[BB] 1889 - Hannah Höch (Anna Therese Johanne Höch; d. 1978), German artist, photomontagist, Dadaist and feminist, born. The lone woman among the Berlin Dada group, she was largely treated with contempt (except as Hausmann's partner) and her importance as an innovator of photomontage and collage forgotten. She also worked at Ullstein Verlag, Berlin's major publisher of magazines and newspapers, in women's magazines and handicraft department, a source of images that fuelled her highly political anti-bourgeois art and whose obvious misogyny both drove her androgynous imagery. Bisexual, she had a nine-year relationship with the Dutch writer Til Brugman in her years living in Holland. During the National Socialist regime, Höch was forbidden to exhibit but continued to live in Germany.
"None of these men were satisfied with just an ordinary woman. In protest against the older generation they all desired this 'New Woman' and her ground-breaking will to freedom. But - they more or less brutally rejected the notion that they, too, had to adopt new attitudes. This led to these truly Strindbergian dramas that typified the private lives of these men".
1939 - The 40th anniversary of New York's Yiddish anarchist weekly, the 'Freie Arbeiter Stimme' (Free Voice of Labour).

1954 - The revolt against French colonial rule in Algeria begins.

1956 - Russian troops enter Hungary in order to put down the Hungarian Revolution.

1968 - Marcel Duchamp (b. 1887), French-American artist, painter, sculptor, writer, chess player and individualist anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 28]

1971 - Army Tank HQ in Everton Street, London, bombed by the Angry Brigade.

1993 - Georges Navel (Charles François Victor Navel; b. 1904), French writer, novelist and libertarian, dies. [see: Oct. 30]

1998 - Over 2,000 people gather in Santiago's public cemetery on Day of Dead to pay tribute to Pinochet's victims, while thousands more watch the march and cheer them on. Carrying flowers, the mourners chant: "The blood of the victims is not negotiable!"

2011 - Cyril Paskin (b. 1922), British anti-fascist, who was a co-founder and later a field commander of the 1962 Committee or 62 Group, dies. [see: Aug. 26]

[B] 2012 - Agustín García Calvo (b. 1926), Spanish philologist, translator, linguist, playwright, poet, philosopher and anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 15]

[C] 2013 - Two members of the neo-Nazi Golden Dawn, Manolis Kapelonis and Giorgos Fountoulis, are killed, and a third (Alexandros Gerontas) wounded, in a drive-by shooting by 2 masked men on a motorcycle outside the local party office in the Athens suburb of Neo Heraclio.
1892 - Jean Roumilhac (d. 1949), French libertarian activist, born. Fought in the Spanish Revolution and was first president of the French section of the S.I.A. (International Solidarity Antifascist). In the 1940s Roumilhac created an agricultural company in the Rhone delta, enabling Spanish anarchist refugees to obtain legal residence permits.

[C] 1914 - Josef Valčík (d. 1942), Czech soldier and resistance fighter, one of a team of Czechoslovak British-trained paratroopers who took part in Operation Anthropoid, the assassination of acting Reichsprotektor (Reich-Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia, SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, on May 27, 1942, born.

1927 - Assault by the Portuguese government on the anarchist General Confederation of Labour, including arrests, attacks on union offices, and restriction of labour activities.

1973 - Robert Siewert (b. 1887), German communist, anti-Stalinist and member of the anti-Nazi Resistance, dies. [see: Dec. 30]

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: Decreto-Lei nº674-B / 75, which end the state of siege declared on 25 November in the area of Military Region of Lisbon and is to be lifted at 17:00 on December 2, is published.
The Constituent Assembly meets by registering heated discussion in the PS (Partido Socialista), the PPD (Partido Popular Democrático) and CDS (Partido do Centro Democrático e Social) accuse the PCP (Partido Comunista Português) of involvement in the November 25 events. The PPD calls into question the continuation of PCP membership of the 6th Provisional Government. The PS advocates a contrary position.
34 officials of Rádio e Televisão de Portugal (RTP) are suspended for alleged involvement in the events of 25 November.
1871 - Hanns Heinz Ewers (Hans Heinrich Ewers; b. 1943), German writer, poet, novelist, playwright, song writer, filmmaker, globetrotter, comedian and Stirnerite individualist, born. A notorious best-selling author of fairy tales and children's books, as well as his more scandalous novels, plays and films, which he had to repeatedly defend, both in public and in the courts, against the charges that his works were trivial, immoral and pornographic.
His first literary works appeared in 'Der Eigene' (The Treasury), considered to be the first gay magazine and he was involved in the Gemeinschaft des Eigenen (Community of the Self), a pioneering association campaigning for equal rights for homosexuals. He was also imprisoned for fornication i.e. homosexual acts. He was also involved in the Cabaret Überbrettl in Berlin, on of the first literary cabarets in Germany, writing satirical texts and reciting them on stage. There he met fellow 'Der Eigene' contributor Erich Mühsam, with whom he collaborated on the children's book 'Billy's Erdengang. Eine Elephantengeschichte für Artige Kinder' (Billy's Life. An Elephant Story for Kids; 1904).
However, he was also a cultural nationalist, acting as a propagandist for the German Empire in America during WWI, and was eventually interned by the US administration. He was also an occultist associated with Aleister Crowley and Ernst 'Putzi' Hanfstaengl, who would later go on to become an ardent Hitler supporter. He himself joined the NSDAP in 1931 and engaged in propaganda work. But in 1934 he suffered a general ban on his publications and, with the passing of the Nuremberg Laws in 1935 he left the Party and campaigned for exit visas for his Jewish friends.
Amongst his other works were the novel 'Alraune. Die Geschichte eines lebenden Wesens' (1911), which involved the artificial insemination of a prostitute with the sperm of a sex killer taken during his execution. The baby, Alraune (or Mandrake), then grows up to pursue the head of the team involved in the experiment. The book was the supposed basis for 6 different films, including 'Alraune, die Henkerstochter, genannt die rote Hanne' (Alraune, the hangman's daughter, named Red Hanna), a 1918 silent vampire film directed by Eugen Illés and Joseph Klein, whose only link was the name Alraune. Closer to the original is the 1928 silent classic starring Brigitte Helm in the lead role. Another vampire novel was his much translated classic 'Vampir Ein verwilderter Roman in Fetzen und Farben' (Vampire. A feral Novel of Scraps and Colours; 1921).
[ Heinz Ewers]

1901 - André Malraux (d. 1976), French novelist, art theorist, anti-fascist and post-war Minister of Cultural Affairs, born.

1935 - Mosley and his Blackshirts return to South Shields to try and hold a rally in the Palace Cinema. Located in the Holborn riverside district of South Shields and home to a sizeable Yemeni community, they hope to provoke a race riot. Fascist stewards were bused in from all over the country, but the anti-fascists mobilised thousands. Fighting inside and outside the hall broke out, and the fascist buses from London, Leeds and Liverpool were bricked on their way out. The meeting turned out to be yet another failure for BUF. [PR]

1957 - Wilhelm Reich (b. 1897), author of 'The Mass Psychology of Fascism', 'Sex-Pol Essays', 'Function of the Orgasm', etc., dies in prison a week before he is eligible for parole. Reich had the dubious honour of having his works banned in Nazi Germany, the US and USSR (and publicly burnt in the first two).

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: The government announces the nationalisation of all radio stations.
42 officials of Emissora Nacional (National Radio) for alleged involvement in the events of November 25. More will be suspended 6 days later.

[C] 1979 - Five anti-Fascists are shot dead by the KKK and the American Nazi Party at a protest in Greensboro, North Carolina, United States. 10 protesters are also injured.
Those murdered:
- Sandi Smith, president of the student body and a founding member of the Student Organisation for Black Unity (SOBU) at Greensboro’s Bennett College. She was a community organiser for the Greensboro Association of Poor People (GAPP) and became a worker at the textile mill where she and others formed the Revolution Organising Committee (ROC) to unionise the plant. Sandi was a leader of a march of over 3,000 people in Raleigh to free the Wilmington 10, ten young activists jailed on false charges to stop them from organising. In her work at a Cone Mills textile plant, she battled sexual harassment, low wages, and unhealthy working conditions.
- Dr. Jim Waller who received his medical degree from the University of Chicago and trained at the Lincoln Hospital Collective in New York City. In 1973 at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, Waller organised medical aid and set up a clinic to aid American Indian Movement activists under siege by the FBI. When he moved to North Carolina to teach at Duke University he coordinated Brown Lung screenings in textile mills, co-founding the Carolina Brown Lung Association. He later gave up his medical practice to organise workers becoming vice president of the AFL-CIO local textile workers union Waller and went to work in a Cone Mills textile plant in Haw River. From inside he helped organise and eventually became president of the AFL-CIO union local after leading a strike in 1978 that helped the union grow from about 25 members to almost 200.
- William 'Bill' Sampson was a student anti-war activist and president of his college student body. He studied at the Sorbonne in Paris during college, received his Masters degree in Divinity from Harvard in 1971, then studied medicine at the University of Virginia. As a medical student he organised health care workers to support the liberation struggles in southern Africa. Bill left medical school to work and organise in one of Cone Mills’ Greensboro textile plant, where he built the union and focused on training new leaders. The workers had chosen Bill to run for president of the local.
- Cesar Cauce was a Cuban immigrant who graduated magna cum laude from Duke University, where he was a campus leader in the anti-war movement. He rejected a full scholarship to study history at the University of California at Berkeley and instead to help to unionise Duke Hospital workers. Cesar organised strike support for union struggles throughout NC and was a regular participant in the Goldkist strike, a campaign to organise poultry workers in Durham. He also travelled extensively throughout the South, writing about class struggles for the Workers Viewpoint.
- Dr. Michael Nathan, chief of pediatrics at Lincoln Community Health Center in Durham, a clinic that helped children from low-income families. Nathan had been an anti-war and civil rights student activist at Duke University. He organised and led a chapter of the Medical Committee for Human Rights (MCHR), an organisation that fought for improved health care for poor people. Mike studied child health and treated sick children in a mountain clinic in Guatemala in 1972 and 1973, and was a leader in a movement to send aid to liberation fighters who eventually toppled the apartheid system is what’s now Zimbabwe.

1983 - May (Marie-Jeanne) Picqueray (b. 1898), French militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, feminist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Jul. 8]
1877 - Theodor Bartošek (d. 1954), Czech lawyer, freethinker, anarchist fellow traveller and then communist politician, born. Destined to become a priest, he rebelled against his family and co-found the Svazu Českého Studentstva (Union of Czech Students), forming a close association with the Czech anarchist movement including his life-long friend Bohuslav Vrbenský. In 1903 he co-founded, with the anarchist poet S.K. Neumann, the Spolek Volných Myslitelů Augustin Smetana (Augustin Smetana Association of Free Thinkers) in honour of the Czech Hegelian philosopher and ex-communicated priest of the same name - the organisation would be banned in 1909. In 1905 he became editor of the group's newly founded monthly magazine 'Volné Myšlenky' (Free Thought), which in 1915 was also banned [its header was designed by František Kupka]. During WWI Volných Myslitelů was officially disbanded and its members interned including alongside Bartošek, Bohuslav Vrbenský, Vlastimil Borek, Václav Krampera, František J. Havelka, Emil Špatný and the nationalist politician Václav Klofáč.
Post-WWI, he sat in the Revoluční Národní Shromáždění (Revolutionary National Assembly), winning a parliamentary seat for the new Česká Strana Socialistická (Czech Socialist Party), of which he became a representative in the National Assembly for the České Socialistické Straně (Czech Socialist Party, or ČSS), formed from the merger of the Federaci Českých Anarchistů Komunistů (Federation of Czech Anarchist Communists, or FČAK) with the Česká Strana Národně Sociální (Czech National Social Party; ČSNS). Expelled from the ČSS, along with the rest of the Vrbenský group, for voting against the Law on Protection of the Republic and helped found the Independent Socialist Workers Party (Neodvislá Socialistickou Stranu, or NZS) in 1924 as the principal author of its programme statement.
He was also a co-creator of the first Constitution of the Czechoslovak Republic, later joining the KSČ and was a member of both the Svazu Proletářských Bezvěrců (Union of Proletarian Atheists) and of Mezinárodní rudá pomoc (International Red Aid ). After the rise of fascism in neighbouring Germany, he became the president of the Spolku na Ochranu ak Podpoře Obětí Boje Proti Fašismu (Society for the Protection and Support of Victims of the Fight Against Fascism). On the first day of the Nazi occupation, the Gestapo smashed up his apartment, arresting and interrogating him. Arrested and interned a number of times, he also defended anti-Nazi resistance fighters in court, later defending those persecuted by Communism as well.

1897 - Cipriano Mera Sanz (d. 1975), French anarcho-syndicalist, militia leader and army commander in the Spanish Revolution, born. [expand]

1917 - Carlos Vidal Pasanau (d. 1950), Catalan mechanic, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist member of Francisco Sabate Llopart 'El Quico' guerrilla group, born [expand]

[C/(CCC)] 1924 - Urbano Lazzaro aka 'Bill' (d. 2006), Italian communist partisan who played an important role in capturing Benito Mussolini near the end of World War II, born. He was with the partisans of the 52nd Garibaldi brigade, checking lorries carrying German troops to the Swiss border, when one of the partisans became suspicious about a man in the corner of the fifth truck. He was wearing glasses, wrapped in a greatcoat with his helmet pulled down. One of the Germans explained that he was a "drunken comrade". But the partisan remained dubious. Knowing that Italy's fascist dictator was attempting to flee the country, and the troop convoy had been given safe passage only on condition no Italians were hidden among the retreating soldiers, he called in the political commissar of his unit.
"When I saw him," Urbano Lazzaro recalled, "I called out 'excellency'. But he didn't reply. I also shouted 'comrade'. Still nothing. So I got into the lorry. I went up to him and I said: 'Cavaliere (sir) Benito Mussolini'. It was as if I had given him an electric shock."
Lazzaro was not present at Mussolini's subsequent execution. However, he investigated the execution after the war and came to believe that Mussolini was shot the same day he was arrested, in contrast to the officially accepted version of events.

1925 - Socialist deputy Tito Zaniboni (1883 - 1960) is arrested for his part in an assassination attempt against Benito Mussolini. [expand]

1931 - Luigi Galleani (b. 1861), influential Italian anarchist, dies at the age of 70 of a heart attack. [see: Aug. 12]

1936 - Four leaders of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT - Juan Garcia Oliver (Justice), Juan Peiro (Industry) Juan Lopez Sanchez (Trade), Federica Montseny (Health; she is the first woman minister in a Spanish cabinet) - split the Spanish anarchist movement by joining the new Republican Popular Front government as Cabinet Ministers.

1954 - Stig Dagerman, (b. 1923), Swedish playwright, novelist, poet and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Oct. 5]

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: In a press conference, Mário Soares accused the PCP of having actively participated in the November 25 coup, using the extreme left as the "tip of the arrow head" and criticizes the PPD of "retrograde anti-communism" by calling for the removal PCP as a condition of it remaining in Government.
The same day the PS alongside the PPD and CDS call for a review of the Pacto MFA-Partidos, the covenant between the Movimento das Forças Armadas and the political parties involved in the Carnation revolution.

1985 - Ado (Adonis) Kyrou (b. 1923), Greek-born French filmmaker, cinematographer, critic, author and anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 18]

1995 - Gilles Deleuze (b. 1925), influential libertarian anti-capitalist French philosopher, commits suicide by throwing himself out of a window. [see: Jan. 18]

2005 - Simon Watson Taylor (b. 1923), English anarchist, actor and translator, closely associated with the Surrealist movement, dies. [see: May 15]
1885 - Diego Rodríguez Barbosa (d. 1936), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist militant, anarcho-naturalist propagandist, writer, poet and novelist, born. Wrote under a selection of pseudonyms (including Ile Gales, Juan de la Barre and Silvestre del Campo) for the libertarian press e.g. 'Ética', 'Germinal', 'Iniciales', 'El Luchador', 'La Madre Tierra', 'La Revista Blanca', 'La Semana', 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Solidaridad Proletaria', 'Tierra y Libertad', 'La Voz del Campesino', etc. His output included poetry and 5 novels, published in the 'La Novela Libre' and 'La Novela Ideal' series: 'La Hija del Sepulturero' (The Gravedigger's Daughter; 1929), 'Desahuciados' (Homeless; 1933), 'Pastora' (Shepherd; 1933), 'Amor , Sacrificio y Venganza' (Love, Sacrifice and Revenge; 1935) and 'Bohemia' (1935) - all written whilst he was in prison and published by La Novela Libre and La Novela Ideal.

1886 - Guy Aldred (d. 1963), British anarchist-communist, anti-militarist and key member of the Anti-Parliamentary Communist Federation, born. Founded the Bakunin Press and edited five Glasgow-based anarchist periodicals - 'The Herald of Revolt', 'The Spur', 'The Commune', 'The Council', and 'The Word'.

1898 - Ricard Sanz i García aka Ricardo Sanz Asensio (d. 1986), Valencian anarchist and anarchosyndicalist fighter against Franco, born. He participated in the founding of the anarchist group Los Solidarios with Buenaventura Durruti and Juan Garcia Oliver. Author. [expand]

1933 - Rogelio Madrigal Torres (d. 1960), Spanish anarchist guerrillero, born. In 1956 he deserted the army in Seu d'Urgell and took refuge in France, settling in Dijon, where he became a mason. He entered the guerilla struggle against Franco in late December 1959, crossed the Pyrenees with group of Quico Sabaté (including Francisco Sabaté himself plus Antonio Miracle Guitart, Francisco Conesa Alcaráz and Martin Ruiz Montoya), but during the night of January 3-4, 1960, they were ambushed by the Civil Guard at Mas Clarà, Sarria de Ter, near Girona in Catalonia. The whole group, except miraculously Sabaté who escaped , were shot dead while trying to escape.

1936 - Buenaventura Durruti makes a radio broadcast from the Madrid front, in which he opposes the decree issued by the Generalidad militarising the militias, and calls for greater commitment and sacrifice from the rearguard if the war is to be won.

1937 - Julius Nolden, a car plant worker from Duisburg was sentenced by the 'The People's Court' in Berlin to a ten year prison term for "preparing an act of high treason with aggravating circumstances". Nolden had been at the head of the FAUD (anarcho-syndicalist Free Union of German Workers) in the Rhineland when that underground Organisation was dismantled by the Gestapo in January 1937. Arrested with him were 88 other male and female anarcho-syndicalists who stood trial in the Rhineland in early 1938.

1944 - Members of the Communist-led Union Nationale Espagnole shoot 4 activists in Montfort-sur-Boulzane who had refused to join their organisation. The four are the Spanish socialists Pedro Perez and José Ibanez, and the libertarians Antonio Rodriguez (aka Victoriano Vonilla), and Miguel Gonzales Espada. The latter had fought in the Jeunesses Libertaires de Calanda, Teruel, where he had been a farmer, and later in the Durruti Column. As a refugee in France he had been a lumberjack, dying at the hands of the Stalinists rather than the Fascists.

[C] 1944 The first British League of Ex-Servicemen and Women, an openly fascist and anti-Semetic organisation founded by Jeffrey Hamm, an ex-BU member and 18B internee, holds a meeting in Hyde Park, where a speaker endorses racial purity and "Britain for the British", inspiring a hostile reaction from the crowd.

[CC] 1980 - The Print Factory aka Wilson Press print works in Uckfield, Sussex, which is the main printing press for all facist and extreme nationalist paper and books in Britain including 'NF News', 'The Holocaust News', 'The Hoax of the Twentieth Century' by Arthur Butz, and 'Did Six Million Really Die?' by Richard Verrall, is firebombed causing more than £50,000 worth of damage. The print works were owned by Alan Hancock, one of the early leaders of the Racial Preservation Society and a former member of the British Union of Fascists, and sunbequently by his son Tony who, like if father, was a holocaust denier and member of numerous British far Right groups including the RPS, NP, BM, BNP, etc., as well as being owner of the Heidelberg Hotel in Lower Rock Gardens, Brighton, a popular visiting spot for neo-Nazis from across the world including his friend the Italian neo-Fascist terrorist Roberto Fiore.
Maurice 'Manny' Carpel, ex-62 Group member and 'freelance Searchlight researcher', was jailed for 2.5 years in April 1981 for the firebombing.
[B] 1915 - María Bruguera Pérez (d. 1992), Spanish member of Mujeres Libres, anarchist, anti-fascist fighter, born. Daughter and sister of anarchists, she joined the Juventudes Libertarias (Libertarian Youth) since its foundation in 1932 and is particularly involved in the activities of the artistic and theatrical group called Ni No Amo Dios (Neither God Nor Master).

1918 - Christoph Hermann Probst (d. 1943), German medical student and member of the Weiße Rose (White Rose) anti-Nazi resistance group, born. He was arrested himself following the apprehension of Sophie and Hans Scholl after an anti-war leaflet drop from the atrium at Ludwig Maximilians University. Tried for treason on February 22, along with fellow Weiße Rose members Hans and Sophie Scholl, they were beheaded in Munich's Stadelheim Prison within hours of the court decision.

1924 - CNT militants (including Durruti) attempt a revolt in Vera de Bidassoa, as cenetistas attack the Atarazanas barracks in Barcelona. Anarchists and civil guards clash for two days. A guard is killed, two militants die, four wounded, 19 taken prisoner.

1936 - The Republic's government (along with the four new anarcho-syndicalist ministers) flees Madrid for the safety of Valencia. The populace of Madrid's response is the cry of "Long live Madrid without government!"

[C] 1944 - 'Boy' Segundo Jorge Adelberto Ecury (b. 1922), Dutch communist and Resistance fighter in WWII, who was a member of the Oisterwijk Raad van Verzet (Oisterwijk Resistance Council), is shot by the Nazis at the Waalsdorpervlakte in The Hague. [see: Apr. 23]

1948 - José Gómez Gayoso aka 'Juan', 'Carlos' and 'López' (b. 1909) and Antonio Seoane Sánchez aka 'Julián', 'Jorge' and 'Aureliano Barral' (b. 1906), Communist (PCE) anti-Francoist guerillas, who had both spent time in Argentina following the defeat of the Republic and had returned to Spain independantly, are executed by garrote vil in the Campo de la Rata.

1960 - Olivia Rossetti Agresti (b. 1875), British author, editor and interpreter, dies. [see: Sep. 30]

1970 - Henri Jeanson (b.1900), libertarian pacifist, journalist, screenwriter, pataphysician and author, dies. [see: Mar. 6]

[A] 1971 - Amsterdam: attack against Lloyds Bank; Basle: Italian Consulate attacked; Rome: British Embassy attacked; Barcelona: British Embassy attacked. All in support of the Stoke Newington Eight and the Italian anarchists imprisoned on trumped-up charges of 'conspiracy' and subversion.
1886 - Carlo Molaschi (d. 1953), Italian anarchist individualist, editor and journalist, born. Youthful attraction to anarchist circles, he was arrested in 1901 for handing out leaflets during a strike. Loosing his job as a result, he is ostracised by his family and takes up with Luigi Molinari, founder of the Università Popolare, on whose newspaper (of the same name) he starts his journalistic career. This continues with his own publications: 'Grido della Folla' (Cry of the Crowd) 1907; 'La Rivolta' (The Uprising) 1911, and 'La Libertà' (Freedom) 1913-14; as well as starting a publishing project called Editrice Sociale between 1910-1915.
At the outbreak of WWI, he and many of his comrades leave for Switzerland and face the inevitable Fascist persecution and arrest upon their return. He begins a second publishing project called Casa Editrice Sociale (1919-1926), which changes its name to Casa Editrice Monanni (1926-1933), surviving Fascism and financial hardship and publishing all the anarchist classics, the complete works of Nietzsche, Darwin, and many others. In June 1921 he also launched the review 'Pagine Libertarie' and helped co-founded the 'L'Università Libera' (Free University) review with Joseph Monanni in 1925.
In 1941 he was arrested and sent into internal exile in Istonio Marino, on the Abruzzo coast, returning to the anti-fascist fight after 9 months. After the liberation he joined the Italian Socialist Party (PSI).

1891 - Gregor Gog (d. 1945), German anarchist, anti-militarist and founder of the FAUD-aligned international movement Bruderschaft der Vagabunden (Brotherhood of Vagrants), born.

[BB/C] 1913 - Albert Camus (d. 1960), French novelist, playwright, journalist, libertarian sympathiser, opponent of totalitarianism and campaigner against capital punishment, born into a poor French 'pied-noir' settler family in Algeria. His father was killed in WWI and Camus spent much of his time with his uncle, butcher and anarchist Gustave Acault, who was a great influence on him. His high school philosophy teacher Jean Grenier also introduced him to revolutionary syndicalist theories. In 1935, he joined the French Communist Party and, when the independence-orientated Algerian Communist Party (BCP) was formed the following year, joined its rank. However, he also became involved with the Le Parti du Peuple Algérien (Algerian People's Party), which got him denounced as a Trotskyite and expelled from the party in 1937.
During WWII, Camus joined the French Resistance cell Combat, which published an underground newspaper of the same name, assuming the nom de guerre Beauchard. Camus became the paper's editor in 1943 and, when the Allies liberated Paris in August 1944, Camus witnessed and reported the last of the fighting.
In 1948 anarchist André Prudhommeaux introduced Camus to the Cercle des Étudiants Anarchistes (Anarchist Student Circle) and Camus went on to write for anarchist publications including 'Le Libertaire', 'La Révolution Proletarienne' and 'Solidaridad Obrera'. He also supported the anarchists' stand support for the uprising of 1953 in East Germany, the 1956 workers’ uprising in Poznań, Poland and, later the same year, the Hungarian Revolution.
"L'histoire d'aujourd'hui nous force à dire que la révolte est l'une des dimensions essentielles de l'homme." ("Present history forces us to say that revolt is one of the essential dimensions of man.") - 'L'Homme Révolté' (1951).

1925 - Luís Andrés Edo (d. 2009), Spanish anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-militarist, deserter, anti-Francoist fighter, born.

1925 - The first issue of the Barcelona anarchist weekly 'El Productor' is published by the group of the same name. The paper will be banned by the authorities in March 1926 and cease publishing.

1936 - Francisco Pérez Mateo (b. 1903), Spanish sculptor, communist and anti-Francoist fighter, dies during the defence of Madrid. [see: May 17]

1938 - Ethel Mannin, Irish novelist and anarchist, successfully assumes Emma Goldman's role as SIA representative in London.

1971 - Paweł Lew Marek (born Melajach Lew; b. 1902), Polish journalist, anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist, co-founder of the Anarchistycznej Federacji Polski during the Second Republic, dies. [see: Aug. 16]

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: The PCP holds a rally in Campo Pequeno at which Alvaro Cunhal acknowledges that "... the Portuguese left suffered a heavy defeat on November 25", and calls for "unity of forces interested in safeguarding liberties, democracy and the revolution."
1909 - Gérard Bernard Leretour, French anarchistic activist, conscientious objector and pacifist propagandist, born.

[C] 1923 - Hitler-Ludendorff-Putsch: Also known as the Hitlerputsch or, more commonly, the Beer Hall Putsch (Bürgerbräu-Putsch), was a failed coup attempt by the Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler, inspired in large part by Benito Mussolini's 'March on Rome, to seize power in Bavaria (the state capital Munich being a NSDAP stronghold) and thereby launch a larger revolution against the Weimar Republic. Hatched between the NSADP hierarchy together with Generalquartiermeister Erich Ludendorff and other Kampfbund leaders, they would kidnap the state commissioner of Bavaria, Gustav von Kahr (who had rejected Hitler's overtures to become part of the plot), together with General Otto von Lossow, the Bavarian commander of the Reichswehr, and Colonel Hans von Seißer, the commander of the Bavarian police, forcing them at gunpoint to accept Hitler as their leader. Then, famed right-wing WWI general Ludendorff, acting as a figurehead, would win over the German Army, proclaim a nationwide revolt and lead a march on Berlin to overthrow the Weimar Republic.
Hearing that von Kahr as guest of honour was scheduled to address a large gathering of businessmen and members of various nationalist camps in the Bürgerbräukeller, one of the biggest beer halls in Munich, on November 8, 1923, Hitler quickly improvised a coup plan. That evening, the SA and hundreds of his followers surrounded the hall and at 20:30, half an hour into von Kahr's speech., the Nazi Party leader and about 20 of his associates burst into the hall. Climbing on to a chair and firing a shot into the ceiling, Hitler declared: "The national revolution has broken out! The hall is filled with six hundred men. Nobody is allowed to leave." He also claimed that the Bavarian government had been deposed and declared the formation of a new government with Ludendorff.
Von Kahr, Lossow and Seißer were herded into a back room where Hitler informed them that if they were to join him in proclaiming a Nazi revolution, they would become part of the new government. Von Kahr, who had been assured a few days previously that Hitler would not attempt any coup, refused to acquiesce, this despite his having waved a gun at the captives, yelling: "I have four shots in my pistol! Three for you, gentlemen. The last bullet for myself!" Hitler then ordered that Ludendorff be fetched to try and convince the three Bavarian leaders to give in to Hitler’s demands, and that Ernst Röhm, who was waiting with members of his Bund Reichskriegsflagge (Imperial War Flag Society in the Löwenbräukeller, another beer hall, was to be told to seize key buildings throughout the city. Elsewhere, Rudolf Hess and 30 armed SA-men had taken hostage Prime Minister Eugen von Knilling, Minister of Justice Franz Gurtner, Interior Minister Franz Schweyer, Agriculture Minister John Wutzlhofer, the Munich police chief Karl Coat and other high-ranking politicians, who were held in the private house of the Nazi supporter Julius Lehmann.
Meanwhile, Hitler returned to the main auditorium where Herman Göring had been giving a speech to give his own, ranting against "...the Berlin Jew government and the November criminals of 1918." The crowd in the hall backed Hitler with a roar of approval. When Ludendorff finally arrived at the hall, he appealed to the three Bavarian leaders sense of duty and managed to persuade the three to give in to Hitler’s demands.
Buoyed up by their victory, Hitler, Ludendorff and the others returned to the main hall to a round of mass backslapping and congratulatory speeches. However, Hitler then made the mistake of leaving the beer hall later that night to deal with crises elsewhere in the city, where his followers had been supposed to take over government buildings throughout Munich but their attempts were largely foiled by the city’s military. Meanwhile, Ludendorff had allowed von Kahr and the others to leave the beer hall after Hitler’s departure. By the next morning, the putsch had fizzled out like a damp squib.
At around 03:00, Röhm's contingent, who had managed to occupy only one building, the Army headquarters at the War Ministry, were ambushed by the local Reichswehr garrison as they made their way from the Löwenbräukeller to the nearby Reichswehr barracks. Taking casualties, they were forced to fall back. The garrison was now put on alert and reinforcements called for. Meanwhile, General Otto von Lossow's support for the coup had come under immediate challenge by his fellow Reichswehr commanders upon his release, and by 23:00 he had been persuaded to repudiate the putsch. Elsewhere, one member of the cabinet, the staunchly conservative Roman Catholic vice-premier and minister of education and culture, Franz Matt, had not at the Bürgerbräukeller. He had been having dinner with the Archbishop of Munich and with the Papal Nuncio to Bavaria when he learned of the putsch. He immediately set about plans for a government-in-exile in Regensburg and calling upon all police officers, members of the armed forces, and civil servants to remain loyal to the government.
By 02:55, and aware of the plans Franz Matt, Gustav von Kahr recanted, and issued a statement lambasting Hitler: "Declarations extorted from me, General Lossow and Colonel von Seißer by pistol point are null and void. Had the senseless and purposeless attempt at revolt succeeded, Germany would have been plunged into the abyss and Bavaria with it." He also announced that the NSDAP, the Freikorps Oberland (which formed the core of the SA) and Reichskriegsflagge Bund had been dissolved.
By dawn the War Ministry building containing Röhm and his troops was surrounded and Hitler, who had been up all night trying to decide what to do next, had become increasingly desperate, ordering the seizure of the Munich city council as hostages and attempting to enlist the aid of Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria to negotiate between Lossow and the putschists, to no avail. Realising that the jig was up and with Hitler about to call an end to the attempted coup, when Ludendorff came up with a harebrained scheme. "Wir marschieren!" (We will march!) he shouted, claiming that because of his WWI fame, no one would dare fire on him.
At around 11:00, Hitler, Göring and Ludendorff set out on a spontaneous march towards the city centre, leading around 2,500-3,000 supporters in the direction of the Bavarian War Ministry. Along their route, the marchers were blocked by a group of about 130 armed state police officers. Hitler shouted at them to surrender. They didn't. In an exchange of fire that lasted about a minute, four police officers were killed along with 16 Nazis, who included amongst their number four merchants, three bank officials, a milliner, a head-waiter, a locksmith, a student, a High Court Judge, an engineer and a diplomat.
Göring was hit in the groin. Hitler suffered a dislocated shoulder when the man he had locked arms with was shot and pulled him down onto the pavement. Hitler's bodyguard, Ulrich Graf, then jumped onto Hitler to shield him and took several bullets, probably saving Hitler's life. He crawled along the pavement and fled in a car waiting nearby, leaving his comrades behind. Ludendorff walked straight ahead into the ranks of the police, who refused to fire on him, and was then arrested. The rest of the Nazis scattered or were arrested. Hitler went into hiding at the home his friends, the Hanfstaengls, where he contemplated suicide and was arrested after three days. He was taken to the prison at Landsberg where his spirits lifted somewhat after he was told he was going to get a public trial. Adolf Hitler in 1924 sentenced to imprisonment, while the court acquitted Erich Ludendorff.

