1914 - Orli Wald (d. 1962), member of the German Resistance in Nazi Germany, who was sentenced to 4.5 years hard labour for high treason and later sent to Ravensbrück concentration camp, where she was held in "protective custody" as a danger to the Third Reich, born. She earned the name of the Angel of Auschwitz working as a prisoner functionary in the infirmary at Auschwitz-Birkenau.

1917 - East St Louis Race Riot (July 1-3), probably the most notorious in US history.
[www.eslarp.uiuc.edu/ibex/archive/nunes/esl history/race_riot.htm]

1932 - The first issue of the Italian language newspaper 'La Lanterna', "Periodico Anarchico", is published in Marseilles by a group of Italian anarchist refugees. Printed in Nîmes, it provides support to victims of political repression in Fascist Italy.

1933 - The first issue of the monthly literary magazine 'Prolétariat' is published in Paris by Henry Poulaille and the Groupe Prolétarien.

1937 - In Barcelona the Via Laietana, main artery of the city passing the CNT HQ is renamed Via Durruti in tribute to Buenaventura Durruti and his revolutionary activities.

1946 - Pia Turroni begins publishing 'Volontà', the monthly magazine of the Italian anarchist movement clandestinely as the US authorities refused him permission. He continues as managing editor until 1980, when the Milan anarchist group Bandiera Nera (Black Flag) take it over.

1952 - Fráňa Šrámek (b. 1877), Czech poet, novelist, short story writer, Impressionist playwright, anti-militarist and anarchist rebel, dies. [see: Jan 19]

[C] 1962 - Colin Jordan's National Socialist Movement holds a 'Free Britain from Jewish Control' rally in Trafalgar Square, which ends in a riot. Around 800 nazis were present, attracted by the NSM’s hatred for Jews and democracy, who were opposed by 4,200 or so anti-fascists. Denis Pirie and John Tyndall were the first to speak in front of a massive banner bore the words 'Free Britain From Jewish Control' and 'Britain Awake', the latter comparing the Jews to "a poisonous maggot", and were subjected to a continuous barracking and a barrage of pennies, tomatoes, eggs and apples from those gathered around the platform. When Jordan, who was dressed in the uniform of his NSM’s paramilitary force Spearhead – brown shirt, military boots and pagan Sunwheel symbol armband – spoke, he praised Hitler and the Nazis as well as continued to spew the anti-Semetic bile of the others two. By the time the police intervened to arrest the speakers a riot was under way after the platform had been stormed. Many of Jordan’s supporters were injured and their military-style Land Rovers damaged. 20 arrests made, fifteen cases on charges of offences against Section 5 of the Public Order Act, 1936.
The event would precipitate an attempt to reform the anti-fascist 43 Group, with many of the original members as well as many new members acting under the umbrella name of the 1962 Committee aka the 62 Group. It would also be a catalyst for the formation of the mostly Jewish 'no platform' anti-fascist Yellow Star Movement. [see below]
Later that year Jordan and his core officers, including John Tyndall, who went on to lead the National Front and found today’s British National Party, were convicted at the Old Bailey under the 1936 Public Order Act for organising and equipping a paramilitary force for political ends. He was jailed for nine months.
nazbol.net/library/authors/Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke/Black Sun.pdf
www.lboro.ac.uk/media/wwwlboroacuk/content/socialsciences/downloads/10_Richardson_British fascist discourse_final.pdf

1962 - At the same time as the NSM meeting in Trafalgar square, Rev. Bill Sargent was holding his own protest against the NSM by wearing a yellow star at a meeting on the steps of the church in nearby St Martins in the Fields. Included in the protest were members of the Jewish Ex-Servicemen's group (AJEX), and this would mark the beginning of the Yellow Star Movement. [see: Jul. 22]

1977 - Lewisham 21 Defence Committee demonstration in New Cross in support of local black youths arrested in police operation: '300 demonstrators marched through Lewisham and New Cross'; more than 100 National Front supporters turn out to attack it: "Shoppers rushed for cover as racialists stormed down New Cross Road" ['Kentish Mercury']. NF throw bottles, "rotten fruit and bags of caustic soda at marchers" ['South London Press']. More than 60 people, fascists and anti-fascists, are arrested in clashes in New Cross Road and Clifton Rise.

1978 - In Manchester a defence campaign was created to support Nazir and Munir Ahmed. On July 2, a group of strangers attack Nazir and Munir Ahmed's shop in Longsight. The Ahmeds, assume that the attackers are linked to the National Front but when the brothers attempt to call the police, they learn that their assailants were in fact plain-clothes officers. Nazir and Munir Ahmed were eventually charged on several counts, including assault on a policeman, wounding with intent and carrying offensive weapons. They could count themselves doubly unfortunate. For most victims of racist attacks, the police merely contributed to the problem; they were not the problem itself.

1985 - Parisian daily newspaper fail to appear following the sabotage of the IPLO print shop near Nantes. "We decided to impose a half day’s silence on the national press in honour of the rebellious jailbirds..." The action is also dedicated to all the dead prisoners who were allegedly "suicides". "All these papers are well known for their hostility to the recent movement of revolt in the prisons."

2003 - Chicho Sánchez Ferlosio (José Antonio Julio Onésimo Sánchez Ferlosio; b. 1940), Spanish singer, poet, songwriter, journalist, one-time communist but later an anarchist and CNT member, dies. [see: Apr. 8]
1873 - Nella Giacomelli (d. 1949), Italian anarchist and propagandist, co-founder with Ettore Molinari of 'Il Grido della Folla' (The Cry of the Crowd) in 1902 and of 'La Protesta Umana' in 1906, and in the post-war period a contributor to Errico Malatesta's anarchist daily 'Umanita Nova', born.

1877 - Hermann Hesse (d. 1962), German poet and novelist, born. Author of 'Der Steppenwolf' (1927), whose central character Harry Haller is invited to attend an: "Anarchist Evening at the Magic Theatre, For Madmen Only, Price of Admission Your Mind."

1892 - Olaf Bryn Kullmann (d. 1942), Norwegian one-time naval officer, who later became an anti-militarist and peace activist, born. When Norway was invaded by Germany in 1940, he bicycled around Norway to agitate against Norway's involvement in WWII, something that got him arrested when he refused Nazi demands that he cease his pacifist agitation. He ultimately ended up in Sachsenhausen concentration camp, where he died in July 1942.

1894 - André Kertész (born Kertész Andor; d. 1985), Hungarian-born photographer and ground-breaking photojournalist, born.

1917 - East St Louis Race Riot (July 1-3), probably the most notorious in US history.
[www.eslarp.uiuc.edu/ibex/archive/nunes/esl history/race_riot.htm]

1925 - Medgar Wiley Evers (d. 1963), African American civil rights activist from Mississippi involved in efforts to overturn segregation at the University of Mississippi, born. He became active in the civil rights movement after returning from overseas service in World War II and completing secondary education, became a field secretary for the NAACP. Evers was assassinated by Byron De La Beckwith, a member of the White Citizens' Council, shot in the back early in the morning of June 12, 1963, just hours after President John F. Kennedy's speech on national television in support of civil rights, as he pulled into his driveway after returning from a meeting with NAACP lawyers.

[B] 1935 - anni Balestrini, Italian experimental poet, novelist and writer of the Neoavanguardia movement, visual artist and anarchist, born. Member of Novissimi (Last Things) and Gruppo 63 writers groups.

1937 - A handbill from the Bolshevik-Leninist Section of Spain (on behalf of the Fourth International) expresses solidarity with the POUM militants persecuted by the Stalinists.

[?] 1945 - The Vigilantes (Secret Committee of Ex-Servicemen) squat a house in Roundhill Crescent, Brighton and begin a mass squatting movement.

1961 - Ernest Miller Hemingway (b. 1899), American author and journalist, dies. [see: Jul. 21]

1977 - Lewisham 21 Defence Committee demonstration in New Cross in support of local black youths arrested in police operation: '300 demonstrators marched through Lewisham and New Cross'; more than 100 National Front supporters turn out to attack it: 'Shoppers rushed for cover as racialists stormed down New Cross Road' ['Kentish Mercury', July 7]. NF throw bottles, 'rotten fruit and bags of caustic soda at marchers' ['South London Press', July 5]. One teacher was kicked unconscious by the fascists. More than 60 people, fascists and anti-fascists, are arrested in clashes in New Cross Road and Clifton Rise, with 35 NF supporters and 17 anti-fascists remanded on bail following court appearences on July 4th & 5th.

[C] 1986 - In Chile a two-day General Strike to protest military rule begins.

1989 - Jean Painlevé (b. 1902), French biologist turned film director, actor, translator, animator, critic and theorist, anti-fascist and anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 20]

2007 - Gerald Flamberg (b. 1922), English anti-fascist activist in the 43 Group and co-founder of the Brunswick Boys Club [now the Brunswich Club for Young People] in Fulham, dies. [see: Dec. 15]
1865 - Auguste Garnery (d. 1935), French jeweller, anarchist militant, revolutionary trade unionist and anti-militarist, born.

[B] 1883 - Franz Kafka (d. 1924), Czech-born German writer and anarchist sympathiser, born.
"I followed in the footsteps of Ravachol. They led me later to Erich Mühsam, Arthur Holitscher and the Viennese anarchist Rudolph Gassman, who called himself Pierre Ramuz and edited the journal 'Wealth for All'." - Gustav Janouch: 'Conversations with Kafka' (1953)

1917 - The July Days (3rd & 4th): Workers and soldiers in Petrograd demand the Soviet take power. Sporadic fighting results and the Soviet restores order with troops brought back from the front.

1917 - East St Louis Race Riot (July 1-3), probably the most notorious in US history.
[www.eslarp.uiuc.edu/ibex/archive/nunes/esl history/race_riot.htm]

1933 - Franz Wilhelm Seiwert (b. 1894), German painter, sculptor, poet, Marxist, anarchist sympathiser, Expressionist, Dadaist and then a Constructivist and member of the Cologne Progressives, dies. [see: Mar. 9]

[C] 1936 - Slovak Jewish journalist Stefan Lux (b. 1888) commits suicide in the general assembly of the League of Nations in Geneva in protest of German persecution of Jews.

1966 - Anti Vietnam War protests outside the American Embassy in Grosvenor Square.

1970 - Simultaneous bomb attacks in Paris and London against Spanish State Tourist offices, and the Spanish and Greek Embassies. [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]

[A] 1981 - The heavy-handed arrest of Leroy Alphonse Cooper sparks the Toxteth Riots in Liverpool.

[CC] 1981 - A gig at the Hambrough Tavern in Southall involving three bands aligned to Oi! is attacked by local Asian youths objecting to the arrival of a large skinhead presence in an area with a recent history of racial conflict. By 10 p.m., the pub is ablaze beneath a hail of petrol bombs. The next day, newspaper front pages were dominated by images of cowering police officers, burnt-out vehicles and stories of a 'race riot'. Initially a form of 'working-class protest', a street-level music that sought to align working-class youth cults in the face of welfare cuts and growing unemployment. However, by 1981, the skinhead element of Oi! were actively being recruited as foot-soldiers for the British far right, both the National Front and the British Movement, and Oi! was a target for those seeking retribution for previous cowardly racist attacks.

1995 - Gil J. Wolman (born Gil Joseph; b. 1929), pioneer French film-maker, writer, sound poet, political activist and Internationale Lettriste, dies. [see: Sep. 7]

1999 - Paul Wulf (b. 1921), German anarchist and communist artist, anti-fascist victim of the Nazi regime's sterilization programmes, dies. [see: May 2]

2008 - Habib 'Paps' Ullah, ages 39, dies from breathing difficulties after the car he was in was being searched by police for drugs in High Wycombe
[BB] 1880 - Leda Rafanelli (d. 1971), Italian anarchist, feminist, anti-militarist, writer, artist and member of the Futurists, who was known as the 'Gypsy anarchist', born. At a young age she had one of her first poems published in the PSI newspaper, also moving with her family to Alexandria where she came into contact with the Baracca Rossa anarchist group and Sufism. Initially an individualist, she gradually moved towards libertarian socialism and, upon her return to Italy (with husband Ugo Polli), formed a friendship with Pietro Gori and declared her pacifism by coming out against the Manifesto of the Sixteen. Her admiration for Armando Borghi led to his asking her to write the forward to his book 'Il Nostro e l'Altrui Andividualismo' (Our and Others' Individualism; 1907). Leda and Ugo founded the publishing house Casa Editrice Rafanelli-Polli but their relationship soon ends.
Becoming involved with the Futurists, she begins a brief but intense relationship with Carlo Carrà, influencing his adherence to anarchism and results in Alberto Ciampi's book 'Leda Rafanelli, Carlo Carrà: un Romanzo, Arte e Politica in un Incontro' (Leda Rafanelli, Carlo Carrà: a novel, art and politics in a meeting; 2005). A longer-term and more fruitful relationship with Giuseppe Monnanni followed and with whom she started the magazines 'La Rivolta' (The Revolt; 1910) and 'La Libertà' (Freedom; 1913-14), and later still the anarcho-individualsit arts and literature magazine 'Vir' and also 'La Sciarpa Nera' (The Black Scarf).
Other activities included joining the editorial board of 'La Protesta Umana' (1906-09 ) with the anarchists Ettore Molinari and Nella Giacomelli, and collaborating on various libertarian publications such as Pietro Gori and Luigi Fabbri's 'Il Pensiero' (The Thought), 'Il Libertario' (The Libertarian), 'Il Grido della Folla' (The Cry of the crowd), 'Volontà' (Will), 'La Blouse' (1906-10), 'La Donna Libertaria' (1912-13), etc. In 1910, Leda also founded the Società Editrice Sociale, perhaps the most important Italian libertarian publisher.
Between 1913 and 1914 Mussolini, then a socialist participant in the Settimana Rossa fell in love with and unsuccessfully pursued her, a period that she covered in her book 'Una Donna e Mussolini: la Corrispondenza Amorosa' (1975). The rise of Fascism made publishing difficult and the Società Editrice Social was closed by the authorities in 1923, along with the magazine 'Pagine Libertarie'. Its replacement, the Casa Editrice Monann, was itself closed down by the fascist regime in 1933. Forced by economic hardship, she became a fortune teller and write popular novels under a host of pen names, all on oriental themes, much of it biographical e.g. 'Nada', 'La Signora Mia Nonna' (The Lady My Grandmother) and 'Le Memorie di una Chiromante' (The Memoirs of a Fortune Teller). Towards the end of her life, Leda taught Arabic and collaborated on 'Umanità Nova'.
Her written works include popular novels and short stories such as 'Sogno d'Amore' (Dreams of Love; 1905), 'Bozzetti Sociali' (Social Sketches; 1910), and 'L'Oasi' (1926),written under a pseudonym about fascist repression in Libya; as well as her political writings which include: 'Valide Braccia' (1907) a pamphlet against the construction of new prisons, 'Seme Nuovo' (New Seed; 1908), 'Verso la Siberia, Scene della Rivoluzione Russa' (Towards Siberia, Scenes of the Russian Revolution; 1908), 'L'Eroe della Folla' (The Hero of the Crowd; 1910), and 'Donne e Femmine' (Women and Girls; 1922).

[B] 1886 [Jun. 22 O.S.] - Olga Vladimirovna Rozanova (d. 1918), Russian Cubo-Futurist and Suprematist artist, painter, graphic artist, illustrator, designer, art theorist and poet, born. In 1911 she joined and became one of the most active members of Soyuz Molodyozhi (Union of the Youth). She was also close to the Futurist poets Velimir Khlebnikov and Aleksei Kruchenykh, her future husband. She later joined Malevich's avant-garde artists group Supremus in 1916 and was involved with the weekly anarchist newspaper 'Anarkhiia'. She published a number of polemical articles in the paper's arts and literature section, 'Tvorchestvo' (Creativity or Creative Work), including 'Art - only in Independence and Freedom!' and 'Suprematism and the Critics'. On April 2, 1918, 'Anarkhiia' also published a salute to Rodchenko, Olga Rozanova, Udaltsova and others among the avant-garde: "With pride we look upon your creative rebellion".
Rozanova died of diphtheria in 1918.

1888 - Spartaco Stagnetti (d. 1927), Italian militant anarcho-syndicalist, born.

[B] 1899 - Benjamin Péret (d. 1959), French poet, Parisian Dadaist, founder member of the French Surrealist movement, automatism and anarchist, born. Known to have used the pseudonyms Satyremont, Peralda and Peralta. Worked with and was an influence on the Mexican writer Octavio Paz, he moved to Brazil in 1929, where he published 'Le Grand Jeu' (1928) but was expelled from the country along with his wife, the Brazilian singer Elsie Houston, and his newly born son, on grounds of being a "Communist Agitator", having helped form the Brazilian Communist League. Joined the French Communist Party but fought initially with POUM but later joined the Durutti Column on the Aragon Front during the Spanish Revolution. Upon returning to France, he was interned and eventually fled the Nazi invasion, ending up in Mexico. Returning to France post-WWII, he caused a furore with his recently published pamphlet 'Le Déshonneur des Poètes' (1945), in answer to Pierre Seghers, Paul Éluard and Jean Lescure's 'L’Honneur des Poètes' (1943), a collecton of patriotic poems bringing together religious writer with communist and Surrealist poets. He also became an active member of an anarchist group in the Paris region and contributed to the anarchist paper 'Le Libertaire' e.g. 'The factory committee: motor of the social revolution' (September 4, 1952).

1900 - Robert Desnos (d. 1945), French poet, author, anti-fascist and anarchist, who was one of the most important figures of the French surrealist movement in the 1920s and 30s, born. A youthful anarchist - he was associated with the circle around Rirette Maitrejean, Henri Jeanson, etc. [Armand Salacrou, Georges Limbour] - he would fall out with André Breton and most of the Surrealists when they gravitated towards the French Comunist party in the mid-late 1920s. He was also a fervent anti-fascist, working on behalf of Republican Spain, writing amongst other things a cantata in memory of the murdered García Lorca, whom Desnos had met in 1935. At the outbreak of war he joined up as a sergeant and was deeply shocked by the defeatist attitude that prevailed within the army. He was taken prisoner June 27, 1940, and released after the Armistice. For Desnos, Hitler and fascism were now hs mortal enemies. He went on to become a writer on the journal 'Aujourd’hui', hoping to maintain its independence from censorship, whilst openly attacking Pétain and the conditions prevailing under the occupying Germans, and an active member of the French Résistance network Réseau AGIR. Much of his non-'Aujourd’hui' work was published under various pseudonyms in the underground press and for Réseau Agir, Desnos provided information collected during his job at 'Aujourd'hui' and made false identity papers. Unfortunately, his obvious anti-fascism led to his inevitable denunciation and he was arrested by the Gestapo on February 22, 1944. After a lengthy period of interrogation, Desnos was deported to the Nazi German concentration camps of Auschwitz in occupied Poland, then Buchenwald, Flossenburg's Flöha sub-camp in Saxony, making parts for Messerschmitts, and finally on a forced march to Terezín (Theresienstadt) in occupied Czechoslovakia. Through out his time in the camps he carried on his active resistance to the Nazi war machine, often earning him brutal beatings. In Terezín he died from typhoid at 5.30 on the morning of June 8, 1945, only weeks after the camp’s liberation and less than a month short of his 45th birthday. His ashes were returned to France to be interred in the Montparnasse Cemetery.

[C] 1906 - Emídio Santana (d. 1988), Portuguese militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. He attempts to assassinate the Portuguese dictator Salazar on this day in 1937.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: The first CNT labour dispute since the proclamation of the Second Republic begins when on July 4, 1931, the newly created [at the III Congress of the CNT, June 11-16, 1931] Sindicato Nacional de Teléfonos calls out workers in the Telefónica Española telephone service, run by AT&T (American Telephone and Telegraph) under terms and conditions extremely favorable to the company and that were considered by many to be as a real abuse of power. The strike would end with 30 dead, more than 200 left wounded and 2,000 in prison, as the army and police try to suppress it.
Following AT&T's refusal to negotiate with the CNT, 6,200 of Telefónica Española's 7,000 employees came out on strike. The intention was to stop the telephony service and for the demands to be heard. These include:
· Recognition of the Sindicato Nacional de Teléfonos;
· Reinstatement of all those dismissed since 1925, 1,500 employees;
· Review of employee records;
· Inclusion in the workforce those temporary staff with over a year of service;
· Creating the roster by order of seniority;
· Voluntary retirement at 55 years of age and compulsory retirement at 60;
· Right of female staff to marry and to grant the corresponding benefits for childbirth; and,
· Wage equalisations.
The strike is a success in Seville, Zaragoza and Barcelona, but has uneven results in the rest of Spain. The Socialists, in power, choose to try to alleviate its effects and send UGT members to provide services to cities like Madrid and Barcelona to try to restore 'normalcy' - protecting the interests of a foreign company and give a message of 'stability' to potential investors in the young republic.
On July 7, members of the strike committee are arrested and its public meetings banned. The union fights back with a campaign of sabotage. The following day sees the Chief of Police order all Guardia Civil to lie in ambush and to shoot on sight anyone interfering with telegraph poles. On the 9th, international lines are cut, a bomb damages the Seville exchange and the antennas of the Amposta company are also damaged. July 17 sees strikers in Vizcaya arrested for sabotage and on July 18, a general strike is called in Seville in protest at the death of a striking brewery worker, resulting in further clashes that end with the murder of a worker from the Osborne factory. During his burial anarchists clash with the police, leaving four workers and three security guards dead. The next day another general strike is called in Seville.
On July 22 the government belatedly declares the strike illegal as 10 days notice was not given. The Minister of the Interior orders the closure of all anarcho-syndicalist centres across Spain and the arrest of CNT leaders. Across Spain acts of sabotage continue and in Barcelona saboteurs hold up traffic in order to prevent injuries whilst they set off their explosives. July 22 also sees the declaring in Seville of a state of war and at dawn on the 23rd, in Maria Luisa Park, prisoners trying to escape from a police van are shot, leaving four dead. That same day, the Minister of the Interior orders an assault on the Casa Cornelio tavern, a rebel stronghold in the city. On August 9, a Sindicato Nacional de Teléfonos member is also shot whilst playing cards in a bar.
At the end of August, two months-worth of tension during the strike spill over in Zaragoza as itchy trigger-fingered Guardia Civil shoot 5 passersby, killing one, Isidro Floria Sánchez. [see: Aug. 31]. The CNT calls a 2-day strike that ends up lasting for four days, during which the army is deployed on the Zaragoza streets. Many are wounded on both sides as CNT militants continue to carry out numerous acts of sabotage.
The strike ends on September 4

1937 - On his way to Mass at a private chapel in his friend Josué Trocado's house in the Barbosa du Bocage Avenue in Lisbon, as the Portuguese dictator António Salazar steps out of his car, a bomb explodes within 10 feet/3.5m of him (the bomb had been hidden in an iron case). The bomb-blast leaves Salazar untouched (though his chauffeur is rendered deaf). Following the attack, the Portuguese political police PIDE (Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado) begin searching for the militant anarcho-syndicalist and founder of the Metallurgists National Union (Sindicato Nacional dos Metalúrgicos) Emidio Santana, as one of those behind the 'outrage'. Santana fled to England, only to be arrested by the British police and sent back to Portugal, where he is sentenced to 16 years in prison.
In a collective letter in 1938, Portugal's Catholic bishops would claim that Salazar having escaped death was an "act of God".
[www.esferadoslivros.pt/livros.php?id_li= 357]

1937 - A proposed BU march from Limehouse through the east End to Trafalgar Square is rerouted as the Home Office invokes Clause 3 of the Public Order Act. Instead it starts in Kentish Town. There are scuffles at Kentish Town and Mosley's speech in the Square is drowned out by the cries of 5,000 anti-fascists. [PR]

1969 - Erwin Blumenfeld (b. 1897), German-Jewish photographer, Dadaist collage artist, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Jan. 26]

1970 - Barnett Newman (b. 1905), US abstract expressionist, colour field painter and life-long anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 29]

1977 - Lewisham National Front organiser Richard Edmunds complains about police arrests of NF supporters at the weekend and announces plans for a National Front 'anti-mugging' demonstration in Deptford in August, promising its "biggest-ever rally... Everybody will know that the Front is marching. Where we had a couple of hundred people in New Cross on Saturday, we will be talking of thousands for our march." ['South London Press', July 5]

1981 - The final Rock Against Racism Festival is held in Potternewton Park, Leeds featuring Wolfrace, The Au Pairs, Aswad, Misty in Roots, and with The Specials headlining.

1998 - Lin (or Linn) Newborn aka 'Spit' and Daniel Shersty, two Anti-Racist Action members and SHARP (Unity Skins) skinheads from Las Vegas are brutally murdered by neo-Nazi John Edward Butler. African-American Spit, who had previously sung in the band Life of Lies, and Dan, a white U.S. Air Force serviceman, were lured to the rocky Nevada desert northwest of Las Vegas on the promise of a party, before being shot to death by white supremacists, of whom only John Butler, leader of a group called the Independent Nazi Skins, was ever convicted.
[A] 1888 - The Match Girls' Strike begins in East London in support of three workers unfairly sacked for exposing the appalling working conditions there.

[C] 1940 - Carl (Karl) Einstein (b. 1885), German poet, experimental prose writer, Dadaist, theorist of Expressionist poetics, art historian and critic, who was one of the first to champion Cubism, anarchist combatant and nephew of Albert Einstein, dies a suicide to prevent capture by the Nazis. [see: Apr. 26]
1902 - Alfons Tomasz Pilarski aka 'Janson', 'Jan Rylski', 'Kompardt', etc. (d. 1977), German anarcho-syndicalist who took part in the German and Polish anarchist and anti-Nazi movements, born in Upper Silesia. Before WWII one of the leading activists of anarchist movement in Poland. 1917-1921 draughtsman in agronomic office in city hall of Raciborz. In 1918 joined Upper Silesia Communist Party and in 1919 anarcho-syndicalist workers union Freie Arbeiter Union Deutchlands. Until 1933 he was an activist of the FAUD. Resistance organizer against Hitler. In 1929 initiated paramilitary anarchist organization Schwarze Scharen (Black Troop) 1928-1932 editor of 'Freiheit' (Freedom) published in Wroclaw (Breslau) and Raciborz. Accused by Third Reich regime of high treason, fled to Berlin where he was hidden. With help of Polish diplomat he managed to flee to Poland where he got political refugee status. 1933-35 scholar in Institute for Ethnographic Research in Warsaw. He was active in the Związku Związków Zawodowych (ZZZ; Union of Workers Unions) as an anarcho-syndicalist. 1934-36 secretary of Union in Zaglebie Dabrowskie. He represented Polish anarcho-syndicalists during IWA congress in Paris in 1938. From 1939 in Central Section of ZZZ. Published in 'Front Robotniczy' (Workers’ Front) as Jan Rylski. From May 1939 he worked in a German-language anti-Nazi programme in Katowice radio station. From July 1939 member of ZZZ board. After September defeat went to Mozejki near Wilnus [Vilna]. He joined Zwiazek Walki Zbrojnej (ZWZ: Association of Armed Struggle, precursor of Polish National Army [Home Army/ AK]). Worked in an office preparing fake documents for underground. In 1942 he came back to Warsaw as a Swedish citizen. Took part in so called 'N-action' (disinformation in press and leaflets for Eastern Front German soldiers). He joined the Syndykalistyczna Organizacja Wolność (SOW-a; Syndicalist Organisation Freedom), published in 'Walka Ludu' (Peoples Struggle). Took part in Warsaw Uprising in the ranks of Polish Popular Army. August 8 1944 wounded. Joined Syndicalist Brigade. After defeat of Uprising, together with his wife and daughter, evacuated to Ojcow near Krakow. From January 1945 worked as secretary of propaganda section of District Committee of Workers Unions in Krakow. In June 1945 went to Silesia where he organized reconstruction of industry. After the war he maintained contact with German anarcho-syndicalists. In 1947 he joined Polska Partia Robotnicza (Polish Party of Workers) then Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza (Polish United Party of Workers – communist regime party). 1948-50 worked in office in Ministry of Western Lands. In 1950 expelled from the Party for "anarchist aberration". In 1953 imprisoned for months without sentence. He worked in Warsaw in Dom Słowa Polskiego (Polish Word House) and Panstwowa Centrala Handlu Ksiazkami 'Dom Ksiazki' (State Central of Books Trade 'Book House'). He refused to receive decorations and honorable awards. Died February 3 1977 and was buried in Powazki Cemetery in Warsaw.

[C] 1907 - Frida Kahlo de Rivera (born Magdalena Carmen Frieda Kahlo y Calderón; d. 1954), painter, communist, and one of Mexico's greatest artists, born. Around the age of 6, she contracted polio, which caused her to be bedridden for nine months. While she did recover from the illness, she limped when she walked because the disease had damaged her right leg and foot. Frida Kahlo began painting after she was severely injured, impaled on a steel handrail and suffering fractures to her spine and pelvis, in a bus accident in September 1925. Inspired by her marriage to Diego Rivera, her miscarriages, and her numerous operations, Kahlo's works are often characterised by their suggestions of pain: "I never painted dreams. I painted my own reality."
Through Rivera, Karlo became an active communist, in 1937 befriending Trotsky who lived initially with Rivera and then at Kahlo's home (he and Karlo had an affair).
The bisexual Kahlo had affairs with both men and women, including Isamu Noguchi and Josephine Baker; Rivera knew of and tolerated her relationships with women, but her relationships with men made him jealous. For her part, Kahlo was furious when she learned that Rivera had an affair with her younger sister, Cristina. The couple divorced in November 1939, but remarried in December 1940. Their second marriage was as troubled as the first.
At the invitation of André Breton, she went to France during 1939 and was featured at an exhibition of her paintings in Paris. And back in Mexico she befriended many Surrealist who had left Europe, fleeing from the Nazi occupation, included Leonora Carrington, Wolfgang Paalen, Alice Rahon, Luis Buñuel, Frida Kahlo, Kati Horna, Benjamin Peret, Remei Varo and the young Octavio Paz.

1944 - Operation Walküre: Lieutenant Colonel Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg (1907 - 1944) takes a briefcase bomb into the conference room at the Berghof, Hitler's Bavarian Alps' retreat, but (for reasons he never revealed) fails to trigger the explosives.

1975 - Alexander Sapoundjiev (b. 1893), Bulgarian teacher, anarchist activist and propagandist, dies. In June 1919, he participated in the founding congress of the FACB (Bulgarian Communist Anarchist Federation). In 1921, after several arrests Sapoundjiev was banned from teaching and he dedicated himself to the publication of several clandestine newspapers, including 'анархист' (Anarchist), 'Robotnitcheska Missal' (Workers' Thought) and 'свободно общество' (Free Society). Following the 9 June 1923 coup d'état and ensuing September insurrection, he was arrested and imprisoned, eventually going into exile in France in 1928. Following a 1931 amnesty, he return to his activitieS in Bulgaria but pro-Fascist coup of May 19, 1934, saw him retire to the village of Biala to devote himself to viticulture and the cooperative movement. He was to suffer further periods of imprisonment, including under the Communists in 1948, but never gave up the struggle.

1986 - Ernesto Bonomini (b. 1903), Italian militant anarchist, anti-militarist and anti-fascist, dies. [see Mar. 18]

1989 - René Lochu (b. 1899), French journeyman tailor, anarchist, syndicalist union activist and pacifist, dies. His close friend Leo Ferre dedicated his song 'Les Etrangers' to him. [see: Jul. 6]

1994 - Nikolas Tchorbadieff (b. 1900), Bulgarian anarchist militant and propagandist, dies. [see: Mar. 1]

2002 - Pietro Valpreda (b. 1933), Italian dancer, writer and anarchist, who was one of those wrongly accused of the Piazza Fontana bombing, dies. [see: Aug: 29]

2010 - Fritz Teufel (b. 1943), West Berlin Communard, political activist, author and active participant in the West German anti-authoritarian student movement in the 1960s, dies. [see: Jun. 17]
1884 - Lion Feuchtwanger (d. 1958), German-Jewish novelist and playwright, who was a prominent figure in the literary world of Weimar Germany, influencing many contemporaries including playwright Bertolt Brecht and was a fierce critic of the Nazi party long before it rose to power, born. One of the very first to recognise and warn against the dangers of Hitler and the Nazi Party. As early as 1920 published in the satirical text 'Gespräche mit dem Ewigen Juden' (Conversations with the Wandering Jew), a vision of what would later become the reality of anti-Semitic racist mania: "Towers of Hebrew books were burned, and bonfires were erected high up in the clouds, and people burnt, innumerable priests and voices sang: Gloria in excelsis Deo. Traits of men, women, children dragged themselves across the square from all sides, they were naked or in rags, and they had nothing with them as corpses and the tatters of book rolls of torn, disgraced, soiled with faeces Books roles. And they followed men and women in kaftans and dresses the children in our day, countless, endless."
'Erfolg: Drei Jahre Geschichte einer Provinz' (Success: Three years of history of a province; 1930), was a fictionalized account of the rise and fall of the Nazi Party in Bavaria from 1921-24 [at the time the Nazis were considered a spent force] and his 1933 novel, 'Die Geschwister Oppenheim' (The Brothers Oppenheim), the second novel of the series 'Der Wartesaal' (The Waiting Room) and which was retitled 'Die Geschwister Oppermann', has an explicitly anti-Nazi theme relating the consequences of the Nazi seizure of power in January 1933 for the members of a Jewish upper middle class family in Berlin. [expand]

1886 - Manuel Buenacasa Tomeo (d. 1964), important Spanish anarchist, trade unionist and Confederación Nacional del Trabajo militant, born. [expand]

1887 - Marc Chagall (born Moishe Segal; d. 1985), Russian Modernist artist who worked in virtually every artistic medium, including painting, book illustrations, stained glass, stage sets, ceramic, tapestries and fine art prints, born to a Lithuanian Jewish family. "He synthesized the art forms of Cubism, Symbolism, and Fauvism... [but] he remained most emphatically a Jewish [folk] artist." Spent the years 1911-14 living in the libertarian artists community La Ruche in Paris and was involved in the post-Revolution Russian avant-garde arts movement, founding the Vitebsk Arts College. However, he fell out with the Suprematists on the faculty and resigned his teaching job.
Like almost all the European Modernists, Chagall fell foul of the Nazis and the Entartete Kunst and had to flee France in 1941 for America.

1900 - Luigi Bertoni publishes the première issue of 'Il Risveglio Anarchico, Le Réveil Socialiste Anarchiste', in Geneva.

1926 - Maurice Julian Ludmer (d. 1981), British Communist, anti-fascist activist and journalist, born in Salford, the son of Ben Ludmer, a self-employed hairdresser, and his wife, Becky, née Lazarus, a teacher of Hebrew. The family moved to Birmingham in 1939 where Maurice Ludmer attended Handsworth Technical College and fostered his lifelong passion for sport. He began to read avidly, joining the Left Book Club and starting to build his impressive collection of radical literature. He started an apprenticeship at the Austin Motor Works and joined the Young Communist League.
Called up for military service, Ludmer was seconded to the War Graves Commission in Europe. He visited the concentration camp at Belsen, an experience that set the tone for the rest of the twenty-year-old's life; standing at the site of atrocities which had taken place in the heart of Europe, he pledged himself to work to ensure it would never happen again. After returning to England, he did several jobs before becoming quality controller in a Birmingham knitwear factory. He met Elizabeth (Liz) Nancy Miller (1929/30–2001), a fellow political activist, in 1954, and they married at Birmingham register office on June 25, 1956. She was the daughter of Harry May, a market trader; her previous marriage had been dissolved. They had four daughters and a son, who died young, and they brought up Liz's son from a previous marriage.
Ludmer was an active Communist in the 1950s, campaigning in several local elections in Balsall Heath and working with local tenants' associations. In the late 1950s, following the Notting Hill and Nottingham race riots, he became involved with activists from racial minorities who were concerned at the development of organized racism. Ludmer, Jagmohan Joshi of the Indian Workers' Association, and others set up the first broadly based anti-racist campaign, the Co-ordinating Committee Against Racial Discrimination, which demonstrated against the first immigration control bill, passed in 1961, and in favour of legislation against racial discrimination. The need for active intervention on race issues was particularly evident in Birmingham, where immigration control committees were set up in Handsworth, West Bromwich, and Smethwick. The last became a byword for racism when the Conservative candidate won in the general election of 1964 after a blatantly racist (though unofficial) campaign which he refused to condemn. In looking back on that period Ludmer wrote: When people ask "How did Hitler do it?" the answer is to look at Smethwick and the way people were swept up in a tide of carefully manipulated racial hatred. ['Searchlight']
The formation of the National Socialist Movement in 1962 was a harbinger of fascism's new role as a mass movement; this was taken a step further with the founding of the National Front, in 1967. Ludmer became involved with Searchlight Associates, a body of individuals set up to provide journalists with research material on the extreme right. In the late 1960s he resigned from the Communist Party for its failure to respond sufficiently to working-class racism, and devoted increasing time to anti-racist activity. He became a hero of the Asian community in the midlands when he played a leading role in strikes at Mansfield Hosiery in Loughborough and Imperial Typewriters in Leicester, where National Front activists were promoting racial disunity among the workforce.
From 1973 Ludmer worked full time as a freelance journalist. He collaborated with Gerry Gable in 1974 to produce 'A Well Oiled Nazi Machine', a booklet exposing the nature of the National Front, the title taken from the words of one of the party's leaders. He played a leading role in launching 'Searchlight' magazine in 1975, and served first as managing editor then as full-time editor. The magazine became the culmination of his life's work, crude early issues developing into an authoritative international monthly journal exposing the British far right and their links with terror networks abroad. Searchlight exposed the illegal and anti-social activities of leading fascists and, most importantly, the direct ideological links between the Nazis of the 1930s and the National Front who presented themselves as an anti-immigration pressure group. For years no fascist candidate could stand for election without Ludmer providing the media with material exposing their extremism or criminality.
Anti-fascist work, while never comfortable, became more dangerous as organized skinhead gangs were recruited to the ranks of the neo-Nazis. Ludmer often suffered attack and abuse but was never intimidated. In the late 1970s he helped to found the Anti-Nazi League, which introduced a generation of young people to anti-fascist activity. He masterminded the translation of a Jewish experience into a common British one. As the obituary in his own magazine stated, his commitment was not only that of a young Jew horrified by what had been done to his people, "for him racism was indivisible, and what had happened to the Jews in Nazi Germany could equally well happen to West Indians and Asians in post-war Britain". ['Searchlight'] The fact that such a belief became the mainstream accepted wisdom with regard to Britain's post-war fascist groups was due in no small measure to Ludmer. He suffered a stroke in February 1980 and returned to work after what was thought to be a full recovery, but had a heart attack and died at his home in Birmingham on 14 May 1981. He was buried in a Birmingham Jewish cemetery.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: Members of the Sindicato Nacional de Teléfonos strike committee are arrested and the CNT's public meetings are banned. The union fights back by beginning a widespread campaign of sabotage. [see: Aug. 6]

[C] 1960 - Reggio Emilia Massacre: 5 Trade Unionists, including three Italian Partisan veterans, are shot by police in Reggio Emilia, Italy. Following the announcement in June 1960 by the fascist MSI that its national conference will be held in Genoa, a city famous for its resistance to Fascism, workers in Genoa organised a series of wildcat strikes. In clashes with police, one anti-Fascist trade unionist is killed. In response, the Italian General Confederation of Labour calls a national strike. In the city of Reggio Emilia, 20,000 workers take to the streets. The only 'official' space allowed - the Verdi Hall which has 600 seats - is too small to contain the crowd, so a group of 300 workers from the Mechanical Workshops Reggiane gather in front of the War memorial, singing anti-Fascist songs. The police charge and attack the crowd with tear gas and water canon. Workers man barricades and fight back. Dejected by the resistance of the protesters, the police take out their guns and start shooting. Five are killed and sixteen are wounded.
Those killed:
· Lauro Farioli (b. 1938), aged 22, married father of one.
· Ovid Franks (b. 1941), aged 22, the youngest of the fallen.
· Marino Serri (b. 1919), aged 41, a veteran of the 76th Partisan Brigade.
· Afro Tondelli (b. 1924), aged 36, also a veteran of the 76th Partisan Brigade.
· Emilio Reverberi (b. 1921), aged 39 years, a veteran of the 144th Partisan Brigade.
The dead were imortalised in the famous song by Fausto Amodei entitled 'To the Dead of Reggio Emilia'.

1980 - Juan García Oliver (b. 1901), Spanish Anarcho-syndicalist and Minister of Justice in the Republican Government, dies. Consider by many Spanish anarchists to be a traitor for his willingness to compromise with government and for having encouraging workers to disarm during the Barcelona May Days (1937).

1984 - George Oppen (b. 1908), American Objectivist poet and political activist, dies. [see: Apr. 24]

1992 - Mika Etchebehere (Micaela Feldman; b. 1902), Argentinian Marxist and anarchist activist, who fought in the POUM in Spain, dies. [see: Mar. 14]
1867 - Käthe Kollwitz (d. 1945), German Expressionist painter, printmaker, sculptor, socialist and pacifist, who was one of the most important women artists of her period and also artists of the working classes in Europe, born.
Trained initially as a painter, but by 1890 turned to printmaking as means for social criticism, especially on proletarian and anti-war issues. A non-aligned socialist, she helped form a Workers' and Artist Council in Berlin during the 1918 Revolution, supporting Rosa Luxemburg January 1919 position against an armed uprising. Kollwitz's drawing of Karl Liebknecht in his coffin, 'Memorial for Karl Liebknecht' (1919), was condemned by the German Communist Party (KPD) because it had not been produced by a member of the party.
"I have been through a revolution, and I am convinced that I am no revolutionist. My childhood dream of dying on the barricades will hardly be fulfilled, because I should hardly mount a barricade now that I know what they are like in reality. And so I know now what an illusion I lived in for so many years. I thought I was a revolutionary and was only an evolutionary. Yes, sometimes I do not know whether I am a socialist at all, whether I am not rather a democrat instead."

1884 - Mauro Bajatierra Morán (d. 1939), Spanish journalist, prolific writer, novelist, playwright, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist propagandist, born.

1885 - Ernst Bloch (d. 1977), German Marxist philosopher, utopian, pacifist and one-time anarchist, born. An important influence on liberation theology, who has been called "one of the greatest of modern utopian thinkers." Having studies philosophy at Munich University, he begun to develop his utopian theories and, what he came to call later, a "Anarchotheokratie" (theocratic anarchism). A committed opponent of the war, he spent the period 1917-19 in Bern, Switzerland, believing that only in the cataclysm of war could his desired "an anarchist-expressionist determined world" come about. In Bern he came to know Hugo Ball, who introduced Bloch to his friend Walter Benjamin, and it was there that he also finished 'Geist der Utopie' (The Spirit of Utopia; 1918). He had also begun to self-identify as a socialist even though he still looked upon Lenin as a "Red Czar". Upon his return to the now Weimar republic, he gegan to embrace Marxist philosophy, writing 'Thomas Müntzer als Theologe der Revolution' (Thomas Müntzer as Theologian of the Revolution; 1921), effectively a Marxist revision of his 'Geist der Utopie'. He also wrote numerous essays, stories and reviews for the 'Frankfurter Zeitung', as well as befriending Bertolt Brecht , Kurt Weill and Theodor W. Adorno. Bloch also took part in the fight against the emergent Nazi party and was forced to flee to Switzerland following Hitler's seizure of power.

