1916 - Karl Liebknecht is arrested following a Spartacist organised demonstration in Berlin against the war.

1916 - Célestino Alfonso (d. 1944), Spanish carpenter, Communist, Republican fighter, volunteer in the French liberation army FTP-MOI, and member of the Groupe Manouchian, born. He participated in many FTP-MOI operations in Paris and in the Orléans region, notably the execution of General Ernst Von Schaumburg, commandant of Greater Paris, and on September 29, 1943, of SS Colonel Julius Ritter, responsible for the Service du Travail Obligatoire (STO) in France. Alfonso was arrested in October 1943, and he was shot at the Fort Mont-Valérien on February 21, 1944, along with 21 other members of the FTP-MOI.

[C] 1925 - The 'Manifesto degli Intellettuali Antifascisti' (Manifesto of the Anti-Fascist Intellectuals), a response to the 'Manifesto degli Intellettuali Fascisti' (Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals) by Giovanni Gentile, is published on the front page of 'Il Mondo' on May 1st, Workers' Day, symbolically responding to the publication of the Fascist manifesto in the 'Natale di Roma' (Birth of Rome), the founding of Rome, celebrated on April 21. Written by Benedetto Croce upon the suggestion of the well known anti-fascist and owner of 'Il Mondo', Giovanni Amendola, who would later become a victim of Blackshirt violence, dying from his injuries. The paper also published three lists of prominent supporters of the manifesto, first on May 1 and then longer lists on May 10 and May 22, attracting more than 90 prominent signatories.

1931 - In Barcelona, and against the background of rising social tensions, the CNT organise a demonstration. Amongst the delegates from the international anarchist movement are: Augustin Souchy (Germany), Ida Mett and Volin (Russia), Camillo Berneri (Italy), Helmut Rüdiger (Sweden), and Louis Lecoin and Pierre Odeon (France). A huge procession, estimated at more than 100,000 people, gathers to demand the radical reform of society by the new Republic. At 13 hours, the event is blocked by the Civil Guard. An officer advances, revolver drawn. Francisco Ascaso attempts to negotiate, but when the Civil Guard demands the immediate dissolution of the event, Ascaso disarms him with a punch. The disarmed officer returns to his men. Durruti, brandishing a red and black flag, exclaims "Passage to the FAI!" The crowd then invades Plaza de la Constitución, but when delegates try to enter the Palace to present their resolutions, shooting from the building causes panic and the first victims in ranks of demonstrators. Some groups of armed workers then retaliated with gunfire despite an appeal for calm Durruti (who is injured, as is Ascaso). A company of infantry, commanded by Captain Miranda, sides with the demonstrators, ending the confrontation.
Result: 1 dead and 15 wounded on the protesters, side, two dead and several wounded amongst the civil guards and Carabinieri.

1934 - British Union of Fascists supporters arrive to confront an Independent Labour Party (ILP) May Day meeting outside Gateshead Labour Exchange. The Blackshirts, who had been singing an Italian Fascist song, began chanting "M-O-S-L-E-Y" as they charged towards the ILPers, only to be scattered as the dole queue join the fray. Many of the fascists run for their lives, others plead for mercy and, according to 'World Labour News' [Vol. 3 no. 1, 1962]; "[I]t was all over in a few minutes and police reinforcements found only an alternative meeting, a re-formed queue and same unemployed men who looked a bit pinker than usual."

1936 - The fourth congress of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo is held in Zaragoza, Spain.

1936 - At Victoria Park Square, Bethnal Green, Mosley addresses the first in a series of public meetings planned across the East End. His tirade, from on top of a loudspeaker van before 400-500 fascists, lasts over an hour. 3,000 anti-fascists jeered throughout and, despite a large police presence, fight break out.

1937 - 60,000 people take part in a May Day demonstration and march in London that includes anarchists for the first time in 30 years. Under the auspices of the London Committee of the C.N.T.-FAI, Emma Goldman speaks at the conclusion of the march in Hyde Park.

1944 - British Squadron Leader Maurice Southgate, whose task it was to coordinate the various Marquis groups between the Loire River and the Pyrenees mountains, is arrested by the Gestapo in Paris, France.

1945 - Probable date of the death of Pierre-Jules Ruff (b. 1877), Algerian anarchist and anti-militarist, in the Neuengamme concentration camp crematorium the day before the camp was liberated by Allied forces. [see: Aug. 19]

1948 - A march by Oswald Mosley's Union Movement from Highbury Corner to Camden Town ends in fierce fighting outside Holloway prison as police curtail the march and Mosley gives the fascist salute to his 'troops' drawn up outside the prison where he was held during the war. However, the Labour Home Secretary, Chuter Ede, banned all political processions in east London for 3 months under the Public Order Act as Police feared potential public disorder. Instead he made his address at Hertford Road and told his followers to make their own way to Highbury Corner. With heavy rain falling, there were constant clashes between fascists and anti-fascists and when the former formed up at Highbury, mounted police and some of the 800 cops present pushed the anti-fascists into side streets. 32 people were arrested during the days events.
The same day, Mosley publicly launches the Union Movement in the Memorial Hall, Farringdon Street. The new organisation [see: Feb. 8] has now absorbed various groups led by ex-BUF members, including Jeffrey Hamm's British League of Ex-Servicemen and Women, Anthony Gannon's Imperial Defence League, Victor Burgess's Union of British Freedom and Horace Gowing and Tommy Moran's Sons of St George.

1971 - Mayday, a bomb explodes in the Biba boutique in trendy Kensington. It was accompanied by Angry Brigade Communique 8.

1973 - Asger Oluf Jorn (b. 1914), Danish painter, sculptor, ceramic artist, printmaker, author, founding member of the avant-garde movement COBRA and the Situationist International, dies. [see: Mar. 3]

1974 - Asian workers at the Imperial Typewriter Copdale Road factory go out on strike against unequal bonus payments and discrimination in promotion. The shop stewards committee and union branch refused their support [the NF attempted to support the TGWU and intimidate the strikers], but the strikers, supported by other black workers and Race Today, stayed on strike for almost 14 weeks. This Transport and General Workers' Union enquiry into the dispute criticised local union officials and instituted changes to ensure that shop stewards and the branch committee were more representative of local membership.
[ Papers in Ethnic Relations/PolicyP No.5.pdf]

1977 - State-sponsored paramilitary groups open fire on tens of thousands of May Day demonstrators in Istanbul, killing 37.

1978 - Sylvia Townsend Warner (b. 1893), English feminist and lesbian writer and poet, dies. Active in the CPGB and visited Spain during the Civil War as a Red Cross representative. [see: Dec. 6]

1979 - National Front election meeting is held in Caxton Hall, requiring 5,000 police to ensure that it can go ahead. The surrounding area is sealed off all day.

1983 - Adriano Botelho (d. 1892), Portuguese anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist militant, dies. [see: Sep. 12]

1996 - Three killed and 69 injured when Turkish police attack banned leftist demonstrators in a 100,000 person May Day rally. Istanbul.

2008 - Frédéric H. Fajardie (b. 1947), French libertarian writer of detective, adventure and 'neo-thriller' fiction, screenplays, film dialogue and radio plays, dies. [see: Aug. 28]

2011 - A 10-year-old American boy shoots his father, Jeffrey R. Hall, a leader of the National Socialist Movement, in the head, killing him. At his trial he claimed that he was "tired of his dad hitting him and his mom", and that he was afraid he'd have to choose between living with father or stepmother when they divorced. In October 2013, he was sentenced to serve at least seven years in state juvenile prison.

2011 - Anna Heilman, born Hana Wajcblum [poss. Hanka or Chana Weissman] (b. 1928), Polish Jew who took part in the Auschwitz Sonderkommando prisoner revolt of October 7, 1944, smuggling gunpowder out of the Union munitions factory with her sister Estusia, Roza Robota, Ala Gertner, Rose Grunapfel Meth and others, dies. [see: Dec. 1]
1883 - Otto Weidt (d. 1947), German anarchist and pacifist, who ran a workshop in Berlin for the blind and deaf and fought to protect his Jewish workers against deportation during the Holocaust, born. As one of his customers was the Wehrmacht, Weidt managed to have his business classified as vital to the war effort. Up to 30 blind and deaf Jews were employed at his shop between the years of 1941 and 1943. When the Gestapo began to arrest and deport his Jewish employees, he fought to secure their safety by falsifying documents, bribing officers and hiding them in the back of his shop. Though Weidt, forewarned, kept his shop closed on the day of the Fabrikaktion in February 1943, many of his employees were still deported. After the war, Otto Weidt established an orphanage for survivors of the concentration camps. He died of heart failure only 2 years later, in 1947. On September 7, 1971, Yad Vashem recognized Weidt as a Righteous Man of the World's Nations.

1921 - Paul Wulf (d. 1999), German anarchist and communist artist, anti-fascist victim of the Nazi regime's sterilization programmes, born. One-time member of the KPD and the Vereinigung der Verfolgten des Naziregimes (Association of Victims of the Nazi Regime; VVN). Known for his John Heartfield and Ernst Friedrich-inspired political collages and anti-fascist exhibitions. Strongly influenced by the writing of Erich Mühsam.

1921 - Roger Boussinot (d. 2001), French director, writer, screenwriter, critic, film historian and libertarian, who used the pseudonyms Emmanuel Le Lauraguais and Roger Mijema, born. Son of the anarchist teacher and Freinet member Jean Charles Boussinot. Author of the monumental 'Encyclopedia of Cinema' (1967); 'Les Mots de l'Anarchie: Dictionnaire des Idées, des Faits, des Actes, de l'Histoire et des Hommes Anarchistes' (Anarchist Words: Dictionary of Ideas, Facts, Actions, Histories and Anarchists; 1982); and of more than 20 novels, many of which have been dramatised, including: 'Le Sixième Sens' (The Sixth Sense; 1959), 'Les Guichets du Louvre' (The Louvre Ticket Offices; 1960 - adapted for the script to his 1974 anti-fascist film 'Les Guichets du Louvre' aka 'Black Thursday'), 'Le Treizième Caprice' (The Thirteenth Caprice; 1962 - also a 1967 Boussinot-directed film) and 'Vie et Mort de Jean Chalosse' (Life and Death of Jean Chalosse; 1976).

[C] 1933 - The Nazis abolish all labour unions: police units occupy all trades union offices, union officials and leaders are arrested and union funds appropriated.

1936 - The 'Sterilizers of Bordeaux' trial in France.

[A] 1936 - The first issue of 'Mujeres Libres', the official journal of "Cultura y Documentacion Social" for the MM.LL., is published in Spain. Created 2 months before the outbreak of the revolution, it will published exemplary texts animated by the revolutionary spirit then abroad in Spain.

1943 - In the Vilnius (Vilna) Ghetto, the Polish poet Hirsh Glik (1922 - 1944) sings his famous song 'Zog Nit Keynmol' for the first time to fellow poet Shmaryahu Kaczerginski. It quickly spread through the ghettos and camps, becoming a symbol of hope and defiance, and was adopted by Jewish partisans, sometimes being called the 'Song of the Partisans'.
Born into a poor family in 1922 in Vilnius, during the German occupation of Vilnius on June 26, 1941, Glik and his father were among those Jews arbitrarily seized and sent to work in the peat bogs at Biala-Waka and Rzesza. In early 1943 the Biala-Waka camp was liquidated and Glik was sent to the Vilnius Ghetto, where he joined the Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye (FPO; United Partisan Organisation). On 1 September 1943, the FPO unit to which Glik belonged was captured and he was deported to Estonia, initially to the camp at Narva, subsequently to that at Goldfilz. In summer 1944, together with eight other FPO men, Glik escaped from Goldfilz. The advancing Soviet Army was in the region and the intention was to join the local partisans. But Glik and all of his companions disappeared, probably captured and executed by German soldiers in the area.
[ Glick]

1967 - Ernst Friedrich (b. 1894), German anarchist pacifist founder of the Berlin Peace Museum, dies. [see: Feb. 25]
"Without social revolution there can be no lasting peace....We must prepare systematically an uprising against war." - 'War Against War' (1924).

1977 - 'Bloody Revolutions' c/c 'Persons Unknown', the joint Crass / Poison Girls single is released on Crass Records, "and sold 20,000 in the first week, with HMV destroying copies (which only helped)". The Crass side is the band's response to the anti-fascist action at the 'notorious' Conway Hall gig on September 8, 1979. The single raised £20,000 to fund the Wapping Autonomy Centre.

1991 - Paul Lapeyre (b. 1910), French anarchist, dies following a car accident. [see: May 28]
1890 - Alternative birth date [see: 23 February 1882) for enigmatic novelist, German anarchist revolutionary, B. Traven (d. 1969) aka Otto Feige, Albert Otto Max Wienecke, Berick Traven Torsvan, Hal Croves, Torsvan Croves, Ret Marut, Bent Traven.

1892 - Hugo Gellert (Gellért Hugó; d. 1985), Hungarian-born American artist, illustrator, muralist, socialist and anti-fascist, born. A committed radical, taught art classes at the Ferrer school after it had moved from New York to the anarchist colony at Stelton. He would later join the Communist Party of America.

[C] 1917 - María del Milagro Pérez Lacruz aka 'La Jabalina' (The Wild Sow)(d. 1942), Spanish anarchist and member of Juventudes Libertarias, who fought with the Iron Column, born. Following the defeat of the Revolution, and pregnant, she was arrested and eventually sentenced to death. On 9 January 1940 she gave birth, never to see her child again. She was shot by firing squad on August 8 1942 alongside 6 male comrades in Huerta Oeste, Valencia. Her life was the basis for the novel 'Si Me Llegas a Olvidar' (If I Get to Forget; 2013) by Rosana Corral-Márquez.

1919 - Traute Lafrenz, German-American physician and anthroposophist, who was a member of the White Rose anti-Nazi group during WWII, born.

1920 - Nazis officially change 'German Worker's Party' to 'National Socialist German Workers Party', recuperating both 'socialist' and 'worker' into an anti-workerist corporate ideology.

1937 - Three truckloads of Communist Guards commanded by Rodriguez Salas attempt to seize the worker-run Telephone Exchange in Barcelona. Armed resistance from the CNT workers on the upper floors thwarts this. Within a few hours, a host of armed bands has been formed and the first barricades erected. The mobilisation resolves into two sides: one made up of the CNT and the POUM, the other of the Generalidad, the PSUC, the ERC and Estat Català. Fighting spread to all parts of the city, lasting for four days. Stalinists denounce Trotskyite P.O.U.M. as "Franco's Fifth Column" in preparation for its own liquidation (assassinations, etc) of independent radicals and anarchists (similar to purges in Russia as well).

1955 - Rudolf Schlichter (b. 1890), German Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) artist, Dadaist, and member of the KPD, who helped for the Rote Gruppe alongside John Heartfield and George Grosz, dies. [see: Dec. 6]

1958 - Gérard de Lacaze-Duthiers (b. 1876), French individualist anarchist, friend of the arts, pacifist intellectual and originator of the slogan "Make your life a work of art", dies. A prolific author of over 40 books and pamphlets dealing with the arts, literature and pacifism, he founded the magazine 'L'Action d'Art' in 1913 with André Colomer and Manual Devaldès. [see: Jan. 26]

1974 - Spanish banker Balthasar Suarez kidnapped by the Groupes d'Action Révolutionnaire Internationaliste (GARI) in Paris in an action aimed at securing the release of 100 political prisoners in Spain (under the Franco government's own laws).

1981 - The Tory Party's Monday Club calls for the abolition of the Commission for Racial Equality, the repeal of all race relations legislation and the repatriation of 50,000 immigrants each year.

1983 - "Over 1,000 people turned out to protest outside a National Front pre-election rally in Tottenham, North London, on Tuesday 3 May. An equal number of police in riot gear clashed with the crowds who jeered and stoned the nazis as they arrived, resulting in 34 arrests and a number of nazis suffering head wounds." ['Searchlight', June 1983]

1984 - Albano Franchini (b. 1901), Italian anarchist-communist militant and resistance fighter, dies. [see: Aug. 23]

1990 - Karl Ibach (b. 1915), German communist member of the resistance against the Third Reich and later, a writer and politician, dies. [see: Apr. 3]
1871 - Mynona aka Salomo Friedlaender (d. 1946), German philosopher, author and anarchist individualist, associated with Expressionism and Dada, born. Mynona is an anagram of "anonym" (i.e., anonymous). A Stirneite, he claimed his philosophy as a "synthesis between Immanuel Kant and Charlie Chaplin". Close to amongst others Martin Buber, Alfred Kubin, Gustav Landauer, Else Lasker-Schüler, Erich Mühsam and Ludwig Rubiner, he was also associated artistically with Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Ludwig Meidner and Paul Scheerbart. Mynona also wrote for 'Die Aktion', 'Der Sturm', 'Die Neue Jugend' and 'Den Weißen Blättern' (The White Sheets). In 1919 he co-founded the Stirner-Bund with Anselm Ruest (Ernst Samuel) and its magazine 'Der Einzige'. His final work, 'Der Lachende Hiob' (The Laughing Job; 1935), was published in France after he had fled to Paris in 1933 fearing the posiblity of being picked up by the Gestapo and transported to Auschwitz. The novel, which is narrated by Jusua Zander, a Jewish mine owner Jusua Zander, is a grotesque satire on the Nazi ideology (lampooned as "Organotechnik" by Mynona). Zander faces down the brutality of the Nazis with laughter and his superior rationality: "Wer der Vernunft gehorcht, wird zum Gott der Erde." (Whoever obeys reason, is God of the Earth.)

1880 - Bruno Taut (Bruno Julius Florian Taut; d. 1938) German architect, urban planner and author of the Weimar period, born. He was also a social reformer, anarchist and anti-militarist, whose ideas, including his architectural work, were influenced by the ideas of Kropotkin and Landauer, especially the latter's 'Aufruf zum Sozialismus' (Call to Socialism; 1911), born. His 'Die Auflösung der Städt' (The Dissolution of the City; 1920) displays a clear affiliation with Kropotkinian communitarian ideas of community organisation.

1892 - Paulino Díez Martín (d. 1980), Spanish carpenter, anarcho-syndicalist and CNT militant, who spent frequent periods in jail because of his untiring activism, born. Following the Spanish Revolution he escaped to Panama, where he lived in exile until his death in 1980.

1897 - Giovannina Caleffi (d. 1962), Italian anarchist, propagandist and teacher, born. The wife of Camillo Berneri and mother of Marie Louise and Giliana Berneri. Involved in anti-fascist resistance during the Second World War and helping rebuild the Italian anarchist movement after it, publishing the underground anarchist paper 'La Rivoluzione Libertaria' in 1944 and then the paper 'Volontà' alongside Cesare Zaccaria. Founded the libertarian colony for children, the Colonia Maria Luisa Berneri, in memory of her daughter who dies in 1949.

[CC] 1912 - Elvi Aulikki Sinervo-Ryömä (d. 1986), Finnish working-class writer, novelist, poet, dramatist, translator, anti-fascist and post-war member of the Suomen Kommunistisessa Puolueessa (SKP; Communist Party of Finland), born. She joined the leftist cultural group Kiilaa (Wedge) in 1936, becoming its most important prose author, starting with her first work, 'Runo Söörnäisistä' (A Poem about Söörnäinen, 1937), a collection of short stories about working-class life in Helsinki. She would later described herself during this period as having been a "professional revolutionary" and, in 1941 during the so-called Continuation War (Jatkosota Käytiin, June 1941 - September 1944, when Finish and German forces jointly took part in the invasion of Russia following the end of the Talvisota (Winter War), when Russia invaded Finland), she was sentenced to four years in prison for participating in illegal anti-fascist activities.
All her work is expressly political in tone and content: 'Pilvet' (Clouds; 1944), a collection of poems, was written in part during her time in prison and depicts her experiences there; 'Viljami Vaihdokas' (Viljami the Changeling; 1946), which is considered Sinervo’s most significant work and the one most obviously in the anti-Fascist literary tradition, depicts the war between Finland and the Soviet Union as part of a worldwide struggle and the importance of collective action; the novel 'Toveri, älä Peta' (Comrade, Don’t Betray Me; 1947) is about a prisoner who accidentally betrays a fellow inmate and suffers the fate of being ostracised because of it; and, 'Vuorelle Nousu' (Climbing the Mountain, 1948), is a collection of short stories, about the experiences of those in the underground Communist movement in Finland.

1919 - Roger Paon (d. 2011), French socialist, then an anarchist and pacifist, born. Paon joined the Socialist Youth for a brief period in 1933, before turning to the libertarians, particularly the group l'Union Anarchiste de Rouen. He was also a member of the Ligue Internationale des Combattants de la paix, which aided in the resistance to the occupation during WWII. Paon lived in Nice following the war, collaborating on libertarian publications, publishing his own newspaper, 'L'ordre Social' (1950-1953). He was also active alongside Louis Lecoin in the campaign for the recognition of rights of conscientious objection.

1937 - Gun-battles throughout the night in Barcelona. Many barricades and violent clashes throughout the city.

1970 - American Embassy in London is fire-bombed. [Angry Brigade / 1st May Group chronology]

[C] 1978 - Altab Ali, a 25-year-old Bangladeshi textile worker, is murdered next to St Mary's Churchyard (near the corner of Adler Street and Whitechapel Road) in Whitechapel, London by three teenage boys as he walked home from work, in a racially motivated attack. The murder mobilises the Bangladeshi community, who go on to hold demonstrations in the area of Brick Lane against the National Front paper sellers in the area of Brick Lane, as well as forming sell-defence groups such as the Bangladesh Youth Movement.
1874 - Jean Marestan (born Gaston Havard) (d. 1951), Belgian anarchist, pacifist and militant néo-Malthusian, writer, born.

[C] 1882 - Sylvia Pankhurst (d. 1960), English suffragist, prominent left communist and anti-fascist, who was the leader of East London Federation, which sought to unite British labour and woman's suffrage movement, born.

1897 - Giovanna Berneri (nee Giovannina Caleffi) (d. 1962), Italian teacher, anarchist propagandist, companion of Camillo Berneri (murdered by the Communists in Spain on this day in 1937; see below), born. Mother of Marie Louise Berneri (1918-1949) and Giliana Berneri (a.k.a. Giliane; 1919-1998) — like their parents, also anarchists.

1903 - Pierre Odéon (aka Pierre Perrin) (d. 1978), French anarchist, anti-militarist, aided the Spanish Revolution, member of the Résistance, born.

1913 - Belgrado Pedrini (d. 1979), Italian writer, poet, anarchist and partisan, born. One evening in 1942, in a bar, Pedrini, with his comrades Giovanni Zava and Gino Giorgi, disarmed and beat up five fascists. Searched for by the authorities, they went to Milan where in November 1942, they were surprised by a police patrol whilst sticking up posters calling on Italians to rise up against the war. After a long shoot out during which one of the police died, the three managed to escape and get to Genoa and then La Spezia. Now on the wanted list of Mussolini’s secret police, the OVRA, and described in the daily 'I'l Popolo d’Italia' as dangerous "criminals and saboteurs of the armed resistance", Pedrini, Zava and Giorgi were surrounded by the police in a hotel there. Another shoot out began which lasted several hours and which ended with the arrest of the three anarchists, seriously wounded, and the death of a police officer. Taken to La Spezia jail, Belgrado was transferred in 1943 to the Massa prison, in preparation for a trial and a certain death by firing squad.
In June 1944, partisans of the Elio detachment carried out a spectacular action and managed to free the prisoners of the Massa jail. Belgrado then joined in the guerrilla struggle against the fascists and the Germans. He took part in much combat and in various acts of sabotage carried out by the partisan detachment. In May 1945 shortly after the Liberation, Pedrini was again arrested for the incident at La Spezia, and for other acts from this period which included the expropriation of marble industrialists at Carrara, Milan and La Spezia.
The magistrature turned a blind eye to the political and anti-fascist nature of these acts, preferring to see them as ordinary crimes and sentenced him in May 1949, to life imprisonment, which was then commuted to 30 years imprisonment. Continually transferred from one prison to another because of his escape attempts and the many prison revolts he had instigated, Pedrini avidly read all the classics of literature and philosophy. A brilliant autodidact, he wrote many poems in prison, among which 'Schiavi' (Slaves) – written in 1967 at Fossombrone – which, put to music, became celebrated within the anarchist movement under the title of 'Il Galeone'. He was finally let out of jail on the April 17, 1975, thanks to an intensive international campaign with a strong anarchist input.

'Il Galeone' (1967)

Siamo la ciurma anemica
d’una galera infame
su cui ratta la morte
miete per lenta fame.

Mai orizzonti limpidi
schiude la nostra aurora
e sulla tolda squallida
urla la scolta ognora.

I nostri dì si involano
fra fetide carene
siam magri smunti schiavi
stretti in ferro catene.

Sorge sul mar la luna
ruotan le stelle in cielo
ma sulle nostre luci
steso è un funereo velo.

Torme di schiavi adusti
chini a gemer sul remo
spezziam queste catene
o chini a remar morremo!

Cos’è gementi schiavi
questo remar remare?
Meglio morir tra i flutti
sul biancheggiar del mare.

Remiam finché la nave
si schianti sui frangenti
alte le rossonere
fra il sibilar dei venti!

E sia pietosa coltrice
l’onda spumosa e ria
ma sorga un dì sui martiri
il sol dell’anarchia.

Su schiavi all’armi all’armi!
L’onda gorgoglia e sale
tuoni baleni e fulmini
sul galeon fatale.

Su schiavi all’armi all’armi!
Pugnam col braccio forte!
Giuriam giuriam giustizia!
O libertà o morte!

Giuriam giuriam giustizia!
O libertà o morte!

(We're the crew aenemic,
of an infamous prison
on which the quick death
rages with slow hunger.

Never clear horizonts
unclenchs our dawn
and over the sleazy blanket
screams the guide every hour.

Our days fly
between stinky keels
we're thin, pallid, slaves
tied with iron chains.

The moon rises above the see
revolve the stars in the sky
but over our lights
lied a funeral veil.

Crew of waterless slaves
bent to suffer on the oar
broke these chains
or bent to row we'll die!

Suffering slaves
what is this rowing?
Better to die between the waves
on the whitening see.

We row until the ship
crashed the reefs
highs the black and reds
between winds hiss!

And be pitiful bed
the scummy and wicked wave
but rises a day over the martyrs
the sun of the anarchy.

Come now slaves to arms, to arms!
Fight with the strong arm!
Swear, swear justice!
Freedom or death!

Swear, swear justice!
Freedom or death!)


1921 - Fascists in Pisa attack and set fire to the printing works of the newspaper 'Avvenire Anarchico'.

1921 - Riccardo Siliprandi (pseudonym, Ariè), Italian militant antifascist and anarcho-syndicalist, is assassinated by a fascist squad in Luzzara, Italy.

[A] 1937 - Barcelona: 'May Days' erupt in Spain, as Communists attack anarchist strongholds. This evening, in Barcelona, the Italian anarchist theorist/activist Camillo Berneri and Francesco Barbieri are seized by the Communists, presumably on Moscow's orders (Stalinist purges). Their bodies are found tomorrow, riddled with bullets. Camillo's eldest daughter, Marie Louise Berneri, fighting on the front in Aragon, returns to Barcelona for her father's funeral.

1937 - Camillo Berneri (b. 1877), Italian anarchist and outspoken anti-communist, is among those murdered in the Stalinist purge of anarchists in Barcelona following the attempted takeover of the city's telephone exchange.

1937 - Francesco Barbieri (b. 1895), Italian antifascist and anarchist militant, is killed alongside Camillo Berneri in Barcelona by Stalinist militia.

1952 - Alberto Savinio (Andrea Francesco Alberto de Chirico; d. 1891), Italian writer, painter, musician, journalist, essayist, playwright, set designer, composer and Nietzchean-inspired "proto-anarchist" associated with Dada and Surrealism, dies. [see: Aug. 25]

1972 - Violent clashes between anti-fascist protesters and the police in Pisa. A young anarchist, Francesco Serantini, is beaten and arrested by police. He will succumb to his injuries on the morning of May 7.

1984 - Jacques Reclus (b. 1894), French anarchist nephew of Elisha and son of Paul Reclus, dies. [see: Feb. 3]
1905 - Kurt Schumacher (d. 1942), German sculptor, committed Communist and anti-Nazi resistance fighter with the Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, born. Married to the painter and graphic designer, Elisabeth Schumacher, they were both arrested, during which the Gestapo wrecked his studio and much of his artworks, and on December 19, 1942 they were both was sentenced to death at the Reichskriegsgericht (Reich Military Tribunal) for "conspiracy to commit high treason", espionage, and other political crimes. Schumacher was hung on December 22, 1942 at Plötzensee Prison.

1914 - Louis Mercier Vega (or Luis) (born Charles Cortvrint; pseud., Charles Riedel, Santiago Parane, etc.; d. 1977), Belgian journalist, activist, propagandist and libertarian thinker, who joined the movement at age 16, born. Lifelong writer for the libertarian press and founder of several reviews, including 'Revision' (1938), the trilingual 'Aporte' (1966-1972), 'Interrogations' (1974).

1923 - Paul Zilsel (d. 2006), US theoretical physicist, militant activist, anarchist and co-founder of Left Bank Books in Seattle, Washington, born in Vienna.

[C] 1923 - The British Fascisti (BF) is founded by Rotha Lintorn-Orman by placing a series of recruitment advertisements in the Duke of Northumberland's 'The Patriot', an ultra-conservative, hyper-nationalist, xenophobic, and conspiracy theory-touting publication. They were also involved in strike-breaking during the 1926 General Strike, though nowhere near the extent that there propaganda would have the general public believe.