1927 - 270 men, mainly miners from South Wales, take part in a hunger march through London against the Government's new Unemployment Bill. Called by A. J. Cook, the miners' leader at the time, during a demonstration on September 18 — Red Sunday in Rhondda Valley — A. J. Cook, the miners' leader at the time, called for a march to London to arrive on November 8 (when Parliament re-opened). Initially supported by the South Wales Miners' Federation (SWMF), it withdrew its support but the march went ahead [in October, date unknown] in spite of hostility from the trades unions, press and government. They did, however, gain support from Trades Councils in every town and village they passed through (which included Pontypridd, Newport, Bristol, Bath, Chippenham and Swindon). Arriving in London, the march was harassment by various Fascists, causing the organisers to be met by an armed escort of 100 members of the Labour League of Ex-Servicemen (LLX) at Chiswick. Wal Hannington from the LLX later wote in a pamphlet entitled 'The March of the Miners: How we Smashed the Opposition' about the event.

[CCC] 1939 - Adolf Hitler narrowly avoids being killed by Georg Elser's concealed time bomb in the Munich Bürgerbräukeller on the anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch.
There are at least 60 recorded instances of assassination plots and attempts on Adolph Hitler's life following his gaining of the leadership of the NSDAP, including numerous coups attempted by disillusioned Wermacht officers. All failed, with the Führer leading something of a charmed life. One of the most audacious of these was undertaken single-handedly by a humble carpenter and master electrician, Johann Georg Elser. It came within 13 minutes of changing the history of Europe, and only the July 20, 1944, 'Operation Walküre' bomb plot came closer to killing Hitler.
Born on January 4, 1903, Elser grew up in a working-class family in Württemberg and, after having to give up training as an iron turner because of ill-health, he took up a carpentry apprenticeship in 1919. In 1925 he began working as a journeyman carpenter in various establishments and companies, including a clock factory, something that would later prove useful in his assassination attempt. He returned to Königsbronn in 1932 and set up a small carpenter’s shop, later making his living from odd jobs and working in an instruments factory. A member of the Federation of Woodworkers Union, it was through them that he joined the Roten Frontkämpferbund (Red Front Fighters' Union) in 1928 but, despite his obvious anti-Nazism (refusing to give the Hitler salute, etc.), his political activities remained isolated and low key as he saw no organisation really taking decisive action against Hitler’s takeover of the government.
Then, with the Munich Agreement in the Autumn of 1938, Elser decided he had to engage in some form of militant resistance against the Nazi regime of his own, with the hope of preventing the world war that loomed on Europe's horizon. He decided to target the annual commemoration of the Beer Hall Putsch attempt of November 9, 1923, to be held in the Munich Bürgerbräukeller, where Hitler regularly spoke before the leaders and 'Old Fighters' of the NSDAP. His plan was to conceal a home-made bomb in a pillar located directly behind the platform from which Hitler traditionally delivered his speech. The pillar was also a main support for the roof and he hope that if the blast did not kill Hitler directly, then the roof falling in would.
Having failed to get a job in the bierkeller, he was forced to conceal himself in the hall overnight and, undetected, make a concealed cavity in which to hide the timer, two Westminster clocks synchronized to pinpoint the timing of the explosion, and the explosives. To source exactly the right sort of explosive, Donarit, he also got himself a job in a quarry. Beginning in August, his preparations took more than 30 nights work but, by the beginning of November he plans were in place, despite the placing of the hall under maximum security with a contingent of crack SS guards.
With Germany being in the midst of the invasion of Poland, the meeting organisers initially scaled back the programme with no speech from Hitler, but at the eleventh hour Hitler changed his mind. However, thick fog further complicated things, closing the airport and forcing him to catch a train back to Berlin, meaning he would have to cut short his speech and forgo his normal meet and greet with the rank and file. So, having instructed the driver to leave at exactly 9:31pm, he would have to leave at 9:10pm in order to make the train.
Arriving at 8p.m., Hitler strode to the platform but had to wait 10 minutes before the applause died down and he could begin his speech, a diatribe against Great Britain which lasted nearly one hour. Again and again his speech was interrupted by wild cheering. At 9:07, Hitler ended his speech and he and his entourage promptly left the hall amid the deafening cheers of his supporters. Thirteen minutes after leaving the hall on the way to the station in his car, a loud explosion was heard coming from the direction of the hall - Hitler had escaped fate yet again.
The detonation had caused a section of the roof to collapse, and would probably have killed Hitler. Instead it killed a waitress and six members of the audience. Sixty-three were injured.
Elser, who had already left Munich, was arrested at 8:45 p.m., about half an hour before the bomb detonated, on the Swiss border and handed over to the Gestapo because of suspicious items in his pockets, including an unsent Bürgerbräukeller postcard, drawings of detonators and substantial sums of money. Under repeated beatings and torture, Elser confessed to setting the bomb but steadfastly refused to implicate anyone else, even reconstructing the bombs and helping produced a film with the Gestapo showing exactly how he has done it.
Unlike other attempted assassins, he was not subjected to a show trial and execution, instead he was held in a succession of concentration camps as a "special prisoner", known under the code name 'Eller'.
A planned show trial, constructing non-existent connections between the 'communist' Elser, Hitler's old National Socialist nemesis, Otto Strasser, and the British Secret Service, never took place. On April 9, 1945, Georg Elser was shot dead in Dachau concentration camp on instructions from "the very top" and his fully dressed body immediately burned in the crematorium.
There have been various posthumous attempts to undermine Elser's act by conspiracy theorists, claiming that he was a SS agent and that Hilter and/or Himmler were in on the plot but, like the majority of such theories, these remain fantasies. Elser acted alone and nearly succeeded but for the intervention of inclement weather.

1949 - Group of Italian anarchists attack the Spanish consulate with grenades in Genoa. Eugenio De Lucchi (21), Gaspare Mancuso (26), and Gaetano Busico (25).

1951 - Ezequiel Endériz Olaverri (b. 1889), Spanish libertarian journalist, poet, novelist, playwright, libreticist, etc., dies. [see: Nov. 30]

1991 - Bronislawa Rosloniec (Bronislawa Frydman; b. 1912), Polish anarchist activist of Anarchistyczna Federacja Polski (AFP: Anarchist Federation of Poland), dies in Uppsala, Sweden. Before WWII, she worked as a clerk. During the occupation, evicted to ghetto from where she fled and was hidden by her husband (Stefan Rosloniec). After WWII lived in Lodz (central Poland).
1871 - Felipe Cortiella y Ferrer (b. 1937), prominent Catalan author, poet, translator and dramatist, born. An anarchist militant and CNT fighter, the chief focus of his literary and cultural effort was the theatre (he founded the Agrupació Avenir company) which he sought to place in the service of the common people. In Cortiella’s view theatre has a duty to set out a libertarian project for society, so he rejected theatre as mere entertainment, which explains why so many of his characters embody the virtues of honesty, justice and integrity that he saw in anarchism. Thus, society should not turn a blind eye to society but indeed should have a didactic function to perform. He is mistakenly regarded by some as a Catalanist; Cortiella drew a precise distinction between language and culture on the one hand and political independence movements and creation of borders on the other; he was a dyed-in-the-wool internationalist. It is a fact, though, that some of the positions he espoused caused surprise because of the zeal he displayed in championing the Catalan tongue (he refused the editorship of Solidaridad Obrera because the CNT would not accept his suggestion that it be printed in Catalan only). He contributed to the labour press ('La Revista Blanca', 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Avenir', etc.) and a school of thought grew up around him (it included Mas Gomeri, Albert, Claudio and Bausà) and was the author of: 'Els Artistes de la Vida' (1898), 'La Brava Joventut' (an anti-Lerrouxist piece from 1933), 'Dolora' (1903), 'El Morenet' (1904), 'El Cantor de l’Ideal' (1901), 'El Plor del Alba', 'El Teatro y el Arte Dramático', 'La Vida que jo he Viscut', 'La Vida Gloriosa' 2 vols. (1918-1927). These in addition to poetry ('Anarquines', published in 1908) and translations in which his enthusiasm for Ibsen was evident.

1899 - Acácio Tomás de Aquino (d. 1998), militant Portuguese anarco-syndicalist who was active in the Confederação Geral do Trabalho and the Organização Libertária Prisional, born. He spent the period 1933-1949 in various prisons and concentration camps after having been sentenced to 12 years in exile by a Military Tribunal for being involved in an attempted inssurection (it was claimed he was delivering bombs to another militant when arrested). [see: Dec. 11]

1919 - Marian Pankowski (d. 2011), Polish writer, poet, literary critic and translator, and anti-Nazi fighter, born. He made his debut as a poet with the publication of his poem 'Czytanie w zieleni' (Reading the green) in the leftist Lviv magazine 'Sygnały' (Signals). He took part in the September 1939 campaign and later joined the Związek Walki Zbrojnej (ZWZ; Union of Armed Struggle). In 1942, he was arrested by the Gestapo and held as a prisoner in Auschwitz, Gross-Rosen, Nordhausen, and Bergen-Belsen concentration camps. After the war, he settled in Belgium, where he died in Brussels from pneumonia on April 3, 2011, at the age of 91.

1925 - Perez Millan, the rightwing nationalist who killed the anarchist Kurt Gustav Wilckens whilst he was in his prison cell, is killed in an asylum in Buenos Aires. Boris Vladimirovitch, a doctor and biologist serving time for an "expropriation", feigned madness so as to be transferred to Millan's asylum. Vladimirovitch was unable to get close enough (Millan was "protected"), so pursuaded another internee to kill him.

1928 - At 4 a.m. in Montevideo, 300 Uruguayan police and soldiers encircle the house at 41-J.J . Rousseau street, trapping a group of anarchist illegalists inside that had been involved in the currency exchange robbery taht took place on October 25. They include the 3 Catalans - glazier Jaime Tadeo Peña (22 years old), cabinetmaker Agustin Garcia Capdevilla (23) and glazier Pedro Boadas Rivas (32), plus brothers Antonio and Vicente Moretti and their companions Pura Ruiz and Dolores Rom. To avoid certain death, they decide to surrender, all except Antonio Moretti, who burns the robbery money and shoots himself in the head. Those sent to prison escape on March 18, 1931 thanks to a tunnel built by anarchist comrades.

1929 - Imre Kertész, Hungarian author, Holocaust concentration camp survivor, and recipient of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Literature, born. He was deported at the age of 14 with other Hungarian Jews to the Auschwitz concentration camp, and was later sent to Buchenwald. His best-known work, 'Sorstalanság' (Fatelessness; 1975), describes the experience of 15-year-old György Köves in the concentration camps of Auschwitz, Buchenwald and Zeitz.

[C] 1932 - Fusillade du 9 Novembre 1932 anka Blutnacht von Genf: In Geneva, the army opens fire on a crowd of thousands gathered for an anti-fascist demonstration,
killing 13 and wounding nearly a hundred others.
On the night of November 5-6 a poster from the Union Nationale (the Swiss fascist party founded by Georges Oltramare in 1930, whose members wore a uniform of berets and grey shirts) appeared on the streets announcing public indictment of the leaders of the Parti Socialiste Suisse (PSS), Léon Nicole and Jacques Dickers, on November 9 at 20:30 in the Plainpalais community hall in Geneva. A demand by the PSS on the 6th for the UN meeting to be banned was refused by the state adviser to the justice and police department, Frédéric Martin, on the grounds of freedom of assembly. The following day, the Socialist newspaper Le Travail called for mobilisation: "The fascist rabble trying get tough in Geneva... These gentlemen want to talk... We will fight them with the weapons that they themselves have chosen." That same day an anonymous leaflet hit the streets: "The foul Nicoulaz, the Jew Dicker and their clique are preparing civil war. They are the servants of the Soviets. Cut them down! Down the revolutionary clique."
On the morning of November 9, at the request of Frédéric Martin the State Council appealed to the military to send troops to reinforce the city's gendarmes and those police drafted in from the surrounding countryside. The decision was taken to dispatch 610 recruits, just in their sixth week of training, together with thirty officers under the leadership of Major Ernest Lederrey. A select number of troops were told that "the revolution had erupted in Geneva" and given live ammunition. When four soldiers refused to follow the orders, they were immediately placed under arrest.
By later afternoon, the first anti-fascist protesters (around 4-5,000) had already converged on the Plainpalais and were being refused entry by the gendarmes as they lacked official UN invitations. Meanwhile, roadblocks were being set up by police in nearby streets to prevent protesters from approaching the hall and at 17:30 the 610 raw recruits arrived in Geneva to support the city's police.
At 18:45, 15 minutes after the meeting had commenced, a number of socialists, communists and anarchists had managed to gain entry to the Plainpalais but were quickly ejected. Outside the hall, standing on the shoulders of a militant a voluble Nicole, who would later leave the PSS to set up his own Stalinist grouping after the party refused to form a united front with the communists, harangued the waiting crowd. At 21:15, the 108 men of the Première Compagnie, which had been ordered into position to strengthen the police roadblocks when they had begun to be breached by the protests, encountered a crowd of counter-demonstrators. Eighteen of their number were disarmed and called upon to refuse orders and join the crowds. The officer in charge, Lieutenant Raymond Burnat, ordered the troops to fall back to the entrance of the Palais des Expositions where, after a bugle call, he gave the order to open fire: "A coup, tirez bas feu!" In the following 12 seconds, 20 soldiers fired 150 rounds, killing thirteen protestors and wounding 65 more, three of whom would later succumb to their injuries. Many of those shot were bystanders (only 3 of the dead were active militants) who had not taken part in the disarming of the soldiers. The crowds quickly dispersed as more troops were sent in to set up further roadblocks nay of which were manned with machineguns.
On November 10, the committee of the Union des Syndicats du Canton de Genève (USCG; Union of Trade Unions of the Canton of Geneva) and the various unions affiliated to the Union Syndicale Suisse rejected the Communists' call for a general strike but the following day a meeting of 225 USCG delegates voted in favour of a general strike to honour the dead, whose funerals were scheduled for November 12.
The funerals for the victims attracted thousands of angry Genevois but there were no clashes. The general strike was only partially successful, as the Christian unions did not participate.
In the opinion of the Geneva authorities, blame for the bloodshed itself laid fairly and squarely at the door of Léon Nicole and the communists. On November 10, the State Council "prohibited any gathering or procession on public roads", placed certain public buildings under the protection of the Geneva regiment, and decreed the application of military law to civilians. Frédéric Martin issued warrants for the arrest of Nicole and 39 other leftists. In June of the following year, Nicole received a 6-month sentence for riot. Others tried alongside him got 4-month terms. The cases brought against the officers and soldiers involved in the massacre all ended in acquittals, as they were held to have acted in self-defence.
In December 1932, the Geneva State Council decreed a series of laws on public order with penalties up to 10 years of imprisonment to be imposed against anyone who participates in, or writes in favour of, collective acts that tend not only to change through the means of violence the constitutional order, but also to "disrupt" public services and "break into a building site!". In addition, State officials enrolled in the Communist Party and all civil servants participating in the demonstration on November 9 were sacked in early 1933 and excluded from public office. This 'Berufverbot' (professional ban) against communist employees would last for decades in Switzerland.
[à_Genève [bizarre anti-communist website]]

1938 - Kristallnacht takes place during the night of the 9-10 November 1938.

[CC] 1938 - Maurice Bavaud (1916 - 1941), a Swiss Catholic theology student abandons his plan to assassinate Adolf Hitler in the Feldherrnhalle, Munich on the anniversary of the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch as he did not want to injure any other Nazi leaders who he would be marching with. Having made a second failed attempt to gain an audience with Hitler via a forged letter, and having run out of money, he jumped a train to Paris, only to be arrested. Interrogated by the Gestapo, he admitted his plans to assassinate Hitler. He was tried by the Volksgerichtshof on December 18, 1939. Found guilty, he was executed by guillotine in the Berlin-Plötzensee prison on the morning of May 14, 1941.

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: Ramalho Eanes, newly promoted to General, takes over as CEME (Chefe de Estado Maior do Exército) and Vasco Lourenço assumes command of the RML (Região Militar de Lisboa).
Military units surround the headquarters of Partido Comunista Português (PCP) and Liga de Unidade e Acção Revolucionária (LUAR; League for Unity and Revolutionary Action) in Cova da Piedade, in search of weapons and ammunition.

1977 - The Anti-Nazi league (ANL) is officially launched in the House of Commons.

1980 - Toyen (Marie Cermínová; b. 1902), Czech-born Surrealist painter, printmaker, and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 21]

1986 - Remeberance Sunday: 2,000 anti-fascists march up Whitehall and Celia Stubbs, the partner of Blair Peach, lays a wreath at the Cenotaph for all those, past and present, who lost their lives in the struggle against fascism. [PR]

2004 - Stieg Larsson (b. 1954), Swedish author and journalist, dies. [see: Aug. 15]

2103 - Supporters of the neo-Nazi Golden Dawn party attempting to hold a rally at the Greek embassy are intercepted by members of the AFN. Golden Dawn flags are seized and burnt.
1886 - Virgilio Gozzoli (d. 1964 ), Italian anarchist, anti-fascist, poet, playwright, publisher and Futurist artist, born. [expand]
Co-wrote play, 'L'Aquila e il Cigno' (The Eagle and the Swan) with Enrico Arrigoni.

1891 - Simón Radowitzky (Szymon Radowicki) (d. 1956), aka 'The Martyr of Ushuaia', Ukrainian-born legendary Polish anarchist freedom fighter, born. One of the best-known prisoners of the penal colony in Ushuaia, where he was held for the assassination of Ramón Lorenzo Falcón, a head of police responsible for the brutal repression of Red Week in 1909 in Buenos Aires. Radowitzky was pardoned after 21 years, he left Argentina and fought with the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War. [poss. alternate d.o.b. Oct. 10]

1913 - Miguel Grau Caldú (d. 2011), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist resister and poet, born. Partner of the FILJ, MLE and CNT member Antonia Lisbona Celma. Author of 2 books of poems 'El Abuelo de los Doce' (The Grandfather of Twelve) and 'Poemas de un Campesino Aragonés' (Poems of an Aragonese Peasant).

1924 - CNT militants 26-year-old José Llacer and 19-year-old Juan Montejo, are executed following the November 6th attack on the Atarazanas barracks. Both were also implicated in assassinating Rogelio Pérez, the 'Torturer of Barcelona', on May 28 1924.

1936 - A Public Order Bill is introduced in Parliament: An Act to prohibit the wearing of uniforms in connection with political objects and the maintenance by private persons of associations of military or similar character; and to make further provision for the preservation of public order on the occasion of public processions and meetings and in public places.

1938 - The first issue of the weekly 'S.I.A.', "Organe de la Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste", is published in Paris under the editorship of Louis Lecoin Nicolas Faucier and Fernand Vintrigner. Aimed at poltical refugees, it is written in French, Spanish and Italian and operates from the 'Le Libertaire' offices. Its circulation will reach a height of 50,000 copies.

1944 - Ehrenfeld Group: Hans Steinbrück and twelve of his followers (incl. six teenagers, members of the Edelweiss Pirates) are executed without trial in Cologne.

1956 - David 'Chim' Seymour (Dawid Szymin; b. 1911), Polish photographer, photojournalist and anti-fascist, known for his images from the Spanish Civil War, dies under Egyptian machine gun fire during the Suez conflict. [see: Nov 20]

[C] 1961 - Operação Vagô [Operation Vague]: A group of six Portuguese anti-fascists - Hermínio da Palma Inácio, Amândio Silva,, Camilo Mortágua, João Martins, Fernando Vasconcelos and a pregnant Helena Vidal - conduct the first 'hijacking' of a commercial airplane whilst in the air in history, diverting a TAP (Air Portugal) Super-Constellation plane on a flight between Casablanca and Lisbon in order to drop approx. 100,000 anti-fascist leaflets over Lisbon and four other Portuguese cities.
On the morning of November 10, the six boarded the plane as passengers carrying the Frente Antitotalitária dos Portugueses Livres no Estrangeiro (Anti-totalitarian Front of Free Portuguese Abroad) leaflets protesting against the Portuguese dictator Oliveira Salazar and denouncing the electoral farce that was to perform two days later in their bags, which escaped being opened by airport security. At 09:15, the plane took off on its one and a half hour direct flight to Lisbon. Fourty-five minutes later Maria Helena withdrew the five concealed pistols she had carried on to the plane strapped around her waist and Palma Inácio immediately went to the cockpit, where he pointed his long-barrelled revolver at the head of the pilot, Jose Marcelino, announcing: "This is a revolutionary action. I do not want to hurt anyone."
The plan of the revolutionaries was risky: they intended to follow the route to Lisbon, simulate landing at Portela and then fly low over the capital, Barreiro, Setúbal, Beja and Faro, whilst launching their leaflets appealing for a popular revolt against the dictatorship. Once safely landed back in Tangier, Ignacio Palma and his comrades would then appeal for political asylum. In the cockpit co-pilot Teles Grilo, the flight engineer Alberto Coelho, and the chief mechanic António Coragem all remained silent but the pilot Marcelino tried to claim that they did not have enough fuel to return to Tangier. However, Palma Inácio was an aircraft mechanic and had qualified as a transport pilot in the USA and was not fooled. Demanding the plane's flight records, Palma found there was more than enough fuel on board. Now the pilot tries another diversionary tactic, "How are you going to throw out your leaflets? I can not open the plane windows", Marcelino argued. Palma's response silenced him: "You can. Fly as low as possible, depressurise the cabin and we can open an emergency window."
Now fully in control of the situation, the other revolutionaries did not have to display their weapons and the actions of the steward Orloff Esteves and his two assistants, Maria del Pilar and Luísa Infante, who remained clam through out, meant that some of the other thirteen passengers remained ignorant of the hijack until they were about to land back in Tangiers.
Having been given permission to land at Lisbon airport and followed a normal approach, shortly before touchdown the plane the plane aborted its landing, gaining height and moving away from the airport. José Marcelino then reported to the tower that he had been compelled by those on board to make a close flyby of Lisbon and other cities to the south. At the same time an Air Force general, Costa Macedo, witnessing the incident from a plane nearby, ordered an alert. Minutes later, two F-84 fighter jets were scrambled from Monte Real airforce base with orders to shoot down the plane if they could not force it to land on Portuguese soil.
Thus began a dangerous game of cat and mouse, with the Super-Constellation having to fly low, just 100 meters above the ground, in order to escape being tracked by radar and to evade the fighters. This it managed to do, whilst the revolutionaries discharged their cargo of leaflets, which rained down over Lisbon, Barreiro, Setúbal, Beja and Faro. Having dropped the last load of leaflets over Faro, the pilot Marcellin continued to fly at low altitude over the sea to avoid being seen on radar. However, on this beautiful clear autumn morning the pilots spotted two warships on their flight path and there was only one way to escape the possibility of being shot down by the ships' guns: dive to half a dozen meters above the waves and pass directly between the two - and that's exactly what José Marcelino managed.
At 12:45, three and half hours after taking off from Casablanca, the plane landed safely at Tangiers airport. Waiting for them were Captain Henrique Galvão, a prominent leader of the non-Communist opposition the Salazar regime, numerous journalists and the Moroccan authorities, who Galvão had persuade to grant the six revolutionaries temporary asylum status until they find a country to take him in permanently, which turned out to be Brazil. Operação Vagô had proved to be a total success and had a major impact on world press. Salazar was left foaming with rage too.
Interestingly, the origins of the Operação Vagô plan had been somewhat different. Henrique Galvao and another member of the non-Communist opposition, General Humberto Delgado, had joined forces with other exiled opponents of the Estado Novo regime, including elements of the opposition within Portugal itself, in order to organise a coup sometime in late 1961. Thus, the Operação Vagô leaflets had originally been meant to call for insurrection and carry instructions on how to make bombs but, with plans for the insurrection about to be delayed, and the plotters' base of operations in Tangiers plagued with PIDE secret police agents and spies, Operação Vagô itself could not be delayed any longer. So, the original leaflets were replaced by new ones denouncing the fraudulent elections for the National Assembly, scheduled for two days later, but also still calling for popular revolt.
The delayed coup attempt eventually took place on the night of December 31, 1961 - January 1, 1962. The little-know Golpe de Beja - an assault on the barracks of the Regimento de Infantaria 3 at Beja by a small number of members of the military and accompanying civilians, designed to spark a general uprising amongst the military against the regime - failed, due largely to a lack of communication and the militaries had some forewarning of the coup attempt (though not of its intended target). One rebel died in the attack, as did Lieutenant Colonel Jaime Filipe da Fonseca, Deputy Secretary of the Army. On the rebel side Captain João Maria Paulo Varela Gomes was left with serious wounds, ending up being dismissed from the army and spending 6 years in fascist prisons. Hundreds were arrested in connection with the attempted coup; many others sought refuge in foreign embassies. A total of 82 people eventually stood trial in civilian and military courts, of whom 65 received prison sentences and 17 were found not guilty.
Operação Vagô and the Golpe de Beja, one a success, the other a failure, ended what was an annus horribilis for the Salazar dictatorship, one that had begun with Operação Dulcineia, the hijacking of the Santa Maria, marked the beginning of the end for the Estado Novo and Salazar.

1985 - 100 AFA members take over the NF assembly point for Remembrance day march at Bressendon Place in Victoria, London, causing them much confusion and embarrassment.

1991 - AFA draws 3,500-4,500 to their (unopposed) National Demonstration through Bethnal Green in east London on Remembrance day. The demonstration is called to draw attention to rascist attacks and the BNP's 'Rights for Whites' campaign in the area.

2001 - Julián Ángel Aransáez Caicedo (b. 1916), Basque anarchist, anarcho-communist and anti-Francoist and anti-Nazi fighter, dies. [see: Oct. 18]

2006 - Around a hundred Romanian anarchists hold an anti-fascist march in Bucharest under the legal cover of 'Asociaţii Aquarius'.
1890 - Attilio Bulzamini (d. 1938), Spanish anarchist militant and member of the Ascaso column, born. [expand]

1898 - Antonio Cieri (d. 1937), Italian anarchist rail worker, anti-fascist militant and Spanish Civil War fighter, born. He served as an officer in the Italian Army during World War I and was decorated. After the war he became active in the anarchist movement in Ancona and worked as a technical designer for the Italian railways. Because of his participation in the mass working class resistance to Italy's imperialist intervention in Albania, in 1921 he was disciplined and transferred to Parma. There he became a leading light in the anti-fascist Arditi del Popolo in the working class neighbourhood of Borgo Naviglio, defending it and the neighbouring areas against fascist provocations. Sacked from the railways in 1923 and forced into exile, he finally arrived in Paris together with his wife in 1925 where he continued his anarchist activity. He founded the anarchist paper 'Umanita Nova' with Camillo Berneri and others and for a long time was its editor. In 1936 he moved to Spain and enlisted in a military column. He was one of the founders of the Italian Column which became attached to the Ascaso Column and was one of its commanders alongside fellow anarchist Giuseppe Bifolchi from December 1936 until April 1937 (both refused to continue with the positions upon militarisation). On April 7th (or possibly the 8th), he was killed leading a team of Bomberos during the assault on Huesca. There were strong suspicions that he had been shot in the back by a Stalinist and this allegation was made in 'Guerra di Classe', Berneri’s paper.
His two children, Ubaldo and Renee, were adopted and brought up by Giovanna Caleffi, the companion of Camillo Berneri.

1929 - Hans Magnus Enzensberger, German author, poet, playwright, essayist, translator and editor, born. A utopian anarchist because he believes that all political systems are systems of domination: "politics equals crime!" ['Politik und Verbrechen'; 1964] He has also written under the pseudonym Andreas Thalmayr. Expelled from the Hitler Youth for being, in his own words, "incapable of being a good comrade".
He wrote 2 novels on Spanish anarchism: 'Das Verhor von Habana' (Hearings from Havana; 1970) and 'Der Kurze Sommer der Anarchie. Buenaventura Durrutis Leben und Tod' (The Short Summer of Anarchy. Buenaventura Durruti's Life and Death; 1972), the later he also made into a film, 'Durruti – Biographie einer Legende' (1972), writing, producing and directing it.

1942 - A group of 22 prisoners, led by Stefan Finkiel escape from the Lipowa Street camp in Lublin with arms taken by force from their German guards.

1949 - Juan Vilella Peralba aka 'Moreno', his daugter Lourdes Vilella Soler and son-in-law José Bertobillo Moles Delgado, José Puertas Puertas, and Miguel and Jaime Guitó Gramunt. Vilella Peralba was accused of allowing his farm to used as a base for the anarchist guerilla Marcelino Massana Bancells aka 'Pancho', and the rest of collaborating with Pancho. All were horribly tortured by the Guardia Civil in Berga and, on November 14, Juan Vilella, José Bartobillo and José Puertas were taken to the nearby Vilada bridge and murdered (ley de fugas).

1971 - Haverstock Street, Islington, raided. Angie Weir arrested, taken to Albany Street and charged with conspiracy to cause explosions. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1981 - Greta Kuckhoff (b. 1902), member of the German Resistance group, the Red Orchestra during the Nazi era, dies. [see: Dec. 14]

2007 - Carlos Javier Palomino (b. 1991), a young Spanish anti-fascist on his way to a protest against a local neo-Nazi party, Democracia Nacional, is stabbed to death by a neo-Nazi on Madrid Metro. Having called a protest "anti-Spanish racism", Madrid antifa organised a counter-demonstration against the Democracia Nacional rally. On their way to it, a small group of antifa encountered some of the neo-Nazis in or near a train station. A fight broke out, and 16-year-old Carlos was stabbed to death, and a number of others (perhaps six) injured. Josué Estébanez de la Hija, a 23-year-old soldier, who eventually sentenced to 26 years in prison for the murder.

[C] 2013 - During the annual nationalist Independence March, a few hundred strong breakaway group of fascists attacks Przychodnia squat in Warsaw. Squatters defend themselves with rocks, bottles and molotov cocktails and, despite the building suffering damage, they manage to defend it successfully during the half an hour assault.
[B] 1853 - Leopold Hermann Oskar Panizza (d. 1921), German anarchist, psychiatrist, avant-garde author, playwright, novelist, poet, essayist, publisher and literary journal editor, born.

1912 - In Madrid, Spanish anarchist Manuel Pardiñas assassinates President José Canalejas, then commits suicide in revenge for Canalejas' actions the previous September, when he had ended a general railways strike by conscripting all railway-workers into the army.

1920 - Vladimiro Muñoz (d. 2004), Spanish anarchist propagandist and historian, born.

1921 - Gunnar Dyrberg (d. 2012), member of the Danish resistance movement during World War II, leading the Holger Danske, a Danish resistance group in the capital Copenhagen (1943-45), born

1926 - José Nakens Pérez (b. 141), Spanish journalist, radical republican, insurectionist, anticlerical, writer and poet, dies. [see: Nov. 21]

1951 - Konstantin Biebl (b. 1898), Czech proletarian poet and Poetist, dies. [see: Feb. 26]

[C] 1978 - 3,208 police officers are deployed to marshall an anti-fascist demonstration against the annual display of hypocrisy that is the National Front Remembrance Sunday march, which took place from Bressenden Place to the Cenotaph in London. Twenty eight people are arrested and four police officers injured. [The figures come from 'Hansard' and, as is traditional, do not include how many suffered injuries at the hands of the cops.]

1984 - Marcel Body (Jean Alexandre Body (b. 1894), French typographer, Bolshevik, translator and later, anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 23]

1991 - Dili (or Santa Cruz) Massacre: Indonesian troops fire on an East Timorese pro-independence demonstration. At least 250 are killed and television pictures of the massacre are shown worldwide.
1882 - François Le Levé (d. 1945), French militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. One of the 15 who signed the 'Manifeste des Seize', along with Kropotkin, Grave and others, favouring the Allies during WWI. A member of the Resistance during WWII, he was captured and interned.
[ leve]

1912 - Wiesław Protschke aka 'Wieslaw' (d. 1945), Polish syndicalist and anti-Soviet and anti-Nazi fighter, born in Lemberg, Lwiw, the son of an architect. Graduated from the law faculty of Jan Kazimierz University in Lwiw. During his studies, he co-operated with the 'Sygnaly' (Signals) periodical. From 1935-39, he was an activist in Związku Polskiej Młodzieży Demokratycznej (ZPMD; Union of Polish Democratic Youth) and the Robotniczego Instytutu Oświaty i Kultury (RIOK; Workers Institute of Education and Culture). Great propagator of cooperative ideas of the political philosopher Edward Abramowski (a famous Polish anti-state socialist). A member of the Związku Związków Zawodowych (ZZZ; Union of Workers Unions) and of the editorial staff of 'Front Robotniczy' (Workers’ Front), 'Głos Pracownika Umysłowego' (Intellectual Workers’ Voice), the ZZZ paper (1934-37), and 'Przebudowa' (Reconstruction), the ZPMD paper. His article 'Bakunin – the freedom fighter' in 'Front Robotniczy' was the cause of his conflict with Stanisław 'Cat' Mackiewicz (famous conservative and monarchist editor of the paper 'Słowo') who appealed for police intervention against "Bolsheviks in ZZZ". In November 1939, together with Bolesław Stein, he founded the underground anti-Soviet organization Rewolucyjny Zwiazek Niepodleglosci i Wolnosci (Revolutionary Union of Independence and Freedom) which was created by syndicalists, socialists and peasant organisation members. The organisation was destroyed in January 1940 as a result of the arrests of the NKVD. From 1940, Protschke was chair of the Central Committee of the Syndykalistyczna Organizacja 'Wolność' (SOW-a; Syndicalist Organisation 'Freedom'). During WWII, he was working in publishing cooperative Czytelnik (Reader) in Krakow. Protschke, together with Tomasz Pilarski aka 'Tomasz Pilarski', represented SOW-a on the Centralny Komitet Ludowy (CKL; Central Committee of the People). After unification of the military division of SOW-a with the Armia Krajowa (AK; Home Army), he became a political officer of AK. In September 1944, during Warsaw Uprising he was arrested and sent to Auschwitz concentration camp, then to Mauthausen, where he was murdered in the Melk sub-camp in January 1945.

