting to attack AFA outside the pub. ['No Retreat']

2004 - The first Unite Against Fascism rally, following its formation in late 2003, takes place in Manchester Town Hall.

2005 - Antifa members involved in a confrontation with National Front white power skinheads in Woolwich.
1880 - Paulette Brupbacher (d. 1967), Swiss physician, militant feminist, anarchist, author and member of the central committee of International Workers' Aid, is born in Pinsk, in what is now Belarus.

1900 - Juan López Sánchez (d. 1972), Spanish construction worker, anarcho-syndicalist, anarchist theorist, minister in the Generalitat and one of the founders of the 'treintistas' Federación Sindicalista Libertaria, born. Son of a member of the Guardia Civil, his family moved to Barcelona when he was 10 and there he came into contact with anarchist circles. He began working aged 11 and joined the Sociedad de Moldistas y Piedra Artificial, becoming secretary of it Board (1916-17). The union was eventually incorporated into the Sindicato de la Construcción of the CNT. He began his militant union activity in 1920 in the era of the difficult years of gangsterism, and on 29 July, 1920 was involved in a shootout with agents of the employer and was arrested with a comrade, Joaquím Roura Giner. After several attempts of trial, was finally sentenced on February 24, 1923 to one year and a day for manslaughter and one year, eight months and 20 days on firearms offences. Roura was acquitted. On Decmeber 7 that year, he appeared before a military tribual gave him to six-year sentence for having fired at the police whilst trying to prevent his arrest. Imprisoned in the Ocaña reformatory, he became an autodictat
Released from prison in 1926, under an amnesty, in 1928 he joined the the anarchist group Solidaridad along with Juan Peiro and Angel Pestana. However, López Sánchez was always more of a unionist rather than an anarchist and, during his work within the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo he always tried to steer the organisation away from its adherence to anarchism. However, he continued to clandestinely fight against the dictatorship of General Primo de Rivera as a CNT member, participating in its congress and helping negotiate the legal reconstruction of the organisation, as well as signing the Manifesto de los Treinta, the document of the treintista faction of the union. From 1930 to 1931, he edited the journal 'Acción'. In September 1932, the trentistas were expelled and in 1933 helped found the Federación Sindicalista Libertaria, becoming its general secretary, and joined the Partido Sindicalista, led by Ángel Pestaña. During this period, he was also editor of the papers '¡Despertad!' in Vigo and 'Sindicalismo' in Barcelona and Valencia. After the failure of the Aliança Obrera, he favoured the rfturn of the Sindicats d'Oposició to the CNT and attended the May 1936 Congress of Zaragoza that brought about the reconciliation.
On July 18, 1936 he was chosen to be part of a strike committee that had to face the disturbing indecision of the army quartered in the city but only played a minor role. He however did found the newspaper 'Fraga Social' during this period. On 4 November 1936, at the proposal of the National Committee of the CNT, was appointed Minister of Commerce in the second government (Govern de Concentració) chaired by the Socialist Francisco Largo Caballero. In February 1937, he drew up a decree which defined and regularized the operation of factories, businesses and commerce. This helped to reassure the owners of enterprises that had been nationalised and collectivised. He became the first anarchist minister to visit a foreign country when he visited Paris for meetings with the French government. After the events of 'May 1937' resigned his ministerial position along with fellow ministers Frederica Montseny Joan Peiró and John Garcia Oliver.
On March 7, 1939 in Valencia was appointed member of the National Committee of the Movimiento Libertario Español (MLE) and traveled to Paris to inform Maria Rodriguez Vazquez (Marianet) of its creation. López was forced to flee from Spain when General Francisco Franco and the Nationalist Army took control of the country in March 1939. He went to England and during World War II he worked in radio broadcasting in Spanish from the BBC. He remained there until 1954, when he then moved to Mexico where he stayed until returning to Spain in 1966 and even joined the Organització Sindical Espanyola. In these years he adhered to the reformist 'Aliança Nacional de Forces Democràtiques (National Alliance of Democratic Forces; ANFD), a broad Republican/Socialist/CNT alliance whose original purpose was to peruse the parliamentary road and restore again the Second Republic in Spain, and which later became the Consell Nacional de la Democràcia Catalana.

1902 - Antonio Blanco Blanch (d. 1941), Spanish chocolatier, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Member of the CNT, he was imprisoned several times during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera for his significant union activity. Member during the civil war of the Ministry of Industry and from 1937 to the end of the war was rresponsible of collectivised chemical plant Casa Gros in Badalona. Exiled in France, he was interned in various camps and incorporated into a Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers working on the fortifications of the Maginot Line. Captured during the German breakthrough, he was interned in Stalag I-B Hohenstein (Poland) and, on August 9, he was deported with 168 other Spanish Republicans to the Mauthausen concentration camp. On January 24, 1941, he was transferred to Gusen sub-camp, where he died on November 19, 1941.

1908 - Marie Anastasie Vincentine Krysinska (d. 1857), Polish-born French poet, innovator of free verse, musician, femme chansonnier, composer, and novelist of the decadent and symbolist period, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

1919 - The 'Bloody Week' general strike in Argentina ends, leaving hundreds of workers dead and injured in the fighting (estimates range between 100-700 killed and 400-2,000 injured). The police lost 3 dead and 78 wounded. The militant Argentinian anarchist movement is decimated by the repression which follows and trade union reformists gain control of the workers' movement.

1919 - Constitutional guarantees suspended in Barcelona. Repression falls mainly on the cenetistas (CNT). Confederal premises are raided and unionists arrested. Workers found at or frequenting the homes of prominent militants are jailed. Imprisoned in the Cárcel Modelo, they are transferred to the boats 'Pelayo' and 'Giralda' which serve as floating prisons in the harbour, and all newspapers are censored, so that there is no voice in defence of the prisoners. The CNT is forced to operate underground.

1926 - The first issue of the weekly anarcho-syndicalist newspaper 'Vida Sindical: Periodico de los Trabajadores' is published in Barcelona under the military dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, and whilst the CNT is illegal. It is probably directed by Angel Pestaña.

[C] 1927 - A gang of British Fascisti surround an International Class War Prisoners' Aid (ICWPA) rally in Trafalgar Square in support of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti and attempt to break it up. Groups of anti-fascists pick off fascists as they try to leave the Square.

1936 - The Unidad Popular is formed in revolutionary Spain.

1938 - Fascists begin the bombing of Barcelona.

1943 - Ulyana Mateevna Gromova (Улья́на Матве́евна Гро́мова; b.1924), Ukranian leader of the underground Komsomol partisan group the 'Young Guards', is executed and thrown into a mine after days of Gestapo torture. [see: Jan. 3]

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: Assassination attempt (by bazooka) on General Raoul Albin Louis Salan, military commander in Algeria, by French residents of Algiers who wanted General René Cogny to take his place, as he was seen to be more likely to take a harder line with the FLN.

1958 - Eusebio Carbó Carbó (b. 1883), Spanish militant anarchist, editor and director of 'Solidaridad Obrera' in 1930s as well as secretary of the IWA, dies in exile in Mexico. Active and very much a globe-trotting internationalist, he saw the inside of nearly sixty prisons around the world from the age of 18 onwards. [see: Dec. 31]

[B] 1963 - Revolutionary students in Caracas make an armed attack on an exposition of French art and carry off five paintings, which they declare they will return in exchange for the release of political prisoners.

1982 - Ramon J. Sender (Ramón José Sender Garcés; b. 3 1901), Spanish novelist, essayist, journalist, anarchist and then communist, dies. [see: Feb. 3]
1892 - Bruno Misefari (also known by the anagrammatical pseudonym Furio Sbarnemi; d. 1936), Italian anarchist , philosopher, poet, author, engineer and deserter, born. He deserted during the First World War and fled to Switzerland, marrying Pia Recati-Zanolli in Zurich who, after his death, took care of the publication of his writings. There he worked on the anarchist newspaper 'Il Risveglio Comunista Anarchico' and lectured, using his anagrammatical pseudonym, Furio Sbarnemi. On 16 May 1918 he was arrested for a bomb plot fabricated by the police and was expelled from the country after 7 months in prison. That same year he published his first poetry collection 'Diario di un disertore (Dal carcere di Zurigo)' (Diary of a Deserter (From a Zurich Prison); 1918).
After a period in Germany, he returned to Calabria in Italy in 1919 when a general amnesty for deserters was announced but, like all Italian revolutionaries in this period, he continued to be harassed by the police and, later, by fascist groups. With the anarchist dentist Giuseppe Imondi, he published the newspaper 'L'Anarchia' (Anarchy). Between late 1920 and early 1921 had close contacts with Errico Malatesta, Camillo Berneri, Pasquale Binazzi, Armando Borghi and Giuseppe Di Vittorio, amongst other revolutionaries, was a correspondent with 'Umanità Nova' and 'L'Avvenire Anarchico' (The Anarchist Future) and campaigned for Sacco and Vanzetti.
Despite the advent of fascism, in 1924 he founded the libertarian newspaper, 'L'Amico del Popolo' (The Friend of the People), which was banned after the fourth issue. He was also denied work in his chosen profession and arrested on charges of "undermining the powers of the State, for the purpose of killing the king and Mussolini", but was acquitted after 25 days in prison. On 31 March, 1931, he was arrested again and whilst in internal exile on the island of Ponza he married Pia Zanolli. Another amnesty in 1933 led to his release and returned to Calabria but is dispirited, writing to Zia: "Freed yes, but at what price: health shattered, no money, no prospects for the future", and is diagnosed with a brain tumour in November 1933. Despite reunion with Zia, things do not improve and after a failed business venture, his health deteriorates and he dies on 12 June 1936. Zia goes on to edit and publish his works, including 'Schiaffi e Carezze: poesie in brutta copia' (Slaps and Caresses: poems in draft; 1969) and 'Utopia? No!: Scritti scelti di Bruno Misefari' (Utopia? No!: Selected writings of Bruno Misefari; 1976; [Pia Zanolli (ed.]), plus two of her own memoirs of Misefari, 'Tu o Uno Come Te' (You or Someone Like You; nd) and 'L'Anarchico di Calabria' (The Anarchist of Calabria; 1967).

"La religione è il più solido puntello del capitalismo e dello Stato, i due tiranni del popolo. Ed è anche il più temibile alleato dell'ignoranza e del male."
(Religion is the strongest prop of capitalism and the state, the two tyrants of the people. It is also the most formidable ally of ignorance and evil.)
- from: 'L'Amico del Popolo' (The Friend of the People)

Qui, ne la selva densa di roveti,
A l'ombra de le quercie ho la dimora:
Gli uccelli ei grilli fanno da poeti
Lietamente da l'una a l'altra aurora.
Qui, niuna i giorni, solitari e cheti
Fiammata d'ingiustizia, ecco, m'accora:
Solo co' miei pensieri alti e segreti
E i sogni miei vivo e converso ognora.
Uomini primi abitator del mondo,
Io non v'invidio più: simile a voi
De la calma solenne io mi circondo !
Affogati nel sangue, età civile
Di prostituti e di assassini eroi:
Io ti diserto; io, che non sono un vile!

(Here we find the dense jungle of brambles,
In the shadow of the oak trees I have planted:
The birds and the crickets are the poets
Cheerfully from one to the other dawn.
Here, nobody and daylight, solitary and stealthily
Blaze of unrighteousness, behold, upset me:
Alone with my old thoughts and secrets
And my dreams alive convered.
Men first butchers of the world,
I do not envy you any more: like you
Peace solemnly surrounds me!
Drowned in the blood, the civil age
Of heroicn prostitutes and murderers:
I deserted you, and I, I'm not a coward!)

- 'Disertore' (Deserter)


[B] 1905 - Artur Streiter (d. 1946), German graphic artist, painter, writer, literary critic, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Influenced by Gustav Landauer, Leo Tolstoi and Erich Mühsam and a member of FAUD (Freien Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands), he maintained close ties with Gregor Gog and his FAUD-aligned international movement Bruderschaft der Vagabunden (Brotherhood of Vagrants).

1921 - Crackdown on Barcelona cenetistas involved with the Comité Pro-Presos de la CNT (Pro-Prisoner Committee).

1927 - Simultaneous General Strikes in Santiago and Valparaiso, Chile.

[C] 1928 - Vidal Sassoon (d. 2012), iconic English hairdresser, who was one of the youngest members of the anti-fascist group, the 43 Group, born into a family of Sephardic Jews living in London. Vidal's father died when he was 3 years old and, because of poverty, his mother placed him and his younger brother in a Jewish orphanage. They were reunited as a family in 1939 when his mother remarried. He left school at 14 and ended up as an apprentice hairdresser and, at the age of 17 and having been too young to fight in WWII, he became a member of the 43 Group, a Jewish veterans' anti-fascist organisation that took the fight to the fascists on the streets. His National Service in the Royal Air Force was just as eventful - having gone AWOL because of the all-pervasive racism that he and other Jews had to still endure despite the defeat of Nazism and the continuing revelations about the extent of the Holocaust. Arrested, he ended up sedated in a psychiatric ward in a military hospital but was eventually given a medical discharge. In 1948, he went to Palestine and joined the Haganah, the Jewish paramilitary organisation operating in the then British Mandate of Palestine, fighting in Israel's War of Independence.
"In 1946, I became an active member of the anti-fascist 43 Group — spending evenings taking on the fascist Black Shirts in street fights.
One evening in Kilburn we chased the fascists into a pub and were ourselves chased by the police.
They arrested three of us and one of the sergeants severely beat my friend Mo while calling us all kinds of names.
I couldn’t believe I was in the heart of London, listening to his hate. The following morning in front of the judge, we pleaded our case against the sergeant.
The judge gave us a look of scorn. ‘This is not Nazi Germany,’ he said. ‘Our police would never act like that. Now go home and be good boys.’ Being with the 43 Group meant I often turned up at work with bruises.
As my employers knew nothing about my nocturnal exploits, I got into the habit of saying ‘Oh, it’s nothing madam, I slipped over a hair pin’ to explain my injuries away."
"I was enlisted in the Royal Air Force and it wasn’t to be a happy experience. I got into my first fight the day after Yom Kippur when someone made a racist remark.
The taunts got to me so much, I then went AWOL — much to my mother’s
horror. She made it clear I was a disgrace and she was going to call the authorities immediately.
Then, when the Military Police came, she turned her back on me and walked into the kitchen without saying goodbye.
What followed is an experience that I have never told a soul about.
I was taken to I know not where and presented to a group of stern looking officers. Then, when I told them I would not put up with racist abuse of any kind, I found myself, to my horror, in the psychiatric ward of a military hospital somewhere near Wolverhampton.
Some of the other inhabitants were clearly very disturbed. Others seemed to be bound to their beds. I was sedated and woke up five or six days later, having been drugged sufficiently so that I could hardly remember a moment of my plight. I was then given a medical discharge and sent home."
- quotes, ironically, from a 2010 interview in the 'Daily Mail'

1942 - Laurentino Tejerina Marcos (b. 1895), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndcalist, dies. [see: Feb. 1]

1949 - Four militant communist guerrilas - Angel Carrero Sancho aka 'Alvaro' (b. 1917), Joaquín Puig Vigmunt aka 'Jaume Pujol Palau' & 'Jaume Serra' (1907), Pedro Valverde Fuentes aka 'Manuel Valls Riu' (b. 1915) and Numen Mestres Ferrando (1923) - members of the Partido Socialista Unificado de Cataluña (PSUC; Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia) linked Agrupació Guerrillera de Catalunya, having been sentenced to death on October 14, 1948, are shot at Campo de la Bota, Barcelona.
1921 - Antonio Téllez Solá (d. 2005), Spanish anarchist guérilla, journalist and historian, born. [expand]

1921 - In a series of reprisals between the CNT and Barcelona police, police are ordered to murder ('Ley de Fugas') cenetistas currently being held in jail. Valencian cenetistas Juan Villanueva, Antonio Parra, Juli Peris, and Ramón Gomar - arrested the previous day while delivering funds to aid political prisoners in Barcelona - are among those shot down. Police announce all are killed in an attempted jailbreak.

1922 - The first edition of 'Libereso' (Liberty) 'Organo Monatala di la Anarkiista di Emancipanta Stelo' (Monthly Paper of the Anarchist Section of 'Free Star') is published by the Cosmopolitan Union of Idiste Workers in France.

1932 - Libertarian Communism is proclaimed in the Catalonia mine fields of High Llobregat, in Berga, Cardona, Fijols, Sallent and Suria. The insurrection is suppressed within the week and over 100 militants, including the anarchists Francisco Ascaso and Buenaventura Durruti, are sent to the Rio de Oro prison colony.

[C] 1934 - CGT Portuguesa calls a General Strike against the dictatorship of Antonio Salazar.

1943 - Red Army breaks 890-day-long German siege of Leningrad.

1943 - Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: The Germans began their second deportation of the Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto, sparking the first instance of armed insurgency by its residents. While Jewish families hid in their so-called 'bunkers', fighters of the Żydowski Związek Wojskowy (ŻZW; Jewish Military Union, an underground resistance organisation made up mostly of ex-Polish Army officers), joined by elements of the Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Combat Organization), begin engaging German forces in direct clashes armed only with a handful of pistols and molotovs. The ŻZW and ŻOB suffer heavy losses (including some of their leaders), the Germans also take casualties, and the deportation is halted within a few days. Only 5,000 Jews are removed, instead of the 8,000 as planned.

1966 - Eleuterio Quintanilla Prieto (b. 1886), Spanish anarchist, member of the Asturian CNT, Freemason and rationalist teacher, active in the Spanish Revolution of 1936 and the Orto group in the FAI, dies. [see: Oct. 25]

1968 - Japanese Zengakuren (Federation of Student Self-Government Associations) lay siege to the American airbase at Sasebo, preventing the nuclear aircraft carrier Enterprise from mooring there.

1987 - Renato Guttuso (b.1912), Italian anti-fascist painter and polemicist, atheist and Communist, who was the leader of the social realist group in Italy, dies. [see: Dec. 26]

[CC] 2008 - Jan Kučera (b. 1990), an 18 years old anti-fascist member of SkinHead Aganst Racial Prejudice (SHARP), is stabbed in the groin and back around 11 o'clock at night in Pribram in the Czech Republic. Tensions had been running high in the area after anti-fascists successfully prevented a neo-Nazi rally in November in Prague’s historic Jewish quarter to mark the anniversary of the Kristalnacht pogrom of the 1930s. Shortly before this attack, young local neo-Nazis were provoking with Nazi salutes and offending a group of young punks and anti-fascist skinheads, to which Jan belonged. Jan confronted the fascists but was stabbed with a large military knife by 20-year-old neo-Nazi Jiri Fous. Jan's friends called for an ambulance whilst they tried to stop the bleeding from his femoral artery. However, neither the paramedics nor Jan's friends realised that Jan had also been stabbed in the back before it was too late. Jan lost massive amounts of blood and fell unconscious. He was rushed to a nearby hospital, but even though he was in the hands of professional medical staff, he died 2 days later in the morning of Sunday January 20, 2008.
1912 - Armand Robin (d. 1961), French translator, writer/poet and anarchist, born. A visit to the Soviet Union in 1933 revealed the true nature of the Soviet dictatorship to him and pushed him towards anarchism. He later started writing his poemes de combat (fighting poems), violent attacks on 'stalanist' poets such as Eluard and above all Aragon, and a novel, 'Le Temps Qu'il Fait' (The Weather Is Like; 1942). He joined the French Anarchist Federation in 1945, which published his 'Poèmes indésirables' (Undesirable Poems; 1945). He authored 'La Fausse Parole' (The False Word; 1953), which dissected the mechanisms of propaganda in the totalitarian countries and his knowledge of 28 languages made him a prolific translator.

1918 - Rosa Laviña i Carreras (d. 2011), Catalan anti-fascist militant, cenetista, secretary of the Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth (FIJL), National Committee member and Treasurer of SIA, born. [expand][NB: d.o.b. also given as 14th]

1919 - Joan Brossa i Cuervo (d. 1998), Catalan language poet Dadaist-influenced, playwright, graphic designer and plastic artist, born. One of the leading early proponents of visual poetry in Catalan literature and amongst the foremost innovators of poetry, the theatre and the art of the second half of the twentieth century. At seventeen Brossa joined the army and served in the Republican front Lleida and, following the defeat of the Republic and a period of national service (where he met numerous fellow avant-garde artists), he remained in Spain as a constant public critic of the Franco regime and the Catholic church. Initially an anarchist sympathiser, he became a Marxist and supporter of the clandestine PSUC following his 1947 meeting with the Brazilian poet and Marxist João Cabral de Melo and the founding of the explicitly Marxist Catalan artists group and magazine 'Dau-al-Set' in 1948.
"La verdadera insurrección no es la de los que toman el fusil, sino la que surge del fondo del hombre" (The real uprising is not to those who take the gun, but that which arises from the depths of man) - 'Clandestino'
www.pocio.cat/membres/GloriaBordons/arxius/introduccio cercle de lectors.pdf

1925 - Gilles Deleuze (d. 1995), influential libertarian anti-capitalist French philosopher and co-author of 'Capitalisme et Schizophrénie: Vol. 1. L'Anti-Œdipe' (Capitalism and Schizophrenia: Anti-Oedipus; 1972) and 'Vol. 2. Mille Plateaux' (A Thousand Plateaus; 1980), with the psychoanalyst Félix Guattari, which Michel Foucault described (in his preface to the English-language edition) as a contribution towards the fight against fascism, born.

1932 - Armed miners' uprising in Barcelona region in response to anarchist uprisings in Catalonia. "Libertarian communism" declared, including the abolition of money and property, followed by general strikes and armed uprisings throughout Spain over the next five days.

1941 - Paul Reclus (b. 1858), French anarchist militant, engineer and professor, dies. [see: May 25]

1941 - Władysław Głuchowski (b. 1911), Polish teacher, anarcho-syndicalist activist and anti-Nazi fighter, dies of infected wounds as prisoner no.17710 in Sachsenhausen concentration camp. [see: Jul. 27]

1947 - Luigi Bertoni (b. 1872), Swiss typographer and the untiring publisher of the bilingual newspaper 'Le Reveil Anarchiste' (The Anarchist Alarm Clock) which he founded in July 1900 and edited until his death, dies. [see: Feb. 6]

1976 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho is arrested on "suspicion of responsibility for the military nature of the events of November 25", after approval by the Conselho da Revolução of the Preliminary Report of the Comissão de Inquérito ao 25 de Novembro (Commission of Inquiry into November 25th).

[A] 1976 - The Spanish government drafts 70,000 railway workers to crush strike.

1990 - Alexander Aronovich Pechersky (Алекса́ндр Аро́нович Пече́рский; b. 1909), Soviet-Jewish POW and co-organiser and leader of the Sobibor Uprising on October 14, 1943, the most successful revolt and mass-escape of Jews from a Nazi extermination camp during World War II, dies. [see: Feb. 22]

1990 - Herbert Richard Wehner (b. 1906), German politician, one-time anarchist activist, then a communist and latterly a SPD MP and government minister, dies. [see: Jul. 11]

2008 - 18 years old anti-fascist member of SkinHead Aganst Racial Prejudice (SHARP) Jan Kucera (b. 1990) dies of the stab wounds sustained in an attack by a neo-Nazi the evening before. [see: Jan. 18]

[C] 2009 - Anastasia Eduardovna Baburova (Анастасия Эдуардовна Бабурова; b. 1983), Russian journalist, anarchist and ecological activist, is shot dead, together with Russian lawyer and human rights activist Stanislav Markelov, by a neo-Nazi militant outside press conference in Moscow. Their deaths sparked widespread protests and in November 2009 their killer, neo-Nazi killer Nikita Tikhonov, and his girlfriend, Yevgenia Khasis, were arrested. In May 2011 they were both convicted of the murders, Tikhonov being sentenced to life imprisonment, and Khasis to 18 years in prison.
Active in Autonomous Action and various eco groups, Baburova also worked for 'Novaya Gazeta' and regularly wrote articles about the activities of neo-Nazis in Russia.

[C] 2009 - Stanislav Yuryevich Markelov (Станисла́в Ю́рьевич Марке́лов; b. 1974), Russian lawyer and human rights activist, who supported persecuted Russian anti-fascists, is shot dead alongside Russian journalist, anarchist and ecological activist Anastasia Baburova by a neo-Nazi militant outside a press conference in Moscow.
1862 - Augustin Frédéric Adolphe Hamon (d.1945), French anarchist, sociologist and later a socialist, born. Author of 'Psychology of the Anarchist-Socialist' (1895). [expand]

1901 - Fransesco Giovanni (Frank) Fantin (d. 1942), Italian-Australian anarchist and anti-fascist, who was murdered by fascist fellow internees in an Australian internment camp, born.

1902 - Juan Garcia Oliver (d. 1980), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndialist and Minister of Justice in the Republican government, born. [expand]

1914 - Georges Henein (d. 1973), Egyptian surrealist author and Trotskyist who was sympathetic to anarchism, born.
"Anarchy is the victory of the mind over certainty."
"I have come to a growing sympathy with the anarchists whose attitude despite (or because of) its innocence, is fine, consistent and honest … In truth, what is tearing me away from the strategy of the Fourth International is its lack of passion, which combines with an overabundance of plans. With Trotsky, there was passion, nobility, the explosion of gunpowder. I see nothing of these in the voice or the bearing of his successors." - letter to anarchist Nicolas Calas, explaining Henein's frustration with the politics of the Fourth International.

[A] 1934 - Nazis abolish collective bargaining and union elections in Germany.

1937 - First edition of the daily newspaper 'Aragon Nuevo', "Boletin del Consejo de Defensa" (Bulletin of the Defence Council).