1933 - Nazis raid the Institute for Sexual Science in Berlin, which doubles as headquarters of the Scientific Humanitarian Committee, a 36-year-old gay-rights organisation. All the archives, including priceless books, scientific data, photographs and manuscripts, are destroyed. The organisation ceases to exist. Nazis intensify the persecution by interning gays in concentration camps and forcing them to wear a pink triangle as identification.

1955 - Guérilla Francisco Sabaté and 4 others rob a bank; he robbed many, using the funds to finance their activities and distribute propaganda for the activist groups in Barcelona and adjoining towns and villages.

1990 - Lotte Jacobi (Johanna Alexandra Jacobi; b. 1896), German photographer and unalingned socialist, dies. [see: Aug. 17]

[B] 2012 - Pierre-Valentin Berthier (b. 1911), French individualist anarchist, peace activist, poet, novelist and journalist, dies. [see: Sep. 18]
[B] 1905 - Helios Gómez Rodríguez [INCORRECT see: May 27]

[C] 1929 - Nazi Brownshirts throw stink bombs during a performance of Kurt Weill's 'Die Dreigroschenoper' (The Three Penny Opera) in the Berlin State Opera.

1930 - Horst Bienek (d. 1990), dissident East German novelist and poet, born. A student of Bertolt Brecht, in 1951 he was arrested by the NKVD on charges of "anti-Soviet agitation", and allegedly spying for the United States, he was sentenced to 20 years hard labour in the Vorkuta gulag, an underground coal mine located above the Arctic Circle. Released as the result of an amnesty in 1955, he settled in West Germany. His books include: 'Traumbuch eines Gefangenen' (Dreambook of a Prisoner; 1957); 'Die Zelle' (The Cell; 1968), 'Bakunin: Eine Invention' (Bakunin: An Invention; 1970) and the WWII tetrology 'Gleiwitz. Eine oberschlesische Chronik in vier Romanen' (Gliwice. An Upper Silesian Chronicle in four novels): 'Die erste Polka' (The first Polka; 1975); 'Septemberlicht' (September Light; 1977); 'Zeit ohne Glocken' (Time without bells; 1979); and 'Erde und Feuer' (Earth and Fire; 1982).

1937 - Return to 'normalisation' in Barcelona. The Republican government had sent troops to take over the telephone exchange on May 3, pitting the anarchists and Poumists on one side against the Republican government and the Stalinist Communist Party on the other. Squads of Communist Party members took to the streets yesterday, to assassinate leading anarquistas, resulting in pitched street battles, leaving 500 anarchists killed.

1942 - Nazis order the execution of all pregnant Jewish women in Kovno (Kaunas) ghetto.

1943 - Procès des 42: The last 3 résistants sentenced to death are executed. [see: Jan. 28]

1948 - Lluís Llach i Grande, Catalonian musician, composer and songwriter, born. Repeated banned in Spain through the Franco years for his revolutionary and pro-Catalan cultural songs, he spent a number of periods abroad in exile. Wrote the music for the Manuel Huerga film, 'Salvador (Puig Antich)' (2006). He also wrote and dedicated the song 'I si Canto Trist' to Salvador Puig Antich one month after his execution.
"I am from an anarchist background and I find the idea of states difficult to swallow. I don’t see the state as solving problems; I see it as a problem in itself."
[ís_Llachís_Llach 4/civ 4 Llu%C3%ADs Llach.pdf]

1956 - A jury finds Wilhelm Reich and Michael Silvert guilty of contempt of court for defying an injunction banning the promulgation of some of his writings and the interstate shipment of orgone accumulators. Reich is sentenced to 2 years imprisonment. The FDA end up burning his books and Reich is found dead in the Lewisburg federal penitentiary on November 3 1957.

1972 - Franco (Francesco) Serantini (b. 1951), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, is found in a coma in his cell and dies at 09:45 after being severly beaten by riot police 2 days earlier. [see: May 6]

1976 - Ex-Klu Klux Klan and NSM member, and bodyguard to Colin Jordan, Robert Relf is imprisoned for denying a judge's order to remove a "For sale to a white family only" sign that he put up outside his house in Leamington Spa in 1973. He immediately goes on a what he claimed was a 'hunger strike' (though sympathetic prison guards fed him Complan) and was released after 45 days.

[AA] 1996 - Albert Meltzer (b. 1920), militant anarchist, boxer, bit actor, historian, author and publisher, dies. Co-founder, with Stuart Christie, of the Anarchist Black Cross, he helped found the Kate Sharpley Library. His best known works are his autobiography, 'I Couldn't Paint Golden Angels' (1996), 'Anarchism: Arguments For and Against' (1981) and 'The Floodgates of Anarchy' (1970; co-written with Stuart Christie).
1891 - Miguel Arcángel Roscigno (or Roscigna; d. 1936?), Argentinian blacksmith and celebrated anarchist expropriator, born into a family of Italian immigrants. He became interested in anarchist ideas during 1909 following the Semana Sangrienta / Semana Roja (Bloody or Red Week) in Buenos Aires and the subsequent assassination of Colonel Ramon L. Falcon by the Ukrainian anarchist Simón Radowitzky. [expand]

1898 - Ugo Fedeli (aka Hugo Treni, G. Renti, etc.; d. 1964), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist activist and propagandist, born. [see also: Mar. 10]

1937 - In Spain, the barricades are dismantled, except for the PSUC barricades, which persist into June. The Friends of Durruti distribute a manifesto reviewing the events of May. In that manifesto there is talk of "treachery" by the CNT leadership.

1937 - Creation of the International Antifascist Solidarity (S.I.A.) in Spain.

1938 - Higinio Carrocera Mortera (b. 1908), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist who played a prominent role in both the 1934 Asturias uprising and the Civil War, earning the title the hero of Mazucu in the latter, is amongst 30 Republicans executed by firing squad against a cemetery wall in Oviedo that day. [see: Jan. 3]

1943 - Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: The Germans discover a large dugout located at Miła 18 Street, which had served as ŻOB's main command post. Most of the organisation's remaining leadership and dozens of others had committed a mass suicide by ingesting cyanide. They included the chief commander of ŻOB, Mordechaj Anielewicz.

[AA] 1943 - Mordechai Anielewicz aka 'Aniołek' (Little Angel) (b. 1919), Polish Jew and anti-Nazi resistance fighter, who set up the militant underground organization Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Combat Organization), dies along with 120 fellow fighter, including his partner Mira Fuchrer, die in the ŻOB command post at 18 Miła Street. The fortified Anielewicza bunker had been surrounded by the Nazis after nearly 3 weeks of fighting in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, who has started to pump poisonous gas into it and those that had not already managed to escape via the sewers were either killed by the gas or committed suicide rather than face capture. Anielewicz's body was never found and is generally believed that it was carried off to nearby crematoria along with those of all the other Jewish dead.
Born into a poor Jewish family, he had joined the Zionist socialist youth group Hashomer Hatzair after high school. Following the German invasion of Poland, he fled east hoping to reach Palestine but ended up being arrested on the border to Romania by the Soviets. ended up in Vilnius, a popular meeting point for Eastern European Jews at the time. He joined Ha-Szomer Ha-Cair, another left-wing Zionist youth group, and returned to Warsaw to build up an underground organisation and publish the magazine Negeot Hazerem (Against the Current). He also began organising Blok Antyfaszystowski (Anti-Fascist Block) cells and soon joined the fledgling ŻOB, then weaponless. In November 1942, he was appointed the group's chief commander and ŻOB began recieving weapons from outside the Ghetto and on January 18, 1943, his group fought its first battle with German soldiers. It then started preparing for an armed uprising in the Ghetto and on April 19, Mordechai Anielewicz became the head of the Warsaw ghetto uprising.

1943 - Naliboki Massacre: Soviet partisans, ignoring a previous non-aggression agreement, kill around 128 Poles from the pro-Western Armia Krajowa Polish resistance group at the village of Naliboki in Nazi-Germany-occupied Poland (now Belarus).

[C] 1950 - Manuel Ródenas Valero (b. 1919), Manuel Llovet Isidro (b. 1906), Jose Capdivela Ferrer (b. 1920), Alfredo Carvera Canizares (b. 1912) and Roger Ramos Rodriguez (b. 1920), five members of the group of ten guerrillas that entered Spain in mid-May 1949 and been involved in an attack in the city of Barbastro, before being chased by the Guardia Civil and, having split in two, were captured on June 6 at Mas del Castaño and senteced to death by a council of war on March 16, 1950, are executed in Zaragoza.
1921 - Sophia Magdalena Scholl (d. 1943), German student, kidergarten teacher, revolutionary and member of the Weiße Rose (White Rose) resistance group in Nazi Germany, born. Co-author of six anti-Nazi Third Reich political resistance leaflets calling for passive resist against the Nazis. Sophie and her brother Hans were spotted throwing leaflets from the atrium at Ludwig Maximilians University on February 18, 1943. They were arrested by the Gestapo and, with Christopher Probst, tried for treason. Found guilty and condemned to death on February 22, Hans and Sophie Scholl and Christopher Probst were beheaded in Munich's Stadelheim Prison within hours of the court decision.

1922 - The Milan trial of the anarchists held responsible for bombing the Teatro Diana begins. Giuseppe Mariani and Giuseppe Boldrini receive life sentences, and Ettore Aguggini dies in prison after many years. Others accused are Ugo Fedeli, Pietro Bruzzi, and Francesco Ghezzi (editors of 'L’Indivi-dualista').

1933 - The Feuersprüche (Fire oaths) for tomorrow's ceremonlai burning of books are issued overnight by the Hauptamt für Aufklärung und Werbung der deutschen Studentenschaft (Main Office for the Enlightenment and Advertising of the German Students' Association)

1937 - 'Solidaridad Obrera' dismisses the manifesto issued yesterday by the Friends of Durruti as demagoguery and the Group's members as provocateurs. Their manifesto had spoken of "treachery" by the CNT leadership.

1939 - The anarchist Miguel Garcia is arrested in Barcelona and put into a hemp warehouse which had been converted into a prison, since the city's Celular prison is brim-full. Garcia is released in March 1941, after 22 months, after being cleared of charges.

[C] 1942 - With the help of Judenrat member Shlomo Goldwasser, a majority of the Jews from Markuszow near Lublin escape from the town and into the forests. They subsequently lived there, unarmed and without steady food rations, for many months. But in October of 1942, most of the escapees were tracked down by a German encirclement and subsequent armored and artillery attacks.

1990 - Robert Jospin (b. 1899), French militant socialist, pacifist and one-time anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 9] CF: controversial WWII stance.

2012 - Vidal Sassoon (b. 1928), iconic English hairdresser, who had been one of the youngest members of the anti-fascist group, the 43 Group, dies. [see: Jan. 17]
[C] 1933 - 25,000 books by Jewish and liberal authors are publicly burned by the Nazis in Berlin. Also today, Socialist parties are prohibited in Nazi Germany.
In university towns across Germany, nationalist students marched in torchlight parades "against the un-German spirit", which ended in the burning of upwards of 25,000 volumes of "un-German" books. These heavily scripted rituals called for high Nazi officials, professors, rectors, and student leaders to address the participants and spectators. At the gatherings, students threw the pillaged and unwanted books into the bonfires with great joyous ceremony, band-playing, songs, 'Feuersprüche' (fire oaths), and incantations. Goebbels give a speech at the book-burning in the Opernplatz in Berlin.

1934 - The General Strike in Aragon, which totally paralysed the Aragonese capital throughout April 1935, ends today.

1934 - In the wake of the May Day attack by the BUF in Gateshead, 200 men and women meet to form the Newcastle Anti-Fascist League aka the Greyshirts, an "almost exclusively working class and fifty per cent of that out of work" group of uniformed defence stewards approx. 200 strong aimed at wdefending left-wing meetings and attacking fascist gatherings. Their first outings would be the street battles in Newcastle and Gateshead on May 13 and 14.

1936 - Azaña is named President of the Spanish Republic. Wave of strikes. Land seizures in the west and the south of the country.

1943 - Régis Messac (1893-1945), French teacher, union organiser, resistance member, writer, novelist, poet, pacifist and anarchist, is arrested during the German occupation and sent to the Nazi concentration camps. [see: Aug. 2]

1944 - The French Résistance claimed a membership of over 100,000 and requested more military aid from the Allies.

1962 - In three seats contested by the BNP in the Clifton and Hatcham wards of Deptford in the Borough Council elections, each candidate secures nearly 10% of the vote.

1970 - Incendiary device discovered on board an Iberian Airliner at Heathrow. Similar devices are found in other European capitals on planes belonging to Iberia. [Angry Brigade/First of May Group]

1988 - Stefan Julian Rosloniec aka 'Julek' (b. 1911), Polish anarchist, dies in Uppsala, Sweden. A very active member of the Anarchistyczna Federacja Polski (AFP: Anarchist Federation of Poland) before WWII, which caused him to be imprisoned on numerous occasions. During the Nazi occupation, he helped many people to hide and in particular a dozen Jews who had escaped the ghetto, which earned him the title 'Righteous Among the Nations' in 1974. After the war, he lived with his wife Bronislawa in Lodz where he was an Esperanto enthusiast and member of the leadership of the Polish Association of Esperanto. The couple then emigrated to Sweden.

1991 - Victor García (Tomás Germinal García Ibars) (b. 1919), militant Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, writer, translator and historian of the international anarchist movement, dies. [see: Aug. 24]
1904 - Salvador Dali (d. 1989), Spanish Surrealist painter and self-publicitist, born. A college friend of Luis Buñuel and Federico García Lorca, he was associated with the Dadaists, claiming anarchist and communist sympathies (though largely as part of his desire to shock a la Dada). He followed André Breton on the formation of the Surrealist group, though Breton constantly questioned Dali's politics, coining his derogatory anagramic nickname, Avida Dollars, and effectively forcing his excommunication for Dali's rampant self-aggrandisement and commercialism.
Dali returned to Catholicism, even claiming to be both a Catholic and an anarchist (in a 1970 memoir, 'Dali on Dali'), and, having returned to Calaonia during WWII, a prominent Franco apologist. He even sent telegrams to Franco, praising him for signing the death warrants for 5 Basque prisoners whilst he himself lay dying in bed in September 1975.

1907 - Eva Schulze-Knabe (d. 1976), German painter and graphic artist, and resistance fighter against the Third Reich, born. From 1929 she was a member of the artists' group ASSO, the Assoziation Revolutionärer Bildender Künstler Deutschlands (ARBKD; Association of Revolutionary Visual Artists of Germany), and from 1931 she was a member of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD).
She was arrested in 1933 and 1934 and confined at Hohnstein concentration camp for 6 months. She returned to her resistance activities but was arrested again in January 1941 by the Gestapo. After months of interrogation at the police headquarters in Dresden, she was tried in 1942 before the Volksgerichtshof at Münchner Platz in Dresden, where she was sentenced to life in labour prison (Zuchthaus). She was freed from Waldheim labour prison in 1945 and worked as a freelance artist in Dresden.

[B] 1932 - Virgilia d'Andrea (b. 1890), Italian poet, teacher, writer, anarchist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Feb. 11]

[C] 1960 - Adolf Eichmann is kidnapped in Argentina by Israeli agents.
1890 - Renzo Novatore, pseudonym of Abele Ricieri Ferrari (d. 1922); Italian individualist anarchist, illegalist and anti-fascist poet, philosopher and militant, born. Best known for his posthumously published book 'Verso il Nulla Creatore' (Toward the Creative Nothing). [expand]

1892 - Pietro Ferrero (d. 1922), Italian union activist and anarchist, born. Secretary of the metallurgists union (F.I.O.M.) and organiser of the Councilist movement in the factories, was murdered in December 1922 by fascist thugs.

1921 - Joseph Beuys (d. 1986), German Fluxus sculptor, performance artist, printmaker, theorist, teacher, theosophist, shamen, charlatan and provocateur, born. A contradictory character that many characterised as anarchist but who flew Stukas in the Luftwaffe; associated with former Nazis in the postwar period; “obsessed with Steiner’s occultism and his racial theories — and with the abstruse ideas of a Germanic soul, a German spirit and a special mission for the German people" [Hans Peter Riegel - 'Beuys. The Biography' (2013)]; who proclaimed "Kunst=Kapital"; whose artworks ("social sculptures") were largely shamanistic performance pieces; and who later in life became a pacifist, a vocal opponent of nuclear weapons and campaigned strenuously for environmental causes, joining Die Grünen and being elected to the European Parliament as a Green Party candidate.
"To make people free is the aim of art, therefore art for me is the science of freedom."

[B] 1933 - Oskar Maria Graf makes his famous appeal 'Verbrennt Mich!' (Burn Me Too!) in the Vienna Arbeiter Zeitung: "Verbrennt Mich!' [...] Nach meinem ganzen Leben und nach meinem ganzen Schreiben habe ich das Recht, zu verlangen, dass meine Bücher der reinen Flamme des Scheiterhaufens überantwortet werden und nicht in die blutigen Hände und die verdorbenen Hirne der braunen Mordbande gelangen. Verbrennt die Werke des deutschen Geistes! Er selber wird unauslöschlich sein wie eure Schmach!"
("Burn me too! [...] After all my life and after all my writings I have the right to demand that my books of the pure flame be delivered up to the pyre and not get into the bloody hands and the corrupt minds of the gang of brown murderers. Burn the works of the German spirit! It will be as indelible as your shame!")

1933 - The '12 Thesen wider den undeutschen Geist' (12 Theses against the Un-German Spirit) campaign is launched denouncing the Jewish, socialist, communist and liberal ideas and their representatives.

1963 - YSM members break into UM headquarters and assault the secretary, Robert Row.

1965 - Roger Vailland (b. 1907), French novelist, essayist, screenwriter, youthful anarchist and, having fought alongside Communists in the Résistance, a Communist Party member dies. [see: Oct. 16]

[C] 1975 - Oxford Anti-Fascist Committee organise a protest outside Oxford Town Hall where John Tyndall and Martin Webster are due to speak. A cordon of 250 police struggle to hold back around 600 anti-fascists, who repeatedly charge the police lines, waylay fascists trying to enter and attack the NF's Honour Guard. [PR]

2013 - Swedish police shoot dead Lenine Relvas-Martins, a 69-year-old Portuguese man, after breaking into his apartment in the largely immigrant suburb of Husby, in northern Stockholm. The cops claim he had been waving a machete at them. A blog post by the social justice youth group Megafonen the following day claims that the shot man was "non-white", something the group later corrected when they called for a demonstration against police brutality to be held on May 15. Relvas-Martins' death was followed by six nights of anti-police rioting (May 19-25) during which up to 200 cars were torched, along with schools, police stations and restaurants, and about a dozen police officers injured. Thirty youths were also arrested and a number of fascist groups tried to exploit the situation to target 'foreigners' during the disturbances.

2014 - Keith Luke (b. 1986), US white supremacist, who, in 2009 at the age of 22, shot to death two Cape Verdean immigrants and attempted to murder a third, whom he also raped, is pronounced dead after spending 2 days on a life support machine following a suicide attempt. He had planned to "kill as many non-whites as possible" and finish off his killing spree at a synagogue's bingo night. In May 2013 he was convicted and sentenced to two life sentences without parole. His death reportedly followed at least three suicide attempts while he was behind bars. In the run up to his trial, the Nazi had carved a large swastika into his forehead with a metal staple.
[B] 1915 - Virgili Batlle Vallmajó, better known as simply Virgilio (d. 1947), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, and self-taught Neo-Cubist painter, who later developed into a geometric abstactionist, born. At the outbreak of the fascist coup, he joined the Comitè Antifeixista de Sant Joan les Fonts (Antifascist Committee of Sant Joan les Fonts), which was dominated by the CNT and FAI, doing propaganda work. Soon after, he volunteered for the Aragon front as a sapper and fought in the Battle of Belchite in Zaragoza (August 24, 1937). Tuberculosis forced him into the Montseny sanatorium in February 1938 and the following month to the hospital in Girona, where a Medical Tribunal declared him unfit for military service.
In February 1939, he fled to France and was interned in the Argelès concentration camp, which he later escaped, making his way to Paris. There he worked with Picasso and established a close friendship with the poet Jaume Sabartés i Gual. There he discovered Malevich and Russian Suprematicism, which strongly influenced his analtyical cubist paintings.
At the outbreak of WWII the tuberculosis he had contracted fighting in Spain flared up and he moved south to the Vichy zone, settling in Toulouse, setting up a carpentry workshop manufacturing toys and participated in the activities of the Resistance and Liberation. When he died he was almost totally unknown in Spain until the Madrid gallery of José de la Mano put on an exhibition, 'Virgilio Mallmajó (1914-1947). Del neocubismo a la abstracción geométrica' (From neo-cubism to geometric abstraction) in 2005.

1933 - 'Wider den undeutschen Geist!' poster appear across Germany. [see: Apr. 12]

1934 - With the fascists planning to hold a major rally with Mosley at Newcastle's Town Moor during Race Week, a series of meetings in the area had been arranged to promote the rally. At the first on Cowan's Monument on Westgate Road where former Gateshead Labour MP and BUF member John Beckett is due to speak, several thousand anti-fascists, led by the Anti-Fascist League in 'plainclothes', turn up and stop the meeting. The platform is smashed to pieces and some of the fascist are seriously injured. The battered and bruised BUF contingent is escorted back to the BUH HQ on Clayton Street by foot and mounted police. The anti-fascist follow and lay siege to the building, smashing its windows with a hail of stones.

[C] 1934 - Communists battle with British Union of Fascists Blackshirts trying to hold a rally in Finsbury Park, North London, forcing the fascists to flee. [PR]

1936 - Alfredo Bagaglino (b. unknown), Italian anarchist, deported back to Italy by the US government in 1920 because of his anarchist activism and then arrested by the Fascist regime, dies in internal exile (confino).

1939 - Voyage of the Damned: The MS St. Louis, carrying 937 refugees seeking asylum from Nazi persecution in Germany, sets sail from Hamburg to Cuba. Only 22 non Jewish passengers were allowed to disembark on Cuban shores, with the remaining 915 forced to return to Europe after being refused asylum the the USA on June 4th. 288 of the passengers were eventually taken in by Britain but, of the 619 accepted by France, Belgium and the Netherlands, only 365 are believed to have survived the war with 254 dying in various Nazi death camps.

1958 - Putsch d'Alger: An attempted coup takes place in Algiers led by Algiers deputy and reserve airborne officer Pierre Lagaillarde, French Generals Raoul Salan, Edmond Jouhaud, Jean Gracieux, and Jacques Massu, and by Admiral Philippe Auboyneau, commander of the Mediterranean fleet. Its aim is to oppose the new French government of Pierre Pflimlin, to impose a pro-Pied Noirs administration in French Algeria and to ultimately bring about a return of De Gaulle to power in France, pricipitating the Crise de Mai 1958 [May 1958 Crisis].

2009 - Ivan Ivanov Ratchev (aka Bai Ivan; b. 1926), Bulgarian-born anarchist, dies. Exiled in Switzerland, he took part in the founding of CIRA, edited the revue 'Balkanska Duma' and published 'La Confédération et le "Parti" Marx' (1976). He returned to Bulgaria following the fall of the Iron Curtain to assist the fledgling Bulgarian anarchist movement.

2014 - Close to 1,000 anti-fascist protesters mass in Gothenburg's Götaplatsen to protest an appearance by Jimmie Åkesson, leader to the ultra-nationalist Swedish Democrats. Police forcefully clear the unruly crowd and cancel the rally.
[C] 1894 - Jindřich Honzl (d. 1953), Czech theatre and film director, theatrical theorist, translator, educator, communist and anti-fascist, born. Member of Devětsil and the Liberated Theatre, later joining the Czech Surrealist Group. He joined the KSČ in 1921 and illegally directed the anti-fascist Theatricum for 99 in Prague during the fascist occupation (1940–41 and 1943).

[BB] 1912 - Mary Stanley Low (d. 2007), Anglo-Australian Trotskyist and later anarchist, poet, Surrealist, linguist and classics teacher, born. In 1933 she met the Cuban Trotskyist poet Juan Breá (1905-1941) in Paris. They joined the Surrealist group there, working alongside André Breton, Paul Eluard, René Magritte and Yves Tanguy. The poet and Surrealist ELT Mesens and the poet Benjamin Peret also become close friends. With the outbreak of the Revolution, she and Breá (rejecting the Breton-inspired Stalinist orthodoxy) went to Spain and joined POUM, where she helped organised the Women's Militia, edited the English-language paper 'Spanish Revolution'. Her sympathy for the anarchists was aroused by the organisation by the CNT of the shoeshine boys and the prostitutes into their own unions, and by her attendance of Durruti's funeral. In December that year, they had to flee the country after Breá narrowly avoided an assassination attempt (presumably by Stalinists, who tried to run him over as he left a POUM meeting). In London, she and Breá married and co-authored 'Red Spanish Notebook: The First Six Months of the Revolution and the Civil War' (1937), with a preface by C. L. R. James, the first book on the Revolution. Following stays in Cuba and Paris, from early 1938 the couple lived in Prague with fellow Surrealists Toyen and Jindřich Štyrský, until they were forced to flee the Nazi invasion in July 1939. Ending up in Cuba in 1940, where Breá dies the following year and Low was to marry Trotskyist Cuban journalist trade-unionist Armando Machado in 1944, and giving birth to 3 daughters. With the Cuban Revolution,
Machado was arrested and only released thanks to the protection of Guevara. Eventually they won asylum in the US in 1965, where she was involved with the Cuban anarchist exile review 'Guangara Liberteria'.
Her works include 'La Saison des Flutes' (1939); 'Alquimia del recuerdo' (Alchemy of memory; 1946); the trilingual book of poetry, 'Three Voices, Voces, Voix' (1957); 'In Caesar’s Shadow' (1975); 'Alive in Spite Of' (1981); 'A Voice in Three Mirrors' (1984); and 'Where the Wolf Sings' (1994). [The last two were illustrated by her own collages and drawings, and printed by AK Press.]

1934 - A second BUF meeting [see: May 13] at Gateshead Town Hall is surrounded by thousands of anti-fascists and a small number of fascists smuggled in by the police. The meeting is forced to close down early due to Beckett's speech being drowned out by cries of "Traitor", and only a large police presence prevented the thousands who followed them back over the Tyne from getting hold of the fascists. As the Blackshirts cross the Tyne Bridge into Newcastle anti-fascists are prevented by large numvbers of cops from reaching them. Once again the BUF HQ in Newcastle is put under heavy siege and, as one fascist later wrote: "The large branch room, with its floor covered in blood and groaning men, was a gruesome sight."
Anti-fascists had now gained the upper hand on Tyne and Wear and the fascists were never again to be a significant force in the North east again. Mosley is forced by the police to cancel his promised Race Week rally.

1941 - Maurice Bavaud (b. 1916), a Swiss Catholic theology student who made a number of ill-fated attempts to assassinate Adolf Hitler in late 1938, is executed by guillotine in the Berlin-Plötzensee prison in the early hours of the morning.

1943 - Martin Guy Alan Webster, British nationalist, racialist and neo-Nazi, born. Expelled from the Young Conservatives, later associated with the League of Empire Loyalists, joining the National Socialist Movement in 1962 and later following John Tyndall into the Greater Britain Movement and the National Front, being appointed National Activities Organiser in 1969. Eventually he was kicked out of the NF - the rumours surrounding his alleged homosexuality didn't help his standing within the NF - and he re-emerged in 1999 to claim that he had a four-year homosexual affair with newly-elected British National Party leader Nick Griffin beginning in the mid-1970s, when Griffin was a teenager.
"We are busy setting up a well-oiled Nazi machine in this country." ('The Listener', BBC, December 1972)

1966 - Ludwig Meidner (b. 1884), German painter, graphic artist and poet, dies. [see: Apr. 18]

1978 - Following his murder on the 4th, 7,000 march behind Altab Ali's coffin as it is carried from Brick Lane to Hyde Park in an Action Committee Against Racist Attacks-organised protest to demand an end to racist violence.

1981 - Maurice Ludmer (b. 1926), British Communist, anti-fascist activist and journalist, dies. With Birmingham activists of the Indian Workers Association such as Jagmohan Joshi, he helped set up the Co-ordinating Committee Against Racial Discrimination (CCARD), which opposed both state racism and far right activism. In February 1975, he launched Searchlight, with the aim of 'turning the searchlight on the extremists', and was a member of the steering group of the first Anti-Nazi League in 1977-78. [see: Aug. 7]

1988 - José Xena Torrent (b. 1907), militant Catalan anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Jul. 19]

[A] 1995 - First London RTS street party gathered at the Rainbow Centre (a squatted church at Kentish Town) and partied in Camden.

1999 - Adelita del Campo (nickname of Adela Carreras Taurà; d. 1999), Spanish dancer, actress, anarchist and later a communist, dies. [see: Aug. 3]

2000 - Karl Shapiro (b. 1913), American poet, Pulitzer Prize-winner in 1945 and Gandhian anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 10]

2001 - Roger Boussinot (b. 1921), French director, writer, screenwriter, critic, film historian and libertarian, who used the pseudonyms Emmanuel Le Lauraguais and Roger Mijema, dies. [see: May 2]

2009 - Edgar Rodrigues (Antônio Francisco Correia; b. 1921), Portuguese militant anti-fascist and anarchist historian of the Portuguese and Brazilian anarchist movement, who authored more than fifty books, dies. [see: Mar. 12]
1891 - Halfdan Jønsson (d. 1945), Norwegian trade unionist, vice chair of the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions and resistance member, born. Arrested on January 7, 1944, he died in Dachau shortly before liberation.

1906 - Léon Joseph Marie Ignace Degrelle (d. 1994), Belgian Walloon National Socialist and historical revisionist, who founded the nationalist Parti Rexiste and later joined the Waffen SS (becoming a leader of its Walloon contingent) which were front-line troops in the fight against the Soviet Union, born. After WWII, he was a prominent figure in fascist movements after having been granted refuge in Francoist Spain.