1968 - André Prudhommeaux (b. 1902), French communist, then an anarchist, agronomist, editor of 'Le Libertaire' and 'Le Monde Libertaire', dies after a long illness. [see: Oct. 15]

1994 - Enrique Marco Nadal (b. 1914), Valencian CNT militant and anti-fascist, who fought with the Iron Column during the Spanish Revolution of 1936, dies. After leaving Spain he fought with other exiles for the Allies during WWII, captured at Colmar and sent to the Langwasser camp in Nurenberg. Following the war Marco joined the anti-fascist underground in Spain and was secretary of the clandestine National Committee of CNT inside Spain from May 1946 to April 1947. Betrayed, he was arrested on May 27, 1947, and condemned to death in 1949, but his sentence was commuted to 30 years imprisonment. He then spent 17 years in Franco’s jails. Author of 'Todos contra Franco. La Alianza Nacional de Fuerzas Democráticas, 1944-1947' (All against Franco: National Alliance of Democratic Forces, 1944-1947; 1982) and the autobiographical 'Condenado a Muerte' (Sentenced to Death; 1966).

[C] 2005 - Timur Vladimirovich Kacharava (Тиму́р Влади́мирович Качара́ва; b. 1985), Russian member of the punk/hardcore band Sandinista!, anti-fascist activist and participant in Food Not Bombs, is murdered by a group of about 10 neo-Nazi skinheads after a Food not Bombs action in Vladimirskaya Square in the centre of St. Petersburg. His friend Max 'Zgibov' Zgibai was also attacked and has been hospitalised with serious injuries.

2010 - Luis García-Berlanga Martí (b. 1921), Spanish screenwriter, film director, actor and anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 12]

2010 - In line for an honorary Oscar at today's award ceremony, Jean-Luc Godard backs out following a sustained campaign against his alleged anti-Semitism (i.e. his anti-Zionism) in the US press.

2014 - Tanisha Anderson, a 37-year-old schizophrenic black woman, dies after being restrained face down on the ground by Cleveland police after her family had requested that they escort her to a hospital to undergo a psychiatric evaluation. Her death was ruled a homicide by the Cuyahoga County Medical Examiner's Office on January 2, 2015.
[B] 1898 - Benjamin Fondane or Benjamin Fundoianu (born Benjamin Wechsler, Wexler or Vecsler; d. 1944), Romanian-born French poet, critic and existentialist philosopher, also noted for his work in film and theatre, born. Influenced by libertarian and anarchist thought, and fiercely anti-communist and anti-fascist, he opposed the move by the Paris Surrealist group to affiliate themselves with the French Communist Party and became involved in a prolonged conflict with Breton and Aragon, and those associated with them. He later became involved with the 'Le Grand Jeu' group and a follower of the existentialist philosopher Lev Shestov.

1900 - Aaron Copland (d. 1990), American composer, composition teacher, writer and conductor, born. As a teenager, he was rebuked by his father and uncles for his interest in the Russian Revolution. Copland would go on to be active in various left-wing political and cultural groups, and his progressive-leftist political philosophy would bring him into conflict with McCarthy and HUAC. He was also prominent in asserting the importance of mass singing as a vehicle for communicating the "day-to-day struggle of the proletariat" as part of the development of working-class movements.

1909 - Simón Radowitzky (Szymon Radowicki;1891-1956), aka 'The Martyr of Ushuaia', legendary Ukrainian-born anarchist freedom fighter, assassinates local police chief Ramón Lorenzo Falcón with a bomb in Buenos Aires. Falcon had ruthlessly suppressed a rent strike and the (Red Week) workers' May Day celebrations. [see: May 1 & Nov. 10]

1920 - The Turin anarchist weekly 'Cronaca Sovversiva' announces that it will cease publication as its editor, Luigi Galleani, and manager, Piero Rayneri, have been arrested.

1940 - Jacques Mesnil (pseudonym of Jean-Jacques Dwelshauvers; b. 1872), Belgian anarchist, historian, journalist and scholar of Florentine Renaissance art, dies. [see: Jul. 9]

1949 - Juan Vilella, José Bartobillo and José Puertas are taken to the nearby Vilada bridge and murdered (ley de fugas). [see: Nov. 11]

1951 - 75 members of the CNT are tried in Seville prison, accused of reorganising their union and aiding guerrilleros, in particular the attempted evacuation a group of guerillas by sea in 1949. Two are sentenced to death, others get eight to thirty years’ imprisonment.

1952 - Agustin Rueda Sierra (d. 1978), Spanish militant anarchist, who was active in the Coordinadora de Presos en Lucha (COPEL) whilst imprisoned following his arrest together with a number of his comrades on explosive charges following their betrayal by an informer, born. Following the discovery of an escape tunnel at Carabanchel prison, he was beaten and tortured together with 7 other prisoners and dies from his injuries in the early hours of March 14, 1978.

[C/DD] 1973 - Athens Polytechnic Uprising: The Athens Polytechnic uprising begins as students from Athens Polytechnic, also known as the Polytechneion or the National Technical University, go on strike, barricading themselves inside buildings and broadcasting to the populace using a homemade radio transmitter, constructed from materials liberated from the laboratories. "This is the Polytechneion! People of Greece, the Polytechneion is the flag bearer of our struggle and your struggle, our common struggle against the dictatorship and for democracy!" (Εδώ Πολυτεχνείο! Λαέ της Ελλάδας το Πολυτεχνείο είναι σημαιοφόρος του αγώνα μας, του αγώνα σας, του κοινού αγώνα μας ενάντια στη δικτατορία και για την Δημοκρατία!)
The revolt at the University was the key events of the dictatorship and effectively heralded the beginning of the end for the Colonels, who from April 21, 1967 onwards had imposed a brutal dictatorship in the country. The countdown began on February 14, 1973, the eve of the 'Trial of the Eleven' - eleven students arrested in late January 1973 when they and others challenged a police raid at the Athens Polytechnic and were to face charges, including "insulting authority" and "teddyboyism" - when students occupied the Law School in protest against police brutality. They also demanded the abolition of decree 1347/73, which provided for the forced conscription of male students who acted in an "anti-national" manner i.e. those involved in union activities during their studies. Even though the occupation only lasted a few hours, 120 male students who were supposedly among the most active were told at short notice that their suspension of military service for study purposes was no longer active and that they should appear in the army headquarters in order to "serve the patria".
A second occupation followed on February 21, when 3-4,000 mainly law and humanities students in an action organised by the Anti-EFEE (Anti-Dictatorship Students Union) occupied the building of the Law School in the centre of Athens. For the first time the slogans "Democracy", "Down with the junta" and "Long Live Freedom" were heard, together various anti-American slogans. Once again the police intervened to quell the rebellion, but the forcible expulsion of students from the building of the Law further strengthened their militancy. A third occupation of the Law School took place the following month, however it was not until the November of that year that the militancy showed its true colours.

"Ψωμί, Παιδεία, Ελευθερία, Εθνική Ανεξαρτησία" (Bread, Education, Freedom, National Independence) - the 'official' slogan of the occupation.

On the morning of November 14, University students gathered in the courtyard of the University and decided the declaration of abstinence courses, seeking to hold elections for student unions in December of that year and not at the end of next year, as announced by the regime. Student assemblies also quickly followed at the Medical and Law Schools. At the latter, law students adopted a resolution, which demanded the withdrawal of the decisions of the junta to conduct student elections, democratisation of universities, increase spending on education to 20% of the overall budget, and the withdrawing of decree 1347/73.
As the day went on, more and more students began to gather at the University as news of the protests spread. The police were powerless to prevent their numbers swelling and by mid afternoon the decision had been taken to occupy the Polytechnic. Calling themselves "Ελεύθεροι Πολιορκημένοι" (The Besieged Free), they barricaded themselves inside the faculty building at Patission Street and began the operation of an independent radio station, built in a few hours in the laboratories of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering. A coordination committee of all the faculties was also formed to organise the gathering of foods and medicines, distribution of megaphones and "imposes control over irresponsible slogans". Now they had to galvanise the growing support for their actions across the city and further afield, which would culminate in the erecting barricades and conducting of street fighting between insurgents and the police.

1992 - Pedro Calvo Calvo (b. 1908), Aragonese basketmaker, railway worker, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Aug. 23]

1993 - Nosaka Sanzō (野坂 参三; b. 1892), founder of the Japanese Communist Party (JCP) and anti-fascist, who worked for periods as a writer, editor, labour organiser, communist agent, politician, and university professor, dies aged 101. [see: Mar. 30]

1997 - The Indonesian Military enters the grounds of University of East Timor to quell anti-government protests, shooting at least six students.

2003 - Ramón Álvarez Palomo 'Ramonín' (b. 1913), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Mar. 7]

2011 - Franz Josef Degenhardt (b. 1931), German poet, satirist, novelist, screenwriter, folk-singer/songwriter (Liedermacher), lawyer and leftist, dies. [see: Dec 3]
1908 - Ricardo Peña Vallespin (d. 1956), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, and novelist, who was part of the artistic and theatrical group Mistral, born. He wrote a large number of novels which were published by La Novela Libre and La Novela Ideal. Among these were: 'Llamas de Odio' (Flames of Hate; 1926), 'La Virgen Tonta' (The Silly Virgen; 1927), 'El Asedio' (The Siege; 1929), 'Cerebro y Corazón' (Mind and Heart; 1930), 'La Propia Obra' (The Work Itself; 1930), '¡Qué Salga el Autor!' (The Exit of the Author; 1930), 'La Hechizada' (The Bewitched; 1931), 'El Amo' (Master; 1932), 'Índice Rojo. Novela Histórica' (Red Index. Historical novel; 1933), 'Redención' (Redemption; 1933), 'De la Vida que Pasa' (The Life that Passes; 1934), 'Tribunal de Amor' (The Court of Love; 1934), 'Cómo se Debe Amar' (How to love ; 1935), 'Las Leyes del Mal' (Las Laws of Evil; 1936), etc.

[B] 1920 - Ernst Toller's play 'Masse Menschen' (Mass Man), about the armed workers' struggle against was profiteers, premières in the Stadttheater Nürnberg directed by Friedrich Neubauer.

1932 - 'свободно общество' (Free Society) is republished [see: Feb. 15] as the monthly theoretical magazine of the FACB (Bulgarian Communist Anarchist Federation). It will be banned again following the fascist coup d'état on May 19, 1934.

1936 - 1,800 Durruti Column militiamen from the Aragon front enter into combat in the defence of University City (Madrid).

[C] 1939 - Twenty seven Republicans are shot in secret and buried in a mass grave in the Alicante cemetery, with the dictatorship later putting date of "death" as 1942:
Ricardo Baeza Sancleto (Ricardo Baeza Sandeto), soldier 28 years old; Francisco Berenguer Estenaga, 29, a mason from Banyeres; Evaristo Botella Jordá, clerk, 29 years old; Raimundo Cots Alonso, 32; al papelero de Cocentaina; Salustiano Espí Reig, 24, a furrier and socialista from Elda; Rafael García Segura, 47; a farmer from Tibi; Carlos Jorquera Martínez, barber from Alicante, 25 years old; Francisco Maestre Payá, Elda lawyer and member of the Tribunal Popular nº2 de Alicante, 46 years old; Antonio Rech Picó, 30, bricklayer from Relleu; Vicente Rico Mollá, jornalist and CNT militant from Castalla, 36 years old; Emilio Rodríguez Carbonell, empleado de 28 years old; and Francisco Salort Cristóbal, 23, mason from El Vergel; plus 4 anti-fascist militants from Elche: Pedro Escalante Coves (Pedro Escalante Cores), shoemaker, 32 years old; Manuel Granados Irles, chauffeur, 54; Onofre Núñez Cantos (José Núñez Cantos), 39 years old worker; Francisco Valero Quiles, baker, 27 years old; six anti-fascists from Rojales: Jesús Cartagena Gil, carpenter, 48 years old; Manuel García León, farmer worker, 35 years old; Manuel Hurtado Huerta, 30 years old, an agricultural worker from Almoradí; Cayetano Manchón Sarabia, 37 years old, a farmer from nearby Callosa de Segura; Antonio Martínez Sala, 28 years old, a carpenter from Torrevieja; and José Pastor Navarro, 38 years old labourer from Rojales. Also were shot with them a group of prisoners from other locales: José Acosta Téllez, 25, a worker from Jerez; Francisco Boades Soler, 22 year old weaver from Girona; José Feliu Fernández (José Felín Fernández), 27, weaver from Formentera; José Martí Guillen, 56, metalworker from Nules and Etelvino Vega Martínez, 33 years old metalworker from Mieres, who was also a central committee of the PCE and military commander of Alicante.
On March 27, 2005, a monument was erected to their memory.

1939 - Jaume Soler Lloret (b. 1898), Alicante born CNT member, teacher and town clerk in Manresa during the war, is shot at Camp de la Bota Barcelona.

1947 - Oswald Mosley addresses a meeting in the Memorial Hall, Farringdon Street attended by delegates from over 50 different fascist organisations, announcing his re-entry into politics with a new organisation, the Union Movement. Despite their spies in various fascist organisatons, the 43 Group are unable to dicover the exact venue and when the location is discovered, they are pevented by truncheon wielding police from shutting it down. [PR]

1947 - During a general strike by peasants and protest march in Cerignola, Foggia, against neo-fascist outrages and widespread unemployment, police opened fire, killing Domenico Angelini and Onofrio Perrone. In response, the protesters attack the local agricultural offices of M. Cirillo and the party offices of the Democrazia Cristiana, FUCI (Federazione Universitaria Cattolici Italiana), Partito Democratico del Lavoro, the Don Minzoni cooperative and EU agriculture office. The police announce a state of siege as 2 cops are killed and a number of protesters are wounded. 114 workers are arrested.

[DD] 1973 - Athens Polytechnic Uprising: Nov. 15, 1973 - Athens Polytechnic Uprising: By the next morning, the buildings and forecourt of Athens Polytechnic were filled by students and tens of thousands of people and students, who had come from schools across the city, gathered as the radical students brought more and more food, medicine and other resources for the occupation. A Steering Committee was elected, consisting of 22 students and two workers from the University, in order to manage the occupation. The Steering Committee swiftly announced that the occupation was an explicity anti-fascist and anti-imperialist protest. In addition, committees were created in all the other university faculties, to organise the wider occupation and communications with wider Greek society.
For this purpose, it began operating a radio station, initially in the Chemistry faculty building and later in a building in the Mechanical Engineeringv faculty, with Maria Damanaki, Dimitris Papahristos and Miltos Charalambides as its announcers; "Here is Polytechneion! Here is Polytechneion! We are speaking from the Radio Station of the free struggling students, the free struggling Greeks. Down with the junta, down with Papadopoulos, kick out the Americans, down with fascism, the junta will fall by [the hands of] the people ...
O people, come down on the pavements, come stand with us, your are free to come and see ... "
Elsehwere, stencil machines (printers) were sourced, which worked day and night to inform students and the world for the decisions of the Coordinating Committee and student assemblies. Students formed teams to write slogans on placards, on walls, buses and taxis across the city to emplore the support of the Athenians. The University occupiers organised a restaurant and a hospital, and student groups took turns to safeguard the site, making sure that amongst the enthusiastic Athenians who had gathered at the occupation were not used as cover by potential provocateurs.
The first reaction of the dictatorial regime was to send a number of undercover agents to be blended into the crowd that that had flocked to the University and put in place snipers on top of surrounding buildings.
Across the capital and Greece protests, rallies and demonstrations against the junta and in support of the students began to take place. In Thessaloniki and Patras students also occupied university buildings. Farmers from Megara in West Attica set off for Athens to support the occupation. In Egaleo, in the western part of Athens, and in Piraeus a number of acts of revolutionary solidarity also took place, with attacks on the police.

1984 - Teodora Badell (b. 1893), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies.

1987 - Joan Borràs Casanova (b. 1909), Spanish anarchist, proletarian painter, poster artist and writer, dies. [see: Apr. 3]
1899 - Carlo Rosselli (d. 1937), Italian non-Marxist Socialist, journalist, historian and anti-fascist activist, born. Detained on the island of Lipari for his role in the escape to France in 1926 of the socialist politician Filippo Turati, he managed to escape to Tunisia in July 1929, from where he made his way to France. With other Italian refugees in Paris, he helped found the anti-fascist militant movement Giustizia e Libertà, later fighting for the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War. Alongside Camillo Berneri, Rosselli headed the Matteotti Battalion, a mixed volunteer unit of anarchist, liberal, socialist and communist Italians. The unit fought on the Aragon front, and participated in a victory against Francoist forces in the Battle of Monte Pelato. Having fallen ill early in 1937, he returned to Paris and, together with his brother Nello, he was assassinated on June 9, 1937 by French fascists.

1922 - José de Sousa Saramago (d. 2010), Portuguese writer of novels, short stories, poetry, plays, memoirs and travelogues, atheist and libertarian communist, born.
"A unique and authentic human freedom is that of the spirit, a spirit not contaminated by irrational beliefs and superstitions perhaps poetic in some case, but that distort the perception of reality and should offend the most basic reason."

'Não me Peçam Razões'

Não me peçam razões, que não as tenho,
Ou darei quantas queiram: bem sabemos
Que razões são palavras, todas nascem
Da mansa hipocrisia que aprendemos.

Não me peçam razões por que se entenda
A força de maré que me enche o peito,
Este estar mal no mundo e nesta lei:
Não fiz a lei e o mundo não aceito.

Não me peçam razões, ou que as desculpe,
Deste modo de amar e destruir:
Quando a noite é de mais é que amanhece
A cor de primavera que há-de vir.

'Do not ask me for reasons'

Do not ask me for reasons, I do not have them,
Or give you what you want: well we know
That reasons are words, all born
From the gentle hypocrisy we have learned.

Do not ask me for reasons if you understand
The tidal force that fills my chest,
Being evil in this world and in this law:
I was not the law and the world I do not accept.

Do not ask me the reasons, or the excuse,
This way of loving and destruction:
When the night is over and then it dawns
The colour of springtime is coming.

From: 'Nesta esquina do tempo' (In this corner of time)


1938 - The Republican army of Catalonia, made up of anarchist and communist forces, is defeated after three months by pro-Franco forces, leaving tens of thousands dead or casualties. The Republican forces had held for three months during the great battle on the front at the Ebre River.

[C] 1942 - Italian-Australian anarchist Francesco Fantin (b. 1901) is murdered by fascist fellow internees in an Australian internment camp. [see: Jan. 20]

1943 - Operation Spark*: At a long delayed viewing of a new German army uniform - the standard uniforms had proven inadequate for the harsh conditions of the Russian winter - to be adopted by the Waffen-SS and the Luftwaffe Field Divisions, in addition to the Wehrmacht, an attemtp is planned to assassinate Adolf Hitler, SS chief Heinrich Himmler and Luftwaffe commander Hermann Göring. Captain von dem Bussche (1919 - 1993), who was due to model the uniform, had volunteered to carry a landmine in the knapsack of the uniform, and detonate it when the three Nazi leaders were gathered around him. However, the night before the scheduled demonstration, the freight car containing the new uniforms was destroyed in an Allied air raid and the viewing was rescheduled. [*also translated as Operation Flash]

1953 - Luigi 'Gigi' Damiani (aka 'Ausinio Acrate' & 'Simplicio'; b. 1876), Italian journalist, poet, novelist, jobbing painter, anarchist activist and propagandist, dies. [see: May 18]

1966 - University of Strasbourg students, sympathetic to the Situationists, blow the entire yearly student union's budget on printing 10,000 copies of 'De la Misère en Milieu Étudiant' (On The Poverty Of Student Life), causing a massive scandal and court case.

[DD] 1973 - Athens Polytechnic Uprising: Following the events of the previous day, the occupation and the various solidarity events across Greece were splashed across the country's newspapers. At the Polytechneion itself, crowds thronged around the University with more than 150,000 people thunderously chanting: "Down with the junta, the junta will fall at the hands of the people!" Under threat, the regime had to respond. The dictator Georgios Papadopoulos ordered the army on to the streets. Across the capital during the late afternoon and evening tanks and armoured personnel carriers began to take up positions. Near At Larissa station three Special Foces (ΛΟΚ) brigades and one brigades of paratroopers from Thessaloniki took up positions waiting for orders.
At 19:30, large numbers of police began to attack the crowd was gathered outside the Polytechnic with batons, teargas and rubber bullets. Many of those gathered there fled but others began to set up barricades using hijacked trolleybuses and gathered material from a nearby building site. Fires were lit to try and neutralise the clouds of teargas. Police eventually began resorting to live fire and the first deaths began to take place. The unarmed students and workers at the Polytechneion refused to give in and began hand to hand fighting with the police.
Eventually, with the police unable to gain entry into the barricaded University compound, around midnight Papadopoulos ordered the army in, something that would prolong the bloodshed into the ear.y hours of the next day.

List of the eight people who died in the hours before midnight on Friday November 16th:
Spyros Kontomaris (Σπυρίδων Κοντομάρης), 57-year-old lawyer and former MP who suffered a heart attack suffered during the teargas attack some time between 20.30-21.00;
Diomedes Komnenos (Διομήδης Κομνηνός), 17-year-old student shot through the heart by riot police between 21.30 and 21.45;
Sokratis Michail (Σωκράτης Μιχαήλ), 57, an insurance worker, between 21.00 and 22.30 he suffered a heart attack during the teargas attack;
Toril Margrethe Engeland, 22-year-old student from Norway was fatally wounded in the chest by riot police around 23.30;
Vasilis Famellos (Βασίλειος Φάμελλος), 26, around 23.30 he was fatally wounded in the head by riot police;
Yiorgos Samouris (Γεώργιος Σαμούρης), 22-year-old student, around 24.00 mortally wounded in the neck by police gunfire whilst in the greater area of ​​Athens (Kallidromiou and Zosimadon);
Dimitris Kyriakopoulos (Δημήτριος Κυριακόπουλος), a 35-year-old builder affected by tear gas in the University area and then beaten by police baton, as a result of which died from acute aortic rupture three days later on November 19th;
Spyros Marinos (Σπύρος Μαρίνος), known as Georgaras, 31, affected by tear gas in the University area and then beaten by police baton, suffering head injuries. He was taken to Penteli Infirmary where he died on Monday 19th of an acute stroke.

1981 - Felisa de Castro Sampedro (b. 1898), Spanish militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalsit and feminist, co-founder of Agrupación Cultural Femenina in Cataluña, which merged with Mujeres Libres in 1936, dies. [see: Feb. 21]

[A] 2009 - Ivan Khutorskoy aka 'Vanya Kostolom' (Bonecrusher Vanya)(b. 1983), Russian RASH anti-fascist skinhead and prominent member of the country's anti-fascist movement, murdered. Well known for working security at anti-fascist concerts and press conferences of the Russian human rights lawyer Stanislav Markelov, he was shot dead at his home in Khabarovsk street in eastern Moscow.

2009 - Anne-Sofie Østvedt (b. 1920), Norwegian university student active in the anti-Nazi resistance, who was one of the leaders of the Norwegian intelligence organisation XU, dies. [see: Jan. 2]
1876 - August Sander (d. 1964), German portrait and documentary photographer associated with the Neuen Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity), born. Member of the Kölner Progressive group alongsdie Franz Wilhelm Seiwert and Heinrich Hoerle, whose major project 'Menschen des 20. Jahrhunderts' invovled his photographing different sections of the German people including the working classes, peasants, artist, poets, etc. He also photographed many of those involved in the Sparticist revolution and later, inevitably, the Nazis. His work also brought him into conflict with the Nazi regime and, after his son Erich (a member of the left wing Socialist Workers’ Party ) was arrested in 1934 and sentenced to 10 years in prison (dying shortly before his release), he retired to the country in order to protect his negatives.

[C] 1892 - Josef 'Beppo' Römer (d. 1944), German member of the Freikorps Oberland [which was instrumental in crushing the Bavarian Soviet Republic in April 1919 and fought against the Ruhr workers in March and April 1920], born. However, by the time of the Silesian Uprisings in 1921, he had become sympathetic to the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (KPD) and was involved in the Oberland's refusal to break a strike in the Silesian city of Ratibor in mid 1921. He was later expelled from the Korps for embezzlment, having channeled Oberland funds to the KPD as part of a plan to help prevent the return of the monarchy in Bavaria (something exploited by a faction sympathetic to the Nazis as it attempted to purge more left-leaning leaders), and became an organiser for the KPD and editor in chief of its periodical 'Aufbruch' (New Start). He worked against the Third Reich, actively participated in plans to assassinate Hitler in 1934 which led to his arrest and imprisonment in the Dachau concentration camp until 1939. After his release, Römer immediately became involved with the worker’s opposition, publishing a bulletin for the resistance, 'Informationsdienst' (Information Service), creating a network of opposition workplace cells, and again laying plans for another assassination attempt on Hitler. These cells were later infiltrated by the Gestapo and Römer was arrested in February 1942. Sentenced to death on June 16, 1944, he was executed on September 25 of that year at Brandenburg-Görden Prison.

1934 - Joachim Ringelnatz (pen name of Hans Bötticher; b 1883), German author (poetry, novels, drama, memoirs, childrens books, painter and Kabarettist/satirical stand-up comedian, dies. [see: Aug. 7]

1945 - Emilio Canzi (b. 1893), Italian partisan, anarchist and anti-fascist combattant in the Spanish Civil War, dies. [see: Mar. 14]

1971 - 89 Talbot Road raided: Chris Allen charged with conspiracy to cause explosions. [Angry Brigade chronology]

[DD] 1973 - Athens Polytechnic Uprising: With the failure of the large numbers of police deployed outside the Polytechneion to gain entry, despite their having deployed live fire in their attempts to breach the erected barricades, it was now the turn of the military to try and end the occupation.
At 02:00, three tanks came down from the Goudi towards the University. Two parked on Stournara and Tositsa streets, blocking the side entrances of the institution and the other took up a position opposite the main gate. The students outside the University began shouting: "Soldiers, we are unarmed, we are brothers, do not crush us, come join us" and chanting the National Anthem. Having been presented with an ultimatum to leave within 15 minutes of the troops would attack, the Coordinating Committee of the students tried to negotiate more time, but their request was rejected. Meanwhile, the Radio Station continued denouncing on air the brutal events unfolding at the behest of the dictator outside the University gates.
At 03:00, the tank opposite the main gate was ordered to attack. It demolished the iron gates and railings of the Polytechneion, knocking over a woman pearched on the railings holding a Greek flag - witnesses claimed that atleast two, and possible three, students were crushed under the tracks of the tank, casualties that do not appear in the official records. Other students suffered fractures amongst the rubble of the gateposts and railings. The official investigation after the fall of the Junta found that no students of the Athens Polytechnic were killed during the incident and only a few were injured by the tank.
Following the breach of the barricaded gate, a unit of armed Special Forces (ΛΟΚ) commandos entered the University courtyard and begun to lead students out via the Stournara Street entrance. Outside the Stournara Street pavements were lined with riot police, who immediately set to beating the students. In some cases the commandos intervened to protect the students from the swarms of secret police (KYΠ) and riot police gathered there. Many managed to find asylum in the surrounding apartment buildings, only to be later arrested outside and taken away to be brutally tortured by the General Security (Γενική Ασφάλεια) and Military Police (ΕΣΑ). Police snipers also opened fire from surrounding rooftops at those trying to flee. Meanwhile, the announcers at the University radio station remained in post and continued transmit the story of what was taking place for 40 minutes after the exit, until they were arrested.
At 11:00, martial law was imposed across Greece, whilst fighting continued around the University throughout the morning. Barricades were erected and street fights took place across Athens as soldiers and police continued to use live ammunition against civilians into the following day, resulting in several deaths in the area around the University and in the rest of Athens. An official police announcement that day claimed that 840 people had been arrested, but after the fall of the dictatorship, police officers, under interrogation, reported that the numbers arrested exceeded 2400. The official death toll reached 34 but the first press reports gave figures ranging from 59 to 79 dead. The figure is likely to be as much as 83, and maybe higher, given that many of the seriously injured would have refused to a hospital in order to escape arrest. Amongst the confirmed casualties was 5-year-old Dimitris Theodoras (Δημήτρης Θεοδώρας), shot in the head by a military patrol whilst crossing the road with his mother in the Zografou (Ζωγράφου) district of the Greek capital.
A week later disgruntled junta hardliner and head of the feared Military Police, Brigadier Dimitrios Ioannidis, a long-time protege of dictator, overthrew Georgios Papadopoulos in a coup on November 25, reinstating Military Law. On July 15, 1974, an Ioannidis-sponsored coup on the island of Cyprus overthrew Archbishop Makarios III, the Cypriot president. Turkey replied to this intervention by invading Cyprus and occupying the northern part of the island. As a direct result of both the Cyprus debacle and the ideological bancruptcy of the military government, the junta collapsed on July 23, to be replaced by parliamentary democracy.

1989 - Kornelia 'Conny' Wessmann (b. 1965), German student and active anti-Fascist, is knocked down and killed by a car as she fled from a police charge. Conny, who was responding to a call out by comrades in Göttingen after a group of neo-Nazis had gone on a rampage in the city. By the time she and her Antifa group had arrived at the scene, the neo-Nazi skinheads had already fled. The police then followed her group, which planned to dissolve near the university campus. Close to the busy Weender Landstrasse they were attacked by the police. Trying to escape across a street, she was knocked down by a car and killed.
1924 - Iordan Chimet (d. 2006), Romanian poet, children's writer and essayist, critic and historian of art, cinema, screenwriter and translator, whose work was inspired by Surrealism and Onirism, born. An opponent of totalitarianism in general and of the Communist regime in particular, was persecuted by the latter as a dissident, and lived much of his life in obscurity. Politically active while still a teenager during World War II, he was part of an anti-fascist group in his native city, Galaţi, along with his friends Gheorghe Ursu (1926 -1985), a dissident who was killed by the Securitate secret police in 1985, and science fiction author Camil Baciu (1926 - 2005).

1952 - Paul Éluard (Eugène Émile Paul Grindel; b. 1895), French poet and communist, a one-time Dadaist who went on to become one of the founders of the Surrealist movement, dies. [see: Dec. 14]

[B] 1953 - Alan Moore, comic writer, novelist, screenwriter, musician, cartoonist, neo-Pagan and anarchist, born. His works include 'V for Vendetta' (1982–1985); 'Watchmen' (1986–1987) and 'The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen' (1999–present).