1938 - Émile Cohl (Émile Eugène Jean Louis Courtet; b. 1857), French caricaturist, cartoonist, and animator, dies. [see: Jan. 4]

[C] 1942 - Nazi officials hold the notorious Wannsee conference in Berlin deciding on a 'final solution' calling for the extermination of Europe's Jews. The documents produced at the conference show not only the truth of Hannan Arendt's phrase "the banality of evil" but also prove that these were not mere bureaucrats rubber-stamping someone else's plans for the extermination of the Jews of Europe, but that they were committed ideologues finalising the plans for a key part of the architecture that they collectively saw would bring about the millennial Thousand Year Reich.

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: Galician anti-Francoist Jorge Soutomaior, the nom de guerre of José Hernández Vázquez who had been a captain in the Spanish Republican navy, and 19 other Direcção Revolucionária Ibérica de Libertação (DIRL; Revolutionary Directorate for Iberian Liberation) members board the TN Santa Maria in La Guaira, Venezuela, prior to their hijacking of the vessel during the night of January 21st-22nd January. [see: Jan. 21]

2008 - Jan Kučera (b. 1990), an 18 years old anti-fascist member of SkinHead Aganst Racial Prejudice (SHARP), who was stabbed in the groin and back two days earlier in Pribram in the Czech Republic, dies in hiospital, a victim of the ongoing battle against fascism. [see: Jan. 18]
1939 - Rafael Torres Escartín (b. 1901), Aragonese former member of Los Solidarios who, having had a death sentence (passed on him for his part in the assassination of Cardinal Soldevilla in 1923) commuted to life, lost his sanity while in prison and was sent to an asylum upon his release in 1931, is taken out by fascist troops and shot in Barcelona. [see: Dec. 20]

1950 - Eric Arthur Blair (aka George Orwell; b. 1903), dies in London aged 46. [see: Jun. 25]

1956 - Ricardo Peña Vallespin (b. 1908), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, and novelist, who was part of the artistic and theatrical group Mistral, dies. [see: Nov. 15]

[C] 1961 - Operação Dulcineia: Spanish, Portuguese and South American activists hijack Portuguese liner Santa Maria to protest the Franco and Salazar dictatorships.
During the night of January 21st-22nd January, 1961, a group of 24 Direcção Revolucionária Ibérica de Libertação (DIRL; Revolutionary Directorate for Iberian Liberation) insurrectionists, mostly composed of Portuguese and Spanish veterans of the Civil War launched 'Operação Dulcineia' (Operation Dulcinea) in protest against the dictatorships of Franco in Spain and Salazar in Portugal. Under the command of Henrique Galvão, a former cavalry captain in the Portuguese army, and the Galician anti-Francoist Jorge Soutomaior, the nom de guerre of José Hernández Vázquez who had been a captain in the Spanish Republican navy, the fantastic [in all senses of the word] plan was to take over the luxury liner Santa María and sail it to the vicinity of the island Fernando Pó, in the Gulf of Guinea, abandon it and seize a gunboat and heavy weapons from the Spanish garrison there, and then sail to Luanda and take power in the Portuguese colony of Angola, installing a Portuguese "provisional government" and thus sparking armed uprisings against the peninsula’s two dictatorships.
On board the Santa María were more than 600 passengers, including Soutomaior and 19 other DIRL members who had embarked in La Guaira, Venezuela, and 356 crewmembers when it arrived in Curaçao in the Dutch Antilles the following day. Galvão boarded the liner with three of his men close to the sailing time of 19:00 as his face was well-know to many Portuguese and it was imperative that he was not recognised before the group's plans were put into action.
Towards midnight the rebels split into three groups in order to launch Operação Dulcineia at 01:30. The plan however got off to a bad start with a disagreement between Soutomaior, who was to lead the attack on the bridge and the pilothouse, and Galvão, who was to seize the second deck where the cabins of the captain and other senior officers were located - whilst a third group would seize the radio room, and time vital to its success was wasted in arguing over the exact method that should be employed in taking the bridge. So, instead of at 01:30, it was not until sometime between 01:45 [the time claimed by Galvão] and 02:45 that the bridge was stormed. During this the third pilot, Joao do Nascimento Costa, was shot and fatally wounded and the navigator, João de Souza, in the chartroom was shot, as was Dr. Cicero Leite, who had come to investigate the gunshots. The ship's captain Mário Simões Maia, having discovered armed men on the bridge, retreated to his cabin and telephoned the engine room, ordering the engines to be stopped. Meanwhile, three guerrillas had also taken the radio station before any alert could be broadcast.
Later, the captive crew of the Santa María were offered three alternatives for surrender: join the insurgents, become prisoners of war, or continue performing their duties under guard provided they do not try to resist the plans of the insurgents. Maia and his officers chose the latter and later that morning Maia and Galvão, dressed in a rather ostentatious uniform of his own creation, announced to the ship's passengers that they would not now be going to Miami but would instead be allowed to disembark safely in the next four days when the insurgents had made good their escape.
The delay in beginning the takeover of the ship, initially timed to allow the unlit ship to be unable to quit the Caribbean before dawn and cross the Atlantic undetected, was now further complicated by the fact that the ship's infirmary was unable to cope with de Souza's wounds and he need to be evacuated in order to prevent a second Operação Dulcineia death. Galvão decided to give permission to the evacuation of the wounded, having finally persuaded initially reluctant Spanish contingent that it was necessary, and the 2 seriously injured together with 5 crew members were let off in a lifeboat early on the morning of January 23rd two miles out from the St Lucia port of Castries. The Santa María then set sail at full speed.
On St Lucia the British authorities were alerted, as were the Portuguese owners of the liner. The hijacking came as a huge shock to the Salazar regime, not least because it was the British that told them rather than the ship's crew. However, the Portuguese public remained ignorant of the events until after the hijacking's end thanks to the iron censorship exerted over the media by the regime. Meanwhile, two distinct governmental responses to the hijacking took form. Immediately following Salazar's denunciation of the rebels as mere pirates, denying any political links between them and the opposition in Portugal to his regime. He therefore called on his NATO allies to intervene. France and the Netherlands refused and the American and British governments both began searches for the Santa María. At the same time, began to take Galvão's declaration that the hijacking was a political action (and therefore not an act of piracy according to International Law) seriously and, deciding that discretion was the better part of valour. Both now felt free to not intervene; the Tory cabinet bowing to Labour Party pressure and calling off the British navy's search but the Americans continued their search deploying a nuclear submarine and destroyers to locate the liner and the 38 US passengers in First Class.
Back on the ship itself, now renamed the Santa Liberdade, her new name painted in red letters on a banner hung in front of the bridge, and despite days of effort to indoctrinated the crew and especially the third class passengers - involving the distribution of anti-government pamphlets, the reading of anti-fascist poetry over the loudspeaker system and the creation of a new black, red, white and yellow-banded flag, together with attempts to breakdown the hierarchy among the crew and among the passengers - only five crew members joined their ranks [the rebels claim up to 50 passengers went over to their side too but there is little evidence beyond their own later accounts]. In fact, Maia and some of his crew were actively trying to thwart the rebels, claiming shortages of fuel and water, the former 'forcing' them to slow the ship's progress, and interfering with radio communication, even preventing Galvão's requests for asylum from the governments of Ghana, Guinea and Senegal. This would in fact help the would-be insurrectionists as Portuguese, American and Spanish warships were already patrolling the West African coast in wait for the rebel liner. Stung by the Portuguese government's claim that the rebels were mere pirates, he fought back making a statement on the 24th of the true reasons behind the hijack: he publicly denounced Salazar’s regime, emphasising that theirs was an act of political protest which called for the end of Portugal's New State dictatorship.
Then on January 25, the Danish freighter Fishe Gulua spotted the Santa Liberdade some 900 miles off of Trinidad. The following day an American plane also spotted them some 700 miles from the mouth of the Amazon en route to Africa. On the 27th, four American destroyers also began to 'escort' the liner, with Galvão now happily accepting the U.S. navy's protection "against action from Portuguese warships" according to his book on Operação Dulcineia, 'Santa María: My Crusade for Portugal' (1961). With the liner now, as Galvão thought, running out of water and fuel and the Americans now beginning to apply pressure for the rebels to release the passengers, something that they had already promised to do.
Brazil was the most logical point the passengers could be offloaded, the ship's fuel, water and food stores replenished before recommencing their African escapade, but Galvão believed that he could not trust the Brazilian president Kubitschek, who had already refused him asylum once previously. However a new president, Jânio Quadros, was due to be inaugurated as Brazil’s next president on January 31, so Galvão decided to try and link the passengers' release with Brazil granting the rebels asylum, and to enlist the US's assistance in aim. Meanwhile, the Portuguese government were far from happy with the Americans' handling, double-dealing as they saw it, of the situation, and demanded that they paid more attention to the fate of the ship's crew, fearing that they might be used as hostages in the future. Also, with the passengers out of the way, the Santa María would then become exclusively a Portuguese problem.
On January 27, Galvão contacted Admiral Robert Dennison, Commander in Chief of the US Navy's Atlantic Fleet who had been in contact with the Santa María since the 25th, asking for negotiations on the transfer of the passengers. The following day, the liner changed course at midday and headed towards the port of Recife to rendezvous with Dennison's representative Admiral Allen Smith 50 miles off the Brazilian coast. On January 30, the two sides held talks for 3 hours, with the rebels desperate to string things out until after the new president's inauguration and the admiral tasked with preventing any transfer of passengers at sea, the potential of which for disaster was high. To that end, they guaranteed not to hinder the Santa Liberdade putting to sea afterwards, paving the way for direct negotiations between the rebels and Brazilian officials over the following days.
By January 31st, the tension surrounding the negotiations with the Brazilians is lightened by the attempt by photojournalist, Giles Delamare, to parachute onto the Santa María. Missing the deck, he fell into the sea nearby and was picked up by an approached tugboat bringing a group of journalists from Brazil. Fellow French photographer Charles Bonnay was less fortunate. Jumping at the same time as Delamare, he ended up being rescued by a US Navy launch and had to spend 3 days after being hauled before Admiral Smith and given a dressing down for defying the US ban on newsmen attempting to board the liner. Meantime, Delamare got his story, which appeared, in 'Paris Match' on February 4th.
Then, on February 1, the day of his inauguration, the new Brazilian President Jânio Quadros sent a telegram to Galvão, in which he offered the rebels political asylum. Below decks the passengers were beginning to loose patience with the rebels.
In Third Class, passengers had formed an action committee and were planning to attempt to recapture the ship if they were not allowed to disembark by midday on February 2nd. Their plan was to announce this via a demonstration in First Class two hours prior to the deadline. Just as Brazilian officials arrived onboard, more than 100 passengers and crew began to chant "freedom for all" and "save us, save us". A rebel was pushed through a plate glass door but Brazilian marines intervened and a Brazilian Navy officer reassured the passengers that they would be able to disembark. Faced with further potential passenger rebellions and hostile naval forces closing in on them, Galvão accepted the Brazilians' suggestion to allow the passengers to leave immediately and to continue negotiations on the issues of the crew and reprovisioning. The liner would enter the harbour and those that wanted to leave could and the ship would return to its offshore anchorage; the rebels would not surrender and their talks with the Brazilians would continue.
A vote amongst the crew as to who would stay and who would disembark provided the final blow to the rebels, with only 5 of the 356 crew deciding to remain. The ship was effectively dead in the water as it entered Recife’s harbour and dropped anchor 350m off the quay. By 12:00 on February 2nd the first of three tugs arrived to ferry the passengers and crew ashore. It carried carrying sixty Brazilian marines and a contingent of newsmen who came on board to witness the debarkation. The marines would sleep on the deck that night whilst Galvão slipped onshore to give an exclusive interview to Dominique Lapierre and 'Paris Match' for the princely sum of $2000.
At 10:00 on February 3rd, Galvão, now back on board, recommences negotiations with the Brazilians but now his hand contained no winners and the rebels eventually agreed to hand over the Santa Maria. At 18:00 the insurgents gave up their weapons and, after a short ceremony, took down the Santa Liberdade and DRIL banners, gathered up their possessions and went into exile in Brazil. The following day, the Santa Maria was officially handed over to a military attaché from the Portuguese embassy in Rio de Janeiro and by nightfall Maia and his crew were back on board. On February 5, most of the Santa Maria's passengers resume their journeys on board the hijacked liner’s sister ship, the Vera Cruz, and the Santa Maria itself set sail for Portugal two days later. On February 17, the Santa Maria Lisbon entered harbour to be greeted by a flotilla of yachts, tugs, fishing boats and other vessels, and a crowd of 300,000 amongst who was Salazar who, rather theatrically, welcomed the liner, saying: "The Santa Maria is with us. Thank you, Portugal." The crowd responded with cries of "Long live Salazar" and "Long live Portugal" as though it was some sort of victory.
But, for the Salazar regime, the Santa Maria incident would be just one of a long list of setbacks for the New State dictatorship in 1961:
· issuing of the Programa para a Democratização da República (Program for the Democratisation of the Republic), signed by 62 leading Republican and Socialist opponents of the regime on January 31 [all later arrested by the PIDE secret police];· also in January 1961 was the violent suppression of a cotton workers strike in Angola, causing hundreds of deaths; on February 4th [now known as the official day of the beginning of the armed struggle for national liberation in Angola] there was a failed attempt by a large group of MPLA-linked guerrillas in Luanda to set free political prisoners held in the São Paulo Casa de Reclusão Militar (Military Prison), leaving 40 guerrillas dead as well 6 police officers killed for their weapons; also attacked at the same time in Luanda were the headquarters of a Polícia de Segurança Pública (Public Security Police) unit, the CTT (Post, Telegraph and Telephone) and the national broadcaster;· in March members of the Bacongo tribes in northern Angola rose up as part of a terror campaign organised by the Union of Angolan Peoples, killing around 1200 white settlers but resulting in the deaths of 5 times as many Africans;· on April 13 an attempted military coup led by the minister of defence Júlio Botelho Moniz was narrowly avoided, hours before the army was to have seized all key government offices;· the August 1st invasion and occupation of Portugal's São João Baptista de Ajudá fortress in the Dahomey Republic by Benin troops;· on November 10 the famous Operação Vagô, planned in large part by Henrique Galvão again, took place with the hijacking of a Portuguese national airline's regular Casablanca-Lisbon flight and the carrying out mass drops of 100,000 anti-government leaflets over Lisbon, Barreiro, Beja and Faro; and· the year would end in December (18-19), with the loss of the Portuguese territories in India - Goa, Daman and Diu, invaded by the Indian army; followed by the New Year's Eve assault on the Third Army Division barracks at Beja led by Captain Varela Gomes.[visualizingportugal.com/opp-vn5-1-santa-maria/

1961 - Blaise Cendrars (born Frédéric-Louis Sauser; b. 1887), Swiss Modernist novelist, amputee left-handed poet, adventurer, soldier, failed film director and an anarchist fellow-traveller who never fully committed himself to the movement, dies. [see: Sep. 1]

1963 - Franz Jung (b. 1888), German Expressionist then Dadaist writer, novelist, playwright, economist, journalist and one-time anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 26]

[A] 1970 - A Chicago coroner's jury rules the police murder of Black Panther Fred Hampton was "justifiable" despite his being drugged by a FBI informant and consequently asleep in his bed at the time of his assassination.

1971 - Vincenzo de Waure, an engineering student, leader in student revolts of '68 and active antifascist from Naples, is attacked in the Piazzale Tecchio and then set on fire in an obviously politically motivated murder.

1998 - Paul David 'Charlie' Sargent, 37, former leader of the neo-Nazi group Combat 18 and fellow C18 member Martin Cross, 35, are jailed for life for the murder on February 10, 1997, of 28 year-old C18 member Christopher 'Catford Chris' Castle. Castle had been acting as a go-between in a dispute over control of C18 and the running of Blood and honour and the lucrative neo-Nazi music scene when he was stabbed in the back by former Skrewdriver guitarist Cross using a nine-inch (22 cm) blade. 'Charlie' Sargent had been kicked out of C18 following allegations that he was a security service spy.

2015 - Lutz Bachmann, the founder of the German anti-Islamicist group Pediga, is forced to resign when a photograph of him posing as Adolph Hilter, replete with moustance and fringe, surfaces on the cover of the 'Dresden Morgenpost'. Also, posts on his facebook page included one of a photograph of a man wearing the uniform and pointed hat of the Ku Klux Klan with the caption: "Three K’s a day keeps the minorities away."; other messages saying asylum seekers acted like "scumbags" at the welfare office and that extra security was needed "to protect employees from the animals."
[B] 1879 - Francis Picabia (Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; d. 1953), French painter, illustrator, designer, poet, writer, editor and "congenial anarchist", born. [expand]

1880 - Alphonse Tricheux (d.1957), French militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and pacifist, born.

1893 - Michal Mareš (Josef Mareš; b. 1971), Czech writer, poet, journalist and anarchist, born. 'Přicházím z Periferie Republiky' (I Come From the Periphery of the Republic; 2009) is his posthumous testimony of the horrors of post-war communist Czechoslovakia.

[C] 1900 - Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Busch (d. 1980), German singer and actor, born. Joined the Sozialistische Arbeiter-Jugend (SAJ; Socialist Workers Youth) in 1916 and the Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (USPD; Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany) following the November revolution. Noted for his cabaret performances, his interpretations of political songs, including those of Erich Mühsam and Kurt Tucholsky, and for his theatre and silent film work. In 1928 Ernst Busch joined the Berlin Volksbühne, the workers' theatre of the workers and the Piscator-Bühne, acting in plays by Friedrich Wolf, Bertolt Brecht, Ernst Toller and Erich Mühsam, including the latter's 'Judas. Arbeiter-Drama in fünf Akten' (Judas. Workers drama in five acts; 1921) and 'Staatsräson. Ein Denkmal für Sacco und Vanzetti' (For reasons of State. A Monument to Sacco and Vanzetti; 1929).
He was lucky to escape one of the first SA raids at the artists' colony in Berlin-Wilmersdorf on 9 March 1933. Fleeing Germany, he first went to Holland, and from there to Belgium, Zurich, Paris, Vienna and finally the Soviet Union. In 1937 he travelled to Spain as a singer with the International Brigades where he gave out song books ('Brigada de las Canciones Internacionales'), sang before members of the International Brigades and recorded records and performed on the radio.
"Das singende Herz der Arbeiterklasse" (The Singing Heart of the working class) - Hanns Eisler

1903 - Helmut Rüdiger aka Rodriguez, Ivar Bergegren; Dashar, Stefan Stralsund (d. 1966), German author, journalist, anarcho-syndicalist and staunch anti-communist, and theorist of federalism, born. Rudiger fought in Spain with other German anarchists, such as Karl Einstein (Albert Einstein's nephew), and participated in the 'International Group' of the Durruti Column. [expand]
Having witnessed at first hand the ruthless liquidation of the CNT by the Stalinist in Spain, he is quoted as saying: "Since 1937 I hate the Communists as my actual mortal enemies."

1911 - Charles Laisant (d. 1952), French pacifist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Charles is part of a generational family of anarchistes: His father Albert Laisant, his brother Maurice and his grandfather Charles Ange Laisant (1841-1920), were all militant libertarians.

1913 - Helmut Kirschey (d. 2003), German construction worker, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. Originally a Social Democratic, he lost his father in World War I. His mother then joined the USPD, serving on the Elberfeld council for the KPD up to her death in 1924. All four of her sons became members of the Communist Youth Federation. In 1931, Kirschey joined the anarcho-syndicalist Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands (Free Workers’ Union of Germany; FAUD). He was arrested in March 1933 and imprisoned for several months, emigrating to Holland in November 1933. He went to Spain in August 1936, initially working in the German anarcho-syndicalists’ police service in Barcelona, which was put in charge of all German-speaking foreigners. Kirschey joined the International Company of the Durruti Column in February 1937. He took part in the May battles in Barcelona on the anarchist side. Kirschey was arrested along with other German anarcho-syndicalists in June 1937, and put into communist secret prisons in Barcelona and Valencia, and imprisoned in Segorbe from April 1938. After that he spent some time in France and Holland. In early 1939, Kirschey managed to enter Sweden, where he was not granted a residency permit and did not receive permission to work during the first years of his stay. Nevertheless, he continued to fight National Socialism in conjunction with the International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF), and survived the war.
In 2006 a one-hour documentary, 'A las Barricadas' about Helmut Kirschey's life by Volker Hoffmann, Dieter Nelles, Jörg Lange and Angelika Feld was released on DVD.

1945 - Else Lasker-Schüler (b. 1869), German-Jewish Expressionist poet and playwright, dies. [see: Feb. 11]

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: An attack on the Algiers-Kolea bus 25 kilometers from Algiers, leaves seven dead and three seriously injured. The Muslims on the bus were all spared.

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: Having successfully captured the bridge, radio room and the crew of the Santa Maria, Henrique Galvão negotiated the surrender of the crew and their agreement on their future conduct during the hijacking. They are given 3 alternatives: : join the insurgents, become prisoners of war, or continue performing their duties under guard provided they do not try to resist the plans of the insurgents. The ship's captain Mário Simões Maia and his officers agree to the latter.
At 07:20, Third officer Nascimento Costa, mortally wounded in the takeover of the bridge, dies. Later in the morning, after the playing of Tchaikovsky’s '1812 Overture' and the Portuguese national anthem through the ship's PA system, Maia and Galvão announce to the passengers that the ship has been hijacked and that they would all be allowed to disembark safely in the next four days when the insurgents had made good their escape from Carribean waters. [see: Jan. 21]

1960 - Labour Law No. 696 issued in Cuba, establishing labour control offices. All workers - employed and unemployed - are required to register under threat of punishment.

1963 - Johannes Nohl (d. 1882), German writer, anarchist pupil of Otto Gross, lover of Erich Mühsam and later one of Hermann Hesse’s analysts, dies. [see: Aug. 8]

1967 - 200 killed in Managua, Nicaragua by Somoza's American-trained National Guard during a protest against state violence.

1975 - In Almada, Portugal the first issue of the monthly magazine 'Voz Anarquista', produced by the Centre de Culture Libertaire, appears.
1891 - Antonio Gramsci (d. 1937), Italian philosopher/communist, born. [expand]

[C] 1921 - In response to fascist attacks in Italy, the Unione Anarchica Italiana launches a manifesto 'Against Reaction and Its Political Victims' which concludes with the call "Workers! Comrades! Defend the political victims and defend yourself to!". During January the trades councils in Modena, Bologna and Vicenza are damaged or destroyed as well as the office of the socialist newspaper 'La Difesa' in Florence.

1922 - Vernon Scannell (John Vernon Bain; d. 2007), British poet, author, one time professional boxer who wrote novels about the sport, WWII deserter, agricultural labourer, honorary Gypsy, member of the editorial collective of War Commentary and anarchist, born.

1940 - In Germany Jews are forbidden to buy shoes and leather.

1941 - Agustín Remiro Manero captured by the Secret Police in Portugal while acting as a courier for the British even though the Portugese PIDE secret police knew he was working for the Brits. Remiro, an anarquista, is turned over to Francoist authorities who torture him and condemn him to death.

1945 - Georges Gourdin (b. 1915), French anarchist and WWII Resistance partisan, dies in the Nazi camps of Elbruck. [see: Apr. 11]

1945 - Nikolaus Groß (b. 1898), German Christian trade unionists, leaders in the Katholischen Arbeiterbewegung (KAB; Catholic Worker Movement), resistance fighter against the Nazis and Nazi victims, who was later beatified by Pope John Paul II in 2001, hanged at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin following the July 20 plot to kill Hitler. [see: Sep. 30]

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: The 2 crew members seriously injured in the ship's takeover, together with 5 other crew, are let off in a lifeboat early on the morning two miles out from the St Lucia port of Castries as the ship's infirmary is unable to cope with their wounds. The Santa María, now renamed the Santa Liberdade, her new name painted in red letters on a banner hung in front of the bridge, then set sail at full speed on their south-eastern course. On the ship the insurrgents begin their attempts at indoctrinating the crew and especially the third class passengers - involving the distribution of anti-government pamphlets, the reading of anti-fascist poetry over the loudspeaker system and the creation of a new black, red, white and yellow-banded flag, together with attempts to breakdown the hierarchy among the crew and among the passengers, all with the aim of recruiting some to their cause as they will be unable to crew the ship across the Atlantic themselves. Only five crew members in the end joined their ranks [the rebels claim up to 50 passengers went over to their side too but there is little evidence beyond their own later accounts]
On St Lucia, Santa Lucia's Second Purser José dos Reis, who had been in command of the lifeboat, alerts the captain of the British frigate HMS Rothesay, which is in port, of the hijacking. The captain initially refuses to believe in the hijacking but Lord Oxford, the island's Administrator, says he witnessed a large white ship off the coast that morning and the Admiralty is informed. Reis also informs the Santa Maria's owners, the Companhia Colonial de Navegação (Colonial Navigation Company; CCN), who in turn informed the Portuguese government. Upon hearing the news, the prime minister Oliveira Salazar said of the rebels: "If I were them, I would have tried some kind of coup. For example, an attack on Cabinda or on one of the undefended Cape Verde islands and establish there, for at least a few hours, a type of government. It would be a great international scandal. Why are they so quiet?" This, more or less, was the insurrgents' plan, except that Salazar's version was a much more realisable one than Galvão's.
The search for the liner begins. [see: Jan. 21]

1962 - Fifteen Committee of 100 supporters stage a sit-in at House of Commons demanding halt to nuclear weapon tests.

