1877 - Milly Witkop Rocker (d. 1955), anarcho-syndicalist and feminist writer and activist, is born in the Ukraine. Exiled to London, she was an activist in the Jewish anarchist movement among East End sweatshop workers. In London in 1896 she met Rudolf Rocker, who became her lifelong companion. Their son, the artist Fermin Rocker, was born in 1907. When Rocker was interned as an enemy alien at the start of WWI, Milly continued her anti-war activities, which led to her arrest in 1916 and imprisonment til the war ended in 1918. In November of that year they both moved to Germany where they became involved in the founding of the anarcho-syndicalist trade union Free Workers' Union of Germany (FAUD). Disillusioned with the male-dominated nature of the union, Witkop became one of the leading founders of the Women's Union in Berlin in 1920, later to become the countrywide Syndicalist Women's Union (SFB), with Milly drafting 'Was Will der Syndikalistische Frauenbund?' (What Does the Syndicalist Women's Union Want?; 1921) as a platform for the SFB.
Witkop was also active in the fight against racism and anti-Semitism in Germany and despaired of the labour movement's unwillingness to fight either which ultimately helped pave the way for the rise of the NSDAP. Following the Reichstag fire, Witkop and Rocker fled Germany for the United States via Switzerland, France and the UK. In the US the couple continued to give lectures, write about anarchist topics and helped raise awareness of events during the Spanish Civil War. In 1937 Milly and Rudolf Rocker settled in the anarchist community of Mohegan, NY.

1900 - Nikolas Tchorbadieff (d. 1994), Bulgarian anarchist militant and propagandist, born. Forced into exile, helped found the International Bookshop in Paris and a founder of the French-Bulgarian review 'Iztok' in 1979. Interned in Vernet concentration camp as an enemy alien in 1939 and later joined the Résistance.

1911 - Francisco Ponzán Vidal aka the 'Anarchist Pimpernel' (d. 1944), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist guérillero, anti-Francoist and resistance fighter, born. Captured in France in 1943, shot by the Nazis in Buzet-sur-Tarn, near Toulouse.

1918 - Marie Louise Berneri (d. 1949) born in Italy. The elder daughter of Camillo and Giovanna Berneri. Best known as editor of 'Freedom', author of 'Neither East Nor West' and 'Journey Through Utopia'. Berneri was also one of the first people in Britain to promote the ideas of Wilhelm Reich. Married to Vernon Richards, she died in childbirth, age 31.

1921 - The Petropavlovsk resolution passed during a mass meeting in Anchor Square, Kronstadt.

1921 - In answer to the fascist violence of 27th & 28th Feb., a general strike is called in Trieste and Florence. In the latter new clashes occur resulting in the death of more than 20 with over a hundred people injured.

1934 - At a British Union of Fascists meeting at the Dome, Brighton where William Joyce was due to speak, West Sussex BUF organiser Charles Bentinck-Budd had invited the Labour Party's Walter Faulkner along - BUF had a stronghold in Brighton and regularly invited the opposition along. Faulkner turned up with a small group of friends and family and they were beaten up by some of the 300 Defence Force stewards present [Faulkner was held with his hands behind his back whilst beaten nearly unconscious with a stick and half strangled with his scarf] when they went to leave during the 'National Anthem'. Three Blackshirts were arrested, one was fined £3 plus costs and another bound over. [PR]
"We know that England is crying for a leader, and that leader has emerged in the person of the greatest Englishman I have ever known, Sir Oswald Mosley ... When the history of Europe comes to be written I can assure you that his name will not be second to either Mussolini or Hitler." - William Joyce aka Lord Haw Haw quoted at the meeting

1943 - Bjarne Dalland (b.1906), Norwegian trade unionist, politician and communist resistance member, is executed by the Nazis. [see: Aug. 27]

[C] 1951 - Barcelona Tram Strike: The beginning of a tram strike and boycott against ticket price increases in Barcelona that precipitated a general strike on March 12th, the first such strike under Franco. [expand]

1969 - 'Hermanos!' by William Herrick first published in the US.

1983 - Arthur Koestler (b. 1905) Hungarian-born British novelist, journalist, critic, and a public advocate of euthanasia as Vice President of the Voluntary Euthanasia Society (later renamed Exit), takes his own life in a suicide pact with his wife Cynthia Jefferies. He explains his death in a long suicide note that he is suffering from incurable illness (Parkinson's Disease and leukaemia) and that he does not want to face the inevitable decline. Also in the note, Cynthia Jefferies (1965-83) states that she cannot face life without Koestler.

2004 - Sidney Solomon (b. 1911), Russian-born American painter, book designer, publisher and long-time anarchist, who lived in New York, dies. [see: Dec. 8]
1895 - Eugen (Eugenio, Eugène or Eugene) Relgis (originally Eisig Siegler Watchel; d. 1987), Romanian writer, pacifist philosopher, anarchist militant, poet and theorist of humanitarianism (though with a distinct eugenicist element later in life), born. Eisig Sigler adopted his new Celanesque name, Eugen D. Relgis, and began an involvement with the Romanian Symbolist publication 'Fronda', and published his first book, a collection of his philosophical essays entitled 'Triumful Nefiinţei' (The Triumph of Non-Being) in 1913. He published two books of his Symbolist poetry during WWI, 'Sonetele Nebuniei' (Sonnets of Madness; 1914) and 'Nebunia' (Madness), illustrated with his own drawings. He was drafted in 1916 when Romania entered the war but, as a conscientious objector, refused to serve and was imprisoned, and eventually discharged because of his deafness).
After the war he pursued a humanitarian and pacifist agenda, contributing to the review 'Umanitatea' (Humanity) and renewed his literary activities with 'Literatura Războiului şi Era Nouă' (Literature, the War and the New Era; 1919). In 1921 he published an abridged translation of 'The Biology of War', a leading pacifist treatise by German physician Georg Friedrich Nicolai. The following year saw 'Umanitarism sau Internaţionala Intelectualilor' (Humanitarianism or the Intellectuals' Internationale) and his principal political work was 'Principiile Umanitariste' (Humanitarian Principles; 1922), which was translated into 17 languages and made Relgis one of the best-known figures in the intellectual world between the world wars. A further 2 collections of essays followed: 'Umanitarismul şi Socialismul' (Humanitarianism and Socialism; 1925) and 'Umanitarismul Biblic' (Biblical Humanitarianism; 1926). Some of his books contained prefaces by such celebrities as Albert Einstein and Romain Rolland.
During this period he also wrote his best known novel 'Petre Arbore' (3 vols., 1924), the novels 'Melodiile Tăcerii' (Melodies of Silence; 1926) and 'Glasuri în Surdin' (Muted Voices; 1927); a poetry collection 'Poezii' (Poems; 1926) and 'Prieteniile lui Miron' (The Friendships of Miron; 1934), a novel chronicling Relgis' difficulties with his post-lingual deafness. He also translated a number of Nietzsche's works into Romanian, Knut Hamsun's 'Slaves of Love' and various books by S. Zweig, E. Armand, etc..
Eugen Relgis was also a contributor to the Bucharest left-wing dailies 'Adevărul' and 'Dimineaţa'. After editing the short-lived gazette 'Cugetul Liber' (Freethought; 1928-29), Relgis put out his own political and cultural review 'Umanitarismul' (Humanitarianism; 1929-30) as well as working with a large number of libertarian journals around the world.
Relgis also set up the First Humanitarianist Group of Romania, as well as a leftist library, Biblioteca Cercului Libertatea (Freedom Circle Library). Joined in such efforts by the veteran anarchists Han Ryner and Panait Muşoiu.
In 1925, he became a member of the War Resisters International and participated in the peace conference of Hodeston (London), and that of Sonntagsberg (Austria) in July 1928. During the Spanish Civil War, he was appointed to the international board of Antifascist Solidarity International (SIA). The mid 1930s saw him release a series of essays on Judaism and his controversial 'Umanitarism şi Eugenism' (Humanitarianism and Eugenism). His political and literary choices inevitably made Relgis an enemy of both fascism and communism: persecuted during World War II (his Biblioteca Cercului Libertatea was banned in 1940, but Relgis secretly moved the books into a stable), he managed to escape arrest, hidden by friends. Post-WWII, he was once again active in the political press and completed his essay on Nazism, The Holocaust and sexuality: 'Eros în al Treilea Reich' (Eros in the Third Reich; 1946), but fearing further persecution and internment by the communist regime, he left Romania 'illegally', and after a brief stay in Paris, eventually took refuge in Uruguay joining his son (who had fled there in 1942). [His works were subsequently included in an official censorship list 'Publicaţii Interzise' (Works Forbidden from Publishing).]
From 1947 to the moment of his death and Relgis earned the respect of South American circles as an anarchist commentator and proponent of solutions to world peace, as well as a promoter of Latin American culture.
In 1950 he founded an international anarchist archive in Montevideo, one of the few political libraries in South America and embarked on a series of university lectures, which carried him throughout Uruguay, Argentina and Brazil. 1950 also saw a Spanish edition of 'Umanitarism şi Eugenism' (Humanitarismo y Eugenismo), renewing the controversy surrounding his view on eugenics, his advocacy of universal birth control and compulsory sterilisation in cases of "degeneration". Less controversial was his in-depth critique of Nazi eugenics 'Las Aberraciones Sexuales en la Alemania Nazi' (Sexual Aberrations in Nazi Germany).
Relgis also circulated an 'Apel Către Toţi Intelectualii Liberi şi Muncitorii Luminaţi' (Appeal to All the Free Intellectuals and the Enlightened Workers). A prolific author, many of his Romanian language works were subsequently translated into Spanish and he carried on writing on various political subjects - such as his acclaimed political essay, 'Perspectivas Culturales en Sudamérica' (Cultural Perspectives in South America; 1958) which received a prize from the Uruguayan Ministry of Public Instruction and Social Prevision, and an eugenics and sexology treatise, 'Historia Sexual de la Humanidad' (The Sexual History of Humanity; 1961).

1902 - Juan (John) Baeza (d. 1939), Spanish anarchist involved in the 1935 Les Stérilisés de Bordeaux affair [see: May 2, 1936] where 'illegal' vasectomies were carried out. Sentenced in absentia to 2 years in prison, a 100 francs fine and 10 years exile, he was never caught. He is believed to have taken part in the action groups and resistance against Franco in Spain after the end of the war. Arrested in September 1939 and sentenced to death on September 11 (with Juan Delgado García), he was executed the next day at Camp Bota in Barcelona.

1949 - An attempt is made on the life of Eduardo Quintela Boveda, head of the Brigade Politico Sociale police in Barcelona, involving Jossé and Francesc Sabaté Llopart, Simón Gracia Fleringan, Carles Vidal Passanau, Wenceslao Jiménez Orive, José Lluís Facerías and José López Penedo. [expand]

1969 - Clément Fournier (b. 1904), French anarchist and pacifist, dies. [see: Mar. 8]

[A] 1972 - Tommy Weissbecker (b. 1949), 2nd June Movement member, shot dead by German police in Augsburg.

[C] 1974 - Salvador Puig Antich (b. 1948), Spanish anarchist militant and member of the Movimiento Ibérico de Liberación (MIL), executed by garrote vil in Barcelona after being tried by a military tribunal and found guilty of the death of a Guardia Civil policeman.
1910 - Josef Peukert (b. 1855), Austrian anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

[B] 1914 - Asger Oluf Jorn (d. 1973), Danish painter, sculptor, ceramic artist, printmaker, author, founding member of the avant-garde movement COBRA and the Situationist International, born.

1929 - Ettore Aguggini (b. 1902), Italian mechanic and anarcho-individualist, one of three anarchists implicated in the bombing of the Teatro Diana in Milan on March 23, 1921, believed manipulated and set up by the Chief of Police as a pretext for the fascists to instigate a general repression against all anarchists, dies in Alghero prison, Sardinia, aged just 27-years-old, his health shattered by form the appalling conditions he endured during his incarceration. [see: Mar. 23]

[C] 1933 - German police thwart an alleged plan to assassinate Hitler the following day as he was due to address a political rally in Königsberg to campaign for his slate of candidates in the March 5 Reichstag elections. Police arrest the members of a communist group led by Kurt Lutter, a ship's carpenter, who a police informer has claimed organised the plot to blow up the speaker's platform while Hitler spoke. No explosives were found and none of the conspirators confessed to the crime of attempted political assassination, which carried the death penalty, so Lutter and his group were ultimately released after being detained for several months.

1936 - André Laude (d. 1995), French anarchist, anti-colonial journalist, Surrealist, Situationist, writer and "soleil noir de la poésie" (black sun of poetry), born. An encounter in 1953 with Michel Donnet, an anarchist teacher and secretary of the newly formed Fédération Communiste Libertaire, introduced Laude to the world of anarchism and led to him contributing his journalism to 'Libertaire' and 'Combat'. He published his first poetry, 'La Couleur Végétale' (The Vegetable Colour), in 1954 and, following a meeting with Serge Wellens, a renown poet and editor of 'Cahiers de l'Orphéon', his poetry collection 'Pétales du Chant' (Petals of Song) was published on the review's imprint in 1956.
Part of a grouping of anarchist poets and painters, he also met André Breton and Benjamin Peret, becoming involved in the Surrealist circle. As a militant anti-colonialist and vocal supporter of the Algerian independence struggle, Laude lived and worked on the periphery of the clandestine resistance, eventually being arrested in Paris and taken to a camp run by paratroopers in the southern Sahara, where he suffered barbaric treatment. Exchanged against five senior French officers, Laude was released after several months of hell. In Tunis he resumed work as a journalist for 'Combat' and l'Algérie-Presse-Service, visited Cuba on behalf of the Algerian nationalists, and only returned to France after the fall of Ahmed Ben Bella in 1965. On his return, Laude was put on trial for "collaboration with the enemy". André Breton came to testify on his behalf.
He now returned to his poetry as well as maintaining his political and journalistic activities, becoming involved with Raoul Vaneigem, Guy Debord and the Situationist International. Laude also became involved with artists around the CoBrA group [included the Revolutionary Surrealist Group] and with photographers like Doisneau and Cartier-Bresson.
Selected bibliography:
'Histoire de la Pensée Libertaire' (A Short History of Libertarian Thought; 1968 [essay]); 'Le Petit Livre Rouge de la Révolution Sexuelle' (The Little Red Book of the Sexual Revolution; 1969); 'Joyeuse Apocalypse' (Joyful Apocalypse; 1973 [novel]); 'Testament de Ravachol' (Ravachol's Legacy; 1975 [poetry]); 'Le Bleu de la Nuit Crie au Secours' (The Blue of the Night Crying for Help 1975 [poetry]); 'Le Surréalisme en Cartes' (A Map of Surrealism; 1976); 'Un Temps à S'ouvrir les Veines' (A Time to Open the Veins; [poetry] 1979); 'Rue des Merguez'; 1979 [novel]); 'Liberté Couleur d'Homme' (Freedom is the Colour of Man; 1980 [fictional autobiography]); 'Riverain de la Douleur' (Bordering the Pain; 1981 [poetry]); 'Roi Nu Roi Mort' (Naked King Dead King; 1983 [poetry]); 'Journaux de Voyages' (Travel Journals; 1990 [poetry]); 'Feux Cris & Diamants' (Sout Fire & Diamonds; 1993 [poetry]); etc...
As well as 'Combat' and 'Libertaire', Laude's journalism appeared in 'Tribune Socialist' (PSU), 'Jeune Afrique', 'Le Monde', 'Les Nouvelles Littéraires', 'Le Nouvel Observateur', 'Actuel', 'Politis', 'Le Fou Parle', 'Hors Jeu', 'Albatroz', 'l'Evénement du Jeudi', 'Art Tension', 'France Culture'… and even for 'Playboy'.

1938 - Samuel Schwartzbard (Sholem-Shmuel Schwarzbard/Samuil Isaakovich Shvartsburd; b. 1886), Russian Jewish watchmaker, anarchist and Yiddish poet, dies in Capetown. Escaped the Russian pogroms in 1905, settled in Paris and active in local anarcho-communist groups with Alexander Berkman, Mollie Steimer, Senya Fleshin and Nestor Makhno. In 1926 he gunned down Simon Petliura, who had directed the Ukrainian pogroms in which some of his family were murdered. He fired three times, announcing: "This, for the pogroms; this for the massacres, this for the victims." Schwartzbard was acquitted by a jury and freed. [see: Aug. 18]

1943 - Otto Luihn (b. 1890), Norwegian newspaper editor, magazine editor, poet and Communist, dies. [see: Mar. 15]

1946 - The first issue of 'L'Amico del Popolo', the fortnightly newspaper of the Italian Federazione Comunista Libertaria Ligure section of the Federazione Anarchica Italiana (FAI), appears in Genoa. From the Nov. 11, 1946 issue it becomes the 'Periodico della Federazione Anarchica Ligure' and continues in publication until Nov. 30, 1948.

1962 - As the war in Algeria is nearing its end, the headquarters and library of the 'Monde Libertaire' at 3 rue Ternaux is destroyed by an attack by the OAS (Organisation Armée Secrète), the fascist paramilitary organisation of the pieds-noirs, French military and politicians aimed at provkoing the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) into breaking the Evian agreements ceasefire, thereby providing an excuse for the reoccupation of Algeria.

1996 - Léo Malet (b. 1909), French crime novelist, poet, Surrealist, anarchist and later Trotskyist, and creator of Nestor 'Dynamite' Burma, private detective and ex-anarchist, dies. [see: Mar. 7]
1904 - María Suceso Portales Casamar (d. 1999), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-feminist, born. Member of the CNT and FIJL in Madrid in the early '30s, she was very active in the development of schools and institutions organised by Mujeres Libres (MM.LL). At the end of the war in 1939 she escaped to Britain aboard the Galatea, participating in resistance activities against the Franco regime whilst in London and worked on the newsletter 'España Fuera de España' (1962-65). Resuming contact with her fellow exiles in France, she began editing the (trilingual) magazine 'Mujeres Libres', organ of the Federation MM.LL in exile. In 1972 she moved to Montadin, near Beziers, where Sara Berenger lived, and was responsible for editing the magazine until 1976. She returned to Spain in 1980 after the death of Franco.

1928 - Octavio Alberola Suriñach aka 'El Largo' and 'Juan', Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist member of the FIJL-MLE, CNT, CGT and Grupo Primero de Mayo, born in the Balearic Islands. In 1939, his family left for Mexico and Octavio began his anarchist militancy as a member of the Juventudes Libertarias and the CNT in exile. In 1962, he became part of the underground organisation Defensa Interior (DI) formed by the Movimiento Libertario Español (MLE) after the 1961 CNT congress. Cipriano Mera, José Pascual Palacios and Octavio Alberola would be responsbile for coordinating DI activies until the organisation was wound up by the 'parental' body at the Montpellier Congress of the MLE in 1965. In 1966, and based in Paris and Brussels, Alberola began coordinating Grupo Primero de Mayo's numerous attacks against the Franco regime as well as its wider activities as part of the growing worldwide resistance to an aggressive and expansionist US foreign policy. On February 9, 1968 in Belgium, after an attempted kidnapping of a minister, he was imprisoned for five months and then palces under house arrest. His father, Jose, was meanwhile killed on May 1, 1967 in Mexico by Franco agents.
In 1971, he secretly returned to France where he worked at the newspaper 'Frente Libertario'. Linked to the Groupes d'Action Révolutionnaire Internationalistes (GARI), in May 1974 he was caught up in the case of the kidnapping of the banker Adolfo Suarez. Arrested at Avignon, he remained imprisoned nearly nine months. After Franco's death, and after the split of the CNT, he worked for the reforming of the CGT and participated in the activities of the COJRA in France. In the years 1980-2000, he hosted the Radio Libertaire program 'Tribuna Latino Americana'. He also became a tireless member of the Grupo por la revisión del proceso Granado-Delgado, which seeks to annul sentences from the Franco era, and active in libertarian iniatives across Europe.

1934 - Joaquín Martínez Delgado (d. 1963), Spanish anarcist miliatnt and Fédération Ibérique des Jeunesses Libertaires (JJ.LL) activist, born. He went with his parents into exile in France, where he became a cabinet maker and TV designer and a member of Defensa Interior, the clandestine section of the JJ.LL. Sent to Spain alongside Francisco Granados in July 1963, they were arrested for the July 29 bombings of the General Directorate of Security and at a Francoist union headquarters. Tortured, they refused to accept admit their guilt, they were tried by military tribunal and garrotted on Aug. 17 in the notorious Carabanchel prison. 35 years later, in 1998, two anarchists Antonio Martin and Sergio Hernandez confessed that they had in fact planted the bombs, but the Spanish authorities refused the famillies' 1999 attempts to get the death penalties overturned.

1937 - The newspaper 'La Noche' carries an announcement introducing the aims, characteristics and membership conditions of the anarchist Friends of Durruti Group. Also, the Generalidad issues a decree winding up the Control Patrols. In 'La Batalla', Nin passes favourable and hopeful comment on an article by Jaime Balius carried in the March 2nd edition of 'La Noche'.

[C] 1943 - The execution in the Berlin-Plötzensee Prison of Heinz Rotholz (b. 1922), Heinz Birnbaum (b. 1920), Hella Hirsch (b. 1921), Hanni Meyer (b. 1921), Marianne Joachim (b. 1922), Lothar Salinger (b. 1920), Helmut Neumann (b. 1922), Hildegard Löwy (b. 1922) and Siegbert Rotholz (b. 1922), members of the anti-Nazi Baum Group who were sentenced to death on December 10, 1942. [see: May 18]

1948 - Antonin Artaud (Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud; b. 1896), French playwright, poet, actor, theatre director, theoretician, who invented the concept of the Théâtre de la Cruauté (Theatre of Cruelty), dies. [see: Sep. 4]

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: Following his arrest on February 23, Colonel Marcel Bigeard personally interrogated Larbi Ben M'hidi, refusing to allow him to be tortured. After two weeks of questioning, Ben M'hidi showed no sign of breaking , and Bigeard grew to like and respect his prisoner. General Jacques Massu, however, was frustrated with Bigeard's slow progress, and arranged for Ben M'hidi to be transferred into the custody of Major Paul Aussaresses [of the 11e Choc (11th 'Shock' Paratroop Regiment), the commando unit of the the SDECEE (Service de Documentation Extérieure et de Contre-Espionnagecons-Intelligence Service), France's external intteligence service] on March 3. Under Aussaresses, Ben M'hidi was tortured, and then driven in the early hours of March 4 by men of the 1er Régiment Étranger de Parachutistes (1st Foreign Parachute Regiment) to an isolated farm 18 kilometres south of Algiers, where he was hanged – "to make it look like suicide".
[ algerie/alger-premiere-suicide.html algerie/alger-premiere-arrestation-ben m hidi.html'hidi'hidi]

[B] 1964 - Buñuel's film version of the Octave Mirbeau novel 'Diary of a Chambermaid' first release in France.

1979 - National Front protest outside Winchester Prison in support of Robert Relf who is inside yet again for publishing racial hatred materials.
1884 - Pau Sabater i Lliró aka 'el Tero' (d. 1919), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, secretary of the Sindicato de Tintoreros of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, one of the most powerful unions in the textile industry, born. [expand]

1939 - The Negrín government is overthrown in an overnight coup (March 5-6) in Madrid; members of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT trade union in the south-central zone are involved in the coup and occupy posts in the new National Council of Defence.

1943 - Bernard Baissat, French journalist, pacifist and libertarian film-maker, born. A Professor of Italian and French literature, in 1967 he became a reporter for the ORTF. From 1968 to 1976 he directed in Africa and Lebanon, then returned to France in 1977 where he continued his work as a director for FR3. "A historian of the camera" he produced and directed numerous documentaires of old comrades (and partners) between 1980 and 1998, helping preserve and understand a rich anarchist and pacifist history. André Claudot, Jeanne Humbert, Eugene Bizeau, May Picqueray, Marcel Body, Aguigui Mouna, Robert Jospin, René Dumont, Serge Utgé-Royo and André Bösiger all appeared in his 'Listen' series. He also directed films on the labour movement, the Bourse du Travail and the Paris newspaper 'Le Canard Enchainé'.

1944 - Max Jacob (b. 1876), French poet, painter, writer, critic, queer and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies in Drancy internment camp from bronchial pneumonia. [see: Jul. 12]

1944 - Pasquale Binazzi (b. 1873), Italian anarchist, secretary of the 'chambre du travail' and organiser of the 'syndicat de l'arsenal' in Spezia, dies. Founded the weekly magazine 'Il Libertario' in 1903, which printed 10,000 copies at its peak until closed by the Fascists in 1922. He died whilst helping organise anarchist guerilla groups in Liguria and Tuscany. [see: Jun. 12]

1953 - Uncle Joe dies.

[C] 2009 - Jack van der Geest (Jacobus Petrus Cornelis van der Geest; b. 1923), Dutch member of the anti-Nazi resistance in both Holland and France, who was one of only eight people ever to escape from Buchenwald concentration camp, dies. [see: Sep. 17]

2009 - Following the grenade attack on the Exarcheia Immigrants' Social Centre on February 24th and the demonstration 2 days later, a much larger protest takes place in Athens, which eruptes into extended street battles between protesters and the riot police forces that had attacked the demo. During the clashes, which spread throughout the city centre, several banks and expensive shops were destroyed, and protesters broke into the offices of the neo-Nazi Golden Dawn (Xrysi Avgi), the parastate organisation responsible for numerous assassination attempts against immigrants, anarchists and the left, as well as a campaign of terror against radical infrastructures. The offices were torched to the ground.
[B] 1900 - Henri Jeanson (d. 1970), French libertarian pacifist, journalist, screenwriter, pataphysician and author, born. After working in various odd jobs, he became a potent journalist on 'La Bataille', the newspaper of the then anarcho-syndicalist dominated Confédération Générale du Travail (CGT) union. He would later work as a reporter, interviewer and film critic for the 'Journal du Peuple', 'Hommes du Jour' and 'Le Canard Enchaîné', where he defended his uncompromising pacifist line. He also started scripting films in 1932.
In July 1939 he was sentenced to 18 months in prison for publishing an article in 'Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste' in which he congratulated Herschel Grynszpan for his assassination of Ernst vom Rath, an official of the German embassy in Paris. He was arrested again in November 1939, having already joined his regiment following his call-up, for his pacifist articles and for having signed Louis Lecoin's tract 'Paix Immédiate'. He was sentenced on Dec. 20 1939 by a military tribunal to five years in prison for "calling for disobedience within the ranks".
Imprisoned days before the German army marched into Paris, his lawyer managed to obtain his release and Jeanson became the chief editor of 'Aujourd'hui', a new notionally 'independent' pacifist newspaper, that many comrades argued was effectively a collaborationist organ. The first issue was published on Sept. 10 1940 and by November the German authorities were pressuring him for the paper to take an anti-Jewish and pro-Vichy line. Jeanson resigned and went back to prison, but was freed a few months later through the intervention of an ex-ultra-pacifist and now collaborationist friend. Banned from journalism and film, he continued to script-write in secret for film (and uncredited) and for clandestine pamphlets (narrowly avoiding being rearrested in 1942 for this activity) until the Liberation.
Posy WWII, he regained the editorship of 'Le Canard Enchaîné' and wrote for 'Le Crapouillot', 'Combat' and 'L'Aurore'. In April 1947 he caused a furore by quitting 'Le Canard Enchaîné' following the cutting of an article about Louis Aragon, Elsa Triolet, Maurice Thorez and the PCF, but later returned to publish articles under the pseudonym 'Huguette ex-Micro'. He also wrote for the weekly French cinema magazine 'Cinémonde' and was a television critic for 'L'Aurore'. He quit the cinema in 1965 but remained active in journalism and the political struggle, especially around subjects close to his heart such as pacifism, the freedom of expression and anti-colonialism.
Jeanson wrote the scripts and dialogue for around 90 films, including 'Pépé le Moko' (1937), 'Hôtel du Nord' (1938), 'Les Maudits' (The Damned; 1947), 'Le Crime Ne Paie Pas' (The Gentle Art of Murder; 1962) and 'Paris When It Sizzles' (1964). He also directed one of his own scripts, 'Lady Paname' (1950), wrote a number of plays for the theatre and a handful of books including the posthumous memoir '70 Ans d'Adolescence' (1971).

1908 - Madeleine Lamberet (d. 1999), French anarchist, painter, designer, engraver, illustrator and primary-school teacher, born.
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[C] 1921 - Ateo Tommaso Garemi i Gagno (d. 1943), Italian-French communist, then anarchist and anti-fascist combatant, born. As a young man he emigrated with his family to France, where he worked as a lumberjack. When he was 17 he joined as a volunteer in the International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War. In 1940 he joined the French Section of the Communist International (SFIC) and, after the German occupation of France, he joined the Maquis (Francs-tireurs Partisans), fighting in the Marseille region. After the armistice of September 8, 1943, he returned to Italy and became the organiser and commander of the Gruppi di Azione Patriottica (GAP) in Turin. Together with the Turin anarchist Dario Cagno, who profundly influenced Garemi, he ambushed Domenico Giardina, the leader of the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN; Voluntary Militia for National Security), on the morning of October 25, 1943. However, both were betrayed by an informer and arrested 2 days later. They were tortured, prosecuted and sentenced to death by the Special Court of Turin for complicity in the murder of Giardina. Garemi was executed on December 21, 1943 in the courtyard of the Monte Grappa barracks in Turin, and Cagno 2 days later. Resistenza vicentina went on to name a batallion after him.

1941 - Francisco del Águila Aguilera (b. 1916), Andalusian stonemason, anarchist and anti-fascist member of the FIJL and CNT, is shot in Almeria alongsdie his brothers Juan and Rafael. In 1935, along with Abel Paz, Cueto and others, he was in the military wing of the FIJL, which he represented in the Comitè de Guerra d'Almeria in late September 1936 and in the Comitè Central Antifeixista d'Almeria, and the FAI on the Comitè Permanent del Front Popular d'Almeria (Standing Committee of the Popular Front of Almeria) in late 1936.

1951 - Barcelona Tram Strike: Following the reversal of the ticket price rise, the Phalangists organsied members to board trams in order to "break the ice". The act merely hardens the workers' position. [see: Mar. 1]

1971 - Ian Purdie arrested. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1984 - Friedrich Gustav Emil Martin Niemöller (b. 1892), German anti-Nazi theologian, Lutheran pastor, pacifist and anti-war activist, dies. [see: Jan. 14]

1992 - Léo Campion (Léon Louis Octave Campion; b. 1905), Franco-Belgian character actor, singer, anarchist, free thinker, Freemason, Régent de l'Institut de Pataphysique and Grand Maître de la Confrérie des Chevaliers du Taste Fesses, dies. [see: Mar. 24]

2007 - Jean Baudrillard (b. 1929), French sociologist, philosopher, cultural theorist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 27]
1878 - Carlo Frigerio (d. 1966), Italian militant, printer, writer, principal collaborator, along with Camillo Berneri, Luigi Fabbri and Carlo Molaschi, on the Malatesta edited 'Pensiero e Volontà' (Thought & Will), born. One of the princicle protagonists of the anarchist movement in Switzerland. [expand]

[B] 1909 - Léo Malet (d. 1996), French crime novelist, poet and Surrealist, born. He has written under a number of differnt pseudonyms: Frank Harding , Léo Latimer, Lionel Doucet, Jean de Selneuves, Noël Letam, Omer Refreger, Louis Refreger and, in association with fellow writers Serge Arcouët and Pierre Ayraud, under the collective pseudonym John-Silver Lee.
In his autobiography his tells of his individualist anarchist youth, selling 'Le Libertaire' on the streets of Montpelier and becoming associated with André Colomer, before later becoming a Trotskyist. Moved to Paris and began working as a cabaret singer at La Vache Enragee in Montmartre in 1925, continuing his anarchist associations, as well as becoming a vegan, and working in numerous odd jobs: clerk, labourer, newspaper vendor and occasional journalist (on 'L'En Dehors', 'L'Insurgé', 'Journal de l'Homme aux Sandales', 'la Revue Anarchiste', etc..
He later became a friend of Jacques Prévert, who introduced him to the Surrealists, becoming close friends with André Breton, René Magritte and Yves Tanguy, amongst others. Like many of his fellow Surrealists, he joined Benjamin Peret' Trotskyist POI (Parti Ouvrier Internationaliste) between 1936 to 1939. In 1942 he created his most famous character, Nestor 'Dynamite' Burma, private detective, ex-anarchist, serial monogamist and inveterate pipe smoker, who featured in 33 novels, beginning with the 'Les Nouveaux Mystères de Paris' series and the first novel, '120, Rue de la Gare' in 1943 under the Nazi occupation. The most 'anarchist' of these novels is arguably 'Brouillard au Pont de Tolbiac' (Fog on the Tolbiac Bridge; 1956), where Burma is taken back to his anarchist past by the arrival of a letter addressed to him beginning "Dear Comrade". Unfortunately, Malet also displayed a growing anti-Arab racism in his older writings.
[ a&titre=Léo Malet, une brève biographie&num=40&date=2010-04-25]

1913 - Ramón Álvarez Palomo aka 'Ramonín' (d. 2003), Asturian militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. As a CNT militant, he was involved in the insurrection of 1934 and was imprisoned with Durruti before taking refuge in France. He also fought in Spanish Revolution and was the publisher of 'Acción Libertaria' until 1994. Writer and historian with a number of books to his credit.

[C] 1946 - Jerónimo Curiel Gómez aka 'El Gacho' (b. unknown), Spanish Communist guerrilla native of the Mesas de Ibor and one of the most effective Maquis who roamed the mountains of the Extremadura province, is betrayed, ambushed and killed by the Guardia Civil. Member of the 93ª Brigada of the 12ª División de la Agrupación Guerrillera de Extremadura, aunder the command of Pedro Díaz Monje aka 'El Francés'.

1971 - Ian Purdie is charged, along with Jake Prescott, accused of the two Angry Brigade bombings. They are both in the top security wing at Brixton Prison -- as class A prisoners -- and are kept in their cells for 23 hours a day.

1975 - Mikhail Bakhtin (b. 1895), Russian cultural theorist, philosopher, literary critic, literary theorist and semiotician, dies. [see: Nov. 17]

1985 - Carl Schmitt (b. 1888), German philosopher, jurist, and Nazi political theorist, who was known as the "crown jurist of the Third Reich", dies. [see: Jul. 11]

1988 - Saturnino Carod Lerín aka ' 'El Cuco Cebollero', 'Satur' and 'Jacinto Lahoz Marín' (b. 1903), leading Aragonese anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist combattant, dies. [see: Feb. 21]

2000 - Nicolas Walter (b. 1924), journalist, philosopher, atheist, anarchist, dies. He was a founding member of the Committee of 100 and of Spies for Peace as well as author of 'About Anarchism' (1969). [see: Nov. 22]

2005 - Philip Lamantia (b. 1927), Sicilian-American anarchist and Surrealist poet, dies. [see: Oct. 23]
[B] 1885 - Juan de Dios Filiberto (Oscar Juan de Dios Filiberti; d. 1964), Argentine anarchist, instrumentalist (piano, guitar, violin and harmonium), conductor, poet and composer, who became prominent in the Argentine tango genre, born. Amongst his most enduring compositions are 'Guaymallén', 'Quejas de bandoneón' (The Bandoneón's Woes), 'Suelo Argentino' (Argentine Soil), 'Cura Segura' (Sure Medicine), 'De mi Tierra' (From My Land), 'Se Recomienda Solo' (It's Better Alone), 'La Planchadorita' (Woman Ironing), 'El Ramito' (Spring), 'El Besito' (The Little Kiss), 'Malevaje', 'La Porteñita' (Little Girl from Buenos Aires), 'Clavel del Aire' (A Carnation from the Wind), 'Caminito' (Little path) and 'Botines viejos' (Old lace shoes). His first band was Orfeón Los del Futuro, which he formed with other militant anarchist musicians, and in 1932 he formed his famous and innovative band, Orquesta Porteña, which included 'non-standard' instruments such as clarinets and flutes. The band appeared in Luis Moglia Barth's film '¡Tango!' (1933), as well as recording numerous records for the Odeon and RCA Victor labels and becoming a fixture on the Buenos Aires radio stations during the 1930s. He went on to lead other equally important groups in the following decades, such as the Orquesta Popular de Arte Folklórico, the Orquesta de Música Popular and the Orquesta de Música Argentina y de Cámara. After his death in 1964 his last band would be renamed the Orquesta de Juan de Dios Filiberto de Música Argentina y de Cámara and, after a 1973 Presidential decree, its name was officially changed again to the Orquesta Nacional de Música Argentina Juan de Dios Filiberto.

1887 - Marie-Adele Anciaux aka Mary Smiles (d. 1983), militant, naturalist animal rights activist and libertarian teacher, born. [expand]

1904 - Clément Fournier (d. 1969), French militant anarchist and pacifist, born. [expand]

1905 - Dolores Prat Coll aka pequeña Montseny (little Montseny)(d. 2001), Catalan textile worker and militant anarcho-syndicalist member of the CNT from the age of 15, born. Prominent in the fight for the eight hour day, she was secretary of the Sindicato de la Industria Textil in Ripoll during the Civil War years. Following the defeat of the Republic, she and her family went into exile in France and were interned in the Magnac-Laval camp. On May 15, 1940, she crossed clandestinely back into Spain on behalf of Prats de Molló. She later settled in Toulouse, continuing their trade union work as secretary of the local CNT federation and the Solidaridad Internacional Anarquista (SIA).
She appeared in Lisa Berger's film 'Chemin de Liberté' (Way of Freedom; 1997) and was the subject of 'Dolores: Une Vie Pour La liberté' (A Life for Freedom; 2002) by her son Progreso Marin.

[CC] 1916 - Peter Gingold (d. 2006), German Communist resistance fighter against National Socialism, born in a Jewish family in Aschaffenburg, Bavaria. In 1931 he joined the Kommunistischen Jugendverband Deutschlands (KJVD; Communist Youth Association of Germany) and was active in the German anti-fascist underground in 1933. In May 1933, his parents and siblings emigrated to France but Gingold remained behind, only to be arrested in June during a SA raid and, after spending several months in prison, he was ordered to leave Germany. In Paris, he worked for the German anti-fascist newspaper 'Pariser Tageblatt' and was politically active in the small Paris KJVD group. In 1937, he joined the KPD (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands) and, after a period (May-October) spent interned as a 'stateless German', he returned to Paris and became active in the German anti-fascist Reistance. Forced to leave his job in the spring of 1941 as the Gestapo were searching for him, he travelled to Dijon, where he became involved in the Travail Allemand Résistance group, spreading anti-fascist leaflets among German soldiers and make contact with anti-Hitler elements in the Wehrmacht who were prepared to cooperate with the Résistance. In July 1942, two of his siblings were arrested in Paris and deported to Auschwitz concentration camp. In February 1943, he was arrested at Dijon by the Gestapo and interrogated under torture for several weeks. Gingold was transferred to Paris, where he succeeded in April in escaping and, after a few weeks, he was again active in the Résistance. In August 1944, he took part in the uprising to liberate Paris. After that, he went to Lorraine, to help liberate that city. He returned to Frankfurt am Main in August 1945 and resumed his activities with the Communist Party. Though he was honored in both France and Italy for his anti-fascist work, in Germany, he was vilified in his own country because of his political affiliation. He even had to fight to have his German citizenship recognised. He was also active in the Vereinigung der Verfolgten des Naziregimes – Bund der Antifaschistinnen und Antifaschisten (VVN/BdA; Association of Victims of the Nazi Regime - Federation of anti-fascists and anti-fascists), DRAFD (Verband Deutscher in der Résistance/Association of Germans in the Résistance), and the International Auschwitz Committee, as well as the protests against IG Farben and their use of slave labour during the Nazi era.