1890 - Walter Hasenclever (d. 1940), radical German Expressionist poet, playwright, anti-militarist and anarchist fellow traveller, born. His first book of poems, 'Städte, Nächte, Menschen' (Cities, Nights, People) was published in 1910. At the beginning of WWI he volunteered for the army but quickly lost his enthusiasm for war and, feigning mental illness, he earn his discharge. One of the German Expressionists, in fact he one of the first to use the term 'expressionist' in relationship to drama in his series of essays 'Das Theater von Morgen' (The Theatre of Tomorrow; 1916), who were influenced by the Austrian psychoanalyst and anarchist Otto Gross. Like many of his fellow Expressionists, his work is a protest against bourgeois materialism and the war-making state. His plays include: 'Der Sohn' (The Son; 1914), about a youth who becomes a political revolutionary and brings about his father’s death, became the manifesto for the German post-WWI generation; 'Der Retter' (The Saviour; 1915), about a poet who tries to stop the war and is executed by a firing squad; and 'Antigone' (1917), a pacifist reinterpretation of Sophocles’ play. 'Die Menschen' (Humanity; 1918) however is his Expressionist masterpiece and best known work. After that his plays became more populist and he even wrote scripts for Greta Garbo and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. However, when the Nazis came to power, his works were banned and he went into exile in France in 1934, only to be interned by the Vichy regime as a 'foreign enemy'. He died of a barbiturate overdose in internment at Camp des Milles in the south-east of France.

Zum Andenken an Karl Liebknecht
Der Zug entgleist. Zwanzig Kinder krepieren.
Die Fliegerbomben töten Mensch und Tier.
Darüber ist kein Wort zu verlieren.
Die Mörder sitzen im Rosenkavalier.

Soldaten verachtet durch die Straßen ziehen.
Generäle prangen im Ordensstern.
Deserteure, die vor dem Angriff fliehen,
Erschießt man im Namen des obersten Herrn.

Auf, Dirigent, von deinem Orchesterstuhle!
Du hast Menschen getötet. Wie war dir zu Mut?
Waren es viel? Die Mörder machen Schule.
Was dachtest du beim ersten spritzenden Blut?

Der Mensch ist billig, und das Brot wird teuer.
Die Offiziere schreiten auf und ab.
Zwei große Städte sind verkohlt im Feuer.
Ich werde langsam wach im Massengrab.

Ein gelber Leutnant brüllt an meiner Seite:
"Sei still, du Schwein!" Ich gehe stramm vorbei:
Im Schein der ungeheuren Todesweite
Vor Kälte grau in alter Leichen Brei.

Das Feld der Ehre hat mich ausgespieen;
Ich trete in die Königsloge ein.
Schreiende Schwärme schwarzer Vögel ziehen
Durch goldene Tore ins Foyer hinein.

Sie halten blutige Därme in den Krallen,
Entrissen einem armen Grenadier.
Zweitausend sind in dieser Nacht gefallen!
Die Mörder sitzen im Rosenkavalier.

Verlauste Krüppel sehen aus den Fenstern.
Der Mob schreit: "Sieg!" Die Betten sind verwaist.
Stabsärzte halten Musterung bei Gespenstern;
Der dicke König ist zur Front gereist.

"Hier, Majestät, fand statt das große Ringen!"
Es naht der Feldmarschall mit Eichenlaub.
Die Tafel klirrt. Champagnergläser klingen.
Ein silbernes Tablett ist Kirchenraub.

Noch strafen Kriegsgerichte das Verbrechen
Und hängen den Gerechten in der Welt.
Geh hin, mein Freund, du kannst dich an mir rächen!
Ich bin der Feind. Wer mich verrät, kriegt Geld.

Der Unteroffizier mir Herrscherfratze
Steigt aus geschundenem Fleisch ins Morgenrot.
Noch immer ruft Karl Liebknecht auf dem Platze:
"Nieder der Krieg!" Sie hungern ihn zu Tod.

Wir alle hungern hinter Zuchthaussteinen,
Indes die Opfer tönt im Kriegsgewinn.
Mißhandelte Gefangene stehn und weinen
Am Gittertor der ewigen Knechtschaft hin.

Die Länder sind verteilt. Die Knochen bleichen.
Der Geist spinnt Hanf und leistet Zwangsarbeit.
Ein Denkmal steht im Meilenfeld der Leichen
Und macht Reklame für die Ewigkeit.

Man rührt die Trommel. Sie zerspringt im Klange.
Brot wird Ersatz und Blut wird Bier.
MeinVaterland, mir ist nicht bange!
Die Mörder sitzen im Rosenkavalier.

- 'Die Mörder sitzen in der Oper' (The Murderer sitting in the Opera House; 1917)

1898 - May (Marie-Jeanne) Picqueray (d. 1983), French militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, feminist and anti-militarist, born. [expand]

1900 - Ettore Cropalti (d. 1955), Italian shoemaker, anarchist and anti-fascist militant, born.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: All Guardia Civil are ordered to lie in ambush and shoot on sight anyone interfering with telegraph poles. [see: Aug. 6]

1943 - Esteban Pallarols Xirgu aka José Riera (b. ca. 1900), Catalan individualist anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, naturist and vegetarian, sentenced to death and executed at the Camp de la Bota, Barcelona.

1963 - Tintino Persio Rasi (b. 1893), Italian individualist anarchist activist and propagandist, journalist, writer and Futurist poet, dies. [see: Sep. 15]

1966 - Antonio Casanova (b. 1898), Spanish-born Argentinian baker, editor, translator and anarchist combatant in the Spanish Civil War and French Resistance, dies. [see: Jun. 7]

[C] 1978 - An outdoor NF by-election meeting in Moss Side, Manchester, is attacked by 70 anti-fascists, made up of AFA Squadists and locals. The fighting escalated as locals joined the anti-fascists. The police were forced to escort the NF out of town. [PR]

1982 - Virginia Hall (b. 1906), American spy with the British Special Operations Executive during WWII and who worked as a radio operator and network manager, supporting the French Résistance in the Lyon and Haute-Loire regions, dies. [see: Apr. 6]

[A] 2001 - Bradford riots begin as hundreds of Asian youths fight pitch battles with the police. Two people are stabbed and 80 police officers injured after a protest march against the National Front turns violent.
1872 - Jacques Mesnil (pseudonym of Jean-Jacques Dwelshauvers; d. 1940), Belgian anarchist, historian, journalist and scholar of Florentine Renaissance art, born.

[B] 1872 - Montéhus (Gaston Mardochée Brunswick; d. 1952), French singer-songwriter, anti-militarist and "revolutionary jingoist", born. He adopted his pseudonym to avoid the anti-Semitism then rampant in French society (his concerts were often interrupted by racist violence). Initially a moderate socialist, he became virulently anti-militarist and libertarian in outlook. A contemporary of Jean-Baptiste Clément, Eugène Pottier, Jules Jouy, Pierre Dupont and Gaston Couté, he like them used his songs as propaganda tool for socialist and anarchist dissent, opposing war [cf. 'Gloire au 17ème' (1907), capitalist exploitation, prostitution, poverty, religious hypocrisy, and even income tax in his lyrics. During Lenin's exile in France, Montéhus became friendly with him and sang at some of his gatherings. The jingoism he adopted during WWI (and a Croix de Guerre) led to his post-war disgrace, which he tried to redeem by composing 'La Butte Rouge' (1923). Later a member of the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and Popular Front supporter, he managed to avoid being sent to a concentration camp, but was forced to wear the yellow star until the Liberation of France.

[C] 1898 - Johannes Sigfred Andersen aka 'Gulosten' (The Yellow Cheese)(d. 1970), Norwegian alcohol smuggler, furniture manufacturer and resistance fighter during WWII and, as a survivor of the notorious Bastøy school home for maladjusted boys, children's rights advocate, born.

1920 - André Devriendt, French anarchist, rationalist and mutualist, born. Director of 'Le Monde Libertaire' since 1990.

1929 - Georges Blondeaux aka Gébé (d. 2004), French journalist and cartoonist in the satirical press, film director and anarchist, born. Began as an indusrial illustrator and published his first cartoon in 1955 in 'La Vie du Rail' under the pen name Gébé, in addition to 'Le Journal du Dimanche', 'Radar', 'Paris-Match' and 'Bizarre'. In 1969, he became editor of 'Hara-Kiri' and in 1970 of 'Charlie Hebdo' (until 1982). He then spent six months in 1986 as editor of the monthly periodical 'Zero', artistic director of 'L'Idiot Internationale' (1989-92) and rejoining the relaunched 'Charlie Hebdo' in 1992.
His works included the comic books 'Rue de la Magie' (Street Magic; 1960), 'L'an 01' (Year 01; 1972) made the following year into a film with sections directed by Gébé, Jacques Doillon, Alain Resnais and Jean Rouch), 'Anarchie Douce' (Sweet Anarchy; 1982); the photo novel '17 Romans Photos' (1974; with Chenz); novels such as 'Les Résistants du Square' (1991); contributed to the collective publication 'Mai 68' (2008); and has even written radio plays and song lyrics, the most famous of which is 'Casse-Têtes' (Puzzles) as performed by Yvs Montand.

1942 - Olaf Bryn Kullmann (b. 1892), Norwegian one-time naval officer, who later became an anti-militarist and peace activist, dies in Sachsenhausen concentration camp. [see: Jul. 2]

1947 - The Greek government orders the arrest of 11,500 persons on charges of plotting a Communist revolution.

1962 - Georges Albert Maurice Victor Bataille (b.1897), French philosopher, novelist, poet and critic, whose writings cover a wide range of subjects including literature, anthropology, sociology and the history of art, dies. [see: Sep. 10]
1888 - Giorgio de Chirico (d. 1978), Greek-born Italian Nietzschean artist, painter and novelist, who was a major influence on the Surrealists, born. His family settled in Milan in 1909, where he discovered Nietzsche. He later fled to Paris in order to escape Italian military conscription in 1911, but was caught and returned to Italy, escaping back to Paris after less than a week in uniform. His paintings in that period would depict his anti (Graeco-Turkish) war sentiments and exploring Cretan myth. At the outbreak of WWI he returned to Italy and tried to enlist, but was declared unfit and sent to a military hospital.

[C] 1934 - Erich Mühsam (b. 1878), German anarchist poet, murdered on the night of July 9/10, by the Nazis at the Orianenburg concentration camp following months of beatings and torture. His battered corpse is found hanging in the latrine on the morning of 10th. [see: Apr. 6]

1937 - The first issue of the weekly anarchist magazine 'Umbral' (Threshold) is published in Valencia.

1944 - Lucien Pissarro (b. 1863), French Impressionist and Néo-Impressionist landscape painter, printmaker, wood engraver and designer and printer of fine books, dies. [see: Feb. 20]

1944 - Robert Abshagen (b. 1911), German insurance agent, sailor, construction worker, Communist and resistance fighter against National Socialism, who was a member of the the Bästlein-Jacob-Abshagen Group, the largest resistance organisation in the Hamburg area, is behaeded by the Nazis. [see: Jan. 12]

1946 - Stuart Christie born in Glasgow, Scotland.
1893 - Lucien Eugène Haussard aka 'Houssard' (d. 1969), French anarchist militant, propagandist, freethinker and anti-Franco activist, born. [expand]

[C] 1906 - Georges Hugnet (d. 1974), French poet, writer, playwright, graphic designer and filmmaker, who was the first historian of the Dada movement who was also involved with the Surrealist Group, born. Member of the French Résistance, he dedicated much of his wartime intellectual efforts towards the Résistance and published 'Non Vouloir' (1940), one of the first Resistance pieces published in France.

1906 - Herbert Richard Wehner (d. 1990), German politician, onetime anarchist activist, then a communist and latterly a SPD MP and government minister, born. Joined the Sozialistische Arbeiterjugend (SAJ), the youth wing of Freien Arbeiterunion Deutschlands (FAUD) in 1922, working on its newspaper 'Jungen Anarchisten' but left in 1923 to help found the Anarchistische Tatgemeinschaft (Anarchist Action Group), assuming the editorship of its newspaper 'Revolutionäre Tat' in 1926. In 1925 he had also began working with the prisoners support group Rote Hilfe and began co-operating closely with Erich Mühsam, moving to (autumn 1926 to spring 1927) and staying in his house and working on the newly founded periodical 'Fanal' (Beacon). June 27 joined the KPD, as well as the Roten Frontkämpferbund (Red Front Fighters' Federation) and full-time secretary of the Dresden Rote Hilfe group.
By 1930 he was a full-time party beuraucrat, member of the Saxony parliament, a vice president and deputy secretary of the Communist Party in Saxony.

1944 - Operation Walküre: Lieutenant Colonel Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg (1907 - 1944) again attempts to assassinate Hitler and the Nazi hierachy at the Berghof with a briefcase bomb [see: Jul. 6] but the operation is called off due to Himmler not being present.

[B] 1974 - A Barcelona cinema screening Carlos Saura's film 'La Prima Angelica' (Cousin Angelica), which portrays the Civil War from a republican view point, is firebombed.

[CCC] 1981 - Bradford 12: In the summer of 1981, and against a series of firebomb attacks on Asian properties by fascists and other racist attacks, rumours began to circulate that fascists were planning to attack Bradford’s Asian communities on July 11th. Members of the United Black Youth League (UBYL), an organisation which had recently been formed in Bradford after a split in the Bradford Asian Youth Movement over the issue of state funding, decided to organise the defence of the community. A group of young Asians made and stashed away two crates of petrol bombs to be used in the event of any such attacks. On July 17th, someone informed the police of the petrol bombs' whereabouts and the cops replace the petrol with tea and set a trap to catch the manufacturers. No one turned up and 13 days later, 12 young men from the Asian community in Bradford - Giovanni Singh, Praveen Patel, Saeed Hussain, Sabir Hussain, Tariq Ali, Ahmed Mansoor, Bahram Noor Khan, Tarlochan Gata Aura, Ishaq Mohammed Kazi, Vasant Patel, Jayesh Amin and Masood Malik - were arrested and subsequently charged with making an explosive substance with intent to endanger life and property, and conspiracy to make explosive substances. [In fact 13 were arrested, but the thirteenth, the only woman, Shanaaz Ali, was released without charge.] The 12 appeared before the local magistrates on Saturday, August 1st and were refused bail, spending the next 3-4 months in prison before they were eventually granted bail under particularly arduous conditions. Meanwhile, a very active defence campaign had been set up that, with thousands had marching in Bradford and Leeds under the slogan "Whose conspiracy? Police conspiracy!" and hundreds attended the trial each day, where 9 of the defendants admitted knowledge of the petrol bomb cache but argued, in a defence that they had not disclosed in advance of the trial, which began in Leeds Crown Court on April 26 1982, that their actions amounted to community self-defence. "Yes, we made these petrol bombs, the young men said. We were forced to, to defend our communities from the threat of an invasion by the far-right National Front, against which we knew from previous experience there would be no police protection." [IRR website] The trial lasted 31 days and the jury returned an 11 to 1 verdict of not guilty.
libcom.org/files/politics of asian youth movement.pdf
libcom.org/files/The struggle of Asian workers in Britain.pdf]
1876 - Max Jacob (d. 1944), French poet, painter, writer, critic, queer and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. Jacob is regarded as an important link between the Symbolists and the Surrealists. He was one of the first friends Pablo Picasso made in Paris and both frequented anarchist circles in the city and Jacob contributed poems to Florent Fels's anarchist journal 'Action' after the war. Jacob’s brother, sister and brother-in-law died in Auschwitz and, on February 24, 1944, Jacob was arrested by the Gestapo and put into Orléans prison. He died in Drancy deportation camp on March 5, 1944, suffering from bronchial pneumonia.

1886 - Raoul Hausmann (d. 1971), Austrian artist, collagist, photographer, sculptor, writer, poet, theorist and one of the key figures in Berlin Dada, born. Helped established 'Die Freie Strasse' (1915-18), the anarchist and Dadaist magazine, with Franz Jung, and support from Oskar Maria Graf, Max Herrmann-Neisse, Richard Oehring, Otto Gross, Clare Oehring and Georg Schrimpf. Amongst his expressly anarchist writing were those in the German individualist anarchist magazine, 'Der Einzige', where Hausmann wrote (under the pseudonym Panarchos) 'Zu Kommunismus und Anarchie', an article heavily critical of Marxist communism [issue no. 2, 'Der Einzige', Jan 26 1919]. [expand]

[BB] 1904 - Pablo Neruda (Neftali Ricardo Reyes Basoalto; d. 1973), Chilean poet, youthful anarchist, then a communist and subsequently socialist diplomat and politician, born. At the age of 13, Ricardo published his first poems, 'Entusiasmo y Perseverancia' (Enthusiasm and Perseverance; 1917). In a rage, his father burned the adolescent’s writings. After that, he would publish under the pen name of Pablo Neruda: Pablo for Paul Verlaine, his favorite French poet, and Neruda for Jan Neruda, Czech writer. It also became his legally adopted name later in life. As a university student in Chile’s capital Santiago, he participated in the anarchist student movement, and published his first volume of verse, 'Crepusculario' (Book of Twilights; 1923), followed by the collection 'Veinte Poemas de Amor y una Cancion Desesperada' (Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Desperation; 1924). The latter's erotic love poems gained him a degree of local notoriety as well as an international reputation as a poet. However, poverty forced him to take an honorary consulship in Rangoon, later working in Colombo (Ceylon), Batavia (Java, where he marries a Dutch bank employee who he quickly abandoned), and Singapore and beginning to write a number of surrealist poems.
The Chilean diplomatic service then sent him, via a post in Buenos Aires, to Republican Spain as the cultural attaché in Madrid. There he joined a group of intellectuals and artists that included Federico García Lorca, as well as his future wife, Delia del Carril. In Spain he became a staunch anti-fascist but also adopted a hardline Stalinism (despite the later Hitler-Stalin pact), that also saw him rail against the Spanish anarchist movement as he swallowed the Communist propaganda about anarchist inefficiencies and 'crimes'. His politics lost him the consulship but in 1938 the newly elected Chilean Popular Front President Pedro Aguirre Cerda appointed special consul for Spanish emigration in Paris. Responsible for shipping Spanish refugees then housed by the French in squalid internment camps to Chile, it is alleged that Neruda was involved in the excluding of anarchists and anti-Communists from the available places. Certainly only a handful of non-communist ever made it onto the 4 ships used to transport the refugees. It is also said that this discrimination is tied into his alleged links to the NKVD, which in turn is tied in with his arranging of a visa (as the then Consul General in Mexico City) for the Mexican painter David Alfaro Siqueiros following his part in a failed assassination attempt against Leon Trotsky. He would also go on to write a truly dreadful ode to Stalin upon his death and be awarded the Stalin Peace Prize that same year (1953), something that he took more pride in than his 1971 Nobel Prize for Literature
"A few years ago, I was an anarchist, editor of the anarchist trade union journal, 'Claridad', where I published my ideas and things for the first time. And I still retain the anarchist's distrust of all forms of the state, of impure politics. But I believe that my romantic intellectual's point of view is not important. What is true is that I hate proletarian, proletarianising art. In any period, systematic art can tempt only the lesser artist. There has been an invasion here of odes to Moscow, tanks [or bullet-proof agitprop trains], etc. I continue to write about dreams." [1933 letter]

1920 - Shortly after the second congress of the Unione Anarchica Italiana in Bologna (July 1-4, 1920) the offices of the newspaper, Errico Malatesta's rooms and the premises of the Unione Anarchica Milanese, of which he is a member, are raided, under false pretext.

[CC] 1934 - Oswald Mosley attempted to hold a BUF rally at the Dome in Brighton, which he considered to be a fascist stronghold. However, the rumour that he was planning to stand as a parliamemntary candidate in the town together with the Olympia debacle ensured that he was greeted by a large voiciferous crowd outside when he turned up to speak. A few days before the meeting, local anti-fascist and community activist Harry Cowley had organised with workers at the Dome to wire up the hall with loudspeakers hidden in the chandeliers and a cable leading to the nearby offices of Labour councillor Lewis Cohen. When Mosley started to speak, the strains of 'La Marseillaise' were heard instead throughout the hall. Mosley’s lip curled with anger as he struggled to be heard against the more melodious sound coming from the loudspeakers.
Afterwards the fascists attempted to march around Brighton but were met by determined opposition from hundreds of counter demonstrators. Any attempts by the Blackshirts to silence those jeering at them was resisted and a number of fascists had to be treated for their wounds in nearby Victoria Gardens. It was not the first time there had been clashes between fascists and their opponents in Brighton but it was a turning point in the Fascists' fortunes in Brighton and they never managed to hold an unopposed meeting in the town again. [PR]

1936 - Riot of Corporation Fields: Unable to find an indoor venue that would host a Mosley meeting and organisers decide to hold one outdoors in Corporation Fields. The open air meeting was held at Corporation Fields, in Hull. The trouble had developed before the arrival of the Blackshirts, making a meeting almost impossible. Blackshirts were greeted by a hail of bricks and Mosley´s car, it was claimed, was hit by a bullet, smashing a car window - no bullet was ever found and Mosley made no complaint to the police. The Blackshirts fought back with steel-buckled belts and 8 of them were hit on the head by bricks. The Chief Constable told Mosley to abandon the meeting or he would read the Riot Act. Mosley complied and jumped off the coal cart he had been using as a speakers platform and into his car. The Blackshirts marched off in the pouring rain in ranks of three, with "[m]any of the younger Blackshirts ... frightened, with hundreds screaming for their blood, they were surrounded."
More than 100 people required medical treatment, with one fascist source claiming that only 21 Blackshirts were injured. Amongst the weapons police collected after the battle were "brush staves with six-inch nails in the end, bicycle chains, lengths of ship's steel hawser, knuckledusters, raw potatoes studded with razor blades and thick woollen stockings with broken glass in the heel and foot." No anti-fascist was arrested because, according to the police: "owing to the violence of the crowd it was impossible to take anyone into custody for these assaults, as we had our work cut out to protect ourselves." [PR]

[C] 1936 - An 'Against Fascism and War' demonstration, organised by the London Trades Council and the Labour Party takes place in heavy rain. As it passes through Bethnal Green near to the local BU HQ in Green Street, Blackshirts shower the marchers with eggs, bags of flour and soot. In Victoria Park, Herbert Morrison, Labour leader and head of the London County Council, addressed the crowd. [PR]

1936 - Lt. José Castillo is assassinated by Falangists. Tomorrow the Monarchist leader Calvo Sotelo is assassinated in reprisal while in the custody of State security forces. The Falangists attempt their fascist coup on the 17th, but the anarchists immediately battle back and prevent the takeover, ultimately sparking the Spanish Revolution.
1913 - Maurice Pernette (d. 1986), French anarchist, small press publisher, poet and author, born.

[C] 1915 - José López Penedo aka 'Liberto López' (d. 1950), Galician bricklayer, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who fought in the Durruti Column and later as a member of Francisco Sabate Llopart 'El Quico' guerrilla group, born. [expand]

1942 - Juana Belén Gutiérrez de Mendoza (b. 1875), Mexican anarcho-feminist activist, typographer, journalist and poet, dies. [see: Jan. 27]

[B] 1949 - Clifford Harper, anarchist graphic artist, born in Chiswick, London.

1954 - Frida Kahlo de Rivera (born Magdalena Carmen Frieda Kahlo y Calderón; b. 1907), painter, communist, and one of Mexico's greatest artists, dies. The official cause of death is given as a pulmonary embolism, although some suspected that she died from an overdose that may or may not have been accidental given her frail health - her right leg had been amputated at the knee the previous year and had suffered from bronchopneumonia. [see: Jul. 6]

1979 - The Pete Townshend Band, The Pop Group, Misty In Roots and The Ruts appear at The Rainbow, Finsbury Park, in the first of a two night RAR event, which together raised £5,000 for the defendants charged by the police with public order offences following Southall.
1867 - Ettore Molinari (d. 1926), Italian chemist and anarchist, born.
1896 - José Buenaventura Durruti Dumange (d. 1936), legendary Spanish anarquista, born.

1896 - José Buenaventura Durruti Dumange* (or Domínguez) (d. 1936), legendary Spanish sindicalista y revolucionario anarquista, born. [expand]
*[NB: Domínguez is the Castillian version of the Catalan Dumange]
libcom.org/files/Paz - Durruti in the Spanish Revolution.pdf

[C] 1912 - Woody Guthrie (d. 1967), radical American singer-songwriter and folk musician, born. Amongst his political songs were 'Two Good Men', about Sacco and Vanzetti [and on 'Hard Travelin': The Asch Recordings Vol. 3'], as was the whole album, 'Ballads of Sacco & Vanzetti' (1946-47). As a member of the IWW, he also wrote and sung songs about the Wobblies, hobos, Joe Hill ['Joseph Hillstrom'] and about historic strikes. And not forgetting a guitar that proclaimed: "this machine kills fascists".
"Left wing, chicken wing, it don't make no difference to me."

1934 - John Hutchyns Tyndall (d. 2005), British anti-Semite, white suprematist and neo-Nazi politician, born. One time member of the League of Empire Loyalists and founder or co-founder of the National Labour Party (until forced by the Labour party to abandon the name); the first British National Party (via the merging of the NLP and Colin Jordan's White Defence League in 1960 in order to "preserve the Northern European race and free Britain from Jewish domination and coloured influx"); the National Socialist Movement, again with fellow neo-Nazi Colin Jordan, as was the paramilitary group Spearhead; the Greater British Movement, the National Front in 1967; and the British National Party in 1982.

[B] 1939 - Dieter Kunzelmann, German left-wing radical and political activist and theoretician, Happenings artist and writer of art and social manifestos, born. Member of the Munich artist group SPUR and the Situationist International, and active in the 68er-Bewegung ('68 Movement) as one of the co-founders of Kommune 1 (K1), the Zentralrats der Umherschweifenden Haschrebellen (Central Council of Wandering Hash Rebels) and, along with Georg von Rauch, founder of the underground Tupamaros West-Berlin. Kommune 1 members Dieter Kunzelmann and Rainer Langhans, attempted to bomb Richard Nixon's motorcade in Berlin on Feb. 27 1969, but the bomb is discovered. Kunzelmann was arrested on July 21 1971 for his bombing activities in the West Berlin Tupamaros. He was later convicted and sentenced to nine years.

1942 - Sébastien Faure (b. 1858), French anarchist and main proponent of 'synthesis anarchism', dies. [see: Jan. 6]

1949 - Gil Bel Mesonada (b. 1895), Spanish militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, writer, journalist, novelist and avant-garde arts theorist, dies. [see: Sep. 1]

1967 - Tudor Arghezi, or simply Arghezi (Ion N. Theodorescu; b. 1880), Romanian writer, best known for his contribution to poetry and children's literature, dies. [see: May 21]

1975 - Jehan Mayoux (b. 1904), French Surrealist poet, teacher, pacifist, anti-militarist and libertarian, dies. [see: Nov. 25]

1979 - The Clash, Aswad, the Enchanters and the Members appear at The Rainbow, Finsbury Park, in the second of a two night RAR event, which together raised £5,000 for the defendants charged by the police with public order offences following Southall.

1984 - National Front 'Rights for Whites' march in Maidstone, Kent.

1993 - Léo Ferré (b. 1916), Franco-Monégasque anarchist singer, poet, composer and interpreter of the French poètes maudits, dies. [see: Aug. 24]
[B] 1884 - Robert Berkeley 'Bob' Minor (d. 1952), US political cartoonist, radical journalist, anarchist, and later a central figure in the Communist Party of the USA, born.

1892 - Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (d. 1940), German philosopher and 'Romantic anarchist, who made influential contributions to aesthetic theory, Western Marxism and anti-fascist thought, and is associated with the Frankfurt School, and was also a respected literary and cultural critic, essayist and translator during the Weimar Republic, born. Exposed to Zionism as a university student, he quickly rejected its political and nationalist aspects, developing his own form of 'cultural Zionism', a concept that would inform all his later ideas. He studied at Freiburg's Albert Ludwigs University , Berlin's Humboldt University, where he was elected president of the Freie Studentenschaft (Free Students Association), Munich's Ludwig Maximilian University and the University of Bern. Along the way he met met Rainer Maria Rilke, Gershom Scholem, Ernst Bloch and Leo Strauss. In 1923, he moved to franfurt and there met Theodor Adorno, befriended Georg Lukács, and began his association with the Institut für Sozialforschung (Institute for Social Research). During the ensuing decade he would write much of his most important work as well as spending time in Paris and Moscow, and also considered emigrating to Palestine. He also expanded on his journalistsic work, having been writing for the German newspapers 'Frankfurter Zeitung' (The Frankfurt Times) and 'Die Literarische Welt' (The Literary World), and began working with Bertold Brecht and in radio. In the summers of 1932 and 1933, he stayed on the Spanish island of Ibiza, falling in love at Ibiza in the Dutch painter Anna Maria Blaupot ten Cate on his second visit. Unsettled by the rise of Hitler and the Nazis, after his first visit to Nice he had flown to Nice, where he planned to take his life in a hotel room. Instead he went to Italy, returning to Germany at the year's end.
When the National Socialists fianlly seized power, his knew his life was under threat as he was classified a "Jewish intellectual" and already having suffered the increasing everyday anti-Jewish harrassment, he took refuge in Svendborg, Denmark with Bertold Brecht, and later in San Remo. Eventually, he settled in Paris, where he began working with Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer, receiving financial support from the Institut für Sozialforschung. He also befriended fellow German refugees Hannah Arendt, Hermann Hesse and Kurt Weill, and also became a member of Georges Bataille's secret society Acéphale. At the end of February 1939, the Gestapo stripped Benjamin of his German citizenship, which meant that he could not leave France without a residence permit in the country of destination, fully establishing his status as a German refugee. On September 1st, he was interned with other German refugees in the Camp Vernuche at Nevers. Released in later November following the intervention of French friends, he returned to Paris but was forced to flee Paris the day before the Nazis arrived in the city. In August, he obtained a travel visa to the US with the assistance of Max Horkheimer, hoping to travel via Portugal. Continuing to keep one step ahead of the German Army, he managed to safely cross the French-Spanish border and arrive at the coastal town of Portbou, in Catalonia. However, the Franco government had cancelled all transit visas and ordered the Spanish police to return people to France, including the Jewish refugee group Benjamin had joined, thwarting his chances of travelling to the United States. On the night of September 25, 1940, he took an overdose of morphine tablets in his room in the Hotel de Francia. The Portbou registry records September 26, 1940 as the official date of death.
Amongst his most important works are 'Zur Kritik der Gewalt' (Critique of Violence; 1921), 'Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit' (The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction; 1936) and 'Über den Begriff der Geschichte' (On the Concept of History / Theses on the Philosophy of History; 1940). See also 'Surrealism: The Last Snapshot of the European Intelligentsia' (1929).
www.lboro.ac.uk/media/wwwlboroacuk/content/phir/documentsandpdfs/arg/Sagriotis Paper - Benjamin and Anarchism.pdf

1898 - Ernest Ernestan (aka Ernest Tanrez) (d. 1954), militant, writer, theorist of libertarian socialism, and a significant figure of Belgian anarchism, born.

[CC] 1927 - Vienna Palace of Justice fire (Wiener Justizpalastbrand) aka July Revolt of 1927: Mass rioting breaks out following the acquittal of 3 members of the Austrian right-wing paramilitary group the Frontkämpfervereinigung Deutsch-Österreichs. They had been on trial for the murder of a World War I veteran and an eight-year-old boy, having shot them from ambush, during a clash between the Frontkämpfer and the Social Democratic Republikanischer Schutzbund in Schattendorf, Burgenland on January 30, 1927.
The so-called 'Schattendorf Verdict', during which the paramilitaries pleaded self-defence, precipitated a general strike aimed at bringing down the government. Massive protests began on the morning of July 15, when a furious crowd tried to storm the main building of the Vienna University on Ringstrasse. The protesters attacked and damaged a nearby police station and a newspaper building, before proceeding to the Austrian Parliament Building. Forced back by police, they arrived in the square in front of the Palace of Justice. At about noon, protesters entered the building by smashing the windows; they then demolished the furnishings and began setting fire to files. Soon the building was ablaze; the fire quickly spread out as the Vienna fire brigade was attacked by several demonstrators, who also cut fire hoses, and could not be brought under control until the early morning.
The ex-Austrian chancellor Johann Schober, and then Vienna chief of police, ordered his police to suppress the protests with force. Supplied with army rifles, they opened fire, killing 84 protesters. Five cops were also killed and more than 600 people were injured.
Wilhelm Reich was present at the Palace of Justice fire and, though already a member of the Sozialdemokratischen Arbeiterpartei Österreichs (SDAP), he secretly joined the Kommunistische Partei Österreichs (KPÖ) radicalised by what he had witnessed.
"As if struck by a blow, one suddenly recognizes the scientific futility, the biological senselessness, and the social noxiousness of views and institutions, which until that moment had seemed altogether natural and self-evident. It is a kind of eschatological experience so frequently encountered in a pathological form in schizophrenics. I might even voice the belief that the schizophrenic form of psychic illness is regularly accompanied by illuminating insight into the irrationalism of social and political mores." ['People In Trouble' (Menschen im Staat; 1937/1953)]

[C] 1976 - Eva Schulze-Knabe (b. 1907), German painter and graphic artist, and resistance fighter against the Third Reich, dies. [see: May 11]

1977 - The Battle of Lewisham: fire at headquarters of West Indian League, 36 Nunhead Lane, SE15, an organisation providing advice and activities for black youth. Fire brigade suggests that the fire may have been started by a petrol bomb ['South London Press']

1978 - Rock against Racism Northern Carnival: March from Strangeways to Alexandra Park and 35,000 people watch Steel Pulse, Buzzcocks, Exodus and China Street.

1985 - Jon Mikkleson, believed to have been the only black Hell's Angel in Britain, is hit over the head by a police truncheon in west London. He and 2 friends are arrested and taken to Hounslow police station where, according to evidence presented to the inquest, he was left lying and apparently unconscious on the floor of the charge room for 30 minutes. A woman sergeant eventually called an ambulance, but Mikkleson was dead on arrival at hospital having suffered brain damage and asphyxiated on the contents of his stomach. On March 18, 1986 an inquest finds that he was unlawfully killed and seven police officers were suspended from duty. However, in December 1986, the High Court quashed the verdict of unlawful killing and ordered a fresh inquest on the grounds that the coroner had gravely misdirected the jury. In February 1987, the second inquest jury decided that Mikkelson's death was due to 'misadventure'.

1998 - Vincent Ruiz (b. 1912), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who participated in the Spanish Civil War, dies after a long illness.

2003 - Roberto Bolaño Ávalos (b.1953), Chilean novelist, poet, one-time Trotskyist and latterly an anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 28]

2014 - 27-year-old white suprematist Holly Grigsby, who pleaded guilty on March 11 to one count of racketeering and other offenses in connection with a September 26 to October 5, 2011 crime spree, is sentenced to life imprisonment. She appologises to her fellow white suprematists: "My actions have further damaged the reputation of a movement misunderstood... I deeply regret this. Although I had nothing but the best of intentions, the bridge to Valhalla is not paved with good intentions." [see: Sep. 26/Oct. 1 & 3]
1936 - In Barcelona members of the powerful Confederación Nacional del Trabajo urge, without success, Luis Companys, president of the Catalonian Generalitat (governing body), the distribution of weapons to the workers, to counter the imminent threat of a right-wing military coup d'etat.

1936 - Armand Guerra begins filming 'Carne de Fieras' in Madrid.

1939 - 'Britain First' Peace Rally: In the last of his full-scale Nazi-style Neuremburg rallies, Mosley and his BU Blackshirts hold their biggest 'pro-peace' rally in Earl's Court. The fascists claim that 20,000 people attended, though it was closer to 11,000, many members of the middle class who sported fascist lapel badges and symbols, gayly chanted: "Mosley... Mosley... Mosley... Mosley". It was the last hurrah for the fascists as the BU's support haemorrhaged shortly thereafter - the number of BU meetings held in London fell from 313 in August '39 to just 21 in September - and Defence Regulation 18B went from being applied in late 1939 to only German or Austrians who had been naturalised as British subjects to much of the hierarchy of the various fascist organisations in May 1940.

1942 - The Vel' d'Hiv Roundup: The 2 day Opération Vent printanier (Operation Spring Breeze) begins in Paris with raids and the mass arrest of Jews. 13,152 victims are herded in to the Vélodrome d'Hiver cycling stadium and the Drancy and Beaune la Rolande internment camps nearby, prior to their being shipped to Auschwitz and their extermination. Following the launch of an appeal by the Comité Vel d'Hiv' 42 in 'Le Monde' on this date in 1992, the first Anniversaire de la rafle du Vélodrome d'hiver is first marked on July 16 1994 as a prelude to the unveiling of a memorial the following day at the site of where the velodrome once stood.

1951 - Franco (Francesco) Serantini (d. 1972), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, born. On May 5 1972, whilst taking part in an action against the fascist MSI in Pisa Franco was severly beaten by riot police. Arrested and transferred to a police station, he is interrogated the following day and, despite obvious illness and injury, the police, interrogating judge and prison guards, ignore his symptoms. On May 7 he is found in a coma in his cell and dies at 09:45. His life is the inspiration for Corrado Stajano's book 'Il Sovversivo: Vita e Morte dell'Anarchico Serantini' (The Subversive. Life and Death of the Anarchist Serantini; 1975) and Francesco Filidei's opera for 6 voices and 6 percussionists, 'NN'.

[C] 1978 - Battle for Brick Lane: A mass anti-racist, sit-down protest on the corner of Brick Lane and Bethnal Green Road in London's East End is staged in an attempt to prevent National Front literature from being sold.
1890 - Hans Westermann (d. 1935), German Communist and anti-Nazi resistance fighter in the German Resistance, who died in Gestapo custody, born. A member of the left wing of the SPD, in 1914 he was drafted into the navy, though opposed to the war. During this period, Westermann sympathised with the Spartacus League and the Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (USPD; Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany). During the November 1918 Kiel Mutiny, he was elected delegate of the minesweeper flotilla in the Sailors' council. In 1919, he joined the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) and in 1921, became the full-time party secretary in Hamburg but in 1930 he was expelled from the party for his criticism of Ernst Thälmann's leadership of the party. After the Nazis seized power in 1933, a group that had formed around Westermann (made up of people from the KPD's Conciliator faction) began working underground, focusing on dock and shipyard workers and employees. Westermann was arrested and kept in detention between June 1933 and August 1934. On his release, made contact with other Conciliator groups both within and outside the KPD, eventually rejoining the party. However, shortly after he had begun reorganising the Hamburg party, Westermann and numerous others were arrested during the night of March 5-6, 1935, and died a few days later in the Fuhlsbüttel concentraion camp in Hamburg.

[B] 1917 - Christiane Rochefort (d. 1998), French writer, novelist, essayist, translator, journalist, feminist and anarchist, born. She has also written novels under the pseudonym of Dominique Fejös.

1919 - Pau Sabater i Lliró aka 'el Tero' (b. 1884), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, secretary of the Sindicato de Tintoreros of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, one of the most powerful unions in the textile industry, is kidnapped and killed by a band of employers' pistoleros led by Commissioner Manuel Bravo Portillo. Portillo will be killed in revenge on September 5. [see: Mar. 5]

1932 - José (or Josep) Prat (b. unknown), eminent Catalan anarchist anarcho-syndicalist and journalist, dies. In 1907 he participated in the organisation Solidaridad Obrera in Barcelona and became one of the progenitors of the CNT, touring Catalonia espousing a completely autonomous syndicalism that would not be subject to the direction of any political party and proletising in the pages of 'Tierra y Libertad' and 'El Obrero Moderno'. Early advocate of women's liberation, arguing that the condition of women is their repression by men. "'Nature' has nothing to do with this.... If woman is backward, it is because in all times man has kept her inferior ..." (1903). He worked on the newspapers 'El Productor' (1901-1906), 'Tierra y Libertad' (1906-09), 'La Publicitat', 'La Campana de Gràcia', 'La Aurora Social' (paper of the Federation of Workers of Zaragoza; 1910) and 'Solidaridad Obrera' (1918).

[C] 1936 - Army uprising in Morocco as Rightist generals declare war on the Spanish Republic. In Barcelona workers of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, seize 200 rifles from the holds of 2 ships docked in the harbour and distribute them to union activists. The Spanish Revolution begins.

1951 - Charles Desplanques (b. 1877), French anarchist, trade unionist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Feb. 6]

1978 - Battle for Brick Lane: The Hackney and Tower Hamlets Defence Committee organises a day long strike, which brings Tower Hamlets to a standstill. They are joined by 400 pupils from the predominantly British Asian Robert Montefiore school in protest against the racist violence in and around their school.
[www.ideastore.co.uk/assets/documents/bengali booklet FINALcropped1.pdf

1980 - Juan García Oliver (b. 1901), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist activist, anti-Franco fighter and Minister of Justice of the Republican government, dies. [expand]

1994 - A monument commemorating the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup is iinaugurated on the site of where the Vélodrome d'Hiver once stood.
1881 - Jules Sellenet, known as Francis or François Boudoux and as Jean Le Vieux (d. 1941), French militant, anti-militarist and anarcho-syndicalist secretary of the l'union des syndicats de Meurthe-et-Moselle, born. In 1907 during a peaceful demonstration by strikers in Raon-l'Etape, the forces of "order" opened fire on the procession, killing two workers. Boudoux deliveres a speech at the funeral services for the two workmen. [see: Jul. 28] A member of l'Association Internationale Antimilitariste, Boudoux was arrested numerous times for his anti-military activities and also for "offences related to industrial disputes". His own union denounced him as an agent provocateur, a charge that the Communists would revive following WWI. On January 11, 1924, he was wounded during a meeting that ended in a brawl between anarchist trade unionists and Communists (two anarchists were killed). In 1926, he served with Pierre Besnard, founder of the C.G.T- S.R (revolutionary syndicalist), as secretary of the Federation of Builders. He also fought in Spain in 1936 with the Durruti Column.

1881 - Antonia Maymón (d. 1959), Spanish militant activist, rationalist teacher, naturalist, libertarian and feminist, born. Maymón collaborated in numerous congresses and publications, such as 'Generación Consciente', and was a founder of the FAI.

1911 - Henriette Bie Lorentzen (d. 2001), Norwegian humanist, peace activist, feminist, editor and WWII resistance member, who survived torture by Gestapo at Arkivet, then periods in Grini concentration camp and the Nazi Ravensbrück concentration camp, born.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: A general strike is called in Seville in protest at the death of a striking brewery worker, resulting in further clashes that end with the murder of a worker from the Osborne factory. During his burial anarchists clash with the police, leaving four workers and three security guards dead. [see: Aug. 6]

[C] 1933 - Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Yevtushenko, Russian poet, novelist, essayist, dramatist, screenwriter, actor, editor, director and political dissident, born. His early poems were profoundly influenced by Vladimir Mayakovsky and he gained international fame in 1961 with 'Babi Yar', in which he denounced Nazi and Russian anti-Semitism. It was the first inklings of dissent and the poem was not published in Russia until 1984, although it was frequently recited in both Russia and abroad. 'The Heirs of Stalin' (1961), which warned that Stalinism had long outlived its creator, cause further unease in the Communist Party but it wasn't until he published his 'A Precocious Autobiography' (1963) in English, and his privileges (including foreign travel) were withdrawn, though they were restored two years later.

1936 - Rightist rebels seize control of a third of the Spanish mainland and martial law is declared in the Canary Islands. The newspaper 'Solidaridad Obrera' features the headline: "In Seville, the fascists shoot at our brothers! In Cordoue, the soldiers uprise! In Morocco, one fights in the streets! Who does not fill their revolutionary duty is a traitor to the cause of the people! Long Live Libertarian Communism!"

1936 - Armand Guerra begins writing his journal of the Civil War that will become 'A Través de la Metralla' (1937).

1936 - The first issue of the weekly newspaper of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL), 'Juventud Libre', is published in Madrid.
1879 - Eugène Lanti (aka Eugène Adam) (d. 1947), French Espérantist, anarchist, anti-nationalist, anti-Stalinist Communist, born.

1898 - Herbert Marcuse (d. 1979), French philosopher, sociologist, political theorist and author of 'One-Dimensional Man' (1964), born.

1907 - José Xena Torrent born (d. 1988), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1915 - Vernon Richards (d. 2001), Italian/British anarchist, éminence grise of 'Freedom' for much of the second half of C20th and companion to Marie Louise Berneri until her tragic death during childbirth in 1949, born.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: Another general strike is called in Seville following the previous day's clashes. [see: Aug. 6]

[C] 1936 - Military uprising in Barcelona put down by 'committees of defence' organised by the CNT, FAI and Libertarian Youth.
"... Y nosotros, proletarios, hemos escrito con nuestra sangre la única proclama : ¡ Muerte al fascismo y viva la Revolucion!"
(... And we proletarians have written with our blood the only proclamation: Death to fascism and long live the Revolution!)
- in 'Tierra y Libertad' (July 17, 1937).

