1895 - Gil Bel Mesonada (d. 1949), Spanish militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, writer, journalist, novelist and avant-garde arts theorist, born. On January 1, 1929 created a Biblioteca Popular in Utebo and creating a radical avant garde manifesto, printed on red and black paper. In 1930 he was editor of the anarchist journal 'Cultura y Acción' (Culture and Action) and published an article entitled 'Propositos', which is considered to be the first statement on the theoretical principles of the plastic arts issued in Catalonia. During the Civil War, he organised the Sindicato de Espectáculos (Entertainment Union) and created the anarchist colony at Torrelodones (Madrid), to which he invited Luis Buñuel. Following Franco's victory, he remined in Spain, working under the pseudonym of Vicente Gil for the film distributor and publisher UFILMS and as editor of 'Fermina Bonilla'. He also wrote under various other pseudonyms including Fray Luzbel, Luzbel (Lucifer) and G. Bellini on publications such as 'El Comunista', 'La Democracia', 'La Gaceta Literaria' (Literary Gazette), 'Lucha Social' (Social Control), 'Nueva Senda' (New Path), 'Pluma Aragonesa' (Aragonese Pen), 'Revista de la Casa de América-Galicia' (Journal of the House America-Galician), etc.. He is the author of 'El Último Atentado' (The Last Bombing; 1922), 'Nazarenos de Violencia' (Nazarene of Violence; 1923), 'Voces Interiores' (Inner Voices; 1923), 'Delicadeza' (Delicacy; 1923), 'Abajo lo Burgués' (Down with the Bourgeois; 1932), 'Fuego en el Mar' (Fire at Sea; 1942), amongst others.

[C] 1906 - Missak Manouchian (d. 1944), French-Armenian poet, a militant communist in the MOI (Main d'Œuvre Immigrée or Immigrant Workers Movement), and military commissioner of the FTP-MOI (Francs-Tireurs et Partisans de la Main d'Œuvre Immigrée; Partisan Irregular Riflemen of the MOI) in the Paris region, born in Adıyaman (now in southeastern Turkey). Manouchian's father died during the Armenian Genocide of 1915, and , with his mother dying soon afterwards, he and his brother, Karabet, now orphaned, joined the stream of Armenian refugees heading south into the French protectorate of Syria. In an orphanage there they learned the French language, carpentry and other manual skills. They remained until they were able to secure passage to Marseilles in 1925. In Paris Missak took a job as a lathe operator at a Citroën plant and joined the CGT (Confédération Générale du Travail). He also began writing poetry and with his Armenian friend Kégham Atmadjian, who used the pseudonym of Séma, founded two literary magazines, 'Tchank' (Effort) and 'Mechagouyt' (Culture). With the outbreak of war, in September 1939 Manouchian was evacuated from Paris as a foreigner. After the defeat of June 1940, he returned to occupied Paris and was arrested on June 22, 1941, by the Germans in an anti-Communist round-up in Paris. Interned in a prison camp at Compiègne, he was eventually released without charge due to the efforts of his wife. He was then the political chief of the Armenian section of the underground MOI until February 1943, when Manouchian transferred to the FTP-MOI, where he made his name commanding three detachments, totalling about 50 fighter. The Manouchian group, as it became known, is credited with the assassination on September 28, 1943, of General Julius Ritter, the assistant in France to Fritz Sauckel, head of forced labour under the German STO (Service du Travail Obligatoire) in Nazi-occupied Europe, and carrying out around thirty successful attacks on German interests from August to November 1943. However, the efforts of the Special Brigade No. 2 of General Intelligence eventually led to the complete dismantling of the FTP-MOI of Paris by mid-November 1943. On the morning of November 16, 1943, Manouchian was arrested in his headquarters at Évry-Petit Bourg. He and the other FTP-MOI fighters were tortured for information, and eventually handed over to the Germans' Geheime Feldpolizei (GFP). The 23 were given a 1944 show trial for propaganda purposes before execution. Manouchian and 21 of his comrades were shot at Fort Mont-Valérien near Paris on February 21, 1944.
Following the executions, the Germans printed 15,000 propaganda posters on red background paper, the notorious 'Affiche Rouge', featuring the photos of ten of the dead, each within its own black medallion. The central photo was of Manouchian and had the inscription: "Armenian gang leader, 56 bombings, 150 dead, 600 wounded". Aimed at portraying the MOI (and the Résistance in general) as criminal, murderous foreigners who were a danger to law-abiding, cooperative citizens, they were defaced with the words "Morts pour la France!"

[CC] 1908 - Lou Kenton (d. 2012), English printer, potter, communist and anti-fascist, born in Stepney, east London, to Jewish Ukrainian refugees. He joined the Communist party in 1929 against the backdrop of rampant anti-Semitism in the East End. In the 1930s, he was a printer in Fleet Street, convenor of the Printing and Allied Trades Anti-Fascist Movement and was one of those heckling at the Blackshirts' rally at Olympia on June 7, 1934, and was in the thick of things during the battle of Cable Street two years later. In 1937, he volunteered as an International Brigades ambulance driver, distributed supplies, helped evacuate Basque children and raise funds back in Britain. His first wife, Lillian, an Austrian refugee, also went to Spain to work as a nurse. During WWII, he worked on a whaler in the south Atlantic but was later badly injured in a bombing raid back in Britain and was hospitalised for two years. After the war, he worked as an organiser for the Communist party in London, and helped run the ex-servicemen's squatting movement. Following the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, he left the CPGB and joined the Labour party. In retirement he found a new career, as a prolific maker of commemorative pottery for unions and other organisations. In 2009, he was one of the IB veterans awarded Spanish citizenship. When he died in 2012, aged 104, he was the oldest surviving British member of the International Brigades.

1923 - The action group Los Solidarios, including Durruti , Rafael Torres Escartín, Gregorio Suberviela and Eusebio Brau, attack the Bank of Spain in Gijón at noon, seizing 650,000 peseta but are intercepted by the Guardia Civil. Eusebio Brau and Rafael Torres Escartín cover the escape of their comrades but fail to escape themselves, being cornered the following day near Oviedo. Eusebio Brau is mortally wounded after they hold off the police for several hours but Torres Escartín is captured and tortured by the police before eventually being imprisoned.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: A two-day strike is called by the CNT in response to the killing of Isidro Floria Sánchez by the Guardia Civil the previous day. The strike, which would last 4 days, was characterised by numerous acts of sabotage and armed clashes with the Guardia Civil and the army, which the government had sent in along with cavalry units to guard government buildings, banks, Telefónica premises and the Central Market. The army and police fire on strikers on a number of occasions.
Strikes and sabotage spread across the country to town and cities including Cadiz, Huelva, Teruel, San Sebastián, Pozoblanco, Zamora, and Criptana. [see: Aug. 31]

1931 - In Valencia, during a waiters' strike, the CNT attacks premises that remain open.

1937 - The first issue of the newspaper 'L'Espagne Antifasciste', "Organe trimestriel au service de la Révolution Espagnole", is published in Bordeaux. A collaboration between Paul Lapeyre, Jean Barrué and Robert Louzon, some of its articles are published in Spanish. In early 1938, it merges with 'L'Espagne Nouvelle'.

1938 - Council of Ministers revokes the citizenship of Jews granted after January 1, 1919, and requires Jews to move from certain areas. Tomorrow children are excluded from registering in schools and teachers excluded from the Academies and the Institutes of sciences, letters and arts.

1939 - Germany invades Poland, precipitating World War II.

1941 - Jiří Orten (Jiří Ohrenstein; b. 1919), Czech poet and nephew of the anarchist poet Josef Rosenzweig-Moir, dies 2 days after being knocked down in a Prague street by a German ambulance and refused hospital treatment as a Jew. [see: Aug. 30]

1944 - Warsaw Uprising; The 104 Kompania Związku Syndykalistów Polskich (Company 104 of the Union of Polish Syndicalists) is formed in Warsaw district of Old Town on August 1, 1944, on the first day of the Uprising, as part of Company Róg (Horn) of the Northern Group (Grupa 'Północ') of the Armia Krajowa (AK; Home Army). It fought throughout the Uprising and amongst the last armed group left defending the barricades from the advancing Nazis - many argue that the AK deliberately exposed the fighters to almost certain capture or death after they had withdrawn from the Old Town. However, the last 70-80 fighters managed to withdraw from the area in late August, escaping through the sewage canals to the Warszawa-Śródmieście .
1909 - Heinz Harro Max Wilhelm Georg Schulze-Boysen (d. 1942), German officer and anti-Nazi Resistance fighter, who was executed for his part in the activities of the (Nazi named) Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, born. In 1928, he joined the Jungdeutscher Orden, a youth organization in the Weimar Republic and the Studentenverbindung Albingia student organisation. He studied law in Freiburg (Baden-Württemberg), and Berlin, without finishing and, by 1930, was a supporter of the intellectual-nationalistic group, the Volksnationale Reichsvereinigung (People's National Imperial Union). The same year, he became editor of Franz Jung's left-liberal anti-fascist 'Der Gegner' (The Enemy) and in 1932 he organized the Treffen der revolutionären Jugend Europas (Meeting of Europe's Revolutionary Youth). In April 1933, when the offices of 'Der Gegner' were destroyed by Brown Shirt thugs, Schulze-Boysen was beaten up and had swastikas carved into his flesh. In May 1933 he began pilot training, later working in the communications department of the Reich Air Transport Ministry. Beginning in 1935, he became part of a circle of left-leaning anti-fascists - artists, pacifists, and Communists - who published anti-fascist writings amongst other activities. In 1936, Schulze-Boysen made contact with Arvid Harnack and his circle, and also with the Communists Hilde and Hans Coppi (widely known as the Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) group. In July 1942, the group's radio messages were intercepted and decoded, and on August 31, Harro and his wife Libertas Schulze-Boysen were arrested by the Gestapo. They were sentenced to death on December 19 and executed three days later at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin.

1923 - Following yesterday's bank robbery by Los Solidarios, Rafael Torres Escartín, a member of the anarchist Los Solidarios, is arrested and tortured by the police. He manages to escape, but is later recaptured.

1923 - In the same firefight that results in Rafael Torres Escartín's capture, foundry worker and fellow anarchist Eusebio Brau (b. unknown) is mortally wounded.

1941 - All Jews over the age of 6 in the German territories are ordered to wear the yellow star when in public.

[C] 1962 - With their planned march from Victoria Park Square to Shoreditch banned, Oswald Mosley's Union Movement go ahead with their meeting. However, it would collapse under a hail of stones, eggs and fruit, and resulted in over 40 arrests. Mr Jeffrey Hamm started the meeting with a few supporters. When Mosley arrived about an hour later, the crowd had increased and eggs were being thrown. He climbed onto the speaker's 'platform' - a lorry - and spoke for two minutes, but his speech was drowned by shouts of "Six million Jews! Belsen, down with Mosley!" Then the police ordered the meeting to close. As Mosley moved away the crowd advanced towards his car and hammered on the windows with their fists. He was followed by his supporters, mainly teenagers, in the speakers lorry. Five hundred police cleared the Park and forty persons were arrested. It was the fourth Mosley rally broken up by angry crowds since June 22.

1962 - At the same time that Mosley was hold his meeting In Victoria Park, the British National Party meeting, which was planned for Ridley Road, had to be held a quarter of a mile away at Hertford Road. This is because Yellow Star Movement members had jumped the BNP pitch early in the day, to hold a marathon filibuster meeting with 136 speakers. The Hertford Road BNP meeting was met with strong opposition by a large crowd of mostly Jewish people, and the speech by John Bean, the party's acting secretary, was largely inaudible ddue to loud heckling. Bean, who was guarded by mounted policemen, said his speaker system had been 'smashed' and a Land Rover had been wrecked. Two of his supporters stood in front of him with bandaged heads resulting in their earlier failed attempt to retake the Ridley Road pitch and were subsequently attacked in Hertford Rd. by 400 anti-fascists, including 62 Group members. [PR]

[A] 1964 - Stuart Christie and Fernando Carballo Blanco are sent to prison for planning to assassinate Franco during a Real Madrid football game, after Christie is arrested with a rucksack full of plastic explosives. Charged with Banditry and terrorism and tried by a drumhead court martial within two weeks of their arrest, Carballo gets 30 years and Christie 20.

1973 - John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (b. 1892), English writer, poet, and professor, known for his literary works, 'The Hobbit' and 'The Lord of the Rings', dies. [see: Jan. 3]

1979 - RAR/ANL Carnival Brockwell Park, London. Aswad, Stiff Little Fingers and Verdict on the bill.

1984 - Manos Katrakis (b. 1908), Greek theatre and film actor, who fought with the EAM/ELAS communist anti-fascist resistance during WWII and refused to sign a declaration of repentance during the Greek Civil War of 1946-49, dies. [see: Aug. 14]

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: St. Louis County Police and Missouri State Highway Patrol arrest more than a dozen people, including Mary Moore, a freelance journalist who has worked for CNN. Protesters are charged with offences including failure to comply with police, noise ordinance violations and resisting arrest. In court they have to wear Guantanamo-style orange jumpsuits.
[C] 1899 - Wilhelm (or Vilmos) Stepper-Tristis (d. unknown), Hungarian novelist, journalist, literary critic, communist and anti-fascist, who joined the French Résistance and is presumed to have died in a concentration camp, born. [expand]

1920 - In Spezia, nearly all the factories have been occupied and are under workers' control. [see: Sep. 2]

1921 - Italian anarchist Giuseppe Morelli is attacked by a group of Royal Guards and Fascists in Piombino whilst putting up Arditi del Popolo posters against the Patto di Pacificazione (Pact of Pacification), the peace treaty between Fascists and Socialists. A Deputy Commissioner of Police shoots him dead. During the night, in an attempt to pre-empt an anarchist backlash, the police raid homes and workplaces (during night shifts), arresting more than 200 comrades. Having eliminated the most politically active and militant anarchist trades unionists, the fascists understood that this was the time to launch their attack. Having attacked the Camera del Lavoro (Trade Union hall) and the printshop of the regional socialist newspaper 'La Fiamma', and then headed towards the Camera Confederale (Trade Union headquarters), they were intercepted by a patrol of young anarchists, who were soon reinforced by groups of workers, and the fascists had no choice but to surrender to the police in order to escape a severe dose of working class justice.

1923 - Foundry worker and anarchist guerilla Eusebio Brau (b. unknown), who was mortally wounded in the same firefight yesterday that resulted in Rafael Torres Escartín's capture, dies of his wounds.

1923 - Mario Castagna (1903-unknown), an exiled Italian anarchist militant and anti-fascist, is confronted in Paris by a group of fascists. Defending himself from attack, Castagna pulls a pistol and shoots dead one of the attackers. He is sentenced to 7 years in prison on June 28, 1924, despite it clearly being a case of self-defence.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: Clashes continue in Zaragoza and across the country. [see: Aug. 31]

1931 - Insurrectionary general strike is launched in Barcelona in protest against the treatment of political prisoners. [3rd-4th] Police storm local CNT offices but only sicceed in occupying the building workers' HQ after a long siege. In L'Hospitalet (Barcelona) the church of San Ramón is torched. Police actions against workers result in several deaths.

1938 - Barthélemy De Ligt (b. 1883), Dutch anarcho-pacifist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Jul. 17]

1940 - Eduardo Hughes Galeano, Uraguayan libertarian writer, novelist and journalist, born. Author of 'Días y Noches de Amor y de Guerra' (Days and Nights of Love and War; 1982).

1942 - Łachwa Ghetto Uprising: The ghetto in Łachwa, which was established on April 4, 1942, was massively overcrowded and the meagre food allowance for Jews in the ghetto drove them to seek food outside of the ghetto, something punishable by death. In August and September 1941, news of massacres in the surrounding towns spread in Łachwa. Beginning in January 1942, Jewish youth began organising underground groups led by Yitzhak Rochczyn and aided by Dov Lopatyn, head of the ghetto’s Judenrat. On September 3, 1942, the Germans informed Dov Lopatyn that the ghetto was to be liquidated, and ordered the ghetto inhabitants to gather for deportation, promising that the members of Judenrat, the ghetto doctor and 30 labourers (whom Lopatyn could choose personally) would be spared if they cooperated. Lopatyn refused the offer, reportedly responding: "Either we all live, or we all die."
When the Germans entered the ghetto, Lopatyn set fire to the Judenrat headquarters, which was the signal to commence the uprising. Other buildings were also set on fire. Members of the Ghetto underground attacked the Germans as they entered the ghetto, using axes, sticks, Molotov cocktails and their bare hands. This battle is believed to represent the first ghetto uprising of the war. Approximately 650 Jews were killed in the fighting or in the flames, with another 500 or so taken to the pits and shot. Six German soldiers and eight German and Ukrainian (or Belarusian) policemen were also killed. The ghetto fence was breached and approximately 1,000 Jews were able to escape, of whom about 600 were able to take refuge in the Prypeć (Pripet) Marshes. Rochczyn was shot and killed as he jumped into the Smierc River, after killing a German soldier with an axe to the head. Although an estimated 120 of the escapees were able to join partisan units, most of the others were eventually tracked down and killed. Approximately 90 residents of the ghetto survived the war. Dov Lopatyn joined a communist partisan unit and was killed on February 21, 1944, by a landmine.

1977 - A mass paint-out of racist slogans around Warwick and Leamington Spa planned to follow a called by the Leamington 4 Defence Committee [see: Feb. 17], the support group for 4 local anti-fascists who are awaiting trail on charges of criminal damage for painting out an earlier racist slogan ["Wogs out! Had enough Whitey?" (sic)], is called off after Warwick police and Council pre-empt the action and paint-out the offending graffiti themselves. Six local British Movement members, led by local neo-Nazi Michael Cole who was responsible for the "Wogs out!" graffiti along with the notorious Robert Relf, quickly make themselves scarce as the 150 protesters march into Warwick market Place.

1993 - Baltasar Lobo (b. 1910), Spanish artist, illustrator, sculptor and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 22]
1882 - Leonhard Frank (d. 1961), German Expressionist novelist, short story writer, playwright, libertarian pacifist and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. A regular visitor to the Monte Verità libertarian writers colony at Ascona in Switzerland, he was heavily influenced by the ideas of the psychoanalyst Otto Gross and became close to the likes of Franz Jung, Karl Otten, Oskar Maria Graf and Erich Mühsam.

1897 - Ramón Sempau i Barril (1871-1909), Catalan lawyer, writer and journalist attempts to assassinate Lieutenant Narciso Portas, 'el botxí de Montjuïc', chief torturer at the Montjuïc prison. Editor of 'El Divulio'(The Flood) and a member of the Catalan modernist group Colla del Foc Nou (League of New Fire), he was influenced by republicanism and anarchism and, at the start of the Procés de Montjuïc in 1896, he was forced to flee to France to avoid standing trial for his criticism of the actions of the Spanish authorities in Cuba. After visiting London and Brussels returned to Barcelona, ​​where, on September 3 1897, he attempted to shoot Narciso Portas, head of the policia judicial in Barcelona, specialising in the repression of the anarchism, and primarily responsible for torture at Montjuïc. His poor marksmanship and ancient pistol led to failure and he was captured. Sentenced to death before a court martial, his case was eventually moved into the civil jurisdiction, following the Liberals' victory in the 1989 general election, where he was acquitted (though he got two months and a day for using a false name). He was author of 'El capitán Dreyfus. Un proceso célebre' (1899); 'Los victimarios. Notas relativas al proceso de Montjuïc' (1900); and the novel 'Esclavas del oro (Trata de blancas)' (Handmaids of gold (Trafficking of whites); 1902).

[C] 1910 - Heinz Kiwitz (d. 1938), German Expressionist artist and anti-fascist, born. The son of a book printer, he was exposed to the graphic arts from an early age and in 1927 began studying art at the Folkwang University of the Arts in Essen, where he joined the Assoziation revolutionärer bildender Künstler Deutschlands (Association of Revolutionary Visual Artists). Kiwitz soon put his prefered medium, the woodcut, to work for the anti-fascist cause, satirising the Nazis in a series of illustrations which included his famous caricatures of Hitler, Goebbels and Göring and his depiction of the Nazi book burnings. It was inevitable then that when the Nazis seized power he would be one of their targets. Kiwitz' studio was ransacked by the Sturmabteilung (SA) and he was forced to leave Berlin. At the same time, his communist girlfriend was arrested and Kiwitz’s arrest followed too in the summer of 1933, thrown in Kemna concentration camp for "antifascist activity" and having produced "work critical of society". Following a transfer to Börgermoor concentration camp, he was released in June 1934 and abandoned his political themes for a while, illustrating books and book covers including 'Don Quichotte' (1934), William Faulkner's 'Licht im August' (Pylon; Light in August; 1935) and 'Wendemarke' (1935), and Hans Fallada's 'Märchen vom Stadtschreiber, der aufs Land flog' (1936).
Having realised he remained under threat of rearrest despite his abandonment of public criticism of the Nazis, he managed to flee to Copenhagen but his three month residence permit was not renewed and he left for Paris. There he renewed his anti-fascist activities, joining the Union des Artistes Allemands Libres, which organised an exhibition entitled Fünf Jahre Hitler-Diktatur (Five Years of Hitler Dictatorship) in a local union hall. His contributions for the exhibition and its catalogue, 'Cinq Ans de Dictateure Hitlerienne', were had using pieces of lino taken from the flooring under his bed. He also produced his famous woodcut of the bombing of Guernica in this period as well as reproducing some of the early anti-Nazi works that he had destroyed following his release from the camps in 1934. In August 27, 1937, published 'Absage eines deutschen Künstlers an Hitler' (Renunciation of Hitler by a German Artist), an open letter to Hitler, in the German language ‘Pariser Tageszeitung':

"One Who Does Not Want To Be Praised In The Brown Press

A young German artist, Heinz Kiwitz, presents to the public the following findings:

The Berlin art exhibition at the Haus der Kunst on Königsplatz was proclaimed by the Nazi Party and the 'Reich Commissioner for Artistic Design' Schweitzer-Mjölnir as paving the way.
Without asking me or obtaining my consent, woodcuts of mine were put on exhibit. A portion of the coordinated Berlin press dedicated much space to me in the arts section, which now, instead of offering art criticism, treads lock-step. They have held me up as one of the most important artists of the 'new Germany'.
In addition, is this fact: I went into exile from Germany in January 1937. I do not wish to be recognized by those who rule Germany today, who lock up art in military barracks and have it kicked into shape by combat boots. Everything in me rebels against the violent abuse of art that is to mask the hideous face of war.
If of necessity the fascist newspapers are forced to admit that I am an artist of the people, it is not a compliment for me, rather it is to be judged as an admission of the bankruptcy of little Goebbels' art factories. For I myself deliberately and always have repudiated the un-German destruction of art, which chases and hunts the true artist abroad, declares every house painter a genius if only he has had the Party membership in his pocket long enough and kowtows before the dictator. It is precisely this adulteration from above from which the authentic, great German art arose as protest, from Riemenschneider to Schiller's Don Carlos to Lehmbruck and Barlach. My populism makes me belong with Nolde and Barlach, against whom the Schwarze Korps is leading a brutal campaign, whose works they remove from galleries and whose exhibitions were closed by the Gestapo because they unswervingly carry on the tradition in the path of Albrecht Dürer and Matthias Grünewald.
At the cradle of German art stood a sculptor, Tilmann Riemenschneider, who, because his heart beat with the hunted, rebelling peasants, was so harmed in torture by the rich tyrants, that by the end of his life, he could no longer wield a chisel.
The German artist Wilhelm Lehmbruck, in 1914, as a socialist, refused the same militarists his service in war, who today have declared total war on free art.
Guernica, concentration camps and war against religion – what can German art create with this dance of death of human culture, other than to swing the scourge against this forced march into barbarism? Desperately, they search their Party card file for a small talent and cannot find it. They are prepared to pay any price, believe they can buy Serious Geniuses for money just like they acquire mansions and cars. True art grows from love of life, human kindness and fruitful unfoldment. Art always goes against tyranny and with liberty. Death, hate and deprivation are the negative fundamental values of fascism. They have proclaimed the Führerprinzip and eradicated freedom of thought, declared the people to be "disciple" minors without rights, tributary masses.
But German art grows out of the people, with the people, for the people, and against coercion, amateurish capriciousness and dictators. The genuine artist only wants to be recognized by that Germany which the greatest German artists long for, a true democratic people's republic of Germany. Because for us, that means freedom of thought, creative freedom, artistic freedom."

Heinz Kiwitz
Pariser Tageszeitung’, August 27, 1937

In 1938, he went to Spain to fight against Franco in the Spanish Civil War, where he apparently died sometime during the Battle of Ebro (exact date unknown).

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: Clashes continue in Zaragoza and across the country. The CNT calls a meeting in the Frontón Zaragozano for 16:00 presided over by Mariano Andrés and attended by several thousand workers at which it is agreed to returned to work whilst demanding that the governor frees all prisoners and opens all trade union premisess within 48 hours. [see: Aug. 31]

1931 - Insurrectionary general stike in Barcelona. [3rd-4th] Heavy fighting in Barcelona concludes with one dead and 17 injured.

[BB] 1934 - Jan Švankmajer, Czech Surrealist filmmaker, animator and artist, born. His themes are: freedom versus oppression, anarchy versus authoritarianism; with Svankmajer always questioning the difference between the lunatics and the people running the asylum - a mix of agitprop and Surrealism, which gradually brought him into conflict with the authorities and he was banned from making films in 1972 following his film 'Leonardo’s Diary'. Returning to literary themes in 1979 helped eased the restrictions, though the political satire crept back and led to many of his later films again being suppressed. Since 1964 many of his films have been made in association with his wife Eva Švankmajerová including he major films 'Alice' (Něco z Alenky; 1987) and 'Little Otik' (Otesánek; 2000).
“I’m an anarchist. I insist on my own creation..."

1939 - Following yesterday's occupation of Częstochowa by the Germans and false accusations that Jews had shot at Germans, troops begin a 3 day action known as 'Bloody Monday', killing 300 Jews.

1956 - Francisco Tortosa (b. 1880), Spanish-Mexican anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and painter, dies.

1982 - Biagio 'Gino' Cerrito (b. 1922), Italian militant anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist historian, dies. [see: Feb. 11]

1989 - Georges Simenon (b. 1903), Belgian author, creator of Inspector Maigret novels, dies. Though not an activist, during an interview he stated that he considered himself an anarchist from the age of 16: "Je me considère comme un anarchiste non violent, car l'anarchie n'est pas nécessairement violente, celui qui s'en réclame étant un homme qui refuse tout ce qu'on veut lui faire entrer de force dans la tête ; il est également contre ceux qui veulent se servir de lui au lieu de lui laisser sa liberté de penser." (I consider myself as a nonviolent anarchist, because anarchy is not inevitably violent, it does not claim that a man that refuses to change will be hit around the head; it is also against those who want to manipulate instead of allowing for the freedom of thought.) [see: Feb. 13]
1905 - Arthur Koestler (d. 1983) Hungarian-born British novelist, journalist and critic, born. In 1931 Koestler joined the Communist Party of Germany but disillusioned by Stalinism, he resigned in 1938. During the Spanish Revolution, he was sent by the Comintern to spy on Frenco's headquarters disguised as a right-wing Hungarian journalist working for the 'News Chronicle'. However, he came under suspicion and was arrested in February 1937 and held under a sentence of death in a Seville jail. He narrowly escaped execution because of a prisoner exchange the following year, writing about his experiences in 'Spanish Testament' (1937). His first novel, 'The Gladiators' (1939), was based upon the Spartacus slave revolt, which Koestler used as an allegory for the corruption of socialism by Stalin. He followed thus up in 1940 with the novel 'Darkness at Noon', an anti-totalitarian work, which further reflected his break with Stalinism and Communist Party and gained him international fame. In 1940 he was interned as a political prisoner in Le Vernet Concentration Camp by the Vichy government until January 1940. After his release he moved to England and wrote his first book in English, 'The Scum of the Earth' (1941), an account of his experiences of internment.
Koestler's oeuvre covered everything from novels, a play (the 1945 'Twilight Bar') and autobiography to political journalism and writings on the paranormal and the use of hallucinogens. Probably the least known of his works is the trilogy of sex encyclopaedias which he agreed to write in the early 30s in order to support himself, and which were published under the titles: 'The Encyclopœdia of Sexual Knowledge' (1934); 'Sexual Anomalies and Perversions, Physical and Psychological Development, Diagnoses and Treatment' (1936), both by the pseudonymous "Drs. A. Costler, A. Willy, and Others"; and 'The Practice of Sex' (1940).
"I think most historians will agree that the part played by impulses of selfish, individual aggression in the holocausts of history was small; first and foremost, the slaughter was meant as an offering to the gods, to king and country, or the future happiness of mankind. The crimes of Caligula shrink to insignificance compared to the havoc wrought by Torquemada. The number of victims of robbers, highwaymen, rapists, gangsters and other criminals at any period of history is negligible compared to the massive numbers of those cheerfully slain in the name of the true religion, just policy, or correct ideology ... the evils of mankind are caused, not by the primary aggressiveness of individuals, but by their self-transcending identification with groups whose common denominator is low intelligence and high emotionality ... The continuous disasters of man's history are mainly due to his excessive capacity and urge to become identified with a tribe, nation, church or cause, and to espouse its credo uncritically and enthusiastically, even if its tenets are contrary to reason, devoid of self-interest and detrimental to the claims of self-preservation ... We are thus driven to the unfashionable conclusion that the trouble with our species is not an excess of aggression, but an excess capacity for fanatical devotion." from 'The Ghost in the Machine' (1967)

1907 - Henri Storck (d. 1999), Belgian author, film-maker, documentarist, actor, Surrealist and anarchist, born. He co-founded the Cinémathèque Royale de Belgique (Royal Belgian Film Archive) and was an actor in Jean Vigo's 'Zéro de Conduite' (1933), playing the curé.

1919 - In Barcelona, Commissioner Manuel Bravo Portillo, head of the employers' pistoleros and who led the band of gunmen on July 17 that kidnapped and killed the militant centista Pau Sabater i Lliró aka 'el Tero', is found dead - riddled with bullets. The authorities react by immediately declaring a state of siege that allowed numerous arrests and the closure of the newspaper 'Solidaridad Obrera'.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: In Tolosa printing of the weekly 'Tradición Vasca' is suspended.

[C] 1936 -24-year-old Federico 'Taino' Borrell García (b. 1845) dies. Valencian anarquista, member of the FAI, made famous by the iconic photo 'The Fallen Soldier' (aka 'Loyalist Militiaman at the Moment of Death, Cerro Muriano, September 5, 1936') by Robert Capa, who captured his moment of death. Later attempts to discredit Capa and the photograph have themselves been discredited.
Founder of the local branch of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth) in Alcoi (Alcoy), and took part in the widespread sabotage carried out during the October insurrection by Asturian miners and others against the inclusion of fascists from the Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas (Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups). At the beginning of the fascist uprising, he took part in the storming of the infantry barracks in Alcoi and joined the local Republican militia, the Columna Alcoiana, led by the local anarchist activist, Enrique Vaño Nicomedes.
On the morning of September 5, 1936, Federico was one of fifty militia who arrived at the village of Cerro Muriano (Cordoba) to reinforce the militia’s frontline against the forces of Varela. In the afternoon Federico was defending the artillery battery in the rear of the detachment when Francoist troops infiltrated behind the lines and started shooting from behind as well as in front. Federico was shot at about 5pm and died instantly. According to records, he was the only member of the column to die in fighting that day.
In his honour and that of another anarchist from Alcoi, Juan Ruescas Ángel, who died on September 25, 1936 at Espejo, a militia column was named 'Ruescas-Taino'.
Much noise has been made since then about the authenticity of the shot(s), especially since a claim by José Manuel Susperregui in 2009 that the photo's were in fact taken near Espejo, 30 miles south of Cerro Muriano, something the likes of the Daily Mail and telegraph enthusiastically publicised. However, the arguments put forward by Capa's biographer Richard Whelan and the extensive work of José Manuel Serrano Esparza has effectively debunked this [see links below]. A recently discovered (in 2013) audio recording of Capa talking in 1947 about the taking of the shot tells a different different story. Make up your own mind.

1936 - Gustave Kahn (b. 1859), French Symbolist poet, novelist, playwright, art critic, Dreyfusard and anarchist, dies. [see: Dec. 21]

1954 - Theodor Bartošek (b. 1877), Czech lawyer, freethinker, anarchist fellow traveller and then communist politician, dies. [see: Nov. 4]

1962 - A bomb is found outside a luxury apartment in a development in Dolphin Square where many Jews and several Israelis live. Officials indicated it appeared the bomb had been placed by British fascists.