[C] 1961 - Hacienda Maria Massacre: The last six captured conspirators in the Trujillo assassination: Modesto Díaz Quezada, Pedro Livio Cedeño Herrera, Huascar Antonio Tejada Pimentel, Roberto Pastoriza Neret, Salvador Estrella Sadhalá a.k.a. 'El Turco' and Luis Manuel Cáceres Michel are taken from La Victoria to the notorious Hacienda Maria, where they are shot one by one, placed as targets for shooting practice on a concrete platform over the pool. It is presumed that their bodies were thrown into the sea. [see: May 30]

1999 - Paul Frederic Bowles (b. 1910), American expatriate composer, author and translator, dies. [see: Dec. 30]

2000 - Ilya Grigoryevich Starinov (Илья Григорьевич Старинов; b. 1900), Soviet military officer, who served with the Republican forces during the Spanish Civil War and was one of the leaders of the Soviet partisan movement during the WWII, dies aged 100. [see: Aug. 2]
[C] 1908 - Gisèle Freund (Gisela Freund; d. 2000), German-born French photographer and photojournalist, socialist and anti-fascist, best known for her documentary photography and portraits of writers and artists and her book 'Photographie et Société' (1974), about the uses and abuses of the photographic medium in the age of technological reproduction, born. From a wealthy Jewish family, she took up photography initially as a hobby in 1925 and, whilst studying at the Institute for Social, Sciences, University of Frankfurt under Theodor W. Adorno, Karl Mannheim and Norbert Elias, she became an active member of a student socialist group and determined to use photography as an integral part of her socialist practice. One of her first first stories, shot on May 1, 1932, shows "a recent march of anti-fascist students" who had been "regularly attacked by Nazi groups." The photos also show Walter Benjamin, a good friend of Freund, and Bertolt Brecht. Being Jewish and a fervent opponent of National Socialism, Freund was also an active member of an anti-Fascist group. When one of her friends was imprisoned and murdered, Freund was told she must leave the country. On May 30, 1933, with little more than her camera, and with photographic negatives taped around her body to get past the border guards, Freund fled Germany in the footsteps of her friend Benjamin. She did not set foot on German soil again until 1957. In 1935 she began a relationship with Adrienne Monnier, poet, feminist writer, publisher, and a central figure in the contemporary avant-garde scene in France. Monnier went on to arrange a marriage of convenience for her lover with Pierre Blum so that Freund could obtain a visa to remain in France legally and the following year published Freund’s ground-breaking doctoral dissertation on photography in nineteenth-century France.
On June 10, 1940, with the Nazi invasion of Paris looming, Freund escaped Paris to Free France in the Dordogne. Her husband by convenience, Pierre, had been captured by the Nazis and sent to a prison camp. He was able to escape and met with Freund before going back to Paris to fight in the Résistance. As the wife of an escaped prisoner, a Jew, a lesbian and a Socialist, Freund "feared for her life". Finally, in 1942, through the intervention of her friend André Malraux (1901–1976), arrangements were made for her to find refuge in Argentina, becoming cultural attaché for the Ministry of Information of Free France while in South America, and founding Ediciones Victoria to publish books about France. Focusing on producing documentary reportage and films on remote areas such as Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia in 1944, she travelled through Chile, Peru and Bolivia, Brazil and Ecuador. In all these countries she wrote stories published by European and American magazines. She also visited Mexico, falling in love with the country and befriending Frida Kahlo. In 1947, Freund signed a contract with Magnum Photos as a Latin America contributor, but by 1954 she was declared persona non grata by the U. S. Government at the height of the Red Scare for her Socialist views, and Robert Capa forced her to break ties with Magnum. The same year she was also thrown out of Argentina for taking a set of photographs of Eva Peron wearing lavish jewellery that were published in 'Life' magazine, causing an international incident. Freund had returned to Paris in 1953, spending the rest of her life in France.

1914 - Carlo Doglio (d. 1995), Italian architect, urban planner, editor, lawyer, university professor, anarchist, anti-fascist and pacifist, born. [expand]

1914 - Ernst Lerch (d. 1997), one of the most important people involved in Aktion Reinhard (Operation Reinhard), the annihilation of Poland's Jews, born. A member of the NSDAP since December 1933 and the SS from March 1934, by 1938 he had become a SS-Captain (Hauptsturmführer) in the Reich Security Directorate and in July 1942 he had been promoted to SS-Sturmbannführer as chief of staff to SS and Police Leader Odilo Globocnik in Lublin. After the war he managed to escape punishment for his part in the murder of 2 million people, even ecaping from prison in 1947 and going on the run for 3 years before being sentenced to just 2 years in prison by a de-Nazification court in Wiesbaden in 1960.

1933 - Following the resignation of the middle-class republican governtment of Manuel Azaña, the recently formed Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas (CEDA; Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups), a coalition of largely Catholic conservative groups and Monarchists led by José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones, and which would progressively begin to ape the NSDAP, gained the most seats. However, the liberals in the Cortes clearly would not accept Robles and his grouping, with its expressed aim of defending Spain and "Christian civilization" from Marxism, and the party that came a close second to CEDA, the Partido Republicano Radical (Radical Republican Party), led by Alejandro Lerroux y García, formed a loose alliance with the winners and took all the seats in cabinet. [see: Oct. 1&4]

1936 - Buenaventura Durruti is mortally wounded in uncertain circumstances in Madrid. He dies the following day.

1941 - Antonio Blanco Blanch (b. 1902), Spanish chocolatier, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was exiled to France after the defeat of the Spanish Republic, dies in Mauthausen's Gusen subcamp. [see: Feb. 16]

1941 - In the Riga Ghetto the Germans separate the working Jews from the rest of the ghetto inhabitants and move them into a separate "small ghetto" prior to the planned 'liquidation' of Latvia's Jews in the Rumbula massacre (November 30 and December 8, 1941) in which about 25,000 Jews were killed in or on the way to Rumbula forest near Riga.

1942 - One hundred mostly elderly Jews were taken from the Great Synagogue in Piotrkow Trybunalski, the first Ghetto set up in occupied Poland, to the Rakow forest, near Piotrkow and shot.

1942 - At exactly 07:30 hours, some 3,500 Soviet guns and mortars open fire on the breakthrough sectors. The Soviet fight to free Stalingrad has begun. By the second day of the attack, mobile forces on the South-West Front have advanced up to 25 miles.

[CC] 1944 - Heinz Siegfried Heydrich (b. 1905), German SS Obersturmführer in WWII and younger brother of SS General Reinhard Heydrich, who turned from being a fervent admirer of Hitler to an anti-Nazi to secretly helping numerous Jews escape occupied Europe, fearing imminent discovery of his actions commits suicide in an effort to prevent the inevitable retaliation that would of fallen upon his family. [see: Sep. 29]

1945 - 3 Germans: Ernst Waldmann, Wilhelm Haffner and Albert Bury, are hung by the American army at Landsberg for killing downed U.S. pilots during the late war.

2006 - Members of various anarchist, syndicalist and anarcho-feminist organisations, gather at the Montjuïc cemetry in Barcelona to pay tribute to Buenaventura Durruti on the 70th anniversary of his death.
[B] 1879 - Franz Pfemfert (d. 1954), German anarchist, publisher, editor of the mass-circulation anti-war paper 'Die Aktion', poet, literary critic and portrait photographer, born. Occasionally wrote under the pseudonym U. Gaday. His first poems appeared in Senna Hoy’s paper 'Der Kampf' (The Struggle) and in another anarchist paper 'Die Arme Teufel' (The Poor Devil) in 1904. Hoy also introduced Pfemfert to Alexandra Ramm, his future wife. In 1910, he became an editor of the radical democratic magazine 'Die Demokrat' but fell out with its publisher, quiting to set up his own magazine, 'Die Aktion'. In 1915 he created the Antinationale Sozialistenpartei (Anti-National Socialist Party), which secretly worked with other anti-war groups. At the end of the war Franz joined the Spartakusbund and the pages of 'Die Aktion' were thrown open to the various revolutionary currents. However, he broke with the KPD, joining the KAPD and, shortly afterwards in 1921, the AAUD-E (United General Workers Union). In 1926 he took part in the creation of the second Spartakusbund whilst maintaining his links with the anarcho-syndicalist union the FAUD. [expand]

[BB] 1902 - Jean Painlevé (d. 1989), French biologist turned film director, actor, translator, animator, critic and theorist, anti-fascist and anarchist, born. Noted documentarist, often on scientific subjects, in particular underwater marine biology, his credo was "science is fiction". He was also the son of mathematician and twice prime-minister of France, Paul Painlevé. One of his closest friends and biggest influences on his films was fellow anarchist and film director Jean Vigo and he was associated with Surrealism, collaborating on Ivan Goll's monthly revue 'Surrealisme', without ever really being considered part of the Surrealist movement (despite self-identifying as a surrealist). After a short period as an actor and assisstant director, Painlevé directed his first short, a version of Goll's play 'Mathusalem' (1927), which he followed up with his first scientific films, 'La Pieuvre' (The Octopus; 1928) and 'Oeufs d'Épinoche' (Stickelback Eggs; 1929). He was also credited during the same period as "chief ant handler" on Luis Buñuel's 'Un Chien Andalou' (1928). The Académie des sciences rejected his efforts but his films were embraced by the avant garde of France and Man Ray, for example, used Painlevé's footage of underwater starfish in his film 'L'Etoile de Mer' (1928). The rejection also spurred hin on to co-founded L'Institut du Cinema Scientifique in 1930, which helped distribute and show documentary films made all over the world. An active ananrchist, Painlevé took part in anti-Nazi demonstrations throughout WWII and his 1945 film 'Le Vampire' was expressly anti-fascist. He also served as director of the Committee for the Liberation of French Cinema (which he co-founded during the war) which sought help ressurect the post-war French film industry.

1911 - David 'Chim' Seymour (Dawid Szymin; d. 1956), Polish photographer, photojournalist and anti-fascist, known for his images from the Spanish Civil War, born. One of the co-founders of Magnum Photos with Henri Cartier-Bresson, Robert Capa, George Rodger and William Vandivert, of which he became president following Capa's death. His famous photojournalism project 'Children of War', commissioned by UNICEF, captured the plight of children in the aftermath of World War II. He died whilst photographing the Suez conflict in 1956.

1913 - Libertas Schulze-Boysen (Libertas Viktoria Haas-Heye; (d. 1942), German former press officer in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's Berlin branch office and anti-Nazi resistance fighter, who also gathered pictorial evidence of Nazi war crimes whilst working in the Reich Propaganda Ministry and was executed alongside her husband Harro Schulze-Boysen for her part in the activities of the (Nazi named) Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, born. Part of the same circle of left-leaning anti-fascists as her husband, artists, pacifists, and Communists who published anti-fascist writings amongst other activities, she was also involved in the resistance group known as the Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra).. In July 1942, the group's radio messages were intercepted and decoded, and on August 31, she and Harro Schulze-Boysen were arrested by the Gestapo. They were sentenced to death on December 19 and executed three days later at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin.

1920 - Antonio Navarro Velázquez (d. 1999), Castillian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist and Résistance fighter, born. Known as 'Antonio el Zapatero' or simply 'Zapatero', he was 12 years old he joined the CNT in Caravaca de la Cruz. In 1935 he moved to Barcelona, where he became a militant in an anarchist group. With the fascist military coup in July 1936, he tried to join the CNT militia, but one had to be at least 17 ​​years old, and from 1937 served in the Ejército Popular (People's Army) of the Second Republic. With Franco's victory went to France and took part in the Résistance, fighting against the Nazi occupation. In 1947 re-entered the Peninsula but was arrested the following year. He was sentenced to a long prison term, spending time prison in Zaragoza, San Miguel de los Reyes and finally in Burgos. In 1960 he was paroled.
In Barcelona, ​​with José Navarro Muñoz and Joaquín Amores Ortiz, participated in the organisation of the anarchist group Perseverancia (Perseverance) which, until 1970, helped colleagues sought by Franco's police to escape to France. A few months before the death of dictator Franco, went himself returned to France fleeing arrest. He was also a member of the National Committee of the CNT, and was close to Manuel Saldaña de la Cruz. In the mid seventies he participated in the reorganisation of the CNT in Barcelona. On March 30, 1978 he was arrested, along with three other colleagues (Francisco Rodríguez Meroño , José Luis López Moreno and Ana María Álvarez López ), accused of being the 'brains' of a "specific group" (Grupos Autónomos Libertarios) of the FAI and of shooting-up, on March 19, 1978, the barracks of the Policía Armada (Armed Police) in Cornellà de Llobregat, Barcelona. In the nineties he was active in the CNT in Barcelona and, shortly before his death, in the Local Federation of the CNT in Cornellà with the intention, with Manuel Saldaña, of forming a new union.
His partner was Carmen Edo.

[A] 1936 - Buenaventura Durruti (b. 1896), dies after being shot yesterday during the Battle for Madrid. [see: Jul. 14]

1943 - Oswald Mosley and his wife Diana Mitford are released from internment (ordered by Labour Home Secretary Herbert Morrison on the grounds of ill health, Mosley allegedly suffering with phlebitis), provoking widespread public protests. Jessica Mitford, Diana's sister, described the decision as "a slap in the face of anti-fascists in every country and a direct betrayal of those who have died for the cause of anti-fascism". Whilst thousands of people in the West End and other parts of London line up to sign a protest petition (which would gain over one million signatures). Others organised protest ad hoc meetings and a steady stream of trades union officials began to lobby Whitehall. Strikes in war industries were threatened.
The Mosley's were to spend the rest of the war under house arrest.

1970 - A BBC van outside the Albert Hall in London covering the Miss World contest is bombed at 2,30 am. The prosecution claimed that Jake Prescott was responsible for this explosion, but also brought a witness who vouched that Jake was in fact in Edinburgh at the time. They were forced to drop this charge. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1970 - Women protesters disrupt the Miss World contest during live TV transmission. Flour bombs are hurled at Bob Hope.

[C] 1975 - Universal rejoicing with the death of Franciso Franco.

1977 - Louis Mercier Vega (or Luis) (born Charles Cortvrint; pseud., Charles Riedel, Santiago Parane, etc.; b. 1914), Belgian journalist, activist, propagandist and libertarian thinker, who joined the movement at age 16, dies. [see: May 6]

1978 - Giorgio de Chirico (b. 1888), Greek-born Italian Nietzschean artist, painter and novelist, who was a major influence on the Surrealists, dies. [see: Jul. 10]

2004 - Antonio Artero Coduras (b. 1936), Spanish libertarian filmmaker and essayist, dies. [see: Apr. 30]

2009 - The unveiling of the Santa Ana Memorial 'Halito Durruti', carved by sculptor Diego Segura.

2012 - Vladka Meed (Feigele Peltel, b. 1921), Polish member of the Jewish resistance, who famously smuggled dynamite into, and also helped children escape out of, the Warsaw Ghetto, dies. [see: Dec. 29]
[AA] 1831 - Révolte des Canuts: Silk workers' strike in the Lyon district of la Croix-Rousse. The whole city rises in insurrection when National Guardmen kill several workers. Barricades are thrown up and the black flag makes its appearance with the inscription: "Vivre en travaillant ou mourir en combattant."

1841 - José Nakens Pérez (d. 1926), Spanish journalist, radical republican, insurectionist, anticlerical, writer and poet, born.

1897 - Mollie Steimer (d. 1980), Russian-American-Jewish-Mexican anarchist and labour activist, born. Her militant activities got her deported from both the US in 1921 (after getting 15 years of prison for publishing a leaflet opposing the landing of US troops in Russia), and by Lenin in Russia (1923). Arrested as a German Jew in France, then escaped a Nazi internment camp and fled to Mexico with long-time companion Senya Fleshin.

1898 - René François Ghislain Magritte (d. 1967), Belgian Dada, then Surrealist artist and one-time Communist Party member, born. Member of the Revolutionary Surrealist Group.

1899 - Fosco Falaschi (d. 1936), Italian brickmaker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. As a child, his family emigrated to Argentina and settled in Buenos Aires. In 1916, he began working in a brick factory. In 1919, he became a member of the Societat Obrera dels Treballadors in Bòbila, affilated to the anarcho-syndicalist Federación Obrera Regional Argentina (Argentine Regional Workers' Federation; FORA), becoming secretary of the union in 1923 as well as editor of it newspaper 'El Obrero Ladrillero', "Órgano del Sindicato de Obreros Ladrilleros y Anexos". That same year, he was arrested for the first time for "incitement to strike" and went on to be arrested numerous times between 1929 and 1933. He was also a member of Umanità Nova, the coalition of anarcho-syndicalist, militant and anarchist groups, of the Alleanza Antifascista Italiana (AAI) and worked on the newspaper 'La Protesta' and its literary supplements. The authorities linked him to the group of Severino Di Giovanni who was, in December 1932, involved with other anarchist groups in the uprising organised by Colonel Atilio Cattáneo. Arrested in January 1933, he was expelled on June 23 that year for "subversive activities". Disembarking in Genoa, he was moved against his will to Città di Castello. A few days later, he fled but in September 1933 he was arrested by Carabinieri in Moncenisio as he tried to cross illegally in France. After another unsuccessful attempt to leave Città di Castello, he managed to cross into France in August 1934 and then on to Spain. In Barcelona, he worked on 'Solidaridad Obrera' and 'Tierra y Libertad', where he used the pseudonyms 'FF' and 'Gino Fosco'. Francisco Ascaso, of the Catalonia Regional Committee of the CNT, proposed him as director of 'Solidaridad Obrera' when its then editor, Manuel Villar, was imprisoned after the anarchist uprising in December 1933. After moving to Madrid, he worked on 'Revolución Social'. After the events of October 1934, he was arrested and jailed in Madrid. Following a broad support campaign, he was released in early 1936 after the amnesty that led to the triumph of the electoral Popular Front. Back in Barcelona, he joined the Ascaso Column following the military coup. On August 28, 1936, he was one of the first Italians (along with Mario Angeloni, Michele Centrone and Vicenzo Perrone) to die in the fighting in the Battle of Monte Pelado on the Aragon Front.

[C] 1925 - Poncke Princen (Johannes Cornelis Princen; d. 2002), Dutch anti-Nazi fighter and colonial soldier, who in 1948 deserted and joined the pro-independence guerillas in the then Dutch Indies, born. He lived out the rest of his life in Indonesia, becoming a prominent human rights activist and political dissident under various dictatorial regimes in his adopted country and consequently spent considerable time in detention. In 1943, Princen was arrested by the German occupation authorities in Maastricht, while trying to get to Spain - from where he intended to travel to Britain and enlist in an Allied army fighting the Nazis. He was convicted by the occupation authorities of "attempting to aid the enemy" and in early 1944 was sent to the notorious Vught Camp. On D-day, he was transferred to the Kriegswehrmachtgefängnis (Wehrmacht Military Prison) at Utrecht and was later transferred to the prison camp at Amersfoort and from there to Beckum, Germany.

1936 - The first issue of the weekly anarcho-syndicalist newspaper 'El Productor', "Órgano de la Federación Local y Comarcal de Sindicatos Únicos", is published by the CNT in Onteniente.

1992 - Silvio Meier (b. 1965), German anti-fascist and squatter, is stabbed to death by neo-Nazis in the Berlin Samariterstraße metro station following an altercation. Two of his companions are seriously injured. The neo-Nazis are said to have shouted: "Jetzt haben wir es euch gezeigt, ihr linken Säue!" (Now we've shown you, you leftwing swine!)
In the late 1980s he had been involved in the DDR in a libertarian group, Kirche von Unten (KvU), as well as the libertarian-oriented samizdat periodical 'mOAning stAr'. On October 17, 1987, he was involved in organising a concert of the West Berlin band Element of Crime in the Berlin Zionskirche which came under attack from around 30 neo-Nazis who stormed the building, beating the audience with wooden stave and bottles. The Volkspolizei and Stasi stationed outside the church stood by and watched. From that date Silvio became an active anti-fascist.

2007 - Fernando Fernán-Gómez (b. 1921), Argentine-born Spanish actor, screenwriter, film director, theater director, novelist, anarcho-syndicalist and lifelong anarchist, dies. During his funeral his coffin will be draped in the flag of the CNT. [see: Aug. 28]

2014 - Two alleged members of the New Black Panther Party are arrested during an FBI sting/entrapment operation for allegedly buying explosives they planned to detonate during protests in Ferguson, Missouri following the expected grand jury decision to not press charged for the killing on Michael Brown on August 9, 2014. The same pair is also indicted for purchasing two pistols under false pretences.
1831 - Révolte des Canuts: Continuation of the Revolt of the silk workers in Lyon. Workers seize the arsenal at the Bon-Pasteur fortified police barracks and are engaged by the military. The battle is hard-fought - approximately 100 die and 263 on the military side are wounded; 69 die and 140 are wounded on the civilian side - but the insurgents hold the town.

1850 - Camille Camet (d. 19??), Lyon weaver, anarchist and member of the International Workers Association, born.

1872 - Ettore Bonometti (d. 1961), Italian shoemaker and anarchist, born. [expand]
[NB: some sources claim his d.o.b. as Dec. 22]

[C] 1900 - Benigno Dominguez Bejarano (d. 1940), Spanish anarchist writer and journalist, born. Prolific author of literary, scientific, critical and humorous articles; short stories, novels and utopian fiction, much of it published under the pseudonyms Lazarillo de Tormes and Dionisiere. Arrested by the Gestapo in 1942, he was interned in France and transfered to the Neuengamme and then the Salzgitter-Watenstedt concentration camps. Suffering from lung disease, he was gassed by the Nazis in a 'ghost truck' in the summer of 1944.

1902 - In Buenos Aires the Argentine government passes a so-called 'law of residence' which will allow it to persecute any social movement that acts against the apparatus of state, and therefore the anarchist movement. The law creates the ability "to expel any foreigner whose conduct might jeopardize national security, public order or disrupt social peace (...)", via arrests and mass deportations. On 26 May 1910, it will be reinforced by another new repressive law the "Social Protection Act".

1904 - David Antona Domínguez (d. 1945), Spanish bricklayer, militant anarcho-syndicalist and one-time Secretariado del Comité Nacional CNT, born. [expand]

1916 - Jack London (b. 1876), author of 'The Iron Heel' and 'People Of The Abyss' amongst other works, dies. [see: Jan. 12]

1936 - Over 500,000 attend the funeral of the anarchist Buenaventura Durruti in Barcelona.

2001 - Ricky Bishop, 25-year-old black South Londoner, is arrested in a car with a friend and voluntarily taken to Brixton police station. Hours later, Ricky, cuts around his mouth and wrists, and injuries to his legs, is dead from a heart attack. The police claim that he managed to escape from his handcuffs and attacked them.
1883 - José Clemente Orozco (d. 1949), Mexican social realist painter, muralist and lithographer, born. He specialised in bold murals that established the Mexican Mural Renaissance together with murals by Diego Rivera, the anarchist David Alfaro Siqueiros, and others. During his childhood he suffered an accident while playing with gun powder, loosing his left hand and suffering permanent hearing loss and severely damaged his eyesight.
During the Mexican Revolution Orozco was an illustrator and cartoonist for the 'Batallones Rojos' of the anarcho-syndicalist Casa del Obrero Mundial (1914-15). In the early 1920s, together with Rivera and Siqueiros (Orozco, Rivera and Siqueiros were known as 'Los tres grandes'), he was one of a dozen artists invited to paint murals in public buildings by minister of education Vasconcelos. [expand]
To those who accused him later in life of being an anarchist, he answered: "Those who say I am ar anarchist do not know me. I am an partisan with absolute freedom of thought a real free thinker. Neither a dogmatist nor an anarchist. Neither an enemy of hierarchies nor a partisan of unyielding affirmations."

[CC] 1911 - Alter Szmul Fajnzylberg (or Fajnzylber) aka Alter Feinsilber, Stanislaw Jankowski and 'Kaskowiak' (d. 1987), Polish waiter, atheistic Jew and Communist political delegate for the International Brigades serving in Spain, who spent 3 years in Auschwitz-Birkenau and photographed the operation of the crematoria there using a clandestine camera, born. In Spain, he joined the Jaroslaw Dabrowski Brigade, first as a simple soldier and then as a political representative, and was wounded in action. Following the defeat of the Republic, he was interned in Saint-Cyprien camp but left in the mass breakout when the French proposed transferring the interenees to Africa to take part in the construction of the trans-Saharan railway line. Living and working under a false name in Paris, he was arrested as a Jew by the French police and interned at Drancy near Paris. Deported to Germany, he arrived at Auschwitz on March 27, 1942. There he worked as a carpenter and then in the Sonderkommando (prisoner 27675), working in the crematoria and documenting its activities using a smuggled in camera, which was used by Alberto 'Alex' Errera to produce the notorious Auschwitz-Birkenau Sonderkommando photos. Fajnzylberg also took part in the October 7, 1944, Sonderkommando uprising, surviving the war.

[C] 1911 - Benito Mussolini, Pietro Nenni, and Aurelio Lolli, arrested on October 14th in connection with the September 27th general strike, are convicted on all charges - attack on the freedom to work (picketing), resisting the police (forza pubblica) and inciting class hatred - and transferred to prison to await the appeal in Bologna. [see: Feb. 19]

[B] 1920 - Paul Celan (Paul Antschel; (d. 1970), Romanian poet, translator and utopian socialist, born. Described himself as "one who grew up with the writings of Peter Kropotkin and Gustav Landauer", in 1933 he joined a largely Jewish communist anti-Fascist group which produced a mimeographed magazine 'Red Student' and helped collect money in support of the Spanish Republic in 1936. He eventually gave up his communist affiliations but remained a utopian socialist with distinct anarchist leanings. Celan drowned himself in the Seince sometime around April 20, 1970.

1941 - Elizaveta 'Liza' Chaikina (Елизаве́та Ча́йкина; b. 1918), wartime Soviet partisan and guerilla unit organiser, is shot by the Germans having failed to reveal the location of her unit. [see: Aug. 28]

1943 - 2,000 workers take time off work to protests Mosley's release from internment outside the House of Commons.

1976 - André Malraux (b. 1901), French novelist, art theorist, anti-fascist and post-war Minister of Cultural Affairs, dies. [see: Nov. 3]

1980 - British Movement march from Hyde Park to Paddington Recreation Ground, where a rally is held. ANL mobilise 4,000 anti-fascists. The cost of policing the BM march and counter-demonstration is estimated at £209,000. Seventy-six people are arrested, 49 for using threatening words or behaviour; six for obstructing the highway; 15 for obstructing the police; three for possessing an offensive weapon; two for offences against the person; and one for defacing a wall. [PR]

1988 - Wieland Herzfelde (b. 1896), German journalist, author, poet and publisher, dies. [see: Apr. 11]

1995 - Louis Malle (b. 1932), French film director, screenwriter and producer, dies. [see: Oct. 30]
[B] 1910 - Jean Meckert, aka Jean or John Amila, Edouard Duret, Edmond Duret, Guy Duret, Albert Duvivier, Mariodile, Marcel Pivert (d. 1995), libertarian novelist, screenwriter and anti-militarist, born. His libertarian father was shot for mutiny in 1917 and his mother, interned for two years, ended up only able to find work as a charwoman for the rest of her life. As a consequence Meckert grew up in a Protestant orphanage in Courbevoie. Apprenticed to a workshop building electric motors, he drifts into various jibs before joining the army, because he claims he was "starving". Post-army, he again drifts from job to job - street peddle, fairground photographer, detective agency operative, etc. until called up for WWII. He also beings to write short stories, novels and plays, in the 1930s. Following his 1941 demobilisation, his second novel 'Les Coups' (The Blows), written in 1936, is accepted for publishing. It is hailed by critics - including André Gide and Raymond Queneau - and quickly becoming a commercial success, with the first edition sold out.
He then quits his job as a minor town hall functionary and writes full time. Following his next novel, 'L'Homme au Marteau' (Man With a Hammer; 1943), he begins a prolific career writing popular fiction under a series of pseudonyms: Edouard Duret, Edmond Duret, Guy Duret and Mariodile; and thrillers under the pen names of Albert Duvivier and Marcel Pivert. Following a meeting with Marcel Duhamel , Meckert also began writing thrillers for the Série Noire (Black Series) starting with 'Y'a Pas de Bon Dieu!' (There Is No God!; 1950) and 'Motus!' (Mum's the Word!; 1953), going on to write 21 thrillers, many expounding his anarchist and anti-militarist beliefs. He also wrote a sci-fi novel, 'Le 9 de Pique' (1956), the only time he used the pseudonym John Amila.
A number of his works were adapted for film, such as 'Sans Attendre Godot' (Not Waiting for Godot; 1956) for the Yves Allégret film 'Quand la Femme s'en Mêle' (When a Woman Gets Involved; 1957); and TV e.g. 'Pitié Pour les Rats' (Pity the Poor Rats) for the 1964 novel of the same name.
Following a visit to Tahiti scouting for film locations, he published 'La Vierge et le Taureau' (The Virgin and the Bull) in 1971, a novel which denounced colonialism, nuclear testing, the army and the French secret services, and sought to defend "a people without rights". It was eventually withdrawn from sale and pulped and thought the publishers refused to give a reason, it is thought to tie into a 1974 attack on Meckert that left him hospitalised. Leaving the ORTF studios one night he was attacked by unknown assailants. Clubbed to the ground, he was found unconscious, in a pool of blood.Waking up in hospital, he did not know his name or address, but had a strange sense of "feel brand new". When questioned by the doctor as to his profession, he was able to respond: "I write thrillers." It is believed that the attack, which left him with prolonged amnesia and depression, was directly related to the publication of 'La Vierge et le Taureau'. He wrote an autobiographical novel, 'Comme un Écho Errant' (As a Wandering Echo; 1986).

1923 - Philippe Daudet, the French anarchist son of Léon Daudet (leader of fascist 'Ligue de l'Action Française'), dies under mysterious circumstances, presumed assassinated by police. [see: Jan 7]

[C] 1933 - British Union of Fascists break up a meeting being held by the Imperial Fascists at Trinity Hall, Portland Place, Darlington.

1943 - Reina Princen Geerligs aka Leentjes Vandendriesch (b. 1922), Dutch writer (prose & poetry) and core member of the CS-6 anti-fascist resistance group, is executed by firing squad, along with fellow CS-6 members Truus van Lier and Nel Hissink-van den Brink, at Sachsenhausen concentration camp.

1943 - Geertruida (Truus) van Lier (b. 1921), Dutch student and resistance fighter member of the CS-6 group, is executed by firing squad, along with fellow CS-6 members Reina Princen Geerligs and Nel Hissink-van den Brink, at Sachsenhausen concentration camp.

2001 - David Gascoyne (b. 1916), English poet, novelist, Surrealist, one-time communist and later an anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 10]

2006 - Antonia Ugeda Fuentes (b. 1917), Spanish furniture worker, nurse and anarchist activist, dies. [see: Aug. 21]

2014 - A grand jury, which had held weekly sessions over the past three months, decides not to indite 28-year-old Ferguson, Missouri, police officer, Darren Wilson in the fatal shooting on August 9, 2014, of unarmed 18-year-old black teenager Michael Brown. Announcement of the decision is followed by widespread rioting in Ferguson and protests in major cities across the USA.
1878 - Georg Kaiser (d. 1945), German Expressionist playwright, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, born. Influenced by the ideas of Gustav Landauer, as was his friend Ernst Toller, who both frequented Landauer's anarchist-communist Neue Gemeinschaft (New Community), and together were probably the 2 most prominent German Expressionist playwrights [although Gerhart Hauptmann's and Kaiser's plays were performed in the Weimar Republic more often than Toller's].
His first major play 'Von Morgens bis Mitternachts' (From Morning to Midnight; 1912), was one of the most influential German drama of the era (both Toller and Brecht cited it as a major influence) and it went on to be made into one of the classic examples of cinematic Expressionism by Karl Heinz Martin in 1920. Other politically charged and influential plays followed: 'Die Bürger von Calais' (The Burghers of Calais; 1913/1923); and the 'Gas' trilogy, 'Die Koralle' (The Coral; 1917); 'Gas' (1918); and 'Gas II' (1920). Immersed in Weimar artistic circles, he was close to Brecht, Weill and Lotte Lenya, and collaborated with Kurt Weill on his one-act operas 'Der Protagonist' (1926) and 'Der Zar lässt sich Photographieren' (1928), as well as 'Der Silbersee' (1933), and his 1923 Volksstück (people's play), 'Nebeneinander' (Side by Side), had stage designs courtesy of George Grosz.
In 1925 Georg Kaiser provided the financial backing that allowed a monument in honour of Gustav Landauer to be erected by the Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands in Munich but this was later torn down by the Nazis. Kaiser's work was also a victim of Nazi book burning on May 10 1933 and he was involved in resistance circles, writing clandestine pamphlets. Shortly before a Gestapo-house search in 1938, he fled to Switzerland, remaining there in exile. In 1940 his play 'Der Soldat Tanaka', which was critical of Japanese militarism, was passed by the Swiss censor but, under pressure from the Japanese ambassador, the performance was cancelled.

1880 - Leonard Sidney Woolf (d. 1969), English political theorist, author, publisher, civil servant, Fabian, husband of author Virginia Woolf, born. An influential member of the Bloomsbury group who established the Hogarth Press with his wife in 1917. Author of 'Quack, Quack!' (1935), a damning indictment of fascism. Fascism, he claimed was nothing new, rather it was merely a modern instance of an age-old conflict in civilisation; namely the desire of the minority to suppress the majority in order to retain their economic and social superiority. He likened Hitler and Mussolini to the barbaric leaders of savage tribes, reducing their rhetoric to quackery.

1884 - Jean Lébédeff (d. 1970), Russian-born French anarchist artist, Illustrator and printmaker, born. His book illustrations of Kropotkin, Ferrer, etc., are well-known.

1896 - Virgil Thomson (d. 1989), American modernist composer and music critic, born. Though gay, spending his entire life 'in the closet', and having spent large portions of his life mixing in avantgarde artistic and political circles in Paris, even having a close friend in the Trotskyite poet and novelist Sherry Mangan, was resolutely apolitical. Yet he provided music for Joris Ivens' pro-Republic propaganda film 'The Spanish Earth' (1937). He was also a member of the left-leaning Aaron Copland's 'Commando Unit' alongside Roger Sessions, Roy Harris and Walter Piston.