1923 - Simon Watson Taylor (d. 2005), English anarchist, actor and translator, closely associated with the Surrealist movement, born. Secretary for the British Surrealist Group he edited the English language surrealist review Free Union but later became a key player in the “science” of Pataphysics. Close friend of Marie-Louise Berneri, Veron Richrads, Philip Sansom, John Olday, George Melly, etc., becoming involved in 'War Commentary' and 'Freedom'. Founded the anarcho-surrealist review 'Free Unios/Unions Libres' (its single issue published in1946, two years after first planned due to the 'War Commentary' arrests), through which he came to know André Breton, now moving back towards anarchism in 1954 joined the recently created Collège de Pataphysique after breaking with Breton and the Surrealists.
Translated many surrealist-associated works from the French including: André Breton's 'Surrealism and Painting' (1972), Jarry's 'Ubu Plays' (1968), Boris Vian's plays such as 'The Empire Builders', 'The Generals’ Tea Party' and 'The Knackers’ ABC', plus his much reprinted translation of 'Paris Peasant' by Louis Aragon (1971).

1937 - The first issue of Léo Campion's fortnightly newspaper 'Rebellion' is published in Brussels. Much of the news focuses on the revolution in Spain.

[C] 1942 - Henryk Ehrlich (b. 1882), Polish Jewish lawyer, editor of the Yiddish daily 'Folks-Zeitung', activist in the Bund, member of the Petrograd Soviet, Warsaw City Council, member of the executive committee of the Second International and of the International Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (JAC), dies in a Soviet prison. He had been arrested along with Wiktor Alter [see: Feb. 17] on trumped-up charges of being a spy for Nazi Germany and sentenced to death. It is believed that he managed to commit suicide by hanging himself from the bars of his prison window.

1976 - Following a number of smaller demos outside Winston Green prison in Birmingham in support of self-styled 'race martyr' Robert Relf, the National Front hold a march to and rally outside the prison. Less than 100 turn up. In contrast, over 1,500 anti-fascists turn up for march and counter-demonstration organised by the Birmingham Anti-Fascist Committee. 500 cops were deployed to create a cordon to prevent clashes between the 2 sets of demonstrators but when the anti-fascist march arrived at the prison, after having passed the iconic satley gate coking depot on its way across Birmingham, a large contingent of 200+ anti-fascists broke away from the counter-demo and made a concerted attempt to reach the NF rally. The police had to use metal dustbuin lids to protect themselves from a hail of bricks gather from nearby derelict and waste ground. According to West Midlands police, as a result of that attack, they suffered: 69 police officers injured, 16 of whom subsequently reported sick unable to continue with their duties [despite only nine cops actually being taken to hospital], two police horses were injured, damage was caused to three police vans, three motorcycles and two panda cars, and there were 13 cases of assorted damage to police equipment and uniform. There were 28 arrests for a variety of offences, the majority being under section 5 of the Public Order Act 1936. Other offences included the possession of an offensive weapon, assault on police, damage and causing grievous bodily harm to police officers.
Ironically, prison authorities had had Relf moved to HMP Stafford the night before, so the NF's attempts at solidarity were in vain. Relf, who had been on partial hunger strike, was eventually freed from prison after 45 days, despite failing to purge his contempt. However, the ultimate irony of the whole 'race-martyr' case is that in 1985 Relf was reported to have sold his house to an Asian family, saying: "I am still against mass immigration and mixed marriages, but I've nothing against [them as] individuals."

1988 - Spanish Embassy in Rome occupied by USI and CNT-AIT anarchist militants.
1887 - Maria Lacerda de Moura (d. 1945), Brazilian anarcha-feminist, anti-fascist, individualist anarchist, teacher, journalist and writer, born.

1914 - Hans Schmitz (d. 2007), German anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, militant anti-fascist and conscript to the Wehrmacht, born. Member of Freie Jugend Morgenröte (Free Youth Dawn), der SAJD Syndikalistisch-Anarchistische Jugend Deutschlands (SAJD; Anarcho-Syndicalist Youth of Germany) - the youth organisation of FAUD, the Freien Arbeiter Union Deutschland (FAUD; Free Workers Union of Germany) and in the Schwarzen Scharen (Black Bands) militant anarchsit anti-Nazi organisation.

1933 - John Henry Mackay (b 1864), Swiss-German individualist anarchist and gay writer, dies. Author of 'Die Anarchisten' (The Anarchists) (1891) and 'Der Freiheitsucher' (The Searcher for Freedom) (1921). [see: Feb. 6]

1933 - The 'Prinzipelles zur Säuberung der öffentlichen Bücherein' (Principles for the Cleansing of Public Libraries), drawn up by Wolfgang Herrmann on behalf of the German National Socialists of the Berlin Librarian Commission, is published in the weekly 'Börsenblatt für den deutschen Büchhandel' (Financial Newspaper for the German Book Trade). Among the titles banned by the Nazis are the anarchist novelist B. Traven's 'The Carreta' & 'Government'.

1943 - Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: The suppression of the uprising officially ends when SS-Brigadeführer Jürgen Stroop pushes the detonator button that demolishes the Great Synagogue of Tlomacki Street to mark his victory. The death toll of the Uprising: 13,000 Jews killed, around 6,000 of whom were burnt alive or died from smoke inhalation. The official German casualties, including Polish police and ex-Soviet prisoner volunteers, were 17 dead (of whom 16 were killed in action) and 93 injured. These figures do not include Jewish collaborators killed and the real numbers of German casualties are believed to be around 300. Other estimates give the figure of 56,000 dead.

[C] 1960 - Nesta Helen Webster (neé Bevan; b. 1876), British historian, fascist and conspiracy theorist, who belived that the French Revolution, the First World War and the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 were a product of the Illuminati, a secret Judeo-Masonic conspiracy, dies never having found the 'proof' she spent her whole life seeking. [see: Aug. 24]
[C] 1903 - Francisco Pérez Mateo (d. 1936), Spanish sculptor, communist and anti-Francoist fighter, born. Working in the direct carving method, he was one of the first Spaniards to engage in the styles of New Realism and the New Objectivity, and having attended the famous 1916 boxing match between Jack Johnson and Arthur Cravan, much of his work featured sporting themes. He also joined the Communist Party and the Sociedad de Artistas Ibéricos (Alliance of Antifascist Intellectuals), taking part in the Primera Exposición de Arte Revolucionario (First Revolutionary Art Exhibition) in December 1933 and exhibiting in the Spanish Pavilion of the Paris World Exhibition of 1937. He was killed during the defence of Madrid.]

1916 - José Borras Cascarosa aka 'Cantaclaro', 'Jacinto Barrera', 'Sergio', 'Sergio Mendoza' (d. 2002), militant Spanish anarchist and syndicalist, CNT, FIJL and Durruti Column member, born. [expand]

1937 - Juan Negrin forms a communist government which excludes the anarchists and begins repressing those elements it cannot control (including assassinations & summary executions). Some earlier revolutionary reforms are rescinded. Republican attacks on Segovia and Huesca fail. The UGT Regional Committee for Catalonia demands that all POUM militants be expelled from its ranks and presses the C.N.T. [Confederacion Nacional del Trabajo] to mete out the same treatment to the Friends of Durruti.

1959 - Less than a year after the Notting Hill race riots, Kelso Cochrane (b. 1926), an Antiguan carpenter, is stabbed to death by a gang of white youths. He had been attacked close to midnight whilst walking towards his home in Notting Hill following a visit to Paddington General Hospital after breaking his thumb in a fall at work. Two men were arrested in connection with his death, due to a single stab wound to the heart with a stiletto knife. In a 2011 book by Mark Olden, 'Murder in Notting Hill', the perpetrator was named as Patrick Digby, at the time a 20-year-old catering boy in the Merchant Navy.

1968 - Today the Occupations Committee, including members of the Situationist International (SI) and the enragés from Nanterre University, sent the following telegram to the Communist Party of the USSR:

[A] 1972 - Milan police chief Luigi Calabresi, in charge at the time police 'suicided' the anarchist Giuseppe Pinelli on December 15, 1969, is assassinated. Three militants of the extreme left, Adriano Sofri, Giorgio Pietrostefani and Ovidio Bompressi, get 22-year sentences.

1974 - Following a fierce gun battle between members of the Symbionese Liberation Army and the LA police, the house burns down and six SLA members die.

[CC] 1975 - Today's issue of the 'Sun' newspaper carries a report on page three:
"Mr [Colin] Jordan of Tudor Avenue, Coventry, was said to have been fined £30 with £29.42 costs for stealing three pairs of red frilly knickers and a box of chocolates from Tesco in Leamington. He was said to have quite deliberately thrust the knickers into his pocket and the chocolates into his shopping bag. He was quoted thus: "I believe this is a malicious allegation, brought by a Jewish-owned store against someone who in the past has been known for his opposition to Jewish power in this country.""

[B] 1993 - Robert Lapoujade (b. 1921), French painter, radical experimental filmmaker, cinematographer, writer and libertarian Marxist, dies. Signatory of 'Manifeste des 121', who is best known for his portraits of French literary figures including Jean-Paul Sartre and Andre Breton. [see: Jan. 3]

2009 - Mario Benedetti (Mario Orlando Hardy Hamlet Brenno Benedetti; b. 1920), Uruguayan journalist, novelist, and radical poet of the Uraguayan peasant revolt, dies. [see: Sep. 14]

2012 - Laura Gómez, secretary of the CGT-Barcelona, is released from prison. Laura had been in jail since April 25, charged with arson and fire damage to the Barcelona Stock Exchange for having burned a cardboard box filled with false trading tickets in front of the Barcelona Stock Exchange, a symbolic action organised as part of the general strike protests in Spain on March 29.
[B] 1876 - Luigi 'Gigi' Damiani (aka 'Ausinio Acrate' & 'Simplicio'; d. 1953), Italian journalist, poet, jobbing painter, anarchist activist and propagandist, who emigrated to Brazil and directs various publications ('La Battaglia', 'A Plebe', 'Guerra Sociale', etc.), born. Editor, with Errico Malatesta, of 'Umanita Nova' (the anarchist daily paper published by Malatesta in Milan, along with Damiani, Camillo Berneri, Nella Giacomelli, Armando Borghi, Luigi Fabbri, etc), born. Under attack by fascists, Damiani was exiled in Tunisia. Active there with Giuseppe Pasotti, then returned to Rome in 1946 and involved again with 'Umanita Nova' until his death.

[CC] 1942 - Herbert and Marianne Baum, Hans Joachim, Gerd Meyer, Sala Kochmann, Suzanne Wesse and Irene Walter from the anti-Nazi Baum Group sets fire to the anti-communist and anti-Jewish propaganda exhibition 'Das Sowjetparadies' (The Soviet Paradise) at the Berlin Lustgarten, having planted miniature incendiary bombs at different points in the exhibition [they had tried to carry out the action the day before but too many people had been at the event]. Unfortunately, the damage is limited and within a few days the majority of the group is arrested; probably after having been denounced. About 20 members of the group were later sentenced to death and a total of 28 members of the group were killed in 1942 and 1943. About 50 other members of the group were also given long prison sentences. On May 28-29, 1942, in a "retaliatory action" 500 Berlin Jewish men were arrested; one half were killed immediately and the other half were sent to concentration camps. [see: Mar. 4/Jun. 11/Aug. 18]

[C] 1945 - Pierre Kaan (b. 1903), French professor of philosophy, Marxist essayist, and prominent member of the Résistance during WWII, using the pseudonyms Biran, Brulard, Cantal and Dupin, dies of a combination of typhus and tuberculosis a few days after being liberated by Czech anti-fascist fighters from Buchenwald's Gleina subcamp. [see: Jan. 10]

1968 - 10,000 march in Madrid, Spain, erect barricades and clash with police, in solidarity with the May revolt in France.

[A] 1980 - In South Korea a widespread civilian uprising for democracy begins in Kwangju, where police kill at least 200 protesters. Beginning of the May Movement.

1981 - Satnam Singh Gill, a 21-year-old Asian student, is murdered in Coventry city centre. The following day a meeting is held and the Coventry Committee Against Racism is formed. The incident also prompted The Specials to organise the 'Peaceful Protest Against Racism' concert at the Butts athletic stadium in Coventry on June 20, 1981, to raise funds for Gill's family.

1989 - Demonstrations in Tiananmen (Tian'anmen) Square during USSR-China talks.

1989 - Louis Dorlet (aka Samuel Vergine, Louis Dey, Serge and Louis Dorival; b. 1905), militant French individualist anarchist and pacifist, dies. [see: Jan. 2]

2009 - Paul Parin (b. 1916), Austrian-Swiss psychoanalyst, anthropologist, writer and "moral anarchist" whose personal motto was "Ni Dieu, ni Roi", dies. He and his future wife, Goldy Parin-Matthey, were involved in the anarchist-socialist anti-fascist medical organisation Brüdergemeinde (Brethren). [see: Sep. 20]
1904 - Daniel Guérin (d. 1988), one of France's best known revolutionary activists and thinkers, libertarian communist, anti-colonialist, Gay Rights activist, anti-militarist and anti-fascist, born. Author of numerous books, including 'Fascism and Big Business' (1936), 'Anarchism; From Theory to Practice' (1965) and 'No Gods No Masters: An Anthology of Anarchism' (1965).

[C] 1912 - Kati Horna (Kati Deutsch; d. 2000), Hungarian photographer and anarchist sympathiser, born into a wealthy Jewish family. Durig her early years Hungary was to suffer many political upheavals including the persecution of Jews and Communists following the defeat of the Hungarian Soviet republic in 1919 and the seizing of power by Miklós Horthy. Sometime in the 1920s, she met the Hungarian anarchist poet, painter and thinker Lajos Kassák, who became a profound influence on her political and artistic thought, especially on her desire to take up photography. Aged 18, she moved to Berlin where she came into contact with the Bauhaus group and absorbed the influences of Dada, Surrealism, the Neue Sachlichkeit and the developing discipline of photojournalism. The latter was helped when she got a job as an assistant at the experimental Agencia Dephot photo studio run by Felix H. Man, a pioneer of modern photojournalism. However, her 3 year stay was cut short by the the Nazis gaining power and being forced to witness the burning of books, and in 1933 she returned to Budapest. Urged by her parents to get a job, she enrolled at the prestigious school of the renowned Hungarian photographer József Pécsi. There she learned the techniques of photography and re-encountered Endre Friedmann, a childhood friend who would later change his name to Robert Capa, and with whom she began a relationship. She also received her first Rolleiflex, a present from her parents. Later that year, she moved to Paris to escape the Nazis and to continue her training, working for the French news agency Agence Photo, and began assembling the first of her photo series including 'Marché aux Puces' (Flea market; 1933), 'Les Cafés de Paris' (The Cafes of Paris; 1934), 'L'Histoire d'amour dans la cuisine' (The History of Love in the Kitchen; 1935) and 'Hitlerei' (Hitler eye; 1937). With the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, she began travelling to Spain along with Capa, who she had met up with in Paris, and spent 2 years working in the country (1937-39). A member of various anarchist groups, including Mujeres Libres and Tierra y Libertad, she worked on numerous anarchist publications, amongst them 'Libre Studio', 'Mujeres Libres', 'Tierra y Libertad', 'Tiempos Nuevos' and 'Umbral'. Like Capa, she covered the war at the front, but she also recorded the everyday of the people right up til Franco's victory. Amongst those she got to know during this period were her fellow photographers Tina Modetti and Gerda Taro. In July 1937 she also met her future husband, the Andalusian artist José Horna, who she married the following year and who would become her partner in the making of collages as well. In February 1939, they both left the country for Paris but, with the expansion of Nazism in Europe, they fled Europe, embark on the De Grasse in October for exile in Mexico. There, she became on of the important figures in the exiled Surrealist circles that included Leonora Carrington, Benjamin Peret and Edward James, and befriended a fellow anarchist in Remedios Varo. Her circle also included many in the artistic, literary and architectural avant-garde in Mexico, such as Alejandro Jodorowsky, Mathias Goeritz, Germán Cueto, Pedro Friedeberg, Salvador Elizondo, Alfonso Reyes and Ricardo Legorreta. During the last 20 years of her life, she also taught photography at the Nacional de Artes Plásticas school and at the Universidad Iberoamericana. She died in October 2000, largely unknown though her work has progressively been rediscovered since then.

1937 - In Spain, issue No. 1 of 'El Amigo del Pueblo' appears.

1970 - Wembley Conservative Association firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1991 - Auro Bruni (b. 1972), Italian activist from the Centro Sociale Corto Circuito in Rome, is murdered by fascists. On the night of his death, fascists from the Disoccupati Italiani Nazionalisti broke into the Corto. Finding Auro asleep, they knocked him out and covered him and the room in the petrol. The fire killed Auro and completely destroyed the Corto. The next day the fascist group claimed responsibility but the police tried to blame it on someone within the centre, citing an internal power struggle.

1994 - Jacques Ellul (b. 1912), French philosopher, law professor, sociologist, lay theologian, and Christian anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 6]

[CCC] 2012 - Tinley Park 5: A group of 30 anti-fascists descended upon a restaurant in the Chicago suburb of Tinley Park where the 5th annual White Nationalist Economic Summit and Illinois White Nationalist Meet-and-Greet was taking place. The White Nationalists were targeted inside the restaurant and physically attacked, causing several injuries and completely shutting down their meeting. Five members of Hoosier Anti-Racist Movement, which is part of the Anti-Racist Action Network, were subsequently charged with felony counts of mob action, aggravated battery and criminal damage to property. All are currently being held in Cook County Jail pending the raising and posting of bail.
The cops also arrested white nationalist Steven Eugene Speers who was at the meeting on a warrant for child pornography and Francis John Gilroy Jr. for unlawful possession of a weapon by a felon.
Of the five anti-fascists charged in connection with the incident- Cody Sutherlin, Dylan Sutherlin, Jason Sutherlin, John Tucker and Alex Stuck - all pleaded guilty, against the advice of their lawyers, on January 4, 2013, to three felony counts of armed violence each. Fearing that their pre-trial detention could drag on for years and, if found guilty, they could have received a maximum sentence of seven years, they decided to go ahead and "just get it over with today" according to one of their attorneys. Cody and Dylan Sutherlin both got five years. Jason Sutherlin six years, and John Tucker and Alex Stuck were both sentenced to 42 months in the Illinois Department of Corrections.

2013 - Following the shooting dead of Lenine Relvas-Martins, a 69-year-old Portuguese man, in the largely immigrant suburb of Husby, in northern Stockholm on May 12, riots breakout during the night, leaving at least 100 vehicles burnt out. The riots would continue over the following days and nights (May 19-25), spreading across Sweden. [see: May 12]
[C] 1897 - Luigi Camillo Berneri (d. 1937), Italian professor of philosophy, anarchist militant, propagandist and theorist, born. A WWI veteran, University of Florence professor of humanities, and a member of the Unione Anarchica Italiana, he was active in the anti-fascist resistance in Italy until 1926, when he was forced to take refuge in France, then Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, and finally the Netherlands - spending time in prison before being expelled in most of these. Helped organsie the first Italian volunteers in Spain in 1936 and fought himself on the Aragonese front. Critical of the Madrid government, he was a victim of the Stalinist attacks that began in Barcelona on May 4th, dying in a hail of bullets as he left Radio Barcelona where he had been commemorating the death of Gramsci.

1897 - Diego Abad de Santillán (born Sinesio Vaudilio García Fernández; d. 1983), Spanish author, economist, historian and leading figure in the Spanish and Argentine anarchist movements, born.

1911 - The Magonist anarchists of the Partido Liberal Mexicano publish a proclamation calling for the peasants to take collective possession of the land in the territories of Lower California where they have driven out the government, for "a free and happy life, without Masters or Tyrant."

1918 - Luigi Bertoni, editor of the anarchist bilingual 'Le Réveil-Il Risveglio', is arrested in Geneva for an alleged conspiracy in Zurich, where a bomb was allegedly found by the police - it turns out to be a fabrication, an attempt to silence the anti-war Bertoni and other Italian anarchists. Protests sweep Switzerland calling for the release of Bertoni and the Italian anarchists interned in labour camps under a Nov. 17, 1917 decree. [see: Jun. 2, 1919]

[A] 1937 - In Spain, author and one-time used book seller, George Orwell, is shot on the front lines whilst fighting for the Republic. His 'Homage to Catalonia' is based on his experiences during the Spanish Revolution.

1951 - Barcelona Tram Strike: A National Day of Protest called for May 20 result in failure. [expand][see: Mar. 1&12]

2012 - Prisoners sieze control of Adams County Correctional Facility, a 2,500-bed immigration detention prison in Mississippi, for nine hours, taking more than 20 guards prisoner in retaliation to brutalisation by guards and in protest against the conditions, including poor food and medical care. One guard dies and 16 others are injured. The immigration prison, which is owned and operated by Corrections Corporation of America, holds clandestine migrants convicted of crimes, mostly on charges of re-entering the United States after being deported.
1880 - Tudor Arghezi, or simply Arghezi (Ion N. Theodorescu; d. 1967), Romanian writer, best known for his contribution to poetry and children's literature, born. Despite his failing health, he published virulent satires of the Romanian government, its military leader - Ion Antonescu, and Romania's allegiance to Nazi Germany in the newspaper 'Informaţia Zilei' (Daily Information) in a column named after his former magazine, 'Bilete de Papagal' (Cheap Parrot). On September 30, 1943, Arghezi caused outrage and a minor political scandal, after getting the paper to publish his most radical attack, one aimed at the German ambassador Manfred Freiherr von Killinger - 'Baroane' ('Baron!' or 'Thou Baron'). The newspaper is immediately confiscated and Arghezi imprisoned for a year without trial in a penitentiary camp near Târgu Jiu.

1914 - Romain Gary (born Roman Kacew; d. 1980), French-Litvaks diplomat, novelist, film director and World War II aviator, born. Largely self-invented, he created a mythos around himself. Amongst his many fictions, he claimed to have, like Malraux, to have fought in the Spanish Civil War and to have been imprisoned there for his efforts. However, he did fight against the Nazis, escaping to London after the German invasion of France, where he becoming a real life "war hero", serving as a bomber pilot for the Free French Forces and flying missions even when recuperating from battle wounds. Gary also described himself as "testicularly anti-racist" at the time.
He also wrote under a number of pseudonyms Émile Ajar, Shatan Bogat, Rene Deville and Fosco Sinibaldi. In his most famous novel, 'Lady L' (1958), also made into a 1965 comedy film directed by Peter Ustinov and starring Sophia Loren, Paul Newman and David Niven, the main character anarchist Armand Denis.
He is also the only person to win the Prix Goncourt twice [French language literature is awarded only once to an author], firstly in 1956 for 'Les Racines du Ciel' (The Roots of Heaven) and then for his novel, published under the pseudonym Émile Ajar, 'La Vie Devant Soi' (The Life Before Us; 1975), which about an orphaned Arab boy’s devotion to a terminally ill Auschwitz survivor and ex-prostitute.

1940 - Cayetano Redondo Aceña (b. 1888), Spanish politician, journalist, mayor of Madrid during the Spanish Civil War and a leading proponent of Esperanto in Spain, is executed by a firing squad in the Cementerio de la Almudena and buried in a mass grave following conviction for "assistance to the rebellion". [see: May 21]

1942 - First deportation from Chelm to Sobibor. Until May 23, about 4,300 Jews are deported.

1964 - Tudor Vianu (b. 1898), Romanian literary critic, art critic, poet, philosopher, academic, and translator, known for his left-wing and anti-fascist convictions, dies. [see: Jan. 8]

[C] 2013 - French fascist historian Dominique Venner (b. 1935) theatrically commits suicide by shooting himself in the head beside the altar of Notre Dame cathedral in Paris in protest against the Masonic-inspired legislation legalising the "abomination" of gay marriage.
1885 - Giacomo Matteotti (d. 1924), Italian socialist member of parliament and prominent opponent of the Fascist regime, who was murdered by fascist thugs, born. His killing precipitated a parliamentary crisis that Mussolini overcame by disavowing the murder and tightening police control. The crushing of the opposition aroused by Matteotti’s assassination effectively marks the beginning of Mussolini’s dictatorship. The murderers and their accomplices received only nominal sentences. [see: Jun. 10]

1909 - Germinal de Sousa (d. 1968), Portuguese anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Son of the famous anarchist Manuel Joaquin de Sousa.

1918 - Dolores Jiménez Álvarez aka 'Blanca', Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and militant in the Spanish and French anti-fascist resistance movements, born in Abejuela, Aragón. The eldest in a large family which migrated to Catalonia in the mid 1920s, she stared work aged 11 and quickly became involved in the libertarian movement. At the age of 16, along with her father and sister, she joined the Peña Abisinia theatre group, where she met he lifelong companion Teofilo Navarro Fadrique. In August 1936, she joined the Durruti Column on the Aragon front and throughout the attacks by the Stalinists against the anarchist movement, and the Franco offensive, she refused to leave the front. Based in Lanaja, in the Huesca province, she participated in cultural activities and theatrical performances, she was later arrested in Mollerusa by communist troops of Valentín González González (El Campesino) but escaped to Lleida where she rejoined the confederales forces and her partner Navarro. Following the defeat of the Republic, they crossed into France via Puigcerda and Le Perthus, where she was interned in the Couvent Saugues, a religious asylum run by nuns in Saugus. In 1940, she was reunited with Teofilo Navarro and both settled in Cordes, where she particiapted in the reorganisation of the Spanish anarchist movement, as well as the anti-Nazi Résistance and struggle against Franco as part of groups Sabaté and Facerías. She also had 3 children, Helios and the twins Juno and Blanca, with Navarro. [expand]

1936 - Following the British Union meeting in Pontypridd Town Hall on April 26 and general fascist activity in Aberdare, Mardy and Ebbw Vale, anti-fascists hold an All-In Conference at the Lewis Merthyr Workmen's Institute, Porth. It is attended by representatives from 22 working class organisations inlcuding all ten Rhondda miners' lodges. The conference makes thorough preparations for mobilising mass street demonstrations against future BU and fascist provocations.

1937 - A plenary session of the C.N.T.'s Local and Comarcal Federations hears a proposal that the Friends of Durruti be expelled.

[C] 1939 - Ernst Toller (b. 1893), German Expressionist playwright, poet, pacifist, anarchist and Munich Soviet leader, dies. Driven out of Germany by the Nazis, destitute from his efforts caring for the children of refugees in Spain, and suffering from deep depression having witnessed the defeat of the Republic and seen his sister and brother arrested and sent to concentration camps, Toller commits suicide in a New York hotel room. [see: Dec. 1]

1939 - Jiří Mahen (real name Antonín Vančura; b. 1882), Czech poet, novelist, journalist, dramaturge, librarian, director, theatre critic, anarchist and anti-militarist, depressed following the Nazi invasion, commits suicide in Brno. [see: Dec. 12]

1942 - Stjepan Filipović (b. 1916), Yugoslavian communist and anti-fascist partisan, is hanged in the city of Valjevo by the collaborationist Serbian State Guard. [see: Jan. 27]

1957 - Franz Borkenau (b. 1900), Austrian philosopher of history, cultural historian, sociologist, communist, anti-Stalinist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Dec. 15]

1963 - Grigoris Lambrakis (Greek: Γρηγόρης Λαμπράκης; b. 1912), Greek resistance fighter, leftist politician, physician, and track and field athlete, received life-treatening injured in a government-sanctioned assassination attempt by 2 hapless hired thugs, far-right extremists Emannouel Emannouilides and Spyro Gotzamani. Left with severe brain injuries, he dies in the hospital five days later, on May 27. [see: Apr. 3]

1970 - High explosive device discovered at a new police station in Paddington. This was later claimed by the prosecution in the trial of the Stoke Newington Eight to be the first action undertaken by 'The Angry Brigade'.

1971 - Bomb attack on Scotland Yard Computer Room at Tintagel House, London. This is accompanied by simultaneous attacks by the Angry Brigade, the International Solidarity Movement, and the Marius Jacob group against British Rail, Rolls Royce and Rover offices in Paris.
[C] 1928 - To protest the Italian dictatorship, the anarchists Severino Di Giovanni and the Scarfó brothers explode a bomb at the Italian Consulate in Buenos Aires, killing 9 fascists and wounding 34.

1934 - In the Battle of Toledo, 10,000 strikers at Ohio's Auto-Lite plant drive away police.

1940 - Oswald Mosley, along with his wife Diana and 747 other BU members, is arrested and interned without charge. A number of Fascists were eventually moved to camps on the Isle of Man where they were housed in segregated camps, separate from those interned as "enemy aliens", but Mosley remained in Brixton prison, as the authorities were concerned that his oratory might whip up disaffection on the Isle of Man.
[ Detainees List.pdf]

1956 - Anti-fascist guerrillero Francisco Sabaté (El Quico) and a companion rob the Central Bank in the Calle Fusina.

1965 - A General Strike in Bolivia is crushed.

1976 - 1,000 anti-fascist demonstrators are greeted with abuse by large numbers of Blackburn people, while a smaller National Party demonstration which follows is applauded and cheered. As Bill Ward, North-West Organiser of the Communist Party, expressed it: "The atmosphere in the town is terrifying. Blackburn is fast-becoming the Alabama of this country". ['Morning Star', May 24th. ,1976; p.3]

1981 - 10,000 protesters in Coventry take part in a march against racist attacks, and in particualr the murder of Satnam Singh Gill the week before, from the Foleshill area of the city to the Cathedral in a demonstration organised by the Coventry Committee Against Racism. The NF and BM hold a much smaller counter-demonstration resulting in a series of clashes between anti-fascists and assorted skinheads and racists reslting in 74 arrests.
[ (pdfs etc)/MS2142.pdf]

2006 - Iordan Chimet (b. 1924), Romanian poet, children's writer and essayist, critic and historian of art, cinema, screenwriter and translator, whose work was inspired by Surrealism and Onirism, dies. [see: Nov. 18]
1901 - Arvid Harnack (d. 1942), German jurist, economist, and resistance fighter in Nazi Germany, who was executed for his part in the activities of the (Nazi named) Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, born. [see: Dec. 22]

1915 - Ramón Garrido Vidal, aka León Carrero Mestre (d. 1995), Galician anti-fascist guerrilla interned at Argeles and Dachau, born.