1972 - Juan Puig Elias (b. 1898), Spanish teacher and militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Jul. 30]

1986 - Maurice Pernette (b. 1913), French anarchist, small press publisher, poet and author, dies. [see: Jul. 13]
1892 - Manuel Pérez Feliu (d. 1940), Spanish cabinetmaker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, born. Member of the Sindicat de la Fusta of the CNT, in May 1921 he was arrested, along with Bernardino Alonso García (El Porra), for having allegedly place a firecracker in a striking basketmaking workshop on April 1. In 1932, he was arrested and deported to Villa Cisneros, Rio de Oro, and then to Fuerteventura in the Canary Islands. He was also chair of the Faros Agrupació Pro Cultura in Barcelona. In January 1934, he was arrested in Barcelona with 23 comrades at a clandestine meeting and was not released until April because he was refusing to pay a fine of 20,000 pesetas for possession of explosives and demanding a trial instead. Following the fascist coup in July 1936, he was appointed to the CNT representative to the Guardia Popular Antifascista (Brigadas Populares de Policía) in Valencia, vice president of the Consell Provincial de Seguretat (Provincial Security Council) and the Tribunal Especial de Justícia del Comitè Executiu Popular (Comitè de Salvació Pública) (Special Court of Justice of the People's Executive Committee (Committee Public Safety)). During the war he was also a member of the East Regional Committees of the CNT and the Iberian Anarchist Federation (FAI). In 1938, he worked on the Valencia newspaper 'Fragua Social'. That same year, he stood in for Torres Domingo Maeso, performing the duties of mayor of Valencia, replacing him permanently in 1939. With the triumph of Franco, he was arrested and locked up in a concentration camp Albatera, along side his friend Manuel Pérez Fernández. Identified by the fascist authorities, he was imprisoned in Valencia. Tried and sentenced to death, Manuel Pérez Feliu was shot on the August 27 1940 at the Paterna camp along with 20 other detainees.

1911 - André Arru (Jean-René Saulière; d. 1999), French anarchist, pacifist and underground organiser during WWII, born. Already an anti-militarist in 1931 when he did his compulsory military service, he encountered anarchism for the first time whilst assisting at a conference where Sébastien Faure was speaking. He went on to particiapte in the anti-fascist solidarity with Spanish anarchists and discovered Stirner's 'The Ego and His Own'. At the start of WWII, he went underground, moving from Bordeaux to Marseilles, the city of his birth. There he helped form an anarchist group, which included Voline and one Marcel-André Arru who gave him his army discharge papers, allowing him to change is name from Saulière to Arru. He also participated in the underground Résistance, producing propaganda and helping hide those being pursued by authorities.
Post-WWII, Arru became the general secretary for the French SIA (International Antifascist Solidarity) and in the 1950s he participates in the establishment of the Fédération Anarchiste. In addition to his pacifist engagement, he was an active organiser of the Libre Pensée and the publication of the quarterly review 'La Libre Pensée des Bouches-du-Rhône' (1969-1980). In addition, he was a member, since 1983, of the ADMD (an association for the right to die in dignity) and, in 1999 at the age of 87, he voluntarily ended his life, refusing to subject himself to the risks and dependency of advancing age and disease.

1916 - Benito Milla Navarro (d. 1987), Spanish militant anarchist propaganist, editor and anti-fascist combatant, born. A member of the libertarian movement in the Alicante area, he moved to Barcelona in the early 1930s where he became a well-known activist. A member of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias, in July 1936 he joined the Durruti Column, organising FIJL groups at the front as the organisation's secretary within the Column. In 1938, he returned to Barcelona, ​​becoming the manager of 'Ruta', the Libertarian Youth's newspaper and served as a delegate of the 121st Brigade's FIJL groups at the 2nd national congress of the FIJL in Valencia. Exiled in France during the retirada, he was interned in various camps before settling in Marseille during the Occupation and participating in the reorganisation of movement. After the liberation, he was elected general secretary of the FIJL in exile in April 1945. At he 2nd Congress in March 1946, he was appointed Secretario de relaciones internacionales and took over editing 'Ruta', published weekly in Toulouse and Paris. During this period he was also firmly opposed to the tactics of the action groups of the Mouvement Libertaire de Résistance (MLR). In 1949 he left France for America and, in 1951, he moved to Montevideo where he founded and led several journals - 'Cuadernos Internacionales', with Nicolas Sanchez Albornoz and Germinal Gracia, 'Deslinde' (1956-61) and 'Temas' (1965-67) - and collabortaed on the periodicals 'En Marcha' and 'Accion'. In 1958, he founded the publishing house Alfa, which would publish more than 400 titles, and in 1968 he emigrated to Venezuela, where he founded the publishing houses Monte Ávila Editores and, in 1971, Nuevo Tiempo. He returned to Spain in 1977 after the death of Franco, becoming a well-known publisher and was appointed director in Barcelona of the publishers Editions Laia, where he promoted the publishing of many anarchist books.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: In Doña Mencia, the mayor leads an assault to the Guardia Civil post of the Civil Guard. Are five wounded, two of them policemen.
In the city of Toledo and in several towns in the province, six killed and forty wounded in anti-anarchist reprisals by the Communists.

[C] 1934 - In a speech in Bari, Mussolini mocks the racial doctrines of German National Socialism. Three years later, the spineless buffoon will adopt them himself.

1942 - The Nazis begin the deportation [September 6-21] of nearly 48,000 Jews from Warsaw to the Treblinka extermination camp.

1960 - The Manifeste des 121: Déclaration sur le droit à l’insoumission dans la guerre d’Algérie (Declaration on the right of insubordination in the Algerian War), an open letter signed by 121 intellectuals calling on the French government and public opinion to recognise the Algerian War as a legitimate struggle for independence, denouncing the use of torture by the French army, and calling for French conscientious objectors to the conflict to be respected by the authorities, is published in the magazine 'Vérité-Liberté'.
[ statements/Proclamation of the 121.htm]

1966 - Five nights of racial rioting begin in Atlanta. Stokely Carmichael arrested for "inciting riot" along with 15 others.

1976 - Gerardo Gatti Antuña (1931-1976?), Uruguayan anarchist militant and head of the Uruguayan graphic workers' union, is disappeared by the Argentine government. One of the founders and the first secretary of the Plenario Intersindical de Trabajadores - Convención Nacional de Trabajadores (PIT-CNT; Intersyndical Plenary of Workers - National Convention of Workers), a leader of Resistencia Obrero Estudiantil (ROE; Student Worker Resistance), the Federación Anarquista Uruguyaya (FAU) and the Partido por la Victoria del Pueblo (Party for the People's Victory).
He will be tortured in the Automotores Orletti, the clandestine detention and torture centre that operated in Buenos Aires, and an attempt made to ransom him for $2m, before his death (date unknown). [see: Apr. 4]
1859 - Paul Vigné d'Octon (Paul-Étienne Vigné; d. 1943), French physician, writer, poet, journalist, libertarian, rationalist, anticlerical, neo-Malthusian, freethinker and anti-colonialist, born.

1907 - Roberto Barreto Pedroso das Neves aka Ernst Izgur (d. 1981), Portuguese-born Brazilian writer, journalist, poet, historian, Freemason, Esperantist, graphologist, anarchist individualist, vegetarian and naturist, born. Having worked on the anarchist journals 'A Batalha' and 'O Libertario', and been persecuted by the Salazar police (13 arrests), he left Portugal in 1942 for Brazil. There he founded and led the Editora Germinal (Editions Germinal), which published anarchist books, and collaborated on the anarchist publications 'Relações Anarquistas', 'Acção Directa' and 'A Plebe'.
His works include the poetry collection 'Assim Cantava um Cidadão do Mundo - poemas que levaram o autor treze vezes aos cárceres do Santo Oficio de Salazar' (Just One Song of a World Citizen - poems that led the author thirteen times the prisons of Salazar's Inquisition; 1952) and the anti-religion polemic 'O Diário do Dr. Satã. Comentários subversivos às escorrências cotidianas da sifilização cristã' (The diary of Dr. Satan. Subversive comments on the daily seepage of christian syphilisation; 1954) [NB Satã was the name das Neves used when he joined the Masons].

[B] 1929 - Gil J. Wolman (born Gil Joseph; d. 1995), French filmmaker, writer, political activist and Internationale Lettriste, born. An active agent provocateur from an early age, by 24 he had been: a member of the Young Communists, journalist for the magazine 'Combat', drug trafficker in the Algiers Casbah, long-distance lorry driver from Greenland to Pompeii, merchant marine captain, published poet and accomplished knitter. In 1950, he and Isidor Isou developed the principles of Lettrisme
In February 1952, the showing of his second film 'L'Anticoncept' (1951), at a Letterist film screening causes a major scandal. His first experiment in his new 'Cinematochrone' process, abolishing images altogether in a violent flurry of black and white strobes projected on a weather balloon, and accompanied by a soundtrack of his poems, brief reflections and syncopated texts. 'L'Anticoncept' was banned by the French censors; its screening at the Cannes Film Festival the month after it was completed was only open to the press and the banning prompts Wolman to lead a systematic disruption of the Cannes Film Festival the Letterists and he is only saved by a police escort.
In June 1952, Wolman and Debord formed the Letterist International and co-write 'A User's Guide to Détournement' and 'Theory of the Dérive' (both 1956) and published in the Belgian surrealist review 'Les Lèvres Nues' (Naked Lips). In 1955, Wolman and Debord wrote 'Why Lettrism?', published in Potlatch no. 22, and Wolman went on to represent the Letterist International at the World Congress of Artists in Alba, Italy, establishing important links between the Letterist International and others (e.g. Asger Jorn and Pinot-Gallizio of the International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus) who would go on to collaborate on forming the Situationist International.
Other Wolman innovations include the devising of his 'Scotch Art' in 1963, a process which consists in tearing off bands of printed matter and using adhesive tape to reposition them on fabrics or wood. He later developed 'dühring dühring', 'decompositions' and finally 'depicted painting' in a long line of artistic innovations and genius - "genius is what we all have when we stop improving one thing in order to make something else. When we only refuse to have talent".

1936 - Communist Josep Renau is named Director General of Fine Arts by Jesus Hernández, Minister of Public Instruction in the government of Largo Caballero. One of the artists most heavily involved in the Civil War, Renau's duties included the safeguarding of the artistic heritage of Spain. He was in charge of evacuating from Madrid to Valencia the paintings in the Prado Museum, which were threatened by the bombings.

1943 - Plötzensee executions: During an air raid on Berlin in the night September 3-4, 1943, the blacked out Plötzensee prison was hit several times by Allied bombs and heavily damaged. As during every air raid, the prisoners remained locked in their cells without any defense against direct hits. Part of the large cell block building (House III) was destroyed. Fires broke out. Many of the cell doors were torn open by the force of the explosions, and in the general confusion four prisoners awaiting execution were able to escape. In early September of 1943, a total of about 300 prisoners sentenced to death were confined in Plötzensee awaiting the outcome of pending clemency proceedings. On September 3, 1943, immediately before the heavy air raid on Berlin, Hitler issued a complaint to the Reich Minister of Justice about the long time involved in completing clemency proceedings. The ministry was now intent on speeding up executions in Plötzensee even more. However, the execution shed was also hit in the air raid, and the guillotine was severely damaged and, the ministry contemplates having death sentences carried out at Wehrmacht target ranges by police or Wehrmacht firing squads.
However, the completion of clemency proceedings for convicted prisoners is greatly accelerated. The Reich Ministry of Justice receives the names of prisoners sentenced to death by telephone on September 7, 1943. As Justice Minister Otto Thierack is away on official business, his state secretary Curt Rothenberger reviews the cases and rules on the clemency proceedings without waiting for the usual depositions. In nearly every case, Rothenberger orders the sentence to be carried out and has the names forwarded to Plötzensee by telephone. In Plötzensee, executioner Ernst Reindel and his assistants prepare for the executions. In the evening, a Regional Court director representing the senior Reich prosecutor of the People's Court and a public prosecutor from the public prosecutor's office of the Regional Court, Berlin, arrive as enforcement supervisors. Because the guillotine has been destroyed, the prisoners are hanged on the back wall in groups of eight each. During the night of September 7-8, 1943, alone, 186 people die in this manner including six prisoners whose execution had not been ordered at all but are also "accidentally" hanged.

1949 - José Clemente Orozco (b. 1883), Mexican social realist painter, muralist and lithographer, dies. [see: Nov. 23]

1957 - Francisco Ballester Orovitg aka 'El Explorador' (b. 1920), Catalan carpernter, anarchist, anti-Franco guerrilla and Esperanto speaker, dies during a derailment of the Paris-Nîmes train. [see: Sep. 12]

1974 - 7,000 anti-fascists occupy Hyde Park in London, forcing the police to reroute a NF and Ulster Loyalist march. Other anti-fascists were at the assembly point for the NF and clashed with the fascists only to be arrested. [PR]

[C] 1986 - Operación Siglo XX: Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet survives an assassination attempt. His motorcade is ambushed by at least 12 rebel fighters of the Marxist guerilla group, the Frente Patriótico Manuel Rodríguez, as he made his way back from his country home to the Chilean capital. The fierce attack, using machine guns, rifles, bazookas and hand grenades, kills five of his bodyguards and wounds 11 more. Pinochet escapes with only minor injuries to his hand. The guerillas escape and Pinochet declares a 90-day "state of siege" - which gives him sweeping powers of detention and censorship.

2003 - Mikey Powell, a 38 years old father of three young children who at the time was suffering mental health problems, dies in police custody. Whilst trying to arrest Powell, the police deliberately drove their car at him, beat him with a baton, and sprayed him with four times the recommended amount of CS gas. He was restrained on the ground for more than a quarter of an hour by eight officers who, knowing he was injured, drove him to a police station rather than a hospital. He died within 4 minutes of arriving at Thornhill Road police station in Birmingham.

2014 - Anti-fascists clashed with CRS as they tried to reach a far-right anti-immigrant protest [including Sauvons Calais, Réseau d'Identité & Parti de la France] in Calais.
1897 - Yefim or Jefim Golyshev (Ефи́м Го́лышев; d. 1970), Ukrainian-born painter and composer, who was active mainly in Europe and was a member of the Dadaist Revolutionary Central Council alongside Huelsenbeck and Hausmann, born. One of the pioneers of twelve-tone composition.

1902 - Repression in Candela, Foggia of a demonstration against the excessive taxation and the abuses administrative. In total five dead and ten wounded are left on both sides.

1911 - The founding congress of the Confederacion Nacional del Trabajo (Sept. 8-10) occurs in the Palacio de Bellas Artes in Barcelona. Nearly 100 delegates created the framework for this anarcho-syndicalist organisation.

1918 - Teresa Turon Turon (d. unkown), Spainsh anarchist militant and feminist member of the Mujeres Libres group in the Pueblo Nuevo neighborhood of Barcelona, born.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: Strikes take place in the port of Gijón and in the mining area of León.

1939 - The Gómez Talón group - Salvador and Rafael Gómez Talón, Juan Baeza Delgado, José Tarín Marchuet, Fulgencio Rosaledo Martinez, Juan Tarrazón Hernando, Pascual López Laguarta, Genaro Solsona Ronda, Mario Marcelino Goyeneche, Manuel Benet Beltrán, Rafael Valverde Cerdán, Alfonso Martí González, Juan Pallarés Mena, Pilar López Xiprés, Dolores Tarín Marchuet, Anita López López, Donato Sánchez Heredia, José Gómez Bujes and Magdalena Farrés Cortina - are arrested. Numerous weapons and ammunition are seized at nº 83 rue Cerdeña.

[CC] 1941 - Melkestreiken (Milk strike): Following the announcement in early August by Nazi authorities of the introduction of milk rationing, cutting the daily litre bottle of milk, an essential subsidy for many families in a country where wages were so low when workers lost their daily workplace quota of milk, workers arriving on Monday morning found that the subsidy has now been cut completely. A strike broke out in Oslo among workers at the shipyard Akers mekaniske verksted and the Spigerverk industry site in Christiania as workers left their workplaces after breakfast.
By the 9th, the number of workers on strike was estimated to be 20-25,000, at around fifty industry sites and was especially strong in the steel industries. Reprisals by the Nazi authorities began, with about fifty workers at Akers mekaniske verksted being arrested. Throughout the day, workers at other enterprises were also arrested, leaving about 200 in German hands.
On the third day of the strike the German Reichskommissar Josef Terboven declared martial law in Oslo and the neighbouring municipality Aker. Two union leaders, Viggo Hansteen and Rolf Wickstrøm, were summarily sentenced to death by a court-martial, and immediately executed by a SS Sonderkommando. Later three other union leaders - Ludvik Buland, Harry Vestli and Josef Larsson - would also be sentenced to death, but their convictions were changed to imprisonment for life in German jails. Both Buland and Vestli later died in German prisons. The leadership of the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions also underwent a period of "Nazification", with members of the Fascist party Nasjonal Samling installed as leaders.

1943 - Italy formally surrendered to the Allies, though areas of central and northern Italy remained in the hands of the Germans and of the fascist Salo Republic.

[CCC] 1944 - Lela Carayannis (Λέλα Καραγιάννη; b. unknown), Greek grandmother and leader of the resistance/intelligence organisation known as 'Bouboulina' (Μπουμπουλίνας) is shot along with 71 of her followers and co-workers by Nazi execution squad in what is now the Diomideios Garden — the Botanical Garden now in the grounds of the University of Athens. The event came to be known as the Chaidari Massacre. Following the German invasion of Greece in April 1941, Lela began to organise safe house for Allied soldiers left behind after the evacuation, helping the wounded get treatment and setting up an underground railroad whereby they could be helped to escape either over the mountains or via fishing boat. Very quickly, she managed to get an organisation of over 150 volunteers from all over Greece willing to take part in the resistance. She formed them into intelligence units and later into assault teams to fight the invader. Her organisation was given the code-name 'Bouboulina' after her own great grandmother, the Greek heroine in the war of independence over 100 years earlier. She managed to plant members of her team in many German offices, including the local Kriegsmarine and Luftwaffe commands, and in the German and Italian high commands. She even managed to recruit agents from the enemy’s own ranks: disgruntled anti-Nazi German officers; Italian anti-fascists; and Germans who had married Greek women. The information they gathered on German army and ship movements, on enemy fortifications, and on movements of supplies and personnel was then to the Allied headquarters in the Middle East.
Unfortunately, after working undercover for nigh-on three years, a member of her organisation was caught and interrogated. This led the Germans to Lela and on July 11, 1944, she was arrested at the Red Cross Hospital where she had been taken after she became ill. On August 14, in the office of the Gestapo interrogator Fritz Bäcke, Lela was brought face to face with her assistant who had been tortured and broken by the German interrogators. For three solid days, had been subjected to cruel torture by her SS interrogators. One by one her fingernails had been forceably removed and wounds inflicted on her body with razor blades, the cuts being salted for maximum pain. However, they failed to break her and, frustrated and humiliated by Lela’s courage and strength of character, Bäcke finally gave up. Lela and four of her children, her sons, Byron (my stepfather) along with Nelson, and two of her daughters, Ioanna, and Electra, were transferred to the concentration camp at Chaidari where they were subjected to horrific torture and abuse. In the early hours of that fateful morning of September 8, 1944, before Lela and 71 of her followers were machine-gunned to death. Witnesses observing from the hills said that the group of prisoners, led by Lela Carayannis, began to sing and that Lela led them in the Zallogos, a symbolic Greek dance of defiance in choosing death rather than loss of freedom or submission to the enemy.
Lela’s children and some of her co-workers held in another part of the camp, destined for execution the following day, managed to escape with the help of an anti-Nazi German. They went into hiding in Athens and did not learn of their mother’s execution until several days later. After the war Lela was awarded the highest medals for valour, and her heroic actions are remembered every year in Greece on the anniversary of her execution.
Her old house in Athens on the corner of Lela Karagiannis and Drosopoulou Streets in Kypseli was bequeathed to the University of Athens and the Ministry of Education on the understanding that it would be used to house indigent students from the Ionian Islands. However, it stood empty from 1960 onwards, falling into disrepair until the abandoned building was occupied by students in April 1988, going on to become a self-organised squatted social space, 'LK37', the oldest squat in Greece until its eviction in January 2013.

[C] 1962 - A meeting by Mosley and the UM in Croydon is broken up by 3,000 anti-fascists. A rally in the East End the following day passes off largely peacefully.

1969 - Emilio Vilardaga Peralba (b. 1912), Catalan militant anarcho-syndicalist and member of the 'Tierra y Libertad' column, who was imprisoned under Franco, dies in an industrial accident. [see: Jan. 26]

[A] 1970 - The London home of Attorney General, Sir Peter Rawlinson, in Chelsea, is bombed. Again this goes unreported . [Angry Brigade chronology]

1976 - Robert Louzon (b. 1882), French engineer, anarchist, revolutionary syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Jun. 30]

1979 - The 'infamous' Crass and Poison Girls concert at Conway Hall in London, and a period where British Movement/National Front activity at punk gigs was particularly prominent. The gig was a fundraiser for 'Persons Unknown' and there were a number of fascists present, who Red Action and SWP members attacked and ejected. Crass' response was to issue the Conway Hall Statement Flyer and a pamphlet criticising Rock Against Racism and anti-fascist violence. Many anarchist groups, including Class War, react negatively to Crass' stance.

2006 - Première of 'Salvador' or 'Salvador (Puig Antich)', a Spanish film directed by Manuel Huerga and based on Francesc Escribano's 'Compte Enrere. La Història de Salvador Puig Antich', which describes the execution of Salvador Puig Antich, the last person executed by garrote under the dictatorship of Francisco Franco. The film is widely despised amongst anarchist as a "slick, commercial melodrama offers us no explanation of Salvador Puig Antich's actual battle, the reasons why he fought and perished, what he believed in, the process whereby he became radicalised politically and his commitment to the struggle alongside what was then the most radically anti-capitalist strand of the workers' movement." [KSL: Bulletin of the Kate Sharpley Library, #46-7, (July 2006)]
1856 - Possible date [see also: Sep. 15] for the birth of Francisco Saverio Merlino (d. 1930), Italian lawyer, theorist, propagandist of Italian anarchism, then a libertarian socialist - though he continued to defend anarchists.

1934 - Forced to move their planned rally from White City and lacking an alternative 'safe' indoor venue, Mosley and BUF announced a rally in Hyde Park on September 9. The Co-ordinating Committee for Anti-Fascist Activities sent out a call for a 'United Front Against Fascism on September 9th' that would "drown" the fascist in a "sea of organised working class activity". Moderates in the labour movement opposed the call but numerous leaflet drops across London, graffiti on a Kings Cross train ["March Against Fascism on Fascism on September 9"] and Nelson's column, pavement chalkings, the interruption of 3 live BBC broadcasts by 'microphone bandits', etc. were carried out in support of the call. On the day, 2,500 Blackshirts were peaceful opposed by enormous crowds (estimates range from 70,000 to 150,000), with The fascists marching in at 6.00 pm and out again at 7.00 pm protected by a massive force of police. The speakers were never heard and the fascists were effectively kept apart from the crowd which surrounded them while in the park. Many had marched the 12 miles from the East End to the Park to oppose the fascists, attacked at various points along the route by random groups of heavily outnumbered Blackshirts. A total of 18 arrests were made. The day was another humiliation for Mosley and the Blackshirts. [PR]

1939 - The Gómez Talón group are brought before a court martial chargd with armed robbery andfreeing prisoners. Salvador Gómez Talón, his brother Rafael, Fulgencio Rosaledo Martinez, José Tarín Marchuet, Juan Baeza Delgado and Juan Pallarés Mena are sentenced to death. Pascual López Laguarta, Rafael Giménez Otal and Rafael Valverde Cerdán are sentenced to 20 years in prison, and Alfonso González Martí to 30 years.

[CC] 1941 - Melkestreiken (Milk strike): The number of workers on strike is estimated to be 20-25,000, at around fifty industry sites and is especially strong in the steel industries. Reprisals by the Nazi authorities have already begun, with about fifty workers at Akers mekaniske verksted being arrested. Throughout the day, workers at other enterprises are also arrested, leaving about 200 in German hands.

1946 - Mynona aka Salomo Friedlaender (b. 1871), German philosopher, author and anarchist individualist, associated with Expressionism and Dada, dies. [see: May 4]

[C] 1985 - Handsworth Riots: The arrest of a black man at 4.45pm near the Acapulco Cafe, Lozells Road for a traffic offence sparks two days of rioting. Over 1500 police officers were drafted into the area and 50 shops were either burnt or looted. Damage to property was estimated at hundreds of thousands of pounds, 35 people were injured or hospitalised, 2 people unaccounted for and tragically 2 people lost their lives.

1999 - Henri Bouyé aka André Deval (b. 1912), French florist and anarchist, who was instrumental in rebuilding and restoring the French anarchist movement after the Nazi occupation, dies. [see: Oct. 12]
[B] 1890 - Franz Viktor Werfel (d. 1945), Czech-born, Austrian-Jewish novelist, playwright and poet, born. Werfel had identified himself as being an atheist and anarchist by the time of his bar mitzvah (i.e. 13-years-old), although his anarchism, like many of his fellow Expressionists, had a distinctly messianic or mystical edge to it and ended up veering towards a Tolstoyian pacifist anarchism. He was also another of the Expressionists to fall under the influence of Otto Gross. Werfel began writing at an early age and published his first book of poems, 'Der Weltfreund', (The Friend to the World) in 1911, and had befriended other German Jewish writers who frequented Prague’s Café Arco, chief among them Max Brod and Franz Kafka.
At the outbreak of WWI, Werfel served in the Austro-Hungarian Army on the Russian front in relative safety as a telephone operator, and he continue writing Expressionist poems, plays and kept up a voluminous correspondence. In 1917 he left the front-line for the Military Press Bureau in Vienna, where he joined other notable Austrian writers serving as propagandists, among them Robert Musil, Rainer Maria Rilke and Stefan Zweig. After the war he continued writing, publishing amongst others: a poetry collection; 'Der Gerichtstag' (Judgment Day; 1919); the short story collections 'Nicht der Mörder, der Ermordete ist Schuldig' (Not the Murderer, it is the Victim who is Guilty; 1920) and
'Der Tod des Kleinbürgers' (The Death of the Petty Bourgeois aka 'The Man Who Conquered Death'; 1928); novels such as 'Der Abituriententag: Geschichte einer Jugendschuld' (Class Reunion: History of a Boy's Guilt; 1928) and 'Der Veruntreute Himmel' (Embezzled Heaven; 1939); and a large number of plays, which included 'Paulus unter den Juden' (Paul among the Jews; 1926) and 'Das Reich Gottes in Böhmen' (The Kingdom of Bohemia; 1930).
He married Alma Mahler (widow of composer Gustav Mahler) in 1929, with whom he journeyed to the Middle East in 1930, encountering starving refugees which inspired his 2 volume novel 'Die Vierzig Tage des Musa Dagh' (The Forty Days of Musa Dagh) which drew world attention to the Armenian Genocide at the hands of the Turks.
After the Anschluss, Franz and Alma fled Vienna for France, only to have to flee in 1940 on foot across the Pyrenees to Spain, accompanied by Heinrich Mann, and from there to the United States. While living in Southern California, Werfel completed his most famous novel 'The Song of Bernadette' (Das Lied von Bernadette; 1941), fulfilling a vow made in 1940 in Lourdes for a safe escape. The novel was made later into the film 'The Song of Bernadette' (1943).

1891 - One of two possible birth dates (along with 10 November) of Simón Radowitzky (Szymon Radowicki; d. 1956), aka 'The Martyr of Ushuaia', Ukrainian-born anarchist freedom fighter, born. One of the best-known prisoners of the penal colony in Ushuaia, where he was held for the assassination of Ramón Lorenzo Falcón, a head of police responsible for the brutal repression of Red Week in 1909 in Buenos Aires. Radowitzky was pardoned after 21 years, he left Argentina and fought with the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War.

[C] 1897 - Georges Albert Maurice Victor Bataille (d. 1962), French philosopher, novelist, poet and critic, whose writings cover a wide range of subjects including literature, anthropology, sociology and the history of art, born. Eroticism, sovereignty and transgression are at the core of his writings, many of which propound what has been labelled a 'post-anarchist' ethics. In 1935 he co-founded an anti-Fascist group, Contre-Attaque, with André Breton.

1931 - Industrial Unrest in Second Republic: Publication of the Madrid newspaper 'El Siglo Futuro' (The Future Century) is suspended, as is the Bilbao daily 'Libertad Vasca' (Basque Freedom).

1933 - The Battle of Stockton-on-Tees: A supposedly secret British Union of Fascists meeting due to be held in Stockton-on-Tees Market Square on a quiet Sunday afternoon in support of the small local BUF group, who had come under regular attack by members of the National Unemployed Workers Movement and the Labour and Communist Parties, ends in a riot when just over 100 BUF members who had been bussed-in from Tyneside and the Manchester area are ambushed by 2,000 anti-fascists. Wooden staves and pickaxe handles are used to attack the fascists, and stones - and more lethally - potatoes studded with razor blades are thrown into the Blackshirted ranks. The BUF march broke ranks and were pursued across the High Street by the opposing crowds nearly, overturning a passing bus in their wake. They were later caught in a bottleneck in Silver Street and received another battering before being run out of town. The local police are caught totally unprepared but eventually managed to round-up straggling BUF members who had not already fled and escorted them back to their coaches to leave town with their tails between their legs. The local press reported around 20 casualties but many never stopped to get their injuries treated before hot-tailing it back to Newcastle and Machester. One fascist follower, the freelance photographer John Warburton, lost an eye to one of the missiles. [PR]

[CC] 1941 - Melkestreiken (Milk strike): The German Reichskommissar Josef Terboven declares martial law in Oslo and the neighbouring municipality Aker. Two union leaders, Viggo Hansteen and Rolf Wickstrøm, are summilarily sentenced to death by a court-martial, and immediately executed by a SS Sonderkommando. Later three other union leaders - Ludvik Buland, Harry Vestli and Josef Larsson - would also be sentenced to death, but their convictions were changed to imprisonment for life in German jails. Both Buland and Vestli later died in German prisons. The leadership of the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions also underwent a period of "Nazification", with members of the Fascist party Nasjonal Samling installed as leaders.

1941 - Harald Viggo Hansteen (b. 1900), Norwegian lawyer and Communist, is executed by the Nazis during their retaliation against the Oslo Melkestreiken (Milk strike). [see: Sep. 8 & 13]

1941 - Rolf Wickstrøm (b 1912) was a Norwegian labour activist and shop stewart at the Skabo Rail Coach Factory, , is executed by the Nazis during their retaliation against the Oslo Melkestreiken (Milk strike). [see: Sep. 8 & Dec. 9]

1943 - Piombino, a steel town with a great libertarian tradition and a tradition above all of revolutionary syndicalism, is behind a popular uprising against the Nazis. Among the anarchists who takes part in the uprising is Adriano Vanni, a partisan who operated in the Maremma and who was called upon to join the local CLN (National Liberation Committee, a body made up of a spectrum of anti-fascist parties).

2009 - In Manchester at the EDL's second 'national gathering', Police impose a lockdown around Piccadilly Gardens as EDL demonstrators face off against Unite Against Fascism (UAF) who had jumped their pitch, forcing the EDL to the edge of the gardens. 500 EDL followers are opposed by more than 1,000 on the UAF-organised protest (though some sources gave the figures as much closer, 6-700 each, and even gave the EDL at as few as 150). At the end of the day, ten people had been injured, one seriously, and 44 people arrested. The EDL number signalled the emergence of a significant new nationalist challenge. [PR]
1925 - Manuel Millán Calvo (d. 2003), Aragonese libertarian anti-Francoist guerrillero, born. Already a CNT militant when called up for national service in the Utrillas mines, he deserted with fellow CNTista Modesto Llueve Vera and the socialist Emilio Azuara Navarro aka 'Doroteo'. In 1947, all three joined the Agrupación Guerrillera de Levante (AGL), operating in the mountains of Utrillas, but were captured later that year. In May 6, 1947, he ended up in the prison of Zaragoza and was court-martialed on November 7 bythe Consejo de Guerra. He was sentenced to death for "rebellion, banditry and terrorism", but the sentence was later commuted to 30 years in prison. On November 16, 1949, he was transferred to the prison of San Miguel de los Reyes, learning both the trade of carpenter and to play the trombone in the orchestra assembled by prisoners. In 1959, he married in prison. Desperate at seeing his companions being released whilst he remained in prison, he attempted suicide, cutting the veins in his wrists, ending up interned for a year in a Madrid asylum. He was then sent to Laayoune (Sahara Spanish) for military service. In the mid sixties he was released under an amnesty.

1926 - In Rome, the anarchist Gino Lucetti makes an attempt on the life of Mussolini. The bomb is deflected by the car's windscreen and wounds 8 passersby. The 26-year-old Lucetti was sentenced to 30 years; he died in the Ischia prison in 1943.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: In Bilbao, fighting between Basque nationalists and Republicans leaves two dead.

1931 - The widespread repression carried out by General Rodolfo Graziani in Libya results the capture of Omar al-Mukhtar, head of the Arab resistance against italian oppression. After a summary trial, he will be brutally hanged on September 16 by the Italian occupiers.

1941 - Generoso Gran Pérez a member of the CNT's Sindicato de la alimentación (Foodworker's Union) is captured. He had returned from France to act as a go-between exile groups and those in Spain.

1942 - Underground Norwegian trade union newspapers arrange thousands of letters to the government rejecting Nazification.

[C] 1973 - CIA overthrows Chile's democratically elected government, ending nearly 150 years of democratic rule. Over 5,000 die and many others 'disappear'.