[BB] 1904 - Jehan Mayoux (d. 1975), French Surrealist poet, teacher, pacifist, anti-militarist and libertarian, born. Teacher and inspector of primary education, he was drawn towards the new education methods of the Freinet movement. A trade unionist, he actively participated in the events of the Popular Front, was Assistant Secretary of the Bourse du Travail (Dunkirk region), then secretary of the Committee of the Popular Front in 1935. In 1939 he was imprisoned for refusing to respond to the mobilisation order and, when he managed to escape during the bombing of the Clairvaux prison, he was captured by the Germans and held as a prisoner of war in the Ukraine for five years. When he was repatriated after the war, he returned to teaching and, in 1951, began working on 'Libertaire'. Having signed the 'Manifeste des 121', he was suspended from duty as and Education Inspector from 1960 until 1965. He retired in 1967, participating in the May 68 movement, but was disgusted by the attitude of the unions.
He first came into contact with the Surrealists after sending André Breton and Paul Eluard "a surrealist game" in 1933 to be published in 'Le Surréalisme au Service de la Révolution' (Surrealism in the service of the revolution). A great friend of Yves Tanguy and Benjamin Peret, he remained in the Surrealist group until excluded without debate in 1967.

1944 - Bohuslav Vrbenský (b. 1882), Czech dentist , journalist, anarcho-communist, then communist politician and minister, dies. [see: Mar. 30]

1964 - Gaetano Gervasio (b. 1886), Italian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, carpenter, painter and sculptor, dies. [see: Jan. 2]

1968 - Upton Beall Sinclair, Jr. (b. 1878), American novelist, writer, journalist, socialist, anti-fascist and later Democratic candidate for governor of California, dies. [see: Sep. 20]

[C] 1970 - Yukio Mishima (三島 由紀夫; Mishima Yukio), pen name of Kimitake Hiraoka (平岡 公威 Hiraoka Kimitake; b. Jan. 14, 1925), Japanese author, poet, playwright, actor, film director and right-wing nationalist fruitcake, commits sepuku (ritual suicide) following the failure of the bizarre coup attempt at the Ichigaya Camp, the Tokyo headquarters of the Eastern Command of the Japan Ground Self-Defence Force, which he had plotted with members of Tatenokai (楯の会; Shield Society), his private militia of young nationalist students.

1973 - Following the Athens Polytechnic School uprising, military law is reinstated in Greece.

1975 - Proceso 1001: Following the amnesty by royal decree, signed by Juan Carlos, the leadership of the clanestine communist trades union, the Comisiones Obreras (Workers' Commissions; CC.OO.) have their sentences reduced to: Marcelino Camacho 6 years; Nicolás Sartorius 5 years; Miguel Ángel Zamora Antón 2 years; Pedro Santiesteban 2 years; Eduardo Saborido 5 years; Francisco García Salve 5 years; Luis Fernández 2 years; Francisco Acosta 2 years; Juan Muñiz Zapico 4 years; and Fernando Soto Martín 4 years in prison. [see: Jun. 24, Dec. 20 & Dec. 30]

1988 - Louis Ségeral (b. 1928), French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, engineer, Résistance fighter, poet, painter and novelist, dies.
[A] 1731 - William Cowper (d. 1800), poet who provided us with the title of this diary: "...prisoned in a parlour snug and small, Like bottled wasps upon a southern wall", a line from his poem 'Retirement' (1782), born.

[B] 1888 - Franz Jung (d. 1963), German Expressionist then Dadaist writer, novelist, playwright, economist, journalist and one-time anarchist, born. Helped introduce the theories of the psychoanalyst and anarchist Otto Gross into the Berlin Dadaist group and ran the anarchist and Dadaist paper 'Die Freie Straße' (1915-18) with Raoul Hausmann. Expelled from the KPD in 1920 and joined the Kommunistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands (Communist Workers Party) published under the pseudonym Francis Larsz and Frank Ryberg.

[C] 1909 - 1909 - Eugène Ionesco (d. 1994), Romanian-born French dramatist and anti-fascist, whose first theatre piece, the one-act anti-play 'La Cantatrice Chauve' (The Bald Soprano; written in 1948 and published in 1950) inspired the Theatre of the Absurd, born. His 1959 play 'Rhinocéros', which depicts the mutation of those around him into rhinos (thugs and fascists), joining in with the destruction of their village, until he alone stands against the threat, is an anti-fascist allegory inspired by the rise of the fascist Iron Guard in Romania in the 1930s.
"Je suis un anarchiste de droit."

1964 - Emil Szittya (Adolf Schenk; b. 1886), Hungarian anarchist, writer, journalist, painter, art critic, traveler and vagabond, dies. [see: Aug. 18]

1971 - Pauline Conroy arrested in her flat in Powis Square and charged. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1992 - Néstor Osvaldo Perlongher (b. 1949), Argentinian sociologist, anthropologist, poet, writer, gay rights activist and anarchist, dies in São Paulo of an AIDS-related illness. [see: Dec. 24]
[C] 1917 - Juan Fernández Ayala aka Juanín (b. 1917), Spanish miliciano and anti-Francoist guerrillero, born. Juan fought with republican Ochandía Battalion in the Civil War, and after the fall of the northern front, he was arrested and sentenced to death, later commuted to 12 years in prison following the intervention of his Phlangist brothers. He was interned in the prison of Tabacalera (Santander), then in 1941 was transferred to Portacceli (Valencia) where following an amnesty he was released on bail early 1943. Refusing to report weekly to the barracks of the Guardia Civil, he escaped to the mountains and joined the anti-Francoist maquis in the group of anarchist Ceferino Campo Roiz aka Machado fighting in the Santander area. The Brigada Machado, which had up to 37 men, which changed its mane to the Brigada de los Picos de Europa some time in 1943, saw action in the area located on the border of Leon, Asturias, Palencia and Santander. Following the denunciation and arrest of Machado on April 22, 1945, Juanín who took command of the group. He was shot dead on April 24, 1957 in an ambush near the Vega de Liebana (Santander) by Guardia Civil corporal Leopoldo Rollan Arenales and guard Angel Agüeros Rodríguez de Cabarceno. His comrade Francisco Gutierrez Bedoya aka Paco was also injured, but managed to escape back into the mountains and ended up taking his own life rather than be captured that December.

1920 - Andrés Nin and Josep (or José) Canela attacked by pistoleros (death squads directed by Barcelona Governor Martinez Anido as part of the campaign to establish pro-capital syndicat libre, 'free' unions', against the power of the CNT) in Plaza Buensuceso, Barcelona. Nin is unscathed but Canela dies.

1941 - José Lavín Cobo aka Pepín or Pin el Cariñoso (Pin the Affectionate) (b. unknown), Spanish anarchist, renowned Cantabrian anti-Francoist guerrillero and member of the Brigada Malumbres, is killed by security forces. Julio Llamazares' book, 'Luna de Lobos' (Wolf's Moon; 1985), is based on Pin el Cariñoso's story and it was made into a film directed by Julio Sánchez Valdés in 1987.

[B] 1953 - Eugene Gladstone O'Neill (b. 1888), Irish American playwright, Wobbly, socialist and philosophical anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 16]
1943 - Mass demonstration by 35,000 workers in war industries marches in the pouring rain to Trafalgar Square in condemnation of Herbert Morrison's decision to release Oswald Mosley from internment.

1970 - 300 National Front suuporters march through Wolverhampton. They are 'opposed' by a largely ineffectual counter-demonstration of 200 anti-fascists. [PR]

[C] 1971 - Fourteen members of the anti-fascist 62 Group break up a meeting of the secretive Northern League organisation at the Royal Pavilion Hotel, Brighton. Several fascists, including former German SS men and National Front members, were ambushed in the restaurant and hospitalised. 62 Group members let off smoke bombs to cover their escape. [PR]

1977 - Benedetto Petrone, an 18-year-old Italian communist and trade unionist, stabbed to death in an organised ambush by fascists of the MSI in Bari.

2014 - A British squadie, 20-year-old Ryan McGee, who wrote of murdering immigrants, praised Adolf Hitler, supported the EDL, KKK and BNP, and who was caught with a viable home-made nail bomb - made from a pickle jar packed with 181 pieces of shrapnel [metal screws and glass fragments] - as well as an arsenal of guns and knives, is given a 2 year prison sentence. Despite the weapons cache and having claimed: "I vow to drag every last immigrant into the fires of hell with me", the prosecution accepted that he was not a terrorist but "an immature teenager". The CPS said it had decided not to prosecute McGee as a terrorist because "it was never McGee’s intention to use the device for any terrorist or violent purpose, and that he had no firm intention to activate the device. That’s why he was prosecuted under the Explosive Substance Act."
The previous week [Nov. 26], 2 brothers, Mohommod Nawaz, 30, and Hamza Nawaz, 24, both from Stratford, east London, had been sentenced to four-and-a-half years and three years respectively for terrorism offences that again posed "no risk to public safety". They had been in Syria for three weeks and were not part of the Islamic State (IS) group. Their crime was to bring back five trophy bullets and pictures of places they had visited. A week after the McGee sentencing [Dec. 5], 2 young Muslims, Mohammed Ahmed and Yusuf Sarwar, both 22, who had travelled to Syria to fight the Assad regime but had returned due to their disagreement with rebel infighting, were both sentenced to 12 years and eight months each, this despite Yusuf having largely been an ambulance driver in Syria, picking up dead bodies.
As Imran Khan, solicitor for Mohommod Nawaz said after the McGee trial: "It seems that if you are a Muslim, justice is not blind." But we all knew that anyway.
1865 - Soledad Gustavo (Teresa Mañé i Miravet; d. 1939), Catalan anarchist militant, freethinker, educator, translator, journalist, born. One of the first lay teachers in Spain, she and her future partner Joan Montseny aka Federico Urales founded a school in Reus but it was forced to close following Montseny's arrest during the June 1896 anti-anarchist repression [he spent a year in prison and was expelled from Spain, living in London]. Following Joan's clandestine return in 1898 (using the pseudonym Federico Urales), the pair started the celebrated 'Revista Blanca'. On February 12, 1905, she gave birth to a daughter, Federica, who would become famed as an anarchist poet, novelist, essayist, children's writer, promoter of anarcha-feminism and anarcho-naturism, and Minister of Health in the Republican government.

1899 - Hanns-Erich Kaminsk (d. 1963), German journalist and writer who also wrote in French, anti-Fascist, Social Democrat and then an anarchist, born. Journalist career with the German left-wing press, particularly with Carl von Ossietzky and Kurt Tucholsky's newspaper, 'Die Weltbühne' and wrote 'Fascismus in Italien' (1925). In February 1933, Kaminski left Germany for Paris after the Nazi victory. Disappointed by the bankruptcy of the Social Democrats in Germany, he moved closer to anarchist circles and especially the AIT, taking part in the struggle in Spain. He wrote about the Revolution in 'Ceux de Barcelone' (1937), a Bakunin biograph 'Bakounine , la Vie d'un Révolutionnaire' (1938) and 'El Problema como Nazismo Sexual, Ensayo of Psicopatologia' (1940)

1900 - Sabatino 'Nello' Rosselli (d. 1937), Italian historian, journalist and anti-fascist, who participated in the founding of the first clandestine Italian anti-fascist newspaper 'Non Mollare' (Not Giving Up) in 1925, born.

1902 - Carlo Levi (d. 1975), Italian-Jewish painter, writer, activist, anti-fascist and doctor, born. He is best known for his book 'Cristo si è Fermato a Eboli' (Christ Stopped at Eboli; 1945), a memoir of his time spent in exile in Lucania, Italy, after being arrested in connection with activities in the Giustizia e Libertà anti-fascist movement, which he co-founded with Carlo and Nello Rosselli in 1929.

1916 - Volga Marcos Calvo (d. 2004), Castillian writer, poet, playwright and anarchist, born.

1922 - Renzo Novatore, pseudonym of Abele Ricieri Ferrari (b. 1890), Italian individualist anarchist, illegalist and anti-fascist poet, philosopher and militant, dies. [see: May 12]

[C] 1941 - Zoya Anatolyevna Kosmodemyanskaya (Зо́я Анато́льевна Космодемья́нская; b. 1923), Russian student and partisan fighter, born. She was captured whilst setting fire to the village of Petrischevo, where a German cavalry regiment was stationed, and brutally tortured through the night (including having her right breast cut off) but she refused to give up any information. The following day she was marched through town with a board around her neck bearing the inscription 'Arsonist of buildings' and hanged. Her fianl words were purported to be "Comrades! Why are you so gloomy? I am not afraid to die! I am happy to die for my people!" and to the Germans, "You'll hang me now, but I am not alone. There are two hundred million of us. You can't hang us all."

1997 - Manuel Chiapuso Hualde (b. 1912), Basque anarcho-syndicalist writer, teacher, historian and activist, dies. [see: Apr. 14]
1889 - Ezequiel Endériz Olaverri (d. 1951), Spanish libertarian journalist, poet, novelist, playwright, libreticist, etc., born. Wrote and broadcast under various pseudonyms including Goro Farolas and Tirso de Tudela.

1920 - The CNT's labour lawyer Francesc Layret is assassinated and 36 more union leaders imprisoned (including Narcís Vidal, Miguel Abós Serena and Spain: Salvador Caracersa). Part of the government's bloody campaign to destroy the CNT. [see Nov 27]

1935 - Fernando Pessoa, born Fernando António Nogueira de Seabra Pessoa (b. 1888), Portuguese Modernist poet, writer, literary critic translator, publisher, philosopher and individualist, who dabbled in automatic writing and occultism, dies. [see: Jun. 13]

1943 - Todor Angelov Dzekov (Тодор Ангелов Дзеков / Théodore Angheloff; d. 1943), Bulgarian anarcho-communist revolutionary and anti-fascist, who was active for a long time in Western Europe and headed a Brussels-based group of the Belgian Resistance against Nazi Germany, is executed by the Nazis. [see: Jan. 12]

[C] 1943 - Italian Minister of the Interior G. Buffarini Guidi issues Police Order No. 5 proclaiming that all Jews in Italy be put into concentration camps and their property seized.

1953 - Francis Picabia (Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; b. 1879), French painter, illustrator, designer, poet, writer, editor and "congenial anarchist", dies. [see: Jan. 22]

1983 - Anastasia Eduardovna Baburova (Анастасия Эдуардовна Бабурова; d. 2009), Russian journalist, anarchist and ecological activist, who was shot dead, together with Russian lawyer and human rights activist Stanislav Markelov, by a neo-Nazi militant outside press conference in Moscow, born. [see: Jan. 19]

1998 - Acácio Tomás de Aquino (b. 1899), militant Portuguese anarcho-syndicalist who was active in the Confederação Geral do Trabalho and the Organização Libertária Prisional, dies. [see: Nov 9 & Dec 11]

[B] 1893 - Ernst Toller (d. 1939), German Expressionist playwright, poet, pacifist, anarchist and one of the leaders of the Munich Soviet, born. He volunteered for military duty during WWI, spending 13 months on the Western Front, suffering a complete physical and psychological collapse, experiences which informed his first play 'Die Wandlung' (Transformation; 1919). In 1917, and no longer considered to be fit for combat, he attended the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, meeting Thomas Mann and Rainer Maria Rilke, and later the sociologist Max Weber. Around the same time he became involved in radical politics via a Munich discussion group involving Kurt Eisner, Felix Fechenbach, Oskar Maria Graf and Erich Mühsam, and joined the Independent Social Democratic Party (Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands - USPD). In Munich he was involved with Kurt Eisner in organising a munitions workers' strike, for which they and other trade union leaders were arrested and sent to Leonrodstrasse military prison. Charged with "attempted treason" but was released in May 1918 and returned to the German Army. Expecting to be sent to the Western Front, he was instead committed to a psychiatric clinic, only once again to be diagnosed as being unfit for active service and discharged from the army.
Following the 1918 overthrow of the Kaiser, and despite now being a convinced pacifist, Toller participated alongside Gustav Landauer, Erich Mühsam and Ret Marut (aka B. Traven) in the establishment of the Munich Soviet, becoming its President from April 6 to April 12 until the communist putsch overthrew his "Bavarian Revolution of Love", with its short-lived Workers' Councils and self-managed co-operatives.
Following the defeat of the Soviet by the Freikorps, Toller was arrested and charged with high treason. Toller expected to be found guilty and sentenced to death but his friends began an international campaign to save his life.
At his trial Toller argued: "We revolutionaries acknowledge the right to revolution when we see that the situation is no longer tolerable, that it has become a frozen. Then we have the right to overthrow it." Weber and Thomas Mann gave character references and, found guilty of high treason, the judge acknowledged his "honourable motives" and sentenced him to only five years in the prisons of Stadelheim, Neuburg, Eichstätt and, from February 1920 until his release, in the fortress of Niederschönenfeld where he spent 149 days in solitary confinement and 24 days on hunger strike.
While imprisoned, he completed work on 'Die Wandlung' (The Transformation; 1919) and wrote his Expressionist classics 'Masse Mensch' (Mass Man; 1920), 'Die Maschinenstürmer' (The Machine Breakers; 1922) and 'Der Deutsche Hinkemann' (Hinkemann, the German; 1923), along with many of his better known poems. Post-release he continued to write plays, including 'Hoppla, wir Leben!' (Hoppla, We're Alive!; 1925), a drama about a revolutionary who is discharged from a mental hospital after eight years only to discover that his once-revolutionary comrades have grown complacent and hopelessly compromised within the system they once opposed. In despair, he kills himself. 'Bourgeois bleibt Bourgeois' (Once a Bourgeois Always a Bourgeois; 1927) was his attempt to follow Brecht and 'Die Dreigroschenoper' (Threepenny Opera). He also remained active in politics, becoming a prominent figure within the League for Human Rights and the Group of Revolutionary Pacifists.
When Hitler came to power, Toller was personally denounced by Josef Goebbels, and his work was banned on the same list that included Marx, Freud, Brecht, and Mann. He was fortunate to be travelling outside of Germany when Storm Troopers arrested most of the league's members. He sought refuge in England an was able to complete his autobiography, 'I Was a German' (1933). In October 1936 Toller left London for a lecture tour of North America, where he was offered a contract to write film-scripts for MGM. While in the States, Toller became active in the campaign to raise funds to help the Spanish Republic's Civil War effort and went to Spain as a journalist. Depressed by the defeat of the Republic and the rise of Fascism in Europe, penniless from having given all his money to Spanish Republican causes, and discovering that his sister and brother had both been arrested and sent to concentration camps, he committed suicide in his hotel room in New York City.

1928 - Anna Heilman, born Hana Wajcblum [poss. Hanka or Chana Weissman] (d. 2011), Polish Jew who took part in the Auschwitz Sonderkommando prisoner revolt of October 7, 1944, smuggling gunpowder out of the Union munitions factory with her sister Estusia, Roza Robota, Ala Gertner, Rose Grunapfel Meth and others, born. She published a memoir, 'Never Far Away: The Auschwitz Chronicles of Anna Heilman', in 2001.
[ Anna Heilman.htm]

1932 - In a plenary session of the Regional CNT held in Madrid, the sindicato de ferroviarios (railway union) requested support to declare a general strike in support of wage increases. In the end the sindicato backed out as more than half of their union locals thought the strike would be a failure, but the Comité de Defensa Regional de Cataluña (Regional Defence Committee of Catalonia) having taken up the idea of an insurrectionary general strike, as proposed by Joan Garcia Oliver, was ready to implement the "gimnasia revolucionaria" (revolutionary gymnastics) that would precipitate the insurrectionary action needed to prevent the consolidation of the República Burguesa (bourgeois republic). The date chosen was January 8, 1933.

[C] 1936 - Hans Beimler (Johannes Baptist Beimler; b. 1895), German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands Reichstag deputy, anti-fascist and political commissar of the Thalmann Battalion of the XI International Brigade in the Spanish Civil War, is killed during the Battle of Madrid. A fervent anti-Nazi, he had been detained in Dachau concentration camp in April 1933, but managed to escape in May 1933 by strangling a SA guard and escaping in his uniform. His experiences of the camp were published in 'Im Mörderlager Dachau: Vier Wochen unter den braunen Banditen' (1933), which was published in Moscow and London. He began running communist aid organisation Rote Hilfe (Red Aid) in exile, first in Prague in 1934 and then in Zurich the following year. Involved in several conflicts with the rigid party bureaucracy, in the summer of 1936 the KPD removed him from all offices and sent him to Spain at the outbreak of the civil war. In Spain, Beimler set up the German Thälmann Centuria, which soon became the nucleus of the International Brigades’ Thälmann Battalion. He was killed during one of the battalion’s first battles near Madrid in circumstances that have proved controversial: "Antonia Stern, Beimler's companion, who was stripped of her rights and expelled from Spain, disputed this version of events. She claimed that Beimler had spoken out against the first Moscow show-trial and had been in contact with the former directors of the KPD, Arkady Maslow and Ruth Fischer, who led an opposition World Revolution, Civil War, and Terror group in Paris." ['The Black Book of Communism']
He would go on to become well-known because of the song Ernst Busch wrote and named after him.

1955 - The trial of Wilhelm Reich on contempt charges for refusing to halt the distribution of orgone energy accumulators begins.

1955 - Rosa Parks refuses to move to the back of the bus.

1960 - Ethel MacDonald (b.1909), Glasgow-based anarchist activist, labelled the 'Scots Scarlet Pimpernel' by the British press, dies. During the Spanish Revolution, she was a prisoner aid militant and propagandist on Barcelona Loyalist radio. Visiting comrades captured imprisoned following the May 1937 Stalinist crackdown, she smuggled letters and food into prison and helped many anarchists escape Spain. Eventually arrested by the Communist police, she went underground in Barcelona upon her release but later escaped to France. [see: Feb. 24]

1971 - Trial of Ian Purdie and Jake Prescott ends. Ian Purdie found not guilty on all charges. Jake Prescott found not guilty of specific bombings, but guilty of conspiracy to cause bombings on the basis of having written three envelopes, and was sentenced to fifteen years.

1995 - Fifteen people, mostly soldiers, are arrested for the 1994 bombing of a Jewish centre in Buenos Aires.
[B] 1891 - Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix (d. 1969), fiercely anti-war German artist, painter and printmaker, born. Volunteered for the German Army during WWI and fought on the Western Front, taking part in the Battle of the Somme, and was later transferred to the Eastern Front. Dix was profoundly affected by the war, and would later describe a recurring nightmare in which he crawled through destroyed houses. From a working class background, he remained close to the labour movement and, essentially a libertarian influenced by the writings of Nietzsche, never joining the Communist party despite the membership of close comrades like Grosz and Heartfiled.
In 1919 he went through an Expressionist phase before his 1920 meeting with Georg Grosz and Dresden Dada. Although initially active in Dadaist circles, he also maintained his links with the Expressionists, contributing to the Neue Sachlichkeit exhibition in Mannheim in 1925, alongside George Grosz, Max Beckmann, Georg Schrimpf, etc. In 1926, Dix became a professor in the Kunstakademie in Dresden. He maintained that position until the Nazis rose to power in 1933. His paintings 'Kriegskrüppel' (War Cripples; 1920) and 'den Schützengraben' (The Trench; 1923) were displayed at the Entartete Kunst and, like many of his works, burnt by the Nazis.
He remained in Germany and continued to paint allegorical anti-Nazi picture and in 1939 was arrested trumped-up charge of being involved in a plot against Hitler (involving Georg Elser), but was later released. During World War II Dix was conscripted into the Volkssturm, captured by French troops and was released in February 1946.
Amongst his most famous works are 'The Skat Players' (1920); 'Kriegskrüppel' (War Cripples; 1920); 'den Schützengraben' (The Trench; 1923), the last displayed at the Entartete Kunst; 'We Want Bread!' (1923); 'Portrait of the Journalist Sylvia von Harden' (1926); 'Straßenkampf' (Street Fight; 1927); 'Flandern' (Flansders; 1934); the triptychs 'Metropolis' (1928) and 'Der Krieg' (The War; 1932); and 'Ecce Homo II' (1948).

[C] 1924 - Else Marie Pade, Danish electronic composer, who was active in the resistance during the Second World War, and was interned at the Frøslev prison camp from 1944 till the end of the war, born.

1936 - Novelist Thomas Mann stripped of German citizenship.

1943 - Oreste Ristori (b. 1874), Italian journalist, militant individualist anarchist, anarcho-communist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Aug. 12]

1944 - Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (b. 1876), Italian Symbolist poet, editor and the founder of the Futurist movement, dies. [see: Dec. 22]

1978 - Christian Lagant (b. 1926), French anarchist militant, one-time surrealist and one of chief editors of 'Noir et Rouge', takes his own life, not wishing to live any longer in a society that in his view had returned to 'normality' after the period of unrest that had its climax in May-June 1968. A talented writer and artist, he contributed articles and drawings to the Fédération Anarchiste paper 'Le Libertaire' and was later one of the founders of the Groupes Anarchistes d'Action Révolutionnaires (GAAR), taking an active part in editing its magazine 'Noir et Rouge' over a period of fifteen years.

1980 - In El Salvador four female Catholic missionaries are raped and murdered by 5 members of the National Guard under direct orders of their commander.

1980 - Romain Gary (born Roman Kacew; b. 1914), French-Litvaks diplomat, novelist, film director and World War II aviator, dies. [see: May 21]

1990 - Aaron Copland (b. 1900), American composer, composition teacher, writer and conductor, dies. [see: Nov. 14]
[C] 1894 - Bernhard Bästlein (d. 1944), German Communist and resistance fighter against the Nazi régime, who helped form the Bästlein-Jacob-Abshagen Group, Saefkow-Jacob-Bästlein Organisation and the Bewegung Freies Deutschland (Free Germany Movement) resistance organisations, born.

1897 - William Victor 'Bill' Gropper (d. 1977), U.S. cartoonist, Social Realist painter associated with the Ash-Can Group, lithographer, muralist left (libertarian) communist and anti-fascist, born. Took his first art lessons at the Ferrer School in NYC and studied under Robert Henri and George Bellows, both philosophical anarchists if not particularly politically active.
One of the most significant American artists of his generation, he contributed to several mainstream newspapers and magazines including 'The New Yorker', 'Vanity Fair' and the 'New York Post', as well as numerous radical publications, including 'The Masses', 'The Revolutionary Age', 'The Rebel Worker', 'The Liberator', 'The New Masses', 'The Worker', and 'Morgen Freiheit' (Morning Freiheit).

1930 - Jean-Luc Godard, French Marxist New Wave film maker, born. His early (and best) films include 'Le Petit Soldat' (1960; which dealt with the Algerian War of Independence and was banned by the French Government), 'Les Carabiniers' (1963; an anti-war film); 'Alphaville' (1965; dystopian sci-fi allegory); 'La Chinoise' (1967; pseudo-Maoist student rebellion) and 'Week End' (1967; anti-bourgeois morality play). Was also involved in making films with Jean-Pierre Gorin and with the Dziga Vertov group that had strong Maoist elements.

[B] 1930 - The right-wing Ligue des Patriotes (League of Patriots), outrages by the great popular success of 'L'Age d'Or', interrupt the screening by throwing ink at the cinema screen and assaulting viewers who opposed them; they then go to the lobby and destroy art works by Dalí, Joan Miró, Man Ray, Yves Tanguy, and others.

[CC] 1931 - Franz Josef Degenhardt (d. 2011), German poet, satirist, novelist, screenwriter, folk-singer/songwriter (Liedermacher), lawyer and leftist, born. His early songs were anarchist-romantic in the tradition of Villon and the anonymous Bänkelsang (broadsheet ballad) but after 1967 his politics became more communist, joining the German Communist Party (DKP). During the events of 1968, he defended many of those on trial from the German student movement and in 1972-73, defended members of the Red Army Faction. His first novel 'Zündschnüre' (Fuses; 1973) is about working-class youths who join an anti-Nazi resistance group in 1944, and the second, 'Brandstellen' (Burn Marks; 1974), also made into a 1978 film of the same name, tells the story of a community's resistance against a NATO military training ground. His 1986 album 'Junge Paare Auf Bänken' (Young Couples on the Benches) features his translations into German of French singer-songwriter Georges Brassens, and one of his last albums was entitled 'Krieg Gegen den Krieg' (War against the War; 2003).
He also wrote the anti-fascist song 'Edelweisspiraten' (Edelweiss pirates) based on the World War II era German working class anti-Nazi network of youth groups, which emerged out of the German Youth Movement of the late 1930s in response to the strict regimentation of the Hitler Youth.

1937 - Attila József (b. 1905), one of the most important and well-known Hungarian poets, dies. [see: Apr. 11]

1940 - On the eve of Vichy premier Pétain's visit to Marseilles, Andre Breton is arrested and held for four days. An official report describes him as a "dangerous anarchist sought for a long time by the French police."

1945 - Augustin Frédéric Adolphe Hamon (b. 1862), French sociologist and anarchist, who later became a socialist, dies. Participated in the July 27, 1896, International Congress in London with Malatesta, Pelloutier, etc. Also collaborated on Jean Grave's newspaper, 'Les Temps Nouveaux'. Wrote 'Les Hommes et les Théories du l'Anarchie' (1893), 'Psychologie de l'Anarchiste-Socialiste' (1895), 'Patrie et Internationalisme' (1896) and 'Un Anarchisme, Fraction du Socialisme' (1896). [see: Jan. 20]

1969 - Lucien Haussard (b. 1893), French militant, anarchist advocate and free thinker, dies. Joined Marc Pierrot's review, 'Plus Loin', which he managed from 1931 until arrested and interned in 1939. Involved in the S.I.A. (Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste) and in providing false documents to Spanish anti-fascists. [see: Jul. 11]

1970 - Spanish Embassy in London machine gunned following international protests against the trial of the Basque nationalists, the Burgos Six. This was not reported. [Angry Brigade chronology]
1868 - Clara Gibert Cole (d. 1956), English anti-militarist, anarchist and active suffragist in the Women’s Social and Political Union, alongside her husband the artist Herbert Cole, born. A passionate opponent of WWI; pre-empting the State call for conscription she founded a League Against War and Conscription in early 1915 which published an 8 page pamphlet written by her, 'War Won’t Pay', in 1916. She also produced a book of poems, Prison Impressions, based on her own experiences and those of others, in 1918. She later gravitated to anarchism and was active in the support of the Spanish Revolution and in anti-war agitation, and wrote anti-war articles in 'War Commentary' and Guy Aldred's 'The Word'.

1912 - In Jack London's 'The Iron Heel' the German fleet sinks American ships in Honolulu. War is declared between US and Germany the following day and within hours a general strike is called in both countries. The war is called off within a week as the working classes on both sides refuse to fight.

1937 - Fierce fighting between the Fascist army and Republican troops near the province capital of Teruel.

1944 - Louis Louvet and Simone Larcher begin publishing 'Ce Qu’il Faut Dire' (What Must Be Said) in France.

1952 - Giuseppe Monanni (b.1887), Italian editor, self-taught journalist, publisher and propagandist of individualist anarchism (a la Nietzsche and Palante), dies. A typesetter by profession, he founded the anarchist journal 'Vir' in 1907 in Florence. Alongside his wife Leda Rafanelli (whom Mussolini famously slobbered over whilst still editor-in-chief of the daily socialist newspaper 'Avanti!'), he collaborated on various newspapers and publications including 'La Questione Sociale' (1909); 'La Rivolta' (1911) and 'La Libertà' (1913-1914). In addition to his journalism, Monanni was editor of the Libreria Editrice Sociale (Social Publishing Library; 1910 to 1915), the Casa Editrice Sociale (Social Publishing House; 1919 to 1926), and finally the Casa Editor Monanni (Monanni Publishing House; 1926 to 1933), as well as publishing works on individual anarchism by Palante and Nietzsche. His editorial work suffered the interruption of WWI and temporary refuge in Switzerland. Upon his return to Italy, and like many others, he suffered increasing repression with the rise of fascism but managed with Carlo Molaschi to found L'Università Libera (Free University) whose work was subsequently limited to general educational work following the passing of special laws, and ceased all together due to financial and further political restraints. After the end of the war and the fall of Fascism in Italy, he collaborated again on the newspaper 'Libertario' under the pseudonym of 'Mony'.

[A] 1971 - Georg Von Rauch (b. 1947), German anrchist and anti-fascist, who co-founded the West German Anarchist Black Cross and the June 2nd Movement, is shot dead by police in West Berlin. He is unarmed and is shot in the head after he had raised his hands during a confrontation with the plainclothes police. [see: May 12]

[C] 1975 - Hannah (Johanna) Arendt (b. 1906), German American political theorist on the nature of power, politics, authority and totalitarianism, dies. Best known works include: 'The Origins of Totalitarianism' (1951); 'The Human Condition' (1958); 'On Revolution' (1963); 'Men In Dark Times' (1968); 'On Violence' (1970) and 'Crises of the Republic: Lying in Politics; Civil Disobedience; On Violence; Thoughts on Politics and Revolution' (1972).
1869 - Temistocle Monticelli (d. 1936), Italian anarchist militant and anti-militarist, member of the Comité de Défense Libertaire, as secretary of the underground Comitato di Azione Internazionalista Anarchica he was arrested during WWI, born. [expand]

1885 - Maria Rygier (d. 1953), Italian anti-militarist, anarchist and syndicalist, born. One-time editor at the socialist newspaper 'Il Popolo d'Italia', founded by Benito Mussolini in 1914. Later an anti-fascist exile in France and wrote 'Rivelazioni sul Fuoruscitismo Italiano in Francia' (Revelations about Anti-fascist Exiles in France; 1946).