1920 - Roberto Elia and Andrea Salsedo, anarchists who worked for the 'Cronaca Sovversiva', are kidnapped (or on February 25th?) by the Department of Justice without a warrant or being arrested. They are secretly confined and beaten in Department Justice (sic) offices in an effort to get them to inform on their fellow anarchists. Andrea Salsedo was suicided May 3rd, defenestrated from the 14th floor of the Department of Justice where he was being questioned.

1920 - In Siena, fascists and the police attack the union offices which are defended by a hundred anarchist and socialist militants. Many workers are wounded in the confrontation, and the anarchist Regoli Giuseppe succumbs to his wounds. A General Strike in protest follows.

1921 - President Eduardo Dato assassinated in Madrid by Luis Nicolau, Pedro Mateu and Ramon Castenellas, metallurgists of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT. Dato was in charge of anti-union repression in Barcelona, and responsible for the killing of three imprisoned union activists on Jan, 20th, victims of the ley de fugas (law of escape) - being "set free" only to be shot down moments later as "escapees."

1923 - Maria Turon Turon (d. unkown), Spanish anarchist militant and feminist member of the Mujeres Libres group in the Pueblo Nuevo neighborhood of Barcelona, born.

1933 - After the triumph of the right in elections, anarchists across Spain take to the streets. The movement reached insurrectionary extraordinary virulence in the Ebro Valley area (Aragón and La Rioja), with assaults on city councils and the proclamation of libertarian communism. The repression was very hard, several hundred were imprisoned.

[A] 1937 - March 8-18: Battle of Guadalajara; Italian troops defeated by Republican army with substantial International Brigade support.

[C] 1945 - Women from the Gruppi di Difesa della Donna (GddD) demonstrate in front of the Salumificio Frigieri in Paganine on International Women's Day as part of the Unione Donne in Italia protest iniative, to highlight the hunger of the Italian people.

1976 - Robert Touati, a French anarchist active in Centro Iberico around 1974, and Juan Durran Escriban, wanted in Spain for an attack on an armoury, are both killed on the grounds of Toulouse University during the night of 8/9 March.
1879 - Carlo Tresca (d. 1943), Italian-born American newspaper editor, orator, labour organiser, prominent Industrial Workers of the World activist and anti-fascist, born. Forced into exile following his involvement in the newspaper 'Il Germe' (The Origin), he emigrated to the USA via Switzerland. In New York he published an Italian language paper, 'La Plèbe', became involved in IWW union activities and in 1917 started 'Il Martello' (The Hammer), a newspaper he published until his death. In 1923, he was sentenced to one year in prison for publishing a book on birth control, but due to large demonstrations in his support his sentence was reduced to four months. Later he organised resistance to Italian émigré blackshirts in America. An outspoken foe of Fascism in Germany and Italy, and of Communism in the Soviet Union. The FBI accumulated a mere 1,358 pages on this outstanding citizen. He was murdered by an unknown assailant, presumably by fascists or the Mafia, on a New York street. [see: Jan 11]

[BB] 1894 - Franz Wilhelm Seiwert (d. 1933), German painter, sculptor, poet, Marxist, anarchist sympathiser, Expresionist, Dadaist and then a Consructivist and member of the Cologne Progressives, born.
Close friend of Erich Muhsam and of Ret Marut (aka B. Traven) - Seiwart sheltered Marut whilst he was on the run in 1919-20 and was one of the last persons to see Marut before he disappeared. Seiwert was also possibly the only person who knew the Marut-Traven connection and who Marut kept in contact with in Europe following his flight to Mexico.
He was seriously burned in 1901, at the age of seven, in an experimental radiological treatment, an event that influenced his later art and made him fear that his life would be short.
In 1916 he met the Expressionist artists Carl Oskar Jatho and Käthe Jatho-Zimmermann at one of their regular anti-war discussion evening in their apartment in Cologne, beginning a close friendship and collaboration. In 1919 he also met Max Ernst and took part in Dada activities; he was invited to exhibit in the large Dada exhibit in Cologne but withdrew at the last moment, claiming Dada was part of the "bourgeois art world". In that same year he formed the Stupid group which included Heinrich Hoerle and Anton Räderscheidt. According to Ernst, "Stupid was a secession from Cologne Dada. As far as Hoerle and especially Seiwert were concerned, Dada's activities were aesthetically too radical and socially not concrete enough". He was also a key member of the Kölner Progressiven (Progressives) Constructivist group in the 1920s, who were central to the Kölner Karneval and the extravagant parties at the Paradiesvogel (Bird of Paradise) and Lumpenball (Rag Ball).
His work appeared in Marut's 'Der Ziegelbrenner' (The Brickmakers; 1917-21) and in 1932 Seiwert's magazine 'a bis z' (1929-33), the organ of the Gruppe Progressiver Künstler (Group of Progressive Artists) offered unsold copies of 'Der Ziegelbrenner' to "friends of Traven". Seiwert also published a booklet, 'Rufe' (1919 or 1920), which included the prose piece of the title and an early version of the essay 'Zeichen', a theoretical "attempt to sketch the dialectical development of the representation of world history" which discusses Marx and Copernicus, as well as Masaccio, Seurat, Picasso, Rembrandt, and Beethoven, and also contains a tribute to Ret Marut. He also published with Tristan Rémy a collection of poetry, 'Choix de Poésies' (1924), in France including both of their poems as well as Erich Mühsam's.
When Hitler came to power in 1933, Seiwert briefly fled to the mountain range Siebengebirge, but his health was badly deteriorating, and friends brought him back to Cologne, where he died.

[CCC] 1896 - Umberto Tommasini (d. 1980), Italian blacksmith, anarchist and anti-fascist fighter, born into a working class socialist family. He took part in the October 14, 1909 protests against the death sentence passed on the Spanish anarchist Francisco Ferrer and also particpated in the celebrated Circolo di Studi Sociali. Wounded during WWI, he was taken prisoner and interned in the Mauthausen POW camp. Upon his release in 1919, he returned to Trieste and resumed his work as a blacksmith, and frequented socialist and anarchist circles. Following the 1920 internal debates within the socialist movement, he decided not to renew his membership of the Partito Socialista and threw his lot in with the anarchist movement. He also became active within the trades union movement, particularly against strikebreakers and the increasingly bold fascists gropus. In 1921 he was wounded by a group of fascists who had stormed the factory where he worked. That summer he took part in a reprisal raid against a squadristi group who had been active in the red light district of San Giacomo, during which his bomb wounded 30 fascists. In 1925, during an Unione Anarchica Italiana meeting, he met Camillo Berneri and Gino Bibbi, both of whom he remained politically close to. He also had a part in the failed attack Gino Lucetti against Mussolini (September 11 1926), supplying the explosives but without knowing their final use. Feared by the Fascist authorities, he was harrassed constantly and was one of the first anti-fascist to be interned, spending six years on the islands of Ustica and Ponza, and during which his "haughty and contemptuous attitude" was a thorn in the authorities' side, who described him as being "a tireless sower of hatred against the present social constitution, intolerant of any discipline and in no way subservient to the authorities." Within a few weeks of his return to Trieste in 1932, he decided to go into exile, leaving for France clandestinely to join the anti-fascist fight in exile.
At the outbreak of the Spanish Revolution, he joined the Ascaso Column of the CNT-FAI, commanded by Carlo Rosselli and Camillo Berneri and largely made ​​up of anarchists. On August 28, 1936, during the battle of Monte Pelado on the Huesca front his WWI experience was crucial in helping prepare trenches and repelling a Carlist attack and later contributed to the move towards a greater militarisation of the Militias. During an attempt to sabotage a fascist ship in the port of Cueta in February 1937, he was arrested, together with Giobbe Giopp, Alfredo Cimadori and Giovanni Fontana, by the Communists and taken to Valencia, where he was harshly interrogated by the Stalinist police. Managing to escape, he was forced to give himself up so as not to interfer with the negotiations to free the entire group (including Cimadori who would turn out to be a fascist police informer) currently taking place between the anarchist Ministry of Justice and the the Socialist Interior Minister. In late April 1937, after suffering a mock execution, he was released. After a brief stop in Barcelona, where he would meet Berneri for the last time, he returned to Paris disillusioned by the events of May 1937 and reinforced in his anti-Communist views. In Paris during the summer of 1937, Tommasini plotted a new attempt on Mussolini's life planned for the following year, but which was foiled by the Fascist police as one of the plotters was an informer. In the summer of 1939, Tommasini was arrested by the French police and interned in Le Vernet d'Ariege Internment Camp. With the end of hostilities between France and Italy, Tommasini was handed over to the Italian police on January 24, 1941. Interrogated in Coroneo prison in Trieste, he was subsequently sent into internal exile on the island of Ventotene for five years. Unlike other political prisoners, who are released after July 25, 1943, with the overthrow of Mussolini, Tommasini was held along with other anarchists and interned in the Renicci internment camp until the end of the war. Given his strong anti-Communist views he, unlike many anarchists, refused to join the Resistance because it was wholely under communist control.
Fearing potential arrest in Trieste, he stayed at his sister's in Bologna after his release. When he did return to Trieste, he helped found the Gruppo Anarchico Germinal, who relaunched the magazine 'Germinal' in May 1946. He also returned to employment as a metalworker and, despite the power of the communist unions, was elected as a workplace delegate. In 1954, he was sentenced to 11 months in prison by the military government during the Anglo-American occupation for illegal anarchist propaganda (posters urging police disobedience and desertion). During that period he also helped a number of anarchist flee communist Bulgaria on their clandestine passage to France. In 1965, he was a member of the 'anti-organisationalist' Gruppi di Iniziativa Anarchica (GIA) that split from the Federazione Anarchica Italiana (FAI). During the late '60s and '70s he became a benchmark for the younger militants who joined the anarchist movement. In 1971, he became the editor of 'Umanità Nova' and continued his activites into his eighties. In 1984, Claudio Venza published a long autobiographical interview tilted 'Umberto Tommasino. The Anarchica Triestino' (translated into Italian in 2011 as 'Il fabbro anarchico. Autobiografia fra Trieste a Barcellona').

1908 - Henri Jullien (d. 2001), grandson of Paule Mink, born in Hanoi. A French socialist, trade unionist, then a mutualist and anarchist. One of the founders of the first syndicat de journalistes confédérés in 1935, he participated in the Résistance and joined the anarchist movement after WWII. In 1949 he became the chair of SIA (Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste) and a supporter of the CIRA (Centre International de Recherche sur l'Anarchisme) in Marseille.

[B] 1916 - Carles Fontseré (d. 2007), one of the important Catalan anarquista poster artists of the Spanish Revolution, born. Active in the Sindicato de Dibujantes Profesionales de Barcelona (Union of Professional Illustrators; SPD), whose posters plastered the walls of Barcelona - as George Orwell noted on his arrival in the city that December: "The revolutionary posters were everywhere, flaming from the walls in clean reds and blues that made the few remaining advertisements look like daubs of mud." Fontserè was to bemoan the loss of vitality of these posters once they became 'official' productions of the Republic. The F.A.I. poster Llibertat! (Freedom), with the sickle-waving farmer and the red and black flag in the background, is his work. A refugee in France following Franco's victory, he worked painting stage designs and illustrating Catalan literature. After time spent in Mexico, he ended up in New York where he worked as a cartoonist, painter, poster designer and scenery decorator. He also collaborated with Salvador Dali on a photography project.

[C] 1930 - Kurt Weill and Bertolt Brecht's opera 'The Rise and Fall of the Town of Mahagonny' (revised version) premières in Leipzig. It is picketed (and later banned) by the Nazis.

1938 - Franco's forces, with overwhelming air superiority, launch a major assault on the Aragon front; the Republican forces, torn by internal disputes, collapse; and by April 15 the Nationalists reach the coast, splitting Republican territory in two.

1939 - In Madrid, the anarchist Cipriano Mera (1896-1975), heading the IV army corps, routs the counter-revolutionary communist troops which besiege the National Council of Defence.

1949 - Following the unsuccessful attack on Eduardo Quintela Boveda's car the week before [see: Mar. 2], José López Penedo and José Sabaté Llopart, in whose house in Torrasa they were staying prior to returning tho France, are surprised by a night-time police raid. They defend themselves and, in the ensuing gun battle, manage to jump out of a window in a hail of bullets. José Sabaté manages to escape while Jose Lopez Penedo, wounded by a bullet in the lung, is captured unconscious.

1958 - Louis Moreau (b. 1883), French militant libertarian, pacifist, painter and engraver, dies. Trained as a lithographer, in 1900 he settled in Paris to practice his trade, developing a passion for drawing, painting and woodcuts. There he began contributing to Jean Grave's 'Temps Nouveaux'. Called up during WWI, his work was published in the clandestine 'Le Semeur'. [see: Apr. 15]
[BB/C] 1896 - Nancy Cunard (d. 1965), Surrealist writer, poet, model, anarchist and anti-fascist, born into the British upper class - her father Baronet Sir Bache Cunard and mother Maud Alice Burke, a flamboyant American heiress. Her paternal great grandfather was founder of the steamship company of the same name, the origin of the family’s immense wealth.
Her poetry first appeared in magazines in 1916 and she published 3 volumes: 'Outlaws' (1921), 'Sublunary' (1923) and 'Parallax' (1925). She also became the muse of Paris Dada through her friendship with Man Ray who regularly used her as a model. Tristan Tzara wrote 'Mouchoir de Nuages' (1924), his fourth and final play, for her.
Nancy was also the model for characters in novels by 2 of her lovers: Virginia Tracy in Michael Arlen's 'Piracy' (1922), Iris March in his 'The Green Hat' (1924) and the eponymous heroine in 'Lily Chritine: A Romance' (1928). Aldous Huxley also modelled his characters Myra Viveash in 'Antic Hay' (1923) and Lucy Tantamount in 'Point Counter Point' (1928) on her. Other characters based on her include Lady Brett in Hemingways 'The Sun Also Rises' (1926) and those in Louis Aragon's 'Le Con d'Irene' (1927) and 'Blanche, ou l'Oubli' (1967); Evelyn Waugh's 'Unconditional Surrender' (1961); and Wyndham Lewis' 'The Roaring Queen' (1973).
In 1928 she bought Three Mountains Press (renamed Hours Press) that had published Hemingway, Gertrude Stein, Carlos Williams and E. Pound. She had become the lover of the surrealist poet Louis Aragon. Later she fell in love with the African-American piano player, Henry Crowder, who was playing jazz in a boîte de nuit in the then trendy Montparnasse district; due to this relationship she was disinherited and wrote 'Black Man and White Ladyship' (1931), an attack on upper class racist attitudes as exemplified by her mother's attitude to he relationship with Crowder. She also edited the massive 'Negro: an Anthology' (1934), collecting poetry, fiction and non-fiction primarily by African-American writers such as Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston, and included writing by George Padmore and Cunard's own account of the Scottsboro Boys case.
She was also a passionate anti-fascist, writing about Mussolini's annexation of Ethiopia and the Spanish Civil War - predicting that it would precipitate another world war. She fund-raised for Spanish refugees, publishing pamphlets (including the poetry collection 'Les Poètes du Monde Défendent le Peuple Espagnol' (The Poets of the World Defend the Spanish People; 1937) and helping organise relief supplies. She also worked as a Resistance interpreter during WWII. However, her Spain and WWII work serious affected her physical and mental health and she declined in the post-war years, dying in a mental hospital weighing only sixty pounds (27kg).

1900 - Pandelis Pouliopoulos (Παντελής Πουλιόπουλος; d. 1943), Greek Trotskyist and onetime general secretary of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE), born. Considered the founding father of Greek Trotskyism. In 1943, and then very ill and hospitalised with the tuberculosis that he had contracted in prison, he was executed by the Italian occupation forces in Nezero, near Larissa, along with over a hundred other militants, in retaliation for the destruction by partisans of the Gorgopotamos bridge. Speaking in Italian to the squad of soldiers given the job of executing him, he exhorted them not to commit such a crime against the anti-fascist resisters and their adversaries in the war. When the soldiers refused to be executioners, it was the Carabinieri who were given the task.

[B] 1920 - Boris Vian (d. 1959), French polymath: writer, poet, jazz musician, singer, translator, critic, actor, inventor, engineer and 'apolitical anarchist', born. Probably best known for his novels written under the pseudonym Vernon Sullivan including 'J'Irai Cracher sur vos Tombes' (I Spit on Your Graves; 1946). He also wrote a number of sci-fi novels: 'L'Ecume des Jours' (Foam of Days; 1947); 'L'Automne à Pékin' (Autumn in Peking; 1947); 'L'Herbe Rouge' (Red Grass; 1950); and 'L'Arrache-Coeur' (Heartsnatcher; 1953).
"On ne connaît la loi que lorsque les gens l'enfreignent." (We know the law only when people break it.)
"La vérité n'est pas du côté du plus grand nombre, parce qu'on ne veut pas qu'elle y soit." (The truth is not on the side of the majority, because we do not want it to be there.)
"Si le travail c'est l'opium du peuple, alors je ne veux pas finir drogué..." (If the work is the opium of the people, so I do not want to end up a junkie...)
"Supprimez le conditionnel et vous aurez détruit Dieu." (Remove the conditional and you destroy God.)

1923 - Salvador Segui Rubinat, 'El Noi del Sucre' (The Sugar Boy)(b. 1886), prominent Catalonoan CNT figure, is assassinated on the orders of the governor of Catalonia. [see: Dec. 23]

1935 - Jose Antonio Labordeta Subias (d. 2010), Aragonese singer-songwriter, poet, novelist, one-time libertarian who later became a resolutely non-sectarian liberal socialist politician, born into a staunchly Republican family. Popularly known as El Abuelo, his sympathies remained with anarchism and he was amongst those who helped keep the songs of the Revolution alive.

Habrá un día en que todos
Al levantar la vista
Veremos una tierra
Que ponga libertad (bis)

Hermano aquí mi mano
Será tuya mi frente
Y tu gesto de siempre
Caerá sin levantar
Huracanes de miedo
Ante la libertad

Haremos el camino
En un mismo trazado
Uniendo nuestros hombros
Para así levantar
A aquellos que cayeron
Gritando libertad

Sonarán las campanas
Desde los campanarios
Y los campos desiertos
Volverán a granar
Unas espigas altas
Dispuestas para el pan

Para un pan que en los siglos
Nunca fue repartido
Entre todos aquellos
Que hicieron lo posible
Para empujar la historia
Hacia la libertad

También será posible
Que esa hermosa mañana
Ni tú, ni yo, ni el otro
La lleguemos a ver
Pero habrá que empujarla
Para que pueda ser

Que sea como un viento
Que arranque los matojos
Surgiendo la verdad
Y limpie los caminos
De siglos de destrozos
Contra la libertad

(There will be a day when all
Looking up
We will see a land
That put freedom (x2)

Brother here my hand
Be yours my forehead
And you always gesture
Fall without lifting
Hurricane fear
Given freedom

We the way
In one path
Joining our shoulders
To raise and
To those who fell
Screaming freedom

Ring the bells
From the belfries
And the empty fields
Granar again
High tenons
Arranged for bread

For a bread that in the centuries
Never was divided
Among those
They did their best
To push the story
Towards Freedom

It is also possible
That this beautiful morning
Neither you, nor I, nor the other
The get to see
But we must push
So it can be

Make it like a wind
They start the bushes
Emerging truth
And clean the roads
From centuries of destruction
Against freedom)

'Canto a la Libertad' (Song of Freedom)

Pascual se crió menudo
Siempre esperando saber
Por qué su padre decía
A la hora del mal comer:
Pascual, Pascual, tú a lo tuyo
Que es trabajar

Segó por las tierras altas
Llegó por el olivar
Deshojó azafrán con frío
Y hasta se pensó casar
Con una moza sonora
De gran pechera y buen pie
Hasta que los padres de ella
También le hicieron saber
Pascual, Pascual, tú a lo tuyo
Que es trabajar

Se metió en lo libertario
Se hizo de la CNT
Corrió todos los caminos
Todos corrieron contra él
Estuvo en el frente el Ebro
En Andorra y en Teruel
Gritó por los barrios altos
Luego gritaron contra él
Pascual, Pascual, tú a lo tuyo
Que es trabajar

Hizo resuello por Francia
Muy cerca de Montpellier
Los nazis le hicieron preso
Y lo exportaron a Argel
De aquí pasó a Sevilla
Y luego a Carabanchel
Y en todas partes oía
Con consejos de burgués
Pascual, Pascual, tú a lo tuyo
Que es trabajar

Anda de nuevo menudo
Por marchar tanto al revés
De esperar siempre el tranvía
Hasta llegar la vejez
Camina cansado y triste
De ir desde el tajo a la mina
Desde el secano al andamio
Sin entender la consigna
Pascual, Pascual, tú a lo tuyo
Que es trabajar

El día que agonizaba
En un catre de un cuartel
Alzó la cabeza duro
Y dijo con mala fe
"trabajar, trabajar, trabajar"
¿Y para quién?"

(Pascual often raised
Always waiting to hear
Why your father said
At the time of bad eating:
Pascual, Pascual, you do your thing
What is working

He cut through the highlands
He came through the olive grove
Plucked cold saffron
And even thought wed
With a sound girl
Large front and right foot
Until her parents
Also let him know
Pascual, Pascual, you do your thing
What is working

He got into the libertarian
It made the CNT
He ran all the way
Everyone ran against him
He was in the front the Ebro
In Andorra, Teruel
He shouted Uptown
Then shouted against him
Pascual, Pascual, you do your thing
What is working

He wheezing by France
Very near Montpellier
The Nazis made him prisoner
And exported to Algiers
From this he went to Seville
And then to Carabanchel
And everywhere heard
With tips from bourgeois
Pascual, Pascual, you do your thing
What is working

Come back often
For both backward march
Always expect the tram
To reach old age
Walk tired and sad
To go from the mine pit
From dry to the scaffold
Without understanding the slogan
Pascual, Pascual, you do your thing
What is working

The dying day
In a barracks cot
He raised his head hard
He said in bad faith
"Work, work, work"
And for whom?")

'Con el sudor de tu frente' (By the sweat of your brow) [co-written with Joaquín Carbonell]


1938 - Nationalists begin major offensive in Aragón.

[BB] 1939 - Armand Guerra (real name: Jose Calvo Estivalis) (b. 1886), Spanish typesetter, film-maker, journalist, writer and anarchist, dies. Began work at 13 as a typesetter and was thrown into prison during a 1907 typesetter's strike as a member of the young C.N.T. Leaving Spain he went to Paris with his brother Vincente the following year. In 1909 he was in Geneva and Nice, where he published the newspaper 'Tierra y Libertad' (banned in Spain). In 1911 he journeyed though Italy to Cairo, where he worked on the trilingual paper 'L'Idea'. After that too was banned, he travelled round the Mediterranean before returning to France. In 1913 he created the Paris film co-operative Le Cinéma du Peuple, which made a number of films social nature, including 'La Commune' and 'The Old Docker' (both 1914). Guerra was both a producer and actor in these films and used old Communards and anarchists in them. He also contributed to various anarchist newspapers including 'Tierra' (published in Cuba) and Luigi Bertoni's 'Réveil'.
Guerra made his first full-length film during the summer of 1936 in Spain, before going to the front to fight fascism with a camera, filming for the CNT at the war front. 'Carne de Fieras' (Meat of Wild Animals) was never released, and thought lost forever, until a negative was discovered and released in 1993. Guerra also took part in propagandist speaking tours in the South of France and was imprisoned by the Stalinist police between April to August 1938 on a ship in the port of Barcelona. In February 1939, he managed to embark for Paris via Sète, thereby escaping the concentration camp in southern France.
His memoir of his time in Spain is entitled 'A Través de la Metralla: Escenas Vividas en los Frentes y en la Retaguardia' (Through the Shrapnel: Vivid Scenes at the Fronts and in the Rear; 1938).
Other films include directed: 'Luis Candelas o El Bandido de Madrid' (1926) [wrote]; 'Batalla de Damas' (1928) [also wrote]; 'El Amor Solfeando' (1930); and the 2 volumes of 'Estampas Guerreras' (1937).
Actor: 'Les Misères de l'Aiguille' (Miseries of the Needle1914); 'Ein Sommernachtstraum' (Wood Love; 1925) a fantasy by Hans Neumann based on 'A Midsummer Night's Dream'; and 'La Alegría que Pasa' (Joy Happens; 1934).
[see also: &]

1945 - 90 members of the Bulgarian Anarchist Federation meet (or attempt to meet?) in an extraordinary session, seeking ways of resisting the new communist regime (which has closed all meeting places and prohibited the anarchist newspapers), are stopped by the communist militia and sent in concentration camps, where they are tortured and compelled to do forced labour.

1945 - Oscar Ihlebæk (b. 1900), Norwegian newspaper editor and resistance member, dies in Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. [see: Oct. 9]

1964 - Ugo Fedeli (b. 1898) Italian anarchist militant, anti-fascist, historian, writer and librarian, dies. Wrote under numerous pseudonyms including Hugo Train and G. Renti. Arrested for the first time in 1913 (aged 15 years old) for participating in the Unione Italiana Sindacale (USI) organised strike; invloved in anti-miltarist campaigns by anarchist groups including Franchi Tiratori (Snipers) and Ribelli Milansesi (Milanese Rebels); attended the events of the 'Settimana Rossa' (Red Week) in Milano (June 7-14, 1914); drafted in 1917, but deserted to Switzerland where was tried in the 'Bombe di Zurigo' process in 1919 (along with other anarchists, including Bruno Misefari, Luigi Bertoni and Joseph Monnanni); in 1920 married Clelia Premoli; took part in the main events of the 'Biennio Rosso' (Two Red Years) in Milan until march 1921: then accused, alongside other anarchists, of a series of bomb attacks which culminated in the attack on the Diana theatre, which caused 21 casualties. [expand]

1969 - A commando of situationists 'returns' a statue of Charles Fourier to its plinth in Paris, left vacant since its removal by the Nazis.

1972 - South African Airways, London, firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1972 - Stephen Mac Say (b. 1884), French anarchist, professor, bee-keeper and partner of Marie-Adele Anciaux aka Mary Smiles [see: 8 March], dies. [see: Oct 5]

1979 - 800 National Front supporters on a march in support of imprisoned Robert Relf are prevented from reaching Winchester prison by 2,000 anti-fascist protesters. [PR]

2005 - Maurice Brinton (b. 1923), influential Anglo-Greek writer and historian on the left, translator and mainstay in the London Solidarity group, dies. Brinton was the pen name of the distinguished neuro-surgeon Chris Pallis (who also defined brainstem death). [see: Dec. 2]

2013 - In Bulgaria today is officially designated as Holocaust Remembrance Day and the 'Day of the Salvation of the Bulgarian Jews and of the Victims of the Holocaust and of the Crimes against Humanity', marking the date of the revocation of the plan to expel the country's Jewish population.
1909 - Maurice Laisant (d. 1991), French author, anarchist and anti-militarist, born. Son of the anarchist Charles Laisant and brother of the anarchist Albert, grandson of the anarchist Charles Ange Laisant. Edited 'Le Monde Libertaire'.

1922 - Cornelius Castoriadis (d. 1997), aka Pierre Chaulieu or Paul Cardan, Franco-Greek radical political philosopher, social critic and editor of the journal 'Socialism or Barbarism' (1949-1967), born.

1944 - Operation Spark*: Another attempt is made to assassinate Hitler when he summons the staff of Field Marshal Busch, now commanding Army Group Centre, to brief him at the Berghof villa. A member of the staff, Captain Eberhard von Breitenbuch (1910 - 1980), volunteered to carry a pistol into the meeting and shoot Hitler. But on the day of the briefing, Hitler issued a Führer directive excluding junior officers from Führer briefings. [*also translated as Operation Flash]

1949 - Miguel Barba Moncayo aka 'Reyes' (b. ca. 1899), Catalan anarchist activist with the FIJL, is murdered in cold blood in his own home in front of his wife and children after the police had knocked on the door and asked him for his identification. He had only just been released from prison.

1950 - Heinrich Mann (b. 1871), German novelist, utopian and anti-fascist, dies. Broke with his brother Thomas over the later's support for WWI. [see: Mar. 27]

1963 - André Lorulot (b. 1885), French individualist anarchist, free thinker, lecturer, propagandist and playwright, dies. ​[see: Oct. 23]

[C] 1965 - James Reeb (b. 1927), white American Unitarian Universalist minister from Boston, Massachusetts, and a pastor and civil rights activist in Washington, D.C, dies in hospital of his head injuries sustained following the severe beating inflicted upon him by white segregationists while marching for civil rights in Selma, Alabama on March 9, 1965.

1972 - In Milan a 60-year-old retired man, Giuseppe Tavecchio, is shot in the head at point blank range by a police tear gas projectile as he crosses the road, returning home with a bagful of shopping. The incident occurred after a street demonstration, organised by the extra-parliamentary Left, degenerates into clashes with the police close to the headquarters of Corriere della Sera. Militants of the Potere Operaio (Workers’ Power), in particular, go toe to toe with the paramilitary police, transforming the centre of Milan into a battleground.
Tavecchio dies 3 days later in hospital and, following a notorious trial, the cop who fired the round and his superior are acquitted on all charges.

1973 - Manuel Rojas Sepúlveda (b. 1896), Chilean anarchist writer, novelist, poet and essayist, dies. [see: Jan. 8]

1975 - In Portugal a hastily arranged rightist military coup, led by General António de Spinola with the support of paratroops units and the Guarda Nacional Republicana, is quickly defeated by left-wing forces in the military. Spinola decided upon this course of action after he had been warned on March 8, 1975 by the Spanish and French secret services about the Matança da Páscoa (Killing of Easter), a supposed plot by the Portuguese Communist Party and the more radical members in COPCON (Comando Operacional do Continente / Continental Operations Command) and the 5th Division, supported by the Soviet Union, for a campaign of political assassinations, with Spinola and his supporters amongst the targets, as part of a leftist coup.
The attempted coup began as two T6 aircraft and four helicopters bombed the left-wing RAL 1 (Regimento de Artilharia Ligeira 1 / 1st Light Artillery Regiment) barracks near Lisbon airport, backed up by a ground force of paratroopers. In response the left-wing population of many cities set up street barricades in defence of the government, protests that would continue for the next three days. By 14:00 it was all over, and three hours later Spinola fled by helicopter to Talavera de la Reina, Spain, going into exile in Brazil on March 15, 1975.
The defeat of the coup resulted in a turn in the revolutionary process to the political left, with the main sectors of the economy, such as the banks, transportation, steel mills, mines, and communications companies, being nationalised. However, it also led directly to the events of November 25, 1975 and the ultimate defeat of the socialist revolution by a rightist counter-coup.
[ço_de_1975ça_da_Páscoa_(Revolução_dos_cravos) de Abril]

1977 - During a protest in the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Bologna, Pier Francesco Lorusso (b. 1952), a medical student and Lotta Continua militant, is shot dead by police.

1978 - March organised by the Wolverhampton Anti-Racist Committee (WARC).

[A] 1986 - During fights with the cops, steelworkers in Reinosa surround the Guardia Civil, beat them up, strip them naked and march them out of town.
1906 - Jean Jérôme (Michał Feintuch; d. 1990), French Communist activist, Jew and Résistance member, who helped organise shipments of weapons to Republican Spain and aid for Republican refugees post-defeat, born in Poland. Took the pseudonym Jean Jérôme in 1940 whilst working in the Résistance in Paris.

1919 - Johannes Baader and Raoul Hausmann stage a 'Propaganda Evening' in Café Austria, where they found the Antinationaler Rat der unbezahlten Arbeiter (Anti-National Council of Unpaid Workers; ARUDA) and the Club der Blauen Milchstraße.

1921 - Edgar Rodrigues (Antônio Francisco Correia; d. 2009), Portuguese militant anti-fascist and anarchist historian of the Portuguese and Brazilian anarchist movement, who authored more than fifty books, in northern Portugal.

[C] 1933 - A British Union of Fascists meeting of 3,000 at Manchester’s Free Trade Hall to hear Oswald Mosley speak descends into rioting between fascists and anti-fascist communists and is broken up by police. In the preceeding days, local CPGB members had distributed an anti-fascist manifesto calling on all members of the Labour Party, ILP, trade unions and Co-ops to unite against the BUF and their meeting. In the meeting itself, the first trouble broke out when someone asked Mosley if BUF was anti-Semetic. One of the 140 or so 1 Squad [the BUF's elite uniformed thugs under the command of Eric Hamilton Piercy, and who were always armed and drove round in armoured vehicles] hit him over the head with a rubber truncheon. When other audience members objected, they were assaulted. They fought back and the meeting descended into running battles between hecklers and Blackshirts. The Union Flag was torn down from the platform by anti-fascist communists singing the 'Red Flag'. The fascist responded with 'God save the Queen'. Police netered the hall and ordered the stewards out and led Mosley from the stage. Three fascists required hospital treatment. [PR]

1942 - Juan Montseny (aka Federico Urales) (b. 1864), Catalan teacher, novelist, publisher, individualist anarchist militant, companion of Teresa Mañé (Soledad Gustavo) and father of Federica Montseny, dies. [see: Aug. 19]

1946 - Ferenc Szálasi (b. 1897), leader of the fascist Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom (Arrow Cross Party – Hungarist Movement) and Prime Minister of the puppet Government of National Unity during the last few months of Hungry's participation in WWII, is executed by hanging.

1949 - Date sometimes given for the execution in Zaragoza of Justiniano Garcia Macho, aka 'El Macho', (b. unkown) and Pedro Acosta Canovas, aka 'El Chaval' & 'Pedro', (b. 1925). [see: Mar. 22]

1954 - Mat Kavanagh (b. 1876), Irish anarchist activist and leading figure in the French anarchist movement, dies. [expand]

1955 - Theodor Plievier (orig. Plivier; b. 1892), German novelist, writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 12]

1958 - Manol Vassev (Yordan Sotirov; b. 1898), Bulgarian anarchist militant, labour organiser and World War II Resistance fighter, dies. A popular Bulgarian militant anarcho-trade unionist, member of the Bulgarian Anarchist Communist Federation (FAKB) and a living symbol of resistance to both fascism and to Bolshevism. Arrested in March 1945, he spent several years the Stalinist concentration camps of Dupnitsa and Kutzian, where his resistance forced the authorities to release him. However, he rifused to sign a statement denouncing his anarchist beliefs and leave, and he had to be thrown out by force. He later served 5 years in the Sliven prison, and was sentenced again to one and a half years there. At the trial before the second term, exceptionally held in public, he was accused of being an "agent in the pay of the Anglo-Americans". He rose and cut the prosecutor short, crying out: "It isn’t me who signed the Teheran and Yalta treaties with the English and the Americans; it’s not me who went to London to kiss the skirt of the Queen of England!" He was poisoned by his prison guards one day before his scheduled release.

1977 - Joaquín Ascaso Budria (b. 1906), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Jun. 5]

[A] 1977 - Il Movimento riots in Bologna: 100,000 people demonstrate in Rome - the Ministry of Justice is attacked and gun shops are looted.

1980 - Renée Lamberet (b. 1901), French professor of history and geography, activist and anarchist historian, dies. [see: Oct. 4]

[B] 1980 - Ángel Borda (b. 1901), Argentinian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, trades union organiser, popular library founder, autodidact, sculptor, story and song writer (chamarritas and coplas), dies. [see: Aug. 2]

1986 - José Martínez Guerricabeitia (aka Felipe de Orero) (b. 1921), Spanish anarchist and founder of the anti-Francoist Ruedo Ibérico publishing house which published the first Spanish translations of Hugh Thomas' 'The Spanish Civil War', and Brenan’s 'The Spanish Labyrinth', dies at his own hands. [see: Jun. 18]

1990 - Fernand Rude (aka Pierre Froment) (b. 1910), French social historian, sympathetic to libertarian / anarchist movements, dies. [see: Jun. 13]

1990 - Philippe Soupault (b. 1897), French writer, poet, novelist, playwright, critic and political activist, dies. [see: Aug. 2]
1858 - Maximilien Luce (d. 1941), French Neo-Impressionist artist, painter, printmaker, engraver and anarchist, born. Initial training as a wood carver, he began to study engraving and, after 4 years military service, painting. Luce's early work was mainly landscapes and urban scenes which frequently emphasize the activities of people at work, but became better known for his pointillist canvases.
As a child he witnessed the tragic events of the Paris Commune, later becoming part of the anarchist milieu and a friend of Jean Grave. In 1887 Pissarro , Seurat and Signac welcomed him into the Neo-Impressionists group. He also submitted numerous artworks to radical newspapers ('Le Père Peinard', 'La Révolte', 'L'Endehors', 'La Feuille', etc.) and was imprisoned in 1894 during the Procès des 30 anti-anarchist hysteria following the acts of Ravachol and Valliant, labelled a "dangerous anarchist" because his drawings were considered an "inciting the populous to revolt". In 1934, Maximilien Luce was elected President of the Société des Artistes Indépendants after Signac’s retirement, but soon resigned in a protest against society's policy to restrict the admission of Jewish artists.
Luce made a series of famous lithographs on prison life, which were accompanied by a Jules Vallès text, and many of his works are on the theme of the Paris Commune and the horrors of the Great War.

[B] 1928 - René-Louis Lafforgue (d. 1967), French singer, songwriter, actor, interpreter and anarchist, born to Basque anarchist parents. The family went into exile in France following the Spanish Civil War, where his brother is killed in participating in the Resistance.
After practising several professions including as a typesetter, he became an actor and singer-songwriter. The fifties saw his talent recognised following appearances with Georges Brassens. His songs like 'Julie la Rousse' (1956) provide him popularity. He also opened a cabaret, L'Ecole Buissonnière (School of Truancy) with his partner Claudie in 1962, a venue frequented by libertarian and pacifist performers, including the likes of Pierre Louki, Boby Lapointe, Maurice Fanon, Christine Sèvres and Guy Bedos.
Some of his films: 'Sous le Ciel de Paris' (actor; 1950), 'Julie la Rousse' (actor/composer; 1958), 'Les Amants de Teruel' (actor/composer/screenwriter; 1961) and 'La Communale' (1965).

1929 - Italian anarchist Ettore Aguggini dies in prison after many years there. One of those convicted for bombing the Teatro Diana in Milan, believed manipulated and set up by the Chief of Police as a pretext by the fascists for instigating a general repression against all anarchists.

1943 - New crematoriums open in Auschwitz.

1943 - Operation Spark*: A Schwarze Kapelle (Black Band) plot to kill Hitler with a timebomb smuggled on board his plane on a flight from Smolensk to East Prussia flops when the detonator fails to go off. If the plan had succeeded, General Friedrich Olbricht (1888 - 1944), head of the General Army Office headquarters, would have uses the Replacement Army to seize control in Berlin, Vienna, Munich and all the military district centres across Germany by the original Valkyrie plan (before Tresckow rewrote it in advance of the July 20 plot). [*also translated as Operation Flash]

1971 - Rockwell Kent (b. 1882), US painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Jun. 21]

[C] 1978 - An escape tunnel is discovered at Madrid's Carabanchel prison. The Spanish militant anarchist Agustin Rueda Sierra and seven fellow prisoners are 'identified' as the tunnel builders and subjected to more than six hours of brutal beatings and torture. [see: Mar. 14]

2008 - Yorkshire anti-fascists attacked several Leeds venues that had been recently used for BNP meetings.
1893 - Emilio Canzi (d. 1945), Italian partisan, anarchist and anti-fascist combattant in the Spanish Civil War, born. Head of the Battaglione Cantarana, he helped train the Arditti del Popolo (People’s Commmandos), who fought against Mussolini’s Blackshirts. Following the killing of a fascist he had to flee to France. In 1927 he returned to Italy to undertake underground work but was arrested. He managed to explain away his presence and left the country illegally in 1928. In France he joined an exile group of Piacenza anarchists, the Anarchist Communist Union of Piacenza. In October 1933 he served on the Anarchist Committee for political Victims based in Paris that maintained links with militants still in Italy. He was a main organiser of protests against the expulsion of Italian anarchist militants from France in 1935.
In 1936 he fought with Italian anarchist volunteers in Spain on the Aragon front. Returning to Paris he contributed to the exile anarchist press and organised aid for Italian anarchist volunteers who had ended up in French concentration camps. With the German invasion, Emilio was arrested by the Nazis, spending 3 months in a German prison and then he was sent to a concentration camp. In March 1942 he was transferred to Italy to receive a sentence of five years of internment on the prison island of Ventotene. From here he was sent to the concentration camp of Renicci D’Anghiari from where he and other anarchists organised a daring escape in 1943. He organised a partisan detachment in the mountains. He was arrested by the fascists in 1944 but was freed in a prisoner exchange. The Communists tried to neutralise his importance in the partisan movement and to discredit him and he was arrested by them. Another partisan unit freed him and he took part in the fighting to liberate Piacenza. He threw himself into activity in the anarchist movement again, taking part in the congress of the FCL (Libertarian Communist federation) and then at the founding congress of the Italian Anarchist Federation in Carrara in September 1945.
On October 2 1945 he was struck by a British Army truck and he died in hospital several weeks later. The nature of the accident remains mysterious.