1976 - On the anniversary of the Chilean military coup against Allende, activists bomb the Chilean Embassy, the American Library and the offices of the Brazilian national airline in Rome.

1976 - In Blackburn, where the National Party has 2 councillors - John Kingsley Read and John Frankham (who was later disqualified for election irregularities) - elected in the local elections of April 1976, a protest march organised by Action Against racism, with Blackburn Trades Council, the IS and Communist Party support, takes place with 4,500 activists from across the country. The leaflet released calling for the demonstration states that it "is of NATIONAL significance. It is taking the fight into one of the strongholds of the enemy."
"When 11 September 1976 came around, two very different mobilisations took place. Several hundred supporters of the National Party and National Front congregated outside the city centre. Carrying placards including 'Free Robert Relf', 'Scrap the Race Act', and 'No more mosques in Blackburn', the fascists were led off by Kingsley Read wearing a full uniform-style jacket, and in front of him, four police on horseback. All police leave was cancelled for the day. Four thousand anti-fascists occupied the town centre. There were trades council banners from Manchester, Stockport, Glasgow, Liverpool, Crawley, Preston and Skelmersdale. Mobilised by left groups and the mosque, it was a very Asian protest. In contrast to the racist march which was stopped outside central Blackburn, the anti-racists were good-humoured, confident that the NF would not pass. At the end of the day's protests, the police waded in to attack the anti-racists, but only three arrests were made." [DK Renton - 'Anti-fascism in the Northwest 1976-1981']

1978 - Juan Ferrer Garcia (b. unknown), Catalan anarcho-syndicalist, dies during the night (Sep. 9-10). Whilst doing his military service in Mahon, Minorca, his unit was transfered to Barcelona where he enlisted in the militia, fighting on the Aragon front. Exiled in France during the Retirada, during the German occupation in 1942, he participated in the illegal reconstruction of the MLE in the Puy-de-Dôme.

1998 : Claudia López Benaiges, a young anarchist studying dance at university, is shot in the back by Carabiniers (police) in the village of La Pincoya in Santiago, Chile during a protest against the 25th anniversary of the fascist coup of Pinochet. No one was ever charged in connection with her death.
1892 - Adriano Botelho (d. 1983), Portuguese anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist militant, born. A member of the O Semeador (The Sower) anarchist group, he worked as a translator and on the newspaper 'A Batalha' in Lisbon. As a member of the Portuguese anarcho-syndicalist CGT, he and his comrades were subject to fierce repression during the Salazar dictatorship and he was critical of the anarchist participation in the government during the Spanish civil war. Post-Salazar, he participated in the reconstruction of the anarchist movement and founded the Almada newspaper 'Voz Anarquista'.

1896 - Elsa Yuryevna Triolet (born Ella Kagan; b. 1970), Russian-born French writer, one-time Futurist, Surrealist muse, communist and Résistance fighter, born. Wife of French Surrealist Louis Aragon and sister of Lili Brik, who was the partner and muse of the Futurist poet Vladimir Mayakovsky. Triolet would be the first to translate Mayakovsky's poetry into French.

1920 - Francesc Ballester Orovitg aka 'El Explorador' aka Sebastián Grado Ortega (d. 1957), Catalan carpernter, anarchist, anti-Franco guerrilla and Esperanto speaker, born. At the beginning of the Civil War, Ballester was an activist in the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL) in l'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona and fought in the 143rd Brigade Mixte in Vilanova de la Barca during the June 1938 offensive in Aragon. Taken prisoner at the end of the war and interned in Tortosa. After he managed to escape and cross over into France, he joined the action groups and recrossed the Pyrenees to fight the Franco regime in the Barcelona area. In 1945, he joined the FIJL in Catalonia and, in July 1947, was a delegate at the clandestine Catalan regional FIJL congress in a factory on the outskirts of Madrid, also joining the Movimiento Libertario de Resistencia (MLR), the anti-Franco guerilla group with which he participated in many actions of the revolutionary struggle, especially bank expropriations.
In late October 1947, he went to Toulouse with José Lluís Facérias and Manuel Fernández Fernández as FIJL delegates at the Second Congress of the MLR in exile, where they defended the activities of the action groups. They are back in Spain a month later, after a shot spell in a French prison followed by a greande accident, during which Ballester injured his knee and Mariano Puzo Cabero lost part of his arm. On December 18, 1947, he took part, alongside Facerias, Celedonio Garcia Casino and Pedro Adrover Font, in an expropriation of the Banco de Bilbao in the calle Mallorca in Barcelona, locking its employees and customers in the manager's office and seizing nearly 180,000 pesetas. However, with increasing repression, the MLR dissolved in February 1948 following numerous arrests. Ballester was arrested on May 24, 1948 in Barcelona, ​​and took advantage of his stay in the Modelo prison to identify imprisoned comrades and, following his release in January 12, 1949, he began organising, along with Francisco Sabaté Llopart (El Quico), assistance to prisoners and a lawyer to help in their defence. New groups sprang up to help finance this via more appropriations. Constantly the subject of police harrassment, he was arrested again and tortured to try and get information about Sabaté and his group. He eventually gave up erroneous information under that torture, sending police to the wrong location (the America cinema) of a proposed meeting, thereby allowing the Sabaté brothers to escape as only 3 police were at the Condal cinema (shooting an agent, Oswaldo Blanco, that they had recognised. At his trial on March 16, 1950, Francisco Ballester was sentenced to six years in prison for the use of forged documents. Receiving leniency, he was released August 10, 1953 and went to France. Ironically, after risking his life in the armed struggle, he died on September 7, 1957 in a derailment of the Paris-Nîmes train after giving up his seat to a woman who emerged unscathed from the accident.

1921 - Stanisław Lem (d. 2006), Polish science fiction writer, essayist and critic, born. His works explored both philosophical themes: examining the impact of technology, the nature of itelligence, man's place in the universe, etc.; as well a critical and often satirical Soviet-era dissidence. Following the fall of Lvov to the German army in 1939, the Lem family managed to obtain documents that hid their Jewish identity, saving them from being sent to their deaths. Lem was active in Poland's Jewish anti-Nazi resistance, smuggling arms into the Krakow ghetto from which he eventually saw most of his Jewish friends deported to their deaths.

1927 - Sergio di Modugno, a 25 year old Italian worker exiled in France because of political persecution in Italy, assassinates the Italian Fascist vice-consul in Paris, Count Carlo Nardini, because of his despair and having been refused on numerous occassions a passport for his wife and son who remained in Italy.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: A bomb explodes in the central telephone exchange in Seville. Official strike statistics for between April and June are published. In just two months the total number exceeds three hundred.

1939 - Gómez Talón group members Salvador Gómez Talón, his brother Rafael, Fulgencio Rosaledo Martinez, José Tarín Marchuet, Juan Baeza Delgado and Juan Pallarés Mena are executed at the Campo de la Bota in Barcelona.

1942 - The Lenin Garrison is destroyed during a partisan uprising against the Nazis.
Having liquidated the Lenin Ghetto on August 14, 1942, leaving about 30 Jews alive to work directly for the Germans as tailors, shoemakers, builders, and photographers, a German garrison of 100 people and 30 local policemen remained based in Lenin to protect the town. The Soviet 'Kalinin' partisan unit took part attack on the garrison, assisted by two neighboring units (in total about 150 people), inflicting heavy losses, apparently killing 3 German officers (including commandant Grossman), 14 soldiers and 13 policemen. The ghetto quarter was burned down and the remaining Jews fled to the woods with the partisans.

1943 - Mussolini is freed by German commandos from the ski resort hotel at Campo Imperatore on the Gran Sasso, Aquila, where he was being held.

1948 - Antonio Ortiz, Primitivo Gomez and José Perez using a small private plane attempt to bomb the official platform in San Sebastien where Franco is making a speech.

1965 - Oswald Mosley gives his 'last great speeech' in Wood Close, Bethnal Green in the East End of London. Having announced that the speech would be in Cheshire Street, the Yellow Star Movement jumped the pitch only for the UM speaker van to turn up and set up in Wood Close - a minor victory for the fascists, except that the Tannoy speakers on the van shorted out before Mosley's arrival and was forced to use a loud hailer to address the crowd. The UM hailed it as a great speech but others begged to differ. However, it was to be the last time he would speak to the people of East London at an open air meeting before moving to Ireland.

1977 - Student anti-apartheid leader Steve Biko, 30, is murdered while in police custody in Port Elizabeth.

[C] 1992 - Battle of Waterloo: In August 1992, posters proclaiming "Skrewdriver Back in London" began appearing advertising a Blood and Honour gig due to take place in London on September 12, the first time Skrewdriver had attempted to play in London since The Main Event, which had been targeted and seriously disrupted by AFA. The concert was once more touted to be a massive affair, with up to 2,000 neo-Nazis, many from across Europe, expected to attend and several bands playing, including Skrewdriver [ironically, Ian Stuart Donaldson was attacked in a Burton pub the night before the gig], Skullhead, No Remorse and a Swedish band called Dirlewanger. Once again the gig was at a secret location with a re-direction point, which this time was at Waterloo Station at 5.30pm. AFA tried to mobilised against the event, contacting other militant anti-fascist groups but got little positive response - the ANL even decided that they were going to hold a march in Thornton Heath, more than fifteen miles away, on the day.
AFA had called a counter-demonstration at the station for 4:30pm, at exactly the time Neil Parrish, one of B&H‘s main organisers, had boasted to the media that he would be available on the station concourse to give interviews, and had managed to mobilise around 200 activists from AFA groups around the country. At 3.20pm, AFA’s Stewards’ Group appeared on the station concourse at Waterloo, causing a number of bones to flee for their lives. Others were picked off as they arrived. The police tried to intervene but, as more Nazis were attacked as they entered the station, and the police were forced to cordon off the neo-Nazis in the middle of the station concourse. Eventually, the police decided to escort the neo-Nazis out of the station to safety, but once outside, and out of view of the CCTV cameras, they were attacked by AFA Stewards who had infiltrated the original cordon.
Over the next hour and a half, groups of anti-fascists continued ambushing nazi skinheads arriving at the fron to the station or coming up the escalators from the tube station. By 5pm, there were nearly 1,000 anti-fascists on the concourse and fights were still breaking out all over the place. Shortly afterwards, the station was shut down at the request of the manager, and the fighting spread to the streets surrounding the station. Nearby underground stations were shut down to try and limit the numbers of ordinary punters reaching Waterloo, many of whom were football supporters who got caught up in the fighting. Despite continuing to be protected by a cordon of police, the nazis came under continuous attack including missiles from a nearby footbridge. Skirmishes continued all around Waterloo as the [neo-Nazis] and their police escorts came under concerted attack by large numbers of anti-fascists. The police did not know what to do with their escorts and the fascists themselves did not know where the venue was because Neil Parrish and the rest of the organisers were sat in a pub at Victoria Station.
Eventually the police managed to get things under control and escorted the remaining fash to Temple tube station where they were put on a commandeered train out of the area. In the end, less than 400 got into the gig at the Yorkshire Grey pub in Eltham, south-east London. The anti-fascists, meanwhile, were broken up into small groups by the police, cordoned off and escorted on foot across the Thames towards central and north London. The incident received international media coverage and became known as the "Battle of Waterloo".

2001 - Dolores Prat Coll aka pequeña Montseny (little Montseny)(b. 1905), Catalan textile worker and militant anarcho-syndicalist member of the CNT from the age of 15, dies. [see: Mar. 8]

2011 - The second Welling anti-fascists trial begins. The nine on trial are charged with 'conspiracy to commit violent disorder' follows a series of dawn raids resulting from the March 28, 2009 incident at Welling station close to a Nazi Blood & Honour gig, in the wake of which twenty three Antifa activists were arrested. The cases of two people who would have been in the second trial were dropped one working day before that trial commenced. The first trial of 11 defendants [March 6-29, 2011] had seen 7 convicted, with six being sent to prison for between 21-15 months and a seventh given a suspended sentence. All nine people in the second trial were acquitted. The trial lasted more than two weeks, but the jury took less than one hour to come to their unanimous verdict. They delivered it with pleasure to a cheering courtroom.
[B] 1885 - Aquilino Gomes Ribeiro (d. 1963), Portuguese novelist, writer and anarchist, born. A militant anarchist in his youth, he remained very attached to his libertarian principles through out his lfe. In 1907 he was arrested when a cache of explosives in his room at the Carrião Street, in Lisbon, exploded, killing two comrades, Gonçalves Lopes and Belmonte de Lemos. On January 12 1908, he managed to escape from prison and went underground in Lisbon. He then went into exile in Paris, studying at the Sorbonne. During WWI, he returned to Portugal where he taught at the Camões College and published his first novel 'A Via Sinuosa' (The Winding Way; 1918). Took part in the failed Republican revolt of February 7, 1927, in Lisbon against the recently installed fascist Estado Novo government of Salazar and returned to exile in Paris. At the end of the year he returned to Portugal clandestinely, participating in 1928 Pinhel revolt. Incarcerated in Fontelo prison, he again managed to escape and returned to Paris. He was tried in absentia in a Lisbon military court and sentenced.
Nominated in 1960 for a Nobel Prize in literature.

1898 - Paul-Aloïse de Bock (d. 1986), Belgian novelist, poet and lawyer, born. He joined the Belgian Workers Party in 1919 and in 1923 began frequenting Italian anti-fascist circles in Brussels. In 1930, he defended the Italian anarchist Fernando De Rosa, who had attempted to attack Prince Umberto. The same year, he was the lawyer of another Italian anarchist Arturo Berneri, author of an assassination attempt on the Italian Minister of Justice. In 1940, he was in the army a few months until Belgium was occupied. He then resumed his activities and joined the Résistance.
Up until 1950, most of his writings appeared under the pseudonym Paul Bourgues. A life-long friend of the painter Paul Delvaux, he wrote 2 books about him: 'Paul Delvaux : der Mensch, der Maler' (1965) and 'Paul Delvaux. L'homme, le Peintre, Psychologie d'un Art' (1967).

1900 - Harald Viggo Hansteen (d. 1941), Norwegian lawyer and Communist, who was executed by the Nazis during the Oslo Melkestreiken, born. A member of the Norges Kommunistiske Parti (NKP) and judicial consultant for the Landsorganisasjonen i Norge (LO; Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions), he was prominent in the prevention of the attempt by Nasjonal Samling (National Gathering), Vidkun Quisling's Norwegian fascist party, to gain control of LO.

1919 - The Confederação Geral do Trabalho (CGT), with its roots in the União Operária Nacional (National Workers Union), is founded today. Greatly influenced by the anarcho-syndicalist movement, it is the only Portuguese trade union at the time. It will affiliate with the International Workers Association (IWA) in 1922. The coup d'état of May 28 1926 and continued repression, ultimately led to its decline, amd in 1938, Emídio Santana, the secretary-general of the federation, took part in a failed assassination attempt on Salazar. The ensuing repression killed off the CGT completely.

[C] 1923 - Today and tomorrow, the military in Spain, headed by Primo de Rivera, seizes power in a coup. King Alfonso XIII and the various deposed politicians stand down without any fight. The CNT calls for a general strike for tomorrow, which fails to materialise. In a published statement , the CNT states: "En esta hora cuando estalla la cobardía general y donde el poder civil renuncia sin lucha al poder de los militares, es a la clase obrera a la que incumbe hacer sentir su presencia y de no dejarse patalear por hombres que, transgrediendo todas las formas de derecho, quieren reducir a cero todas las conquistas obreras obtenidas después de luchas largas y difíciles." ("In this time when the general cowardice and where the civil power abandons struggle against the power of the military, it is the working class's responsibility to make its presence felt and not to be trampled by men who, transgressing all forms of law, want to reduce to zero all workers gains obtained after long and difficult struggles.")

1939 - Nicolò (Nicolantonio) Converti (b. 1855), Italian surgeon, anarchist propagandist, militant internationalist and typographer, dies. [see: Mar. 18]

1945 - Noël Godin, Belgian writer, critic, actor and anarcho-humourist, whose alter ego is the entarteur Georges Le Gloupier (a name appropriated from Jean-Pierre Bouyxou, born.

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: In what in hindsight is an important event in the run up to the November coup/counter-coup, Brigadeiro Graduado Eurico de Deus Corvacho, who is aligned with the Esquerda Militar (Left Military) 'gonçalvistas', is replaced with the more moderate General António Pires Veloso as commander of the Região Militar Norte (RMN; Northern Military Region) following agitation from below (the troops of the RNM were general held to be more closely aligned with the Centro Militar (Centre Military), and the Partido Socialista and Partido Popular Democrático).

[A] 1958 - Rudolf Rocker (b. 1873), German-American anarcho-syndicalist theorist, organiser and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Mar. 25]

1971 - Leda Rafanelli (b. 1880), Italian anarchist, feminist, anti-militarist, writer, artist and member of the Futurists, who was known as the 'Gypsy anarchist', dies. [see: Jul. 4]

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Protesters attempt to cross police lines to meet with officers at the Ferguson Police Department. More than 50 protesters are arrested, during a staged and peaceful act of disobedience.
1920 - Mario Benedetti (Mario Orlando Hardy Hamlet Brenno Benedetti; d. 2009), Uruguayan journalist, novelist, and radical poet of the Uraguayan peasant revolt, born. Considered one of Latin America's most important 20th-century writers.

[C] 1923 - The general strike called by the CNT in reaction to yesterday's military coup in Spain fails (the socialists and UGT refuse to participate) and the CNT is forced underground.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: A new General Strike breaks out in Granada.

[B] 1931 - Alain Cavalier, French film director and anarchist, born. Amongst his films are 'Le Combat dans l'île' (The Fight on the Island; 1961), 'L'Insoumis' (Crossfire; 1964) and 'Les Braves' (The Braves; 2008), which deal with the Algerian War, and 'Libera Me' (1993), torture and oppression.

1941 - Juan Bautista Vairoleto (b. 1894), Argentine anarchist and bandit, dies. [see: Nov. 11]

1973 - Dafydd Ladd and Michael Tristram arrested in Bristol, charged with three attacks on Portuguese vice-consulates in Bristol and Cardiff (Wales), and outside the British Army Officers Club at Aldershot, claimed by a group calling itself 'Freedom Fighters for All', but manifestly part of the same spontaneous wave of actions during this period. In February 1974 Ladd is sentenced to seven years, Tristram to six.
1856 - Possible date [see also: Sep. 9] for the birth of Francisco Saverio Merlino (d. 1930), Italian lawyer, theorist, propagandist of Italian anarchism, then a libertarian socialist - though he continued to defend anarchists.

[B] 1893 - Tintino Persio Rasi (d. 1963), Italian individualist anarchist activist and propagandist, journalist, writer and Futurist poet, born. Used the pseudonyms of Auro d'Arcola, Tatiano d'Arcola, Gold O' Bay and Carlo Carli. After elementary school, Tintino Rasi started working at the post office and had joined, still very young, the anarchist movement. In 1914 he was a postman in Genoa and was stuck as anarchist "properly supervised." Participating in the activities of the movement, speaking at various meetings and working with the press, including 'Il Libertario', he was transferred in 1917 to Iglesias in Sardinia, where he continued his activism.
Located in Cagliari, he worked under the pseudonym of Auro d'Arcola socialist newspaper 'Il Risveglio dell'isola' and became a member of the Executive Committee of the Cagliari Camera del Lavoro (Chamber of Local Labour). Called up during WWI, he refuses to fight and during the same period the police report (January 1918) that he and Alberto Silicani are trying to (unsuccessfully) form an anarchist group (Fascio Anarchico).
Involved throughout the period Biennio Rosso in workers' struggles and organised a large number of meetings and conferences. During one of his lectures, in June 1919 in Santo Stefano Magra, he and 3 other anarchist speakers incite a riot during which a rifleman was killed and another seriously injured. Denounced as responsible for the acts, Rasi and his companions go into hiding. However, in June 1920 he is acquitted of that charge.
In 1921, along with Renzo Renzo Ferrari Novatore and Giovanni Battista Governato, he helps form an anarcho-futurist group based in La Spezia and becomes editor of its magazine 'Vertice' (Summit). However, he is forced to temporarily flee to America following the issuing of an arrest warrant for subversive activities. In 1922 the warrant is revoked and he returns to live in Clivio at the rationalist anarchist Scuola Moderna, helping with the distribution of the school's newspaper. That year he also founds, with Renato Siglich Suvarin, the journal 'Anarchismo'.
With the rise of fascism, he left for France with his wife Ave Superna and their daughter Fossati in April 1923, firstly to Nice and then to the Paris region. Responsible as the director of many of the exiled Italian anarchist newspapers such as 'La Rivendicazione' (The Claim; Paris, 1923-25); 'La Nostra Polemicha' (Paris, 1925), where he denounces the adventurism of comrades engaged in Garibaldi Legion, particularly Ricciotti Garibaldi (who he later learned was an undercover political police agent); 'La Quale' (Paris, 1926); and 'Veglia' (Paris). He was also editor of the Italian section of the 'International Anarchist Review' (Paris, 1924-25) with Ugo Fedeli and Virgilio Gozzoli. The thre would later merge their individual papers to form 'La Tempra' (Paris, 1925-26). Under the pseudonym Gold O'Bay he also worked at 'Il Commento' (London, 1924) where he called for "the right to defend ourselves and to kill fascists."
In 1929 he was producing an anarchist paper 'Il Monito' (The Reminder) when he was arrested and expelled from France. under pressure from the Italian authorities. He subsequently disappeared - possibly living in hiding either in Belgium, France of the US or working in Switzerland under the pseudonym Tatiano at the 'L'Adunata dei Refrattari' - before reappearing in 1935 in Saint-Michel-sur-Orge. On June 20-21 1936 he participated in the Paris International Conference for the right to asylum which also involved Sébastien Faure, C. Berneri Gilioli, Marzocchi, Mastrodicasa, and others. From the beginning of the Civil War he was part of the Paris Committee for aid to Spain.
Constantly monitored by agents of the fascist police and often arrested, he eventually emigrated to the United States in 1938 where he settled in Philadelphia. Under the pseudonym of Carlo Carli, he collaborated during the war on the antifascist magazine 'Chanteclair' (New York, 1942-45), co-editing it with V. Gozzoli., and supporting what he saw as a necessary war by the Allies against fascism.

[C] 1908 - Abdulla Aliş (Alişev Ğabdullacan Ğäbdelbari ulı; d. 1944), Soviet Tatar poet, playwright, writer and resistance fighter, who wrote mostly novels for children, born. [expand]

1933 - At the Plaza Monumental de Barcelona, over 100,000 people attend an important CNT meeting which is addressses by Valeriano Orobón Fernández and Buenaventura Durruti, the latter fresh from prison.

1940 - Norman Spinrad, science fiction author of' 'The Iron Dream' (1972), Adolph Hitler's "unwritten science fiction novel", and 'A World Between' (1979) examination of direct democracy which includes a SCUM-based civilisation, born. In a 1999 interview Spinrad confirmed that he was "an anarchist, but I'm a syndicalist. You have to have organised anarchy, because otherwise it doesn't work."

1941 - German soldiers were attacked by Résistance fighters in Paris, France.

[CC] 1944 - Mala Zimetbaum, a Belgian Jewish woman, escaped from the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp with her Polish boyfriend, Edek Galinski, both dressed in stolen SS uniforms. They were later recaptured, tortured, and executed by the SS. Both were defiant to the end with Mala's defiance becoming legendary. As her sentence was being read out, Mala took a razor blade from her hair and quietly slit open her veins on the inside of her elbows. … One of the blockführers grabbed her by the hair. Mala slapped him across the face with her bleeding hand. The SS man broke her arm. Legend has it that she told him: "I shall die a heroine, but you shall die like a dog!" The camp staff jumped on her, knocking her to the ground, and taped her mouth shut. [NB. There are a number of different version of this story but they all detail her defiance.]

1943 - Gino Lucetti (b. 1900), Italian anarchist who attempted to assassinate Mussolini in September 1926, for which he got 30 years in prison, dies during a German bombing raid on Ischia. [NB: Some sources give the date as September 17.][see: Aug. 31]

1963 - Four children killed when the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama is bombed using 15 sticks of dynamite. Prime suspects are the KKK and Nacirema.

1972 - Suzy Chevet (Suzanne Chevet; b. 1905), French teacher, militant socialist, Résistance member, libertarian syndicalist and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 25]

1973 - Victor Jara (b. 1932), Chilean political song writer, musician, teacher and Communist, is murdered in the Estadio Chile, which had been turned into a concentration camp cum torture centre post-coup. Before he is shot and his body dumped on the outskirts of Santiago, his captors broke the bones in both hands and taunted him to try and play the guitar.

1973 - Spanish anarchist militant members of the Movimiento Ibérico de Liberación-Grupos Autónomos de Combate (MIL), Oriol Solé Sugranyes and José Luis Pons Llobet, are captured near the French border after clashing with the Guardia Civil.

1988 - Celso Persici (d. 1896), Italian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Oct. 9]

2001 - The Pinelli Centre in the Genoa district of Molassana is devastated in a petrol bomb attack, which completely destroys the Centre's electrical system and equipment. The Centre had been used as a logistics base for anarchists during the protests against the G8 summit in Genoa. Another Molotov cocktail was used to destroy tributes left to Carlo Giuliano in the Piazza Gaetano Alimonda.
1879 - Herwarth Walden (pseudonym of Georg Lewin; d. 1941), German Expressionist artist and gallery owner, art expert, who was the founder of the radical German Expressionist magazine 'Der Sturm', born. He was married to the German Expressionist poet Else Lasker-Schüler, who invented his pseudonym, inspired by Thoreau’s 'Walden' (1854). He was also an early collaborator on Pfemfert's anarchist magazine 'Der Kampf'. In 1919 he joined the German Communist Party (KPD) and, in 1924, he was divorced from Lasker-Schüler. With the economic depression of the 1930s and the subsequent rise of National Socialism, his activities were compromised. In 1932, he married again and left Germany shortly later because of the threat of the Gestapo. He went to Moscow, where he worked as a teacher and publisher. His sympathies for the avant-garde soon aroused the suspicion of the Stalinist Soviet government, and he had to repeatedly defend against the equation of avant-garde and fascism. Walden died in October 1941 in a Soviet prison in Saratov.

1904 - Arvo Albin Turtiainen (d. 1980), Finnish left-wing poet, translator and anti-fascist fighter, born. [expand]

1906 - Jacques Brunius (d. 1967), French actor, director, writer, poet, anarchist and Surrealist, born. His film work and writings are credited under various pseudonyms: Borel, Jacques Borel, Brunius, JB Brunius, Jacques B. Brunius, Jacques-Bernard Brunius, John La Montagne, Olaf Apollonius, Jacques Berne. He appeared in more than 30 films, including many of the early, more political, movies by his friend Jean Renoir e.g. 'Une Partie de Campagne' and 'Le Crime de Monsieur Lange' (both 1936), and 'L'affaire est Dans le Sac' (1932) by Jacques and Pierre Prévert.
He also directed 13 films including 'Autour d'une Évasion' (Around an Escape; 1934), based on a screenplay by Jean Vigo about the anarchist Dieudonné and his escape from prison in Guyana, and 'Violin d'Ingres' (1939), about l'art brut and 'Le Palais Idéal' of postman turned sculptor, Ferdinand Cheval, and the Surrealists.
Friend of André Breton and member of both the French and the English Surrealist groups, becoming a well-known defender of the movement on the radio in both countries, in addition to having been a radio announce of the famous coded messages to the French Résistance during WWII.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: Communists in the Zaragoza municipality of El Molón, attack the Guardia Civil headquarters resulting in one death. Communist in the Sevillian town of Olivares assault their local Guardia Civil barracks resulting in several injuries.

[C] 1931 - Omar Mukhtar (Omar Al-Mukhtār; b. 1858), leader of the native guerilla resistance to the Italian colonisation of Libya, is hung in front of his followers in the concentration camp of Suluq following his arrest on September 11 and a summary trial.

1936 - Based in Barcelona, Emma Goldmann begins to help write the English-language edition of the CNT-FAI's information bulletin. She will also go on to visit collectivised farms and factories, and to travel to the Aragon front, Valencia, and Madrid. She also works closely with Martin Gudell of the CNT-FAI's Foreign Propaganda Department and broadcasts two English-language radio addresses.

[A] 1971 - Bomb discovered in officers' mess inside Dartmoor prison. (News not released for two weeks). [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]

1973 - Víctor Lidio Jara Martínez (b. 1932), Chilean teacher, theatre director, poet, singer-songwriter, political activist and member of the Communist Party of Chile, is murdered by the fascist military junta. [see: Sep. 28]
1917 - Cesare Fuochi (d. 2003), Italian anarchist, syndicalist railway worker and anti-fascist partisan, born.

1923 - Jack van der Geest (Jacobus Petrus Cornelis van der Geest; d. 2009), Dutch member of the anti-Nazi resistance in both Holland and France, who was one of only eight people ever to escape from Buchenwald concentration camp, born. Betrayed by a neighbour, the Gestapo raided the van der Geest apartment in the Hague, arresting him and his mother Anna. Van der Geest was sent to Buchenwald on September 15, 1942, and was subjected to brutal medical experiments at the hands of Dr. Erwin Ding-Schuler. He managed to escape from the camp on March 3, 1943, by pretending to be dead. He was thrown onto a pile of bodies where he lay for 11 hours til he was able to kill an SS Guard, put on his uniform and rode a lorry out of the camp. With the assistance of the Maquis he managed to make it to France, where he became a member of the French Résistance. He became a U.S. citizen in 1953, and later wrote a book, 'Was God on Vacation?' (1995).

1925 - Mosko Atanasov Rashev (or Rachev)(b. 1903), Bulgarian anarchist guerilla, is ambushed and killed by police and army units near Béderliy after a fierce firefight. [see: Aug. 27]

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: In Las Palmas, the newspaper 'El Defensor' is seized. In Cuenca, the 'El Centro' newspaper is fined.

[C] 1936 - Battle of Holbeck Moor: "[F]ollowing a week of tension during which the BUF was forbidden by the city's Watch Committee to march through the Jewish quarter, Oswald Mosley paraded over 1,000 uniformed Blackshirts in Calverley Street, and marched them to Holbeck. Press reports suggest very few of them were Leeds natives.
Opposition to the event had been organised and publicised some days previously, with the Communist Party taking the lead; relations between the parties being what they were, the Labour Party refused to take part in the protests. The newspapers reported a crowd of 30,000 on the moor with a very significant hostile element. As Mosley spoke, the 'Red Flag' was sung repeatedly in efforts to drown him out, and a large number of stones were thrown at the fascists. Many of these found their targets, with Mosley himself being struck. The city magistrates moralised endlessly in the week that followed, but punishments for most of those apprehended were light."
"Fourteen persons received injuries which required treatment at the General Infirmary and at the Dispensary. One of the injured was detained in the Infirmary with serious abdominal injuries. Scores of persons, mainly Fascists, received minor injuries, chiefly caused by stones with which the Fascists were freely pelted ... during the meeting, and at the beginning of their return march to the city... Mosley was struck on the body several times with stones thrown while he was addressing the meeting from the top of a van. He was also struck by a stone near the right temple as he was marching back with the Fascists from the Moor, receiving a wound which bled freely. A woman Fascist was felled by a stone which struck her on the head, causing a wound requiring nine stitches." ['Yorkshire Post', 28/09/36]
"As the meeting was breaking up about 100 policemen - who had been brought to the Moor by bus - formed a lane through the crowd for the Blackshirts to leave. Despite their efforts much hand-to-hand fighting took place and more stones were thrown. One man evaded two policemen, had a sparring bout with a Blackshirt bigger than himself, in which the Blackshirt got two severe blows on the jaw, and then slipped away into the crowd. Fireworks wore thrown over the heads of the police into the marching ranks and one exploded among the Blackshirt standard bearers, causing momentary consternation. A wild rush greeted Sir Oswald as he marched from the platform, surrounded by a strong body of police. The entire group was swept and hustled from side to side. Armed with a chairleg, one of the crowd struggled forward, but could not reach the Blackshirt leader, who was eventually able to join his men on the edge of the Moor. Among the missiles were bottles, sticks and stones. The most serious stone throwing of all occurred in Holbeck Lane, where a number of people had hidden behind some hoardings. When the procession passed this ambush, more large stones and half-bricks were hurled over." ['Yorkshire Evening News', 28/09/36]

[(CCC)] 1943 - Gino Lucetti (b. 1900), Italian anarchist who attempted to assassinate Mussolini in September 1926, for which he got 30 years in prison, dies during a German bombing raid on Ischia. [NB: Some sources give the date as September 15.][see: Aug. 31]

1970 - Jake Prescott paroled from Albany Prison, Isle of Wight. Political prisoner, member of the anarchist Angry Brigade. One of the crimes police tried to pin on him was the bombing of the Miss World contest.

1986 - Ahmed Iqbal Ullah, a young Bangladeshi school student, is brutally stabbed to death in the playground of Burnage High School, Manchester, by another 13 year old pupil, Darren Coulburn, in a racially motivated attack.