1936 - Enrique Obregón Blanco (b. 1900 or 1904), Mexican-Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist secretary of the FAI groups, dies during the attempted fascist uprising, either protecting the central telephone exchange or the shipyards. The secretaries of the Catalan united socialist youth (Francisco Graells) and of the POUM youth (Germinal Vidal) also die in the fighting.

1936 - Arturo Menendez López, who was director general of Seguridad for the Second republic during the Casas Viejas incident, is arrested during the night by the military rebels in the Barcelona-Madrid train station Calatayud. He was taken to Pamplona and shot.

1936 - A planned meeting by the BU at Albert Croft in Miles Platting, Manchester is opposed by 5,000 anti-fascists. The Manchester Watch committee attempted to prevent the march taking place under the city's ban on politcal uniforms [see: Jun. 28] as black shirt likey to be present on the march would be provocative. However, a uniformless march goes ahead but an anti-fascist crowd jump the fascists' pitch in advance and when the march of 600 fascists arrives, it is roundly booed. [The BU's paper claims there were several tousand fascists in a half-mile long column.] Mosley is shouted down and scuffles break out. However, a heavy rain storm intervenes and the fascists decide to march off. [PR]

1937 - Official opening of the 'Entartete Kunst' (Degenerate Art) exhibition in Munich. "Insolent mockery of the Divine under centrist rule" - one of the slogans on the wall in Room One of the exhibition.

1938 - The release of a special issue of 'Nuevos Tiempos' in Barcelona marking the second anniversary of the events of July 19, 1936. " La mas alta expresion del pensamiento anarquista."

1943 - During WWII, an anarchist congress meets clandestinely near Toulouse (19-20th), at the farm of Alphonse and Paule Tricheux, to assess the political situation and attempt to reorganise the anarchist movement. Among those attending are André Arru, Voline, Maurice and Charles Laisant, etc.

1944 - From Britain, US 8th Air Force dispatched 5 B-17 bombers to drop propaganda leaflets in France and Belgium while 5 B-24 bombers paradropped supplies to French résistance fighters.

1951 - In Barcelona, César Saborit Carrelero, Catalan guerrillero anarquista and member of the action group of José Lluis Facieras, is killed by two police officers of the Brigada Politico-Social. [see: Feb. 16]

1998 - Giliana Berneri (b. 1919), Franco-Italian anarchist activist, dies. Daughter of Camillo Berneri and Giovannina Caleffi and sister of Marie-Louise Berneri. [see: Oct. 5]

2005 - John Hutchyns Tyndall (b. 1934), British anti-Semite, white suprematist and neo-Nazi politician, dies. [see: Jul. 14]
1922 - Tram 948 in Milan is hijacked and driven by the Blackshirts, in an attempt to break the general strike called "against fascist lawlessness'". [pic] It is driven by Aldo Finzi. With his Jewish ancestry, Finzi fell out of favour in 1938, he was sent into internal exile and expelled from the PNF. In 1943 he went to the resistance in Roma. Captured by the Germans, he was murdered at the Ardeatine.
1925 - Frantz Fanon (d. 1961), French-Algerian psychiatrist, anti-colonialist/nationalist philosopher, revolutionary and writer, born. Works include 'Black Skin, White Masks' (1952) and 'The Wretched of the Earth' (1961).

1936 - In Barcelona, following the fascist uprising by Franco and the military against the Republic yesterday, the workers of the CNT and POUM counter-attacked and today only Atarazanas barracks remain in fascist hands.

1936 - Francisco Ascaso (b. 1901), militant Spanish anarchist activist and anarcho-syndicalist, emblematic figure of the anti-Francoism killed during the anarchist raid on the Ataranzas barracks in Barcelona. [see: Apr. 1]

1942 - Paolo Antonini (b. 1920), Italian anarchist who fought with the Republican forces during the Spanish Revolution, dies in prison in Casablanca, victim of ill treatment by French jailers. He was imprisoned with a number of fellow anarchists for trying to seize a trawler to sail to Gibraltar.

1943 - Shlomo (or Szlomo) Podchlebnik and Josef Kopf, members of the Waldkommando (Forest team) at Sobibor, whilst obtaining water to drink at the nearby village of Zlobek, attack the 2 Ukrainian guards, killing one, with them with a knife Podchlebnik had in his boot. They took the guards' guns and encouraged the others Jews in the Waldkommando to also try to flee. The others in the group decided to flee on foot while their eight guards were eating lunch later that day. Several of them - Podchlebnik, Kopf, Zindel Honigman, Chaim Korenfeld, Symcha Bialowitz, Abraham Wang, and Aron Licht - were able to successfully escape. Josef Kopf and Aron Licht were murdered by Polish anti-Semites in separate incidents after their escapes. The others survived the duration of the war.

[C] 1944 - July 20 Plot/Operation Walküre: Another attempt is made to assassinate Adolf Hitler [see: Jul. 6 & 11], this time inside his Wolf's Lair (Wolfsschanze) field headquarters near Rastenburg in East Prussia. High ranking Wehrmacht officers plotted to seize political control of Germany and its armed forces from the Nazi Party (including the SS) in order to obtain peace with the Allies as soon as possible. The failure of both the assassination and the military coup d'état (under the guise of Operation Walküre) which was planned to follow it led to the arrest of at least 7,000 people by the Gestapo. Amongst those prominent in the planning were Lieutenant Colonel Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg (1907 - 1944), Oberleutnant Werner Karl von Haeften (1908 - 1944), General Friedrich Olbricht (1888 - 1944) and Field Marshal Erwin von Witzleben (1881 - 1944), and they were among the 4,980 people executed in the aftermath. The methods involved ran from hanging and firing squad to beheading and slow strangulation with a garrote. Count Berthold Schenk von Stauffenberg (1905 - 1944), Claus von Stauffenberg's eldest brother, was killed by the latter method, which involved multiple resuscitations, all filmed for Hitler's later enjoyment. Others, including Colonel General Ludwig Beck (1880 -1944), Chief of the German General Staff, Generalmajor Henning von Tresckow (1901 - 1944) and Generalfeldmarschall Erwin Rommel (1891 - 1944), commited suicide, with Rommel being forced to do so by Hitler or face the persecution of his family.

1944 - 6 US B-17 bombers were launched after sundown to drop propaganda leaflets over France while 12 B-24 bombers dropped supplies to résistance fighters.

1996 - Albert Meltzer's (b. 1920) ashes are scattered in the CNT section of Montjuich cemetery in Barcelona. Co-founder of the Anarchist Black Cross, former used bookseller, author, etc., he helped found the Kate Sharpley Library.
1899 - Ernest Miller Hemingway (d. 1961), American author, journalist and all-round macho man, born. In 1937 he began reporting on the Spanish Revolution for the North American Newspaper Alliance, writing his one and only play, 'The Fifth Column', later that year in Madrid as the city was being bombarded. He was also present at the Battle of the Ebro, the longest and bloodiest battle of the war, and was one of the last journalists to visit the scene. Hemingway's novel 'For Whom The Bell Tolls' (1940) is largely based upon his Spanish experiences during 1937-39.

1936 - Start of the Siege of the Alcázar in Toledo. Creation of the Central Anti-Fascist Militias Committee (CAMC) in Catalonia, formed with representatives not only from the CNT but also from the POUM and bourgeois Catalan political parties in the Generalitat (the Catalan government). Within a few months the CAMC was dissolved, the Generalitat was reconstituted and the CNT entered the Generalitat on September 28th, 1936, taking over the Department of Food Supplies. Thus concessions by the CNT leadership towards the state had started already.

1940 - César Terron Abad (b. 1915), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist guerrillerio, dies when his guerrilla group is attacked and he is shot in the head. Previously involved in the anarchist insurgency of 1933 (December 9), taking over the city of Fabero and proclaiming Libertarian Communism. Captain of the 210th Battalion (of the 192th Brigade), during the Spanish Revolution, which distinguished itself in the battle of El Mazuco. With the loss of Asturies in October 1937, César Terron formed a group of about 30 guerrillas who continued badgering and fighting the fascists.

[C] 1944 - Claus Philipp Maria Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg (b. 1907), German army officer and aristocrat who was one of the leading members of the failed 20 July plot of 1944 to assassinate Adolf Hitler and remove the Nazi Party from power, is executed by firing squad (alongside his aide, Lieutenant Werner von Haeften (1908 - 1944), General Friedrich Olbricht (1888 - 1944), and Colonel Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim (1905 - 1944)) at 1 a.m., following an impromptu court martial (called by their fellow conspirator Generaloberst Friedrich Fromm, Commander-in-Chief of the Replacement Army, in order to save his own neck) had condemned the ringleaders of the conspiracy to death shortly after the bomb that he planted in the Wolf's Lair (Wolfsschanze) failed to explode and Operation Valkyrie is aborted.

1944 - Herrmann Karl Robert 'Henning' von Tresckow (b. 1901), German Generalmajor, who organised Wehrmacht resistance against Adolf Hitler, commits suicide after the failure of the July 20 plot to assassinated Hitler. [see: Jan. 10]

1974 - Aurelio Fernández Sánchez (b. 1897), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, member of Los Solidarios, dies. Active in the FAI and CNT. Took refuge in Mexico, with Garcia Oliver. Became secretary of the CNT (in exile) of Mexico. [see: Sep. 29]

2007 - Ilya Borodaenko (Илья Бородаенко; b. 1986), Russian member of the Anarchist group Autonomous Action, dies from head injuries sustained during a neo-Nazi attack on an anti-nuclear protest camp at Angarsk, Siberia. At 5 a.m., around 15 neo-Nazi skinheads attacked the protesters, beating them with iron bars, knives, and air pistols. As a result of the attack, eight people were hospitalised – one, Ilya Borodaenko, died later that day of his injuries.
[B] 1894 - Oskar Maria Graf (d. 1967), Bavarian author, poet, novelist and anarchist, who occasionally used the pseudonym Oskar Graf-Berg, born. Much of his work is autobiographical and has an anarchist and/or socialist outlook.
Drafted during WWI, in 1915 he had a short story published in 'Die Freie Straße', through the offices of which he got to know Franz Jung, Georg Schrimpf, Dadaist such as Raoul Hausmann and Richard Huelsenbeck, and, in particular, the influential psychologist Otto Gross. In 1916 he was jailed for refusing orders and, after 10 days on hunger strike, he was taken to a psychiatric hospital and dismissed from the military. A year later he was arrested for participating in an ammunition worker's strike, and again in 1919 for his involvement in the revolutionary movements in Munich alongside Erich Mühsam. In 1920, he became active in the working class theatre Die Neue Bühne (The New Stage), and made his literary breakthrough in 1927 with his autobiographical 'Wir Sind Gefangene' (We Are Prisoners).
Bizarrely, when the Nazis came to power his works were not censored and, in 1933, he published in the 'Vienna Arbeiterzeitung' his famous anti-Nazi appeal, 'Verbrennt Mich!' (Burn Me Too!) [see: May 12], which they duly did the following year. Graf left Germany for Czechoslovakia and on Mar. 24 had his citizenship stripped by the Third Reich. In 1938 he left Europe for the US
His books include the early Impressionist-influenced revolutionarypoetry collections 'Die Revolutionäre' (1918) and 'Amen und Anfang' (Amen and the Beginning; 1919); a number of autobiographical works including 'Wir sind Gefangene' (1927) and 'Zur Freundlichen Erinnerung' (For Friendly Rememberance; 1922); 'Das Proletarische Schicksal' (The Proletarian Destiny; 1929), poetry citicism; and novels such as 'Bolwieser' (1931), made into a two-part 1977 TV film by Rainer Werner Fassbinder, 'Der Abgrund' (The Abyss; 1936), the satirical anti-Nazi 'Anton Sittinger' (1937) and 'Die Eroberung der Welt' (The Conquest of the World; 1949).

1913 - André Bösiger (d. 2005), Swiss anarchist and militant trades unionist, born. A member of the Ligue d'Action du Bâtiment (L.A.B), and associated with Luigi Bertoni and 'Le Réveil Anarchiste' (The Anarchist Alarmclock) and Lucien Tronchet. A founder of the CIRA (Centre International de Recherches sur l’Anarchisme).

1931 - The Republican government belatedly declares the strike illegal as 10 days notice had not been not given. The Minister of the Interior orders the closure of all anarcho-syndicalist centres across Spain and the arrest of CNT leaders. Across Spain acts of sabotage continue and in Barcelona saboteurs hold up traffic in order to prevent injuries whilst they set off their explosives. July 22 also sees the declaring in Seville of a state of war. [see: Aug. 6]

1932 - Errico Malatesta (b. 1853), peripatetic Italian anarchist militant and theorist, London ice cream seller, mechanic and member of the Naples section of the International Working Men's Association, dies after 6 years of fascist house arrest. [see: Dec. 14]

[C] 1936 - At the initiative of the Ateneu Enciclopèdic Popular, an Olimpiada Popular (Popular Olympics) is due to be held (July 22-26) as a fraternal counterweight to the grand Nazi spectacle that is the Berlin Olympic Games. However, the revolution prompts their cancellation.

1942 - The Nazis under SS General Jurgen Stroop begin the Gross Aktion Warschau, the deportation of the Jews confined in the Warsaw Ghetto: "All Jewish persons living in Warsaw, regardless of age and gender, [would] be resettled in the East". The Ghetto Jewish Council Judenrat and its leader, Adam Czerniaków, are required to find 7,000 'volunteer's a day for 'resettlement' resulting in about 254,000 Jews being sent to the Treblinka extermination camp. The Gross Aktion lasted until 12 September 1942. Overall it reduced the once thriving Warsaw Jewish community of some 400,000 to a mere 55,000 to 60,000 inhabitants.
The Gross Aktion Warschau also sparks the hardening of moves in the ghetto (first proposed, and rejected by the Jewish Labour Bund, in March 1942) towards the formation of the Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Combat Organization), a self-defense organization made up of members of various left Zionist youth groups, such as Hashomer Hatzair and Dror.

1942 - Krzemieniec Ghetto Uprising: In response to the systematic liquidation programme initiated in the ghettos in the provincial towns around Krzemieniec, an armed uprising begins in the city's ghetto. Responding, the Germans set fire to part of the ghetto and some of the inhabitants manage to escape into the surrounding countryside. The ghetto will survive a further 2 weeks but its 19,000 inhabitants will almost all be murdered.

1962 - The Union Movement holds a 3 p.m. rally in Trafalgar Square but, with the first speaker Jeffrey Hamm less that 15 minutes into his speach, the hostile crowd of a round 7,000 charged the plaform and the police disbanded the meeting even before Mosley has arrived. 56 people are arrested and an unknown number injured. Protesters then tried to reach the UM HQ in Vauxhall Bridge Road, but were ridden into by mounted police and badly beaten by the cops. Bill Sargent and Harry green (AJEX) had taken the opportunity to hand out hundreds of Yellow Star badges before hand in the Square but had protested on the St Martins in the Fields church steps again.

1967 - Lajos Tihanyi Kassák (b. 1887), Hungarian poet, novelist, painter, essayist, editor, theoretician of the avant-garde, anarchist, anti-fascist and anti-Stalinist, dies. [see: Mar. 21]

1972 - Max Aub (Max Aub Mohrenwitz; b. 1903), Spanish-Mexican experimentalist novelist, playwright and literary critic, dies. [see: Jun. 2]

2011 - Narcissistic neo-Nazi fantasist Anders Brevik kills 77 and injures 242 in separate bomb and gun attacks in Norway.
[CC] 1908 - Elio Vittorini (d. 1966), Italian writer, novelist, one-time 'fascista di sinistra' and latterly an anti-fascist, born. At thirteen, he ran away from home to see the world, using free tickets gained via railwayman father. Begins to attend the Technical Institute for accountants and binds friendship with the anarchist Alfonso Faihla, participating in the activities of anarchist groups Syracuse. In 1927, after a daring elopement and wedding to Rosa Quasimodo, sister of the poet Salvatore Quasimodo, he became associated with those around the literary review 'Solaria', which saw to establish an art free of the prevailing ideology i.e. fascism and tradition, and was therefore implicitly anti-fascist, pan-European and pro-Modernism. During this period his work had already began to be published more widely and one article published in the pro-fascist magazine 'La Conquista dello Stato' (The conquest of the state) saw him bizarrely being identified with the bourgeois fascist tendency. However, his work that was subsequently published in 'Solaria' and elsewhere including 'Il Mattino' (Morning) and 'Il Lavoro Fascista' (Fascist Worker), and especially the essay 'Scarico di coscienza' (Discharge of consciousness) in 'Italia Letteraria', in which he accused the Italian literature of provincialism, caused something of a scandal and began to earn him a name as "uno scrittore tendenzialmente antifascista" (a writer of the anti-fascist tendency). In 1931, edizioni di Solaria published his first book, 'Racconti di piccola borghesia' (Tales of the petty bourgeoisie), a collection of short stories and 'Solaria' serialised his novel 'Il Garofano Rosso' (The Red Carnation) between 1933 and 1934 as fascist censorship prevented its publication, the fate of many of his novels and short stories from this period ('Il Garofano Rosso' was not published until after World War II). Living in poverty, in the years 1931-1937, he worked on the 'Bargello', the weekly of the Fascist Federation of Florence, on which he expresses his views of the fascista 'di sinistra' (leftist) tendency, and in 1937, he was expelled from the National Fascist Party for expressing in print his support of the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War and calling for Italian youth to got to fight. In fact, he had planned to go to Spain with his friend and fellow writer Vasco Pratolini but never made the trip. Becoming more conscious of the contradictions of fascism and annoyed by the "continuing harassment" of the fascists, leave Florence in 1938 and moved to Milan, where he goes to work at Simon and Schuster. An anthology of American literature which he edited for them was ceased by the fascist censors. Remaining an outspoken critic of Benito Mussolini's regime, Vittorini joined the Italian Communist Party and began taking an active role in the Resistance, which provided the basis for his 1945 novel 'Uomini e No' (Men and not Men). In 1943 he was commissioned by the Italian Communist Party to strengthen its contacts in Sicily and, on July 26 that year, he was arrested and remained in San Vittore prison until September. Upon his release, he became involved in the underground press, as well as helping found the Fronte della Gioventù (Youth Front) and organise a general strike in Florence in February 1944. Fearing arrest by the fascist police, he hid out in the mountains where, between the spring and autumn of 1944, he wrote 'Uomini e No', published by Simon and Schuster the following year. Also in 1945, he briefly became the editor of the Italian Communist daily 'L'Unità'.

1922 - Maria-Antonietta Macciocchi (d. 2007), Italian journalist, writer, feminist and politician, member of the Radical Party and member of the Italian and European Parliaments, born into a family of anti-fascists. She joined the underground Italian Communist Party (PCI) during the German occupation of Rome and participated in propaganda activities during the resistance. In 1950 she became editor of the party's women's magazine 'Vie Nuove'. She joined 'l'Unità', the paper founded by Antonio Gramsci, becoming their foreign correspondent in Algiers and Paris.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: At dawn in Maria Luisa Park, prisoners allegedly trying to escape from a police van are shot [cf. ley de fugas], leaving four dead. The Minister of the Interior also orders an assault on the Casa Cornelio tavern, a rebel stronghold in the city. [see: Aug. 6]

[C] 1942 - Treblinka: The extermination programme began, the first train of the 'shuttle service' from Warsaw arrives at the station.

1944 - Max Nettlau (b. 1865), Austrian anarchist, historian, bibliographer and philologist, dies of stomach cancer in Amsterdam. [see: Apr. 30]

1977 - Year 2: At the Khmer Rouge's Tuol Sleng Security Prison 21 in Phnom Penh, 178 "enemies of the people", including 160 children, are executed - a routine day. Tuol Sleng, which means Hill of the Poisonous Trees or Strychnine Hill in Khmer, was one of at least 150 execution centres in the country, and as many as 20,000 prisoners were killed there during the Khmer Rouge's regime.

1980 - Mollie Steimer (b. 1897), Russian-American-Jewish-Mexican anarchist, labour agitator, anti-war activist and free-speech campaigner, dies. [see: Nov. 21]
1880 - Filareto Kavernido (Heinrich Goldberg; d. 1933), Nietzschean communist-anarchist, pacifist, idiste and adherent of the Milieux Libres, born. Originally a German Jewish doctor and polyglot, aged 30 he threw everything in, changed his name to Filareto Kavernido and founded the Kaverno Tues Zaratustra anacho-communist commune in Berlin and started writing down his philosophy in anarchist newspapers including 'L'En Dehors' and 'Libereso'. The community practiced free love and naturism, published revolutionary tracts and works in Ido. Kavernido was also convicted of performing illegal abortions and left Germany for Paris in 1926, where he was invloved in the Rue Tolbiac commune and met Emile Armand. The community later moved to Tourrettes-sur-Loup in southern France but he emigrated in 1929 to the Dominican Republic. Based in Arroyo Frio, near Moca, he participated in the clearing of land parcels and bringing medical aid to the poor, all described in articles in 'L'En Dehors'. The community he tried to set up then faced progressive governmental and church interference and he was finally assassinated by 2 mystery gunmen.

1904 - Virginia Dantas (né Virginia Teixeira; d. 1990), Portuguese militant anarcho-syndicalist, anarchist and anarcho-feminist, born.

1935 - Against the background of increasing numbers of new BUF recruits in the East End of London, Oswald Mosley makes his first public appearence in Stafford Town Hall. Twenty four cops inside the hall prevent minor disturbances escalating into a full-blown riot. Mounted police prevent angry crowds outside reaching the building. [PR]

[A] 1936 - The Durruti Column, made up of 2,000 militiamen leaves Barcelona towards Zaragoza.

[C] 1974 - In Barcelona, the militants and MIL (Iberian Liberation Movement) members Oriol Solé Sugranyes and José Luis Pons Llobet (arrested near the French border on September 17, 1973 after a run in with the Guardia Civil) are condemned to 48 and 24 years of prison, respectively.
1905 - Elias Canetti (d. 1994), Italian author of 'Crowds & Power' and the novel 'Auto de Fe', born.

[B] 1908 - Luce Fabbri (d. 2000), Italian anarchist writer, journalist, theorist, publisher, poet and daughter of Luigi Fabbri, born. Amongst her output was political writings: 'Camisas Negras: Estudio crítico histórico del origen y evolución del fascismo, sus hechos y sus ideas' (Blackshirts: Historical critical study of the origin and evolution of fascism, its facts and ideas; 1935) and, under the pseudonym Luz de Alba, '19 de Julio Antología de la Revolucíon Española' (July 19. Anthology of Spanish Revolution; 1937); literary criticism: 'La Poesía de Leopardi'; 1971); and her poetry: 'I Canti dell'Attesa' (The Songs of Expectancy; 1932), and the unpublished 'Propinqua Libertas'.

1938 - The beginning of the great battle in Spain on the Ebro front, the last protracted battle that end mid November with the defeat of the Republican forces.

[C] 1969 - Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix (b.1891), fiercely anti-war German artist, painter and printmaker, dies. Singled out by the Nazis for particular denigration. Arrested on trumped-up charges in connection with Georg Elser's 1939 assassination attempt on Hitler. [see: Dec. 2]
1893 - George Grosz (Georg Ehrenfried Groß; d. 1959), German artist and libertarian, Expressionist who became a prominent member of the Berlin Dada and New Objectivity group during the Weimar Republic, born. In November 1914 Grosz volunteered for military service, hoping for a safe post away from the front and was eventually discharged as medically unfit the following year. Like John Heartfiled, he too Anglicised his name in protest against German nationalism but was drafted in Jan. 1917 but against discharged as permanently unfit (he apparently tried to commit suicide and narrowly avoided the firing squad) that May.
Arrested during the Sparticist uprising in Jan. 1919, he managed to escape using false papers. Although active in the Kommunistischen Partei Deutschlands (KPD), he was much more aligned with anarchist thought and organisation, and having spent five months in Russia in 1922 and meeting Lenin and Trotsky, he left the KPD because of his antagonism to any form of dictatorial authority. [In 1933 he was condemned by his former comrades in the Communist Party as "a petty-bourgeois traitor".]
A member of the Berlin Dada group, with John Heartfiled he co-founded the satirical magazine 'Die Pleite' (Bankruptcy; 1919-1924) and would later edit the satirical (KPD) magazine 'Der Knüppel' (The Truncheon). He also co-edited 'Jeder sein eigener Fussball' (Everyman his own Football) with Franz Jung; and 'Der Blutige Ernst' (In Bloody Earnest), with Carl Einstein. In 1921 he stood trial with his published Wieland Herzfelde for defamation of the army for his portfolio 'Gott Mit Uns'. He was fined 300 marks and the print run destroyed. Again in 1923 he was in court, this time charged (using a law that had not been invoked in centuries) with defaming public morals, corrupting the inborn sense of shame and virtue innate in the German people for his portfolio 'Ecce Homo'. Found guilty, he was ordered to pay a 6000 marks fine; and 24 the portfolio's plates were confiscated and banned from publication.
In 1924, he and Wieland Herzfelde formed the artists' association Rote Gruppe (Red Group) based on the program outlined in their 1925 publication 'Die Kunst ist in Gefahr, Drei Aufsätze' (Art is in Danger, Three Essays), and Grosz would chair the group until 1928, when he was co-founder of the Association Revolutionärer Bildender Künstler Deutschlands (German Association of Revolutionary Artists). Grosz was again on trial in 1929, this time charged with blasphemy for his drawing 'Maul Halten und Weiter Dienen' (Shut Up and Obey) featuring a crucified Christ in a gas mask. The judge decided that it was a critique of militarism and not of religion and dismissed the charge.
Bitterly anti-Nazi, Grosz left Germany shortly before Hitler came to power, first on a summer teaching job in 1932 in the US and then, having returned to Germany, he emigrated with his family to New York. During the 1937 Entartete Kunst exhibition he is labelled a "cultural Boshevik" and his art is confiscated and destroyed for its "anarchist implications".
In the States the style of his art changed but he exhibited regularly, and in 1946 he published his autobiography, 'A Little Yes and a Big No'.
"Civilian again, I experienced in Berlin the rudimentary beginnings of the Dada movement, the start of which coincided with the 'swede' period of malnutrition. The roots of this German Dada movement were to be found in the recognition that it was perfectly crazy to believe that the spirit, or anything spiritual ruled the world. Dadaism was the only significant artistic movement in Germany for decades. Dadaism was no artificially fostered movement but an organic product, at its origin a reaction to the cloudlike ramblings of so-called sacred art. Dadaism forced artists to declare openly their position .. . What did the Dadaists do? They said that it did not matter whether a man blew a 'raspberry' or recited a sonnet by Petrarca or Shakespeare or Rilke, whether he gilded jack-boot heels or carved statues of the Virgin. Shooting went on regardless, profiteering went on regardless, people would go on starving regardless, lies would always be told regardless – what was the good of art anyway? In those days we saw the mad final excrescences of the ruling order of society, and burst out laughing. We did not yet see that there was a system behind all this madness." - 'Die Kunst ist in Gefahr, Drei Aufsätze' (Art is in Danger, Three Essays; with Wieland Herzfelde, 1925)

[BB] 1895 - Jankel Adler (d. 1949), Polish painter, printmaker and anarchist, born. Member of the Gruppe Progressiver Künstler Köln (Group of Progressive Cologne Artists) alongside Frans Seiwert and Gerd Arntz. As a modern artist and a Jew, he was forced to flee when Hitler came to power in 1933, the same year his work went on display as degenerate art (and he would also feature in the 1937 Muncih Entartete Kunst exhibition). Taking refuge in Paris, he saw his exile as a conscious act of political resistance against the fascist regime in Germany but eventually ended up in London, where he became involved with 'Freedom', something that would lead to his being refused British nationality after the war.

[C] 1912 - Dawid Eugeniusz Dawidek Szmulewski (d. 1990), Polish Jew who fought in the International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War and was active in the resistance in Auschwitz-Birkenau, who provided the camera used by the Sonderkommando to photgraph the crematoria and helped blow up Crematorium IV in Birkenau on October 7, 1944, born in Koło (Poland). After fighting in the International Brigades in Spain, he was interned in Saint-Cyprien concentration camp and escaped with others following the French decision to move the majority of prisoners were transferred to Africa. Eventually arrested, he was deported to Auschwitz on March 27, 1942. After the war, he remained in Poland and occupied important positions in the security services. It is part of the Jewish communists who were expelled from their positions in 1968 by a regime they had served for years. He moved to France, where he wrote a testimony (in Yiddish), 'Souvenirs de la Resistance dans le Camp d'Auschwitz-Birkenau' (Memories of Resistance in Auschwitz-Birkenau; 1984).
www.alba-valb.org/resources/media/SzmulewskiConCyrankiewicz.jpg/view?searchterm=David Szmulewski

1936 - With the attempted fascist takeover of Spain faltering, Adolf Hitler agrees to provide aid to the insurgents. The Comintern finally agrees to seek aid for the democratic Republic (after sending its gold reserves to Russia).

1936 - Jewish People's Council Against Fascism and Anti-Semitism (JPC) founded at the Absa House Conference in the east End of London. Organised by working class Jews in the face of the Board of deputies passivity in response to BU activities, it involved 87 different Jewish working class organisations: "Jewry – itself united against Fascism and thus against anti-Semitism – must seek alies. Who are our possible allies? Only the democratic forces also threatened by fascism. Can we say to them, "help us in our fight against anti-Semitism, but we will not fight with you against Fascism"? Can we expect allies on such terms? Clearly the answer is "No."
From amongst some of those involved emerged 2 radically different Jewish anti-fascist groupings. The rather curious Legion (or League) of Blue and White Shirts, a small short-lived group which claimed to be a non-political and non-sectarian organisation aimed at physically combatting fascism and anti-Semetism in all its forms - BUF labelled them the "storm troops of Jewry". The Ex-Servicemen's Movement Against Fascism (EMAF) on the other hand consisting of both Jews and non-Jews and had close links with the CPGB. With a strong base of support in the Jewish East End, it could mobilise 1,000 members [the largest anti-fascist organisation in the capital outside of the CPGB] at short notice to "attack Fascism in its strongholds and sweep it off the streets".
wrap.warwick.ac.uk/4468/1/WRAP_Cullen_ _0481824-cedar-241011-sh_fascism_cullen_checked_(2).pdf]

1937 - Gerda Taro (Gerta Pohorylle; b. 1910), German photographer and anti-fascist, dies in a Spanish Republican field hospital in the aftermath of the Battle of Brunette - the first female photographer to be killed while reporting on war. [see: Aug. 1]

1948 - Raúl Carballeira Lacunza (b. 1917 or 1918), Argentinian anarchist who was active in the Spanish anti-Franco resistance, commits suicide rather than be captured in the Montjuich gardens during an ambush mounted by commissioner Eduardo Quintela Vault, head of Brigada Politicosocial de Barcelona. [see: Feb. 28]

1985 - Fredy Perlman (b. 1934), author, publisher, anti-authoritarian activist and important anarchist theorist, dies. [see: Aug. 20]
1884 - Zenzl Mühsam (Creszentia Elfinger; d. 1962), militant German anarchist and companion of Erich Mühsam, born. Having survived the life of a revolutionary activist during the Bavarian Soviet and Erich Mühsam's imprisonment (1919-24), she then had to face his 1933 arrest by the Nazis and murder in Oranienburg concentration camp the following year. Taking refuge in Prague, she is invited to the Soviet Union, where she publishes some of Erich's poems but falls foul of the Stalinist purges in 1936. Arrested in April, she spends the next 6 months in Butyrka prison. Upon her release, she is homeless and acquaintances refuse to help her for fear of arrest and she is forced to run the risk of being accused of anti-state contacts by relying on financial help from abroad. In November 1938, she requests an exit visa for the US and inevitably she is arrested and charged with "abuse of hospitality and participation in counter-revolutionary organisation and agitation". Sentenced to eight years' hard labour and sent to a Siberian gulag, she remains interned until 1947 despite an international campaign to try and free her. In 1955 she finally obtains permission to return to the GDR, where, with deteriorating health and forbidden to talk about her treatment in Russia, she lives under constant Stasi observation and is repeatedly asked to spy for the secret police, something she steadfastly refused to do.

1918 - Julio Rodríguez Fernandez, aka 'El Cubano' aka 'Fedor' aka Rafael Grau Raimundo (d. 1949), Cuban anarchist and anti-fascist guerrilla, born. [poss. alternate date includes 31 Jul.]

1936 - In Catalonia, with the enthusiasm of the revolution throughout Spain of the past few days, a new rationalist school - the Centre de l'Escola Nova Unificada (New Unified School Centre) is founded, based and run upon the Modern School principles of Francisco Ferrer.

1940 - Plans were laid for an assassination attempt on Hilter at a victory parade due to be held on the Champs-Elysées in Paris. Lieutenant Fritz-Dietlof Graf von der Schulenburg, who had been an active participant in earlier attempted coups in Berlin, and Dr. Eugen Gerstenmaier, worked in the Information Division of the Foreign Ministry, planned to shot Adolf while he stood in the reviewing stand along the parade route. However, on July 20 Hitler cancelled the parade. He quietly slipped unannounced into Paris in the early morning hours of July 23 and visited several places of personal interest, including Napoleon's tomb, the Louvre, the Eiffel Tower, and the Palace of Justice. Just as discreetly he left the city, his would-be assassins unaware of his brief sojourn there.

[C] 1942 - Paintings by Picasso, Dalí, Ernst, Klee, Léger, Miró and many others are destroyed by the Nazis on a bonfire in the gardens of the Galerie Nationale du Jeu de Paume in Paris.

1949 - Jean Roumilhac (b. 1892), French libertarian activist, dies in car accident. Fought in the Spanish Revolution and was first president of the French section of the S.I.A. (International Solidarity Antifascist). In the 1940s Roumilhac created an agricultural company in the Rhone delta, enabling Spanish anarchist refugees to obtain legal residence permits.

1969 - Following the death of a local man, Kenneth Horsfall who was stabbed to death, a series of riots break out in the Burley area of Leeds (centred on Burley Road, Woodsley Road and Burley Lodge Road). Three "coloured" immigrant men are arrested in connection with the murder and local white people target the local Asian population, attacking homes and businesses. The disturbances, which drew white youths from across Leeds, were in part fermented by local fascists from the NF, BNP and BM, and there were numerous arrests for criminal damage, assault and setting cars on fire. In a separate incident, which reignited tensions, a West Indian man driving a car hit a white man and killed him. The disturbances continue for 3-4 nights.
The 3 men arrested in connection with the murder would appeared at Leeds Assizes in January 1970. Two were convicted of the murder and received life imprisonment and one man was acquitted of aiding and abetting the murder and carrying an offensive weapon.

1970 - António de Oliveira Salazar (b. 1889), Portuguese professor and politician who founded the Estado Novo (New State) and served as its Prime Minister/dictator from 1932 to 1968, finally dies still believing that he is still Prime Minister despite being removed from office 2 years earlier following a series fall and brain hemorrhage. [see: Apr. 28 & Aug. 3]

1970 - Albert de Jong (b. 1891), militant Dutch anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Apr. 29]
1874 - Ernst Cassirer (d. 1945), German neo-Kantianism philosopher and phenomenologist, born. His key area of study was symbolism and the phenomenology of knowledge. Cassirer was Jewish and was forced to flee Germany for England when the Nazis took power and his final work, 'The Myth of the State' (1946), which was published posthumously, is an important study of myth and the irrational in the intellectual origins of Nazi Germany.

[BB] 1887 - Marcel Duchamp (d. 1968), French-American artist, painter, sculptor, writer, chess player and individualist anarchist, born. Brother of the painter and printmaker Jacques Villon (1875-1963), the sculptor Raymond Duchamp-Villon (1876-1918) and the painter Suzanne Duchamp (1889-1963). The inventor of the 'readymade' who 'gave up' painting for chess in 1913. In Munich on his 1912 visit to Germany, where he painted 'Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors', he discovered Stirner's 'Der Einzige und sein Eigentum' (1845), which he considered a major turning point in his artistic and intellectual development, calling it "...a remarkable book ... which advances no formal theories, but just keeps saying that the ego is always there in everything." [NB: The previous year he had met Francis Picabia, who might also have introduced Duchamp to the works of Stirner, possibly including his essay 'Art and Religion'.] 'Three Standard Stoppages' (1913-14) was one of the first of his works produced under the expressed influence of Stirner's work.
His 'Nu Descendant un Escalier No. 2' (Nude Descending a Staircase No. 2) on show at the NYC Armory Show scandalised Americans and, following the outbreak of WWI in which he was exempted military service, he left for New York in 1915. There he fell in with Man Ray, with both frequenting anarchist circles and becoming the core of what was later labelled New York Dada.

[C] 1985 - Anti-Fascist Action (AFA) is officially launched at a meeting in Conway Hall, London, attended by 250 people. Representatives from Red Action, Class War, the Jewish Socialist group, Newham Monistoring Project, Workers Power, Searchlight, the Refugees Forum and various local anti-racist bodies from across the country.
[B] 1889 - Karl Otten (d. 1963), German Expressionist writer, novelist, poet, playwright, essayist, artist and anarchist, born. He joined Erich Mühsam's Gruppe Tat in 1910 alongside Franz Jung, Oskar Maria Graf and Georg Schrimpf. During WWI his anarchist and pacifist beliefs got him interned at first and was forced to work as a Arbeitssoldat (working soldier) in a censorship office. In 1918 he published a book of poetry 'Die Thronerhebung des Herzens' and was rearrested and locked up in the fortress of Koblenz. |He was only was after the November Revolution had begun. During the war he also became involved in 'Die Aktion', contributing woodcuts and texts, and collected his short stories in 'Der Sprung aus dem Fenster' (1918).
He fled Nazi Germany in 1933, moving to Paris and then Mallorca. When the island became under threat from the Fascists and fearing internment, he fled via France to England. There he worked for the BBC on English and German publications and broadcasts, as well as anthologising English translations of his own anti-Nazi writings in 'A Combine of Aggression: Masses, Elite and Dictatorship in Germany' (1942). His major novel 'Torquemadas Schatten' (Torquemada's Shadow; 1938) is an important novelistic examination of the Spanish Revolution.

1920 - 'No more war' demonstrations by disabled German veterans.

1921 - Hitler becomes President of the German Nazi Party.

1921 - Maria Occhipinti (d. 1996), Italian anarcha-feminist, born. In 1945 she was involved in the Non si parte! anti-draft revolt in Ragusa, for which she was imprisoned.

1929 - Jean Baudrillard (d. 2007), French philosopher, sociologist, anarchist, born.

[C] 1944 - Silvano Fedi (b. 1920), Italian anarchist, anti-fascist partisan and local hero, is killed in a Nazi ambush. [see: Apr. 25]

1962 - Mosley and the UM again tried to march through Manchester to Belle Vue but this time he had only 30-40 supporters. Even before march had started, 5 anti-fascists had rushed Mosley and knocked him to the ground (one of three occasions on which he was floored that day), only for him to be rescued by some of the 250 police present, who formed a ring round him and escorted him to the head of the march. Anti-fascists, who managed to prevent Mosley from parading through the centre of the city by sheer weight of numbers, showered the Mosleyites with tomatoes, eggs coins and stones, and the fascists' flags and banners were ripped down. At end of march, Mosley's speech before a hostile crowd of 5,000 people was inaudible and police called off the meeting after just seven minutes. Clashes between the Blackshirts and anti-fascists continued for some time after the rally had ended, with 47 people being arrested, including Jeffrey Hamm who was charged with threatening behaviour.

1963 - Two bombs explode in Madrid, including on at the Direction Générale de la Sécurité (General Security Directorate) which explodes prematurely causing 20 minor injuries. The press whip up a frenzy of resentment against the anti-Francoists. Anarchists Joaquin Delgado and Francisco Granados are arrested in possession of explosives in an unrelated incident. They are tortured before being sentenced to death by a military court and executed by garrot vil on August 17, 1963.

1970 - Johannes Sigfred Andersen aka 'Gulosten' (The Yellow Cheese)(b. 1898), Norwegian alcohol smuggler, furniture manufacturer, resistance fighter during WWII and, as a survivor of the notorious Bastøy school home for maladjusted boys, children's rights advocate, dies. [see: Jul. 9]

1979 - Herbert Marcuse (b. 1898), German philosopher, sociologist and political theorist, dies. [see: Jul. 19]

1979 - Émilie Carles (b. 1900), French teacher, militant anarchist and pacifist, dies. Companion of Jean Carles, together they converted a mansion into a hôtel (les Arcades), housing many anarchists. Emilie recounted her life and activities in 'Une Soupe aux Herbes Sauvages' (A Soup with Wild Herbs; 1977). [see: May 29]

1983 - Luis Buñuel (b. 1900), Spanish surrealist film-maker/director, dies. [see: Feb. 22]

2000 - Goliardo Fiaschi (b. 1930), Italian anarchist partisan who fought Franco, Moussolini and Hitler's troop, dies. [see: Aug. 21]
[B] 1889 - Frans Masereel (d. 1972), Belgian radical woodcut artist, printmaker, illustrator, draughtsman, libertarian, communist, pacifist and Master of the wordless novel, born. Passionately anti-war, he sought refuge in Switzerland during WWI, there befriending Stefan Zweig and Romain Rolland and began working for the pacifist publications 'La Feuille' and 'Les Tablettes'. It was there that he published his first works, three anti-war albums: 'Les Morts Parlent' (The Dead Speak; 1917), 'Debout les Morts' (Arise, You Dead; 1917) and the better known '25 Images de la Passion d´un Homme' / 'Die Passion eines Menschen' (25 Images of a Man's Passion; 1918). In 1922 Masereel returned to Paris and began painting his lesser known street scenes. He also travelled, living for a period in Berlin where he became close to George Grosz, sharing a house with him. With the rise of fascism, he reknewed his involvement in anti-war activities, participating in the World Congress Against War and Fascism in Amsterdam in 1932. However, the fear of war weighed heavily on him, with the Nazis banning and destroying his books and the Spanish Republic under threat. In 1937 Masereel travelled to Republican Spain as a member of a delegation of French artists and was involved with the Pavilion of the World Peace Movement at the 1937 World Exhibition in Paris. With the German invasion of France, he fled Paris and, following a failed attempt to leave for South America, his out in the south of France.
His other works include: 'Le Soleil' (The Sun; 1919); 'Mon Livre d'Heures' aka 'Passionate Journey' (1919); 'Histoire Sans Paroles' / 'Geschichte ohne Worte: Ein Roman in Bildern' (Story Without Words: a Novel in Pictures; 1920); 'Die Idee' / 'L' Idée' (The Idea; 1920), also made into a 1932 film by Berthold Bartosch with Masereel's assisstance; 'La Ville' / 'Die Stadt' (The City; 1925); 'Bilder der Großstadt' (Images of the Great City; 1926); 'Das Werk' (The Work; 1928) and 'La Sirene' (The Siren; 1932).
He also illustrated numerous works by others, including Victor Hugo, Tolstoy, Thomas Mann, Oscar Wilde ('The Ballad of Reading Goal'), Hemingway, Hermann Hesse (who wrote an afterword for his 'Histoire Sans Paroles', Romain Rolland (who provided a foreword to 'Mon Livre d'Heures'), Klaus Mann, Kurt Tucholsky, Thomas Mann, Émile Zola, Upton Sinclair and Stefan Zweig. Of these, 2 particulalry stand out: the 100 woodcuts in 1943 reprint of Charles de Coster's 'The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel and Lamme Goedzak' [originally 'La Légende et les Aventures héroïques, joyeuses et glorieuses d'Ulenspiegel et de Lamme Goedzak au pays de Flandres et ailleurs' (1867)] and Romain Rolland's 'Die Révolte der Maschinen, ou la Pensée Déchainée' (1921), with its 33 woodcuts.
"Masereel is also affected by the new course in Germany. Although he is not a Jew, nor a communist (not even salon-communist), his views on humanity, war and peace, rulers and oppressed are today not held highly in the country and as a result it could cost the windows of any bookseller who displayed Masereel's '25 Images de la Passion d´un Homme' in his shop window."
- Letter from George Reinhart to Hermann Hesse (dated 1 April, 1933)

1898 - Juan Puig Elias (d. 1972), Spanish teacher and militant anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1906 - Alfonso Failla (d. 1986), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist fighter, who took part in the armed resistance against the fascist squadristi in the 1925 Siracusa Uprising and who spent many years interned on the island of Ponza by the fascist regime, born.