1896 - Louis Emile Cottin (d. 1936), French carpenter-cabinet maker and militant anarchist, born. Received a death sentence [see below] (later commuted) for trying to assassinate Clémenceau in 1919. Cottin died on the Saragossa front during the Spanish Revolution, where he fought in the famed Durruti Column.

1897 - Errico Malatesta clandestinely re-enters Italy and begins publishing the weekly newspaper 'L'Agitazione'. Ii will be published until 12 May 1898.

1901 - Horacio Badaraco (d. 1946), Argentinian militant anarchist, born. Fought in Spain. [expand]

[C] 1918 - Abba Kovner (אבא קובנר; d. 1987), Lithuanian Jewish Hebrew poet, writer, and commander of the Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye (FPO; United Partisan Organisation) in the Vilna Ghetto, born. [expand]
"Let us not go like sheep to the slaughter, Jewish youth! Do not believe those who are deceiving you. Out of 80,000 Jews of the Jerusalem of Lithuania (Vilna), only 20,000 remain. In front of your eyes our parents, our brothers and our sisters are being torn away from us. Where are the hundreds of men who were snatched away for labor by the Lithuanian kidnappers? Where are those naked women who were taken away on the horror-night of the provocation? Where are those Jews of the Day of Atonement? And where are our brothers of the second ghetto? Anyone who is taken out through the gates of the ghetto, will never return. All roads of the ghetto lead to Ponary, and Ponary means death. Oh, despairing people, - tear this deception away from your eyes. Your children, your husbands, your wives - are no longer alive - Ponary is not a labor camp. Everyone there is shot. Hitler aimed at destroying the Jews of Europe. It turned out to be the fate of the Jews of Lithuania to be the first. Let us not go like sheep to the slaughter. It is true that we are weak, lacking protection, but the only reply to a murderer is resistance. Brothers, it is better to die as free fighters than to live at the mercy of killers. Resist, resist, to our last breath!"

1921 - Errico Malatesta, Armando Borghi and Corrado Quaglino launch a hunger strike in the San Villore prison in Milan.

1933 - Blackshirts armed with knuckle-dusters and lead-filled rubber hoses attack an anti-fascist gathering outside Rochdale Town Hall. [PR]

1945 - Alexander Granach (real name Jessaja Szajka Gronach; b. 1890) [1893 also given as the date], anarchist sympathiser and popular German actor in the 1920s and 1930s as well as 1940s Hollywood, dies. Apprenticed as a baker, he attended Russian Jewish revolutionary student meetings and discovered the Yiddish theatre. Moving to Berlin he joined an amateur theatre and, in 1909, he attended the school of the famous Max Reinhardt theatre. Post-WWI (drafted into the Austro-Hungarian army), he started acting in films, playing the part of Knock in FW Murnau's 'Nosferatu' (1921) and appearing in GW Pabst's 'Kameradschaft' (Comradeship; 1931). He also played Marat in Hans Behrendt's 'Danton' (1931) but in 1933, he fled anti-Semitic persecution and took refuge in the Soviet Union, meeting old revolutionary friends. However, in 1936 he was a victim of the Stalinist purges and imprisoned. Released, he left the country for Switzerland, from where he emigrated to the United States in 1939 and a second career in Hollywood. His first film was Ernst Lubitsch's 'Ninotchka' (1939) playing Kopalsky, one of the 3 Russians in Paris to sell jewellery confiscated from the aristocracy during the Russian Revolution of 1917. He also played Paco in 'For Whom Bell Tolls' (1943) by Sam Wood, Julius Streicher in 'The Hitler Gang' (1944) as well as a number of roles as an anti-fascist. Perhaps his most notable role was as Gestapo Inspector Alois Gruber in Fritz Lang's 'Hangmen Also Die!' (1943).
His libertarian sympathies led to him giving money to the Spanish anarchists Durruti and Francisco Ascaso, assisting them to find refuge in Belgium. He also took the lead role in the play 'Staatsraison' (Reason of State), a tribute for Sacco and Vanzetti as well as a denunciation of the American judicial machinery, written by his friend Erich Mühsam. [see: Apr. 18]

1946 - Approximately 200 ex-BU fascists and 18B detainees attend a meeting of prominent fascist John Preen's British or Britons’ Vigilantes Action League, held in the Albert Hall, London. 43 Group members were present in the stalls along with other anti-fascists waiting for the right moment to disrupt the even, when a large group of anti-fascists (mostly communists organised by the London District Committee of the CPGB) invaded the hall, taking it over. The speaker was shouted down and, faced with having lost control of the situation, the fascists fled. The anti-fascists present then held a meeting of their own. The meeting was eventually closed down by the police.

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: The 'suicide' of Larbi Ben M'hidi is announced [see: Mar. 4]. He had supposedly committed suicide by hanging himself with his shirt. In fact, it had been decided that Ben M'hidi should not stand trial due to the reprisals that would follow his execution and so Major Paul Aussaresses [of the 11e Choc (11th 'Shock' Paratroop Regiment), the commando unit of the the SDECEE (Service de Documentation Extérieure et de Contre-Espionnagecons-Intelligence Service), France's external intteligence service] and men of the 1er Régiment Étranger de Parachutistes (1st Foreign Parachute Regiment) removed him from Bigeard's custody on March 3 and, after interrogation, drove him to a farm outside Algiers where they faked his suicide by hanging in the early hours of the following morning.
[ algerie/alger-premiere-suicide.html algerie/alger-premiere-arrestation-ben m hidi.html'hidi'hidi]

1958 - Jesús del Olmo Sáez (aka Malatesta; b. 1924), Spanish anarchist and anti-Francoist resistance fighter, dies. [see: Oct. 18]

1962 - Giovanna Caleffi Berneri (b. 1897), Italian anarchist, married to Camillo Berneri (murdered by the Communists in Spain), mother of Marie Louise Berneri, Giliana Berneri (anarchists all), dies. [see: May 4]

1978 - In the early hours in Madrid's Carabanchel prison, the Spanish militant anarchist Agustin Rueda Sierra (b. 1952) dies from the injuries inflicted on him following the discovery of an escape tunnel the previous day. He and seven comrades were 'identified' as the tunnel builders and subjected to more than six hours of brutal beatings and torture. [see: Nov. 14]

1993 - Soledad Estorach Esterri (b. 1915), Catalan anarcho-feminist, member of Mujeres Libres, companion in arms with Concha Liaño, dies. [see: Feb. 6]

2009 - Anti-fascists from a large protest march attack an annual wreath laying event in Ioannina in NW Greece attended by members of the neo-Nazi Golden Dawn (Xrysi Avgi). Numerous fascists are hospitalised and the event prevented. Despite the intervention of the riot-police, who in the past had provided protection for the neo-Nazis, and the extensive use of tear gas, there were no arrests or injuries amongst the anti-fascist protesters.
1890 - Otto Luihn (d. 1943), Norwegian newspaper editor, magazine editor, poet and Communist, born. Luihn worked for the anarchist magazine 'Storm' from 1909, then worked as a journalist for 'Klassekampen', 'Social-Demokraten' (from 1914 to 1916), was editor-in-chief for the Stavanger newspaper 'Den 1ste Mai', and then journalist for the Bergen newspaper 'Arbeidet' from 1919 to 1923. He join the Communist Party in 1923, and worked for 'Norges Kommunistblad' from 1923 to 1927. He was then the first editor of the weekly magazine 'Arbeidermagasinet', with which he is most closely associated. During the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany in 1942, he was arrested by Gestapo on May 17, 1942, and was incarcerated at Bredtveit concentration camp.

1908 - José Peirats Valls (d. 1989), Spanish anarchist, activist, anti-fascist combatant, journalist, historian and author of 'Anarchists in the Spanish Revolution' and other books on Spain, born. [expand]

1920 - The council movement in Turin begins a strike, combined with occupation of the factories and resuming production under their own workers' control.

[C] 1932 - Mystery assassins fire on the train Hitler is riding between München and Weimar. They miss him.

1933 - Sucesos de Casas Viejas: A government Comisión de Investigación into the Casas Viejas massacre recognises the existence of the shootings but exonerates the government.

1945 - David Antona Domínguez (b. 1904), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist and one-time Secretariado del Comité Nacional CNT, dies. [see: Nov. 22]

[B] 1948 - Gerhard Seyfried, German anarchist comics and graphic artist, cartoonist and writer, born. Famed for his bearded anarchist dwarf with his toothy grim and bomb.

1966 - Jean Biso (b. 1881), French anarcho-syndicalist, Secretary of the Syndicat des Correcteurs in Paris, participant in support groups for Sacco and Vanzetti, Spanish Revolution of 1936, dies. [see: Apr. 14]

1969 - Two anarchists, Alan Barlow and Phil Carver, arrested immediately following a powerful explosion at the Bank of Bilbao in London. In their possession was a letter claiming the action on behalf of the 1st of May Group.

1970 - Arthur Adamov (b. 1908), Russian-born French playwright and anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 23]

1971 - Louis Louvet (b. 1899), French anarcho-syndicalist, in the Syndicat des Correcteurs d'Imprimerie since 1937, dies. Involved in numerous anarchist publications including: 'Le Libertaire' (1924); 'L'Éveil des Jeunes Libertaires' (1925); 'L'Anarchie' (1925); 'La Revue Anarchiste' (1925); 'Controverse' (1932); 'Ce Qu'il Faut Dire' (1944-45); 'Les Nouvelles Pacifistes' (1949); and 'Contre Courant' (1951).

1971 - Miquel Liern Barberà (b. 1907), Spanish anarchist, CNT member and combattant on the Teruel, Brunete and Ebro fronts, dies. [see: Aug. 16]

1983 - Rebecca West (Cicely Isabel Fairfield; b. 1892), English author, journalist, literary critic, travel writer, socialist, militant feminist, free love advocate and staunch anti-fascist, dies. [see: Dec. 21]

1995 - Jean Meckert, aka Jean or John Amila, Edouard Duret, Edmond Duret, Guy Duret, Albert Duvivier, Mariodile, Marcel Pivert (b. 1910), French libertarian novelist, screenwriter and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Mar. 15]

1995 - Joséphine Coueille (b. 1912), known as Andrée Prevotel, French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and free thinker, dies. [see: Apr. 19]

[CC] 2014 - Plans for a worldwide 'White Man March' against "discrimination against whites" prove to be a damp squib. No one turns up... anywhere.
"If you are a man, put on a pair of light khakis and a nice dress shirt. It should almost look like you are a groomsman at a wedding. Or maybe like an avenging Aryan angel. Women, you know how to look great in white. You could also wear sunglasses. Ancient warriors knew that a mask covering the eyes offers protection, but also provides the wearer with extra confidence. Sunglasses can intimidate others who cannot see your eyes, while making you seem cool and collected. This look is good if there might be hostile crowds."
1933 - Last appearance of 'Arbeitslose', FAUD's (Die Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands) newspaper for the unemployed in Dresden, which also served as the unofficial organ of the German anarcho-syndicalist movement after the Nazi's banned their two previous papers.

1935 - Hans Westermann (b. 1890), German Communist and anti-Nazi resistance fighter in the German Resistance, dies in Gestapo custody in the Fuhlsbüttel concentraion camp in Hamburg. [see: Jul. 17]

1938 - Continuous bombing of Barcelona, March 16-18, by the fascist forces.

1950 - Grigori Petrovitch Maximov (b. 1893), Russian anarcho-syndicalist, dies. Editor and writer during the Russian Revolution for 'Golos Truda' (The Voice of Labour), and its short-lived successor 'Volny Colos Truda' (The Free Voice of Labor) both suppressed by the Bolsheviks. Author of an important history of Leninism in Russia, 'The Guillotine at Work'. [see: Nov. 10]

1962 - Zenzl Mühsam (b. 1884), militant German anarchist and companion of Erich Mühsam, dies. She wounded up in Stalin's Gulags, convicted of "membership of a counter-revolutionary organisation and counter-revolutionary propaganda", and upon her release she was shuttled from one Workers' Paradise to another. [see: Jul. 27]

1969 - Antonio Pereira (b. 1908) (true name Tomaso Ranier) dies. Italian anarchist, member of the Ortiz column during the Spanish Revolution and in the underground movement after the fascist Franco became dictator.

1978 - Giuseppe Bifolchi aka Luigi Viola aka V (b. 1895), Italian anarchist communist, who fought in the Spanish Civil War and then later in the Italian Resistance to the Nazis, dies. [see: Feb. 20]

[C] 1992 - Henrik Christensen, a 29-year-old Danish anti-fascist activist is killed when a letter bomb explodes in the offices of the Internationale Socialister, of which he was a member, in Copenhagen. The Søllerødgade bombing (as it came to be known) was claimed by Frit Danmark K12, a unknown neo-Nazi organisation but the police kept this fact a secret.
[øllerødgadebomben til tvg-film/2012-03-16 tvg Bombedrabet paa Henrik Christensen 1992.html]

1993 - Jan Paweł Rogalski (b. 1908), Polish Jewish editor, anarchist and anti-Nazi fighter, dies. [see: Aug. 18]

1995 - Joséphine Coueille (b. 1912), known as Andrée Prévotel, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, free thinker, dies. Charged in the 'Sterilizers of Bordeaux' case (affaire des stérilisés de Bordeaux) for promoting vasectomies, her charges were dropped, but her husband André Prévotel was sent to prison. [see: Apr. 19]

2003 - Davide 'Dax' Cesare (b. 1977), Italian anti-fascist activist and militant from the Officina di Resistenza Sociale (O.R.So.) from Rozzano, is stabbed to death by two far-right activists in Milan. He and three comrades from O.R.So. were followed and attacked by three fascists, Federico, Mattia e Giorgio Morbi, a father and his two sons, after leaving a bar in Brioschi. Three of the four anti-fascists recieve numerous stab wounds. Dax dies in the ambulance on the way to the hospital. One of the others is stabbed 19 times but the medics manage to save his life. The ambulances arrived late, and the presence of police and carabinieri made the rescue operation much more difficult. Later, Dax's comrades are brutally attacked by police as they try to enter the emergency ward to get news of their comrades. Ten are seriously injured, others are isolated and chased down the street, and the emergency room is forced to close until the following morning.
Federico Morbi, the eldest of two brothers, was sentenced to 16 years and 8 months in prison. The father, initially acquitted, was later sentenced to 3 years and 4 months for the attempted murder of one of the victims. His youngest son, Mattia Morbi (who was 17-years-old at the time of the murder), was given 3 years probation. Additionally, they were ordered to pay €150,000 in compensation to Dax's mother and €100,000 each to his partner and daughter. In the wake of the emergency room 'riot', 2 anti-fascists were each sentenced to 1 year and 8 months in prison, whilst a police sergeant received 7 months. The 2 militants were forced to pay €130,000 in damages!

2008 - Aleksey Krylov aka 'Kyrl' (Алексе́й Крыло́в) a 21-year-old Russian anti-fascist is murdered by neo-Nazis in Moscow. On his way to concert by the Petrozhavodsk anti-fascist oi!-band Nichego Horoshego (Ничего хорошего) at the Art Garbage (Арт Гарбадж) club, the group of young anti-fascists he was in was attacked near Maroseika by twenty neo-Nazis armed with knives. Alexei received thirty-four knife wounds and died on the spot. A young woman attacked in the same incident survived by a chance - the knife got stuck in her backpack less than an inch from her body.

2012 - Having pleaded guilty on March 12, 2012, to two counts of aggravated murder for killing his father, Red Pedersen and his wife, Dee Dee, white suprematist Joey Pedersen is sentenced to life in prison. [see: Sep. 26/Oct. 1 & 3]

2013 - 10,000 people take part in a demonstration in Milan to commemorate ten years since the murder of Davide 'Dax' Cesare by fascists.
1862 - Silvio Gesell (d. 1930), German merchant, theoretical economist, social activist and anarchist, born. Many have tried to label him as an anti-Semetic, anti-feminist, nationalist and imperialist social Darwinist by taking individual quotes out of context and accepting the Nazi's superfical and erroneous appropriation of parts of his economic theory and writings, but he was clearly a libertarian internationalist. [expand]

[B] 1873 - A.J. Alexandrovitch (Alexandre Joseph)(d.1949), prolific Russian-born French libertarian artist (portraiture and landscape) in paint, ink, charcoal, as well as etching and lithograph, born. Painted many allegorical compositions as well as portraits of all the well known contemporary anarchist figures. [see: Jan 10]

[BB] 1877 - Otto Gross (also Grob; d. 1920), Austrian psychoanalyst, sexologist and libertarian revolutionary, born. Influenced by the philosophy of Max Stirner, Friedrich Nietzsche and the political theories of Peter Kropotkin. An early follower of Freudian psychoanalytic theory. Involved in the development of psychiatry and psychoanalysis as well as in the modern literature of Expressionism and Dadaism. A generation before Wilhelm Reich, Gross was the first analyst to emphasize the dialectical interdependence between individual inner change and collective political change. He tried to live his radical ideas in both his private and professional life — which he refused to separate — and thus became anathema to those trying to establish the credibility of analysis as a science in the eyes of society and academe.
In 1901 he worked as a psychiatrist and assistant doctor in Munich and Graz, published his first papers and had his first treatment for drug addiction. Sometime around 1904 he met Freud and became his assistant.
He analysed C.G. Jung and was in turn analysed by him [leading to his 1908 labelling a hopeless lunatic]. By 1906 Gross was living in Munich and the utopian Ascona community in Switzerland, where he had an important influence on many of the expressionist writers and artists such as Karl Otten and Franz Werfel as well as anarchists radicals including Erich Mühsam.
In 1911 Gross was forcibly interned in a psychiatric institution. He subsequently wanted to found a school for anarchists in Ascona and he wrote to the Swiss medical doctor and anarchist Fritz Brupbacher that he had plans to publish a "Journal on the psychological problems of anarchism". Two years later, his father had Gross arrested as a dangerous anarchist and interned in a psychiatric institution in Austria [on the basis of Jung's diagnosis of schizophrenia]. By the time he was freed following an international press campaign initiated by his friends, Gross had become one of the psychiatrists working at the hospital.
In 1915, following a spell as an army doctor, Gross, together with Franz Jung, the painter Georg Schrimpf and others, published a journal called 'Die Freie Strasse' (The Free Road) as a "preparatory work for the revolution" and had considerable influence on Franz Jung (the writer), Raoul Hausman, Hannah Höch and the other artists who created Berlin Dada.
His personal life mirrored his libertarian views, married in 1903 to Frieda Schloffer, with whom he had a son, Peter, he later had relationships with Else Jaffé [nee von Richthofen], who gave birth to a son, Peter; an affair with Else's sister, Frieda Weekley, who later married D.H. Lawrence; Swiss writer Regina Ullmann [who later became a close friend/protégé of Rilke] and who gave birth to a daughter, Camilla; Marianne Kuh, [sister of the Austrian writer Anton Kuh] - a daughter Sophie; as well as having relationships with Marianne's sister, Nina, and possibly with the third sister, Margarethe.
He died of pneumonia after having been found in a Berlin street near-starved and frozen. A psychoanalytic outcast, in one of the very few eulogies that were published, German writer and close friend Otto Kaus wrote, "Germany's best revolutionary spirits have been educated and directly inspired by him. In a considerable number of powerful creations by the young generation one finds his ideas with that specific keenness and those far-reaching consequences that he was able to inspire." Anton Kuh also wrote of Gross as "a man known only to very few by name — apart from a handful of psychiatrists [Freud, Jung, et al] and secret policemen — and among those few only to those who plucked his feathers to adorn their own posteriors."
A minor character in David Cronenberg’s film 'A Dangerous Method' (2011) and a central one in Eric Koch’s novel 'Premonitions' (2008).
“The psychology of the unconscious is the philosophy of revolution.” Otto Gross, 'Zur Ueberwindung der Kulturellen Krise, die Aktion', vol. 3, no. 14, 1913.

1901 - Severino di Giovanni (d. 1931), Itatian anarchist/typographer who emigrated to Argentian, born. Best known for his campaign of violence in support of Sacco and Vanzetti and anti-fascism. [see: Feb 1]

[C] 1920 - A General Strike, called on March 14th, overcomes the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch in Weimar Germany.
Hitler acting as liaison between the Berlin and Munich military revolts, flies to Berlin with early nazi convert Dietrich Eckart to meet with Wolfgang Kapp. But his pilot gets lost, missing Berlin by forty-miles, landing the pair in Jüterborg, a spot with no running trains, and roads that have been barricaded by the strikers. Hitler manages to avoid discovery by wearing a goatee as a disguise, claims to be an accountant in the employ of Eckart, who professes to be a paper salesman, and they are finally allowed to continue their flight to Berlin.

[A] 1937 - The Friends of Durruti Group is formally established in Spain.

1941 - Jules Sellenet, known as Francis Boudoux (b. 1881), French militant, anti-militarist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Jul. 18]

1960 - János Mattis-Teutsch (b. 1884), Hungarian-Romanian painter, sculptor, graphic artist, art critic, poet, anti-Fascist and anti-Nazi exile, who later fell foul of the Soviet authorities, dies. [see: Aug. 13]

1965 - Nancy Cunard (b. 1896), Surrealist writer, poet, model, anarchist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Mar. 12]

1979 - Having threatened to turn up in greater numbers outside HMP Winchester following last week ANL-organised protest having prevented them reaching the prison, only 200 fascists turn up.
1855 - Nicolò (Nicolantonio) Converti (d. 1939), Italian surgeon, anarchist propagandist, militant internationalist and typographer, born. [expand][NB. Some sources state Mar. 16]

1903 - Ernesto Bonomini (d. 1986), Italian militant anarchist, anti-militarist and anti-fascist, born. A young socialist and anti-militarist, he is forced into exile in France in 1922 with the rise of fascism. In Paris he becomes an anarchist and, on Feb. 20 1924, he assassinates in a Paris resturant Nicola Bonservizi, a leading Fascist and editor of the Parisian fascist newspaper 'L'Italie Nouvelle' and correspondant of 'Popolo d’Italia', who also spied on the exile community for Mussolini’s secret police. Arrested after the killing, he was tried on 24 October 1924 and sentenced to 8 years hard labour, later commuted to simple imprisonment.
Freed on 20 February 1932, he was expelled from France and stayed in Belgium for a few months before being smuggled across the border by Umberto Marzocchi. He then worked in Lille at Marzocchi’s Librairie Moderne bookshop. Both were arrested in April 1933 and sentenced to one month in prison. Back in Paris, Ernesto is arrested again and goes on a long hunger strike. At the end of July 1936, he left for Spain and took an active part in the revolution and in the struggle against Franco. He denounced the attacks on the anarchist movement by the Stalinists in the pages of Camillo Berneri’s paper 'Guerra di Classe'.
In April 1938, he took part in a public meeting in Paris under a false name but was arrested and sentenced to a year in prison for breaking the expulsion order. Interned, he managed to escape in April 1939, making his way to the US via Belgium and Canada. In California he learnt upholstery in California, worked in the Twentieth Century Fox studios in Hollywood and continued his anarchist activity, writing for the anarchist press under the name of Dick Perry.

1923 - Maria Turon Turon (d. unkown), Spanish anarchist militant and feminist member of the Mujeres Libres group in the Pueblo Nuevo neighborhood of Barcelona, born.

1937 - Battles in Guadalajara (March 8-18) end in victory for the Republican forces (the International Brigades and a division controlled by the anarchist Cipriano Mera) over the fascist nationalist camp composed of Italian, Moroccan troops and strongly armed and motorized Carlists attempting to seize Madrid.

1947 - Mikhael Guerdjikov (b. 1877), Bulgarian militant involved in the Macedonian liberation movement, dies. Influenced by Bakunin's ideas, he was editor of numerous papers, starting Bulgaria's first anarchist periodical, 'Free Society'. His burial is the last gathering of Bulgarian anarchists for many years. [see: Jan. 26]

1972 - A National Front front organisation, Trades Unionists against Immigration (Tru-Aim), based in Oldham try to hold a major anti-immigration march in the town. It is oposed by the Manchester Anti-Fascist Co-ordinating Committee and the event is called off due to lack of support and splits within the NF. [PR]

[C] 1978 - Fausto Tinelli and Lorenzo 'Iaio' Iannucci, two 18-year-old Milanese activists from the Leoncavallo social centre are murdered by fascist gunmen. The two comrades were walking to Fausto's home when they approached three hooded men (who had been hanging around the social centre for much of the day) in the Via Mancinelli. They fired 8 shots at them. Iaio was killed instantly, Fausto died a few minutes later in the ambulance. The attack was claimed by Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari (amongst others). The two had been researching the heroin and cocaine traffic in the city, and its link with the 'underworld' and the extreme right. All their gathered information disappeared after their deaths. A journalist on 'L'Unità', Mauro Brutto, who was investigating the murder of the two comrades, was himself killed in November of the same year and all his documentation and information that he had found vanished as well.

1987 - Maria del Pilar Grangel Arrufat (b. 1893), Spanish rationalist educator and militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Oct. 19]
[C] 1971 - The National Front attempt to disrupt an anti-racism meeting being held in Hornsey Town Hall but are ambushed by anti-fascists and they come off worse in the encounter. [PR]

[B] 1976 - Adam O, Danish comics and poster artist and anarchist, born.

1998 - Jean Audard (b. 1913), French Surrealist-associated poet, critic, Marxist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Mar. 20]
1888 - Pietro Bruzzi aka 'Brutius' (d. 1944), Italian journeyman mechanic, anarchist and anti-fascist fighter in Spain, born. [expand]
Arrested in Spain and extradited to Italy, he was interned on the island of Ponza. Escaping, he joined the anarchist anti-fascist resistance in Lombardy and edited the clandestine paper 'L'Adunata dei Libertari' (Anarchist Assembly) in late 1943. He was captured and shot in Melegnano by the fascists.

1889 - Jean de Boe (d. 1974), Belgian typographer, militant anarchist, syndicalist and co-operativist, born. Condemned in February 1913 as an accomplice to the Bonnot Gang to 10 years hard labour in French Guiana. He escaped and returned to Belgium in 1922, where he was active in several strikes and he founded 'Les Arts Graphiques' (The Graphic Arts) co-operative.

1913 - Jean Audard (d. 1998), French Surrealist-associated poet, critic, Marxist and anti-fascist, born. Brother of the Surrealist poet Pierre Audard (1909-1981). In the 1930s he was a contributor to 'Cahiers du Sud', and joined others associated with Surrealism in anti-Fascist efforts.

1939 - The Degenerate Art Commission ordered over one thousand paintings and almost four thousand watercolors and drawings burned in the courtyard of a fire station in Berlin.

1940 - Célestin Freinet, French militant anarchist educator, IS arrested. Freinet is interned in various camps in the south of France. Eventually released, in May 1944 he joined the Maquis FTP of Briançon, and was also active in the Comité départemental de Libération de Gap.

[C] 1943 - In the Częstochowa Ghetto the Gestapo organise an Aktion against the intelligentsia: 157 people with academic educations and members of the Judenrat are shot at the Jewish cemetery.

1945 - Maria Lacerda de Moura (b. 1887), Brazilian anarcha-feminist, individualist anarchist, teacher, journalist, writer and poet, dies. [see: May 16]

[CC] 1949 - The Union Movement had planned to hold a meeting at Ridley Road, Dalston, followed by a march to West Green in Tottenham to hold another meeting, a route calculated to take them right through the Orthodox Jewish area of Stamford Hill. However, the day did not go as the fascists expected. Firstly, only 150 or so of their numbers turned up at the Ridley Road meeting and had to be protected from hundereds of booing anti-fascists by over 100 police. As the fascists drew up to march off, several thousand anti-fascists arrived from a CPGB rally in nearby Kingsland Road and breached police lines. Hand-to-hand fighting broke out and mounted police charged int the crowd. Fireworks were thrown in an attempt to unseat the riders.
Thousands of anti-fascists lined Kingsland Road, the fascists' proposed route out of Dalston, and the police chose to reroute it via back roads, away from Stamford Hill, under the protection of 200 cops on foot and more in vehicles tagging along behind. All along the route Londoners shouted, "Down with the Fascists," and "They shall not march", and at various points anti-fascists broke through the police lines to attack the fascists. 5,000 anti-fascists were also waiting for the UM at West Green in Tottenham. However, the police had diverted the march to Tottenham Town Hall and 2,000 of the waiting anti-fascists diverted there. When the police attempted to disperse the crowd, they came under a hail of "large chunks of concrete, stones, hundreds of steel ball-bearings, glass marbles and broken glass to stick in the horses' hooves and impede the progress of the mounted police." The UM were taken behind the Town Hall, where they quickly dispersed.
Ten policemen were injured and 35 people arrested, who were charged with obstruction or assault, threatening behaviour and possessing offensive weapons. [PR]

1956 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: Following the execution of 2 FLN members, Abane Ramdane, the head of the FLN in Algiers following the arrest of Rabah Bitat in March 1955, issues a statement claiming: "Pour chaque maquisard guillotiné, cent Français seront abattus sans distinction" (For every maquisard guillotined, a hundred French will be slaughtered without distinction). [see: Jun. 19 & Sep. 30]

1963 - Karl Otten (b. 1889), German writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 29]

1982 - Pierre Lentengre (aka Pierre Lentente) (b. 1890), French militant and founder of a Parisian anarchist group, dies. Administrator of 'La Voix Libertaire' (1928-1939) and active in The Friends of Sébastien Faure. [see: Dec. 17]

1996 - Claude Bourdet (b. 1909), French writer, journalist, anti-fascist, anti-colonialist and militant socialist, who was active in the Résistance, dies. [see: Oct. 28]

1998 - Agustin Gomez-Arcos (b. 1939), Spanish anarchist, gay novelist and dramatist, dies. Wrote mostly in French about Franco's Spain, where many of his works were banned. Involved in experimental threatre works in Paris from 1968. [see: Jan 15]

2010 - 1,500 UAF supporters mobilise against a planned EDL demonstration in Bolton's Victoria Square. The day began with the UAF jumping the EDL pitch/'designated protest area' at 10am but they were later forced back by a wall of police as the 2,000 EDL supporters, who had assembled at separate sites, were escorted to Victoria Square at 1pm under heavy police escort. Some anti-fascists tried to break through the barriers around their pen and bottles and cans were thrown back and forth between the 2 pens and smoke bombs set off. At 3pm, the EDL were escorted away by police. Sixty-seven people were arrested, 55 of whom were affiliated to the UAF, including UAF organisers Weyman Bennett and Rhetta Moran - the conspiracy to commit violent disorder charges brought against them were later dropped - and nine from the EDL. A 16-year-old girl, who the police said had nothing to do with the protests, was treated after she suffered a panic attack. Two UAF members were taken to hospital with with a minor head and a minor ear injury, and 2 cops were injured, one with a broken finger and another with a bite from a mishandled police dog.
Unite Against Fascism campaigner Alan Clough, who was one of those arrested and charged with using threatening, abusive or insulting words or behaviour, and the case against him was later dropped after Granada TV video footage was handed to Clough’s defence team that apparently showed police officers gripping his neck, punching him in the face and striking him with batons as he was dragged to the ground. Two GMP Tactical Aid Unit officers, Inspector Robert Cantrell and PC Alan Glover, were investigated and faced charges of making false statements against Alan Clough. However, the charge of intending to pervert the course of justice by giving false or misleading statements against Cantrell was quashed by a judge at York Crown Court on February 11, 2013. On June 17, 2013, the CPS also dropped the charges against Glover, claiming that new 'enhanced video' footage cleared him.
In August 2013, three of the UAF protesters, who had sought to bring civil claims against Greater Manchester Police (GMP) based on allegations ranging from false imprisonment, malicious prosecution, assault and homophobic abuse, were awarded out of court settlements by GMP. Jason Travis and Paul Sutcliffe each received £12,000 and Dane Kelly £15,000.
1887 - Lajos Tihanyi Kassák (d. 1967), Hungarian poet, novelist, painter, essayist, editor, theoretician of the avant-garde, anarchist, anti-fascist and anti-Stalinist, born. He was among the first genuine working-class writers in Hungarian literature and was an important influence across the various artistic and radical intelectual groups in Budapest in the ealy 1900s. [expand]

1933 - A tunnel is discovered under the Potsdamer Garnisonskirche where a ceremony, due to be attended by Hitler and Hindenburg, is due to be held. The tunnel was to be used to blow up the church during the ceremony.

[B] 1934 - Raoul Vaneigem, Belgian writer, philosopher, novelist and principal theoretician, alongside Guy Debord, of the Situationist International, born. Author of 'Traité de Savoir-Vivre à l'Usage des Jeunes Générations' (The Revolution of Everyday Life; 1967), 'Le Livre des Plaisirs' (The Book of Pleasures; 1979); 'Le Mouvement du Libre-Esprit' (The Movement of the Free Spirit; 1986), amongst other political/philosophical works. His single fiction piece is the erotic novel 'L'Ile aux Delices' (The Island of Delights; 1979).

1937 - The Spanish anarchist Iron Column meets in assembly to vote on militarisation or disbandment: it agrees to militarisation.

1938 - Mosley and his Blackshirts hold a rally in Finsbury Park in advance of tomorrow's rally in the Albert Hall. 573 foot and 59 mounted Metropolitain Police officers protect the fascists, preventing all but minor scuffles from breaking out. Two fascists are arrested for insultion words and behaviour.

1942 - Jindřich Štyrský (b. 1899), Czech painter , photographer, photomontagist, graphic designer, collagist, poet, Surrealist theorist and anarchist, dies of a longterm heart condition. [see: Aug. 11]

[C] 1943 - Operation Spark*: Colonel Rudolph-Christoph von Gersdorff (1905 - 1980), a member of the Schwarze Kapelle (Black Band) anti-Hitler conspiracy, attempts to assassinate Adolf Hitler whilst carrying a timebomb inside his army coat during the Führer's visit to the opening (on Heroes' Memorial Day) of a display of captured Soviet Army weapons at the Zeughaus military museum in Berlin. The plan was for Gersdorff to start the ten-minute fuses on the explosives a few minutes before Hitler arrived. Just before the bombs would go off, he would rush to Hitler and embrace him: the explosion would kill both of them. However, at the last minute just before Hitler was to appear, his visit was reduced to just eight minutes as a security precaution, and he breezed through in just two minutes, leaving well before Gersdorff's explosives would have gone off. Gersdorff barely managed to get out and defuse the bombs. [NB: Sources stating March 20th are incorrect] [*also translated as Operation Flash]

1945 - Amédée Dunois (pseudonym for Amédée Gabriel Catonne; b. 1878), French anarchist militant, communist, and then a revolutionary socialist trade unionist, dies in Bergen-Belsen after his arrest by the Nazi regime. Author of several works of history (in particular on the Paris Commune) and the chapter 'Marxism & Socialism' in Sébastien Faure's 'Anarchist Encyclopaedia'. [see: Dec. 16]

1988 - François-Charles Carpentier (b. 1904), French militant anarchist, friend of Louis Mercier Vega and fighter with the Durruti Column, dies. [see: Oct. 28]
[B] 1896 - Mathias Léoni (d. 1981?), Italian sculptor of medals, mosaic artist and anarchist, born. Like his brother Leonida (born January 17, 1899), an anarchist from a young age. In 1915, he was sentenced to 25 days in jail and a fine for throwing projectiles at police during a demonstration against the war. Both brothers refuse their call up and flee to the mountains. On Nov. 20, 1917 they are discovered by the carabinieri. Leonida escapes but Mathias is arrested and imprisoned. In 1923 both brothers fleeing fascism go into exile in France, where they settled in Paris. Mathias joins the Ruche des Artistes as a medal sculptor and mosaic artist. In the late 1960s Léoni put his studio at the disposal of the Albert Camus group of the Organisation Révolutionnaire Anarchiste (ORA). He also made a series of cast and engraved medals of famous anarchists including Louise Michel, Michel Bakunin, Jules Vallès and Nestor Makhno.

1928 - Alan Barlow (d. 2004), British trade unionist and anarcho-syndicalist, arrested, charged and imprisoned in 1969 for his role in the 1st of May Group bombing of the Francoist Banco de Bilbao in London, born.

[C] 1933 - Dachau concentration camp opens with the arrival of its first 200 prisoners.

1936 - The newly renamed British Union of Fascists and National Socialists (BU) hold a meeting in the Royal Albert Hall, notorious for allowing fascist meetings but refusing to allow anti-fascists to hire the venue. The Co-ordinating Committee for Anti-Fascist Activities reforms to coordinate opposition, calling on all working class organisations to demonstrate outside the meeting. A small group of anti-fascists managed to get through the heavy police presence outside and gain entry to the meeting.
"Despite elaborate police precautions, continuous disorder within and without marked a British Fascist meeting addressed by the leader (Sir Oswald Mosley) at the Albert Hall. Ten thousand people crowded the hall from floor to dome, and solid ranks of police prevented hundreds of demonstrators from approaching the building. The police shepherded others into Hyde Park, where reserves were drawn up in case of trouble, closed several streets, and diverted the traffic. Mounted constables took half an hour to disperse a half-mile block of humanity clogging the Exhibition Road. Some of these people cheered the Red front and others jeered a party of Blackshlrts proceeding to the hall under police protection.
Calm did not long prevail inside the hall, in spite of the fact that admittance was by ticket. An enormous Union Jack stretched to the roof, and posters hung from the balconies inscribed "Hall, Mosley, peace with Germany."
A fanfare of four trumpets and the roll of a score of drums heralded Sir Oswald Mosley's spectacular entrance. His chest was expanded, and his head held aloft under a spotlight as he passed through a double file of Blackshirts who stood at rigid attention. Others displayed Union Jacks and Fascist flags. Many in the audience gave the Fascist salute, cheered, and sang the 'Marching Song', defying cat-calls and sarcastic laughter from non-sympathisers.
Cries hostile to Hitlerism provoked a crop of scuffles and further expulsions.
Sir Oswald Mosley declared that the British Government should mind Britain's business instead of running round intervening and jeopardising British lives. The best guarantee for peace was the closest Anglo-German association.
Further outbursts blossomed into a shower from the gallery of anti-Fascist leaflets which women Fascists tore up. Two interrupters, fighting furiously, were ejected.
"That's a Iie," shrieked a woman replying to Sir Oswald Moslcy's assertion that the Franco-Russian Pact had made German occupation of the Rhineland inevitable. No sooner was she expelled than the sound of metallic scraping and the smashing of glass issued from the gallery. The stewards ejected male and female occupants of a box who were trying to unfurl an anti-Fascist banner.
Sir Oswald Mosley's advocacy of an Anglo-Japanese trade understanding created further interruption, leading to the ejection of a man and a woman amid yells. Catcalls and cheers, in which well dressed women joined in, greeted Sir Oswald Mosley's reference to Jews as the sole force of the world employing international communism and international finance. Even Herr Hitler, he said, was not anti-Semite [sic] before he saw a Jew. Fascism would challenge permanently and break Jewish power in Great Britain, which would reject the Franco-Russian alliance against Germany.
Sir Oswald Mosley spoke for an hour and three-quarters. When he had finished the spotlights were switched off while a young adherent made a request for written questions for Sir Oswald Mosley, whose face was promptly re-illuminated with concentrated rays. When he made his replies he alleged that a long-prepared attempt had been made to organise obstruction. He announced that a Blackshirt hod been severely injured by a kick in the stomach, while others had been slightly injured.
During interruptions, Sir Oswald Mosley, reverting to the Jews, said that those who subverted British to Jewish interests should be deported as foreigners and aliens.
The meeting terminated with the singing of the 'National Anthem', and the massed Fascist salute led by Sir Oswald Mosley." ['The Argus', Melbourne, Tuesday 24 March 1936]
A large anti-fascist march was directed away from the Albert Hall by the police as a half-mile ban around the hall had been imposed. Other anti-fascists, who included Aldous Huxley, H.G. Wells, Virginia Woolf and sylvia Towsend warner, made their way to Thurloe Square, where the march organisers planned to hold a rally as they believed it was outside the exclusion zone. Various speakers addressed the crowd but during the Reverend Leonard Schiff's speech mounted police charged the crowd without warning, beating those present about the head and shoulders with their truncheons. [PR]

1949 - Justiniano Garcia Macho, aka 'El Macho', (b. unkown) and Pedro Acosta Canovas, aka 'El Chaval' & 'Pedro', (b. 1925) are executed in Zaragoza.
[NB: some confusion over the exact date with some sources stating Mar. 12.]