1972 - Miguel García Vivancos (b. 1895), Spanish Naïve painter, militant anarchist and member of the Los Solidarios group, dies. [see: Apr. 19]

1977 - 19-year-old Spanish student Arturo Ruiz Garcia is shot and killed as a group of armed fascists attacked a pro-amnesty [Ley 46/1977, eventualy passed on October 15] march on the Calle Estrella de Madrid. The action is later claimed in a phone call to the 'Information' (Information) newspaper by the Alianza Apostólica Anticomunista (Anti-Communist Apostolic Alliance), aka Triple A.
Ruiz García, a student at the Bachillerato Unificado Polivalente (Unified Multipurpose School) and a member of the construction section of the Comisiones Obreras (CC.OO.) union. Police later linked José Ignacio Fernández Guaza aka 'El Frutero', who fled on the evening of the attack to France in the possession of 2 pistols (and then to Argentina), and an Argentinian former member of the pro-nazi Alianza Libertadora Nacionalista de Argentina, Jorge Cesarsky Goldstein. The latter is understood to have owned the gun that Fernández Guaza took off him during the attack and with which he fired the fatal shot. Goldstein, who was arrested two days later, was sentenced to six years in prison but irronically he only served 10 months in prison because he was amnestied in November 1977 under the law that his victim was demonstrating in favour of.

1986 - Joseph Beuys (b. 1921), German Fluxus, conceptualist and performance artist, sculptor, installation artist, graphic artist, art theorist, pedagogue of art, theosophist "anarchist and shaman", dies. [see: May 12]

1989 - Salvador Dali (b. 1904), Spanish Surrealist painter and self-publicitist, monarchist and fascist supporter who in his early years (falsely) claimed to be both an anarchist and communist, who also remained a life-long Catholic, dies. [see: May 11]

1999 - Maria Suceso Portales (b. 1904), Spanish anarchist militant and member of the Mujeres Libres, dies. [see: Mar. 4]
1869 - In Madrid, Giuseppe Fanelli (sent by Bakunin) gathers the first Spanish group to join the First International and sows the seeds of anarchism among the peasants and workers, with lasting effect for over the next century.

[B] 1890 - Jeanne Humbert (Jeanne Henriette Rigaudin; d. 1986), French writer, journalist, pacifist and anarchist militant, who fought for sexual freedom and the right to contraception and abortion, born. She was sent to prison alongside her companion Eugène Humbert for spreading neo-Malthusian propaganda in 1921. The secular godmother of Jean Vigo.

1937 - The first issue of the 'Boletin del Sindicato de la Industria Textil y de Badalona Fabril y su Radio' (Bulletin of the Union of Industry and Textile Factory of Badalona and Environs), a CNT-AIT monthly, is published.

1937 - A major conference entitled 'El Fascismo Internacional y la Guerra Antifascista Española', sponsored by Joan Garcia Oliver, the then Republic Justice Minister, the fourth in a series organised by the propaganda office of the CNT-FAI, is held in the Cinema Coliseum in Barcelona.

1942 - The Peace Pledge Union launches its Food Relief Campaign for occupied Europe.

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: Commodore Laurindo dos Santos is appointed to coordinate the search for the rebel liner, the military, civil and religious institutions in Portugal’s African colonies - Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and Angola - are put on high alert ,and the frigate Pêro Escobar and two patrol aircraft are dispatched to Ilha do Sal in the Cape Verde Islands (Franco also dispatches the cruise Canárias). Meanwhile, the Portuguese authorities are claing the hijacking is an act of piracy (something the US and British eventually discount, recognising its political nature) and call on their NATO allies for assisstance.
Stung by the Portuguese government's claim that the rebels were mere pirates, Galvão fought back making a statement over the ship's radio about the true reasons behind the hijack: he publicly denounced Salazar’s regime, emphasising that theirs was an act of political protest which called for the end of Portugal's New State dictatorship.
Meanwhile, the ship's crew was keeping up a low-level sabotage orperation, claiming that they were suffering shortages of fuel and water, the former 'forcing' them to slow the ship's progress, and interfering with radio communication, even preventing Galvão's requests for asylum from the governments of Ghana, Guinea and Senegal. [see: Jan. 21]

[C] 1967 - Renato Castiglioni (b. 1897), Italian socialist, anarchist, trades unionist and anti-fascist, who fought in Spain but was deported back to Italy & internal exile in 1940, dies. [see Mar. 29].

[CC] 1977 - Massacre of Atocha (Matanza de Atocha): Neo-fascists shoot dead five and injure four other leftists in Madrid during the Spanish transition to democracy after the death of Franco. The attack takes place in an office (55 Calle de Atocha) where specialists in labour law, members of the Comisiones Obreras (Workers' Commissions; CC.OO.) trade union, and of the then-clandestine Communist Party of Spain (PCE), have gathered.
Armed with Ingram M-10 sub-machine guns, the assassins are looking for Communist leader Joaquín Navarro, head of the CC.OO.'s Transport Syndicate. Failing to find him, the assassins decide to open fire on those present, killing five and injuring four. They first ran into Ángel Rodríguez Leál, an administrator who had returned from a nearby bar to retrieve some papers he had left in the office. After he is shot and killed, the attackers search the rest of the floor and discover eight lawyers in one of the offices. They line them up against the wall and shoot all eight. Labour lawyers Enrique Valdevira Ibáñez, Luis Javier Benavides Orgaz are killed instantly. Fellow labour lawyer Francisco Javier Sauquillo Pérez del Arco and law student Serafín Holgado de Antonio die shortly after being taken to hospital. Four others Alejandro Ruiz-Huerta Carbonell, Miguel Sarabia Gil, Luis Ramos Pardo and Dolores González Ruiz, partner of Francisco Sauquillo, are serious injured.
The joint funeral of the five was attended by over one hundred thousand people, the first mass demonstration on the left since the death of the dictator Franco.
Within days of the shootings, three men - Carlos García Juliá, José Fernandez Cerrá y Fernando and Fernando Lerdo de Tejada (nephew of the personal secretary of far-right party Fuerza Nueva's leader Blas Piñar) - were arrested for having carried out the attack, while Francisco Albadalejo Corredera, provincial secretary of the official transport union Sindicato Vertical, was arrested as the mastermind of the attack. Fernández Cerdá and García Juliá were sentenced to 196 years in prison each, and Albadalejo Corredera to 63 years. Tejada went on the run in 1979 whilst on bail, escaping to France, and then Chile and Brazil. Also arrested were Leocadio Jiménez Caravaca and Simón Ramón Fernández Palacios, veterans of the División Azul (Spaniards who volunteered to fight for the Nazis during WWII) who supplied the weapons, and Gloria Herguedas Herrando, the partner of Juliá, who was sentenced to a year in prison. García Juliá went on the run in 1994 whilst on parole and was arrested 2 years later in Bolivia on charges of trafficking 15 kilos of cocaine.

1977 - Lieutenant General Emilio Villaescusa Quilis, fromer member of the División Azul and high ranking Francoist officer, is kidnapped by GRAPO militants whilst riding his official vehicle. The kidnapping had a great political and social impact in Spain as it coincided with the recent kidnapping of the lawyer and Francoist politician Antonio Maria de Oriol (on December 11, 1976, also by GRAPO) and the Massacre of Atocha (which took place on the same day. However, on February 11th, police released Oriol and Villaescusa from where they were being held.

1977 - 21-year-old university student María Luz Nájera Julián dies in Madrid after being hit on the head by a smoke grenade fired by police at one of the numerous demonstrations across Spain protesting the death of Arturo Ruiz Garcia the previous day.

1978 - Robert Proix (b. 1895), French socialist, anarchist and pacifist, who was born in Jean-Baptiste André Godin's Familistère de Guise, a industrial workers community based on the principles of Fourier, dies. During WWII, he was interned in the Fort du Hâ in Bordeaux for helping Jews escape persecution. [see: Jan. 9]

1993 - Manuel Medina González (aka Manolo Medina i Ariel; b. 1903), Andalusian journalist, poet, writer, Mason, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, then a Falangist, dies. [see: Aug. 23]
1871 - Émile Roger (d. 1905), Ardennes anarchist, member of 'Les Desherities' (The Wretched) and 'Les Libertaires de Nouzon', born.

1882 - Francesco Cucca (d. 1947), Sardinian anarchist writer and poet, born. [expand]

1891 - Jules Chazanoff aka 'Chazoff' (d. 1946), French electrical worker, proofreader, anarchist, syndicalist, anti-fascist and anti-militarist, born. [expand]
In 1936, Louis Lecoin entrusted Lucien Haussard and him with the mission to find weapons and ammunition on behalf of the Committee of Supply for the anti-fascist militias and the CNT. In January and February 1939, he and Haussard were sent by Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste to the Pyrenean border to provide assistance to refugees fleeing Spanish fascism. The pair wrote a striking account ('Visions d'horreur et d'épouvante') of the living conditions in these camps for the newspaper 'SIA' in February 1939, and he later intervens to free Haussard who had been arrested in Perpignan for "fraudulent introduction of foreigners into France". During the occupation, he reorganised the syndicat des correcteurs in the 'union-free zone' of the Lyon area (zone libre). Denounced as a communist for his work with the syndicat des électriciens, he was arrested by the Germans and interned at the Tourelles barrackes from July 2 to October 16 1941. During his detention he fell ill and had his stomach removed - the German Major in charge of the sick at Tenon hospital told him to "go off and die on your own" when releasing him. He then worked in the restaurants sociaux in the rue Pierre Lescot in Halles. November 18, 1943, he was arrested again after being denounced as a Jew, and interned at Drancy camp (north of Paris) in January 1944. He was released by the Allies on August 18, 1944, but having contracted tuberculosis, he could not now work and he died September 19, 1946.

1899 - Vincenzo Perrone (d. 1936), Italian railway worker, sales representative and anarchist, born. He fought in the Italian army during WWI and was sent to Tripoli during military operations against the Libyan revolt. Discharged from the army in December 1920, he enrolled in the Salerno section Combattenti ed ex Arditi di Guerra. A functionary in the State Railways, he attend some strikes and was fired for his political activities. As a suspected member of the anti-fascist Italia Libera (Free Italy), he was arrested on 29 April, 1925 in a group of communist militants as they tried to hold a May Day demonstration. In July 1925, he and the militant anarchist Gerardo Landi left Salerno and settled in Milan, where he frequented libertarian circles, and became an anarchist. He returned to Salerno in August 1926 and was caught up in one of the numerous fascist police raids 2 months later and was sentenced to 15 days in prison for "carrying a knife". Upon his release, he was sentenced to five years confinement and sent to various prison colonies (Favignata, Ponça and Lipari). With comrades Emilio Lussu, Francesco Fausto Nitti and Carlo Rosselli, he participated in a project to escape from the island of Lipari. In August 1928, he was brought before a Special Court for "communist activities", but was eventually acquitted for lack of evidence. In February 29, 1932 he was released and, in November 1933, crossed clandestinely in France and then into Switzerland, where in Geneva he contacted Luigi Bertoni. In March 1934, he went to Tunisia where, with the help of fellow anarchist militants Luigi Damiani, Antonio Casubolo and Giulio Barresi, to obtained permission to reside there, working as a sales representative and making numerous trips to France. In July 1936, when he was in Paris when war broke out in Spain, and he was in the first group of Italian anarchists (including Camillo Berneri, Mario Girotti, Giuseppe Bifolchi, Vincenzo Perrone, Ernesto Bonomini, Enzo Fantozzi, etc.) who went to Catalonia to fight the fascist uprising. He enlisted in the Batalló Giacomo Matteotti in the Italian section of the Ascaso Column, led by Carlo Roselli and Mario Angeloni, and fought on the Aragon front. On August 28, 1936, he was one of the first Italians (along with Mario Angeloni, Fosco Falaschi and Vicenzo Perrone) to die in the fighting in the Battle of Monte Pelado.

1923 - Kurt Gustav Wilckens, German anarchist pacifist emigrant, assassinates Colonel Varela aka the 'Killer of Patagonia' (so named for his role in the rounding up and summary execution of 1,500 workers, many of them anarchists) in Buenos Aires.

1937 - The Consell d'Economía de Cataluyna (Catalan Economic Council) launches a campaign called the Batalla de l'Ou (Battle of the Egg), designed to alleviate the scarcity of eggs in the region.

1938 - The first issue of the clandestine Spanish anarchist newspaper 'El Incontrolado' (The Uncontrolled) is published.

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: The Danish freighter Fishe Gulua spoted the Santa Liberdade some 900 miles off of Trinidad, heading south-east. The Commander-in-Chief of the Atlantic Fleet of the U.S. Navy, Admiral Robert Dennison, is now in radio contact with Galvão and begins to apply pressure for the rebels to release their passengers, something that they had already promised to do. Brazil was the most logical point the passengers could be offloaded, the ship's fuel, water and food stores replenished before recommencing their African escapade, but Galvão believed that he could not trust the Brazilian president Kubitschek, who had already refused him asylum once previously. However a new president, Jânio Quadros, was due to be inaugurated as Brazil’s next president on January 31, so Galvão decided to try and link the passengers' release with Brazil granting the rebels asylum, and to enlist the US's assistance in aim. Meanwhile, the Portuguese government were far from happy with the Americans' handling, double-dealing as they saw it, of the situation, and demanded that they paid more attention to the fate of the ship's crew, fearing that they might be used as hostages in the future. Also, with the passengers out of the way, the Santa María would then become exclusively a Portuguese problem. [see: Jan. 21]

1961 - Military coup deposes El Salvador government.

[C] 1979 - A gang of fascists in black uniforms with 'Anti-Communist League' badges on break into a film show organised by the Brighton Campaign for Homosexual Equality and the Sussex University Gay Group in the Wagner Hall. [PR]
1877 - Kees van Dongen (Cornelis Theodorus Maria van Dongen; d. 1968), Dutch painter, cartoonist on the anarchist magazine 'La Revue Blanche' and one of the founders of Fauvism, born. [expand]
Participated, alongside fellow Fauvists André Derain and Maurice de Vlaminck, in the November 1941 Weimar congress of European artists organised by the Nazi "official state sculptor" Arno Breker, and was considered a collaborationist post-WWII.

1887 - Mikhael Guerdjikov (d. 1947), Bulgarian anarchist influenced by Bakuninist ideas who started the first Bulgarian anarchist paper, 'Free Society', born. [expand]

1897 - Erwin Blumenfeld (d. 1969), German-Jewish photographer, Dadaist collage artist, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, born.
"Dadaism was a good vehicle from which to launch darts at all those aspects of society for which he felt contempt… he was intensely disillusioned with capitalism, nationalism, communism…all the isms except Dadaism and anarchism." - Yorick Blumenfeld, on his father.

1912 - Emilio Vilardaga Peralba (d. 1969), Catalan militant anarcho-syndicalist and member of the 'Tierra y Libertad' column, who was imprisoned under Franco, born. [expand]

1918 - Malka (Mala) Zimetbaum (d. 1944), a Belgian woman of Polish Jewish descent, known for her escape from the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp (the first woman and the first Jewish woman to do so) and the resistance she displayed at her execution following the escape's failure, born. [see: Sep. 15]

[C] 1924 - The People's Defence Force (PDF) issues a statement following its founding at the 1917 Club in Soho by the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB), stating that the "existence of a militant body calling itself the British Fascisti obviously inspired by the example of the Italian reactionaries ... calls for a corresponding force pledged to resist any interference with the due operation of the constitution." The PDF described itself as a “…non-aggressive, legalistic organization and even commended the police as a model to all its members. …independent but nevertheless aligned to the ‘workers movement’…’keep a watchful eye on the activities of the Fascisti…”

[B] 1924 - Armand Gatti, prolific French libertarian playwright, poet, journalist, screenwriter, film-maker and Maquis member, born. Captured by the Germans during WWII, he was tortured and sentenced to a concentration camp in Hamburg where he was forced to work in a diving bell at the bottom of the Baltic Sea. Gatti eventually escaped and made his way back into France on foot, and then to London where he joined a British Special Air Service special forces parachutist team. Post-war he became a journalist successively for 'Le Parisien Libere', 'Paris-Match', 'France Observateur', 'L'Express' and 'Libération', in order to pay for his travel and political adventures. He abandoned his journalism in 1959 to devote himself to the theatre. His works include the plays 'Chant Public Devant Deux Chaises Électriques' (Public Singing Before 2 Electric Chair; 1966) - on Sacco and Vanzetti; 'La Colonne Durruti' (The Durruti Column; 1972); 'La Passion du Général Franco par les Émigrés Eux-Mêmes' (The Passion of General Franco by the Émigrés Themselves; 1976). Husband of Hélène Châtelain, French actress (in Chris Marker's 'La Jetée'), writer, filmmaker and director of the film 'Nestor Makhno, un Paysan d’Ukraine' (1995).

1935 - Maria Paula Figueiroa Rego, Portuguese-born British feminist and anti-fascist/Salazar painter, collagist and printmaker, born. She was married to the British anarchist painter Victor Willing.

1939 - Following the unsuccessful attempt by the remnants of the Republican army to defend the front at the Llobregat river, Barcelona falls to the fascists. Fascist sympathisers and staunch Catholics crawl out of the woodwork to greet their entry into the city as hundreds of thousands continue to flood across the border into France during what became known as La Retirada (The Retreat).

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: In the ten minutes between 17:00 and 17:10, female FLN operatives (the prefered bomb couriers) again planted bombs in European Algiers, the targets being the popular student café-bar the Otomatic on Rue Michelet, the Cafétéria milk bar and the Coq-Hardi brasserie - Danièle Minne, accompanied by Zahia Kerfallah because as this was her first mission, planting the Otomatic bomb, Zoubida Fadila the one at the Cafétéria, and Djamila Bouazza at the Coq-Hardi. The first bomb in the Otomatic went off at 17:24 and the other two at 18:35, the three explosions leaving 4 dead and 50 wounded. In retaliation a Muslim was lynched on the spot by Pied-Noirs.
www.histoire-en-questions.fr/guerre algerie/alger-attentats-otomatic.html
www.histoire-en-questions.fr/guerre algerie/alger-attentats-milkbar.html

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: An American plane spots the Santa Maria some 700 miles from the mouth of the Amazon en route to Africa. The liner is now under constant American surveillance. At the first official US press conference on the affair, President Kennedy states that the Navy has been instructed not to board the liner. [see: Jan. 21]

1970 - In Manila 20,000 riot following Marcos' State of the Nation address.

1978 - The NF hold a meeting in Tameside Town Hall, with two thousand anti-racists protesting outside, while two hundred supporters of the National Front meet inside, and two thousand two hundred police are required to keep the meeting open.

1986 - Alfonso Failla (b. 1906), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist fighter, who took part in the armed resistance against the fascist squadristi in the 1925 Siracusa Uprising and who spent many years interned on the island of Ponza by the fascist regime, dies. [see: Jul. 30]
1513 - African slaves are introduced into the island of Puerto Rico.

1606 - Guy Fawkes and his fellow conspirators tried, convicted and sentenced to be hung, drawn and quartered.

1842 - François Dumartheray (d. 1931), French anarchist communist and member of the First International, born.

[B] 1875 - Juana Belén Gutiérrez de Mendoza (d. 1942), Mexican anarcho-feminist activist, typographer, journalist and poet, born. [expand]


[C] 1916 - Stjepan-Stevo Filipović (d. 1942), Yugoslavian communist and anti-fascist partisan who was executed during World War II, born. Shortly before his death, and in front of an audience forced out to watch his hanging, he was seen to shout "Smrt fašizmu, sloboda narodu!" (Death to fascism, freedom to the people!), an incident captured in an iconic photograph.

1922 - Francisco Martínez Márquez, aka 'Paco' (d. 1922), Catalan anarchist and anti-Francoist guérilla, born. [see: Oct. 21]

1945 - Auschwitz/Oswiecim concentration camp is liberated by the 322nd Rifle Division of the Red Army. In 1996, January 27 was chosen as the Gedenktag für die Opfer des Nationalsozialismus (Anniversary for the Victims of National Socialism) in Germany. On January 27 2000, the date was also chosen by representatives from forty-four governments to mark International Holocaust Remembrance Day, starting from 2001. In 2004 The United Nations voted, by 149 votes out of 191, to formally commemorate the Holocaust on that date.

1952 - UFER, the International Movement for Fraternal Union Among Races and Peoples, is formed in Paris.

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: Four American destroyers, including the USS Robert L. Wilson, USS Demato, USS Gearing, and the atomic submarine USS Sea Wolf, now begin to 'escort' the liner, with Galvão happily accepting the U.S. navy's protection "against action from Portuguese warships" according to his book on Operação Dulcineia, 'Santa María: My Crusade for Portugal' (1961). On board the Demato was Admiral Allen Smith, commissioned to negotiate with Galvão on behalf of Admiral Dennison. Worried about the fransfer of the ship's passengers, Galvão sent Admiral Dennison an urgent request for a meeting on board the Santa Maria to work out the details concerning the offloading of the passengers. A meeting is set up between with Admiral Allen Smith at noon on the 28th on board the liner in international waters fifty miles off the Brazilian port of Recife.
Meanwhile, as part of the insurrgents' 'hearts and minds' campaign, some of the rebels turned up at the dance being held in the ship’s lounge. Gone were the drab khaki uniforms and red-green national armbands. Instead the rebels wore tropical business suits or sports shirts and slacks. They were an instant success with the female attendants. Before long, American women, enchanted by their captors’ Latin courtliness, found themselves in the arms of history’s strangest 'pirates' as they danced the night away. [see: Jan. 21]

1971 - Angry Brigade's Communique 5 received by the Press Association.

1978 - In an interview for the ITV current affairs programme 'World in Action', Conservative MP and future prime minister Margaret Thatcher claims that British people fear being 'swamped' by immigrants from the new Commonwealth and Pakistan.

1987 - Clara Thalmann-Ensner (b. 1910), Swiss revolutionary and anarchist, fought in the Spanish Revolution, founded Serena Commune in Nice in 1953 with her husband Pavel, dies.
I am going to make the revolution in the the sky” - Clara Thalmann, 1953.
1922 - Wenceslao Jiménez Orivee aka 'Wences' & 'Jimeno' (d. 1950), Asturian industrial designer, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who led the 'Los Maños' guérilla group (maño being a slang term for natives of Aragon) in the resistance to Franco following the fascist victory in the Civil War, born. His father, a railroad worker, ticket collector and militant in the CNT, was arrested on the Zaragoza-Canfranc train and shot in Jaca the summer of 1936 by Francoists. Initially a member of a socialist youth group, Wenceslao had been arrested several times for distributing anti-Francoist literature before his 1946 meeting with libertarian activist Ignacio Zubizarreta Aspas. He subsequently joined the Federació Ibèrica de Joventuts Llibertàries (FIJL) and in August 1946 he was arrested in Zaragoza and brutally tortured. Released three months later, he took part in attempted attack against Franco in the Pierto Muela near Calatayud, which failed, and he joined a rural guérilla group. In July 1947 he was the Aragon delegate to the National plenary of Regional FIJL groups held in Madrid. Then, disappointed by the ineffectiveness of the guérillas went to France, where he worked for a time as a fitter in Lyon and Paris.
In Paris he was contacted by José Lluis 'Face' Facerias, joining his guérilla group and with whom he went to Spain on November 26, 1948. Following differences with Facerias, he formed his own group called Los Maños that would be active in Barcelona, Madrid and other regions. In Barcelona he participated in the expropriation of the Bank of Vizcaya and the attack against the informer Antonio Seba Amorós. On 9 March 1949, with the brothers José and Francisco 'El Quico' Sabaté Llopart, Simón Gracia Fleringan, Carlos Vidal Pasanau, Jose Lopez Penedo and Jose Lluis Facerias, he participated in the ambushing in Barcelona of what they believed to be the car of Eduardo Quintela Boveda, head of the Francoist secret police (Brigada Politico Social; BPS), who was not on board that day. Instead, they killed Manuel Piñol, the secretary of the Falangist Youth Front, and his driver. Subsequently the group carried out a string of armed robberies in Madrid, Malaga, Seville and France in order to fund an attempt on the life of Franco as he drove to his residence at the royal palace on Mount Pardo. A few months later they made a second, equally unsuccessful, attempt to blow up Franco’s convoy as it made its way up the steep winding road at La Cuesta de la Muela between Zaragoza and Madrid. The group then returned to Paris.
Meanwhile, in Spain, a huge number of other activists were being shot down in the streets of Barcelona, among who were close friends of Wences. Along with fellow Los Maños members Daniel G.M. aka 'Rodolfo', Salvador Luis Benito aka 'Salgado', Plácido Ortiz Gratal and Simón Gracia Fleringan, Wences left for Barcelona on December 22,1949, with the intention of investigating what had happened. However, traitors had penetrated his group as well. On January 2, 1950, the group was betrayed by a disaffected member, Aniceto Pardillo Manzanero aka 'el Chaval' (The Kid), and most were arrested on January 9, 1950. The same day Wenceslao was ambushed and shot without warning by police in a Barcelona street; wounded, and not wanting to fall into the hands of the forces of repression of the dictatorship, he committed suicide by taking a cyanide capsule that was mounted in the top of a pen that he carried.
Simón Gracia Fleringan was executed in Barcelona by firing squad on December 24 1950, together with Victoriano Muñoz Tresserras and Plácido Ortiz Gratal. Their bodies were thrown into a common, unmarked, grave. Los Maños group member Mariano Aguayo Morán was fortunate to have been in Paris when the group was betrayed in Barcelona and his testimony forms a major part of the 2013 book by Freddy Gómez, 'Los Maños: Anatomy of an Action Group'.

1943 - Procès des 42: 37 résistants amongst the 45 members of the Francs-tireurs et partisans (FTP; Partisan irregular riflemen) put on trial on January 15, are sentenced to death various counts of terrorism. The 3 résistants charged with theft receive prison sentences and a further 2 are ordered deported to German concentration camps. Three others are acquitted for lack of evidence, although the court did not consider them innocent. [see: Jan 15]

1944 - Gérard Duvergé (b. 1896), French teacher, anarchist and anti-fascist resistor, is arrested in France. He will die tomorrow under Gestapo interrogation. [see: Jun. 15]

1946 - At Bulmes Square (Santiago, Chile) eight workers are murdered by police and many more seriously injured by the police dogs.