1999 - Henri Storck (b. 1907), Belgian author, film-maker, documentarist, actor, Surrealist and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 5]
1908 - Lise Børsum (Milly Elise Børsum; d. 1985), Norwegian resistance member during WWII and survivor of Ravensbrück concentration camp, best known for her books on her experiences as a prisoner and on the characteristics of concentration camps in 'Fange i Ravensbrück' (Prisoner in Ravensbrück; 1946), 'Speilbilder' (Reflections; 1947) and her book on Soviet concentration camps, 'Fjerndomstol Moskva. Fra Dagens Berlin og Sovjets Fangeleirer' (Moscow's Remote Justice. From Berlin to Today's Soviet Prison Camps; 1951), born.

1930 - Pietro Michele Stefano Ferrua, Italian author, essayist, translator/interpreter, mixed media artist, academic, scholar of the artistic and literary avant-gardes, anarchist propagandist and founder of CIRA (Centre International de Recherches sur l'Anarchisme), born. [expand]
He is the author of numerous works and studies such as 'Gli Anarchica nella Rivoluzione Messicana: Práxedes G. Guerrero' (Anarchism in the Mexican Revolution: Práxedes G. Guerrero; 1976), 'Surréalisme et Anarchisme' (1982), 'Anarchists in Film' (1983), 'John Kenneth Turner: a Portlander in Mexican Revolution' (1983), 'Ricardo Flores Magon e la Rivoluzione Messicana' (Ricardo Flores Magon and the Mexican Revolution; 1983), 'Avanguardia Cinematografica Lettrista' (Letterist Avantgarde Cinema; 1984) 'Entretiens sur le Lettrisme' (Conversations on Letterism; with Maurice Lemaitre, 1985), 'Appunti sul Nero American Cinema' (Notes on Black American Cinema; 1987), 'Anarchists seen by Painters' (1988), 'Italo Calvino in Sanremo' (1991), 'L'obiezione di Coscienza Anarchica in Italia' (Anarchist Conscientious Objectors in Italy; 1997), 'Iphigenia in Utopia. Four Acts' (2000), etc.. His articles are found in numerous libertarian publications and international academic journals.
See also: Ursula K. Le Guin - 'L'Anarchismo : un ideale necessario' (1994), co-interviewer, editor and translator Pietro Ferrua.

1934 - In Italy, the militarist character of the state is emphasised with the creation of the 'citizen-soldier' with a law requiring military training beginning at 8 years old and obligatory military education in middle schools. Pre-military service is required of all men between the ages of 18 and 21 years with post-military service for 10 years afterwards.

1942 - Stefan Witkowski (b. 1903), Polish engineer and designer, inventor, and leader of the underground organisation the Muszkieterzy or Muszkieterowie (Musketeers), is assassinated by Armia Krajowa (AK; Home Army) officers after he had been sentenced to death by the Wojskowy Sąd Specjalny (Special Military Court) for insubordination and cooperation with the Abwehr and Gestapo. Witkowski, known by various nom-de-guerres including 'Kapitan', 'Doktor Zet', 'Dyrektor', 'Inżynier', 'Tęczyński', 'Kaniewski', 'Stewit', etc., was an anti-Communist who had fought in the Polish-Bolshevik War (1919-21) and the defence of Warsaw. The Musketeers were created in November 1939 [as part of the Centralnego Komitetu Organizacji Niepodległościowych (Central Committee of the Organisation for Independence)] in German-occupied Warsaw and began to cooperated with British Intelligence, mainly it would appear to maintain the organisation's independece fron the AK and the Związek Walki Zbrojnej (ZWZ; Union of Armed Struggle). At the same time the group were cooperating with the Nazis, especially in Soviet-occupied Poland with Witkowski even travelling to Berlin in late 1941 for talks with Nazi officials. It was this palying both sides off against each other that ultimately got him killed and caused serious problems for SOE agents like Krystyna Skarbek aka Christine Granville (1908 - 1952) whom worked with the Musketeers.

[C] 1943 - Mussolini announces via Radio Monaco (Baviera) the constitution of the Partito Fascista Repubblicano (Republican Fascist Party) and the Repubblica di Salò (Repubblica Sociale Italiana) in the regions of northern Italy under control of the German army.

1944 - Bernhard Bästlein (b. 1894), German Communist and resistance fighter against the Nazi régime, who helped form the Bästlein-Jacob-Abshagen Group, Saefkow-Jacob-Bästlein Organisation and the Bewegung Freies Deutschland (Free Germany Movement) resistance organisations, is executed in Brandenburg-Görden Prison. [see: Dec. 3]

1945 - Voline (Vsévolod Mikhailovich Eichenbaum) (b. 1882), Russian anarchist, Makhnovist revolutionary and historian, dies. Trotsky had ordered his execution in 1921, but a hunger strike by the anarchists in prison publicly embarrassed the Bolsheviks and embroiled them in scandal, and Voline was among those released on condition they leave the country. It was the first time political prisoners were deported from the vaunted Red Fatherland of the Proletariat. [see: Aug. 11]

1959 - Benjamin Péret (b. 1899), French poet, Parisian Dadaist, founder member of the French Surrealist movement, automatism and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 4]

2013 - Pavlos Fyssas aka Killah P (b. 1979), Greek anti-fascist rapper, is stabbed to death by Giorgos Roupakias, a supporter of the Greek fascist party Golden Dawn (Χρυσή Αυγή), in Athens. An active anti-Fascist and member of the left wing anti-capitalist Antarysa (Left Front) party, he had been a hip-hop MC since 1997. Shortly after midnight, a group of around 25 neo-Nazis attacked Pavlos and his 6 friends outside a café at 60 Panayi Tsaldari Avenue in Amfiali, in the Keratsini district of Piraeus. Pavlos was stabbed three times in the chest and heart and died a few hours later in hospital.The killing finally forces Greek politicians and police to take the threat of Golden Dawn seriously, something they singularly failed to do when they limited their murders to migrants - in the following weeks Party offices and police stations are raided and cops arrested for their links with Golden Dawn. [see: Apr. 10]
[B] 1894 - Miguel Campuzano García (d. 1964), Spanish anarchist teacher, journalist and author of the 1927 novel 'Armonía' (Harmony), published in the 'La Novela Ideal' series, born. Wrote for numerous libertarian publications such as 'Acción y Cultura', 'Acción Social Obrera', 'Albada', 'Butlletí de la Societat Ateneu Popular de Mataró', 'CNT', 'Cultura Ferroviaria', 'Llibertat', 'El Luchador', 'El Pueblo', 'La Revista Blanca', 'Solidaridad'+, 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'La Tierra', 'Voluntad', etc. and under a number of different pseudonyms including Luz de Castilla, Araceli, Fernando Martorell, Fermín Pinardell, Modesto Educador, Amador de la Paz, etc..

1903 - Attilio Bortolotto aka 'Tilio' and Arthur Bartell (d. 1995), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, born. An apprentice blacksmith and potter in 1915, he emigrated to Canada with his brother Umberto and two friends in September 1920, settling in Windsor where he lived his brother Guglielmo (William) and worked for a Ukrainian blacksmith. In 1922 he joined the anarchist movement in Windsor. In Detroit, where he worked in the Chrysler factory, he participated actively in the agitation in favor of Sacco and Vanzetti. In 1924, in a symbolic act to protest the death of Giacomo Matteotti, he burnt his passport in opposition to the fascist regime in his country. In 1926, as the militant member of Il Gruppo i Refrattari he attended a meeting involving the Italian consul and, to the surprise of all, smashed up the portrait of the King of Italy, causing a massive fight. Between 1927 and 1929 he worked at Ford Motor Company as an adjuster and took part in union agitation. On October 12, 1928 (Columbus Day), he was involved in a clash with a group of Blackshirts marching in Detroit and which resulted in the death of anarchist Antonio Barra. In 1929 he was arrested in Detroit for distributing leaflets announcing a rally in memory of Sacco and Vanzetti and the process of deportation to Italy was started against him. However, he broke bail ($3,000) and fled to Toronto, where he got a job as a car mechanic. Between 1933 and 1935, he directed and coordinated Il Libertarian theatre company of Il Gruppo Libertario, presenting works by Pietro Gori, Gigi Damiani and others. In 1934 he met Emma Goldman and became an activist in the Toronto Libertarian Group. In 1939, during a workers' picnic, he brought along some self-made dolls to be shot at with bow and arrow as a bit of fun: the figures represented Franco, Hitler, Mussolini and Stalin, which disturb soem passing communist militants, resulting in a noisy altercation. On 4 October 1939 he was arrested by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in Toronto with three other Italian comrades and accused of "spreading revolutionary propaganda" during the Canadian Anti-Deportation Campaign against anti-Fascist activists supporting the Spanish Revolution; two were released, but it was proposed that Bortolotto and Marco Joachim, who had both entered Canada illegally, were to be deported to Italy. Finally, after a long campaign led by Goldman, they were released. Joachim, instead of being deported to Italy, managed a get visa for Mexico, and Bortolotto, after paying a fine of $400, was placed on probation in Toronto on January 14, 1940 - just four months later on May 14, 1940, Goldman died. As a result of his imprisonment, he fell seriously ill and Goldman had to nurse him. In 1959 he founded Bartell Industries Inc. and the profits of the company went to fund propaganda libertarian ('Antistato', 'A Rivista Anarchica', Cienfuegos Press, Galzerano Editore, etc.). During the Vietnam War, he gave refuge to many American deserters who had illegally crossed the border into Canada. Between 1968 and 1969 he directed 'The Libertarian', paper of the Toronto Libertarian Group. In 1984 he participated in the Incontro Internazionale Anarchica in Venice. Bortolotto Attilio died on February 11, 1995, in Toronto.
[ Bortolotti&f=false]

1916 - Philip Sansom (b. 1999), English commercial artist, anarchist, pacifist and co-editor of 'War Commentary', which led to 9 months in prison accused of inciting agitation among soldiers alongside fellow editors Vernon Richards and John Hewetson, born.

1935 - Friedrich 'Fritz' Oerter aka Bernhard Rothmann (b. 1869), German lithographic worker and anarchist, dies. Along with his younger brother Sepp, he was active in the youth wing of the Social-Democratic Party but were expelled, joining the anarchist movement and smuggling anarchist literature into the country. Both brothers were arrested for delivering “seditious speeches” at a meeting of the unemployed in Mainz. On Oct 25th 1893 Sepp was sentenced to 8 years in prison and Fritz to 1 year. Fritz was badly affected by prison and spent the next decade in poor health. Both the brothers participated in the Anarchistischen Föderation Deutschlands (German Anarchist Federation) and contributed to the paper 'Der Freie Arbeiter' (Free Worker).
In 1918/1919 Fritz participated in the activities of the Workers and Soldiers Councils in Fürth and he joined the FAUD, becoming influential within it as a leading proponent of the doctrine of passive resistance, and as editor of the FAUD paper 'Der Syndikalist'. He also had close friendships Gustav Landauer, the playwright Ernst Toller and Erich Muehsam.
In 1935 Fritz was arrested by the SA (Nazi stormtroopers) and detained. Following his interrogation he died a week later in hospital at the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, apparently of pneumonia. [see: Feb. 19]

1936 - Vicente Ballester Tinoco (b. 1903), Spanish carpenter, cabinetmaker, writer, journalist, and prominent Andalusian anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies. [see: Jun. 13]

[C] 1941 - SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich's order of September 1st that all Jews over the age of 6 in the German territories are ordered to wear the yellow star when in public comes into force.

1943 - Operation Concerto: Over 200,000 partisan combatants, from 193 different groups, begin an operation [September 19 - November 1] to disrupt German railroad logistics and communications in the enemy rear along a 900km front (over an area of approximately 350,000 sq. km.). Despite bad weather that only permitted the airlift of less than a half of the planned supplies, the operation lead to a 35-40% decrease in the railroad capacity in the area of operations The operation was co-ordinated with the forthcoming offensive of the Soviet troops in the Smolensk Offensive operation as part of the Summer-Autumn Campaign of 1943, it was one of the largest operations of World War II and was critical for the success of Soviet military operations that autumn. In Belarus alone the partisans claimed the destruction of more than 90,000 rails along with 1,061 trains, 72 railroad bridges and 58 Axis garrisons. Soviet historians claimed Axis losses totaled more than 53,000 soldiers.

1944 - The first issue of the Spanish language newspaper 'Ruta', "Órgano de la FIJL en Francia", is published in Marseille, continuing the anti-collaborationist and anti-reformist of the CNT-FAI in exile. From July 1945, it will be published in Toulouse and then Paris from November 1947, before returning to Toulouse. It supports actions against Franco, and is officially banned in France on February 17, 1953.

1944 - Kaare Krabbe Filseth (b. 1901), Norwegian newspaper editor, anti-Nazi resistance fighter and district commander of Milorg (Militær Organisasjon, the main Norwegian resistance organisation), is shot after having been taken by the Nazis as a hostage following the blowing up of the command central of the State Police in Ringerike and the declaration of martial law.

1946 - Jules Chazanoff aka 'Chazoff' (b. 1891), French electrical worker, proofreader, anarchist, syndicalist, anti-fascist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Jan. 25]

1956 - Helios Gómez Rodríguez (b. 1905), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, painter, poster artist, poet and militant activist, known as the 'artista de corbata roja' (artist with the red tie), dies in Barcelona 2 years after being released from prison for the last time (despite the release order signed in 1950, he contined to be held in prison illegally for four further years until his release in 1954). [see: May 7]

1985 - Italo Calvino (b. 1923), Italian journalist and writer of short stories and novels, anti-fascist partisan and member of the PCI, dies of a cerebral hemorrhage in the early hours of the morning. [see: Oct. 15]
[C] 1878 - Upton Beall Sinclair, Jr. (d. 1968), American novelist, writer, journalist, socialist and later Democratic candidate for governor of California, born. Upton Sinclair was a supporter of Sacco and Vanzetti and his 'documentary novel', 'Boston' (1928), was an indictment of the American system of justice set against the background of the prosecution and execution of the 2 anarchists, who themselves feature as characters. He was also an active supporter of the IWW free speech campaigns and strikes and in his anthology, 'The Cry for Justice: An Anthology of the Literature of Social Protest' (1915) he collected selections from the likes of Alexander Berkman ('Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist'), Peter Kropotkin ('Memoirs of a Revolutionist'), Voltairine De Cleyre, Francisco Ferrer, Auguste Vaillant, Henry David Thoreau, Octave Mirbeau, Leo Tolstoy, etc.
Sinclair wrote extensively on fascism in the 1930s and 40s, both in essay and fiction form, including in 'The Flivver King' (1937), 'No Pasaran!: A Novel of the Battle of Madrid' (1937) and the eleven volume Lanny Budd anti-fascist spy series (1940-53).
"Fascism is capitalism plus murder."

[B] 1896 - Scarlat Callimachi or Calimachi (nicknamed Prinţul Roşu, the Red Prince; d. 1975), Romanian journalist, essayist, Futurist poet, trade unionist, youthful anarchist and later a communist activist, born.

1898 - In Sao Paulo, police open fire on a demonstration. Italian anarchist Polonice Mattei is wounded by the gun fire and dies of his injuries two days later. He is the first anarchist to be murdered by the police in Brazil, who mount guard over the body and, alongside a squadron of cavalry, over the funeral in the cemetery of Araçá to prevent any public demonstration.

1916 - Paul Parin (d. 2009), Austrian-Swiss psychoanalyst, anthropologist, writer and "moral anarchist" whose personal motto was "Ni Dieu, ni Roi", born. He and his future wife, Goldy Parin-Matthey, were involved in the anarchist-socialist anti-fascist medical organisation Brüdergemeinde (Brethren).

1971 - Support of Chelsea Bridge opposite army barracks bombed. (Blast heard three miles away.) [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]

1984 - Juan Manuel Molina Mateo aka 'Juanelo' (b. 1901), important Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 4]

2010 - Jose Antonio Labordeta Subias (b. 1935), Aragonese singer-songwriter, poet, novelist, one-time libertarian who later became a resolutely non-sectarian liberal socialist politician, dies. [see: Mar. 35]
1902 - Toyen (Marie Čermínová; d. 1980), Czech-bron Surrealist painter, printmaker, illustrator, feminist and anarchist, born. A leading member of the inter-war Czech avant-garde, an innovator in painting techniques and pioneering woman artist who broke many taboos including the artistic representation of female sexuality. An anarchist from an early age, Toyen constantly sought to undermine gender roles: cross-dressing, adopting a gender-neutral name and always referring to herself in the masculine case, as well as maintaining a vehemently anti-bourgeois attitude.
She met and fell in love with fellow painter, photographer and poet, Jindřich Štyrský in 1922 and they worked closely together until his death in 1942. They joined the Czech avant-garde Devětsil 'proletarian art' group in 1923, painting in a Cubist-influenced style and co-designing book covers for some of the most prominent Czech authors. In the autumn of 1925 Toyen and Štyrský left for Paris, spending three years there and inventing their own fusion of Abstraction and Surrealism, dubbed Artificialism. After returning to Prague, they established a fashion studio where they experimented with techniques including spray-painting textiles.
Her art had a strong erotic content and she contributed a number of sketches for Štyrský's 'Erotika Revue' (1930-33) and contributed to his 6 volume series of erotic literature and illustration 'Edice 69' (Edition 69), founded in 1931. A member of the Spolku Výtvarných Umělců Mánes (the Association of Fine Artists) and associate member of the Surrealist group around André Breton and Paul Eluard, she and Štyrský also became founding members of the Skupiny Surrealistů v ČSR (Czech Surrealist Group) in Prague in 1934. In 1935, Andre Breton and the poet Paul Eluard came to Prague and began a lifelong friendship with Toyen.
She and Štyrský were forced underground during the Nazi occupation and Second World War, during which Štyrský was to die of a long-term heart condition. Whilst in hiding, she continued her artistic endeavours and also hid fellow Surrealist poet and Jew Jindřich Heisler, who would become her second artistic partner and with whom she fled to Paris before the Communist takeover of Czechoslovakia in 1948. Back in Paris, she worked until the end of her life with Breton and the French poet Benjamin Peret.

1915 - Jacinto Pérez Merino aka 'Pinilla' (d. 2007), Basque metalworker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, and anti-Francoist and Résistance fighter, born. [expand]

1926 - Flavio Costantini (d. 2013), Italian anarchist and graphic artist who chronicled the movement's history in a series of striking images, born.

1936 - "One group of people really get on my nerves, it is the volunteers who have come as observers (French for the most part). They come here with the airs of priests & got up like cowboys to spend half the time in cafes." - Camillo Berneri quoted today.

1937 - In Barcelona, ​​the Republican government under orders from the Communist, having already disarmed the workers' militias, sends its police against the local CNT (La Casa de los Escolapios de San Antonio) which has been the seat of the Comité de Defensa del Centro of the CNT July 36 to May 37, and from the administrative headquarters of the Sindicato de Alimentación. In the building were arms stored to protect the union and to cope with a possible Communist putsch. FIJL youths guarding the building attempted to stop the search and a gunfight quickly broke out, bringing reinforcements from both sides including tanks and artillery. Juan José Domenech and Juan Garcia Oliver step in to mediate and try and avoid further bloodshed, fearing a repeat of the May Days fighting. However, the discovery and seizure of the hidden arms provided the ideal excuse for the intensification of Stalinist repression against anarchists.

[A] 1970 - Wimbledon Conservative Association firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1972 - Jean Lébédeff (Ivan Konstantinovich Lebedev; b. 1884), Russian-born French anarchist artist, Illustrator and printmaker, dies. [see: Nov. 25]

1976 - Marcos Orlando Letelier del Solar (b. 1932), Chilean economist, Socialist politician and diplomat during the presidency of Salvador Allende, is killed in Washington D.C., alongside his US assistant Ronni Moffitt, by a car bomb planted by CIA-backed agents of Pincohet's Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional.

[C] 1980 - At Woolwich Arsenal railway station, 60 skinheads, all members or supporters of the British Movement, attack a lone West Indian. They then attack a police officer who intervened. Seven of them were later found guilty of offences at the Old Bailey.
1880 - Heinrich Bartling (d. 1940), German locksmith, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Alongside Willi Paul, he left the Kassel Spartakusbund, he helped found a local group of the anarchosyndicalist Free Workers' Union of Germany (FAUD) in 1920, and in which he became a member of the executive committee. . In 1925, Bartling was also active in the Kassel group of the Föderation Kommunistischer Anarchisten Deutschlands (FKAD). After the Nazi seixure of power and the repression against the Kassel FAUD, Bartling continued his activities thanks to a clandestine printing press hidden on his allotment. On September 1, 1939, he organised an anti-war action and was arrested on September 16 and placed in "protective custody" as prisoner number 002 493 in house block 25 in Sachsenhausen concentration camp. He did not survive the brutal treatment and appalling conditions there for long and on January 30, 1940, he died there.

1916 - Miguel Jiménez Rodriguez, Spanish chemist, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist activist, born. In May 1935, he joined the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) and the Juventudes Libertarias. At the outbreak of the civil war, he fought with the XIII Brigada Internacional until he was wounded in Pozoblanco (Córdoba, Andalusia, Spain). Hospitalised in Barcelona and Mollà, where he remained an active militant. He later lent his support to the CNT in Albacete until the end of the war. With Franco's victory, he hid out in a farmhouse in his hometown and remained safe because of his having saved the life of an apothecary in Motril in 1937. In the early 1940s, he earned a living teaching science and also worked on the clandestine manufacture of soap. In 1943, he moved to Barcelona and continued his clandestine soap manufacturing activities, as well as joining the Juventudes Libertarias and the Sindicato de Artes Gráficas of the CNT. In 1946, he and José Luis Facerías were jointly appointed secretary of Propaganda of the Comité Regional de Cataluña of the CNT and the proceeds of his soap project financed the printing of the periodical 'Ruta', which he directed and wrote for under the pseudonym Cherimoya. In December 1946 he was arrested and imprisoned in Barcelona's Modelo prison, where he was responsible for the underground newsletters 'Esfuerzo' and 'Acarus Sciaberi'. Later, with Liberto Sarrau, Raul Carballeira and Joaquina Dorado, he formed the 3 de Mayo anarchist group.

1916 - Cipriano Damián González (d. 1986), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Franco underground resistance, born. [see: Apr. 17]

[C] 1918 - Hans Fritz Scholl (d. 1943), founding member of the Weiße Rose (White Rose) resistance movement in Nazi Germany, born. Co-author of six anti-Nazi Third Reich political resistance leaflets calling for passive resist against the Nazis. Hans and his sister Sophie were spotted throwing leaflets from the atrium at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität in Munich on February 18, 1943. They were arrested by the Gestapo and, with Christopher Probst, tried for treason. Found guilty and condemned to death on February 22, Hans and Sophie Scholl and Christopher Probst were beheaded in Munich's Stadelheim Prison within hours of the court decision.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: In Corral de Almaguer, Toledo, and surrounding towns, the Communists seize power. The fighting leaves 6 dead and 40 wounded.
In Madrid the publication of the newspaper 'La Correspondencia Militar' is suspended indefinitly by government decreed.

[CC] 1943 - Operation Blow-up*: At 1:20am a time bomb placed in the Minsk apartment of Generalkommissar Wilhelm Kube, SS Gauleiter for Weissruthenien (Belarus), explodes, killing him. A senior official in the occupying government of the Soviet Union, he was also an important figure in the German Christian movement during the early years of Nazi rule. The bomb had been hidden in the mattress of Kube's bed by Soviet partisan Yelena Mazanik (1914 - 1996), a Belarusian woman who had managed to find employment in his household as a maid in order to assassinate him. In retaliation for Kunbe's assassination, the SS killed more than 1,000 male citizens of Minsk. After the war, Yelena Mazanik and 2 other women involved in the operation, Maria Osipova and Nadezhda Troyan, were honoured with the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.
[*операции Возмездие in Russian - more accurately translated as Operation Retribution or Operation Nemesis]

1973 - Salvador Puig Antich arrested in Spain. A young anarchist militant in the guerilla MIL (Iberian Liberation Movement) fighting the yoke of Francoism, he had slipped back into the country in 1972. Despite international protests, Antich is executed March 2, 1974. Extensive militant reaction to Spanish government targets follows throughout British, Irish and European cities.

[B] 1979 - Roberto Saviano, radical Italian journalist, writer and essayist, born. Saviano claims to be influenced by Errico Malatesta and Mikhail Bakunin, as well as the Italian anti-fascist politician Giustino Fortunato and Gaetano Salvemini, although he had regularly criticised those, like the 'Black Bloc', who use direct action politics and has publicly praised the State of Israel. Because of his anti-Maffia journalism he was placed under police protection in 2006, leaving Italy "for his own protection" 2 years later. Author of the non-fiction novel 'Gomorrah: Viaggio nell'Impero Economico e nel Sogno di Dominio della Camorra' (Gomorrah: Journey into the Economic Empire and the Dream of Domination of the Camorra; 2006) and co-creator of the TV programmes 'Vieni via con me' (Come away with me; 2010) and 'Quello che (non) ho' (What (not) I; 2012).

1987 - Benito Milla Navarro (b. 1916), Spanish militant anarchist propaganist, editor and anti-fascist combatant, dies. [see: Sep. 6]

2008 - Teofilo Navarro Fadrique aka 'Negro', 'Le Vieux'and 'Zapatero' (b. 1915), Spanish shoemaker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Franco resistance, dies. [see: Feb. 6]
[C] 1901 - Jaroslav Seifert (d. 1986), Czech poet, writer, journalist and translator, born. The only Czech "proletarian" poet of working class origins, he helped set up Umělecký Svaz Devětsil (Devětsil Artistic Federation), an initially anarchist avant-garde artists association, in 1920 and was a co-founder of Poetism. A youthful adherent to anarchism, he joined the initially non-Bolshevik Komunistické Strany Československa (KSČ) and went on the fight against Bolshevik tendencies within the party, signing the 'Proclamation of the Seven' in 1929. He was a regular contributor to left wing and communist journals and newspapers in the early 1920s including 'Červen' (June), 'Proletkult' (Proletarian Culture) and 'Rudé Právo' (Red Truth). Seifert's strong political inclinations, showing sympathy for the proletarian cause and for anarchism, were present in his first two, and arguably his best, poetry collections: 'Město v Slzách' (A City in Tears; 1921) and 'Samá Láska' (Nothing but Love; 1923).
His later collections 'Ruce Venušiny' (The Hands of Venus; 1936) and 'Jaro, s Bohem' (Spring, Goodbye; 1937) would address the problems of the rising tide of fascism in Europe. 'Zhasněte Světla' (Put Out the Lights; 1938), one of his most famous poems, also deals with fascism, expressly the Nazi threat hanging over Prague following the betrayal of Czechoslovakia at the Munich conference. Another poem, 'Vějíř Boženy Němcové' (1940), is a passionate protest against the Nazi occupation of Prague in the guise of a celebration of the 120th anniversary of Božena Němcová, considered the founder of modern Czech prose. These poems went some way to rehabilitating Seifert in the eyes of the Communist Party. His later collection 'Přilba z Hlíny' (Clay Helmet; 1945) celebrated the Prague uprising of 1945 against the Nazis and earned Seifert the stature as a Czech national poet.
Seifert was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1984.
"Mr. Seifert has never become a writer with a Party program. The state is there for the people and not vice versa. There is an element of anarchy in his philosophy of life - a protest against everything that cuts down life's possibilities and reduces human beings to cogs in some ideological machine or yokes them to the harness of some dogma." - Nobel Prize for Literature 1984 announcement.

1936 - Robert Capa’s seminal photograph 'The Falling Soldier', which captures the moment of death of 24-year-old anarchist Federico Borrell, appears in 'Vu' as part of a photo essay on the Alcoy local militia at Cerro Muriano during the Spanish Revolution.

1963 - Margarethe Faas-Hardegger (d. 1882), Swiss anarchist, syndicalist, feminist, anti-fascist and peace militant, who preached and practised free love, and established an anarchist-communist agricultural community at Minusio, dies. [see: Feb. 20]

1973 - Pablo Neruda (Neftali Ricardo Reyes Basoalto; b. 1904), Chilean poet, youthful anarchist, then a communist and subsequently socialist diplomat and politician, dies. [see: Jul. 12]

2004 - Antifa members are involved in a confrontation with David King, a former British National Party treasurer, and his security entourage in Basildon, Essex.

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: In the early hours a memorial to Michael Brown on Canfield Drive burns to the ground. Protesters gather at the site, and later in the day Ferguson police chief Thomas Jackson releases a video apology to the Brown family about the shooting of their son and the time it took to remove his body from the street.
That evening, several hundreds of protesters gathered in front of the police headquarters asking for Jackson's resignation Protected by 50 police officers Jackson joined the protest and started to explain that changes were underway after Brown's killing, creating some agitation in the crowd. Within minutes the cops had to intervene to protect their boss. Several protesters were arrested and later the protest was declared unlawful.
1910 - André Prevotel (d. 1958), French postal/telegraph service worker, anarchist and néo-Malthusian, born. Member in the early thirties of the Bordeaux anarchist group 'Sébastien Faure' and worked on the fortnightly 'La Révolte' of Aristide Lapeyre. At the end of March 1935, he was arrested along with his wife Andrée, Aristide Lapeyre and Louis Harel in the case of the stérilisés de Bordeaux aka the 'affaire Bartosek' and imprisoned at Fort du Hâ, all accused of having performed vasectomies on 15 men as assistants of Dr. Norbert Bartosek at the Prevotel's house (Bartosek took refuge in Belgium). After an intense campaign, he was released on bail July 6, 1935. At their trial on May 2, 1936, for "castration and violence" Bartosek was sentenced to 3 years in prison and the other defendants were sentenced to 6 months (Andrée spent 12 days in the Fort du Ha before being released after the charges against her were dismissed). Prevotel's sentence was reduced on appeal to four months (and Bartosek to one year).
In 1939, André was arrested and held incommunicado for 50 days for "defeatist and incitement to military disobedience" (André had managed to avoidbeing called up) and spent the Occupation semi-clandestinitely. After the Liberation, based in Langon (Gironde), he helped reconstruct a section of Solidarité internationale antifasciste (SIA) and assumed the presidency of the local Libre Pensée group, which took the name 'André-Prevotel' at his death.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: On the docks at Santander clashes between socialists and the police leave one dead and six wounded. The UGT prevents, by force, Sindicato Católico (Catholic Union) members going out on strike.

[C] 1944 - Ignacy Głuchowski aka ‘Morus’ (b. 1892), Polish anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Nazi resistance, dies in the fighting in Central Warsaw. A worker in the Państwowy Monopol Tytoniowy (State Tobacco Monopoly) factory and a syndicalist activist in Związek Związków Zawodowych (ZZZ: Union of Workers Unions) and the Robotniczy Instytut Oświaty i Kultury (Workers Institute of Education and Culture). In October 1939, he became vice-chairman of workers section in the Związek Syndykalistów Polskich (ZSP: Union of Polish Syndicalists). Sergeant, chief of 104 ZSP Company, he took part in the fighting in Warsaw's Stare Misato (Old Town) and Śródmieście and died on September 24, 1944, during the fighting there.

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: Following the arrest the previous day of a courier for Yacef Saâdi, head of the FLN in Algiers and of the réseau bombes (bombs network), at 05:00 members of (General Massu's chief of staff) Colonel Yves Godard's 1e Régiment Étranger de Parachutistes (1st Foreign Parachute Regiment), commanded by Colonel Pierre Jeanpierre, seal off Rue Caton and raided Yacef's hideout at No. 3. Yacef and Zohra Drif had hid in a wall cavity, but this was soon located by the French troops. Yacef threw a grenade at the French troops but they were eager to take him alive and he and Zohra Drif eventually surrendered. Across the street at No 4, Ali La Pointe escaped the French cordon and went to another safe-house in the Casbah.
[–57)'Alger algerie/alger-deuxieme-saadi.html]

1963 - Eugène Léon Tricheux (b. 1901) French building worker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist activist, dies. [see: Apr. 1]

1964 - Miguel Campuzano García (b. 1894), Spanish anarchist teacher, journalist and author of the 1927 novel 'Armonía' (Harmony), published in the 'La Novela Ideal' series, dies. [see: Sep. 19]

1970 - During the council workers strike, a bomb explodes in the cleansing department head office in Greenford, England. [Angry Brigade chronolgy]

[A] 1971 - Despite the fact that the police claim to have arrested all the Angry Brigade, the Albany Street Army Barracks (near the Bomb Squad HQ) is bombed by the Angry Brigade in protest against the actions of the British Army in Northern Ireland.

1978 - Over 100,000 marched (some sources give the figure as 150,000) from Trafalgar Square through South London to the second RAR/ANL Carnival being held in Brockwell Park, with Sham 69 headlining, along with Aswad, Misty In Roots and Elvis Costello and The Attractions on the bill. Other bands, including Crisis, Charge, Eclipse, Inganda, RAS, the Derelicts, the Enchanters, the Members, the Ruts and the Straights, played from floats along the course of the march. In an opportunist move, the NF announced that it would hold a march in the East End that afternoon, simply intending to embarrass, and hopefully split, the organisers of the anti-fascist event. And there was indeed a split over what to do: the organisers, the SWP and ANL, wanted to put all their efforts into the Carnival, and therefore put no effort into organising any opposition. Others wanted it called off, with the Spartacist League telling carnival-goers that they were "SCABBING on the struggle". In the end, 250 National Fronters marched through the East End and held a rally in Curtain Road, off Great Eastern Street, practically unopposed by all but what amounted to a small, almost token anti-racist presence (with the notable exception of the RCP and various anarchist groupings), except towards the end of the march when reinforcements arrived from Brockwell Park via the Tube. Too few, too late to do anything effective. An embarrasing event all round.