1920 - Amadeo Ramón Valledor (aka 'El Asturiano' and 'Ramón'; d. 1963), Spanish miner militant anarcho-syndicalist and libertarian anti-fascist fighter, born. Member of the CNT, as were his brothers and father, Amadeo Ramón Chachón. Following the fascist coup of July 1936, he managed to escape and arrived in Asturias. Following the deafeat on the Gijón Front, he and a number of comrades were captured whilst trying to escape by boat. Tried, he received a harsh prison sentence. On the night of 25-26 December 1942, he and others members of the 'Minas de Moro' Society managed to escape from the prison mines at Fabero (Lleó), joining the guerrilla group organised by his cousín Serafín Fernández Ramón (O Santeiro). [expand]

1922 - Juan Portales Casamar (d. 1973), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born into a libertarian family. From an early age, he particiapted, like his brothers and his sister Suceso, in the clandestine struggle with the Andalusian Juventuedes Libertarias (JJLL). In February 1944, during a regional plenum held by the CNT in Seville, he was appointed to the Andalusian Regional Committee of the CNT. From January 1947, he was, with his brother Luis, a member of the Fédération Ibérique des Jeunesses Libertaires (FIJL) and was especially responsible for the distribution of the underground newspapers 'Juventud Libre' (FIJL) and 'Tierra y Libertad' (FAI) - getting paper to the clandestine printing press in the Madrid house of Juan Gomez Casas and then preparing shipments to various regional organisation. He was also defence secretary of the Comitè Peninsular.
At the end of 1947, he was arrested in Madrid along with Liberto Sarrau, as was Gómez Casas together with his printing press. The arrest of Gómez Casas was considered by some to be the result of an act of betrayal and that he was 'allowed' to escape in return for information on the printing press. In France he maintained his links with the Peninsular Committee of FIJL and was one of the founders of the Regional Federation of the CNT in Cachan.

1937 - "On May 24 of this year two persons, accompanied by the Communist mayor, appeared at the home of [Francisco] González Moreno, secretary of the C.N.T. of Mascaraque, and told Moreno that they were messengers from the Lister Brigade and were under orders to arrest him and take him to the city of Mora de Toledo. Moreno at first refused to obey the order, until the Communist mayor of Mascaraque promised to accompany him. But when Moreno had climbed into the waiting auto, the mayor calmly walked off. Next day Moreno was shot behind the Christ Church in Mora de Toledo. In this case there was involved just an ordinary act of revenge, for Moreno, who had formerly been a member of the Communist Party, had left it to join the C.N.T. 'Solidaridad Obrera', from which we take this account, commented:
"Including this new victim there have now been sixty people murdered in Mora de Toledo. Among them were men and women who had done nothing except to belong to the C.N.T. and to condemn the criminal acts of the Communists which kept the neighborhood in terror. Such horrors are not to be explained by the antagonism of different political convictions, nor even by the lust for power of certain advocates of revolution. The perpetrators of crimes so base are simply provocateurs in the service of Fascism. We demand the punishment of the guilty persons. Those in responsible positions in our organization have always admonished the comrades to dignity and self-control. Now, however, we feel ourselves obliged to bring the horrible crimes which threaten to plunge anti-Fascist Spain into a fraternal war to the knowledge of the public, so that the Spanish people may know who are the real provocateurs among the working class." ('Solidaridad Obrera', July 1, 1937.)" [Rudolf Rocker - 'The Tragedy of Spain' (1937)]
[íster [haigography]]

[C] 1943 - In Bulgaria a march against anti-Semitism leads to stop in Jewish deportations.

1943 - A group of sixteen Jewish teenagers organised by Judith Nowogrodzka, 35, a Communist partisan whose husband Moses had been killed in a Nazi massacre in 1941, escaped from the Bialystok Ghetto. Unable to leave herself, the group, led by Szymon Datner, a teacher, is forced to return to the ghetto the very night they escaped, but succeeded in leaving again and reaching the forests on June 3. They went on to fight as partisans, at first alone and then with units from the Red Army, until the war’s conclusion. Datner survived the war to become an historian specialising in Nazi war crimes in eastern Poland; he died in Warsaw in 1989. Judith Nowogrodzka, who stayed in the ghetto to continue to organize escapes, died in the uprising that was launched in Bialystok on August 16, 1943.

1959 - A week after the murder of Kelso Cochrane in Notting Hill, the White Defense League and the National Labour Party hold a joint rally called 'Stop the Coloured Invasion' in Trafalgar Square.

1965 - A strike (May 24 to June 12) at Courtaulds Red Scar Mill in Ribbleton, Preston beaks out at the rayon spinning mill. Led by the Indian Workers Association (IWA) and involving Indian, Pakistani and African-Caribbean workers. It would be the first significant postwar strike by black workers in Britian as action was taken over the management's decision to force Asian workers (who were concentrated with a few West Indians in one area of the labour process) to work more machines for less pay. The strike was not successful but exposed the active collaboration of white workers, local (TGWU) union officials and management against the black workers.
[ struggle of Asian workers in Britain.pdf Papers in Ethnic Relations/PolicyP No.5.pdf]

1975 - A peaceful picket of around 300 anti-fascists trying to stop the NF holding a meeting in Glasgow's Kingston Hall is attacked by 100 truncheon-wielding cops sing 'Flower of Scotland' as they waded into the crowd trying to clear a path for a fascist saluting John Kinsgsley Read, chair of the NF. Sixty-five anti-fascists are arrested, and many were subsequently acquitted when their cases came to court. The police claimed that 18 officers had been treated for injuries but hospital records show not a single admittance. {PR]
1900 - Francesco Carmagnola (d. 1986), Italaian anarchist and labour organiser, born. Forced in 1922 into exile in Australia for his radical ideas and political record. Pivotal anarchist/anti-fascist in the Italian community in Australia, Carmagnola led the 1934 Canecutters' strike.

[C] 1926 - Samuel Schwartzbard, a young Jewish anarchist poet and watchmaker, assassinates Simon Petliura (Petlyura) in Paris in revenge for the Ukraine pogroms of 1919-1920 against Jews (directed by Petliura, a rightwing nationalist and former Hetman of Ukrainian armies) and the murder of his own family members.

1937 - Francisco González Moreno (b. unknow), Secretary of the Sindicato Único de Oficios Varios of the CNT in Mascaraque (Toledo) and an ex-communist, is shot by members of the Lister Brigade (XLVI Brigada Mixta) behind the Christus Church in Mora de Toledo, the 60th CNT member to be executed by the Stalinist hatchetman Enrique Líster Forján and his troops. González Moreno had made a number of unsuccessful attempts at escape since his 'arrest' the previous day. [see: May 24]
NB: Lister would go on to lead the attacks on the anarchist rural collectives in Aragon in August 1937, part of the Communist-dominated Generalitat's plans of erradicating all, especially anarchist, opposition to the PCE's domination of the Revolution.
[íster [haigography]]

1954 - Robert Capa (Endre Friedmann; b. 1913), Hungarian combat photographer, photojournalist and anti-fascist, who covered five different wars, including the Spanish Revolution, dies. [see: Oct. 22]

[A] 1956 - Wilhelm Reich is sentenced to two years in prison and the Wilhelm Reich Foundation is fined $10,000 for contempt of court. Dr. Michael Silvert, is given a sentence of a year and a day for the same offense. Both appealed to the U.S.Circuit Court.

1975 - Alberto Brasili and his partner Lucia Corna are attacked outside the HQ of the Associazione Nazionale Partigiani d'Italia (ANPI - anti-fascist partisan organisation) on the via Mascagni in Milan by five fascists MSI members after he had ripped down a fascist (Partito di Giorgio Almirante) poster in Piazza San Babila. Alberto was stabbed five times and died shortly after his arrival at the hospital. Lucia, stabbed twice, survived only because the blade missed his heart by a few centimeters. The film 'San Babila ore 20: un delitto inutile' (1976) directed by Carlo Lizzani is based on this tragedy.

1977 - José Ledo Limia (b. 1900), Galician anarchist agitator and Civil War fighter, dies. [see: Aug. 30]
1878 - Chris Lebeau (Joris Johannes Christiaan Lebeau; d. 1945), Dutch artist, designer, painter, art teacher, theosophist and anarchist, born. After the Nazis came to power in Germany, Lebeau entered into a sham marriage with a Jewish refugee who had fled Nazi Germany and later during the occupation, he used his artistic knowledge for forging documents. On November 3, 1943 he and his wife were arrested for helping Dutch Jews. He was offered his freedom if he promised to refrain from illegal work, but he refused. He was transferred from Kamp Vught to Dachau concentration camp on May 25, 1944, where he died of exhaustion April 2, 1945.

[B] 1900 - Vítězslav Nezval (d. 1958), Czech poet, writer, dramatist, translator, Dadaist, co-founder of Poetism and a leading personality of Czech Surrealism, born. Like many of his milieu, an anarchist in early life was perhaps the most prolific writer in Prague during the 1920s and 30s. An original member of the anarchist-influenced avant-garde group of artists Devětsil (Nine Forces), he was a founding figure of the Poetist movement. His output consists of a number of poetry collections, experimental plays and novels, memoirs, essays, and translations. His best work is from the inter-war period. Along with Karel Teige, Jindrich Styrsky, and Toyen, Nezval frequently travelled to Paris, engaging with the French surrealists. Forging a friendship with André Breton and Paul Eluard, he was instrumental in founding The Surrealist Group of Czechoslovakia in 1934 (the first such group outside of France), serving as editor of the group's journal 'Surrealismus'.
In 1922 he joined the Devětsil (along with Karel Teige), becoming a dramtaurge for the Osvobozeného Divadla (Liberated Theatre) and of the (anarchist) Union of Communist Groups in 1924. With the demise of Devětsil, and the formation of an official Moscow-leaning Czeck Communist Party (ČSK), he joined that and helped form the communist arts group Levá Fronta (Left Front) in 1929. Nezval also wrote for many leftist papers e.g. 'Rudém Právu' (Red Truth), 'Tvorbě' (Creation), 'Odeonu' (Odeaon), 'Nové Scéně' (New Stage), 'Lidových Novinách' (The People's Newspaper), etc.
Post-WWII, he was active within the ČSK, becoming head of the film department of the Ministry of Information and ending up as its Stalinist laureate, named National Artist of the Czechoslovak Republic in 1953.
Amongst his poetry collections, 'Pantomima' (Pantomime; 1924), which is considered to be the pinnacle of poetic creation, and more erotic and ultimately Surrealist verse such as 'Menší Rùžová Zahrada' (A Small Rose Garden; 1926) and 'Dobrodružství Noci a Vìjíøe' (Romantic Nights and Fans; 1927), the more militant collections 'Sklenìný Havelok' (The Glass Cloak; 1932) and '52 Hoøkých Balad Vìèeného Studenta Roberta Davida' (52 Bitter Ballads of the Eternal Student Robert David; 1936). Nezval also wrote everything from children stories such as 'Anička Skřítek a Slaměný Klobouk' (Elf Anna and the Straw Hat; 1936) and 'Slamìný Hubert' (Hubert the Straw Man, 1936) reminiscent of Lewis Carrol's 'Alice in Wonderland'; dramas and 'poetic scenes' (for the Liberated Theatre) including the Surrealist 'Strach' (Fear; 1930) and the allegorical anti-nuclear war 'Dnes Ještě Zapadá Slunce Nad Atlantidou' (Today, the Sun Still Sets Over Atlantis; 1956); and even a series of screen plays for films that were never made (although Gustav Machatý directed the film 'Erotikon' which was based on an uncredited Nezval story).

I heard the secrets in a kiss
the words around it circling like a line of coloured butterflies
saw thousands of bacteria
in a sick man's body
& every one of them looked like a spiky chestnut
like a cosmos making war
with a skin of scaly armour

I saw a human break free from his dying comrades
in the pit of history that has no bottom.

'The Seventh Chant' (1924)


1901 - The first issue of the Lyon workers daily 'Le Quotidien' is published by Sébastien Faure. It ends publication in March 1902 after 294 issues.

[C] 1944 - Insurrectional General Strike against the Nazis is called in Marseille; A US bombing raid on Marseille kills 6,000 in the workers' districts.

1952 - Winston Smith, US anarchist, "Punk Art Surrealist and master of 'hand-carved' collage" in his own words, born. Probably best known for the artwork he has produced for the American punk rock group Dead Kennedys.

1954 - Franz Pfemfert (b. 1879), German anarchist, publisher, editor of the mass-circulation anti-war paper 'Die Aktion', poet, literary critic and portrait photographer, dies. [see: Nov. 20]

1956 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: At midnight on the night of May 26-27 the Casbah is surrounded preventing anyone from entering or leaving. The operation operation involves 1,500 plainclothes and uniformed police and elements of the army and navy representing more than 6,000 men. At 04:00 the encirclement is complete and speaker cars tour the streets, telling residents to stay home, not to oppose the police, to avoid incidents. Checks and searches begin, conducted by police, the CRS and gendarmes with every street and alley and numerous houses destined to be searched' a hge undertaking when one consider that the Kasbah was then home to over 80,000 Muslims. At dawn, a helicopter starts to turn over the Arab town, watching the terraces and monitoring any suspicious gatherings.
[–57)'Alger algerie/alger-premiere-rafle monstre.html]
1879 - Alberto Meschi (d. 1958), Italian anarchist, trade union organiser, writer, and anti-fascist, who fought in Spain with the Rosselli Column from 1936 up to the fall of the Republic, born.

1884 - Max Brod (d. 1968), Czech author, composer, journalist and one-time anarchist fellow traveller who was the friend, literary executor and biographer of Franz Kafka, born. Both Brod and Kafka frequented the Karolinenthal public house, Zum Kanonenkreuz, a well-known anarchist meeting place and took part to in meetings of the anarchist Club of the Young, which were disguised as a mandolin club to escape police surveillance. Though less than sympathetic to Kafka's anarchism, he later wrote a novel, 'Stefan Rott oder Das Jahr der Entscheidung' (Stefan Rott or the Decisive Year; 1931), which depicted the radical atmosphere in the Zum Kanonenkreuz, retaining the real names of many of those present. Despite his prodigious literary output and occasional success - his first novel 'Schloß Nornepygge' (Nornepygge Castle; 1908) was hailed as a masterpiece of Expressionism - he is mainly remembered for his promotion of others such as Jaroslav Hašek's 'The Good Soldier Svejk' and Leoš Janáček's operas, in addition to Kafka.
In later life, Brod became a pronounced Zionist.

1905 - Helios Gómez Rodríguez (d. 1956), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, painter, poster artist, poet and militant activist, known as the 'artista de corbata roja' (artist with the red tie), born. Representative of the Spanish avant-garde movement of the early twentieth century alongside the likes of Luis Buñuel , Salvador Dalí and Federico García Lorca, and who joined the Aliança d'Intellectuals Antifeixistes de Catalunya. [expand]


[B] 1907 - Nicolas Calas (Νικόλαος Κάλας), pseudonym of Nikos Kalamaris (Νίκος Καλαμάρης; d. 1988), Greek-American poet, art critic, surrealist and anarchist, who also used the pseudonyms Nikitas Randos (Νικήτας Ράντος) and M. Spieros (Μ. Σπιέρος), born.

1911 - Jerzy Zbigniew Złotowski aka 'Poręba' (d. 1944), Polish architectural engineer, syndicalist and anti-Nazi fighter, born. He part in the defence of Poland during the Nazi invasion as a member of Armia Krajowa (AK; Home Army)[Grupa 'Północ' (Group 'North')]. From November 1939, he was a member of Central Committee of the Związek Syndykalistów Polskich (ZSP; Union of Polish Syndicalists). Lieutenant and then commanding officer of the ZSP Headquarters Combat Units. During Warsaw Uprising, he was an officer in 104 Kompania Związku Syndykalistów Polskich (Company 104 of the Union of Polish Syndicalists) in the Old Town and of the Syndicalist Brigade (PAL) in Śródmieście. On September 30, 1944, he fell in combat on the corner of Krucza St. and Wspolna St.

1939 - Voyage of the Damned: Cuba refuses entry to the Jews amongst the 937 refugees onboard the MS St. Louis seeking asylum from Nazi persecution in Germany. Only 22 non Jewish passengers were allowed to disembark on Cuban shores. After long negotiations, the remaining 915 passengers (mostly Jewish) are forced to return to Europe.

1942 - Pierre Ramus (aka Rudolf Grossman) (b. 1882) Austrian writer, pacifist and propagandist of anarchist ideas, dies fleeing from Nazi-occupied Europe. Wrote for Johann Most's newspaper and organised the German FKAD (Federation of Anarchist Communists of Germany) parallel to Rudolf Rocker's FAUD. Fleeing Nazi-occupied Europe, he had boarded a ship on the 20th, enroute to Veracruz, Mexico.

1942 - Operation Anthropoid: A joint operation between the Special Operations Executive and Czechoslovak Resistance to ambush and kill SS-Obergruppenführer and General der Polizei Reinhard Heydrich, head of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Main Security Office, RSHA), the combined security services of Nazi Germany, and acting Reichsprotektor of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, is almost botched. A sunny morning, First Lieutenant Adolf Opálka (b. 1915), Sergeants Josef Valčík (b. 1914), Jozef Gabčík (b. 1912) and Jan Kubiš (b. 1913) waited on a street corner in the Praha suburb of Kobilisi for the approach of the car carrying Heydrich on his daily commute from his home in Panenské Břežany to Prague Castle. Having been signal by Valčík that the open-topped Mercedes 320 Convertible B was approaching, Gabčík armed with a Sten sub-machine gun , jumped out in front of the car as it slowed down to take the corner and pulled the trigger. The gun jammed. Heydrich ordered his driver to stop the car and, as stood up to try to shoot Gabčík with his Luger pistol, Kubiš threw a modified anti-tank grenade concealed in a briefcase at the vehicle. It exploded near the car, injuring Heydrich and Kubiš with shrapnel and Gabčík and Kubiš fired at Heydrich with their handguns but missed. Heydrich, apparently unaware of his shrapnel injuries, staggered out of the car, returned fire and tried to chase Gabčík but soon collapsed. Heydrich ordered his driver to chase Gabčík but ended up getting shot and seriously wounded. Seperated, Gabčík and Kubiš made it to a safe house, convinced that the attack had failed.
Meanwhile, Heydrich was taken to the emergency room at Na Bulovce Hospital. He had suffered severe injuries to his left side, with major diaphragm, spleen and lung damage as well as a fractured rib. He was operated on to reinflate the collapsed left lung, remove the tip of the fractured rib, suture the torn diaphragm, insert several catheters and remove the spleen, which contained a grenade fragment and upholstery material. He went on to develop septicemia, lapsed into a coma and eventually died at 4:30 on the morning of June 4.
On the very day of the assassination attempt Hitler ordered an investigation and reprisals. More than 13,000 were arrested, including Jan Kubiš' girlfriend Anna Malinová, who subsequently died in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp. First Lieutenant Adolf Opálka's aunt, Marie Opálková, was executed in the Mauthausen camp on 24 October 1942; his father, Viktor Jarolím, was also killed. Intelligence falsely linked the assassins to the villages of Lidice and Ležáky. On June 9, 1942, the village of Lidice was destroyed, 199 men were executed, 95 children taken prisoner (81 later killed in gas vans at the Chełmno extermination camp; eight others were taken for adoption by German families), and 195 women were immediately deported to Ravensbrück concentration camp. All adults, men and women, in the village of Ležáky were murdered. Both towns were burned, and the ruins of Lidice leveled. According to one estimate, 5,000 were killed in reprisals.
The investigation continued, but the Germans were unable to locate the attackers until Karel Čurda of 's 'Out Distance' sabotage group was arrested and questioned by the Gestapo and gave them the names of the team’s local contacts for the bounty of 500,000 Reichsmarks. Čurda's betrayal of several safe houses ultimately led to Gabčík, Kubiš, Opálka and Valčík, together with fellow combattants Josef Bublík, Jan Hrubý and Jaroslav Švarc, being tracked to the Church of St. Cyril and St. Methodious in Prague on June 18, 1942. At 16:15, the church was besieged by 800 soldiers of the Wehrmacht Heer and Waffen-SS. After a seven-hours fight, the outnumbered group of paratroopers fell. All died, with Adolf Opálka committing suicide after having being injured by shrapnel.

1943 - The first unified meeting of French Résistance groups took place, chaired by Jean Moulin; it recognized de Gaulle as the leader of the movement. Moulin would be betrayed to the Gestapo a month later, dying en route to a concentration camp.

1947 - Anarchist guerrillero Enrique Marco Nadal arrested. Condemned to death in 1949, his sentence is commuted to 30 years imprisonment.

1963 - Aquilino Gomes Ribeiro (b. 1885), Portuguese novelist, writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 13]

1963 - Grigoris Lambrakis (Greek: Γρηγόρης Λαμπράκης; b. 1912), Greek resistance fighter, leftist politician, physician, and track and field athlete, dies from the injuries he received in a rather hapless assassination attempt on May 22. [see: Apr. 3]

1977 - 'God Save The Queen' by the Sex Pistols released.

[C] 1989 - Around 100 anti-fascists from AFA and Red Action amongst others, occupy the announced rally point at Marble Arch for a secret gig, aka 'The Main Event' [sic], "somewhere in London" organised by the neo-Nazi Blood and Honour group [protests had already forced the not-so-secret' original venue at Camden Town Hall to cancel]. The anti-fascists spend all afternoon picking off the fash as they arrive in ones and two, groups and via coaches.

2006 - Paul Zilsel (b. 1923), theoretical physicist, militant activist, anarchist and co-founder of Left Bank Books in Seattle, Washington, dies. [see: May 6]
1875 - Fernand Elosu (d. 1941), French anarchist, neo-Malthusian, MD and social pioneer (contraception, free love, etc), born. Active in the defence of des Stérilisés de Bordeaux in 1935. A pacifist, he was condemned as a communist in 1940 and died in prison in 1941 of pneumonia.

1897 - Camillo Berneri (d. 1937), Italian professor of philosophy, propagandist and anarchist militant and theorist, born. [expand]

1897 - The Rome Assize Court sentences the young anarchist Pietro Acciarito to life with hard labour for his failed attempt to stab King Umberto I on April 22, 1897.

1910 - Paul Lapeyre (d. 1991), French anarchist, along with his brothers Aristide Lapeyre and Laurent, born.

[AA] 1931 - Italian-American anarchist and anti-fascist Michele Schirru (b. 1899), having acknowledged his intention to kill Mussolini, is quickly found guilty and sentenced to death. He is shot early tomorrow morning at Fort Braschi.

1937 - In Spain POUM's newspaper 'La Batalla' is shut down by the Republic's government, as is the POUM's radio station. The Friends of Durruti's social premises in the Ramblas are also ordered to be shut down.

1968 - Kees van Dongen (Cornelis Theodorus Maria van Dongen; b. 1877), Dutch painter, cartoonist on the anarchist magazine 'La Revue Blanche' and one of the founders of Fauvism, dies. [see: Jan. 26]

[C] 1974 - Piazza della Loggia bombing: Eight Italian anti-Fascists are killed and over ninety injured in a bomb attack on an anti-Fascist demo in Brescia, Italy.

[B] 2004 - Étienne Roda-Gil (Esteve Roda Gil; b. 1941), French-born poet, songwriter, screenwriter, libertarian and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 1]
1896 - Giuseppe Faravelli (d. 1974), Italian socialist and anti-fascist, who was involved in the Giustizia e Libertà (Justice and Freedom) movement, born.

1900 - René Michaud (d. 1979), French anarchist and author of the Parisian working class memoir of 'J'avais Vingt Ans: Un Jeune Ouvrier Au Debut Du Siecle' (1967), born.

[C] 1931 - Michele Schirru (b. 1899), 32-year-old Italian-American anarchist and anti-fascist, is executed by a fascist firing squad in Rome having admitted his intention to assassinate Mussolini. [see: Oct. 19]

1937 - Maximino Nardo Imbernón Cano (d. 2008), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. The son of Jesus Imbernón, he remained in Barcelona with his mother at the end of the Civil War (and taking the Catholic saint's name Maximino for safety sake), they were unable to join his father in Paris until the border reopened in 1948. Attracted to libertarian ideas, by the early 1950s he was a member of the FIJL. With the reunification of the CNT in exile in 1960, which had followed the creation of Defensa Interior (DI) 2 years earlier, his Parisian home became a focus for the clandestine activities of DI. On 21 September 1963, following the execution of Joaquín Delgado and Francisco Granado in Madrid and collaboration between the French and Spanish police, he was arrested along with a dozen other FIJL militants. On October 19, he and Cipriano Mera were released and he rejoined the solidarity campaigns for those comrades imprisoned in Spain and France. In the late 1960s, he was one of the groups and activists who, having been excluded from the CNT following the split occurred at the 1965 Congress in Montpellier, began publishing the newspaper 'Frente Libertario' then formed at a conference in Narbonne the Grupos de Presencia Confederal y Libertaria (GPCL). Following the death of Franco, he was involved in the reintergration of the CNT in Spain.
[ Gomez Frente Libertario FIJL.htm]

2011 - Rosa Laviña i Carreras (b. 1918), Catalan anti-fascist militant, cenetista, secretary of the Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth (FIJL), National Committee member and Treasurer of SIA, dies. [see: Jan 14 or 19]
1900 - Pio Turroni (d. 1982), Italian anarchist and publisher of the long-running anarchist review 'Volonta', born. Fled to Belgium in 1923, to escape the repression of the Italian fascist government, then to France in 1925.

1901 - Maxim Gorky, arrested on charges of printing revolutionary literature, is released from prison after the anarchist/novelist Count Leo Tolstoy intercedes on his behalf. Gorky later served a similar role by interceding on the behalf of many writers victimised by Stalin's regime.
"When work is a pleasure, life is a joy! When work is a duty, life is slavery."

1902 - Hem Day (Marcel Camille Dieu / Henri Day; d. 1969), Belgian scholar, secondhand bookseller, pacifist, anarchist and writer, born.

1906 - Pio Turroni (d. 1982), anarchist and long-time anti-fascist militant, born. He fought in the Spanish Revolution of 1936, and long-time publisher of 'Volontà'.

1911 - Goldy Parin-Matthèy (d. 1997), Swiss psychoanalyst and anarchist, born.
"Ich glaube, daß die anarchistische Utopie die menschlichen kreativen Möglichkeiten und den Respekt vor dem Menschen am besten gewährleistet, besser als das kommunistische Modell, an dessen Gerechtigkeit ich früher geglaubt habe." (I believe that the anarchist utopia of human creative potential and respect for the people on the best way to ensure better than the communist model, to the justice I had believed before.)

1924 - Giacomo Matteotti (b. 1885), Italian socialist member of parliament and prominent opponent of the Fascist regime, speaks out in the Italian Parliament alleging the Fascists committed fraud in the recently held elections, and denouncee the violence they used to gain votes. Eleven days later he is kidnapped and killed by Fascists. [see: May 22 & Jun. 10]

1933 - Sergio Citti (d. 2005), Italian actor, film director, screenwriter and libertarian, who was closely linked artistically to Pier Paolo Pasolini, born. Citti directed 'Ostia' (1970), with a screenplay co-written with Pier Paolo Pasolini, featuring Bandiera and Rabbino, two anarchist brothers trying to recover from their Catholic upbringing. He also co-wrote the screenplay to Pasolini's anti-fascist allegory 'Salò o le 120 giornate di Sodoma' (Salò, or the 120 Days of Sodom; 1975).

[CC] 1961 - Dominican Republic dicator Rafael Trujillo (b. 1891), nicknamed El Jefe, is assassinated. His 31 years in power is considered one of the bloodiest eras ever in the Americas. More than 50,000 people, including 20,000 to 30,000 in the infamous Parsley Massacre, died under his tyrannical rule. Trujillo's son, Ramfis (Rafael Leónidas Trujillo) Martínez, returned from Paris to assume control, directing the security forces to hunt down all known participants in the assassination plot. Hundreds of suspects were detained, many tortured and the wives of the ten conspirators were imprisoned in the La Victoria Penitentiary while their husbands were tracked down. The hiding place of Antonio de la Maza and General Juan Tomás Díaz was betrayed, and they were surrounded and killed by the forces of the Servicio de Inteligencia Militar. Lieutenant Amado García Guerrero, wounded in the foot, was tracked down to his aunt's house and killed. The house was later destroyed by shelling. Miguel Ángel Báez Díaz and brothers la Maza (Ernesto, Bolívar, Mario and Pablo) were tortured and killed in prison. General Antonio Imbert Barreras and Luis Amiama Tió managed to avoid capture, as did Manuel de Ovín Filpo. However, Modesto Díaz Quezada, Pedro Livio Cedeño Herrera, Huascar Antonio Tejada Pimentel, Roberto Pastoriza Neret, Salvador Estrella Sadhalá a.k.a. 'El Turco' and Luis Manuel Cáceres Michel were captured and, on November 18, 1961, they were taken from La Victoria to the notorious Hacienda Maria, where they were shot one by one, placed as targets for shooting practice on a concrete platform over the pool. It is presumed that their bodies were thrown into the sea.