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: In late January the FLN called an 8-day general strike across Algeria against French rule commencing on Monday 28 January - timed to coincide with a scheduled UN debate on the Algerian question. The strike initially appeared to be a success with most Muslim shops remaining shuttered, workers failed to turn up and children didn't attend school. However General Jacques Massu reacted swiftly, ordering his paratroopers into the Casbah at 07:00 that morning. There they used armored cars to pull the steel shutters off the storefronts of recalcitrant shopkeepers and forcing them to open up, while army trucks rounded up workers and schoolchildren and forced them to attend their jobs and studies. Within a few days the strike had been broken.
www.histoire-en-questions.fr/guerre algerie/alger-premiere-greve du fln.html]

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: The Santa Maria changes course towards Recife at noon. [see: Jan. 21]

1970 - Bomb attack on offices of the Spanish Cultural attache in Paris. [First of May Group]

[C] 1995 - ERROR
[B] 1905 - Barnett Newman (d. 1970), US abstract expressionist, colour field painter and life-long anarchist, born. Wrote 'The True Revolution is Anarchist' (1968) as a foreword to Kropotkin's ' Memoirs of a Revolutionist'. Little more than a week before the 1933 election, Newman and his friend Alexander Borodulin offer themselves as write-in candidates for New York City mayor and comptroller, respectively. They circulate thousands of copies of their manifesto, 'On the Need for Political Action by Men of Culture', which promotes a three-prong program of "more extensive education, a greater emphasis upon the arts and crafts, and the fostering of cultural living conditions."
"Anarchism ... the only criticism of society which is not a technique fro the seizure and transfer of power by one group against another... What is particualr about anarchism is not its criticism of society but the creative way of life it offers that makes all progrommatic doctrine impossible." - 'The True Revolution is Anarchist!' (1968), Newman's foreword to 'Memoirs of a Revolutionist' by Peter Kropotkin.

[C] 1933 - Mass demonstrations throughout the country as workers protest Adolf Hitler's nomination as German Chancellor. He assumes office tomorrow.

1938 - The first issue of 'Vida' (Life), the CNT journal of anarcho-syndicalist peasants is published in Valencia.

1943 - Procès des 42: Nine résistants sentenced to death are shot at the Bêle firing range. [see: Jan. 28]

1944 - Gérard Duvergé (b. 1896), aka Fred Durtain, aka Chevalier, French teacher, anarchist and anti-fascist resistor, dies following his arrest and torture by the Gestapo. [see: Jun. 15]
1894 - Italian anarchist propagandist Francesco Saverio Merlino is arrested in Naples and imprisoned until May 1896.

1933 - The Machtergreifung: Adolf Hitler is sworn in as Chancellor of Germany by President Paul von Hindenburg, marking the effective seizure of power (machtergreifung) by the NSDAP and its national conservative allies.

1937 - Uncle Joe Stalin's purge trials: Trial of the 'Parallel Trotskyist-Zinovievist Centre'. Pyatakov and 16 others sentenced to death.

1940 - Heinrich Bartling (b. 1880), German locksmith, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies in Sachsenhausen concentration camp. [see: Sep. 22]

[C] 1943 - The paramilitary Milice Française (French Militia) is formed, with German assistance, by the Vichy regime (with German aid) to help fight the French Résistance. Though the Milice's formal head was Prime Minister Pierre Laval, its Chief of operations and de facto leader was Secretary General Joseph Darnand. A direct successor to Joseph Darnand's collaborationist Service d'Ordre Légionnaire (SOL) militia, Milice troops (miliciens) included full-time and part-time personnel, some recruited from France's courts and prisons in order to have their sentences commuted, whilst others joined in order to avoid forced labour in Germany. The Milice would go on to participate in summary executions and assassinations, helping to round up Jews and résistants in France for deportation, and regularly using torture to extract information or confessions from those whom they interrogated. Its armed wing, the Franc-Garde (Free Guard) also fought alongside German troops in a number of major battles against the Maquis from late 1943 to August 1944 and, by the time of the Allied invasion, it numbered over 20,000 members.

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: Galvão and Admiral Allen Smith holds a three-hour meeting on board the Santa Maria, with the rebels desperate to string things out until after the new president's inauguration and the admiral tasked with preventing any transfer of passengers at sea, the potential of which for disaster was high. To that end, they guaranteed not to hinder the Santa Liberdade putting to sea afterwards, paving the way for direct negotiations between the rebels and Brazilian officials over the following days. [see: Jan. 21]

[A] 1978 - In Barcelona 50 anarchists are arrested, accused of the dastardly crime of attempting to "reconstitute the F.A.I" (Iberian Anarchist Federation). Franco is dead, but the old fears of a powerful revolutionary organisation re-emerging persists.

[CC] 1979 - Self-styled nationalist 'race' martyr Robert Relf is sentenced to 15 months in prison for incitement to racial hatred and displaying abusive or insulting notices for a series of racist leaflets distributed by him and his fellow fascist, ex-Warwick British Movement organiser Michael Cole. Cole received a suspended 6 months sentenced and fined £250. On March 13, 1979, the Court of Appeal reduced Relf's sentence to nine months. The judge also told Relf, who has been on hunger strike since being jailed, "If he wants to commit suicide, that is up to him. We are not going to be blackmailed by people like Relf merely because they are going on hunger strike."

2008 - Conchita Guillen Bertolin (b. 1919), Spanish militant anarchist and member of 'Mujeres Libres', dies. [see: Aug. 16]
1885 - Luisa Landová-Štychová (d. 1969), Czech journalist, populariser of science, pioneer feminist, atheist, anti-fascist, anarchist and then communist politician, born. Politically active pre-WWI, especially among the Northern Bohemian miners, joining the Česká Anarchistická Federace (Czech Anarchist Federation, or ČAF) in 1907 and participating in its anti-militarist campaigns. In 1912 she became known for her radical feminist views and is arguable the first Czech anarchist to promote feminist views.
Landová-Štychová participated as a member of the Committee of the Socialist advice in the preparation of the general strike on the 14th October 1918. Initially organised by the Socialist Council as a demonstration in protest against the export of food and goods to Austria, it mutated into all-out revolt across the country aimed at creating a republic.
Between 1918-1923, Landová-Štychová was a member of the Revolučním Národním Shromáždění (Revolutionary National Assembly) for the ČSS but disputes between the anarcho-communist wing and the ČSNS rump over issues such as forming a Left front with the KSČ erupted and Landová-Štychová lost her parliamentary seat and the anarchist were marginalised. Finally, the more radical Vrbenský wing was expelled in 1923 for voting against the Law on Protection of the Republic and stripped of parliamentary mandate. Later that year she co-founded the Independent Socialist Workers Party (Neodvislá Socialistickou Stranu, or NZS), with Vrbenský, which went on to closely cooperate with the Neodvislá Radikální Sociálně Demokratická Stranou (Independent Radical Social Democratic Party), forming the Socialistické Sjednocení (Socialist Unification), which ultimately fell apart at its first congress the following year. In 1925 the vestiges merged with the KSČ.
Landová-Štychová went on to be a Member of Parliament (1925-29) for the KSČ, member of the Svazu Proletářských Bezvěrců (Union of Proletarian Atheists), the Vice-President (1928-31) of Mezinárodní Dělnický Pomoc (International Workers' Aid), and, in 1925, President of Mezinárodní Rudá Pomoc (International Red Aid). An active anti-fascist, she helped organise support for anti-fascists in the Spanish Revolution and provided support for German anti-fascists escaping Nazi Germany and seeking asylum in in Czechoslovakia.
After 1945 he devoted herself to the popularisation of scientific knowledge (the author of several publications and pamphlets).

1899 - Aristide Lapeyre (d. 1974), French hairdresser, anarchist, militant pacifist and néo-Malthusian, born. Worked in the CNT-FAI propaganda office during the Civil War and helped many escape the clutches of the Gestapo during WWII and was captured by the Nazis for his pains.

[C] 1910 - Giorgio Perlasca (d. 1992), Italian anti-Nazi civil servant and merchant, who posed as the Spanish consul-general to Hungary in the winter of 1944, and saved 5,218 Jews from transportation to Nazi Germany and the Holocaust, born.

[B] 1924 - George Simeonov Popov (b. 1900), Bulgarian anarchist, teacher, poet, orator, anarchist organier and insurrectionist guerrilla, dies at his own hands to avoid being capture by the army. [see: May 22]

1936 - Plemum of the FAI (Iberian Anarchist Federation) convenes in Madrid (January 31-February 1). Members of the FARP-FAI (Portuguese Anarchist Federation) are also in attendance.

1945 - Wiesław Protschke aka 'Wieslaw' (b. 1912), Polish syndicalist and anti-Soviet and anti-Nazi fighter, dies. [see: Nov. 13]

1945 - The first issue of the journal 'Estudios Sociales' (Social Studies) is produced by Spanish anarcho-syndicalist activists in exile in Mexico.

1949 - Around 700 people turn out to hear Oswald Mosley, prospective UM candidate for the London County Council speak in Kensington Town Hall. Over 3,000 protesters gathered outside at a demonstration organised by the 43 Group, who led a torch-lit wreath laying ceremony at the nearby war memorial. Attempts were made by the crowd to force their way into the meeting but were repelled by mounted police. Fifteen minutes into his address, tear gas was let off inside the meeting and over 100 fascists required medical treatment for its effects. There were seven arrests, several of whom were 43 Group members. [PR]

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: The tension surrounding the negotiations with the Brazilians is lightened by the attempt by photojournalist, Giles Delamare, to parachute onto the Santa María. Missing the deck, he fell into the sea nearby and was picked up by an approached tugboat bringing a group of journalists from Brazil. Fellow French photographer Charles Bonnay was less fortunate. Jumping at the same time as Delamare, he ended up being rescued by a US Navy launch and had to spend 3 days after being hauled before Admiral Smith and given a dressing down for defying the US ban on newsmen attempting to board the liner. Meantime, Delamare got his story, which appeared, in 'Paris Match' on February 4th. [see: Jan. 21]

2004 - William Herrick (born William Horvitz; b. 1915), US writer of the classic Spanish Civil War novel 'Hermanos!' (1969), dies. [see Jan 10]

1929 - The anti-fascist organisation the Labour League of Ex-Servicemen (LLX) changes its name to the Workers' Legion because of dwindling numbers (and a degree of infighting between branches) and throwing its doors open to "all class-conscious workers" (rather than just CPGB members). The Workers' Legion would prove even more ineffectual than the rather patchy efforts of the LLX. [PR]

1931 - Severino Di Giovanni (b. 1901), Italian anarchist who emigrated to Argentina and won fame for his campaign of propagandist violence in support of Sacco and Vanzetti, is executed by military firing squad. [expand]

1952 - A General Strike against French colonial management in Tunisia begins.

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: On the day of his inauguration, the new Brazilian President Jânio Quadros sent a telegram to Galvão, in which he offered the rebels political asylum. Below decks on the Santa Maria the passengers were beginning to loose patience with the rebels. In Third Class, passengers had formed an action committee and were planning to attempt to recapture the ship if they were not allowed to disembark by midday on February 2nd. Their plan was to announce this via a demonstration in First Class two hours prior to the deadline. [see: Jan. 21]

1971 - Raoul Hausmann (b. 1886), Austrian anarcho-individualist influenced artist, collagist, photographer, sculptor, writer, poet, theorist and anti-fascist, who was one of the key figures in Berlin Dada, dies. [see: Jul. 12]

1972 - Rhodesia House in London firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1976 - Hans Richter (b. 1888), German Dadaist painter, sculptor, collagist, graphic artist, avant-garde film-experimenter, anti-militarist and anarchist, who claimed that Kropotkin's 'Mutual Aid' was the most significant book that he ever read, dies. [see: Apr. 6]

[C] 1980 - Yolanda González Martín (b. 1961), an anti-Fascist from Deusto, Bilbao, in the Basque Country, who was active in the Trotskyist Partido Socialista de los Trabajadores (PST; Socialist Workers Party), is abducted by the Batallón Vasco Español, a right wing paramilitary group after leaving a PST meeting late that evening in Madrid. She is then tortured and killed and her body is found by the Guardia Civil the following morning in the San Martin de Valdeiglesias area.

2013 - In the early hours of the morning, London based anarchist bookshop Freedom is damaged in an arson attack. Nobody is hurt in the fire which partially gutted the ground floor and damaged the building's electrics.
[B] 1852 - José Guadalupe Posada (d. 1913), Mexican cartoonist illustrator and artist who worked closely with the Magonistas, born.

1882 - James Joyce (d. 1941), Irish novelist and poet, born.

[C] 1902 - Mika Etchebehere (d. 1992), Argentinian Marxist and anarchist who fought with the P.O.U.M., born. The only woman to lead a militia column in the Spanish Civil War. [expand]

1930 - José María Nunes (d. 2010), Portuguese-Catalan filmmaker, director, script writer, actor and anarchist, born in Portugal. His family moved to Spain in 1942, ending up in Barcelona in 1946, ​​where he lived until his death. Always fascinated by the cinema (he had written his first screenplay before the age of thirteen), one of the first books he read in Castilian was 'Cómo Escribir un Guión Cinematográfico' (How to Write a Screenplay) by Enrique Gómez. Living in a shack in the shadow of the Montjuic mountain, he began to write short novels, novelas rosa, 2 of which he managed to sell to a publisher. Having tried a number of different jobs and unable to go to university to study architecture (no high school education), he decided to devote himself to photography as a way into the cinema.
His first film in 1957, 'Mañana...' (Tomorrow...) laid the foundations for the establishment of the Escola de Cinema de Barcelona and he would go on to establish himself as one of its main proponents, alongside Joaquim Jordà, Jacinto Esteva and Pere Portabella. His other films include: 'No Dispares Contra Mí' (1961); 'La Alternativa' (1963); 'Noche de Tino Tinto' (1966); 'Biotaxia' (1968); 'Sexperiencias' (1968); 'Iconockaut' (1975); 'Autopista A-2-7' (1977); 'En Secreto... Amor' (1983); 'Gritos a Ritmo Fuerte' (1984); 'Amigogima' (2002); 'A la Soledad' (2008); and 'Res Publica' (2009).

1931 - Paulino Scarfó (b. 1909?), Italian-Argentinian anarchist and associate of Severino Di Giovanni, is executed by the same firing squad that had executed Di Giovanni the day before, shouting "Long live anarchy!".

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: Just as Brazilian officials arrived onboard at 10:00, more than 100 passengers and crew begin their demonstration in First Class, chanting "freedom for all" and "save us, save us". A rebel is pushed through a plate glass door but Brazilian marines intervene and a Brazilian Navy officer tries to reassure the passengers that they would be able to disembark. Faced with further potential passenger rebellions and hostile naval forces closing in on them, Galvão accepts the Brazilians' suggestion to allow the passengers to leave immediately and to continue negotiations on the issues of the crew and reprovisioning. The liner would enter the harbour and those that wanted to leave could and the ship would return to its offshore anchorage; the rebels would not surrender and their talks with the Brazilians would continue.
A vote amongst the crew as to who would stay and who would disembark now provides the final blow to the rebels, with only 5 of the 356 crew deciding to remain. The ship is now effectively dead in the water as it enters Recife’s harbour and drops anchor 350m off the quay. By 12:00, the first of three tugs arrived to ferry the passengers and crew ashore. It carried carrying sixty Brazilian marines and a contingent of newsmen who came on board to witness the debarkation. The marines would sleep on the deck that night whilst Galvão slipped onshore to give an exclusive interview to Dominique Lapierre and 'Paris Match' for the princely sum of $2000. [see: Jan. 21]
1894 - Jacques Reclus (d. 1984), French anarchist nephew of Elisha and son of Paul Reclus, born.

1901 - Ramon J. Sender (Ramón José Sender Garcés; d. 1982), Spanish novelist, essayist, journalist, anarchist and then communist, born.
tafel.levillage.org/politic/portraits d'anars.htm

[B] 1902 - Hélène Patou (d. 1975), French writer, militant anarchist and néo-Malthusian, born. She first encountered anarchism working in a textile mill and subsequently went on to live and work in the libertarian community of Le Milieu Libre at Vaux and was one of the founders of the Bascon commune. In 1936, she modelled for Matisse and Picabia and was a member of the Durutti Column during the Spanish Civil War. She later became a proofreader and partner of the French anarchist writer and champion of Proletarian Literature, Henry Poulaille. Hélène Patou was also author of the novel 'Le Domaine du Hameau Perdu' (The Domain of the Lost Hamlet; 1972).

1909 - Simone Weil (d. 1943), French philosopher and one time anarchist militant during the Spanish Civil War, born.

1924 - Edward Palmer Thompson (d. 1993), British historian, writer, novelist, poet, socialist and peace campaigner, born.

1930 - In Russia Vera Figner, the 78-year old director of the Kropotkin Museum, is banished for protesting against the maltreatment of women' in communist prisons.

1931 - American anarchist Michael Schirru, who had travelled to Rome to try and assassinate Mussolini, is arrested by police after a shoot-out where he wounds 3 police and tries to shoot himself in the head. He recovers, is tried by a kangaroo court and executed by firing squad the next day [29 May].

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: At 10:00 and now back on board after the previous evening's interview, Galvão recommences negotiations with the Brazilians but, realising that their position is untenable, the rebels eventually agree to hand over the Santa Maria. At 18:00 the insurgents gave up their weapons and, after a short ceremony, took down the Santa Liberdade and DRIL banners, gathered up their possessions and went into exile in Brazil. [see: Jan. 21]

1969 - Unexploded dynamite charges discovered on the premises of the Bank of Bilbao and the Bank of Spain in London. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1972 - Kirkgate, Huddersfield, Army Recruiting Office destroyed by firebombs. [Angry Brigade chronology]

[C] 1977 - Alfons Tomasz Pilarski aka 'Janson', 'Jan Rylski', 'Kompardt' & others (b. 1902), German anarcho-syndicalist who took part in the German and Polish anarchist and anti-Nazi movements, dies. [see: Jul. 6]

1994 - The third General Strike within a year in Ecuador is declared and involves 500,000 workers.

1999 - Edward Wołonciej aka 'Czemier' (b. 1919), Polish solicitor, author, syndicalist and anti-fascist combattant, dies. [see: Sep. 19]

2010 - Janos (John) Réty (b. 1930), Hungarian-British anarchist poet, translator, publisher, chess-player and activist, dies. [see: Dec. 8]
[B] 1900 - Jacques Prévert (d. 1977), poet, surrealist, libertarian, born. Wrote screenplays and dialogue for a host of films including his brother Pierre's film 'L'Affaire est Dans le Sac' (It's in the Bag; 1932) and for Marcel Carné's classic 'Les Enfants du Paradis' (1945), and co-wrote that for Carné's 'Le Jour Se Lève' (1939). An extra, alongside his brother Pierre, in Vigo's 'L'Atlante'. Prévert's poems are widely taught in French schools.
'Ni Dieu, ni Maître: Mieux d'Etre' (Neither God nor Master: Better to Be)
'Rêve + Evolution = Révolution' (Dream + Evolution = Revolution)
'Quand la vérité n'est pas libre, la liberté n'est pas vraie.' (When the truth is not free, freedom is not true.)

1917 - Franceska Mann (Franciszka Rosenberg-Manheimer; d. 1943), Polish dancer who had been a performer at the Melody Palace nightclub and Teatrze Femina in Warsaw, and who became famous for an act of resistance at Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp, born. [see: Oct. 23]

1939 - Spanish Loyalist capital of Gerona falls to Franco's fascists.

1947 -- Luigi Russolo (b. 1883), Italian Futurist painter, composer and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 30]

[C] 1949 - A leftist assassination attempt on the Shah fails. The Shah is uninjured, but three bullets ventilate his hat.

1950 - Anarchist guerrillas José López Penedo aka 'Liberto López' (b. 1915) and Carlos Vidal Pasanau (b. 1917) are executed (shot) at the Campo da Bota in Barcelona.

1963 - Nicolas Stoinoff (b. 1862), 'patriarch' of Bulgarian anarchism, anti-militarist, writer, journalist and teacher, dies.
"People around the world, decide:
the elimination of militarism!
the abolition of military service!
education of youth in the spirit of humanism and peace!"
"This is also the conclusion of my life, the clamour of a hundred years old, my last words to men." - from 'A Centenarian Bulgarian Speaks'

1987 - Francisco Quintal (b. 1898), important Portuguese militant, propagandist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 24]

1989 - José Villanueva (b. 1912), Spanish anarchist and CNT member, who volunteered for and fought in the Durruti Column alongside his brother Floreal Carbó, dies. [see: Aug. 16]
1846 - Johann Most (d. 1906), Bavarian-born American anarchist and advocate of 'propaganda by the deed', born.

1875 - Manuel Devaldès (aka Ernest-Edmond Lohy) (d. 1956), French individualist anarchist, pacifist and neo-Malthusian, born. Member of 'l'Action d'Art'. Opposed WWI and found refuge in England, which granted him conscientious objector status in 1914. Wrote 'Contes d'Un Rebelle' (Thoughts of a Rebel; 1925) and 'Anthologie des Écrivains Réfractaires' (Anthology of Writer of Resistance; 1927).
"En tout esclave consentant à sa servitude est un maître qui sommeille. Qui obéit volontiers à plus fort que soi est prêt à imposer à plus faible sa volonté."

1899 - Gino Bibbi (d. 1999), Italian engineer, anarchist and militant anti-fascist, who became a Republican fighter pilot during the Spanish Civil war and muntions designer, born. As an engineering student, he manufactured the bomb that his cousin Gino Lucetti used in his assassination attempt on Mussolini in September 1926. After various spells of confinement by the fascists, the first beginning in 1923, he managed to escape to France and then moved to Spain in 1931. He worked closely with the CNT and FAI. He began to take flying lessons to prepare for an aerial attack on Mussolini! [expand]

1936 - In Montevideo (Uruguay) the first issue of the monthly 48 page journal 'Esfuerzo' (Effort) 'Revista de Divulgacion Social' (Journal of Outreach).

1938 - Hans Achim Litten (b. 1903), German lawyer who represented opponents of the Nazis at important political trials between 1929 and 1932, defending the rights of workers during the Weimar Republic, commits suicide after having spent more than 5 years in Nazi concentration camps, enduring torture and many interrogations. [see: Jun. 19]

1939 - Soledad Gustavo (Teresa Mañé i Miravet; b. 1865), Catalan anarchist propagandist and mother of Federica Montseny, an important figure in Spanish anarchism, dies.

[C] 1944 - Tadeusz Tyszka aka 'Lord' (b. unknown), Polish printshop worker, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Nazi combattant, is shot dead by police during the siege of his underground printshop on Francuska St. in Warsaw. The Germans confiscated the newly printed issue of an underground periodical 'Wzlot' (Uprising). The son of fighter of 1905 Revolution, before WWII, member of ZZZ. Captain in Main Military Department of the Syndykalistyczna Organizacja 'Wolność' (SOW-a; Syndicalist Organisation 'Freedom').

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: Most of the Santa Maria's passengers resume their journeys on board the hijacked liner’s sister ship, the Vera Cruz. [see: Jan. 21]

2011 - The EDL stages its biggest protest yet in Luton. More than 2,000 police officers from forces across the south of England escorted the 3,000 nationalists and football hooligans on the EDL march from the station into the centre of Luton. Some fireworks and bottles were thrown by the EDL, with shops and businesses in the town closed and petrol stations boarded making the place look like a "war zone" according to locals. Earlier there had been some confrontations between the EDL and anti-racist protesters as they tried to prevent EDL supporters getting off trains. Two smaller counter-demonstrations took place, with an UAF in the town centre and one including large numbers of local Muslim residents in the Bury Park area. A number of EDL coaches were also turned away from Luton by the police.
[B] 1864 - John Henry Mackay (d. 1933), Scottish gay individualist anarchist poet, writer and populariser of Stirner's writings, born. Author of 'Die Anarchisten' (The Anarchists) (1891) and 'Der Freiheitsucher' (The Searcher for Freedom) (1921).
"Ever reviled, accursed, ne'er understood,
Thou art the grisly terror of our age.
"Wreck of all order," cry the multitude,
"Art thou, & war & murder's endless rage."
0, let them cry. To them that ne'er have striven
The 'truth that lies behind a word to find,
To them the word's right meaning was not given.
They shall continue blind among the blind.
But thou, O word, so clear, so strong, so true,
Thou sayest all which I for goal have taken.
I give thee to the future! Thine secure
When each at least unto himself shall waken.
Comes it in sunshine? In the tempest's thrill?
I cannot tell - but it the earth shall see!
I am an Anarchist! Wherefore I will
Not rule, & also ruled I will not be!" - 'Anarchy'.

1872 - Luigi Bertoni (d. 1947), Swiss typographer and publisher of the bilingual newspaper 'Le Reveil Anarchiste' (The Anarchist Alarm Clock), who fought on the Huesca front during the Spanish Civil War, born.

1877 - Charles Desplanques (d. 1951), French anarchist, trade unionist and anti-militarist, born.