[BB] 1896 - Henry Poulaille (d. 1980), novelist, anarchist, director of Éditions Grasset, the journal 'Le Nouvel Âge Littéraire', founder of Le Musée du Soir [a room for workers, which included a library of books, magazines, newspapers and brochures, organised exhibitions of photographs and engravings, as well as meetings with writers], born into a poor working class anarchist family. Avidly devoured his father's library of anarchist books. Orphaned at 13, his brother and sister went to relatives but he chose to fend for himself selling newspapers and other unskilled jobs. Eventually he became friends with Jules Erlebach, known as Ducret, who ran an anarchist bookshop L’idée Libre (The Free Idea). Others he met around the same time were Jean Grave, Paul Delesalle, Victor Serge and Rirette Maîtrejean. During WWI he was wounded (Oct. 1917) and following his demob (Apr. 1919) he ended up working at the newspaper of the Commune Libre of Montmartre, 'La Vache Enragée' (The Angry Cow), wrote for other papers including L’Humanité and also signed the Manifesto of The International Union of Progressive Artists launched by the Dutch group De Stijl in 1922.
Later he became secretary of its press service and then its director. This helped him publish his own writings and those of other anarchist authors. He continued writing for the anarchist press (including 'La Revue Anarchiste' and 'L’Insurgé', edited by André Colomer) and promoting the idea of proletarian literature, creating the Prize Without A Name, which he promoted in his paper Journal 'Sans Nom' in 1925. The same year he published his first novel 'Ils Etaient Quatre' (They Were Four). [expand]
Many of his other novels are autobiographical: 'Le Pain Quotidien' (Daily Bread, covering the years 1903-1906; 1931); 'Les Damnés de la Terre' [Le Pain Quotidien 2: 1906-1909] (The Wretched of the Earth; 1935); 'Pain de Soldat' [1914-1917] (Soldier's Bread; 1937); 'Les Rescapés' [Pain de soldat 2, 1917-1920] (The Survivors; 1938) and, unpublished in his lifetime, 'Seul Dans la Vie à 14 Ans' [1909-1914] (Alone in the Life of a 14-year-old'; 1980) - all featuring a working class family: the Magneux; with the character of Loulou Magneux being his literary double.
During and after WWII, Poulaille also anthologised numerous stories, carols and songs, and many of these books still remain in use as reference tools.

1912 - In Jack London's 'The Iron Heel' war is declared between US and Germany following sinking of American ships in Honolulu by the German fleet. Within hours a general strike is called in both countries. The war is called off within a week as the working classes on both sides refuse to fight.

1919 - During a general strike in protest against the deportation of about thirty activists in Mahon, Gregorio Daura was part of a CNT group who opened fire on a patrol of the Guardia Civil. Arrested by the police, he was immediately shot down saying that he "reportedly attempted to escape" (ley de fugas).

[C] 1930 - Having premièred before an invited audience the previous evening, the first showing before the paying public in Berlin of Universal Studio's dubbed (and judiciously cut) German version of 'All Quiet on the Western Front', directed by Lewis Milestone, is disrupted by Nazi protesters. Having recognised the potential propaganda potential of film, the new Gauleiter of Berlin and member of the Reichstag, Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels, organised the buying of a large number of tickets taken up by SA (Sturm Abteilung) stormtroopers and Nazi supporters. After Goebbels had given the signal by flashing his Reichstag pass (which gave him immunity from arrest), some 200 - 300 Nazis (reports vary) began booing and catcalling, threw stink bombs, and then, as the French rightist paper 'Je Suis Partout' reported the incident, released white mice "to frighten the ladies." Fighting broke out as the Nazis attacked anyone who protested at their antics. The showing of the film was stopped, and the police had to clear the Mozartsaal theatre. The Nazi version of the incident, as reported in the 'Völkischer Beobachter', was naturally somewhat different. Their account, labelled a "storm of protest," demanded that the insult to German soldiers and the fallen created by the "Jewish-Bolshevist underworld" be ended, and blamed the Marxists for starting the riot in the theatre.
The next night, Goebbels led a substantial demonstration outside the theatre, followed by nightly protests. Spectators were searched for stink bombs and white mice before entering the theatre. The 'Völkischer Beobachter' carried detailed accounts of the Nazi protests, including Goebbels's speech against the film. According to the report, he proclaimed that it was a "cultural shame" that a film that belittled "the best soldiers of all time, the German front soldiers" should be allowed to run. The Berlin police were finally forced to ban all demonstrations in front of the theatre. On December 11, the film was again reviewed by the censors and, after a five-hour inquisition, banned. Two articles in the 'Neue Preußische Kreuz-Zeitung' provide a detailed account of the censors' review and conclusions. The head censor declared it "not a presentation of German war, but of German defeat, and thus is painful and depressing to the German viewer".

1946 - Alexander M. Schapiro (b. 1882), Russian Jewish anarcho-syndicalist militant active in the international anarchist movement, dies. Secretary of the London branch of the Anarchist Red Cross and of the anti-authoritarian A.I.T. (Association Internationale des Travailleurs). Worked on the Russian anarcho-syndicalist newspaper 'Rabochii Put'' (The Workers Voice) and the French anarcho-syndicalist paper, 'La Voix du Travail' (The Voice of Labour).

1984 - Ethel Mannin (b. 1900), Irish anarchist, novelist and author, dies. Her writing career began in copy-writing and journalism but she later became a prolific author and novelist (100 plus books published in her lifetime), encompassing many aspects of anarchism and feminism as well as her travel writing. [see: Oct. 6]

2002 - José Borras Cascarosa aka 'Cantaclaro', 'Jacinto Barrera', 'Sergio', 'Sergio Mendoza' (b. 1916), militant Spanish anarchist and syndicalist, CNT, FIJL and Durruti Column member, dies. [see: May 17]
1890 - Rudolf Schlichter (d. 1955), German Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) artist, Dadaist, and member of the KPD, who helped for the Rote Gruppe alongsdie John Heartfield and George Grosz, born. Painted 'Death of the Anarchist Moro' (1920) and 'Dada Roof Studio' (c. 1920).

[C] 1893 - Sylvia Townsend Warner (d. 1978), English feminist and lesbian writer and poet, born. Books include ' Lolly Willows' (1926) and 'Mr Fortune's Maggot' (1927). Active in the CPGB and visited Spain during the Civil War as a Red Cross representative.

1937 - The IWA meets in extra-ordinary congress in Paris (December 6 -17) to examine the CNT’s struggle in Spain, especially the problematic entry of anarchists into leading positions within the government.

1961 - Frantz Fanon (b. 1925), French-Algerian psychiatrist, anti-colonialist/nationalist philosopher, revolutionary and writer, dies. Works include 'Black Skin, White Masks' (1952) and 'The Wretched of the Earth' (1961). [see: Jul. 20]
1972 - The `Stoke Newington Eight' trial ends. Jim Greenfield, Anna Mendleson, Hilary Creek and John Barker are sentenced to 10 years for `conspiracy to cause explosions'. The other four charged are acquitted, and the sentence of Jake Prescott is reduced to 10 years.

1985 - Hugo Gellert (b. 1892), Hungarian-born American artist, radical illustrator, muralist, socialist and anti-fascist, dies. A communist and anti-fascist, he famously illustrated 'Das Capital' in lithographs and caused much controversy in the US art world. [see: May 3]

1986 - Malik Oussekine, a 22-year-old French-Algerian student is beaten to death by police motorcyclists during protests against proposed eduction reforms. The 2 cops directly involved in his death are tried for "assault causing death without intention to kill", and sentenced on 28 January 1990 to two and five years probation.
Rioting in the Latin Quarter of Paris follows new of his death and that of Abdel Benyahia, a 20-year-old Algerian killed by a drunked off-duty cop in a cafe the previous day: cars trashed and shops looted; a newspaper kiosk is set alight — "Don't do that! It belongs to a worker". Up runs a guy: "I work here ... burn it, burn it!"

2001 - Thomas William Gould (b. 1914), English Naval officer who won a Victoria Cross during WWII and co-founded of the anti-fascist 43 Group in 1946, dies. [see: Dec. 28]
1893 - A Special Unit of the Guardia Civil is formed in Barcelona, charged with repressing the anarquistas.

1924 - Thomas Elek aka Tamás Elek and KERPAL (d. 1944), French communist Résistance fighter, who was executed at the fort du Mont Valérien as a member of the Manouchian Group, a volunteer of the French liberation army FTP-MOI, born in Budapest. His name was one of the ten featured on the 'Affiche Rouge', the propaganda poster distributed by Vichy French and German authorities in the spring of 1944 in occupied Paris following the trial of the 23 captured members of the Manouchian group. His photograph was displayed with the caption "Elek Juif Hongrois 8 déraillements" (Elek, Hungarian Jew, 8 derailments).

[C] 1959 - Bernard Goldstein (b. 1889), Polish socialist, union organiser, who was active in the Warsaw Ghetto, helping smuggle in arms in preparation for the 1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, dies. After Poland's liberation from German occupation, he emigrated to the United States and wrote his autobiography, 'Five Years in the Warsaw Ghetto' (1949), originally titled 'The Stars Bear Witness' (1959).

1972 - After the Angry Brigade sentences the previous day, Scotland Yard names two more people they want in connection with the bombings: Gerry Osner and Sarah Poulikakou, both living abroad at the time. 300 people marched in protest to Holloway Prison.In all, 12 people were arrested and charged - 2 had the charges against them withdrawn, 5 were acquitted, five were convicted and imprisoned for conspiracy.

1975 - Indonesia invades East Timor.

1979 - In Valencia-Córdoba, a militant of the CNT transport union is arrested, accused of belonging to the Grupos Autónomos Anarquistas implicated in the Vilamarí Street tunnel which aimed to free prisoners from the Modelo de Barcelona prison.

1986 - Enrico Arrigoni (aka Frank Brand; b. 1894) , Italian American individualist anarchist Lathe operator, house painter, bricklayer, dramatist and political activist influenced by the work of Max Stirner, dies. [see: Feb. 20]

[B] 1990 - Horst Bienek (b. 1930), dissident East German novelist and poet, dies of AIDS. [see: May 7]
1911 - Sidney Solomon (d. 2004), Russian-born American painter, book designer, publisher and long-time anarchist, who lived in New York, born. With his wife, Clara, and others, Solomon was a co-founder of the Atlantic Anarchist Circle.

1930 - Janos (John) Réty (d. 2010), Hungarian-British anarchist poet, translator, publisher, chess-player, activist, born.

[C] 1981 - Nine Manchester Squads anti-fascists, having pleaded guilty on charges of possessing offensive weapons in a deal with the prosecution that led to the dropping of kidnap charges, are mostly sentenced to between 12 and 15 months (one anti-fascist received 6 months) at Manchester Crown Court. The 'kidnap' had occured when a number of Squad members and some Manchester students had gone to Rochdale ostensively to see if they could help a student called Michelle Mole who had supposedly been being harrased by the NF, including having death threats posted through her letterbox. A skin with an NF badge was grabbed from near Mole's house and questioned (without violence). Despite being stopped by the police, the skin had not said anything until after his release, when he flagged down a second cop car and the anti-fascists' van was stopped and they were arrested. Michelle Mole subsequently disappeared after having given a less than favourable statement, and squad members drew the inevitable conclusion that they had been set up by the Special Branch. ['No Retreat']
"Eight supporters of Manchester Anti-Nazi League were sent to jail for taking a militant stand against fascist violence and intimidation in Rochdale. The sentences range from 12 to 15 months, and as a result the families of the jailed comrades face serious financial hardship. Supporters of the fund so far include: UB40, Seething Wells, Red Action Manchester, Red Action London, South Manchester ANL, Tony Ahearne[,] Provisional Sinn Fein, Manchester IRSP, Manchester Poly Students, Central Manchester ANL, ICI Shop Stewards Committee, Islington ANL." ['Searchlight', May 1982]

1987 - 16-year-old protester Hatem Abu Sisseh is killed by Israeli soldiers, igniting the First Intifadah.

1995 - Alton Manning, a 33-year-old Black remand prisoner dies after being assaulted by GSL prison officers at the private prison HMP Blakenhurst. The Crown Prosecution Service refuses to bring charges. His brother Osman Cameron, 45, is to die in January 2005 after being taken into police custody and sectioned under the Mental Health Act.
1905 - Dalton Trumbo (d. 1976), American writer, director, anti-fascist and anti-militarist, who was the author of the 1939 anti-war novel, 'Johnny Got His Gun', born. Trumbo was part of the anti-fascist Popular Front coalition of communists and liberals in the late 1930s, at the time of the Spanish Civil War. By the time of America's entry into World War II, Trumbo was one of the most respected, highest paid screenwriters in Hollywood. He had also established a name for himself as a left-wing political activist whose sympathies coincided with those of the American Communist Party (CPUSA), and his anti-War views coincided with the CPUSA's support for the USSR's non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany and firmly against the interventionist standpoint. However he reportedly did not join the Party until 1943 and continued to harbour personal reservations about its policies as regards enforcing ideological conformity. Pro-peace and anti-FDR, his stance changed when Nazi Germany invaded the USSR and Trumbo instructed his publisher to recall all copies of 'Johnny Got His Gun' and to cease publication of the book. He would go on to fall foul of HUAC, refusing to testify before it in 1947. Blacklisted in October 1947, he went on to write numerous scripts under a pseudonym but his blacklisting effectively ended when he was 'outed' after Kirk Douglas made public Trumbo's credit for the screenplay for 'Spartacus' (1960).

1912 - Jura Soyfer (d. 1939), Russian-born Austrian political journalist, cabaret writer and anti-fascist, born.

1912 - Rolf Wickstrøm (d. 1941), Norwegian labour activist and shop stewart at the Skabo Rail Coach Factory, who was executed by the Nazis during the Oslo Melkestreiken, born.

[C] 1985 - Hugo Gellert (Gellért Hugó; b. 1892), Hungarian-born American artist, illustrator, muralist, socialist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: May 3]

1991 - Maurice Joyeux (b.1910), French anarchist active in the Committee of the Unemployed, l'Union Anarchiste, the occupations of factories, and a prison revolt at Montluc [he escaped after having fomented a mutiny; subject of the book 'Mutinerie à Montluc' (1971)], dies. Founded the newspaper 'Le Monde Libertaire' in 1953 and wrote a number of books including 2 volumes of memoirs, 'Sous les Plis du Drapeau Noir' and 'Souvenirs d'un Anarchiste' (both 1988). [see: Jan. 29]
1930 - The Prefect of Police in Paris, Jean Chiappe, has 'L'Age d'Or' banned from further public exhibition after the regular organised disturbances that followed the mini-riot of the 3rd., by getting the Board of Censors to re-review the film.

1944 - The first public anarchist assembly following the Libération (WWII) is staged today. Organised by the editors of the newly revived newspaper 'Ce Qu’il Faut Dire' (What Must Be Said) and Charles Auguste Bontemps.

1955 - Basiliso Serrano Valero, a.k.a 'Fortuna' & 'El Manco de La Pesquera' (b. 1908), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist guerilla fighter, who later fought with the Maquis and joined the PCE, is executed in the Paterna military barracks in Valencia. [see: Apr. 15]

[CC] 1976 - Blues singer Carol Grimes tops the bill at the first RAR gig at the Princess Alice pub in East London . On the door were a group of dockers organised by Mickey Fenn, Eddie Prevost and Bob Light from the Royal Group of Docks Shop Stewards Committee. Fenn and Prevost had left the Communist Party in 1972 and later joined Light in the International Socialists. Stewarding RAR events was to become an important activity for anti-fascists. Hundreds of gigs followed the one at the Princess Alice." ['Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)]

1986 - A joint commemoration of Malik Oussekine, a French-Algerian student beaten to death by police motorcyclists on Dec. 6, and Abdel Benyahia, a 20-year-old Algerian killed by a drunken off-duty cop in a café on 5 Dec. [the latest in a long line of racist killings that have included 35 deaths in fire-bombings of immigrant homes in Paris], is held drawing 600,000 people. During further protests two police stations are firebombed and cars set on fire.

2001 - Vernon Richards (d. 1915), Italian/British anarchist, éminence grise of 'Freedom' for much of the second half of C20th and companion to Marie Louise Berneri until her tragic death during childbirth in 1949, dies. [see: Jul. 19]

[C] 2006 - Augusto Pinochet finally slithers off his mortal coil.
1907 - Enrique Garcia Sanchiz (d. 1994), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. A member of the CNT, he joined the Columna de Ferro following the fascist uprising in July 1936 and fought until the end of the war in the 26th Division, the militarised Durruti Column. Seriously wounded, he managed to cross the Pyrenees and was interned in various concentration camps in France. Whilst trying to emigrate to Mexico, he was arrested by the French police in Saint-Hilaire and placed along with other Spanish refugees on a train to be deported to Spain. Halted at Montendre (Charente) on August 18, 1940, where he was interned in a camp which had been established to accommodate refugees from regions in eastern France. In the camp he met his future wife, a Basque native who had arrived at the camp on August 19. On January 28, 1941, he was hired by the Société Nouvelle to work at the German military base at Bussac and on July 22, 1941, he was assigned to the Entreprises Industrielles to work in Aytré, shipped daily to and from the camp. Enrique Garcia Sanchiz was released from the camp at its disbanding in December 1943. He remained a militant member of the CNT in exile in Carbon Blanc, close to Bordeaux, where he and his partner settled in 1992. He died there in August 23, 1994.

1917 - Thirteen black soldiers were secretly hanged at dawn at a military camp outside San Antonio for their parts in the 1917 Houston or Camp Logan Riot four months earlier. [see: Aug. 23]

[C] 1930 - The German language version of the film 'All Quiet on the Western Front' is banned by censors following 5 days of Nazi protests. [see: Nov. 5]

1933 - Militant Portuguese anarcho-syndicalist Acácio Tomás de Aquino (1899-1998) is arrested and thrown into the the Trafaria penitentiary. He is later sent to Angra do Heroísmo (1934-1937) and then spends the next 10+ years in the Tarrafal concentration camp in the Cape Verde Islands until his release in September 1949.

1937 - Angel Pestaña Núñez (b. 1886), militant Spanish anarcho-syndicalist who later split with the CNT, dies. [see: Feb. 14]

1950 - Nicanor Fernández Alvarez aka 'El Canor', 'Canor de Santa Rosa' & 'El Chato' (b. 1922) and Luis Gonzalez Melendi aka 'Barranca' (b. 1921), both members of Adolfo Quintana Castañon's group, who were arrested by French police crossing the border, handed over to the Francoist authorities, brutally tortured and sentence to death, are garroted.

1953 - Patrick Pécherot, French journalist, novelist and libertarian, born. Probably best known for his Série Noire detective fiction, including 'Tiurai' (1996), his début novel which was a tribute to anarchist writer Jean Meckert, and the trilogy of books featuring Léo Malet's character Nestor Burma: 'Les Brouillards de la Butte' (The Mists of the Hill 2002), 'Belleville Barcelone' (2003) and 'Boulevard des Branques' (2005). He has also written a novel about Bonnot gang member André Soudy, 'L'Homme à la Carabine' (The Man with the Rifle; 2011).

1958 - Alberto Meschi (b. 1879), prominent Italian anarchist, syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: May 27]

1960 - French paratroopers fire on civilians in Algiers, killing at least 65.
1872 - Johann Heinrich Vogeler (d. 1942), German painter, printmaker, architect, designer, educator, writer and communitarian, born. Member of the artistic community of Worpswede. Founder of the Barkenhoff artists commune. Having been a dandy and aesthete in the years before WWI, he volunteer for the German army in 1914 and became a pacifist in 1917. Influenced by utopian socialism and anarchism, and also by the English Garden City movement, he later became a member of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) and of the Rote Hilfe Deutschland. He emigrated to the Soviet Union in 1931.

[B] 1882 - Jiří Mahen (real name Antonín Vančura; d. 1939), Czech poet, novelist, journalist, dramaturge, librarian, director, theatre critic, anarchist and anti-militarist, born. Cousin of Vladislav Vančura. He was influenced by the turn of the century generation of Czech Anarchističtí Buřiči, "básníci života a vzdoru" (Anarchist Rebels, "the poets of life and defiance"), but later wrote in an Impressionist style.
He joined a group of anarchists around S.K. Neumann’s magazine 'Nový Kult' (New Cult) in 1902, along with his contemporary Rudolf Těsnohlídek. and wrote for a number of other anarchist and socialist journals including 'Novým Životem' (New Life) and 'Prací' (Work). In 'Nový Kult' he first used the pseudonym Mahen inspired by a character in Zola's novel 'Germinal'.
From 1907 he worked as a supply teacher at secondary schools in Moravia, and in 1910 he settled permanently in Brno. Between 1910 and 1919, he worked as an editor of Brno’s 'Lidové Noviny' (Popular Newspaper), as a director and dramaturge of Brno National Theatre (1918-22) and from 1920 to 1924 he taught at the Brno Conservatory. In 1921 he became librarian and later director of the Brno Municipal Library. Jiří Mahen sympathized with postwar literary generations especially with Vitezslav Nezval and Frantisek Halas, who were his pupils and friends for life. As a result of the German occupation and personal depression, Jiří Mahen committed suicide in 1939. He was later to have found to have been amongst the first on the Nazi's list of those destined to be sent to the concentration camps.
A prolific author, his most important texts are the novels 'Kamarádi Svobody' (Friends of Freedom; 1907, which depicts the material poverty and political activity of his student years) and 'Mesíc' (The Moon; 1920), a fantastic novel evoking the relaxed style of Poetism; the theatre plays 'Janosík' (Janosik; 1910), based on the popular legend of the highwayman Juraj Jánošík; 'Mrtve Moře' (Dead Sea; 1917); and the three strongly socially critical and anti-war dramas: 'Nebe, Peklo, Ráj' (Heaven, Hell, Paradise; 1919), 'Desertér' (1923) and 'Generace' (Generation; 1921). He was the author of many essay books; of them 'Rybařská Knízka' (Fishermen's Book; 1921) is the most well-known.
"Odstranění militarismu se dá provést jen absolutním odstraněním autority vůbec. Autority každé, tedy především i státu. Militarismus a autorita, militarismus a stát, tyto pojmy, které trvání své navzájem podmiňují, určují také jediný prospěšný způsob boje, jaký má být proti nim veden." (Removal of militarism can be done only by the total removal of all authority. Every authority, and particularly the State. Militarism and authority, militarism and the State, these notions are conditional on each other, and determine the only useful way of fighting the battle that has to be conducted against them.)

1942 - Jewish prisoners at a labour camp in Lutsk, Ukraine, armed with knives, bricks, iron bars, acid, and several revolvers and sawed-off shotguns, revolt against Germans and Ukrainians. The uprising is crushed.

1950 - Paolo Schicchi aka 'il leone di Collesano' (b. 1865), Italian anarchist supporter of the spontaneous/anti-organisational current (anarchico-spontaneista/tendenza antiorganizzatrice), anti-militarist, anti-clericalist, who was prominent in the anti-fascist struggle, dies. [see: Aug. 31]

[A] 1969 - Piazza Fontana bombing: A bomb explodes at the Banque Nationale d'Agriculture in Milan. 18 die, many injured. It is attributed to anarchist though it has all the hallmarks of Operation Gladio. More than 80 anarchist are arrested including Giuseppe Pinelli, an anarchist railway worker, who died after falling from the fourth floor window of the police station where he was being held.

[C] 1970 - At an anarchist protest on the anniversary of the 'strage di Stato' (Piazza Fontana bombing), and to show solidarity with the militants of ETA on trial in Burgos, in Via Larga, Milan, 22-year-old Italian anti-Fascist Saverio Saltarelli is killed during a police attack on the demonstration, when a tear canister hits him in the face. Dozens of injuries are sustained by protesters, among which the journalist Giuseppe Carpi who is hit by a bullet. Carabinieri captain Antonio Chirivi and police captain Alberto Antonietti are subsequently indicted the death of Saltarelli. Many believe neo-Fascists in the police ranks were behind the attack.
1797 - Heinrich Heine (d. 1856), German lyric poet, satirist, journalist and rebel, born. Despite a friendship with Mark, Heine feared that communist matrialism would result in a cutural desert as happened with socialist realism. His books were burnt by the Nazis (at the destruction of the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft archives).

1881 - Jules Le Gall (d. 1944), French boilermaker, journalist, ironmonger, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and Freemason, born. Helped found in 1903 of the Jeunesse Syndicaliste in l'Arsenal de Brest and appointed secretary of the Bourse du Travail de Brest in 1904, he was charged with "inciting soldiers to disobedience" but acquitted in January 1906.
"The society is rotten and it should stop at nothing to overthrow! We are ready to make holes in the skin to maintain our rights and whether bloodshed, are spreading it!"
"I am neither a saint nor a bloodthirsty, I simply revolutionary and I claim. I am a revolutionary because I suffered because I have seen people suffer, because I see everywhere suffer. When at the age of ten I lost my father, I knew what suffering."

1895 - Lucía Sánchez Saornil (d. 1970), Spanish poet, painter, anarchist and feminist, born. Her early highly erotic paeans to female beauty, which were written under the male psuedonym of Luciano de San-Saor, first appeared in the literary magazine 'Los Quijotes' in 1918. She was considered one of the foremost Ultraïsmo poets, an avant-garde literary movement of the era, and certainly the only female one. Becoming a convinced anarchist in the '20s, she was appointed editorial secretary of the CNT in Madrid and began having articles regularly published in 'Tierra y Libertad', 'La Revista Blanca' and 'Solidaridad Obrera', expounding on the centrality of the feminist cause to the class struggle. As a result of the resistance to these ideas amongst her male colleagues, she co-founded Mujeres Libres, along with Mercedes Comaposada and Amparo Poch y Gascon, in 1936. During the was some of her poems, now much less lyrical and more directed towards expressing her political views, were collected in 'Romancero de Mujeres Libres' (Ballads of Free Women; 1937), as were several of her articles in 'Horas de Revolución' (Hours of Revolution; 1938). In May 1938, she became general secretary of Solidaridad Internacional Antifascista (SIA) and later editor of the weekly 'Umbral' (Threshold), were she met her companion América Barroso. Following Franco's victory, they fled to Paris but were forced to return clandestinely to Spain after the Nazi invasion of France.

'Romance de Durruti'

¿Qué bala te cortó el paso
-¡Maldición de aquella hora!-
atardecer de noviembre
camino de la victoria?

Las sierras del Guadarrama
cortan la luz y sombra
un horizonte mojado
de agua turbia y sangre heroica.
Y a tus espaldas Madrid,
con el ojo atento a tu bota,
mordido por los incendios,
con jadeos de leona,
tus pasos iba midiendo
prietos el puño y la boca.

¡Atardecer de noviembre,
borrón negro de la historia!

Buenaventura Durruti,
¿Quién conoció otra congoja
más amarga que tu muerte
sobre tierra española?

Acaso estabas soñando
las calles de Zaragoza
y el agua espesa del Ebro
caminos de laurel rosa
cuando el grito de Madrid
cortó tu sueño en mal hora...

Gigante de las montañas
donde tallabas tu gloria,
hasta Castilla desnuda
bajaste como una tromba
para raer de las tierras
pardas la negra carroña,
y detrás de ti, en alud,
tu gente, como tu sombra.

Hasta los cielos de Iberia
te dispararon las bocas.
El aire agito tu nombre
entre banderas de gloria
-canto sonoro de guerra
y dura función de forja-

Y una tarde de noviembre
mojada de sangre heroica,
en cenizas de crepúsculo
caía tu vida rota.

Sólo hablaste estas palabras
al filo ya de tu hora:
Unidad y firmeza, amigos;
¡para vencer hais de sobra!

Durruti, hermano Durruti,
jamás se vió otra congoja
más amarga que tu muerte
sobre la tierra española.

Rostros curtidos del cierzo
quiebran su durez de roca;
como tallos quebradizos
hasta la tierra se doblan
hercules del mismo acero
¡Hombres de hierro, sollozan!

Fúnebres tambores baten
apisonando la fosa.

¡Durruti es muerto, soldados,
que nadie mengüe su obra!

Sen buscan manos tendidas,
los odios se desmoronan,
y en las trincheras profundas
cuajan realidades hondas
porque a la faz de la muerte
los imposibles se agotan.

-Aquí está mi diestra, hermano,
calma tu sed en mi boca,
mezcla tu sangre a la mía
y tu aliento a mi voz ronca.
Parte conmigo tu pan
y tus lágrimas si lloras.
Durruti bajo la tierra
en esto espera su honra.

Rugen los pechos hermanos.
Las armas al aire chocan.
Sobre las rudas cabezas
sólo una enseña tremola.

Durruti es muerto. ¡Malhaya
aquel que mengüe su obra!


1913 - Matilde Escuder Vicente (d. 2006), Spanish libertarian teacher and follower of Francisco Ferrer, born. Member of the Durruti Column and participated in the Aragon collectist movement. Imprisoned after the war, she later participated in the anti-Franco underground.

1915 - Icchak Cukierma aka 'Antek' (d. 1981), Polish Jewish socialist member of ZŻydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Combat Organization), who was one of the leaders of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 1943 and a fighter in the Warsaw Uprising 1944, born.

1933 - The beginning of a series of uprisings initiated by the anarchists in Spanish provinces (Andalusia, Aragon, Estremadure). In several villages, they declare anarchist-communism, destroy property files and abolish the currency. But these movements remain insulated and on December 10 the Republican government declares a State of Emergency and sends in the army who finally crush the insurrection by the 13th.

[C] 1945 - Three notorious female Nazi war criminals - Irma Grese, Elizabeth Volkenrath and Juana Bormann - are hung in Hameln (Hamelin) jail in Wesfalia.

[A] 1995 - The death in custody at Brixton Police station of 26-year-old Wayne Douglas precipitates a riot. 22 people are arrested and 3 cops hospitalised.
1895 - Francesco Barbieri (d. 1937), Italian anti-fascist and anarchist militant, born. During the Spanish Revolution in 1936 he joined the Italian column fighting in Huesca. While hospitalised in Barcelona in May 1937 Barbieri is arrested by cops under command of the Communists and his body is found full of bullet holes the next day, along with that of Camillo Berneri.

[C] 1895 - Paul Éluard (Eugène Émile Paul Grindel; b. 1952), French poet and communist, a one-time dadaist who went on to become one of the founders of the Surrealist movement, born. Wrote under the noms de plume of Didier Desroches and of Brun. Involved in the Résistance during WWII (he used the noms de guerre Jean du Haut and Maurice Hervent) and later fawned over Stalin whilst in the French CP.

1902 - Greta Kuckhoff (d. 1981), member of the German Resistance group, the Red Orchestra during the Nazi era, born. She was married to Adam Kuckhoff, who was executed by the Third Reich. In 1935, she joined the KPD and, in 1939, worked on the English translation of Hitler's 'Mein Kampf', hoping the translation would educate the British public about Hitler. After the war, she lived in the German Democratic Republic, where she was president of Deutsche Notenbank from 1950 to 1958.

1910 - 1986 - Bruno Salvadori, aka Antoine or Antonio Gimenez (d. 1986), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist fighter in Spain, born.

1914 - Antonio Ramón Ramón attempts to kill Roberto Silva Renard, the General who directed the slaughter of 3,000+ unarmed women, children and workers in the Santa Maria School Massacre during a strike in Iquique in 1907.

1937 - Republican offensive begins at Teruel.

2003 - Cesare Fuochi (b. 1917), Italian anarchist, syndicalist railway worker and anti-fascist partisan, dies. [see: Sep. 17]
1857 - Lucien Louis Guérineau aka 'Fleury' (d. 1940), French carpenter, cabinetmaker, anarchist propagandist and revolutionary syndicalist, born. Deeply affected by the Paris Commune he was apprenticed to a cabinetmakers. In 1879, he was introduced to Constant Martin, Émile Eudes and Louis-Auguste Blanqui and began to become interested in the libertarian movement. A convinced anti-militarist, he formed an anarchist along with a dozen soldiers. In 1884, he became a member of Drapeau Noir and collaborated on it journal 'Terre et Liberté'. In 1884, he was arrested after being found with copies of Jean Grave's statement of protest against July 14, and locked in the Parisian prison of Mazas. On August 9 he was sentenced to two months imprisonment for "violence and violence against agents of the state." In 1885, he collaborated on 'L'Audace' (Boldness) and on 'Tire-Pied' (lierally knee-strap, a leather strap used by a cobbler). In 1887, he joined the anarchist group in Montreuil and later joined Les Communistes des Amandiers, a group fromed by ex-Communards (Parthenay, Coulet, Vory, Picardat, Bourges, Wagner) and that would go on to rename itself Les Communistes Anarquistes des Amandiers. He was also active in other groups, including Les Égaux, La Cloche de Bois (The Wooden Bell), the Syndicat des Hommes de Peine (Union of Handymen) or the Pieds-Plats (Flatfeet). In 1888, he was the founder of the militant Union Syndicale du Meuble Sculté et de l'Ébénisterie (Trade Union Carved Furniture and Joinery; USMSE) in opposition to the more moderate Cambra Sindical de l'Ebenisteria. In 1890 he worked on 'Révolution Future' and the following year founded the periodical 'Le Pot à Colle'. [expand]

[C] 1900 - Franz Borkenau (d. 1957), Austrian philosopher of history, cultural historian, sociologist, communist, anti-Stalinist and anti-fascist, born. A member of the German Communist Party (KPD) and Comintern official, he resigned from the party over Stalin's treatment of dissidents, an event that helped prompt his studies into totalitarianism. Borkenau remained a socialist and worked as a researcher for the Institute for Social Research and became associated with what became known as the Frankfurt School. In 1933, the half-Jewish Borkenau fled from Nazi Germany and lived for a time in Paris. Over the next few years Borkenau was involved in organising support for the Neu Beginnen underground group, which was working for the overthrow of Adolf Hitler and his Nazi government. In 1936, he published his biography of the Italian sociologist Vilfredo Pareto ('Pareto'), where he first outlined his first attempt at a theory of totalitarianism from a Marxist perspective. He also began visiting Republican Spain in soon after the beginning of the Civil War and became highly critical of the Comminists' persecution of the anarchists and POUM, leading to his being denounced as a supporter of Leon Trotsky and was arrested by the Communist Party (PCE). After his release, Borkenau wrote his highly acclaimed book, 'The Spanish Cockpit' (1937). This was followed by 'The New German Empire' (1939), in which he argued that Hitler was intent upon world conquest and his attempts to regain Germany's lost African colonies was the first step to a war against Britain and France. During World War II, Borkenau lived in London, and worked as a writer for the Cyril Connolly (who he had known in Span) journal 'Horizon'. In 1947, Borkenau returned to West Germany to work as a professor at the University of Marburg and joined the circle of European anti-Communist intellectuals.