1978 - The NF move their HQ from Twickenham to Shoreditch, alongside the Bengali community.

1982 - The Newham 8 are arrested following fighting between a group of Asian youths and three police officers in plain clothes.
1903 - Mark Rothko (Marcus Yakovlevich Rothkowitz; d. 1970), American abstract expressionist/colour field painter, poet and anarchist, born to Jewish parents in Czarist Russia (now part of Latvia). His father, taking Marcus' elder brothers, emigrated to America so his sons could escape being drafted into the Imperial Russian Army. Marcus, together with his mother and sister, joined them in 1913. In Portland, Oregan, he learned English (his fourth language after Russian, Yiddish and Hebrew) and joined in the political debates in the local Jewish community centre, becoming passionate about the worker's movement and women's right to contraception. It was in this atmosphere of radical workers' and IWW meetings, with speeches by the likes of Bill Haywood and Emma Goldman (attending her lectures in Portland in August 1915), that his anarchism was founded. I was also where he also developed his strong oratorical skills, something he would later deploy in defence of Surrealism.
In the early 1930s, he joined the anti-fascist, anti-capitalist Artists Union.
Shortly before his death from suicide (cutting his arms with a razor), and as he grappled with health problems, tormented by depression and physically debilitated, he declared: "I am still an anarchist!"

[C] 1905 - Suzy Chevet (Suzanne Chevet; d. 1972), French teacher, militant socialist, Résistance member, libertarian syndicalist and anarchist, born. Trained as a teacher, she was a member of Marceau Pivert's Parti Socialiste but, in 1938, she joined the Parti Socialiste Ouvrier et Paysan (Socialist Workers and Peasants Party) and was active in the Saint Malo and Trélazé committees supporting the Spanish Revolution, helping many refugees find work and housing during the Retirada. In 1941, she was put under house arrest in Saint Malo and banned from teaching by the Vichy regime. After find a safe refuge for her daughter, she went to Jersey in the Channel islands, where she helped organise escape routes for Dutch sailors. Arrested by the Gestapo in 1942, she was transferred to Rennes for questioning and then taken to Angers, but managed to escape and went to Lorient. Under a new identity, she entered the offices of the Service du Travail Obligatoire (STO) and until the liberation passed information to the local Résistance. In 1945, she joined the Fédération Anarchiste through which she met the anarchist theoritican Maurice Joyeux and they became partners. She also joined the Groupe libertaire Louise-Michel and edited its paper, 'La Rue', "revue culturelle et littéraire d'expression anarchiste".

1936 - Emma Goldman speaks before a crowd of 10,000 in Barcelona.

1940 - Eva Švankmajerová (d. 2005), Czech Surrealist artist, painter, ceramicist, poet, filmmaker and writer, born. Made a series of short and full-length films between 1964 and 2005 with her husband Jan Švankmajer, including 'The Pit, the Pendulum and 'Hope' (Kyvadlo, Jáma a Naděje; 1983) 'Alice' (Něco z Alenky; 1987) and 'Little Otik' (Otesánek; 2000). Her books include 'Baradla Cave' (Jeskyně Baradla; 1995) and 'Surrealist Women: an International Anthology' (1998).

1944 - Josef 'Beppo' Römer (b. 1892), German former member of the Freikorps Oberland and KPD activists, is executed in Brandenburg-Görden Prison for planning to assassinate Adolf Hitler. [see: Nov. 15]

1962 - A lecture by Oswald Mosley at the New York State University in Buffalo NJ was broken up by an angry audience shouting "Nazi" and "Jew-hater". He ducked through the back door and escaped while some of the students in the hall held the angry crowd back. Under the protection of a heavy police guard, he managed to successfully address students and faculty the following day.

1963 - In the Dominican Republic a coup d'etat overthrows democratically elected President Juan Bosch.

1970 - Yefim or Jefim Golyshev (Ефи́м Го́лышев; b. 1897), Ukrainian-born painter and composer, who was active mainly in Europe and was a member of the Dadaist Revolutionary Central Council alongside Huelsenbeck and Hausmann, dies. [see: Sep. 8]

1973 - Anarchist militants and members of Movimiento Ibérico de Liberación (MIL) Salvador Puig Antich and Xavier Garriga Paituví are caught in a carefully arranged police ambush. A shootout occurs, during which a Guardia Civil officer, Francisco Anguas Barragán, is killed and Puig is wounded. Both anarchist are arrested and Puig charged with Anguas Barragan's death. Tried at a court martial (using a false witness statement from Garriga that he signed after torture, Puig is condemned to death and garrotted on March 2 1974.

1976 - NF holds a march in Walsall opposed by an International Socialist-organised anti-fascist counter-demonstration. 960 cops on duty arrest 20 anti-fascists but no NF.

1977 - Steve Biko, civil rights activist, is buried in South Africa having been murdered by police.

1987 - Abba Kovner (אבא קובנר; b. 1918), Lithuanian Jewish Hebrew poet, writer, and commander of the Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye (FPO; United Partisan Organisation) in the Vilna Ghetto, dies in israel. [see: Mar. 14]
1914 - David Stetner (d. 2002), Romanian-Jewish anarchist and French resident David Stetner, who founded Yiddish anarchist journal 'Der Freie Gedank' and fully experienced a life of vagrancy, prison, hunger, humiliation and punishment, born. He became interested in anarchist ideas at the age of 17 and started attending secret meetings held in the woods outside the town of Czernovitz. He read and discussed the works of Mikhail Bakunin and Rudolf Rocker, among others. He deserted from the Romanian army on two occasions: the first time having decided to leave for Republican Spain in 1934 but was refused a passport and decided to leave clandestinely for Poland, only to becaught and court martialled. Released from jail in January 1937, he was enlisted in the navy, only to desert in June of that year, crossing through Europe and arriving illegally in France. Forced to live the desperate life of a sans-papiers in Paris, he wanted to volunteer to join the anarchist militias in the civil war in Spain, but was dissuaded by the secretary of the Federacion Anarquista Iberica in France, who explained that the Francoist victories and the Stalinist betrayals had already drastically undermined the Spanish social revolution. Shortly before the outbreak of WWII met Golda Konstantin, who became his companion for the rest of his life. When France was attacked by the Germans, he joined the first foreign volunteer unit and was demobbed the following year. During the German occupation, both being political activists, Jewish and without papers, both were under serious threat but managed to hide and escape from deportation. His family, however, had remained in Romania, all died except one sister, in the Nazi extermination camp. However, Golda was arrested following a round up all the Jews in the 11th arrondissement, being arrested at a checkpoint because of her identity card’s being so obviously a forgery. She was sentenced to 18 months in prison in Caen and Stetner went to ground in Paris. [expand]

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: Clashes in Salamanca result in two dead and four wounded. In Manresa, no less than 16 bombs during a strike. In Seville, clashes between different communist groups results in one dead and 16 injured.

1935 - On the eve of the Ethiopian war and Italy's anti-British propaganda braodcasts via Radio Bari and Radio Roma, the Ministero per la Stampa e la Propaganda (Ministry of Press and Propaganda) assumes control of the radio.

1936 - Fernando Demetrio Mata Povedano (b. 1901), Aragonese rationalist teacher, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, and mayor of Montemayor, is assassinated in Córdoba prison and buried in a mass grave in the city's San Rafael cemetery. [see: Dec. 22]

[C] 1940 - Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (b. 1892), German philosopher and 'Romantic anarchist, who made influential contributions to aesthetic theory, Western Marxism and anti-fascist thought, and is associated with the Frankfurt School, and was also a respected literary and cultural critic, essayist and translator during the Weimar Republic, is found dead after having killed himself with an overdose of morphine tablets taken the previous night. Whilst fleeing France and the approaching Nazis, he safely crossed the French-Spanish border and arrived at the coastal town of Portbou, in Catalonia. However, the Franco government had cancelled all transit visas and ordered the Spanish police to return people to France, including the Jewish refugee group Benjamin had joined, thwarting his chances of travelling to the United States. [see: Jul. 15]
[ Paper - Benjamin and Anarchism.pdf]

1941 - José Sampériz Janina (b. 1910), Spanish journalist, writer and anarchist sympathiser, dies in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp. [see: Apr. 23]

1970 - Simultaneous bomb attacks against Iberia in Geneva, Frankfurt, Paris and London airports. [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]

1970 - Hampstead Conservative Association firebombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1970 - Bomb exploded outside Barclays Bank, Heathrow. [Angry Brigade chronology]

[B] 1973 - Alessio Lega, Italian singer-songwriter, writer and anarchist militant, born.

1977 - Birmingham Trades Council organises an anti-racialist counter-demonstration to a National Front march in the city.

2011 - White supremacist David Joseph 'Joey' Pedersen shoots his father, David 'Red' Pedersen, in the back of a head whilst he is driving. Red Pedersen takes at least 30 minutes to die. Joey Pedersen and his partner Holly Grigsby then returned to the Pedersen house, where Red Pedersen's wife, Dee Dee, was bound with duct tape, cut in the neck and left to bleed to death. The couple then drove Red Pedersen's vehicle south into Oregon. Joey Pedersen was later to claim that Red Pedersen had sexually abused his children and others.
Both are White supremacists, 31-year-old Pedersen having a swastika tattoo on his chest above his heart and one of Adolph Hitler on his stomach, as well as initials SWP, standing for Supreme White Power, in large gothic scripts on his neck. He had spent 2 spells in prison, 6 years for robbery and 7 on a single count that included assaulting a police officer.
24-year-old Grigsby has been a supremacist since the age of 13. She had spent time in prison for a variety of minor charges, including identity theft and unauthorised use of a vehicle. After completing probation, she was again sentenced in 2008 on identity theft charges and served two years.
1904 - Monny de Boully (Solomon or Salmon Moni de Buli; d. 1968) Serbian-French Surrealist writer, poet and anarchist, born. Purged from the Paris Surrealist group in 1928 following his prolonged opposition to the group's communist line. The same year, he started the magazine 'Discontinuité' with Arthur Adamov and Claude Sernet, and participated in group around the anarchist-influenced literary magazine 'Le Grand Jeu' which was established in opposition to the Surrealists.

[B] 1906 - James Myers (Jim) Thompson (d. 1977), American author and screenwriter, known for his pulp crime fiction and who was nicknamed the 'Dimestore Dostoevsky', born. Initially an oil field labourer, he joined the Industrial Workers of the World in the mid-1920s and joined the Communist Party in 1935, but had left the group by 1938.

1911 - In protest against the possibility of war, a 24-hour general strike called for by the Italian Confederazione Generale del Lavoro takes place.

1936 - Armand Guerra and his film crew set off for the front to begin recording what became the two-part lost film 'Estampas Guerreras' (1937).

[C] 1943 - Boško Buha (Бошко Буха; b. 1926), young Serbian partisan, who was nicknamed the 'Partisan Artillery' for his prowess in blowing up German bunkers and became one of the great icons of WWII in Yugoslavia, is killed in a Chetnik ambush. Targeted by the Ustasha in Slavonia (Croatia), his family fled to Serbia where Buha attempted to join the Partisans. Rejected because he was only 15, he was eventually accepted into the 2nd Proletarian Brigade of Narodnooslobodilačka vojska (NOV; National Liberation Army), where he gained fame for his ability to find bunkers and destroy them with grenades. He died near the village of Jabukovo near Prijepolje when the truck he was travelling in was caught in a Chetnik ambushed. On December 20, 1952 he was named a national hero of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

[A] 1960 - Sylvia Pankhurst (b. 1882), English suffragist, prominent left communist and anti-fascist, who was the leader of East London Federation, which sought to unite British labour and woman's suffrage movement, dies. [see: May 5]

1979 - Pascal Pia (born Pierre Durand; b. 1903), French writer, poet, journalist, illustrator, scholar and anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 15]
1898 - André Gaudérique Jean Respaut (d. 1973), French author, Résistance activist, anarchist, survivor of Buchenwald, born. Mobilised in 1918 following the death 2 of his elder brothers and the fleeing of a third to Spain to avoid conscription, he joined up, despite his anarchist principles, to avoid problems for his mother with the authorities. Following the was, he worked in various jobs including as a gardener, cafe manager and gym teacher. He also helped found the Narbonne anarchist group in 1920 and cooperated with the CNT in south Catalonia. Between 1924-25 he was a member of the Fédération Révolutionnaire du Languedoc, founded in Béziers on October 19, 1924 and worked on the trilingual journal 'La Revue Internationale Anarchiste'. In 1934, he moved to Paris to study philosophy at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Sociales with Félicien Challaye, an anti-colonialist and pacifist for who he held a lifelong admiration. During the Spanish Civil War, in which his brother Fortuné fought as a volunteer, he was an organiser in the Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste (SIA), helping secure the passage of many trucks of arms and supplies for the benefit of the CNT. After the war, he returned to Narbonne with his Spanish partner, Teri Sisquella, who was ordered interned in the Argelès camp by the ssub-prefect of Narbonne.
During the German occupation, he came into contact with the Combat movement and joined the Résistance, first distributing leaflets and from late 1942 as an intelligence officer. Meanwhile, with anarchist militants from Ales, Perpignan and the Spanish CNT, he participated in crossing into Spain. On October 18, 1943, he was arrested by the Gestapo. Knowing of his imminent arrest he had prepared an escape plan, but he abandoned this fearing that the Germans did arrest his aged mother. Extensively interrogated and tortured, André Respaut did not speak, and was later transferred to the camp at Compiegne, where on December 12, 1943, he was deported in sealed wagons to Buchenwald concentration camp. Due to its physical fitness, courage and generosity, he survived the horrors of the camp and managed to save several fellow deportees from certain death. After the camp was liberated April 11, 1945 by U.S. troops, André Respaut was repatriated to France at the end of the month.
Back in Narbonne, he helped found the Fédération Nationale des Déportés Internés Résistants (FNDIR), an association of former prisoners and deportees, and was its regional president for several years. He also helped reform the Narbonne anarchist group, as part of the Fédération anarchiste (FA), and the local section of the CNTF, contributed to the Franco-Spanish magazine 'Universo' and Louis Louvet's 'Défense de l'Homme', and was a member of the Narbonne Fédération Communiste Libertaire (FCL) group. He was also author of 'Buchenwald Terre Maudite' (Buchenwald Cursed Earth; 1946) and 'Sociologie Fédéraliste Libertaire' (1961).

1921 - Leopold Hermann Oskar Panizza (b. 1853), German anarchist, psychiatrist, avant-garde author, playwright, novelist, poet, essayist, publisher and literary journal editor, dies. [see: Nov. 12]

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: In Seville one person is killed during clashes between members of the Sindicato Único and the communists.

1932 - Víctor Lidio Jara Martínez (d. 1973), Chilean teacher, theatre director, poet, singer-songwriter, political activist and member of the Communist Party of Chile, born. Víctor Jara was one of the most popular figures of the Nueva Canción Chilena (New Chilean Song) movement under the Allende government, he was arrested the day after the Chilean coup of 11 September 1973. Tortured by his captors (with the bones in both his hands broken; it was said that his assailants offered him a guitar to play), he was shot dead with 44 machine-gun bullets and his body was dumped in beside the road in a shanty town in Santiago.

1938 - Oster Conspiracy: As the anti-Nazi and anti-war sentiment among individual officers in the German army hardened, a hardcore group of ranking officers came together determined to depose Hitler, many of the generals who also feared for Germany's future given Hitler's plans for conquering Europe, favoured arresting and imprisonming him instead. Amongst the former, a plan was organised and developed by Lieutenant Colonel Hans Oster, Chief of Staff of the Abwer, the counterintelligence section of the military High Command, to assassinate Hitler if Germany went to war with Czechoslovakia over the Sudetenland. By September 15, an assault squad were wating and ready in a series of safe houses around Berlin maintained by the Abwehr. Throughout Berlin and the surrounding suburbs military officers, police officials, and civilians, all members of the conspiracy to overthrow the Nazi regime, waited tensely for the word to begin. Then the unthinkable happened. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain decided to confer with Hitler personally and arrange a deal. By on September 28 (the date of the final meeting), a deal had been brokered and Hitler renounced his plans to destroy Czechoslovakia. In return, France and Britain allowed him to occupy the Sudetenland with German troops. The threat of war was averted. So, too, was the threat to Hitler's life that had been mounted by the coup's assault squad hidden in buildings all around the Chancellory. The assault squad was dispersed and their weapons returned to the Abwehr warehouse.

1943 - Underground anti-Nazi activists begin systematic smuggling Jews out of Denmark to Sweden.

[CC] 1955 - During a visit by Franco to Barcelona, Francisco Sabaté hails a cab and blithely drives around the Catalan capital firing anti-regime leaflets through the sun-roof from a mortar he had assembled from inside his suitcase on the back seat. He reassures a worried driver: "Don't worry, I work for the government and I am distributing informational materials." He leaves the cab driver with a generous tip.
"Pueblo antifascista: Son ya demasiados los años que soportas Franco y sus sicarios. No basta con hacer la crítica de este corrompido régimen de miseria y de terror. Las palabras son palabras. La acción es necesaria. Fuera la tiranía! Viva la unión del pueblo! Movimiento Libertario. Comité de Relaciones"

1966 - André Breton (b. 1896), French writer, poet, Dadaist, founder of Surrealism, member of the PCF and later an anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 19]

1968 - Edgard Leuenroth (b. 1881), Brazilian journalist, publisher, writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 31]

1970 - John Roderigo Dos Passos (b. 1896), US novelist and artist, dies. [see: Jan. 14]

1973 - A bomb devastates part of the Latin American section of the ITT building in New York City, in retaliation for ITT's involvement (along with CIA) in the bloody overthrow of Chile's President Allende one week ago.

1974 - A right-wing coup attempt organised by General António de Spinola and his supporters under the guise of a march of the "silent majority", in Lisbon for Sunday September 29, 1974, in opposition to "extremist totalitarianism" is defeated. First called by Spinola on September 10, the granting of permission for the march by the Civil Government in Lisbon led to an immediate backlash by the left, who demanded the march — suspected to be a cover for a coup attempt — be banned, and mobilised against it. The left called people into the streets; Radio Renascenca invited workers to picnics on the main roads. Barricades were set up including on the roads leading to Lisbon; SP and CP organisers and members joined the movement. Army units were mobilised, although those on the streets were not sure what they were doing. It turned out some right-wingers were being rounded up by units loyal to the MFA (Movimento das Forças Armadas). On the evening of September 27th, MFA leaders had met at the Cova da Moura military headquarters and made plans for the arrest of 78 prominent reactionaries. However, speaking on radio Major Sanches Osario, Spinola’s right-hand man, declared the demonstration was going ahead and demanded the barricades be taken down. All morning the crowds protesting against the march increased in size. Eventually, at 1pm Spinola read a communique calling the march off. Two hours later 40,000 workers demonstrated in a massive victory parade. The right in the army, and in the country as a whole, had been defeated... for the time being.
On September 30th Spinola, together with two Ministers and three members of the Council of State and the military Junta, resigned. Two hundred people involved in the plot were arrested. The MFA were now in control.
[ [NB: Yigael gets the date wrong!]]

1978 - Ivo Zini, young member of the Italian Commuist Party, is shot dead by Fascists in Rome.

1981 - Roberto Barreto Pedroso das Neves aka Ernst Izgur (b. 1907), Portuguese-born Brazilian writer, journalist, poet, historian, Freemason, Esperantist, graphologist, anarchist individualist, vegetarian and naturist, dies. [see: Sep. 7]

1985 - Günter Sare (b. 1949), German mechanic, anti-Fascist and an employee of a left-wing youth centre in Frankfurt-Bockenheim, is run over by a police water cannon at a anti-Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (NPD) protest in the city.

[A] 1985 - During a raid on her house, police shoot Cherry Groce as she lays in her bed. An angry demonstration outside Brixton police station erupts into a riot.

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: During the evening a large protest takes place and bottles and rocks are thrown at the cops, who call in backup from other police forces. Eight protesters are arrested on failure to disperse and resisting arrest charges.
1892 - Aurelio Fernández Sánchez aka 'El Jerez', 'El Cojo', 'Charles Abella', 'Colas', 'Marini', 'González', etc. (d. 1974), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, member of Los Solidarios, born. [expand]

1895 - Bertha Suzanne Faber-Guillot (d. 1983), French anarchist activist, born. With her companion the anarchist Séveran Ferandel, she ran the Librarie Sociale Internationale radical bookstore in Basses-Alpes, France. She later had a long-term relationship with Francisco Ascaso, living with him when he went into exile in France and Belgium, moving to Spain after the proclamation of the Republic in April 1931. There she took part in the social struggle, enduring period of Ascaso's imprisonment and exile. After Ascaso's death on July 20, 1936, during the assault on the Atarazanas barracks in Barcelona, she remained living in city through out the Revolution, eventually forming a relationship with the French conscientious objector Eugène Guillot, then in exile under the name Jacques Sallès. In early 1939, she left Spain with her companion during the Retirada. Back in Paris, she fell foul of the police during a raid on the headquarters of the Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste and had to go into hiding. After the war, she and Guillot became members of the radical group Amis de Sebastien Faure.

1905 - Heinz Siegfried Heydrich (d. 1944), German SS Obersturmführer in WWII and younger brother of SS General Reinhard Heydrich, who turned from being a fervent admirer of Hitler into an anti-Nazi who secretly helped numerous Jews escape occupied Europe, born. A journalist and publisher of the soldiers' newspaper, 'Die Panzerfaust', his views on Hitler and Nazism changed following his brother's assassination in June 1942 when he was given a large packet containing Reinhard’s personal papers and files, which had been released from his strongbox at Gestapo Headquarters. These included detailed plans about the 'Final Solution', in which Reinhard had been heavily involved. Horrified, he burnt most of the papers in disgust but soon came to realise that he was in a truly unique position; as brother of a prominent SS general and editor of a party newspaper, he could help potential victims of the 'Final Solution' escape from Germany. Using his paper's commercial printing-press, he printed fake travel-documents, which he signed and stamped and gave to Jewish families so that they could escape from occupied Europe to countries of safety. Heinz continued this work in secret for two years until an unfortunate event, the launching of an investigation into activities at the SS’s newspaper offices. Fearing discovery and that his family would suffer in the inevitable retaliation, he committed suicide, shooting himself in the head. Sadly, the investigation was only to find out why there was such a shortage of paper at the offices. Had he survived the war, he would certainly have been acquitted at the Nuremberg trials.

1934 - Following the October 16, 1933, BUF meeting in King's Hall, Belle Vue, Manchester, Mosley had decide on a return. However, an anti-fascist co-ordinating committee was quickly and a dynamic campaign of leafleting, fly-posting and public meetings were organised to mobilise the opposition. Attempts to get the meeting banned failed but Manchester's Chief Constable did band all marches. However, that failed to prevent the anti-fascists from holding 3 large marches from Openshaw, Miles Platting, and Cheetham to meet the hundreds already waiting to meet them at Ardwick Green to form a united demonstration of over 3,000 who would march along Hyde Road to join the protest meeting outside Belle Vue Park. Most then paid the small entrance fee to get into Belle Vue and went in search of the fascists. However, they were hiding in a hall under The Gallery from which Mosley was due to speak to his supporters assemble an open air dance floor protected from the rest of the park by a lake and, in addition to the usual gang of Blackshirt thugs, there were wooden barriers and the police. In case this was not enough searchlights were available to be directed against the anti-fascists and fire engines with water cannon at the ready. The scene was set. 500 blackshirts marched from a hall under The Gallery and formed up military style. Mosley, aping Mussolini stepped forward to the microphone to speak. He was greeted by a wall of sound that completely drowned his speech. "Down with fascism", "Down with the blackshirt thugs!", "The rats the rats clear out the rats!", "One two three four five we want Mosley, dead or alive!". Anti-fascist songs, the 'Red Flag', and the 'Internationale' were also sung. The sound never stopped for over an hour. In spite of the powerful amplifiers turned up to maximum Mosley's rantings about "the sweepings of the continental ghetto financed by Jewish financiers... an alien gang brought from the ghettos to Britain by Jewish money", marking the beginning of a sea-change in his rhetoric to a more openly anti-Semitic one, could not be heard. To quote 'The Manchester Guardian': "Sitting in the midst of Sir Oswald’s personal bodyguard within three yards of where he was speaking one barely able to catch two consecutive sentences." The fascists slunk off to the waves of the crowd singing 'Bye Bye Blackshirt' (to the tune of 'Bye Bye Blackbird'). [PR]

1941 - Babi Yar massacre: The beginning of 2 days of mass killing when SS Einsatzgruppen troops and Ukraine police murdered 33,771 Jews in a ravine 2 miles north-west of Kiev city centre.

[B] 1951 - Etta Federn (Marietta Federn; b. 1883), Austrian writer, translator, journalist, educator, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and member of Mujeres Libres, dies. She also published under her married names Etta Federn-Kohlhaas and Etta Kirmsse, and the pseudonym Esperanza. [see: Apr. 28]

1962 - Mosley holds a meeting in Manchester, protected by 250 police following a call out by the Northern Council Against Fascism to oppose him. It also marks the begin of a phase where he would no longer hold large outdoor meetings and his events would no longer have advanced publicity to try and prevent any anti-fascists opposition. [PR]

[C] 2009 - Dave Hann (b. 1961), English socialist, anti-fascist activist member of the 'Squads' and Anti-Facist Action's Stewards Group, both defenders of the 'No Platform for Fascists' position, and co-author of 'No Retreat: The Secret War Between Britain's Anti-Fascists and the Far Right' (2003; with Steve Tilzey), dies. He left behind an unfinished manuscript, a study of 100 years of anti-fascism, which his partner Louise Purbrick edited and published as 'Physical Resistance: A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' (2012).

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Protesters gather in front of the police building, including a dozen clergy who prayed in the car park. They are told that they would be arrested if they did not clear the street and one clergyman is arrested. Protesters are also told that they would be arrested if the chants went on after 11:00 p.m. About that time, police moved slowly forward, but protesters refused to move backwards. As they were almost in contact, gunshots were heard, and both sides backed up. Later, Capt. Ron Johnson of the Missouri Highway Patrol told the crowd that the "five-second rule" would not be implemented and there would be no arrest as long as the protest remained peaceful.
1875 - Olivia Rossetti Agresti (d. 1960), British author, editor and interpreter, born. Daughter of William Michael Rossetti, one of the founding members of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and granddaughter of Gabriele Rossetti and Ford Madox Brown.
In June 1891, Olive (16 years old), her brother Arthur (14) and and sister, the future Helen Rossetti Angeli (1879-1969), began publishing an anarchist journal, 'The Torch: A Journal of International Socialism', in the basement of their family home. Handmade, they acquired a printing press the following year and the subtitle of the paper was changed to "A Journal of Anarchist-Communism" in June 1893. Later name changes included to "A Revolutionary Journal of Anarchist-Communism" and finally to 'The Torch of Anarchy: A Monthly Revolutionary Journal'. All told, the paper was in circulation for 5 years and gather a circle of prominent anarchist around it, including Peter Kropotkin and Sergei Kravchinski, and contributors included Louise Michel and Errico Malatesta, with picture supplements from Lucien Pissaro. Their publishing coups included the pamphlet 'Why I Am an Anarchist' by George Bernard Shaw and their circle is believed to have inspired Joseph Conrad's stories 'The Informer' and 'An Anarchist' (1906), as well as parts of 'The Secret Agent'. Olivia and Helen would later publish, using the pseudonym "Isabel Meredith", 'A Girl Among the Anarchists' (1903), a somewhat fictionalised memoir of their days as precocious child revolutionaries.
Olivia would later move to Italy and become an enthusiastic supporter of corporatism, as well as Mussolini's corporatist reorganisation of the Italian economy. She was also associated with the Associazione fra le Società per Azioni, a group then closely allied with the Fascists, and in 1938 co-authored the theoretical work 'The Organization of the Arts and Professions in the Fascist Guild State' with the Fascist journalist Mario Missiroli. She also developed a close friendship with fascist fellow-traveller Ezra Pound.

1898 - Nikolaus Groß (d. 1945), German Christian trade unionists, leaders in the Katholischen Arbeiterbewegung (KAB; Catholic Worker Movement), resistance fighter against the Nazis and Nazi victim, who was later beatified by Pope John Paul II in 2001, born. Editor at the 'Westdeutsche Arbeiterzeitung' (West German Workers' Newspaper), later renamed the 'Kettelerwacht', he was a member of the Kölner Kreis (Cologne Circle) and was arrested on August 12, 1944, in connection with the failed July 20 Plot to assassinate Hitler. On January 15, 1945, he was sentenced to death at the Volksgerichtshof and on January 23, 1945, was hanged at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin.

1919 - Edward Wołonciej aka 'Czemier' (d. 1999), Polish solicitor, author, syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, born. During WWII, he attended clandestine classes, fought as a syndicalist soldier and joined the Armia Krajowa (AK; Home Army) in 1941. Took part in Warsaw Uprising and between September 1-15, 1944, he was a member of the Gustaw-Harnas battalion. After the capitulation of Warsaw Old Town, he was the captain commanding the Syndicalist Brigade [formed under the under the Syndykalistycznym Porozumieniem Powstańczym (Syndicalist Uprising Agreement)] in Śródmieście. After the surrender of the Uprising, he was imprisoned in Pruszkow camp, from where he fled to Krakow. In 1947, he became a student in the law faculty in Jagiellonian University, becoming an Organizacja Młodzieży Towarzystwa Uniwersytetu Robotniczego (OM TUR; Youth Organisation of Workers University Association] and Polska Partia Socjalistyczna (PPS; Polish Socialist Party) activist. In 1950, he graduated from the diplomatic department of Academy of Political Science. Since 1953 he has been a solicitor. He also studied at the Ludwik Solski Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Teatralna (State Higher Theatre School) in the Director’s Faculty. He wrote diaries, stories and plays which he was unable to publish during the communist regime for their "incorrect content". He was victimized for taking part in the anti-communist struggle. Died February 3, 1999 in Warsaw.

1941 - Babi Yar massacre: The 33,771 Jews who had been forced to march from Kiev and its suburbs to the ravine at Babi Yar and then systematically murdered by machine-gun fire, this evening have sand bulldozed over their naked bodies and the sides of the ravine were dynamited to finish their burial.

1944 - Jerzy Zbigniew Złotowski aka 'Poręba' (b. 1911), Polish architectural engineer, syndicalist and anti-Nazi fighter, is shot and killed in fighting during the Uprising. [see: May 27]

1950 - Mary Reynolds (born Mary Louise Hubachekb b. 1891), American Dadaist and Surrealist bookbinder and partner of Marcel Duchamp, dies. She remained in Paris when Duchamp left and the Nazis occupied the city, joining the Résistance but later had to flee France when she came under Gestapo surveillance.

1956 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: The beginning of the campaign of urban guerrilla warfare carried out by the Jabhet Al-Taḥrīr Al-Waṭanī (جبهة التحرير الوطني) or‎ FLN (Front de Libération Nationale) in Algeria against the French Algerian authorities. That evening a trio of female FLN militants - Djamila Bouhired, Zohra Drif and Samia Lakhdari, who had been recruited by Yacef Saâdi aka 'Si Djaâfa' or 'Réda Lee', then head of the FLN in the Autonomous Zone of Algiers [Zone autonome d'Alger] and of the bombs network (réseau bombes) - carried out the first series of bomb attacks on three civilian targets in European Algiers. The bombs at the Milk Bar on Place Bugeaud and the Cafeteria on Rue Michelet killed 4 and injured 52, while the bomb at the Air France terminus failed to explode due to a faulty timer.

1977 - Walter Rossi (b. 1957), Italian militant communist activist with Lotta Continua, is murdered by fascists of the MSI. The political climate in Rome at the end of September 1977 was very tense, with frequent violent fascist actions against leftist militants of the left. On September 27, two students had been wounded by gunshots and on the evening of the 29th Elena Pacinelli, 19, was hit by three bullets on the streets of Hygeia, a meeting place for young people within the movement. On Friday 30th, the leafletting protest fliers in the neighborhood of Balduina had been arranged. In the Viale Medaglie d'Oro comrades of Elena, having been attacked with stones and bottles thrown from the nearby headquarters of the MSI, an armored police vehicle advanced slowly toward them, followed by a group of fascists using it as a shield. The fascists then started to shoot at the anti-fascists, one of these shots striking Walter in the neck. The police then charged at the anti-fascists, allegedly trying to help Walter who is found collapsed outside a nearby petrol station. Taken to hospital, he is dead on arrival.