1915 - Teofilo Navarro Fadrique aka 'Negro', 'Le Vieux' and 'Zapatero' (d. 2008), Spanish shoemaker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Franco resistance, born. An anarchist activist and member of the CNT from the age of 15, at the outbreak of hostilities in July 1936 he volunteered in the Durruti Column, later becoming a member of the 26th Division until the end of the war. Following Franco's victory, he and his partner Dolores Jiménez Álvarez, aka 'Blanca', entered France on February 11, 1939, via Puigcerda and Le Perthus. During his exile in France in Cordes and Toulouse, he was active in the Movimiento Libertario Español (MLE), Solidaridad Internacional Antifascista (SIA),the Juventudes Libertarias and in the Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI), occupying various positions of responsibility in both the MLE and SIA between 1945 and 1955.
During the 1940s, he was also a member of the Comisión de Defensa and the group of guides who assisted the passage of men and materials into Spain. A supporter of direct action, he and his wife Dolores Jiménez (with whom he had 3 children, Helios and the twins Juno and Blanca) collaborated with with many of the various action groups - especially with Francisco Sabaté Llopart and José Luis Facerías, crossing several times into Spain himself in 1946. In Toulouse he ran a shoe repair shop and was also responsible for a collective of cobblers, set up thanks to financial support from Cerrada Laureano Santos - mounted with silver furniture provided by Laureano Cerrada Santos (aka the 'anarchist entrepreneur'), before withdrawing after management had been questioned by some comrades.
Between 1950 and 1962, he and Blanca ran a FIJL arts youth group in Toulouse and, in the 1970s, they continued to support the armed struggle in Spain. In particular, they helped supply the comrades of the Defensa Interior (DI), Grupos de Acción Revolucionaria Internacionalista (GARI) and Movimiento Ibérico de Liberación (MIL), with weapons seized from the fleeing Nazi army during WWII and provided safe houses.

1915 - Soledad Estorach Esterri (d. 1993), Catalan anarcho-feminist militant and founding member of Mujeres Libres, born. [expand]

1932 - Camilo Cienfuegos Gorriarán (d. 1958), Cuban revolutionary who was raised in an anarchist family that had left Spain before the Spanish Civil War, becoming a key figure of the Cuban Revolution, along with Fidel Castro, Che Guevara, Juan Almeida Bosque and Raúl Castro, born.

1934 - Political crisis hits France as riots take place in Paris against the background of an attempted right-wing putch. Events led to a group of prominent anarchist to call for an anti-fascist 'United Front'.

1938 - Han Ryner (Jacques Élie Henri Ambroise Ner) (b.1861), French teacher, anti-clericalist, pacifist, anarchist philosopher, dies. Published more than 50 books including novels, such as 'L'Humeur Inquiète' (The Worried Humour; 1894) and 'La Folie de Misère' (The Insanity of Poverty; 1895), short stories, essays, plays and poetry [he was voted prince of storytellers by the readers of the Parisian newspaper 'L'Intransigeant' in 1912], as well as his works on political theory and practice. [see: Dec. 7]

[C] 1939 - 130,000 refugees cross the Spanish border, fleeing Franco's fascists.

1945 - Robert Brasillach (b. 1909), French author, journalist, fascist and editor of the nationalist newspaper 'Je suis partout', who collaborated with his brrother-in-law Maurice Bardèche on a number of books, is executed by firing squad for advocating collaborationism, denunciation and incitement to murder.

1975 - Hélène Patou (b. 1902), French writer, militant anarchist, néo-Malthusian and artist's model (Matisse and Picabia, among others) who was a member of the Durruti column, dies. [see: Feb. 3]
1889 - Louis Louvet (d.1971), French anarcho-syndicalist member of the Syndicat des Correcteurs d'Imprimerie involved in the printing of numerous anarchist publications, born.

1890 - Wiktor Alter (d. 1943), Polish Jewish socialist activist, longtime leader of the social-democratic Bund, member of the executive committee of the Second International and organiser in the International Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, who was executed on the orders of Joseph Stalin, born. [see: Feb. 17]

1929 - In Barcelona, the first issue of 'Iniciales: Revista de los Espiritus Libres' (Originals: Review of Free Spirits), an anarchist naturalist publication.

[B] 1941 - Maximilien Luce (b. 1858), French painter, engraver and anarchist, dies. As a child he witnessed the tragic events of the Paris Commune, later becoming part of the anarchist milieu and a friend of Jean Grave. In 1887 Pissarro , Seurat and Signac welcomed him into the Néo-Impressionists group. He also submitted numerous artworks to radical newspapers and was imprisoned in the anti-anarchist hysteria following the acts of Ravachol and Valliant. [see: Mar. 13]

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: The Santa Maria and its crew sets sail for Portugal. [see: Jan. 21]

[C] 1967 - The new National Front - a conglomeration of various nationalist and fascists including A. K. Chesterton's League of Empire Loyalists merges with the British National Party and part of the Racial Preservation Society, led by Robin Beauclair, in an effort to escape their neo-Nazi image - hold their official launch in Caxton Hall, London.
1919 - 'La Canadienne' strike in Barcelona begins. Taking its name from the principle electrical company involved, it lasts 44 days and extends to other companies, becoming a General Strike — paralysing the whole city and industry. The government declares martial law and imprisons 3,000 striking members of the C.N.T. By mid-March the company has agreed to reinstate all workers with wage increases and introduce an 8-hour day; those imprisoned during the strike are also to be released. Over 20,000 people turn out to greet the release of the CNT leaders and hear them (including Salvador Segui) speak. The end of the strike is declared, but in the face of the refusal of the army to release a score of still imprisoned militants, the workers go on strike again on March 24, 1919, in a display of their solidarity, which ends April 14 with the victory of the strikers.

1933 - Sucesos de Casas Viejas: A motion to set up a Comisión de Investigación (commission of inquiry) into the events in Casas Viejas is defeated by 123 votes to 81.

1937 - Malaga falls to Franco's forces.

[CC] 1943 - Icchok Malmed (b.1903), Polish Jew and resistance fighter in the Białystok Ghetto during the German occupation of Poland in WWII, is executed by hanging. A few days earlier he had thrown a bottle of acid in the face of a Nazi policeman during the liquidation of Ghetto in Bialystok. The blinded SS policeman then fired his gun, shooting one of his colleagues. Icchok managed to escape. The Gestapo commander Fritz Friedl demanded that the perpetrator turn himself in within 24 hours or the whole population of Ghetto would be killed. Malmed surrendered himself to the Germans. Asked why he attacked a German soldier, he replied: "I hate you. I regret I killed only one. You killed my parents in front of my eyes. Thousands of Jews had been murdered in Słonim before me. I don't regret what I did, even slightly." A failed attempt was made to smuggle poison into Malmed in the prison. Malmed was tortured and on the next day hanged near the square where the incident occurred. Germans soldiers riddled Malmed’s corpse with bullets after the rope broke and the body fell to the earth and re-hanged it for another 48 hours.

[C] 1945 - Karl Alfred Nicolai Marthinsen (b. 1896), former Norwegian Police minister in the puppet Quisling regime, and commander of Statspolitiet and Sikkerhetspolitiet during the Nazi occupation, is assassinated by the Norwegian resistance group Milorg as part of Operation Buzzard, acting on orders from the government in exile. Marthinsen had been planning to enlist Norwegian paramilitary forces to violently subvert the expected capitulation of Nazi Germany in Norway. Twenty nine people were executed by firing squad in retaliation, including Norwegian Milorg resistance member Henry Hansson (b. 1918 ), together with six of his resistance group members - the Nazi regime had originally requested that 75 Norwegians be executed.

1948 - Oswald Mosley formally launches the Union Movement in a meeting at Wilfred Street School near Victoria Station. The new group retains the circle and flash emblem of the old Brutush Union of Fascists and consists mainly of former BUF members.

1962 - Parisian police, led by the notorious Maurice Papon, kill 9 people (Communist Party militants and union members plus a 16-year-old boy) protesting against the OAS (Organisation Armée Secrète) and the Algerian war. Blocking the streets outside the Charonne Paris Métro station, the police charge the crowd, who flee into the Métro station. The cops begin to throw heavy iron plates (used around the bases of trees and on metro vents) down onto demonstrators in the stairwells. Eight of the victims dies from skull fractures or are crushed to death, with a ninth dying in hospital from their wounds. A massive funeral demonstration drew between quarter and a half million participants. The dead are buried in the Pere Lachaise cemetery near the Mur des Federes.

1969 - Leopoldo Méndez (b. 1902), politically charged Mexican printmaker, painter and muralist, dies. [see: Jun. 30]

1999 - Luísa Do Carmo Franco Elias Adão (b. 1914), militant Portuguese anarcho-syndicalist, anarchist, nurse and life-long companion of Acácio Tomás de Aquino, dies. [see: Jun. 19]
1893 - Charles-Auguste Bontemps (d. 1981), French 'Social Individualist' anarchist, pacifist, freethinker and naturist activist, prolific writer and poet, born.
He collaborated in the anarchist publication 'Ce Qu'Il Faut Dire' led by Sebastien Faure, was later a member of Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste during the Spanish civil war and prominent in the rebuilding of the Francophone Fédération Anarchiste in 1945 and again in 1953.

1932 - Last issue of the 'Syndikalist' published by the Dresden FAUD (anarcho-syndicalist Free Worker's Union - Germany), is suppressed by the Nazis.

[B] 1948 - Karl Valentin (Valentin Ludwig Fey; b. 1882), German comedian, cabaret performer, clown, author, film producer and anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 4]

[A] 1969 - Bank of Spain in Liverpool bombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1983 - Marie-Adele Anciaux aka Mary Smiles (b. 1887), French anarchist militant, anti-vivisectionist and libertarian teacher, lifelong companion of Stephen Mac Say, dies. [see: Mar. 8]

[C] 2012 - Nikita Kalin (Никита Калин), 20-year-old Russian anarchist and anti-fascist activist is found stabbed to death on the campus of the Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of the Sciences [FIAN] in Samara. He had 61 seperate knife wounds and had suffered extensive rib and head injuries in what was obviously a fascist attack.
1888 - Giuseppe Ungaretti (d. 1970), Italian modernist poet, journalist, essayist, critic and academic, born. Briefly associated with the Dadaists, he developed his own poetics which he labelled Hermeticism. For a time he was also an anarchist sympathiser, getting to know Mussolini is his socialist phase, but like Mussolini and many of Ungaretti's Futurist friends, supported the irredentist position at the outbreak of WWI and went on to become an active Fascist.

[C] 1888 - Giuseppe Pasotti (d. 1951), Italian anarcho-syndicalist and member of the Italian League of Human Rights, born. In 1911 he served 3 months for having stopped blacklegs going to work, took part in the Red week of 1914, and in 1918 the War Tribunal of Milan issued an arrest warrant for his incitement to desertion. In the early thirties he emigrated to France with his family and took part in various anti-fascist demonstrations and attacks on Italian fascists, for which the Frencch authorities tried to deport him. he also ran, alongside his son Nullo, a network to smuggle militants and materials into Spain during the Civil War and was active in recruiting Italians to the Republican cause and was head of the political investigations bureau of the Spanish FAI, responsible for handing out entry documents for Spain. Framed for a March 1937 bomb explosion on a Port Bou-Marseilles train, he got 3 months in jail. Moving to Spain, he eventually left for Tunis in early 1939. He returned to Italy post-Liberation only to move permantly to Tunisia, disgusted by the 'Historic Compromise' between the Communist Party and the Christian Democrats.

1898 - Bertolt Brecht (d. 1956) born. [expand]

[B] 1920 - Alex Comfort (d. 2000), British physician, gerontologist, sexologist, anarchist, pacifist, poet, novelist, etc., dies. Comfort considered himself "an aggressive anti-militarist", and believed that pacifism rested "solely upon the historical theory of anarchism" - he even formed a peace corps in opposition to this school's army cadets. He was an active member of the Peace Pledge Union (PPU) and Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament [running a mobile pirate radio station broadcasting anti-nuclear propaganda to the factory workers building Blue Streak missiles in Stevenage], and a conscientious objector in World War II.
A poet talked of in the same breath as Auden and Spender, he also wrote novels [including 'No Such Liberty' (1941), which compared British wartime actions to Nazi Germany's (George Orwell reviewing the book declared its author "objectively pro-Fascist"); 'The Power House' (1944); 'On This Side Nothing' (1949); 'A Giant's Strength' (1952); 'Come Out to Play' (1961); 'Tetrarch' (1981); 'Imperial Patient' (1987); and 'The Philosophers' (1989) - a sci-fi satire on the Thatcher government]; a handful of plays; volumes of travel writing; studies of political corruption, medical ethics, eastern philosophy; works on gerontology, on human evolution and art ['Art and Social Responsibility' (1946)]. He also wrote the preface to 'Outlaw of the Lowest Planet' (1946), a collection of Kenneth Patchen's poems.
However, 'The Joys of Sex: A Gourmet Guide to Lovemaking' (1972) is the book that he will always be remembered for (Comfort would have much preferred to be remembered for his poetry) and should be seen as an anarchist elegy to personal responsibility and freedom from political and sexual repression.
His major writings on anarchism are 'Peace and Disobedience' (1946) and 'Authority and Delinquency in the Modern State' (1946), with many of his writing on anarchism collected in 'Writings Against Power and Death' (1994).

1932 - CNT proclaims a General Strike; insurrections follow. Within the week the Catalan city of Terrassa is taken over and anarchist communism is declared.

1952 - Alfred Sanftleben (aka Slovak; b. 1871), militant German anarchist, also active in Switzerland and the US. dies. Typesetter and translator, friend of Max Nettlau, Gustav Landauer (collaborating on 'Der Sozialist' and 'La Révolte'), Rudolf Rocker and the Flores Magón brothers (translating articles into English for their paper, 'Regeneración').

1953 - Maria Rygier (b. 1885), Italian anti-militarist, anarchist and syndicalist, dies. One-time editor at the socialist newspaper 'Il Popolo d'Italia', founded by Benito Mussolini in 1914. Later an anti-fascist exile in France and wrote 'Rivelazioni sul Fuoruscitismo Italiano in Francia' (Revelations about Antifascist Exiles in France; 1946).

1954 - The FDA files a decree for injunction to curtail Wilhelm Reich's work with Orgone energy and the medical use of orgone energy to treat injuries, physical disease and health conditions.

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: As Sporting Club Universitaire d’El Biar, an amateur football team composed of FLN-supporting Algerian settlers that had caused a Cup upset 6 days earlier by knocking out Stade de Reims, face Racing Universitaire Algérois, bombs explode in their stands at the municipal stadium in Algiers, killing 10 people and wounding 34.
[www.histoire-en-questions.fr/guerre algerie/alger-attentats-stade.html

1969 - Eduardo Mondiane, president of FRELIMO, is assassinated in Mozambique.

1970 - Ian Purdie is imprisoned for 9 months for throwing a petrol bomb at the Ulster Office in Saville Row during an Irish Civil Rights Campaign march. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1978 - 3,500 anti-racists picket a NF meeting being held in Bolton Town Hall, and succeed in outnumbering 2000 police. [A secret pact between Labour and Tory councillors in January 1978, had ensured that the planned NF meeting passed through the council without discussion.] Sadly, the contest does not go with the numbers. Traffic is searched, anti-fascists have their names and addresses taken. Outside the Town Hall, 20 mounted policemen are used to charge the protesters. Anti-fascists are then held back for several hours after the NF have left. Eighteen anti-racists are arrested under public order statutes and charged without access to a solicitor.

1997 - Christopher 'Catford Chris' Castle, who was acting as a go-between in a dispute between rival groups over control of Combat 18 and the running of Blood and honour and the lucrative neo-Nazi music scene, is stabbed in the back by former Skrewdriver guitarist Cross using a nine-inch (22 cm) blade as he attempts to meet former C18 leader 'Charlie' Sargent at his mobile home. Sargent had been kicked out of C18 following allegations that he was a security service spy and Wilf 'The Beast' Browning, who had driven Castle to the rendezvous and had subsequently taken him to hospital, where he died, had been trying to get Sargent to rejoin C18.
1869 - Else Lasker-Schüler (d. 1945), German-Jewish Expressionist poet and playwright, born. Friend of Gustav Landauer and Johannes Holzmann (it was Else that thought up his pseudonym Senna Hoy). In her 1924 polemic, 'Ich Räume Auf!' (I’m Cleaning Up!), she also praised Ernst Toller and Erich Müsham, claiming: "The poet is better equipped to build a world than to form a state."

1881 - Carlo Carrà (d. 1966), Italian futurist painter and author, born. An anarchist in his early years, he painted his famous futurist work 'The Funeral of the Anarchist Galli' (1910-11), which Carrà was present at, in that period. However, he became an ultra-nationist during WWI and, like many of the Futurist, later became active Fascists, signing a manifesto which called for support of the state ideology through art.

1887 - Clément Duval, anarchist expropriator and member of La Panthère des Batignolles, is condemned to death.

[C] 1890 - Virgilia d'Andrea (d. 1932), Italian anarchist poetess, anti-fascist, teacher and writer, born. She first became interested in anarchism aged 12 at convent school when the nuns made her pray for the dead King Umberto I, who had been shot and killed by the anarchist Gaetano Brescia in revenge for the May 1898 Protesta dello Stomaco (Protest of the Stomach) massacre. Her sympathies were more with the young avenger than the king. Her curiosity aroused, she began to supplement her passion for poetry by reading political works. Qualifying as a teacher, she left the convent in 1908 and taught in a number of elementary schools in the Abruzzo region. She joined the Italian Socialist Party, helping establish a women's section. But having witnessed the Settimana Rosso (Red Week) in Milan in 1914 and the state's inadequate response to the 1915 Abruzzo earthquake, she became even more radicalised, participating in the anti-interventionist movement at the beginning of WWI and developing a greater admiration for the anarchists she met. In 1917 she was introduced to the anarcho-syndicalist Armando Borghi, secretary of the USI (Union Syndicale Italian) and its newspaper, the weekly 'Guerra di Classe’ (Class War), then interned in Abruzzo. He would become her life-long companion and collaborator. She then became involved in the USI (editing 'Guerra di Classe’ when Borghi was exiled to Isernia), giving talks and writing prose for the movement in addition to her poetry. The political police also began to take notice of her, labelling her an effective and dangerous radical anti-war agitator and she too was placed under house arrest for the duration of the war.
In 1922 D'Andrea published her first book of poetry, 'Tormento' (Torment), which featured an introduction by Errico Malatesta. The Italian state seized and banned all copies, charging her prose with the ability to disrupt public order and incite class hatred. Sadly, the rest of her literary output is slim: 'L’Ora di Maramaldo’ (The Hour of the Defenceless; 1925), a collection of prose published in France in 1928; and 'Torce Nella Notte’ (Torches in the Night; 1933), a collection of articles and treatises published in New York a few days before her death.
With the rise of fascism, something d'Andrea was to label as a war of violence waged against civilisation, she wrote advocating an all-out struggle against it: "attacking fascism amounts to a defence of humanity's present and future." Inevitably, her and Borghi's high profile anti-fascist activities led to death threats and, following the fascist March on Rome, the went into exile, first in Berlin (1923), then Paris (1924), where she founded the magazine 'Veglia' (Vigil) and became active in support of Sacco and Vanzetti, then finally to the US in 1928. There they continued their political activities, campaigning for Sacco and Vanzetti, doing anti-fascist work whilst collaborating on the anarchist newspaper 'L'Adunata dei Refratari’ (Call of the Refractaires [i.e. the unmanageable]). Meanwhile her health deteriorated and she was diagnosed with bowel cancer. On May 1, 1933, she was hospitalised in New York and died a few days later, during the night of May 11, aged forty-three.

“Ancora due che salgono il monte del martirio”, mi disse qualcuno con la voce piena di tristezza.
“Ma siamo qui tutti noi” rispose un giovanetto forte a cui i venti anni empivano d’avvenire le pupille radiose.
“Viva Sacco e Vanzetti!” gridò un fanciullo esuberante, e agitò un lembo della bandiera guardando fissamente in alto…
…Non so se il cielo grigio che pesava sul nostro capo o la distesa fresca e canora dei suoi magnifici sogni…
“Non vi addolorate, non vi scoraggiate per il nostro destino” essi avevano scritto. “Ci vogliono morti e sia”.
Io avevo guardato a lungo la lettera dei due morituri. Non una lacrima, non una esitazione, non una sillaba mal certa.
I due uomini che hanno vissuto da anni a faccia a faccia con la morte si sono sovrumanati si sono sublimati.
Avrebbero potuto impazzire.
Hanno invece saputo trovare nella sapiente capacità dello spirito loro, tutto il perchè vero e vivo della vita.
Avrebbero potuto morire.
Hanno saputo invece ricercare nell’intrico dell’oscurità che non ha più mattino, la sorgente sovrana che rinnova lo spirito.
Avrebbero potuto rinnegare.
Hanno saputo invece serbare per i viventi, dopo i colloqui aspri e freddi con la morte, le parole più belle e più pure dello spirito che si denuda per la tomba.
Quelle che sorgono nel cuore allorchè recisa è la visione dei sogni.
Quelle che sembrano raccolte da una fiorita di rose.
Quelle che sembrano distaccate da una roccia di perle.

("Two more to go up the mountain of the martyr," someone said to me, her voice full of sadness.
"But we are all of us here," said a young man whose strong in the twenty years empivano of the future pupils radiant.
"Viva Sacco and Vanzetti , "cried an exuberant child, and waved a piece of the flag looking steadily at the top ...
I do not know ... if the gray sky that weighed on our head or the expanse of fresh and beautiful singing of his dreams ...
"Do not grieve, do not be discouraged for our destiny," they had written. "It takes dead and it is."
I had a long look at the letter of the two moribund. Not a tear, not a hesitation, not a syllable sore certain.
The two men who have lived for years in face-to-face with death were sovrumanati you are sublimated.
They could go crazy.
Instead, they have been able to find the skilled ability of spirit, because all the true and living life.
They could die.
They knew how to be sought in the tangle of darkness that no longer am, the sovereign source that renews the spirit.
They could deny.
They have instead been able to preserve the living, after talks harsh and cold with death, the words most beautiful and purest spirit that is laid bare to the grave.
Those that are in the heart severed policies where is the vision of dreams.
What appear gathered from a flowering of roses.
Those that seem detached from a rock of pearls.)
- extract from 'Torce Nella Notte’ (Torches in the Night; 1933)


1922 - Gino (Biagio) Cerrito (d. 1982), Italian militant anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist historian, born. Professor d'Història Contemporània a la Facultat de Magisteri de la Universitat de Florència. Author of 'L'Antimilitarismo Anarchico in Italia nel Primo Ventennio del Secolo' (Anarchist Antimilitarism in the First Two Decades of the Century; 1968), 'Le Origini del Movimento Operaio in Italia' (The Origins of the Labour Movement in Italy; 1969) and many other books.

1943 - Carlo Tresca (b. 1879), Italian-born American newspaper editor, orator, labour organiser, prominent Industrial Workers of the World activist and anti-fascist, is shot in the back and the head, killing him instantly. His assassin is believed to have been Carmine Galante, acting on the order of Frank Garofalo, Maffia underboss to Fascist sympathiser Joseph Bonanno. [see: Mar. 9]

1944 - Operation Spark[*]: Following the postponement of the November 16, 1943, viewing of the new army, airforce and SS winter uniform, and all subsequent attempts to hold it, a new viewing is scheduled, with a new volunteer, Captain Ewald von Kleist (1922 - 2013), replacing von dem Bussche (who had, since the last attempt, been returned to front-line duty and lost part of one of his legs). But this event was repeatedly postponed and eventually cancelled. [*also translated as Operation Flash]

1971 - The house in Grosvenor Avenue, Islington, where Jake Prescott had been staying, is raided by the police. The house is searched for explosives. Diaries, address books, newspapers and other articles are taken away. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1971 - Police forcibly remove four defence witnesses who were due to give evidence in the trial at Bow Street Magistrates court of the people arrested at the Miss World contest protests in November 1970. Charges are brought against Scotland Yard for assault (of those dragged away from Bow Street) and for wrongful arrest and imprisonment. [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]

1979 - Belgrado Pedrini (b. 1913), Italian writer, poet, anarchist and partisan, dies. [see: May 5]

1981 - Ramón Lafragueta (b. 1905), Spanish railway worker, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, dies. [see: Aug. 24]

[A] 1990 - Nelson Mandela released after 27 years in prison.

1992 - Angela Carter (b. 1940), feminist novelist, who includes a number of anarchists amongst her characters, dies. [see: May 7]

1994 - Paul Feyerabend (b. 1924), Anarchist philosopher and anti-scientist, dies. [see: Jan. 13]
"Science is an essentially anarchic enterprise: theoretical anarchism is more humanitarian and more likely to encourage progress than its law-and-order alternatives."

1994 - Mercedes Comaposada i Guillén (b. 1901), militant Catalan anarcho-feminist, teacher and lawyer, dies. Born into a militant household, she starts work at an early age and becomes an editor at a film production company and joins the CNT Public Performances in Barcelona. Later, after studying law, she became a women's educator and helped found the Mujeres Libres in April 1936 and started publishing the group's magazine, illustrated by her partner, the libertarian sculptor Baltasar Lobo. After the defeat of the Republic, she and Lobo move to Paris under the wing of Pablo Picasso, where she works as a secretary and translates the work of a number of Castilian writers, especially Lope de Vega.
She also contributed to the 'Mujeres Libres' magazine (and was also editor in chief), 'Ruta' , 'Tiempos Nuevos' , 'Tierra y Libertad' and 'Umbral'. She was also author of 'Esquemas' (Schemes; 1937, a book of poetry), 'Las Mujeres en Nuestra Revolución' (Woment in Our Revolution; 1937), 'La Ciencia en la Mochila' (Science in a Rucksack; 1938), 'Conversaciones Cono los Artistas Españoles de la Escuela de París' (Coverstions with Spanish Artists of the Paris School; 1960, under the pseudonym Mercedes Guillén), 'Picasso' (1973, as Mercedes Guillén) and an unpublished work 'Mujeres Libres'. [see: Aug. 14]

1995 - Attilio Bortolotto aka 'Tilio' and Arthur Bartell (b. 19035), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Sep. 19]

2010 - Colin Ward (b. 1924), English anarchist, social theorist and writer, dies. [see: Aug. 14]
1851 - Francesca Saperas Miró (d. 1933), Catalan seamstress, and militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. In 1869, she married anarchist shoemaker Martí Borràs Jover, first director of the paper 'Tierra y Libertad', on which Francesca also worked. In 1889, she helped organise a large rally in Barcelona's Plaza Cataluña in solidarity with striking German workers but the organisers were arrested and the demonstration never took place. In 1894, she was widowed when her partner committed suicide in jail after having written a letter to his wife saying goodbye affectionately. She then turned her house in the Calle Tallers into a shelter for persecuted anarchists and worked on the newspaper 'La Justicia Humana' (1895). Later she became a partner of Ascheri Fossati, who was sentenced to death in 1897, accused of being responsible for the attack on the Corpus Christi procession. A few hours before the execution, Francesca and Ascheri were married in his dungeon. During her time in Montjuïc prison she, like other comdemned women prisoners, were tortured. In 1897, she was exiled to France, where she actively participated in the international campaign against the regime in Montjuïc, but returned the following year. Later she began a relationship with Francisco Callis, another victim of Montjuïc who would also commit suicide, unable to overcome the psychological effects of the suffering inflicted upon him. She emigrated to the Americas and lived between 1912-14 in Buenos Aires, later spending time in Mexico and the United States, returning to Barcelona permanently in 1923. During the late 1920s, she suffered from paralysis and a 1929 committee was set up to aid her. She died in August 1933 and only 5 of her 10 children outlived her.