1961 - Ettore Bonometti (b. 1872), Italian shoemaker and anarchist militant, dies. [see: Nov. 22]

[A] 1969 - Miguel Garcia released from prison in Spain.

1987 - Eugen Relgis (b. 1895), Rumanian poet, anti-militarist and prolific anarchist author of some distinction, dies in Uruguay. [see: Mar 2]

1990 - Geoffrey Ostergaard (b. 1926), English anarcho-pacifist, dies. Wrote on workers' control, and also similarities of Sarvodaya in India and anarchism. [see: Jul. 20]

2001 - Tony Gibson (b. 1914), British psychologist, BBC producer, writer and anarchist, dies. His best known book was 'People Power: Community and Work Groups in Action' (1979). Active as an artist's model and posed for an advertisement of Brylcreem 1939 - in 1940 this advertisement was added a RAF cap plus the caption "For active service" but Gibson himself was at that time a conscientious objector working as an ambulance man and a farm labourer.

2007 - Hans Schmitz (b. 1914), German anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, militant anti-fascist and conscript to the Wehrmacht, dies. [see: May 16]
[C] 1887 - Josef Čapek (d. 1945), Czech Expressionist painter, writer, photographer, graphic artist and book illustrator, and anti-fascist, who invented the word robot, which was introduced into literature by his brother, Karel Čapek, born. He was arrested for his anti-fascist activities in 1939 following the German invasion of Czechoslovakia and sent to various concentration camps (Dachau, Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen). He wrote 'Poems from a Concentration Camp' (Básně z koncentračního tabora) in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where he died in 1945 (somewhere between April 5th and 24th).

1902 - Ettore Aguggini (d. 1929), Italian mechanic and anarcho-individualist, one of three anarchists implicated in the bombing of the Teatro Diana in Milan on March 23, 1921, born. [expand]

1919 - Benito Mussolini founds the Fascist Party.

1921 - War Resisters International (WRI) founded in Bilthoven, Netherlands.

1921 - A bomb explodes at the Teatro Diana in Milan, killing and wounding many. Among those accused are Giuseppe Mariani and Giuseppe Boldrini, who get life sentences, and Ettore Aguggini (who died in prison); also implicated are Ugo Fedeli, Pietro Bruzzi, and Francesco Ghezzi (editors of 'L’Indivi-dualista'). The work of an individualist anarchist group believed manipulated and set up by the Chief of Police Gasti, the bombing serves as a pretext for a general repression against all anarchists and also serves the interests of the fascists, who attack the offices of the trade unions and leftist organizations. They also destroyed the office of the anarchist paper 'Umanita Nova'.

[B] 1936 - Claude Faraldo (d. 2008), French actor, screenwriter and director of 'Bof... Anatomie d’un Livreur' (1971) and 'Themroc' (1973), born. Directed and wrote the screenplay for the TV programme 'Les Jupons de la revolution: La Baionnette de Mirabeau' (The Underskirts of the Revolution: Mirabeau's Bayonet; 1989).

1944 - A column of the German 11th Company, 3rd Battalion, SS Police Regiment 'Bozen', a battalion organised by the Nazis to intimidate and suppress the Resistance and made up of ethnic German-speakers of the northern Italian province of South Tyrol, is attacked by an ambush, carried out by 16 partisans of the Communist-dominated resistance organisation Gruppo d'Azione Patriottica (GAP; Patriotic Action Group), while they march and sing on a prescribed route that led through the Piazza di Spagna into the narrow street of Via Rasella. An IED is detonated, causing the immediate deaths of 28 SS policemen and at least two civilian bystanders. All sixteen Partisans, some of whom fired on the German column, succeed in melting away into the crowd unscathed. The death toll from the attack would eventually reach 42.

1946 - Alberto Ghiraldo (b. 1874), Argentine journalist, playwright, poet, notable intellectual, founder and editor of numerous anarchist publications such as 'Martín Fierro', 'El Sol', 'La Protesta' and 'Ideas y Figuras', dies.

1974 - Aristide Lapeyre (b. 1899), hairdresser, anarchist, pacifist militant and néo-Malthusian, dies. [see: Jan. 31]

2010 - José María Nunes (b. 1930), Portuguese-Catalan filmaker, director, script writer, actor and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 2]
[C] 1897 - Wilhelm Reich (d. 1957), author of 'The Mass Psychology of Fascism', 'Sex-Pol Essays', 'Function of the Orgasm', etc., born. Reich had the dubious honour of having his works banned in Nazi Germany, the US and USSR (and publicly burnt in the first two).

1904 - Russell Blackwell (d.1969), U.S. cartographer, community activist, Wobbly, anarchist and co-founder of the Libertarian League. Fought with POUM and Anarchist militias during May Barcelona events. Wounded in action and arrested by the Stalinist police and imprisoned in Madrid.

[B] 1905 - Léo Campion (Léon Louis Octave Campion; b. 1992), Franco-Belgian character actor, singer, anarchist, free thinker, Freemason, Régent de l'Institut de Pataphysique and Grand Maître de la Confrérie des Chevaliers du Taste Fesses, born. Expelled from France at the end of a campaign against him by Action Française, he meets anarchist bookseller and Freemason Marcel Dieu (aka Hem Day) and becomes secretary of Libre Pensée de Bruxelles, secretary of the Belgian section of the War Resisters International (WRI), a cartoonist at the newspaper 'Le Rouge et le Noir' and starts a singing career. Protesting a proposed bill prohibiting pacifist propaganda and the dissemination of and anti-militarist ideas, Léo Campion and Hem Day return their military papers. Recalled under arms as punishment for thiis act of defience, the two refuse to join their units and are arrested.
At their trial before the Council of War on July 19, 1933, a crowd (including Han Ryner gathers expecting only verbal fireworks but no convictions. Their military service records are exemplary and the only thing that they can be accused of is refusing to answer a Callback. They both ridicule the judiciary and military, with Hem Day declaring from the outset: "I am here, not accused, but accuser!
Léo Campion is sentenced to 18 months in prison and Hem Day 2 years, and both face returning to the military tribunal to go through the whole process yet again at the end of their sentences. They refuse the punishment and begin a hunger strike. Public pressure eventually forces the government into a compromise by dismissing them from the army as being unworthy for membership of its ranks! The new legislation is also abandoned.
Brussels becomes a home to many Spanish refugees and Campion launches a newspaper, 'Rebellion', in 1937 dedicated to the Spanish revolution. During the occupation, he returned to France but, being a conscientious objector, he was interned with other antifascists in the Argeles detention camps of in 1940. Bizarrely, he is awarded the Croix de Guerre 1939-1945, quiet something for a life-long conscientious objector.
Returning to Brussels, in Dec. 1944 he founds the weekly satirical newspaper 'Pan' (which merged with another satirical weekly 'Ubu' in 2004), and returned to the cabaret as an actor and producer, becoming director of the Caveau de la République (1951-1953), Tabou (1952-1953). He was also a producer on French Radio (ORTF) between 1951 and 1961, hosting the radio programme 'Cabaret du Soir'. He also became a stage and screen actor, appearing in Eugène Ionesco's anti-fascist play 'Rhinocéros' in 1961, and numerous films and TV programmes, including Jean Renoir's 'French Cancan' and Michel Deville's 'La Lectrice' amongst others, whilst maintaining his links and support for the anarchist movement.
He is also author of a number of books including the humour collections 'Le Petit Campion Illustré' (1953) and 'Palabres' (Palavers; 1961), as well as books on anarchism and Freemasonry such as 'Les Anarchistes dans la Franc-Maçonnerie ou Les Maillons Libertaires de la Chaîne d'Union' (The Anarchists in Freemasonry or The Libertarian Links Chain of Union; 1969) and 'Le Drapeau Noir, l'Equerre et le Compas' (The Black Flag, the Square and the Compass; 1978).
"The refusal of military service is an insurance against death, this insurance will be viable when there are enough policyholders." - Léo Campion.

1924 - Aurelio Fernández Sánchez, Spanish anarchist militant and anarcho-syndicalist, member of Los Solidarios, is arrested, alongside his brother Ceferino and Adolfo Ballano Bueno, and imprisoned in Barcelona. He subsequently escapes and flees to Paris, where he is involved in a planned attack against the Spanish king Alfonso XIII. [see: Jul. 26]

1925 - On his way to speak at a Communist demonstration in Liverpool, leading CPGB figure Harry Pollitt is kidnapped by four young British Fascisti members. Dragged from his carriage at Edgehill railway station, he was put in a nearby car and told he was being taken to the Junior Constitutional Club. Instead he is driven over 3 hours away to the Liver Hotel, near Llandegla, where the four took turns to watch over his bed all night. The next day he was taken to Shrewsbury and put on a train for London. The five BF members charged with unlawful imprisonment were subsequently acquitted after they claimed that they merely wanted to take him away for a weekend in north Wales.

1926 - Dario Fo, Italian playwright, manager-director-actor-mime and author of 'Accidental Death of an Anarchist' (Morte Accidentale di un Anarchico; 1970) and 'Can´t Pay? Won´t Pay!' (Non Si Paga! Non Si Paga!; 1974), born.

1944 - Stalag Luft III: At 10:30 pm. on a cold, moonless night in Lower Silesia, 76 men begin to make their escape from the Luftwaffe-run prisoner-of-war camp Stammlager Luft III. A 77th surrendered [at 4:55 am. on March 25] after being seen emerging from the 102m long tunnel by one of the guards. The Germans reacted badly - Hitler wanted all 73 airmen that had been recaptured executed, along with the camp commander, the camp's architect, its security officer and all the guards on duty at the time. In the end, 50 of those recaptured were executed by the Nazis.
The events were depicted in a book, 'The Great Escape' (1950), by former prisoner Paul Brickhill, on which the 1963 film of the same named was based.

1944 - Eccidio delle Fosse Ardeatine (Fosse Ardeatine massacre): In reprisal for a partisan attack conducted on the previous day in central Rome against the SS Police Regiment Bozen. The German high command in Rome decided that a suitable ratio for reprial executions was ten Italians for each German policeman killed. That night, Adolf Hitler authorised the reprisal, stipulating that it be carried out within 24 hours. A list was drawn up from prisoners in German custody, with Jews awaiting deportation and some prisoners selected by the chief of the Fascist police in Rome from the Regina Coeli prison, including his own Lieutenant, Maurizio Giglio, a double agent working for the American OSS. 335 prisoners were taken to the tunnels of the disused quarries near the Via Ardeatina, where they were shot in the back of the head in groups of 5.

1947 - José Pérez Ocaña (d. 1983), Andalusian naive painter, performance artist, LGBT activist and anarchist, known simply as Ocaña, born. Gay and proud, Ocaña moved to Barcelona to both escape intolerance and to be able to express himself artistically. There he eked out a living as a painter whilst establishing himself as a prominent character on Las Ramblas. A militant in the Front d'Alliberament Gai de Catalunya (FAGC), he was laos active in the anarchist and libertarian movement, performing at cultural events. Amongst the tributes to Ocaña following his death Ventura Pons' 1978 documentary film 'Ocaña, Retrato Intermitente' (Ocaña, an Intermittent Portrait).

1952 - Wilhelm (Willi) Jelinek (b. 1889), militant German anarchist-syndicalist, dies in the Bautzen prison camp (ex-GDR, East Germany), under unknown circumstances. [see: Dec. 25]

2007 - 12 anti-fascists are arrested in Toulouse at a demonstration against the Front National meeting being held in the city. Protesters set dustbins alight and tried to build barricades while police fired tear gas and rubber bullets into the crowd. Of those arrested, 5 were released without charge the following day and the others were charged with the use of weapons to commit violent acts after clashes with the police. Two received 3 month suspended sentences (though one was remanded for a psychiatric evaluation) and the rest received between 3 months (plus 3 months suspended) and nine months (an alcoholic Arab male in his forties with 25 previous offences, mostly drunk and disorderly)
1873 - Rudolf Rocker (d. 1958), German-American anarcho-syndicalist theorist, organiser and anti-fascist, born. Writer of 'Anarcho-Syndicalism: Theory and Practice', 'Anarchism & Anarcho-Syndicalism', 'Pioneers of American Freedom', 'The Tragedy of Spain' and 'Nationalism and Culture'.

1905 - Antonio Ejarque Pina aka 'Jarque' (d. 1950), Aragonese metalworker, militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combattant, born. Active in the CNT from 1920 to 1930 he was chair of the committee of the union of the CNT in Zaragoza. In 1931, he was the Sindicat del Metall de Saragossa's delegate to the CNT congress in Madrid and a member of the Aragon Regional Committee of the CNT. He was also involved in the running of the libertarian magazine 'Cultura y Acción' (Culture and Action). He managed to escape from Zaragoza and cross the Republican lines following the military insurrection in July 1936, and signed the pact of revolutionary unity between the CNT and the UGT in Aragon. At the war front, he was Commissioner-General of the 25th Division commanded by Antonio Ortiz Ramírez, and later by Miguel García Vivancos, and worker on the '25 División' periodical. In October 1938, as Inspector of the 25th Division, he was the author of a report denouncing the communist maneuvers to prevent the 25th Division from obtain the necessary weapons during the Battle of Teruel. Captured at the end of the war he was interned in the Albatera ia Oriola concentration camp. Upon his release, he went underground and was nominated by a plemun of the CNT as a delegate on the Alliance Nationale des Forces Démocratiques (ANFD) in exile in Paris. [expand]

[C] 1922 - René Cavanhie (aka René Cavan; d. 1996), French poet, songwriter, anarchist and resistance fighter, born. Helped organise the smuggling of people out of occupied France (via Spain) during WWII and fought in the Resistance. Wrote for 'Le Libertaire', using the pen name Cavan, for Louis Lecoin’s paper 'Liberté' and May Picqueray’s 'Le Réfractaire'. Author of a number of works including 'Révolution au Paradis' (Revolution in Paradise; 1958) and 'Poèmes et Chansons Anarchistes' (Anarchist Poems and Songs; 1983).

'Vieve la Liberté'

J'en ai rien a foutre de prosodie
De césure, d'enjambement
D'hémistiche et d'homophonie
Toutes les règles c'est emmerdant
Je veux ecrire librement

Et puis, moi, je suis pour les pauvres
Les rimes riches, ça me débonde
De Vladivostock à Hanovre*
Que d'injustices dans le monde
En ajouter serait immonde

Compter des pieds? Le globe en est plein
Dans cette innombrable sarabande
Deux ou trois de plus ou de moins
Qu'est-ce-que ça me fiche, je vous le demande?
Et je me fous bien qu'on me vilipende

Alternance des rimes? Haro!
Dites-moi ce que ça change
S'inquiéter du sexe des mots
Pourquoi pas de celui des anges?
Que voilà des règles étranges

Consonne d'appui? Pauvre étai
Je ne suis ni terrassier ni maçon
Pour étayer ce que je fais
Je veux rimer à ma façon
Au diable, toutes vos prisons!

Ma muse se batifole en liberté
Toutes vos lois sont bien trop tristes
S'il fallait vraiment les respecter
Ca ne serait pas gai d'être un artiste
Et puis, voyez-vous, moi, je suis anarchiste.

(* Les pauvres sont tellement pauvres qu'ils n'ont même pas une rime pour leur nom.)

'Enjoy The Freedom'

I have nothing to fuck prosody
Hyphenation, spanning
On hemistich and homophony
All the rules is boring
I want to write freely

And I am for the poor
The rich rhymes, I'm débonde
Vladivostok Hanover *
That injustice in the world
Would add foul

Counting feet? The world is full
In this countless sarabande
Two or three more or less
What is it that I care, I ask you?
And I do not care although I vilifies

Alternating rhymes? Haro!
Tell me what it changes
Worrying sex words
Why not the angels?
That these are strange rules

Consonant support? Stay poor
I am not a mason or laborer
To support what I do
I rhyme my way
To hell with all your prisons!

My muse frolics freely
All your laws are too sad
If I had really respect
It would not be a gay artist
And then, you see, I am an anarchist.

(* The poor are so poor they do not even have a rhyme for their name.)


1932 - During its 19th and last regional Congress, held in Erfurt [25th-28th], the Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands (FAUD, anarcho-syndicalist union) decides that, in the event of the Nazis taking power, its federal bureau in Berlin will shut down and be replaced by an underground directorate and that there would have to be a General Strike by way of reply. The latter decision proves impracticable: for one thing, the FAUD all across Germany is decimated by a wave of arrests.

1965 - Viola Fauver Gregg Liuzzo (b. 1925), US Unitarian Universalist civil rights activist from Michigan, is murdered by Ku Klux Klan members following the 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches in Alabama. One of the Klansmen in the car from which the shots were fired was a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) informant.

1975 - National Front rallies across London against Europe. 2,000 police struggle to prevent 6,000 anti-fascists from reaching the 400 NF members marching through north London in protest against the EEC. Islington's Labour Council had refused permission for the NF to hold a rally outside the Town Hall and, as the march neared, the counter-demonstrators outside it were involved in scuffles with the marchers and police.

2006 - Severino Campos Campos (b. 1905), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 26]
1872 - Émile Armand (pseudonym of Ernest-Lucien Juin) (d. 1962), French individualist, free love activist, born. Wrote 'l'Initiation Individualiste Anarchiste' (1923) and 'La Révolution Sexuelle et la Camaraderie Amoureuse' (1934).

1885 - Louis Montgon aka 'Vérité' (d. 1972), French labourer, artisan watchmaker, anarchist propagandist, militant anarcho-syndicalist in the CGTU, born. In the early 1920s, he was the secretary of the local Perpignan anarchist group and was described in a police report as "enemy of all authority". During the 1920s, he took part in numerous anti-fascist and anti-Bolshevik activities and conferences. He also left the then Communist-dominated CGTU to join the CGTSR. From July 1936 to March 1937, he was the Departmental chair of the Comité de Défense de la Révolution Espagnole" and of the "Fédération des Émigrés Antifascistes Espagnols". He also managed the bilingual French-Spanish 'Bulletin d'information du Comité de Défense de la Révolution Espagnole Antifasciste' in Perpignan (11 issues from February 6 to September 23 1937 and replaced by the 'La Nouvelle Espagne Antifasciste'). However, he resigned from the bulletin after issue no. 3 due to his disagrement with the official collaborationist line of the Spanish libertarian movement and was replaced by Jean Ay, though he continued to represent the Perpignan group in the Federation and, after the events of May 1937 in Barcelona, ​​raised funds for comrades of the French section of the CNT imprisoned by the Stalinists.
In February 1939, he was charged with being the liaison between the Spanish émigrée groups in Paris and the Marseilles-based Comitato Anarchico pro Vittime Politiche, then run by Pio Turroni, maintaining the links between the Spanish and Italian internees in the Argeles and Saint Cyprien detention camps. During one such visit, he was arrested by the gendarmes in Argeles. After the Second World War, Montgon continued his activism and was the secretary of the local federation of the French CNT (CNTF) in Perpignan.

[B] 1886 - Juan Serrano y Oteiza (b. 1837), Spanish anarchist intellectual, lawyer, journalist and writer, dies. His most famous work is probably his utopian novel 'Pensativo' (1885). [see: May 6]

1889 - Jacques Doubinsky (Iakov Dubinsky; d. 1959), Ukranian Jewish anarchist and Makhnovist, born. As a young labour radical he joined the Ukrainian peasant uprising in 1918, fighting with the famed anarchist insurrectionary Makhnovist army. Involved in many publishing enterprises and assisting Bulgarian refugees.

[C] 1903 - Albert Guigui-Theral (aka Varlin; d. 1982), Algerian-born French anarchist, militant syndicalist, mechanic and French Resistance fighter, born.

1905 - Viktor Emil Frankl (d. 1997), Austrian neurologist, psychiatrist and Holocaust survivor, born. Frankl was the founder of logotherapy, a form of existential analysis, which is considered the Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy. Whilst still a medical student, he became the president of the Sozialistische Mittelschüler Österreich, a Social Democratic youth movement for high school students throughout Austria, in1924. Between 1928 and 1930 he organised a special program to counsel high school students free of charge, which would bring him to the attention of Wilhelm Reich. On September 25, 1942, Frankl, his wife Tilly, and his parents were deported to the Nazi Theresienstadt Ghetto. There Frankl worked as a general practitioner in a clinic.
On 19 October 1944, Frankl and his wife Tilly were transported to the Auschwitz concentration camp, where he was processed. He was moved to Kaufering, a Nazi concentration camp affiliated with Dachau concentration camp, where he arrived on October 25,1944. There he was to spend five months working as a slave laborer. In March 1945, he was offered a move to the so-called rest-camp, Türkheim, also affiliated with Dachau. He decided to go to Türkheim, where he worked as a physician until April 27, 1945, when Frankl was liberated by the Americans. Tilly however, was transferred from Auschwitz to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where she died. Of his extended family, only his sister Stella survived, having escaped from Austria and emigrated to Australia.
Liberated after three years in concentration camps, Frankl returned to Vienna where he set to writing about his experiences in what would become his most famous book, '…Trotzdem Ja Zum Leben Sagen: Ein Psychologe erlebt das Konzentrationslager' (…Nevertheless, Say Yes to Life: A Psychologist Experiences the Concentration Camp; 1946),
first published in English as 'From Death-Camp to Existentialism' in 1959 and better known as 'Man's Search For Meaning: An Introduction to Logotherapy', which would form the basis of all his later theories and writings. Frankl died of heart failure on September 2, 1997.
"Everything can be taken from a man but one thing: the last of the human freedoms—to choose one’s attitude in any given set of circumstances, to choose one’s own way."
"We who lived in concentration camps can remember the men who walked through the huts comforting others, giving away their last piece of bread. They may have been few in number, but they offer sufficient proof that everything can be taken from a man but one thing: the last of the human freedoms -- to choose one's attitude in any given set of circumstances, to choose one's own way."

1923 - In Yambol, Bulgaria, during an anarchist protest against the governments decision to disarm the people, the army shoots into the crowd, wounding the speaker Atanas Stoitchev and massacring others. About 30 are murdered here, including others executed at the Yambol barracks tomorrow (Todor Darzev, Pani Botchkov, Dimitar Vassilev, Cyrille Kehaiov, Spiro Obretenov, Pétar Kassapina, Rousko Nanine, Pétar Glavtchev, etc.).

1923 - Pier Carlo Masini (d. 1998), Italian historian of anarchism, libertarian activist himself especially during the years 1940 and 1950, born. Became editor of the Italian Anarchist Federation (FAI) weekly paper Umanita Nova in 1948.

1949 - One of a series of vicious attacks by Union Movement thugs on isolated Jewish youths takes place in Ridley Road, Dalston when a gang of fascists attack two 18-year-olds, one of whom is Harold Pinter, before he became a renown playwright.
[see: Graham Macklin - 'Very Deeply Dyed in Black: Sir Oswald Mosley and the Resurrection of British Fascism after 1945' (2007)]

1969 - B. Traven (b. 1882?), anarchist novelist, dies. [see: Feb 23]

2000 - Alex Comfort (b. 1920), British physician, gerontologist, sexologist, anarchist, pacifist, poet, novelist, etc., dies. [see: Feb 10]

[A] 2005 - Antonio Téllez (b. 1921), anarchist, guerrilla, historian, dies. Author of, among other works, 'Sabaté: guérilla urbaine en Espagne 1945-1960' (1972). [see: Jan. 18]

2014 - A neo-Nazi march due to pass through the ethnically-diverse Berlin neighbourhood of Kreuzberg is stopped after a mere 200 metres. Despite the presence of more than 1,600 riot police to protect the 100 or so neo-Nazis from 5,000 anti-fascist activists, who had gathered along the proposed route, the cops were forced to call off the march as they were unable to dislodge potestors blocking the route. Police arrested 16 people and 17 cops were injured.
1871 - Heinrich Mann (d. 1950), German novelist, utopian and anti-fascist, born. [expand]

1938 - Arnaldo Simões Janário (b. 1897), Portuguese anarcho-syndicalist militant and member of União Anarquista Portuguesa, dies in the Tarrafal (Cap Verde) prison camp. [see: Jun. 6]

[C] 1960 - Fascists attempt to attack a protest in central London against the March 21, 1960, Sharpeville killings. More than 15,000 people marched through central London to protest against the massacre of 69 unarmed demonstrators at Sharpeville. The march was organised by the Boycott Movement, the Movement for Colonial Freedom and the Committee of African Organisations. Union Movement drove round London on open-backet lorrys declaring their support for the apartheid regime. At the Haymarket, they tried to attack the march but were repelled by the march and stewards. [PR]

1971 - The National Front hold an anti-EU and anti-immigration march in Hitchin, Hertfordshire. Most of the 500 NFers are, according to the police, are from the West Midlands and Hertfordshire, and they are led by a pipe band from Wolverhampton. They are opposed by 1,500-2,000 anti-fascists organised by North Herts Campaign for Racial Equality. Smoke bombs and rotten fruit are thrown at the Front and 6 people are arrested and charged with threatening behaviour and possession of a smoke bomb. Because of the smoke, the NF are redirected into a small park and, protected by 2 rings of cops, hold a meeting. [PR]

1977 - The first major national meeting of the CNT since the fall of the Franco dictatorship is held in San Sebastian de los Reyes (Madrid).

2004 - Karl Ludwig Ratschiller (b. 1921), Italian geologist and anti-Nazi partisan in North-Eastern Italy during WWII, dies. [see: Jun. 22]

2005 - 30 anti-fascists from a Yorkshire-based Antifa group attacked a British National Party meeting in Halifax. The anti-fascists threw half-bricks and rocks at the BNP security, and BNP members' cars were smashed. About 40 English Defence League and South Coast Casuals are seen off by a couple of Brighton Anti-Facist group members.
[B] 1917 - Ramón Cambra Turias aka 'Mone' (d. 2010), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-militarist, printer, translator and poet, born.

1928 - Alexander Grothendieck, German anarchist, anati-militarist and mathematician, the central figure behind the creation of the theory of algebraic geometry, born. His father was the Ukranian anarchist Alexander 'Sascha' Shapiro aka Tanaroff and mother the German anarchist and journalist Hanka Grothendieck. His early life is covered in his mother's unpublished autobiographical novel 'Eine Frau'. During the Spanish Civil War his parents left him in Germany with a foster family so they could fight for the Republic. His father was to die in Auschwitz.

[C] 1933 - A 2 week siege of the British Union of Fascists' HQ in Walworth Road, London, by a crowd of communists, comes to an end as anti-fascists raid the building, wrecking office equipment and furniture. [PR]

1934 - The Uníos Hermanos Proletarios (UHP; Union of Proletarian Brothers or Unite! Proletarian Brothers) aka Uníos Hijos del Proletariado (Unite! Children of the Proletariat) is formalised with the signing of the Pacto CNT-UGT de Asturias.

1953 - Valentine de Saint-Point (Anna Jeanne Valentine Marianne Glans de Cessiat-Vercell; b. 1875), French artist, writer, poet, painter, playwright, art critic, choreographer, lecturer, journalist, feminist and futurist, who repudiated Marinetti's views on women, dies. [see: Feb. 16]

1970 - Time bomb attributable to The Angry Brigade found at Waterloo Station.

1970 - Jules Vignes (b. 1884), French anarchist publisher, propagandist and Idist, dies. The creator of a number of newspapers including 'La Torche' (Oct. 1908), the Saint-Genis-Laval liberatrian Idist paper 'La Feuille' (The Sheet) in 1917, and the original version of the Libération newspaper in 1927. He became involved in supporting the Spanish revolution and the revolutionary fighters in exile including the network around Francisco Ponzán Vidal (Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist guerrillero, anti-Francoist and resistance fighter captured in 1943, shot and burned by the Nazis two days before the Spanish guerrillas liberate Toulouse). In 1945 he republishes 'La Feuille' and started 'Le Vieux Travailleur' (The Old Worker, 1951-57) and 'Le Travailleur Libertaire' (1957-58). [see: Apr. 13]

1985 - Marc Chagall (born Moishe Segal; b. 1887), Russian Modernist artist who worked in virtually every artistic medium, including painting, book illustrations, stained glass, stage sets, ceramic, tapestries and fine art prints, dies. [see: Jul. 7]

1994 - Eugène Ionesco (d. 1909), Romanian-born French dramatist and anti-fascist, whose one-act anti-play 'La Cantatrice Chauve' (The Bald Soprano; 1950) inspired the Theatre of the Absurd, dies. [see: Nov. 26]

2000 - Zahid Mubarek, a 19-year-old a British Asian five hours from the end of a 90-day sentence for stealing razor blades worth £6, is beaten to death with a wooden table leg by psychotic racist Robert Stewart, in what many believe was a prison officer-inspired "gladiator-style" fight.

[CC] 2005 - Thomas Schulz aka 'Schmuddel', a 31-year-old German father of two, is stabbed to death by 17-year-old neo-Nazi Sven Kahlin. The incident ocured at the Kampstraße U-Bahn station in Dortmund after Kahlin had hurled abuse at a group of about twenty punks on their way to a gig. Thomas voiced his opposition to the right-wing slogans of Kahlin. Kahlin and his girlfriend walked up to him and told him to shut up. Thomas refused and began to follow the pair. In response, the Nazi drew a 15 cm-long, double-sided polished throwing knive from his bomber jacket and stabbed Thomas in the chest. Despite emergency surgery, Thomas died from the knife wound, which had penetrated both ventricles of his heart.
Within days, right-wing extremists in Dortmund had pasted up posters that read, "Wer sich der Bewegung in den Weg stellt, muss mit den Konsequenzen leben" (Those that stand in the way of the movement must face the consequences) all over the city. In November 2005, Kahlin was found guilty of manslaughter, not murder, and sentenced to seven years of juvenile detention. Paroled in 2010, he was involved in an attack on the alternative pub Hirsch-Q. Altogether the Hirsch-Q has been the target of Nazi attacks six times since 2006. On November 26, 2011, Sven Kahlin together with five other Nazis attacked two youths from a Turkish migrant background; consequently he was sent back to prison.

2006 - Stanislaw Lem (b. 1921), Polish writer of science fiction, philosophy and satire, essayist and critic, dies. His meisterwerk is 'Futurological Congress' (Kongres Futurologiczny; 1971), a satirical exploration of utopias and dystopias. [see: Sep. 12]

[AA] 2009 - Antifascists confront two Nazis after a Blood & Honour gig in Welling. Later twenty three antifa are arrested on conspiracy to commit violent disorder, of which seven are stitched up in court and receive sentences.
1891 - Yvan Goll (Isaac Lang; d. 1950), bilingual French-German Jewish writer (poetry, novels, dramas, libretti, essays, etc.) and anarchist sympathiser, who had close ties to German expressionism, Zurich Dada and to French surrealism, who also wrote under the pseudonym of Iwan Lazang, born in Alsace-Lorraine. A law and philosophy student in Berlin, he became involved in the new wave of German expressionism then flourishing in Berlin before the First World War.
A friend of the Jewish German poet and playwright Else Lasker-Schüler, he too would became a noted Expressionist poet as well as writing for the theatre. He also collaborated on the Expressionist magazines 'Der Sturm' and 'Die Aktion'. A socialist pacifist and in 1914, to escape conscription into the German army, he took refuge in Geneva, where he adopted the pseudonym Yvan Goll in 1915. In Switzerland he became a member of the Pacifist group around the French writer Romain Rolland (Pierre Jean Jouve), spent time at the Ascona commune and became associated with Hans Arp, Tristan Tzara and Francis Picabia at the Cabaret Voltaire and continued his law studies at the University of Lausanne.
In 1919, he moved to Paris with his future wife, Claire Aischmann-Studer, where they associated with a circle of poets and painters, who were followers of Apollinaire. They were also associated with artits and writers such as André Malraux, Jean Cocteau, Louis Aragon, Philippe Soupault, Fernand Léger, Marc Chagall, Fujita Tsuguharu, Robert Delaunay and Albert Gleizes.
His artwork, previously marked by Expressionism, became informed by the Cubist and Constructivist aesthetics of the circles that he moved in, and his Cubism anticipated his later Apollinaire-influenced Surrealism. Largely derived from dreams, his Surrealism waould be particularly influencial on Devětsil and the Czech Surrealists, as well as in Latin America (on the like of Vicente Huidobro) and on English speakers such as Pound and Joyce. He would present his artistic ideas in the only issue of his 1924 magazine 'Surréalisme' in his 'Manifeste du Surréalisme' essay, which threw down the gauntlet: "Monsieur Breton, prenez-en votre parti: vous ne serez pas le Pape du Surréalisme!". Breton's own 'Manifeste du Surréalisme', published a month later, largely turned out to be an attack on Goll's views on surrealism and the pair would continue an antagonistic relationship for another 20 years, until Goll assisted Breton to settle in America, introducing him to the new intellectual world that he had become a part of, when the latter arrived in the country in 1942 as an exile. Yvan and Claire Goll had emigrated to the United States in 1939 to escape Nazi persecution, settling in New York where they remained until 1947, when Yvan was diagnosed with leukaemia and decided to return to liberated France. He died on Feb. 27, 1950. Claire survived him until May 30, 1977. Both writers are buried the Père-Lachaise cemetery in Paris.
Amongst Goll's works are his Expressionist poetry collections 'Films' (1914) and 'Der neue Orpheus. Eine Dithyrambe' (1918), which was published in 'Die Aktion' and illustrated by Georg Grosz; his famous anti-war poem 'Requiem für die Gefallenen von Europa' (Requiem for the Dead of Europe; 1916); a play 'Der Unsterbliche' (The Immortal One; 1918); 'Die Chapliniade: eine Kinodichtung' (Chapliniade: A film poem; 1920), illustrated by Fernand Léger; the 1921 satiric drama, 'Methusatern oder Der ewíge Bürger' (Methusalem, or or the Eternal Bourgeois), which anarchist film maker Jean Painlevé made into his first short film in 1926, playing Hamlet, and with Antonin Artaud as a bishop at a surreal funeral; the long experimental poem 'Paris Brennt' (Paris Burns; 1921); his Apollinaire-influenced 'Manifeste du Surréalisme' (1924); 'Der Eiffelturm: gesammelte Dichtungen' (1924), illustrated by Robert Delaunay and Fernand Léger; Marc Chagall illustrated 'Poèmes d'amour' (1925), a collection of love poems by Goll and his wife Claire; the libretto for a surrealist opera, 'Royal Palace' (1927), set to music by composer Kurt Weill, and the scenario for Weill's cantata 'Der Neue Orpheus' (1927), based on his 1918 poem of the same name; 'Chansons Malaises' (1935); the epic poem 'La chanson de Jean Sans Terre' (The song of homeless John; 1936), with illustrations contributed by Marc Chagall; 'Élégie d'Ihpetonga suivi des masques de cendre' (1949; Elegy of Ihpetonga and Masks of Ashes), illustrated by Pablo Picasso; 'Traumkraut' (Dreamweed; 1951), written between 1947 and 1950, but published after his death; 'Abendgesang. Siebzehn Gedichte aus dem Nachlass' (Evening Song. Seventeen poems from his estate; 1953); and 'Bouquet de Rêves pour Neila' (1967), with illustrations by Joan Miró.

'Requiem For The Dead of Europe'

Let me lament the exodus of so many men from their time;
Let me lament the women whose warbling hearts now scream;
Every lament let me note and add to the list,
When young widows sit by lamplight mourning for husbands lost;
I hear the blonde-voiced children crying for God their father at bedtime;
On every mantelpiece stand photographs wreathed with ivy, smiling, true to the past;
At every window stand lonely girls whose burning eyes are bright with tears;
In every garden lilies are growing, as though there’s a grave to prepare;
In every street the cars are moving more slowly, as though to a funeral;
In every city of every land you can hear the passing-bell;
In every heart there’s a single plaint,
I hear it more clearly every day.


1897 - Renato Castiglioni (d. 1967), Italian socialist, anarchist, trades unionist and anti-fascist, born. A stationmaster in Bologna, he had been a militant in the rail union since 1914, and a member of the PSI since 1921. As a member of the union leadership, he was one of the organisers of the 1920-21 strikes and the anti-fascist strike on August 23, 1922, called by the Workers Alliance. In 1923, he was dismissed from his post in the Italian railways because of his activism. After being exempted from military service in December 1923, he took part from 1923 to 1925 in the work of the organisation Italia Libera. In 1925 the Central Committee of the railway trade union informed him that a warrant of arrest had been issued against him for stopping a train of carabinieri and guards going Parma. To escape arrest, he left for France later that year, settling in Paris and taking part in anarcho-syndicalist movement activities.
Working in the construction industry, he joined the CGTU and then probably the CGTSR, participating in all the strikes and demonstrations as well as the campaign for Sacco and Vanzetti. He worked at various newspapers published by Camillo Berneri and the Comité d'aide aux victimes politiques. Expelled from France in 1934, he was successively expelled from Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland before returning to Paris in secret. In 1935 he was on a list of anarchists in the Paris region as residents at no. 11 avenue Philippe Auguste (XI arr.).
At the outbreak of the Spanish Revolution, he left for Barcelona where he arrived on July 29, 1936, becoming the first volunteer in the Italian section of the Ascaso Column, he participated in the battle of Monte Pelato. Then, at the request of the railway workers' union, he went to Port Bou as lead coordinator for Spanish railways. He was later appointed by the Government of Catalonia as head of the radio, telegraphy and direction finding and interception service for Barcelona, and then head of aviation radio at the Sarignera (Barcelona) airfield, participating in several air missions and setting up radio interception for the Servicios Fronterizos at Port Bou. During this period he was a member of the Italian anarchist group Pisacane and, from early 1937, a member of the newspaper 'Guerra di Classe'.
In December (or July?) 1937, following a double ear infection, he returned to France where, arrested for violating the expulsion of 1934, he was sentenced to one month and fifteen days in jail. Upon his release, he did not return to Spain but settled in Marseille under a false identity. On the list of "subversives" issued by Italian Fascist authorities, he was arrested in Paris in 1940 and interned in July at camp Vernet, then to that of Remoulins d'Où where, in February 1941, he was extradited to Italy. On April 29 he was sentenced to five years internal exile on the island of Ventotene, and later in the Renicci di Anghiari concentration camp. Upon his release from confinement on September 6, 1943, he participated in the resistance and the reconstruction of the underground trade union movement in the cities and countryside of Romagna. He was the editor of the underground mimeographed bulletin 'La Tribuna Ferrovieri Dei' (The Railway Workers Tribune). After the liberation he joined the PCI.
Throughout the 1930s he also collaborated on 'Combat Syndicaliste', 'L'Espagne Antifasciste', 'L'Adunata dei Refrattari' and 'Il Martello' (New-York).