1936 - Airlift of the Fascist's Army of Africa to the Iberian Peninsula with planes supplied by Germany and Italy.

[C] 1938 - Frank Airlie (b. unknown), member of No. 4 Company of the British Battalion of the International Brigades, from Bellshill, Scotland (or Newcastle) dies at Gandesa during the Battle of the Ebro.

1941 - Jean-Louis Comolli, French writer, film director, screenwriter, editor, actor, jazz aficionado and libertarian, born. Amongst his films are 'Cecilia' (1976), which tells the true story of an Italian anarchist colony in Brazil in the 1890s, and 'Buenaventura Durruti, Anarchiste' (1999). He also played a part in Jean-Luc Godard's 'Alphaville, une étrange aventure de Lemmy Caution' (1965).
1865 - Adalgisa Fochi (d. 1957), Italian teacher, writer and socialist activist in feminist circles, born. The mother of Camillo Berneri and grandmother of Maria Luisa Berneri and Giliana Berneri.

1918 - Julio Rodríguez Fernandez, aka 'El Cubano' aka 'Fedor' aka Rafael Grau Raimundo (d. 1949), Cuban anarchist and anti-fascist guerrillerio, born. [poss. alternative date to 27 Jul.]

[C] 1922 - A General Strike against Fascism, the Sciopero legalitario (Strike for legality) to protest against fascist violence, is called in Italy. It collapses on the August 2nd and the Fascists respond by attacking the last outposts of resistance to their rule.

1962 - In Ridley Road, Dalston, anti-fascists had jumped the UM pitch were Mosley was due to speak. More than 200 police - including 10 on horseback - then attempted to clear an area around the lorry-platform. As soon as his meeting opened, Mosley and a gang of Blackshirts are punched to the ground. Police were forced to close the meeting within three minutes and made 54 arrests - including Mosley's son Max. As soon as he appeared from between two police buses the crowd surged forward, knocking Mosley to the ground. After police had helped him to climb on the lorry to give his speech, he was met by a hail of missiles including rotten fruit, pennies and stones and he was drowned out by a continuous chorus of "down with the fascists". When people tried to storm the platform, police had to quickly shepherded him to his car, which was also came under attack. fights between anti-fascists and the Blackshirts continued for well over an hour after the meeting was forced to close. The Mayor of Hackney, Alderman Sherman, and his wife were injured after being assaulted by UM supporters with iron bars.

1963 - Spanish anarchists Francisco Granados and Joaquín Delgado are arrested for two bombings they did not commit. Convicted solely on the basis of their being anarchists, they were later garrotted.

1968 - In México students occupy many schools and faculties, and convocate a General Strike. Violent battles erupt in México City between students and Granaderos special corps (riot police). The movement has its tragic climax on the 2nd of October in the Tlatelolco Massacre.

[AA] 1971 - Despite close police protection in the home of the Secretary for Trade and Industry, John Davies, is badly damaged by a powerful explosion in London. This action followed close on Davies' announcement of his intention to close Upper Clyde Shipbuilders, throwing thousands of men out of work. This is accompanied by the 11th Communique from the Angry Brigade.

1902 - Lola Iturbe (Dolores Iturbe Arizcuren; d. 1990), Catalonian militant anarcho-syndicalist and member of Mujeres Libres, born. Wrote many of her Mujeres Libres article under the pseudonym Kyralina, in tribute to the famous novel by Panaït Istrati. Secretary of Sindicato del Vestido de Barcelona and editor of the collection 'La Mujer en la Lucha Social y en la Guerra Civil de España' (Editores Mexicanos Unidos, 1974).

1907 - Angelo Pellegrino Sbardellotto (d. 1932), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, born. Exiled in France following the rise of Fascism in Italy, he is arrested on June 4, 1932, having planned to assassinate Mussolini. He is summarily tried and executed by a fascist firing squad on June 17.

1910 - Gerda Taro (Gerta Pohorylle; d. 1937), German photographer and anti-fascist, is born into a Jewish Polish family in Stuttgart. In 1929, the family moved to Leipzig and Pohorylle joined a young communist organisation and distributing anti-Nazi leaflets and fly-posting anti-Nazi propaganda under cover of darkness. She was arrested by the Nazis on March 19, 1933, and interrogated about a supposed Bolshevik plot to overthrow Hitler. Eventually, the entire Pohorylle household was forced to leave Nazi Germany toward different destinations, Gerta moving to Paris never to see her family again. In 1935, she met the photojournalist Endre Friedmann, a Hungarian Jew, becoming his personal assistant and learning photography, and they fell in love. Pohorylle began to work for Alliance Photo as a picture editor. However, she and Friedmann were unable to find any photography work and they came up with curious idea. They invented a character called Robert Capa, who was supposedly a reputed photographer having arrived from the United States to work in Europe. As he was so famous, he would only sell his photos through his representatives: Friedman and Pohorylle, and ar three times the price of those of a French photographer. This trick worked perfectly and soon they received lots of orders and finally began to make money.
1936 and the beginning of the Civil War in Spain would prove decisive for both of them. The pair went to Spain to cover the conflict, putting themselves on the front lines and taking enormous risks to capture images of the conflict. They took photographs side by side (often in the company of fellow photographer David 'Chim' Seymour), but always sold them under the pseudonym Robert Capa. For many years, it was not known which photos were taken by Robert and which ones by Gerda, but photographic historians eventually managed to differentiate between their early war photographs because they used distinctly different types of camera (Taro a Rollei camera, which gave square photographs, while Capa produced rectangular pictures with a Leica - she quickly abandoned the bulky Rollei for her own Leica). Also, as they both began to gain names for themselves and their work, they sometimes published their work jointly under the byline of Capa/Taro as well as visiting the front lines on their won. Taro, who was petite and attractive, and almost recklessly brave, quickly gained the nickname of 'la pequeña rubia' (the little blonde) amongst the Republican soldiers.
Though both were obviously socialists, Taro's commitment to Spain was always a more directly political i.e. anti-Fascist one than Capa's; and despite their continued close working relationship, she eventually refused his marriage proposal. In March 1937 launched her own 'photo taro' label for the work she carried out outside of their professional relationship, and she covered the Battle of Guadalajara (March 8–23), a Loyalist victory over Mussolini’s troops, producing the first major reportage to be published as photo taro (in 'Regards', April 8, 1937). On July 25, whilst covering the Battle of Brunette, Taro found herself trapped in a foxhole with her Canadian friend and lover Ted Allan. She continued photographing throughout the fighting and, as the Republican troops pulled out of the area, she and Allan jumped out of the foxhole and onto the running board of a car. In the chaos, an out-of-control Republican tank accidentally rammed the car, badly injuring Taro. She died the following morning at the age of 26. According to the nurse on duty at a field hospital of the 35th Division at El Escorial - the first female photographer to be killed while reporting on war. Taro's last words were: "Did they take care of my camera?"

1936 - José Sánchez Rosa (b. 1864), Spanish autodidact, teacher, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, is assassinated by Francoist forces. A few days after the fascist uprising of 18 July 1936 he is arrested. A squad of Requetés loaded a truck with his books, pamphlets and all his documents, placing the old Anarchist teacher, who had taken to his sickbed suffering from diabetes, on a mattress on top of his confiscated library. On the morning of August 1, 1936, he is placed up against a wall in the cemetery of Seville and shot. His body is then thrown into the mass grave.

1941 - Étienne Roda-Gil (Esteve Roda Gil; d. 2004), French-born poet, songwriter, screenwriter, libertarian and anarcho-syndicalist, born. The son of militant libertarian Spanish exiles, he was born in the Montauban (Tarn-et-Garonne) refugee camp [his father was interned at nearby Camp de Septfonds prisoner camp]. During the Algerian war he refused to join the French army even though, as a stateless alien, he would obtain a French passport. Instead he fled to London, participating in Spanish libertarian circles and Committee of 100 activities. He also discovered rock 'n' roll. Back in France he was active in the FIJL and CNT. [expand]

1943 - Będzin Ghetto Uprising: Members of the Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Combat Organisation) led by Frumka Płotnicka stage an uprising [August 1-3] against attempts to deport 8,000 Jews to Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp.

[C] 1943 - During the final liquidation of the ghetto at Sosnowiec, Poland, the underground resistance units organised under the leadership of Hashomer Hatzair activist Zvi Dunski, began a spirited resistance with a couple of hundred Jews, including Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Fighting Organisation) members, holed up in improvised bunkers holding off almost 800 German soldiers and policemen until around August 8th. Dunski had previously organised the various Jewish youth movements to teach the ghetto's children when the schools were closed and they had also conducted a campaign urging their fellow Jews not to report for the deportations, before arming themselves and building their bunkers to fight against the inevitable liquidation of the ghetto.

1944 - Jean Prévost (b. 1901), French writer, journalist, and Résistance fighter under the nom de guerre Captaine Goderville, is killed in a German ambush at the Pont Charvin, in Sassenage, whilst fighting with the Maquis du Vercors. [see: Jun. 13]

1944 - Warsaw Uprising: As part of the countrywide Operation Burza (Tempest), the Polish Armia Krajowa (AK) begins the Powstanie Warszawskie to liberate Warsaw from the Nazis. It would end with the capitualtion of Polish forces to the Wehrmacht on October 2 and the entire civilian population of Warsaw being expelled from the city and sent to the Durchgangslager 121 transit camp.
www.polishresistance-ak.org/4 Article.htm

1944 - Warsaw Uprising; The 104 Kompania Związku Syndykalistów Polskich (Company 104 of the Union of Polish Syndicalists) is formed in Warsaw district of Old Town on August 1, 1944, on the first day of the Uprising, as part of Company Róg (Horn) of the Northern Group (Grupa 'Północ') of the Armia Krajowa (AK; Home Army). It fought throughout the Uprising and amongst the last armed group left defending the barricades from the advancing Nazis - many argue that the AK deliberately exposed the fighters to almost certain capture or death after they had withdrawn from the Old Town. However, the last 70-80 fighters managed to withdraw from the area in late August, escaping through the sewage canals to the Warszawa-Śródmieście .

1947 - Following the killing of 2 British army sergeants by Irgun paramilitaries in the Palestine Mandate, [see: Jul. 31] and the sensationalised newspaper headlines, a wave of anti-Jewish rioting breaks out across the UK on the Bank Holiday weekend, this despite widespread condemnation by the British Jewish community. The attacks would continue until at least the Tuesday (5th).
As a direct consequence of the events in Palestine, the fascist movement gained new members and a fresh impetus.

1977 - The August 13 Ad Hoc Organising Committee issues statement calling for a 'They Shall Not Pass' rally to assemble at Clifton Rise in New Cross at 12 on the day of the NF demonstration (the NF were planning to assemble at Clifton Rise at 14:00). The statement also 'welcomed the decision of the ALCARAF to route their march to reach New Cross by 13:00.
1893 - Régis Messac (d. 1945), French teacher, union organiser, resistance member, writer, novelist, poet, pacifist and anarchist, born. Like his parents, he was a teacher but suffers a serious brain injury during WWI. Demobilised in 1919 and disgusted with the war, he wrote 2 autobiographical novels: 'Le Voyage de Néania, à travers la guerre et la paix' (1926) and 'Ordre de Transport' (unpub.); a play, 'Phobie du Bleu' (unpub.); a pamphlet, 'Le Pourboire du Sang' (1936), and a small book of poems: 'Poèmes Guerriers' (1926).
Having learnt English from British troops at the end of the war, he went on to work and teach in various universities in England and in Canada. He returned to France in 1929, teaching at a college in Montpellier and obtained his doctorate in arts with a thesis 'Le Detective Novel et l'Influence de la Pensée Scientifique' (1929).
An anarcho-syndicalist and pacifist, he called into question the standard pedagogy and dogmas of official teaching, and as an active militant, became, in 1936, secretary of the Fédération Générale de l'Enseignement (General Federation of Teachers).
As a writer and poet, Messac published two science fiction novels 'Quinzinzinsili' (1935) and 'La Cité des Asphyxiés' (1937), as well pieces for various reviews, on libertarian and proletarian literature. In all, his work includes 30 books, one of which is a posthumous novel 'Valcrétin', a sort of sci-fi anti-colonial satire written in 1943, which was published in 1973.
During the German occupation in WWII, Messac was a member of the resistance, organising escape routes for those fleeing compulsory labour conscription, and wrote an anti-Vichy tract 'Pot-pourri Fantôme', a chronicle of the war and occupation between 1939 and 1942. Arrested on May 10 1943 during the German occupation and sent to the Nazi concentration camps, he is believed to have dies some time during 1945 in Gross-Rosen or Dora.

1897 - Philippe Soupault (d. 1990), French writer, poet, novelist, playwright, critic and political activist, born. Active in Dadaism and later co-founder of the Surrealist movement with his friend André Breton. Soupault, Breton and Louis Aragon initiated the periodical 'Littérature' in Paris in 1919, which, for many, marks the beginnings of Surrealism. He and Breton also co-authored the first book of automatic writing, 'Les Champs Magnétiques' (Magnetic Fields; 1920), a Surrealist classic avant la lettre. Along with Robert Denos and Antonin Artaud, Soupault refused to be part of the Breton-instigated en mass movement of the surrealists into the Communist Party and was expelled from the group in 1926. According to Breton the reason for his exclusion was "he was too literary", having authored the none too surreal novels 'Le Bon Apôtre' (The Good Apostle; 1923), 'Les Frères Durandeau' (The Brothers Durandeau; 1924), 'Georgia' (1926) and 'Le Nègre' (The Negro; 1927).
He helped launch a new Front Populaire anti-fascist station Radio Tunis, which he directed from 1937 to 1940. Jailed for 6 months by the Nazis, he managed to escape via Algeria to America.

1900 - On the Avenue Malakoff in Paris, anarchist François Salsou tries unsuccessfully to kill Muzaffar al-Din, the Shah of Persia, during an official visit to France. Jumping on the Shah's open coach, he points his pistol at the chest of the Shah but the weapon is defective and fails to fire. Disarmed by the crowd, he narrowly escapes being lynched.

[C] 1900 - Ilya Grigoryevich Starinov (Илья Григорьевич Старинов; d. 2000), Soviet military officer, who served with the Republican forces during the Spanish Civil War and was one of the leaders of the Soviet partisan movement during the WWII, born. Starinov trained Republican forces in sabotage and guerrilla tactics, and during the 'Great Patriotic War' he was in chage of the preparation of obstacles, the mining railroads, highways, and other vital facilities in advance of the German invasion forces. He later trained and organised partisan forces in places such as the Ukraine, Poland and Yougoslavia. He is known as the "grandfather of the Russian spetsnaz".

1901 - Ángel Borda (d. 1980), Argentinian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, trades union organiser, popular library founder, autodidact, sculptor, story and song (chamarritas and coplas) writer, born.

1930 - Mill Dam Riots: Since the C19th. the port of South Shields had been a home to foreign seamen and the first Arab Seaman's Boarding House had opened in August 1909 in the Holborn riverside district of the town. During WWI, foreign labour had been used to keep the Merchant Fleet running, while British seamen were drafted into the Royal Navy. But, at the end of WWI the mainly Arab foreign seamen were now seen as unwanted guests with the post-war demobilisation of white British seamen and the onset of economic depression. 1919 saw the first serious street violence and racial unrest in areas inhabited by foreign seamen, with attacks on Arab Boarding Houses and cafes. Throughout the 1920's and 1930's popular feeling in the town seems to be firmly against the Arabs.
During this period, the left wing 'Minority Movement', a group of black and white workers formed to challenge the National Union of Seamen and the Shipping Federation, who were under-representing and failing to defend the welfare of foreign workers, was formed. Throughout 1930, the Minority Movement held public meetings at the Mill Dam to campaign against a new rota system which they felt discriminated against the Arabs. Violence over the dispute erupted in North Shields on April 29, 1930 when 13 Somalis were brought over from South Shields to sign on as Firemen as part of a crew of 41 on a steamer, Cape Verde, and a large crowd of white seamen tried to stop them reaching the Union Office. The Somalis were then attacked and, despite drawing their knives, were severely beaten. Three Arabs were imprisoned and subsequently deported.
On Bank Holiday Saturday, 2 August, members of the Minority Movement were making rousing speeches to an audience of white and Somali and Yemeni seamen outside the Shipping Foundation Offices at the Mill Dam. When four white men were hired to work on the steamer, Etheralda, the crowd were incensed, causing one of them, Ali Hamid, to call out, "They work, but there is no work for the black man". At the same time, a large mob of white seamen who had been roaming the waterfront hunting for any Arabs and foreigners, arrived at the Federation Office to the shipping office and, according to one version, racial insults from a white worker called Hamilton, provoked a violent fight between the two group.
Then, the police who had turned out in force expecting violence against white workers hired to work on the steamer Etheralda, drew their truncheons and charged, only to be met by a hail of stones and shouts of abuse. Once among the crowd, the Arabs drew their knives, stabbing four Policemen. The Police waded in with their truncheons as the riot spilled over into nearby Holborn, injuring dozens of innocent bystanders. Fifteen Arabs were jailed and deported for their part in the riot including Ali Said who had spoken out about injustices but hadn't actually taken part in the riot itself.
On Monday morning at the magistrates' court, six white men and twenty-one Arabs (seven of the Arabs' heads were swathed in bandages and had obviously not received adequate medical attention) appeared before the court. The main charges were inciting to riot and rioting, with charges of wounding police officers later brought against 3 of the defendants. All were eventually sentenced to hard labour and jailed. Fifteen Arabs were deported at the end of their sentences, including Ali Said who had spoken out about injustices but hadn't actually taken part in the riot itself.

1943 - Będzin Ghetto Uprising continues. [see: Aug. 1]

[CC] 1943 - Treblinka Prisoner Uprising: Jewish inmates organised a resistance group in Treblinka in early 1943. When camp operations neared completion, the prisoners feared they would be killed and the camp dismantled. During the late spring and summer of 1943, the resistance leaders decided to revolt. On August 2, 1943, prisoners quietly seized weapons from the camp armory, but were discovered before they could take over the camp. Hundreds of prisoners stormed the main gate in an attempt to escape. Many were killed by machine-gun fire. More than 300 did escape, though two thirds of those who escaped were eventually tracked down and killed by German SS and police as well as military units. Acting under orders from Lublin, German SS and police personnel supervised the surviving prisoners, who were forced to dismantle the camp. After completion of this job, the German SS and police authorities shot the surviving prisoners.

1943 - Berek Lajcher [also remembered by Treblinka survivors by the names Dr Marius Leichert and Dr. Lecher](b. 1893), Jewish physician, former reserve officer in the Polish Army and social activist from Wyszków before the Holocaust in Poland, who was a leading member of the Organising Committee in the prisoner uprising at Treblinka extermination camp, is killed during the uprising in which some 150 Jewish prisoners escaped. [see: Oct. 24]

2007 - BNP Red, White & Blue Festival (Friday 3 - Sunday 5) attracts noise complaints even before it has officially started, as residents living nearby are kept awake on Thursday night by the site's karaoke.

2009 - Félix (Felicísimo) Álvarez Ferreras (b. 1921), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, Civil War and Résistance fighter, writer and polyglot, dies. [see: Jun. 8]
1916 - Adelita del Campo (nickname of Adela Carreras Taurà; d. 1999), Spanish dancer, actress, anarchist and later a communist, born.

1942 - Francesco Ghezzi (b. 1893), Italian individualist anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies in a Soviet gulag. [see: Oct. 4]

1943 - German forces bring the Będzin Ghetto Uprising to an end. [see: Aug. 1]

1943 - Frumka Płotnicka (b. 1914), Polish Jewish resistance fighter during World War II, is killed defending a bunker in Podsiadły St. against the Germans during the Będzin Ghetto Uprising. She had been a member of the Zionist organisation Dror (Freedom) before the war and joined ŻOB as a courier, co-organiser of self-defence squads in the ghettos of Warsaw, Sosnowiec and Będzin, and had taken part in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.

1962 - The NSM hold their summer camp [Aug. 3-7] at Guiting Wood, Gloucestershire, despite the ban on neo-Nazis from across Europe from entering Britain to attend. Lincoln Rockwell manages to enter the country via Northern Ireland to attend. He will subsequently be deported. The police are watching events which will prompt a raid on the NSM HQ on August 10, and the arrest of Colin Jordan, John Tyndall, Denis Pirie, Roland Kerr-Ritchie and Martin Webster on the 16th. [see: Aug. 9+10+16]

[C] 1968 - António de Oliveira Salazar, Portugal's dictator of the past 36 years, suffers a fall as he is having his toenails cut for him (although another version has him falling from his bathtub). The blow to his head precipitates a brain hemorrhage. Expected to die shortly after his fall, President Thomaz replaced him, but Salazar held on for 2 more year, believing that he was still prime minister as his circle refused to tell him otherwise and he 'ruled' on in privacy until his death in July 1970.

2004 - Henri Cartier-Bresson (b. 1908), French photographer considered to be the father of modern photojournalism, dies. [see: Aug. 22]
“I’m an anarchist - anarchism is an ethic, its a way of behaving.”
"L'anarchie c'est une éthique avant tout. Une éthique d'homme libre. Relisez Bakounine." (Above all anarchism is an ethic. An ethic of free men. Reread Bakunin.)

2007 - BNP Red, White & Blue Festival takes place (Friday 3rd - Sunday 5th) on 20 acres of land adjoining The Bungalow, Codnor Denby Lane, Denby Village, Ripley, Derbyshire, DE5 8PT, which is owned by a local BNP parish councillor, Alan Warner. The event's licence was granted despite unanimous local opposition. According to the BNP, 800 people attend the event.
The previous weekend, 28-29th July, a 'Summer School' for BNP councillors was held on the same site. Both event draw little ati-fascist response.
1901 - Juan Manuel Molina Mateo aka 'Juanelo' (d. 1984), important Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1907 - Joaquín Pérez Navarro (d. 2006), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, born.

[C] 1934 - The Rassemblement Mondial des Femmes contre la Guerre et le Fascisme (First Worldwide Meeting of Women against War and Fascism) [Aug 4-7] begins in Paris.

1934 - A National Youth Congress Against War and Fascism is held at Sheffield City Hall (Aug. 4 & 5) attended by 630 delegates, including those from the YCL, ILP Guild of Youth, Labour League of Youth plus the Woodcraft Folk, the Co-operative Circle, Rambling and camping clubs as well as individuals from the Boy Scouts, Jewish Lad's Brigade and the Clarion cycling Club. [PR]

1941 - Generalmajor Henning von Tresckow [see: Jan. 10 & Jul. 20] and other members of the Schwarze Kapelle (Black Band) group planned to assassinate Hitler when he was forced to plan a visit Army Group Centre (AGC) on the Eastern Front to placate Field Marshal von Bock following his objections to Hitler's plan to remove the AGC's Panzers, leavig Bock with basically only infantry troops for its attack on Moscow. The visit was scheduled several times only to be cancelled, rescheduled, then cancelled again. Finally, in early August a fleet of cars arrived from the Führer Headquarters in East Prussia to await Hitler's arrival. Hitler refused to use cars supplied by the army for fear they might be booby trapped with explosives. When he finally arrived at Bock's headquarters in Borrisow, Tresckow and his fellow conspirators were overwhelmed at the amount of security people that accompanied him and the rigid security measures they imposed. The would-be assassins barely caught a glimpse of Hitler, much less an opportunity to shoot him.

1977 - Ernst Bloch (b. 1885), German Marxist philosopher, utopian, pacifist and one-time anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 8]

2000 - Salvador Clement (b. 1916), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, active with the CNT, who took refuge in France following the failure of the Spanish Revolution, dies.

2008 - Juan López Romero Jiménez (aka 'Juan el Camas' or 'Chiquito de Camas' [Shorty from Camas]; b. 1928), Andalusian anarchist and flamenco singer, especially of the fandango, dies. [see: Feb. 25]

2010 - Lloyd Butler, aged 39, Is found dead his his cell at Stechford police station 3 hours after being arrested and locked up for being drunk and incapable.

2014 - White supremacist killer David Joseph 'Joey' Pedersen is GIVEN two concurrent life sentences by a federal judge in Portland, Oregon, for the carjacking and murder of Cody Myers of Lafayette, Oregon, and Reginald Clark of Eureka, California, in two separate incidents carried out with his girlfriend, Holly Ann Grigsby, during a 10-day killing spree. [see: Apr. 23/Sep. 26/Oct. 1 & 3]
1911 - Benito Mussolini, then a socialist, publishes an article in 'Lotta di Classe', the Forli newspaper he edits, calling for a general strike against any Italian military adventures (with reference to a possible Italian invasion of Libya).
"Se la patria, menzognera finzione che ormai ha fatto il suo tempo, chiederà nuovi sacrifici di denaro e di sangue, il proletariato che segue le direttive socialiste risponderà collo sciopero generale. La guerra fra le nazioni diventerà allora una guerra alle guerre." (If the Homeland, mendacious fiction that has now run its course, ask for new sacrifices of money and blood, the socialist proletariat will respond to the directive with a general strike. The war between nations will then become a war on wars.)

1917 - Eduard Vives (d. 1971), Catalan militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. Member of the National Confederation of Labour (CNT) from a young age, during the Revolution of 1936 was part of the Control Patrols and fought the fronts (Teruel) in the Los Aguiluchos column, where he was wounded several times. In 1938 he was captured by Franco's troops, weeks later, after being sentenced to death, managed to escape the day before his execution and go to the Republican zone. He rejoined the Republican army, becoming a decorated commander. When the war ended on 9 February 1939, he crossed the Pyrenees and spent a year interned in a concentration camp and working in a Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers (CTE). In 1945 he founded the Local CNT Federation in Castelnaudary and was appointed secretary. In 1959 he went to America, where he directed a department of an electronics factory. In New York, he fought in the anti-Franco groups, collaborated with the newspaper 'España Libre', took part in group activities of the editorial group of Proletarian Cultural and the New York Libertarian Centre, and was secretary of the American delegation to the International Antifascist Solidarity (SIA).

1925 - Georges Palante (b. 1862), French philosopher and sociologist, who advocated an aristocratic libertarian individualism, dies. [see: Nov. 20]

1943 - Adam Kuckhoff (b. 1887), German writer, journalist and member of the anti-Nazi Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, is executed at Plötzensee Prison. [see: Aug. 30]

[C] 1962 - Supporters of Oswald Mosley's Union Movement, were pelted with coins, ice cream and peanuts as they try to hold a meeting in Southend-on-Sea. About 1,000 holidaymakers roared with laughter as the missiles sailed around the speakers - three young men protected by 30 policemen. Another 100 policemen stood by to prevent violence. Two of the hecklers were arrested.

1972 - Mezz Mezzrow (Milton Mesirow; b. 1899), American jazz clarinetist and saxophonist, who claimed that a "creative musician is an anarchist with a horn, and you can't put any shackles on him", dies. [see: Nov. 9]

1982 - Albert Guigui-Theral (aka Varlin; b. 1903), Algerian-born French anarchist, militant syndicalist, mechanic and French Resistance fighter, dies. [see: Mar. 26]

2002 - Léo Voline (Léo Eichenbaum; b. 1917), French anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, third son of Voline, dies. [see: Jan. 4]
1888 - Torquato Gobbi (d. 1963), Italian anarchist typographer and bookbinder, born.

[C] 1936 - Ramón Acin Aquilué (b. 1888), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, professor, writer and avant-garde artist, is murdered by pro-Francoists. Involved with the CNT and imprisoned for his support of political prisoners. [see: Aug. 30]

[CC] 1942 - In one of the most famous incidents of the Warsaw Ghetto, Janusz Korczak, the pen name of Henryk Goldszmit (22 July 1878 or 1879 - August 1942), Polish-Jewish educator, children's author and pediatrician known as Pan Doktor (Mr. Doctor) or Stary Doktor (Old Doctor), who was director of a Warsaw orphanage that had been forced to move into the Ghetto, quietly marches his 192 children to the Umschlagplatz and the transport arranged to take them to Treblinka extermination camp. Korczak and his staff stayed with the children (he had already turned down a number of Nazi offers of "special treatment" and the possibility of being sent to Theresienstadt and the offer of sanctuary on the 'Aryan side' by Żegota, the Polish Council to Aid Jews; even the German officer in charge of the escort, and who had been a fan Korczak’s King Matt books as a child, offered him the chance to leave) in order not to frighten them.
Korczak and the orphan's story is told in Andrzej Wajda’s film 'Korczak '(1990) as well as a number of books, stage plays and an opera.

1969 - Theodor Adorno (b. 1903), German philosopher and sociologist of the Frankfurt School, dies. [see: Sep. 11]
[B] 1883 - Joachim Ringelnatz (pen name of Hans Bötticher; d. 1934), German author (poetry, novels, drama, memoirs, childrens books), painter and Kabarettist/satirical stand-up comedian, born. Best known for his humorous word-play and poems, and his creation Kuddel Daddeldu, an anarchist sailor whose drunken antics and disdain for authority proved immensely popular. A one-time sailor in the Imperial Navy, he became the house poet at the Munich Künstlerkneipe ('artistspub' i.e. cabaret) Simplicissimus, rubbing shoulders with the likes of Erich Mühsam, Emmy Hemmings, Klabund and Marietta di Monaco. His poetry and essays also appeared in the 'Simplicissimus' house magazine.
Amongst his writings were poetry: 'Die Schnupftabakdose' (The Snuffbox; 1912), 'Kuttel Daddeldu oder das Schlüpfrige Leid' (Kuttel Daddeldu or the Slippery Suffering; 1920), where Kuttel Daddeldu made himself known, and 'Vorstadt-Bordell' (Suburban Brothel; 1923); prose such as 'Kuttel Daddeldu erzählt seinen Kindern das Märchen vom Rotkäppchen und zeichnet ihnen sogar was dazu' (Kuttel Daddeldu tells his children the story of Little Red Riding Hood and even what draws them to; 1923); drama, such as his first play 'Mannimmond, eine einaktige Groteske' (Mannimmond, a one-act grotesque; 1921); and children's books, with his 'Geheimes Kinder-Spiel-Buch mit vielen Bildern' (Secret kids game book with lots of pictures; 1924), instructing kids to destroy furniture, make dumplings out of excrement and to build bombs, being banned by the Berlin Chief of Police for threatening the morals of the city's children.
Ringelnatz also exhibited in the 1920s alongside the likes of Otto Dix and George Grosz, but he was banned by the Nazi government as a 'degenerate artist' and most of his paintings and drawings were lost during WWII. His books were also confiscated and burnt.

1888 - Cayetano Redondo Aceña (d. 1940), Spanish politician, journalist, mayor of Madrid during the Spanish Civil War and a leading proponent of Esperanto in Spain,born. Member of the Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE) and president of the national committee of the Federación de Juventudes Socialistas de España (1925-27). He worked as a typesetter and was director of several newspapers, among them 'El Socialista' (1930-31). In 1931, he was elected to the City Council of Madrid and the following year as a deputy on the Cortes Constituyentes, both on the PSOE ticket. During the Spanish Civil War, and after the escape of the mayor, Pedro Rico López, to Valencia, he was named Mayor of Madrid by the municipal corporation, a position he held between November 8, 1936 and April 23, 1937. Arrested at the end of the war by the troops of Franco, he was convicted of "assistance to the rebellion" and executed by a firing squad in the Cementerio de la Almudena on May 21, 1940, before burial in a mass grave.

1897 - Albert Perier (or Perrier)(aka Germinal; d. 1970), Argentine-born French anarchist militant, revolutionary syndicalist and anti-fascist résistant , born.

1908 - Robert Bernardis (d. 1944), Austrian resistance fighter involved in the July 20 Plot to kill Adolf Hitler, born.

1944 - July 20 plotters: The trial and sentencing to death of Field Marshal Erwin von Witzleben, First Lieutenant Peter Graf Yorck von Wartenburg, Colonel-General Erich Hoepner, Lieutenant General Paul von Hase, Major General Hellmuth Stieff, Captain Karl Friedrich Klausing, Lieutenant Colonel Robert Bernardis, and First Lieutenant Albrecht von Hagen takes place in Berlin’s Plotzensee Prison.

1952 - Benigno Andrade García aka 'Foucellas' (b. 1908), Spanish locksmith, anarchist militant and anti-Francoist guerilla, is executed by garrote at 7 am in the provincial prison of A Coruña, Galicia. [see: Oct. 22]

[C] 1963 - Ramón Vila Capdevila (b. 1908), also known as 'Caracremada' (Caraquemada, Burnt-face), 'Jabalí' (the Wild Boar), or 'Capitán Raymond', famed anti-fascist guerrilla is shot down and purposely left to die following a shoot-out with the Guardia Civil. [see: Apr. 2]

1976 - Manuel Monleón Burgos (b. 1904), Spanish painter, illustrator, poster artist, photomontagist, naturist, Esperantist and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 23]

[A] 1995 - Due to international pressure, state of Pennsylvania announces a stay of its planned Aug. 17 execution of political prisoner Mumia Abu-Jamal.

1999 - Three people in Pisa associated with the animal and earth liberation journal Il Silvestre arrested and charged with firebombings of companies.

2012 - Francisco Carrasquer Launed (b. 1915), Aragonese poet, writer, essayist, translator, free-thinker and anarchist, dies. Older brother Felix Carrasquer Launed.
1940 - Romania introduces anti-Jewish measures restricting education and employment.

1942 - María del Milagro Pérez Lacruz aka 'La Jabalina' (The Wild Sow)(b. 1917), Spanish anarchist and member of Juventudes Libertarias, who fought with the Iron Column, is shot by firing squad alongside 6 male comrades in Huerta Oeste, Valencia. Her life was the basus for the novel 'Si Me Llegas a Olvidar' (If I Get to Forget; 2013) by Rosana Corral-Márquez. [see: May 3]

1944 - July 20 plotters: Lieutenant Colonel Robert Bernardis, First Lieutenant Albrecht von Hagen, Lieutenant General Paul von Hase, Colonel-General Erich Hoepner, Friedrich Karl Klausing, Major General Helmuth Stieff, Field Marshal Erwin von Witzleben, and First Lieutenant Peter Graf Yorck von Wartenburg are hanged naked at Berlin’s Plotzensee Prison on thin cord (some sources say piano wire) suspended from meathooks whilst being filmed for Hitler's later edification.

1944 - Robert Bernardis (b. 1908), Austrian resistance fighter involved in the July 20 Plot to kill Adolf Hitler, is tried and sentenced to death in the Volksgerichtshof (People's Court), and executed the same day in Berlin-Plötzensee prison. [see: Aug. 7]

[C] 1999 - Gino Bibbi (b. 1899), Italian engineer, anarchist and militant anti-fascist, who became a Republican fighter pilot during the Spanish Civil war and muntions designer, dies at the age of 100. He was cremated with a red and black scarf tied round his neck. [see: Feb. 5]
1898 - Vassil Ikonomov (d. 1925), Bulgarian anti-fascist anarchist guerilla fighter and an important figure in the Bulgarian movement, born. [expand]

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: A Sindicato Nacional de Teléfonos member is shot dead whilst playing cards in a bar.

1939 - Ceferí Llop Estupiñà (b. 1916), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, member of the FIJL and CNT, dies. [see: Aug. 16]

1942 - The first mass deportation of Jews to the gas chambers as 10,000 Jews are deported from the Boryslaw ghetto (now Borislav, Ukraine) to Belsen extermination camp.

1962 - Hermann Hesse (b. 1877), German poet and novelist, dies. Author of 'Der Steppenwolf' (1927), whose central character Harry Haller is invited to attend an: "Anarchist Evening at the Magic Theatre, For Madmen Only, Price of Admission Your Mind." [see: Jul. 2]

[C] 1962 - George Lincoln Rockwell, leader of the American Nazi Party, is deported from England on a flight to the USA. He had been in the country as the "guest" of Colin Jordan’s British National Socialist Party at a secret rally and neo-Nazi camp in Gloucestershire.

2011 - Mark Duggan, an unarmed 29-year-old black Londoner, is shot twice by police in Tottenham after they stopped the minicab in which he was travelling. That evening, police behaviour at a vigil in Tottenham that evening precipitates a riot, that quickly sweeps across the capital.

2014 - The fatal shooting of unarmed 18-year-old black teenager Michael Brown by a 28-year-old police officer, Darren Wilson, in Ferguson, Missouri takes place. Wilson fired 12 shots, 2 whilst still sitting inside a police cruiser, with Brown allegedly leaning in through the car's window. Seven of those shots hit Brown who the police claimed was reportedly walking in the middle of the street and matched the description that had been circulated of a man involved in a nearby robbery. The entire incident took 90 seconds [Brown's body was left lying on the street for 4 hours]. However, it later emerged that the 2 cops did not know about the 'strong-arm' robbery.
The incident provoked 2 weeks of protests and rioting in Ferguson, which continued sporadically over the following months and errupted into full-scale rioting again on November 24 following a grand jury decision not to indict Wilson in the shooting death of Brown.
1878 - Bruno Alfred Döblin (d. 1957), German Expressionist novelist, essayist, doctor, and Landauerian Christian socialist with a strong affiliation with anarchist thought, especially Kropotkin (though he was never active), born. Alfred Döblin's oeuvre encompasses over a dozen novels ranging in genre from historical novels to science fiction to novels about the modern metropolis; several dramas, radio plays (he was amongst the first to utilise the new medium), and screenplays; a true crime story; a travel account; two book-length philosophical treatises; scores of essays on politics, religion, art, and society; and numerous letters. Many of his works, including the best known for his novel 'Berlin Alexanderplatz' (1929), his science fiction novel 'Berge Meere und Giganten' (Mountains Seas and Giants; 1924) and the four part 'November 1918, Eine Deutsche Revolution' (November 1918: A German Revolution; 1934-45)[Vol. I: 'Bürger und Soldaten' (Citizens and Soldiers), Vol. II 'Verratenes Volk' (A People Betrayed), Vol. III, 'Heimkehr der Fronttruppen' (Return of the Frontline Troops), and Vol. IV, 'Karl und Rosa' (Karl and Rosa)] clearly display his anarchist sympathies.
In 1910, Döblin became involved with the newly founded Expressionist journal 'Der Sturm', contributing numerous essays and literary pieces, including his early novel 'Der Schwarze Vorhang' (The Black Curtain; 1912). He also became part of the circle that included Erich Mühsam, who, along with Gustav Landauer's Christian anarchism, greatly influenced his political outlook. In order to avoid conscription in WWI, Döblin volunteered in December 1914 as a doctor and, despite sharing the widespread early enthusiasm for the war common among many German intellectuals, he soon became avowedly anti-war. His politicisation continued in the immediate post-war period, writing a series of satirical and polemical political essays under the pseudonym 'Linke Poot', some later published in 'Der Deutsche Maskenball' (The German Masked Ball; 1921). On March 12 1919, his sister Meta also died after being injured during skirmishes between the Spartacists and nationalist troops in Berlin.
In late 1918, Döblin joined the Independent Social Democratic Party (USPD), which ideologically stood between Social Democratic Party (SPD) and the Communist party (KPD) of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg and later joining the SPD when the USPD dissolved in 1921. Never an active member, he resigned from the SPD in 1928 "out of protest against bureaucracy and bossism", in his own words.
In 1925 he also joined the Gruppe 1925, a discussion circle of progressive and communist intellectuals including Bertolt Brecht, Johannes R. Becher, Ernst Bloch, Hermann Kasack, Rudolf Leonhard, Walter Mehring, Robert Musil, Joseph Roth, Ernst Toller, Kurt Tucholsky and Ernst Weiß, among others - Brecht went on to consider Döblin one of his most important influences.
In Döblin's 'Berlin Alexanderplatz', one of the classic Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) novels, is the story of Franz Biberkopf, an ex-convict, who falls in with a gang of burglars. In Book 6 he is involved in a discussion with an old anarchist (having resumed his old life as a pimp and petty criminal and gone along to the meeting to be disruptive and have fun). He expounds his vaguely Nietzschean individualism via: "A man's got only himself, just himself. I look after myself. I'm a self-provider, I am!" Which the old anarchist (who, it has been argued, is Döblin's mouthpiece in the book) counters with the need for solidarity: "And I've told you that three dozen times already: you can't do anything alone. We need a fighting organisation".
Originally projected to have a second volume, it was never written as Döblin was forced into exile in 1933 with the Nazi accession to power.
"A comradely association of free men, forms the natural basic cell of all society, the small community; there one must begin. . . . That's what Prince Kropotkin had long known and taught, what he learned from the Swiss watchmakers in the Jurabund, in political jargon: syndicalism, anarchism"

[B] 1884 - Panaït Istrati (Ghérasim Istrati; d. 1935), Romanian-French writer (short stories and novels) and revolutionary communist, and later libertarian, born. Nicknamed the Maxim Gorky of the Balkans. The title of his novel 'Kyra Kyralina' (1923) was appropriated by Lola Iturbe as her pseudonym, and the story of his time in the Sviet Union and his resulting disillusionment with Stalinist is told in 'La Véritable tragédie de Panaït Istrati' (2013) by Eleni Samios-Kazantzaki, who was one of his travelling companions during that period. [expand]

1889 - Zofia Kossak-Szczucka (d. 1968), Polish writer and World War II resistance fighter, who co-founded the wartime Polish organization Żegota, set up to assist Polish Jews to escape the Holocaust, born. In 1943 she was arrested by the Germans and sent to Auschwitz Concentration Camp, but survived the war.

1924 - Giacomo Matteotti (b. 1885), Italian socialist member of parliament and prominent opponent of the Fascist regime, is murdered by fascist thugs. [see: May 22]

1937 - The Council of Aragon's agricultural self-management is forcibly disbanded by the Republican government.

1942 - The Germans initiated a two-week long Aktion to annihilate the inhabitants of the Krzemieniec Ghetto, setting fire to the remaining buildings to drive out those in hiding. Fifteen hundred able-bodied persons were dispatched to slave labour in Bialokrynica, where they later met their death. The vast majority of the ghetto inhabitants rounded up in the Aktion are taken in groups and murdered over trenches dug near the railway station, near a former army camp. Only 14 of the Kremenets community survived the Holocaust.

1948 - Emmy Hennings (born Emma Maria Cordsen; b. 1885), German cabaret performer, poet, chanteause, dancer, puppeteer, painter and 'mystical anarchist', dies. [see: Jan. 17]

1948 - Former prominent Birminghan fascist Michael McLean defects from the Union Movement and together with 2 other UM defectors, Basil McClory and Charles Wegg-Prosser, launch the National Anti-Fascist League to campaign against Mosley's 'artificial' anti-semetism and pro-European politics. [see: Graham Macklin - 'Very Deeply Dyed in Black: Sir Oswald Mosley and the Resurrection of British Fascism after 1945' (2007)]

1956 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: As a reprisal for the FLN shootings of June 21-24, the former military intelligence officer in the SDECEE (Service de documentation extérieure et de contre-espionnage) and supporter of a French Algeria, with the assistance of the 'Ultra' pieds noirs terrorist group the Union Française Nord-Africaine, André Achiary plants a bomb in the Algiers Kasbah during the night of August 10th. It explodes, killing 73 Muslims and marks a turning point in the war in Algeria.

1960 - A Union Movement member was arrested for assaulting the Ghana High Commissioner.

[C] 1962 - The HQ of the National Socialist Movement is raided and searched by a dozen Special Branch officers. 12 pounds of sodium clorate, enough to produce explosives equal in blast power to more than 100 grenades if the chemical was mixed with sugar, is siezed from the building. Other premises including the homes of a number of NSM members are also raided.