1970 - Georges Thomas (b. 1883), French teacher, anarchist, syndicalist and the socialist politician, dies. [see: Dec. 8]

[C] 1977 - Lewisham 21: As part of 'Operation PNH' (Police Nigger Hunt), dawn raids are carried out at 30 homes in New Cross and Lewisham and 21 young black people are arrested, accused of being involved in street robberies. Following the arrests, police claim that they were the "gang" were responsible "for 90 per cent of the street crime in south London over the past six months." They were to appear at Camberwell Green Magistrates' Court the following day, charged with various offences of 'conspiracy to rob'. During the hearings, some of the defendants fought with the police while spectators in the public gallery attempted to invade the court.

2006 - Militant anti-fascists attack a BNP meeting in Starbeck, North Yorkshire throwing half bricks through the windows, showering the speakers, including Nick Griffin, with glass and debris.
1930 - Juan Genovés, Spanish painter and graphic artist, born. Greatly influenced by his cousin Ramon a militant anarchist who takes shelter in their home following the defeat of the Republic and who recounts stirring stories of war and solidarity, and instills in Juan the importance of culture for the workers.

1951 - Jean Marestan (aka Gaston Havard) (b. 1874), Belgian pacifist, author, anarchist and militant néo-Malthusian, dies. [see: May 5]

[C] 1962 - Otto Adolf Eichmann (b. 1906), German Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer and one of the major organisers of the Holocaust, is hanged at a prison in Ramla. Eichmann had been captured by Mossad & Shin Bet agents in Buenos Aires on May 11, 1960 and smuggled out to Israel. In Argentina, his arrest was greeted with a wave of violent anti-Semetism. Eichmann's trial in the Jerusalem District Court began on April 11, 1961 and was adjourned on August 14 pending sentence. On December 12 he was declared guilty of crimes against humanity and war crimes and sentenced to death 3 days later. Israel's Supreme Court rejected Eichmann's appeal on May 29, 1962 and he was handed 2 days later.

1978 - Hannah Höch (Anna Therese Johanne Höch; b. 1889), German artist, photomontagist, Dadaist and feminist, dies. [see: Nov. 1]

2010 - Louise Joséphine Bourgeois (b. 1911), French-American autobigraphical artist, sculptor and feminist icon, dies. [see: Dec. 25]

2010 - Kostya Lunkin (b. 1985), Russian anti-fascist, who had been brutally attacked by neo-Nazis in his home city of Ryazan on 23 May, the day of his 25th birthday, dies in hospital. Attacked near his home, his skull was fractured with a rock. He lapsed into a coma and never regained consciousness. Kostya's neighbour, having witnessed the attack, identified the murders and they were detained the same day. However, they were never convicted as their parents testified that their children "were at home at the time".

2011 - Demetre Fraser, a 21-year old black man from Peckhan in south London who was on bail under the condition that he must live outside London, falls to his death from a Birmingham tower block during a visit from two West Midlands Police officers to the flat Demetre was staying in. The police claimed that he committed suicide by jumping from the 11th floor of the high-rise block where he was staying temporarily. However, his family claimed that neighbours had reported hearing a struggle and commotion on the night he died, and that his body shows no obvious signs of having dropped 11 floors.
In May 2014 the IPCC ruled that officers who attempted to apprehend Demetre Fraser on suspicion of breaching bail conditions from an address in Moor House, Druids Heath, were not to blame for his death. Police claims that he jumped or fell whilst trying to escape, this despite the flat being protected by a locked steel gate that the police were unable to get through, were believed.

[C] 1934 - The British Union of Fascists' office in Gateshead is wrecked, probably by Anti-Fascist League Greyshirts.

1938 - Attilio Bulzamini (d. 1890), Spanish anarchist militant, dies of typhoid. [see: Nov. 11]

[B] 1940 - Katerina Gogou (Κατερίνα Γώγου; d. 1993), Greek anarchist poet, author and actress, born.

1977 - Émile Coulaudon aka Colonel Gaspard (b. 1907), French socialist, who was one of the principal leaders of the Résistance in Auvergne, dies. [see: Dec. 29]

1988 - Victor Arthur James Willing (b. 1928), Egyptian-born British painter and anarchist, dies of multiple sclerosis. [see: Jan. 15]

[CC] 2013 - The BNP try to hold a wreath laying event at the Cenotaph in London. A couple of hundred anti-fascists were prevented from overrunning the BNP's assembly point in Old Palace Yard by the cops and the fewer than 70 fash present were unable to move off. Meanwhile the UAF blocked the junction with Parliament Square. "For the next four hours the police tested the will of the crowd by rushing forward and using snatch squads. Over sixty arrests were made as anti-fascists were loaded into double decker buses specially commandeered for the occasion. However the line refused to budge and the fash stayed safely penned in." ['Schnews' 844] At 3pm, just as the cops seemed to be trying to create a corridor of vans to push the BNP along their march route, 4-500 badger-masked re-inforcements arrived from the 'Stop the Cull' demo which had just ended in St James' Park. "Two hours later the fash ... decided to throw in the towel and announced that they were not going to march. Victorious anti-fascists marched to the Cenotaph before retiring for a well deserved pint." [ibid] Those arrested, who appear to have been part of a pre-planned 'quota', were all bailed out of central London and given conditions not to participate in or organise 'protests'.
1903 - Max Aub (Max Aub Mohrenwitz; d. 1972), Spanish-Mexican experimentalist novelist, playwright and literary critic, born in Paris to German parents who were forced to move to Spain at the start of WWI. Joined the PSOE in 1928. Friend of Picasso and Lorca. In 1937, he was appointed cultural attaché of Spain in Paris and managed the order and purchase of 'Guernica' from Picasso for the International Exposition. Two years later, whilst in France working on Malraux's film 'L'Espoir', he was denounced by the Franco regime and thrown into a Vichy concentration camp as a dangerous communist and "German Jew". He managed to escape and went into exile in Mexico, his home until his death. In Mexico he formed a working friendship with Luis Buñuel and in 1965 he founded the literary periodical 'Los Sesenta' (the Sixties). The author of nearly 100 novels and plays, the centrepiece of his oeuvre is the 'El Laberinto Mágico' (The Magic Labyrinth) Spanish Civil War series of six novels - 'Campo Cerrado' (Field of Honour; 1943), 'Campo de Sangre' (Field of Blood; 1945), 'Campo Abierto' (Outfield; 1951), 'Campo del Moro' (Field of the Moros; 1963), 'Campo Francés' (French Field; 1965) and 'Campo de los Almendros' (Field of Almond; 1968). Two of his other major novels were 'Las Buenas Intenciones' (The Best of Intentions; 1954) and 'La Calle de Valverde' (Valverde Street; 1961). 'Jusep Torres Campalans' (1958) is his fictional account of a Catalan anarchist Cubist painter loosely based on Picasso.

1906 - Spanish anarchist Mateo Morral, who on May 31st tried to assassinate King Alphonse XIII, is spotted by police and shoots himself. The government uses Morral's attempt as a pretext to imprison Francisco Ferrer and shut down The Modern School.

1913 - Futurist painter and anarchist Luigi Russolo introduces a prototype of his intonarumori noise machine to a completely unprepared audience at the Teatro Storchi in Modena. Preceded by a rather solemn lecture by introduction, which is interrupted by jeers and shouting.

[C] 1925 - Gueorgui Cheitanov (b. 1896), Bulgarian anarchist militant, is executed, along with his companion Mariola Sirakova and others, by the fascist government during a crackdown on leftists following a Communist bombing in Sofia. [see: Feb. 14]

1970 - Giuseppe Ungaretti (b. 1888), Italian modernist poet, journalist, essayist, critic and academic, dies. A one-time anarchist sympathiser who later became an active fascist. [see: Feb. 10]

1970 - Lucia Sanchez Saornil (b. 1895), Spanish poet, painter and militant anarchist-feminist, dies. A founder of the famed Mujeres Libres. [see: Dec. 13]

1975 - Scarlat Callimachi or Calimachi (nicknamed Prinţul Roşu, the Red Prince; b. 1896), Romanian journalist, essayist, Futurist poet, trade unionist, youthful anarchist and later a communist activist, dies. [see: Sep. 20]

[B] 2008 - Arthur Adrién Porchet (b. 1907), Swiss filmmaker, cinematographer and libertarian, who made propaganda films for the CNT during the Spanish Civil War, dies. [see: Oct. 14]

2012 - The EDL’s football hooligan division, Casuals United, arrive in Brighton for what they had threatened to be a 'revenge mission' for the humiliation of the March for england on April 22, 2012 - "You asked for it" – "you sowed the wind, now you'll reap the whirlwind" - "no women and kids this time" - "We are coming back to Brighton IN NUMBERS and you dirty lefty child abusing cunts will be dealt with". They were met by around 100 anti-fascists, who had gathered in Churchill Square to support the Brighton Uncut Great Brighton Street Party and the regular Palestine Solidarity campaign stall, just in case the fash turned up. Despite the heavy police presence in anticipation of trouble, groups of the nationalists/fascists ran around Kemptown throwing bangers and shouting homophobic slogans - Stephen Sands, long time MfE stalwart and perpetrator of a vicious attack against an anti-fascist in 2010 , was arrested and plead guilty "discharging a firework in a public place". Anti-fascists, upon hearing of the Casuals' antics, then headed of to Kemp Town, despite police attempts to kettle them, but heavy police numbers prevented all but minor skirmishes. By 4pm, police had rounded up the majority of the Casuals, (around 35 of them) and marched them to the station to be forcibly placed on a train out of town. In addition to Sands, 13 other Casuals were arrested, mostly for racist chanting and assault, including 2 for cocaine possession and one for smack.
1896 - Isaac Puente Amestoy (d. 1936), Spanish anarchist, CNT member and physician, born. [expand]

[C] 1934 - Despite forceful opposition from anti-fascists (the CPGB had put out a London-wide mobilisation), the British Union of Fascists are able to hold an hour-long meeting in Finsbury Park, North London, because of heavy police presence protecting them. [see: May 13][PR]

1943 - French Résistance saboteurs destroyed 300 tons of tires in the Michelin factory at Clermont-Ferrant.

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: Members of Yacef Saâdi's réseau bombes (bombs network) plant bombs in street lamps at bus stops in the centre of Algiers (at the bottom of the Rue Hoche, the Moulin station, at the crossroads of Agha, facing the Mauretania, and near the café Métropole). The four bombs, the first since February 9th, the day before the Pied-Noir attack at the football stadium, explode between 20:15 & 20:30, the time nearby offices are due to leave work. Seven people are killed, including three children, and 92 wounded, including 33 amputees.
[–57)'Alger algerie/alger-attentats-lampadaire.html]

1967 - René-Louis Lafforgue (b. 1928), French singer, songwriter, actor, interpreter and anarchist, dies in a car accident in southern France. [see Mar 13]

1979 - Gladys Gogoan, Spanish anarchist, murdered by the Guardia Civil during Earth Day protests, in Tudela.
1882 - Karl Valentin (Valentin Ludwig Fey; d. 1948), German comedian, cabaret performer, clown, author, film producer and anarchist, born. A significant influence on German Weimar culture, Valentin was also the star of many silent films in the 1920's, earning him the sobriquet the 'Charlie Chaplin of Germany'. Known for his 'linguistic anarchism', which was based around linguistic dexterity and wordplay, his work parallels that of Dadaism and the social expressionism of the Neue Sachlichkeit. Bertolt Brecht was greatly influenced by Valentin, and Brecht scripted Valentin's slapstick film 'Mysterien eines Friseursalons' (Mysteries of a Barbershop; 1923). A German TV film, 'Liesl Karlstadt und Karl Valentin' (2008), was made about Valentin and his relationship with stage partner and long-term lover, Liesl Karlstadt (Elisabeth Wellano; 1892-1960).

1923 - In Zaragoza, Francisco Ascaso and Rafael Torres Escartín, members of Los Solidarios, help the militants Juliana López and Esteban Salamero shoot the cardinal archbishop Don Juan Soldevila Romero and an accompanying priest, riddling their car with bullets. Cardinal Soldevila was the principal financier and recruiter employers pistoleros and of the yellow Free Union of Zaragoza.

1932 - Angelo Pellegrino Sbardellotto is arrested in Rome under a false identity following the discovery of two guns and bombs during a search of his home. He will be tried and summarily executed on June 17 for attempting to assassinate Mussolini.

1937 - Helmut Hirsch (b. 1916), a German Jew is executed for his part in a Schwarze Front (Black Front)[formerly the Kampfgemeinschaft Revolutionärer Nationalsozialisten (KGRNS; Combat League of Revolutionary National Socialists), a group formed by Otto Strasser after his expulsion from the NSDAP in 1930] bombing plot intended to target the Nazi party headquarters in Nuremberg and destabilise the German Reich. [see: Dec. 21]

[C] 1937 - Pablo Picasso completes his mural-sized painting 'Guernica'.

1938 - Pepita (Josepa) Not (b. 1900), Spanish militant anarchist who was involved in the 1920s in transporting mail, money and weapons for Los Solidarios, dies in childbirth.

1939 - Voyage of the Damned: America refuses entry to the Jews amongst the 915 refugees remaining [see: May 27] onboard the MS St. Louis seeking asylum from Nazi persecution in Germany, even firing a warning shot to keep them away from Florida’s shores.

1945 - Georg Kaiser (b. 1878), German Expressionist playwright, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Nov. 25]

1950 - 43 Group disbands: At an extraordinary general meeting of the membership of the 43 Group, the resolution that the executive committee had drawn up on May 18:
"In the interests of the Jewish community, as the ultimate proof of our sincerity in this desire for unity, and because we consider that Jewish ex-servicemen can and must play a leading role against all forms of reaction, it is hereby resolved by the membership of the 43 Group of Ex-Servicemen that this organization shall forthwith disband, and that all those eligible should immediately join and take part in the work of the Association of Jewish Ex-Servicemen." Its active members join AJEX or groups like the CPGB, the British Peace Council and the NCCL. Other will emigrated to israel or just retired from active anti-fascist activity.

1958 - The Battle of The Level: An attempted recruitment rally by the Union Movement, where Jeffrey Hamm and Raven Thompson were due to speak, ends in a mass battle as the fascists are outnumbered. AJEX and the 43 Group had gotten wind of the rally in advance and mobilised for it, catching both the UM and the police unaware. Hamm ended up being hospitalised and the fascists humiliated, and no further fascist meetings were held in Brighton for many years. [PR]
[see also: Graham Macklin - 'Very Deeply Dyed in Black: Sir Oswald Mosley and the Resurrection of British Fascism after 1945' (2007)]
[ _11195_path_ _0p115p203p1973p.aspx [NB: URL suffers formatting display problems with this wiki - Close the _ _ gaps before using!],9171,803581,00.html]

1976 - Eighteen-year Old Sikh Amit Roy As Gurdip Singh Chaggar is stabbed by a NF-inspired gang in a racist attack outside the Victory public house in Southall, London. Local youths responded by turning out in large numbers to express their anger, before 200 of them marched on the town’s police station to demand better protection from racist attacks. Police arrested 2 of the demonstrators but, after 'negotiations' with local 'community leaders', they were released - the fact that the police station was surrounded by protesters holding a sitdown protest and refusing to leave until the 2 were released, and that there was the possiblity of a full-scale riot may also have played its part. No one was ever convicted of the killing.
Later that same evening, another meeting was held to organise self-defence units, leading directly to the formation of the Southall Youth Movement (SYM).
[ of asian youth movement.pdf]

1986 - Umberto Marzocchi (b. 1900), Italian shipyard worker, anarchist and anti-fascist fighter in the Arditi del Popolo, who fought on the Aragon front during the Spanish Civil War and, following the Retirada, joined the Foreign Legion (to gain French papers) and fought with the Maquis during WWII, dies. [see: Oct. 10]
[B] 1875 - Stanislav Kostka Neumann (d. 1947), Czech journalist, poet, literary and art critic, translator and anarchist, born. A representative of the turn of the century generation of Czech Anarchističtí Buřiči, "básníci života a vzdoru" (Anarchist Rebels, "the poets of life and defiance"). Expelled from business college, he participated in the clandestine youth movement, Omladina, for which he was arrested in 1893, standing trial in the notorious Proces s Omladinou (Trial of the Teenagers) and spending 14 months in Plzen-Bory prison. After returning from prison, he published his first poetry collection of 'Latinsky Nemesis, Strážkyně Dobrých / Majetku' (Latin Nemesis, Guardian of Good / Assets; 1895) and contributed to the Symbolisti magazine 'Moderní Revue' (Modern Revue). He also became publisher and editor of the anarchist literary magazine 'Nový Kult' (The New Cult) in 1897, and was active in anarchist circles and writing for movement magazines such as 'Práce' (Labour). In 1902 he co-founded the Prague Esperanto club and began to write poetry in the langauge, as well as helping form, with Michal Kácha, the Česká Anarchistická Federace (Czech Anarchist Federation, or ČAF) and the Česká Federace Va̧ech Odborů (Czech Federation of All Unions, or ČFVO).
Around this time he started to work for the Brno paper 'Lidové Noviny' (People’s Newspaper) and, thanks to the brothers Čapek, he came into a closer contact with the pre-war art group founded around the 'Almanach na Rok 1914' (Almanac for the Year 1914), which rejected Symbolism and signalled the beginning of a shift by Neumann away from anarchism. During WWI he was on the Albanian front as ambulance driver and just before the end of the war he started publishing the magazine 'Červen' (June; 1918-22), co-edited with Michal Kácha, which brought together the pre-war "moderns" (the brothers Čapek and others) and authors from the upcoming generation who dedicated themselves to "proletarian art" (e.g. Jaroslav Seifert, Vladislav Vančura, Jiří Wolker, Jindřich Hořejší).
He joined the new Česká Strana Socialistická (Czech Socialist Party), of which he became a representative in the Revoluční Národní Shromáždění (Revolutionary National Assembly) and became a high official at the Ministry of Education. In 1919 he withdrew from his parliament seat and in 1920 he left the party. He started setting up communist cells together with former anarchists in the North of Bohemia. The cells integrated in 1921 in the new KSČ (Communist Party of Czechoslovakia). He would go on to have a stormy relationship with the KSČ, leaving or being expelled on numerous occasions and during the Nazi occupation he went into hiding rather than fleeing the country due to sever ill health.
His poetry collections include: 'Sen o Zástupu Zoufajících a Jiné Básně' (Dreaming of a Despairing Crowd and Other Poems; 1903); 'Socialism a Svoboda: (1904–1908)' (Socialism and Freedom; 1909) and 'Kniha Mládí a Vzdoru' (Book of Youth and Rebellion; 1920).
NB: the decades-long feud between the proletarian poet S. K. Neumann and the avant-garde theorist Karel Teige.

1898 - Federico García Lorca (d. 1936), Andalusian poet, dramatist and artist, born. He will be murdered by Franco's fascists.

1906 - Joaquín Ascaso Budria (d. 1977), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1962 - A bomb explodes at the Vicariat Militaire in Madrid. This is followed by another at the HQ of the Banco Popular, owned by Opus Dei. Four other vehicle bombs follow before the end of the month: June 12 at the Instituto Nacional de Previsión (Phalange) in Madrid, and three other bombs in Barcelona on June 29 at the Colegio Mayor Monterola (Opus Dei) and at the Institution Nacional de Previsión, and on June 30 at the headquarters of the Phalange. These acts against the Francoist regime and its supporters are the work of the secret Interior Defence section of the CNT-FAI in exile.

[C] 2004 - Police in The Hague violently break up an attempt by 350 anti-fascists to block a demonstration by the fascist Nederlandse Volks Unie (Dutch People’s Union).

2005 - Pépita Carpeña (b. 1919), militant Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and feminist, dies. [see: Dec. 19]

2013 - Clément Méric, an 18-year-old activist with Action Antifasciste Paris-Banlieue and Solidaires Étudiant-es from Brest, is beaten to death by neo-Nazis in central Paris. Clément and three of his friends were attending a Fred Perry private sale in the central Rue de Caumartin when a group of four neo-Nazis skinheads from the Jeunesse Hationaliste Révolutionnaire arrived at the premises. Sporting shaved heads and swastika tattoos; one also wore a Blood and Honour sweatshirt, the neo-Nazis started shouting at and shoving the group that included Méric. He was then punched by one of the neo-Nazis who was wearing knuckle dusters. Seriously injured, Clément was rushed to hospital and was later pronounced 'brain-dead'
1897 - Arnaldo Simões Januário (d. 1938), Portuguese barber, militant syndicalist and anarchist propagandist, born. Typographer and writer for the libertarian press on 'A Batalha' (The Battle, paper of the Portuguese CGT), 'A Communa', 'O Anarquismo', 'O Libertário' and the review 'Aurora'. In 1927, as a member of the União Anarquista Portuguesa, he was arrested, spending time in prisons at Coimbra, Aljube and Trafaria, before being deported to various concentration camps (Angola, Azores, Cape Verde and Oikussi on Timor).
Released in 1933, he returned to clandestine activities in Portugal, helping prepare for the insurrectionary general strike on 18 January 1934. Arrested and tortured, he was sentenced to 20 years in prison. He died from a lack of medical care at Camp Tarrafal on Cape Verde in 1938.

[B] 1939 - Louis Andriessen, Dutch composer, pianist, anarchist and Marxist, born. Involved in the late sixties radical student movement and anti-Vietnam protests, he led the notorious Actie Notenkrakers (Nutcrackers Action) on 17 November, 1969 in which a group of activists interrupted a concert by the Concertgebouw Orchestra, demanding an open discussion of music policy. That same year, Schat contributed, together with the composers Reinbert de Leeuw, Louis Andriessen, Jan van Vlijmen, and Misha Mengelberg, and the writers Harry Mulisch and Hugo Claus, in 'Reconstructie', a sort of co-operative opera, or 'morality' theatre work, about the conflict between American imperialism and liberation. He was later to set up the political street band, Orkest de Volharding (Perseverance Orchestra), with Willem Breuker in 1972. An early piece of his, 'Volkslied' (1971), feature the Dutch national anthem, 'Wilhelmus', slowly giving way to 'The International', but his most overtly anarchist-influenced piece is the central part of his major trilogy of works 'Die Staat' (1976), 'Mausoleum' (1979) and 'De Tijd' (1979–81). The first uses texts by Plato and the latter by St. Augustine, but 'Mausoleum' was written to commemorate the centennial of Bakunin’s death and sets texts by him to music.

1943 - Pandelis Pouliopoulos (Παντελής Πουλιόπουλος; b. 1900), Greek Trotskyist and onetime general secretary of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE), is executed by the Italian occupation forces in Nezero, near Larissa, along with over a hundred other militants, in retaliation for the destruction by partisans of the Gorgopotamos bridge. Speaking in Italian to the squad of soldiers given the job of executing him, he exhorted them not to commit such a crime against the anti-fascist resisters and their adversaries in the war. When the soldiers refused to be executioners, it was the Carabinieri who were given the task. [see: Mar. 10]

[C] 1981 - The British Movement make a serious miscalculation and try to hold a mass Day of Action and march in the centre of Oxford. A mass anti-fascist mobilisation (600 anti-fascists) sees BM supporters attacked whenever and wherever they are found.

1989 - The funeral of Franco-Spanish militant anarchist Hortensia Torres Cuadrado (b. 1924). Born into an anarchist family (her father taught in a Ferrer school before being deported to Germany by the Nazis where he died in 1941). Hortensia herself was interned in early 1939 at the Argelès camp in France, then turned over to Spain. In 1957, she returned to Toulouse as an employee of the Red Cross and worked with the SIA (International Solidarity Anti-fascist). On May 1, 1988, she participated in the re-establishing of the CNT in Madrid. It should be noted too that her son was imprisoned as a member of the GARI (Groupe d'action révolutionnaire internationaliste).

1997 - Juan José Sacramento García (b. 1915), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, dies. [see: Aug. 26]

2010 - Jose Saramago's coffin bizarrely receives full state honours with a military guard alongside representatives of the Portuguese, Angolan and Mozambiquean governments and the Portuguese Communist party.

2011 - The first of 11 anti-fascists go on trial two or more years after their arrests on charges connected to an altercation on the platform of Welling train station between a couple of the anti-fascists and two fascists from a Blood and Honour gig at the Duchess of Edinburgh pub in Upper Wickham Lane on March 28, 2009. After 17 days, seven of them were convicted and four acquitted. Of those convicted, four were immediately sentenced to 21 months in prison. Another two were later sentenced to 18 and 15 months. The seventh was given a suspended sentence. [see: Jun. 29]
1896 - A bomb explodes during a religious parade in Barcelona, killing a dozen people and wounding 30. In response the government totally represses the anarchist movement, torturing hundreds of people in the Montjuich Prison. Spanish authorities imprison over 400 people, including anarchists, suspected of involvement in the bombing. The severity of the punishment sparks international protests. Of the 87 prisoners taken to the tribunal, eight received death sentences and nine were condemned to long imprisonment. The other seventy-one were declared innocent but were deported to Río de Oro, a Spanish colony in West Africa, on the orders of Antonio Cánovas, Spain’s Prime Minister.

1898 - Antonio Casanova (d. 1966), Spanish-born Argentinian baker, editor, translator and anarchist combatant in the Spanish Civil War and French Résistance, born. Emigrated to Argentina at an early age, but returned and fought during the Spanish Revolution in the 28th Division. After the defeat of the Republic he helped reorganise the CNT in exile in France, fighting with the Résistance during WWII and took part in the liberation of Paris.

[B] 1902 - Germaine Berton (d. 1942), French trade union militant and anarchist, born. Previously a member of the Communist Party, she joined l'Union Anarchiste in Paris in 1922 but left to join an individualist group. That year she joined the defence committee of the 1919 Mutinerie des Marins de la Mer Noire (Mutiny of the Sailors in the Black Sea) and was also imprisoned for insulting the secretary of the Police Commissioner.
On January 22, 1923, Berton had planned to kill Leon Daudet, a notorious right-wing extremist/propagandist of l'Action Française, but instead she ended up shooting Marius Plateau, Chef des Camelots du Roi [see: Jan. 22]. She later attempted to commit suicide to escape the judgement but, defended by Henry Torres, she was acquitted on Dec. 24, 1923. 'Le Libertaire' has declared her a hero, running a vociferous support campaign which led to her adoption by the Surrealists and featuring in a famous 'La Révolution Surréaliste' collage.
Following her aquittal, Germaine undertook a lecture tour, one date (Bordeaux) was prohibited by the police, leading to a fight and mass arrests - more than 150 people, including Berton. Sentenced to four months in prison plus a 100 franc fine, she was interned at Fort du Hâ where she pursued a hunger strike and was hospitalised. Upon her release her mental health deteriorated, quit political activities and later attempted suicide on Philippe Daudet's grave at the Père Lachaise cemetry.

1914 - At the end of a meeting in Ancona, Italy where Errico Malatesta appears, police open fire, killing three people and wounding about 20. In response to this police violence, the U.S.I. proclaims a country-wide General Strike, setting off insurrections. It is the beginning of Settimana Rossa di Ancona, which lasts until June 14, and is only broken by the treason of the Socialists and their trade union.

[C] 1934 - Oswald Mosley and the British Union of Fascists hold their most notorious mass rally at the 20,000 seat Olympia and what was meant to be a triumphal moment turns into a disaster for Mosley and the Fascists. Amongst the audience of 10,000 or so people - made up largely of fascists bussed in from across the country - were about 500 anti-fascists including Vera Brittain, Richard Sheppard and Aldous Huxley, who had managed to get inside the hall undetected. When they started to heckle Mosley's speech, they were brutally set upon by the 1,000 or so black-shirted 1 Squad stewards and, as they were ejected from the meeting, they proved easy targets for anyone else to punch and kick them. Many of the neutrals present were horrified by what they saw, as were some of the large number of journalists present. Those from the pro-fascist Rothermere papers ('Daily Mail', 'London Evening News', 'Sunday Dispatch', etc.) thought 'The Reds' got what they deserved, but those from the more neutral and leftist newspapers (e.g. the 'Daily Chronicle' and 'Daily Herald') and even from newspapers unlikely to be sympathetic to the anti-fascist cause, such as the 'Daily Telegraph', were shocked by the brutality of the Blackshirts (one doctor reported seeing 50-70 victims of the violence). The press reports over the following days signalled a major set back for BUF [and the nails were finally driven into its coffin with the Nights of the Long Night 3 weeks later] and the following month, Rothermere suddenly withdrew his support for Oswald Mosley. According to the historian, James Pool: "The rumour on Fleet Street was that the Daily Mail's Jewish advertisers had threatened to place their adds in a different paper if Rothermere continued the pro-fascist campaign." ['Who Financed Hitler: The Secret Funding of Hitler's Rise to Power' (1979)] Sometime after this, Rothermere met with Hitler at the Berghof and told how the "Jews cut off his complete revenue from advertising" and compelled him to "toe the line". Mosley would now have to up his rhetoric to get noticed and he would go on to be more openly and vociferously anti-Semitic in his speeches.
MI5 later reported to the Home Office that the rally would have a negative impact on the future of BUF: "It is becoming increasingly clear that at Olympia Mosley suffered a check which is likely to prove decisive. He suffered it, not at the hands of the Communists who staged the provocations and now claim the victory; but at the hands of Conservative MPs, the Conservative press and all those organs of public opinion which made him abandon the policy of using his Defence Force to overwhelm interrupters."
"Olympia was nearly full – tier upon tier of the curious and the enthusiastic, and the enthusiastic in great majority. In every open space, at the end of every row, stood black-jerseyed stewards with hands on hips, complacent and menacing. The seats had been full for many minutes before hidden trumpets sounded a fanfare, and the Leader strode into the arc-lights. He was flanked by four blond young men, and a platoon of flag-bearing Blackshirts followed in their wake . . . Sir Oswald had stood at the rostrum for at least two minutes of this din, before his own arm rose, formidably, to command silence." - English write and CPGB member Philip Toynbee.
Geoffrey Lloyd MP, parliamentary private secretary to Stanely Baldwin, later told the 'Yorkshire Post': "I came to the conclusion that Mosley was a political maniac and that all decent English people must combine to kill this movement."
[ Fascism/1934 Red Violence.pdf]

1936 - Thousands of Blackshirts march from Westminster through the East End to Victoria Park to hold their first large open air fascist rally in London’s East End on the second anniversary of the Olympia rally. Mosley in black uniform reviews the fascists parade, then proceeds through the streets standing in an open car as people along side the route giving fascist salutes. Thousands of police are drafted in to prevent anti-fascists rising to the obvious provocation. The fascists claimed that 100,000 attended the rally in the Park but press estimates varied from 3,000 to 50,000. Among them were 500 uniformed Blackshirts who, along with the police, attacked the hostile crowd of local residents, with it all ending in a free-for-all of hand-to-hand fighting.