1908 - Antonio Pereira (real name Tomaso Ranieri; d. 1969), Italian anarchist, member of the Ortiz column in the Spanish Revolution, and the underground movement after the fascist Franco became dictator, born.

1924 - The weekly anarchist magazine 'Revista Nueva' begins publication in Barcelona, continuing until July 25, 1925 (69 issues).

1943 - Joaquin Pallarès Tomás (b. 1923), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and leader of the Pallarès Action Group, one of the first anti-Franco urban guerrilla groups, which started its operations almost as soon as the Civil War ended in 1939, in and around Hospitalet, Santa Eulalia, Sans and La Torrasa (villages and districts in and around Barcelona), is executed (garotte vil) alongside Francisco Álvarez Rodríguez, Fernando Ruiz Fernández, Francisco Atarés Agustin (Francisco Atarés Martín), Josep Serra Lafort (José Serra Lopez) , Benito Saute Martí, Juan Aguilar Mompart, Bernabé Argüelles Depaz (Agustin Argüelles Cabeza?) and Pere Tréssols Meix (Pedro Tresols Meix), members of his group, in Modelo prison, Barcelona. Among the operations credited to it was the execution of the chief inspector of the Hospitalet police (on April 30, 1939), as well as a number of incidents in which police were disarmed or shot, and robberies were carried out. His group was made up of Catalans, plus some Aragonese from around Huesca.
In addition to guerrilla activity, they did remarkable work on the reorganisation of the FIJL in Catalonia, setting up the first post-war regional committee and the Barcelona local committee. At the time of their arrest, three of the group's members (Pallarés , Alvarez and Ruiz) held positions on the Libertarian Youth regional committee. They were captured by the police in March 1943 and tortured; within days, Joaquin Pallarés – who displayed great integrity — and eight of his comrades were executed. Two days later three more were executed: José García Navarro, Vicente Martínez Fuster (Vicenç Martínez Fuster) and Joan Pelfort Tomàs (Juan Pelfort Tomasa). Vicente Iglesias, José Urrea, Manuel Gracia, Rafael Olalde and Hilario Fondevilla Fuentes had their lives spared. The Pallarès was one of the first Franco urban guerrilla groups.

[C] 1946 - László Baky (b. 1898), leading member of the Hungarian Nazi movement, who was state secretary in the Ministry of the Interior, responsible for deporting the country's Jews to the extermination camps, following the Nazi invasion and occupation of Hungary in March 1944, is executed for "crimes against the state" alongside fellow Interior Ministry official László Endre and the Interior Minister Andor Jaross.

1961 - Armand Robin (b. 1912), French poet, translator and anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 19]
"Que m'importe qu'on m'abatte au coin de la rue, j'écrirai des poèmes jusqu'à ce qu'on me tue." ("What does it matter to me that I am shot on the street corner, I shall write poems until they kill me.")

1962 - Military coup topples Argentina's civilian government.
1869 - Emma Goldman (d. 1940), Russian-American anarchist writer, activist and feminist, born. [expand]

1882 - Bohuslav Vrbenský (d. 1944), Czech dentist , journalist, anarcho-communist, then communist politician and minister, born. Chair of the Svazu Českého Utudenstva (Union of Czech Students) between 1904-06 and active in the anti-clerical and anti-militarist movements. He also collaborated on the anarchist journals 'Komuna' (Commune; 1907), 'Přímá Akce' (Direct Action; 1907) and 'Zádruha' (The Co-operative; 1909–14). In 1909 he became head of the federal co-ordinating body of anarchist groups and began his campaign to transform the movement into a prominent political force, defined as being not only against any state but above all against the Austria-Hungarian state, a "specific political party" not involved in the state legislative body. Michal Kácha was against this idea ["a germ of next compromises"], claiming that it would betray anarchist ideals and corrupt the movement. At the April 1914 ČAF Congress in Prague Vrbenský's arguments won and the ČAF and ČFVO merged to form the Federaci Českých Anarchistů Komunistů (Federation of Czech Anarchist Communists, or FČAK).
From September 1914 to the 1917 amnesty, Vrbenský was imprisoned in Austrian internment camps. During the war anarchists had worked closely with dissident socialists and the [non-fascist] national socialists and in 1919, he was active in bringing about the merger of the faction of the FČAK that he was a member of with the Česká Strana Národně Sociální (Czech National Social Party; ČSNS) to form the České Socialistické Straně (Czech Socialist Party, or ČSS), though the more radical Vrbenský wing continued to act rather independantly. Between 1918-1923 he was a ČSS member of the National Assembly, Minister of Supply (1918-19), Minister of Public Works (1920), and Minister of Health from 1921 to 1922. However, in 1923, he was sacked as a minister and the ex-ČSNS rump was expelled from the ČSS for voting against the Law on Protection of the Republic. In 1924 he helped found the Independent Socialist Workers Party (Neodvislá Socialistickou Stranu, or NZS), which went on to closely cooperate with the Neodvislá Radikální Sociálně Demokratická Stranou (Independent Radical Social Democratic Party), forming the Socialistické Sjednocení (Socialist Unification), which ultimately fell apart at its first congress the following year. In 1925 the vestiges merged with the KSČ and Vrbenský became a full-time communist official. After a brief internement at the beginning of the Nazi occupation, he fled to Russia.

[C] 1892 - Nosaka Sanzō (野坂 参三; d. 1993), founder of the Japanese Communist Party (JCP) and anti-fascist, who worked for periods as a writer, editor, labour organiser, communist agent, politician, and university professor, born. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, he lived in Yan'an heading the Japanese People's Emancipation League (JPEL), engaged in the 're-education' of numerous Japanese POWs and creating propaganda on behalf of the Chinese Communist Party. Known as Susumu Okano (岡野進) whilst in China.

1892 - Ravachol is arrested for his bombings at the Restaurant Véry (24, boulevard de Magenta, Paris).
[Costantini pic]

[BB] 1895 - Jean Giono (d. 1970), French author (novels, poetry, essays, journalism, plays) and, like his Italian-born shoemaker-father, Jean-Antoine, he was a self-taught libertarian, born. Regarded as a "paysan-anarchiste", apart from holidays and his abominated war service, spent his whole life in the small town of Manosque in Provence. Traumatised by his experiences in WWI, he became a committed lifelong pacifist. Returning to work in his local bank, he began to write fiction and following the success of his prize-winning first published novel, 'Colline' (Hill of Destiny; 1929), he quit to write full time, going on to produce a n extensive and varied output. Nature featured strongly in his work, such as 'Les Vraies Richesses' (True Riches; 1936) and the more famous 'Le Hussard sur le Toit' ( The Horseman on the Roof; 1951) and 'L'homme qui Plantait des Arbres' (The Man Who Planted Trees; 1953), both later made into films, as were a number of his other works. His more overtly political texts include his novel 'Le Grand Troupeau' (To the Slaughterhouse; 1931), which was based on his WWI experiences; pamphlets such as 'Refus d’Obéissance' (Disobedience; 1937); and the polemical 'Lettre aux Paysans sur la Pauvreté et la Paix' (Letter to Farmers on Poverty and Peace; 1938). One of his texts, 'Le Grand Théâtre', appeared in possibly the most exclusive book ever, 'L'Apocalypse de Saint Jean', encrusted with gems by Salvador Dalí, weighing 460 pounds and valued at over a million dollars. In addition, Giono directed a single film, 'Crésus' (Croesus; 1960), about the travails of a lonely shepherd who discovers a stash of money shortly after WWII.
With the rise of fascism and foreseeing another European war, he looked to join together with others to more effectively campaign against the threat of war, in February 1934 he joined the communist-inspired Association des Écrivains et Artistes Révolutionnaires (Association of Revolutionary Writers and Artists) but left in 1935 when the French Communist Party and the USSR came out in support of rearmament. His pacifism would repeated lead him into trouble during WWII. Arrested on September 14 1939 for refusing mobilisation, he escaped charges and was discharged from military service. He also continued to publish throughout the war, works that were openly critical of the Vichy regime and which he refused to submit to the censor; and was regularly accused of collaboration, despite his obvious anti-Nazism and whilst secretly protecting clandestine Jews and communists (including German Trotskyist Karl Fiedler and Marie-Berthe Aurenche, ex-wife of Max Ernst and partner of the Expressionist painter Chaïm Soutine). His supposed collaboration also resulted in the bomb that exploded outside his door during the night of 11/12 January 1943, his arrest and imprisonment in September 1944 and the banning of his books until 1947.

1900 - Nicolas Faucier (d. 1992), French anarchist, trade unionist and pacifist, born. Ran the bookshop La Librairie Sociale, and with Louis Lecoin formed the Comité pour l'Espagne Libre, (later the SIA [Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste]) and did a many stints in prison for his anti-war activities and only an escape during WWII saved him from the German camps.

1911 - Francisco Ponzán Vidal (d. 1944), known as 'el maestro de Huesca' aka François Vidal, 'Paco', 'Gurriato' and 'El Gafas' (The Eye), important Spanish anarcho-syndicalist militant, anti-Franco guerrilla and Resistance fighter, born. Founder and organiser of the escape and evasion lines used by the Pat O’Leary and Sabot networks, the French security services (Travaux Ruraux), and local French Resistance organisations, from 1940 to 1943, Francisco Ponzán Vidal’s group, consisting mainly of Spanish anarchist exiles, saved the lives of hundreds if not thousands of resistance fighters, evadees and escaped prisoners of war.

1915 - Francisco Sabaté i Llopart aka 'El Quico' (d. 1960), Catalan anarchist guérilla extraordinaire, born in Barcelona. [expand]

1966 - Erwin Friedrich Maximilian Piscator (b. 1893), German theatre director and producer and poet, dies. [see: Dec. 17]

1980 - Henry Poulaille (b. 1896), French anarchist writer and champion of Proletarian Literature, dies. [see: Dec. 5]
1934 - Emidio Recchioni (b. 1864), Italian anarchist, anti-fascist and father of Vernon Richards, dies in Paris whilst undergoing an operation on his vocal cords. [see: Oct. 4]

1943 - José García Navarro, Vicente Martínez Fuster (Vicenç Martínez Fuster) and Joan Pelfort Tomàs (Juan Pelfort Tomasa) are executed by garotte vil in Modelo prison, Barcelona. [see: Mar. 29]

1964 - Right-wing coup topples the Brazilian government of President João Goulart. Years of military repression follow.

1994 - Léon Joseph Marie Ignace Degrelle (b. 1906), Belgian Walloon National Socialist and historical revisionist, who founded the nationalist Parti Rexiste and later joined the Waffen SS (becoming a leader of its Walloon contingent) which were front-line troops in the fight against the Soviet Union, dies of cardiac arrest in a hospital in Málaga. [see: Jun. 15]

2000 - Gisèle Freund (Gisela Freund; b. 1908), German-born French photographer and photojournalist, socialist and anti-fascist, best known for her documentary photography and portraits of writers and artists and her book 'Photographie et Société' (1974), about the uses and abuses of the photographic medium in the age of technological reproduction, dies. [see: Nov. 19]

2001 - Rob Stolk (b. 1946), Dutch Provo stalwart, anarchist and street activist, dies. [see: Jan. 23]

[C] 2007 - Stanislav Korepanov a 17-year-old Russian skater and Antifa activist, dies in hospital from injuries sustained in an attack by neo-Nazis 3 days prior. Stanislav had been with a goup of fellow skaters in Izhevsk on March 27 2007 when they came under attack by a gang of neo-Nazi skinheads armed with metal bars, empty bottles and wooden laths shouting "White power" and "Kill Antifa". One of the attackers even had a small hatchet. Several people sustained minor injuries but Stanislav, who was beaten by 5 to 7 people, suffered an open craniocerebral injury and other serious trauma. The attack was also videotaped and the video was later posted on the neo-Nazi website Format 18.

2011 - 29 year old black Birmingham resident Kingsley Burrell-Brown is pronounced dead at Queen Elizabeth Hospital 4 days after having been arrested by West Midlands Police and sectioned under the Mental Health Act.
On March 27, 2011, 29 year old Kingsley Burrell called the police (dialled 999) claiming that he abd his 5 year old son had been threatened by a gang of youths in Icknield Port Road, Ladywood. The West Midlands Police Officers who arrived at the scene detained the trainee security guard under the Mental Health Act. Within hours, he was sectioned and taken to Mary Seacole mental institute in the city, where his family say he was not allowed to speak to them. En route t the mental hospital he was beaten up by the police, and his son witnessed it, something he later told his family. When they did manage to see him, he had three massive bumps and a swelling to the head and the brain. His sister Kadisha Brown-Burrell said: “The only reason they allowed us to see him is because we insisted. After this visit he was refused the right to see us and later taken to Queen Elizabeth hospital, where he was put on life support machine."
He was later transferred, on March 30, to a mental health facility at Queen Elizabeth Hospital. When he arrived at Mary Seacole, Brown alleged he had been beaten up by the police. When he arrived at the second hospital he was in a critical condition. His family believe he was also beaten en route to the hospital. His body not released for burial until 17 months after his death.
In March 2013 4 police officers were arrested on suspicion of the manslaughter but in June 2014 it was announced that none of them would be charged in connection with his death.

1901 - Francisco Ascaso Abadia (d. 1936), Spanish anarchist militant and anarcho-syndicalist, CNT member, born. Emblematic figure of the anti-Francoism, member of Los Justicieros and of Los Solidarios. [expand]

1901 - Eugène Léon Tricheux (d. 1963), French building worker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist activist, born. He began work as a sheet metal worker in a Toulouse aviation factory before working on construction sites. Listed as an anarchist and anti-militarist in the 'Carnet B' in June 1924, the following year he and his brother Marius with others founded an independent union building, which later aligned itself with the CGT-SR. He was also prominent in the city's Bien-Être et Liberté anarchist group. On August 23 1927, he was arrested, along with his parents, following a demonstration in support of Sacco and Vanzetti and was sentenced to two months in prison. He then became a taxi driver and, in 1933, created a union for the industry, becoming its secretary.
At outbreak of the revolution in Spain in July 1936, Eugène went there together with his parents, brother and sister, and settled in Puigcerdà, the city then in the hands of the Republicans and, in particular, the anarchists. They lived there for almost a year, active the management of the city. When his father was arrested June 11, 1937 by the communists, Eugene tried to intervene with the help of a Spanish comrade, but Eugène himself was arrested and imprisoned for a number of weeks in Barcelona's Modelo prison (the rest of the family also ended up under arrest). Eventually released, the family returned to France. In 1940, he initiated the creation in Toulouse of the Cercle d'études économiques et sociales and the Groupe Orobon-Fernandez and, with the exiled Spanish CNT and the SIA, organised shows, film screenings and information meetings in the city's neighborhoods to raise funds for the Spanish comrades. In June 1940, being on the police files, he was arrested. along with his brother and father, and interned in prison St-Michel. Eugène was sent to the Camp de Noé, close to Toulouse and held in the block for réfractaires de la Relève of the Service du Travail Obligatoire (STO), going on to work as forced labourer in the Hautes-Alpes, participating in the building of fortifications. The rest of the family during this period were involved in the reconstruction of French anarchist movement.

1939 - Franco declares victory.

[C] 1958 - Björn Söderberg (d. 1999), Swedish anarcho-syndicalist militant of the Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation (SAC), born. He was assassinated by neo-Nazis (three bullets in the head) as he left his home in revenge for his exposure of Robert Vesterlund, a celebrity in the Swedish neo-Nazi movement, to the union's newspaper 'Arbetaren' that he was a member of the board of the local Chamber of Trade Union Trade at Svanströms store in Stockholm. Vesterlund was forced to resign from his job and was forced out of the union.

1976 - Max Ernst (b. 1891), German Dadaist and Surrealist painter, sculptor, graphic artist and poet, dies. [see: Apr. 2]
1840 - Emile Zola (d. 1902), French writer, experimental novelist and activist, born. Author of 'Germinal', one of whose central characters is Souvarine, a Russian anarchist and political émigré who arrives in Montsou seeking a living in the pits. The basis for some of the ideas expounded in Germinal stem from a series of discussions on the anarchist challenges to Marx's ideas that Zola held with Turgenev shortly before his death in 1882. Zola was at the forefront of the campaign to support Alfred Dreyfus, and his open letter 'J'accuse' ultimately led to Zola being sentenced to prison in 1898. He fled to England, and returned only after Dreyfus was pardoned.

[B] 1891 - Max Ernst (d. 1976), German Dadaist and Surrealist painter, sculptor, graphic artist and poet, born. Read and was influenced by Stirner's 'The Ego and His Own' in his youth, as did many Dadaist, long claiming it as one of his favourites, and studied philosophy at university. He also titled a 1925 frottage 'L'Unique et sa Propriété'.

1899 - Ferdinand Félix Fortin (d. 1988), French anarchist militant, member of the trade union of proofreaders, manager of 'The Libertarian Review', born.

1908 - Ramón Vila Capdevila aka 'Caracremada' or 'Caraquemada' (Burnt-face), 'Peus Llargs' (Big Feet), Capità Raymond (Captain Raymond), Ramon Llaugí Pons, 'El Jabalí' (The Wild boar) (d. 1963), Catalan militant anarcho-syndicalist and guérilla fighter, born. [expand]

1916 - In Paris, during WWI, Sebastien Faure, with the help of Mauricius (Maurice Vandamme) launches the anarchist paper 'Ce Qu'il Faut Dire' (What Must Be Said). The newspaper elicits a keen interest, despite heavy censorship due to its antiwar views.

1939 - Mauro Bajatierra Morán (b. 1884), Spanish journalist, prolific writer, novelist, playwright, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist propagandist, summarily tried and executed in Madrid following the Fascist victory. [see: Jul. 8]

1945 - Chris Lebeau (Joris Johannes Christiaan Lebeau; b. 1878), Dutch artist, designer, painter, art teacher, theosophist and anarchist, dies of exhaustion in Dachau concentration camp. [see: May 26]

1951 - Barcelona Tram Strike: The protest spreads to Madrid. [expand][see: Mar. 1&12]

1962 - Pierre Carles, French libertarian documentary filmmaker, agent provocateur and one-time anarcho-communist, born. Co-directed (with Georges Minangoy) 'Ni Vieux Ni Traître' (2006), a documentary film about the involvement of French and Catalan anarchists in the fight against Franco.

1968 - In the first Rote Armee Fraktion (RAF) action, incendiary devices are placed at the Kaufhof and Schneider department stores in Frankfurt.

1969 - Twenty-one Black Panther Party members are charged with plotting to charged with conspiring to kill cops, bomb five New York City stores, shooting at police and trying to blow up police stations. Thirteen are prosecuted in September

1970. After an eight month trial, the jury took only two-and-a-half hours to vote to acquit the defendants, rejecting the prosecution's crusade to discredit the Black Panthers.

[C] 1980 - A police raid on the 'Black and White' cafe in the mainly Afro-Caribbean working class district of St Paul's in Bristol sparks rioting.

1996 - Antonio Ortiz Ramirez (b. 1907), Catalan member of the CNT in 1936 during the Spanish Revolution and Civil War, dies. [see: Apr. 13]
[C] 1909 - Joan Borràs Casanova (d. 1987), Spanish anarchist, proletarian painter, poster artist and writer, born. Following the Fascist coup, he joined the CNT's Aliança d'Intellectuals per a la Defensa de la Cultura i al Sindicat de Dibuixants (Alliance of Intellectuals for the Defence of Culture and the Union of Artists). During the revolution, he worked as a member of the Libre-Studio designing posters for the Delegació de Propaganda i Premsa del Consell Executiu Popular (Office of Propaganda and Popular Media Executive Council; CEP) - becoming known as a painter of the Revolution - and illustrations for the libertarian press such as 'Estudios', 'Libre-Studio', etc.

1912 - Federico Borrell García aka 'El Taino' (d. 1936), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Founder of the local branch of the Libertarian Youth (FIJL) in 1932. FAI militant and during the Spanish Revolution a militiaman in the Columna Alcoiana led by the local anarchist activist, Enrique Vaño Nicomedes. He is best known now by the iconic photo 'The Fallen Soldier', by Robert Capa, which captured his moment of death on September 5, 1936.

[CC] 1912 - Grigoris Lambrakis (Greek: Γρηγόρης Λαμπράκης; d. 1963), Greek resistance fighter, leftist politician, physician, and track and field athlete, born. A champion athlete throughout his life, he held the Greek record for long jump (for twenty-three years from 1936 to 1959) and the triple jump record. During the Axis occupation of Greece during WWII (1941–1944), Lambrakis participated actively in the Greek Resistance. In 1943 he set up the Union of Greek Athletes (Ένωση των Ελλήνων Αθλητών, Enosi ton Ellínon Athlitón) and organised regular competitions, using the revenue from these games to fund public food-banks for the starving population. Elected to the Greek parliament in 1961 as a candidate of the Pandemocratic Agrarian Front (Πανδημοκρατικόν Αγροτικόν Μέτωπον) on the ticket of the United Democratic Left (Ενιαία Δημοκρατική Αριστερά), which was Greece's farthest left party outside of the banned communists, he used his Parliamentry immunity to march unmolested in a walk for peace, from Marathon to central Athens after it had been banned by the police who had beaten up the other marchers. It was this march that brought him to the forefront of Greek politics, making him a hero of the left and an enemy of the right.
Lambrakis' ideals captured the imagination of the Greek left who after a quarter a century of opression by the right in the name of fighting communism, were ready to embrace his goals of peace and a nuclear-free world. Unfortunately these ideals and Lambrakis' speeches incited the right-wing to hysteria, believing him to be a communist and a danger to pro-America Greece. A plot was hatched to set him up and murder him after he had delivered the keynote speech at an anti-war meeting in Thessaloniki in 1963. Two hired thugs, far-right extremists Emannouel Emannouilides and Spyro Gotzamani, in a trikyklo (three wheeled vehicle), one driving and the other in the back with a club, were allowed to approach the event unmolested by the police. There they clubbed Lambrakis over the head in plain view of the police and a large number of people. Having slowed down almost to a halt in order to deliver the fatal blow, the crowd charged after the trikyklo as it tried to make its getaway, caught it and dragged the hapless assassins out. At that point, the police did not have alternative but to arrest the perpetrators. Lambrakis suffered brain injuries in the attack and died in the hospital five days later, on May 27. The next day, in Athens, his funeral became a massive demonstration, with more than 500,000 people ralling to protest against the right-wing government and the Royal Court, seen by many to support the activities of the right-wing extremists.
Within hours of his death composer Mikis Theodorakis founded the Lambrakis Youth Movement, the first mass-movement of its kind in Greece. The letter Z, which means zei, or in English he lives became the rallying cry of the Greek youth who found their voice following the Lambrakis murder. And when the government was eventually overthrown by the military Junta of April 21, 1967, one of the many things they banned was the letter Z. In 1969 Costa-Gavras released the movie 'Z', about the Lambrakis murder and investigation. That investigation was palced in the hands of a young magistrate by the name of Christos Sartzetakis, who was really only being tasked to find the proof that Lambrakis' death had been an accident. However, Sartzetakis courageously implicated the leaders of the police in a conspiracy to murder Lambrakis and uncovered a secret right-wing organisation used for such dirty work, controlled by the police and others. The Lambrakis murder eventually ended up bringing down Constantine Karamanlis and his pro-American government. Though never implicated in the murder, the perception was that even if Karamanlis was not a part of it, he should have had more control over the police.

1915 - Karl Ibach (d. 1990), German communist member of the resistance against the Third Reich and later, a writer and politician, born. A member of the Kommunistischer Jugendverband Deutschlands (KJVD; Young Communist League of Germany) and later the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, he was arrested in spring 1933 and detained at the Kemna concentration camp in Wuppertal. Released in October 1933 after 2.5 months, he continued his resistance activities, fleeing to the Netherlands, but was arrested again shortly after returning to Germany. Charged with suspicion of preparing to commit high treason, he was sentenced to 8-year and imprisoned in various Nazi concentration camps and prisons (Zuchthouses). In 1943, he was transferred to a Punishment Division and ended up as a Soviet prisoner of war. Released in 1947, he went on to publish a report about his experiences at Kemna in 1948, was a co-founder and director of the Union of Persecutees of the Nazi Regime, vice chair of the Zentralverband demokratischer Widerstandskämpfer und Verfolgtenorganisationen (Central Association of Democratic Resistance Fighters and Persecuted Organisations) and a member of the presidium of the Fédération Internationale Libre des Déportés et Internés de la Résistance (Free International Federation of Deportees and Internees of the Resistance).

1942 - The first deportation [April 3-4] from the Kolomyja Ghetto to Belzec (about 5,000 Jews) begins.

1945 - Himmler orders the execution of all those who show white capitulation flags on their houses.

1994 - Agostinho da Silva (b. 1906), Portuguese philosopher, essayist, writer, Christian humanist and millenarist, essential an utopian anarchist whose ideas on freedom were close to those of Gustav Landauer, dies. [see: Feb. 13]

2011 - Marian Pankowski (b. 1919), Polish writer, poet, literary critic and translator, and anti-Nazi fighter, dies. [see: Nov. 9]
[BB] 1876 - Maurice de Vlaminck (d. 1958), French landscape and still-life painter, lithographer, wood-engraver, etcher, writer, poet, violinist and anarchist, born. Along with André Derain and Henri Matisse he is considered one of the principal figures in the Fauve movement, later dabbling with Cubism (despite his professed hostility to it and it's debt to Cézanne, who was a great influence on Vlaminck's art) and graduating to a more abstract art. He grew up in a musical household and helped support his young family by giving music lessons and playing in popular orchestras and café-concerts in Paris, alongside working as a wrestler, billiards shooter, mechanic, labourer and professional cyclist before a bout with typhus weakened him. He also discovered that he could write, penned three risqué novels ]in collaboration with Fernand Sernada, including 'D'un Lit Dans l'Autre' (From One Bed to Another; 1902)] as well as writing vehemently anti-bourgeois articles for the anarchist press including 'Le Libertaire'.
While serving his mandatory 3-year military obligation, he met the painter André Derain in 1900, when the train on which both men were riding derailed. A lifelong friendship was struck, as well as a deal to share a studio in Chatou. Much of his work is of Expressionist landscapes with few featured human figures and represents a largely nostalgic (the modern world was also largely absent too as exampled by his hatred of the railways - "a gaping sore which admits infection"), view of the countryside, and certainly one that hated its annexing by the bourgeoisie and their houses built on once productive farming land.
In addition to his books written with Serada, he wrote some 20 works - novels, poems and memoirs - including 'Tournant Dangereux' (Dangerous Turn' 1929), 'Le Ventre Ouvert' (The Open Stomach; 1937), 'Portraits Avant Décès' (Portraits Before Death; 1943) and 'Paysages et Personnages' (Landscapes and Characters; 1953). He also illustrated with drawings, woodcuts, etchings and lithographs more than 20 books, including 'Les Hommes Abandonnés' (Man Abandoned; 1927) by Georges Duhamel, 'Le Diable au Corps' (The Devil Made Flesh; 1926) by Raymond Radiguet and works by other writers such as Julien Green and Marcel Aymé, in addition to books that he himself had written.
Participated, alongside fellow Fauvists André Derain and Kees van Dongen, in the November 1941 Weimar congress of European artists organised by the Nazi "official state sculptor" Arno Breker, and was considered a collaborationist post-WWII.
"What I could have done in real life only by throwing a bomb...I tried to achieve in painting."

1931 - Gerardo Gatti Antuña (d. 1976?), Uruguayan anarchist militant and head of the Uruguayan graphic workers' union, born. One of the founders and the first secretary of the Plenario Intersindical de Trabajadores - Convención Nacional de Trabajadores (PIT-CNT; Intersyndical Plenary of Workers - National Convention of Workers), a leader of Resistencia Obrero Estudiantil (ROE; Student Worker Resistance), the Federación Anarquista Uruguyaya (FAU) and the Partido por la Victoria del Pueblo (Party for the People's Victory). He was disappeared by the Argentine government, tortured in the Automotores Orletti, the clandestine detention and torture centre that operated in Buenos Aires, and an attempt made to ransom him for $2m before his death (date unknown).

[C] 1933 - The SS break into John Heartfield's apartment, and he barely escapes by jumping from his balcony and flees to Czechoslovakia, where he continues his anti-fascist propaganda work (the work he left behind was confiscated and destroyed).

1991 - Julien Toublet (b. 1906), French jewellry worker and militant anarcho-syndicalist, as was his son Jacky Toublet, dies. [see: Aug. 27]
1900 - Augustin Malroux (d. 1945), French teacher, socialist politician and member of the French Resistance, born. Member of the Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière (SFIO; French Section of the Second International), on 10 July 1940, he was one of the Vichy 80, the parliamentarians voting not to grant full powers to Marshal Pétain. In September 1940, he participated in the founding of the Comité d'Action Socialiste (CAS, Socialist Action Committee) for the zone occupée, offered his Parisian residence for clandestine meetings and linking between CAS Nord and CAS Sud. From 1941, he was also a member of the Confrérie Notre-Dame (Notre-Dame Brotherhood) and of the Organisation Civile et Militaire (Civil and Military Organisation). From 1940, he was also charged with establishing a link between Libération-sud and Libération Nord. In 1942, this movement asked him to create a combat group. Finally, he participated in the clandestine rebuilding of the Syndicat National des Instituteurs (National Teachers' Union). Arrested on March 2, 1942 in Paris, Malroux was then imprisoned in Fresnes and, on September 15, 1943, he was deported to Germany. First imprisoned in the camp at Neunkirchen, he was then transferred to prisons at Frankfurt am Main, Kassel, Halle and Berlin in September–October 1943, then to the camp at Bad Saarow (Sachsenhausen), from October 1943 to February 1945, and finally to the camp at Bergen-Belsen, where he died.

1920 - Following a meeting in Decima Persiceto, near Bologna in Italy, the carabinieri massacre seven workers, including the anarchist Compagnoli, and injure 45 others. A general strike 's declared in the province, which is extended to many other Italian cities and lasts until April 7.

[C] 1950 - The date most commonly given for the voluntary disbandment of the 43 Group, which has accepted that the immediate fascist threat was over. [see: Jun. 4]

1988 - Pierre Prévert (b. 1906), French filmmaker, actor, director, writer and libertarian, dies. [see: May 26]

[B] 2004 - Gébé (Gérard Blondeaux; b. 1929), French anarchist, prolific cartoonist, editor of 'Hara-Kiri', 'Charlie Hebdo' and 'Zero', dies. Many of his cartoons and illustrations appeared in the libertarian press, such as 'Monde Libertaire' as well as in alternative and satirical publications.
One of his comic series 'L'An 01' [i.e. after May '68], which covered topics as diverse as ecology, the negation of authority, free love, community life, the rejection of private property and labour, and which was made into a film of the same name directed in 1973 by Jacques Doillon, Alain Resnais, Jean Rouch and Gébé himself. Amongst his other comic strips are 'Armée Non!' (No Army!; 1981) and 'Anarchie Douce' (Soft Anarchism; 1982).
He also wrote works for radio, songs-like 'Casse-Tete', interpreted by Yves Montand, François Béranger, Gérard Jouannest and Juliette Gréco; novels such as 'Sept Cartouches' (Seven cartridges; 1982), 'Le Roman d'une Année Sabbatique' (Novel of a Sabbatical Year; 1988) and 'Les Résistants du Square' (The Resistance Fighters of the Square; 1991). [see: Jul. 9]

2011 - Fascists try to disrupt an Unite Against Fascism (UAF) "public meeting in Brighton to oppose David Cameron’s attack on multiculturalism and Britain’s Muslims" at the Friends Meeting House in Ship Street.
1862 - Georges Darien (pseudonym for Georges Hippolyte Adrien)(d. 1921), French writer (novels, plays, literary magazines, etc.) associated with anarchism and an outspoken advocate of Georgism, born. His novel 'Les Pharisiens' (1891) is a fictional indictment of French anti-semitism and its most prominent advocate, Édouard Drumont. Forgotten after his death, he was rediscovered after the reissue of 'Voleur' (1897) in 1955 and of 'Bas les Cœurs!' (1889) in 1957.
"I belong to no party. I have no flag. I hate all flags, including the red flag."

[A] 1878 - Erich Mühsam (d. 1934 ), gay German poet, playwright and anarchist militant, born. A rebel from an early age (expelled from school aged 13 and a writer of satirical verse), he left his apprenticeship in the family Pharmacy in 1900 to devote himself to cultural agitation. By 1901 he was in Berlin, where he and his partner Johannes Nohl met the likes of John Henry Mackay, Johannes Schlaf and Hanns Heinz Ewers. He also joined the Neue Gemeinschaft (New Community) circle, which brought together young political intellectuals and agitated in favour of community life, and including Peter Hille, Martin Buber and Gustav Landauer. At that time Mühsam discovered the writings of a number of anarchists, especially those of Mikhail Bakunin. He also began working on numerous libertarian publications such as 'Der Freie Arbeiter', 'Der Anarchist', Johannes Holzman's (Senna Hoy) magazine 'Der Kampf', and he edited the Berlin newspaper 'Der Arme Teufel' (The Poor Devil). Culturally, he became a member of the Friedrichshagener Dichterkreis (Friedrichshagener circle of poets) naturalist writers circle and was a popular figure in literary cabarets and bohemian circles, becoming the producer of the Cabaret zum Peter Hille, named after the Neue Gemeinschaft member.
Between 1904 and 1907, he travelled throughout Europe with his partner Johannes Nohl, going to Italy ans Switzerland, where he met Fritz Brupbacher, Bakunin biographer, and participated in the Monte Verità community at Ascona, befriending Karl Gräser, co-founder of Monte Verità with his brother Gusto. He also visited Austria and France, in Paris he frequenting the cabarets Le Lapin Agile and Le Chat Noir, and participated in several meetings of the German Anarchist Club of Paris, befriending Gustave Herve, James Guillaume and former Communards. Back in Berlin, he continued working in 'Der Freie Arbeiter' and its monthly anti-militarist supplement 'Generalstreik' (General Strike), along with 'Der Jugend' and the arts magazine 'Simplicissimus'.
Following the 1907 International Anarchist Congress in Amsterdam, he made a public called for civil disobedience and refuse to pay the tax for the Army. That same year, and having also published a pamphlet on those issues, he was fined 500 marks for "incitement to class hatred and encouraging disobedience of the law." In November 1908, he settled in Munich, where he founded the Gruppe Tat (Action), which included Oskar Maria Graf and Georg Schrimpf amongst its members, and joined Landauer's newly founded Sozialistischer Bund (Socialist Federation), which was based on federated Proudhonian mutualist communities. Arrested numerous times and especially persecuted for having organised demonstrations of unemployed, in 1910 he was arrested for membership of a secret societies but eventually acquitted for lack of evidence. However, it did bring about the end of the Tat group.
Around the same time he was an active member of a Schwabian cultural circle, which included the likes of Heinrich Mann and Frank Wedekind along with many other poets and artists. He also published three books of poetry, four plays, and in the period 1911-14 was editor of the revolutionary literary monthly 'Kain: Zeitschrift für Menschlichkeit' (Cain: Journal of Humanity), in which many of his writings of the period were also published.
After the outbreak of WWI, Mühsam initially supported the Manifesto of the Sixteen, for which he was heavily criticise, especially by Landauer. However, he eventually changed his position and was involved in attempts, along with Landauer, Heinrich Mann, etc., to establish an international federation of opponents to the war. His attitude was considered "defeatist" by the authorities and he was banished to the Bavarian Alps. This failed to stop him, and on 17 June 1916, he participated in a demonstration against hunger. In January 1918, during a strike by workers in the munitions factories of Munich, he took to the floor in front of around 100,000 Krupp factory workers to call for a general strike, and was arrested. For violating his ban on political activity for refusing to participate in the then Vaterländischen Hilfsdienst (Patriotic Support Forum), he was sentenced to six months imprisonment in Traunstein and not released until November 5 1918, shortly before the revolution.
During the German Revolution of November 1918, and which proclaimed the Republic, he was a member of Revolutionären Arbeiterrats (Revolutionary Workers' Counci) which deposed the Kaiser and proclaimed the Free State of Bavaria. Following the assassination of the Bavarian Prime Minister Kurt Eisner by right-wingers, he was one of the leaders of the Bavarian Soviet Republic of April 7 1919 but, following the April 13 attempted Munich Soviet coup, he was arrested and jailed with other leaders. After the defeat of the Republic by the Reichswehr and the right-wing nationalist Freikorps, and during which his friend Landauer was murdered, he was sentenced to 15 years in prison for being a "treibendes element" (driving element).
During his imprisonment he wrote many poems and propaganda pieces including 'Brennende Erde' (Burning Earth), 'Verse eines Kämpfer' (Fighter's Poems), 'Alarm', 'Manifeste aus zwanzig Jahren' (Manifesto of 20 Years) and the five act drama 'Judas' in tribute to Gustav Landauer, killed during the post-Republic repression. Upon release on 20 December 1924 (under a general amnesty that saw Adolf Hitler, who by then had only served eight months of a five-year sentence for leading the Beer Hall Putsch in 1923, also released), he moved to Berlin and founded the anarchist periodical 'Fanal' (Beacon) together with the Anarchist Union. He also participated in campaigning for the release of Sacco and Vanzetti and against the expulsion of Durruti and other Spanish anarchist exiles. From 1925 to 1929 he was active the Rote Hilfe Deutschlands (Red Aid), the Communist Party associated prisoner support organisation, but left because of political differences . In the early 1930s, he was a member of the anarcho-syndicalist FAUD, alongside his friend and comrade Rudolf Rocker. A special issue of the journal 'Fanal' appeared in 1932, shortly before the seizure of power by the Nazis. It included his philosophical essay 'Die Befreiung Geselischaft der vom Staat' (The Emancipation of Society from the State; 1932), subtitled 'Was ist Kommunistischer Anarchismus?' (What is Communist Anarchism?), in which he rejected the doctrine of historical materialism in his work, explaining his revolutionary concepts and the need for the replacement of the state by an organisation of free manual workers and intellectuals. In it he also denounced the Communist Party for its subverting of the Russian revolution, its seizure of power and its so-called dictatorship in the name of the proletariat. From 1931-1933 Mühsam also published regular satirical political contributions in the 'Ulk' supplement in the 'Berliner Tageblattes' under the pseudonym Tobias.
From the mid 1920s onwards, Mühsam had been relentlessly denounced by the Nazi press because of his writings satirising the Nazis such as his short story 'Die Affenschande' (1923), which ridiculed the racial doctrines of the Nazi party, and the poem 'Republikanische Nationalhymne' (1924), which attacked the German judiciary for its disproportionate punishment of leftists when compared to the right wing participants in the Putsch. Following his attempts to create a broad anti-fascist front, Goebbels labelled him "the red Jewish pig" and the main Nazi organ, 'Die Völkischer Beobachter', published three photos on the front page (Rosa Luxemburg, Karl Liebknecht and Mühsam) with the caption: "The only traitors in the team that have not been executed."
On 20 February 1933, chaired the last meeting of anti-fascist artists in Berlin. Shortly thereafter, on February 28 1933, the day after the Reichstag fire, he was arrested as he tried to leave for Prague. Even after his arrest, the Nazi propaganda machine kept after him claiming that he was involved in the execution of 22 hostages in Munich on April 30 1919, unaware that from April 13 onwards he was firmly locked up in Ebrach prison. Following his arrest, Mühsam spent time in Sonnebrug, Ploetzensse and Brandenburg prison camps, where he was routinely beaten and tortured for things like not singing 'Deutschland über alles', for singing 'The Internationale', and so he could not write, etc. Suffering from heart disease, deaf, almost blind and unable to walk unaided, he was eventually hospitalised.
In February 1934 he was transferred to Orianenburg Concentration Camp, where he was put to work cleaning the latrines. During the night of July 9-10, 1934 he was brutally murdered by SS men, who left him strung up in the latrines. The Nazi press claimed: "Der Jude Erich Mühsam hat sich in der Schutzhaft erhängt" (The Jew Erich Mühsam hung himself in protective custody). His end echoed the meaning of his surname: Painfully (or Laboriously). Mühsam was buried on 16 July 1934 at the cemetery in Dahlem (Berlin, Germany).
Amongst the works published in his lifetime were 'Die Homosexualität. Ein Beitrag zur Sittengeschichte unserer Zeit' (Homosexuality. A contribution to the history of morals of our time; 1903) (pamphlet); 'Die Wüste. Gedichte 1898-1903' (The Desert. Poems 1898-1903; 1904); 'Billy's Erdengang. Eine Elephantengeschichte für artige Kinder' (Billy's Life. An Elephant Story for Kids; 1904), with Hanns Heinz Ewers; 'Die Hochstapler. Lustspiel in vier Aufzügen' (The Impostor. Comedy in four acts; 1906); 'Wüste - Krater - Wolken. Die Gedichte' (Desert - Crater - Clouds. The Poems; 1914); 'Die Freivermählten. Polemisches Schauspiel in drei Aufzügen' (The Free-weds. Polemical Drama in three Acts; 1914); '1919. Dem Andenken Gustav Landauers' (1919. In Memory of Gustav Landauer; 1919); 'Brennende Erde. Verse eines Kämpfers' (Burning Earth. Verses of a Fighter; 1920); 'Judas. Arbeiter-Drama in fünf Akten' (Judas. Workers drama in five acts; 1921); 'Revolution. Kampf, Marsch und Spottlieder' (Revolution. Battle, March and Satirical Songs; 1925); 'Staatsräson. Ein Denkmal für Sacco und Vanzetti' (Reason of state. A Monument to Sacco and Vanzetti; 1929).