[A]1975 - Prisoners' Justice Day originates in Canada's Millhaven penitentiary when prisoners there commemorate the first anniversary of the death of Eddie Nalon, who committed suicide while in solitary confinement in Millhaven's SHU. This first observance took the form of a hunger strike and day of mourning.

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Following yesterday's police killing of unarmed 18-year-old black teenager Michael Brown, a day of memorials began peacefully, but by the evening candlelight vigil looting of businesses, trashing of vehicles and confraontations with 150 local cops in riot gear from the mostly white police force. Some people began looting businesses, vandalizing vehicles, and confronting police officers who tried to block off access to several areas of the city. At least 12 businesses were looted or smashed up and a QuikTrip convenience store and gas station set on fire, leading to over 30 arrests.
1882 - Voline (Vsévolod Mikhailovich Eichenbaum) (d. 1945), Russian anarchist, Makhnovist revolutionary and historian, born. Author of 'Red Fascism' (1934), in which he compared Bolshevism to Fascism. In 1936, with André Prudhommeaux having gone to Spain, Volin took on he took over the editing of 'L’Espagne Antifasciste' (CNT-FAI-AIT), which later became 'L’Espagne Nouvelle' and, like Prudhommeaux, Volin denounced CNT-FAI participation in the Republican government.
14:42 28/11/2013www.ditext.com/voline/unknown.html]

1899 - Jindřich Štyrský (d. 1942), Czech painter , photographer, photomontagist, graphic designer, collagist, poet, Surrealist theorist and anarchist, born. He met and fell in love with the Surrealist artist, feminist and anarchist Toyen (Marie Čermínová), with whom he formed a close artistic collaboration for the rest of his life. Initially influenced by the Cubist, he gradually absorbed Surrealist tropes, becoming a member of the anarchist-influenced arts group Devětsil in 1923, and between 1928-29 the director of the Osvobozeného Divadla (Liberated Theatre), the group's drama wing, where he collaborated with Vítězslav Nezval (on a dance performance of his poetry collection 'Abeceda' (Alphabet)) among others, created stage designs (including for Jarry's 'Ubu Roi').
Štyrský and Toyen travelled to Paris in 1925, where they lived lived and worked together for three years. Štyrský's main activities at this time focused on his photography, his collages and photomontages, and his publications. His 'Erotika Revue' (1930-33) was illustrations by a wide range of well-known Czech artists, including Toyen, for whom the eroticisation of the world was a life-long theme, and who was one of the most uninhibited. She also contributed to the 6 volume series of erotic literature and illustration 'Edice 69' (Edition 69), which he founded in 1931. He also designed, often with Toyen, numerous book covers (he was one of the first to illustrate 'Maldoror') and also wrote studies of both Rimbaud and Marquis de Sade. [see also: 'Emilie Prichází Ke Mne Ve Snu' (Emilie Comes to Me in a Dream; 1933) in the final edition of 'Edice 69']
A member of the Spolku Výtvarných Umělců Mánes (the Association of Fine Artists) and associate member of the Surrealist group around André Breton and Paul Eluard, he and Toyen were founding members of the Skupiny Surrealistů v ČSR (Czech Surrealist Group) in Prague in 1934. In 1935, invited by the French Surrealists, Štyrský went back to Paris. There, he fell seriously ill, and had to return to Czechoslovakia. Štyrský and Toyan were forced underground during the Nazi occupation and Second World War, during which Surrealism as an underground movement flourished but during which Štyrský was also to die of a long-term heart condition.
www.tumblr.com/tagged/jindrich styrsky

1899 - Dario Cagno (d. 1943), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, born. [expand]

[B] 1932 - Fernando Arrabal Terán, Spanish playwright, screenwriter, film director, novelist, poet, painter, anti-Communist, anti-Francoist, Surrealist and Pataphysician, born. The son of a Spanish Army Officer stationed in Melilla in what was then Spanish Morocco. In 1936, his father refused to participate in General Franco's military coup, was arrested, and sentenced to death for mutiny. His sentence was later commuted to thirty years’ imprisonment. He went on to feign psychological illness in order to be transferred to a lower security prison. On December 29, 1941, Fernando Arrabal Senior escaped from the hospital in his pyjamas, and disappeared into the countryside covered in 3 feet of snow, never to be seen again.
Author of seven feature films; short films; nearly 70 plays; 5 operas; twelve novels; 6 collections of poetry; around 150 books for bibliophiles and poems illustrated by Dalí, Picasso, Saura, etc.; essays and his notorious 'Letter to General Franco'. After having seen and raved about Arrabal's 'Guernica', Sartre wanted to publish the play in 'Les Temps Modernes' but was told he was an anti-Communist anarchist and halted its publication.
Co-founder in 1962, with the Chilean-French filmmaker, playwright, actor, author, musician, comics writer and one-time anarchist Alejandro Jodorowsky and the Polish-born French illustrator, painter, writer, filmmaker actor and surrealist Roland Topor, of the Mouvement Panique (Panic Movement), an anarchist avant-garde collective inspired by and named after the Greek God Pan and influenced by Luis Buñuel and Antonin Artaud's Theatre of Cruelty, which concentrated on chaotic performance art and surreal imagery.
Elected Transcendent Satrap of the Collège de Pataphysique in 1990, in the company of Camilo José Cela, René Clair, Jean Dubuffet, Marcel Duchamp, Max Ernst, M. C. Escher, Eugène Ionesco, Michel Leiris, Man Ray, The Marx Brothers, Joan Miró, Jacques Prévert, Raymond Queneau, Boris Vian, Roland Topor, Umberto Eco, Dario Fo and Jean Baudrillard.

"Cette période historique
M'a insufflé la Panique
J'ai conservé le dégoût
De la foule et des gourous
De l'ennui et du sacré
De la poésie sucrée
Des moisis des pisse-froid
Des univers à l'étroit
Des collabos des fascistes
Des musulmans intégristes
De tous ceux dont l'idéal
Nie ma nature animale
A se nourrir de sornettes
On devient pire que bêtes
Je veux que mon existence
Soit une suprême offense
Aux vautours qui s'impatientent
Depuis les années quarante
En illustrant sans complexe
Le sang la merde et le sexe"

(This historical period
I breathed Panic
I kept disgust
The crowd and gurus
Of boredom and sacred
The sweet poetry
Moldy of cold fish
Universes cramped
Of fascist collaborators
Muslim fundamentalists
All those whose ideal
Nie ma animal nature
A feed of nonsense
It is worse than beasts
I want my life
Is a supreme offense
The vultures who are impatient
Since the forties
Illustrating unashamedly
Blood shit and sex)



1937 - The Republican government, toeing the Communist line, disolves the Council of Aragon, the last bastion of the revolutionary anarchist ideals of social revolution and libertarian communism as practiced for the past year in the Aragon farming communities. Its president Joaquín Ascaso and other board members are arrested. To quell any revolt by the peasants, the government sent the 11th Division commanded by the Stalinist Líster. Destroying all collective achievements, it forces farmers to return the collectivised land and tools to the wealthy landowners. He also arrests over six hundred CNT activists, some of whom are shot in the name of reestablishing state order.

[C] 1945 - As the Soviet army nears Buchenwald, the camp inmates rise up against the SS guards, taking over the camp. The guards fled the camp and when the Soviets arrived, they found armed groups of prisoners hunting the SS in the nearby woods. Organised resistance within Buchenwald dated from mid 1943 establishment of an International Camp Committee under the leadership of the German Communist, Walter Bartel, which operated alongside the International Military Organisation of Buchenwald. Both helped organise the sabotage of work in the ammunition factories, as well as the smuggling weapons into the camp and took part in the numerous collective and individual acts of rescue of Jewish children.

[A] 1964 - Stuart Christie and Fernando Carballo Blanco are arrested with explosives in Spain, on a mission to blow up Franco.

1997 - Conlon Nancarrow (b. 1912), American-born composer, jazz trumpeter, communist and anti-fascist, who fought in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade in Spain, dies. [see: Oct. 27]

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Police fire tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse a crowd at the burnt shell of the QuikTrip convenience store, set on fire by looters last night. Gunshots are heard in Ferguson and rocks are thrown at police. The police responded by firing tear gas and bean bag rounds upon those protesting. Five arrests.
1861 - Luigi Galleani (d. 1931), influential Italian anarchist militant, born.
"When we talk about property, State, masters, government, laws, courts, and police, we say only that we don't want any of them." - 'The End of Anarchism?' (1925).

1874 - Oreste Ristori (d. 1943), Italian journalist, militant individualist anarchist, anarcho-communist and anti-fascist, born.

[C] 1920 - Bernard Voyenne (d. 2003), French anarcho-syndicalist activist, federalist, Résistance fighter, journalist, professor and writer on Proudhon, born. Worked on the 'Combat' newspaper alongside Albert Camus. Author of 'Proudhon et Dieu: Le combat d' un anarchiste' (Proudhon and God: The struggle of an anarchist; 2004).

1921 - Abel Paz (Diego Camacho; d. 2009), Spanish militant anarchist and historian, born. Paz helped found the 'Los Quijotes del Ideal' group in August 1936, along with Victor García, Liberto Sarrau and other young libertarians. (Los Quijotes del Ideal opposed anarchist collaboration with the Republican government.) Author of 'Durruti, the People Armed' (1976), 'CNT 1939-1951: El Anarquismo contra el Estado Franquista' (Anarchism versus the Francoist State; Madrid: 2001); etc. [expand]

[A] 1936 - The first International Brigade volunteers arrive in Spain.

1977 - The Battle of Lewisham: "At least 2000 police will be in the borough... and in reserve the police will have about 200 shields and helmets... Lewisham council has moved old and disabled people away from potential trouble spots, and public buildings, shops and public houses on the routes have been closed or boarded up." ['Times', Aug. 13]

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Several hundred protesters gather in Clayton, the county seat, demanding criminal prosecution of the officer involved in the shooting. Protesters in Ferguson carriy signs and many held their hands in the air while shouting "don't shoot!" According to police, some protesters threw bottles at them, prompting the use of tear gas to disperse the crowd. The following day, a SWAT team of around 70 officers arrived at a protest demanding that protesters disperse. That night, police use smoke bombs, flash grenades, rubber bullets, and tear gas to disperse the crowd. Video footage of the events recorded by KARG Argus Radio shows Ferguson Police firing tear gas into a residential neighborhood and ordering the journalist to cease recording.
During the night of the 12th-13th, police fire tear gas and rubber bullets at lines of protesters and reporters. At least seven protesters are arrested after being told by the cops to "go home or face arrest." CNN cameras film on cop taunting protesters by saying "Bring it, you fucking animals, bring it."
That night a peaceful protester was also shot in the head non-fatally by an unknown assailant. The gunshot survivor, Mya Aaten-White, later criticised the police for not investigating her case in a timely manner.
1884 - János Mattis-Teutsch (d. 1960), Hungarian-Romanian painter, sculptor, graphic artist, art critic, poet, anti-Fascist and anti-Nazi exile, who later fell foul of the Soviet authorities, born. [expand]

1936 - The first issue of 'El Frente' (The Front), "Boletin de guerra de la Columna Durruti CNT-FAI" on the Aragon front, is publsihed in Pina de Ebro.

1955 - Lamar Smith (b. 1892), U.S. civil rights figure, black farmer, World War I veteran and an organiser of black voter registration, is shot to death in broad daylight at close range on the lawn of the Lincoln County courthouse in Brookhaven, Mississippi. Some contemporary reports say there were many white witnesses, including the local sheriff, who saw a white man covered with blood leaving the scene. No witnesses would come forward and the three men who had been arrested went free.

[C] 1977 - The Battle of Lewsiham: Opposing the planned NF march, from Clifton Rise and through the centre of Lewisham (the council refused to hire them the Concert Hall as, "The NF is a racialist organisation, and the hall belongs to the community which is multi-racial." ['Kentish Mercury', Jul. 28]), is opposed by three different protests: the All Lewisham Campaign Against Racism and Fascism (ALCARAF) demonstration of more than 5,000 people from over 80 organisations from Ladywell Fields to New Cross (12.00 - 1.00 pm), whose policy for the day is that "if the police cordon off the road from Algernon Road to Clifton Rise, then the marchers will disperse. But if there is no police opposition the march will continue to Clifton Rise" ['South London Press', Aug. 12]; the August 13 Ad Hoc Organising Committee calling for a 'They Shall Not Pass' rally to assemble at Clifton Rise in New Cross at 12 on the day of the NF demonstration, marching with ALCARAF and occupying the site; and, London Anti Racist/Anti-Fascist Co-ordinating Committee (ARAFCC) who mobilsed for anti-fascists to physically stop the march.
11:55 am: ALCARAF march sets off down Ladywell Road and into Lewisham High Street.
12:10: First clash between police and anti-fascists in New Cross: "The SWP were occupying the derelict shop next to the New Cross House pub. Police broke down a door and evicted the squatters, arresting 7 and taking a quantity of propaganda and banners". ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 18]
12:45: A wall of police prevent ALCARAF march reaching New Cross. "Police block the way to New Cross at the junction of Loampit Hill and Algernon Road. As the lorry leading the march turns in Algernon Road, march stewards try and stop it. Commander Randall shouts "Keep that lorry on the move". ['South London Press', Aug. 12] The police want marchers "to go along Algernon Road back to Ladywell". The Mayor of Lewisham, Councillor Roger Godsiff, formally appeals to police Commander Douglas Randall to "allow the march to go on the original route that was agreed" (i.e. on to New Cross) - this is refused.
1:00: Mike Power of ALCARAF tells the crowd "ALCARAF is not prepared to be directed away from Deptford" and appeals "for the march to disband peacefully there and then'' ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 16] Although the march as such is halted, many of the demonstrators managed to get to New Cross via other routes. "The order is given to disperse [the ALCARAF march]. The police allow hundreds of people to pass on to New Cross". ['South London Press', Aug. 16]
1:30: National Front begin to assemble behind police lines in Achilles Street. New Cross Road is closed with at thousands of anti-NF protesters in Clifton Rise and New Cross Road. ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 18] Estimates of anti-NF crowd vary from 2000 ['Kentish Mercury'] to up to 4000. ['Times']
2:00 pm: "Police in two wedges - one from Clifton Rise the other from New Cross Road - moved into the crowd to eject them from Clifton Rise". Two orange smoke bombs are thrown, and a tin of red paint. Clifton Rise and New Cross Road "became a seething mass of demonstrators and police. Police helmets were knocked off as arrests were made". ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 18]
2:00 pm: As fighting rages in New Cross, the Bishop of Southwark leads a church service against racism and for peace at St Stephens Church, Lewisham High Street. 200 people attend, with a banner outside with the words 'Justice, love and peace'. ['South London Press', Aug. 16]
2:06 pm: "10 mounted police moved into the crowd from New Cross Road to be greeted by a sustained bombardment of bottles, cans, and attacks with poles. The ferocity of the attack drove the horsemen back. Youths began to gather bricks from a builders yard in Laurie Grove and pelt police". ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 18] "Running battles broke out at the top of Clifton Rise and, after, a smoke bomb exploded, mounted police moved in to drive the crowd back into New Cross Road". ['South London Press', Aug. 16] Two mounted police are dragged from their horses.
2:10 pm: "The police line on foot at Clifton Rise broke, but reformed. A youth attacked a policeman with a stick". ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 18]
2:20 pm: "Police drew truncheons and used them against the crowd. Most of Clifton Rise and New Cross Road was cleared of demonstrators. The battle for control of Clifton Rise was over. A man lay unmoving outside the New Cross Inn and was taken off in an ambulance. Another stretcher case lay in New Cross Road". ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 18]
3:00 pm: Police escort National Front marchers out of Achilles Street, up Pagnell Street and into New Cross Road, behind a large 'Stop the Muggers' banner. Estimates of NF marchers range from 600 ['South London Press'] to 1000 ['Kentish Mercury']. "Suddenly the air was filled with orange smoke, and a hail of bricks, bottles and pieces of wood fell onto the Front from demonstrators and householders leaning out of their windows... At one point the Front marchers stopped. Half the marchers remained in Pagnell Street, afraid to walk into the hail of missiles". ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 18]
Anti-fascists break through police lines and attack back of NF march, "separating them from the main body". ['South London Press', Aug. 16] There is hand to hand fighting in New Cross Road, and NF marchers are forced off the road onto the pavement.
"One young man, perhaps 16 years old, rushed into the Front ranks and grabbed a flagpole from one of them, broke it in half and held the pieces up while the crowd cheered. Others hurled dustbins and fence stakes into the Front column from close range". ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 18] 'The protesters then burnt captured NF banners". ['South London Press', Aug. 16]
Police separate NF and anti-fascists, and mounted police clear a path through crowd attempting to block progress of march towards Deptford Broadway. For part of the route the NF are forced off the road onto the pavement.
Police lead the march "through deserted streets of Lewisham" with crowds held back by "by road blocks over the whole area". ['Kentish Mercury']. Marchers are flanked by three deep police on either side, with 24 mounted police in front. The march route goes down Depford Broadway/Blackheath Road, Lewisham Road and Cressingham Road, where "more missiles were hurled at the marchers". ['South London Press', Aug. 16]
While small groups attack the march from side streets, large numbers of anti-fascists head East along Lewisham Way. They reach Lewisham Town Centre and block the High Street.
The NF approach the town centre. "The fighting intensified as the Front members were escorted from Cressingham Road to their rally in Conington Road". ['South London Press', Aug. 16]
Unable to meet in the town centre proper, the NF hold a short rally in a car park in Conington Road, addressed by NF Chairman John Tyndall, police usher NF "through a tunnel in Granville Park and then into Lewisham station, where trains were waiting to take them away". ['Times', Aug. 15]
Clashes continue between the police and crowd, the latter largely unaware that the NF have already left the area. Anti-fascists occupy the area by the Clock Tower. "A road barrier was dragged across the High Street by demonstrators". ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 18]
Police bring out riot shields for the first time in England, and attempt to disperse crowd south down Lewisham High Street towards Catford. Bricks and bottles are thrown. "On the corner of Molesworth Street, mounted police prepared to charge. Beside them were police on foot, truncheons drawn. Police came racing down the street. One officer shouted 'get out of the way' and as he ran a man was hit. The officer then apparently collided with an elderly woman. She went sprawling on the pavement". ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 18]
A police Special Patrol Group van is surrounded and its windows smashed, and part of the crowd attempts to surround Lewisham Police Station in Ladywell Road. A press photographer's BMW motorbike is set on fire near Ladywell Baths. Several shop windows are smashed in Lewisham High Street, including Currys (no.131), Kendall & Co. (no.256) and Caesars' fancy goods (no.230).
4:40 pm: "...the riot in Lewisham High Street had been quashed, but there were continuing outbreaks in side streets. It was not until after 5 pm that the fighting ceased and an uneasy calm settled over Lewisham". ['South London Press', Aug. 16] 214 people have been arrested and at least 111 injured. ['Times', Aug. 15]

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: As night fell projectiles, including Molotov cocktails, are thrown and police launch tear gas and smoke bombs. While police are clearing a McDonald's restaurant, 'The Washington Post' reporter Wesley Lowery and 'The Huffington Post' reporter Ryan Reilley are arrested having been asked by the cops to leave and then given a 45-second countdown when they were not moving fast enough. Then, according to Lowery: "Officers slammed me into a fountain soda machine because I was confused about which door they were asking me to walk out of. Al Jazeera America journalists including correspondent Ash-har Quraishi covering the protests in Ferguson on Wednesday night were also tear-gassed and shot at with rubber bullets by a police SWAT team. An officer was captured on video turning the reporters' video camera toward the ground and dismantling their equipment.
1901 - Mercedes Comaposada Guillen (d. 1944), militant Catalan anarcho-feminist, teacher and lawyer, born.
Born into a militant household, she starts work at an early age and becomes an editor at a film production company and joins the CNT Public Performances in Barcelona. Later, after studying law, she became a women's educator and helped found the Mujeres Libres in April 1936 and started publishing the group's magazine, illustrated by her partner, the libertarian sculptor Baltasar Lobo. After the defeat of the Republic, she and Lobo move to Paris under the wing of Pablo Picasso, where she works as a secretary and translates the work of a number of Castilian writers, especially Lope de Vega.
She also contributed to the 'Mujeres Libres' magazine (and was also editor in chief), 'Ruta' , 'Tiempos Nuevos' , 'Tierra y Libertad' and 'Umbral'. She was also author of 'Esquemas' (Schemes; 1937, a book of poetry), 'Las Mujeres en Nuestra Revolución' (Woment in Our Revolution; 1937), 'La Ciencia en la Mochila' (Science in a Rucksack; 1938), 'Conversaciones Cono los Artistas Españoles de la Escuela de París' (Coverstions with Spanish Artists of the Paris School; 1960, under the pseudonym Mercedes Guillén), 'Picasso' (1973, as Mercedes Guillén) and an unpublished work 'Mujeres Libres'.

1904 - Helmut Klose aka 'Vagabund' (d. 1987), German anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist tailor, short story writer, poet, actor and itinerant, born. A member of FAUD (Freien Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands) and later of the FAUD-aligned international movement Bruderschaft der Vagabunden (Brotherhood of Vagrants). He played a role alongside Gregor Gog, founder of the Bruderschaft der Vagabunden, in Fritz Weiss's film 'Vagabund' (1930). Fleeing the rise of the Nazis, he spent time in Austria and Yougoslavia, from which he was expelled for possession of Spanish anarchist literature. Ending up in Spain, he fought in the French Batalló de la Costa section of the Durruti Column and, in Catalonia, joined the Deutsche Anarcho-Syndikalisten (DAS), working on a collective farm. [expand]

[C] 1908 - Manos Katrakis (d. 1984), Greek theatre and film actor, who fought with the EAM/ELAS communist anti-fascist resistance during WWII and refused to sign a declaration of repentance during the Greek Civil War of 1946-49, born.

[B] 1926 - Lina Wertmüller (Arcangela Felice Assunta Wertmüller von Elgg Español von Braueich), Italian film writer and director, born. Her films depict her largely libertarian and feminist world view, none more expressly than 'Film d'amore e d'anarchia - Ovvero "Stamattina alle 10 in via dei Fiori nella nota casa di tolleranza..."' (Film of Love and Anarchy - Or "This morning at 10 in via dei Fiori at the noted brothel ..."; 1973) aka 'Love and Anarchy', about an anarchist who stays in a brothel while preparing to kill Mussolini.

1936 - In Spain fascist insurgents take Badajoz; over 4,000 people are massacred in the next 10 days.

1944 - Ivan Vasilyevich Turkenich (b. 1920), Ukrainian partisan, who was one of the leaders of the underground anti-Nazi Komsomol organisation the Young Guard, which operated in Krasnodon district during the German-Soviet War (1941-44), dies of his wounds following a battle near the Polish town of Głogów. [see: Jan. 15]

1944 - Irma Bandiera aka 'Mimma' (b. 1915), Italian anti-fascist partisan courier and fighter in the VII Brigade 'Gianni Garibaldi' of GAP in Bologna, is murdered by the Nazis after 7 days of torture during which she refused to give up the names of her comrades. Her body was then dumped in the street outside her parent's house. [see: Apr. 8]

1954 - Nikos Ploumpidis (or Ploumbidis)(Νίκος Πλουμπίδης; 31 December 1902), , Greek member and leading cadre of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) during the Metaxas dictatorship, the German Occupation and the Civil War in Greece, but also one of the most tragic figures in the history of the Communist Party, is executed by firing squad in Agia Marina, near Dafni. The Greek government release a photo of his execution to the Greek press, however 'Rizospastis' and 'I Avgi', the two left newspapers, do not publish the photos following KKE's allegations that the execution was fake and Ploumpidis is spending the money he took for his treason. [see: Dec. 31]

1956 - Bertolt Brecht (b. 1898) dies in East Berlin. [see: Feb. 10]

1962 - Following the riot at the National Socialist Movement rally in Trafalgar Square on August 4th, the Ministry of Works announces a ban on three Sunday afternoon rallies in the Square planned by extreme Right-wing organisation. The rallies were planned by the National Socialist Movement on August 19, the British National Party on September 2 and the Union Movement on September 23.

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Following yesterday's targetting of the media, the St. Charles County Regional SWAT Team put out a press release stating that "... the SWAT Team has not been any part of attempting to prevent media coverage" and that the SWAT team had helped journalists move their equipment at their request. A raw video captured a vehicle marked clearly as "St. Charles County SWAT" rolling up to the Al Jazeera lights and camera and taking them down. Tom Jackson, the Ferguson police chief, also denied any suppression of the media.
During the evening a large march in Ferguson passes off peacefully.
1903 - Pascal Pia (born Pierre Durand; d. 1979), French writer, poet, journalist, illustrator, scholar and anarchist, born. He also used the pseudonyms Avinin Mireur, Léger Alype, Pascal Rosé and Pascal Fely amongst others. Friend and collaborator of Albert Camus, to whom Camus dedicated his 'Le Mythe de Sisyphe' (The Myth of Sisyphus; 1942).

1907 - Carmen Conde Abellán aka Florentina (d. 1996), Spanish teacher, narrative writer, poet, children's author, militant anarcho-feminist and Mujeres Libres member, who worked on the group's magazine and undertook lecture tours, born. In 1931 she married the poet Antonio Oliver Belmar and had a long-term lesbian relationship with Amanda Junquera. A prolific author of prose, poetry, childrens stories, essays, biography, etc., some published under a series of pseudonyms, including Magdalena Noguera, Florentina Sea and others, whilst living clandestinely after the defeat of the Republic.

1920 - A national meeting of Italian anarchists is held in Florence to plan increased solidarity and agitation in supportr of victims of political repression. Present are Errico Malatesta and Bonazzi Clodoveo for the UAI; Gigi Damiani for the newspaper 'Umanità Nova'; Diego Guadagnini for the Committee for Libertarian Defence; Dante Pagliai and Emilio Spinaci the Committee for Political Victims in Milan; Giuseppe Sartini for the USI; Domenico Giulietti for Federation of Maritime Workers; Andrea Pedrini and Cesare Stazzi for the Ancône Bourse du Travail; Camillo Berneri for the Federation of Revolutionary Youth and Andrea Viglongo for the Committee of Turin Factory Workers.

1927 - Spartaco Stagnetti (b. 1888), Italian militant anarcho-syndicalist, is murdered whilst exiled by the Fascist regime on the island of Ustica, near Palermo [NB. Year often incorrectly given as 1928.] [see: Jul. 4]

1941 - Josef Jakobs, a German national parachuted into England, is the last person to be executed in the Tower of London.

1951 - The first performance of the Living Theatre takes place in the house of Judith Malina and Julian Beck as the could find a room or the money to finance its hire. Four plays are performed: 'Childish Jokes' by Paul Goodman, 'Ladies' Voices' by Gertrude Stein, 'He Who Says Yes and He Who Says No' by Bertolt Brecht, and Federico Garcia Lorca's 'The Dialogue of the Mannequin and the Young Man'.

[C] 1954 - Stieg Larsson (d. 2004), Swedish author and journalist, born. Editor of the magazine 'Expo', a member of the Communist Workers' League and editor of the Trotskyist journal 'Fjärde Internationalen'. A leading expert on anti-democratic right-wing extremist and Nazi organisations. He died in 2004, shortly after delivering the manuscripts of the Millennium series: 'Män Som Hatar Kvinnor' (The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo; 2005), 'Flickan Som Lekte Med Elden' (The Girl Who Played with Fire; 2006) and 'Luftslottet Som Sprängdes' (The Girl Who Kicked the Hornet's Nest; 2007), novels featuring the characters Lisbeth Salander and Mikael Blomkvist.

1967 - René François Ghislain Magritte (b. 1898), Belgian Dada, then Surrealist artist and one-time Communist Party member, dies. [see: Nov. 21]

[A] 1971 - Following the announcement by the British Government that internment was to be introduced in Ireland, there was a powerful explosion at the Army recruiting centre in Holloway Road, North London. This was accompanied by a Communique signed 'Angry Brigade Moonlighters Cell'.

1977 - 100 local anti-racists and leftists picket Boulton Road School in Handwsworth where John Tyndall is due to speak on behalf of the NF's Ladywood by-election candiate, Anthony reed Herbert. Later, 200 Handsworth youths, mobilised by a loudspeaker van touring the area and by activists visiting cafe, youth centres and billiard hall, swell the numbers picketing the election meeting to 5-600. When the demonstrators realise that the cops had smuggled the NF into the building, angry anti-fascists stry to storm the school, despite the presence of 400 police protecting the meeting. Riot shields were again deployed following their first appearence on the mainland in Lewishman 2 days before. 58 police officers were injured, six seriously including one with a broken collarbone, and extensive damage was caused, with cops turned over and set on fire. The police station where most of those arrested were taken was attacked and black youths were later involved in attacks on shops in the nearby Soho Road. [PR]

1992 - Giorgio Perlasca (b. 1910), Italian anti-Nazi civil servant and merchant, who posed as the Spanish consul-general to Hungary in the winter of 1944, and saved 5218 Jews from transportation to Nazi Germany and the Holocaust, dies. [see: Jan. 31]

[CC] 2004 - Roger Albert Giner, a young Catalan anarchist and anti-Fascist is stabbed by a group of neo-Nazis skinheads in the Barcelona neighborhood of Gràcia. He died in the Hospital Vall d'Hebron after spending almost five months in a coma. The police, altered by a member of the public who described a group of 20 youths armed with chains and throwing stones fighting, found Roger lying on the ground with a deep wound in the neck and losing large amounts of blood. The intervention of a surgeon at the scene managed to stabilise him but he never recovered from his injuries. Police chased a group of six Nazis, arresting them in the Rambla del Prat. Amongst them was a 25-year-old skin Aitor Dávila, from Albal, Valencia, who was found with the weapon, a brass knuckleduster with attached blade - in his possession. In November 2006, Aitor Dávila was found guilty of murder and, controversially, sentenced to only 11 years, following the jury's unanimous request for clemency, plus €90,000 compensation for Roger's family. A second defendant, Emilio Cortés, was acquitted. Effectively, the judge held that Roger was responsible in part for his own fate and therefore decided on a lesser sentence and awarded half the costs of the defence bill against his family.

2009 - BNP Red, White & Blue Festival (14-16th): 1,500 strong march from Codnor Market Place up to the site of the BNP festival site entrance. Two seperate groups of anti-fascists occupied road junctions in the nearby village of Denby - around 300 anti-fascists congregated on the corner of Heanor Road and Codnor-Denby Lane in Codnor at 8am, refusing to move. A second group of about 200 protesters from the West Midlands occupied the other end of Codnor-Denby Lane towards Denby. They blocked the road between 0840 and 1000, when the police arrested some of them and cleared a path for vehicles. "We’ve managed to completely seal off the BNP event for over an hour," said a protester at the Denby blockade. "Lots of Nazis travelling to the BNP rally have been turned away. The police have know pushed us out the way but we’re still here demonstrating." At the larger march, protesters threw bags of flower, eggs and fruit at officers as a some people tried to force their way through a police cordon.
More than 500 police officers were deployed over the weekend, costing £500,000 and making only 19 arrests.

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Nearly one week after the officer shot Brown on Saturday afternoon, Ferguson Police Chief Tom Jackson names the officer involved in the shooting in a morning news conference as Darren Wilson, a 28-year-old white male Ferguson police officer. He also links the shooting directly to a "strong-arm" robbery that had occurred a few minutes before the shooting at a nearby convenience store called Ferguson Market & Liquor, describing Brown as the suspect involved in the robbery. Hours later, Jackson has to hold another news conference to state that Wilson wasn't aware of the robbery when he stopped Brown. Bang goes a possible 'justification'.
That Friday night the protests continued in "an almost celebratory manner" near the QuikTrip until police arrived at around 11:00 p.m. At around 1:30 a.m. Saturday morning, rioters broke into and looted the Ferguson Market & Liquor store that Brown allegedly robbed prior to his shooting, as well as other nearby businesses. Some protesters then gather to protect the stores from further looting.
[B] 1896 - Tina Modotti ( Assunta Adelaide Luigia Modotti Mondini; d. 1942), Italian photographer, model, actress and revolutionary political activist, born. She appeared in several plays, operas, and silent movies in the late 1910s and early 1920s, and also worked as an artist's model. Her Hollywood movie career, which often involved her playing the femme fatale, culminated in the 1920 film 'The Tiger's Coat'. Her bohemian circle of friends included the photographer Edward Weston, who used her as a model, becoming her lover and helped her develop her photography skills. [expand]

1902 - Paweł Lew Marek (born Melajach Lew; d. 1971), Polish journalist, anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist, co-founder of the Anarchistycznej Federacji Polski during the Second Republic, born. He participant defense of Warsaw in 1939, and then fought in the Warsaw ghetto uprising and the Warsaw Uprising itself. After 1945, he became as trade union activist. His autobiography covering the war years, 'Na krawedzi zycia. Wspomnienia anarchisty (1943-1944)' (After a life. Memoirs of an Anarchist (1943-1944)) was published posthumously in 2005.

1902 - Jean Frédéric Henry Barrué (d. 1989), French Professor of Mathematics, communist militant and revolutionary syndicalist and later an anarchist, born. During the Spanish Civil War, he worked on Aristide Lapeyre's 'L'Espagne Antifasciste' in Bordeaux and became an important figure in the Groupe Sébastien Faure.

1907 - Georgette Léontine Roberte Augustine Kokoczinski aka 'La Mimosa' (Georgette Léontine Brivadis-Ango; d. 1936), French anarchist, actress and nurse, born. At the age of 16, unable to get on with her parents any longer, she left for Paris where she was taken in by André Colomer and his partner Magdalena who introduced her to libertarian ideas. She frequented the cabarets in Montmartre and was attracted to show business and poetry. In 1928 she started using the stage name Mimosa as part of a theatre group that added colour to libertarian meetings and festivals in the area through singing, poetry readings and staging dramas.
She disappeared on October 16 during the Battle of Perdiguera (Zaragoza) and died the same day (or on Oct. 17), possibly shot by firing squad, in circumstances that are not entirely clear.

1907 - Miquel Liern Barberà (d. 1971), Spanish anarchist, CNT member and combatant on the Teruel, Brunete and Ebro fronts, born. Following Franco's victory, he was interned in the Barcarès and Argelès concentration camps, later working for the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers. In 1941 he was arrested by the Germans and sent to Mauthausen concentration camp and then to Dachau. He managed to survive until the Allied liberation and settled in Montpelier, working as a mosaic maker and was active in the local CNT.

1912 - José Villanueva (d. 1989), Spanish anarchist and CNT member, who volunteered and fought in the Durruti Column alongside his brother Floreal Carbó, born. Following Franco's victory, went to France and was interned in the concentration camp at Vernet. After World War II he settled in Languedoc and remained a militant in the CNT in exile.

1916 - Paquita Jolis Puig (d. 1982), Catalan militant member of the CNT and Mujeres Libres, born.

1916 - Ceferí Llop Estupiñà (d. 1939), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, member of the FIJL and CNT, born. Following the 1936 military coup, he joined the Comitè Revolucionari de Manresa and volunteered for the front. Following Franco's victory, he went to France but soon returned. However , he was denounced as a member of the Comitè Revolucionari de Manresa militia and of having participated in the assault of the Dominican convent. Arrested by Franco's army, on 28 April, 1939 he was tried by an emergency summary court martial and sentenced to death for the crime of "military rebellion". He was shot on August 9, 1939 in the Camp de la Bota del Poblenou in Barcelona.

1919 - Conchita Guillén (born María de la Concepción Bertolín Pilar Guillén; d. 2008), Spanish militant anarcho-feminist and member of Mujeres Libres, born. Sister of the anarchist painter Jesús Guillén Bertolín.

[C] 1921 - The London 'Times' begins its 3-day exposure of the forged anti-semitic document 'The Protocol of the Elders of Zion'.

1924 - The body of Giacomo Matteotti (b. 1885), Italian socialist member of parliament and prominent opponent of the Fascist regime, is found outside Rome, murdered by fascist thugs. [see: Aug. 10]

1943 - Białystok Ghetto Uprising: The second Jewish uprising following Warsaw, is initiated by the Antyfaszystowska Organizacja Bojowa (Anti-fascist Militant Organisation) as regiments of the German SS reinforced by Ukrainian, Byelorussian, and Latvian auxiliaries tries to carry out the final liquidation of the Ghetto. During the night [16-17] several hundred Polish Jews start an armed uprising against the troops carrying out liquidation of the aktion. The guerillas led by Mordechaj Tenenbaum and Daniel Moszkowicz arere armed with only one machine gun, rifles, several dozen pistols, Molotov cocktails and bottles filled with acid. The main resistance lasted just one day, but isolated pockets resisted for several more days.
www.deathcamps.org/occupation/bialystok ghetto.html
shelf3d.com/i/Białystok Ghetto Uprising

1943 - Krychow slave-labour camp uprising: Armed resistance by Jewish prisoners during the liquidation of the Krychów labour camp, a satelitte camp to Sobibor built before World War II as a detention camp for Polish prisoners.

1944 - French Résistance fighters captured three German posts along the Swiss border.

1957 - Adalgisa Fochi (b. 1865), Italian teacher, writer, anti-fascist, mother of Camillo Berneri and grandmother of Maria Luisa and Giliana Berneri, dies. [see: Jul. 31]

1962 - Colin Jordan, leader of the British National Socialist movement, and his deputy, John Tyndall, are convicted under Public Order Act for the speeches they gave at the 'Free Britain from Jewish Control' rally held in Trafalgar Square on July 1.

1962 - Colin Jordan, John Tyndall, Denis Pirie and Roland Kerr-Ritchie of the National Socialist Movement, together with Martin Webster, are arrested and charged under the Public Order Act 1936 with attempts to set up and equip a paramilitary force, Spearhead.
[nazbol.net/library/authors/Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke/Black Sun.pdf

1969 - Home of Duncan Sandys, Tory MP, fire-bombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1982 - Paquita Jolis Puig (b. 1916), Catalan militant member of the CNT and Mujeres Libres, dies on her 66th birthday.

2008 - BNP Red, White & Blue Festival (15-17th): On Saturday morning, 700 demonstrators from Unite Against Fascism and the TUC and Unison unions took part in a rally in nearby Codnor. Later on approx. 50 protesters attempted to barricade a road and prevent BNP membes from reaching the festival site. Police responded with batons, supported by dogs and a helicopter broke the group up and arrested six. The rest scattered across the fields and a number were arrested later. All told,
£250,000 was spent on policing the event and 36 arrests were made over the weekend.

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: At a press conference Missouri Governor Jay Nixon declares a state of emergency, implementing nightly curfews in Ferguson from midnight to 5:00 a.m. Some residents at the press conference claim that the cops were instigating all the violence with their military-like tactics. Missouri Highway Patrol Captain Ronald S. Johnson, the black face that had been drafted in to front the authorities' PR, states that police will not enforce the curfew with armoured trucks and tear gas, and will give protesters time and opportunity to leave before curfew.
1896 - Lotte Jacobi (Johanna Alexandra Jacobi; d. 1990), German photographer and unaligned socialist, born. Jacobi began taking pictures as a young child, using a pinhole camera that her father constructed for her as a birthday present. The oldest of three children, she grew up in a family of photographers stretching back to her great-grandfather Samuel Jacobi, who learned his craft in 1839 from Louis Daguerre. Her family was also active in the leftist social and political movements during the Weimar period and she got to know and take photographs of Ernst Thalmann, Erwin Piscator and Erich Mühsam. Other visitors to the Jacobi studio included high-ranking German officials who, unaware that she was Jewish, often praised her work as "good examples of Aryan photography". From October 1932 to January 1933, she travelled to the Soviet Union, and in particular to Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, taking photographs of all that she saw. Whilst she was away, the Nazis came to power and due to her Jewish ancestry and her Leftist sympathies (she had also worked for the communist Berlin Unionbild agency), Lotte was a prime target. However, altered by her mother that the Gestapo were looking for her, she bought a large fur coat shortly before her return to Berlin under which she hid her camera and walked right by the Gestapo waiting at customs, and who were looking for a photographer with a torn leather jacket. As the Nazi repression and persecution of Jews increased, during which many people she knew were being arrested and killed e.g. Thalmann and Mühsam, she decided it was time to leave Germany. In 1935, she rejected the Nazis’ offer to grant her honorary Aryan status and, shortly after her father's death [like many Jews of the period, he had decided that he was a German first, that he was safe and that he wanted to die in Germany, not some foreign country] fled with her son, first to London and then to the United States, arriving in September 1935 in New York City, where she opened a studio in Manhattan. In 1940, Jacobi married Erich Reiss, a distinguished German publisher and writer who had survived the concentration camps and immigrated to the US, a marriage that lasted until his death in 1951. Lotte also continued portrait photography at her studio, whilst also embarking upon various camera-less and manipulated photography experiments including that with the artist Leo Katz, later named photogenics: abstract black-and-white images produced by moving torches and candles over light-sensitive paper.

1902 - Julián Guijarro Priego (d. 1987), Spanish foundry worker and anarcho-syndicalist member of the MLE and CNT, born. During the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera he participated actively in all the workers and social struggles. Following the fascist uprising in July 1936, he participated in the street fighting and joined a Revolutionary Committee. With the triumph of Franco, he crossed the Pyrenees and was interned at the concentration camp at Vernet. He later enlisted in the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers (CTE). During the occupation was registered on a list of "dangerous anarchists" and sent to work in Germany as part of the Service du Travail Obligatoire. He later joined the Maquis.

1909 - José Sabaté Llopart (aka Pepet or Pep; d. 1949), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist activist and fighter against Franco, older brother of Francisco Sabaté 'El Quico', born.[www.ephemanar.net/octobre17.html#josesabate

1926 - George Melly (d. 2007), English jazz and blues singer, critic, writer and lecturer on art history specialising in Surrealism who was court-martialled during WWII for distributing anarchist literature whilst in the Navy, born.

1939 - Yeshaayahu Toma Ŝik (d. 2004), Hungarian-Israeli anti-militarist, pacifist, anti-Zionist and anarchist, born. Pioneer of the Israeli-Palestinian search for peace, a forerunner of the present day pacifist-refuseniks. His non-doctrinaire libertarian socialist politics and strong vegan life style were almost unique in the Israel of the 70s and 80s. Today they are embodied in part in the work of groups like Ma'avak Ehad (One Struggle).

1944 - Francisco Ponzán Vidal (b. 1911), Spanish militant anti-fascist guerrillero, anti-Francoist and resistance fighter, dies, shot by the Nazis in Buzet-sur-Tarn, near Toulouse. [see: Mar. 30]

1945 - George Orwell's 'Animal Farm' first published.

[C] 1947 - The Battle of Ridley Road: The anti-fascist journalist Fredric Mullally had, via his Sunday Pictorial column, challenged Jeffrey Hamm of the British League of Ex-Servicemen and Women, who had taken to holding their meetings in and around the bustling Ridley Road street market in Dalston, to a public debate after having been outraged by the open displays of Nazi sympathies at their meetings, including an appearence by Mosley. The 43 Group had offered Mullally their protection as they had long been involved in running battles with the fascists as they tried to close down their meetings, but he refused. The police were out in great force, as were people eager to hear Mullally speak. When he arrived, 200 cops tried to clear a way thrugh the crown to the platform but, as Mullally neared the platform, the fascists started to attack him and he ended up on the ground. Fortunately, the 43 Group activists managed to rescue him and took him to a nearby street where they had set up their own platform but the police quickly closed that meeting down. The 43 Group then took Mullally into Ridley Road to the Communist Party loudspeaker car platform. However, before he had a chance to speak, 200 Blackshirts charged at Mullally’s small and heavily outnumbered group. Mullally was again rescued by 43 Group members and taken to the safety of a nearbt pub, as the battles spead up and down Kingsland Road and mounted police went in to clear the area.
The following Sunday, Mullally was invited back by the 43 Group to speak on a platform in Ridley Road that the anti-fascists had held since early morning. An all-London anti-fascist callout had been made and a 50-strong group of bodyguards met Mullally at Dalston station and he addressed a large rally, marking the effective end of the fascists' control of the streets in the area.