1976 - Police charge 5 white youths with the June 4th killing of Gurdip Singh Chaggar and maintain that the murder was not racially motivated. [see: Jun. 4]

1976 - Robert Relf, who was imprisoned in May for contempt following his refusal to remove his 'For sale to a white family only' sign from outside his house in Leamington Spa, appears in court for a hearing. Counsel for the Race Relations Board was petitioning for the court to order the taking down of the sign. But Relf, who had been on partial hunger strike (sympathetic screws had been feeding him Complan), told the court that he would just replace it [it had already been stoeln on a number of occasions, only for the police to return it]. The judge said he was guilty of gross, deliberate and wanton contempt" and ordered him back to jail. There were scuffles in court and 4 people, including Colin Jordan, were arrested.

1980 - Henry Valentine Miller (b. 1891), American writer, banned novelist, memoirist, critic, painter, individualist anarchist and champion of free speech, dies. [see: Dec. 26]

1998 - James Byrd, Jr. (b. 1949), an African-American is murdered by white supremacists in Jasper, Texas. He is dragged for three miles behind a pick-up truck, remaining conscious throughout most of the ordeal until killed when his body hit the edge of a culvert, severing his right arm and head. Having accepted a ride from Shawn Berry (who he knew and was driving), together with Lawrence Russell Brewer and John King, instead of taking Byrd home, the three men took Byrd to a remote county road out of town, beat him severely, urinated on him and chained him by his ankles to their pickup truck before dragging him for approximately 1.5 miles.
1914 - The second day of the Settimana Rossa in Ancona sees the proclaimation of a general strike in the Romagna, Marche and Emilia regions where anarchists are particularly numerous, as parts of Italy move towards insurrection.

1921 - Félix (Felicísimo) Álvarez Ferreras (d. 2009), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, Civil War and Résistance fighter, writer and polyglot, born in France. [expand]

1942 - José Pellicer-Gandia (b. 1942) Spanish anarchist, member of the famed Iron Column during the Spanish Revolution of 1936, is executed by the Franco regime. [expand]

[C] 1945 - Robert Desnos (b. 1900), French poet, author, anti-fascist and anarchist, who was one of the most important figures of the French surrealist movement in the 1920s and 30s, dies in Terezín he died from typhoid at 5.30 in the morning, only weeks after the camp’s liberation and less than a month short of his 45th birthday. [see: Jul. 4]

1949 - George Orwell's '1984' first published. 25,000 copies are printed, with 23,000 selling within four months.

1979 - Following a notorious racially-biased conviction for robbery, George Lindo is freed on appeal.

1980 - Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Busch (b. 1900), German singer and actor, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

2010 - Sara Berenguer Laosa (d. 1919), Catalan poet, anarchist and member of Mujeres Libres, dies. Wrote a narrative autobiography 'Entre El Sol y la Tormenta' (Between the Sun and the Storm; 1988). [see: Jan. 1]
1934 - The British Union of Fascists attempt to hold meeting tonight (Saturday) and tomorrow night in Hackney, Finsbury Park, Regent's Park, Woolwich, Notting Dale, Tottenham, and Wood Green, facing stiff anti-fascist opposition. Five people are injured and the police make a totla of 8 arrests.

1937 - Carlo Rosselli (b. 1899), Italian non-Marxist Socialist, journalist, historian and anti-fascist activist, who founded the anti-fascist militant movement Giustizia e Libertà and fought for the the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War, is assassinated alongside his brother Nello [see: Nov. 29] in the French resort town of Bagnoles-de-l'Orne by a group of cagoulards, militants of the French Cagoule fascist group, probably on the orders of Mussolini. [see: Nov. 16]

1937 - Sabatino 'Nello' Rosselli (b. 1900), Italian historian , journalist and anti-fascist, who participated in the founding of the first clandestine Italian anti-fascist newspaper 'Non Mollare' (Not Giving Up) in 1925, is assassinated alongside his brother Carlo [see: Jun. 9] in the French resort town of Bagnoles-de-l'Orne by a group of cagoulards, militants of the French Cagoule fascist group, probably on the orders of Mussolini. [see: Nov. 29]

[C] 1944 - 99 civilians are hanged from lampposts and balconies by German troops in Tulle, France, in reprisal for maquisards attacks.

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: Following the killing of school children and Muslim returning from their work on June 3, Yacef Saâdi decided that he should better target his bombs. The Corniche Casino, a popular dancing with young people, mostly Jews of Bab-el-Oued, but which is also used as a detention cente, is chosen as the next target. The bomb, placed under the platform where the Lucky Starway Orchestra was playing, explodes at 18:55, killing eight people (including Starway) and injuring 81, including 10 with lower limb amputations.
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1966 - Helmut Rüdiger aka Rodriguez, Ivar Bergegren; Dashar, Stefan Stralsund (b. 1903), German author, journalist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist and staunch anti-communist, and theorist of federalism, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

1983 - In Poland, following General Jaruzelski's declaration of martial law, aimed at suppressing independent labor union activity, people in the city of Lodz demonstrate their disgust for the lies propagated by the official government television news by taking a daily promenade timed to coincide exactly with the broadcast, wearing their hats backwards. Soon, much of the town has joined them.

1995 - 2 days of rioting begin in Manningham, Bradford. The Asian community reacts against police violence and intimidation.
1914 - The fourth day of the Settimana Rossa, and the general strike has spread throughout Italy. The carabinieri and army are overwhelmed by revolutionary actions against symbols of authority and the Church. The Confederazione Generale del Lavoro (CGL), the socialist trade union, sends a telegram throughout the country encouraging the resumption of work.

1914 - Settimana Rossa di Ancona: In response to the killing by police of three demonstrators on June 7, 1914, at an antiwar protest in the Italian port city of Ancona,
Benito Mussolini (then still considering himself to be a revolutionary socialist) and the revolutionary syndicalist Filippo Corridoni, who leads a strike of the workers of the car, gas, and clothing sector in May 1914, speak before a gathering of 60,000 protesters in the Arena di Milano. Mussolini: "In Florence, Turin, Fabriano there are others dead and others wounded, it is necessary to work in the army because it is not firing on workers, we need to make sure that the penny of the soldier will soon be a fait accompli."

[CC] 1924 - Giacomo Matteotti (b. 1885), Italian socialist member of parliament and prominent opponent of the Fascist regime, is murdered by fascist thugs during a kidnap attempt. Bundled into a car and stabbed several times with a carpenter's file as he was struggling to escape, his corpse is found on August 16, 1924, near Riano, 20 miles from Rome, after an extensive search. His murder comes after two fierce and lengthy speeches in the Chamber of Deputies denouncing Fascism [see: Jun. 30] and the publication of his book 'The Fascisti Exposed: A Year of Fascist Domination' (1924)[an english translation of his 'Un anno di dominazione fascista' (1923)]. His killing precipitating a parliamentary crisis that Mussolini overcame by disavowing the murder and tightening police control. The crushing of the opposition aroused by Matteotti’s assassination effectively marks the beginning of Mussolini’s dictatorship.
Five men (Amerigo Dumini - a prominent member of the Fascist secret police, the Ceka, Giuseppe Viola, Albino Volpi, Augusto Malacria and Amleto Poveromo) were arrested a few days after the kidnapping. Only three (Dumini, Volpi and Poveromo) were convicted and shortly after released under amnesty by King Victor Emmanuel III; one, Filippo Panzeri, escaped before the arrests of his accomplices. Before the trial against the murderers, the High Court of the Senate started a trial against general Emilio De Bono, commander of the Fascist paramilitary groups Blackshirts (Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale), but he was discharged. After the Second World War, in 1947, the trial against Francesco Giunta, Cesare Rossi, Dumini, Viola, Poveromo, Malacria, Filippelli and Panzeri was re-opened. Dumini, Viola and Poveromo were sentenced to life imprisonment. [see: May 22]

1927 - The trial (June 8-10) of anarchist Gino Lucetti before the Tribunale Speciale per la Difesa dello Stato (Special Tribunal for the Defense of the State) concludes. He attempted to assassinate Mussolini on September 11, 1926. He is sentenced to 30 years in prison; two others receive 12 years. Antifascist partisan formations during WWII took group names, and two in the Carrara area proudly adopted the names ‘G. Lucetti’ (60-80 guerrillas) and ‘Lucetti bis’ (58 strong).

1940 - René Maurice Frémont (b. 1903), French anarcho-communist and syndicalist, dies. [see: Dec. 23]

[C] 1942 - Whilst constructing a drainage ditch at Auschwitz-Birkenau, a group of Polish prisoners in a work detail manage to escape. The SS shoot twenty prisoners in retaliation and, to prevent future acts of resistance and in revenge, more than 300 Poles are murdered in the gas chambers.

1970 - Brixton Conservative Association firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1979 - Uprising against the Somoza regime in Nicaraugua.

2003 - Sarah Goldberg (b. 2003), Belgian Jew, member of the Rote Kappelle (Red Orchestra) anti-Nazi resistance network and founding member of Amnesty International in Belgium, dies. [see: Jan. 1]

2008 - Derbyshire police object to entertainment and alcohol license at a meeting of Amber Valley Borough Council's licensing panel. Police wanted to see additional conditions imposed, including a seven-metre-high fence around the site, increasing the number of security staff to one per one hundred people and that the festival should only be one-and-a-half days long. In response, the BNP withdrew their application. More than 30 members of Derby Unite Against Fascism and Nottinghamshire Stop the BNP campaign, who protested with banners outside the town hall.
1927 - Italian anarchist Gino Lucetti is sentenced by the Tribunale Speciale per la Difesa dello Stato (Special Tribunal for the Defense of the State) to the maximum penalty, 30 years in prison, for attempting to assassinate Mussolini on September 11, 1926. The bomb he threw at him bounced off the car to the ground and exploded, wounding eight passersby.

1936 - In Tonypandy, anti-fascist make a concerted effort to prevent a BU meeting. "[T]he speakers, a local Fascist and Tommy Moran, a National Headquarters Propaganda Officer, were stoned and injured, and the meeting was closed after half an hour. The anti-Fascist leaders implored the crowd to desist but to no avail. Further trouble resulted from the distribution of a Blackshirt pamphlet, The Miners' Only Hope. The pamphlets were seized and torn to bits and, as a result, the Blackshirts began pushing them into people's faces. Thirty-six people were subsequently charged with a total of 180 counts of riot, incitement to riot, unlawful assembly and breaches of the peace. The accused, as a body, were brought before the Glamorgan Assizes at Swansea in December. It was alleged that hostile crowds had stoned the Fascist loud-speaker van, which was eventually driven away under police protection. The first of thirty police officers who gave evidence, when cross-examined by the defence, agreed that before the arrival of the Fascist van a number of people had been holding an orderly meeting. He further testified that after the departure of the van the anti-Fascists marched to Tonypandy in orderly fashion. This was the main contention of the defence. Moran, under cross-examination, admitted that his head had been split open on eight occasions over the preceding months.
The defence argued that wherever he and his Blackshirts went, disorder followed. Moran stated that the crowd was determined not to give him a hearing. The judge then asked him why he didn't go away. He replied that it was his job to promote Fascism. The defence finally submitted that out of a crowd of 5,000 to 6,000 people the police had not found a single independent witness to give evidence. Three of the accused were discharged and seventeen were bound over. Seven were sent to prison for terms of two to twelve months. Five of these were unemployed and the sixth was the wife of one of the unemployed. Nine were sentenced to twenty days' hard labour, which being the period of the Assizes meant their immediate discharge. They were also bound over. Seven of them were unemployed. Of the seventeen others bound over, seven were unemployed, and four were women. Most of the others were colliers."
"But for the presence of the police the Fascist speakers undoubtedly would have received serious injuries ... The conduct of the crowd, which numbered between five and six thousand, was the worst I have seen in the 25 years I have been in the Rhondda." - Supt. Beirne, in charge of policing that day. ['Yorkshire Evening News', Sept. 1936]

1942 - Herbert Baum (b. 1912), German-Jewish electrician, communist and resistance fighter, who led the Gruppe Baum, a largely Jewish resistance group, with his wife Marianne, is tortured to death in Moabit Prison in Berlin. An active member of different left wing and Jewish youth organizations by the mid 1920s, including the Deutsch-Jüdischen Jugendgemeinschaft, where in 1928 he met Marianne Cohn, whom he later married. In 1931 she joined the Kommunistischen Jugendverband (Communist Youth Federation; KJVD) and, after the Nazi seizure of power, he together with his wife Marianne Baum and their friends, Martin and Sala Kochmann, began to organise anti-Nazi meetings. He was designated the chair of the circle of friends, most of whom were Jewish, and up to 100 youths attended these meetings at various times, engaging in political debates and cultural discussions. The group openly distributed leaflets arguing against National Socialism. In 1940, he and Marianne were forced into slave labour in the Jewish department at the Siemens electric motors factory. By 1941, he was heading a group of Jewish slave labourers at the plant, who, to escape deportation to concentration camps, went into the Berlin underground. There they organised semi-clandestine demonstrations, leafleting and propaganda poster campaigns and the printing of a 19-page document, 'Organisiert den revolutionären Massenkampf gegen Faschismus und imperialistischen Krieg' (Organize the mass revolutionary struggle against Fascism and the Imperialist War).
In May 1942, the group decided to target the massive anti-communist and anti-Jewish propaganda exhibition 'Das Sowjetparadies' (The Soviet Paradise) that had been organised by Goebbels’ propaganda services at the Berlin Lustgarten. The Rote Kapelle (Red October) group had already targetted the exhibition [Liane Berkowitz and Otto Gollnow posted approx. 100 anti-Nazi posters in the vicinity of the Kurfürstendamm and Uhlandstrasse whilst Harro Schulze-Boysen acted as a lookout] and the Baum Group also flypostered but, wanting to go further, decided to carry out a firebomb attack on it. Herbert and Marianne Baum, Hans Joachim, Gerd Meyer, Sala Kochmann, Suzanne Wesse and Irene Walter took part in the action, planting their miniature incendiary bombs at different points in the exhibition on May 18 (they had tried the day before but too many people were present). Within days of the event, the seven participants and most of the other members of the group were arrested by the Gestapo (the Baums on May 22). Herbert Baum was tortured to death in Moabit Prison, dying on June 11, 1942 - the Gestapo reported his death as suicide.

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: Following the burial of the dead from the Corniche Casino attack on Sunday June 9th, the Pied-Noirs carry out a ratonnade that ends with in 5 dead Muslims and more than 50 injured; stores are looted and the CRS have to deploy teargas to try and control the furious crowds. A 21:00 curfew is declared. As a result of this upturn in violence, the 10e Division Parachutiste (10th Parachute Division) was again deployed to Algiers.
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[B] 1969 - Marco Rovelli, Italian musician, writer, poet, history and philosophy teacher, and anarchist, born. His band Les Anarchistes recorded 2 albums: 'Figli di Origine Oscura' (Children of Obscure Origin; 2002) and 'La Musica Nelle Strade!' (The Music in the Streets!; 2005). He also recorded a 2009 record 'LibertAria'. In addition to his books of poetry such as 'Corpo Esposto' (Exposed Body; 2004) and 'L'Inappartenenza' (Not Belonging; 2009); are his non-fiction works such as 'Lager Italiani' (Italian Lager; 2006), about Italian immigration detention centres, and 'Servi' (Servants; 2009), in which he recounts the stories of immigrants and places they work; plus 'Lavorare Uccide' (Working Kills; 2008), a novel about working place deaths.

1970 - Stuart Christie's home raided with explosives warrant. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1973 - General Strike in Pamplona against General Franco.

[C] 1978 - 150 white mainly skinhead youths rampage through Brick Lane shouting "Kill the black bastards" and smashing Bengali shop windows.
1885 - Adrienne Montegudet (born Victorine Valdant; d. 1948), French teacher, militant communist, revolutionary syndicalist and ultimately a libertarian, born.

[B] 1921 - Luis García-Berlanga Martí (d. 2010), Spanish screenwriter, film director, actor and anarchist, born. The son and grandson of republican politicians and land owners, his family fled to Tangiers after criticising the anarchists, and was later arrested by fascist regime following Franco's victory. García Berlanga was called up to fight and found himself at the Battle of Teruel. He later volunteered for the División Azul, it was claimed in order to save his father from the death penalty (elsewhere he claimed it was to stay with his falanguist friends), and fought on the Eastern Front. In 1951 he directed his first film, 'Esa Pareja Feliz' (That Happy Couple) with Juan Antonio Bardem, released in 1953, as was his first solo effort 'Bienvenido Mister Marshall' (Welcome Mr. Marshall; 1953). Many of his films, such as 'El Verdugo' (The Executioner; 1963), ended up with him being hauled before Franco's censors to explain. Following Franco's death he released his trilogy 'La Escopeta Nacional' (The National Shotgun; 1977), 'Patrimonio Nacional' (National Heritage; 1981) and 'Nacional III' (National III; 1982), whose philosophy was contrary to family, church and nation - everything Franco stood for.

1931 - In Avellaneda, Argentina, a group of anarchists led by Juan Antonio Moran kills Major Rosasco, a zealous servant of the dictatorship of General Uriburu who was responsible for the deaths of many militants, as he dines in a restaurant. The anarchist Lacunza aka Bébé dies during the operation.

1936 - Bruno Misefari (also known by the anagrammatical pseudonym Furio Sbarnemi; b. 1892), Italian anarchist , philosopher, poet, author, engineer and deserter, dies. [see: Jan. 17]

1937 - Robert Ramsay 'Bob' Smillie (b. 1917), Scottish left-wing, anti-authoritarian socialist, who volunteered with the Independent Labour Party (ILP) contingent in the Spanish Civil War, allegedly dies from peritonitis whilst under arrests by the Stalinist police in Valencia. As an university chemistry student, he took part in hunger marches and fought against Oswald Mosley and the British Union of Fascists. At the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, he travelled to Barcelona and in October 1936 he joined the Executive Committee of the International Revolutionary Youth Bureau, developing strong links with the Workers Party of Marxist Unification (POUM). In January 1937, he volunteered to go to the Aragón Front with other ILP members such as Bob Edwards and George Orwell, serving alongside POUM forces. In April 1937, he travelled with the ILP contingent to Barcelona on leave. There he procured official POUM papers to go to a International Bureau meeting in Paris and on a speaking tour of Scotland. However, when he got to Figueras he was arrested by Spanish Communist Party (PCE) police and charged with carrying "materials of war" (two discharged grenades intended as war souvenirs). In prison in Valencia, the more serious charge of "rebellion against the authorities" was later added. POUM and ILP officials unsuccessfully lobied for his release. According to the official record, on June 4 Smillie began complaining of stomach pains. He was eventually diagnosed with appendicitis and taken to hospital. However, he was not operated on because of "ward congestion" and was not examined until the 12th, when the doctor said it was too late to do anything for him. He died later that day. Another version had it that he died following a beating by guards in his cell, one of the many victims of the Stalinist repression. Amongst those that believed this version were George Orwell and Scottish anarchist Ethel MacDonald, who began writing newspaper articles and making radio broadcasts after Smillie's death claiming that he had been executed by the secret police, something that led to her own arrest.

1943 - Hanns Heinz Ewers (Hans Heinrich Ewers; b. 1871), German writer, poet, novelist, playwright, song writer, filmmaker, globetrotter, comedian and Stirnerite individualist, dies. [see: Nov. 3]

[C] 1963 - Medgar Wiley Evers (b. 1925), African American civil rights activist from Mississippi involved in efforts to overturn segregation at the University of Mississippi, is shot in the back by Byron De La Beckwith, a member of the White Citizens' Council, as he pulls into his driveway after returning from a meeting with NAACP lawyers in the early morning, just hours after President John F. Kennedy's speech on national television in support of civil rights. [see: Jul. 2]

1964 - Nelson Mandela sentenced to life imprisonment for sabotage.

1971 - Police and death squads kill 43 student protesters in México City.
[BB] 1888 - Fernando Pessoa, born Fernando António Nogueira de Seabra Pessoa (d. 1935), Portuguese Modernist poet, writer, literary critic translator, publisher, philosopher and individualist, who dabbled in automatic writing and occultism, born. Published under a huge number (at least 72) of heteronyms (literary alter egos), a number of which e.g. Barão de Teive were used exclusively for his individualist works. The vast majority of his oeuvre remained unpublished upon his death, including his most renowned work 'Livro do Desassossego' (The Book of Disquiet; 1982), a "factless autobiography" found in an envelope and written under the name Bernardo Soares; 'O Banqueiro Anarquista' (The Anarchist Banker; 1996) and 'Educação do Stoica' (The Education of the Stoic: The Only Manuscript of the Baron of Teive; 2002).

1892 - Ramon Plarromaní Mas aka 'Romaní' (d. 1957), Catalan textile worker and anarcho-syndicalist, born. He joined the CNT in the 1920s and during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera took part in the fighting against the pistolers of the Sindicat Lliure. In one of these incidents, he was shot in the lung and serious injured, something that has life-long health consequences. In March 1933, he was a representative of the Sindicat Únic de Treballadors (SUT) in Gironella at the plemary of the Regional de Sindicats Únics of the CNT in Catalonia. In October 1936, he was appointed by the CNT to the Consell Municipal Provisional and later took charge of the Ministry of Work. With Franco's victory, he went to France and from 1949 to 1957 lived in the Colònia de Malalts i Mutilats d'Aymare in Aquitaine, a libertarian agricultural community organised by the CNT and the SIA to welcome comrades who suffered from disabilities or old age.

1901 - Jean Prévost (d. 1944), French writer, journalist, and Résistance fighter under the nom de guerre Captaine Goderville, born. He joined the underground National Committee of Writers, created by Louis Aragon and his wife, and took part in the creation of the clandestine newspaper 'Les Étoiles' at the end of 1942, He was killed in a German ambush at the Pont Charvin, in Sassenage, whilst fighting with the Maquis du Vercors in August 1944.

1903 - Vicente Ballester Tinoco (d. 1936), Spanish carpenter, cabinetmaker, writer, journalist, and prominent Andalusian anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, born. In 1920, he was a member of the anarchist group Fermín Salvochea, along with José Bonat, and in 1921 was a delegate in Cádiz anarchist underground plenum El Arahal, where it was decided that the anarchist groupings would enter the CNT. The following year he was named vice president of Ateneo Obrero and participated in the editorial group of the journal 'Alba Roja'. During the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, he became the president of the Sindicato de la Construcción of the CNT in Cadiz in 1924 and in 1926 joined the Fermin Salvochea Freemason lodge, where he was active until 1930, leaving following the trade union conference held in Seville in October.
In 1927, he married Ramona Sierra Estudillo whom he had five children (Aurora, Rafael Joaquin, Jose Antonio) and the following year was a member of the anarchist group Germinal, with Bonat, Elias Garcia, Lucero and Galé among others. He was arrested for the first time at Jerez in 1929 and was imprisoned for a month and a half. In 1930 he was Vice President of the Ateneo Popular Enciclopèdic where he hosted debates and lectured on Esperanto. In September 1932, he was appointed secretary of the Regional Committee of the CNT in Andalusia and Extremadura. During the insurrection of January 1933, Rafael Peña García (CNT) and Juan Arcas Moreda (FIJL), he was a member of the Comité Revolucionario Andaluz (Revolutionary Committee Andalusian). It was during this period that the massacre in Casas Viejas of 25 people, including Francisco Cruz 'Seisdedos', were burned alive by the Republican Guard assault, a crime that inspired his most famous work 'Han Hasado los Bárbaros. La Verdad Sobre Casas Viejas' (Gone are the barbarians. The Truth about Casas Viejas; 1933). Editor of 'CNT', he was arrested in 1934 in Madrid following the Asturian revolution and in 1935 he was one of the reorganisers of the CNT in Cadiz alongside Manuel Pérez.
In 1936 he lived 2 Calle de la Libertad in Cadiz and in May took part in a rally in the arena alongside the Socialist leader Largo Caballero. He was then Secretary of CR Andalusian. The same month of May was one of the delegates to the Congress of Cadiz CNT in Zaragoza where he participated in the development of the motion on libertarian communism came at the meeting and closing of the conference.
On July 18, 1936 shortly after the outbreak of the Civil War, his son Rafael warned him of the imminent arrival of the Assault Guards and he went into hiding, where he would live for several months in different houses. In the early morning of 19 September, he was arrested following his betrayal. He was summarily tried by court martial and shot that afternoon in the trenches of Las Puertas de Tierra.
His literary work includes the children's story 'Pepin' (1927) and the novels 'La Voz de la Sangre' (The Voice of Blood; 1930), 'El último Cacique' (The Last Political Boss; 1930), 'El asalto' (The assault; 1932), 'Escoria social' (Social Scum; 1932), 'Han Hasado los Bárbaros. La Verdad Sobre Casas Viejas' (1933) and 'La tragedia vulgar de un hombre libre' (The Tragedy of a Vulgar Free Man; 1934).

1910 - Fernand Rude (aka Pierre Froment; d. 1990), French social historian, sympathetic to libertarian and anarchist movements, born. Campaigned for the Communist Party in 1929 and visited the USSR a number of times, studying history and making translations. [expand]

1921 - Rome's Communist deputy Francesco Misiano is beaten, forcibly shaved and forced to parade through the streets with a sign around his neck - "The country should be served and I'm fascist" - whilst the squadristi revile and spit upon him. This is their idea of 'heroic' action. [pic]

[C] 1976 - 7,000 people, many carrying placards stating "Powell is a murderer" and "We are here to stay", take part in a 'One Race - Human Race' march in Southall in the aftermath of the murder of Gurdip Singh Chaggar. [see: Jun. 4]
[ of asian youth movement.pdf]

1979 - Blair Peach's funeral takes place. [see: Apr. 23]
1914 - Ruthven Campbell Todd (d. 1978), Scottish poet, artist, novelist and writer of children's books, who also wrote detective fiction under the pseudonym R. T. Campbell, born. A conscientious objector during WWII, he was a member of the post-war New Apocalyptics poetry group. His novel 'Over the Mountain' (1939) is a satire on fascism where its hero travels to a 'Lost World' style dystopian country with an oppressive government.

1940 - The first transport of 728 Polish prisoners, which includes 20 Jews, arrives at the Nazi extermination camp of Auschwitz. 3,000,000 will die there.

1942 - Johann Heinrich Vogeler (b. 1872), German painter, printmaker, architect, designer, educator, writer and communitarian, dies. [see: Dec. 12]

[C] 1944 - Jules Le Gall (b. 1881), French boilermaker, journalist, ironmonger, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and Freemason, dies at Buchenwald after deportation for his masonic membership. [see: Dec. 13]

2002 - Jacky Toublet (b. 1940), French anarcho-syndicalist, militant, director of the weekly 'Le Monde Libertaire', son of Julien Toublet, dies. [see: Nov. 12]

2006 - Vicente Marti (b. 1926), militant anarchist and member Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL), dies. In the 1960s Marti was responsible for getting weapons from France into Spain to aid guerrilla actions against the fascist government.
1896 - Gérard Duvergé (also known as Fred Durtain, Chevalier à Monségur) (d. 1944), French libertarian teacher, anarchist and anti-fascist résistant, born. Fought in Spain and, as a member of the Résistance, was murdered by the Gestapo.

1919 - Founding of the Federation of Anarchist Communists of Bulgaria (F.A.C.B.), in Sofia, June 15-17th. Federation members included Ivan Nicolov, one of its most popular speakers and polemicists, and Gueorgui Cheitanov, a popular speaker and guerrilla. (Both were murdered by the fascist government in 1925.) The Federation published the theoretical review, Free Society.

1920 - Liberto Sarrau Royes (d. 2001), Spanish militant anarchist, anti-fascist fighter and writer, born. Active in the labour movement as a member of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT. Member of the Juventudes Libertarias (JJLL) and the famed Durruti Column. Liberto Sarrau whose regular column 'Retractos al minuto' (up to the minute portraits) gave a sort of tongue in cheek biographies of swollen headed libertarian militants or ones who had slipped down what Sébastien Faure called the "slippery slope." Along with Amador Franco, Liberto Sarrau made up the youngest duo of writers whose work appeared in 'Ruta', whose columns featured the finest pens of anarchist thinking during the 30s. A member of the anti-fascist resistance movement in Barcelona, in 1946 Liberto, his partner Joaquina Dorado and Raúl Carballeira formed the group 3 de Mayo. In 1948, he was arrested, tortured and sent to prison.
Sarrau appears in the film 'Vivir la Utopia' (Living Utopia) by Juan Gamero: "Liberto Sarrau evokes the injustice that led to the condemnation of Francisco Ferrer who was innocent of the crimes that were attributed to him. He praises the schools and the quality of teaching inspired by Ferrer. Sarrau then provides a logical explanation of the reasons for burning down some churches, which occurred only with priests who joined the police and soldiers shooting — from bell towers (as one can see in Ken Loach’s film, 'Tierra y Libertad') — anyone they could aim at, including women and children, instead of shooting armed enemies.