Die Augen auf! Erwachen
aus Druck und Zwang und Staat!
Ihr Armen und ihr Schwachen,
besinnt euch auf die Tat!
Die ihr dem Herrn den Spaten führt,
die Häuser baut, das Feuer schürt, -
sehnt ihr euch nicht nach Brot und Land?
Den eignen Spaten in die Hand!
Fort mit der Fessel, die euch band!

In Reihen, Kameraden!
Die ihr die Arbeit haßt,
mit der man euch beladen, -
werft von euch eure Last!
Werft sie, wohin sie fallen mag!
Schafft selbst euch euern Arbeitstag
Pfeift auf des Herren Dienstgebot!
Nicht ihm - euch selbst backt euer Brot!
Nicht ihm - euch selbst helft aus der Not!

Ans Werk! Die Kinder schreien
nach Brot und Bett und Kleid!
Ans Werk, sie zu befreien
aus ihrem Weh und Leid!
Ans Werk, ihr Männer und ihr Frauen!
Den Kindern gilt's die Welt zu bauen!
Mensch, fühl dich Mensch und sei kein Hund!
Freiheit auf freiem Ackergrund!
Dem Volk den Boden! Schließt den Bund!

(The eyes! Awakening
of pressure and coercion and state!
Her arms and her weak,
remembers you in the act!
Leading her to the Lord the spade,
builds the houses, stoking the fire, -
not long after ye bread and country?
Are the spade in his hand!
Continued with the ankle, the tape you!

In rows, comrades!
You hate the work,
with the one you loaded, -
cast your burden from you!
Throw them wherever they may fall!

You yourselves create your working day!
Whistles of the gentlemen on service priority!
Not him - yourselves bake your bread!
Not him - you help yourself out of trouble!

To work! The children cry
for bread and bed and dress!
To work, to free them
from their pain and suffering!
To work, their men and their women!
The children's is to build the world!
Human, feel human and was not a dog!
Freedom at large arable ground!
The people of the ground! Makes the covenant!)

- 'Weckruf' (Wake-up call; 1909)


[BB] 1888 - Hans Richter (d. 1976), German Dadaist painter, sculptor, collagist, graphic artist, avant-garde film-experimenter, anti-militarist and anarchist, who claimed that Kropotkin's 'Mutual Aid' was the most significant book that he ever read, born. [expand]

[B] 1902 - Margaret Michaelis (Michaelis-Sachs) (born Margarethe Gross; d. 1985), Austrian, and then Australian, photographer and anarchist, born in Dzieditz, near Krakow, to a liberal Jewsih family. She studied photography at the Graphische Lehr-und Versuchsanstalt (Institute of Graphic Arts and Research) in Vienna from 1918-1921.
'Margaret Michaelis : fotografía, vanguardia y política en la Barcelona de la República, dossier de prensa de 19 de enero al 7 de marzo de 1999'. [expand]

[C] 1906 - Virginia Hall (d. 1982), American spy with the British Special Operations Executive during WWII and who worked as a radio operator and network manager, supporting the French Résistance in the Lyon and Haute-Loire regions, born. She was known by many aliases, including Marie Monin, Philomène, Brigitte Lecontre, Germaine, La dame qui boite, Diane, Marie de Lyon, Anna Müller, Camille, and Nicolas, as well as the codenames that the Germans gave her, including Artemis and The Limping Lady. Even her wooden leg had a codename, Cuthbert.

1929 - Curt Corrinth's controverial play 'Trojaner' (Trojans), a critique of German anti-Sematism, permières at the Volksbühne in Berlin.

1945 - Leon Feldhendler (Lejb Feldhendler; 1910), Polish-Jewish resistance fighter known for his role in organising, with Alexander Pechersky (1909 - 1990), the 1943 prisoner uprising at the Sobibor extermination camp, dies having managed to escape and survive the war. The uprising, which took place on October 14, 1943, was detected in its early stages after a guard discovered the body of an SS officer killed by the prisoners. Nevertheless, about 320 Jews managed to make it outside of the camp in the ensuing melee. Eighty were killed in the escape and immediate aftermath. 170 were soon recaptured and killed, as were all the remaining inhabitants of the camp who had chosen to stay. Some escapees joined the partisans. Of these, ninety died in combat or were killed by local collaborators or anti-Semites. Sixty-two Jews from Sobibor survived the war, including nine who had escaped earlier. Feldhendler was among those who survived the war, hiding in Lublin until the end of German occupation in July 1944. However, on April 2, 1945, he was shot through the closed door of his flat as he got up to investigate a commotion in an outer room. Feldhendler and his wife managed to escape through another door and made their way to Lublin's Św. Wincentego á Paulo hospital, where he underwent surgery but died four days later. Some sources claim Feldhendler was killed by right-wing Polish nationalist, possibly members of Narodowe Siły Zbrojne, an anti-Communist and anti-Semitic paramilitary organisation, but this doubtful.

1958 - Vítězslav Nezval (b. 1900), Czech poet, writer, dramatist, translator, Dadaist, co-founder of Poetism and a leading personality of Czech Surrealism, dies. [see: May 26]

1976 - Oriol Solé Sugranyes (b. 1948), Spanish libertarian, member of the MIL (Iberian Liberation Movement) and former Centro Iberico militant, who practised expropriation policies (bank robberies) along with Salvador Puig Antich , Jean-Marc Rouillan, etc., under the dictatorship in 70s Spain, dies. On 24 July 1974, he was condemned by Franco's council of war to 48 years in prison. Incarcerated in Segovia prison, he escaped with thirty members of ETA on April 6, 1976 but was shot a few hours later by the Guardia Civil as he tried to cross the Franco-Spanish border. [see: Jan. 4]
1882 - Armando Borghi (d. 1968). Italian anarchist, friend of Errico Malatesta's, secretary of the large Unione Anarchica Italiana (UAI) as well as the head of the Italian Syndicalist Union (USI) in Bologna, born. [NB Some sources give the date as Apr. 6]

[BB] 1893 - José Sobral de Almada Negreiros (d. 1970), leading Portuguese modernist artist, poet, novelist, futurist and Marxist individualist, born. A close friend of Fernando Pessoa and Mário de Sá-Carneiro, he illustrated Pessoa's 'O Banqueiro Anarquista' (The Anarchist Banker; 1996) and the three published the 'Orpheu' literary magazine as members of the Geração de Orpheu (Orpheus's Generation) or Grupo de Orfeu. Despite being visually inspired by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, his futurism was strictly leftist and embraced Russian Futurism, Dadaism and Surrealism, being much more of the post-Symbolist lineage than the proto-Fascist machine-worship of the later Italian Futurists.
Author of the 'Manifesto Anti-Dantas e por Extenso' (1915), a hilarious blistering attack on artistic conservatism focused on Júlio Dantas, a major figure of arts and culture in the Salazar regime. Amongst his other works are 'A Invenção do Dia Claro' (Invention of Daylight; 1921)', 'Nome de Guerra' (The Name of War; 1925, published in 1938), the plays 'El Uno, Tragédia de la Unidad' (The One, the Tradegy of Unity; 1928), made up of 'Deseja-se Mulher' (Woman Wanted) and 'S.O.S.'.

[CCC] 1926 - The Hon. Violet Albina Gibson (1876-1956), the daughter of Lord Ashbourne, attempts to assassinate Benito Mussolini in Rome as he leaves a meeting of the International Congress of Surgeons after having delivered a speech on the wonders of modern medicine. Gibson shot at Mussolini three times, twice hitting him in the nose, and was almost lynched on the spot by an angry mob. Rescued by the police, who took her off for questioning, she was later deported after being released without charge. Mussolini was only slightly wounded and, after his nose was bandaged, he continued his parade. Violet Gibson spent the rest of her life in a mental asylum.

1926 - Giovanni Amendola (b. 1882), Italian journalist, politician and noted opponent of Fascism, dies in exile in France from wounds sustained in an attack by 12 fascists armed with wooden staves in Montecatini. [see: Apr. 15]

[C] 1937 - Antonio Cieri (b. 1898), Italian anarchist rail worker, anti-fascist militant and Spanish Civil War fighter, is shot and killed [some sources give the 8th], leading a team of Bomberos during an assault on the Huesca front durign the Spainsh Revolution. [see: Nov. 11]

1951 - Gustave-Henri Jossot (aka Abdul Karim Jossot; b. 1866), French caricaturist, illustrator, poster designer, Orientalist painter, writer and libertarian individualist, dies. [see: Apr. 7]

1982 - Pio Turroni (b. 1900), Italian anarchist and long-time anti-fascist militant, dies. He fought in the Spanish Revolution of 1936, and long-time publisher of 'Volontà'. [see: May 30]
1894 - Max Sartin (Raffaele Schiavina) (d. 1987), Italian-American individualist anarchist, born. Schiavina collaborated on many US anarchist newspapers (in Italian) including 'Cronaca Sovversiva', and was imprisoned along with Luigi Galleani and both were later deported to Italy in 1919 for anti-war activities. In Italy, following a period in prison for supposed deserton in the time of war, he and Galleani republished 'Cronaca Sovversiva' and became an organiser for Arditi del Popolo. Arrested and accused of belongng to Arditi del Popolo, he spent 15 months in prison before being aquitted. Fleeing the fascist threat, he moved to Paris in March 1923, and there he participated in the defence of Sacco and Vanzetti, publishing 'Difesa for Sacco e Vanzetti'. Schiavina was imprisoned and harassed numerous times before returning to the US where he published, for 45 years, the weekly magazine 'Adunata dei Refrattari' (longest lasting paper of the Italian-American anarchist movement).

[C] 1912 - Jozef Gabčík (d. 1942), Slovak soldier and resistance fighter, one of a team of Czechoslovak British-trained paratroopers who took part in Operation Anthropoid, the assassination of acting Reichsprotektor (Reich-Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia, SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, on May 27, 1942, born.

1915 - Irma Bandiera aka 'Mimma' (d. 1944), Italian anti-fascist partisan courier and fighter in the VII Brigade 'Gianni Garibaldi' of GAP in Bologna, born. Captured by the fascists at the end of a firefight, as she prepared to return home after transporting weapons to the group's Castelmaggiore base, Irma had incriminating documents on her, For six days the fascists the tortured her, trying to make her give up the names of her comrades. She remained silent nad, as a last resort, they took her to the home of her parents in Meloncello di Bologna where she had spent her childhood and gave her an ultimatum: "Speak or you will never see them again." She refused. They tortured her again, even blinding her, and eventually shot her, dumping her body in the street outside her parent's house.
In her honour, a partisan group in Bologna was named the Prima Brigata Garibaldi 'Irma Bandiera' in the summer of 1944. She was also awarded the Medaglia d'oro al valor militare posthumously.

1932 - The Law of April 8, 1932: A product of the new bourgeois republic and its new Minister of Labour, Largo Caballero, the Ley de Asociaciones Profesionales de obreros y patronos (Law of professional associations of workers and employers) was designed to reassure the bourgeoise that nothing much would change with the advent of the Second Spanish Republic, especially within industry and for employers. Couched in terms of establishing trade union freedom: "joining a trade union is voluntary and not compulsory, i.e. joining a union is a right and not a compulsion ; that the intervention of the State must be reduced to guarantee the good order of the trade union and legitimacy in its aims and activities; the Spanish government grants professional associations representativity to their respective bodies, in the public boards which arbitrate labour conditions, and enforce the application of the social legislation". It was in fact designed to effectively end the right to strike, and epecially to outlaw the C.N.T. and its direct action tactics, and maintain the status quo of widespread hunger and poverty amongst the country's proletariat.
All workers' organisations had to submit to a certain state control: participation in the state labour courts of arbitration, to which all labour conflicts were to be submitted, was compulsory; and, the date of strikes had to be announced in advance. The socialist U.G.T. submitted, of course, to those terms and put its members into the vacancies of the Jurados Mixtos (Labour Arbitration Courts). Not so the C.N.T. They did not recognise the law and did not submit to it.
According to the letter of the law they should have been dissolved automatically, yet the government did not dare to take this step. However, the anarcho-syndicalist organisation was hampered in its activities; its militant members were arrested, and its headquarters closed wherever possible. The C.N.T. and its great social revolutionary mass movements all over the country were slandered as never before. The militant workers of the Confederacióm and the Anarchist Federation of Iberia (F.A.I.) were branded as "bandits with a membership card" by the Socialists. With the U.G.T. firmly in the pocket of the government, the trades union movement was irrevocably split, something that would inevitably adversely effect the success of the 1936 revolution.
Towards the end of the Azaña government, in the summer of 1933, a new attack was prepared against the revolutionary labor movement. News items in the press for which neither the police nor the ministry of the Interior wanted to assume responsibility announced the discovery of a far reaching "anarchist-monarchist plot". The government ordered new mass arrests. The example of an Andalusian town where the chief of police received orders from Madrid to arrest a certain number of leading monarchists and the same number of anarchists shows clearly how this "plot" was "discovered". Orders were carried out. One of the best known monarchists of the town, having been on a trip, reported voluntarily to the police upon his return. But they declined to arrest him, stating that they had already the desired number of monarchists!

1940 - Chicho Sánchez Ferlosio (José Antonio Julio Onésimo Sánchez Ferlosio; d. 2003), Spanish singer, poet, songwriter, journalist, one-time communist but later an anarchist and CNT member, born. Author of numerous popular songs such as 'Gallo Rojo, Gallo Negro' (Red Cockerel, Black Cockerel) , 'La Hierba de los Caminos' (The Grass of the Roads), 'La Quinta Brigada' (The Fifth Brigade), 'A la Huelga' (To Strike), 'Hoy No Me Levanto Yo' (Today I Don't Get Up), 'Balada de las Prisiones' (Ballad of the Prisons), 'La Paloma de la Paz' (The Dove of Peace).

1945 - Congress of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL), in Toulouse (April 8-9th).

1946 - Ilarie Voronca (Eduard Marcus; b. 1903), Jewish Romanian-French avant-garde poet and essayist, who took part in the French Résistance, as a writer and fighter, commits suicide. [see: Dec. 31]

[A] 1950 - José Lluis Facerias, anti-fascist guerilla, blows up the Lonja police station in Barcelona. Facerias was a veteran leader of the anarchist action groups, operating since the end of the Spanish Revolution in 1939.

1959 - Felipe Alaiz de Pablo (b. 1887), Spanish individualist anarchist and journalist dies, exiled in Paris. Director of 'Revista de Aragon', writer for 'El Sol de Madrid', 'Heraldo de Aragon', 'La Revista Blanca', 'Solidaridad Obrera' in Valencia and Sevilla. Published novels and works on anarchism and translations. [see: May 23]

1973 - Pablo Ruiz y Picasso (b. 1881), Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, anarchist and later communist, dies. [see: Oct. 25]

1978 - Gaston Leval (born Pierre Robert Piller; also used the pseudonyms Max Stephan, Silvio Agreste, José Benito, Felipe Montblanc, Josep Venutto and Robert Le Franc; b. 1895), dies. Son of a French Communard, anarchist syndicalist, combatant and historian of the Spanish Revolution of 1936.
1936 - The first issue of the anarchist weekly 'Más Lejos' (Beyond) is published in Barcelona. It only lasted 9 issues.

1938 - The first issue of the Portuguese langauge newspaper 'Liberdade', organ of anti-fascist Portuguese refugees in France, is published in Paris.

[CCC] 1945 - Johann Georg Elser (b. 1903), German carpenter, communist sympathiser and member of the Roten Frontkämpferbund (Red Front Fighters' Union), who singlehandedly tried to assassinate Adolf Hitler and other high-ranking Nazi leaders, on November 8, 1939 - the anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch - at the Bürgerbräukeller in Munich via a homemade bomb, is executed and his fully dressed body immediately burned in the crematorium at Dachau concentration camp. [see: Jan. 4]

1968 - Zofia Kossak-Szczucka (b. 1889), Polish writer and World War II resistance fighter, who co-founded the wartime Polish organization Żegota, set up to assist Polish Jews to escape the Holocaust, dies. [see: Aug. 10]

[C] 1999 - The NF hold an 'anti-asylum seeker' demo in Margate, Kent. The national turnout is 85 NFers versus 3-400 anti-fascists [B&H claim the figure were 200 vs. "a handful of ragged mdle-class AnaL/Communist types that were met with rision (sic) from both marchers and locals"] who, despite the deployment of the full panoply of police weapons - riot vans, dogs, etc., manage to halt the march. [PR]

2009 - John Colin Campbell Jordan (b. 1923), British neo-Nazi with a leadership role in the National Socialist Movement, British Movement and the World Union of National Socialists, dies. A public school boy who volunteered for the Fleet Air Arm and royal Airforce, but was rejected by both (failing his pilot's courses) and, unlike the majority of his contemporaries actively supported peace with Germany. Post-war, he fell under the influence of anti-Semite and longterm fascist Arnold Leese (rather than Oswald Mosley) and also became an ardent admirer of Hitler, reviving all the Nazi props of brown shirts, breeches and jackboots, swastika armbands, together with the slogans of "Sieg Heil", "Juden raus" and even the 'Horst Wessel Song' upon forming the NSM in 1962. An inveterate jailbird because of his anti-Semetic activities, he was also fined for the infamous red knickers shoplifting incident shortly after being forced out of his leadership position in the BM in 1974. He died a sad isolated figure, still ranting about his 'messiah' Hitler and was even declared too unfit to stand trial for publishing racist literature in his 2001 last hurrah, missing out on another chance at hitting the headlines. [see: Jun. 19]
[ Goodrick-Clarke/Black Sun.pdf]
1972 - Louis Laurent (b. 1883), French trade unionist, member of the Revolutionary Anarchist Union and the Anarchist Federation of Languedoc in the 30s, dies. Helped publish various libertarian journals, worked with the League of Conscientious Objectors and the CGT-SR (revolutionary trade union). Helped found 'Le Libertaire' in 1968. [see: Oct. 2]

[C] 1979 - Pavlos Fyssas aka Killah P (d. 2013), Greek anti-fascist rapper, who was stabbed to death by a supporter of the Greek fascist Golden Dawn (Χρυσή Αυγή) party, born. [see: Sep. 18]

[B] 1995 - Chaoze One, German Roma rapper and anarchist, born.
1896 - Wieland Herzfelde (d. 1988), German journalist, author, poet and publisher, born. Like his brother John Heartfield, he volunteered for the German army in WWI (the same year he added the 'e' to the end of the family name Herzfeld) but grew disillusioned with life at the front and, in 1916 with Hertfield, started the anti-war magazine 'Der Neuen Jugend', as well co-founding the legendary Malik-Verlag, which specialised in publishing avant-garde art and communist literature. Malik-Verlag's first publications were the political magazines 'Die Pleite' (Bankruptcy - co-edited by Heartfield and Grosz) and 'Der Gegner' (The Opponent - co-edited by Karl Otten and Herzfelde) and a Grosz portfolio. Post-WWI, he founded an art gallery, Grosz-Galerie, and a bookshop, as well as helping to organise the Erste Internationale Dada-Messe (First International Dada Fair) in 1920. In 1921, he and Grosz face trial for defamation of the army - the evidence against them were exhibits from the First International Dada Fair: Grosz's 'Gott Mit Uns' and Rudolf Schlichter and John Heartfield's 'Preussischer Erzengel' (Prussian Archangel), a stuffed soldier with a pig's head assemblage. Grosz received a 300RM fine and Herzfelde, his publisher, 600RM. Like Heartfield and Grosz, he joined the Kommunistischen Partei Deutschlands (KPD) at it's founding in Dec. 31, 1918, but was more orthodoxly communist that either his brother or Grosz.
Following Hitler's rise to power, Herzfelde fled to Prague in 1933, later moving to London, and in 1939 to the USA where he published works by exiled German writers. In 1949 he returned to East Germany, becoming a professor of literature at the University of Leipzig; he also wrote poetry and fiction, and worked as a translator.

[B] 1905 - Attila József (d. 1937), one of the most important and well-known Hungarian poets, born. Hailed by the Hungarian Communist Party in the 1950s as a great proletarian poet, he was in fact an anarchist who opposed the Bolsheviks. After the crushing of the revolution in 1919, during the twenties, he became a member of the Vienna Bund der Herrschaftslosen Sozialisten’ anarchist circle. Expelled from university in 1925 for his revolutionary poem 'Tiszta Szívvel' (Pure Heart), the following year he visited Paris. There he met the anarchist Achille Dauphin-Meunier (who had written his book about the proletarian revolution in Hungary, 'La Commune Hongroise et les Anarchistes' (1925)) and became involved with the Union Anarchiste Communiste. Returning to Hungary, he joined the illegal Kommunisták Magyarországi Pártja (Party of Communists of Hungary) in 1930 but was expelled soon after because of his ideological unreliability and anti-Stalinist views. His works include: 'A Szépség Koldusa' (Beggar of Beauty; 1922); 'Nem én Kiáltok' (It's Not Me Shouting; 1925); the surrealist influenced 'Nincsen Apám se Anyám' (Fatherless and Motherless; 1929); 'Döntsd a Tőkét, ne Siránkozz' (Knock Down the Capital; 1931), which was confiscated by the public prosecutor; and 'Külvárosi Éj' (Night in the Outskirts; 1932).

[CCC] 1911 - Anteo Zamboni (d. 1926), 15-year old Italian anarchist, who tried to assassinate Benito Mussolini in Bologna on October 31, 1926, by shooting at him during the parade celebrating the March on Rome, and was immediately lynched, born.

1945 - Augustin Malroux (b. 1900), French teacher, socialist politician and member of the French Resistance, dies in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. [see: Apr. 5]

1977 - Jacques Prévert (b. 1900), French poet, surrealist, libertarian, dies. [see: Feb. 4]

1987 - Primo Levi (b. 1919), Italian-Jewish writer and chemist, dies - an apparent suicide. [see: Jul. 31]

[C] 1993 - Guillem Agulló i Salvador (b. 1974), Catalan anti-Fascist militant, who was involved in Maulets, a youth organisation attached to the Movimiento Catalán de Liberación Nacional, a Catalan anti-fascist independentist movement, is stabbed to death by Fascists in Montanejos, Valencia. Pedro Cuevas, a fascist who confessed to the stabbing, was sentenced to 14 years in prison. He only served 4 years. In the 2007 Spanish municipal elections he was a candidate for the far right political party Alianza Nacional in Chiva, Valencia.
1904 - Joaquín Miguel Artal, a 19-year-old anarchist, tries to stab the President of the Council of Ministers, Antonio Maura, in Barcelona. Maura leaps on to the running board of Maura's carriage whilst holding an envelope. Maura, thinking it was a petition reaches out and Artal pulls what the press claimed was a 20 inch knife(!), plunging it into the left side of Maura and shouting "Long live anarchy!" Maura, who would be the victim of another unsuccessful asssassination attempt on April 22, is only slightly injured. Artal is arrested on sentenced to 17 years in prison on June 11, 1904. He will die in prison 5 years later, a victim of the appaling conditions preveleant in Spanish jails.

1901 - Edgardo Ricetti Scandella (d. 1984), Argentinian-born anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anarcho-naturist and teacher, born.

1906 - Francisco Ferrer, Spanish anarchist educational theorist and teacher, continues to test the tolerance of Spanish authorities and clerics by organizing a massive demonstration today, Good Friday, in support of secular education. The government and Catholic Church are quite exercised and leap at the chance to jail him on false charges in June (for over a year).

[CC] 1921 - Hans Steinbrück (d. 1944), leader of the Ehrenfeld Group (sometimes called the Steinbrück Group), an anti-Nazi resistance group, active in the summer and autumn of 1944 in Cologne, born. Steinbrück, who escaped from a concentration subcamp in Cologne in July 1943, came to the Ehrenfeld district of Cologne, which had been largely destroyed by Allied bombings and was a sanctuary for enemies of the Nazi regime, including escaped prisoners, forced laborers, deserters, and Jews. There he began to stockpile weapons and foodstuffs in the cellar of a bombed-out house and stayed in close contact with escaped forced laborers, Communists, and criminals, with whom he did business, fencing stolen goods. His nickname was 'Black Hans'. The cellar also served as temporary shelter for Jews, deserters and others who had gone into hiding. In the summer of 1944, a number of young people, including teenagers, some of whom had already been Edelweiss Pirates, came into contact with Steinbrück. On September 29, 1944, an army patrol was informed about the group's cellar warehouse and raided it, seizing weapons and arresting Cilli, Steinbrück's girlfriend, and 2 Jewish women sheltering there. Later returning there, Steinbrück and Roland Lorent, a deserter who had just killed a local Nazi leader and had teamed up with Steinbrück to go on a "Nazi hunt", they ran into troops guarding the cellar. They opened fire, injuring the guard and killing a passing SA member. Later they fired into a group of people, killing a member of the Hitler Youth. On October 3, 1944, Lorent was arrested and 5 days later the Gestapo began arresting members of the group, and finally, Steinbrück as well. By October 15, they had had made 63 arrests, including 19 teenagers. Of those, thirteen German males, including several teenagers, were executed without trial in a public hanging next to the Ehrenfeld train station on November 10, 1944, in front of hundreds of curious onlookers. Among the victims were six teenagers, members of the Edelweiss Pirates:
Hans Steinbrück, born April 12, 1921, age 23
Günther Schwarz, born August 26, 1928, age 16
Gustav Bermel, born August 11, 1927, age 17
Johann Müller, born January 29, 1928, age 16
Franz Rheinberger, born February 22, 1927, age 17
Adolf Schütz, born January 3, 1926, age 18
Barthel Schink, born November 25, 1927, age 16
Roland Lorent, born March 12, 1920, age 24
Peter Hüppeler, born January 9, 1913, age 31
Josef Moll, born July 17, 1903, age 41
Wilhelm Kratz, born January 6, 1902, age 42
Heinrich Kratina, born January 15, 1906, age 38
Johann Krausen, born January 10, 1887, age 57


1931 - Teresa Claramunt Creus (b. 1862), militant Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and feminist, dies. [see: Jun. 4]

1942 - Henk Sneevliet aka 'Maring' (Hendricus Josephus Franciscus Marie Sneevliet; b. 1883), Dutch union leader, Communist, Trotskyist and founder of the the Marx-Lenin-Luxemburg-Front (MLL-Front) anti-fascist resistance group, is execution in the Amersfoort KZ (concentration camp) along with other members of the MLL-Front leadership. Reportedly they went to their deaths singing 'The Internationale'.

1993 - Fascist try to burn down the anarchist bookshop at 121 Railton Road, Brixton.

[C] 2014 - The Long Man of Wilmington makes his stand against the annual racist March for England, due to be held in Brighton on March 27. [pic]
[B] 1860 - James Ensor (d. 1949), Belgian symbolist and proto-expressionist painter, printer, musician and anarchist, born. Founding member, alongside Théo van Rysselberghe, of Les XX (Les Vingt), a Belgian painters, designers and sculptors group, who held a series of exhibitions with the likes of Paul Signac, Camille Pissarro, Maximilien Luce, Odilon Redon, Cézanne, Toulouse-Lautrec, Gauguin and Van Gogh. He was also a significant influence on the likes of Klee, Grosz and the Surrealists.
'Christ’s Entry into Brussels in 1889' - "..akin to [Elisée] Reclus’s notion of the freedom of the individual as a moral imperative, and [Oscar] Wilde’s belief that artists have the responsibility to open the space for that freedom. In the tradition of Bosch, Bruegel, and Goya, Ensor created this painting as an attempt to lampoon those institutions that confused authority with greater human laws." (Patricia G. Berman - 'James Ensor: Christ's Entry into Brussels in 1889')

1884 - Jules Vignes (d. 1970), anarchist publisher, propagandist and Idist (Ido, international language, a simplification of Esperanto), born. In October 1908 he founded the anarchist journal 'La Torche', in 1917 the libertarian Idist newspaper 'La Feuille' (The Sheet) in Saint-Genis-Laval (Rhône) and in 1927 the first manifestation of the newspaper 'Libération' (the name was later used for the Socialist Party organ).

[C] 1906 - Samuel Beckett (d. 1989), Irish playwright, poet, novelist, theatre director, anti-fascist and member of the Résistance, born. He worked with the French Underground during the World War II occupation by Germany, first as a courier in Paris and later with the Maquis sabotage of the German army in the Vaucluse mountains, claiming that he preferred "France in war to Ireland in peace". For his service he was awarded the Croix de Guerre and French Médaille de la Résistance.

1907 - Jack Bilbo (Hugo Cyril Kulp Baruch; d. 1967), German-born Jewish writer, novelist, painter, illustrator, sculptor, gallery owner, adventurer and anarchist, born. Co-founder in 1930 of the anti-Nazi Kampfbunde gegen den Faschismus (Committees for Combating Fascism) and fought with anarchist militia in the Spanish Revolution. Interned on the Isle of Man in WWII, he became a friend of Kurt Schwitters, showinghis work in his Modern Art Gallery, which he opened in October 1941 on Baker Street in London. [expand]

1907 - Antonio Ortiz Ramirez (d. 1996), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-Franco and anti-fascist fighter, born. A member of the CNT at fourteen, he joined Los Solidarios in 1923 and was active in the Sindicato de la Madera, woodworkers section of the union. Following the declaration of the 1931 Republic, he was imprisoned following a strike and in 1934 joined the Nostros affinity group. During the Spanish Revolution he led the 800-strong Roja y Negra Colonna aka Ortiz Column, was made commander of the Republican 25th Division [Apr. 1937, but dismissed by the Communist authorities in the Sept.] and a volunteer French army officer during WWII, born.
Following demobilisation, he was involved with José Pérez Ibáñez and Primitivo Pérez Gómez in the 1948 attempted assassination of Franco by bombing his boat from the air at a San Sebastian regatta. The subsequent exposure in the French press, and fearing for his safety, Ramirez went into exile in Latin America in 1951, first to Bolivia, then Peru and, in 1955, to Venezuela. In 1987 he returned to Barcelona, where he managed to recoup his salary as a Republican Army sergeant.

1933 - Pano Vassilev (b. 1901), Bulgarian militant anarcho-syndicalist, is assassinated in Sofia by the police whilst looking for a printer in Sofia for Mayday leaflets.

1945 - Ernst Cassirer (b. 1874), German neo-Kantianism philosopher and phenomenologist, dies. [see: Jul. 28]

1945 - Belsen and Buchenwald Nazi concentration camps liberated. The Allied camp will flaunt the Nazi horrors to cover their own.

1949 - Marie Louise Berneri (b. 1918), the elder daughter of Camillo and Giovanna Berneri, editor of 'Freedom' and author of 'Neither East Nor West' and 'Journey Through Utopia', dies in childbirth.
"Into the silence of the sun
Risen in dust the rose is gone,
The blood that burned along the briar
Branches invisibly on the air.
Flame into flame's petal
Her grief extends our grief,
Over the ashy heat-ways
A green glance from a leaf
Shivers the settled trees.
A child walks in her grace
The light glows on his face,
Where the great rose has burned away
Within the terrible silence of the day."
'In Memory of M.L.B.' - Louis Adeane

1950 - Hoche Arthur Meurant (b. 1883), French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Dec. 17]

1954 - At a meeting held in Caxton Hall, Westminster, a group of ex-Conservatives, fascists and other far-right nationalists led by Arthur K. Chesterton (a former leading figure in the British Union of Fascists and previously a member of various far-right groups including the Nordic League and The Right Club, who would later co-found the National Front) found the League of Empire Loyalists (LEL), to campaign against the dissolution of the British Empire. The League would have support from within the Conservative Party and would be particularly know for their stunts at Conservative conferences and the meetings of groups such as the Anti-Slavery Society, Movement for Colonial Freedom and CND. Amongst those who joined it were confirmed neo-Nazis such as John Tyndall, Colin Jordan and Martin Webster, and the group would go on to become primarily concerned with opposing the so-called 'demographic genocide against the British people' and be instrumental in the founding of the National Front in February 1967.

1961 - The newly formed BNP secures an 8.1% share of the vote in Deptford in the London County Council elections.

1966 - Carlo Carrà (b. 1881), Italian futurist painter and author, dies. An anarchist in his early years, he painted his famous futurist work 'The Funeral of the Anarchist Galli' (1910-11), which Carrà was present at, in that period. However, he became an ultra-nationist during WWI and, like many of the Futurist, later became active Fascists, signing a manifesto which called for support of the state ideology through art. [see: Feb. 11]

1980 - José Ester i Borrás (b. 1913), Spanish anarchist, active in the Résistance in France, arrested and sent to Mauthausen concentration camp, dies. After the liberation he co-founded the Spanish Federation of Former Political prisoners and camp inmates (FEDIP). [see: Oct. 26]

2005 - André Bösiger (b. 1913), Swiss anarchist and militant trades unionist, dies. A member of the Ligue d'Action du Bâtiment (L.A.B), and associated with Luigi Bertoni ('Réveil Anarchiste' - The Anarchist Alarmclock) and Lucien Tronchet. A founder of the CIRA (Centre International de Recherches sur l’Anarchisme). [see: Jul. 22]

2009 - Abel Paz (Diego Camacho Escámez; b. 1929), Spanish militant anarchist, historian and Civil War combattant, dies. Paz helped found the Los Quijotes del Ideal group (who opposed collaborating with the Republican government) in August 1936, along with Victor García, Liberto Sarrau and other young libertarians. [see: Aug. 12]
1881 - Jean Biso (d. 1966), French anarcho-syndicalist, Secretary of the Syndicat des Correcteurs in Paris,?

[B] 1901 - Valeriano Orobón Fernánez (d. 1936), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist theoretician, trade-union activist, translator and poet, who wrote the Spanish lyrics of the CNT anthem 'A Las Barricadas', born.

1912 - Manuel Chiapuso Hualde (d. 1997), Basque anarcho-syndicalist writer, teacher, historian and activist, born. [expand]

1914 - José Palacios Rojas aka 'Piruli' (d. 2007), Spanish farm labourer, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and Civil War combattant, born. Member of the CNT and FIJL from an early age, he received his education at the local CNT Ateneo. After the occupation of his village by Franco forces, when all of the local CNT committee and many militants were summilarily shot, he managed to escape to the Republican zone and join the militia, fighting on the Cordoba, Granada and Almeria fronts and in Madrid. Trapped in Alicante, he was taken prisoner at the end of the war and interned at the Albatera concentration camp and then in Malaga prison. Released after several years in prison without ever having been tried, Piruli continued to participate in the clandestine CNT. After the death of Franco he 2was involved in the reconstruction of the CNT in Seville, remaining a member until his death.

1920 - Today the strike and Councilist factory occupations in Italy, begun March 15, has spread, and is now general in Piedmont; in the following days it spreads through much of northern Italy, particularly among the dockers and railroad workers. The government had to use warships to land troops at Genoa to march on Turin.

1927 - Enrique Martinez Marin aka 'Quique' (d. 1947), Spanish anti-Francoist anarchist guérilla, born. He belonged to the Young Libertarians of Carmelo and was the delegate for this neighbourhood to the local section of the anarchist Federation of Libertarian Youth (FIJL), which had fought in the Spanish Civil War and played an important role in the resistance to Franco after the fascist victory.
He was arrested on the August 8, 1947 but was released on the March 25, 1948. He died alongside Celedonio García Casino (aka Celes or el Largo) on the August 26, 1949, in a Guardia Civil ambush on the French frontier. José Luis Facérias and the other members of the group mamnaged to escape.

1931 - A Republic is proclaimed in Spain.

[C] 1931 - At the Fourth Congress of the Partito Comunista d'Italia (PCd'I; Communist Party of Italy), the leadersip invites its members to work within the fascist organisations for their own ends!

1935 - The successful use of 'physical force' by the anti-fascist Left in Leicester had succeeded in driving fascist British Union of Fascists off the streets of the city, with their regular open air meetings in the Market Place or at the gates of Victoria Park gates ending in humiliation, as huge, hostile crowds of demonstrators drowned the speakers out with boos and catcalls, and their paper sellers attacked. By the end of 1934, BUF had been forced to travel to small villages and towns in the county like Ratby, Oakham, Loughborough, Market Harborough, and Melton Mowbray, where impromptu outdoor meetings and sales drives would be staged largely undisturbed, or in their constantly targeted branch headquarters.
The action taken by the forces of militant anti-fascism in the city had also forced the Chief Constable to take action and ban the fascists from holding meetings in the Market Place and at Victoria Gates for fear of the confrontations ending in violence. This fear of "anti-fascist demonstrations and consequent trouble" also led to Leicester council refusing to let De Montfort Hall to the BUF for a Mosley meeting planned for the evening of November 26, 1934 - an earlier application for November 9 had been accepted, and a large anti-fascist meeting organised’ to coincide with Mosley’s first ever political appearance in the city, but the fascist meeting was cancelled as Mosley had to appear in court in connection with his Worthing arrest [see: Oct. 9]. Instead, they were offered the much larger Granby Hall and BUF turned it down, claiming that they could not organise a meeting at such a large venue at such short notice. Alternate dates were turned down too.
However, in early April the decision was taken to organise at short notice the first ever Oswald Mosley meeting staged in Leicester. On the evening of Sunday April 14, 1935 Mosley delivered an address at the Granby Halls. The fascist leader’s speech unfolded as a unrelenting tirade against 'Jewish international power' which according to the local press was up to that time one of the most strident ever made by Mosley in the provinces on this theme. The 'Leicester Mercury' estimated a crowd of 3,000 at the 6,000-capacity venue. That may have been generous. Advance ticket sales had been calamitous in the city, and only the bused hordes of supporters from elsewhere and a sizeable contingent of anti-fascist demonstrators saved the organisers from the sight of a largely empty auditorium. Inside, security was tight. It was also ruthless: the 200 police officers were supplemented by 300 Blackshirt stewards. Cue chaos, as the address was overshadowed by a sideshow of fights and ejections.
Meanwhile, members of the Communist Party, the Unemployed Workers Movement and the Independent Labour Party had united in the Market Place to march upon Granby Halls, behind a large banner reading Unite Against Mosley. "The marchers were considerably outnumbered by the people who followed in their rear", reported the 'Mercury'. "Cyclists and motorists rang their bells and hooted continuously. The procession turned into Welford Road and had almost reached the prison gates when a remarkable development occurred. Scores of uniformed police suddenly appeared as if by magic. They had been hiding from view in the entrance to the prison. They joined hands and ran across Welford Road to form a complete cordon. At the same time, police who had been escorting the procession received instructions to turn the demonstrators back. A scuffle ensued as the police stopped the marchers. Several of the marchers fell in the struggle and the banner was torn from their leaders’ hands and ripped to shreds. Outside the gaol gates, a policeman staggered back as somebody threw a quantity of pepper into his face". Thomas Fall, described in the 'Mercury' as one of the "standard-bearers" of the anti-fascist demonstration told the 'Mercury' he’d been "bruised from head to foot" in the clash with the police.