[B] 1892 - Theodor Plievier (orig. Plivier; d. 1955), German novelist, writer and anarchist, born. During his early years he worked as a bricklayer's apprentice, sailor, panned gold in South America, vagabond, ranch hand, fisherman, barman and cook. He had a short story 'Proletariers Ende' published in 'die Freie Arbeiter' in 1909 and his WWI experiences, which included participating in the 1918 Wilhelmshaven mutiny, led to his sensational first novel, 'Des Kaisers Kulis' (The Kaiser’s Coolies; 1930), about the Keil revolt. Close to Müsham and Toller, in the early 1920s he started the anarchist publishing house Verlag der Zwölf (Publisher of the 12). An individualist anarchist, he lived largely in extreme poverty, cutting a rather odd messianic figure with his long red beard and street corner anti-war ranting.
Around this time he met the Russian anarchist Alexander 'Sascha' Shapiro - he features in Shapiro's wife's, the anarchist and journalist Hanka Grothendieck (also mother of the anarchist mathematician Alexander Grothendieck), unpublished autobiographical novel 'Eine Frau' as the young anarchist and budding writer Gerd - with whom he worked as a boat builder and photographer. Following another period in South America, where he absorbed anarcho-syndicalist ideas, he returned to Germany and published 'Des Kaisers Kulis', becoming an overnight sensation and going onto be staged by director Erwin Piscator as a play later that year. Three other novels, including 'Der Kaiser ging, die Generäle Blieben' (The Kaiser Goes: The Generals Remain; 1932) were published before the Nazis took power, banning his works. He fled to Moscow, via Prague, Zurich, Paris and Oslo. There, in order to avoid Soviet censorship, he avoided political commentary, writing 'adventure' stories.
Plievier interrogated captured German soldiers for the background to his famous documentary novel 'Stalingrad' (1945), the first part of his WWII trilogy with 'Moscow' (1952) and 'Berlin' (1954). He left the Soviet Union in 1948, settling in West Germany.

1900 - Fernand Planche (d. 1974), French libertarian activist and cutler, founder of the review 'La Conquête du Pain' (The Conquest of Bread) and author of 'Anarchist Synthesis', born. During the winter of 1939-1940, he was incarcerated in the La Santé prison in Paris, for "complicity in desertion", escaping during the evacuation of the prison to the south of France, and then interned in Germany as a "subversive element". Helped rebuild the libertarian movement after the war, then moved to New Caledonia in 1950, where he opposed colonialism. Wrote 'La Vie Ardente et Intrépide de Louise Michel' (The Fiery and Fearless Life of L.M.; 1946), 'Durolle au Pays des Couteliers' (D. in the Land of the Cutlers; 1948) and, with Jean Delphy, a biography of Peter Kropotkin ('Kropotkin'; 1948), woodcuts by Jean Lébédeff.

1905 - Federica Montseny i Mañé (d. 1994), Spanish poet, novelist, essayist, and children's writer, anarchist, anarcho-feminist, naturist and Minister of Health during the Civil War, born in Madrid. The daughter of Catalan libertarian activists and educators Joan Montseny (Federico Urales) and Soledad Gustavo (Teresa Mañé), who also co-edited the anarchists journal, 'La Revista Blanca' (1898-1905), she wrote her first novel, 'Peregrina de amor' (Pilgrim of Love), which was published under the name Blanca Montsan in the series 'La Novela Roja' (most copies of which were destroyed in a fire), when still only 15 and her first play, 'La tragedia del pueblo' (The tragedy of the people) about the Barcelona working class, soon afterwards. She also joined the CNT at seventeen years old and wrote for anarchist journals such as 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Tierra y Libertad' and 'Nueva Senda'. In 1923 she urged her parents to relaunch 'La Revista Blanca', which led to the family to establishing in the publishing firm Ediciones de La Revista Blanca, specialising in promoting libertarian ideals throughout the 1920s and 1930s. Federica Montseny participated as an editor of the serials 'La Novela Ideal' and 'La Novela Libre', writing many of the novels herself. The 'Novela Ideal' appeared in a weekly edition of 50,000 and the 'Novela Libre' a monthly 64-page publication with a print run of 20,000.

1930 - Louis Armand Matha (b. 1861), French anarchist, manager of the newspaper 'L'Endehors' and collaborator of the newspaper 'Le Libertaire' and the 'Journal du Peuple' during the Dreyfus Affair, dies. [see: Apr. 10]

[C] 1943 - France Bloch-Sérazin (b. 1913), Jewish French militant communist, who made explosives for and fought with the Résistance, is beheaded by the Nazis. [see: Feb. 21]

[CC] 1945 - Wallraven van Hall (b. 1906), Dutch banker and resistance leader during the occupation of the Netherlands, is executed in Haarlem as revenge for the death of a high-ranking police officer. Van Hall, who was known in resistance circles by various nom de guerre as Olieman (the oilman), Van Tuyl, Ome Piet (Uncle Pete) and Barends, at the beginning of the occupation secured funding for the Dutch government in exile but, when the Nazis started taking anti-Jewish and forced labour measures, he began fundraising for the various resistance groups. Much of this came via the De Nederlandsche Bank (Dutch National Bank), as he exchanged forged guilders from London for real notes, all done behind the back of the president of the bank, Rost van Tonningen, part of the leadership of the Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging in Nederland (Dutch National Socialist Movement). He also borrowed money from wealthy Dutch people, issuing worthless stock (which was refunded after the war), and headed the Nationaal Steunfonds(National Support Fund; NSF), which financed resistance groups and various underground newspapers. Although the Germans suspected that there had to be somebody who coordinated the finances for the resistance, they never identified van Hall. Instead he was rounded up randomly and executed in a reprisal for the killing of a German officer. Van Hall was posthumously awarded the Verzetskruis, the Dutch Cross of Resistance.

1949 - Nella Giacomelli (b. 1873), Italian anarchist and propagandist, co-founder with Ettore Molinari of 'Il Grido della Folla' (The Cry of the Crowd) in 1902 and of 'La Protesta Umana' in 1906, and in the post-war period a contributor to Errico Malatesta's anarchist daily 'Umanita Nova', dies. [expand]

1965 - Malcolm X, invited by the Indian Workers Association, visits Marshall Street in Smethwick where white residents had persuaded the Tory-run local council to buy properties and sell them to white families only.

1966 - Elio Vittorini (b. 1908), Italian writer, novelist, one-time 'fascista di sinistra' and laterly an anti-fascist, dies. [see: Jul. 23]

1980 - Muriel Rukeyser (b. 1913), US feminist poet, radical political activist, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Dec. 15]
[B] 1889 - Georg Schrimpf (d. 1938), German painter and graphic artist, born. Along with Otto Dix, George Grosz and Christian Schad, Schrimpf is broadly acknowledged as a main representative of the art trend Neue Sachlichkeit (usually translated New Objectivity), which developed in the 1920s as a counter-movement to Expressionism and Abstraction.
In 1913 he lived in an anarchist colony in Switzerland, where he formed a friendship with Oskar Maria Graf, also a baker, but later a famous novelist. At the outbreak of WWI, the anti-militaristic Schrimpf "successfully employed every possible trick to avoid military service; in so doing, however, he ruined his health" ['New Objectivity' (1994), Sergiusz Michalski] Schrimpf played an active role in the short-lived Münchner Räterepublik (Bavarian Soviet Republic) and joined the KPD (Communist Party of Germany) for a couple of months. Listed as a producer of Degenerate Art by the Nazis, he was not persecuted until his 'Red' past, which included membership of Rote Hilfe, came to light.

[BB] 1903 - Georges Simenon (d. 1989), Belgian-born French author, anarchist and creator of Inspector Maigret, born. Whilst no active as an anarchist he admitted to having been a habitue of anarchist circles since the age of 16 (his favourite uncle was an active anarchist): "Je me considère comme un anarchiste non violent, car l'anarchie n'est pas nécessairement violente, celui qui s'en réclame étant un homme qui refuse tout ce qu'on veut lui faire entrer de force dans la tête ; il est également contre ceux qui veulent se servir de lui au lieu de lui laisser sa liberté de penser." (I consider myself as a nonviolent anarchist, because anarchy is not inevitably violent, it does not claim that a man that refuses to change will be hit around the head; it is also against those who want to manipulate instead of allowing for the freedom of thought.) [Anti-Semitism & Vichy collaboration?]

1906 - Agostinho da Silva (d. 1994), Portuguese philosopher, essayist, writer, Christian humanist and millenarist, born. Essential an utopian anarchist whose ideas on freedom were close to those of Gustav Landauer.
"No Político distingo dois momentos, o do presente e do futuro. Principiando pelo segundo, desejo o desaparecimento do Estado, da Economia, da Educação, da Sociedade e da Metafísica; quero que cada indivíduo se governe por si próprio, sendo sempre o melhor do que é, que tudo seja de todos, repousando toda a produção, por uma lado, no , por outro lado, na fábrica automática; que a criança cresça naturalmente segundo as suas apetências, sem as várias formas de cópia e do ditado que têm sido nas escolas, publicas e de casa; que o social com as suas regras, entraves e objectivos dê lugar ao grupo humano que tenha por meta fundamental viver na liberdade, e que todos em vez de terem metafísica, religiosa ou não, sejam metafísica. Tudo virá, porém, gradualmente, já que toda a revolução não é mais do que um precipitar de fases que não tiveram tempo de ser. Por agora, para o geral, democracia directa, economia comunitarista, educação pela experiência da liberdade criativa, sociedade de cooperação e respeito pelo diferente, metafísica que não discrimine quaisquer outras, mesmo as que pareçam antimetafísicas. Mas, fora do geral, para qualquer indivíduo, o viver, posto que no presente, já quanto possível no futuro; eliminando o supérfluo, cooperando, aceitando o que lhe não é idêntico – e muito crítico quanto a este -, não querendo educar, mas apenas proporcionando ambiente e estímulo, e procurando tão largo pensamento que todos os outros nele caibam. Se o futuro é a vida, vivamo-la já, que o tempo é pouco; que a Morte nos colha e não, como é hábito, já meio mortos, aliás, suicidados."
(The Political distinguish two moments, the present and the future. Beginning with the second, I wish the disappearance of the State, Economy, Education, Society and Metaphysics; want each individual to govern itself, always being better than it is, that everything is all, resting all production , on the one hand, on the other hand, the automatic factory, the child grows naturally by their appetites, without copying, and many forms of which have been dictated in schools and public house, with the social its rules, obstacles and objectives give rise to human group which has the ultimate goal to live in freedom, and that instead of having all metaphysical, religious or not, are metaphysical. It will, however, gradually, since every revolution is not more than a precipitate phase that did not have time to be. For now, to the general, direct democracy, communitarian economy, education, the experience of creative freedom, society, cooperation and respect for different metaphysics that does not discriminate against any other, even those that seem antimetaphysical. But out of the general, for any individual, living, since at present, as already possible in the future, eliminating the superfluous, cooperating, accepting what you are not identical - and very critical of this - not wanting to educate, but only providing environment and encouragement, and looking as wide as everyone else thought it fit. If the future is life, vivamo it already, that time is short, that Death in crop and not, as usual, already half dead indeed suicidados.)
from 'Reflexos, Aforismos e Paradoxos' (Reflections, Aphorisms and Paradoxes; 1999)

1934 - Anarcho-syndicalist CNT calls for the socialist UGT in Spain to clearly and publicly state its revolutionary objectives. It meets with no reply, leaving the CNT, in effect, to be used as cannon-fodder to help produce another government that would attack the CNT.

1936 - Temistocle Monticelli (b.1869), Italian anarchist militant and anti-militarist, member of the Comité de Défense Libertaire, as secretary of the underground Comitato di Azione Internazionalista Anarchica he was arrested during WWI, dies. [see: Dec. 5]

[C] 1943 - Five Spanish Republicans are shot alongside twelve other Resistance fighters by the Germans in Nantes after being sentenced to death by a Council of War, during the 'Trial of the 42'.

1971 - Searches at the homes of Hilary Creek, John Barker, Kate McLean, Chris Allen and others in a hunt for explosives. Jake Prescott is charged with conspiracy to cause explosions between July 30 1970 and December 1971, and with the specific bombings of Carr's home, the Dept of Employment and the Miss World contest. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1997 - Ricardo Mestre (b. 1906), Catalonian anarcho-syndicalist, construction worker, CNT and FAI member, dies in México. One of the founders of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL), he was exiled following the Revolution of 1936. [see: Apr. 15]
1886 - Angel Pestaña Núñez (d. 1937), Spanish watchmaker and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Head of the newspaper 'Solidaridad Obrera' and repeatedly Secretary of the National Committee of the CNT. Anti-union Pistoleros try to kill him on August 25, 1922, but despite being seriously wounded, he recovers. In 1929 he is forced to resign from the National Committee of the CNT becuase of his reformist position, later to take part in atttempts to legalise the union and abandon revolutionary action, he is expelled from the union.

[C] 1936 - The CNT issues a prophetic manifesto warning that right-wing elements are ready to provoke a military coup.

[B] 1937 - Dumitru Ţepeneag (pen names Ed Pastenague and Dumitru Tsepeneag), Romanian novelist, essayist, short story writer, translator and anarchist, who currently resides in France, born. He was one of the founding members of the Oniric group, and a theoretician of the Onirist trend in Romanian literature, while becoming noted for his activities as a dissident. In 1975, the Communist regime stripped him of his citizenship.

1937 - An extraordinary congress of Aragon collectives creates the Federación de Colectividades de Aragón.

1991 - Emilienne 'Hattie' Morin (b. 1901), French militant anarchist and companion of Buenaventura Durruti, dies. Born into an anarchist milieu, in 1916 she became secretary of Sébastien Faure's journal 'Ce Qu'il Faut Dire'. Following a failed marriage to an Italian anarchist named Mario Cascari, she met Durruti in July 1927 and accompnies his clandestine travels around Europe (Durruti is persona non grata in many European countries), escaping numerous threats and attempts at deportation or extradition.
Eventually, with the advent of the Republic, they move to Spain in 1931. Active in the CNT and revolutionary struggle, she gives birth on December 4, 1931, to a daughter named Colette, who she raise almost singlehanded as Durruti is in hiding most of the time. With the advent of the Durruti Column, she works as a secretary and head of the press department for the column. She eventually quits the front to care for her daughter in Barcelona, whilst Durruti goes to a Madrid to help in the defence against the Fascists, where he is killed on November 20.
After the funeral, she works for the Defence Council for a while, but returns to France in 1938. There she works in the Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste (SIA) and writes about her experiences oo the Aragon Front in Libertaire.

2009 - Luís Andrés Edo (b. 1925), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, member of the then underground CNT during the Franco years and guerrila arms smuggler, dies. [see: Nov. 7]
1906 - Musa Cälil (Musa Mostafa ulı Cälilev; d. 1944), Soviet Tatar poet and resistance fighter, born. [expand]

1932 - Before dawn in the Catalan city of Terrassa, workers openly launch an insurrection, raiding the J. Carner armoury on carrer Sant Francesc and laying seige to the Guàrdia Civil barracks on carrer de Sant Leopold. Meanwhile, the town's mayor, Avellí Estrenjer, and two aldermen (Francesc Devant and Francesc Casas) were taken prisoner and having occupied the Town Hall (Ajuntament), the revolutionaries hoisted the red and black flag of anarcho-syndicalism over the building. However, attempts to take prisoner the president of the Institut Industrial, Pere Amat, and the deputy mayor Samuel Morera, failed and the pair allerted the Guàrdia Civil in the nearby town of Sabadell. As the fighting began to spread through out Terrassa, Guàrdia Civil units from Sabadell and 50 soldiers of the Tercera Companyia de Infanteria (Third Infantry Company) from Barcelona eventually surrounded the town hall and a three-hour fire-fight took place. When, at 10:00 that morning, it became clear that the government troops were about to shell the town hall, the last group of revolutionaries holding out in Terrassa decided to surrender. Amazingly, there were hardly and casualties on either side and those revolutionaries who had been arrested were carted off to Barcelona for trial. Over the following days in Terrassa over a series of indiscriminate arrests of militants of the CNT and the Bloc Obrer i Camperol (Workers’ and Peasants’ Bloc) took place as the republican government sought to weed-out the 'trouble makers'.

1939 - Alphonse Sauveur Cannone (b. 1899), Algerian-born militant, one of the anarchist participants in the Black Sea Mutiny of 1919 and combatant in the Spanish Revolution of 1936, dies. [see: Jan. 3]

[B] 1946 - The film 'Zéro de Conduite' (1933), by the anarchist Jean Vigo is finally released, after being banned since 1933.

[C] 1997 - During the night of the 15th-16th, the anarchist bookshop in Lyon, La Plume Noire, is torched by right-wing extremists. The books and furniture suffer heavy fire damage but, thanks to a wonderful show of solidarity, the bookstore reopens in a few months.
[B] 1875 - Valentine de Saint-Point (Anna Jeanne Valentine Marianne Glans de Cessiat-Vercell; d. 1953), French artist, writer, poet, painter, playwright, art critic, choreographer, lecturer, journalist, feminist and Futurist, who repudiated Marinetti's views on women, born.

1879 - Gusto Gräser (Gustav Arthur Gräser; d. 1958), German nomadic 'poet-prophet' who, with his brother Karl Gräser (1875–1920), co-founded the Monte Verità utopian anarchist/vegetarian community in Ascona, Switzerland, born. Another brother was the painter Ernst H. Graeser (1884–1944). Numerous anarchist including Gustav Landauer, Erich Mühsam, Otto Gross and Ernst Toller, as well as writers, artists and philosophers, who including Ernst Bloch, Herman Hesse, Patricia Cavalli, Hugo Ball, Emmy Hennings, Klabund, Tristan Tzara, Oskar Schlemmer, Hans Richter, Marcel Janco and Gerhart Hauptmann, etc. were all frequenters of Monte Verità.
Amongst his published works were 'Efeublätter' (Ivy leaves; 1902), together with books of sayings and poems such as 'Winke zur Genesung unsres Lebens' (Signs to the recovery of our lives; 1918) and 'Wortfeuerzeug' (Word lighter; 1930).

[C] 1921 - The Fascists attempt to break a strike in Livorno, Italy by operating the trams. But they meet mass resistance, with one tram load attacked by over 400 people. This is just one of thousands of bloody confrontations all across Italy between anti-fascists and fascists this month as the latter try to impose their presence on the streets and in the workplaces across the country.

1936 - Election and formation of the Popular Front government against the fascist Franco. Anarchists [a few, most opposed], socialists, communists, republicans and labour groups form a republic.

1939 - Jura Soyfer (b. 1912), Russian-born Austrian political journalist, cabaret writer and anti-fascist, dies of typhus in Buchenwald concentration camp the day after his release was granted. [see: Dec. 12]

1958 - Victor Arendorff (b. 1878), Swedish writer, journalist, poet, lyricist, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Apr. 27]

1970 - Pedro Vallina Martinez (b. 1879), outstanding figure of Andalusian anarchism. Medical doctor, militant involved in the labour movement, in and out of prison and exile for his opposition to Spanish repression and fascism, dies.
[C] 1943 - Wiktor Alter (b. 1890), Polish Jewish socialist activist, longtime leader of the social-democratic Bund, member of the executive committee of the Second International and organiser in the International Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (JAC), is executed on the orders of Joseph Stalin. Accused on trumped-up charges of being a spy for Nazi Germany, he had infact been overheard (his hotel room had been bugged by the KNVD) discussing, with fellow Bund and JAC member Henrik Erlich, rumours about the murder of Polish officers, including many Polish Jews, at Katyn. Both were arrested on December 4, 1941, by the NKVD. The precise details about his death are unknown but it is believed that he and Erlich were sentenced to death on 23 December 1941. One story has it that both were immediately executed but other sources suggest that Alter's execution did not take place until February 17, 1943 and that Erlich committed suicide on May 15, 1942. Whatever is the truth, the Soviet authorities failed to acknowledge their deaths until after the lifting of the dseige of Stalingrad. It was nearly half a century before both their names were cleared of the absurd charge.

1943 - Plan Lanz: Hitler avoids being arrested or killed when he changes his plans to visit the army in Ukraine. Wehrmacht Generals Hubert Lanz (1896 - 1982), Hans Speidel (1897 - 1984), and Paul Loehning (1889 - 1971) and Lieutenant Colonel Hyazinth Graf von Strachwitz (1893 - 1968) had planned to arrest or, if neccesary, kill Hitler during his scheduled visit to the Armeeabteilung (Army Detachment) Lanz headquarters at Poltava. Strachwitz was to surround Hitler and his SS escorts shortly after Hitler's arrival with his tanks. Lanz would have then arrested Hitler, and in the event of resistance, Strachwitz's tanks would have shot and killed the entire delegation. Instead, Hitler chose to visit General Erich von Manstein's headquarters at Zaporozhye, and the plan was dropped. Speidel was also involved in the July 20 plot to killed Hitler and though arrested and imprisoned by Gestapo, he evaded the discovery of his direct involvement.

1944 - Pietro Bruzzi aka 'Brutius' (b. 1888), Italian journeyman mechanic, anarchist and anti-fascist fighter in Spain, dies. Arrested in Spain and extradited to Italy, he was interned on the island of Ponza. Escaping, he joined the anarchist anti-fascist resistance in Lombardy and edited the clandestine paper 'L'Adunata dei Libertari' (Anarchist Assembly) in late 1943. He was captured and shot in Melegnano by the fascists.

1944 - 18 Jews escaped from the Krasnik Labour Camp, also known as WIFO and Skret, in Poland. The head of production, Alois Gröger, then chose 18 prisoners, relatives of the escapees, and ordered that they be shot. In a short time, four of the escapees were caught one by one. Each time, Gröger issued a special roll call for the prisoners. They had to be present during the execution of the escapees by hanging, carried out by Gröger's own hands. The fourteen who escaped are: Lejba Brener, Shmuel Lejzer Brener, Hersh Datum, Szaja Datum, Adam Diament, Yisroel Moshe Szor, Moshe Sztolhamer, Yisroel Yankl Sukman, Yankl Szwarcbard, Gabrial Rajnsztajn, Asher Bruchirer, Daniel Feder, and Leib Hecht.
Moshe Sztolhamer's son, Semmy Stahlhammer, wrote a book 'Kodnamn Frisör' (Codename Barber; 2007), about the incident.

1954 - Ernest Ernestan (aka Ernest Tanrez) (b. 1898), Belgian militant, writer, theorist of libertarian socialism, a significant figure of Belgian anarchism, dies. [see: Jul. 15]

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: The Santa Maria enters Lisbon harbour to be greeted by a flotilla of yachts, tugs, fishing boats and other vessels, and a crowd of 300,000 amongst who was Salazar who, rather theatrically, welcomed the liner, saying: "The Santa Maria is with us. Thank you, Portugal." The crowd responded with cries of "Long live Salazar" and "Long live Portugal" as though it was some sort of victory. [see: Jan. 21]

1971 - Michal Mareš (Josef Mareš; b. 1893), Czech writer, poet, journalist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

1972 - Bonhill Street Social Security Office, London, firebombed. Liverpool Army HQ, Edge Lane, bombed. Severe damage. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1972 - Hirabayashi Taiko (平林 たい子; b. 1905), pen-name of Hirabayashi Tai (平林タイ), Japanese fiction writer, feminist and one-time anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 3]

1978 - The Leamington 4 - Ian 'Bra' Bros, Kevin Ennis, Bob Fine and Roger Grenville (who had infiltrated the National Socialist Movement over a 3 year period in the 1960s on behalf of the 62 Group), members of the Leamington Anti-Fascist Group - are found guilty of criminal damage and given suspended sentences of one year imprisonment (plus costs) after a 3 day trial. Their crime? The June 13, 1977, painting out of the fascist grafitti "Wogs out! Had enough Whitey?" (sic), which had been daubed on a Warwick factory wall by self-styled 'race rebel' Robert Relf and his sidekick, local neo-Nazi Michael Cole.
1885 - Henri Laurens (d. 1954), French Cubist sculptor, painter, illustrator, theatre designer, engraver, stonemason and anarchist, who turned down the Légion d'honneur, born. Closely associated with fellow Cubists Juan Gris, Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque and especially his fellow sculptor, anarchist and anti-fascist Baltasar Lobo, who he hid from the Nazis in his house during WWII.