1963 - Spanish anarchists Francisco Granado Gata and Joaquín Delgado Martinez, having been arrested less than three weeks ago for a bombing they did not do, tortured and tried in secret, are garrotted in Carabanchel prison, still protesting their innocence. [see: Mar. 4 & Oct. 4]

1964 - The 'race riot' in Dixmoor, Chicago, which broke out after a white liquor store owner beat a woman he had accused of stealing a bottle of gin, ends with more than 80 arrests.

1976 - José Luis Quintas Figueroa (aka 'El Quintas' , 'Alfonso' & Clemente Cabaleiro Covelo; b. 1911), Spanish tinsmith, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist member of FIJL, MLE and CNT, and anti-Franco guerrilla, dies. [see: Apr. 17]

1987 - Julián Guijarro Priego (b. 1902), Spanish foundry worker and anarcho-syndicalist member of the MLE and CNT, dies. [see: Aug. 17]

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Despite prior assurances, in the early hours of the morning tear gas and tactical units are deployed, One of the protesters is shot and critically wounded, with the police claiming that they did not fire any shots. Seven other people are arrested. Later that morning, a Missouri Highway Patrol spokesman announces that the curfew would be extended for a second day.
1886 - Samuel Schwartzbard (Sholem-Shmuel Schwarzbard/Samuil Isaakovich Shvartsburd; d. 1938), Russian Jewish watchmaker, anarchist and Yiddish poet, born. Escaped the Russian pogroms in 1905, settled in Paris and active in local anarcho-communist groups with Alexander Berkman, Mollie Steimer, Senya Fleshin and Nestor Makhno. In 1926 he gunned down Simon Petliura, who had directed the Ukrainian pogroms in which some of his family were murdered. He fired three times, announcing: "This, for the pogroms; this for the massacres, this for the victims." Schwartzbard was acquitted by a jury and freed.

[BB] 1886 - Emil Szittya (Adolf Schenk; d. 1964), Hungarian anarchist, writer, journalist, painter, art critic, traveller and vagabond, born. He arrived in Paris in 1906 and, later that year moved into the Monte Verità settlement at Ascona. Around 1908, he met Blaise Cendrars in Leipzig, then they meet in Paris. In 1910, Emil Szittya published in Paris a first series of anarchist magazine, the Franco-German 'Neue Menschen: Les Hommes Nouveaux' (The New Men). A second series will be published in 1911 in Vienna and Munich. In October 1912, he collaborated with Marius Hanot, Blaise Cendrars and Freddy Sausey on the first issue (third series) of the French version of 'Les Hommes Nouveaux. Review Libre'. One issue emerged. When war broke out in 1914, he moved to Zurich, where he remained until 1918, getting to know Lenin , Radek and Trotsky.
In 1915, in collaboration with Hugo Kersten, he published the pre-Dadaist 'Der Mistral' and frequented the Cabaret Voltaire from it inception in 1916. There he met a fellow Hungarian, the painter and writer Lajos Kassák who published the avant-garde magazine 'A Tett' and with whom he returned to Hungary in 1918 to take part in the revolution. Following time spent in Budapest, Vienna and Berlin publishing numerous magazines including 'Horizont-Flugschriften' with Hans Richter, he fled the rise of fascism and returned to Paris, where he published the anti-fascist magazine 'La Zone' (1933-1934), a "cross-section of German politics, culture, science, art, theater, music and radio." With the Nazi invasion, he fled to the south of France and took part in the Résistance. In 1961 he met in Paris another marginal revolutionary, Franz Jung, and his 'Hommage à Franz Jung' (1988) would be published posthumously. He also published a series of monographs on numerous leading contemporary European artists.
He also knew most of the European avant-garde such as the members of Les XX: Stravinsky, Darius Milhaud, Arthur Honneger, Erik Satie, etc., numerous artists including Picasso, Otto Dix, Dressler, Derain and was important in championing Chagall. And his memoir, 'Das Kuriositäten-Kabinett: Begegnungen mit seltsamen Begebenheiten, Landstreichern, Verbrechern, Artisten, religiös Wahnsinnigen, sexuellen Merkwürdigkeiten, Sozialdemokraten, Syndikalisten, Kommunisten, Anarchisten, Politikern und Künstlern' (The Cabinet of Curiosities: Encounters with strange events, vagrants, criminals, artists, religious lunatic, sexual oddities, social democrats, syndicalists, communists, anarchists, politicians and artists; 1923), caused something of a scandal when published.

1908 - Jan Paweł Rogalski (d. 1993), Polish anarchist and anti-Nazi fighter, born. Before the war, employee newspaper 'Ostatnie Wiadomości' (Last News), a member of the Anarchistycznej Federacji Polski (AFP; Polish Anarchist Federation). In 1924, one of the editors of the socialist magazine 'Nowy Zew' (New Call). Since 1926, a student of the Faculty of Politics and Social Sciences at the Polish Free University. In the same year he began to act in self-education anarchist group organised by Benjamin Wolman, then in 1927 he was on the organising committee of the Anarchistycznej Federacji Polski (Polish Anarchist Federation), a comrade of Jerzy Borejsza. Worked in the clandestine AFP newspaper 'Walka' (Struggle). In 1929, in Warsaw, arrested in connection with the Akademią Kropotkinowską (Kropotkin Academy). During this time, he served as Secretary of the Organisation of the Warsaw AFP. In 1930 he went to France, where he worked as a labourer and studied at the Sorbonne. In 1932, he returned to Poland. During the occupation, went into hiding and helped hide others. In October 1939 together with Roman Jablonowski (before the war member of Communist Party of Poland, then close to syndicalists, activist and last leader of ‘Zegota’ (Council for Aid to Jews) initiated a socialist resistance group. In August 1942, escaping from the Warsaw ghetto. During the Warsaw Uprising, he was arrested along with his ​​family by the SS Division Galicia, but they manage to escape. By the end of the occupation, they were hiding in Nadarzyn. In January 1947 invited by Rose Pesotta (union activist and member of anarchist group publishing Freie Arbeiter Shtimme Yiddish language paper, who visited Poland in 1946) Rogalski went to the USA, where he held a series of lectures on Poland and the Warsaw Uprising. After his return, he was interrogated by Urzad Bezpieczenstwa (Public Security – secret police). In 1946, together with other anarchists and Roman Jabłonowski found the Spoldzielczy Instytut Wydawniczy 'Słowo' ('Word' Cooperative Publishers Institute) in Lodz, becoming its chairman. As part of its activities, among others, issued Kropotkin's books. Rogalski also lectured extensively, including in America, on the Warsaw Uprising. The Cooperative was persecuted by Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza (Polish United Workers Party) and was forced to close in 1949. From mid-1949 until his retirement he worked in the ‘Ksiazka i Wiedza’ (Book and Knowledge) publishing house.

1922 - Alain Robbe-Grillet (d. 2008), French writer, literary theorist, screenwriter and filmmaker, born. One of the figures most associated with the Nouveau Roman. His first published novel (second completed), 'Les Gommes' (The Erasers; 1953), is a detective story set within 24 hours in an unnamed northern French coastal city with a plot involving an anarchist group who kill a string of 'officials' to a strict timetable.

1932 - The founding congress of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FILJ) is held in Madrid (August 18-22).

1936 - Celestino Alvarado Quirós (b. 1903), Andalusian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, secretary of the Sindicat del Metall of the CNT, member of the Germinal group of the FAI and Freemason, is murdered by Falangists. [see: Aug. 18]

[C] 1942 - Marianne Baum (b. 1912), German anti-Nazi resistance fighter, who led the Gruppe Baum, a largely Jewish resistance group, with her husband Herbert, is executed in Berlin-Plötzensee Prison. At the end of the 1920s, Marianne Cohn was a member of the Deutsch-Jüdischen Jugendgemeinschaft, where in 1928 she met Herbert Baum, whom she later married. In 1931 she joined the Kommunistischen Jugendverband (Communist Youth Federation; KJVD) and, after the Nazi seizure of power, he together with his wife Marianne Baum and their friends, Martin and Sala Kochmann, began to organise anti-Nazi meetings. The circle of friends, most of whom were Jewish, designated Herbert Baum as chair and up to 100 youths attended these meetings at various times, engaging in political debates and cultural discussions. The group openly distributed leaflets arguing against National Socialism. In 1940, she and Herbert were forced into slave labour in the Jewish department at the Siemens electric motors factory. By 1941, Herbert Baum was heading a group of Jewish slave labourers (including Marianne) at the plant, who, to escape deportation to concentration camps, went into the Berlin underground. There they organised semi-clandestine demonstrations, leafleting and propaganda poster campaigns and the printing of a 19-page document, 'Organisiert den revolutionären Massenkampf gegen Faschismus und imperialistischen Krieg' (Organize the mass revolutionary struggle against Fascism and the Imperialist War).
In May 1942, the group decided to target the massive anti-communist and anti-Jewish propaganda exhibition 'Das Sowjetparadies' (The Soviet Paradise) that had been organised by Goebbels’ propaganda services at the Berlin Lustgarten. The Rote Kapelle (Red October) group had already targetted the exhibition [Liane Berkowitz and Otto Gollnow posted approx. 100 anti-Nazi posters in the vicinity of the Kurfürstendamm and Uhlandstrasse whilst Harro Schulze-Boysen acted as a lookout] and the Baum Group also flypostered but, wanting to go further, decided to carry out a firebomb attack on it. Herbert and Marianne Baum, Hans Joachim, Gerd Meyer, Sala Kochmann, Suzanne Wesse and Irene Walter took part in the action, planting their miniature incendiary bombs at different points in the exhibition on May 18 (they had tried the day before but too many people were present). Within days of the event, the seven participants and most of the other members of the group were arrested by the Gestapo (the Baums on May 22). On July 16, 1942, Marianne was tried by a special court in Berlin and sentenced to death. She was executed in Berlin-Plötzensee Prison on August 18, 1942.

1944 - Miquel Bueno Gil (b. ca. 1882), Spanish miner, member of the CNT, MLE and a well known FAI activist, bor. He was active participation in the uprising in January 1932 leading to a spell in prison. During the Civil War he was a militiaman in the Durruti Column. Exiled in France following Franco's victory, during WWII he participated directly in the resistance along with his son-in-law as part of the network organised by Pat O'Leary and Francisco Ponzan Vidal to smuggle allied pilots out of France via Spain. In October 1943, was stopped by the Gestapo and arrested, under the pseudonym Miguel Solano García, along with his son Josep Bueno Vela and both were deported to Mauthausen concentration camp. On 18 August 1944, he was killed in the gas chamber at Mauthausen following a protest against the brutalities committed by the SS guards.
His daughter Alfonsa Bueno Vela participated in resistance activities along with her ​​husband Josep Ester Borràs, who was himself arrested and deported to Ravensbrück concentration camp, where he was experimented on by Nazi 'doctors', the consequnces of which affected him for the rest of his life.

1961 - Leonhard Frank (b. 1882), German Expressionist novelist, short story writer, playwright, libertarian pacifist and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies. [see: Sep. 4]

1963 - Suffering from cancer, Amadeo Ramón Valledor (aka 'El Asturiano' and 'Ramón'; b. 1920), Spanish miner militant anarcho-syndicalist and libertarian anti-fascist fighter, commits suicide in Perpignan by a shot to the heart. [see: May 24]

1970 - The London offices of Iberia Airlines, Spanish State airline, bombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1992 - Felicitas Casasín Bravo (b. ca. 1913), Aragonese militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, active in the FAI and FILJ, dies. Member of the Catalan CNT, she took part in the street fighting in Barcelona during the fascist uprising in July 1936. Her father, Bartolomé Casasín Pérez, also a CNT member, was shot by the Falangists alongside 36 others in Huesca on January 5, 1937. Following the libertation of Huesca, she returned there but went into exile in France in 1939 and was interned in the concentration camps at Casimira Sarvisse Sesé and Belle Isle.

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Following last night's violent clashes during the imposed curfew, the National Guard is called in to "help restore peace and order and to protect the citizens of Ferguson". It is also announced that there will be no curfew on the night of August 18. Amnesty International sends in a 13-person contingent of human rights activists to seek meetings with officials as well as to train local activists in non-violent protest methods. Police are also recorded threatening the media with mace and Obama dispatches Attorney General Eric Holder to Ferguson to monitor the unrest there.
That night several hundred protesters throwing bottles, charge toward a wall of police 60 wide and five deep but some in the crowd pushed them back by locking arms, averting a more serious confrontation. 78 people are arrested.
1864 - Juan Montseny (aka Federico Urales) (d. 1942), teacher, novelist, publisher, anarchist militant, companion of Teresa Mañé (Soledad Gustavo) and father of Federica Montseny, born. A cooper, he joined the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party in 1885 and 3 years later was appointed general secretary of the National Federation of Barrel Workers. He married Soledad Gustavo, a secular teacher in Vilanova i la Geltrú, and the two became local figures of Anarchism in Reus. Following the repression sparked by the June 7 1896 attack, the authorities closed down the school, and Joan Montseny was detained along with hundreds of activists in Barcelona's Montjuïc prison. After a year in prison he was expelled from Spain and, after a few months exile in England, returned clandestinely to Spain under the name of Federico Urales, publishing 'La Revista Blanca' in Madrid in 1898. Gaining a retrial, he was amnestied but the paper was shut down in 1905. He then devoted himself to agriculture, journalism, writing books and plays including the novels 'La Novela Ideal' (1925), 'La Novela Libre' (1929) and 'El Luchador' (The Wrestler; 1931). He signed the manifesto in favour of the Allies during the WWI and, together with his wife and their daughter Federica Montseny, started publishing a new version of 'La Revista Blanca' in 1923. He remained by his daughter's side throughout the Spanish Civil War and was forced to flee for France in 1939 following the defeat of the remaining Republican armies, dying in an internment camp.
Amongst Montseny's other pseudonyms were Mario del Pilar, Siemens, Doctor Boudín, Remigio Olivares, Un profesor de la normal, Rudolf Sharfenstein, Ángel Cunillera, Antonio Galcerán, Ricardo Andrés, Un Trimardier, Charles Money, Ricos de Andes, etc.
His other works include: 'El Hombre y la Locura Humana' (Man and Human Madness; undated); 'Sembrando Flores' (Planting Flowers; 1920); 'La Barbarie Gubernamental' (Governmental Barbarism; 1933) and 'La Evolución de la Filosofía en España' (The Evolution of Philosophy in Spain; 1934) in 2 Volumes.

1877 - Pierre-Jules Ruff (d. 1942), Algerian anarchist and anti-militarist, who perished in the Neuengamme concentration camp, born.

1909 - Jerzy Andrzejewski (d. 1983), prolific Polish author, born. His novels, 'Popiół i Diament' (Ashes and Diamonds; 1948), about the immediate post-war situation in Poland, and 'Wielki Tydzień' (Holy Week; taken from the 1945 collection 'Noc' [Night]), which deals with the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, have been made into film adaptations by the Polish director Andrzej Wajda.
Having joined the Communist party in 1950, he left the party after the 1956 October Revolution. In 1976 he was one of the founding members of the intellectual opposition group Komitet Obrony Robotników (KOR; Workers' Defence Committee), formed to provide aid for prisoners and their families after the June 1976 protests and government crackdown.

1911 - During the 'Great Unrest' sweeping south Wales (the riots and strikes that started in July with Cardiff dockers and culminated in October with copper workers in Swansea), a series of (what have sometimes been labelled anti-Semetic) incidents starts when a handful of alcohol-fueled miners leaving a Tredegar pub on Saturday night, began attacking Jewish-owned businesses, unpopular for their perceived high prices and sharp practices, scapegoating them for their distress at the poverty caused by the year-long Cambrian Combine strike. Windows of Jewish shops and homes were smashed and 20 Jewish businesses looted as the crowd rose to over 200 rioters. Police were unable to prevent the riot spreading beyond Tredegar to nearby towns like Caerphilly, Ebbw Vale and Bargoed.

[B] 1921 - Georges Darien (pseudonym for Georges Hippolyte Adrien)(b. 1862), French writer (novels, plays, literary magazines, etc.) associated with anarchism and an outspoken advocate of Georgism, dies. His novel 'Les Pharisiens' (1891) is a fictional indictment of French anti-semitism and its most prominent advocate, Édouard Drumont. Forgotten after his death, he was rediscovered after the reissue of 'Voleur' (1897) in 1955 and of 'Bas les Cœurs!' (1889) in 1957. [see: Apr. 6]

[C] 1936 - Federico García Lorca (b. 1898), Andalusian poet,dramatist and artist, is murdered by fascist militiamen. [see: Jun. 5]

1953 - Coup in Iran installs the pro-Western Shah Mohammed Pahlevi in power.

1961 - Emili Vivas Blanco (b. unknown?), Catalan journalist, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. Prosecuted along with 5 collegues for their part in the La Candadenca strike in 1919, he emigrated to the U.S. in the mid '20s with his companion Aurora. During the campaign in defence of Sacco and Vanzetti they were both imprisoned. Returning to Spain, he became active in the trentistes section of the Confederació Nacional del Treball (CNT) in Catalonia, was appointed secretary of the Ateneu Sindicalista Llibertari in Barcelona in June 1932 and at the beginning of 1933 he became active in the Federació Sindicalista Llibertària (FSL), an organition created within the CNT in opposition to the Federació Anarquista Ibèrica (FAI). During this period he worked on the trentistes newspaper 'Cultura Llibertària' (1931-1933). In the War, he was secretary of the Sindicat de Periodistes in València and editorial secretary of the anarcho-syndicalist newspaper 'Fragua Social'. In August 1937 he was arrested on charges of having published an anonymous article in 'Fragua Social' critical of the Director General of Security. Afetr the war, he crossed into France and was one of the first to join the Résistance in the Roussillon area in the ​​Languedoc. Arrested by the Vichy authorities, he was jailed for a few months in Toulouse. In the summer of 1943, he was arrested by the Gestapo in Perpignan and in 1944 ended up in the Fresnes prison in Paris (Ile de France).

1969 - Bomb explodes after being thrown into army recruiting office, Brighton. [Angry Brigade chronology]

2000 - Luce Fabbri (d. 1908), Italian anarchist writer, journalist, theorist, publisher, poet and daughter of Luigi Fabbri, dies. [see: Jul. 25]

2008 - Maximino Nardo Imbernón Cano (b. 1937), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: May 29]

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: 47 arrests are made during the day and night.
1902 - Aldo Aguzzi (Lucio Ermes aka Agal; d. 1939), Italian anarchist activist, propagandist and anti-fascist, active in Italy, Argentina and Spain, born. [expand]

1922 - Bernard Konrad Świerczyński aka 'Aniela' & 'Kondek' (d. 2002), Polish journalist, libertarian and a key figure in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, born. Inspired by the involvement of his father, Konrad Świerczyński aka 'Wicek', in the anarchist movement, he was active during the Nazi occupation, helping Jews to escape from the Warsaw ghetto and organising hideouts for them, including in his own family's house. He also played an important role, liaising between the inside and outside of the ghetto, and organising and directly participating in the smuggling of food, clothing and letters into the Ghetto. During Warsaw Uprising a soldier of Syndicalist Brigade (104 Kompania Związku Syndykalistów Polskich), as was his father. After WWII, he was awarded the title ‘Righteous Among the Nations’. Journalist in the cooperative movement press and member of the Polish Journalists Association.
In the Żydowski Instytut Historyczny (ŻIH; Jewish Historical Insitute) in Warsaw, there are many examples of that activity. He placed many of his charges, which escaped from the ghetto, in the apartment of his parents and later in other shelters relatively more secure. Among others, the following benefited from his help: Bronka Frydman, Fryda Hofman, Halina Horowic, Pawel Lew Marek and his wife and mother, Roza Rozenberg, Mr. Szlamowicz and his wife and sister, Dr. Aleksander Wolberg, Dr. Zelikson. Bernard obtained from his neighbour a room in the loft for the ghetto escapees. After the fall of the Warsaw Uprising he helped to build a bunker where 40 Jews hid. Among them were two Greek Jews from the ca. 400 Jews from Greece, France and Belgium, liberated by the Polish scouting battalion ZOSKA from Gesiowka (a central camp in the Warsaw ghetto) on Aug. 5, 1944. Pawel Lew Marek underlined his noble attitude to the people helped. The latter in his long account written in July 1966 says: "With his lightheartedness, and his disrespect for danger, he kept up the spirit of all of us and never showed to anyone that he is his benefactor. All this lasted for four years, and especially the last two years, in which every minute decided about life and death. In every one of them 'Kondek', as they called him, and his deceased father showed the most beautiful humanitarian attitude, of which the Polish nation may be proud." Fryda Zgodzinski wrote a similarly glowing homage in July 1966. She relates how he brought her to the ghetto letters from her betrothed from a Stalag (POW camp for soldiers). She describes also how he received her, staying himself at a neighbour's, after she jumped from the train transporting Jews to extermination, wounded and half living, and later how many services he rendered with total disinterestedness and with the greatest warm-heartedness. "He was for them a treasure beyond value and the memory of him will remain as the only shining point in those terrible years."

1922 - Tram 948 in Milan is hijacked and driven by the Blackshirts, in an attempt to break the general strike called "against fascist lawlessness'". [pic] It is driven by Aldo Finzi. With his Jewish ancestry, Finzi fell out of favour in 1938, he was sent into internal exile and expelled from the PNF. In 1943 he went to the resistance in Roma. Captured by the Germans, he was murdered at the Ardeatine.

1927 - [some cite 1925] Manuel Sabaté Llopart (d. 1950), Catalan anarchist and anti-Franco guerrilla Spanish, who was the youngest of the three Sabaté brothers, born. Despite a youthful desire to become a bullfighter, he cross the Pyrenees to join his brothers in France in 1946. Neither brother wanted him to become a guerrilla but in September 1949, taking advantage of Francisco then being in prison and José being in Spain with his action group, he joined the guerrilla group headed by Ramon Vila Capdevila aka Caracremada (Burntface). After crossing into Spain, the group was ambushed and scattered. Manuel was captured by a couple of the Guàrdia Civil. Tried by a summary court martial on December 10, 1949, he was sentenced to death and was executed on February 24, 1950 at the Camp de la Bota in Barcelona (Catalonia), along with fellow guerrilla Saturnino Culebras Saiz.

1937 - Founding Congress of the anarchist women's group, Mujeres Libres, in Valencia.

1941 - Francisco Mares Sánchez (b. ca. 1895), Spanish construction worker, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist member of the MLE and CNT, is executed by firing squad in Paterna. He began working as a construction labourer at 10 whilst attending night school. He soon joined the construction section of the CNT in Valencia. At the beginning of the Primo de Rivera dictatorship, he emigrated to Cuba, returning in 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic. He later became associated with the Sindicats d'Oposició of the trentista tendency of the CNT. In November 1933, he was one of those arrested in connection with the death of Francesc Puchades Xulià, president of the Torrent polling station, and a member of the Valencian Regional Rights party during the elections on November 19 that year. When the fascist coup of July 1936 occured, he was living in Barcelona and was a member of the local Comitè Executiu Popular (Popular Executive Committee) plus one of the organisers of the Iron Column. After militarisation, the column became the 83rd Mixed Brigade of the Republican Army and he was appointed commander of the Second Battalion of the Brigade (73 Division) and Brigade Commander, replacing the wounded Josep Pellicer Gandia, fighting on the Teruel and Extremadura fronts. In 1939, with the triumph of Franco, he was taken prisoner at the port of Alicante and was interned in the Albatera and Los Almendros concentration camps, but escaped and joined the first National Committee of the CNT in Valencia. In late 1939, on his way to France after completing a mission in Barcelona, ​​he was arrested by the police and sent to the Modelo prison in Barcelona, though the Francoist press did not announce his capture until May 5, 1940. After a time in the Modelo prison in Valencia, he was sentenced to death in an emergency summary trial by the Military Court in Valencia.
On August 20, 1941, he was shot by firing squad at the Camp de Tir in Paterna alongside Francisco Cano Alcaraz, director of the EA5A.D Radio Torrente republican radio station.

[C] 1944 - During an uprising by the Résistance in Toulouse, André Malraux (aka Colonel Berger, commander of the Lot Maquis), who had been held their since his arrest in July, takes command of the Saint-Michel prison.

1962 - Colin Jordan, leader of the British National Socialist movement, and his deputy, John Tyndall, are sentenced for their speeches at the 'Free Britain from Jewish Control' rally held in Trafalgar Square on July 1. Jordan is sentenced to two months’ imprisonment and Tyndall to six weeks.

1976 - Grunwicks: A small number of Asian workers walk out "in protest at oppressive working conditions", sparking one of the longest strikes in British history, before it was eventually defeated in July 1978.

1978 - The ANL organise a march to (prematurely) celebrate the departure of NF paper sellers from Brick Lane, who appeared to have been driven out of the area.

[A] 1989 - José Peirats Valls (b. 1908), member of the FAI and CNT, combatant in the Spanish Revolution, including a stint with the Durutti Column in Aragon and Catalonia, dies. Editor, writer and director of various papers ('Solidaridad Obrera', 'Tierra y Libertad', 'Acratia') and author of 'Anarchists in the Spanish Revolution' etc. [see: Mar. 15]

1996 - Maria Occhipinti (b. 1921), Italian anarcha-feminist, dies from complications associated with Parkinson's Disease. [see: Jul. 29]

1999 - Jesús Guillén Bertolín aka Guillembert (b. 1913), Spanish anarchist, painter and designer, dies. Partner of Sara Berenguer and brother of Conchita Guillén Bertolín. [see: Oct. 31]

2007 - José Palacios Rojas aka 'Piruli' (b. 1914), Spanish farm labourer, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and Civil War combatant, dies. [see: Apr. 14]

2010 - Francisco 'Chico' Cuberos Neto (b. 1924), Brazilian militant anarchist and theatre and TV actor, dies. [see: Feb. 18]

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Only 6 arrests, prompting Missouri Governor Jay Nixon to withdraw the National Guard tomorrow
[CC] 1911 - Nicholas Turčinović aka Nicolas (or Nicolò) Turcinovich or Nicola Turcini (d. 1971), Croatian anarchist and anti-fascist fighter, born. He left school at an early age and came into contact with libertarian workers circles in Rovigno. In August 1927, he signed on as a cabin boy aboard the Belvedere, a ship plying between Trieste and the Americas. After a fight on board with a fascist who provoked him, he decided during a stop-over in Buenos Aires not to go back to fascist Italy, and he deserted. At around the same time, in December 1929, he was sentenced in absentia by a court in Pula to six months in prison. In Buenos Aires he made contact with the FORA in which a number of Istrian militants were active, people such as Francesco Depanghere and Giuseppe Pesel, members of the Umanitá Nova group. He tried all sorts of jobs to earn a living.
In 1930, fleeing the repression that followed upon General José Félix Uriburu’s coup d’etat, he stowed away on a Yugoslav ship bound for Europe. After coming ashore in Antwerp he settled in Paris where he worked as a bricklayer and, according to the police, became "one of the most active Italian militants", as a result of which he was expelled from France in May 1931. With some Spanish comrades, he then left for the newly proclaimed Spanish Republic and, in Barcelona, he joined the CNT. In September 1931 he was arrested following a general strike and charged with having helped in the armed defence of the CNT Construction Union premises in the Calle Mercaders in Barcelona when it was attacked by the police and he was held on the prison ships, the Dedalo and the Antonio Lopez. In February 1932, together with fellow Italians Luigi Sofra and Egidio Bernardini, he mounted an escape bid. In February 1933, following an intensive campaign mounted by the CNT he was amnestied but was handed an expulsion order and escorted with Egidio Bernardini and his partner, Livia Bellinari, to the French border. After passing through Belgium and Holland, by May 1933 he was back in Barcelona. Charged with membership of a "criminal gang", he was promptly arrested and committed to the Modelo prison in Barcelona for "breach of an expulsion order". In December 1933 he took part in a mass break-out from the Modelo, only to be rearrested within days. On his release on 28 February 1934, he was arrested again and tried for "resisting the security forces" and given a 4 month jail term. In September 1934 he was expelled and escorted to the border with Portugal. He managed to re-enter Spain via Andalusia and settled in Seville, but the repression following the Casas Viejas incident was so severe that in October the same year he fled to Tangiers and thence to Algeria, living in Algiers and in Oran. Persecuted even in Algeria, by 1935 he was back in Spain and settled in the Valencia area.
Following the coup attempt in July 1936, he set off for Barcelona where the FAI put him in charge of organising the Italian Section of the Ascaso Column. According to a number of witnesses (Umberto Calosso, Carlo Rosselli, etc.) he played a crucial part in the engagements in Monte Pelado and Huesca. In January 1937, at the request of the CNT’s Federació Regional de Pagesos (Regional Peasant Federation) of Levante, he was dispatched to Valencia to oversee the running of some farming collectives. The end of the civil war found him stranded in the Alicante rat-trap but he managed to get out to Madrid and laid low in the home of a fascist whose life he had saved during the early months of the war. On March 29, 1941, after he was "turned in" by his landlord, he was arrested in Madrid. Extradited to Italy, he was sentenced in September 1941 to five years’ internment on the island of Ventotene.
In July 1943, with the collapse of fascist rule, he was moved to the Renicci d’Anghiari concentration camp (in Tuscany) together with dozens of other anarchist comrades deemed "dangerous". On September 18, 1943, he was freed and set off for Istria where he promptly joined the partisans led by Josip Broz aka Tito. After he fell out with the Yugoslav communists, he left for Genoa where he made contact with the libertarian movement in the city. With other activists (Marcello Bianconi, Emilio Grassini, Pietro Caviglia, Alfonso Failla, Pasquale Binazzi, etc.) he took part in the Liberation struggle. Using the experience gained in Spain he served as a liaison between anarchist partisan groups and groups from other organisations. He also commanded the Malatesta Brigade – part of the Squadra Partigiane of Azione (SAP; Partisan Action Squads) – alongside Francesc Ogno, Emilio Grassini, Pietro Pozzi and Giuseppe Verardo – and the Pisacane Brigade, an anarchist urban guerrilla outfit operating in the Cornigliano and Plegi quarters of Genoa. After the Liberation he was one of the most active militants in Genoa. In June 1945 he was the Federazione Comunista Libertaria Ligure (FCLL; Ligurian Libertarian Communist Federation) delegate to the Milan congress of the Italian Federazione dei Comunisti Anarchici (FdCA).
In 1946 he moved to Venice where he set up home with Alberta Machiori and they had a daughter the following year. In 1954 he returned to Genoa where he took part in most of the congresses held in the city by the Federazione Anarchica Italiana (FAI). In 1965 at the Carrara congress he was appointed to run the FAI book service and served on the organisation’s Correspondence Commission. In 1970 he was one of the founders of the Armando Borghi Circle in Genoa, marshalling young people drawn to anarchism through the social struggles of the day. Nikola Turcinovic died on December 30, 1971 in Genoa and was buried on January 2, 1972 in that city. In 2005 the 'Nicola Turcinovic' Libertarian Group was launched in Genoa.

1917 - Antonia Ugeda Fuentes (d. 2006), Spanish furniture worker, nurse and anarchist activist, born. Having worked in child care and as a maid, she joined a furniture factory as an apprentice varnisher. At the age of 14, with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic, he joined the CNT and in early 1936 took part in a strike in solidarity with sacked varnish workers. Around this time she also joined the Iberian FIJL. During the war, after taking a nursing course, she worked as a nurse at the hospital that was created in Villena and became romantically involved with a comrade, Joaquín García. Following Franco's victory, she hid until 4 May 1939 in Villena, the date on which she was denounced, arrested and imprisoned spending one year in Redován and three in Alicante prison. Released in May 1943, she broke with Joaquín and moved to Barcelona, where she worked again as a varnisher and later became involved with Ginés Camarasa, a prominent activist. During these years they were active in the underground struggle and Antonia became responsible for the upkeep of the 'Tres Tombes' (of Ferrer Guàrdia, Durruti and Ascaso) in the Montjuïc cemetry. Between 1990 and 2004, she also worked on the anarchist journal 'Orto'.

1930 - Goliardo Fiaschi (d. 2000), Italian anarchist partisan who fought Franco, Moussolini and Hitler's troop, born. [expand]

1933 - Francesca Saperas i Miró (b. 1851), Catalan seamstress, and militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Feb. 12]

1935 - German writer Heinrich Mann becomes a citizen of Czechoslovakia. His attacks on militarism, nationalism and the authoritarian social structure of German society led to his exile in 1933 by the Nazis.

1938 - The Italian government bars Jewish teachers from the public schools.

1941 - A German naval cadet became the first victim of French Résistance, shot in a Metro station in Paris, France. Over 150 Parisians were shot in reprisal.

1942 - As part of Operation Reinchardt, the destruction of the Minsk-Mazowiecki Ghetto is ordered. Around 1,000, including those who did not follow the order to gather in the centre of the ghetto, are summilarily executeds. The next day captured Jews were deported to the Treblinka extermination camp. 370 qualified workers are saved and employed in the Wehrmacht factory and Rudzki factory. They are kept in the labour camp, in the Mikołaj Kopernik’s school building at Siennicka Street (Camp Kopernikus), which would stage an uprising on January 10, 1943.

1943 - During the final Aktion in the Minsk Ghetto about 2000 Jews are murdered at Maly Trostinets.

[C] 1944 - Maquis uprising, which involves more than 4,000 Spanish exiles, begins today in Paris.

1962 - A public meeting planned to be held by the anti-fascist Yellow Star Movement in Trafalgar Square on September 2nd is banned by the Minister of Public Works.

1967 - US embassy in London machine gunned by First of May Group.

1968 - Juan Antonio Llerda (b. ca. 1908), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. Born in Crete, he was a member of the CNT and in July 1936 joined a militia column in Tarragona that ended up in Horta and Gandesa and in which he served as a stretcher bearer. After the Republic's defeat in the region, he left for France, returning to Barcelona and fought on the Ebro front where he was severly wounded by an explosive bullet. During the Retirada, he was interned before enlisting in a Compagnie de Travailleurs Etrangers. During the German occupation he was requisitioned under the STO to work in the submarine base in Bordeaux, where he came into contact with the resistance. Following his release, he joined the Bataillon Libertad, trained as an anarchist Guerrilla and in 1945 fought with the Basque Guernika Battalion against the last German pockets of the Pointe-de-Grave. Some of the weapons he captured went directly to the anti-Franco guerrillas bound for Spain. He remained a member of the Comarcale de Valderrobres in exile, the militia of the FL-CNT in Bordeaux.

1971 - House in Amhurst Road, London, raided by Special Branch and CID. Jim Greenfield, Anna Mendelson, John Barker and Hilary Creek are arrested. The four are taken to the `Bomb Squad' HQ in Albany Street, London, where the two men are subjected to a brutal beating-up to extract a confession from them. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1973 - Juan Portales Casamar (b. 1922), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: May. 24]

[B] 1996 - René Cavanhié (pen name René Cavan; b. 1922), French poet, songwriter, anarchist and Résistance fighter, dies. [see: Mar. 25]

2006 - Joaquín Pérez Navarro (b. 1907), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies. [see: Aug. 4]

2007 - Jacinto Pérez Merino aka 'Pinilla' (b. 1915), Basque metalworker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, and anti-Francoist and Résistance fighter, dies. [see: Sep. 21]

2011 - Léandre Valéro (b. 1923), Algerian anarchist and anarchist, who fought in the Spanish Civil War and was active in the Algerian independence movement, dies. [see: Oct. 12]

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: The National Guard withdraws from the town following Governor Jay Nixon's decision yesterday.
1791 - 100,000 slaves revolt in Haiti, achieving freedom in 1793.

1869 - Arthur Holitscher (d. 1941), Hungarian playwright, novelist, essayist, travel writer and anarchist, born. Helped found the Bund für Proletarische Kultur (League for Proletarian Culture) in 1919. Amongst his works are his first novel, 'Weiße Liebe' (White Love; 1896); 'O. Wilde: Ballade des Zuchthauses zu Reading' (1918), his translation of 'The Ballad of Redaing Gaol'; travel books, including those from his visit to revolutionary Russia, 'Drei Monate in Sowjet-Russland' (Three Months in Soviet Russia; 1921) and 'Stromab die Hungerwolga' (Downstream of the Volga famine; 1922); plus his books on anarchism and related subjects, including 'Frans Masereel', with Stefan Zweig (1923) and 'Ravachol und die Pariser Anarchisten' (Ravachol and the Paris anarchists; 1925). His books were on the Nazi's 1933 Black List of burnt books, and shortly after he fled to Paris, moving to Geneva in 1939, where he lived in obscurity and died in poverty.

1890 - Juan José Luque Argenti (d. 1957), Spanish civil engineer and anarcho-syndicalist, born. He held numerous government infrastructure jobs and became the chief engineer of the Board of Works for the Port of Santa Cruz de Tenerife. For his activities against the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, he was deported to Cap Juby (now part of Western Sahara). He was part of the CNT group took part in the plot of 'Sanjuanada', the attempted military uprising on the eveniong of 24 June, 1926 that attempted to overthrow Primo de Rivera. Arrested, he was finally acquitted by a court martial in 1927. He was also dismissed as chief engineer of the Board of Works for the Port of Santa Cruz de Tenerife. During the Civil War he was a member of the National Committee of the CNT and participated in important meetings of the political section of the anarcho-syndicalist union. He was also one of the leaders of the Associació Nacional de Tècnics d'Espanya (ANTE), attached to the CNT. In 1938 he worked in the newspaper 'CNT Marítima' and was a member of the Consell Econòmic Confederal.
When fascist troops reached the capital, he was one of the few members of the National Committee who had not abandoned Madrid. Following Franco's triumph, he was arrested and remained in jail, where he met Cipriano Mera Sanz, until at least 1944. Following his release, he joined several clandestine CNT committees, representing the Canary Islands. He became a member of the Provisional National Committee of the CNT formed in November 1945 and later was appointed the CNT representative on the Alliance Nationale des Forces Démocratiques (ANFD), tasked with forging links with anti-Franco monarchists.
In April 1946 the whole National Committee was arrested with the exception of Luque, who flee abroad. The talks with the monarchists continued until August 1948 when Juan Borbon, the pretender to the throne, came to an arrangement with Franco. He returned to Spain in August 1951 under safe-conduct agreement that fixed his residence in Madrid, where he remained on probation. A few months after he was arrested during a raid which also was detained Tierno Galvan. Juan José Luque Argenti died August 29, 1957 at the Los Alamos clinic in Madrid.

1904 - Lucio Arroyo Fraile aka 'El Verdejo' and 'El tuerto Teruel' (d. 1988), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Joined the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL) early and was one of the founders of a Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) branch in his home town. Living in France in 1932, he was expelled from the country for his anarchist activities. During the Civil War, he fought with the Columna de Ferro (Iron Colum), and then in the International Brigades, being wounded three times. At the Battle of the Ebro he lost an eye, which earned him the nickname El tuerto Teruel (The Eye of Teruel) by his companions and obtained the rank of captain. Crossing the border with France on February 6, 1939, he was sepearted from his wife and 3 children (who were sent to the Mâcon area) and he was interned in the Boulou (Voló) concemtration camp. The following month he joined the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers No. 10 and was sent to Bordeaux to work on the construction of the munitions store at Saint-Médard-en-Jalles. At the outbreak of war in June 1940, while his wife and children were returned to Spain, Lucio Arroyo was interned in the Argelès camp. In October 1940, he was enlisted in the Groupement de Travailleurs Étrangers (GTE) No. 183 and worked in the learing and reconstruction following severe floods in Catalan country. In March 1943 he was interned in the camp of Saint-Médard-en-Jalles requisitioned for forced labor (Organisation Todt) in the submarine base near Bordeaux. He was then tranferred to Soulac and Cap Ferret. Arrested by the Germans, he twice escaped whilst being deported to Germany and, in June 1944, joined the Maquis and particiapted in the liberation of Ariège. He remained in Pamiers in the Ariège region, aiding clandestine crossings by militants into Spain. In 1947 he and his family settled in Perpignan, where he held positions in the Local Federation of the CNT, and their home was a haven for militants who had fled the Iberian Peninsula.

[B] 1908 - Henri Cartier-Bresson (d. 2004), famed French photographer and life-long anarchist, considered to be the father of modern photojournalism, born.
“I’m an anarchist - anarchism is an ethic, its a way of behaving.”
"L'anarchie c'est une éthique avant tout. Une éthique d'homme libre. Relisez Bakounine" (Above all anarchism is an ethic. An ethic of free men. Reread Bakunin.)

1917 - In Italy, police open fire on protesters against the war and the lack of food. The majority of the protesters are women. Tomorrow a General Strike is declared, insurrectionist barricades rise high and cops occupy the labour halls. On the 24th a state of siege is proclaimed, but confrontations continue until the 26th.

1936 - Diego Rodríguez Barbosa (b. 1885), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist militant, anarcho-naturalist propagandist, writer, poet and novelist, is arrested whilst in hiding following the July Fascist uprising, and is tortured and killed by Phalangists. The fascists cut off his head and play football with it. [see: Nov. 5]

1936 - Robert Rizal Ballester (b. 1915), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, dies at the Gusen concentration camp in Austria. [see: Oct. 12]

1936 - The first issue of 'L'Espagne Antifasciste', the French language version of 'Solidaridad Obrera', the weekly paper of the CNT-FAI, is published in Barcelona. It is designed to keep French comrades up to date on development in the Spanish Revolution and on the creation of committees to aid Free Spain. Its news is also relayed via French-language programming on Radio 1 ECN CNT-FAI. From issue no. 7, is is printed in Paris and ceases publication on Jan. 8, 1938, after 31 issues.

1944 - A group of 32 Spaniards and four Frenchmen tackle a German column (consisting of 1,300 men in 60 lorries, with six tanks and two self-propelled guns), at La Madeiline in France. The Maquis blow up the road and rail bridges and position themselves on surrounding hills with machine guns. The battle rages from 3:00pm till noon tomorrow. Three Maquis were wounded, 110 Germans killed, 200 wounded and the rest surrendered. The German commander committed suicide!

1950 - Antonio Ejarque Pina aka 'Jarque' (b. 1905), Aragonese metalworker, militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, dies. [see: Mar. 25]

1972 - 16 militants of different Peronist and left organisations held as political prisoners in Rawson Penitentiary are forced to repeat a faked escape attempt mimicing that of 15 August. The prisoners are recaptured and subsequently shot down by marines led by Lieutenant Commander Luis Emilio Sosa as revenge by the dictatorship for the successful escape of some of their comrades during the initial prison break. 3 ex-Army officers were eventually to life imprisonment in Oct 2012 for their part in the killings. [Trelew massacre]

1978 - Sandinistas capture of Nicaraguan National Palace starts a revolution.

1980 - Umberto Tommasini (b. 1896), Italian blacksmith, anarchist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Mar. 9]

[C] 1981 - A group of NF paper sellers is attacked by anti-fascists armed with pickaxe handles, iron bars and shovels [according to the 'NF News', Oct. '81] in Kingsbury, North London. Several NF salesmen were injured, including Graham John, NF North and West London Regional Organiser, and Paul Nash, NF Haringey Organiser, who was hospitalised after his head was gashed open and one of his hands slashed.