1913 - Muriel Rukeyser (d. 1980), US feminist poet, radical political activist, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, born.

1916 - Dr. Ben Reitman is again arrested for distributing illegal birth control literature at one of Emma Goldman's lectures in Rochester, NY.

1921 - Mollie Steimer, Jacob Abrams, Samuel Lipman and Hyman Lachowsky arrive in Moscow after being deported from the US as victims of the Red Scare in America. They find that Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman have already departed for the West, disillusioned by the turn the revolution has taken.

[CC] 1922 - Gerald Flamberg (d. 2007), English anti-fascist activist and co-founder of the Brunswick Boys Club [now the Brunswich Club for Young People] in Fulham, born. During WWII, he was in the Parachute Regiment and won the Military Medal at Arnhem during Operation Market Garden. He would become a leading member of the anti-fascist 43 Group and be arrested in December 1947, with fellow 43 Group member John Wimbourne, for the alleged 'murder attempt' on John Preen, leader of the British Vigilantes Action League.

1936 - George Orwell dispatches manuscript of 'The Road to Wigan Pier' to his publishers and leaves for the revolution in Spain.

1945 - 800 ex-18B detainees and fascists attend a Reunion Dance at the Royal Hotel in London. After being greeted by chants of "Hail Mosley" and fascist salutes as his took the stage, Mosley gave a speech in which he referred to his detention as "a disgrace to British civilisation". A 'Sunday Pictorial' journalist who attended is kicked and punched before neing thrown out.

1961 - Adolf Eichmann, former Nazi leader, is sentenced to death in Jerusalem.

1966 - Members of the British National Party, Racial Preservation Society, and League of Empire Loyalists hold a meeting at Caxton Hall in London to form a new less openly neo-Nazi political party - what would become the National Front. There are riots outsice the hall and concerted attemtps by 62 Group members and others to disrupt events inside. [NB. This is the real date of formation and not the commonly used February 7 1967, which was the actual official launch date.][PR]

[AA] 1969 - Anarchist Black Cross member Guiseppe Pinelli is thrown out of a window whilst being interrogated by Italian police. He dies, and no one is ever charged with his murder.
[Costantini pic]

1971 - Jordan's Ambassador is machine-gunned in his car in London. [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]

2013 - 30 or so Swedish Nazis from the Svenska Motståndsrörelsen (SMR; Swedish Resistance Movement) attempt to disrupt a rally against racism by local residents and anti-fascist organisations in the Karrtorp district of Stockholm. The peaceful demonstration, consisting mainly of the elderly and children, was attacked by the SMR members carrying makeshift shields, knifes, glass bottles and pyrotechnics. Fortunately, comrades from AFA Sthlm were present and they and the locals counteracttacked, forcing the Nazis back. In the end 28 Nazis were arrested, 1 stabbed and several left bleeding. No anti-fascists were arrested.
1878 - Amédée Dunois (pseudonym for Amédée Gabriel Catonne; d. 1945), French anarchist militant, communist, and then a revolutionary socialist trade unionist, born. Arrested by the Nazis and sent to Bergen-Belsen, where he died March 21, 1945. Author of several works of history (in particular on the Paris Commune) and the chapter 'Marxism and Socialism' in Sébastien Faure's 'Anarchist Encyclopaedia'.

[B] 1908 - Remedios Varo (María de los Remedios Alicia Rodriga Varo y Uranga; d. 1963), Catalan-Mexican anarchist, anti-fascist and Surrealist painter, born. A member of the Logicophobiste artists' group, she met the French Surrealist and libertarian communist poet Benjamin Peret in 1936, when he had come to Spain to fight in the POUM and anarchist militias, and became his companion and was active in the Spanish Revolution herself, collaborating with the Republican and Anti-fascist resistance. In 1937, they moved to Paris to escape the fighting, taking part in the activities of the French Surrealist group around André Breton (1937-1940). However, she later found herself unable to return to Spain following Franco's closure of the border in 1939 because of her anti-fascist work. When Paris fell to the Nazis, Varo and Peret were put in a concentration camp until 1941, when the Emergency Rescue Committee rescued her and she then fled to Mexico with Peret. During WWII, she also made dioramas for display in the windows of a British anti-fascist propaganda office. In 1948, when Benjamin returned to France, she remained in Mexico and became married the surrealist painter Gunther Gerzo.

[C] 1969 - Following yesterday's 'defenestration' of Guiseppi Pinelli, victim of the 'strategia della tensione', from the 4th floor of Milan police station, the police scramble for excuses, including the classic from one Superintendent Marcello Guida: " Improvvisamente il Pinelli ha compiuto un balzo felino verso la finestra che per il caldo era stata lasciata socchiusa e si è lanciato nel vuoto. Il gesto potrebbe equivalere a una confessione." (Suddenly Pinelli made a great cat-like leap towards the window that the heat had been left ajar, and he launched into the void. The gesture could amount to a confession.)

1994 - 34 year old Shiji Lapite is arrested by two police Stoke Newington police officers as he leaves a club in east London. They claimed that he was carrying £4,000 of crack cocaine and during a struggle, Shiji is placed in a neck hold whilst another officer kicks him in the head. Half an hour later he was dead from suspected asphyxiation after being placed in a police van.
1862 - Urbain Gohier (born Urbain Degoulet and used the pen name Isaac Blümchen; d. 1951), French author, journalist, anti-militarist, lawyer and one-time writer for the anarchist 'Le Libertaire', 'Cri de Paris' and 'l'Aurore', born. Though an ardent Dreyfusard, anarchist-socialist and anti-militarist - even being prosecuted for publishing the pamphlet 'L'Armée Contre la Nation' (1898), for which he was acquitted and being sentenced in Dec. 1905 to a year in prison for participation in an international anti-militarist action allied with anarchists, he eventually became a rabid anti-Semite, and is now best known for publishing a French edition of 'The Protocols of the Elders of Zion' (c. 1920).

1883 - Hoche Arthur Meurant (d. 1950), French anarcho-syndicalist, anti-militarist, born.

1885 - Alphonse Barbé (d. 1983), French anarchist and anti-war militant who fought in the Spanish Revolution, born.

[B] 1893 - Erwin Friedrich Maximilian Piscator (d. 1966), German theatre director and producer and poet, born. Along with Bertolt Brecht, the foremost exponent of epic theatre. Associate of Erich Mühsam. Had a number of anti-militarist poems published in the radical Expressionist literary magazine 'Die Aktion' in 1915-16.

[C] 1936 - The anti-Stalinist Marxist party P.O.U.M. (Partit Obrer d'Unificació Marxista) is excluded from the Generalidad government. In Moscow, Pravda announces that: "As for Catalonia, the purging of Trotskyist and anarcho-syndicalist elements has begun; this work will be carried out with the same energy with which it was done in the USSR."

1942 - Kruszyna Camp uprising: Jewish inmates at the forced labour camp at Kruszyna, near Radom, awaiting transportation to the extermination camps attack guards with knives and fists. Six prisoners are killed and four escape.
1922 - In Turin, the fascists attack the 'Chambre du Travail', setting fire to the Circle of the Railwaymen and the home of the anarchist paper 'L'Ordine Nuovo'. 22 workmen, socialists, Communists and anarchists are assassinated.

1942 - Jewish forced labourers at Kruszyna forced labour camp refuse to board trucks following yesterday's revolt, a further 113 are shot for their defiance.

1969 - Áurea Cuadrado Castillón, also known as Áurea Cuadrado Alberola (b. 1894), Spanish militant anarcho-feminist and fashion designer, dies. [see: Aug. 23]

1971 - Kate McLean arrested and charged along with Angela Weir, Chris Allen and Pauline Conroy, who had been arrested during the course of November of having conspired with the six people already arrested on conspiracy charges. Shortly before the opening of Committal proceedings against the ten militants, Attorney General, Sir Peter Rawlinson, the victim of one of the Angry Brigade attacks, decided there was insufficient evidence for a case to be made against Pauline Conroy and Chris Allen, and they were released from custody.

[A] 2007 - Omar Deghayes finally released from Guantamo Bay. Whilst there guards tortured him and blinded him in one eye with pepper spray.

[C] 2009 - The Arbeit Macht Frei ("Work makes you free") sign is stolen from Auschwitz concentration camp.
1919 - Pépita Carpeña (d. 2005), militant Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and feminist, born. Combatant during the Spanish Revolution, member of the CNT, Jeunesses Libertaires (JJ.LL) and Mujeres Libres. Wrote 'De Toda la Vida' and appeared in two films, Richard Prost's 'Un Autre Futur' and Lisa Berger and Carol Mazer's 'De Toda la Vida'.

1922 - Karel Destovnik aka 'Kajuh' (d. 1944), Slovenian poet, translator and resistance fighter, both in the Yugoslav army and Slovene partisans, born.

[C] 1932 - Yun Bong-gil (윤봉길; b. 1908), Korean independence activist, teacher and poet, best known for orchestrating the deadly bombing of a gathering of Japanese dignitaries in the Shanghai International Settlement in April 29, 1932, the Japanese Emperor’s birthday, is executed - shot in the forehead by a single bullet, he takes 13 minutes to die. [see: Jun. 21]

[BB] 1942 - Jean-Patrick Manchette (d. 1995), French crime novelist, screenwriter and libertarian, born. Widely recognised as the foremost French crime fiction author of the 1970s - 80s, he is credited with reinventing and reinvigorating the néo-polar genre of Leo Malet and Georges Simenon. Politically active during the Algerian War, he was particularly influenced by the writings of the Situationist International. Initially a screenwriter, he was later advised to take his first novel, 'L'Affaire N'Gustro' (The N'Gustro Affair; 1971) to the famous crime fiction imprint Série Noire at Gallimard publishers, who would go on to publish the majority of his novels. Amongst these was 'Nada' (1972), made by Claude Chabrol into a film with a Manchette screenplay in 1974. He also wrote science fiction, brain teasers in 'Métal Hurlant' under the pseudonym Général-Baron Staff, film criticism for 'Charlie Hebdo' and was editor of the comic 'La Bande Dessinée' (BD).

1943 - French Résistants engaged in heavy fighting with Germans in Bernex, France.

1948 - Amir Sjarifuddin Harahap (or Amir Sjarifoeddin Harahap; b. 1907), Indonesian socialist politician and one of the Indonesian Republic's first leaders, who was a major leader of the Left during the Revolution, is killed whilst in army custody. [see: Apr. 27]

1966 - Pierre Mualdes (b.1885), French militant anarchist, collaborated on 'Le Libertaire', 'La Revue Anarchiste', 'La Revue Internationale Anarchiste', etc., dies, a victim of Parkinson disease.
1901 - Rafael Liberato Torres Escartín aka 'El Maño' (d. 1939), Aragonese anarchist militant, anarcho-syndicalist and guerrillero. born in the barracks of the Civil Guard in Bailo, where his father Pedro Torres Marco was stationed. His brother Benito, a member of the Unió General de Treballadors, was indicted because of the strike demanding better working conditions that paralyzed factories Sabiñánigo in 1932. He and nine other workers faced charges of arson, explosion and illegal possession of weapons and explosives, with the prosecution demanding 34 years in prison for each defendant. Defended by the famous lawyer Eduardo Barriobero, he managed to escape conviction. Another brother, Fidel, who was also an anarchist, was shot in Huesca on 23 August 1936. Torres Escartín came into contact with anarchism during his studies in Huesca, where he became a follower of Ramon Acin. After abandoning his studies, he became a baker in Zaragoza in 1919, having already become active in the Sindicat de l'Alimentació of the CNT the previous year. In this period, he began to read the great French thinkers and Russian, and was a strict vegetarian, not smoking or drinking alcohol. He also became involved with the action groups Voluntad (Will) and Los Justicieros, the latter with Francisco Ascaso, Cristobal Albadatrecu and Sancho Mangado, moving regularly in those years between Zaragoza and Barcelona, ​​where he began working as a confectioner at the Ritz Hotel in October, 1920. In his first known action, Suberviola, Durruti and he appropriated 300,000 pesetas in Eibar.
In August 1922 along with Francisco Ascaso and Marcelino del Campo, he helped create the Barcelona anarchist group Crisol, which expanded in October with new members Ricardo Sanz, García Oliver, Garcia Vivanco and others, to form Los Solidarios, one of the most prominent organisations of pre-war Spanish anarchism.
In response to the March 1923 murder of Salvador Seguí, the secretary of the CNT, by pistolers of Sindicat Lliure de la patronal, Los Solidarios went on the offensive. In May 1923, Torres Escartín, along with Ascaso and Aurelio Fernandez, travelled to San Sebastian and La Coruna to try and cary out attacks against the Military governor of Barcelona, General Martínez Anido, who led the anti-union repression. On June 4, 1923, Cardinal Soldevilla, Archbishop of Zaragoza and organiser of (financing and recruiting) the bosses' hired gunmen, was shot dead in his car by Rafael Torres Escartín and Francisco Ascaso. Ascaso was arrested on June 8, but was involved in a mass escape of prisoners away from Predicadores Prison on November 8, 1923. Torres Escartin however managed to elude the police, and he and other Los Solidarios members reappeared on September 1 robbing the Bank of Spain in Gijón, collecting 650,000 pts. After an armed confrontation with the Guardia Civil in Oviedo on September 9, his partner Eusebio Grau was killed and he was arrested on a train; beaten and interned in Oviedo, he escaped the following day along with seven other detainees. Hiding on Mount Narango, he was captured on the 11th, after being denounced by a radical member whom he had asked for help.
Tried in Predicadores prison in Saragossa on April 1-4, 1925, he denied all charges but was sentenced to death for the Soldevilas assassination, later commuted to life in prison. Two other defendants, Esteban Salamero and Julia López Mainar, were sentenced to 12 and six years respectively. Confined in Dueso prison, Santoña, in a special isolation cell, spending 15 months in the dark without any break, he pursued two hunger strikes. In these conditions his health and sanity suffered and he was transferred to the asylum of Sant Boi de Llobregat. Upon the reappearance of 'Solidaridad Obrera' in August 1930, the paper began a public campaign, led by the doctor and anarchist Isaac Puente, denouncing his situation and calling for an amnesty. With the advent of the Second Republic, he was released on 30 April 1931. In June 1931, he participated in the first conference of the FAI, prior to the 3rd Congress of the CNT. He was arrested and beaten in the dungeons of the Direcció General de Seguretat (General Directorate of Security) and, arriving in Barcelona, he was arrested again, going on to become a spokesman for social prisoners. Having again gained his freedom, his comrades committed him to the Institut Pere Mata Psychiatric Hospital in Reus, from which he escaped three times, once getting as far as Ayerbe, where he was arrested at the home of his brother Fidel.
Labelled as an "extremist" by the government, he was put in prison in Huesca. During this period, he stated that he preferred death to being in the asylum. His family asked to take charge of the patient, and 'Solidaridad Obrera' also campaigned for his freedom, but he was admitted to a psychiatric hospital. On 23 November 1936, he appeared in the second row at the massive funeral his friend and partner Buenaventura Durruti, looking haggard and aged beyond his years. However, he still continued to participate in various charities helping children and refugees. He met his end when Fascist troops took him from his asylum cell and shot him on January 21, 1939 in Barcelona. His comrades had hoped that his obvious insanity would save him from that fate but the fascists thought otherwise.

1968 - Max Brod (b. 1884), Czech author, composer, journalist and one-time anarchist fellow traveller who was the friend, literary executor and biographer of Franz Kafka, dies. [see: May 27]

[C] 1973 - Operación Ogro (Operation Ogre): ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) assassinate Admiral Luis Carrero Blanco, the Prime Minister of Spain and potential successor to Franco. 80 kg of explosives that had been stolen from a Government depot and packed into a tunnel uner the Calle Claudio Coello in, Madrid, on the route that Blanco would take to go to mass at San Francisco de Borja church, are detonated by command wire as Blanco's car passes. The blast sent Blanco and his car 20 metres (66 ft) into the air and over a five-story building. The car crashed to the ground on the opposite side of a Jesuit college, landing on the second-floor balcony. Blanco survived the blast but died shortly afterwards. His bodyguard and driver were killed outright.

1973 - Proceso 1001: The trial of the ten leaders of the clanestine communist trades union, the Comisiones Obreras (Workers' Commissions; CC.OO.) arrested on June 24, 1972, takes place over 3 days - the first coinciding with the assassination of the Spanish Prime Minister Carrero Blanco.
On December 30th, the diez de Carabanchel (Carabanchel Ten), as they became known, were sentenced to: Marcelino Camacho, 20 years in prison.; Nicolás Sartorius, 19; Miguel Ángel Zamora Antón, 12; Pedro Santiesteban, 12; Eduardo Saborido, 20; Francisco García Salve (worker priest), 19; Luis Fernández, 12; Francisco Acosta, 12; Juan Muñiz Zapico Juanín, 18; and Fernando Soto Martín, 17 years in prison, for membership of an illegal organisation, because of their alleged links with the Communist Party of Spain, and for conspiracy. The harshness of their sentences, which were directly in line with the demands of the prosecution, were a consequnce of the political and judicial backlash following the Carrero Blanco assassination.
A year later on November 24, 1975, the supreme court would reduce their sentences to: Marcelino Camacho 6 years; Nicolás Sartorius 5 years; Miguel Ángel Zamora Antón 2 years; Pedro Santiesteban 2 years; Eduardo Saborido 5 years; Francisco García Salve 5 years; Luis Fernández 2 years; Francisco Acosta 2 years; Juan Muñiz Zapico 4 years; and Fernando Soto Martín 4 years in prison. [see: Jun. 24, Nov. 25 & Dec. 30]
[B] 1859 - Gustave Kahn (d. 1936), French Symbolist poet, novelist, playwright, art critic, Dreyfusard and anarchist, born. Used the pseudonyms: Cabrun, MH, Walter Linden, Pip, and Hixe. A close friend of Felix Fénéon, he edited the anarchist review 'La Société Nouvelle' and played a major role editing and writing for the likes of 'La Revue Blanche'. He was also prominent amongst those that publicly supported Auguste Vaillant in a prominent article in 'La Société Nouvelle'. He was an early supporter of the Impressionists and much of his work is Symbolist in style, including one of the few examples (along with Paul Adam's 'Les Demoiselles Goubert' co-written with Jean Moréas), of Symbolist novel, 'Le Roi Fou' (1896), a biting humorous social and political critique the collusion of governments and financiers and the fleecing of the poor and of the colonies.

[C] 1892 - Rebecca West (Cicely Isabel Fairfield; d. 1983), English author, journalist, literary critic, travel writer, socialist, militant feminist, free love advocate and staunch anti-fascist, born. She took the name Rebecca West (after the heroine of Ibsen's 'Rosmersholm') while studying at the Academy of Dramatic Art (1910–11) and began working as a journalist on the feminist journal 'The Freewoman' in 1911. Its first edition carried a West article in support for free-love, which provoked widespread outrage: "Marriage had certain commercial advantages. By it the man secures the exclusive right to the woman's body and by it, the woman binds the man to support her during the rest of her life... a more disgraceful bargain was never struck."
Having been influenced politically by the Dreyfus affair and become a militant feminist and active suffragette, as well as a socialist attending Fabian meetings, she was at first hopeful about the outcome of the 1917 Revolution. However, she quickly became critical of the Bolsheviks, a position reinforced by Emma Goldman's visit to Britain in 1924. Later, she was critical of the lack of support for the Spanish Republic in 1936 and for the appeasing of Nazi Germany, both from the British government and the pacifist Left.

1935 - Kurt Tucholsky (b. 1890), German-Jewish pacifist, non-aligned socialist, journalist, satirist and writer, dies. [see: Jan. 9]

1936 - In the early hours of the morning in Stuttgart, Helmut Hirsch (1916 - 1937), a German Jew, is arrested by Gestapo agents for his part in a plot to bomb the Nazi Party headquarters in Nuremberg as part of a plan to destabilize the German Reich. At his trial it is revealed that a double agent in the Black Front gave him up, and he is found guilty and condemned to death. Despite international calls for clemency, and even being declared an American citizen, he was executed on June 4, 1937.

1937 - In Spain, the first Republican soldiers are entering Teruel.

1943 - Ateo Tommaso Garemi i Gagno (d. 1943), Italian-French communist, then anarchist and anti-fascist combattant, is executed for his involvement in the killing of Domenico Giardina. [see: Mar. 6]

1944 - The anarchist paper 'Le Libertaire', originally founded in 1895 by Sébastien Faure and Louise Michel, then as the organ of the l’Union Anarchiste (1920-1939), resumes publishing once again following the defeat of the Nazis.

1958 - Lion Feuchtwanger (b. 1884), German-Jewish novelist and playwright, who was a prominent figure in the literary world of Weimar Germany, influencing many contemporaries including playwright Bertolt Brecht and was a fierce critic of the Nazi party long before it rose to power, dies. [see: Jul. 7]

1959 - Antonia Maymón (b. 1881), Spanish militant activist, rationalist teacher, naturalist, libertarian and feminist, dies. Maymón collaborated in numerous congresses and publications, such as 'Generación Consciente', and was a founder of the FAI. [see: Jul. 18]
1731 - Dutch people revolt against meat tax.

[A] 1849 - Fyodor Dostoyevsky is led out for execution, then pardoned at the last moment. Dostoyevsky and his comrades in the Petrashevsky Circle were under sentence of death for a mere 10 minutes.

1872 - Erroneous date frequently quoted for the birth of Ettore Bonometti (d. 1961), Italian anarchist militant. [see: Nov. 22]

1876 - Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (d. 1944), Italian Symbolist poet, editor and the founder of the Futurist movement, born. He spent much of the 1900s in Paris, associating with the anarchist and artistic milieu and was to become a regular at the Abbaye de Créteil utopian community. Although an Italian nationalist, he was avowedly anarchist and socialist, and strongly influenced by the writings of the French syndicalist theorist Sorel, himself inclined towards Proudhonian anarchism. These elements, together with his anti-clerical and Malthusian tendencies, all helped form his early leftist Futurism, already on display in his 1904 poem 'Destruction', his "erotic and anarchist poem", an eulogy to the "avenging sea" as a symbol of revolution.
Marinetti's debt to anarchism can also be seen in his dedication of his satirical tragedy 'Le Roi Bombance' (1905) to the anarchist Paul Adam (Henri de Régnier was another Marinetti dedicatee). Heavily influenced by Alfred Jarry (and from whom he stole much of his image/demeanour), the play was not performed until 1909, when its première at the Théâtre de l’Oeuvre in Paris provoked a riot. By this time he was already working on the 'Futurist Manifesto', written in French and published that year on the front page of 'Le Figaro', and was reprinted in the Italian anarcho-syndicalist newspaper of Ottavio Dinale, 'La Demolizione'.
In 1910, Marinetti forged links with the pro-labour, proto-syndicalist wing of the Italian Nationalist Association (ANI), but the rise of nationalism in Italy ultimately led to the progressive abandonment of Futurism's radical and avant garde elements in order to shoe-horning it into the ideology of another ex-fellow traveller of anarchism, Mussolini's Fascism. Marinetti even went as far as becoming a Catholic, in part to try and get Futurism adopted as the national Catholic art movement.
"9. Nous voulons glorifier la guerre – seule hygiène du monde -, le militarisme, le patriotisme, le geste destructeur des anarchistes, les belles Idées qui tuent et le mépris de la femme." (We will glorify war—the world’s only hygiene—militarism, patriotism, the destructive gesture of freedom-bringers, beautiful ideas worth dying for, and scorn for woman.) - 'Manifeste du Futurisme' (1909).
"We love the indomitable bellicose patriotism that sets you apart; we love the national pride that guides your muscularly courageous race; we love the potent individualism that doesn't prevent you from opening your arms to individualists of every land, whether libertarians or anarchists." - 'Futurist Speech to the English' (1910), Lyceum Club, London.

1901 - Fernando Demetrio Mata Povedano (d. 1936), Aragonese rationalist teacher, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Destined for the priesthood, instead he joined the anarchist Centro Instructivo Obrero de Oficios Varios (Centre for Workers Instruction for Various Crafts) in 1918 and, in 1924 during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, was named its president. He also gained permission to start a school - the Escuela de Niños Nueva (New Children's School) or the Colegio de Educación Científica y Racional (College of Scientific and Rational Education). He also corresponded with the Librería Luque in Montemayor, acquiring many books that he then distributed in the villages of the region where he traveled by bicycle. Married in 1927 to Maria de los Aneles Basilia Mata Carmona and in 1928 started sending money to a campaign by 'La Revista Blanca' for prisoner support. [expand]
On February 22, 1936, he was elected mayor of Montemayor, following the resignation of Antonio Carmona Jiménez, and was president of the Comisión de Hacienda (Committee on Finance), combining these posts with his teaching work. During his time as mayor he urged public works and land reform, developing arbitration between employers and workers. During his tenure the construction of the Grupo Escolar 'Francisco Ferrer Guardia' was also launched, with the first stone being laid on June 1, 1936, but which was halted due to the Francoist coup. On the night of July 18, 1936, a platoon of Guardia Civil from Fernán-Núñez, commanded by Lieutenant Cristóbal Jiménez, Fernando Mata Povedano and eight colleagues. Transferred to the prison in Córdoba, Fernando Mata was assassinated there on on September 26, 1936, and buried in a common grave in thecity's San Rafael cemetery.

[C] 1942 - Eleven members of the (Nazi named) Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group are executed at Plötzensee Prison. [see: separate entries below]

[(C)] 1942 - Arvid Harnack (b. 1901), German jurist, economist, and resistance fighter in Nazi Germany, is executed for his part in the activities of the (Nazi named) Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group. Founder of ARPLAN (Wissenschaftliche Arbeitsgemeinschaft zum Studium der sowjetischen Planwirtschaft or )[Scientific Working Community for the Study of the Soviet Planned Economy], he had travelled to the Soveit Union to study their ecomony but, with Hitler's rise to power ARPLAN was dissolved and Harnack gained a post as a scientific expert in the Reich Economic Ministry and was recruited as an agnet by the NKVD. He also came into contact in 1939 with the Harro Schulze-Boysen group, and in 1940 with the Communists Hilde Rake and Hans Coppi. He also published the resistance magazine 'Die Innere Front' (The Inner Front) in 1941 but interception of the group's radio messages led to the arrest of Harnack and his wife Mildred on September 7, 1942. Arvid Harnack was sentenced to death on December 19 and executed 3 days later at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin. His wife was originally given six years in prison, but Hitler swiftly cancelled the sentence and ordered a new trial, which pronounced the desired death sentence.

[(C)] 1942 - Heinz Harro Max Wilhelm Georg Schulze-Boysen (b. 1909), German officer, commentator and anti-Nazi Resistance fighter, is executed alongside his wife Libertas Schulze-Boysen for their part in the activities of the (Nazi named) Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group. [see: Sep. 2]

[(C)] 1942 - Elisabeth Schumacher (née Hohenemser; b. 1904), German artist and resistance fighter in the Third Reich, who belonged to the Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, is beheaded in Plötzensee Prison. [see: Apr. 28]

[(C)] 1942 - Kurt Schumacher (b. 1905), German sculptor, committed Communist and anti-Nazi resistance fighter with the Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, is hung in Plötzensee Prison. [see: May 6]

[(C)] 1942 - Libertas Schulze-Boysen (Libertas Viktoria Haas-Heye; (B. 1913), German former press officer in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's Berlin branch office and anti-Nazi resistance fighter, who also gathered pictorial evidence of Nazi war crimes whilst working in the Reich Propaganda Ministry, is executed alongside her husband Harro Schulze-Boysen for their part in the activities of the (Nazi named) Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group. [see: Nov. 20]

[CC] 1942 - Jewish fighters in the Krakow Ghetto, united under the command of Zvi 'Heshek' Bauminger and Aharon 'Dolek' Liebeskind, carry out a series of attacks on German forces throughout the city. Members of the Žydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŽOB; Jewish Fighting Organisation) throw grenades into three cafés frequented by Nazi officers, sabotage military vehicles, distribute anti-Nazi leaflets, and raise Polish flags on bridges over the Vistula River. At the Cyganeria café, the fighters kill at least seven German officers and wound many more. Two days later, the Gestapo located Liebeskind’s hiding place and killed him in a shoot-out; Bauminger survived the manhunt until March, 1943.

1947 - Otto Weidt (b. 1883), German anarchist and pacifist, who ran a workshop in Berlin for the blind and deaf and fought to protect his Jewish workers against deportation during the Holocaust, dies. [see: May 2]

1951 - Georges Gillet (b. 1876), French militant syndicalist, anarchist propagandist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Aug. 17]

1989 - Samuel Beckett (b. 1906), Irish playwright, poet, novelist, theatre director, anti-fascist and member of the Résistance, dies. [see: Apr. 13]

1997 - Paramilitaries associated with the ruling PRI party massacre 45 peasants in the village of Acteal, Chiapas. The government uses this event to occupy and suppress the population with over 70,000 troops and expels humanitarian observers stationed in the area.

2003 - Bernard Voyenne (b. 1920), French anarcho-syndicalist activist, federalist, Résistance fighter, journalist, professor and writer on Proudhon, dies. [see: Aug. 12]
[A] 1877 - Luigi Fabbri (d. 1935), writer, professor and theorist of the Italian anarchist movement, born.
For anarchists: "Le devoir de s'opposer, même violemment, à la dictature révolutionnaire qui constitue toujours une régression conservatrice." ["The duty is to oppose, even violently, revolutionary dictatorship which is always a conservative regression."]

1890 - Salvador Segui Rubinat, aka 'El Noi del Sucre' (The Sugar Boy)(d. 1923), anarcho-syndicalist in the Catalonian CNT, born. He was assassinated in 1923 along with another trade unionist, Francesc Comes, the murders financed by the governor of Catalonia. [expand]

1938 - Franco's fascist forces launch an offensive in Catalonia.

1943 - Dario Cagno (b. 1899), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, is executed for his involvement in the killing of Domenico Giardina. [see: Aug. 11]

[C] 2003 - Patricio Andrés Leyton Quital aka 'ChicOi', a 16-year-old Chilean student and anti-racist skinhead is killed by neo-Nazis. Patrico had been attending an anti-Fascist gig when he and a small group of SHARP skins were attacked by a group of neo-Nazis outside the gig venue. Patrico was hit with a beer bottle across the head and then with a baseball bat. He died in hospital in the early hours of the following morning.
Two neo-Nazis skinheads, Patricio Bustamante Herrera and Rodespiere Chamorro Martínez, who were associated with the Nazi group Patria Nueva Sociedad, and who had been ejected from the gig earlier that night, were eventually convicted of Patricio's murder and sentenced to just seven years each in jail (with 'compensation' of 80 million pesos to be paid to Patricio's family). Three others were acquitted during the trial.
1894 - Andrés Capdevila i Puig (d. 1987), alternate birth date. [see: Dec. 25]

[C] 1895 - Kirsten Brunvoll (Kirsten Sørsdal; d. 1976), Norwegian resistance member, Nacht und Nebel prisoner, and World War II memoirist, who survived Grini, Ravensbrück, Majdanek and Birkenau concentration camps, born.

1915 - Serafín Aliaga (d. 1990), Spanish anarchist, head of AJA (Alianza Juvenil Antifascista) and delegate to the founding congress of Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL), born.