[C] 1978 - Claudio Miccoli (b. 1958), twenty-year-old Neapolitan pacifist and militant environmentalist, who was a Regional Director of the WWF, is murdered by neo-fascists in Naples. Having witnessed a group of neo-fascists armed with sticks and knives attack a young communist militant in the Piazza Sannazaro in Naples, he appraoched the group to try and reason with them. One of the neo-fascists, Ernesto Nonno, immediately began to beat him about the head with a club, smashing his skull. He died in hospital after six days of agony, having first expressed a desire to donate his organs to others.

1989 - Virgil Thomson (b. 1896), American modernist composer and music critic, dies. He contributed music to Joris Ivens' pro-Republic propaganda film 'The Spanish Earth' (1937). [see: Nov. 25]

1907 - Maurice Bardèche (d. 1998), French essayist, literary and art critic, journalist, neo-fascist and Holocaust denier, born. His brother-in-law and regular collaborator Robert Brasillach, was executed after the liberation for collaborationism.

1910 - Antonio Moreno Ronchas (d. 2006), Spanish railway worker, militant anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Franco combatant, born. The third of 13 children, his family emigrated to Paris when he was 4 years old. His father, Antonio Moreno Fernández, libertarian and anti-militarist, joined the Confederació General del Treball Sindicalista Revolucionària (CGTSR). In 1925 he met both Buenaventura Durruti and Nestor Makhno during their Parisian exile. In 1930 he returned to Valladolid, intending to perform military service, but his father dissuaded him. Upon his return, he worked in the Basque Country and Castellón but his rebellious nature lost him many jobs.
At the outbreak of civil war in 1936, while his brothers Isidore and Lazarus fought in the Durruti Column and a communist unit, respectively, Antonio Moreno volunteered in the milicias confederales de Guipúzcoa (Guipúzcoa confederal militias), fighting firstly in San Sebastián in Guipúzcoa confederal militias, first in San Sebastián and later in Oyarzun, slowing the fascist advance. After the fall of Irun, he managed to cross into France via Hendaye and then onto Barcelona, where he enlisted in Column Rojo y Negra. After its militarisation, to which he was opposed, he remained a member of the 3rd Battalion of the 127th Brigada Mixta, and later became a driver with the 4th Battalion of the 4th Compañía de Transportes (Transport Company).
With the loss of the war, he made it to France where his knowledge of the language, the country and its geography helped him and a number of other refugees to escape the concentration camps as soon as the first opportunity arose. He remained in the Barcarès and Bram area until the Nazi invasion, when he enlisted in the 3rd Battalion of Foreig Legion and was sent to the Middle East (Syria and Lebanon). After the armistice, he was demobilised and returned to France, where he went to work in the construction of the submarine base in Brest, helping many Spanish forced labour prisoners to escape. This led to his arrest by the Gestapo, but a sympathetic judge freed him.
After the liberation of France, Antonio was mainly devoted to propaganda in the local federation of the MLE/CNT in exile in Saint-Denis, Paris. In the 1960s, he participated in the French CNT and was very active during the events of May 1968. Speaking French with the accent of Parisian street urchin, he actively participated in the formation of the Organisation Révolutionnaire Anarchiste (ORA) and took part in numerous editorial meetings of the 'Front Libertaire'. After Franco's death, he tried in vain to open a local CNT in Medina de Rioseco where his father Antonio Moreno Fernandez was the main leader of the anarcho-syndicalism before being assassinated by Franco in July 1936. He died on August 24, 2006 in a retirement home in Morcenx, leaving all his property in his will to the Valladolid CNT to be sold to raise funds for it.

[C] 1925 - Adolfo Kaminsky (Adolphe Kaminsky), Argentinian photographer and member of the French Résistance, who specialised in the forgery of identity documents, born. He later used his skill to assist Jewish emigration to the British Mandate for Palestine and to forge identity documents for the National Liberation Front and French draft dodgers during the Algerian War (1954-62).

1927 - The first issue of the fortnightly Italian language anarchist newspaper 'La Lotta Umnana' (The Human Struggle) is published in Paris by the Italian anarchist refugees Ugo Fedeli , Luigi Fabbri and Torquato Gobbi.

1932 - Oswald Mosley forms the British Union of Fascists (BUF) following the electoral disasters of the New Party the previous year and his January 1932 visit to Mussolini's Italy and meetings with high-ranking Nazi officials.

1934 - The Ricardo Samper PRR (Partido Republicano Radical) cabinet, the second since the November 19, 1933, election, collapses and the President, Niceto Alcalá-Zamora, agrees to include three CEDA members in the new cabinet, a decision that ultimately led to the October general strike, an attempt at Calatonian cession and the Asturian Revolution. [see: Nov. 19 & Oct. 4]

1936 - The first issue of the newspaper 'Frente Libertario', "Organo de las milicias confederales", is published in Madrid by the Defence Committee of the Central Region. Initially printed 3 times a week, it goes daily from Dec. 6, 1936. The anarcho-syndicalist newspaper is published by José García Pradas in collaboration with Mauro Bajatierra, and 40,000 copies are distributed free of charge to the fighters at the front.

1943 - Leo Herman Frijda (b. 1923), Dutch resistance fighter with the CS-6 group and poet, is executed along with 18 other members of CS-6. Prohibited as a Jew from studying medicine at university and therefore became an apprentice medical analyst in the CIZ laboratory in Amsterdam. In the autumn of 1941 he, along with former school mate Theo Hondius, explored the possibility of escaping to England via sailboat but abandoned the plan. He joined the CS-6 sabotage group in 1942 and was involved, among other things, in the successful attack (along with Jan Verleun) on Lieutenant-General Seyffardt, the commander of the Volunteers' Legion in the Netherlands (February 5, 1943), in the attack on the railway in Rietlanden (March 1943) and the assassination of 2 Sipo informants Daan Blom and B. Hoff. On August 20, 1943, Herman Frijda was caught in Amsterdam and, following interrogation and a trial involving the majority of the members of the CS-6 group, 19 members of the group were condemned to death on 30 September. The following day they were shot in the dunes near Overveen, where most anti-Nazi resistance fighters were executed (unless sent to concetration camps in the East). His grave is at the Eerebegraafplaats in Bloemendaal.

2011 - Joey Pedersen and Holly Grigsby shot and kill 19-year-old Cody Myers and steal his car. They later claim that they shot Cody Myers, who was Christian, because his name sounded Jewish. [see: Sep. 26]
1883 - Louis Laurent (d. 1972), French libertarian militant and revolutionary trade unionist, member of the Revolutionary Anarchist Union and the Anarchist Federation of Languedoc in the 30s, born. Helped publish various libertarian journals, worked with league of conscientious objectors and the CGT-SR (revolutionary trade union). Helped found 'Le Libertaire' in 1968.

1915 - José Pérez Montes (d. 1947), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist who fought in the Civil War and helped organising the clandestine resistance, born.

1936 - The Central Anti-Fascist Militias Committee (CAMC), originally founded on July 21, 1936 in Catalonia, is wound up.

1937 - Anti-fascists and fascists fight on the streets of Bermondsey as BU paper-sellers turn up in advance of tomorrow planned demonstration. In one incident, 2 fascists were in St. George's Sq. that evening, selling papers (with the headline 'No Jew red mob has the power to daunt us') and shouting provocative slogans, when word reached a nearby dance organised by Bermondsey Youth that the fascists are outside. They stream out and send the fascists packing. [PR]

1944 - Benjamin Fondane or Benjamin Fundoianu (born Benjamin Wechsler, Wexler or Vecsler; b. 1898), Romanian-born French poet, critic and existentialist philosopher, also noted for his work in film and theatre, dies. [see: Nov. 14]

1944 - Warsaw Uprising: Polish forces capitulate to the Wehrmacht and begin to surrender. The AK is left in disarray and the entire civilian population of Warsaw is expelled from the city and sent to the Durchgangslager 121 transit camp.
[ Article.htm]

[C] 1968 - The Tlatelolco Massacre: The Mexican army ambushes a demonstration by 15,000 students attempting to protest against the army’s occupation of the city's University, killing around 300 (the exact number is unknown) and arresting several thousand.
[Eyewitness accounts: [
photojournalist Enrique Metinides' eyewitness account: [
Photo archive of those arrested: []

1978 - Demetrio Urruchúa (b. 1902), Argentinian painter, printmaker, muralist, libertarian and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Apr. 19]
1849 - During electioneering in Baltimore, Edgar Allan Poe is kept drunk by a gang of political hacks who have him vote repeatedly at the polls; in four days he is dead. [see: Oct. 7]

1897 - Louis Aragon (d. 1982), French poet, novelist, editor, Dadaist then Surrealist, and a long-time member of the Communist Party, born. Fought with the Résistance. [expand]

1923 - Simón Gracia Fleringán aka 'Miguel Montllor' & 'Aniceto Borrel' (d. 1950), Zaragozan anarchist member of the 'Los Maños' guerilla group in the resistance to Franco following the fascist victory in the Civil War, born. [expand]

[C] 1925 - Simone Segouin, nom de guerre Nicole Minet, French Résistance fighter, in the Francs-Tireurs et Partisans group, born. Duaghter of an active Résistance member, her father claimed that she was a seamstress in order to avoid her working for the German occupiers, only to have them try to employ her to mend their uniforms. Hoisted on their own petard, Simone was forced to leave the family farm at Thivars, nar Chartres, to work in Paris. Upon her return home, she was encouraged in mid 1944 to join up with the local FTP (Francs Tireurs et Partisans) résistance group under the nom de guerre Nicole Minet.
Her first jobs were the clandestine transport of arms on her trusty bicycle, but she quickly progressed onto armed actions, participating in the liberation of Chartres and, on August 23, 1944, the liberation of Paris. On March 24, 1946, she was promoted to lieutenant, and awarded the Croix de Guerre.

1936 - The first issue of the weekly newspaper of the C.N.T/F.A.I. 'Via Libre' is published in Badalona, near Barcelona. Sixty-nine issues of the anarcho-syndicalist periodical appear up til 10 February 1938.

[CCC] 1937 - Battle Of Bermondsey: A march called to celebrate the 5th anniversary of the foundation of the British Union of Fascists (BU) is routed by the people of Bermondsey. To cries of "Heil Mosley", the British fascists set off from Millbank accompanied by 28 horse-mounted police and hundreds of police along the route in addition to those following in vans and cars. The BUF marchers were greeted in Long Lane by shouts of "Mosley shall not pass" and by barricades made of costermongers' barrows, fencing and barbed wire, which the police demolished repeatedly, only for a new one to be thrown up. Red flags waved, a water tank was borrowed from a nearby factory, and missiles of stones, eggs, bricks, bottles and fireworks were hurled. The arrival of a busload of police, heralded a charge by them with truncheons drawn. They were pelted by missiles from a nearby building, and police went up and cleared the building.
The march was repeatedly delayed, rerouted, and renegotiated. Workers blocked streets off with barricades and the power of numbers. Police corralled crowds down side streets to allow the march through. A crowd, which had been waiting for four hours at one point, learned that the procession had been diverted, and rushed to the new route. There they created further trouble, and Mosley was pelted. A number of arrests followed the arrival of further police reinforcements. The bulk of the procession halted before it reached West Lane Square, where Mosley gave an address. Despite loud speakers, his remarks were almost inaudible owing to hoots, jeers, and the explosion of fireworks, but he was heard to say: "Once again we have marched. We have passed." The march was then accompanied by hordes of anti-fascists throwing bottles and firecrackers until the march dispered at Southward Bridge.
Earlier in the day crowds had occupied the square on West Lane where Mosley had originally planned to address the conclusion of the march. "Some of the streets were so crowded that it would have been impossible to clear them, and the police shepherding the procession diverted it time after time as they found solid masses of people determined to obstruct the march", the Times of London reported. The police and justice system protected Mosley and his fascists. 111 people were arrested, mostly workers and 30 anti-fascists were injured, many by blows from police batons. Tower Bridge Police Court Judge Bernard Campion sentenced Solly Stein, a 24-year-old who allegedly led a crowd of 400 workers against Mosley, to one month in jail. Among Stein’s crimes was his possession of a Marxist pamphlet, which Judge Campion declared a "pernicious document". [PR]

1944 - Spanish guerrilleros, previously fighting the Nazis in France, make their first incursions into Spain, striking in Navarre. Some 3,000 guerillas (including many anarchists) mount two main attacks across the Pyrenees in 1944 against the Allied-supported fascists.

1981 - Walter Mehring (b. 1896), German-Jewish Expressionist poet and prose writer, anti-militarist and anarchist, who was one of the most prominent satirical authors in the Weimar Republic, dies. [expand] [see: Apr. 29]

1987 - Jean Marie Lucien Pierre Anouilh (b. 1910), French dramatist, film director, screenplay writer and a so-called (oxymoronic) "anarchiste de droite", dies. [see: Jun. 23]

1993 - Katerina Gogou (Κατερίνα Γώγου; b. 1940), Greek anarchist poet, author and actress, dies. [see: Jun. 1]

2011 - On the eve of the 75th anniversary of the Battle of Cable Street, the jury in the second Welling trial [see: Sep. 12] return not guilty verdicts on the nine anti-fascists after less than an hour's deliberation after the prosecution's case fell apart during the trial, singularly failing to provide any evidence of 'conspiracy'.

2011 - Having continued on to Callifornia, Joey Pedersen and Holly Grigsby ask several people for a ride at a Eureka grocery store. Reginald Clark, a 53-year-old disabled African-American, agrees to help them, but they shoot him in the head because they claim he was a "Negro degenerate". [see: Sep. 26/Oct. 1]
[C] 1864 - Emidio Recchioni (d. 1934), Italian anarchist, anti-fascist and father of Vero Recchioni (Vernon Richards), born. Employed as a railroad-employee, he was originally a republican and follower of Giuseppe Mazzini, but moved towards anarchism under the influence of Cesare Agostinelli, the Ancona anarchist. He was active in anarchist activity in Ancona alongside Agostinelli, Romeo Tombolesi, Ariovisto Pezzotti and Polimanti. The group soon established contact with important anarchists like Malatesta, Pietro Gori and Amilcare Cipriani. He was active in organising railway workers and contributed satirical and polemical articles articles to the Livorno anarchist paper 'Siempre Avanti' (Forever Forwards) under the pen names of Rastignac and Savarin between 1890 and 1894. In 1894 he founded and was one of the editors of the Ancona weekly 'Articolo 248'. The police regarded him as the "most active and influential propagandist" and believed that he was involved in three bomb explosions in Ancona in January 1894.
In June 1894, he was arrested in connection with the shooting of the Italian Prime Minister Crispi but was acquitted on 30th November 1895. However, two days later he was put under house arrest and then transferred to the prison colony on the Tremiti islands. He organised a protest against the restrictions imposed on the anarchist prisoners by the prison governor and then suffered two months solitary confinement. He was then transferred to another prison in Ancona and then to Ustica. Released on bail at the end of November 1896, he was not allowed to return to his job as a railway worker. In November 1897 he, Errico Malatesta and other comrades launched another Ancona-based newspaper 'L’Agitazione' which led to his rearrest and deportation to the prison island of Ustica (one of Italy’s many island prison colonies) in the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Escaping in 1898, he fled to London where he opened a popular delicatessen in Soho’s Old Compton Street named King Bomba, an ironic reference to the tyrant King Ferdinand II of the two Sicilies (1810-1859), which specialised in Italian wine, pasta and smoked hams. He also traded in Carrara marble, Carrara being a centre of Italian anarchist activism, and supported financially - and wrote for under his pen name 'Nemo' - the Italian anarchist press, especially La Protesta and the Galleanist paper 'L’Adunata dei Refrattari'. Recchioni’s shop was frequented by British writers, intellectuals and political and literary exiles of the day and, later, following Mussolini’s accession to power, Italian anti-fascists. Recchioni’s influence, his wealth and his key role as a facilitator and funder of the Italian anarchist and anti-fascist movement (including the clandestine ‘Arditi del Popolo’ movement) made him a high-priority target for Mussolini’s secret police, the OVRA (Organizzazione per la Vigilanza e la Repressione dell’Antifascismo - Organisation for Vigilance and Repression of Anti-Fascism).
In 1913 he helped finance the anarchist paper Volonta in Ancona and was one of the signatories of the international anarchist anti-war statement 'The Manifesto of 35' in 1915. With other anarchists like Pietro Gualducci, Calzitta and Enrico Defendi, he carried out a vigorous anti-militarist agitation, which nearly saw him expelled from Britain. At the end of the War, Recchioni moved from anti-militarist work to activity against the Fascist regime in Italy. Together with Silvio Corio, Gualducci, Decio Anzani, Francesco Galasso, and Vittorio Tabarelli, he produced the paper Il Comento which concentrated on anti-fascist agitation. This ran for six issues until 1924. He was also with Anzani and Alessandro Magri, he was most likely behind the founding of the London section of the Italian League for Human Rights. With the end of Il Comento, Recchioni and the others set up a secret grouping to inspire resistance against the Mussolini regime. Recchioni had always argued against socialists, communists and certain anarchists by asserting that fascist violence should be countered with a ferocious armed resistance. The Masonic lodge I Druidi was set up as a cover for this activity.
At the end of the 1920s and beginning of the 1930s he was heavily involved in several attempts on Mussolini’s life. In this period he acquired a British passport, partly to save himself from expulsion, but also to help him with travel abroad in connection with his activities. He obtained such a passport in 1930. However, his application had alerted the British secret state to his activities. Recchioni in this period had assumed great respectability, and this fooled many in Special Branch that he was now a reformed character. Except for one Superintendent O’Brien, who was convinced that he was still an anarchist and still involved in agitation against the Mussolini regime, but who was over ruled by his superiors. However, the OVRA began circulating stories in British and Italian political and newspaper circles that Recchioni was organising and funding plots to assassinate Mussolini, something that the Daily Telegraph and the Deputy Assistant Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, former MI5 officer and right-wing fanatic Colonel John Carter, seized on. The latter was able to successfuly stymie Recchioni's application for British citizenship (something that was later overruled when Ramsay MacDonald, a personal friend of Recchioni via his frequenting of King Bomba, became Prime Minister.
In 1931 Recchioni travelled to Brussels on his new British passport, shadowed closely by a Special Branch officer. According to Special Branch, Recchioni travelled to meet with members of the Brussels-based International Anarchist Defence Committee (CIDA), and supposedly a 28-year-old Italian anarchist coalminer by the name of Angelo Sbardellotto. Sbardellotto was arrested in June the following year with two handgrenades, a pistol and a forged Swiss passport. His mission, according to his confession — extracted by OVRA officers under torture — had been to assassinate Mussolini. Recchioni, he claimed, had provided him with the money, weapons and plan for the attempt. The Italian secret police sent Sbardellotto’s signed confession to London with a list of the dates on which they were alleged to have met, and a request for Recchioni’s extradition. Coinciding with this extradition attempt, was the publication of an article by the 'Daily Telegraph', quoting Italian sources, that identified Recchioni as one of those involved in the alleged, and unsuccessful, assassination plot. Recchioni immediately sued the 'Daily Telegraph' for damages to his reputation, as a 'virtuous man'. The 'Telegraph' asked for Special Branch assistance but Carter would have had to expalin the source of his information if he appeared as a witness, something SB would not allow and the 'Telegraph' lost the court case. Recchioni, who spent, apparently, a mere £35 in paying Sbardellotto’s costs to kill Mussolini, received £1,177 in damages.
Two years later he was dead, having succumbed whilst undergoing an operation on his diseased vocal cords.

1893 - Francesco Ghezzi (d. 1942), Italian individualist anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who died in a Soviet gulag, born.

1901 - Renée Lamberet (d. 1980), French professor of history and geography, activist and anarchist historian, born. Lamberet collaborated with Max Nettlau. Went to Spain during the Revolution of 1936, helping to produce libertarian propaganda for the CNT and was involved in helping organise various collectivisations. At this time she met her companion Bernardo Pou-Riera. After the fascist victory, Lamberet supported clandestine anarchist activity in France and Spain during the occupation. Wrote 'Mouvements Ouvriers et Socialistes' (1953) and 'La Première Internationale en Espagne 1868-1888' (1969). Died in 1980 before completing an anarchist biographical dictionary. [expand]

1902 - Lucien Tronchet (d. 1982), Swiss anarchist and trade unionist whose anti-fascist activities landed him in prison, born. As a youngster, he joined FOBB (Federation of Wood and Building Workers) with Clovis Abel Pignat. Tronchet went to Spain in 1936 with Luigi Bertoni to fight with the anarchists against Franco. Following WWII, he was an active militant trade unionist, and fought for abortion rights, anti-militarism and the creation of co-operatives. Supported the squatters movement in Geneva. Tronchet wrote the biography of his friend, Clovis Pignat, 'Une Vocation Syndicale Internationale' (1971).

[DD] 1934 - Revolución de 1934: Following the massive victory of the right in the November 19, 1933 elections in Spain, the close runners-up the Partido Republicano Radical (Radical Republican Party), led by Alejandro Lerroux y García, formed a loose alliance with the winners, the recently formed Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas (CEDA; Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups), a coalition of largely Catholic conservative groups and Monarchists led by José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones, and which would progressively begin to ape the NSDAP. Lerroux was appointed Prime Minister and the PRR filled all the government posts as the liberals in the Cortes clearly would not accept Robles and his grouping, with its expressed aim of defending Spain and "Christian civilization" from Marxism. However, the CEDA-PRR alliance soon found itself embroiled in internal strife and the Lerroux cabinet soon collapsed. It was replaced by another one drawn from the PRR and led by Ricardo Samper. When the Cortes opened on October 1, 1934, it too fell under right-wing pressure and CEDA ended up with 3 ministries. The new cabinet then proceeded to suspended most of the reforms of the previous Manuel Azaña government.
The immediate response of the left was for the socialists of the Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE), and its industrial wing, the Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT), to propose a Popular Front-style alliance of leftist parties and workers organisations of Spain under the guise of the Alianza Obrera (Workers Alliance). The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo demurred, unlike in Asturias where such an alliance, the Uníos Hermanos Proletarios (UHP; Union of Proletarian Brothers or Unite! Proletarian Brothers) aka Uníos Hijos del Proletariado (Unite! Children of the Proletariat) had been formed in February 1934. The UGT called a general strike, to begin on the evening of October 4, in the name of the Alianza Obrera and, despite the CNT's declared non-involvement, numerous CNT workers centres across Catalonia were raided on the 3rd, with hundreds of anarchist militants being taken away by the police. Efforts to reopen union buildings by force in Barcelona were repelled by armed groups of escamots, the paramilitary youths of the Esquerra, Catalonia's leading nationalist party. Disenchanted with the strike and suffering repeated attacks from the police, the CNT ordered its members back to work, forcing the collapse of the strike in Catalonia.
The strike was not faring much better in other parts of the country. Owing to poor coordination and swift police action, the entire socialist leadership had been arrested in Madrid before the strike could take off. Following this, the poorly armed CNT workers in the capital were left largely to their own devices. Repeated attacks from the police and the unwillingness of the socialist committees to coordinate effectively forced them back to work. A suspicious interception by government troops of much needed arms heading towards Madrid only added to CNT mistrust towards the socialists.
While the strike was falling apart across Spain, in the mining towns of Asturias things were very different. Having negotiated the Pacto CNT-UGT de Asturias and formed the UHP, the high levels of cooperation between miners of both organisations led to a much more successful outcome. By nightfall on the 4th, miners had occupied towns along the Aller and Nalón rivers, attacking and seizing local Civil and Assault Guard barracks. The following day saw columns of the miners advancing along the road to Oviedo, the provincial capital. With the exception of two barracks where fighting with government troops continued, the city was taken by October 6. The following days saw many outlying towns captured amidst heavy fighting, including the large industrial centre of La Felguera.
In these liberated areas it quickly became clear that practical cooperation between the CNT and UGT would be difficult, with the UGT leadership wanting to retain full control over its strongholds, freezing out CNT involvement despite the willingness of UGT rank-and-file workers to cooperate with their counterparts in the CNT. As a result, on October 7 delegates from the anarchist controlled seaport towns of Gijón and Avilés arrived in Oviedo requesting urgently needed weapons to defend against a landing of government troops sent by Generals Manuel Goded and Francisco Franco. The socialists in Oviedo ignored their pleas and they returned empty handed. Gijón and Avilés fell the next day. Constant attacks out of the two ports over the coming week sealed the fate of Asturias, and the uprising was savagely crushed by the Spanish Navy and the Spanish Republican Army, the latter using mainly Moorish troops from Spanish Morocco. 3,000 miners had been killed in the fighting, and another 35,000 taken prisoner during the wave of repression that followed.

1935 - Francisco Granado Gata (d. 1936), Spanish metalworker, anarcho-syndicalist member of the FIJL and CNT, born. During his military service he was diagnosed with leukemia and hospitalised. In 1960 he left for France and settled in Alès, where he worked as a blacksmith. Knowing that he had little time left to live because of his leukemia, he decided to participate in the anti-Franco action groups. In the summer of 1963 he went to Spain with the intention of preparing an attack against Franco in San Sebastien. Arrested in Madrid with Joaquin Delgado Martinez on 31 July, they were accused of having participated in an attack against the headquarters of the Police (DGS), an action which was actually carried out by two other militants, Antonio Martin and Sergio Bellido Hernandez. Despite an international campaign of protest, Francisco Granado Gata and Joaquin Delgado were both sentenced to death and garrotéd on August 16, 1963.

[A] 1936 - Battle of Cable Street: In late September 1936, Mosley and the BUF announced its intention to mount a show of strength on the afternoon of Sunday October 4 to celebrate the fourth birthday of the fascist party with a countrywide call-out of fascists. The plan was to march in 4 columns from the Royal Mint via Aldgate through the ten miles of East London, ending up with four mass rallies in what the fascists considered their strongholds of Shoreditch, Limehouse, Bow and Bethnal Green. Following the announcement and in the run up to the march, hundreds of meetings were held by Jewish organisations, political groups and trades union branches, especially amongst the dockers and garment workers in the East End, to organise opposition to the Blackshirts. The Board of Deputies opposed any active opposition and the CPGB was forced to call off their planned counter protest in Trafalgar Square against Mosley's support for the fascists in Spain.
At the same time, the fascists were also holding numerous meetings, recruiting new members and agitating on the streets. In response, fascist posters were either torn down or obliterated with chalk or anti-fascist posters. Equipment to resist the fascists was also stockpiled close to the march's planned route. Boxes and bags of missiles, half-filled lemonade bottles (shaken and thrown, they would explode loudly upsetting the police horses and scattering glass fragments under hoof) and marbles. A builders yard on the corner of Christian Street and cable Street was one such store where dockers laid in material for the building of barricades. Plans for 15 first aid posts on Back Church Lane were also drawn up, something that was of great need on the day considering the vast number of injuries inflicted on the anti-fascists by a brutal police force determined to drive the fascist march through at any cost.
In the run up to October 4, "[t]he East End became engulfed in a frenzy of political activity, with meetings every night – for and against the fascists. The Home Office recorded police attendance at 536 meetings in August, 603 in September and 647 in October. Nearly 300 extra police a day were drafted into the area." [Daphne Liddle - 'The Battle of Cable Street and the failure of fascism in Britain' (2006)]
On the day, 3,000 Blackshirts had assembled at Royal Mint Street near Tower Bridge, many wearing the so-called 'Action Press' uniform of cap, armband and high boots. Mosley himself arrived in such a uniform. Opposing them were between 150,000-300,000 anti-fascists, with 50,000 alone pressed around Gardner’s Corner, the hub of any route from the City into East London. Gardner’s Corner was completely blocked and a number of the trams that turned around there at the end of the route which the drivers had abandoned were used as barricades. Some of the 10,000 police [according to the Daily Herald’s estimate, but probably closer to 7,000, including the whole of London’s mounted police regiment] tried to force a route through the crowd for the BUF march, brutally wielding truncheons and trampling people under horses' hooves. But, with Mosley's original route up Whitechapel Road blocked, the police had to find a new route - via Cable Street. New barricades were hastily thrown up and the mounted police made a concerted attempt to break though, coming under volleys of missiles, rubbish, the contents of pisspots, etc. Eventually they gave up and ordered the BUF march to turn around and head for Hyde Park.
Over 150 anti-fascists had been arrested and at least 175 people were injured, including 73 police officers, but the fascists had been stopped and, following a short rally in Osborn Street, the anti-fascist forces marched to Victoria Park in the stead of the fascists. Hundreds joined in. Thousands stood on the pavements and in the roads, clapping and cheering as we marched on singing traditional working class marching songs and anthems.
"On the morning of 4th October, the East End was transformed into an expectant Madrid. Red flags were draped from windows, and variations of the slogan ‘They shall not pass’ adorned walls throughout the district. Gangs of youths marched through the streets chanting ‘Mosley shall not pass’ and ‘Bar the road to fascism’.
“Members of the Jewish People’s Council distributed a handbill which ended, ‘This march must not take place’. Leaflets were distributed by the Communists calling for a demonstration at Aldgate. The Ex-Servicemen’s Movement Against Fascism distributed handbills calling on its supporters to parade. The national Unemployed Workers’ Movement boasted of a human barricade. The loudspeaker vans of the Communist Party and the Jewish ex-Servicemen’s Association echoed throughout the boroughs. Anti-fascist rallies were announced for 2pm at Cable Street and at 8pm at Shoreditch." [Robert Benewick - 'The Fascist Movement in Britain' (1972)]
[ Fascists and Police Routed - the Battle of Cable Street.pdf]

1939 - Under provisions of Canada's War Measures Act, three Italian immigrant anarchists, Arthur Bortolotti (aka Attilio Bortolotti, Arthur Bartell), Ruggero Benvenuti, Ernest Gava, and a Cuban, Marco Joachim, are arrested for possession of anti-fascist "subversive literature", including anarchist classics.

1943 - The Alianza Obrera (Workers Alliance) de Cataluña calls for a general strike, which quickly spreads across the country lasting in Madrid, for example, for 9 days. CNT members support the strike in various places despite their non-membership of the Alliance. At the same time the separatist movement was flexing its muscles. The Catalan government armed its supporters and they chased many CNT workers out of their offices and places of work by force of arms. The same day the Catalan minister of the interior ordered the arrest of a large number of well-known anarchists, hoping to prevent the CNT from 'interfering' in the strike and to intimidate it into supporting the separatist movement's cause. as the Alianza Obrera was already doing. The CNT released a statement saying that they supported the struggle against fascism but would not support party political aims or the separatists.
1903 - Germinal Esgleas (Josep Esgleas i Jaume; d. 1981), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Companion of Federica Montseny.

1919 - Giliana Berneri (d. 1998), Franco-Italian anarchist activist, born. Daughter of Camillo Berneri and Giovannina Caleffi and sister of Marie-Louise Berneri.

1923 - Stig Dagerman (d. 1954), Swedish playwright, novelist, poet and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: The strike and the insurrection due to begin at midnight (Oct. 4-5) has been in preparation for months but, owing to poor coordination and swift police action, the entire socialist leadership is arrested in Madrid before the strike could take off. Following this, the poorly armed CNT workers in the capital are left largely to their own devices. Repeated attacks from the police and the unwillingness of the socialist committees to coordinate effectively force the workers back to work. A suspicious interception by government troops of much needed arms heading towards Madrid only adds to CNT mistrust towards the socialists. The Basque Country also took part with a week-long insurrection strike (Oct. 5-12), during which there were forty deaths (most of them insurgents). In Catalonia, with the labour sector of the alliance not having the CNT-FAI in its ranks, the uprising is barely noticed except in industrial towns like Sabadell. The strike, however, does take place even with the mass arrest of anarchists and CNT members.
While the strike is falling apart in Madrid and elsewhere across Spain, workers of the mining towns of Asturias are taking up what little arms they have, intent on carrying the strike through. The province had long been a UGT stronghold, although the CNT also exercised a considerable influence of its own. Widely seen as being on the moderate wing of the union, the Asturian CNT has for many years been at the forefront of calls for CNT-UGT collaboration. The lack of antagonism (in comparison to relations between the unions in other parts of the country), and history of common action in Asturias results in high levels of cooperation between miners of both organisations during the insurrection.
Before dawn in Asturias, all the Guardia Civil barracks throughout the villages of the province are called upon to surrender, and then attacked. Despite fierce resistance, 40 of the 90 these fall to the insurgents. Once overcome, revolutionary groups are set up in Sama, La Felguera and Mieres and columns of miners (around 1,000) advance along the road to attack Oviedo, the provincial capital, where there had only been uprisings in one or two barrios, and where the government forces had seized strategic positions.
Attepmts by the authorities through the advance of a company of police from the south runs into trouble in the vicinity of Campomanes and half their numbers are killed in a clash with workers. Resistance in this area around Vega del Rey also holds up a large military force for days.