1921 - Isidre Guàrdia Abella aka Leopoldo Arribas, 'Codine', Juan Lorenzo, 'Viriato', Juan Ibérico, 'Isigual', etc. (d. 2012), Spanish writer, autodidact, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. Orphaned at 10 years old, he was forced to work in numerous jobs (bellhop, busboy (waiter's assistant), apprentice barber, labourer, cashier, etc.), all the time trying to make up for his lack of schooling. In 1935 he joined the Sindicat Gastronòmic of the CNT. With the fascist coup in 1936, he joined the militia and was a member of the Joventuts Llibertàries in the Barri del Centre de València. On 2 August 1936, he participated in the assault on the headquarters of the Regiment de Cavalleria Lleuger Cuirassat (Light Armored Cavalry Regiment) 'Lusitania' No. 8, located on Passeig d'Àlbers in Valencia. During the civil war, he fought as a volunteer in the Primera Columna Confederal de Llevant and, following the militarisation of the brigades, he was appointed, aged 17, a sergeant in the 82 Mixed Brigade on the Teruel front, also writing for the brigades news sheet under the pseudonym Isigual. After Franco's victory, he was held in the Utiel concentration camp. After his release, he joined the clandestine struggle, becoming a member of the Comité Provincial del Movimiento Libertario in Valencia and, from November 1939, head of the Organización del Comité Provincial de la Agrupación Libertaria (which included the CNT, FAI and FIJL). On his 19th birthday, he was arrested by Franco's police for his involvement in the distribution of an Alianza Democrática Española manifesto that Francisco Ponzán Vidal had printed in France. On 8 November 1941, along with 32 members of the CNT and the FIJL, he was tried by court martial and sentenced to death for "conspiracy against the regime" and membership of the Agrupació Llibertària. The sentence was commuted to 30 years in prison in January 1942. During the 8½ years he spent in the central prison of San Miguel de los Reyes in Valencia, he was secretary of the Juventudes Libertarias for 4 years and a member of the prison's Comité Libertario for 4 years. In this period, in addition to expand his knowledge of French and Italian, he studied accounting, published the Boletín de CNT (Bulletin of CNT), edited the newspaper of the Juventudes Libertarias and was a correspondent with the anarchist press in exile, thanks to the assistance of Castor Garcia Rojo, a prison official who smuggled out his mail. He was released on October 7, 1950, after serving ten years, three months and twenty three days. In 1974, his testimony (under the pseudonym Juan Lorenzo) was included in the Cuadernos de Ruedo Ibérico (Journal of Iberian Arean ) entitled 'El movimiento libertario español' (The Spanish libertarian movement). After the death of Franco, he participated in the reconstruction of the CNT and, from 1976, he was director of a chemical company, the same year as he was amongst the 10 finalists for the Planeta Prize for his unpublished autobiographical novel 'Saca', later published as 'Otoño de 1941' (1977). He was involved in various agricultural enterprises and continued to write for many libertarian publications e.g. 'España Libre',' Comunidad Iberica', 'Frente Libertario', 'Revista Iberoamericana de Autogestión y Acción Comunal', 'Sindicalismo', 'Umbral', 'La Verdad', etc. He is also author of 'Entre el ensayo y la historia' (Between phases and history; 1976); 'La CNT ante el presente, pasado y perspectiva' (The CNT to the past, present and perspective; 1977); 'Conversaciones sobre el movimiento obrero: Entrevistas con militantes de la CNT' (Talk about the labour movement: Interviews with members of the CNT; 1978); 'Escritos del silencio' (Writings of silence; 2005, articles written in prison); and 'Entre muros y sombras' (Between walls and shadows; 2006).

1943 - Jules Dumont (b. 1888), French Communist militant, who fought in the Spanish Civil War and in the Résistance during WWII, is shot by the Germans at the Fort du Mont-Valérien, Suresnes, near Paris. [see: Jan. 1]

1970 - José Sobral de Almada Negreiros (b. 1893), leading Portuguese modernist artist, poet, novelist, futurist and Marxist individualist, dies. [see: Apr. 7]

[A] 1974 - Kevin Gately (b. 1953), a Warwick University student, is killed by a blow from a mounted policeman's baton during an anti-National Front demonstration in Red Lion Square, London.

[C] 1974 - As part of their 'Stop the Asian Invasion' campaign, the NF holds a 'Send Them Back' march in London which is planned to culminate in a rally at Conway Hall in Red Lion Square. Opposition was organised by the London Area Council of Liberation (formerly the Movement for Colonial Freedom) in the form of a counter-demonstration supported by the IMG, IS, CPGB and various anti-fascist and anarchist groups. The counter-demonstration assembled on the Embankment and marched to Red Lion Square without incident. They planned to hold an open-air meeting on the north side of the Square, away from Conway Hall. However, the IMG had planned a mass picket at the main entrance of the hall, thereby denying the NF access and, when their part of the march reached the police cordon blocking off access to the front of the Hall, the IMG tried to break through the cordon. pushing and scuffling followed. There were several charges and counter-charges. Special Patrol Group and mounted police reiforced the cordon and, after an order to disperse was ignored, the police charged the crowd.
It was during this charge that Kevin Gately (b. 1953), a Warwick University student on his very first demonstration, was struck by a blow from a mounted policeman's baton that resulted in a cerebral haemorrhage, from which he later died in University College Hospital. Kevin was not a member of any political group but had joined the IMG section of the march as many of the Warwick University contingent were IMG members and photos of the demonstration show him appearing to try and flee the fighting.
The police then forcibly cleared all remaining demonstrators from the Square just in time for the arrival of the NF march. The two sides were kept apart by a police cordon and, after a few minutes, the counter-demonstrators gathered at the junction of Vernon Place and Southampton Row were charged by mounted police from the direction of the Square. They and police on foot indiscriminately truncheoned the crowd, who were effectively trapped between 2 police lines. While this was happening, the National Front were allowed to enter Red Lion Square and go into Conway Hall. Events that day exposed deep divisions on the Left on the 'correct' tactics that should be used in countering the fascists.
Further clashes between police and anti-fascist demonstrators occurred throughout the day, with the end result being that one person died, 46 policemen and at least 12 demonstrators were injured, 51 people arrested and the whole police operation had cost an estimated £15,000. In the ensuing Scarman Inquiry into Gately's death, the tribunal would largely absolved the police of any wrongdoing.

1981 - Andrew Brons, NF Chairman, is ambushed by anti-fascists as he is on his way to work at Harrogate College of Further Education, where he is a lecturer in government and politics.

[B] 2003 - Enrico Baj (b. 1924), Italian anarchist painter, sculptor, writer and activist, best known for his collages of ridiculous-looking generals made from shards of glass, scraps of flowery material and shells, dies aged 79. [see: Oct. 31]
[A] 1923 - In Buenos Aires the anarchist Kurt Gustav Wilckens is shot in his cell by a fanatical right-wing prison guard. He dies the following day and, despite government attempts to cover up the crime, a countrywide General Strike is called in protest.

1937 - In Spain members of the POUM Executive Committee and foreign activists are rounded up. POUM is outlawed and its militants persecuted by the Stalinists and the Republic's police.

[C] 1960 - Francis Parker Yockey (b. 1917), US fascist, devotee of Oswald Spengler and international conspirator, commits suicide by swallowing cyanide whilst in jail in San Francisco under FBI supervision, after having been arrested on charges of using false passports.

1968 - Paris police clear the Sorbonne of some 200 occupying students.

1969 - Marie Mayoux (aka Joséphine Bourgon; b. 1878), French teacher, militant syndicalist, pacifist and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 24]

1970 - Elsa Yur'evna Triolet (born Ella Kagan; b. 1896), Russian-born French writer, one-time Futurist, Surrealist muse, communist and Resistance fighter, dies. [see: Sep. 12]

1986 - In South Africa, and despite arrests, millions stay home in a black trade union strike on the 10th anniversary of the Soweto uprising.

1995 - Ramón Domingo (b. 1901), Spanish anarchist propagandist and Civil War combattant, dies. [see: Aug. 31]
1921 - Evelio Boal, Secretary General of the CNT, assassinated (ley de fugas) by the government. Part of the bloody repression of the anarcho-syndicalist union in the early 1920s, large numbers of cenetista leaders being jailed and/or assassinated.

1921 - The anarcho-syndicalist Salvador Sala Salsench attempts to assassinate Antonio Martínez Domingo, the mayor of Barcelona, in the Plaça St Jaume. The plan had been for a group of cenetistas to attack Severiano Martínez Anido, the Governor of Barcelona and the promoter of the ley de fugas, but he failed to show.

1923 - In Argentina Kurt Wilckens (b. 1886), dies after being shot in his prison cell yesterday by a rightwing guard. German anarchist, member of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), he was responsible for the attack on Varela (known as the 'Killer of Patagonia'). [see: Nov. 3]

1932 - Angelo Pellegrino Sbardellotto (b. 1907), Italian anarchist and antifascist, summarily tried and executed by a fascist firing squad, having admitted to the Fascist Special Tribunal (for the Defence of the State) his plan to assassinate Mussolini. His final words: "Viva Anarchia!" [see: Aug. 1]

[CC] 1939 - Voyage of the Damned: The MS St. Louis, carrying 915 refugees seeking asylum from Nazi persecution in Germany, docks at Antwerp, Belgium, after negotiations between US, British and European officials, which resulted in the UK agreeing to take 288 of the passengers and, eventually after much negotiation by the St. Louis' captain, Gustav Schröder, the remaining 619 passengers were allowed to disembark at Antwerp, with 224 being accepted by France, 214 by Belgium, and 181 by the Netherlands. Many of these 619 inevitably ended up in the Nazi death camps. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum research found that only 87 managed to emigrate before the Nazis invaded the countries accepting them, 254 died in the camps (mostly in Auschwitz and Sobibór) and 365 survived the war.

1943 - Fritz Teufel (d. 2010), West Berlin Communard , political activist, author and active participant in the West German anti-authoritarian student movement in the 1960s, born.
With Dieter Kunzelmann and Rainer Langhans, he was one of the founders of Kommune 1 which directed its activities against the prevailing social conditions and, mainly due to these deliberately provocative actions, attracted worldwide attention. He was also a leading member of the Bewegung 2. Juni (2nd June Movement). [expand]

[A] 1953 - A workers Uprising in East Berlin and Leipzig sparks revolt all over East Germany; workers strike for democracy; revolutionary currents oppose Russian imperialism; USSR invades, sending in tanks "to restore law and order".

[B] 1958 - Jello Biafra (Eric Reed Boucher), American hardcore musician, spoken words artist, political activist and former lead singer and songwriter for San Francisco punk rock band Dead Kennedys, born. A self-declared anarchist who sees no contradictions in working with the Green Party.

1963 - John Cowper Powys (b. 1872), Welsh novelist, essayist, poet and individualist anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 8]

[C] 1981 - Icchak Cukierma aka 'Antek' (b. 1915), Polish Jewish socialist member of Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Combat Organization), who was one of the leaders of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 1943 and a fighter in the Warsaw Uprising 1944, dies. [see: Dec. 13]
1913 - Stanisław Marusarz (d. 1993), Polish Nordic skiing competitor in the 1930s, born. After the German attack on Poland in 1939, he joined the Armia Krajowa (AK; Home Army) and fought for Poland's independence until 1940, when he was captured and, having refused to cooperate with the occupiers, who proposed him a job as a coach, he was sentenced to death. However, Marusarz successfully escaped from a German prison and fled to Hungary, where he stayed until the end of the war.

1921 - José Martínez Guerricabeitia (aka Felipe de Orero) (d. 1986), Spanish anarchist and founder of the Ruedo Ibérico (Iberian Circle) publishing house in 1961, born. Active in the Spanish underground 1945-1947.

1923 - In Argentina a countrywide General Strike, protesting the assassination of the anarchist Kurt Wilckens in his prison cell, paralyzes the country. In Buenos Aires the protest demonstration turns into a shoot-out when police attempt to raid the local offices of the anarchist union FORA (Fédération Ouvrière Régionale Argentine). Two workers are killed, 17 wounded (including the Spanish anarchist Enrique Gombas) and 163 arrested; one policeman is killed and three wounded.

[C] 1942 - Having been betrayed by one Karel Čurda, the Czechosolvak partisans whose ambush of SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich on May 27 had led to his death on June 4, are tracked to the Church of St. Cyril and St. Methodious in Prague. At 16:15, the church is besieged by 800 soldiers of the Wehrmacht Heer and Waffen-SS. After a seven-hours fight, the outnumbered group of paratroopers, which included Gabčík, Kubiš, Opálka and Valčík, together with fellow combattants Josef Bublík, Jan Hrubý and Jaroslav Švarc, fell. All died, with Adolf Opálka committing suicide after having being injured by shrapnel. [see: May 27]

1954 - US-CIA supported invasion of Guatemala by Carlos Castillo Armas takes place following the democratically elected Arbenz government's nationalisation of the United Fruit Company's property. Protecting American 'interests' in their own inimitable fashion yet again.

1970 - Lambeth Court, home of the Archbishop of Canterbury, is firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1977 - Fighting breaks out between National Front and Socialist Workers Party activists by the Clock Tower in Lewisham Town Centre, where both groups were selling papers. A socialist teacher from Deptford is knocked unconscious.

1978 - In response to the previous weekend's rampage by skinheads through Brick Lane and the racist murder of Altab Ali, 4,000 people take part in an ANL and Bengali Youth Movement Against Racist Attacks, a short-lived alliance between three major Bengali youth organisations, hold a march in Tower Hamlets.

[B] 2010 - José de Sousa Saramago (b. 1922), Portuguese writer of novels, short stories, poetry, plays, memoirs and travelogues, atheist and libertarian communist, dies. [see: Nov. 16]
1867 - In México Emperor Maximilian, overthrown on May 15, is executed.

[B] 1891 - Helmut Franz Joseph Herzfeld (John Heartfield) (d. 1968), German painter, graphic artist, photomontage artist, anti-fascist propagandist, Dadaist and stage designer, born. His father was the anarchist poet, playwright and novelist Franz Held (pen name of Franz Herzfeld). Worked in printing designing advertising until he enlisted in the German army in 1915 but faked mental illness to be discharged (De. 1915). To protest the war and especially the propaganda against England, he Anglicised his name in 1916 to John Heartfield and later joined the Kommunistischen Partei Deutschlands (KPD) though had strong anarchist sympathies. In 1917, Heartfield became a member of Berlin Club Dada, helping to organize the Erste Internationale Dada-Messe (First International Dada Fair) in Berlin in 1920. In 1917 he co-founded the Malik-Verlag publishing house in Berlin with his brother Wieland Herzfelde. He would go on to design dust jackets and covers for Malik-Verlag and also built theatre sets for Erwin Piscator and Bertolt Brecht.
In 1919, Heartfield was dismissed from the Reichswehr film service because of his support for the strike that followed the assassination of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. With George Grosz, he founded the satirical magazine 'Die Pleite' (Bankruptcy; 1919-1924) and would later edit the satirical (KPD) magazine 'Der Knüppel' (The Truncheon).
His experiments with Grosz led to his political photomontage discoveries, honed at two publications: the daily 'Die Rote Fahne' and the weekly 'Arbeiter-Illustrierte-Zeitung' (AIZ). On April 4, 1933, the SS broke into his apartment, and he barely escaped by jumping from his balcony and fled to Czechoslovakia, where he continued his anti-fascist propaganda work (the work he left behind was confiscated and destroyed). With the imminent German occupation of Czechoslovakia, he fled to England, where he was interned for a time in England as an enemy alien, and his health began to seriously deteriorate. His brother Wieland was refused an English residency permit in 1939 and, with his family, left for the United States. John wished to accompany his brother but was refused entry.
He returned to East Berlin in 1950 but was unable to work as a artist and was denied health benefits as he was suspected of "collaboration" by the authorities. It was only through the intervention of Bertoldt Brecht and Stefan Heym that, after eight years of official neglect, Heartfield was formally admitted to the East German Akademie der Kúnste (Academy of the Arts) in 1956. However his health has deteriorated and, although he subsequently produced some memorable montages, he was never as prolific again.

1902 - Harriette Vyda Simms Moore (d. 1952), African-American teacher and civil rights worker, born. She was the wife of Harry T. Moore (November 18, 1905 – December 25, 1951), who founded the first branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Brevard County, Florida. On Christmas night, 1951, Moore and his wife were fatally injured at home by a bomb that went off beneath their house. It was the Moores' twenty-fifth wedding anniversary. Moore died on the way to the hospital in Sanford, Florida. His wife died from her injuries nine days later. In its 2005-2006 re-investigation, the State of Florida concluded that the murder of the Moores by bombing their home had been the work of violent members of a central Florida Ku Klux Klan group and it named the chief suspects

1903 - Hans Achim Litten (d. 1938), German lawyer who represented opponents of the Nazis at important political trials between 1929 and 1932, defending the rights of workers during the Weimar Republic. During one trial in 1931, Litten subpoenaed Adolf Hitler, to appear as a witness, where Litten then cross-examined Hitler for three hours. Hitler was so rattled by the experience that, years later, he would not allow Litten's name to be mentioned in his presence. In retaliation, Litten was arrested on the night of the Reichstag Fire along with other progressive lawyers and leftists. Litten spent the rest of his life in one Nazi concentration camp or another, enduring torture and many interrogations. After five years and a move to Dachau, where his treatment worsened and he was cut off from all outside communication, he committed suicide.

1914 - Luísa Do Carmo Franco Elias Adão (d. 1999), Portuguese anarchist and nurse, born. Daughter of the anarchist Francisco Franco and life-long partner of militant anarcho-syndicalist Acácio Tomás de Aquino.

1923 - John Colin Campbell Jordan (d. 2009), British anti-Semite, white suprematist and neo-Nazi politician, who advocated a pan-Aryan "Universal Nazism", born. Member of the British Peoples Party; formed the White Defence League in 1956, which merged with the National Labour Party to form the British National Party in 1960; co-founded, with John Tyndall, the National Socialist Movement (part of the World Union of National Socialists) in 1962, and the illegal paramilitary group Spearhead. The NSM later became the British Movement in 1968, of which he lost control in 1974. In June 1974, he was arrested for shoplifting three pairs of women's red knickers from Tesco's in Leamington Spa; he was found guilty and fined £50, to add to his 1962 sentence of 9 months imprisonment for attempting to set up a paramilitary force [Spearhead] and 18 months in 1967 for breaking the 1965 Race Relations Act. In 2001, he charged with publishing racist literature, but the judge ruled that his serious heart condition made him unfit to stand trial. [see also: Apr. 9]

1956 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: Following the execution of another 2 FLN members, guillotined in Barberousse Prison, Abane Ramdane orders immediate reprisals against the French. Yacef Saâdi, who had assumed command in Algiers the arrest of Rabah Bitat in March 1955 is ordered to "Descendez n'importe quel Européen de 18 à 54 ans, pas de femmes, pas de vieux" (shoot down any European, from 18 to 54, no women, no children, no elders). Four days of random attacks in the city follow, with 49 civilians shot by the FLN between June 21-24. [see: Mar. 19 & Sep. 30]
[–57)'Alger algerie/alger-attentats-execution.html algerie/alger-attentats-rue-de-thebes.html]

[C] 2004 - Nikolai Mikhailovich Girenko (Николай Михайлович Гиренко; b. 1940), Russian ethnologist and human rights activist, is murdered, shot with a rifle by two or more neo-Nazi youths as he answers his St. Petersburg apartment door. Girenko was widely respected for his work and research on racism and discrimination in the Russian Federation. Head of the Minority Rights Commission at the St Petersburg Scientific Union and had conducted several studies for Moscow and St Petersburg authorities on neo-Nazi and skinhead groups in the Russian Federation and had repeatedly warned that such groups were on the rise. Shortly his death, Girenko had testified about Русское Национальное Единство (Russian National Unity) in a court case and a number of neo-Nazi groups had passed a "death sentence" on him and posted it on the internet.
1887 - Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters (d. 1948), German dadaist artist, whose unique collage work and sound poetry he labelled Merz, born.

1888 - Pedro Alvarez Sierra (d. 1969), Spanish woodworker, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was opposed to the use of vilonce, born. Delegate at the founding congress of the CNT in Barcelona in 1910, he was very active in the anarchist press and was editor, often alongside Quintanilla, of a number of tiles including 'Solidaridad', 'El Libertario' (1912), 'Accion Libertaria', 'La Cuña' (paper of the Federation of Woodworkers, 1915-17, 22 issues), 'Renovacion', etc.

1925 - Vassil Ikonomov (b. 1898), a significant figure in the Bulgarian anarchist movement and an anti-fascist partisan against the dictatorship of Stambolijski, dies. Tracked down by the army and paramilitary groups, the revolutionary guerilla is killed under mysterious circumstances today while bathing in a river close to the village of Bélitsa. [see: Aug. 9]

1942 - The mass extermination of Jews at Auschwitz camp begins.

1945 - François Le Levé (b. 1882), French militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies on his way home after being released from internment. One of the 15 who signed The Manifeste des Seize, along with Kropotkin, Grave and others, favouring the Allies during WWI. A member of the Résistance during WWII, he was captured and interned. [see: Nov. 13]

[C] 1981 - The Specials organise a 'Peaceful Protest Against Racism' concert at the Butts athletic stadium in Coventry to demonstrate their stance against race hate and to raise money for Satnam Singh Gill's family and for the Coventry Committee Against Racism and other anti-racist groups. It is also the day that their classic single 'Ghost Town' was released.

1992 - Nicolas Faucier (b. 1900), French anarchiste, trade unionist and pacifist, dies. Faucier ran the bookshop La Librairie Sociale and, with Louis Lecoin, formed the Comité pour l'Espagne Libre, later the SIA (Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste). [see: Mar. 30]
1905 - Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (d. 1980), French novelist, playwright, Marxist existentialist philosopher and literary critic, born.

1908 - Yun Bong-gil (윤봉길; d. 1932), Korean independence activist, teacher and poet, best known for orchestrating the deadly bombing of a gathering of Japanese dignitaries in the Shanghai International Settlement in April 29, 1932, the Japanese Emperor’s birthday, born. Yun was arrested at the scene and convicted by the Japanese military court in Shanghai on May 25. He was transferred to Osaka prison on 18 November, and executed in Kanazawa on December 19, 1932. Shot in the forehead by a single bullet, he took 13 minutes to die.

1914 - Arthur Moyse (d. 2003), English anarchist, artist, bus conductor and stalwart of Freedom (Press, Bookshop and newspaper), born.

1914 - Errico Malatesta, wanted for his role in the Settimana Rossa, manages to flee Italy en rote to Geneva, where his will work on Luigi Bertoni's 'Le Réveil - Il Risveglio' before leaving for London.

1934 - El Juicio a los Campesinos de Casas Viejas (The Trial of the Casas Viejas Peasants): The preliminary taking of the prosecution evidence takes place before the Consejo de Guerra (court-martial) in the Castillo de San Roque in Cadiz. [see: Jun. 25 & 26]

1937 - In Spain Andrés Nin, leader of the POUM, is murdered by Russian agents.

1939 - Salvador Gómez Talón aka 'Felipe de la Cruz Torres', Juan Baeza Delgado and José Tarín Marchuet, return to Spain to attempt to free Talon's brother Rafael and others from prison. Francisco Ponzán Vidal, aka 'Paco', 'Gurriato' & 'El gafas', and Juan Manuel Molina Mateo, aka 'Juanelo' (delegate of the Comissió General of the Moviment Llibertari Espanyol for the French concentration camps) had drawn up a plan to help. They were accompanied into Spain by three members of the Ponzán network - Pascual López Lagarta aka 'El Navarro', Francisco Ponzán and the guide Joan Català Balañà. As well as freeing prisoners, the job of the Gómez Talón group was to prepare the ground for CNT activity outside Barcelona. The printer Mario Marcelino Goyeneche and the engraver Manuel Benet Beltrán forged seals, stamps and official documents for the group. The cost of this was funded from hold ups the group carried out. Using the forged papers and dressed as Guardia Civil, the group managed to free dozens of prisoners. Eventually they were discovered and two soldiers were killed in the ensuing shoot out. The group then took to freeing prisoners as they were on the way to prison or were being transferred between prisons. One time ten prisoners on their way to execution were released from a van driven by Guardia Civil. On September 8, 1939, the group were arrested along with others, including Gomez's brother whom they had managed to free.

1942 - Agustín Remiro Manero (b. 1904), Spanish anarchist and member of the Durruti Column, is killed during an attempted escape from Madrid's Porlier prison. He was instrumental in setting up the guerrilla unit 'Los Iguales'. [see: Aug. 28]

1964 - Three American civil rights' workers - James Earl Chaney, a 21-year-old black man from nearby Meridian, Mississippi, Andrew Goodman, a 20-year-old white Jewish anthropology student from New York, and Michael 'Mickey' Schwerner, a 24-year-old white Jewish Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) organiser and former social worker from New York - are lynched on the night of June 21–22, 1964 by members of the Mississippi White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, the Neshoba County's Sheriff Office and the Philadelphia Police Department located in Philadelphia, Mississippi. The three had been working on the "Freedom Summer" campaign, attempting to register African Americans to vote.

[C] 1975 - Jolanda Palladino, a young PCI anti-Fascist is burnt to death after a MSI fascist throws a petrol bomb into his car which was part motorcade celebrating the victory of the Communist Party in municipal elections.

2014 - Members of an Polish nationalist group, Zjednoczeni Emigranci (United Immigrants) attack a small music festival being held in Markfield Park, Tottenham with rocks and flares. Following the unprovoked neo-Nazi attack on festival-goers including children and families, one man was taken to hospital with stab wounds and one of the fascists was arrested for religiously and racially aggravated common assault following an attack on a Jewish man.
1861 - Félix Fénéon (d. 1944), French art critic, anarchist and friend of Georges Seurat, Paul Signac, Theo van Rysselberghe, Henri-Edmond Cross, André Gide, et al., born. The remarkable Fénéon was the first French publisher of James Joyce and the 'discoverer' of the artist Seurat - he coined the term neo-Impressionsits to identify the group of artists around Seurat, when he wrote his 'Les Impressionnistes en 1886'.
Fénéon worked in the Ministry of War between 1881 to 1894, where he put his talent for writing to use creating reports on a wide range of subjects, all in perfect 'administrativese'. From 1886 he also worked for numerous anarchist newspapers and magazines including 'L' Endehors' (assuming the editorship when Zo d'Axa was in exile in London), 'La Renaissance', 'La Revue Anarchiste', etc.. He also co-founded 'La Libre Revue' and 'La Revue Indépendante' (1884); one of the main editors of the C19th literary magazine 'Vogue'; writer, translator and copy editor for the 'La Revue Blanche' (1894 - 1903; see below); as well as collaborating on 'La Revue Moderniste', 'Le Symboliste', 'La Cravache', 'La Plume', 'Le Chat Noir'; 'Les Entretiens Politiques et Littéraires' with the Symbolist poet Francis Vielé-Griffin; and on Emile Pouget's anarchist weekly newspaper, 'Père Peinard'. He helped discover or first published authors such as Jules Laforgue, Alfred Jarry, Mallarmé, Apollinaire, Rimbaud, etc..
Instigator of the April 4, 1894 bomb attack on the Foyot restaurant, he was arrested when a search of his home and his office at the War Department discovered materials, including mercury, which the police claimed could be used to build a bomb, and stood trial in the Procès des Trente. Numerous authors including Stéphane Mallarmé and Octave Mirbeau, gave evidence in his defence whilst Fénéon himself ridiculed the prosecution. He was acquitted but fired by the Ministry of Defence.
His lawyer at the trial Thadee Natanson, co-owner of the 'La Revue Blanche', hired him as a copy editor on the basis of his performance in the witness box, later becoming the managing editor of the magazine, one of the most important literary journals of its time. Fénéon was also involved in the defence of Alfred Dreyfus and later started writing his grand guignol stories of true crime, suicide and everyday occurrences, which appeared anonymously in 'Le Matin' and 'Le Figaro', later collected in 'Nouvelles en Trois Lignes' (News in Three Lines; 2007).
Giving up journalism in late 1906, he became director of the Bernheim-Jeune art gallery (until 1925) and helped raise awareness initially about established artists such as Seurat (he saw Seurat's 'La Grande Jatte' at the eighth and final Impressionist exhibition in 1886) and Pissarro, and subsequently Pierre Bonnard, Paul Signac, Van Dongen, Henri Matisse, Maurice Denis, Emile Compard. etc..
"Strange as it might seem to us now, many artists, including Paul Signac, Camille Pissarro and Lucien Pissarro, Maximilien Luce, Théo van Rysselberghe, and others not only justified and glorified Anarchists, but supported them financially."

[C] 1921 - Ludwig-Karl Ratschiller (d. 2004), Italian geologist and anti-Nazi partisan in North-Eastern Italy during WWII, is born in the South Tyrol.

1934 - El Juicio a los Campesinos de Casas Viejas (The Trial of the Casas Viejas Peasants): "Once, when barbarism rules over the world after the Courts came sometimes the bonfires. Now are the bonfires, crimes, murders, preceding sentences. Casas Viejas was destroyed by the police. Casas Viejas witnessed terrified the murder of twenty peasants. who were the dead? According to Casares, according to Azaña, according to Rojas himself, it was the rebels, those who fired at the headquarters of the Guardia Civil, who caused the death of a sergeant and a guard. But those twenty corpses that were intended to avenge the death of two guards were not enough. They had to find more responsible; had to find someone to unload the full weight of the law upon. And they sought amongst who escaped, amongst those who had managed to escape death, among those who taken to the mountains to avoid the flames they reached them and shot ... " - Eduardo de Guzmán in 'Tierra', June 22, 1934

1940 - Walter Hasenclever (b. 1890), radical German Expressionist poet, playwright, anti-militarist and anarchist fellow traveller, commits suicide in a Vichy detention camp rather than falling into the hands of the Nazis.