1938 - Bruno Taut (Bruno Julius Florian Taut; b. 1880) German architect, urban planner and author of the Weimar period, dies. He was also a social reformer, anarchist and anti-militarist, whose ideas, including his architectural work, were influenced by the ideas of Kropotkin and Landauer, especially the latter's 'Die Auflösung der Städt' (Call to Socialism; 1911). [see: May 4]

1941 - Flossenburg concentration camp: "On the night of 23rd-24th December 1941, some Russian prisoners tried to break out of the camp, but were captured by the SS guards. Some of the Russians were shot immediately, the rest, eight men, hanged on the morning of the 24th." [as related in Heinz Heger's 'The Men with the Pink Triangle' (1972)]

1942 - Aharon 'Dolek' Liebeskind (b. 1912), co-leader, with Zvi 'Heshek' Bauminger (1919–1943), of the anti-Nazi Kraków Ghetto resistance, dies in a shoot-out with the Gestapo. Soon after German troops occupied Kraków in early September 1939, Jews there began to organise resistance to Nazi rule. Though the Jewish population was devastated by the mass expulsions from the city in 1940 and the creation of a ghetto the following year, activists, primarily from Zionist youth groups, succeeded in creating underground cells. In December 1941, members of the Akiva (Akiba), the largest of the prewar youth groups in Kraków, had even set up a secret base on an agricultural training farm outside the city.
By mid-1942, two main resistance organisations existed in the Kraków ghetto. The first was led by Aharon 'Dolek' Liebeskind based around members of the Akiva (Akiba) and Dror Zionist youth movements in the underground. The second band of fighters was headed by Zvi 'Heshek' Bauminger, a former soldier in the Polish and Soviet armies who had escaped from German hands. Returning to Kraków, he created a resistance group (Iskra), largely composed of his fellow youths in the left-wing Zionist Ha-Shomer ha-Tsa’ir movement, and established close ties to the local Communist resistance, the Polska Partia Robotnicza (Polish Workers’ Party).
Having learned about the mass murder of Jews in the Chelmno killing center and the deportations from Kraków to the Belzec death camp in June 1942, the Jewish fighters decided to respond with armed resistance against the Nazis. Using couriers like Hela Schüpper, the leaders of this group established contact with other Jewish resistance groups in Warsaw, Tarnow, and Rzeszow, obtained valuable information, and smuggled weapons back into the ghetto. They sent commando groups out into the nearby forests to link up with the partisans and set up a forgery workshop, under Shimson Draenger, to create false papers and documents.
In October 1942, the two resistance groups joined together to form the Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Fighting Organisation). In the months that followed, the ŻOB operated outside the ghetto, sabotaging rail lines, raiding German warehouses, and attacking German soldiers and security police. On December 22, the Jewish fighters carried out their boldest plan—a series of attacks on German forces throughout the city. Members of the ŻOB were to throw grenades into three cafés where German officers congregated, sabotage army and police vehicles, distribute anti-Nazi leaflets, raise Polish flags on the bridges over the Vistula, and assassinate German soldiers throughout the city. At the Cyganeria café, the fighters killed at least seven German officers and wounded many more.
In the wake of these attacks, German authorities launched a massive manhunt to find the resistance fighters. On December 24, the Gestapo located Liebeskind’s hiding place and he died in the violent shootout that followed. The next day, Hitler’s headquarters was informed of the action. In March 1943, the German police closed in on Bauminger, cornering him in his room, where he lay ill. He managed to fire at his attackers, perhaps saving the last bullet for himself. Though its membership had been decimated by arrests and its leaders killed or captured, the ŻOB continued to fight on, carrying out sabotage, distributing anti-Nazi materials, and urging Jews to resist and flee to the forests.

1950 - Zaragozan anarchist guerrilleros Simón Gracia Fleringán aka 'Miguel Montllor' & 'Aniceto Borrel' (b. 1923) and Placido Ortiz Gratal aka 'Vicente Llop' & 'Vicente Lobo' (b. 1921), the two members of the 'Los Maños' group arrested on January 9, 1950, are executed by firing squad. [see: Jun. 27 & Oct. 3]
1889 - Wilhelm (Willi) Jelinek (d. 1952), militant German anarchist-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1894 - Andreu Capdevila i Puig (d. 1987), Catalan dye worker, militant in the CNT, the Spanish Revolution and in France, where he wrote for most of the exile papers ('Terra Lliure', 'Le Combat Syndicaliste', 'Umbral', etc.), born. Minister of Economy in the Generalitat de Catalunya and President of the Economic Council of Catalonia during the Republic.

1922 - Celedonio García Casino aka 'Celes' or 'El Llarg' (d. 1949), Catalan anarchist and anti-Francoist guerrilla, born. After the Phalangist victory, the then seventeen-year-old Celedonio decided to participate in the anti-fascist guerilla movement, entering the ranks of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL) in Gracia, Barcelona and as a memebr of the organisation's Comité Regional de Cataluña. On June 14, 1939, he and sixteen other activists were arrested. Tried on September 19, 1940 for "illegal association and propaganda and possession of illegal weapons", he was imprisoned in Barcelona's Modelo prison, where he was part of one of three groups formed by Manuel Aguilar Martínez, Secretary of the Comité Peninsular of the Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI). His group whose head was Enrique Gómez Laborda included Manuel Graupera Rodilla, Ángel Bernal Lozano and Blas Fuster Carreter. These groups went on to become active in the clandestine struggle as they were progressively released.
Paroled on 23 November 1945, Celedonio García Casino Celes immediately rejoined the FIJL in Gracia and then in Carmel, later joining José Lluis 'Face' Facérias' action group, often crossing the border between 1947 and 1949 on expropriation missions and attacks on Franco's forces. In March 1946, he attended the Congress of the FIJL in exile in Toulouse, recovered materials and returned to Spain on March 15. In September 1946, he was appointed Secretary of Defense of the Regional Committee of Catalonia and the Balearic Islands of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias at a clandestine plenum. In 1947, he was a member of the short-lived Moviment Llibertari de Resistència (Libertarian Movement of Resistance; MLR - intended to be the military wing of Spanish anarcho-syndicalism, it effectively folded when Liberto Sarrau Royes and Joaquina Dorado Pita were arrested in February 1948), he organised a bomb attack in May 1947 against the barracks of the Guardia Civil in Gracia, which the communists tried to claim it as their own. On July 6, he was appointed, with Manuel Ramos Fernández and Manuel Tomas Llaster as the FIJL Catalonia delegates to the national plenum to be held on July 15 and the plenary of the FAI to be held in Madrid three days later.
In early November 1947, he crossed into Spain with José Lluís Facerias, Ramón González Sanmarti, Francisco Ballester Orovigt, Domingo Ibars Juanias and Juan Pedrero Cazorla aka 'Tom Mix'. With Facerias, he participated in the 1949 attempted kidnapping of the chief of police Eduardo Quintela Bóveda. Celedonio García Casino Celes was killed along with Enrique 'Quique' Martinez Marin near the French border on August 26, 1949. He was buried at the cemetery Espolla (Figueras) in the part reserved for non-believers. He left his companion, Remedies Falceto and a daughter, Olga.

1927 - In Buenos Aires, the National City Bank is bombed, killing two and wounding 23 American and Argentinean customers: it is the work of anarchist (Giovanni and the brothers Scarfo) proponents of violent action.

1936 - The Generalitat de Catalogne publishes a decree legalising abortion. Pushed for by the women's anarchist group Mujeres Libres and enacted because of the strong presence of the libertarians. Article 4 specifies abortions should not exceed three months pregnancy, except in the event of therapeutic need.

1938 - Karel Čapek (b. 1890), Czech playwright, writer, translator, journalist, photographer, philosopher and staunch anti-fascist, who is probably best known for his science fiction, especially his 1920 play 'R.U.R.' (Rossum's Universal Robots) which introduced the word robot, dies of double pneumonia shortly after the German annexation of the 'Sudetenland'. [see: Jan. 9]

1955 - Aurèle Patorni (b. 1880), French anarchist, writer (plays, operettas, etc.), journalist, pacifist and néo-malthusien, dies of complications following surgery. [see: Jun. 26]

1983 - Joan Miró i Ferrà (b. 1893), Catalan painter, sculptor and ceramicist, dies. [see: Apr. 20]

[C] 1989 - An xmas present to savour: Nicolae Ceaușescu and his wife are executed by firing squad.
[BB] 1891 - Henry Valentine Miller (d. 1980), American writer, banned novelist, memoirist, critic, painter, individualist anarchist and champion of free speech, born. Miller's grandfather, Valentin Nieting, who regularly looked after him was an anarchist sympathiser whose anti-war ideals was a significant initial catalyst in his politics. However, Miller claimed that his attending of a 1912 lecture by Emma Goldman and later personally meeting her in 1913 was "a turning point in my life". At the lecture he purchased books there Nietzsche and Max Stirner and would come to embrace an individualist anarchism. However, he also began to read Kropotkin, Bakunin and other anarchist classics which would eventually temper his individualist outlook. Kropotkin's mutualism would become especially important in moderating Miller's individualist outlook.
His is best known for the novels 'Tropic of Cancer' (1934), 'Black Spring' (1936), 'Tropic of Capricorn' (1939) and 'The Rosy Crucifixion' trilogy: 'Sexus' (1949), 'Plexus' (1953) and 'Nexus' (1960) - all of which clearly display strong elements of his anarchist individualism, one tempered by his desire for community and compassion. The early books, 'Tropic of Cancer' and 'Black Spring', together with his resolutely anti-communist/pro-anarchist 'An Open Letter to Surrealists Everywhere' (1938), was a primary influence in turning the English Surrealists, which included Herbert Read and David Gascoyne and fellow travellers like Alex Comfort, away from Surrealism's André Breton-inspired communist orthodoxy towards an anti-authoritarian politics. This influence, via the literary community that had sprung up around Miller at the Villa Seurat in Paris (and which included Anais Nin and Lawrence George Durrell), would also affect the likes of Robert Duncan and George Woodcock?
"I have no money, no resources, no hopes. I am the happiest man alive. A year ago, six months ago, I thought that I was an artist. I no longer think about it, I am. Everything that was literature has fallen from me. There are no more books to be written, thank God. This then? This is not a book. This is libel, slander, and defamation of character. This is not a book, in the ordinary sense of the word. No, this is a prolonged insult, a gob of spit in the face of Art, a kick in the pants of God, Man, Destiny, Time, Love, Beauty." - 'Tropic of Cancer' (1934) pp. 1-2.
"There are barely a half-dozen names in the history of America which have meaning for me. Thoreau's is one of them ... that rarest thing on earth: an individual. He is nearer to being an anarchist than democrat, socialist or communist. However he was not interested in politics; he was the sort of person who, if there were more of his kind, would soon cause governments to become non-existent. This to my mind is the highest type of man a community can produce. And that is why I have an unbounded respect and admiration for Thoreau." - Letter to Herbert Read (1936)

1891 - Stefan Szwedowski aka 'Wojciech' & 'Szwed' (d. 1973), Polish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Nazi fighter, born. In 1905 (during revolution) participated in school movement. Interrogated by Tzar’s secret police (Ochrana). First time arrested in 1913, spent 2 years in prison. In the same year joined ‘Warsaw Battalion’ of Polish Legions. At the end of WWII in executive group of ‘Zet’ (Association of the Polish Youth). In 1919 ended his studies in the law faculty of Warsaw University. In 1922 one of organisers of Związek Obrony Kresow Zachodnich (Western Frontier Defence Association) and Związek Rad Ludowych (People’s Councils Union). From 1931 involved in Związku Związków Zawodowych (ZZZ; Union of Workers Unions). 1935-39 member of Central Department of ZZZ. In October 1939 one of the underground initiators of Zwiazek Syndykalistow Polski (ZSP: Union of Polish Syndicalists). Since 1943 head secretary of ZSP. Co-initiator and ZSP delegate in Council for Aid to Jews. From February 1944 vice-chairman of Centralizacja Stronnictw Demokratycznych, Socjalistycznych i Syndykalistycznych (Centralisation of Democratic, Socialists and Syndicalist Groups). During Warsaw Uprising fought in the Old Town as soldier of 104 company of ZSP. In Śródmieście he was co-initiator of Syndykalistyczne Porozumienie Powstańcze (Syndicalist Uprising Agreement – syndicalist and anarcho-syndicalist coalition). After WWII together with anarchists and co-operative activists worked in Spoldzielczy Instytut Wydawniczy 'Słowo' ('Word' Cooperative Publishers Institute) and other cooperatives.

[C] 1912 - Renato Guttuso (d. 1987), Italian anti-fascist painter and polemicist, atheist and Communist, who was the leader of the social realist group in Italy, born. His best-known paintings include 'Flight from Etna' (1938–39), 'Crucifixion' (1941) and 'La Vucciria' (1974). [expand]

1986 - Bruno Salvadori, aka Antoine or Antonio Gimenez (b. 1910), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist fighter in Spain, dies. [see: Dec. 14]

[A] 1988 - Funeral of Chico Mendes in Brazil, murdered by landowners for his leadership in the struggle against the destruction of Amazon rainforests.

1992 - María Bruguera Pérez (b. 1915), Spanish member of Mujeres Libres, anarchist, anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Nov. 6]

1997 - Cornelius Castoriadis aka Pierre Chaulieu or Paul Cardan (b. 1922), social critic and editor of the journal 'Socialism or Barbarism' (1949-1967), dies. [see: Mar. 11]

2010 - Ramón Cambra aka 'Mona' (b. 1917), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-militarist, printer and poet, dies. [see: Mar. 28]
[A]1831 - 60,000 slaves mutiny in Jamaica.

1919 - On the initiative of Rudolf Rocker, the founding Congress of the Freie Arbeiter Union Deutschland (FAUD; Free Union of the German Workers) is held in Berlin, from the 27th-30th.

1927 - Stalin's faction wins All-Union Congress in USSR and Trotsky is expelled.

[C] 1929 - Stalin orders the "liquidation of the kulaks as a class", ostensibly as an effort to spread socialism to the countryside. Following the announcement, more than 1.8 million peasants were deported in 1930-31 and the policy ended up causing the death of at least 14.5 million peasants in the period 1930-37.

1946 - With high postwar unemployment precipitating waves of protests all across Italy, the situation in especially dramatic in the south, with the population demanding work and bread, and poverty forcing the crowds into the streets. In clashes in Bari following one such demonstration demanding work and bread, police open fire, killing a college student, Domenico Liaci, and an unnamed worker. Another 25 demonstrators are injured along with 6 cops.

1992 - Kay Boyle (b. 1902), American writer, novelist, poet, educator, political activist and anarchist fellow traveller, dies. [see: Feb. 19]

2003 - Manuel Millán Calvo (b. 1925), Aragonese libertarian anti-Francoist guerrillero member of the Agrupación Guerrillera de Levante (AGL), dies. [see: Sep. 11]
1903 - Celestino Alvarado Quirós (d. 1936), Andalusian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, secretary of the Sindicat del Metall of the CNT,member of the Germinal group of the FAI and Freemason, born. He was arrested during the strike of May 1932 and, in April 1935, he was also arrested in a group of students and accused of "stealing weapons". On 18 August 1936, he and his brother Narciso José were betrayed to the Falangists whilst attempting to escape from the port of Puntales by ship. They were arrested and taken to the Casino Gadità, headquarters of the fascists. The following day his corpse is seen in a mass grave on the beach and probably ended up being buried in a mass grave in the cemetery of San Jose. His brother and fellow anarcho-syndicalist Narciso José Alvarado Quirós was imprisoned in the Cárcel Real in Cádiz and later in Miraflores prison. Twenty days after his arrest, he disappeared and was never heard of again.

[C] 1914 - Thomas William Gould (d. 2001), English Naval officer who won a Victoria Cross during WWII and co-founded the anti-fascist 43 Group in 1946, born.

1920 - Pepita Estruch (Pepita Carnicer; d. 2011), Spanish militant anarcho-feminist fought in the French WWII anti-Nazi resistance, participant in the reformed Comité de Mujeres Libres in París in the '60s, born.

1931 - Guy Debord (d. 1994), French Marxist theorist, writer, filmmaker, member of the Letterist International and founding member of the Situationist International, born.

1941 - Operation Arthropoid: The plan to assassinate Reinhard Heydrich begins with the parachuting of Jozef Gabčík and Jan Kubiš, along with seven soldiers from Czechoslovakia’s army-in-exile (plus two other group named Silver A and Silver who had different missions), into Czechoslovakia.

1945 - Theodore Herman Albert Dreiser (b. 1871), American novelist, poet and journalist of the naturalist school, dies. [see: Aug. 27]

1956 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: On the orders of Larbi Ben Me Hidi aka 'El Hakim', responsible for armed action in Algiers, FLN guérilla leader Ali La Pointe assassinates the Mayor of Boufarik and President of the Federation of Mayors of Algeria, Amédée Froger outside his house on Rue Michelet.

1962 - The South African government outlaws 36 organisations and any group which "attacks, criticizes, or discusses any...policy of government" under the Suppression of Communism Act.
1872 - Camille Mauclair (pseudonym of Séverin Faust; d. 1945), French Symbolist poet, novelist, biographer, travel writer, art critic and anarchist, born. Prolific author and critic of the avant-guard arts, whose work appeared in numerous mainstream and anarchist publications including: 'L'En Dehors', 'La Revue Blanche', 'le Mercure de France', 'les Essais d'Art Libre', 'Les Entretiens Politiques et Littéraires', 'La Société Nouvelle', 'L'Aurore', 'La Dépêche de Toulouse', etc. He was also an anti-Semite and anti-Dreyfusard, becoming a nationalist during the thirties and an active supporter of the Vichy government. His best known work is 'Le Soleil des Mort' (1898), a roman à clef featuring fictionalised portraits of the literary and anarchist fin de siècle.
"L'exécution de Vaillant m'inclina à l'anarchisme." (The execution of Vaillant [which he attended] tilted me towards anarchism.)

[BB] 1896 - David Alfaro Siqueiros (born José de Jesús Alfaro Siqueiros; d. 1974), Mexican social realist painter, muralist, trades union organiser and one-time anarchist, born. Exposed to anarcho-syndicalist writings at an early age, he was also involved in the Mexican revolution, bizarrely fighting for Venustiano Carranza’s Constitutional Army against bith the Huerta government and the political factions of Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata. In 1919 he travelled to Paris and reacquainted himself with Diego Rivera, who introduced to Georges Braque and other Cubists. He also discovered and was strongly influenced by Cezanne. Returning to Mexico in 1922, he began his first mural, The Elements (1922), painted in a stairway of the National Preparatory School. The following year, having gravitated towards Marxism, he joined the recently-formed Mexican Communist Party (PCM) and gathered a group of artists to form the Sindicato de Trabajadores Técnicos, Pintores y Escultores (Syndicate of Revolutionary Mexican Painters, Sculptors and Engravers), of which he was elected secretary general. In 1924, they began to publish the newspaper 'El Machete', with a stated goal of safeguarding the revolution and protecting the interests of the working class. Continuing his union activities, he quickly became persona non grata with the government, and was harassed and detained several times by the police. In 1928, he visited the Soviet Union to attend the Congress of Red Trade Unions. Around this time, he met Uruguayan writer and fellow Communist Blanca Luz Blum, who loyalty was questioned by the PCM, leading to Siqueiros being expelled from the Party.
In 1930, he was arrested while participating in a May Day parade and thrown into prison, without trial or hearing of any sort. After several months in limbo, he was allowed to go free, on condition that he would leave Mexico City and settle in the town of Taxco, without the right to travel. In 1932, he had his first one-man exhibition in Mexico City, which included such politically-charged paintings as 'Mine Accident', 'Peasant Mother', 'Proletarian Mother' and 'Portrait of a Dead Child'. That year he secured a six-month visa to L.A. but the US authorities refused to extend his stay. Expelled from America, he traveled to Montevideo in February of 1933, and by the end of May in that same year he had established himself in Buenos Aires only to be expelled that December.
In January 1936, Siqueiros was sent as a delegate to the American Artists' Congress in NYC, where he exhibited two works, 'The Birth of Fascism' (1936) and 'Stop the War' (1936), painted using pyroxylin paint and a spray gun, using techniques which still today influences grafitti artists.
He left America and arrived in Valencia in January 1937, six months after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War and enlisted in the Fifth Regiment, a part of the International Brigades. Restored to his Mexican Civil War rank of Captain, he passed up the ranks and commanded the Spanish anarchists 82nd Brigade amongst others. Now a fuly fledged Stalinist, whilst in Spain he had worked closely with members of the Comintern and even petitioned President Cardenas and the Mexican government to expel Trotsky, to whom they had granted asylum. Back in Mexico, he continued to try and get Trotsky expelled, to no avail. So he took matters into his own hands, when he organised 25 men with Comitern finances to assassinate Trotsky. On the night of May 23-24th, 1940, Siqueiros and his men overpowered the police guard posted around the exterior of Trotsky's house, they gained access to the building via a traitor among Trotsky's bodyguards. Once inside, the would-be assassins opened indiscriminate fire with automatic firearms. In his bedroom, Trotsky and his wife Natalya hid behind their heavy bed as the house around them was riddled with bullets. Fearing being caught by police reinforcements, they fled. Some of Siqueiros' men were arrested and implicated hime, forcing him to flee via Ecuador and Peru to Chile.
'Del Porfirismo a la Revolución' (The Porphyria to the Revolution; 1957-1966) is by far one of Siqueiros' most iconic works and in it it included the images of Kropotkin (with his hands bound in front of him), Proudhon and Ricardo Flores Magon, all standing next to Marx with the good red book in his hand.

[C2] 1907 - Émile Coulaudon aka Colonel Gaspard (d. 1977), French socialist, who was one of the principal leaders of the Résistance in Auvergne, born. Following the Battle of France, he was imprisoned at Gérardmer on June 22, 1940, and escaped on July 8. Soon after, with Jean Mazuel, he founded in Clermont-Ferrand and Brioude one of the first Resistance groups in Auvergne. Coulaudon then became head of Combat in Puy-de-Dôme November 1942 and, in April 1943, he went into hiding and created the Auvergne 1st Corps Franc. In spring 1944, Coulaudon became head of the Forces françaises de l'Intérieur in the Clermont region. After the war he was Socialist deputy mayor of Clermont-Ferrand and was the founding president of the Fédération des Mouvements Unis de Résistance et Maquis.

[C1] 1921 - Vladka Meed (Feigele Peltel; d. 2012), Polish member of the Jewish resistance, who famously smuggled dynamite into, and also helped children escape out of, the Warsaw Ghetto, born.
Active in the Zukunft, the youth organization of the Bund, the Jewish socialist-democratic party, which opposed to Zionism and advocated Yiddish language and culture and secular Jewish nationalism, she joined the Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Fighting Organisation) when it was formed after the great deportations of the summer of 1942. Because of her flawless Polish and red hair, Peltel could pass as a non-Jew. Adopting the name Vladka, a name she kept even after liberation, she began working as a courier and, together her future husband, Benjamin Meed, they helped organise the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, smuggling arms into the ghetto and helping children escape out of it. They married in 1945 and survived both the Holocaust and World War II. Vladka Meed's book 'On Both Sides of the Wall' was originally published in Yiddish in 1948 with a first hand account of her wartime experiences. The book was translated into English in 1972 (with a foreword by Elie Wiesel), and later into German, Polish and Japanese.

1937 - Massive counterattack at Teruel by Fascist troops supported by the Condor legion.

1956 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: Following yesterday's assasination of Amédée Froger, the Mayor of Boufarik, a bomb explodes in the cemetery where Froger is to be buried. Enraged European civilians carriy out a series of random revenge attacks (ratonnade), killing four Muslims and injuring 50.

2001 - Giovanni Marini (b. 1942), Italian working class poet, writer and anarchist, dies. Caught up in Italy's Strategy of Tension, he was framed for the murder of a fascist in 1974.
[C2] 1879 - Michele Centrone (d. 1936), Italain carpenter, anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. He was prosecuted in Italy for his anarchist activities around 1898 and emigrated to the United States in 1905. In San Francisco, he worked at 'La Protesta Umana', directed by Enrico Travaglio, and collaborating on the newspaper 'Cronaca Sovversiva', published by Luigi Galleani. An Individualist, he was a member of Nihil and manager of its paper 'Nihil' (San Francisco, 9 issues January 4 to September 6, 1909). He also held positions in the 'Latin Union' of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America and was also affiliated with the Industrial Workers of the World. Arrested a number of times for "disturbing the peace", and for "foreign anarchist propaganda", he spent time in prison and broke bail, fleeing to Mexico under the name of Francesco Paglia. Arrested again in April 1920, along with Luigi and Giuseppe Ciancabilla Galleani, was expelled from the U.S. and deported to Italy. Wanted in Italy, he went to Canada and tried to return to the United States; arrested crossing the border, he was deported in 1924 to Europe and settled in France, where he was expelled in December 1928. Spending time in Belgium, Switzerland and Luxembourg, he was active in the Comitè d'Ajuda per les Víctimes Polítiques. In 1936, he was back living in Paris and, in July of that year, he was in the first group of Italian anarchists (including Camillo Berneri, Mario Girotti, Giuseppe Bifolchi, Vincenzo Perrone, Ernesto Bonomini, Enzo Fantozzi, etc.) who went to Catalonia to fight the fascist uprising. He enlisted in the Italian section of the Ascaso Column, led by Carlo Roselli and Mario Angeloni, and fought on the Aragon front. On August 28, 1936, he was one of the first Italians (along with Mario Angeloni, Fosco Falaschi and Vicenzo Perrone) to die in the fighting in the Battle of Monte Pelado.

[CC] 1887 - Robert Siewert (d. 1973), German communist, anti-Stalinist and member of the anti-Nazi Resistance, born. During WWI, he worked illegally for the Spartacist League whilst serveing as a soldier on the Eastern Front. In 1918, he was a member of the Soldiers' Council of the 10th Army and, after that, he became a member of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD). However, because of his opposition to the Stalinisation of the party, he was expelled in 1929. Arrested on April 8, 1935, the Nazis charged him with high treason and, in December 1935, he was sentenced at the Volksgerichtshof to three years at hard labour in a Zuchthaus (prison). Then in September 1938, instead of being released, he was sent to Buchenwald concentration camp. There he became involved in the leadership of the majority KPD underground resistance at the camp, standing up for Jewish prisoners and for the imprisoned Polish and Jewish children, saving many lives including that of the author and cameraman Stefan Jerzy Zweig. In 1945, and shortly before he was due to be executed, he was freed by American troops.

1890 - Victor Lvovich Kibalchich aka Victor Serge aka 'The Bolsheviks' pet anarchist' (d. 1947), one time anarchist before he became a Bolshevik lackey, born.

1910 - Paul Frederic Bowles (d. 1999), American expatriate composer, author and translator, born. Bowles first came into contact with the Communist Party of the USA (CPUSA) in 1935, joining in 1938 only to leave in 1940.
Q: What was it about communism that appealed to you?
A: Oh, I imagined it could destroy the establishment. When I realized it couldn't, I got out fast and decided to work on my own hook.
Q: Back to destroying the world. . . .
A: Well, who doesn't want to? I mean, look at it!
- Interview with Daniel Halpern in 1980.

[C1] 1959 - Francisco 'Quico' Sabaté and his guerrilla group (Antonio Miracle, Rogelio Madrigal, Francisco Conesa and Martín Ruiz) cross the French border into Spain for the last time. All will be killed within a week.

1971 - Nkola Turčinović aka Nicolas (or Nicolò) Turcinovich or Nicola Turcino (b. 1911), Croatian anarchist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Aug. 21]

1974 - Proceso 1001: The diez de Carabanchel (Carabanchel Ten), as they became known, are sentenced to: Marcelino Camacho, 20 years in prison; Nicolás Sartorius, 19; Miguel Ángel Zamora Antón, 12; Pedro Santiesteban, 12; Eduardo Saborido, 20; Francisco García Salve (worker priest), 19; Luis Fernández, 12; Francisco Acosta, 12; Juan Muñiz Zapico Juanín, 18; and Fernando Soto Martín, 17 years in prison. The harshness of their sentences, which are directly in line with the demands of the prosecution, are a consequnce of the political and judicial backlash following the Carrero Blanco assassination. [see: Jun. 24, Nov. 25 & Dec. 20]

[B2] 1995 - Heiner Müller (b. 1929), German dramatist, director, poet, anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 9]

1998 - Joan Brossa i Cuervo (b. 1919), Catalan language poet Dadaist-influenced, playwright, graphic designer and plastic artist, dies. [see: Jan. 19]
1883 - Eusebio Carbó Carbó (d. 1958), Spanish militant anarchist, editor and director of 'Solidaridad Obrera' in 1930s as well as secretary of the IWA, born. Active and very much a globe-trotting internationalist, he saw the inside of nearly sixty prisons around the world from the age of 18 onwards. [expand]

[C1] 1902 - Nikos Ploumpidis (or Ploumbidis) (Νίκος Πλουμπίδης; d. 1954), Greek member and leading cadre of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) during the Metaxas dictatorship, the German Occupation and the Civil War in Greece, but also one of the most tragic figures in the history of the Communist Party, born. As a young teacher, he joined the KKE in 1926 and in 1930 became a member of the Executive Committee of the Central Union of Civil Servants. Sacked the following year due to his political activism, he was eventually elected to the Politburo of the KKE in 1938. In 1939 he was arrested by the secret police of the regime of General Ioannis Metaxas, and was imprisoned in Sotiria hospital until his escape in 1942. He then involved himself in the newly formed National Liberation Front (EAM) and in the communist youth organisation (OKNE). He resigned from the Politburo in 1945 due to ill-health (tuberculosis) and was later instrumental in establishing the United Democratic Left (EDA) party, essentially a proxy party of the now illegal KKE. In 1952 he was arrested by the secret police. After a three-week trial, he was found guilty on August 3, 1953, and sentenced to death. At the same time, the exiled KKE Central Committee under his rival Nikos Zachariadis decided to expel Ploumpidis from the party on the grounds that he was, supposedly, a secret police spy and British agent. He was executed by firing squad in Agia Marina, near Dafni on August 14th. The Greek government released a photo of his execution to the Greek press. 'Rizospastis' and 'I Avgi', the two left newspapers, didn't publish the photos following KKE's allegations that the execution was fake and Ploumpidis is spending the money he took for his treason.

[C2] 1903 - Ilarie Voronca (Eduard Marcus; d. 1946), Jewish Romanian-French avant-garde poet and essayist connected with Eugen Lovinescu's Sburătorul group, and later Ion Vinea's 'Contimporanul', Constructivism (via 'Punct', 'Integral' and his own '75 HP') and Surrealism, born. A French citizen in 1938 (having settled there in 1933), Voronca took part in the French Résistance as a writer and fighter. He visited Romania in January 1946, and was acclaimed for his writings and anti-fascist activities. He never finished his 'Manuel du parfait bonheur' (Manual for Perfect Happiness), committing suicide later in the same year.

1913 - Isabel Mesa Delgado (d. 2002), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist and member of the CNT, born. From the age of 14 she was secretary of Valencian Mujeres Libres and, following the defeat of the revolution, organised a clandestine resistance group and provided aid to prisoners and their families under the fascist dicatatorship. With the death of Franco Isabel helped with new libertarian projects, like Radio Klara and the ateneo Al Margen. [NB: Dec. 30 also given as birth date]

[B1] 1925 - Alfredo Guevara Valdés (d. 2013), Cuban founder of the Cuban Institute for the Arts and Industry of Cinematography (ICAIC) and the Havana Film Festival, and a key figure in the New Latin American Cinema, born. An anarchist in his youth, he became a Marxist at the university, supporting what he called "Fidel’s Revolution" after the toppling of the Batista government. Initially a theatre director until he participated in the making of 'El Mégano', a documentary about the poor vegetable carbon makers in the Zapata swamps, which went on to become a seminal part of Cuba’s film history. And in 1958 he worked as assistant director for Luis Buñuel on 'Nazarín'.

1941 - "Jewish youth! Do not trust those who are trying to deceive you. Hitler plans to destroy all the Jews of Europe… We will not be led like sheep to the slaughter! True, we are weak and defenceless, but the only reply to the murderer is revolt! Brothers! Better to fall as free fighters than to live by the mercy of the murderers. Arise! Arise with your last breath!" With these words on December 31, 1941, Lithuanian Jewish Hebrew poet and partisan leader Abba Kovner galvanized the divided factions of the Vilna ghetto resistance to join together and fight back against their would-be murderers. Three weeks later, the Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye (FPO; United Partisan Organisation) was born. Kovner would go on to command the FPO and lead the famed Avengers partisan unit. [see: Mar. 14]

1959 - Arturo M. Giovannitti (b. 1884), Italian-American IWW activist, anarchist socialist, anti-fascist agitator and poet, dies. [see: Jan. 7]

1967 - Paulette Brupbacher (nee Raygrodski; b. 1880), Swiss physician, militant feminist, anarchist, author of numerous books and articles, dies. [see: Jan. 16]

1988 - Nicolas Calas (Νικόλαος Κάλας), pseudonym of Nikos Kalamaris (Νίκος Καλαμάρης; b. 1907), Greek-American poet, art critic, surrealist and anarchist, who also used the pseudonyms Nikitas Randos (Νικήτας Ράντος) and M. Spieros (Μ. Σπιέρος), dies. [see: May 27]

2004 - Alan Barlow (b. 1928), British trade unionist and anarcho-syndicalist, arrested, charged and imprisoned in 1969 for his role in the 1st of May Group bombing of the Francoist Banco de Bilbao in London, dies. [see: Mar. 28]
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)