1934 - In an attempt to shore up support in the West Country, Oswald Mosley flew into Plymouth Airport in October to give a speech in the Millbank Drill Hall in Plymouth. His speech was continuously interrupted by sections of the 3,500 audience singing the 'Red Flag'. Towards the end of the meeting fighting broke out and a journalist and photographer for the local 'Western Morning News' were beaten up by some of the 50 Blackshirt stewards [most were bussed in as the Plymouth BUF branch could now hardly muster a handful of local ones due to a plummeting membership caused by anti-fascist opposition to its activities] when they tried to photograph the fighting. His camera was also smashed. It descended into further farce when 20 anti-fascists stormed the stage followed by the electricity blowing and the lights going out. Nine Blackshirts were charged variously with assault, damage, and inciting the committing of a breach of the peace, to add to the three imprisoned at Exeter on assault charges following a visit to Plymouth looking for the lodgings of Nathan Birch, Director of Propaganda, and Maurice Isaacs, General Secretary, of the anti-fascist organisation the New World Fellowship, whose speaker loudspeaker vans had been in town prior to the BUF meeting, and had ended up attacking the elder owner of their lodgings.
The press turned on BUF and financial difficulties led to Moseley winding up the Plymouth Fascist headquarters and leaving the city the following year. [PR]

1939 - On September 28, Warsaw was forced to capitualte to the German Army and from October 1 troops began to occupy the city. Hitler planned to receive a massive victory parade of Gen. Blaskowitz's 8th Army to coincide with the completion of the Nazi-Soviet annexation of the country. In the last days of September, Polish General Michał Karaszewicz-Tokarzewski created the beginnings of a future underground organization, the Służby Zwycięstwu Polski (SZP; Polish Victory Service) and began a plan to assassinate Hitler on his visit to the Polish capital. Sappers laid two large caches of explosives (250 kg of TNT in each plus artillery shells) in ditches dug in the days of the siege of Warsaw. The boxes were covered with earth and made ​​to resemble the normal state of the road. One charge was placed near the National Economy Bank building, on the west corner of Nowy Swiat and Jerusalem Avenue; the second - in the building of the Directorate of Railways on the east corner, both on the route of his planned motorcade, and he command wires led to the basement of one of the ruined houses nearby. However, the charges, which would have devastated the surrounding area and killed many of the Poles that were silently witnessing the scene of the Nazi triumphalism trapped in the buildings lining the street, were never detonated and the definitive reason has never been stated. Franciszek Niepokólczycki aka 'Teodor', the sapper in charge of the action was unable to reach the basement due to the Germans closing off the street before he could get there and it is believed that the officer present hesitated and ultimately missed the opportunity. Having flown in on the day and received a rapturous greeting from the assembled troops, he returned by plane to Berlin later that day.

1947 - Giuseppe Emanuele Modigliani (b. 1872), Italian anarchist, socialist, trades union organiser, pacifist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Oct. 28]

[C] 1963 - Colin Jordan marries John Tyndall's ex-fiancee Françoise Dior, a French neo-Nazi and niece of Christian Dior, in a civil ceremony at Caxton Hall. They are pelted with eggs and fruit whilst giving the Nazi salute outside.

1968 - Seattle police kill Black Panther member Welton 'Butch' Armstead during an arrest for suspicion of car theft.

[A] 1985 - Cynthia Jarrett dies as police raid her home in Broadwater Farm, London, triggering extensive riots the following day.

2008 - Six anti-fascists are arrested in a street fight against BNP activists in Bethnal Green, East London. ['Docklands & East London Advertiser']

2011 - White suprematist killers Joey Pedersen and Holly Grigsby are arrested outside Yuba City, California, telling police that they were on their way to Sacramento to "kill more Jews". [see: Sep. 26/Oct. 1 & 3]
[B] 1900 - Ethel Mannin (d. 1984), Irish anarchist, novelist and author, born. Her writing career began in copy-writing and journalism but she later became a prolific author and novelist (100 plus books published in her lifetime), encompassing many aspects of anarchism and feminism as well as her travel writing. A member of the Solidaridad Internacional Antifascista, taking over Emma Goldman's as the London SIA representative, she listed Bart de Ligt and A. S. Neill as thinkers who influenced her ideas. Amongst her works were her biography of Emma Goldman, 'Red Rose: A Novel based on the Life of Emma Goldman' (1941); her first (of 6) autobiographical volumes 'Confessions and Impressions' (1930), one of the first Penguin paperbacks; 'Song of the Bomber' (1936), a book of poetry whose title poem was written in response to the fascist bombing raids during the Spanish Revolution; 'Spain and Us' (with J.B. Priestley, Rebecca West, Stephen Spender, Francis Meynell, Louis Golding, T. F. Powys, J. Langdon-Davies, Catherine Carswell; 1936); 'Against Race-Hatred and for a Socialist Peace' (with Richard Acland, Vera Brittain, G. D. H. Cole, Victor Gollancz, Augustus John, James Maxton and J. B Priestley; 1940); 'Bread and Roses: An Utopian Survey and Blue-Print' (1944); 'Rebels' Ride. A Consideration of the Revolt of the Individual' (1964); 'Jungle Journey: 7000 Miles through India and Pakistan' (1950); etc..

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: Oviedo is taken by the insurgents, with the exception of sites such as two barracks and an arms factory, where fighting with government troops continues. The Repubblica Socialista Asturiana is proclaimed in the city.
The following days see the capture of many outlying towns amidst heavy fighting, including the large industrial centre of La Felguera. Many of these also see the formation of town assemblies or 'revolutionary committees', and it is in these bodies that practical differences between the socialists and anarchists become apparent. In areas under CNT control, popular assemblies of industrial workers (or peasants in rural areas) are formed, organising such things as food distribution. In contrast, areas under socialist control are characterised by highly centralised committees which keep any decision making largely in the hands of the local UGT bureaucracy. Often excluding CNT delegates to their committees, the determination of the socialist leadership to keep the strike strictly under their control significantly contributes to the defeat of the revolt in Asturias. Despite this, the willingness of UGT rank-and-file workers to cooperate with their counterparts in the CNT is demonstrated continuously throughout the uprising.
In the south of the province, a significant contingent of army troops arrived, forcing groups of insurgents to fall back towards Vega del Rey, after destroying the railway line. Campomanes saw the arrival of a battalion Infantry Regiment No. 36, based on Leon; a section of rifles of the No. 12 Lugo Infantry Regiment and a Palencia cyclist battalion consisting of 400 men. By sundown, revolutionary forces had seized key positions on the higher areas around Vega del Rey overlooking the railway and highway, and government forces led by General Bosch had fallen into a trap from which they would not be able to extracate themselves for days. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1934 - Revolución de 1934: In Barcelona, ​​the president of the Generalitat, Lluís Companys i Jover, proclaims the formation of the Estat Català (Catalan State) within the Spanish Federal Republic. Companys and the members of his government were arrested sentenced on June 6, 1935 to thirty years' imprisonment. The Estatut d'autonomia de Catalunya de 1932 was suspended on January 2, 1933, and a governor-general imposed in place of the Generalitat.

1934 - Revolución de 1934: Following the mass arreas of anarchists and anarcho-syndicalists on the 3rd in advance of the general strike called by the UGT for the evening of October 4, in various parts of Barcelona, the CNT takes matters into their own hands and start to reopen union branch offices and halls that the police had closed 10 months previously. Armed groups of escamots, the paramilitary youths of the Esquerra, Catalonia's leading nationalist party, and the police then attacked the barnches, forcing the syndicalists to withdraw. [see: Oct. 4]

1934 - Rebels seize control of the town of Alguazas in Mucia. [expand]

1945 - The founding congress of the Fédération Anarchiste (FA) begins in Paris.

1957 - Alphonse Tricheux (b. 1880), French militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and pacifist, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

[C] 1977 - Miquel Grau i Gómez, 20-year-old Catalan leftist and anti-Fascist, active in the Communist Movement of Valencia (MCPV), is killed by fascist Miguel Sandoval, a member of Fuerza Nueva. Sandoval, who was one of a group of fascists who attacked a group of MCPV militants putting up posters in the Plaza de Los Luceros in Alicante, threw a brick at Miquel, striking him on the head, killing him.

1985 - Broadwater Farm riot: Four police officers search the home of Mrs Cynthia Jarrett, near the Broadwater Farm housing estate in Tottenham. Mrs Jarrett’s son Floyd is currently in custody at Tottenham police station, having given a false name when found in a car with an inaccurately made out tax disc. The visit causes panic among some of the occupants, and in the furore Jarrett’s mother, Mrs Cynthia Jarrett, collapses. She is pronounced dead on arrival at hospital. With tensions already high in London following the shooting by police of Cherry Groce, a black woman from Brixton, during another raid a week earlier, which left her paralysed below the waist, two home Beat officers are attacked and seriously injured by a brick-throwing crowd, one of them having his spleen ruptured by a paving stone thrown onto his back when he had fallen.
All day tension escalated with an increasing number of clashes between rioters and the police involving bricks and molotovs. Two police officers were shot and wounded and a number of news reporters also claimed to have been shot. Later that night, a serial of officers who were protect firefighters were attacked and one, PC Keith Blakelock, was killed. By midnight 58 policemen and 24 other people had been taken to hospital. Bernie Grant, leader of the Labour-controlled Haringey Council said in the aftermath that: "The youths around here believe the police were to blame for what happened on Sunday and what they got was a bloody good hiding."
Over the following days (October 10-14th), an "amazing" [according to the Broadwater Farm Inquiry] 9,165 officers were operating on the estate or held in reserve and 359 people arrested in connection with the Blacklock killing, with just 94 being interviewed in the presence of a lawyer. Other incidents of "racist and oppressive policing" [Broadwater Farm Inquiry quote] included the smashing down of 18 front doors to homes with sledgehammers. The Inquiry was left asking if the police were "acting in this way simply to intimidate not just the occupants of the particular flats, but the estate as a whole?"
On January 14 1987, 3 adults - Winston Silcott, Engin Raghip and Mark Braithwaite - and 3 juveniles - Mark Pennant (15-year old), Mark Lambie (14-year old) and Jason Hill (13-year-old) - were put on trial at the Old Bailey for Blakelock's murder. The judge later dismissed the charges against the youths because they had been detained without access to parents or a lawyer, but the 3 adults were found guilty on unanimous verdicts on March 9th. All three were cleared on November 25, 1991 by the Court of Appeal when an ESDA test demonstrated police notes of interrogations (the only evidence) had been tampered with.
Out of the total of 359 people arrested, 159 were charged but only 49 men and youths were convicted of any offence arising from the riots (excluding Winston Silcott, Engin Raghip and Mark Braithwaite)
In July 2013 Nicholas Jacobs was charged with the murder of Keith Blakelock (four other men arrested at the same time were not charged) but he was cleared on April 9, 2014 of all charges.
[C] 1923 - The inaugural meeting of the British Fascisti (BF), founded in May 1923 by Rotha Lintorn-Orman, is disrupted by communists. The meeting ends in pandemonium. [PR]

[CC] 1944 - Birkenau Sonderkommando Revolt: The Sonderkommando were Jewish prisoners who worked the death camps in return for special treatment and privileges. Every few months, the current sonderkommando was liquidated and the first task of their successors was to dispose of the bodies of the previous group. Since a Sonderkommando usually comprised men from incoming transports, their second task often consisted of disposing of the bodies of their own families. The Sonderkommando did not participate in the actual killing, that was carried out by the Nazis, they just did all the dirty work - guiding 'selections' to the gas chambers, removing bodies afterwards and collecting all the useful items (e.g. teeth, hair, etc.), cremating the bodies, etc..
At the end of June 1944, the 12th Sonderkommando started forming plans for a revolt, partially incited by a number of Soviet Prisoners of War. They began collecting weapons (knives and small axes) and female prisoner working in a nearby munitions factory smuggled in gunpowder. The idea had been to stage the uprising as the advancing Soviet army neared but, following an announcement that some of them would be selected to be "transferred to another camp" - a common Nazi euphemism for the murder of prisoners - the Jewish Sonderkommando of Birkenau Kommando III attacked the SS guards with stones, axes, and makeshift hand grenades (made from the smuggled in gunpowder over the preceding months from a munitions factory). An especially sadistic Nazi guard in Crematorium I is disarmed and stuffed into an oven to be burned alive. Two other SS guards are killed and 10 more wounded. However, the revolt is quickly put down but not before the Sonderkommando in Crematorium IV use their demolition charges to blow the oven rooms in a defiant suicide. Crematorium IV was damaged beyond repair and never used again. All 250 Jews were killed, most shot in the back of the head whilst lying face down outside the crematoria. Some are tortured and give up the names of the four Jewish women who had supplied the stolen explosive materials. The women - Ala Gartner, Roza Robota, Regina Safirsztajn and Estera Wajcblum - were captured and hanged in front of other prisoners on January 4, 1945 – as an act of revenge, but also to stop others resisting. One, Róża Robota (b. 1921), shouts "Be strong and be brave" as the trapdoor drops.

1945 - Gregor Gog (b. 1891), German anarchist, anti-militarist and founder of the FAUD-aligned international movement Bruderschaft der Vagabunden (Brotherhood of Vagrants), dies. [see: Nov. 7]

1967 - The recently formed National Front hold their first annual general meeting in Conway Hall (again). A significant anti-fascist presence outside the meeting fails to halt it despite a sabotage attempt on the internal power that put out most of the lights for the duration of the event. Amongst those present was John Tyndall, who was instrumental in the push towards fascist unification within this new nationalist organisation - he had not attending previous meetings as he had been in prison on firearms charges, but had disbaned the Greater Britain Movement in August and ordered the rump of the organisation to join the ranks of the NF and many were now present in Caxton Hall. Anti-fascists protest outside the meeting.

1968 - Ülo Voitka, Estonian anti-Soviet guerilla legend and pro-anarchist member of Metsavendlus Eestis (Forest Brothers), born. His brother is Aivar Voitka. The documentary 'Voitka - Metsän Veljet' (Warriors of Independence; 2004) directed by Pekka Lehto, was made about their exploits.
[B] 1872 - John Cowper Powys (d. 1963), Welsh novelist, essayist, poet and individualist anarchist, born. He was a long-term friend and correspondent of Emma Goldmann.

1886 - Pierre Besnard (d. 1947), French railway worker and anarcho-syndicalist, who was co-founder and Secretary of the Confédération Générale du Travail-Syndicaliste Révolutionnaire (CGT-SR), prominent in the setting up in August 1936 of the Comité anarcho-syndicaliste pour la défense du prolétariat espagnol (which provided financial and material support to the CNT-FAI), became secretary of the Conference of these committees in October 1936 and later Secretary of the Association Internationale des Travailleurs, and co-founder of the Confédération Nationale du Travail in December 1946, born.

1897 - Antonio 'El Gallego' Soto Canalejo (d. 1963), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. He is the subject of Xan Leira's documentary film 'Patagonia Utopía Liberataria' (1998). [expand]

1936 - Emile Cottin (b. 1896), French carpenter-cabinet maker and militant anarchist who tried to assassinate Clémenceau in 1919, dies whilst fighting with the international group of the anarchist Durruti Column during the Spanish Revolution. [see: Mar. 14]

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: The troops holed up the La Vega arms factory quit their positions and retreat to the Pelayo barracks. The city's Guardia Civil barracks falls.
General López Ochoa (who would henceforth be known as 'el verdugo de Asturias' [the butcher of Asturias] and end up decapitated when captured during the Civil War in 1936) and his troops leave from Aviles en route to Oviedo, protected by 21 aircraft and with human shields, manacled prisoners in the front of the column (many of whom died, including the Socialist leader Bonifacio Martín).
In the south the military, at a distinct disadvantage with their inferior positions, are driven back in fierce fighting around Vega del Rey. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: The 1e Régiment Étranger de Parachutistes (1st Foreign Parachute Regiment) surround the hideout of Ali la Pointe, Yacef Saâdi's deputy, at 5 Rue des Abderames. The paratroops lay charges to blow away the false partition behind which Ali and his comrades are hiding, unfortunately the explosion detonate a store of bombs destroying the house and several neighbouring buildings, killing Ali, his 2 comrades and 17 other Muslims in neighbouring houses.
The capture of Yacef Saâdi and the death of Ali la Pointe mark the defeat of the FLN in the city and the end of the Battle of Algiers.
[–57)'Alger algerie/alger-deuxieme-ali la pointe.html]

1963 - Remedios Varo (María de los Remedios Alicia Rodriga Varo y Uranga; b. 1908), Catalan-Mexican anarchist, anti-fascist and Surrealist painter, dies. [see: Dec. 16]

1966 - Célestin Freinet (b. 1896), French anarchist pacifist educator and Ferrer School activist, dies. [see: Oct. 15]

1970 - Jean Giono (b. 1895), French author (novels, poetry, essays, journalism, plays) and, like his Italian-born shoemaker-father, Jean-Antoine, he was a self-taught libertarian, dies. [see: Mar. 30]

1970 - Second explosion at the London home of Attorney General, Sir Peter Rawlinson. [Angry Brigade chronology]

[C] 1977 - NF 'one man march' & police collusion: Following a NF announcement that they would hold a march through Hyde in Greater Manchester and hold a rally in the Town Hall, there are widespread calls to ban the march. Deputy Chief Constable James Anderton, also known as 'God's copper', then announced a ban on all marches in the Manchester area, which most people took to mean that he was invoking the Public Order Act. The move that was approved by much of the left. However, the GMP also concluded a secret deal to allow the NF to hold a march in another area with the full protection of the police. At the same time, Martin Webster announced that he would hold a 'one man march' through Hyde, which he did on the day, surrounded by an estimated 2,500 police, and carrying a Union Jack and a sign reading 'Defend British Free Speech from Red Terrorism'. He was surrounded and heckled on his whole route by a group of anti-fascists including Ramula Patel of the Asian Youth Movement, who walked in front of him the whole way with a placard, saying 'This man is a Nazi'. A second group of anti-fascists gathered at Hyde Town Hall just in case the cops weren't telling the whole truth. Which of course, they weren't.
Meanwhile, several hundred members of the NF were bussed to Crowcroft Park in Levenshulme, from where they marched through Longsight to Belle Vue, largely unopposed that is except for a third group of anti-fascists - 40 members of AFA Squad members, who had had spotters out on the motorways and main roads and had tracked the NF coaches to their destination - and several dozen Asian youths who joined them to harass the NF along their route, with the contents of a liberated milk float amongst other missiles. Rumours that the NF would be allowed to march in Stockport whilst Webster did his 'one man march' also draw large numbers of anti-fascists to the town.
All told, 6,000 police officers were involved in smoothing the way for the NF to hold their day out in Manchester, costing £0.25m, who made just 28 arrests on the day but had detained many more anti-fascists without charging them. The efforts of Anderton and his men received a great deal of criticism - the 'New Manchester Review' wrote: "Now that it is all over, the point has been well made that the events in Hyde and Levenshulme were organised not so much by the National Front, but by the police." - but Labour Home Secretary Merlyn Rees declared his support for the police action. [PR]

1978 - Manchester NF's Sunday League football team, the Lillywhites, are turned over, literally, as the Luton box van that they are using as a makeshift changing room is attacked and rolled over by members of the Manchester Squad. ['No Retareat']

1980 - Arvo Albin Turtiainen (b. 1904), Finnish left-wing poet, translator and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Sep. 16]
1896 - Celso Persici (d. 1988), Italian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, born.

[C] 1900 - Oscar Ihlebæk (d. 1945), Norwegian newspaper editor and resistance member, who died in Bergen-Belsen, born. Fired by the Nazis as editor-in-chief of the 'Bergens Arbeiderblad' newspaper, he was arrested in January 1943, he spent time in Espeland concentration camp before being moved to Grini concentration camp in May 1943. In the winter of 1943, he was sent to Germany moving from Sachsenhausen to Gross-Rosen concentration camp in December 1944. He was later transferred to Bergen-Belsen, where he died.

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: In Oviedo the La Vega arms factory is occupied and large numbers of arms are seized but little ammunition is found. The Cárcel Modelo is also stormed and it too is found to contain a huge quantity of rifles and machine guns but no ammunition. However, the government troops are forced to retreat. The city has been taken against the superior forces of the army and Civil Guard: 1,500 soldiers, 400 assault guards and 100 civilians and police guards, however the miners failed to take the barracks of Pelayo and Santa Clara despite them being surrounded by the insurgents. All the city garrison can do now is try and resist the attacks of the workers, in the hope that a relief arrives. Meanwhile, Gijon, where the insurrectionary movement is restricted by its lack of weapons and ammunition, comes under bombardment by the Regular Army and Navy. Other towns suffer the same fate.
In the south, army reinforcements from Zamora arrive via the Puerto de Pajares, allow General Bosch and his besieged troops, who were in serious condition without food and unable to care for the wounded, to withdraw to Campomanes on the 11th. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1934 - In the run up to an announce BUF meeting in Worthing, West Sussex, opposition gradually built, with numerous anti-fascist meeting held along the seafront. "'No More War. Damn Mosley. Fight Fascism' was written in tar on Worthing Town Hall and tar was also spread on the walls of the local fascist headquarters at 27 Marine Parade. On the night, just sixteen members of the Defence Force accompanied Mosley to the Pier Pavilion. He considerably underestimated the depth of local hostility towards him and his movement. As the meeting got underway, a crowd gathered outside that numbered several thousand by the time Blackshirts marched out in military formation. Fireworks were thrown as choruses of "Poor old Mosley's got the wind up" were sung to the tune of John Brown's Body. Mosley was struck, he retaliated and fights started that spread along the Esplanade. Blackshirts were forced to retreat to Barnes Cafe in the Arcade, a well-known BUF meeting place. The cafe was stormed, windows were broken, missiles thrown. As midnight neared, the Blackshirts tried to break out of the cafe but were spotted and attacked. A 'seething, struggling mass of howling people' poured into the road and fought each other in what has become known as the Battle of South Street." ['Physical Resistance: A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2013)]
Oswald Mosley, William Joyce, BUF's director of propaganda, Captain Charles H. B. Budd, the West Sussex district officer, and Bernard Mullans from the BUF national HQ were arrested on charges of riotous assembly. Mosley also had an assault charge for punching one "Jack Pritchard, a bystander". The assault charge was quickly dropped, despite witnesses. During the trial, the prosecution claimed that after the meeting, Mosley and the other defendants had marched around Worthing, threatening and assaulting civilians. The defence argued that the defendants had been deliberately provoked by a crowd of civilians, and several witnesses testified that the crowd had been throwing tomatoes and threatening Mosley. The judge eventually directed the jury on December 18 to return a verdict of "not guilty".

1936 - The first issue of the Italian anarcho-syndicalist weekly 'Guerra di Classe', newspaper of the AIT-affiliated Sindacale Unione Italiana, and founded by Camillo Berneri, is published in Barcelona.

1970 - Italian Trade Centre, Exhibition Building, Cork Street, London, bombed. Attacks simultaneously in Manchester, Birmingham and Paris against Italian State buildings. The attacks were claimed on behalf of Giuseppe Pinelli the Italian anarchist murdered by the police in 1969. [Angry Brigade chronology]
1891 - Simón Radowitzky (Szymon Radowicki) (d. 1956), legendary Polish anarchist who killed police chief Ramon Falcón by tossing a bomb into his car in Buenos Aires on 14 November 1909, born. [poss. alternate d.o.b. Nov. 10]

[C] 1900 - Umberto Marzocchi (d. 1986), Italian shipyard worker, anarchist and anti-fascist fighter in the Arditi del Popolo, who fought on the Aragon front during the Spanish Civil War and, following the Retirada, joined the Foreign Legion (to gain French papers) and fought with the Maquis during WWII, born. Marzocchi became an anarchist at a very early age and by 1917 was secretary of the metalworkers’ union affiliated to the Unione Sindacale Italiana (Italian Syndicalist Union), thanks to his youth which precluded his being mobilised for front-line service as a reprisal. During the 'Biennio Rosso' (Red Biennium of 1919-20) he took part in the struggles alongside the renowned La Spezia anarchist, Pasquale Binazzi, the director of 'Il Libertario' newspaper. In 1920 he was part of a gang of anarchists that attacked the La Spezia arsenal, overpowering the security guards and carrying off two machine guns and several rifles, in the, alas disappointed, hope of triggering a revolutionary uprising in the city. In 1921, visiting Rome to reach an agreement with Argo Secondari, he took over as organiser of the Arditi del Popolo (People’s Commandos) in the region; this organisation was to give good account of itself during the 'fatti di Sarzana' (events in Sarzana), the armed resistance of the civilian population and the Arditi del Popolo in and around Sarzana against fascist squadre d'azione groups backed up by the local Regio Esercito carabinieri. Moving to Savona, he organised the meeting between Malatesta and the pro-Bolshevik Russian anarchist Sandomirsky who arrived in Rapallo in the wake of the Chicherin delegation as its Press Officer. By 1922, wanted by the fascists, he left the country, playing an active part in the activities of the anarchist exiles in France and Belgium.
In 1936 he was in Spain with the Italian Column and there took part in the battle of Almudevar. After Camillo Berneri was murdered, he returned to France where he handled aid to Spanish refugees. After the Nazi occupation, he joined the Maquis in the Pyrenees, part of a mixed unit made up of anarchists, socialists and French and Spanish communists (Group 31, Area 5). In 1945 after the Liberation he returned to Italy where he became one of the most active publicists, speakers and lecturers of the newly formed Federazione Anarchica Italiana (Italian Anarchist Federation), which at that time was an umbrella for the whole of the Italian anarchist movement. In 1971 he was appointed secretary of the International of Anarchist Federations’ Liaison Committee, a post he filled for 12 years. In 1977, by then almost eighty, he was arrested in Spain during an international anarchist gathering. He died in Savona on 4 June 1986.

[BB] 1916 - David Gascoyne (d. 2001), English poet, novelist, Surrealist, one-time communist and later an anarchist, born. He helped prepare the 'First English Surrealist Manifesto' (1935), which spoke in favour of "the proletarian revolution" and "the historic materialism of Marx, Engels, and Lenin", and came out against "humanism, liberalism, idealism, anarchist individualism." It was therefore inevitable that, like many surrealist of the period, he joined the Communist Party of Great Britain in 1936 and broadcast radio talks for the Barcelona-based propaganda ministry during the Spanish Revolution. However, he soon discovered "that the Communists hated the Anarchists and the POUM much more than they hated the Fascists", and left the party. On his return to England, he became involved in the Mass Observation movement and joined the Artists' International Association. He also moved closer to anarchism following contact with Henry Miller, Lawrence Durrell and those based around them at the Villa Seurat in Paris.

1937 - Due to speak on some vacant land by Queens Drive in Liverpool, Mosley is greeted by a crowd of more than 800, most of whom are anti-fascists. "When an electrician started to erect a microphone on the van roof, cries of 'Down with Mosley' and 'We don't want fascism here' changed to volleys of bricks and stones - smashing the van's windscreen. G.C. Balfour, the district BUF treasurer, got up to speak and was hospitalised after being hit by a stone. Mosley arrived soon after by car and climbed onto the van. After giving the fascist salute, and before he'd spoken, he was also dropped by a stone hitting his left temple. Lying on the van roof he was hit again, on the back of the head, and knocked unconscious." ['Fighting Talk', Issue 13]
He was only on top of the van for less than two minutes when an object thrown by a member of the crowd knocked him unconscious. Anti-fascists rushed towards the van and tried to turn it over. Mosley's minions ran for cover in the yard of a nearby warehouse and mounted police were us to restore order. Mosley was whisked off to Walton Hospital and discharged after a week recovering from concussion and a minor head wound. Balfour was also sent to hospital with head injuries and more than 20 others were injured by flying stones. The 250 cops present were largely powerless, though 12 male and 2 female anti-fascists were arrested.

2008 - Fyodor 'Fedor' Filatov (b. 1981), Russian anti-fascist and one of the founders and most active members of Moscow Trojan Skinheads, is murdered by neo-Nazis in the city. He was attacked by unidentified neo-Nazis armed with knives as he left his home on his way to work and later died in hospital from multiple stab wounds.
1917 - Hipólito Marivela Torres aka Germán Marivela (d. 1980), Castillian carpenter, anarcho-syndicalist and fighter with the Durruti Column, born. He was still very young when he joined the CNT and was one of the organisers of the Sindicato de Oficios Varios (SOD). In 1936 , following the fascist uprising, left the first on the front enlisted as a volunteer in the Durruti Column, fighting in Madrid, Aragon and, later, in Catalonia. With Franco's victory in February 1939, he crossed the Pyrenees for Puigcerdà and was interned in the concentration camps Mont-Louis and Vernet, later joining the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers (CTE). With the German occupation, he fought in the Résistance but was arrested by the Nazis and sent on March 3, 1941, with the registration number 3525 to Mauthausen concentration camp, where he remained until the liberation of the Lager on May 5 1945. After World War II, he worked in the mines of the Grand Comba, becoming active in the CNT in Champclausson and Trescolí, where he actively campaigned in the CNT and occupied various official positions.

1934 - Following the debacle 6 days previosuly [see: Oct. 5] a riot breaks out in Plymouth Market Square as about 1,000 anti-fascists confront some of the Blackshirts that had remained in town following their being bussed in as stewards for the Mosley rally as they try to hols an open air meeting. Amongst those injured by the Blackshirts, some of whom were wearing body armour and had their knuckles bound with tape, were "on octogenarian and a cripple" according to the press.

[C] 1936 - The Red 'Victory' March: The Sunday after Cable Street the Communist Party tried to hold another 'Victory' march in East London. The 'Morning Post' reported (13/10/1936): "The Victory March organised by the Socialists and Communists had a stormy progress through the East End".
"As we marched along Whitechapel Road the shouting grew louder. We got to Green Street, everyone braced themselves because we were about to enter the enemy’s strong-hold…the pavements were lined with Blackshirts and their supporters. They pelted us with rotten fruit and flour." [Joe Jacobs, Secretary of Stepney Communist Party - 'Out of the Ghetto' (1978)]

[C] 1936 - Mile End Pogrom: Whilst the CPGB were holding thie so-called 'Victory' march and tying up hundreds of cops, a gang of around 150 youths, some armed with iron bars and hatchets, shouting their support for Mosley, descended upon Mile End smashing Jewish shops windows and looting their contents, a car was torched, Jews were beaten in the street, and bystanders were assaulted including a pre-school-aged girl and an old man, who were thrown through a plate glass window.

1936 - Oswald Mosley, fresh from his wedding in Germany at Goebbels' ministerial home to Diana Guinness, had flown into Liverpool for a planned march and rally in the city. Before the start of the procession there was a demonstration fronted by the Liverpool Anti-Fascist Committee (AFC) in front of the Adelphi Hotel, near Lime Street Station. A section of the crowd believed that Oswald Mosley was inside and a fight between the two parties occurred. According to 'The Manchester Guardian', a crowd of more than 50,000 anti-fascists lined the streets of the proposed fascist march. Due to the volume and ferocity of the anti–fascist protesters, who repelled a charge by mounted police, Mosley was forced to travel to the Stadium by car to avoid an ugly confrontation. However, the 300-strong Blackshirt continent were subjected to a constamnt barrage of bricks as they marched to the stadium, with concerted attempts to break up the march at St. John's Lane, Whitechapel and Exchange Street East. The march was also rerouted to avoid more anti-fascists gathered at Liverpool's cenotaph. In the stadium Mosley spoke to around 2,500 BU sympathisers whils anti-fascists fought the police outside. All told, 12 anti-fascists were arrested - 2 were jailed for 2 months, the others fined.
After the meeting, Mosley claimed the response of the people of Liverpool was: "an experience with which lately we are familiar of a very highly organised attack.... The Liverpool police did extremely well... We shall carry on in exactly the same way." ['The Manchester Guardian', 12/10/1936]

[B] 1963 - Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (b. 1889), French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, playwright, artist and filmmaker, dies. His fiche policière labelled Cocteau a "poète anarchiste homosexuel à Paris". [WWII 'collaboration'?] [see: Jul. 5]

1978 - Ruthven Campbell Todd (b. 1914), Scottish poet, artist, novelist and writer of children's books, who also wrote detective fiction under the pseudonym R. T. Campbell, dies. [see: Jun. 14]

1982 - Elías Castelnuovo (b. 1893), Uruguayan journalist, storyteller, playwright, poet, essayist and anarchist, later joining the communists and becoming a Peronist, dies. [see: Aug. 6]

2005 - Sergio Citti (b. 1933), Italian actor, film director, screenwriter and libertarian, who was closely linked artistically to Pier Paolo Pasolini, dies. [see: May 30]
1915 - Robert Rizal Ballester (d. 1936), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, born. Active in the CNT in Badalona, he was arrested and jailed on May 8, 1934, along with Fernando Lozano Vicente, accused of coercion, insulting behaviour and use of armed force during a strike. He was also accused, based on French evidence, of being a member of an international band of thieves. On February 11, 1935, he tried to escape the dungeons of the Direcció Superior de Policia in Barcelona by simulating a suicide. On 23 November 1935, he was court martialed for the 1934 events and was sentenced to five years in correctional prison. His comrade Lozano was sentenced to four years. During the Fascist uprising in July 1936, he was a member of the Comitè de Milícies Antifeixistes (Committee of Antifascist Militias). Also, as a member of the Iberian Anarchist Federation (FAI), he led the Badalona magazine 'Vía Libre', organ of the CNT and FAI, during the civil war, collaborating on illustrations, collages and writings. With Franco's victory, he went to France, where he was eventually arrested by the Nazis, and sent to the death camps. Robert Rizal Ballester died on August 22, 1941 at Gusen concentration camp in Austria.