1887 - Juan Peiro Belis (d. 1942), Catalan anarcho-syndicalist theorist and militant in the CNT, born. In November 4, 1936, he was one of the CNT's four ministers (Minister of Industry) in the new government headed by Largo Caballero. He sought refuge in France in 1939, but was extradited back to Spain by Pétain. Refusing to cooperate with Franco, he was shot in Valencia on 24 July 1942.

1893 - Alexander Sapoundjiev (d. 1975), Bulgarian teacher, anarchist activist and propagandist, born. In June 1919, he participated in the founding congress of the FACB (Bulgarian Communist Anarchist Federation). In 1921, after several arrests Sapoundjiev was banned from teaching and he dedicated himself to the publication of several clandestine newspapers, including 'анархист' (Anarchist), 'Robotnitcheska Missal' (Workers' Thought) and 'свободно общество' (Free Society). Following the 9 June 1923 coup d'état and ensuing September insurrection, he was arrested and imprisoned, eventually going into exile in France in 1928. Following a 1931 amnesty, he return to his activities in Bulgaria but the pro-Fascist coup of May 19, 1934, saw him retire to the village of Biala to devote himself to viticulture and the cooperative movement. He was to suffer further periods of imprisonment, including under the Communists in 1948, but never gave up the struggle.

[C] 1904 - Felicia Mary Browne (d. 1936), English artist and communist, who was the first British volunteer to die in the Spanish Civil War, born. A member of the St. Pancras branch of the CPGB and the Artists International Association, she was travelling to Spain with the photographer Edith Bone in order to attend the People's Olympiad, when the military rebellion broke out. Arriving in Barcelona, she immediately joined a communist militia on August 3. On August 25, 1936, Felicia was killed in action on the Aragón front near Tardienta, part of a band of raiders that attempted to dynamite a Fascist munitions train. The group was ambushed and Browne was shot dead while trying to rescue an injured Italian comrade.

[A] 1916 - The brothers Enrique and Ricardo Flores Magón arrested at their Community Farm near Los Angeles, California. Enrique is beaten by the Officer Friendlies and hospitalised. Both are charged with mailing articles inciting "murder, arson and treason" and sent to prison.

1918 - Germany invade Russia, which is all but defenseless, as virtually the entire army has deserted.

[B] 1924 - Francisco 'Chico' Cuberos Neto (d. 2010), Brazilian militant anarchist and theatre and TV actor, born. An anarchist activist from boyhood, he was involved for decades was part of the Centre de Cultura Social (Center for Social Culture) in São Paulo, along with his brother Jaime Cubero and others. He was also active in the Societat Naturista Amics de la Nossa Chácara (Society of Friends of Our Orchard), which played a key role in organsing anarchist conferences in Brazil.

1927 - Osvaldo Bayer, journalist, screenwriter for the cinema, historian of the anarchist movement in Argentina and self-declared "ultra-pacifist anarchist", born. Member of the Federación Libertaria Argentina (FLA), he worked for various Argentine newspapers and in 1958 he founded 'La Chispa' (The Spark), "the first independent newspaper of Patagonia". Under the government of President Maria Estela Martinez de Peron, Bayer was threatened and persecuted because of his work, especially his book 'Los Vengadores de la Patagonia Trágica' (various volumes 1972-75; also known as 'La Patagonia Rebelde'), eventually leading to his exile in Berlin in 1975, which lasted until the fall of the military dictatorship in 1983.
In Berlin he continued his work as a journalist and historian, publishing 'Los Anarquistas Expropiadores y Otros Ensayos' (Anarchists Expropriators and Other Essays; 1975); 'Rebeldía y Esperanza' (Rebellion and Hope; 1993) and 'Severino Di Giovanni, el Idealista de la Violencia' (Severino Di Giovanni, the Idealist of Violence; 1998) amongst other books. He has also written the screenplays and dialogue for, as well as produced and appeared in, a dozen films, including one based on 'La Patagonia Rebelde' (1974); plus 'Fútbol Argentino' (1990) and 'Awka Liwen - Rebelde Amanecer' (Awka Liwen - Rebel Dawn; 2010), a documentary about the massacres and appropriation of lands of the indigenous peoples in Argentina, which was declared of national interest by the then President of Argentina, Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner. He has even ventured into the world of the novel, with 'Rainer y Minou' (2001), the story of a tortuous love between the son of an Nazi SS officer responsible for Auschwitz and the young daughter of a couple of German Jewish refugees in Argentina.

1956 - Gustave Charpentier (b. 1860), French composer, artistic and political radical, dies. [see: Jun. 25]

1959 - Jacques Doubinsky (Iakov Dubinsky; b. 1889), Ukranian Jewish anarchist and Makhnovist, dies. As a young labour radical he joined the Ukrainian peasant uprising in 1918, fighting with the insurrectionary Makhnovist army. [see: Mar. 26]

1978 - Battle of Digbeth: Following events at the Ladywood by-election and the Winson Green demo, West Midlands Chief Constable cancel all police leave and deploys 2,210 officers, including officers from neighbouring forces of Warwickshire, West Mercia and Staffordshire, to police planned protests against a gathering of 200 Young National Front members in Birmingham's Digbeth Civic Hall. 2-300 people march around the city centre on a Birmingham Trades Council organised demonstration to Digbeth where five thousand people are gathered to protest the NF's presence. A large number launch a concerted attack on the three-deep cordon of police officers around the Civic Hall as people sought to gain access to the National Front meeting, clashing with police wielding batons and riot shields. 58 police officers are injured, along with three members of the public, and 33 people arrested for a variety of offences. According to police figures, five private motor cars and one ambulance are damaged at an approximate cost of £800. Twelve business premises were reported damaged at a total estimated cost of £1,925.
At 5pm, the National Front members, who were safe and sound inside the Civic Hall through out, are escorted safely away from Digbeth without further incident.

2008 - Alain Robbe-Grillet (b. 1922), French writer, literary theorist, screenwriter and filmmaker, dies. [see: Aug. 18]
1869 - Friedrich 'Fritz' Oerter aka Bernhard Rothmann (d. 1935), German lithographic worker and anarchist, born. Along with his younger brother Sepp, he was active in the youth wing of the Social-Democratic Party but were expelled, joining the anarchist movement and smuggling anarchist literature into the country. Both brothers were arrested for delivering “seditious speeches” at a meeting of the unemployed in Mainz. On Oct 25th 1893 Sepp was sentenced to 8 years in prison and Fritz to 1 year. Fritz was badly affected by prison and spent the next decade in poor health. Both the brothers participated in the Anarchistischen Föderation Deutschlands (German Anarchist Federation) and contributed to the paper 'Der Freie Arbeiter' (Free Worker).
In 1918/1919 Fritz participated in the activities of the Workers and Soldiers Councils in Fürth and he joined the FAUD, becoming influential within it as a leading proponent of the doctrine of passive resistance, and as editor of the FAUD paper 'Der Syndikalist'. He also had close friendships Gustav Landauer, the playwright Ernst Toller and Erich Müsham. In 1935 Fritz was arrested by the SA (Nazi stormtroopers) and detained. Following his interrogation he died a week later in hospital at the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, apparently of pneumonia.

1888 - Konrad Świerczyński aka 'Wicek' (d. 1956), Polish anarchist, bookstore owner and poet, born. Father of Bernard Świerczyński aka 'Aniela' & 'Kondek'. Participant of Winter Palace assault in 1917 in Petersburg. During the interwar period he was a leading light in the Polish anarchist movement, and was imprisoned many times for his anarchist activity. During the Nazi occupation, he helped his son, Bernard, to hide Jews smuggled out of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, he was a soldier of Syndicalist Brigade (104 Kompania Związku Syndykalistów Polskich). ADC [aide de camp] of General Skokowski in Polska Armia Ludowa (PAL; Polish People's Army). After WWII, he lived in Tarnow,south Poland), and was a power plant worker. Died 29th February 1956 in Tarnow.

[B] 1896 - André Breton (d. 1966), French writer, poet, Dadaist, founder of Surrealism, member of the PCF and later an anarchist, born. [expand]

1899 - Lucio Fontana (d. 1968), Argentinian anarchist, painter and sculptor, born.

1902 - Kay Boyle (d. 1992), American writer, novelist, poet, journalist, educator, ant-war activist and anarchist fellow traveller, born. Author of the anti-Nazi novel 'Death of a Man' (1936) and blacklisted victim of McCarthyism, who campaigned against the Vietnam War, set up the San Francisco chapter of Amnesty International and worked for the NAACP.

1912 - At Benito Mussolini and Pietro Nenni's appeal, Nenni's sentence is confimed as seven and a half months in prison, and a half Mussolini is given five and a half months, with his immediate release. [see: Sep. 27 & Nov. 23]

1933 - Sucesos de Casas Viejas: Following the defeat on February 8th of the motion to set up an inquiry, an unofficial parliamentary committee arrives in Casas Viejas.

1947 - Pierre Besnard (b. 1886), French railway worker and anarcho-syndicalist, who was co-founder and Secretary of the Confédération Générale du Travail-Syndicaliste Révolutionnaire (CGT-SR), prominent in the setting up in August 1936 of the Comité anarcho-syndicaliste pour la défense du prolétariat espagnol (which provided financial and material support to the CNT-FAI), became secretary of the Conference of these committees in October 1936 and later Secretary of the Association Internationale des Travailleurs, and co-founder of the Confédération Nationale du Travail in December 1946, dies. [see: Oct. 8]

1950 - Marc Pierrot (b. 1871), French doctor, anarchist militant and propagandist, dies. [see: Jun. 23]

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: The 3e Régiment de Parachutistes d'Infanterie de Marine (3rd Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment) raids a bomb factory finding 87 bombs, 70 kg of explosives, detonators and other material, Yacef Saâdi's bomb-making organisation (réseau bombes) within the Casbah had been destroyed for the time being.

1962 - Émile Armand (pseudonym of Ernest-Lucien Juin) (b. 1872), individualist anarchist, free love activist and poet, dies. Author of 'Poésies Composées en Prison, l'Initiation Individualiste Anarchiste' (1923) and 'La Révolution Sexuelle et la Camaraderie Amoureuse' (1934). He also wrote for and edited the individualist anarchist publications 'L’Ère Nouvelle' (The New Era; 1901–1911); 'L’Anarchie' (1905-1914); 'Hors du Troupeau' (Out of the Flock; 1911); 'Les Réfractaires' (The Objectors; 1912-1914), 'Par delà la Mêlée' (Beyond the Fray; 1916) 'L'En Dehors' (The Outside; 1922–1939) and 'L’Unique' (1945–1953). He also contributed articles for Sebastien Faure's 'Anarchist Encyclopedia' and suffered repeatedly convictions, including "aiding and abetting desertion" during the 1st World War as well as internment during WWII. [see: Mar. 26]

1992 - Having occupies the Brunswick pub in Rochdale, the intended meeting point for the BNP prior to their election rally, thereby preventing the BNP meeting, Anti-fascist Action return later that evening taking then fascists completely by surprise and give them a good kicking. ['No Retreat']

[C] 2011 - 20,000 anti-fascists from all over Germany and across Europe prevent a planned large-scale Nazi march in Dresden. There are massive clashes with police acting extremely brutally and protesters are attacked with batons, pepper spray, water cannons, armoured vehicles and newly acquired pepperball guns, leaving several people seriously injured. Only about 2,000 fascists turned up and they failed to hold their demonstration.
1882 - Margarethe Faas-Hardegger (b. 1963), Swiss anarchist, syndicalist, feminist, anti-fascist and peace militant, born. She preached and practised free love, and established an anarchist-communist agricultural community at Minusio. [expand]

[BB] 1894 - Curt Corrinth (d. 1960), German Expressionist poet, novelist, dramatist, screenwriter and 'Bohemian anarchist', born. His anti-bourgeois experimental novel 'Potsdamer Platz' (1919), illustrated by Paul Klee, about the son of a war-proiteering millionaire who persuades Berlin's prostitutes to give up selling their bodies and instead embrace free love to create a 'heaven' on Earth - an anarchist celebration of prostitution as a potential revolutionary challenge to bourgeois order, which ends with the women mimicking the C19th image of bare-breasted Liberty by manning the barricades and laughing at and seducing the soldiers trying to retake the city.
Another of his works, the play 'Trojaner' (Trojans), is directed against the anti-Semitism rampant in German society, and caused outrage when first performed in 1929, and was banned by the Nazis in 1933 along with all his other works. He was taken into 'protective custody' by the Nazis in 1934 but later released and continued writing, opening the Leichlingen bookshop in 1945.

1894 - Enrico Arrigoni (aka Frank Brand; d. 1986), Italian American individualist anarchist lathe operator, house painter, bricklayer, dramatist and political activist influenced by the work of Max Stirner, born. During the Spanish Revolution, he went to fight with the anarchists but was imprisoned and Abe Bluestein, Selma Cohen & Emma Goldman played a part in his escape from prison in Spain.
"The “Frank Brand” I knew was an illegal. That is, he lived in the USA as an illegal immigrant. He was also an illegalist — that is, a law-breaker by conviction & principle. He used pseudonyms (Frank Branch, Harry Arrigoni, Harry Goni) & false papers to hide his past as a militant revolutionary anarchist in Italy, Switzerland, France, Germany, Russia, Hungary, Cuba, Argentina, Mexico, & Spain. At the same time, however, he was completely open about his beliefs & even about his identity — he even wrote his books under his own real name, Enrico Arrigoni, although his friends often addressed him by his nom de guerre..." - Peter Lamborn Wilson.

1895 - Giuseppe Bifolchi aka Luigi Viola aka 'V' (d. 1978), Italian anarchist communist, who fought in the Spanish Civil War and then later in the Italian Resistance to the Nazis, born. A non-commissioned officer during WWI, Giuseppe Bifolchi became an individualist anarchist, later moving over to a pronouncedly organisational anarchist communism. Forced into exile in France in the 1920s, he became a supporter of the Organisational Platform of the Libertarian Communistsand participated in the international meetings convened by the Platformists in 1927. In 1924 he contributed to the single issue (December 15th) of the Italian paper 'L’Agitazione a favore di Castagna e Bonomini', published in Paris to support the two comrades Mario Castagna and Ernesto Bonomini accused of having killed two fascists and threatened with extradition. Working in a cement works, he later contributed to the French anarchist paper 'Le Libertaire' under the signature 'V', a reference to the pseudonym (Luigi Viola) that he used during his time in France and Belgium, where he was forced to move in September 1927 following the issung of an expulsion order. In Brussels he became the publisher of the Italian anarchist monthly 'Bandiera Nera' and contributed to Luigi Bertoni's bilingual Franco-Italian paper 'Il Risveglio anarchico-Le réveil anarchiste' and to the monthly magazine 'Vogliamo'.
In July 1936, along with Camillo Berneri, Michele Centrone, Mario Girotti, Vincenzo Perrone, Ernesto Bonomini and Enzo Fantozzi, he was part of the first group of Italians to go to Perpignan to prepare to fight in Spain. He was later joined there by his partner Argentina Gantelli.. A member of the Italian section of the Ascaso Column, he was the leader of the group of riflemen who on August 25, 1936 managed to capture the heights of Monte Pelato, albeit with heavy losses. Alongside fellow anarchist Antonio Cieri, he was also one of the Ascaso Column's commanders (both refused to continue with the postions upon militarisation). During the events of May 1937 he was a member of the Italian section of the Defence Committee of the CNT. Forced to return to France in late 1937, he was arrested in 1937 at Perpignan and again served with an expulsion notice. Amongst those items he bought back from Spain, were the passports of dead Italians that he was able to use to secure passage to South America for comrades at the start of WWII.
Arrested by the Germans in 1940, he was interned in a prison camp and then extradited to Italy. There he was sentenced to 3 years imprisonment as a "combattente antifranchista in Spagna" and deported to Ponza, Ventotene and Renicci d'Anghiari, later fighting in the Resistance. After the war, he was sindaco "repubblicano" (Liberation Mayor) of Balsorano and went on to form an anarchist fruit co-operative and worked for the anarchist press - 'Umanità Nova', 'L'Adunata dei Refrattari', 'L'Internazionale', etc.

1898 - Anton Ciliga (d. 1992), Croatian philosopher, Left Communist and anarchist sympathiser, born. One of the founders of the Yugoslav Communist Party, he was initially enthusiastic about the Russian revolution, but soon became disillusioned and, after the suppression of Kronstadt [his pamphlet 'The Kronstadt Revolt' was published by Freedom Press in 1942], opposed the Bolshevik regime and was sent to the gulags. During WWII, he was interned again, this time in the Jasenovac camps in Croatia. His major work is 'The Russian Enigma' (1940, 1979).

1911 - The publication in Germany of the first issue of Franz Pfemfert's magazine 'Die Aktion', subtitled "Journal for literature and a libertarian politics". This high quality weekly brought together the Expressionist arts movement and radical social criticism from anarchist writers. It was subject to numerous fines, bans and seizures because of its anti-militarist position.

[C] 1924 - In a Parisian restaurant Ernesto Bonomini takes revenge for the beating murder of his teacher/friend by a squad of fascist thugs in Italy, silencing Nicola Bonservizi, secretary of the local fascio, a writer for 'L'Italie Nouvelle' and Mussolini's fascist paper 'Popolo d' Italia' with several shots from his revolver.

[CC] 1926 - Zina Portnova (Zinaida Martynovna Portnova [Зина Портнова / Зинаида Мартыновна Портнова]; d. 1944), Russian teenager and Soviet partisan, born. She was on school holiday at her grandmothers house in the Vitebsk region when Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union, born. Provoked by the invading Nazi troops attacking her grandmother and stealing her cattle, she joined the Belarusian resistance movement, becoming a member of the local underground Komsomol organisation the Young Avengers. She began by distributing Soviet propaganda leaflets in German-occupied Belarus, collecting and hiding weapons for Soviet soldiers, and reporting on German Movements. After learning how to use weapons and explosives from the older members of the group, Portnova participated in sabotage actions at a pump, local power plant, and brick factory. These acts are estimated to have killed upwards of 100 German soldiers. In 1943, Portnova became employed as a kitchen aid in Obol. In August, she poisoned the food meant for the Nazi garrison stationed there. Immediately falling suspect, she said she was innocent and ate some of the food in front of the Nazis to prove it was not poisoned; after she did not fall ill immediately, they released her. Portnova became sick afterwards, vomiting heavily but eventually recovering from the poison after drinking much whey. After she did not return to work, the Germans realized she had been the culprit and started searching for her. In December 1943 or January 1944 Portnova was sent back to Obol but the local police, who knew her well, arrested her and turned her over to the Germans. There are various versions of how she managed to escape during a Gestapo interrogation in the village of Goriany (all involve the snatching of a pistol and a shoot-out) but they all end with her recapture shortly afterwards. Brutally tortured, she ended up blind and was either taken into the woods and shot or killed during torture on January 15, 1944.

1933 - The first issue of the fortnightly newspaper 'La Protesta' (Protest) is published in Puteaux (Hauts-de-Seine). It replaces the newspaper 'Nova Umanità', banned in January 1933 by the French authorities.

1942 - Norwegian teachers begin successful nonviolent strike against Nazification of schools.

1953 - Emmy Andriesse (b. 1914), Dutch photographer and resistance fighter, who was part of the De Ondergedoken Camera (The Underground Camera) group that documented the Nazi Occupation, dies after a long battle with cancer. [see: Jan. 14]

1998 - Andre Senez (b. 1917), French shoemaker and militant in the Jeunesse Anarchiste Communiste (Anarchist Communist Youth), dies. [see: Oct. 8]
1898 - Felisa de Castro Sampedro (d. 1981), Spanish militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalsit and feminist, co-founder of Agrupación Cultural Femenina in Cataluña, which merged with Mujeres Libres in 1936, born.

1903 - Anaïs Nin (Angela Anaïs Juana Antolina Rosa Edelmira Nin y Culmell; d. 1977), American author and diarist, who frequented anarchist circles and was involved in a long intellectual and sexual relationship with Henry Miller at the Villa Seurat in Paris, born.
"When we blindly adopt a religion, a political system, a literary dogma, we become automatons."

1903 - Saturnino Carod Lerín aka ' 'El Cuco Cebollero', 'Satur' and 'Jacinto Lahoz Marín' (d. 1988), leading Aragonese anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist combattant, born into an anarchist peasant family. He started working on the land aged 6 years old, ploughing and harvesting in the Castille region and, at the end of WWI, he went in search of work acros Europe before settling in Barcelona with a job in construction. There he joined the CNT and through the union learned to read and write. Always an active anarchist, he refused to hold positions of responsibility. During the years of pistolerisme, he was part of an action group and had to flee to France to escape the repression launched by the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera. He returned from exile with the amnesty granted by the Second Republic and actively participated in the Sindicat de la Construcció in the CNT in Zaragoza.
In February 1936, he was a member of the Aragon Regional Committee (Comité Régional) and was responsible for organizing the farmers union (sindicats pagesos) in the region, participating in numerous propaganda tours especially in the Valderrobres (Teruel) area with Florentino Galván. On July 19, 1936, as Secretary of Propaganda for the CR, he managed to escape from Zaragoza, reaching Tortosa where he formed, with Captain Ferrer, the Columna Carod-Ferrer which participated in the liberation of many Aragon villages, including Alcaniz, Calanda, Alcorisa, Montalbán, etc ..., and put in place a network to help evacuate militants stranded in Zaragoza. When liberating his home village of Moneva (500 inhabitants), saved the life of the priest Enrique Guallar, a childhood friend who was about to be lynched by the population and who throughout the war became the secretary of supply for the small collectivised town. His column then merged with that of Antonio Ortiz Ramírez, taking the name Columna Confederal Sud-Ebre. Following militarisation, he was appointed Commissar of 118th Brigade, commanded by Victorio Castán Guillén, then Commissar of the Division 25th (Exèrcit Popular), a position he held until the end of the war. He collaborated on 'Nuevo Aragon', the newspaper of the Council of Aragon.
In May 1937, during clashes in Barcelona with the Stalinists, he was ordered to Catalonia at the head of several groups from the 25th Division with the intention of stopping the clashes but was stopped from doing so by the orders of the leaders of the CNT.
At the end of the war he was on the Madrid front was arrested at the port of Alicante and interned in the concentration camps at Los Almendros and Albaterra. He escaped in May 1939 with Castán and Sebastián Vicente Esteban Castan and went to France with the aid of Francisco Ponzán Vidal's guides. There he was interned until the end of 1940 and, upon his release integrated, joined Ponzán's clandestine group, participating in the Résistance against the German occupation, and the continued struggle in Spain. In January 1941, he crossed into Spain, where he conducted liaison missions between the CNT National Committee of Manuel Amil Barcia and Celedonia Pérez in Madrid.
In June 1941, he conducted a new mission in Spain, travelling to Valencia, Barcelona and Madrid, where he was arrested on Aug. 7, 1941, probably due to the action of the traitor Eliseu Melis Díez, of whom he was one of the first to suspect treachery. Brought before the council of war, which opened in Madrid on October 11, 1949 - and during which the priest Enrique Guallar, who after the war had been 'exiled' to Epila by Franco, spoke in his favour - he escaped the death penalty and was sentenced twenty five years inprisonment. He was interned successively Figueres, Barcelona and San Miguel de Los Reyes, from which he was released in late 1960. He lived in Barcelona and was arrested again in October 1961 and in 1962 for his links with the Aliança Sindical Obrera (ASO).
In July 1965 he, to the surprise of many, took part in the affair of the cincpuntisme negotiations between the CNT and former Francoist hierarchical unions. In February 1976 he participated in the confederal assembly at Sans and the rebuiltding of the CNT and the following year was one of the promoters of the founding of the La Verneda Libertarian Ateneo in Barcelona.
Saturnino Carod Lerin died in Barcelona on March 7, 1988.

1913 - France Bloch-Sérazin (d. 1943), French laboaratoy technician, communist militant and Résistance activist, born. Having gained a degree in Chemistry, she began working at the National Institute of Chemistry. She also joined the PCF and became involved in the support of the Spanish Republicans. In February 1940, her husband and fellow communist Frédo Sérazin was arrested by the Daladier government. Finding herself barred from working in the laboratory as a Jewish communist, she joined the Résistance and installed a small, rudimentary laboratory in her two-room apartment in Paris, making grenades and detonators used in attacks organised by the Bataillons de la Jeunesse. She was arrested by the French police on May 16, 1942. After four months of interrogation and torture, she was condemned to death by a German military tribunal, along with 18 comrades. The 18 were all immediately executed but, as the death penalty for women being forbidden in France, Bloch herself was deported to Germany and imprisoned in a Lübeck-Lauerhof prison (Zuchthaus). Subjected to further torture, she was decapitated by guillotine in Hamburg on February 12, 1943. Frédo was murdered in prison by the Gestapo.

1919 - Kurt Eisner (b.1867), German jornalist, socialist and first republican premier of of the newly declared free state of Bavaria, is assassinated (shot in the back whilst on his way to present his resignation to the Bavarian parliament) by a German Nationalist.

1936 - Shin Chae-ho (b. 1880), Korean historian, novelist, nationalist independence activist, anarchist and social Darwinist, dies. [see: Dec. 8]

1937 - The first issue of 'Resurgimiento' (Renaissance) is published in Montevideo, Uruguay, "Publicacion Anarquist, Organo del grupo Libertario 'Nuevos Rumbos'" (New Directions).

[C] 1943 - Dr. Gerrit Willem Kastein (b. 1910), Dutch neurologist, communist and resistance fighter and leader of the resistance group CS-6 during WWII, dies after leaping from the closed window of a second floor Sicherheitsdienst (the SS intelligence agency) interrogation room whilst tied to a chair, fracturing his skull. He died a few hours later.