1983 - Juan Ruiz Martín (b. ca. 1912), Andalusian labourer, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies in exile in London. [some sources give Aug. 2] Affiliated to the Juventudes Libertarias, in March 1932 he was elected second secretary of the Sindicat d'Oficis Diversos of the CNT in Marbella, a postion he held when the war broke out in 1936. Member of the Comités Antifascistas, from Septermber 1936 he was part of the Comitè d'Enllaç (Liaison Committee), the Comitè del Front Popular and the Comitè d'Abastiments (Committee of Supplies) until the fall of Malaga in Jamuary 1937. He was then an artillery officer in the Army of the Second Republic on the Ebro front, where he was wounded. In 1939, following Franco's victory, he crossed the Pyrenees and was interned in the Vernet concentration camp. Then he was sent to a Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers (CTE), which was able to escape, but was stopped by the police and deported to a concentration camp in the Maghreb. In 1941, in the Djelfa camp in Algeria he was a nurse and eventually enlisted in the British army, staying in England when the was ended (as did Agustín Roa Ventura, Antonio Vargas Rivas and others). Earning his libving as a kitchen worker in a hotel, he remained active organising aid for Spanish activists and wrote for 'Cenit' (Zenith), 'España fuera de España' (Spain outside Spain), 'Faro' (Beacon) and 'Nervio' (Nerve).
1891 - Agostino Gazzei (d. unknown), Italian blast furnace worker and anarchist, born. Member of the Gruppo Pietro Gori. In 1911, he took an active role in the great strike of the Piombino and Elba Island steel workers, that proved to be a protracted and dramatic struggle between the proletariat and the local steel industry trust. In 1922, after the violent death of the fascist Salvestrini, Agostino emigrated to Belgium to escape the beatings and the purges by the Blackshirts, later marrying Emilie Camille Goffre. After working again in the steel industry, the late '20s saw him in a cement factory, where he and a number of comrades were seen by the fascists in the local emigre community as dangerous. Through the '30s he continued his anti-fascist activities and in 1943, whilst living in Charleroi, he was still reported as "hostile to the Mussolini regime".

1894 - Áurea Cuadrado Castillón, also known as Áurea Cuadrado Alberola (d. 1969), Spanish militant anarcho-feminist and fashion designer, born. Member of the Sindicat del Vestit de la Confederació Nacional del Treball (Union of Dressmakers of the CNT) and participated in the foundation of the Grup Cultural Femení (Women's Cultural Group) in 1934, the forerunner of the Mujeres Libres.
barcelonaenfemeni.org/Les Corts/Aurea Cuadrado.htm

1901 - Albano Franchini (d. 1984), Italian anarchist-communist militant and resistance fighter, born. An activist in Mòdena and in 1918 joined an anarcho-communist youth group. A worker in the Oficina Mecànico Industrial, he was called up in 1920 but when he returned to Mòdena in July 1922, he was not reinstated due to his libertarian politics. Later that year, he attempted to create a committee for the protection of political victims and prisoners, returning to the anarchist struggle in Mòdena. Arrested by the Fascists for distributing anarchist propaganda, he was imprisoned in 1923-24, later deciding to emigrate to France. He returned the following year, however, and was arrested again in Mòdena in 1926 on the occasion of the failed attempt on Mussolini's life in Bologna by Anteo Zamboni. Once free, like many other anarchists, he found that most anarchist organisations involved in the antifascist struggle had been dismantled. So he joined the underground structure of the Italian Communist Party. Arrested in December 1930, he appeared before the Special Tribunal and was sentenced in April 1931 to four years in prison for "Communist propaganda", but was released in October 1932 under an amnesty. Arrested yet again in June 1937 at a meeting of "subversives", he was let off with a 'warning'. Arrested again in July 1943 for his anti-fascist activities, he succeeded in escaping and joined the ranks of Giustizia e Libertà, fighting under the nom de guerre of Paolo Romanelli in the Brigata Allegretti and taking part in the liberation of Mòdena.
Join the Resistance in Allegretti Brigade, Division Modena-plain, and on behalf of the shareholders becomes part of the first democratic junta to free Modena appointed by the CLN. While Franchini did not participating actively in the movement post-WWII, he remained a libertarian. He died May 3, 1984.

1908 - Pedro Calvo Calvo (d. 1992), Aragonese basketmaker, railway worker, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. His four siblings, Isidro, Andrés, José and Jesús, were all members of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT). In 1927, he was a member of an anarchist group and, with the proclamation of the Second Republic, he joined the CNT in Jaca. Leaning the trade of basketmaking, he was able to travel the region, distributing anarchist literature alongside his baskets. In July 1932, he began working for the Ferrocarril del Nord and 2 years later joined the timber workers union. When Jaca fell into Franco's hands, he was able to cross into France and from there he made his way to Barcelona. There, he joined the 25th Division, fighting on the Aragon front. Later in the 130th Brigade, he worked in supplies and fought as a sapper in the area of ​​Huesca (Olivan, Broto) and was a quatermaster in the 176th Brigade.
Exiled in France at the end of the war, he was interned in the camp at Septfonds and, in September 1939, he was sent with the Compagnie de travailleurs to the mines at Gravan. In 1940, he was confined in the internement camps at Argelés, Bram and again at Argelés. Requisitioned to work in Germany, he managed to escape in July 1941 and then participated in the anti-Nazi resistance. After the war, he worked as a forester in various places (Arbusol, Illas, Canet, Perpignan, etc.) and belonged to the MLE in exile in Perpignan. He lived with Adelina, a nurse whom he had met on the Aragon front. He also collaborated on 'Tierra y Libertad' and was the author of 'Un arrancapinos de la provincia de Huesca' (A small man from Huesca province; 1987 & 1991, revised and enlarged) and 'La sociedad liberal y sus contradicciones' (The liberal society and its contradictions; 1987).

1911 - José Gonzaga Herrera (d. 2006), Andalusia labourer and anarcho-syndicalist, who joined the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) in 1929, born. A machinegunner during the Civil War, he fought for the Pedro Rubio Battalion in the Castuera area and was a defender during the seige of Madrid at the Ciutat Universitària, gaining the rank of seargenat in the Republican Army. With Franco's victory, he returned to his village where he was arrested and imprisoned. Court-martial, he was sentenced to death, but the sentence was commuted after a year to 30 years in prison. Between 1942 and 1944 he was one of the 2,000 political prisoners working as slave labour on the digging of the Canal del Baix Guadalquivir aka Canal de los Presos (Canal of Prisoners) under Franco's Redención de Penas por el Trabajo policy. Caught with barley, from which prisoners made a coffee substitute, he was imprisoned in Sevilla and worked raising rabbits. In total, he spent 13 years, 3 months and 3 days, in prison and was released on August 6, 1952. He returned to his home village Constantina, but threats from the local Falange forced him to move to Madrid. After the death of Franco, he returned to Constantina and was reinstated as a seargent in the army, receiving compensation as a prisoner of 1,600,000 pesetas.

1917 - The 1917 Houston or Camp Logan Riot occures [only a few weeks after probably the most notorious US 'race riot' in East St. Louis, when gangs of whites roamed through black neighborhoods indiscriminately beating and murdering black men, women, and children on July 1-3] when 156 African American soldiers of the Third Battalion of the all-black Twenty-fourth United States Infantry Regiment sought revenge on the city's white police (only 2 members of the 159-man force were black) after the brutal beating of two of thier fellow soldiers. They stole weapons from the camp depot and marched on the city of Houston. After two hours of violence, 16 (white) civilians, including four policemen, are killed and 12 more injured. Four soldiers died. 118 soldiers in total were charged with disobeying orders, mutiny, murder, and aggravated assault in connection with the riots and, between November 1, 1917 and March 26, 1918, the army held three separate courts-martial. In all, testimony was heard from 169 prosecution witnesses, but only 29 for the defence. None of the testimony was conclusive that any of the men on trail had participated in the event.
On November 28, 13 of the men were sentenced to be hung, however, they were not notified of their sentence until Dec. 9, two days before their execution. Sixteen other death sentences were passed down in the other 2 trials, but 10 were later commuted to life following pressure from the NAACP and National Equal Rights League on President Woodrow Wilson.
In total, 19 soldiers were eventually executed, most in near total secrecy, and 79 received life sentences, in one of the most infamous court-martials ever involving African-Americans. Continuing public pressure on Woodrow Wilson led to most prisoners being freed within the next ten years, with the last released in 1938.

1939 - Josep Domènech Agulló (b. ca. 1896), Spanish shoemaker, anarcho-syndicalist member of the CNT and of the member of the Municipal Council in Cocentaina (Valencia), is executed by Franco's troops at the entrance of Alcoi cemetery.

1956 - Several tons of Wilhelm Reich’s publications - including hardcover books - are burned under FDA supervision.

1958 - Nottingham Riots: A number of events have been identified as the spark that set off the rioting in St. Ann's but it is clear that the 'racial' unrest that had been building up between the largely Afro-Caribean immigrants and the white population in Nottingham for quiet some time, particularly around the latter's opposition to interracial sexual relationships. Those tensions boiled over on the night of Saturday 23rd. when a young black man was assaulted outside a pub and soon a crowd of over 1,000 had gathered in the area and went on the rampage. The heavily outnumbered black population were quick to arm themselves and fierce fighting broke out. The violence lasted for many hours and eight people were reportedly taken to the city hospital, including a police constable allegedly run down by a black driver's car. One man required 37 stitches following a wound to the throat.

1971 - Angry Brigade charges are laid against Stuart Christie, Jim Greenfield, Anna Mendelson, John Barker and Hilary Creek at Albany Street Police Station:
Conspiring to cause explosions between January 1 1968 and August 21 1971.
Possessing explosive substances for an unlawful purpose.
Possessing a pistol without a firearms certificate.
Possessing eight rounds of ammunition without a firearms certificate.
Possessing two machine guns without the authority of the Secretary of State.
Possessing 36 rounds of ammunition without a firearms certificate.
Jim: attempting to cause an explosion in May 1970.
Anna and Jim: attempting to cause an explosion in Manchester, October 1970.Stuart: possessing one round of ammunition without a firearm certificate. (This was dated back 2 years when a bullet was taken from his flat. No charges were preferred against him at the time.)
John, Jim and Stuart: possessing explosive substances.
Jim, John and Hilary: receiving stolen vehicle.
Stuart: possessing explosive substances. (The two detonators planted by the police).
All are refused bail and remanded in custody to await trial.

1994 - Enrique Garcia Sanchiz (b. 1907), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Dec. 11]

1996 - Mariano Cruellas Maraña (b. ca. 1913), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies in Caracas. Born into a family of small landowners in Fraga, Huesca who were part of the anarchist movement. One of the founders of the Jeunesses Libertaires (FIJL) in Fraga, during the war he was a Milicien in the Roja y Negra column, fighting on the Huesca front where, after a failed attack and a confrontation with the Stalinists, his unit was dissolved and he left the front. Exiled in France with his wife Salvadora Serveto (born circa 1917 in Fraga, who died in November 1992 in Perpignan), he first fought in the Résistance in Perpignan and eventually emigrated to Venezuela, where he participate at the core of the CNT in Caracas. After having started a small buisiness with a number of employees, the CNT decided in the 1960s to excluded from the organisation. Told of the decision, Mariano Cruelas said that the union could remove his membership but they would never remove the CNT, which he had been a member of since 15 years old, from his heart.

[C] 2001 - Henriette Bie Lorentzen (Anna Henriette Wegner Hågå; b. 1911), Norwegian humanist, peace activist, feminist and WWII resistance member, who survived Ravensbrück concentration camp, dies. [see: Jul. 18]

2003 - Helmut Kirschey (b. 1913), German construction worker, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

[A] 2009 - A new immigrant detention centre is burnt down at Rotterdam airport.

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Peaceful protests continue with just 3 people arrested.
1887 - Joseph Rosenzweig Moir (d. 1944), Czech anarchist poet, writer and lawyer of Jewish origin, born. The uncle of the Czech poet Jiří Orten. In February 1942, Rosenzweig Moir and his wife were deported to the Theresienstadt concentration camp during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia. He was selected for transfer to Auschwitz on October 12 1944 (the last record of him), where he is persumed to have died.

1898 - Francisco Quintal (d. 1987), important Portuguese militant, propagandist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. General secretary of the Portuguese Anarchist Union (UAP) and director of its paper 'O Anarquista'.

1905 - Ramón Lafragueta (d. 1981), Spanish railway worker, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, born. Particiapnt in the libertarian movement from a young age, he joined the Sindicat Ferroviari, part of the Federació Nacional d'Indústries Ferroviàries (FNIF) of the CNT, and held a number of union positions. During the Civil War, he fought on the Aragon front. After the war, he went to France and was interned in various concentration camps (Argelés, St Cyprien, Bram and Vernet). On his return from exile, he participated in 1945 in a tour throughout France in order to reorganize the Spanish libertarian movement. He then moved to Grenoble, where for 15 years he was the treasurer of the FL-CNT and held various positions of responsibility at departmental level.

[B] 1916 - Léo Ferré (d. 1993), Franco-Monégasque anarchist singer, poet, composer and interpreter of the French poètes maudits, born. [expand]

1919 - Victor García (Tomás Germinal García Ibars) (d. 1991), indefatigable militant Catalan anarcho-syndicalist, writer, translator and historian of the international movement, born. [expand]

1922 - Howard Zinn (d. 2010), American anarchist historian, author, playwright, and activist, born.

1923 - Giovanni Minzoni (b. 1885), Italian Catholic priest and anti-fascist, who fought the introduction of the fascist youth movement, the Opera Nazionale Balilla, in Argenta, his home town, is murdered by two fascist squadristi, who smash his skull with a club. The case is a cause celebre in Italy.

1941 - Vichy France passed anti-terrorist laws, punishable with death sentences, to deal with the résistance movement.

1943 - Simone Weil (b. 1909), French philosopher and one time anarchist militant during the Spanish Civil War, dies. [see: Feb. 3]

[CC] 1944 - The Spanish anarchist participation in the liberation of Paris: After having been interned in the French concentration camps and used as labour cheap, many Spanish anarchists took part in the anti-Nazi resistance in France and Africa. With their experience gained during the Spanish Revolution, they were adept at staging guerrilla actions in the countryside, drawing the German occupying forces and Pétain's militia away from the cities. Amongst those were La Nueve (The Nine - the 9th Company of the Régiment de Marche du Tchad, composed of Spanish anarcho-syndicalists) who, as part of the Free French Forces, participated in the liberation of Paris and were amongst the first to enter the city.
At 20:41, the first half-tracks of the Division Blindée de Leclerc (commanded by Captain Raymond Dronne) break into the insurgent capital, by the Porte d'Italie. They are led by the Spanish anarchists of La Nueve, who carry the names of battles fought against Franco in Spain (Guadalajara, Teruel, Brunete, Belchite, Ebro, Madrid, etc.). At 21:22, the armored half-track 'Guadalajara' is the first to appear in front of the Hotel de Ville. Spaniards are welcomed as liberators.
"Nous avons été les premiers à entrer dans Paris. Le premier canon installé place de l'Hôtel de Ville, c'est moi qui en étais responsable, nous l'avions appelé 'El Abuelo'." (We were the first to enter Paris. The first cannon installed in the Place de l'Hotel de Ville, I was in charge, we called it 'The Grandfather') - testimony of Jesus Abenza.

1947 - The Battle of Ridley Road: Following the previous Sunday's battles, [see: Aug. 17] the 43 Group invite the anti-fascist journalist Fredric Mullally back to Dalston to speak on a platform in Ridley Road that the anti-fascists had held since early morning. An all-London anti-fascist callout had been made and a 50-strong group of bodyguards met Mullally at Dalston station and he addressed a large rally, marking the effective end of the fascists' control of the streets in Dalston.

1958 - Notting Hill Riots: Two incidents in the run up to the 1958 Notting Hill 'race' riots occur in Shepherd's Bush and Notting Hill involving white youths assaulting black men, a number of whom were seriously injured. In the week that followed, groups of white youths, mainly Teddy Boys, armed with knives, iron bars, and other weapons, began attacking Afro-Caribeans on the street, hospitalising many of them.

1964 - Virgilio Gozzoli (b. 1886), Italian anarchist, anti-fascist, poet, playwright, publisher and Futurist artist, dies. [see: Nov. 10]

1967 - Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin throw 300 one-dollar bills from balcony onto floor of New York Stock Exchange, creating instant bedlam as people scrambled for the cash.

1974 - Following their woeful attempts at organising against the Imperial Typewriters strike (despite throwing large amounts of money at creating a NF union presence) and the fear of loosing any further confrontations with anti-fascists following Red Lion Square, the NF turnout was less than 600. Also, in lieu of Red Lion Square, the police banned the Front from going anywhere near the main Asian Communities. 5-6,000 anti-fascist take part in the Inter Racial Solidarity Campaign Committee's counter- demonstration. The march organisrs have problems with the International Socialists, who turn up with their own loudspeaker van and steward their own section of the march. Many anti-fascist militants ignore the counter-demonstration andsubject the Front demo to continous heckling and abuse. Matin Webster is attacked.
libcom.org/files/The struggle of Asian workers in Britain.pdf
cdm16445.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/search/searchterm/ Imperial Typewriter Company/order/nosort

1982 - Ludovic Massé (b. 1900), Catalan proletarian writer, novelist and libertarian, dies. [see: Jan. 7]

1991 - A small anti-racist march from Peckham to Bermondsey in south London, organised by the National Black Caucus with help from the Society of Black Lawyers, which numbered only 300 due to the poor publicity surounding it and had been abused by the local population along much of its route,is attacked by an equal number of racists as it tries to enter Southwark Park in Bermondsey. Everyone, except the National Black Caucus and the SWP, viewed the event as both a farce and a significant setback in the anti-fascist struggle.
[libcom.org/files/FIGHTING TALK - 02.pdf]

[C] 1998 - 'If You Tolerate This Your Children Will Be Next', the Manic Street Preachers' anti-fascist Spanish Civil War song is released. Penned in support of Welsh volunteers in the International Brigades.

The future teaches you to be alone
The present to be afraid and cold
"So if I can shoot rabbits then I can shoot fascists."

Bullets for your brain today
But we'll forget it all again
Monuments put from pen to paper
Turns me into a gutless wonder.

And if you tolerate this then your children will be next
And if you tolerate this then your children will be next
Will be next, Will be next, Will be next.

Gravity keeps my head down
Or is it maybe shame
At being so young and being so vain.

Holes in your head today
But I'm a pacifist
I've walked La Ramblas but not with real intent.

And if you tolerate this then your children will be next
And if you tolerate this then your children will be next
Will be next, Will be next, Will be next.

"And on the street tonight
An old man plays with newspaper cuttings of his glory days."

And if you tolerate this then your children will be next
And if you tolerate this then your children will be next
Will be next, will be next, will be next.

2006 - Antonio Moreno Ronchas (b. 1910), Spanish railway worker, miliatant anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Franco combatant, dies. [see: Oct. 1]
1891 - Alberto Savinio (Andrea Francesco Alberto de Chirico; d. 1952), Italian writer, painter, musician, journalist, essayist, playwright, set designer, composer and Nietzchean-inspired "proto-anarchist" associated with Dada and Surrealism, born. He was the younger brother of 'metaphysical' painter Giorgio De Chirico. He was influenced by and a contemporary of Apollinaire, Picasso, Jean Cocteau, Max Jacob and Fernand Léger, and in turn was an important influence alongside Erik Satie on John Cage. Trying to differentiate himself from his increasingly famous artist-brother, Andrea adopted the penname Alberto Savinio in 1914, the same year he founded the musical movement Sincerismo (Sincerism). In 1915 he returned with his brother Giorgio back to Italy to enlist and ended up serving in the same military hospital as Carlo Carrà, where they formed the Schola Metafisica (Metaphysical School).
Both he and his brother were denounced by the fascist press for their pro-European attitude during the early 1930s after both returned from a period spent in France. In 1943 he also had to go into hiding after being denounced as an anti-fascist.

1900 - Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (b. 1844), German philosopher, poet, composer, cultural critic and classical philologist, dies. [see: Oct. 15]

1922 - Returning from a lecture tour, Ángel Pestaña, militant anarcho-syndicalist and CNT reformist, is ambushed by a right-wing death squad in the industrial town of Manresa, Catalonia, and seriously wounded.

1936 - Felicia Mary Browne (b. 1904), English artist and communist, is the first British volunteer to die in the Spanish Civil War. [see: Feb. 18]

1944 - Members of La Nueve take part in the fighting against the occupying Nazi forces in Paris, including in the Place de la République. [see: Aug. 24]

1944 - Abdulla Aliş (Alişev Ğabdullacan Ğäbdelbari ulı; b. 1908), Soviet Tatar poet, playwright, writer and resistance fighter, who wrote mostly novels for children, is guillotined with fellow resistance fighter and poet Musa Cälil (b. 1906) in Plötzensee prison. [see: Sep. 15 & Feb. 15]

[C] 1944 - Musa Cälil (Musa Mostafa ulı Cälilev; b. 1906), Soviet Tatar poet and resistance fighter, is guillotined with fellow resistance fighter and poet Abdulla Aliş (b. 1908) in Plötzensee prison. [see: Feb. 15 & Sep. 15]

1945 - The first issue of 'España Libre', "Organe du Comité de Relations de la Confédération Régionale du Centre en France (CNT-AIT)", is publsihed in Paris. Its headline article is entitled: "Que l'action des forces de la Résistance en Espagne inspire les antifascistes de l'exil." (The actions of the forces of resistance in Spain is an inspiration ot anti-fascists in exile.)

1962 - 200 communists and AJEX members break up a UM meeting in Leeds. [PR]

1982 - Ana María Cruzado Sánchez (b. 19??), Catalan anarcho-syndicalist militant and anti-fascist, dies. Born into a minltant family of CNT members in Andalucia, who moved to Barcelona whist she was still small. Her partner was the militant Cenetista Antonio Zapata Córdoba (1908-2000). At the end the Civil War, in February 1939, she went into exile in France, but later returned clandestinely and was arrested. Once released, she continued life as a clandestine militant in the CNT in Barcelona and was arrested again. Permanently exiled in France, she moved to Toulouse, where she participated in the freedom movement until her death. Her brother, Alfonso Cruzado Sánchez (1910-1983) was a CNT member in the Sindicat del Transport in Barcelona.

1990 - Julián Arrondo (b. 1917), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, dies. Born in Villafranca, Navarra, as a young man he moved to Barcelona, where he joined the Bonanova Juventudes Libertarias. During the Civil War, he was a militiaman in the Durruti Column on the Aragon front. Escaping to France in February 1939, he was interned in various camps and joined one of the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers. After his release, he became a forester on the Côte d'Or, settling in Dijon where he became the treasurer of the local fedeartion of the MLE/CNT in exile, as well as treasurer of the Dijon-Nevers region.

1997 - Miguel Alejandro Dilla (b. 1909), Spanish anarchist activist member of the FIJL, CNT and MLE, dies. During the Revolution of 1936, he took an active part in the organisation of the Collectivité de La Fresneda and in the Juventudes Libertarias. Exiled in France during the Retirada, he was interned in various camps. He then moved to Sabigny (Haute Marne) and continued to be active in the libertarian movement in exile until his death.

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: The funeral of Michael Brown takes place, Brown's family having asked that supporters suspend their protests for one day out of respect during the funeral proceedings.
1899 - René Lochu (d. 1989), French journeyman tailor, anarchist, syndicalist union activist and pacifist, born. His close friend Leo Ferre dedicated his song 'Les Etrangers' to him and contributed a freface and afterword to his autobiography 'Libertaires, Mes Compagnons de Brest et d'Ailleurs' (Libertarians, My Comrades in Brest and Elsewhere; 1983).

1905 - Severino Campos Campos (d. 2006), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. A member of the CNT since 1918 and a well-known FAI militant, he collaborated on the Valencian newspaper 'Solidaridad Obrera' and was one of its most important writers. He worked for thirty years in various rationalist schools of Catalonia, especially at the Rationalist School in the Torrassa district, run by the family Ocaña, one of whose members Igualdad, was his companion. Secretary of the Regional Committee of the Catalan FAI in June 1937, he was also a member of the group that drew up the paper adopted in plenary CNT-FAI in Catalonia of 14 March 1937 opening up particiaption in the Generalitat and helped create a political council within the unified Regional Committee of the CNT-FAI-FIJL. In 1936-37, along with Peirats and others, fought against CNT participation in the Generalitat and suffered threats from Garcia Oliver. During the Civil War he collaborated with the magazine 'Ideas', porgan of the Moviment Llibertari del Baix Llobregat, which denounced the degeneration of the revolution. After the war he went into exile in Mexico, returning to Spain after Franco's death of Franco returned to Spain, he lived in L'Hospitalet de Llobregat. In 1979 he was appointed director of Solidaridad Obrera and was editor between 1982 and 1983. In the nineties he returned to Mexico, leaving his personal archive to the Fundació Anselmo Lorenzo (FAL). He died aged 100 years and was buried with a red and black flag that covered his coffin.

1915 - Juan José Sacramento García (d. 1997), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, born. He started working at a young age as an apprentice baker and joined the CNT in Villena (Alicante) at the age of 15. Following Franco's coup d'état in July 1936, after participating in the fighting in Villena, he enlisted in the Columna España Libre and was sent to the Madrid front. His group of ccomrades assisted in the flight of the Republican government when they retreated to Valencia. In March 1939 he was taken prisoner in Alicante and was interned in the concentration camps at Los Almendros and d'Albatera before being transferred to Villena prison in Alicante, where he was sentenced to 30 years and interned at Dueso. Paroled in 1945, he moved to Barcelona where he worked as a baker and a wooden platform builder and became part of the clandestine CNT. It particular he helped his friend Ginés Camarasa García to hide and helped many wanted militants. After Franco's death he joined the CNT in L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, where he died on June 6, 1997.

1916 - José Iglesias Paz (d. 2006), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, born. on August 26, 1916 in Lobios (Ourense, Galicia). Moved to Sallent, Barcelona, to work in the potash mines, where his brother was already working. In 1935 joined the National Confederation of Labour (CNT) and the Juventudes Libertarias in Sallent, becoming its secretary. In July 1936, with the outbreak of the fascist military coup, he attended night school in order to take the entrance exam for the Post Office. He was immediately incorporated as a medical orderly into the Tierra y Libertad Column formed in the mining region of Upper Llobregat, and after a few weeks of training in Barcelona, ​​left for the Central front. He participated in various battles, including Talavera de la Reina, Toledo, San Martin de Valdeiglesias, Àvila.
In early 1937, after his column was militarised in the II Battalion of the 153th Mixed Brigade, he fought on the Aragon front, where he participated in the failed assault on Belchite. For a while José he was assigned, although reluctantly, to work in military censorship, working under the Stalinist Santiago Carillo. During the events of May 1937, he was forced to defend himself, with gun in hand, from a group of Stalinists who wanted to kill him and, with a few comrades, succeed win helping free his brother, a militant of the CNT, held in a communist prison.
In February 1939, during the withdrawal, he crossed the Pyrenees and was interned in the concentration camp at Saint Cyprien, from where he managed to escape 18 months later. For two months he worked in a mine in the area of ​​Lourdes, but after spending two months in hospital due to poisoning, ending up interned in the camp of Argelès. Two months later he managed to escape and found a job as a lumberjack. In 1942 he was arrested in Perpignan and forced to work in Bordeaux under the Service du Travail Obligatoire (STO). In October he was sent by train to Baden-Baden and then onto to Karlsruhe to work in a munitions factory. When he was released, he had to remain hospitalised three months recovering from malnutrition.
After the Second World War he returned to France and settled first in Paris and then in Lyon, where he played in the Movimiento Libertario Español (MLE) in exile and supporting the anarchist action groups leaving for Franco's Spain. In July 1948, as a delegate of the Legal Section of the CNT, he clandestinely crossed into the Peninsula to Roncesvalles, with the task of assisting (find lawyers, bribe judges, etc.). He was specifically in charge of aid and assistance to prisoners in Valencia, Barcelona, ​​Zaragoza and Madrid, settling in Terrassa, Barcelona. On May 3, 1950, having been denounced by the mother of one of his colleagues, he was arrested along with several members of action groups, including Silvio Aiguaviva Vila, Pedro Meca López, Ginés Urrea Piña and Santiago Amir Gruañas, and tortured for 17 days in the dungeons of the Direcció de Policia (Police Directorate).
On February 6, 1952, he was tried at a court martial, with thirty members and supporters of libertarian action groups, and sentenced to death, along with eight other companions. Five of them (Santiago Amir Gruañas, Pere Adrover Font, Jordi Pons Argilés, José Pérez Pedrero and Ginés Urrea Piña) were executed on March 14, 1952, and the remainder had their sentences commuted to 30 years in prison. For two years he remained locked in Barcelona's Modelo prison, where he was responsible for the library, and was then transferred to the prison of Dueso (Santoña). In 1961, following an amnesty, he was put on probation and went to Galicia, where he worked in municipal services in several locations (Ponferrada, Lugo, Vilalba, vilagarcía, etc..), But was always dismissed because of police harassment. In 1968 he married Pilar Rodriguez. Unable to find steady work, he went into exile in 1972 with his partner and her son George in Switzerland, settling first in Locarno and then Lugano, where in 1973 achieved the status of political refugee. He worked as a bricklayer and grocer and participated in the activities of the local anarchist movement, always in contact with the CNT and militants in the Italian section of the Lega Svizzera dei Diritti dell'Uomo (Swiss League of Human Rights).
Following the death of the dictator Francisco Franco, he regained the Spanish passport in July 2003 and finally returned to Galicia with his partner, settling in San Bieito and resuming contacts with the Galician CNT. The April 17, 2004 he participated in the Second 'Xornadas Cangas pola Memoria Común' (Cangas Days of Common Memory) and in November 2005, with Joaquina Dorado Pita and others, on the Libertarian Days Compostela. He also talks, participated in several local meetings and, on 05 January 2006, in the Antifascist Days II Lalin. Jose Iglesias Paz died on June 10, 2006 at the hospital in Ourense (Galicia) and was buried two days later in his hometown to many colleagues and after a speech of tribute paid by Rosa Bassave, secretary of the CNT de Compostela. He left unpublished autobiographical notes, parts of which were collected in the Italian edition of Albert Minnig's 'Diario di un volontario svizzero nella guerra di Spagna' (1986).

1922 - Cyril Paskin (d. 2011), British anti-fascist, who was a co-founder and later a field commander of the 1962 Committee or 62 Group, born. [expand]

1933 - Mussolini, in a speech before an audience of 2000, argues for the necessity for Italy to be a "military nation."

1936 - The Grup Sindical d'Escriptors Catalans (GSEC; Association of Catalan Writers Group) is established as part of the Sindicat d'Arts Gràfiques of the CNT, and later to the Sindicat Únic de la Ensenyança i Professions Liberals. Members include Jaume Balius Mir, Marc Benet, Manuel Cruells, Delfí Dalmau, Alexandre G. Gilabert, J. Guivernau Jané, Miquel Llor, Enric Lluelles, Carme Montoriol Puig, Víctor Mora, Anna Murià Romaní, Josep Maria Murià Romaní, Josep Pons Pagès, Dídac Ruíz, Joan Sallarès, Manuel Tarragó Romeu and Xavier Viura.

1937 - Santander falls to the Nationalists.

1944 - Members of La Nueve triumphantly march up the Champs-Elysées before the arrival of General De Gaulle. [see: Aug. 24]

[C] 1948 - Jeffrey Hamm, deputy leader of the UM, is hospitalised yet again after being hit by a brick as he tried to speak from on top of a speaker van at a meeting in Mile End. [PR]

1949 - Enrique Martinez Marin ('Quique'; b. 1927) and Celedonio García Casino (aka 'Celes' or 'el Largo'; b. 1922), anti-Francoist guerrillero members of José Luis Facerías' Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth (FIJL) group are ambushed (alongside 'Face', Antoni Franquesa Funoll and 2? others) and killed by the Guardia Civil ambush on the French frontier. [see: Apr. 14 & Dec. 25]

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: Following intelligence gained by (General Massu's chief of staff) Colonel Yves Godard's operatives, the troops of the 3e Régiment de Parachutistes d'Infanterie de Marine (3rd Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment) raid a house in the Impasse Saint-Vincent where Yacef Saâdi's new bomb-maker, Debbid Cherif aka 'Si Mourad', and his deputy, Hadj Athman aka 'Ramel', are believed to be hiding. After suffering several casualties trying to capture the two alive, both men were eventually shot dead, together with Benhafid Nourredine (Ramel's brother) and Amitouche Zahia, a 20 years old woman, who were hiding with them in the Lower Casbah.

1958 - Nuit Rouge: With the French papers full of the attacks all across the country, the Comité de Coordination et d'Exécution of the FLN announce that their military offensive on French territory has begun, claiming that the long-planned offensive was in response to the refusal of the French rulers to recognise the independence of the Algeria in the integrity of its territory, including the Sahara. "Le FLN entend d'ores et déjà affirmer solennellement que les civils ne seront pas visés, malgré la responsabilité quasi unanime du peuple français, complice par passivité de la poursuite barbare de la guerre d'Algérie… De nombreux Français ont prêté main forte aux gens de la répression et se sont livrés à plusieurs reprises à de véritables lynchages d'Algériens." (The FLN has already stated and reaffirms that the civilians will not be targetted, despite the almost unanimous responsibility of the French people, passively complicit in the barbaric continuing war in Algeria ... Many French people have lent a hand to the people carrying out the repression and have several times engaged in the lynching of Algerians.)

1972 - Juan López Sánchez (b. 1900), Spanish construction worker, anarcho-syndicalist, anarchist theorist, minister in the Generalitat and one of the founders of the 'treintistas' Federación Sindicalista Libertaria, dies. [see: Jan. 16]

1978 - José Expósito Leiva (b. 1918), Andalusian journalist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Jan. 4]

1982 - Ana María Cruzado Sánchez (b. 1907), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies. [see: Oct. 24]

1986 - Boris Franteschini (b. 1914), Italo-Australian farm lobourer, logger, anarchist activist and anti-fascist, dies. Born in the USA, his family of Italian immigrants anarchists returned to Italy when he was 7 years old, but with the rise of Mussolini's fascism and the repression against militants that followed , the family emigrated to Australia in 1927. He was involved in the fight against fascism and, in particular, providing support (moral and financial) to libertarians who continued to fight in Italy and Spain, and to the refugee victims of Francoism.

1987 - Domingo Díaz Ferrer (b. c.1908), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and railway worker, dies. Member of the Federació Nacional de la Indústria Ferroviària (FNIF; National Federation of Railway Industry) of the CNT. Following the fascist uprising in July 1936, he represented the CNT on the Comissió d'Ordre Públic (Public Order Commission) of Alicante. Shortly after he voluntered for the militia and became an organiser of the medical corps of the Iron Column. On November 20, 1936, he was one of the witnesses at the execution of the Falangist José Antonio Primo de Rivera. From February 1937 he represented the Iberian Anarchist Federation (FAI), was a member of the Provincial Council of Valencia and was later appointed Commissioner of Health of Valencia hospitals. At the end of the war he managed to reach Algeria and in 1945 became a pastry maker in Oran. At that time he was appointed head of the Interim Regional Committee of the FNIF in North Africa and political secretary of the Departmental Committee for North Africa of the CNT in exile. After Algerian independence, he settled in Nice (Provence, Aquitaine), where he worked remained active in the CNT and worked on the Parisian newspaper 'Frente Libertario' (Libertarian Front).

2006 - Renato Biagetti, a 26-year-old Italian antivist in the Rome social centre movement in Rome, is murdered in Fiumicino, near Rome. Renato, who frequented the Acrobax project, where his brother was involved too, had been at a reggae party in Fiumicino, near Rome. After the concert, he and his friends had climbed into their car prior to heading home, when a metallic gray car approached them. After a brief exchange of words ("It's over the party?. Yes? So why do not you go to Rome?!") one of the two Nazis stabbed Renato three times in the chest. He died and his girlfriend and another friend were injured in the attack.
1871 - Theodore Herman Albert Dreiser (d. 1945), American novelist, poet and journalist of the naturalist school, born. A socialist who was involved in a number of social justice campaigns including Sacco and Vanzetti, against the deportation of Emma Goldman (whose writings he regarded as "the richest of any woman’s of the century"), the conviction of the trade union leader Tom Mooney and was involved with the National Committee for the Defence of Political Prisoners. He joined the American Communist Party shortly before his death.

1906 - Julien Francois Gabriel Toublet (d. 1991), French jewellry worker and militant anarcho-syndicalist, as was his son Jacky Toublet, born. Active during the Spanish Revolution recruiting volunteers to fight, fundraising, coordinating the purchase and supply of arms, etc. In 1939, he was commissioned by the CNT-FAI to organise a Rescue Committee that visited the refugee camps. [expand]

[C] 1906 - Bjarne Dalland (d. 1943), Norwegian trade unionist, politician and communist resistance member, born. Bergen dock worker, steward of the local trade union, leader of the Young Communist League of Norway (1929-30), and a member of the central committee of the Communist Party. During the Nazi occupation, he was in charge of organising the illegal activities of the Communist Party in Western Norway. Arrested by the Nazis in 1940, and imprisoned for six months at the Ulven concentration camp, he was arrested for the second time on September 8, 1942, and imprisoned in the Grini concentration camp and Møllergata 19. He was sentenced to death in a trial on 27 February 1943, along with eight prisoners from Odda. In the same trial his brother Hans was sentenced to ten years imprisonment in Germany. On March 1, 1943 he was executed at Trandum. An SS police press release, titled 'Dødsdom over 17 nordmenn', appeared in Norwegian newspapers. Dalland's name was included on the list among seventeen persons who had been sentenced to death and executed.

1911 - Władysław Głuchowski (d. 1941), Polish teacher, anarcho-syndicalist activist and anti-Nazi fighter, born. 1931-1932 editor of 'Życie Uniwersyteckie' (University Life) in Poznan, activist of Zwiazek Polskiej Mlodziezy Demokratycznej (ZPMD; Union of Polish Democratic Youth), graduated from the History Faculty. After his studies he worked as a teacher in Belorussian secondary school in Wilnus [Vilna]. 1934-1939 anarcho-syndicalist activist in ZZZ (Union of Workers Unions). At the same time member of Anarchistyczna Federacja Polski (AFP: Anarchist Federation of Poland). Published in 'Front Robotniczy' (Workers’ Front, newspaper of ZZZ). In 1935 became a section secretary of ZZZ in Krakow. Arrested January 10, 1937, after rally in Chrzanow, accused of calling for overthrow of the state. In October 1937 acquitted by the court after police and workers’ testimony. 1937-1939 secretary of section of ZZZ in Czestochowa. Strike organiser. Initiator of many workers common-rooms in Upper Silesia and people’s house in Czestochowa. With the lawyer Zygmunt Choldyk was an initiator of underground Polski Związek Wolności (PZW: Polish Association of Freedom). In 1940 joined Syndykalistyczna Organizacja 'Wolnosc' (Syndicalist Organization 'Freedom'). June 12, 1940, arrested by the Gestapo and send to Sachsenhausen concentration camp. January 12, 1941, died of infected wounds as prisoner no.17710. He left a daughter, Helen.

1940 - Manuel Pérez Feliu (b. 1892), Spanish cabinetmaker, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, is shot by a Phalangist firing squad. [see: Aug. 27]

1960 - Curt Corrinth (b. 1894), German Expressionist poet, novelist, dramatist, screenwriter and 'Bohemian anarchist', dies. His play 'Trojaner' (Trojans), a staunch critique of German anti-Sematism, caused controversy following its 1929 première in Berlin. [see: Feb. 20]

1976 - Ángel Continente Saura (b. 1901), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, dies in Saint-Paul-de-Jarrat. Born in Velilla de Ebro, Zaragoza, he moved to Barcelona at a young age, working in the port handling coal cargoes and joined the Transport section of the CNT. On December 17, 1931, he was arrested, along with comrades Antoni Anglès, Ismael Montoliu, Josep Balaguer Salvador and Felip Cano Pallarès, for the possession of a gun during a shootout between guards and workers during a transport strike at the western dock in Barcelona, in which the worker Luis Menéndez García was killed. On March 10, 1932 whilst still in Barcelona prison, he ​​signed a manifesto against Ángel Pestaña and the trentiste strategy. In July 1937 he was elected member of the Board of the Secció del Carbó Mineral del Sindicat de les Indústries d'Aigua, Gas, Electricitat i Combustibles (Coal Mineral Section of the Union of Industries of Water, Gas, Electricity and Fuels) in the Catalan CNT. In 1939 and the Fascist victory, he crossed the Pyrenees and was interned in various concentration camps. After WWII, he lived in Paris, where he was an active member of the Local Federation of the CNT, and between 1959 and 1960, he worked in the Parisian magazine 'Nervio'. He was also a member of the FAI group 'Los sin pasaporte' along with José Pascual Palacios, Jesús Imbernón, Bernabé Esteban, Olavarri, Josep Rossell, J. Martínez, etc.