1937 - Friends of Durruti Group, (former anarchists in the Durruti Column) issues a Manifesto opposing commemoration of the anniversary of the Republic, arguing it is merely a pretext for reinforcing bourgeois institutions and the counter-revolution.

1945 - Fioravante Meniconi (b. 1893), Italian militant anarchist individualist and anti-militarist propagandist, dies. [see: Oct. 13]

1988 - Daniel Guérin (b. 1904), dies. One of France's best known revolutionary activists and thinkers, author of books such as 'Fascism & Big Business'; '100 Years of Labour in the USA'; 'Anarchism: From Theory to Practice'; 'Ni Dieu, Ni Maître: Anthologie du Mouvement Libertaire'. [dates?]
1882 - Pierre Ramus (pseudonym of Rudolf Grossman) (d. 1942), Austrian anarchist writer and propagandist, born. [see: May 27]

[C] 1882 - Giovanni Amendola (b. 1926), Italian journalist, politician and noted opponent of Fascism, who died in exile in France from wounds sustained in a fascist attack, born.

[B] 1883 - Louis Moreau (d.1958), French militant libertarian, pacifist, painter and engraver, born. Trained as a lithographer, in 1900 he settled in Paris to practice his trade, developing a passion for drawing, painting and woodcuts. There he began contributing to Jean Grave's 'Temps Nouveaux'. Called up during WWI, his work was published in the clandestine 'Le Semeur'.
Post-WWI, his famous his 'Femme Libérée' series illustrated André Lorulot's magazine 'l'Idée Libre' and he contributed wood engravings to Émile Armand's 'Néo-Naturien' and 'L'EnDehors'. With Germain Delatouche, a fellow engraver and libertarian, Moreau formed the group Les Partisans in 1924.
His portraits of famous anarchists and anti-militarist illustrations embellish a lot of books and reviews of the libertarian press: 'Les Humbles', 'La Revue Anarchiste', 'l'Almanach de la Paix', 'L'Unique', 'Temps Nouveau' and numerous titles from Joseph Ishill's Oriole Press.

[AA] 1906 - Ricardo Mestre (d. 1997), Catalonian anarcho-syndicalist; construction worker; CNT and FAI member, born. One of the founders of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL); exiled in México City after the Revolution of 1936; cofounder of the Unión Distribuidora de Ediciones.
“Anarchy is an art, a beautiful pink elephant; consequently, the anarchist is an artist, capable of taming his impatience, annihilating his fears and overcome his ambitions.”

1908 - Basiliso Serrano Valero, a.k.a 'Fortuna' & 'El Manco de La Pesquera' (d. 1955), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist guerilla fighter, who later fought with the Maquis and joined the PCE, born. After the war, he became a Robin Hood-like character as a member of Agrupació Guerrillera d'Aixequi i Aragó (AGLA), carrying out raids on rich landlords and his assistance to the local poor, but was arrested by the Guardia Civil on April 27, 1952, as he prepared to take refuge in France. On November 4, 1955, he was tried and sentenced to death and executed in the Paterna military barracks in Valencia on December 10, 1955.

1938 - Nationalists (fascists) break through Republican forces and reach Mediterranean at Vinaroz; Republican Spain split in two.

1942 - German headquarters at Arras, France was attacked by members of the French Résistance.

1947 - Rudolph Hess, a leading member of the Nazi party, is hanged.

1951 - Beginning of first strike wave in fascist Spain, starting in the Basque country and spreading to Catalonia. Workers from a number of different industries and cities participate, with over 100,000 defying the government's order to return to work] - this is incorrect; see:

1968 - Amparo Poch y Gascon (b. 1902), Spanish anarchist feminist, Mujeres Libres founding member, doctor and propagandist for sexual freedom, dies. [see: Oct. 15]

1978 - 2,400 cops police a NF by-election meeting in Lambeth.

1980 - Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (b. 1905), French novelist, playwright, Marxist existentialist philosopher and literary critic, dies. [see: Jun. 21]

2007 - Maria-Antonietta Macciocchi (b. 1922), Italian journalist, writer, feminist and politician, member of the Radical Party and member of the Italian and European Parliaments, dies. [see: Jul. 23]
[C] 1896 - Tristan Tzara (born Samuel or Samy Rosenstock, also known as S. Samyro; d. 1963), Romanian-French avant garde poet, essayist, performance artist, journalist, playwright, literary and art critic, composer and film director, who was strongly influenced by individualist anarchism in his early years before joining the PCF in 1937, born. Alarmed by the establishment of Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime, which also signified the end of Berlin's avant-garde, he merged his activities as an art promoter with the cause of anti-fascism. In 1936, he published a series of photographs secretly taken by Kurt Schwitters in Hanover, works which documented the destruction of Nazi propaganda by the locals, ration stamp with reduced quantities of food, and other hidden aspects of Hitler's rule. After the outbreak of the Civil War in Spain, he briefly left France and joined the Republican forces, visiting beseiged Madrid alongside Soviet reporter Ilya Ehrenburg. Upon his return, he published the collection of poems 'Midis Gagnés' (Conquered Southern Regions). Some of them had previously been printed in the brochure 'Les Poètes du Monde Défendent le Peuple Espagnol' (The Poets of the World Defend the Spanish People; 1937), which was edited by two prominent authors and activists, Nancy Cunard and the Chilean poet Pablo Neruda. Tzara had also signed Cunard's June 1937 call to intervention against Francisco Franco. Though close to the PCF (some sources claim he joined in 1934) and adhering to many of the Party's cultural demands, he was never fully trusted and seen to be too independant.
Following the German occupation, he moved to the Vichy zone where, on one occasion, the anti-Semitic and collaborationist publication 'Je Suis Partout' made his whereabouts known to the Gestapo [his parents were Jewish Romanians who reportedly spoke Yiddish as their first language]. Based in Marsille amongst the group of anti-fascist and Jewish refugees protected by American diplomat Varian Fry, he joined the French Resistance, working with the Maquis. He also contributed to the various magazines published by the Resistance and took charge of the cultural broadcast for the Free French Forces clandestine radio station. His son Cristophe was also a Resistance member, having joined the Franc Tireurs Partisans in northern France. In 1942, with the generalisation of antisemitic measures, Tzara was also stripped of his Romanian citizenship rights. At the end of the war and the restoration of French independence, Tzara became a naturalised French citizen. [expand]

1906 - Georgi Grigorov, a.k.a. Georges Balkanski, G. Grigoiev and G. Hadjiev (d. 1996), Bulgarian anarchist theorist and historian, born.

1912 - RNK Split (Radnički Nogometni Klub Split; Workers Football Club) is formed in the poor working class district of Varos by the Croat anarchist Šimun Rosandić under its original name HRŠD Anarh (HDG Anarchy).

1975 - Claudio Varalli, an 18-year-old Italian technical school student and a member of the Workers' Movement for Socialism is shot dead by a fascist in Milan. After chasing fascists from the Avanguardia Nazionale away from the University of Milan, Claudio was shot in the face by one of them who hid in his car where he retrieved a gun.

1997 - Roland Topor (b. 1938), Polish-born French graphic artist, cartoonist, painter, writer, filmmaker, actor, songwriter, surrealist and cultural anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 7]

[CC] 2006 - Alexander Ryukhin aka 'Shtopor' (Bottleopener)(b. 1986), Russian anti-fascist, is murdered by a group of neo-Nazis in Moscow, just nine days before his twentieth birthday. A third-year student at the Moscow Electronics and Mathematics Institute, he had been on his way to an anti-fascist hardcore punk gig on the outskirts of Moscow, when several skinheads attacked Sasha and his friend Yegor near the Domodedovskaya metro station. With no struggle to speak of, one of the attackers stabbed Ryukhin in the chest with a knife. The attackers fled, leaving Sasha lying on the ground with the knife still embedded in his chest, and with no fingerprints on its handle. Ryukhin died almost instantly, well before an ambulance arrived.
Three of the attackers, Alexander Shitov (a member of the Format 18 gang), Andrei Antsiferov and Vasily Reutsky (both members of Slavic Union), were detained and Nazi paraphernalia and literature were found in their homes. In June 2007 they were sentenced to between 4 and 6.5 years in prison for 'hooliganism'. Two other suspects, Alexander Parinov and Nikita Tikhonov, together with another unidentified person, were also named in connection with the killing. Tikhonov was later arrested for the murder of human rights lawyer Stanislav Markelov, who had first named Tikhonov in connection with Sasha's murder. Tikhonov was later sentence in May 2011 to life for the murder of Markelov and that of Anastasiya Baburova, a trainee reporter at the 'Novaya Gazeta' newspaper.

[CC] 2006 - Tomás Vilches Araneda, an 18-year-old Chilean anti-Fascist punk is murdered by a gang of neo-Nazis in Santiago. Vilches had been shopping for music with two friends when a quarrel began with a neo-Nazi named Héctor Herrera Soto. Herrera, 28, left and returned with a group of friends, including two policemen. Herrera then killed Vilches with a knife. The two policemen were later expelled from the force (caught because their cop car had traces of Tomás' blood in it) but no criminal charges were brought against them. Additionally, two Chilean soldiers were also expelled during the investigation.
in November 2007, Héctor Herrera was sentenced to 7 years. Two fellow neo-Nazis, who had both cooperated with the prosecution, Esteban González Araneda aka 'Tito van Damme', who was the leader of the neo-Nazi cell, and Herrera Soto's counsin, Miguel Ángel Herrera, were sentenced to 6 and 5 years respectively. A four suspect, Esparza Cesar Zuniga aka 'El Caballo', 32, was extradited from Argentina in January 2014.
1911 - José Luis Quintas Figueroa (aka 'El Quintas', 'Alfonso' & Clemente Cabaleiro Covelo; d. 1976), Spanish tinsmith, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist member of FIJL, MLE and CNT, and anti-Franco guerrilla, born.

[B] 1923 - Jacques Sternberg (d. 2006), Belgian novelist, writer of science fiction and fantastique, pamphleteer, essayist, journalist, columnist, anti-competitive yatchsman and anarchist, born into a Polish Jewish family. Fleeing the Nazi advance, the family attempted to escape to Spain via the south of France, but were returned and interned in the Gurs camp. Stenberg's father was deported to Poland, dying in Majdanek. Jacques escaped and joined the underground, returning to Belgium after the war.
Member of the Mouvement Panique (Panic Movement), an anarchist avant-garde collective, with Fernando Arrabal, Alejandro Jodorowsky, Roland Topor, Christian Zeimert and Olivier O. Olivier. Participant in 'Hara-Kiri' and was a director of the magazine 'Mépris' (Contempt) with his friend Roland Topor. Much of his fiction features his dark humour and his pessimistic anarchist/libertarian outlook. Has also written under the pseudonyms Jacques Bert, Charles Sabatier and Christine Harth, penned the script for Alain Resnais' 1968 time travel film 'Je t'aime, Je t'aime' and for a number of TV programmes.
Amongst his volumous output are novels such as 'L'Employé' (The Employee; 1958), 'L'Architecte' (The Architect; 1960), 'La Banlieue' (The Suburb; 1976) and the powerful anti-political dystopia of 'Mai 86' (1978); short story collections 'La Géométrie dans l'Impossible' (The Impossible Geometry; 1953), 'La Géométrie dans la Terreur' (The Terror Geometry; 1958), 'Contes Glacés' (Icy Tales; 1974) and 'Contes Griffus' (Clawed Tales; 1993); science fiction story collections such as 'Entre Deux Mondes Incertains' (Between Two Uncertain Worlds; 1957), 'Univers Zéro' (Universe Zero; 1970) and 'Futurs sans Avenir' (Future Without Future; 1971), which feature tales of aliens misguidedly posing as African-Americans to invade America, the 533rd crucifixion of Jesus and the casual destruction of Earth by aliens who cannot understand humanity.

1975 - In the aftermath of the death of anti-Fascist Claudio Varalli the previous day, Giannino Zibecchi, a 28-year-old Italian militant with the Coordinamento dei Comitati Antifascisti, is knocked down by a police jeep on the Corso XXII Marzo in Milan and killed.

1975 - Tonino Micciche aka the 'Mayor of Falchera', an Italian 23-year-old former FIAT factory worker, fired for his trade union activity, and long time anti-Fascist activist, is shot dead in Turin by a deranged right-wing security guard who owned a garage that was being occupied by Lotta Continua as part of a mass public housing project.

[C] 1976 - National Front march organised through the centre of Manningham, the main Asian area in Bradford. 24 people are arrested in pitched battles as the police struggle to stop counter-demonstartors reaching the NF march and the school where the end-of-march meeting was held. [expand]

1986 - Cipriano Damián González (b. 1916), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Franco underground resistance, dies. Member of the CNT and Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth (FIJL). Following the defeat of the Republic, he was arrested ambnd spent time in the concentration camps of Los Almendros and Albatera, the Porta Coeli prison in Valencia and the Gardeny Lleida castle. He eventually managed to assume a false identity and help the guerrillas, later joining the Comitè Nacional de Manuel Vallejo (as Deputy Secretary) and going underground himself. He was arrest on June 6, 1953 in Madrid. was sentenced to 15 years in martial held in Madrid on February 5 1954, who served in Carabanchel and Guadalajara prisons.

1999 - Nail bomb (planted by a fascist) explodes in Electric Avenue in Brixton. 50 people injured.
1884 - Ludwig Meidner (d. 1966), German painter, graphic artist and poet, born. A revolutionary anarchist in his early years and associated with the individualists around 'Der Einzige', he later became a religious mystic and ended his life as a strictly observant painter of biblical themes. The foremost and most radical exponent of a second wave of Expressionism, a movement which championed the cause of the exploited and suppressed. Military service during WWI turned Meidner into an avowed pacifist and he advanced socialist goals in his 1919 'An alle Künstler, Dichter, Musiker' (To all Artists, Poets, and Musicians), a work that challenged the existing social order and urged artists to become socialists and protect the "greater good". In 1933, Meidner was placed on the list of banned writers and artists, and works by and about him were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Also in danger because of his Jewishness, Meidner left Germany in 1939, and did not return until 1953.

1888 - The first issue of the fortnightly anarchist communist journal 'La Justicia Humana' is published in Barcelona. Edited by Emilio Hugas and Martí Borràs (a proponent of propaganda by deed, who committed suicide in prison in Barcelona on May 9, 1894), is the first newspaper to promote anarchist communism in Spain. Eight issues emerged until 25 November 1886.

1890 - Alexander Granach (real name Jessaja Szajka Gronach; d. 1945), anarchist sympathiser and popular German actor in the 1920s and 1930s, born. [NB: 1893 also given as his DOB] [see: Mar. 14]

1935 - Panaït Istrati (Ghérasim Istrati; b. 1884), Romanian-French writer and revolutionary communist, and later libertarian, dies. [see: Aug. 10]

1937 - The Friends of Durruti Group, hold their first public meeting, with four speakers addressing about 1,000 workers.

[C] 1975 - Rodolfo Boschi, a 28-year-old Italian militant communist and anti-Fascist, is shot dead by plain clothes policemen after a group of protesters came to the aid of a boy being beatedn up by police during an anti-Fascist demo, following death of Claudio Varalli in Milan two days before.
1895 - Miguel García Vivancos (d. 1972), Spanish anarchist militant and combatant, and Naïve painter, born. Formed the Los Solidarios group, together with Buenaventura Durruti, Francisco Ascaso, Juan García Oliver, Gregorio Jover, Ramona Berri, Eusebio Brau, Manuel Campos, and Aurelio Fernández). In 1924, he was condemned to three months of prison. Released, exiled in France, he travelled with Ascaso, Durruti and Jover in Latin America (Mexico, Cuba, Peru, Chile). On his return to France, he was arrested because of the expropriations practised by the group on their trip. Escaping extradition, he was expelled and found refuge in Belgium. In 1927, he returned to Barcelona, participating in the clandestine struggles and took part in the Thirties in several insurrectionary attempts. Captured, he was interned for one year in Burgos.
García Vivancos was active during the Spanish Civil War, leading the Aguiluchos Column on the Huesca Front, as well as other major units in Belchite and Teruel. He opposed the anti-militarist line of the intransigentes anarchists and willingly cooperated with the Stalinist militarisation of fighting units. In September 1937 he was made responsible major units, 126 Brigada and the 25 División (in the place of Antonio Ortiz), winning battles in Belchite and then Teruel where he was wounded in January 1938. In May 1938 he was promoted to colonel.
At the end of the war he was charged with handling the evacuation to France of Spanish refugees escaping the fascists in the Puigcerda sector. He himself wound up being interned for four years in the French concentration camp at Vernet-les-Bains before being liberated during WWII by the Maquis and joining the French Resistance for the duration. At the CNT Congress in Marseilles in 1945, he was excluded from the organisation. Having gone astray, his views were deemed incompatible with libertarian practice.
Living in poverty in Paris , he discovered and developed his talent for painting. He was introduced in 1947 to Pablo Picasso, who helped open up the art world for him. His first exhibition was held in 1948 at the Gallery Mirador and won him instant recognition amongst the likes of surrealist André Breton.

1902 - Demetrio Urruchúa (d. 1978), Argentinian painter, printmaker, muralist, libertarian and anti-fascist, born. Collaborated in the '30s on 'Nervio' (Nerve), a libertarian-socialist publication in which he criticised the Mexican communist muralists and their concept of "proletarian art", and in particular David Alfaro Siqueiros and his political agenda. Urruchúa himself was strongly influenced by the events of the Spanish Revolution and the fight against fascism and they strongly inform his use of paint used as a weapon to fight against injustice, against all dictatorships and against the horror of war.

1912 - Joséphine Coueille (d. 1995), known as Andrée Prevotel, French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and free thinker, born. Charged in the 'Sterilizers of Bordeaux' case (for promoting vasectomies), her charges were dropped, but her husband, André Prévotel, was sent to prison. Both were also involved in the SIA, starting a branch in the Gironde in 1942 to aid Spanish refugees.

1937 - The first issue of the weekly newspaper 'L'Espagne Nouvelle', replacing 'L'Espagne Antifasciste', is published in Nîmes. From Sept. 17 1937 it goes fortnightly and adopts the subtitle: "Organe pour la défense des militants, des conquêtes et des principes de la Révolution espagnole".

1938 - Georg Schrimpf (b. 1889), German painter and graphic artist, dies. [see: Feb. 13]

[A] 1943 - Of the 50,000 Jews remaining in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, some thousands rise up in armed struggle against Nazi deportations to extermination camps.

[C] 1943 - Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: On the eve of Passover, police and SS auxiliary forces enter the Warsaw Ghetto. They have plans to complete the deportation action within three days, but are ambushed by Jewish insurgents firing and tossing Molotov cocktails and hand grenades from alleyways, sewers, and windows. The Germans suffer casualties and their advance is bogged down. Two of their combat vehicles are set on fire by insurgent petrol bombs. In a symbolic act that afternoon, two boys climb up onto the roof of a building on Muranowski Square, where the longest resistance took place (and where the ŻZW chief leader, Dawid Moryc Apfelbaum, was killed in combat) and raise two flags, the red-and-white Polish flag and the blue-and-white banner of the ŻZW. These flags remain there, highly visible from the Warsaw streets, for four days.
As the battles continue inside the Ghetto, Polish resistance groups Armia Krajowa (AK; Home Army) and Gwardia Ludowa (GL; People's Guard) engaged the Germans (between April 19 and 23) at six different locations outside the Ghetto walls, firing at German sentries and positions, and making a failed attempt to breach the Ghetto walls with explosives.

1945 - Julius Nolden, the former head of the Free Workers' Union of Germany (FAUD), is freed from Lüttringhausen prison by the arriving Allies.

[B] 1957 - Ian Heavens (d. 2000); Scottish anarchist, co-founder of the punk/samba band Bloco Vomit, born. A co-founder of the online Spunk Archives.

1974 - Fernand Planche (b. 1900), French writer/activist of the Anarchist Synthesis tendency, dies. [see: Feb. 12]

1979 - Ciro Principessa, a 23-year-old activist in the Italian Communist Youth Federation, is stabbed to death by a neo-Fascist in Rome. On April 19, 1979 Claudio Minetti, a right-wing extremist and frequenter of the MSI HQ in the Via Acca Larentia, entered the headquarters of the Communist Party on the Via di Torpignattara, asking to borrow a book from its small library. When asked to show proof of identity, Minetti refused, taking a book from a table and then running away down the street. Pursued by two members of the PCI, the neo-fascist spun round and stabbed Ciro Principessa with a knife. Principessa, whose condition was initially thought to be not serious, died in hospital the following day.
Minetti was arrested shortly afterwards and turned out to have serious mental health problems, as well as to be the son of Leda Pagliuca, a close friend of the notorious neo-fascist fanatic and terrorist Stefano Delle Chiaie. Minetti was sentenced to 10 years in a secure mental hospital.

1979 - 200 police are deployed to prevent anti-fascist protests in Battersea.

1983 - Jerzy Andrzejewski (b. 1909), prolific Polish author and dissident, dies. [see: Aug. 19]

2008 - London anti-fascists attack a British Peoples Party meeting in Victoria, London.
1893 - Joan Miró i Ferrà (d. 1983), Catalan painter, sculptor and ceramicist associated with the Surrealists, but whose work was closer to Magic Realism and can even be seen as a forerunner of Abstract Expressionism, born. Before the Spanish Revolution, when he largely lived in France whilst spending his summers in Spain, he was viewed as apolitical but took up the Republican government's commission of a mural, 'El Segador' (The Reaper) or 'El Campesino Catalán en Rebeldía' (Catalan Peasant in Revolt), for the Spanish Republican Pavilion at the 1937 Paris Exhibition. He also designed the explicitly political 'Aidez l’Espagne' poster. Having been prevented from visiting Spain by the war and then by Franco's victory, but the German invasion of France forced him to flee to Spain, narrowly avoiding capture. In Spain he underwent a self-imposed internal exile, first in Palma and later in Barcelona, returning permanently to Palma in 1956. After the war, he also made regular trips to Paris. He also went on to make other political statement via his art, including the triptych 'L'Esperança del Condemnat a Mort' (The Hope of a Condemned Man; 1974), inspired by the execution of the Catalan anarchist Salvador Puig Antich and through which he made explicit his opposition to Franco. There were also the lithograph set (the Barcelona Series, published in 1944 and which he would revisit in colour in 1966), which were based on Alfred Jarry's Pere Ubu character, through which he expressed his experiences of the Spanish Revolution and its aftermath, with the lithographs clearly depicting Franco and his generals as versions of the fictional tyrant. Similarly, the 1978 collaboration with the experimental theatre company La Claca called 'Mori el Merma' (Death to the Bogeyman), for which he designed a series of grotesque puppets, stand-ins again for Franco and his generals.

1897 - George (Gueorgui) Getchev (d. 1965), Bulgarian anarcho-communist, poet, writer of children's stories, translator and journalist, ?

1930 - Aldo Tambellini, Italian American painter, sculptor, poet and anarchist, who was a pioneer in electronic intermedia, born. Tambellini's art has always been overtly political and directed towards his community activism. Founding member in 1962 of the counter-culture group, Group Center, which involved Ben Morea, and working closely with the Umbra poetry collective. In 1965 he made his first moves as an avant-garde filmmaker, pioneering the technique of painting directly on film, and beginning his Black Film Series. In 1966 Tambellini founded The Gate Theater in New York's East Village and the following year helped co-found a second theatre, the Black Gate.

1953 - Jindřich Honzl (b. 1894), Czech theatre and film director, theatrical theorist, translator, educator, communist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: May 14]

[C] 1962 - [Hitler's birthday, natch] The neo-Nazi National Socialist Movement is formed by Colin Jordan, with John Tyndall as his deputy after spliting from the British National Party. The split was caused by John Bean's condemnation of Jordan's open Nazism, with Jordan managing to secure the support of both Tyndall and Denis Pirie, the rump of the paramilitary Spearhead group, whilst also gaining control of the BNP's Notting Hill headquarters. Roland Kerr-Ritchie and Peter Ling both resigned from the BNP National Council to support Jordan.
[,_1962) Goodrick-Clarke/Black Sun.pdf]

1964 - August Sander (b. 1876), German portrait and documentary photographer associated with the Neuen Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity), dies. [see: Nov. 17]

1967 - Aldino Felicani (b. 1891). Italian-American anarchist, typographer, editor, and publisher of many papers, dies. Friend and supporter of Sacco and Vanzetti, founding their Defence Committee. Published, until his death, the Italian-American paper 'Controcorrente' (Countercurrent). [see: Mar. 15]

[A] 1968 - Enoch Powell spouts his racist bile in his 'Rivers of Blood' speech at the Midland Hotel in Birmingham.

1970 - Probable date of the death by drowning of Paul Celan (b. 1920) in the Seine in Paris. [see: Nov. 23]

1974 - Richard Hülsenbeck (b. 1892), Dadaist propagandist, poet, writer, collagist, anarchist, drummer and Jungian psychoanalyst, dies. [see: Apr. 23]

1986 - As part of mass social upheaval in Spain, riots erupt in Guernica.

2014 - Rubin 'Hurricane' Carter (b. 1937), black American middleweight boxer, who was wrongly convicted twice of the same murder and later freed after spending almost 20 years in prison, dies. Wrongfully arrested and convicted for triple murder, he was sentenced to three life terms, narrowly escaping the electric chair in a case that is a classic example of US police and judicial racism.
[B] 1914 - The first public performance by Futurist painter and anarchist Luigi Russolo's intonarumori noise machines takes place at the Teatro dal Verme in Milan. Initially banned by the police fearing a riot, 2 local politicians intervene to get the programme of 3 pieces - 'Risveglio di una Città' (Awakening of a City), 'Colazione sulla Terrazza del Kursaal Diana' (Breakfast on the Terrace of Kursaal Diana), and 'Convegno di Automobili e di Aeroplani'(A Meeting of Automobiles and Aeroplanes) - put on. Half an hour before the concert was due to start, a large crowd was already en riot, throwing missiles at the stage. So loud was the noise throughout the concert that the music was inaudible. Marinetti likened it to "showing the first steam engine to a heard of cows."

1937 - The Delegated Committee for the Defence of Madrid dissolved.

[C] 1948 - In Leeds 100 members of the Jewish Ex-Servicemen's Association (AJEX) and 100 CPGB members prevent an outdoor Union Movement, whose members were simply intimidated by the anti-fascists' presence. [PR]

1951 - Giuseppe Pasotti (b. 1888), anarcho-sindicalista and member of the Italian League of Human Rights, dies. [see: Feb. 10]

1961 - Putsch des Généraux [General's Putsch]: A second military coup takes place in Algiers, [see: May 13] led by Generals Maurice Challe, Edmond Jouhaud, Raoul Salan and André Zeller, and backed by many junior ranks in the French army in Algeria. The coup is in reaction to the January 8, 1961 referendum on self-determination in Algeria organised in France and Algeria, and in which almost 75% had voted in favour of self-determination, and the actions of de Gaulle and his government, which they saw as having lied toward French Algeria colonists and loyalist Muslims who trusted it, the equivalent of treason and the abandonment of French Algeria.

1967 - CIA-assisted right-wing coup deposes elected Greek civilian government, military junta takes over.

1968 - Armando Borghi (b. 1882), important Italian anarchist figure, propagandist, dies. [see: Apr. 7]

[CC] 1979 - In Leicester, an estimated 2,000 anti-fascists mobilise to oppose around 800 NF supporters from holding their St. George's day march and election meeting. Planning to march from the Welford Road recreation ground to hold their rally at a Wyggeston Collegiate School close to Leicester University, the police are forced to re-route the NF march out of Leicester city centre, and later they attack the remaining anti-fascists who were trying to reach the school. Eighty-two people are arrested and there are 40 injuries as protesters hurl bricks, bottles and smoke bombs at NF supporters and police, injuring at least twenty-five of the latter. All told, the costs of deploying more than 5,000 police was estimated at £14,200.
According to a former cop on duty that day: "The main clash erupted in and around University Road and in ugly scenes, 25 policemen were injured, with two Leicester constables, Dave Cowling and John Norman, detained in hospital. There were also 14 casualties among the demonstrators. Missiles thrown at police included paving slabs, bricks, granite cobbles from Leicester University car park and stones."
"Despite the cordon of five thousand police, the National Front march was attacked within a hundred yards of its start. Supporters of the Anti Nazi League had occupied some waste ground and began pelting police and marchers alike with rocks. The marchers ducked and scrambled by, but some of them were injured and immediately the police abandoned the planned route of the march through the city centre. The counter demonstrators hailed it as a triumph."
"But the demonstrators were not satisfied with aborting the Front's march. They wanted to get at the school where the meeting was taking place. Then ensued a series of battles which lasted for two hours. The demonstrators using rocks and stones and the police inching forward behind riot shields.
"Some of the worst violence occurred at the campus of the University of Leicester. The demonstrators controlled the area inside the fought off police attempts to reach them. In any event, police brought in dogs behind the riot shields. All the time, they were being pelted with rocks and stones. Finally, they gave leash to the dogs. At least twenty-five police were injured, a number of demonstrators, and there were 87 arrests IN TOTAL. It was some of the worst violence Britain has been in the last few years." ['ITN News' broadcast 21/04/79]

1984 - Marcel Janco (b. 1895), anarchist-influenced Romanian and Israeli visual artist, architect and art theorist, dies. [see: May 24]

2013 - March for England: In what the organisers claimed was going to be a "family day out", police bus in less than 150 male nationalists to Brighton seafront for a 400m march (200m there and 200m back in what was effectively a mobile kettle) with no speaches, all cordonned off and protected by 700 cops drafted in from as far away as Wales, only to be bused out of town even quicker than they came. Lining their 'route' were 2,000 loud counter-protesters behind a police organised cordon. In addition, there were about 200, mainly local, masked-up anti-fascists roaming the streets picking off stragglers and fascist latecomers plus the handful of boneheads who took the opportunity of a visit to town to harrass the locals and possibly pick off the occassiona anti-fascist when the odds were heavily in their favour. The police made a number of attempts to kettle or otherwise control the independant antifa, trying to pull off their masks and confiscate their armoured Antifa banner, leading to several confrontations and de-arrests.
The day saw 13 arrests made for public order offences, theft, criminal damage and possessing weapons.
[ with_video_/]
1898 - Adrien Perrissaguet (d. 1972), French founder of L'Association des Fédéralistes Anarchistes, of the weekly magazine 'The Libertarian Voice' and of 'Combat syndicaliste', born. An activist in the Sacco and Vanzetti committee, he also fought in the Spanish Revolution of 1936 and was a member of the French Resistance during WWII.

1934 - Oswald Mosley addresses a large (approx. 9,500) BUF rally at the Albert Hall, speaking for an hour & half almost without interruption. A small number of anti-fascists from the Surrey Federation of Youth had managed to fool the BUF stewards and get into the meeting by dressing up in black. Inside they handed out 3,000 copies of their own free programme, undermining the official 6d one sold in the hall. The free programme turned out to be an anti-fascist pamphlet entitled 'British Fascism Explained'. [PR]

1943 - Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: The Nazis' ultimatum to surrender is rejected by the defenders, and German forces resort to systematically burning houses block by block using flamethrowers and fire bottles, and blowing up basements and sewers.

1945 - Käthe Kollwitz (b. 1867), German Expressionist painter, printmaker, sculptor, socialist and pacifist, who was one of the most important women artists of her period and also artists of the working classes in Europe, dies. [see: Jul. 8]

1968 - Enoch Powell is dismissed from the cabinet for his 'Rivers of Blood' speech. Fifty construction workers from a Wolverhampton firm who were working
at Rugeley power station and fifty workers at the Metro-Cammell factory in Birmingham stage unofficial strikes in favour of Powell.

1978 - The Anti Nazi League hold a mass picket at NF election meeting in Leeds just prior to the May local elections. "Some 80 NF members, including Martin Webster, were attacked on their way into the meeting by a mob of about a thousand Anti Nazi League and SWP banners. The NF members were again attacked on the way out. After about 20 minutes of persistent attacks the mob succeeded in fragmenting the group of NF members. As soon as the Anti Nazi League mob saw that Martin Webster was left with only nine other persons, he was beaten up and had to be taken to Leeds Infirmary to receive hospital treatment." ['Lifting the lid off the Anti Nazi League' - an NF publication, October 1978]

1979 - 5,000 people marched to Ealing Town Hall to protest against the National Front being allowed to use council premises. They handed in a petition signed by 10,000 residents.

[A] 1993 - Stephen Lawrence murdered by racists in south-east London.

[C] 2012 - March for England: St. George's supporters are well and truly put to the sword as around 2,000 anti-fascists run the nationalists out of town, after having lined their route blotting out their view of the Brighton public and drowning out the racist and homophobic bile that had been all too audible from them in previous years. Numerous attempts are made to stop the march, successfully in Queen's Road and later in Church Street, blocking the streets and building barricades out of whatever was available. The police resort to baton charges, the liberal use of pepper spray and deploy horses to force their way through into what was effectively a police march with a hundred or so nationalist boneheads tagging along behind. Eventually the march makes its way to the pen in Victoria Gardens pre-prepared for the MfE, except there are loads of anti-fascists there before them, jumping their pitch, and they spend the next 2 hours being jeered at by the sort of people that these little Englanders have nightmares about. Job done, the cops swiftly escort them back to station (jeered all the way, natch) with their tails well and truly between their legs. All told, there are 3 arrests (though East Sussex's finest released photos of 5 people 'wanted' for throwing missiles at the MfE) and 2 cops (of the 400 or so on duty) are injured, one being taken to hospital.
[!-/,-BANG,-WALLOP/ bins_torched_and_arrests_during_heated_March_for_England/]
[B] 1892 - Richard Hülsenbeck (d. 1974), Dadaist propagandist, poet, writer, collagist, anarchist, drummer and Jungian psychoanalyst, born. Like many of the Dadaists, and more specifically Hugo Ball, Tristan Tzara, the Janco brothers, Hülsenbeck was well read in contemporary political theory and sympathised with anarchist ideas of social and political organisation.
In 1912 he went to Munich to study medicine but after a year changed to studying German literature and art history. He also met the then anarchist Hugo Ball, who would become a decisive influence on his intellectual and artistic development. Hülsenbeck also began collaborating with the journal 'Der Sturm' (1914-32) and wrote the first of many theoretical and satirical essays, which were later published by the magazines 'Die Aktion' [1911-32; anarchist Franz Pfemfert's Expressionist and Leftist magazine that he started after his time editing the anarchist magazine ‘Der Kampf'] and 'Die Freie Strasse' [1915-18; anarchist and Dadaist magazine edited by Franz Jung, Georg Schrimpf, Richard Oehring, Otto Groß, Raoul Hausmann and Johannes Baader]. When he went to study at the Sorbonne during the winter of 1912–1913, he contributed as a "Paris correspondent" to ‘Revolution’, a polemical literary magazine started by Ball and his friend Hans Leybold (which also involved Erich Mühsam).
Huelsenbech’s readings of Balls’ social and political critiques of Germany and its bourgeois social system reinforced his own political understanding and the two began to collaborate more closely when Hülsenbeck followed Ball to Berlin in 1914. He continued to study German literature and began to publish poems, essays, and book reviews in ‘Die Aktion’. A few months into WWI, he volunteered for the army, serving several months in a field artillery unit (Ball also volunteered but was turned down as unfit), but never made it to the front as he was released from service because of neuralgia. Both Hülsenbeck and Ball became increasingly opposed to the war [Ball witnessing the invasion of Belgium, saying: "The war is founded on a glaring mistake, men have been confused with machines"] and to the intensity of German nationalist sentiment, organising several protests against the war effort in the spring of 1915, and in commemoration for fallen fellow poets.
Ball left for Zürich with his wife, Emmy Hennings, and soon after sent for Hülsenbeck. He arrived [Feb. 26, 1916] shortly after Ball had founded the Cabaret Voltaire [Feb. 1, 1916; with the first soirée in the Holländische Meierei at Spiegelgasse 1 on Feb. 5, with Ball writing of him, in ‘Escape from Time’, on 11 February 1916: "Hülsenbeck has arrived. He pleads for an intensification of rhythm (Negro rhythm). He would best love to drum literature and to perdition."], becoming the house drummer as well as reciting his poetry - "adopt[ing] an arrogant and offensive posture, brandishing his cane at the audience and reciting his poems, according to Marcel Janco, "as if they were insults." His poetry attacked the church, the fatherland, and the canon of German literature (Friedrich von Schiller and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe), and was accompanied by big drums, roars, whistles, and laughter. Hülsenbeck's use of a military drum alluded to the proximity of the war, demanding an immediate and uninhibited bodily response from the audience." [biog., National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC]
His own ill health, and that of his father's, led to his return to Germany in Dec. 1916. In early 1917 he brought the Dada ideas to a largely unsuspecting Berlin, starting the Dada group there, recruiting Georg Grosz, Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Johannes Baader, Walter Mehring, Wieland Herzfelde and John Heartfield. The fruits of their many collaborations included ‘Jedermann sein eigner Fussball’ (1919), 'Der Dada' (1919-20) and 'Dadaco' (1920) [announced in 'Der Dada' in June 1919 as an ambitious collection of Dada poems, essays, collages and drawings, promoted as a 'Dadaistischer Handatlas', to be edited by Richard Hülsenbeck but never published].
Hülsenbeck became the organiser, promoter, and historian of Dada, delivering the 'Dada-Rede in Deutschland' (First Dada Speech in Germany) in January 1918 and participated in the First International Dada Fair [International Erste Dada-Messe], held in Berlin, June 5, 1920 at the gallery of Dr. Otto Burchard.
He also edited the 'Dada Almanach' (1920), wrote 'En Avant Dada' (1920), a history of Dadaism, and 'Deutschland Muss Untergehen! Erinnerungen Eines Alten Dadaistichen Revolutionärs’ (Germany Must Perish! Memories of an Old Dadaist Revolutionary; 1920), and contributed to numerous publications such as the Dadaist-Constructivist magazine 'G' (1923-26), and periodicals such as 'Die Pleite', 'Die Rosa Brille', 'Das Bordell', etc.
Throughout his Dada years, Hülsenbeck also continued his medical studies and began to practice in 1920. He also travelled widely as a ship's doctor, which led to his writing a series of popular travel books: ‘Afrika in Sicht’ (Africa Came into View; 1928), 'Der Sprung nach Osten’ (Air in the East; 1928) and ‘China frißt Menschen’ (China eats People; 1930). Beginning in 1933, Hülsenbeck was repeatedly investigated by the Nazi authorities. Forbidden to write and in constant fear of imminent arrest, he finally obtained passage for himself and his wife Beate Wolff to the United States in 1936. By 1939 he was practicing medicine and psychiatry in Long Island, New York, under the name Charles R. Hulbeck. He also continued to write arts reviews and articles on cultural issues for the 'Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung' and the 'Neue Zürcher Zeitung', and contributing to numerous Dada revivals and exhibitions. In 1970 he returned and settled in Switzerland.
His works include 3 Dada novels 'Azteken oder die Knallbude' (Aztecs or the Blast Booth; 1918), 'Verwandlungen' (1918), and 'Doctor Billig am Ende' (Doctor Cheap at the End; 1921); the 'expatriate' novel [auswandererroman] 'Der Traum vom Großen Glück' (The Dream of Great Happiness; 1933), his last German publication; and poetry collections including 'Schalaben, Schalomai, Schalamezomai' (1916); 'Phantastische Gebete' (Fantastic Prayers; 1916), 'Die New Yorker Kantaten’ (The New York Cantatas; 1952), and 'Die Antwort der Tiefe' (The Response of Depth; 1954). In 1959 he also published 'Sexualität und Persönlichkeit' (Sexuality and Personality). His two memoirs 'Mit Witz, Licht und Grütze' (With Wits, Light and Grits; 1957) and 'Memoirs of a Dada Drummer' (1969) offer reminiscences of his Dada experiences.