1941 - Folie de grandeur: Germany invades Russia.

1976 - Robert Relf is freed from prison after a 45-day 'hunger strike' [he was being fed Complan by sympathetic screws].
1871 - Marc Pierrot (d. 1950), French doctor of medicine, anarchist propagandist and publisher of the long-running libertarian review 'Plus Loin', born. One of the main collaborators on Jean Grave's 'Les Temps Nouveaux' newspaper. Signatory of the Manifeste des Seize in 1916. He revived 'Les Temps Nouveaux' between 1919 and 1921, and later founded the magazine 'Plus Loin' that ran from 1925 to 1939. In 1936 he went to Spain and took part in SIA (International Solidarity Antifascist) created by Louis Lecoin. During WWII, he was (wrongly) denounced as a Jew and he and his Lithuanian doctor wife had to go into hiding.

1910 - Jean Marie Lucien Pierre Anouilh (d. 1987), French dramatist, film director, screenplay writer and so-called anarchiste de droite [anti-bourgeois but not anti-state or capital literary movement], born. Best known for his 1943 play 'Antigone', an adaptation of Sophocles' classical drama, that was seen as an attack on Pétain's Vichy government.

1934 - El Juicio a los Campesinos de Casas Viejas (The Trial of the Casas Viejas Peasants): "The prosecutor read his report exposing the anarchic situation in Spain at the time and referring specifically to the case of Casas Viejas says it was a movement prepared and organised by the leaders who will end pointing and calling the facts under the Code of Military Justice, having carried out constituent acts of aggression against the armed force. Consequently, he requested penalties of twenty-five years' imprisonment for Antonio Cabañas, Cristóbal Toro Domínguez, Francisco Rocha, Manuel Moreno, Salvador Jordan and Sebastian Pavon; six years for Manuel Vera, José Moreno, Antonio Pavón, Francisco Quijada, Miguel Pavón, Manuel Sánchez, Juan Jiménez, José Pérez, José González, Francisco Cantero, Esteban Moreno, Antonio Durán, José Monroy, Jose Rodriguez Quiros, and Francisco Quintero; and three years for Antonio Cornejo, Antonio Cruz and Diego Fernández, Francisco Quijada, Sebastián Cornejo and Sebastián Rodríguez." 'La Época' June 23, 1934

[C] 1937 - Following the Communist suppression of the anarchists and P.O.U.M., George Orwell flees Spain with his wife, Eileen O'Shaughnessy.

1942 - 556 patients from the mental hospitals in Kobierzyn near Cracow and Kalwaria Zebrzydowska were put to death under the euthanasia program.
1882 - François Mayoux (d. 1967), French teacher, author, pacifist and libertarian trades unionist, born. Partner of Marie Mayoux and father of Jehan Mayoux. François and Marie joined the socialist SFIO in 1915, earning places in the 'Carnet B'. They were heavily fined and sentenced to 2 years in prison for the pacifist pamphlet 'Les Instituteurs Syndicalistes et la Guerre' (The Teachers Union and War) in 1917 and were excluded from the French Communist party in 1922 during the purge of syndicalists. Both participated in the anarchist press including 'La Revue Anarchiste', 'La Voix Libertaire', 'CQFD', 'Défense de l'Homme', 'Le Monde Libertaire', etc. Excluded from the CGTU in 1929, they went on to support the Spanish Revolution and denounced the Stalinist repression.

1913 - Jan Kubiš (d. 1942), Czech soldier and resistance fighter, one of a team of Czechoslovak British-trained paratroopers who took part in Operation Anthropoid, the assassination of acting Reichsprotektor (Reich-Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia, SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, on May 27, 1942, born.

[B] 1924 - Michel Ragon, prolific French writer, poet, novelist, art and architecture critic, art historian, historian of proletarian literature, anarchist and autodidact, born. Author of the controversial 'Dictionnaire de l'Anarchie' (2008).

1935 - Luigi Fabbri (b. 1877), Italian writer, professor and theorist of the Italian anarchist movement, born. Fabbri and Pietro Gori participated in the review 'Il Pensiero'. [see: Dec. 23]

1959 - Boris Vian (b. 1920), French polymath: writer, poet, jazz musician, singer, translator, critic, actor, inventor, engineer and 'apolitical anarchist', dies. [see: Mar. 20]

1972 - Proceso 1001: The leadership of the clanestine communist trades union, the Comisiones Obreras (Workers' Commissions; CC.OO.), is arrested in the convent of the Misioneros Oblatos de María Inmaculada in Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid. They stand trial on December 20, 1973, the session coinciding with the assassination of Prime Minister Luis Carrero Blanco, which led to the suspension of proccedings for a few hours) and are sentenced to between 12 and 20 years in prison on December 30, 1973, reduced the following year due to a royal amnesty. [see: Nov. 25 & Dec. 20]

1977 - At a meeting of Lewisham Council for Community Relations, Sybil Phoenix (Pagnell Street Centre) and Alderman Russell Profitt, condemn the police arrests of 21 youths during 'Operation PNH' (Police Nigger Hunt), the latter describing the raids as "scandalous and disgusting - a vicious attack on the black community". ['Kentish Mercury' 30/6.77]

1981 - More than 500 student and Anti-Nazi League campaigners march through Harrogate, taking over the college building where Brons is teaching. Six protesters are arrested, some during a fight between NFers and Manchester Squad members. A 'National Front Skins' banner is also taken and burnt to loud cheers from the demo. ['No Retreat']

1989 - Dewsbury riot: On the same day that copies of Salman Rushdie’s 'The Satanic Verses' are being burnt in Bradford, the BNP had decided to hold a 'Rights for Whites' rally in Dewsbury, cashing in on the decision by some white parents to withdraw their children from a school where most of the pupils were Asian and no doubt hoping that the Scarborough Hotel, the public house where the boycott organisers had been temporary schooling there kids and which also just happenened to be a local thorn of contention between the 'traditional white population' and the local Muslim community (with additional racist undertones adding to the combustible mix), would be a target for local youths angry at the BNP's presence.
Needless to say, they got their wish as the Muslim youths of Savile Town, who had been drawn to the Black Workers Group organised anti-BNP protest and been prevented from reaching the fash by the police, moved back across the Savile bridge over the River Calder into Savile Town and attacked the Scarborough. The interiro of the pub was trashed, as were vehicles in the carpark outside, and furniture set on fire. The pub's customers, who had sought refuge upstairs, managed to escape after the police had moved the crowd off.

[C] 2012 - Gerhard 'Gad' Beck (b. 1923), German educator, author, anti-fascist resister, and the last known gay survivor of the Holocaust, dies just six days before his 89th birthday. [see: Jun. 30]
1903 - Eric Arthur Blair (aka George Orwell; d. 1950), born.
"All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others."

1926 - In Paris, three Spanish anarchists are arrested, accused of preparing to assassinate the Spanish king Alphonse XIII: Ascaso, Durruti and Jover. Louis Lecoin mounts a major protest campaign to prevent their extradition and gains their release in July of 1927.

1934 - El Juicio a los Campesinos de Casas Viejas (The Trial of the Casas Viejas Peasants): The 2-day Consejo de Guerra (court-martial) begins in the Castillo de San Roque in Cadiz for the 26 of around 100 farmers and peasants that had original been arrested in the days following the January 1933 uprising. Two other campesinos, Francisco Gutiérrez Rodríguez aka 'Currestaca' and Juan Rodríguez Guillén, had also been charged but do not take part in the trial.

[C] 1943 - Częstochowa Ghetto Uprising: Resistance fighters in Częstochowa's Small Ghetto did not know the exact date of the impending Aktion and were caught unaware as the ghetto was surrounded by a much greater number of SS and police over the 3 days between June 23-25. On the 25th the selection began, and the poorly armed ŻOB (Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa / Jewish Fighting Organisation) members began their last-ditch but all-out demonstration of military resistance, barricading themselves in bunkers along Nadrzeczna Street. In the fighting and subsequent massacres 1,500 Jews died. Those who were captured, were immediately deported to Treblinka. The leader of the uprising, Mordechaj Zylberberg, committed suicide as the Germans were about to capture his bunker on Nadrzeczna. The uprising was suppressed on June 30, 1943, with additional 500 Jews burned alive or buried beneath the rubble of the Small Ghetto. The remaining 3,900 fugitives were rounded up and sent to a camp in Warta or incarcerated at the nearby work prisons, HASAG-Peltzery (the biggest forced labour camp in Częstochowa with a steel mill and textile factories) and Huta Częstochowa (another large steel mill). However, the Germans did not raze the ghetto, which had several factories, instead additional Jews were brought in as laborers from another Polish town.
[ęstochowa_Ghetto_Uprising ghetto.html]

1947 - The first issue of 'Juventud Libre', the newspaper of the JJ.LL FIJL in exile, is published in Paris, replacing 'Ruta' which was banned by the French authorities in February 1953. It too will be banned in June 1960.

1978 - Ishaq Ali, a 50-year-old Bengali resturant worker, is stabbed to death in Hackney in a racist attack, sparking 2 days of angry protests by the local community.

[A] 1984 - Michel Foucault (b. 1926), French philosopher, social theorist and historian of ideas, author of 'Surveiller et Punir: Naissance de la Prison' (Discipline and Punishment: The Birth of the Prison') (1975), dies of AIDS.
1880 - Aurèle Patorni (d. 1955), French anarchist, writer (plays, operettas, etc.), journalist, pacifist and néo-Malthusien, born. Collaborated on many, many journals and reviews, including Eugène Humbert's 'La Grande Réforme', with Louis Lecoin on 'SIA' (organe de la Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste), Louis Louvet's 'CQFD' and Lecoin's 'Défense de l'Homme'.

1903 - Paul Louis Joseph Esteve (d. 1987), French trade unionist and bricklayer's mate, secretary of the Anarchist Federation of Languedoc (1926), born.

[C] 1920 - Troops revolt in Ancona, Italy, refusing to fight in Albania. Armed insurgents and sympathisers occupy city hall and new troops are ordered in to suppress the revolt.

1926 - The first issue of the fortnightly Italian language newspaper 'La Diana' is published by exiled Italian militants Paolo Schicci et Renato Siglich in Paris.

1934 - El Juicio a los Campesinos de Casas Viejas (The Trial of the Casas Viejas Peasants): At the end of the two-day trial, the Consejo de Guerra impose a six year sentence of imprisonment on Antonio Cabañas Salvador aka 'El Gallilnito' (The Cockerel), held to be the most dangerous of the defendants. Manuel Moreno Cabañas (or Cabeza) aka 'Rompemonte', #Francisco 'Migel' Rocha (or Rosa) Acevedo, Sebastián Pavón (or Pabón) Pérez and Cristóbal Toro Domínguez [also refered to as Antonio Toro Rodríguez] are sentenced to 5 years each; Salvador Jordán Aragón and José Monroy Romero aka 'Bailaor' (Dancer) get 3 years; José (or Juan) Jiménez Fernández aka 'el Boticario' (the Apothecary), Manuel Vera Moya aka 'Tragarranas', Francisco Cantero (or Quintero) Esquivel aka 'Pinganillo', Francisco Durán Fernández, Esteban Moreno Cano (or Caro) and Miguel Pavón Pérez all receive 2 years; and José Moreno Cabeza, Antonio Durán Fernández and José Rodríguez Quiros aka 'Pepe Pareja' receive 1 years imprisonment. Diego Fernández Ruiz aka 'el Tullido' (the Cripple), Francisco Quijada Pino, José Pérez Franco aka 'Patas de Paño', José González Pérez aka 'Pepe Pilar', Manuel Sánchez Olivencia aka 'Sardiguera', Antonio Pavón Pérez, Antonio Cornejo Delgado, Antonio Cruz García aka 'Tariero', Sebastián Cornejo Bancalero and Sebastián Rodríguez Quiros aka 'Pareja' are all acquitted. Those farmers who had been sentenced to two years or more, were sent to the prisons of Ocaña and Puerto de Santa María.

1937 - Showing solidarity with P.O.U.M. militants being persecuted by the Stalinists and the Republic's police, the Bolshevik-Leninist Section calls for concerted action by the Section, the left of the P.O.U.M. and the anarchist Friends of Durruti.

1943 - Częstochowa Ghetto Uprising: As the Germans attempt the final liqidation of the ghetto, fighters from the Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Combat Organization) put up heavy resistance defending improvised bunkers in Nadrzeczna Street. In the ensuing fighting and the mass executions over the following 4 days, 1,500 Jews die.

1948 - Raul Carbeillera Lacunza (b. 1918 [or poss. 1917]), an Argentinian anarchist who led CNT action groups against Franco's fascist state, is surrounded by police and the Guardia Civil in Barcelona's Montjuïc gardens, and dies at his own hands rather than face recapture by the police. Carbeillera had several times slipped into Spain to fight with the Resistance. [see: Feb. 28]

1954 - The Kengir Uprising ends after 40 days of freedom after the camp is stormed by Soviet tanks, leaving up to 700 prisoners dead.

[B] 1957 - Bruno Alfred Döblin (b. 1878), German Expressionist novelist, essayist, doctor, and Landauerian Christian socialist with a strong affiliation with anarchist thought, especially Kropotkin (though he was never active), dies. [see: Aug. 10]

1959 - The Boycott Movement was founded in London on 26 June 1959 at a meeting of South African exiles and their supporters. Following the Sharpeville massacre on March 21, 1960, the organisation was renamed the Anti-Apartheid Movement and, instead of just a consumer boycott, the group would now "co-ordinate all the anti-apartheid work and keep South Africa's apartheid policy in the forefront of British politics", and campaign for the total isolation of apartheid South Africa, including economic sanctions.
The organisation would become a regular target for fascist and neo-Nazi violence, particularly the South Africa House picket in Trafalgar Square.

1974 - Georges Hugnet (b. 1906), French poet, writer, playwright, graphic designer and filmmaker, who was the first historian of the Dada movement who was also involved with the Surrealist Group, dies. [see: Jul. 11]
1869 - Emma Goldman (d. 1940), anarchist rebel, feminist and anti-militarist, born in Lithuania. Author of 'Anarchism and Other Essays' (1910), which contained the essay 'The Modern Drama: A Powerful Disseminator of Radical Thought'; 'My Disillusionment in Russia' (1923) and 'Living My Life' (1931).

1921 - Wenceslao Jimenez Orive aka 'Wences' or 'Jimeno' (d. 1950), Zaragozan anarchist member of the 'Los Maños' guerrilla group in the resistance to Franco following the fascist victory in the Civil War, born. [expand]

[C] 1950 - Milada Horakova (b. 1901), Czech lawyer, social democrat, anti-fascist fighter, anti-Communist and a prominent feminist, is hanged with three others in Prague’s Pankrac Prison as a spy and traitor to the Czechoslovak Communist government.

1960 - Pierre Monatte (aka Lémont Pierre; b. 1881), a central figure of French anarcho-syndicalist movement, dies. Influenced by Émile Pouget, friends with Albert Camus, and a former Communist Party member, he fought the Stalinist influence and reformist positions of the trade unions. [see: Jan. 15]

[B] 1961 - Harry Hooton (b. 1908), Australian poet, philosopher, anarchist, Wobbly and pacifist, dies. [see: Oct. 9]

1973 - Ida Mett (b. 1901), Russian-born anarchist, syndicalist and author, dies. Member of the Dielo Truda group from 1925 to 1928. Author of 'The Kronstadt Uprising' (1921) and 'The Russian Peasant in the Revolution and Post Revolution' (1968) amongst others.
1933 - Members of the Green Shirt Movement for Social Credit, a paramilitary movement for social credit that had grown out of the Kibbo Kift, hold a demonstration at the British Union of Fascists' Headquarters in Walworth Road and state that they are "out to discredit and smash Fascism." A rather odd organisation that advocated a form of rural primitivism, with some of their members adhering to conspiracy theories around "international Jewish finance" (though the organisation itself was far from anti-Semetic), and they had taken to turning up at BUF meetings and asking awkward questions about social credit and regularly gotten ito fights with Blackshirt stewards. They had also previously joined an April 1933 'united front' anti-fascist rally in Hyde Park. Mosley ended up banning Greenshirts from BUF meetings. [PR]

[B] 1935 - Dieter Schrage (d. 2011), Austrian art historian, ceramicist and anarchist, who was involved in 1976 in the Vienna Arena Movement and went on to become member of and policy wonk for Die Grüne Alternative in 1987, born.

1936 - Valeriano Orobón Fernánez (b. 1901), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist theoretician, trade-union activist, translator and poet, who wrote the lyrics of the CNT anthem 'A Las Barricadas', dies shortly after having been released from prison, his health destroyed by numerous prison sentences and fatally weakened by tuberculosis.

1936 - Mosley and the BU hold a meeting in Hulme Town Hall. The meeting passes off quietly, but as the fascists try to leave the hall the crowd of 2,000-3,000 anti-fascists outside rush to attack Mosley's car. Police and Blackshirt stewards manage to clear his way but hand-to-hand fighting between fascists and anti-fascists breaks out, and a senior cops is struck in the face by a flying glass. Attempts are also made by the crowd to overturn fascist vans and set them on fire. Mosley and his retinue then went to the new fascist Club in nearby Tominson Street, which was then surrounded by another angry crowd. A Fascist flag was torn down from the building and windows were stoned. Attempts are also made by the crowd to overturn fascist vans and set them on fire. Mosley's car was also stoned as he left and the crowd made an unsuccessful attempt to stop it. All the windows of the club were later smashed with stoned. Besieged fascists in the Town Hall and Fascist Club were later forced to change in plain clothes in order to escape unnoticed. Disturbances in the area continued between fascist and anti-fascists through out the night and it took to the early hours of the next day before police restored order. Manchester Council would respond to what they feared as a potential street war by proscribing political uniforms. [PR]

[C] 1941 - Red Friday: The Nazis burn down the Jewish Chanajki district of Białystok, together with the Great Synagogue, with 800 to 1,000 people locked inside killing about 5,000 Jews.

1944 - French résistance fighters killed Minister of Information and local Milice leader Phillipe Henriot. Milice leader in Lyon, Paul Touvier, was ordered to conduct reprisal killings.

1947 - Stanislav Kostka Neumann (b. 1875), Czech journalist, poet, literary and art critic, translator and anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 5]

1956 - A strike begins today in Poznañ with about 100,000 demonstrators shouting "Bread and Freedom". State offices are taken, including prisons, while police shoot from secret police headquarters killing people. The government sends 10,000 soldiers to the city. By tomorrow over 70 people are dead, a hundreds wounded and 700 arrested.

1967 - Oskar Maria Graf (b. 1894), Bavarian author, poet, novelist and anarchist, who occassionally used the pseudonym Oskar Graf-Berg, dies. [see: Jul. 22]

1974 - Maurice Vandamme (aka Mauricius) (b. 1886), French anarchist, architect's clerk and biologist, born. He was an anarchist individualist candidate in the municipal elections in Clignancourt 1925; discovered the therapeutic properties of the ozone and founded a medical centre in Paris in 1936 working with ozone insufflations. [see: Feb. 24]

1976 - Elena Quinteros (b. 1945), Uraguayan teacher, militant of the Federación Anarquista Uruguaya (FAU) and Partido por la Victoria del Pueblo, is kidnapped on the grounds of the Embassy of Venezuela in Montevideo having escaped from military custody four days earlier. In August 1976 she is last seen in a military detention centre and subjected to torture before she is "disappeared" permanently. [see: Sep. 9]

1989 - Joris Ivens (b. 1898), Dutch communist and documentary filmmaker, who made the pro-Republican propaganda film 'The Spanish Earth' (1937), dies. [see: Nov. 18]

2009 - Ilya Dzhaparidze, Russian anti-fascist is stabbed to death by Nazis in Moscow. Dzhaparidze was killed the night before a Dinamo FC match, where he he had planned to hang the banner "Football Against Racism".

[CC] 2011 - Seven anti-fascists are convicted of 'conspiracy to commit violent disorder' after a 17 day trial in connection with an altercation on the platform of Welling train station between a couple of the anti-fascists and two fascists from a Blood and Honour gig at the Duchess of Edinburgh pub in Upper Wickham Lane on March 28, 2009. Andy Baker, Sean Cregan, Phil De Sousa and Ravinder Gill are immediately sentenced to 21 months in prison. Thomas Blak and Austen Jackson would later receive 18 and 15 months respectively following sentencing reports. Thomas was also facing deportation at the end of his sentence.
1879 - Pedro Vallina Martinez (d. 1970), Spanish anarchist Doctor of Medicine and Civil War fighter, born.

1919 - Pedro Fernández Eleta aka 'El Taxista' (the Driver)(d. 2006), Spanish taxi driver, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combattant, born. One of eight children, he began work as a baker and then as a mechanic. On 19 July 1936, he and his brother Cándido were distributing leaflets in Zaragoza calling for a general strike as the same time as the fascist uprising occurred. They had to go into hiding from the Fascists in the city for two months and witnessed the executions of their comrades by Franco's troops. On September 30, 1936, a group of 10 members of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) - among them Pedro and Cándido Fernández, Ángel Marí, Ángel Cebrián, Francisco Sanclemente Bernal, Ramón Maza and Santiago 'el Autobuserico' - armed with two pistols and a revolver, undertook the dangerous task of escaping to the Republican zone along the Utrillas railway line in the direction of Fuendetodos. They managed to reach the town the next day, after coming under machinegun fire from the Carlist militia and thanks to a group of CNT-FAI fighters who came out to meet them - amongst his rescuers was Francisco Fuster, a CNT comrade from Valdealgorfa, Teruel. Having recovered from his wounds, he joined the Regeneración century, the first Confederal Regiment.
A proposal by Saturnino Carod Lerin and Buenaventura Durruti for a Aragonese Hundred of 300 militiamen trained in Puebla de Hijar for guerrilla attacks inside Zaragoza was dismissed by the High Command, in favour of classical war tactics and frontal attacks, which would exhaust all hope of military victory on the Aragon front. With the forced militarisation, he left the front and for Barcelona, ​​whilst his brother Cándido joined the Second Company of the Second Battalion as a lieutenant in the XXV Divisió Ortíz. Cándido Eleta Fernandez, fell in combat, aged 27, fell in La Batalla de Belchite, the failed offensive against Zaragoza in August 1937, during an attempt to take a position on Monte Sillero. Pedro Fernandez, meanwhile, toured all the war fronts as a driver in the Cos de Tren (Train Corps), which later became the Batalló de Transport Confederal. Based between Barcelona and Madrid, he was attached to the Combatiente del Este of the XXVI Divisió Durruti, accompanying two French journalists during the battle of Teruel, he transported supplies and troops from Mora to the Battle of the Ebro, and in the withdrawal tfrom Catalonia, he crossed the French border with a ​​truckload of refugees. Interned in the camps at Agde, St. Cyprian and Argeles, he was a forced labourer building a gunpowder factory in Saint Librade. Later, he was deported to Figueres by train, where everybody in the convoy was handed over to the Guàrdia Civil. Interned in several concentration camps (La Carbonera, Miranda de Ebro and Valdenocada), finally imprisoned in the dreaded Torrero prison in Zaragoza, where he was subjected to court martial and sentenced to death. This was later commuted to 30 years, then to 20 and having served nearly three years, he was released on probation attached to the Batallón Disciplinario no. 35, forced to build the rail connection to the airport. Finally, he was forced to do three years of compulsory military service in Jaca. In 1977, he went with a group of old CNT activists to participate in a rally in Toulouse, where he found colleagues who he had not seen for decades. Working as a taxi driver, he was actively involved in the reconstruction of the CNT in Aragón as a militant in the Sindicat de Transports. His life was the source of inspiration for the novel 'Los inocentes de Ginel' (2005) by the writer Ricardo Vázquez-Prada.

1921 - Frédéric Charles Antoine Dard (d. 2000), French writer of romans policiers and so-called anarchiste de droite, born. Has written an unknown number (possibly 200+) of novels - detective fiction, crime novels, suspense, etc. - under a plethora of pseudonyms including F. D. Ricard, Sydeney, Fred Astor, Fred Charles, F.R. Daroux, Frédéric Valmain, San-Antonio, Frédéric Charles, Mr Joos, Alex de la Glunière, R. Fréroux, Frédard, Georges Quatremenon, Alex de la Glunière, Jérôme Patrice, Frédéric Antony, Cousin Jules, Freddy Dor, Jules Albert, Patrice, Ric, Jules Durand, Charles d'Ars, Cornel Milk, Verne Goody, Well Norton, Maxel Beeting, Odette Damaizin, Kill Him, L'Ange Noir, Charly, Antoine, Paul Antoine and Kaput. The plot of his Commissaire San-Antonio novel 'Plein les moustaches' (Full whiskers; 1985) features the hunt for Nazi war criminals.
The French punk band Bérurier Noir are named in part in tribute to the sidekick (Bérurier) of his main fictional character, Commissaire San-Antonio.
"Last year I was a bit pretentious, this year I am perfect."
"(...) au fond de moi, je suis un rebelle, je suis un anarchiste. Il y a anarchie dans ma manière d'écrire : anarchie du style, anarchie de l'intrigue, puisque ce ne sont pas de vrais romans policiers, anarchie dans l'utilisation des gadgets modernes - qu'est-ce que ça peut me foutre qu'une fusée marche à l'hydrogène liquide ou au gruyère râpé ? - il y a anarchie sur toute la ligne. C'est finalement une rébellion contre tout ce que l'on m'a enseigné."
("(...) In my heart, I am a rebel, I'm an anarchist There is anarchy in the way I write. Style anarchy, anarchy of the plot, since it is not real novels police lawlessness in the use of modern gadgets - what can it make me a rocket running on liquid hydrogen or grated cheese - there is anarchy on the line. It is ultimately a rebellion against everything I was taught.")

1951 - Urbain Gohier (born Urbain Degoulet and used the pen name Isaac Blümchen; b. 1862), French author, journalist, anti-militarist, lawyer, one-time writer for the anarchist 'Le Libertaire' and latterly a rabid anti-Semite, dies. [see: Dec. 17]

[C] 1973 - An attempted coup d'etat in Chile - a test run for the real thing on September 11th.

2011 - Dieter Schrage (b. 1935), Austrian art historian, ceramicist and anarchist, who was involved in 1976 in the Vienna Arena Movement and went on to become member of and policy wonk for Die Grüne Alternative in 1987, dies. [see: Jun. 28]
1882 - Robert Louzon (d. 1976), French engineer, revolutionary syndicalist and anarchist, born.
In August 1936, commissioned by the CNT in Spain, he went to Morocco in order to try and prevent the recruitment of troops by Franco. In February 1937, he joined the Republican army and fought at the front as one of the oldest milicianos. On his return to France, he worked helping Spanish Republicans, as well as Italian and German emigrants as a member of the SIA (International Antifascist Solidarity) and working on its weekly. In 1939, he signed Louis Lecoin's leaflet 'Paix immédiate', which earned him a trial before the council of war despite having been awarded a Légion d'honneur. Arrested in 1940, he was interned in a camp in Algeria for a year. In 1947, he resumed his militant activity in Révolution Prolétarienne.

1923 Gerhard 'Gad' Beck (d. 2012), German educator, author, anti-fascist resister, and survivor of the Holocaust, born. Despite his father being Jewish and his mother a Jewish convert from Protestatism, Gad was not deported as were other German Jews (his Mischling, partial Jewish ancestry, saving him). In one incident he borrowed a neighbour’s Hitler Youth uniform, marched into the pre-deportation camp where his lover, Manfred Lewin, had been arrested and detained, asking the commanding officer for the boy's release for use in a construction project. Lewin was released but outside refused to abandon his family - both Lewin and his entire family were later murdered at Auschwitz. Beck joined an underground effort to supply food and hiding places to Jews escaping to neutral Switzerland. In early 1945, a Jewish spy for the Gestapo betrayed him and some of his underground friends. He was subsequently interrogated and interned in a Jewish transit camp in Berlin.
After World War II, Beck helped organize efforts to emigrate Jewish survivors to Palestine, emigrating himself in 1947. Beck returned to Berlin in 1979, where he was the director of the Jewish Adult Education Center in Berlin. In 2000, Beck featured in a HBO documentary film, 'Paragraph 175', which chronicled the lives of gay men and one lesbian women who were persecuted by the Nazis. Also in 2000, Beck published his autobiography 'An Underground Life: Memoirs of a Gay Jew in Nazi Berlin'.

1930 - Francisco Saverio Merlino (b. 1856), Italian lawyer, theorist, propagandist of Italian anarchism, then a socialist - though he continued to defend anarchists, dies. [see: Sep. 9 or 15]

[C] 1934 - 'The Night of the Long Knives' takes place, as Hitler approves the elimination of the entire leadership of the Brownshirts.

1943 - Częstochowa Ghetto Uprising: The resistance in the Small Ghetto is suppressed and around 500 Jews are burned alive or buried beneath the rubble.

1944 - Milice leader in French city of Lyon, Paul Touvier, selects 7 Jewish prisoners to be executed by firing squad as reprisal for the killing of Minister of Information and local Milice leader Phillipe Henriot two days earlier by the French Résistance.

1957 - José Rodrigues Oiticica (b. 1882), lawyer, student of medicine, teacher, poet and an influential figure in the Brazilian anarchist and labour movement, dies. [see: Jun. 22]

1970 - Kimber Road Army depot in London is firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)