1944 - Missak Manouchian (b. 1906), French-Armenian poet, a militant communist in the MOI (Main d'Œuvre Immigrée or Immigrant Workers Movement), and military commissioner of the FTP-MOI (Francs-Tireurs et Partisans de la Main d'Œuvre Immigrée; Partisan Irregular Riflemen of the MOI) in the Paris region, is executed along with 21 of his FTP-MOI comrades at Fort Mont-Valérien near Paris. [see: Sep. 1]

1944 - Thomas Elek aka Tamás Elek and KERPAL (b. 1924), Hungarian-born French communist Résistance fighter, member of the Manouchian Group, and a volunteer of the French liberation army FTP-MOI, who was featured on the notorious spring 1944 'Affiche Rouge' propaganda poster, is executed at the fort du Mont Valérien. [see: Dec. 7]

1944 - Célestino Alfonso (b. 1916), Spanish carpenter, Communist, Republican fighter, volunteer in the French liberation army FTP-MOI, and member of the Groupe Manouchian, is shot in the Fort Mont-Valérien in western Paris along with 21 other members of the FTP-MOI. [see: May 1]

1948 - Dissolution of Movimiento Libertario de Resistencia (M.L.R.).

1952 - Wartime Identity Cards in Britain become 'National Health' numbers.

1973 - Law students barricaded themselves inside the University of Athens, demanding that the law forcing students to go into the army be abolished. This is seen as a prelude to the November student uprising.

2011 - Miguel Grau Caldú (b. 1913), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist resister and poet, dies. [see: Nov. 10]
1802 - Battle of Ravine-à-Couleuvres [Batay Ravin Koulèv] aka Battle of Snake Gully: A major battle of the Haitian Revolution that saw the Haitian revolutionary forces under Toussaint Louverture suffer a defeat at the hands of the French army.

1900 - Luis Buñuel Portolés (d. 1983), Spanish Surrealist film-maker/director, anarchist, atheist, anticlericalist, anti-bourgeois, anti-fascist and blasphemer, born.
"I'm a revolutionary but revolution horrifies me, I'm an anarchist, but I'm totally against the anarchists."
"At twenty-eight I was an anarchist, and the discovery of Sade was to me quite extraordinary. It had nothing to do with the erotology, but with thought atheist. Turns out what had happened, until this moment, is that purely and simply had hidden me freedom, completely deceived me regarding what was religion and, above all, about morality. I was an atheist, had lost faith, but replaced it with liberalism and anarchism, with the sense of the innate goodness of man, and at the bottom was convinced that the man had a predisposition to goodness spoiled by the organization of the world by capital and soon discovered that all that was nothing, that everything that could exist (and if not that, something else), and that nothing, absolutely nothing, should be taken into account as it were the total freedom that if he felt like the man could move, and that there was good and there was bad. Imagine what that means for an anarchist."
Max Aub - 'Conversations with Luis Buñuel' (1984)

1909 - Alexander Aronovich Pechersky (Алекса́ндр Аро́нович Пече́рский; d. 1990), Soviet-Jewish POW and co-organiser and leader of the Sobibor Uprising on October 14, 1943, the most successful revolt and mass-escape of Jews from a Nazi extermination camp during World War II, born.

1910 - Baltasar Lobo (d. 1993), Spanish artist, illustrator, sculptor and anarchist, born. Lifelong companion of poet and anarchist Mercedes Comaposada Guillén. Abandoning his early job in a religious sculpture workshop, he got a scholarship he studied at the Reial Acadèmia de Belles Arts de San Fernando (Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando) in Madrid but, dissatisfied with their curricula, he left to work in woodcarvers run by CNT member Ángel Garzón, his first contact with anarchism, as well as making gravestones. He also too lessons at the Cercle de Belles Arts (Academy of Fine Arts) in Madrid. In 1933, and following a year's military service, he met the militant anarcho-feminist Mercedes Comaposada Guillén, one of the founders of the Mujeres Libres. In 1935 he made his first trip to Paris and, in 1936, joined the FIJL and began illustrating 'Tierra y Libertad', 'Castilla Libre', 'Frente Libertario', 'Tiempos Nuevos', 'Umbral', 'Mujeres Libres', 'Campo Libre', etc.. An active member of the Secció de Tallistes del Sindicat de la Fusta (Woodcarvers Section of the Woodworkers Union) of the CNT, he enlisted in the militia at the outbreak of war and participated in the Arts i Lletres group, give lessons at the front to those militants who could neither read nor write, "harmonising in this way the anarchist philosophy of making revolution (personal growth and humanising the individual) at the same time as being at war, fighting fascism".
Following the defeat of the republic, he went to France and settled in Paris, occupying the abandoned factory Naum Gabo. In 1945 he was part of the Masters of Contemporary Art exhibition alongside Matisse, Picasso, Leger, Utrillo, Bonnard and Laurens, later becoming Picasso's secretary for many years.

1930 - In Italy Camillo Berneri sentenced to six months in prison.

1930 - Giuliano Montaldo, radical Italian film director, who directed the docudrama 'Sacco e Vanzetti' (1971), born.

1937 - Tomás Herreros Miquel (or Miguel) (b. 1877), Spanish typesetter, anarcho-syndicalist, writer, gifted speaker, organiser, street activist, dies. A key figure in the early days of Spanish anarcho-syndicalism, he was active in the Arte de Imprimir, chaired the Junta de Defensa dels Drets Humans (Council fot the Defence of Human Rights) in Barcelona and was part of the anarchist group Quatre de Maig. Editor of the newspaper 'Solidaridad Obrera' since its creation and a close friend of Francisco Ferrer . In July 1909 he was arrested at the beginning of the Semaine Tragique and in 1910 attended the founding congress of the CNT. The following year he became editor of 'Tierra y Libertad' (and a member of the organisation). [expand]
Author of 'Huelga General en Barcelona' (General Strike in Barcelona; 1902); 'El Obrero Moderno' (The Modern Worker; 1911) and 'La Política y los Obreros' (Politics and The Workers; 1913).

1943 - Three members of the Weiße Rose (White Rose) anti-Nazi resistance group, Hans and Sophie Scholl and Christopher Probst are condemned to death (having, amongst other things, urged students to rise up and overthrow the Nazi government in various clandestine leaflets and posters) for treason and beheaded in Munich's Stadelheim Prison. [see: May 9/Sep. 22/Nov. 6]

1944 - Karel Destovnik aka 'Kajuh' (b. 1922), Slovenian poet, translator and resistance fighter, both in the Yugoslav army and Slovene partisans, his unit of the XIVth Slovene Partisan Division is attacked by a German patrol and Kajuh is one of the first to be killed. [see: Dec. 19]

1978 - Metropolitain Police Commissioner McNee announces the banning of an NF March due to take place on Feb. 25 in Ilford but in fact bans all marches in London for 2 months, covering the period up to and 3 days after the Lambeth by-election, effecting numerous marches including a NF march due on April 22nd.

[C] 1980 - Valerio Verbano (b. 1961), Italian high school student and Autonomia Operaia anti-fascist activist from Rome, is murdered by neo-fascists. Valerio had been investigating the Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari (NAR) and their links with weapons, the drugs trade and their connections with the State. On April 20, 1979 , he had been arrested by the police along with four others, at a abandoned farmhouse near the Roman town of San Basilio, whilst preparing to manufacture some incendiary devices (Molotov cocktails). Police executing a search warrant on his parent's house at Via Montebianco 114 immediately after his arrest, discovered and seized a Beretta 6.75 with its serial number filed off and his documentary material, including several dossiers prepared by Verbano with the indexing of right-wing extremists. He was later sentenced to seven months imprisonment.
On February 22, three armed men went to Valerio's home. The three fascists bound and gagged his parents, and when Valerio came back, they attacked him and during the fight he was killed by a single pistol shot. In October 1980, Valerio's parents asked to have the stuff of their son back, they found that the dossier NAR has disappeared.

1986 - During the first AFA national conference, Searchlight make a series of totally bogus allegations against the anarchist group Class War that they have had links to fascist organisations. This resulted in Class War, Direct Action and the 'anarchist haters' Red Action walking-out and Class War being suspended by the organisation.
www.meanwhileatthebar.org/IWCA/BTF Review.pdf]

2002 - Poncke Princen (Johannes Cornelis Princen; b. 1925), Dutch anti-Nazi fighter and colonial soldier, who in 1948 deserted and joined the pro-independence guerrillas in the then Dutch Indies, dies. [see: Nov. 21]

2003 - Arthur Moyse (b. 1914), English anarchist, artist and bus conductor, dies at the ripe young age of 88. [see: Jun. 21]
[B] 1882 - B. Traven (d. 1969), Anarchist author/novelist, aka Ret Marut, Hal Croves, Bruno Traven, Traven Torsvan, Otto Feige, born in Poznañ, Poland. Spent a portion of his life hiding his tracks, changing identity, country and jobs. [This is the best guess for the date and location of this mysterious author's birth.]

[C] 1904 - Manuel Monleón Burgos (d. 1976), Spanish painter, illustrator, poster artist, photomontagist, naturist, Esperantist and anarchist, born. One of the most important poster and photomontage artists of the Spanish Revolution.

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: Intelligence sources of Colonel Roger Trinquier, creator of the Dispositif de Protection Urbaine (Urban Protection Plan) responsible for monitoring the population, locate Larbi Ben M'hidi, aka 'El Hakim' in charge of armed action in Algiers and member of the FLN's Comité de Coordination et d'Exécution (CCE; Committee of Coordination and Implementation), who is captured in his pyjamas by Paratroopers in the Rue Claude-Debussy.
[NB: Many sources incorrectly state the date as Monday 25 February, confused by the date that the news and photos of the arrest appeared in the press.]
[www.histoire-en-questions.fr/guerre algerie/alger-premiere-arrestation-ben m hidi.html

1979 - Eleven members of a libertarian group in Barcelona are busted, including two escapees from Carabanchel a year ago.
[C] 1909 - Ethel MacDonald (d. 1960), Glasgow-based anarchist activist who was labelled the 'Scots Scarlet Pimpernel' by the British press for her activities in Spain in 1937, born. One of nine children, the 'Bellshill Girl Anarchist' left home at sixteen to become a lifelong activist in the working class and women's movements, joining the Independent Labour Party, (ILP). Working as a waitress and shop assisstant, in 1931 she met Guy Aldred and left the ILP to become active in the Anti-Parliamentary Communist Federation (APCF). In 1933 she accepted his invitation to work as his secretary, and together they formed the United Socialist Movement (USM) in June 1934. During the Spanish Revolution, she was a prisoner aid militant and announcer and propagandist on Barcelona Loyalist radio. Visiting comrades captured imprisoned following the May 1937 Stalinist crackdown, she smuggled letters and food into prison and helped many anarchists escape Spain. Eventually arrested by the Communist police, she went underground in Barcelona upon her release but later escaped to France. [expand]

1932 - On the rue Monte Caseros, Montevideo Chief of Police Luis Pardeiro and his chauffeur are killed in a hail of bullets. An attentat against the renowned torturer of many anarchists (Miguel Arcangel Roscigno, et al), the attack is attributed to the anarchists Armando Guidot, Bruno Antonelli Dellabella and Francisco Sapia.

1933 - Sucesos de Casas Viejas: The Cortes finally approves by 173 votes to 130 a government motion creation of a Comisión de Investigación (commission of inquiry) into the events in Casas Viejas. [see: Feb. 8]

1939 - Vázquez and Herrera's circular letter announces that the CNT-FAI will cease activities abroad and thanks the international community for its efforts on behalf of the Spanish anarchists.

1950 - Manual Sabaté Llopart aka 'Manolo' (b. 1927), Catalan anarchist and youngest brother of the famous anti-Franco guerilla Francisco Sabaté Llopart, 'El Quico', is shot alongside fellow Catalan anarchist Saturnino Culebras Saiz aka 'Primo' (b. ca. 1921) at the Campo da Bota, Barcelona. Manolo's death sentence was simply because of his name and the fact that the Spanish authorities could not get hold of his more famous brothers. [see: Aug. 20]

1951 - In Italy, the French GAAP (Groupes Anarchistes d’Action Prolétarienne) is created on February 24-25, by former members of the FAI excluded at the congress of Ancône.

1960 - The National Labour Party and the White Defence League merge to form the British National Party. The party will be led by John Bean, with Andrew Fountaine holding the position of Party President. Other leading members include John Tyndall, Colin Jordan (who served as Activities Organiser), Denis Pirie and Ted Budden.
www.lboro.ac.uk/media/wwwlboroacuk/content/socialsciences/downloads/10_Richardson_British fascist discourse_final.pdf]

1978 - At a Rock Against Racism 'Smash Race Hate in '78' gig at the Central London Polytechnic, the BM are present in numbers but discretion was the better part of their valour and the event is largely peaceful, ending with Jimmy Pursey from Sham 69 joining Misty in Roots on stage for a version of the old skinhead classic, 'Israelites'. [PR]

1982 - Lucien Tronchet (b. 1902), Swiss anarchist and trade unionist whose anti-fascist activities landed him in prison, dies. [see Jan 10].

2009 - The Immigrants' Social Centre in Athen's Exarcheia district suffers a fascist hand-grenade attack.
[CCC] 1894 - Ernst Friedrich (d. 1967), German anarchist, anti-militarist and founder of the Berlin Peace Museum, born. From a poor background, he was unable to study drawing and sculpture, he instead became an apprentice in the publishing trade and then a factory worker, all the time studying during the evenings. In 1914 he became an actor in the Koniglichen Hoftheater in Potsdam and, already an anti-militarist, he refused military service and was placed under observation in a mental institution. In 1916, he participated in illegal assemblies of anti-militarist and revolutionary youth and in 1917 was imprisoned for an act of sabotage. Released at the beginning of the revolution of November 1918, he joined the Free Socialist Youth Movement (Freien Sozialistischen Jugend) around Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg, and the Communist Youth organisation.
In 1919, he founded the Föderation der Jugend Révolutionären Deutscher Sprache (Federation of German-speaking Revolutionary Youth) and publishes the weekly 'Freie Jugend', linking the various groups of young anarchists from Germany, Austria and German-speaking Switzerland. In the early twenties, he opened a space in Berlin frequented by anti-authoritarian youth, which became a place for young workers and the artistic and literary milieu to meet and put on exhibitions and debates.
Author of 'Proletarian Kindergarten' (1921), a children's picture and story book aimed at educating children to oppose war and militarism, and 'Krieg dem Kriege' (War Against War; 1924).
In 1925 he opened the first Berlin International Anti-War Museum, which also includes a print shop and bookstore, and was the subject of numerous attempts at repression, prosecutions, fines and prison terms. In 1930 Friedrich was imprisoned for 'high treason' for a year because of the publication of anti-militarist writings intended for secret distribution amongst the army and police. Having been released, and against the background of the rise of the Nazis, he fortuitously moved some of the museum's archive abroad as during the night of the Reichstag fire Friedrich was arrested and the museum ransacked and had materials confiscated by the SA. Friedrich was imprisoned and the Museum turned into a Nazi meeting place cum torture centre.
In ill health and under pressure from the American Quakers, he was released in September 1933 and placed under house arrest but managed to escape, via Czechoslovakia and Switzerland, to Belgium where he set up a second anti-war museum in Brussels. He related his anti-Nazi struggle and subsequent escape in 'Vom Friedens-Museum zur Hitler Kaserne: Ein Tatsachenbericht über das Wirken von Ernst Friedrich und Adolf Hitler' (From Peace Museum to Hiltler Barracks: A factual report on the work of Ernst Friedrich and Adolf Hitler; 1935). With the German invasion of Belgium, his museum was again destroyed and he was interned as a refugee in France. Wanted by the Gestapo, he was arrested but managed to escape and join the Maquis (FFI) in Lozère (helping save 70 Jewish children from deportation).
After the War, he stayed in France and tried unsuccessfully to refound the Anti-War Museum and, using funds from an international award, he purchased a barge in 1945, recommissioning it as the 'Peace Ship' Arche de Noé dedicated to promotting Franco-German friendship. With reparations from the German government, in 1954 he purchased land on an island in the Marne (near the town of Le Perreux-sur-Marne), building an international youth centre, which became L'île de la Paix (The Island of Peace), a meeting place for young workers.
After his death in 1967, an Anti-War Museum was finally re-established in Berlin in 1982 by his grandson Tommy Spree.

1928 - Juan López Romero Jiménez (aka 'Juan el Camas' or 'Chiquito de Camas' [Shorty from Camas]; d. 2008), Andalusian anarchist and flamenco singer, especially of the fandango, born.

[C] 1937 - Alonzo Watson (b. 1891), African American painter, WWI veteran and anti-fascist, who was one of the first American volunteers to join the Abraham Lincoln Brigade and fight in the Spainsh Civil war, is killed by a sniper during the Battle of Jarama. His death made him the first African American volunteer killed in action.

1941 - Dutch General Strike against Nazi deportation of Jews.

2002 - Isabel Mesa Delgado (b. 1913), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, member of the CNT from the age of 14 and secretary of Valencian Mujeres Libres, dies. Following the defeat of the revolution, she organised a clandestine resistance group and provided aid to prisoners and their families under the fascist dictatorship. With the death of Franco Isabel helped with new libertarian projects, like Radio Klara and the libertarian ateneo (college) 'Al Margen'. [see: Dec. 31]

2002 - Well-known right-wingnut Robert Relf is jailed for a week after failing to pay a £100 fine imposed the previous September for refusing to fill in a census form because "I was annoyed that as an Englishman I could not say I was English so I had no intention of completing the form." His refusal followed an incident a month before when he barricaded himself into his bungalow in Birchington, Kent, and refused to pay a council tax levy to help asylum seekers.
1898 - Konstantin Biebl (d. 1951), Czech proletarian poet and Poetist, born. Member of Devětsil and the Czech Surrealist group. In January 1918 he was on the Balkan front, wounded, captured and sentenced to death, escaped execution by fleeing from captivity. Strongly held anti-war and anti-fascist views.

1920 - First edition of 'Umanita Nova', anarchist daily paper published in Milan and Rome (circulation 50,000) founded by Errico Malatesta and Antonio Cieri. Shut down in 1922 by the fascist regime, it reappears in 1945 as a weekly.

[C] 1965 - Jimmie Lee Jackson (b. 1938), Black American civil rights protester is shot and killed by Alabama State Trooper James Bonard Fowler.

2009 - In Athens a march in protest against the hand grenade attack on the Exarcheia Immigrants' Social Centre ends with an attack on the HQ of 'Apogevmatini', an ultra-conservative newspaper responsible for daily attacks on Greek social and labour movements.
1887 - Giuseppe Monanni (d.1952), Italian editor, self-taught journalist, publisher and propagandist of individualist anarchism (a la Nietzsche and Palante), born. A typesetter by profession, he founded the anarchist journal 'Vir' in 1907 in Florence. Alongside his wife Leda Rafanelli (whom Mussolini famously slobbered over whilst still editor-in-chief of the daily socialist newspaper 'Avanti!'), he collaborated on various newspapers and publications including 'La Questione Sociale' (1909); 'La Rivolta' (1911) and 'La Libertà' (1913-1914). In addition to his journalism, Monanni was editor of Libreria Editrice Sociale (Social Publishing Library; 1910 to 1915), the Casa Editrice Sociale (Social Publishing House; 1919 to 1926), and finally the Casa Editor Monanni (Monanni Publishing House; 1926 to 1933), as well as publishing works on individual anarchism by Palante and Nietzsche. His editorial work suffered the interruption of WWI and temporary refuge in Switzerland. Upon his return to Italy, and like many others, he suffered increasing repression with the rise of fascism but managed to found with Carlo Molaschi the Libera Università (Free Univerity) whose work was subsequently limited to general educational work following the passing of special laws, and ceased all together due to financial and further political restraints. After the end of the war and the fall of Fascism in Italy, he collaborated again under the pseudonym of 'Mony' the newspaper 'Libertario'.

1913 - Pierre Boujut (d. 1992), French cooper, writer, poet, pacifist and libertarian, born. Published 3 literary journals over a sixty year period: 'Reflets' (Reflections; 1933-1936), 'Regains' (Regains; 1937-1939) and 'La Tour de Feu' (The Fire Tower; 1946-1991); as well as numerous poetry collections and a memoir, 'Un Mauvais Français' (A Bad Frenchman; 1989).

[CC] 1921 - In Florence today and tomorrow, and against the backdrop of the rise of fascism, serious confrontations occur with the Fascists, resulting in the death of two rail workers: Gino Mugnai and Spartaco Lavagnini. The fascists try to enter the district of San Frediano, but encounter strong resistance from radical activists and the population who form barricades.
At Certaldo (near Florence), the anarchist Ferruccio Scarselli dies, ripped apart by a bomb during one confrontation, whilst in Spezia an anarchist named Uliviero is killed by the police. At the same time in Trieste the main union offices are burned down.
On March 1st, in answer to the fascist violence, a general strike is called in Trieste and Florence. In the latter new clashes occur resulting in the death of more than 20 with over a hundred people injured.

[C] 1933 - The burning of the Reichstag.

1937 - Lincoln Brigaders attack Pingarrón Hill ('Suicide Hill') in Jarama Valley; of the 500 who go over the top, more than 300 are killed or wounded.

1938 - Britain and France recognise Franco's fascist regime in Spain.

1950 - Yvan Goll (born Isaac Lang; b. 1891), bilingual French-German Jewish writer (poetry, novels, dramas, libretti, essays, etc.) and anarchist sympathiser, who had close ties to German expressionism, Zurich Dada and to French surrealism, dies. [see: Mar. 29]
1921 - Continuing violence in and arround Florence as Fascist gangs attack radical workers.

1931 - Oswald Mosely resigns from the Labour Party and forms the New Party along with six of the Labour MPs who signed the 'Mosley Manifesto' (which the 1930 Labour party conference had narrowly rejected) - Mosley and his wife Cynthia, Oliver Baldwin, W. J. Brown, Robert Forgan and John Strachey - although two (Baldwin and Brown) resigned membership after a day and sat in the House of Commons as independent MPs; Strachey resigned in June. Its youth wing, the NUPA, was formed largely to protect New Party speakers and ensure orderly meetings. Consisting of mainly Oxbridge students, they were led by the All-England rugby captain Peter Howard and were nicknamed the Biff Boys by the press, "strapping young men in plus fours" who behaved like Mussolini's Squadristi.

[B] 1938 - Klaus Staeck, German lawyer and publisher, best known in Germany for his radical political graphic design work, born.

[C] 1960 - The Union Movement and the newly formed British National Party join forces to attempt to target the launch of the Anti-Apartheid Movement's 'March Month, Boycott Action' rally in Trafalgar Square. Gathering at Charing Cross station, the fasicsts got involved in fights with some of the 10,000 who attended the rally as well members of the YCL selling their papers. [PR]
"Nine people were arrested and several policemen injured yesterday during the ugliest political clashes seen in London since the war. They began when Mosleyites tried to intervene at a Trafalgar Square demonstration where 10,000 pledged themselves to boycott South African goods as a protest against apartheid. A mile-long running battle, involving thousands of people, surged from Charing Cross, along the Strand, down Whitehall, and into Victoria Street. Union Movement men headed by Sir Oswald Mosley had gathered in the forecourt of Charing Cross station and they and boycott supporters began shouting at each other. Then members of the Young Communist League, who were selling their official journals, moved in to the attack. Within a few moments about 50 people were exchanging blows. I saw a dozen police officers and four men sprawled on the ground. Two other men were knocked down and kicked by the crowd." ['News Chronicle', 29/02/60]

1970 - Bomb attack on the Bank of Bilbao and the Spanish State Railways in Paris. [First of May Group]

1976 - National Front march in Coventry - ANY INFO ANYBODY?

1978 - Roberto Scialabba (b. 1954), Italian Lotta Continua militant and activist at the Via Calpurnio Fiamma social centre, is murdered by fascist gunmen in Rome. February 28 1978 was a date with special meaning for the fascists of Rome, being the third anniversary of the death of Mikis Mantakas, a young militant in the Fronte Universitario d'Azione Nazionale (FUAN), a fascist university student group. It was that date that was chosen by members of the Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari (NAR), an armed fascist organisation believed to have been behind the 1980 Bologna train station bombing, for an attack to avenge a recent attack on the MSI offices on the Via Acca Larentia where 2 fascists were killed (and a third left dead after clashes with the police). Having decided to target the social centre, the 8 armed fascists turned up unaware that it had been evicted yet again by the police the previous day and was closed. Looking around for a new target, they went in the direction of the nearby Piazza San Giovanni Bosco, a local area frequented by leftists and opened fire randomly on a group of young people sitting on a bench. Cristiano Fioravanti hits Roberto Scialabba in the chest with his first shot but his gun jams but Valerio Fioravanti then fires 2 shots from close range into his head. The rest of the group scatter to safety. NAR claimed responsibility a few hours later.

2006 - José Gonzaga Herrera (b. 1911), Andalusia labourer and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 23]
1920 - Following a protest meeting in Milan, where Erico Malatesta was amongst the speakers, police fire upon the crowd to try and prevent a public demonstration. Two people are killed and five injured. A General Strike is called to protest the cops' actions.

1944 - Félix Fénéon (b. 1861), French art critic, novelist, anarchist and friend of Seurat, Paul Signac, Théo van Rysselberghe, Henri-Edmond Cross, André Gide, et al, dies. [see: Jun. 22]

1956 - Simón Radowitzky (Szymon Radowicki; b. 1891), aka 'The Martyr of Ushuaia', legendary Ukrainian-born anarchist freedom fighter who killed police chief Ramon Falcon and his secretary with a bomb in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on November 14, 1909, dies. [see: Oct. 10 or Nov. 10]

1956 - Konrad Świerczyński aka 'Wicek' (b. 1888), Polish anarchist, bookstore owner and poet, dies. [see: Feb. 19]
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)