"The cows sit on the telegraph poles and play chess
The cockatoo under the skirts of the Spanish dancer
Sings as sadly as a headquaters bugler and the cannon lament all day
That is the lavender landscape Herr Mayer was talking about
when he lost his eye
Only the fire department can drive the nightmare from the drawing-
room bur all the hoses are broken
Ah yes Sonya they all take the celluloid doll for a changeling
and shout: God save the King
The whole Monist Club is gathered on the steamship Meyerbeer
But only the pilot has any conception of high C
I pull the anatomical atlas out of my toe
a serious study begins
Have you seen the fish that have been standing in front of the
opera in cutaways
for the last two days and nights...?
Ah ah ye great devils - ah ah ye keepers of bees and commandments
With a bow wow wow with a bow woe woe who does today not know
what our Father Homer wrote
I hold peace and war in my toga but I'll take a cherry flip
Today nobody knows whether he was tomorrow
They beat time with a coffin lid
If somebody had the nerve to rip the tail feathers
out of the trolley car it's a great age
The professors of zoology gather in the medows
With the palms of their hands they turn back the rainbows
the great magician sats the tomatoes on his forehead
Again thou hauntest castle and grounds
The roebuck whistles the stallion bounds
(And this is how the world is this is all that's ahead of us)."

'The End Of The World' (1916)


1910 - José Sampériz Janina (d. 1941), Spanish journalist, writer and anarchist sympathiser, born in Candasnos, Huesca. His family moved to Cuba in 1925 but returned to Spain in 1932 due to the repression during the dictatorship of Gerardo Machado y Morales. There he became involved in anarchist and intellectual circles, publishing several novels including 'El Sacrílego' (The Sacrilegious; 1931) and 'Candasnos' (1933), and essays, in 'Hitos Ibéricos' (Iberian Milestones; 1935). [expand]
During the Civil War he collaborated on several libertarian newspapers including 'Acracia', 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Orientacion Social', 'Surcos', etc., defending the collectivisation process. In 1937, with his brother Cosme, he went over to communism, affiliating to the Aragonese Federation of the Federació de Treballadors de l'Ensenyament (FETE), part of the Unió General de Treballadors (UGT). A refuge in France during the Retirada, it appears that he was probably sent with the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers to work on the fortifications of the Maginot Line. Taken prisoner by the Germans and deported and died in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp on September 26, 1941.

1922 - 'Boy' Segundo Jorge Adelberto Ecury (d. 1944), Dutch communist and Resistance fighter in WWII, who was a member of the Oisterwijk Raad van Verzet (Oisterwijk Resistance Council), born on the island Arruba in the Dutch Antillies.

1968 - Following Enoch Powell's 'Rivers of Blood' speech, and on the same day that the Race Relations Bill is being debated in the House of Commons, a thousand workers - mainly dockers (some of the 1,000 who failed to turn up to work that day at the West India Dock in Poplar, together with some meat porters from Smithfield Market and building workers - march on Westminster protesting against the "victimisation" of Powell, with slogans including "Back Britain not Black Britain". Those on the left are surprised by the strength of pro-Powell sentiment across the country, including torrow's protests at Smithfield and other mass demonstrations of working class support, much of it from trade unionists, in London and Wolverhampton. However, only 1,000 of the 23,000 workers in the capital joined that protest and many of those were from St. Katherine's Dock, where a small group of fascists who normally had no influence exploited the opportunity to agitate and stir up fears over job losses. [PR]

[C] 1977 - Battle of Wood Green: A 1,200-strong National Front march through Wood Green is opposed by some 3,000 anti-racists, members of Haringey Labour Party, the Indian Workers’ Association, local West Indians, trade unionists, and members of Rock Against Racism and the Socialist Workers’ Party. While Communists and churchmen addressed a rally at one end of Duckett’s Common, a contingent of anti-fascists organized by the SWP broke away and subjected the NF column to a barrage of smoke bombs, eggs and rotten fruit. Some 81 people were arrested, including 74 anti-fascists. But, in spite of the numbers arrested, they managed to reduce the NF to "an ill-organised and bedraggled queue", in large part because the police were outnumbered and allowed the anti-fascists to get up close and personal with the NF.

1979 - Southall, the NF and a full-scale police riot. Following the announcement by the National Front that they would be holding an election meeting in Southall on St. George's Day, and a number of failed attempts to get the meeting banned, local workplaces, including Ford Langley, SunBlest bakery, Walls pie factory and Quaker Oats, which had agreed to strike in protest against the Front, local shops and public transport, had all closed down by 1pm as people began to block the road from lunchtime onwards.
1-2pm: young Asians started to fight the skinheads, and the police responded by attacking the Asians.
By 3.30pm, the entire town centre was closed, and the police declared it a 'sterile' area, meaning that it was free of anti-racists. Rain had begun to fall in buckets, further dampening the mood.
By this time, 60 NF members had assembled on the outskirts of the area ready to be escorted into the meeting. Protecting them were 2,756 police officers, including the SPG, plus the usual contingent of horses, dogs, vans, riot shields and a helicopter.
6pm: The police use the horses, as well as dribving vans into the crowd, to push back the protesters. Snatch squads are deployed to deplete anti-fascist numbers. The protesters respond with bricks and whatever came to hand. Chaos ensues.
As the tiny group of NF members arrive at the town hall, some of them raise their arms in Heil Hitler salutes.
Around this time, the police decide to close down the 'Peoples Unite' building, which anti-fascist demonstrators are using as their makeshift headquarters. Those inside are given ten minutes to leave. Police officers, form up along the stairs, beat people as they try to leave. Tariq Ali, one of those in the building, exits bleeding from his head. Clarence Baker, the pacifist manger of Misty in Roots, is beaten so badly that he lapses into a coma. Police smash medical equipment, a sound system, printing and other items that end up having to be dumped as unrepairable, and the damage to the building is so bad that that Peoples Unite has to be closed down.
All told, more than 160 people, including 97 police, were injured as a result of the police riot. 750 anti-fascists were arrested, of whom 342 were charged. At least three protesters suffered fractured skulls. Others were beaten until they lost consciousness. One person, Blair Peach, died from a blow to the head from a SPG truncheon.
Widespread accounts of police beating and racially abusing people appear in the media. A reporter from the Daily Telegraph witnessed: "several dozen crying, screaming coloured demonstrators ... dragged bodily along Park View Road towards the police station ... Nearly every demonstrator we saw had blood flowing from some sort of injury; some were doubled up with pain. Women and men were crying."
Jack Dromey, then a full-time official of the Transport and General Workers' Union, would tell a later inquiry, "I have never seen such unrestrained violence against demonstrators ... The Special Patrol Group were just running wild."

[A] 1979 - Clement Blair Peach (b. 1946), a New Zealand-born teacher for special needs children in east London and committed anti-racism activist, is murdered by the Special Patrol Group as he sought to escape from the fighting at an anti-fascist demonstration against the National Front in Southall, London. His death took place at around 8.30pm on Beachcroft Avenue, a narrow suburban road. Peach was attempting to shelter from the police when struck and was sheltered by a family opposite where he fell, not realising that Blair was already dying.
As the police chased demonstrators into side roads, local resident Parminder Atwal saw from the front of his house what happened to the young bearded man whom he later learned was a New Zealander called Blair Peach: "As the police rushed past him, one of them hit him on the head with the stick. I was in my garden and I saw this quite clearly. He was left sitting against the wall. He tried to get up, but he was shivering and looked very strange. He couldn't stand. Then the police came back and told him like this, "Move! Come on, move!" They were very rough with him and I was shocked because it was clear he was seriously hurt."
The SPG serial involved in his death was from carrier U.11: Constables Murray, White, Lake, Freestone, Scottow and Richardson. When the lockers of their unit were searched in June 1979, one officer Greville Bint was discovered to have in his lockers Nazi regalia, bayonets and leather covered sticks. Other unauthorised weapons including illegal truncheons, knives, two crowbars, a whip, a 3ft wooden stave and a lead-weighted leather stick. No disciplinary action was taken against any officers for these items. All the officers refused to cooperate with the subsequent Cass internal inquiry, to take part in any identity oarades and some even changed their apperence, shaving off a moustace in one instance and grwoing a beard in another, and no officer was ever prosecuted in connection with Peach's death.

2014 - White suprematist killer Joey Pedersen pleads guilty to two counts of carjacking resulting in death — one for the death of teenager Cody Myers on the Oregon Coast and the other for the killing of Reginald Clark in Eureka, California. Pedersen will be sentenced to life in prison at an Aug. 4 hearing in federal court. He is already serving life for the murder of his father David 'Red' Pedersen and Leslie 'Dee Dee' Pedersen, his step mother. [see: Sep. 26/Oct. 1 & 3]
1878 - Marie Mayoux (nee Gouranchat) (d. 1969); known as Joséphine Bourgon, teacher, militant revolutionary, pacifist and libertarian trade unionist, born. Partner of François Mayoux and mother of Jehan Mayoux. Marie and François joined the socialist SFIO in 1915, earning places in the 'Carnet B'. They were heavily fined and sentenced to 2 years in prison for the pacifist pamphlet 'Les Instituteurs Syndicalistes et la Guerre' (The Teachers Union and War) in 1917 and were excluded from the French Communist party in 1922 during the purge of syndicalists. Both participated in the anarchist press including 'La Revue Anarchiste', 'La Voix Libertaire', 'CQFD', 'Défense de l'Homme', 'Le Monde Libertaire', etc. Excluded from the CGTU in 1929, they went on to support the Spanish Revolution and denounced the Stalinist repression.

1884 - Pierre Marie Le Meillour (d. 1954), French boilermaker, printworker, anarchist, anti-militarist and revolutionary syndicalist, born. [expand]

[C] 1908 - George Oppen (d. 1984), American Objectivist poet and political activist, born. In 1933 Oppen set up the Objectivist Press together with fellow poets William Carlos Williams, Louis Zukofsky and Charles Reznikoff. However, faced with the aftermath of the Depression and the rise of fascism, he became increasingly politically active and though closer to anarcho-communism in his political outlook, joined the CPUSA. But, disillusioned with the CPUSA and, despite having been deferred from military service because he worked in the defence industry, wanting to be active in the fight against fascism (something he thought the CP were not), he quit his job and was drafted, fighting in France and helping liberate the concentration camp at Landsberg am Lech. After the war, he moved to Mexico, fearing being called before HUAC, and was kept under surveillance by the Mexican authorities and the FBI. He returned to the US in 1958 and resumed writing poetry.

1955 - Alfred Polgar (originally: Alfred Polak; b. 1873), Austrian-born journalist, short story writer, screenwriter, satirist, translator, essayist, dies. [see: Oct. 17]

1957 - Juan Fernández Ayala aka Juanín (b. 1917), Spanish miliciano and anti-Francoist guérilla, is shot dead in an ambush near the Vega de Liebana (Santander) by Guardia Civil corporal Leopoldo Rollan Arenales and guard Angel Agüeros Rodríguez de Cabarceno. [see: Nov. 27]

[B] 1963 - Tõnu Trubetsky aka Tony Blackplait, Estonian punk rock singer, film and music video director, journalist, poet, novelist and anarchist, born.

1967 - Jacques Brunius (b. 1906), French actor, director, writer, poet, anarchist and Surrealist, dies. [see: Sep. 16]

1968 - Enoch Powell's 'Rivers of Blood' speech: 400 meat porters from Smithfield Market march to the House of Commons to protest against the dismissal of Enoch Powell from the Shadow Cabinet and hand in a 92-page petition in support of Powell. At St. Katherine's Dock, a strike vote has just 300 in support of Powell. However, 500 walk off the job there and on the London Dock, plus 150 at 2 wharfs at Deptford. [see above]

1976 - National Front march organised through the centre of Manningham, the main Asian area in Bradford. Police vans were overturned 24 people are arrested in pitched battles as the police struggle to stop counter-demonstrators, who had chosen not to attend the main counter-rally in the centre of Bradford, harrying the NF march and reaching the school where the end-of-march meeting was held. Thousands of asian youths from the area also took part in the anti-NF actions, labelled 'The Battle of Bradford' in the local papers, throwing up barricades, fighting their way through police lines and hurling bricks at the school windows. The events are seen as an early catAlyst for the formation of the Asian Youth Movement the following year.

1979 - 200 ANL supporters, led by local anarchist Graham Short, occupy Coburg Street school hall, booked by the NF for a pre-general election address from John Tyndall, preventing the NF meeting. "The move was well planned and the anti-nazis got in early and set up an outside picket. Socialists, trades unionists, revolutionaries, students, working class people, "punks with their banner, ‘Never Mind the Bollocks - Stop The National Front’." The NF sent the police in to clear the ANL out. Nothing doing! People sat down ‘we’re not going’. Eventually the police gave up, the NF disappeared, John Tyndall had his car damaged as he got away in a hurry. The rest of the evening at the school hall turned into an anti-nazi party, with piano player, beer and political discussion." ['An Anarchist Bricklayer in Plymouth']

1999 - Nail bomb (planted by a fascist) explodes in Brick Lane, injuring thirteen.

2011 - March for England: "This year saw the first significant counter-mobilisation by anti-fascists to the MfE as by then it was seen as a front group for the then expanding EDL. Unite against Fascism (UAF) staged a counter demonstration against the MfE, taking the form of a rally opposite the King and Queen pub on the Old Steine, the end point of the march. Other non-aligned anti-fascists actually joined the MfE, by taking them at their word as being anti-racists and joining their parade to announce why. They were roundly condemned by the MfE on the day and received a great deal of abuse for handing out an 'England For All' leaflet celebrating a different kind of pride in Englishness. One MfE marcher, Ryan Williams from Dorset plead guilty to assault (in October 2010) following an incident on this march." [Brighton Anti-fascists blog]
"Trust the fash to screw the sunniest bank holiday weekend in Brighton in years. Around 100 of the March for England’s finest shambled their pot-bellied way through town on Sunday. In the event they needed a mass mobilisation of 350 cops from six forces to force their march through town.
For weeks March for England had been claiming to be nothing to do with the EDL, but of course on the day, inside their mobile kettle, out came the flags and up went the chant of "E,E,EDL".
Passers-by were subjected to racist and homophobic abuse, but the march was protected throughout by the cops, who held the counter-demo in a kettle.
The not St George’s Day march by the not EDL was, for a family event, remarkably short of kids. A hilarious attempt to liberalise their image by carrying a rainbow flag foundered after the mob began chanting "You lot take it up the arse!" The march was interrupted by anti-fascist demonstrations throughout the day and the MFE didn’t quite get the stroll in the sunshine they may have been hoping for." [' Schnews ' 769]
1920 - Silvano Fedi (d. 1944), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist partisan, born. Already an active anti-fascist, he was arrested on October 12, 1939, along with Fabio Fondi, Giovanni La Loggia and Carlo Giovanelli, by the secret police OVRA, and they were sentenced by a Special Tribunal to a year in prison for communist activity i.e. organising an anti-fascist group. Upon his release from prison, he now identified himself as a libertarian communist and returned to the anti-fascist strugglein his home town, Pistoia. His contact with the older anarchist generation led to the formation of the Federazione Comunista Libertaria, and a growing confrontation with the underground Communist Party. Fedi was again arrested by the police in January 1942. With the fall of fascism and the armistice of Italy with the Allies, he was among the first to go to the main piazza (square) and address the crowds. On the 26th July 1943 he was addressing a factory gate meeting at the San Giorgio factory and called on the workers to strike. He was arrested by the police of Marshal Badoglio. On hearing of his arrest, a large crowd gathered outside the Palace of Justice and demanded his release. The authorities were forced to free him a few hours later. Fedi now set up the most important partisan unit in the Pistoia area. Formed mostly of anarchist or libertarian-inluenced peasants, workers, students and ex-soldiers, it carried out several spectacular actions, including raiding the fascist arms dump at the Santa Barbera Fortress three times. He also attacked the Ville Sbertoli prison, freeing 54 mostly political prisoners. Fedi planned to continue the armed resistance after the Anglo-American forces arrived, but his plans were cut short when he was caught in a German ambush on July 29, 1944 and shot. He remains a local hero to this day.

1937 - Emma Goldman organises a concert at Victoria Palace in aid of Spanish refugees with Paul Robeson on the bill. An artistic success, it fails to raise as much money as hoped.

[B] 1938 - George Orwell's 'Homage to Catalonia' first published.

1949 - Jankel Adler (b. 1895), Polish painter, printmaker and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 26]

1959 - Georges Cochon (b. 1879), French tapestry maker, anarchist and very popular secretary of the 'Federation of Tenants' (ancestor of the DAL), dies. [see: Mar. 26]

1968 - Enoch Powell's 'Rivers of Blood' speech: 500 dockers absent from the riverside wharves in the Upper and Lower Pools (Southwark and Bermondsey). [see above]

[C] 1974 - The beginning of the Carnation Revolution and fall of the dictatorship in Portugal.

1977 - Albert Perrier (or Perier), aka Germinal, (b. 1897), French militant revolutionary syndicalist and resistance fighter, dies. [see: Aug. 7]

1979 - More than 4,000 officers, including Special Branch, SPG and mounted police, are deployed against an anti-fascist protest in Newham.

1997 - Goldy Parin-Matthèy (b. 1911), Swiss psychoanalyst and anarchist, dies. [see: May 30]

2010 - March for England: the nationalist event - a St.George's day celebration cum nationalist pissup by the seaside - first staged in Brighton in 2008, but which largely went unnotcied until this year, takes place with nearly 200 boneheads celebrate some long-dead Greek Christian born in Palestine. There are a few skirmishes with anti-fascists but things would change in future years.
1885 - Carl (Karl) Einstein (d. 1940), German poet, experimental prose writer, Dadaist, art historian, theorist of Expressionist poetics, art critic and theorist who was one of the first to champion Cubism, and nephew of Albert Einstein, born. Amongst his numerous achievements are his début anti-novel 'Bebuquin oder die Dilettanten des Wunders' (1912), first published in 'Die Aktion', on which he worked, along with 'Die Pleite' and 'Der Blutige Ernst' and his 1921 passion play 'Die Schlimme Botschaft' (The Sad Tidings) was deemed blasphemous (he had placed revolutionary ideas in mouth of his Jesus) and resulted in a conviction for blasphemy in 1922, with a 15,000 marks fine. Fearing further repression with the rise of the Nazis, he moved to Paris in 1928, and a year later he co-founded with Georges Bataille and Michel Leiris the legendary avant-garde arts journal 'Documents: Doctrines, Archéologie, Beaux-arts, Ethnographie', covering then unknowns such as Picasso, Braque, Léger and André Masson. He also co-scripted the 1935 film 'Toni', with director Jean Renoir, assisted by Luchino Visconti, one of the founding members of the neo-realist movement. The film, made at the height of Renoir's career, is notable for its use of non-professional actors and is also generally considered the major precursor to the Italian neorealist movement. Einstein was an anarchist combatant in the Spanish Revolution of 1936, with the famed Durruti Column, and committed suicide to prevent his capture by the Nazis.

1934 - Ex-ILP member and one-time Labour MP for Gateshead, John Beckett, who was once suspended from the House of Commons for removing the mace, and later joined the British Union of Fascists attempts to speak at a BUF meeting at the Corn Exchange in Plymouth. A full-scale riot breaks out involving up to 100 people weilding broken chairs. When Beckett tries to leave the sage to join in, he is felled by a rugby tackle and his head repeatedly bounced off the floor. Three men and one woman are taken to hospital and polcie eventually restore order. [BF]

1936 - Mosley succeeds in holding a meeting at the Pontypridd Town Hall, protected by 300 police. A counter-demonstration was organised by the Pontypridd Trades and Labour Council, the local Communist Party and the Cambrian Combine Committee. "Allegations by Lewis Jones that Mosley had dined the night before with Colonel Lionel Lindsay, the Chief Constable of Glamorgan, at the house of Lady Rhondda, daughter of D.A.Thomas, architect of the Cambrian Coal Combine, injected into the already tense atmosphere an air of credibility to the theory of a conspiracy between the police, the fascists and the coalowners."

[AA/C] 1937 - The bombing of Guernica by German and Italian planes during the Spanish Civil War.

1968 - John Heartfield (b. 1891), German anti-Fascist photomontage artist and propagandist, dies in East Berlin. [see: Apr. 26]

1968 - Enoch Powell's 'Rivers of Blood' speech: 4,400 dockers on strike at the Royal Group of docks in Newham, about sixty per cent of the registered labour force. [see above]

1972 - Bomb blast and fire at Tory HQ, Billericay, Essex. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1973 - André Respaut (b. 1898), Catalan author, resistance fighter, anarchist, survivor of Buchenwald, dies. Author of 'Buchenwald Terre Maudite' (Buchenwald Cursed Earth; 1946) and 'Sociologie Fédéraliste Libertaire' (1961).

[CCC] 1982 - Bradford 12: The 12's trial begins in Leeds Crown Court, where the 12 spring a surprise on the prosecution, claiming a defence of 'community self-defence'. "Yes, we made these petrol bombs, the young men said. We were forced to, to defend our communities from the threat of an invasion by the far-right National Front, against which we knew from previous experience there would be no police protection." [IRR website] The trial lasted 31 days and the jury returned an 11 to 1 verdict of not guilty. [see: Jul. 11]
[ of asian youth movement.pdf struggle of Asian workers in Britain.pdf]
1879 - Alberto Meschi (d. 1958), prominent Italian anarchist, syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. Emigrated to Argentina in 1905 but was expelled in 1909 due to his libertarian and trades union activities. Active in Italy until forced to leave for France in 1922 with the rise of Fascism. In 1936 Meschi fought in Spain in the Rosselli Column until to the fall of the Republic. He returned to France, where he was interned in a concentration camp until the end of 1943 when he returned to Italy, joining the resistance movement and heading the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale (National Liberation Committee) plus the Trade Union Headquarters of Carrara until 1947. For the next 20 years or so he worked on the anarchist trade union paper 'Il Cavatore' (The Quarryman).

1887 - Claude Le Maguet (known as Jean Salivas) (d. 1979), French poet, typographer, anarchist and militant pacifist, born. Placed in an orphanage at the age of six (directed by the anarchist Paul Robin), from the age of 16 he became a typographer. Deeply libertarian, he worked for the paper 'L'Anarchie', then in the community of Aiglemont founded by Fortuné Henry. Refusing military service, Le Mauet was forced into clandestine activity. He took refuge in Belgium for a while, then in Lille (where he was arrested and imprisoned for a month, his identity undiscovered) and finally in Geneva, Switzerland, and remained committed to his pacifist ideals when WWI was declared.
In 1916, he helped found the pacifist review 'Les Tablettes' with Albert Ledrappier and Frans Masereel, and contributed to various Swiss newspapers. Returning to France in 1939, he was imprisoned for a period in Lyon by the fascists, then went back to Switzerland, where he devoted himself until his death to his poetry.

[C] 1907 - Amir Sjarifuddin Harahap (or Amir Sjarifoeddin Harahap; d. 1948), Indonesian socialist politician and one of the Indonesian Republic's first leaders, who was a major leader of the Left during the Revolution, born. He was executed in 1948 by Indonesian Republican officers following his involvement in a Communist revolt. Amir led a group of younger Marxists in the establishment of Gerindo ('Indonesian People's Movement'), a radical co-operating party opposed to international fascism as its primary enemy, following the Soviet Union’s Dmitrov doctrine of the United Front. Sjarifuddin was the only prominent Indonesian politician next to Sutan Sjahrir to organize active resistance. The Japanese arrested Sjarifuddin in 1943 and he escaped execution only due to intervention from Sukarno. Following the Japanese surrender on 15 August 1945 and the proclamation of Indonesian independence two days later, he was appointed as Information Minister despite still being in prison. He then became, sucessively, Minister for Defence in November 1945 and Prime Minister in July 1947. In August 1948, the 1920s leader of the banned Indonesian Communist Party (Partai Komunis Indonesia; PKI), Musso, arrived in Yogyakarta from the Soviet Union and Amir admitted membership of the underground PKI since 1935 and his faction went over to Musso. Following a premature coup (the so-called Madiun Affair) launched on September 18, Amir and 300 rebel soldiers were captured by government forces on December 1 and, following the intervention of Dutch forces, the army killed Amir and fifty other leftist prisoners rather than risk their release.

1937 - Armed conflict between anarchist and Generalidad forces in Bellver de Cerdaña, April 27 & 28. Antonio Martin, the anarchist mayor of Puigcerdá, is shot dead.

[A] 1945 - Three anarchist editors (Phil Sansom, Vernon Richards and John Hewitson - Marie Louise Berneri is aquitted) of 'War Commentary' are jailed for nine months for 'incitement to disaffection'.

1945 - Benito Mussolini is intercepted in a convoy of lorries carrying German troops to the Swiss border, when one of the partisans of the 52nd Garibaldi brigade became suspicious about a man in the corner of the fifth truck. He was wearing glasses, wrapped in a greatcoat with his helmet pulled down. One of the Germans explained that he was a "drunken comrade". But the partisan remained dubious. Knowing that Italy's fascist dictator was attempting to flee the country, and the troop convoy had been given safe passage only on condition no Italians were hidden among the retreating soldiers, he called in Urbano Lazzaro the political commissar of his unit. "When I saw him," Urbano Lazzaro recalled, "I called out 'excellency'. But he didn't reply. I also shouted 'comrade'. Still nothing. So I got into the lorry. I went up to him and I said: 'Cavaliere (sir) Benito Mussolini'. It was as if I had given him an electric shock." [see: Nov. 4]

1949 - Didier Daeninckx, prolific French author of detective fiction, novelist, essayist, anti-fascist, one-time communist and latterly a libertarian, born to an anarchist father and communist mother. His works are resolutely politically and socially critical, which has resulted in him ending up embroiled in a number of controversies. His second novel 'Meurtres pour Mémoire' (Murder in Memoriam; 1984) about Nazi collaborators, appeared shortly before the Papon trial and 'Le Der des Ders' (A Very Profitable War; 1985) is set in the post-WWI Parisian anarchist militant milieu.

2014 - March for England: Hundreds of anti-fascists descended upon Brighton pier today to run the EDL boneheads out of town from their daytrip 'March for England' rally. Less than 150 nationalists, opposed by at least ten times that number of anti-fascists, were proected by more than 200 police including mounted cops and dogs. A number of fascists got a good kicking and 27 people are arrested.
1883 - Etta Federn (Marietta Federn; d. 1951), Austrian writer, translator, journalist, educator, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and member of Mujeres Libres, born. She also published under her married names Etta Federn-Kohlhaas and Etta Kirmsse, and the pseudonym Esperanza.

1889 - António de Oliveira Salazar (d. 1970), Portuguese professor and politician who founded the Estado Novo (New State) and served as its Prime Minister/dictator from 1932 to 1968, born.

1904 - Elisabeth Schumacher (née Hohenemser; d. 1942), German artist and resistance fighter in the Third Reich, who belonged to the Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, born. On September 12, 1942, she and her husband, the sculptor and staunch Communist Kurt Schumacher, were both arrested and on December 19, 1942, they were both was sentenced to death at the Reichskriegsgericht (Reich Military Tribunal) for "conspiracy to commit high treason", espionage, and other political crimes. Schumacher was beheaded on December 22, 1942 at Plötzensee Prison.

1912 - José Pellicer-Gandia (d. 1942), Valencian anarchist militant and syndicalist, a commander in Durruti's Iron Column during the Spanish Revolution, born.

1913 - Prudencio Iguacel Piedrafita (d. 1979), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist resistance fighter, born.

1944 - Katri Vala (Karin Alice Wadenström; b. 1901), Finnish teacher, modernist poet, translator, radical, pacifist and anti-Fascist, who was a central member of the literary group Tulenkantajat (Torchbearers), dies. [see: Sep. 12]

[A/CCC] 1945 - Benito Mussolini is shot and strung-up by partisans in the Piazzale Loreto, Milan.

[CC] 1945 - Rupprecht Gerngroß (1915 - 1996), one-time German lawyer, Captain in an interpreter company in Munich and leader of the Freiheitsaktion Bayern (Bavarian Freedom Initiative, a group of around 400 military and civilians who had decided to oppose the Nazis in the final months of the war), orders the occupation of radio transmitters in Schwabing-Freimann and Erding and he broadcast messages in multiple languages, encouraging soldiers to resist the Nazi regime. The group had been armed by Jürgen Wittenstein, a friend of the members of the Weiße Rose, who collected weapons from wounded soldiers at the Italian front, where he had volunteered to serve in order to escape the Gestapo.
In the final days of the war, when the order was issued to defend Munich to the last man by blowing up all bridges and using the Munich trams to form barricades, he decided to resist this order to prevent a complete destruction of the infrastructure of the city. The call for people to display white flags from their homes as a sign of surrender and claim that the Freiheitsaktion had taken control over Munich was sadly premature and led to other uprisings against the Nazis in the region, which were often brutally suppressed by the SS. However, the broadcast had triggered an uprising in Dachau where its prisoners were supposed to be sent on a death march south with their SS guards to be used as laborers in the Alpenfestung. The SS left in panic, abandoning the inmates who were liberated by the arriving US forces soon after. The action also saved much of the city of Munich from further destruction and the announcement of the end of the Nazis in Munich led many German soldiers to desert the lost cause and the US forces arriving in Munich on 30 April experienced virtually no resistance when taking the city.

[B] 1953 - Roberto Bolaño Ávalos (d. 2003), Chilean novelist, poet, one-time Trotskyist and latterly an anarchist, born. At the time his novel 'Los Detectives Salvajes' (The Savage Detectives; 1998) was published he was a Trotskyist and the novel parodied aspects of the movement.
"The problem is, once among the Trotskyites, I didn't like their clerical unanimity either, so I ended up being an anarchist. I was the only anarchist I knew and thank God, because otherwise I would have stopped being an anarchist. Unanimity pisses me off immensely. Whenever I realize that the whole world agrees on something, whenever I see that the whole world is cursing someone in chorus, something rises to the surface of my skin that makes me reject it."

1968 - 1,500 people marched to Downing Street chanting "Arrest Enoch Powell". as the march nears Parliament there is some fighting between marchers and Powell supporters.

1977 - First rally by Mothers of the Disappeared at Plaza de Mayo, Buenos Aires.

1979 - In 1979 at a National Front Election meeting held at Cronehills Primary School, West Bromwich, a number of missiles were thrown at police cordons the meeting broke up and arrests were made. 2,675 officers were deployed, 27 arrested.

[C] 1979 - Fifteen thousand people march in honour of Blair Peach past the spot where he died. Workers at SunBlest bakery raise £800 for Peach's widow.

1986 - Paul-Aloïse de Bock (b. 1898), Belgian novelist, poet and lawyer, dies. [see: Sep. 13]

1988 - Lucio Arroyo Fraile aka 'El Verdejo' and 'El tuerto Teruel' (b. 1904), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 22]
1891 - Albert de Jong (d. 1970), militant Dutch anarcho-syndicalist, anti-militarist, author and editor, born.

[B] 1896 - Walter Mehring (d. 1981), German-Jewish Expressionist poet and prose writer, anti-militarist and anarchist, who was one of the most prominent satirical authors in the Weimar Republic, born. Founding member of Berlin Dada. As a writer who during 20s and 30s wrote anti-Fascist literature, he caused scandals and rage in the Nazi party with his plays and chansons. When the Nazis came to power his books were burnt, he was prosecuted as a ''Jewish subversionist," stripped of his citizenship and imprisoned. After escaping an internment camp, he fled to the USA where he eventually got a citizenship. [expand]

1896 - Séverin Ferandel (d. 1978), French travel agency interpreter, anarchist militant, syndicalist, ran a radical bookstore, aided Spanish refugees, etc. while living in France and Mexico, born.

[C] 1907 - Bolesław Stein (d. 1969), Polish doctor, anarcho-syndicalist and WWII freedom fighter, born. In November 1926, he was a co-founder of the Organizacja Młodzieży Radykalnej (Organisation of Radical Youth) in Krakow. From November 1929 chairperson of ZPMD in Krakow. Expelled from University for political reasons. Continued his studies in Wilnus [Vilna] (nowadays Lithuania). Worked in Liga Samopomocy Gospodarczej (League of Economic Mutual Aid). Since 1936 chairman of District Council of Związku Związków Zawodowych (ZZZ; Union of Workers Unions) in Wilnus. In April 1938 stood up court accused of libelling Stanislaw Mackiewicz, editor of the conservative paper 'Słowo'. He was also penalized for publishing a leaflet and taking part in a strike. After his studies, worked in a military sanatorium in Rabka (southern Poland). On April 2, 1939, he became a member of Central Department of ZZZ. In 1939 mobilized in Vilna, but managed to get to Lviv (nowadays Ukraine) where he was co-initiator of anti-Soviet conspiracy Rewolucyjny Zwiazek Niepodległosci i Wolnosci (Revolutionary Union of Independence and Freedom) which included syndicalists, socialists and peasant movement activists. The organisation was crushed in January 1940. At the same time Boleslaw Stein organized the evacuation of children from the TB hospital in Rabka. During WWII member of ZWZ-AK. From 1940 lived in Krakow. As director of St. John of God Hospital, he provided help to soldiers of Armia Krajowa (AK; Home Army), Armia Ludowa (AL; People's Army), Jews, English pilots and others. After Warsaw Uprising he helped Warsaw fugitives. In 1945 he joined the Polska Partia Socjalistyczna (PPS; Polish Socialist Party) – after unification he stayed in Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza (PZPR; Polish Unified Workers Party – communist regime party). Died 21st October 1969 in Krakow.

1943 - Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: Having lost all its commanders, the remaining fighters of the the ŻZW escape the Ghetto through the Muranowski tunnel and relocated to the Michalin forest, marking the end of significant fighting as organised defence collapses.

2009 - Leonidas Christakis (Λεωνίδας_Χρηστάκης; b. 1928), Greek writer, painter, editor and anarchist, dies.
1865 - Max Nettlau (d. 1944), German anarchist, historian, bibliographer and philologist, born. Edited and financed 'The Anarchist Labour Leaf'. A member of the Freedom Group, Max also helped fund the 'Torch for Freedom'. His writings include 'Bibliographie de l'Anarchie' (1897), and 'Errico Malatesta: The Biography of an Anarchist' (1924).

[BB] 1883 - Luigi Russolo (d. 1947), Italian Futurist painter, composer and anarchist, born. The author of the manifesto 'L'Arte dei Rumori' (The Art of Noises; 1913), who designed and constructed his noise-generating devices or Intonarumori. Born into a very musical family, he seriously considered becoming a musician but moved to Milan and studied art at the Accademia di Brera. He joined the Famiglia Artistica di Milano group where he first met Carlo Carrà and Umberto Boccioni. At this stage he was interested mainly in Symbolist-influenced painting and engraving.
Russolo joined the Futurist movement at the beginning of 1910 and immediately became an activist, taking part in all the serata, or Futurist evenings, and other activities. He signed the 'Manifesto of the Futurist Painters' (1910) and the 'Technical Manifesto of Futurist Painting' (1910). Russolo was committed to being the movement's musical activist as well as a political activist. Like many others, Russolo supported the Anarchist movement and contributed to their journals. In 1913 he co-signed, with Marinetti, Boccioni and Carrà, the manifesto 'Political Programme of Futurism' that was published in 'Lacerba' on October 15. During 1914 he participated in the interventionist demonstrations and was arrested and imprisoned for six days with Marinetti, Boccioni, Carrà and Mazza. When Italy entered the First World War, Russolo joined the Lombard Volunteer Cyclist Battalion with many of his Futurist friends.
The first public performance of his Intonarumori noise machines took place at the Teatro dal Verme in Milan on April 21 1914 provoked a riot. So loud was the audience that the music was all but inaudible. Concerts followed that year at the Politeama Genovese in Genoa and at the London Coliseum. In 1921, after WWI, he presented three concerts in Paris (Théatre des Champs-Elysées) and, in 1922, the intonarumori provided a musical backdrop to Filippo Tommaso Marinetti's play 'Il Tamburo di Fuoco' (The Drums of Fire).
Due to his opposition to Fascism, Russolo spent most of his time between 1927 and 1932 in Paris. In 1931 he moved to Tarragona in Spain, where he studied occult philosophy and then in 1933 returned to Italy, settling in Cerro di Laveno on Lake Maggiore. Russolo published his philosophical investigations 'Al di là della Materia' (Beyond Matter) in 1938. In 1941-42, he took up painting again in a realist style that he called "classic-modern". Russolo died at Cerro di Lavenio in 1947.

1894 - Raymond Lachèvre (d. 1976), French militant anti-militarist, anarchist and syndicalist, born.

1930 - Felix Guattari (d. 1992), French radical anti-psychiatrist, anti-capitalist, born.

[B] 1936 - Antonio Artero Coduras (d. 2004), Spanish libertarian filmmaker and essayist, is born to an anarchist mother held in Zaragoza prison.

1939 - Chief Inspector of the Hospitalet police in Spain is killed by the anti-fascist urban guerilla Pallarés group.

1943 - 2,000 Jews being deported from Wlodawa to Sobibor Death Camp attack the death camp's SS guards upon arrival at the unloading ramp. All of the Jews are killed on the spot by the SS guards using machine guns and grenades.

1945 - Adolph tops himself.

1966 - Spanish ecclesiastic adviser to the Vatican, the prelate Marcos Ussia, is kidnapped by the anarchist 1st May Group. The action was explained by Luis A. Edo, demanding the release of all political prisoners of Franco's jails. This action was mainly symbolic, designed to bring international attention to the plight of Spanish anarquistas and other victims of the repression in fascist Spain. Ussia was released on May 11, in good health.

1976 - Gaetano Amoroso (b. 1955), Italian draftsman and student-worker, attending evening classes at an Art School that now bears his name, dies in Milan of stab wounds inflicted by a gang of neo-fascists. A member of the Vento Rosso and Partito Comunista Italiano (Marxista Leninista), he and other comrades of the Comitato Rivoluzionario Antifascista di Porta Venezia (Revolutionary Anti-Fascist Committee of Porta Venezia) are ambushed by a group of well-known MSI squadristi (Cavallini, Folli, Cagnani, Pietropaolo, Terenghi, Croce, Frascini, Forcati) on the evening of April 27, 1976. Gaetano and 2 of his comrades suffer knife wounds and 8 of the fascists are arrested within hours. Gaetano Amoroso died from his injuries 3 days later.

1978 - 100,000 people marched six miles from Trafalgar Square via the Strand, Fleet Street and Shoreditch to Bethnal Green in the East End of London, where the first Rock Against Racism/ANL Carnival is held in Victoria Park, East London. The Clash, Tom Robinson, Steel Pulse, X-Ray Spex and others played to an audience of at least 80,000 people.

1979 - More than 1,000 officers are deployed against an anti-fascist protesters outside a NF election meeting in Bradford.

1990 - Jean Jérôme (Michał Feintuch; b. 1906), Polish-born French Communist activist, Jew and Résistance member, who helped organise shipments of weapons to Republican Spain and aid for Republican refugees post-defeat, dies. [see: Mar. 12]

[C] 1999 - The Admiral Duncan pub in Soho is targeted by neo-Nazi nail bomber David Copeland. Three people are killed and 79 are injured, four loosing limbs.
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)