1976 - Raymond Lachèvre (b. 1894), French militant anti-militarist, anarchist and syndicalist, dies. [see: Apr. 30]

2001 - Juan Gómez Casas (b. 1921), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, anarchist, underground militant, writer and historian, who was the first post-Franco Secretary General of the CNT, dies. Born in Bordeaux into a family of Spanish anarcho-syndicalists, who had emigrated for economic reasons, with proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931, his family returned to the Iberian Peninsula. After college, he joined his father as a member of the CNT (Chemical Industry section of Miscellaneous Crafts Guild) and, from 1936, the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL) in Madrid. During the civil war, he was appointed secretary of the FIJL in the Retiro district and had articles published in the CNT paper 'Castilla Libre'. In April 1938, he joined the 39th Mixed Brigade of the Republican Army and fought on the Teruel front for three months. With the triumph of Franco, he was arrested in the port of Alicante and interned in the Albatera concentration camp, but managed to escape from a juvenile prison. Returning to Madrid, he took up the clandestine struggle with the FIJL. Member of the Sindicat de la Construcció in the CNT and was an anti-collaborationist.
In 1947, he was elected as the Secretary General of the Juventudes Libertarias del Centro in Toulouse, France. Upon his return to Spain, he was arrested with his partner (María del Carmen Martínez Herranz) and his sons. In a search of his home they discovered the printing press used for the clandestine publishing of 'Tierra y Libertad' and 'Juventud Libre'. In July 1948, he was sentenced to 30 years in prison for "membership in illegal organization". On February 6 1956, he made a failed escape attempt and was finally freed from prison in 1962 and went on to work as an antiques painter, a trade he learned in prison, and was an accountant for a Madrid hotel. Despite having no formal education, he wrote many books, including 'Historia del anarcosindicalismo español' (The history of Spanish Anarcho-syndicalism; 1968), 'Historia de la FAI' (The history of the FAI; 1977) and other historical books that are still considered classical texts. He even translated the classic book 'Moby Dick' into Spanish. He also wrote under the pseudonyms of Jacques de Gaulle (for dectective novels, etc.) and Benjamín.
During the late 1960s, he was a member of the Grup Anselmo Lorenzo in Madrid, alongside Mariano Trapero, Pedro Amijeiras, Florentino Rodríguez and Pedro Barrios, and, among other things, published in Paris in 1969 the anti-Marxist dicussion document 'Manifest Llibertari' and the pamphlet 'Problemas presentes y futuros del sindicalismo revolucionario en España' (Present and Future Problems of Revolutionary Unionism in Spain; 1969). In the seventies, he became one of the leading representatives of the CNT during its reorganisation and its first post-Franco secretary, from August 1976 to April 1978.
1892 - Augustin Souchy (d. 1984), German journalist, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, born. He became an anarchist at a very young age after reading Gustav Landauer and, in 1911, he went to Berlin, where the 19 year old Souchy met Karl Liebknecht, Clara Zetkin, Gustav Landauer, and other revolutionaries. At the outbreak of war in 1914, Souchy was in Vienna where he was arrested and deported to Germany. At the top of his arrest warrant were the words: "Beware! Anarchist!", which would become the title of his 1977 autobiography. From Germany he went to Sweden to escape conscription. There he was arrested for problems with his passport but managed to escape and cross over into Denmark and Norway clandestinely. Back in Sweden, in 1917, he took the opportunity of the fact that sick and wounded German soldiers on their way home from the Russian front having to change trains in Stockholm, handing out an anti-war pamphlet, 'Warum?', which he had written to the soldiers. Arrested and expelled from the country, only to return with the aid of a false passport. However, he is arrested whilst traveling to Copenhagen in 1919 and imprisoned for 6 months, time he uses to learn Swedish and to write the first book in that language about the recently assassinated Gustav Landauer.
Returning to Germany in late 1919, he joined the Freien Arbeiter Union Deutschland (FAUD), becoming the editor of its journal, 'Der Syndicalist' (from 1922-33). In 1920, he traveled to Russia for the Congress of the Third International, meeting Victor Serge, Zinoviev and Lenin. "I had expected from the social revolution more than a mere replacement of the tsarist autocracy by an authoritarian party dictatorship." During his stay, he spent 6 months visiting Kropotkin, who was then still at liberty, who warned him against the use of an authoritarian political party as an instrument with which to gain power. Six months later, in March 1921 came the suppression of the Kronstadt uprising, and followed by a wave of terror which compelled many SRs, syndicalists and anarchists to leave the "mother country of the world revolution." On his return, he wrote a highly critical book, 'Reise nach Russland 1920' (Travel to Russia 1920), about the Soviet regime. In 1922, he helped form the International Workers' Association (IWA/AIT) and, along with Rudolph Rocker and Alexander Schapiro, was one of three secretaries of the new organisation, which was set up to counter the Bolshevik Profintern (Red International of Labour Unions). Between 1924 and 1926, he was responsible for writing much of 'Die Internationale', the FAUD theoreical journal, and went on to write a number of important books including 'Sacco und Vanzetti' and 'Schreckensherrschaft in Amerika' (Reign of terror in America), both 1927. As a representative of the IWA, he went to Argentina in 1929 to take part in a Congress of Latin American anarcho-syndicalists in Buenos Aires. During his stay, he also undertook a lecture tour in Uruguay. In this period he also met Durruti for the first time and began to pay regualr visits to Spain on IWA business.
On his return from South America, he became involved in the burgeoning anti-fascist movement but, following the Reichstag fire, which was immediately followed by the arrest of Erich Mühsam, life for Souchy and other radicals became increasingly dangerous. Shortly after the fire, he was attacked by three young men in front of his house in Wilmersdorf. He managed to break free and, heeding the warning, escaped to France.
"When I was on the train taking me to Paris, people were glued to the Berlin newspaper columns with pictures of wanted anti-Nazis, including my own ... on Germany a bloody curtain had fallen. My second emigration would last longer than the first."
He settled in Paris, earning a living as a freelance journalist, working mainly for the foreign press and especially for Swedish newspapers, for one of whom he wrote the anti-Nazi polemic 'Die braune Pest' (The Brown Palgue). Just before the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, he was invited by the CNT to speak at a mass meeting in Barcelona against the impending war. Instead of the rally, he arrived in time for the military coup and ended up staying in Spain for 3 years. Handed a weapon, he waved it around, claiming not to know what to do with it: "Only for the present, the word is also a weapon, soon there will be other tasks to perform." On the evening of the third day of fighting, Augustin took to the airwaves on Radio Barcelona to announce the victory of the revolutionaries. He was soo appointed head of external relations (Information in Foreign Languages) and political advisor of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo and tried to organise getting money and arms from France for the CNT-FAI including an unsuccessful trip on behalf of the CNT to Paris at the end of August 1936 to negotiate with Léon Blum, the former Socialist Prime Minister. Later, he wrote his most influential books on collectivization in Anarchist Catalonia - 'Die Bauern von Aragon' (The Peasants of Aragon; 1937) and 'Nacht über Spanien: Anarcho-Syndikalisten in Revolution und Bürgerkrieg 1936-39. Ein Tatsachenbericht; 1955' (Night over Spain: Anarcho syndicalism in revolution and civil war 1936-39. A factual report; 1955). He also wrote 'The Tragic Week in May', one the few firsthand accounts of the Barcelona May Days of 1937 available.
After the defeat of the Spanish Revolution in 1939, Souchy attempted to return to France. On the trip north, his refugee column was strafed by enemy aircraft and he broke his arm saving a small girl from falling under the wheels of a car. A doctor requisioned him a car and he managed to make it to Paris without being interned. War was yet to break out and he spent times working as a correspondent for various Swedish and American newspapers again. At the start of WWII, German citizens were interned, being sent to a prison camp in the interior but, having a French wife, was released. This provision was eventually repealed and he ended up in a warehouse on the Brittany coast. The Wehrmacht took Paris and proceeded to the Channel coast. When they were in sight of the camp, Augustin managed to persuade the camp commander to give him and other political or Jewish camp inmates the opportunity to escape. He had spent nearly two years in various prison camps and now made his way by bicycle to Marseilles, hoping to escape the country. From there he manage to make it to Mexico. "Mexico meant the end of insecurity, persecution and threats., I took the opportunity offered."
Mexico in 1942 was now one of the main centres for Spanish Civil War exiles, and there Augustine found a trade union organisation that was very close to the anarcho-syndicalist ideals. During the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas (1934-40), hundreds of farms, factories, mines and service companies had been taken over by the workers and were still run as cooperatives. For some of these he advised on agricultural iniatives. He also traveled as a lecturer throughout the country and help the unions in educational work. In Loma Bonita, in the house of an old friend, who had also fought in Spain, he found for more than ten years of a new home. Invited by the Movimento Libertario Cubano, he travelled in February 1948 to Havana, where he attended its Congress and used the opportunity to study and went on a lecture tour of the inland, returning after four months to Mexico. This was the beginning of an extensive period of travels, his "student revolution", as he often called the next 20 years: to Germany, Sweden, ,the United States, ,all countries of Latin America, from Mexico to Chile, as representative of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions to Madagascar, to Yugoslavia, Israel (studying the kibbutzim), Italy, studying and lecturing. "The direct study of economic innovations in revolutionary countries and their practical functioning, so to speak, I had made my specialty."
In May 1951, the exile organisation of the Spanish anarcho-syndicalists in Toulouse organised an international congress of the IWA. Augustine attended as delegate of the Föderation Freiheitlicher Sozialisten Deutschlands (German Federation of Libertarian Socialists Deutschalnds), a successor FAUD and in which Rudolf Rocker and Helmut Rüdiger were also involved. In 1963, he was commissioned by the International Labour Office in Geneva as an educational expert to travel round Jamaica, Honduras, Venezuela, Chile, Uruquay and Ethiopia for 3 years as an educational expert. In 1966, at the ripe old age of 74, he returned to Germany. - "When I had crossed the threshold of the biblical age, I had to remember to make me settle down." He went on to write extensively (both jouranlsim and numerous books), appeared regularly on the radio, attended conferences and workshops and appeared in the documentary 'Kleinen Fernsehspiel', broadcast a month after his death from Pneumonia aged 91 on January 1, 1984. There was no funeral and no grave - Augustin had bequeathed his body to science.

1904 - Agustín Remiro Manero (d. 1942), Spanish commander of one of the Durruti Column's machine-gun battalions, born. He was captured, tortured, then killed during an attempted prison escape. [expand]

1918 - Ramón Liarte Viu (d. 2004), Spanish anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist militant, autodictat, journalist and writer, born. Born in Almudébar, Huesca, his poor working class family moved to Barcelona whilst he was a child. During the Second Spanish Republic to become the general secretary of the Juventudes Libertarias of Catalonia. During the fascist uprising of July 1936, he was caught working in Jaca as a waiter and crossed the Pyrenees into Catalonia via Seu d'Urgell. He fought at the front in the Durruti Column and later in the 26th Division, becoming the editor of its newspaper 'El Frente'. In February 1937, at the Second Congress of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL) held in Valencia, was appointed secretary of the organisation. Also in June of that year, following the plenary session of the Cataln Regional Committee of the CNT, he was appointed as its secretary, a position he held until September of that year. On July 21, 1927, he participated in the CNT-organised rally held at the Olympia in Barcelona, along with Federica Montseny, Francisco Isgleas and Joaquim Cortes, to protest against the events of the Hecho de Mayo 1937 and the the repression that followed, and defending the FIJL's opposition to the Stalinist counter-revolution. In February 1938, following the Second Congress, he was appointed Secretary of the Organización del Comité Peninsular of the FIJL and later made secretary of the Organización del Comité Peninsular of the FAI. In March 1939, he joined the Comité de Coordinación y Defensa (Defence Coordination Committee) in opposition to the Consejo General del Movimiento Libertario Español (General Council of the Spanish Libertarian Movement; MLE).
With the fascist victory, he crossed into France and was held in various prisons (El Templo, Fresnes, Roland Corvejones, etc.) and concentration camps (Vernet, etc.). In 1942, he managed to escape the Algeria camp at Djelfa. He then fought in the French Résistance and participated in a failed attempt to invade the mainland via the Basque Country. He was also arrested during a clandestine crossing into Spain and held in Cuevas de Almanzora, Almería and Granada prisons. Once freed, he returned to France, where he helped rebuild the MLE whilst hodling various post in the moderate i.e. collaborationist wing of the movement. In 1951 he was delegate to the Congress of the International Workers Association (IWA), was secretary of the Subcomité pro España and was proposed as a potential minister in a possible Republican coalition goverment. In 1955 he replaced Miguel Sebastián Vallejo as Secretary General of the collaborationist wing of the CNT. In 1957, he was appointed chair of the Alianza Sindical de España designed to united the anti-Francoist activities of the CNT, Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT) and Sindicato de Trabajadores Vascos (STB). In 1962, he was made the Cultural Secretary of the CNT in Toulouse and went on to direct 'Solidaridad Obrera' between 1980 and 1982, following on from his editorship of 'España Libre', 'Esfuerzo', 'Estudios' and 'El Frente' at various times.
A prolific author, also writing under the pseudonyms 'Rotaeche' and 'Rali', he wrote for various newspaper and magazine, contributed to and wrote numerous pamphlets and books, including: 'AIT: La Internacional del sindicalismo revolucionario' (AIT: The International of revolutionary syndicalism); 'Estudio de la revolución española' (A Study of the Spanish Revolution); 'Voces juveniles: Interpretación àcrata de nuestra revolución' (The Voice of Youth: Our Interpretation of the anarchist revolution; 1937, with others); 'La CNT y los pueblos de España' (CNT and the people of Spain); 'La revolución social española' (The Spanish social revolution; 1975); 'La CNT y el federalismo de los pueblos de España' (CNT and the federalism of the peoples of Spain; 1977); 'La lucha del hombre: Anarcosindicalismo' (The struggle of man: Anarchosyndicalism; 1977); 'La CNT al servicio del pueblo' (CNT in the Service of the People; 1978); 'Marxismo, socialismo y anarquismo' (Marxism, Socialism and Anarchism; 1978); 'La sociedad federal' (Federal Society; 1989); 'Fermín Salvochea "El libertador"' (Fermín Salvochea "The Liberator"; 1991); and 'Bakunin, la emancipación del pueblo' (Bakunin, the emancipation of the people; 1995), etc. However, his most famous works are probably the 'Los pasos del tiempo' (The steps of time) trilogy - 'El camino de la libertad' (The Road to Freedom; 1983), '¡Ay de los vencedores!' (Woe to the winners!; 1985) and 'Entre la revolucion y la guerra' (Between Revolution and War; 1986) - a largely autobiographical account of the Civil War in which this fictional protagonist, Ramiro Rueda, travels the winding paths of Spanish history from the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera to exile.

1918 - Elizaveta 'Liza' Chaikina (Елизаве́та Ча́йкина; d. 1941), wartime Soviet partisan and guerrilla unit organiser, born. Liza Chaikina went on intelligence collecting missions into enemy-occupied towns and villages. In November 1941 Liza was spotted by a turncoat while on a guerrilla commander's mission and was caught by the Nazis in a safehouse Kuprovyh. The family sheltering her is shot. After terrible torture by the Nazis, who wanted her to disclose the location of the guerrilla unit, she revealed nothing and was shot on November 23, 1941 in Chaikin Peno.

[BB] 1921 - Fernando Fernán-Gómez (d. 2007), Argentine-born Spanish actor, screenwriter, film director, theatre director, novelist, anarcho-syndicalist and lifelong anarchist, born. He attended a CNT-organised Escuela de Actores (Actors College) in Madrid during the Revolution and was involved with the CNT-AIT for the rest of his life. He directed 30 or so films and acted in over 200, including Pedro Almodóvar's 'Todo Sobre mi Madre' (All About My Mother; 1999); José Luis Cuerda's 'La Lengua de las Mariposas' (Butterfly's Tongue; 1999) and Víctor Erice's 'El Espíritu de la Colmena' (The Spirit of the Beehive; 1973). He also wrote the play 'Las Bicicletas son Para el Verano' (Bicycles Are for the Summer) in 1984 (and released as a popular film in the same year, directed by Jaime Chávarri), which deals with the effects of Spanish Civil War on citizens of Madrid.

1936 - The Italian section of the Ascaso Column repulse an attack by fascist forces at Monte Pelado, near Huesca, Aragon.

1936 - Michele Centrone (b. 1879), Italain carpenter, anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, is shot in the head and dies during the Battle of Monte Pelado on the Aragon front, between Huesca and Almudébar (Aragon, Spain), one of the first Italians to fall there. [see: Dec. 30]

1936 - Fosco Falaschi (b. 1899), Italian brickmaker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, is shot in the stomach and dies during the Battle of Monte Pelado on the Aragon front, between Huesca and Almudébar (Aragon, Spain), one of the first Italians to fall there. [see: Nov. 21]

1936 - Vincenzo Perrone (b. 1899), Italian railway worker, sales representative and anarchist, dies during the Battle of Monte Pelado on the Aragon front, between Huesca and Almudébar (Aragon, Spain), one of the first Italians to fall there. [see: Jan. 25]

1936 - Ricardo Naval Pimentel (b. ca. 1906), Andalucían merchant and anarchist, born Born in Chipiona, he was the third of eight children. Member of the Nuevo Horizonte union, affiliated to the CNT, the Guardia Civil labelled him as a "downright leftist and member of the Popular Front whose behavior leaves much to be desired." Arrested by marauding fascists, he was shot on the morning of August 28, 1936 in Cuesta Blanca, the road between Chipiona and Sanlúcar de Barrameda along with 4 other people: Segundo Alonso Leira, a fellow member of Nuevo Horizonte, the CNT and the FAI; Domingo Caro Blanco, member of the CNT and its onetime president; Antonio Rey Lora (Antoñito Iglesias), of the PSOE; and Manuel Ruiz Sáenz, of the PCE. He left a wife, Ursula Santos Galafate, and son, Augustus.
His brother, Eduardo Naval Pimentel, a travelling trader and CNT member, was also executed on December 8, 1936 near Rota, and his sister, Elvira Naval Pimentel was stripped naked and purged with castor oil [a standard Spanish torture regularly used in its prisons].

1941 - Joan Dalmau Ferran aka Joan de la Castanyola (b. 1907), Catalan farmer, Master builder and anarcho-syndicalsit militant, born. Member of the CNT, dies in the Gusen concentration camp (aka Mauthausen II) in Austria. [see: Jan. 11]

1954 - Marius (Alexandre) Jacob (b. 1879), French anarchist illegalist burglar who was the inspiration for Maurice Leblanc's fictional gentleman thief and detective Arsène Lupin, takes his own life with an overdoes of morphine. [see: Sep. 29]

1957 - Ramon Plarromaní Mas aka 'Romaní' (b. 1892), Catalan textile worker and anarcho-syndicalist, dies from problems associated with his poorly healed chest (lung) wound sustained in the 1920s. [see: Aug. 28]

1962 - Colin Jordan, leader of the British National Socialist Movement, his deputy and the NSM national secretary John Tyndall, Ian Kerr-Ritchie, a "research officer", and Dennis Pirie, assistant national secretary, are ordered to stand trial on charges of violation of the Public Order Act.

1967 - Alfons Vila i Franquesa (b. 1897), Spanish cartoonist, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. Better known as 'Joan Baptista Acher' or 'Shum', how he signed his paintings and drawings, and by his friends as 'el Poeta'. His cartoons regularly appeared in the Barcelona press including 'Papitu', 'L’Esquella de la Torratxa', 'L’Opinió' and 'La Humanitat'. [expand]

1972 - Louis Montgon aka 'Vérité' (b. 1885), French labourer, artisan watchmaker, anarchist propagandist, militant anarcho-syndicalist in the CGTU, dies. [see: Mar. 26]

1982 - 'The Voice', "Britain's best black newspaper", is launched.

1986 - Elvi Aulikki Sinervo-Ryömä (b. 1912), Finnish working-class writer, novelist, poet, dramatist, translator, translator, anti-fascist and post-war member of the Suomen Kommunistisessa Puolueessa (SKP; Communist Party of Finland), dies. [see: May 4]

[C] 2010 - Having announced plans for 'The [next] Big One' in Bradford and (as usual) been banhned from marching, the local police insist that the EDL assemble in Halifax, from where they will be bussed into Bradford on police-hired coaches. Even before the EDL had made it into Bradfoed, they started fighting with the cops, and many never made it to the city. Meanwhile, as static demonstration was set up in the city's Urban Gardens, where the UAF counter protesters were outnumbered by the nationalists. The latter tried to surge towards the UAF lines and the hundereds on local Asian youths harranging them.
According to the BBC: "Riot police managed to force a 1,000 strong crowd of right-wing demonstrators back into a field in the city centre while at the same time moving local shoppers and counter-protesters out of missile range and back into nearby streets." This developed into a full-scale battle between the fash and the cops: "Riot police managed to force a 1,000 strong crowd of right-wing demonstrators back into a field in the city centre while at the same time moving local shoppers and counter-protesters out of missile range and back into nearby streets."
"During the protests, nearly 100 EDL supporters climbed over the 8ft (2.4m) barricade to get on to neighbouring waste ground [Westfield development site] from where they threw missiles at police. Other EDL supporters threw bottles, cans and stones over the barricade towards their UAF opponents gathered opposite Urban Gardens, shortly after 1400 BST.
A smoke bomb was also thrown over the temporary 8ft-high wall separating the two groups, landing on the ground and exploding by uniformed police officers." [BBC News]
Yet only thirteen EDL supporters were arrested by the 1,300 cops on duty. Compare that to the 54 UAF-affiliated protesters arrested in Bolton on March 20th earlier on in the year at a far less violent event. [PR]

2012 - Isidre Guàrdia Abella aka Leopoldo Arribas, 'Codine', Juan Lorenzo, 'Viriato', Juan Ibérico, 'Isigual', etc. (b. 1921), Spanish writer, autodictat, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Jun. 15]
1933 - Tomás Granado Pozo, Spanish anarchist, Esperantist and poet, born. In 2007 he published a book of his poems 'Gotes de Poesías. Desde el Languedoc a Extremadura' (Drops of Poetry. From the Languedoc to Extremadura).

[B] 1933 - Pietro Valpreda (d. 2002), Italian dancer, writer and anarchist, who was one of those wrongly accused of the Piazza Fontana bombing, born. He grew up in Milan and was involved in the Circolo la Gioventù Libertaria (Libertarian Youth Cicle), alongside Giuseppe Pinelli, and later the Circolo Ponte della Anarchica Ghisolfa (Anarchist Circle of the Ghisolfa Bridge). Moving to Rome, he frequented the Circolo Bakunin, later helping form the more confrontational Circolo 22 Marzo (believed to largely be a tool of the State, controlled by the intelligence services via the neo-fascist infiltrator and provocateur Mario Merlino). An ideal target to use as a cover for the fascist bombing of Milan's Piazza Fontana on December 12 1969, which left 16 dead and 88 injured, and the group was rounded up with Valpreda's arrested on Dec. 15. Vilified in the press, he languished in jail awaiting trial for 3 years. Eventually released in 1972, it would not be until 1979 that he was acquitted and officially declared innocent in 1985. It would not be until 2001, the year before Valpreda died, that Delphi Zorzi, Carlo Maria Maggi, Giancarlo Rognoni and Stephen Tringali will be found guilty of the bombing (Zorzi, Maggi and Rognoni's convictions were later overturned and Tringali's sentence reduced).

[C] 1942 - Occupation officials in the East inform Berlin that the "Jewish problem" has been "totally solved" in Serbia. Since German occupation, 14,500 of Serbia's 16,000 Jews have been murdered.

1953 - Juan Naranjo (b. unknown), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. Active in the Sindicat del Vidre (Glassworkers Union) of the CNT in Gijón, Asturias and, from 1937, in the group Solidaridad, part of the FAI. During the Civil War he was an alternate on behalf of the FAI on the Tribunal Popular (People's Court) and was part of the local committee of anarchist organisation. When Asturias was occupied by fascist troops, the boat he was escaping was intercepted at sea by the Fascist battleship Cervera and he was interned in a concentration camp. After many years of imprisonment, he settled in Barcelona.

1957 - Juan José Luque Argenti (b. 1890), Spanish civil engineer and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 22]

1958 - Notting Hill Riots: During the summer of 1958, Notting Hill had become the centre of increasing racist violence as gangs of Teddy Boys began roaming the street attacking anyone who was black, as well as targetting Caribbean shops and businesses. Against that background, a minor incident took place - an argument between a husband and wife outside Latimer Road Tube Station - that would ultimately lead to a week of racially-motivated violence in the district. The argument was between a Swedish woman and ex-sex worker, Majbritt Morrison, and her husband, Raymond Morrison, a West Indian painter and pimp.
There already had been some tension between the neighborhood and Ray, who had had his windows smashed recently, and when a white crowd began racially abusing Ray, obviously thinking they were defending Majbritt, she turned on the abusers, who then turned on her, calling her a "nigger lover". Some of Ray's West Indian friends then turned up and suffles broke out, though no one was seriously injured.

1985 - Lise Børsum (Milly Elise Børsum; b.1908), Norwegian resistance member during WWII and survivor of Ravensbrück concentration camp, best known for her books on her experiences as a prisoner and on the characteristics of concentration camps, both Nazi and Soviet, dies. [see: Sep. 18]

1999 - Juan Andrés Álvarez Ferreras aka Íbero Galo (b. 1916), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, Civil War and Résistance fighter, dies in Los Angeles. Born in France, the son of an emigrant anarchist who, in 1931, with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic, returned with his family to Spain and settled in Tolosa in the Basque Country. In this city he worked as a hairdresser and various members of his family were active libertarians and during the Republican years he actively participated in anarchist agitation. Following the revolutionary events of October 1934, it was imprisoned for a few months in Ondarreta and Irun. Also as a result of the transport strike in the Basque Country, he was jailed for three months in Ondarreta prison. Following the fascist uprising in July 1936, he fought in San Sebastian, Bilbao, Irun and Santander in the Batalló Malatesta, until he was captured by Italian forces when they occupied Santander. After passing through several workers battalions (working on the reconstruction of Belchite, etc.), in 1941 he was repatriated to France, where he was born and imprisoned in Fort Montluc in Lyon on charges of deserting from the French Army. Then he was sent as a forced labourer to Germany, where he remained until the end of WWII. Once freed in 1945, he collaborated in the reorganisation of the Local Federation of the CNT in Exile in Montlucon (Aquitaine) and was an activist in the Cultura y Acción group of the FAI, with his brother Félix and Salvador Fernández Canto. From 1952 he lived in Canada, first in Quebec, where he worked at Lake St. John, and then in Calgary. In 1962, he moved to Los Angeles and remained active in the American libertarian movement. He also collaborated, under his pseudonym, on numerous anarchist periodicals, such as 'Centi', 'Le Combat Syndicaliste', 'La Escuela Moderna', 'L'Espoir', etc..

2006 - Pedro Fernández Eleta aka 'El Taxista' (b. 1919), Spanish taxi driver, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, dies. [see: Jun. 29]
1887 - Adam Kuckhoff (d. 1943), German writer, journalist and member of the anti-Nazi Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, born. He and his wife Greta were involved with Arvid and Mildred Harnack and the Red Orchestra. He was arrested in Prague on September 12, 1942, following the arrests of Harnack and many other members of the organization. He was executed at Plötzensee Prison on August 5, 1943.

1888 - Ramón Acin Aquilué (d. 1936), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, professor, writer and avant-garde artist (painter, sculptor, cartoonist), born. Involved with the CNT and imprisoned for his support of political prisoners. A friend of film director Luis Buñuel, he helped finance 'Las Hurdes: Tierra Sin Pan' (1932), with money he won on the lottery, and is credited as co-producer on the film.

1900 - José Ledo Limia (d. 1977), Galician anarchist agitator and Civil War fighter, born. During the Great War, he emigrated to Rio de Janeiro and later travelled to Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Peru. In 1919 he was expelled from Argentina and returned to the Peninsula as a stowaway. He returned to Spain as a stowaway and was arrested in Vigo. He joined the army in the wake of the Anual military disaster (Morocco) and served for several years as a gunner in Africa (1921-25).
Later he travelled to Havana and on to Mexico (1925-26) and worked in the United States (Pennsylvania). It was in the USA that he came into contact with A. Quintas who introduced him to anarchism. A short time after that he was deported to Spain over his involvement in the Sacco-Vanzetti campaign.
He arrived in a Spain under the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and spent several months in prison. Later he lived in hiding but was very active, amongst other things helping to set up the social Ateneo in Madrid.
During the republic he worked for the Transmediterrnea shipping line (travelling to Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay) acting as a liaison between anarchists on both sides of the Atlantic (smuggling militants and propaganda materials). He gave up the sea after a trip to Fernando Poo when he nearly died of malaria. He was intensely active then in Barcelona and Madrid; the uprising in Asturias in 1934 found him up to his neck in the revolution and he was jailed along with Fosco Falaschi and Benigno Mancebo. He was released on parole in mid-1935 (although some people claim that he was sentenced to death and released under the amnesty in 1936). Thereafter he was active in the catering union in Madrid and in the anarchist federation the FAI. When the civil war broke out, he joined the Galician column as its trade union delegate, fighting on the Madrid front - and rejecting promotion.
He later joined the Investigation Branch (in Barcelona-Madrid) whose task was to counter the Stalinist counter-revolution (1937). At this time he was disappointed at the course being taken by the revolution and was bitter at the sight of yesterdays red-hot revolutionaries jockeying for 'position'. He had a miraculous escape from capture by the Francoists at the end of the war and crossed into France via Matar and Camprodon, only to begin an odyssey through concentration camps in Argeles, Barcares, St Cyprien and Arles - from which he escaped several times (he was in Perpignan in February 1939), but to little avail. He was sent to punishment camps and assigned to the Sur-Niort labour battalion. Eventually he made it to Paris where, after some harsh confrontation with anarchist trade union, the CNT, leaders he secured a passage to the Americas. In April he sailed from Le Harve, bound for Cuidad Trujillo in the Dominican Republic. Later he moved on to Queretaro in Mexico in 1942, where he remained until 1965 when he smuggled himself to Portugal from where he was forced to flee to Mexico after a short while. In 1974, sorely disenchanted, he returned to end his days in his native land, working on the land. An indefatigable battler, not much given to writing (though he was friendly with well-known libertarian intellectuals) and a born activist, he was without doubt one of the greatest anarchists of his day and one of the ones who resisted the temptation to compromise which seduced lots of other CNT members in 1936.
Among his friends were Carpio, B. Esteban, Odón, Tato, Lamberet and Mancebo. Yet he remains a little-known militant.

1919 - Jiří Orten (Jiří Ohrenstein; d. 1941), Czech poet and nephew of the anarchist poet Josef Rosenzweig-Moir, born. The foremost representative of the so-called 'war generation' in Czech literature, he was never a member of any artistic group, but his work was influenced by existentialism, surrealism and folklore. His first collection of poems, 'Čítanka Jaro' (Reader of Spring), was published in 1939. With the Nazi occupation, and being a Jew, his freedom was extremely restricted and he published his next book, 'Cesta k Mrazu' (Journey towards frost; 1940), under the pseudonym Karel Jílek and the long poem 'Jeremiášuv Plác' (The Lamentations of Jeremiah; 1940) was signed Jiří Jakub. Forced to give up writing, he worked as a labourer on a farm and later survived by taking odd jobs. 'Ohníč' (Challock; 1941) was work last published in his lifetime as on August 30, 1941, the day of his twenty-second birthday, Jirí Orten was knocked down in a Prague street by a German ambulance. A friend took him to the General Infirmary in Prague, but as a Jew, Orten could not be treated there and had to be moved to a different hospital. Two days later, he died.

1936 - Teodoro Mora (b. unknown), Spanish communist and then anarchist, is killed in action at Casavieja. A construction worker, whose militancy began at 14 in the Unió General de Treballadors (UGT), the main trades union on the Peninsular. He was expelled from the Partit Comunista d'Espanya (PCE) for refusing to criticise anarchists. In the early '30s, and under the influence of his friend Cipriano Mera, he joined the CNT and was activie in the organisation in the Madrid region. With Mera, Miguel Gonzalez and Feliciano Inestal Benito Anaya one of the architects of the exclusion of the union of its Bolshevik elements. During the great construction strike in Nouvelle Castille launched by the CNT in spring 1936, he defended the position of the Alianza Obrera. Arrested in June 1936 as a member of the strike committee, on 17 July 1936 he was released due to popular demonstrations demanding the release of prisoners. On July 19 of that year he presided in Madrid, along with Mera, the general assembly of members. He participated in the assault of the Montaña barracks and was one of the first organisers of the confederal militias in places such as Alcalá, Vicálvaro and Guadalajara. In August he led, with iron discipline, the Battalion Mora, part of the framed Colonne Del Rosal, which fought Buitrago and Serradag. Teodoro Mora was killed in action on August 30, 1936 at Casavieja (Avila, Castile, Spain). Other sources cite the September 12, 1936 in Mijares, Castile, and still others believe he was captured by the fascists in Gavilanes, also in Avila, being put in a cage and eventually murder.

1936 - An East London Trades Council organised anti-fascist march through the East End of London and rally in Victoria Park, is attacked along its route by Blackshirts throwing stones as well as bags of flour and soot. At the head of the parade was a contingent of war veterans wearing their medals and parade marshals prevented them from joining in the melee that followed the attack. Brawling began as the march entered Victoria Park and jeering Blackshirts rampaged up and down Green street attacking anyone they thought was Jewish. Two boys aged eight ad nine were badly beaten and the YCL offices were broken into and wrecked. After speeches in the park, the returning procession was again attacked as it was leaving the district, the BU fascists ambushing the head of the march in a narrow street. Police and parade marshals energetically prevented reinforcements from the ranks that sought to join the battle. One of those injured by fascist stoes was Sylvia Pankhurst, who was also one of the speakers at the rally. [PR]

[A] 1957 - José Luis 'Face' Facerias (b. 1920), Spanish anarchist and resistance guerilla, is assassinated by the Barcelona police. [see: Jan. 6]

[C] 1958 - Notting Hill Riots: 300 to 400-strong mobs of white youths, many of them Teddy boys armed with iron bars, butcher's knives and weighted leather belts, and shouting "Keep Britain White", "Down with the niggers" and "Go home you black bastards", go "nigger-hunting" among the West Indian residents of Notting Hill and Notting Dale. By the end of the night, five black men have been left lying unconscious on the pavements of Notting Hill.
Following yesterday evening's events, [see: Aug. 29] on Saturday night Majbritt Morrison is attacked as she leaves a blues dance. Recognised as haaving been involved in the previous night's incident, a crowd of drunken white men outside a nNotting Hill pub began abusing her, calling her a "Black man's trollop" amongst other insults. She is pelted with stones, glass and wood, and struck in the back with an iron bar as she tried to get home. The mob followed her home but she stood her ground, despite being wounded and police orders to go inside. She was then arrested and the crowd dicided to go off and attack a house party organised by one of Britian's first sound systems, Count Suckle. The police arrived just in time to prevent the attack but were unable to prevent mobs roaming the streets, breaking windows and attacking people in the street. Most of the Afro-Caribean residents stayed inside but some came out to fight the mobs.
The 'riots' would continue for the rest of the coming week, with neo-fascist groups, such as Colin Jordan's White Defence League and John Bean's National Labour Party, taking the opportunity to exploit the situation.
More than 140 people during the two weeks [Aug. 24 - Sep. 5] of the disturbances, mostly white youths but also many black people found carrying weapons to defend themselves with. 108 people were charged with crimes such as grievous bodily harm, affray and riot and possessing offensive weapons. 72 were white and 36 were black. Nine of the white youths were given "exemplary sentences", five years in prison and £500 fines.
In January 1959, five months after the riot, a direct precursor of the Notting Hill Carnival, the Caribbean Carnival, was held indoors at St Pancras Town Hall in central London as an act of solidarity and defiant in response to the racist events.
Majbritt Morrison would later write a book, 'Jungle West 11' (1964), about her and Ray Morrison's involvement in the Notting Hill 'race riots'.

1958 - Nottingham Riots: A week after the mass disturbances on Saturday 23 August in Nottingham's St. Ann's district, 4,000 people turn out on the streets looking for further trouble. But black people were conspicuous by their absence and, without any visible targets' the white crowd turned on itself. A huge fight ensued and dozens were arrested but the events were overshadowed by what was happening on the streets of Notting Hill in London.

1962 - Following a month of disturbances surrounding fascist events and prolonged lobbying for Jewish organisations, the Metropolitain Police bans all marches in London under the POA for a 48 hours period. This means that the UM march planned for Sunday 2 September in the East End will not now go ahead.

1970 - The London home of the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, Sir John Waldron, is damaged by a bomb blast. The bombing is not reported in the national press. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1976 - The Notting Hill Carnival Ends in Riots.

2010 - The usual ragbag of neo-Nazis, fascists, nationalists, Islamophobes and general reactionary scum turn up for what is claimed to be a protest by the English Nationalist Alliance, a more overtly racist grouplet run by Essex fascist Bill Baker, turn up in Brighton on the August Bank Holiday weekend [they are also known for their occasional forrays to heckle the Brighton Pride procession]. Heavily outnumbered by anti-fascists, the fewer than 40 ENA morons, giving Hitler salutes and waving EDL flag, were able to march from the train station to the Old Steine, abusing the general public with chants of "Do you take it up your arse", "Where's your camel gone", "Allah is a paedo", "Allah loves his rentboys" and "You Muslim scum", only because of a large mobilisation by Sussex Police. And even then the anti-fascists were able to force the march to be rerouted.
A total of 14 arrests were made for public order offences, assault and to prevent a breach of the peace. One of those was Steven Sands was arrested for GBH after knocking out and hospitalizing an anti-fascist protester during an ambush outside the Fountainhead pub. Charges were subsequently dropped despite the fact that at least one police office recorded having witnessed the assault.

2010 - Following the previous day's [29th] harassment of the Occupy Newcastle camp in the city centre by a group of supporters of the EDL, SDL, the 'North East Infidels' and the National Front, 20-30 fascists attacked the camp at 4 a.m. Occupy protesters where held down and punched and kicked. Bricks where thrown and an occupier was stamped on.
1865 - Paolo Schicchi aka 'il leone di Collesano' (d. 1950), Italian anarchist supporter of the spontaneous/anti-organisational current (anarchico-spontaneista/tendenza antiorganizzatrice), anti-militarist, anti-clericalist, who was prominent in the anti-fascist struggle, born. An individualist anarchist since an early age, he represented the tendency advocating terrorism i.e. the attentat as a way of sustaining the current political struggle at the 1891 libertarian socialist congress in Capolago. A regular resident of Italian jails, he was editor of the 'L'avvenire Anarchico' newspaper in Pisa in 1910 and a great influence among Sicilian workers and also the Partido Socialista Italiano (Italian Socialist Party) in the region. He also published 'La Zolfara', 'Il Piccone' and 'La Zappa', and was active in the land occupations of that period. After WWI, in 1921, he founded 'Il Vespro Anarchico', one of the most courageous and unstinting of newspapers in the struggle against fascism and the maffia, which, despite his individualism, he used to expond his views on the need for a united front of revolutionary forces to oppose squadrismo. Mussolini reacted by banning 'Il Vespro' and jailing Paolo. He managed to escape prison and leave Italy a few months later, settling in Tunisia. In August 1930, he tried to return to Italy to rejoin Salvatore Renda and Filippo Gramignano in the internal fight against Mussolini, with Severino Di Giovanni providing financial assistance in getting him back into the country.
However, the ship's captain betrayed him and he was arrested. At his trial he was defiant and was sentenced to ten years in prison. Upon his release he was sent into internal exile. Following the defeat of fascism, he began publishing 'Conversazioni Sociali', a series of collections of memoirs and old and new writings and, from March 1946 with a new monthly magazine 'L'Era Nuova', "rivista mensile di cultura sociale", in which he argued "the absolute necessity to form a united front of all revolutionary healthy forces to oppose any reactionary forces anywhere and under any banner that might come". This led him to work with communists and socialists alike in the realisation of a policy that still informs Italian anti-fascism today. He died on December 12, 1950 after having spent forty years in prison and in both internal and external exile.

1900 - Gino Lucetti (d. 1943), Italian anarchist who attempted to assassinate Mussolini in September 1926, for which he got 30 years in prison, born.

1901 - Ramón Domingo (d. 1995), Spanish anarchist propagandist and Civil War combatant, born. When he was 17, he emigrated to Barcelona in search of work, where he joined the anarchist movement. As a CNT member, in 1919 he participated in the La Canadiense strike, for which he was imprisoned in the Modelo prison in Barcelona. In 1923, during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, he went to France, where he worked picking grapes. In 1933 he returned to El Ordial to work on family land and opened a library, which was later burned by Franco's troops during the war. In 1936 he joined the CNT militia that marched to Aragón, fighting at Cogolludo and Cifuentes and later joining the 43rd Battalion. With the fascist victory, went into exile in France and suffered in the concentration camps of Argelès and Barcarès. Later he became a Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers (CTE) worker in the Brest arsenal, from which he escaped and fled to Tours. From January 5, 1942 he was a member of the Local Federation of the CNT in Exile in Tours. He then went to live in the Paris region. An active anarchist propagandist - he sold the movemnet's newspapers on the streets and markets - and became a self-taught and cultivated reader - from 'l'Encyclopédie Anarchiste' to Sébastien Faure, and 'L'homme et la Terre' to Élisée Reclus. Ramon died on Sunday June 16, 1995 in Montreuil and was cremated on 23 June in the Parisian cemetery of Père Lachaise.

1909 - Francisco Ferrer (b. 1859), Spanish anarchist and teacher, is captured after hiding for five weeks in caves on his farm. He will be executed without trial by firing squad at Montjuich Fortress in Barcelona on 13 October.

1920 - The Union Anarchiste Italienne (UAI), with half a million members, begins a series of factory occupations in Milan, Turin and across northern Italy following the adoption of a policy advocating Factory Councils at the organisation's July 1-4 congress in Bologna. Anarchists, and Malatesta in particular, speak in the occupied factories and form pickets to guard them to oppose attacks by the police and fascists. The movement has gained such momentum by early September, that the bosses are driven to introduce some degree of self-organisation in their workshops, but they do not extend this to entire factories. The reformist unions, alarmed by the magnitude of the revolutionary movement (especially in steel and automobile industries), are eager to sign an agreement with employers to end the movement.

1923 - José Luis García Rúa, Asturian philosopher, writer and prominent anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. The son of anarchist militant in the CNT, who died at the beginning of the civil war, he fled to France, where he was sent to a camp for women, young and old in Lorgues (Provence), and then to a concentration camp in Barcarés. Returns to Gijón in 1939 and worked in a tile factory and other odd jobs to help his family. Being aware of the exploitation of himself and his fellow workers, he decided to return to school. [expand]

1923 - The Italian Navy bombards the Greek island of Corfu and lands up to 10,000 troops on the island.
Following the August 27, 1923, assassination of the Italian general Enrico Tellini, three of his assistants and their interpreter fell in an ambush during a border dispute between Greece and Albania and an ultimatum from Italy 2 days later demanding: (1) a complete official apology, (2) a solemn funeral in the catholic cathedral in Athens, (3) military honours for the bodies of the victims, (4) full honours by the Greek fleet to the Italian fleet which would be sent to Piraeus, (5) capital punishment for the guilty, (6) an indemnity of 50 million lire within five days; and (7) a strict inquiry, to be carried out quickly with the assistance of the Royal Italian military attaché; the response to be given within 24 hours.
The Greek response, accepting four of the demands with modifications, was deemed unsatifactory by Mussolini and the Italian Cabinet and Mussolini launches an invasion of Corfu.

[B] 1928 - Brecht and Weill's 'Die Dreigroschenoper' (The Threepenny Opera) premières in Berlin.

1930 - Having been suppressed by the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera since May 28, 1924, 'Solidaridad Obrera', the newspaper of the CNT, is published again in Barcelona.

[C] 1931 - Gleiwitz incident: As part of a series of provocations designed to precipitate the German invasion of Poland, Abwehr and SS forces disguised in Polish military uniforms occupy Gleiwitz radio station and broadcast a short anti-German message in Polish as a prelude to tomorrow's invasion. The corpse of Franciszek Honiok, a Silesean German known to be sympathetic to Poland and who had been detained by the Gestapo the previous day, is killed and left at the scene dressed to look like a saboteur. His corpse is subsequently presented as proof of the attack to the police and press.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: At 16:00 a group of workers from the telephone company had just repaired lines on the Paseo de la Independencia in Zaragoza, escorted by two pairs of the Guardia Civil. Having gotten into their truck several shots rang out, the Guardia Civil then opened fire on passersby who surrounded them and the scabs, with the result of several serious injuries; Serafín Rodríguez, Tomás López Gascón, Enrique Moret and Felipe Zarzuela. Isidro Floria Sánchez suffered fatal wounds. Only one of them, Seraphim, is a telephone worker; the rest are civilians. Witnesses claimed that the shots from the Guardia Civil caused most of the victims, something the governor confirmed to the minister, by telegram, stating the he could not ensure that the victim was not shot by the police.
The UGT called for a one-day strike for the following day, an act supported by the governor. The CNT called a meeting and, raising the stakes, called a two-day strike which in fact lasted for four and was accompanied by widespread sabotage and protest. The goverment responded by sending the army in to guard government buildings, banks, Telefónica premises and the Central Market. Cavalry units also patrolled the centre of Zaragoza. The Guardia Civil was strengthened by sending in 200 reinforcements. Strikes and sabotage spread across the country to town and cities including Cadiz, Huelva, Teruel, San Sebastián, Pozoblanco, Zamora, and Criptana.
Telephone lines were pulled down and cable and ducts ripped up and burnt. Sabotage was repeated in the Plaza de Sas and in the Calles Democracia, San Pablo and San Blas. Telephone communication with Barcelona was broken and the trams were attacked and stopped as tram lines were lifted in the Calle Espartero. Many on both sides were shot and wounded on both sides, the first being two passersby, Manuel Ortín Sebastián and José Catón Ara, shot by a Guardia Civil near the Arco de San Roque. The authorities subsequently claimed that they fired first despite neither being armed. On the 3rd and 4th, the clashes increased especially in the Paseo Independencia and the Plaza San Miguel; in the Paseo María Agustín a Guardia Civil sergeant was injured in one shootout and in the Calle Alfonso a ticket collector on a tram was wounded. [see also: Aug. 6]

1933 - Italian labour organiser, Giovanni Pippan (b. 1894), is murdered during his campaign to organise the Italian bread wagon drivers of Chicago. The well-known activist is shot and killed by unknown assailants on a street corner in Cicero, Illinois. During his short career, Pippan did a great deal to promote the plight of workers in his homeland of Italy as well as in the US. At the age of 25 he became the secretary of the Italian Federation of Coal Miners in the Albona region of Italy. However, Pippan fled his native country during the 1920s with the rise of fascism. Pippan was also active in the campaign for Sacco & Vanzetti and the struggle against pro-fascist forces in the Italian immigrant community in the US, and, shortly before his death, he organised the Italian Bread Drivers' League.

1936 - Isaac Puente Amestoy (d. 1936), Spanish anarchist, CNT member and physician, is shot by a fascist firing squad during the night of August 31 - September 1. [see: Jun. 3]

1941 - More than 3600 Jews, including children, are taken from Vilna, Lithuania, to nearby Ponary, where they are shot as retribution for the partisan ambush of a German patrol.

1969 - Luisa Landová-Štychová (b. 1885), Czech journalist, populariser of science, pioneer feminist, atheist, anti-fascist, anarchist and then communist politician, dies. [see: Jan. 31]

1980 - Hipólito Marivela Torres aka Germán Marivela (b. 1917), Castillian carpenter, anarcho-syndicalist and fighter with the Durruti Column, dies. [see: Oct. 11]
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)