1923 - Léandre Valéro (d. 2011), Algerian anarchist and anarchist, who fought in the Spanish Civil War and was active in the Algerian independence movement, born. [expand]

1936 - In Spain a Generalidad decree dissolves the (revolutionary) Local Committees. These are shortly to be replaced by new, Popular Front-style town councils.

1940 - (The Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur) The creation of the Warsaw ghetto.

[C] 1942 - The creation of the Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Fighting Organisation).

1996 - Georgi Grigorov, a.k.a. Georges Balkanski, G. Grigoiev and G. Hadjiev (b. 1906), Bulgarian anarchist theorist and historian, dies. [see: Apr. 16]

1999 - Björn Söderberg (b. 1958), Swedish anarcho-syndicalist militant of the Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation (SAC) and anti-fascist activist, is assassinated by neo-Nazis (three bullets in the head) as he leaves his home in Sätra, Stockholm. He was targeted because of his anti-fascist activities in his union, specifically in exposing a fascist in his workplace. [see: Apr. 1]

[AA] 2010 - Jimmy Mubenga killed by three G4S guards as he is put on a plane at London Heathrow to be deported to Angola.
1883 - Mario Buda (d. 1963), Italian-born American anarchist and Galleanist associate of Sacco and Vanzetti, born. Considered by some as the inventor of the car bomb when a car he owned was used in the September 16, 1920 Wall Street bombing.

1893 - Fioravante Meniconi (d. 1945), Italian militant anarchist individualist and anti-militarist propagandist, born.

[C] 1902 - A Carabinieri crackdown on a demonstration organised by the local farmer in the Lega dei Lavoratori (Workers League) at Giarratana, near Ragusa, Sicily, leaves three dead, including a military policeman, and fifty wounded. This was just one in a series of 'proletarian massacres' stemming from the repression of a wave of agrarian strikes affecting the whole of Italy that had begun the previous year.
"A strike had been called in Giarratana. But not all workers were in agreement, many were dissidents. To avoid an outbreak of violence, as tempers very excited, the Carabinieri intervened, and faced with flying stones, and threatened by a series of scuffles, the Carabinieri, who were only armed with revolvers, fired into the air. That was the signal for the massacre. The Carabinieri were surrounded by the crowd, which, as if taken over by a madness for destruction, attacked them with stones and clubs. The soldiers, wilting under the vehement impact, tried to defend themselves. But, outnumbered, fired further revolver shots. Then we saw the red plumes of the soldiers being overwhelmed by the waves of the crowd, above which furiously waved sticks. The scrum became fearful, between cries of ferocity and terror, the Police were tight everywhere. The carabiniere Antonino Giancastro who was isolated by the crowd from his comrades, tried to defend himself with his gun, but he had to seek refuge in a nearby house. The crowd, enraged, chased him into the shelter, drunk with fury and blood. Seeing a big stir at the house where he had taken refuge, the Carabinieri came running. But too late: he had already been done in by his assailants." ['Corriere Illustrato della Domenica' Oct. 26, 1920]

[A] 1909 - Francisco Ferrer (b. 1859), anarchist founder of the Modern School movement, is murdered in Spain by Catholic Monarchists. Framed for being the leader of the insurrection that led to La Semena Tragica [see: July 26 1909] despite not being in Barcelona at the time, he is sentenced to death and shot by firing squad in Montjuich Fortress.
[Costantini pic]

1932 - Dušan Makavejev (Душан Макавејев), Serbian radical film director and screenwriter, renown for his ground-breaking films in the late 1960s and early 1970s as part of the so-called Black Wave alongside Zivojin Pavlovic, Aleksandar Petrovic and Zelimir Zilnik, born. His best known film is the 1971 political satire 'WR: Mysteries of the Organism', which was banned in Yugoslavia (as it was around the world, and if not it was heavily censored) for its sexual-political content, plus it's follow-up 'Sweet Movie' (1974). The banning of 'WR: Mysteries of the Organism' led to Makavejev's exile from the country for over a decade. Of his 11 full length films, probably the most mainstream is 'Manifesto' aka 'A Night of Love' (1988), which is set in a Central European country a provincial town prepares for the king’s visit, and the chief of the secret police arrives to uncover a suspected anarchist plot.

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: As what can be seen as a prelude to the forthcoming coup and one of the last acts of the verão quente (hot summer) of left-right tensions, building workers go on strike in Portugal. 30,000 march to the Parliament in Sao Bento, Lisbon, blockading it and trapping Ministers inside, an event often called the 'cerco a S. Bento' (siege of St. Benedict). The government, swayed by Mário Soares' claim that there was a threat of a 'communist assault' on the Constituent Assembly ("I went to a window and realized that a true paramilitary militia, which ringed the protesters, was preparing to occupy certain key positions near the exits"), called on COPCON (Comando Operacional do Continente / Continental Operations Command) to save them, but COPCON troops having turned up, refuse to intervene. The workers are demanding higher wages, nationalisation of the main sites and a collective contract. They refuse to compromise, and when the Prime Minister told them he had to leave to attend an important meeting, they told him to stuff his meeting. At 01:00 in the following morning the Prime Minister caved in and accepted all their demands. As a result, the Socialists called for Brigadier General Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho to be sacked for COPCON’s failure to defend the government. The bourgeois government felt under threat, not only from the events taking place on the streets but also with the growing rumours of a left-wing coup, which sectors of the right were activiely preparing to counter. The verão quente was coming to the boil!
1894 - Sail Mohamed (Sail Mohamed Ameriane ben Amerzaine; d. 1953), Algerian anarchist, Spanish Civil War fighter and mechanic, a prominent anti-colonial militant, born.

1906 - Hannah (Johanna) Arendt (d. 1975), German American political theorist on the nature of power, politics, authority and totalitarianism, born. Best known works include: 'The Origins of Totalitarianism' (1951); 'The Human Condition' (1958); 'On Revolution' (1963); 'Men In Dark Times' (1968); 'On Violence' (1970) and 'Crises of the Republic: Lying in Politics; Civil Disobedience; On Violence; Thoughts on Politics and Revolution' (1972). [expand]

[C] 1907 - Adrién Porchet (d. 2008), Swiss filmmaker, cinematographer and libertarian, who made propaganda films for the CNT during the Spanish Civil War, born. Son of the Swiss film pioneer Arturo-Adrien Porchet and brother of cinematographer Robert, who also worked on a number of his films for the CNT, including those made by Adrién. Amongst Porchet's Spanish films were 'Aguiluchos de la FAI por Tierras de Aragón. Estampas de la Revolución Antifascista' (1936), a trio of documentary shorts; 'La Toma de Sietamo' (1936) [both CNT - AIT, Sindicato Único de Espectáculos Públicos]; plus 'División Heroica (En El Frente de Huesca CNT)' (1937), 'Aurora de Esperanza' (Dawn of Hope; 1937) and 'Un Pueblo en Armas' (A People Armed; 1937 - English release title 'Fury over Spain'), a documentary on the activities of the Durruti Column that was later re-edited by Louis Frank as 'Amanecer sobre España' (Dawn Over Spain; 1938 - English release title 'The Will of a People'), all for the Sindicato de la Industria del Espectáculo (Entertainment Industry Union). He was also cinematographer on the prisoners of war documentary 'Le Drapeau de l'Humanité' (1942), made for the ICRC.
[ Database/anarquismo/details/10108.html]

1907 - Aniela Franciszka Wolberg (d. 1937), Polish Jewish chemist, anarchist activist and propagandist, born. Aniela Wolberg became anarchist during his studies at the university of his native city where she came into contact with the Bulgarian student group whose the facilitator was Tazco Petrov who later died in prison. By 1925, she founded the underground anarchist monthly paper 'Proletarien' (Proletariat)' in Krakow and the following year became an active member of the Anarchistyczną Federacją Polski (AFP; Anarchist Federation of Poland). Later that year she moved to Paris to continue her studies, becoming the companion of Polish anarchist Benjamin Goldberg (Maxime Ranko). There she joined the Polish anarchist group based at the Librairie sociale internationale, 72 rue des Prairies, contributing articles and money to the Polish anarchist paper 'Walka' (Struggle), which was edited by Isaak Gurfinkiel (who, under the pseudonym of Valevsky, was one of the signatories of the Organisational Platform of the Libertarian Communists). Aniela also attended the international conference at Hay-les-Roses near Paris on April 20, 1927, in the cinema Les Roses, that established the Organisational Platform of the Libertarian Communists. She then studied at Montpellier University, where she gained an MSc in Chemistry. In France she established links with French anarchist groups, including with the CGT-SR and with Spanish anarchist groups. Returning to Paris, she worked as an engineer in a car factory. She was deported from France to Poland because of her anarchist activity in 1932. She became secretary of the AFP in the same year and edited the underground anarchist paper 'Walka Klas' (Class Struggle). She was arrested in 1934, but released for lack of evidence. However, with increasing repression against the anarchist movement, she was obliged to halt her activism. In 1936 she moved to Spain to aid the revolution there. She died in Warsaw from post-operative complications on October 11, 1937.

1911 - Benito Mussolini, Pietro Nenni, and Aurelio Lolli, are arrested in connection with the September 27th general strike, are convicted on all charges and transferred to prison to await the appeal in Bologna. [see: Nov. 23]

1936 - In the weeks following the Battle of Cable Street, BUF undaunted continue to hold rallys at Stepney, Shoreditch, Bethnal Green, Stoke Newington and Limehouse. On October 11 Mosley returned to the East End unopposed, addressing a meeting of 12,000 at Victoria Park Square, where he was enthusiastically received. Later he marched at the head of the procession to Salmon Lane in Limehouse, without opposition or disorder. BUF considered it "the most successful series of meetings since the beginning of the movement".
During this period, the Stepney Communist Party's membership as around 300 [Joe Jacobs] whilst Special Branch files state that the Blackshirt membership for Limehouse, just one part of Stepney, stood at 1,700.

1940 - Takis Fotopoulos (Τάκης Φωτόπουλος), Greek political philosopher, economist and libertarian, born.

1941 - Arthur Holitscher (b. 1869), Hungarian playwright, novelist, essayist, travel writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 22]

[A] 1943 - Sobibor Uprising: Fearing that the camp may be due to be liquidated at any moment following rumours about similar fates for other camps such as Bełżec, in mid-August 1943 an underground organisation was formed, led by the head of the Judenrat in the Galician town of Zolkiew, Leon Feldhendler. The group, whose members were mostly the heads of the labour workshops, planned to organise a mass escape from the camp. Later, a Russian Jew, Officer Alexandr Pechersky, was chosen as commander. Several plans were drawn up. The aim of the one that was finally decided on was to kill the German staff, seize weapons and escape from the camp (there are, however, several versions of the course of the uprising). The rebels were joined by two Ukrainian kapos. The uprising broke out on October 14, 1943, at four o' clock in the afternoon, and in its course 12 Germans, including camp commander Franz Reichsleitner, and several Ukrainians were killed. Three hundred prisoners escaped, breaking through the barbed wire and risking their lives in the minefield surrounding the camp but most were killed. Those who did not or could not join the escape attempt were also killed. Over 100 escapees were recaptured Many were later hunted down and shot by Ukrainian guards sent on search parties. Around 50 prisoners survived the war, many of whom joined the Russian partisans operating in the area.

1981 - Charles-Auguste Bontemps (b. 1893), French 'Social Individualist' anarchist, pacifist, freethinker and naturist activist, prolific writer and poet, dies. Member of 'Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste' during the Spanish civil war.
1896 - Célestin Freinet (d. 1966), French anarchist pacifist educator and Ferrer School activist, born. Célestin and Elise Freinet are depicted in René Frégni's 1994 autobiographical novel 'Le Maître qui Laissait les Enfants Rêver' (A Stolen Childhood (Denol, 1994) as 'Dad Freinet' and 'Mom Freinet' in his depiction of a troubled small boy named René-Jean who spends two school years at the school in Vence. [expand]

1902 - André Prudhommeaux (d. 1968), French communist, then an anarchist, agronomist, editor of 'Le Libertaire' and 'Le Monde Libertaire', writer, poet and publicist. is born in the Guise familistère. He founded a Paris bookshop specialising in social history, and the scene of many lively debates. Introduced Camus into the Cercle des Etudiants Anarchistes in 1948.

1902 - Amparo Poch y Gascon (d. 1968), Spanish teacher, doctor, anarchist feminist, anti-fascist, propagandist for sexual freedom and co-founder of the Mujeres Libres, born.

1910 - Norman Iversen (d. 1964), Norwegian sailor, anti-fascist resistance member and Communist politician, born. He volunteered in the Spanish Civil War from 1937 to 1938, as saboteur. Back in Norway, he was recruited to the Bergen branch of the Wollweber League (a communist sabotage organisation that would sabotage fascist shipping in Scandinavia and Northern Europe) and reorganised and led the Bergen branch of the sabotage group Saborg (aka Osvald-gruppen or Sabotasjeorganisasjonen or Organisasjonen mot krig og fascisme), regarded as by far the most active and effective Norwegian resistance group, from 1943 to 1944. He was arrested in November 1944, and imprisoned at Veiten in Bergen until the end of the war. He chaired the Bergen chapter of Norwegian Communist Party from 1947 to 1952.

1920 - Police raid the premises of the anarchist newspaper 'Nova Umanità', arresting the editors Alfredo Porcelli and Corrado Quaglino and the manager Dante Pagliai.

[C] 1923 - Italo Calvino (d. 1985), Italian journalist and writer of short stories and novels, anti-fascist partisan and member of the PCI, born in Cuba. Brought up in a secular family - his father, Mario, was a tropical agronomist and botanist, who "had been in his youth an anarchist, a follower of Kropotkin and then a Socialist Reformist" ['Political Autobiography of a Young Man', 'Hermit in Paris' (Eremita a Parigi. Pagine autobiografiche), 1994] and his mother, Eva, a botanist and university professor, was a pacifist educated in the "religion of civic duty and science" [ibid], and both were anti-Fascist freethinkers - refused to give their sons any religious education. His mother used various ruses to delay Calvino's compulsory enrolment into the Balilla Moschettieri, the Fascist armed scouts, and win him exemption from attending church services as an atheist.
In the first half of WWII, he continued with his studies but, following the setting up Benito Mussolini's puppet Republic of Salò in northern Italy by the Nazis, now twenty years old, Calvino refused military service and went into hiding. Using the nomme de guerre of 'Santiago', Calvino joined the Garibaldi Brigades, a clandestine Communist group and, for twenty months, endured the fighting in the Maritime Alps until 1945 and the Liberation. As a result of his refusal to be a conscript, his parents were held hostage by the Nazis for an extended period. Calvino wrote of his mother's ordeal that "she was an example of tenacity and courage… behaving with dignity and firmness before the SS and the Fascist militia, and in her long detention as a hostage, not least when the Blackshirts three times pretended to shoot my father in front of her eyes. The historical events which mothers take part in acquire the greatness and invincibility of natural phenomena." [ibid]
Despite his obvious libertarian and anarchist sympathies, he went on to join the PCI and remained a committed and active communist writer and intellectual until 1956, quitting following the Russian suppression of the Hungarian uprising.
During the late forties and early fifties, Calvino began writing and publishing stories dealing with his wartime experiences as a partisan and as an anti-Fascist, and his first novel, 'Il Sentiero dei Nidi di Ragno' (The Path to the Nest of Spiders; 1947), which tells the story of a cobbler's apprentice in a town on the Ligurian coast, who steals a pistol from a Nazi sailor, and becomes involved in the Italian Resistance, is an obvious novelisation of his experience as a partisan during the anti-fascist resistance.

1926 - Agustín García Calvo (d. 2012), Spanish philologist, translator, linguist, playwright, poet, philosopher and anarchist, born. Formed the student anarchist protest movement Acratas, also known as the 'anti-crats', at Complutense University of Madrid in 1967. His philosophical and linguistic works include: 'Del Lenguaje' (On Language; 1991), 'Contra la Paz. Contra la Democracia' (Against Peace. Against Democracy; 1993), 'Contra el Tiempo' (Against Time; 1993), 'Contra la Pareja' (Against the Couple; 1994), 'De Dios' (On God; 1996) and 'Contra la Realidad, Estudios de Lenguas y Cosas' (Against Reality, Studies of Language and Stuff; 2002).
A published poet, his collections include: 'Sermón de Ser y No Ser' (Sermon on Being and Not Being; 1972), 'Libro de Conjuros' (Book of Spells; 1979), 'Relato de Amor' (Story of love; 1980), 'Del Tren (83 Notas o Canciones)' (Of the Train (83 Notes or Songs); 1981), 'Canciones y Soliloquios' (Songs and Soliloquies; 1982), 'Más Canciones y Soliloquios' (More Songs and Soliloquies; 1988) and 'Ramo de Romances y Baladas' (Branch of Romances and Ballads; 1991). He is also the author of several dramatic pieces, such as the tragi-comedic musical 'Ismena' (1980), 'Rey de una Hora' (King of an Hour; 1984) and 'Baraja del Rey Don Pedro' (Deck of the King Don Pedro; 1998), which won the Premio Nacional de Literatura Dramática 1999.

1926 - Michel Foucault (d. 1984), French philosopher, social theorist and historian of ideas, author of 'Surveiller et Punir: Naissance de la Prison' (Discipline and Punishment: The Birth of the Prison') (1975), born.

1940 - Charlie Chaplin's satire on fascism, and also his first talkie, 'The Great Dictator', receives its première in New York.

1962 - Colin Jordan, leader of the British National Socialist Movement, and three of his aides were found guilty today in the Old Bailey on two counts out of the four that they were each charged with under the Public Order Act. The judge had indicated doubt that the prosecution had established that 'Spearhead' had been organised and trained for the display of force. and the jury failed to convict on the two counts involving this charge. However, all four were found guilty on two other counts, involving organising and training to "cause apprehension". Jordan was sentenced to 9 months imprisonment, Tyndall to six and the other two to three months each.

1969 - Imperial War Museum gutted by incendiary device. The attack is widely linked to other First of May Group/Angry Brigade actions.

1971 - Maryhill Barracks Army HQ, Glasgow, firebombed. [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]

2005 - Attempts by the US neo-Nazi National Socialist Movement to stage a protest picket and march against African-American gang activity in the North End of Toledo, Ohio, an economically depressed predominately black area policed by a mainly white police force, sparks a 4 hour riot by the community and the gathered anti-fascist protesters. The heavily outnumbered police, some armed with semi-automatic rifles, and who had tried to protect the nazis, was forced to retreat as they were charged and pelted with stones and bottles. The police were overwhelmed as the crowd surged forward and forced the nazis to retreat to their cars and leave the city. What followed was large-scale rioting against the police, with participants targeting police cars, media vehicles, and a military recruiter's vehicle. Over 100 people were arrested, and at least 12 police officers were injured. Eventually the city declared a state of emergency and an 8pm curfew, enforced on selected neighborhoods in the "problem" area. Twenty people were also arrested on curfew violations that night as over 100 officers patrolled the small neighborhood in North Toledo.
1888 - Eugene Gladstone O'Neill (d. 1953), Irish American playwright, Wobbly, socialist and philosophical anarchist, born. He was eighteen-year-old when he discovered Benjamin Tucker's anarchist bookstore in New York in 1906, and associated with anarchist and socialist during his early life: "Time was when I was an active socialist, and, after that, a philosophical anarchist." Many of his early plays and poems are expressly political in content and one of his most famous, 'The Iceman Cometh' (1940), set in Greenwich Village in 1912, contains numerous anarchist characters and highlights issues such as racism, the Boer War and the thought processes of police informers. Eugene O'Neill's expressionist play 'The Hairy Ape' (1922), which was first produced by the Provincetown Players in the same year, is expressly pro-IWW with its depiction of the oppressed industrial working class and capitalism.
Member of the Hollywood Anti-Fascist League alongside Humphrey Bogart, John Garfield, Dashiell Hammett, Lillian Hellman, Langston Hughes, Pablo Picasso, Paul Robeson, Donald Ogden Stewart and Orson Welles.

1907 - Roger Vailland (d. 1965), French novelist, essayist, screenwriter, youthful anarchist and, having fought alongside Communists in the Résistance, a Communist Party member, born. Fellow-traveller of the Paris Surrealist group who fell out with Breton and Aragon and helped form 'Le Grand Jou' in 1928.

1927 - Günter Wilhelm Grass, German novelist, poet, playwright, illustrator, graphic artist, sculptor and anti-fascist who hid that he had enrolled into the Waffen-SS aged 17 at the end of the Second World War, born.

1933 - A march of 400 Fascists in Manchester, led by Oswald Mosley, is attacked at by 60 anti-fascists throwing stones, which injured three of his bodyguards. The Fascists broke their ranks and charged the anti-fascist, injuring a number who were tended to by women from nearby houses. The march ended up at King's Hall, Belle Vue, where 2,500 fascists from all over England held a meeting and during which hand-to-hand fighting at the back of the hall broke out on a number of occasions. YCL member Benny Rothman, who intervened when Evelyn Taylor (later the wife of trades union leader Jack Jones) was physically attacked by BUF stewards as she heckled Mosley. Rothman also threw out some anti-Mosley leaflets but then was thrown bodily over the balcony, luckily having his fall broken by a blackshirt below.
After the Belle Vue meeting, Mosley led a march of 400 Blackshirts to Longsight station to catch their special train back to London, they were ambushed by 60 young men hurling stones and bricks. A drummer was knocked unconscious and another fascist needed medical treatment. Two anti-fascists were injured in the fighting. [PR]

1936 - At Perdiguera, in Aragon, the 250 fighters of the International Group of the Durruti Column supports heavy fighting against the Moorish colonial troops of Franco. Dozens of foreign volunteers including a number of French militants are killed. Louis Berthomieu, a former captain of the French army living in Barcelona, blows himself up with dynamite rather than fall into the hands of the fascists. With him are Charles Ridel (Louis Mercier Vega) and François-Charles Carpentier, founder of the International Group. At least three women medical or canteen support workers are also killed, including Georgette Kokoczinski aka 'Mimosa', and the German socialists Augusta Marx and Madeleine Gierth.

1936 - Georgette Léontine Roberte Augustine Kokoczinski aka 'La Mimosa' (Georgette Léontine Brivadis-Ango; b. 1907), French anarchist, actress and nurse, disappears during the Battle of Perdiguera (Zaragoza) and dies (possibly shot by firing squad on Oct. 17) in circumstances that are not entirely clear. [see: Aug. 16]

1963 - Guy Aldred (b. 1886), British anarchist-communist, anti-militarist and key member of the Anti-Parliamentary Communist Federation, dies. Founded the Bakunin Press and edited five Glasgow-based anarchist periodicals - 'The Herald of Revolt', 'The Spur', 'The Commune', 'The Council', and 'The Word'.

1968 - American Olympic track medallists Tommie Smith and John Carlos, gold and bronze respectively, give 'black power' salutes on the podium at the México City Olympics.

1985 - Margaret Michaelis (Michaelis-Sachs) (born Margarethe Gross; b. 1902), Austrian, and then Australian, photographer and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 6]

1987 - The Earl William, a converted passenger ferry moored off Harwich and being used to house Tamil immigration detainees, breaks her 22 mooring ropes and runs aground in the Great Storm.

1988 - Emídio Santana (b. 1906), leading Portuguese anarcho-syndicalist militant, writer and essayist, dies. [see: Jul. 4]

[C] 1993 - Welling 'Close down the BNP' protest: Following an upswing in electoral support in the east End, the BNP hoved their HQ cum bookshop to Welling in 1989 and this was followed up by the election in Tower Hamlets of Derek Beackon, the BNP's chief steward, to the party's first council seat in September 1993. The ANL's response was to organise a 'Close down the BNP' march, on the same day as an Anti-Racist Alliance held a rally in Trafalgar Square. In Welling a near-riot ensued when the police forced the 15,000 anti-BNP protesters in the march, which was led by an Auschwitz survivor, to change their route away from outside the party HQ building. A stand-off ensued with the police and handful of fascists who had assembled to 'protect' their HQ coming under a hail of missile. Attempts to break through the cordon were repelled by the police with liberal use of batons and horses were charged repeatedly into the crowd who had nowhere to go. A nearby cemetery wall collapsed under the weight of people and the fighting spilled over into the cemetery.
2,600 police officers were deployed, together with 84 police horses, with a further 3,000 police officers held in reserve. 31 people were arrested on the day (with more later following the cops' trawl of photos taken by mainstream media photographers, which which resulted in several dawn raids and arrests). Twenty-one police officers and 41 demonstrators were injured.
As a footnote, on the day Red Action "found the BNP hiding in a pub a few miles away that day, and had a "free and fair exchange of views with them"!" ['Bash the Fash: Anti-fascist recollections, 1984-1993']

2005 - The inauguration in Mel, Belluno, Italy, of a monument in memory of the anarchist Angelo Sbardellotto shot by the fascists on June 17, 1932 in Rome.
1873 - Alfred Polgar (originally: Alfred Polak; d. 1955), Austrian-born journalist, short story writer, screenwriter, satirist, translator, essayist, who also wrote under the pseudonyms Archibald Douglas and L. A. Terne, born. One of the most renowned intellectuals of the Vienna literary cafés, he contributed to number of anarchist journals, particularly 'Die Zukunft'. Polgar fled to Prague in 1933 after the Nazis proscribed and burned his books, later going to Switzerland and France. At the invasion of France he moved with Heinrich Mann, Franz Werfel and Leonhard Frank across the Spanish frontier and finally reached New York in October 1940. He worked briefly in Hollywood for Metro Goldwyn Mayer, returning to Europe after the War.
1920 - In Italy Errico Malatesta, anarchist militant and writer, is arrested (along with 80 others). He is held responsible, along with Armando Borghi (arrested on October 13, shortly after his return from Russia), Corrado Quaglino, the local editor of 'Umanita Nova' and Virgilia d'Andrea, for the worker occupations of the factories in Milan during this past summer and in September.

1930 - Thomas Mann gives his speech 'An Appeal to Reason'. The Nazis disrupt it.

1936 - The first issue of the F.I.J.L. newspaper 'Ruta' is published in Barcelona. The newspaper goes on to oppose the reformist positions and compromises of the CNT-FAI during the Spanish Civil War. The last issue was on November 5, 1938, and was then smuggled into Barcelona under Franco between 1946 and 1947 (27 issues), sporadically in 1948 and between 1955 and 1958. It reappeared in Barcelona after Franco died between 1979-1982 and in 1988-1989.

1936 - The first issue of the anarcho-syndicalist journal 'Pueblo Libre', paper of the local CNT-AIT unions is published in Sueca, near Valencia.

1943 - André Respaut is arrested and tortured before being sent to Buchenwald, where he was known for his courage and generosity - saving several deportees from death. From 1939 to 1943, he was active in the Résistance and the Combat group. A lifelong anarchist, he worked with an association of deportees, and wrote the books 'Buchenwald Terre Maudite' (1946) and 'Sociologie Fédéraliste Libertaire' (1961). André was released on April 11, 1945 by the Americans.

1949 - Six anti-fascist guerillas, militants in the CNT, including José Sabaté Llopart, are trapped and killed in Barcelona.

1949 - José Sabaté Llopart (aka Pepet or Pep; b. 1909), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist activist and fighter against Franco, older brother of Francisco Sabaté 'El Quico', dies in a police ambush. [NB: some sources give the year of birth as 1910]

1960 - Thierry Maricourt, prolific French proletarian writer, poet, novelist, essayist, anarchist, anti-fascist and anti-militarist, with numerous reference works to his credit, born.

[C] 1961 - Police massacre over 200 (possibly 300) Algerians protesting against police oppression and the curfew imposed against their community in Paris. Police search Algerian ghettos for FLN members, indiscriminately killing innocent Algerians before turning their guns on a large group of protesters gathered near the Seine River. The next day police release an official death toll of three dead and 67 wounded, a figure disputed by witnesses who observe bodies littering the area and floating in the Seine.

1980 - Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza assassinated in Paraguay. One of the Sandanista assassins: "We cannot tolerate the existence of millionaire playboys whilst thousands of Latin Americans are dying of hunger. We are perfectly willing to give up our lives for this cause."
[C] 1912 - Henri Bouyé aka Henri or André Deval & André Vigne (d. 1999), French florist and anarchist, who was instrumental in rebuilding and restoring the French anarchist movement after the Nazi occupation, born. He joined the Federation Anarchiste when it was set up in 1933, co-founded the paper Terre Libre in 1934 and later the florists union section of the CGT.
At the outbreak of WWII, he was the treasurer of the Fédération Anarchiste de langue Française (FAF), a split from the Union Anarchiste, and when called up, he managed to be discharged on health grounds. Under the occupation he went underground under the alias of Henri Duval. In Paris on the Avenue de la Republique, he set up a florist shop run by his companion. It served as a cover for underground activities and, despite several visits from the Gestapo, the underground work remained undetected. In the cellar was equipment to manufacture false papers, and it served as a hideout for people about to be passed over the border, mostly to Spain. Scores of Jews had their lives saved by the Bouyé network. Henri also maintained the Paris anarchist movement's liaison and its contact with other liaisons in the rest of France. As the Liberation neared, he began work in resurrecting the anarchist movement in France, visiting the regions and printing the Manifeste de la Fédération Libertaire Unifiée. In late July 1944, during the fighting liberation in Paris, a Fédération Anarchiste leaflet and a poster titled 'Retour à la liberté' was released. As secretary of the Federation he prepared for the October 1945 Conference at Paris which put the organisation on a firm footing. He continued his involvement with the anarchist movement in France with the FA and the Union Federal Anarchiste.

1916 - Julián Ángel Aransáez Caicedo (d. 2001), Basque anarchist, anarcho-communist and anti-Francoist and anti-Nazi fighter, born.

[B] 1923 - Ado (Adonis) Kyrou (d. 1985), Greek-born French filmmaker, cinematographer, critic, author and anarchist, born. Active in the Greek resistance, he was wounded and left Greece for Paris. There he became involved with the Surrealists and worked on the magazine 'Le Surréalisme Même' and later collaborated on the Paris anarchist newspaper 'Libertaire', writing criticism and reviews under the pseudonym Jean Charlin. Kyrou wrote three major texts on the Surrealist cinema: 'Le Surréalisme au Cinéma' (1953), 'Amour - Érotisme et Cinéma' (1957) and 'L'Âge d'Or de la Carte Postale' (1966). His film work includes 10 shorts; a number of TV series and one-off programmes, includng the Swiss science fiction series 'Sial IV', and 2 full-length films: 'To Bloko' (The Roundup; 1965) about the Greek resistance and 'Le Moine' (The Monk; 1972) with a screenplay by Luis Buñuel based on Matthew Gregory Lewis' gothic novel, 'The Monk'.

1924 - Jesús del Olmo Sáez (aka Malatesta; d. 1958), Spanish anarchist and anti-Francoist resistance fighter, born.

1927 - The trial of Sholom Schwartzbard began for killing Symon Petliura, who he blamed for the deaths of 15 members of his family in Pogroms in Ukraine.

1927 - Following the launch earlier on in the month of the Labour League of Ex-Servicemen (LLX), drawn mainkly from the ranks of the disbanded Workers' Defence Corps, the 'Sunday Worker' reprints a speech by ex-Lieutenant J. S. Snook DCM, the main organiser of the LLX, stating that: " Demands for the building of a strong Labour League of Ex-Servicemen have grown more imperative than ever snce the epidemic of police and fascist "frightfulness" [sic] during the sacco-Vanzetti agitation." [see: Jan. 16] The 'Sunday Worker' would hail the LLX as being the "Mailed Fist of the Workers!" on April 1, 1928.

1934 - Revolución de 1934 / Asturian Miners' Strike: With the terms for the surrender of the insurgents in Asturias having been set in a meeting with General Lopez Ochoa the previous day, the Unión General de Trabajadores leader Belarmino Tomás Álvarez attempts to persuade the workers and miners to end their fight. From the balcony of the city hall in Sama, Langreo he makes the following appeal:
"Comrades! Red soldiers! Before you, convinced that we have been faithful to the trust you have place in us, we come to tell you of the sad situation that our glorious insurrection movement has been reduced to. We must confess our peace talks with the commander of the enemy army. But we have been defeated only for a while. All we can say is that in the other provinces of Spain, workers have failed to fulfill their duty and have not helped us. Because of this, the government has been able to dominate the insurrection in Asturias. Moreover, although we have rifles, machine guns, and cannons, we lack ammunition. All we can do is make peace. But this does not mean abandoning the class struggle. Our surrender today will be nothing more than a halt along the way, which will help us to correct our mistakes and to prepare for the next battle, which will be completed in the final victory of the exploited."
The terms of the agreement, though not without some resistance, were accepted by the assemblies of the miners. Rather than give them up their weapons in line with the surrender agreement, many chose to hide them, others chose to flee through the mountains.
On October 18 , two weeks after starting the insurrection, the last stronghold surrendered and government troops occupied the coalfields. A few days later, the random uncontrolled repression previously practiced gave way to an official repression, with mass arrests and numerous summarrary executions. [see: Oct. 4 & 5]

1936 - Emma Goldmann appears at a mass rally of 16,000 people organised by the CNT-FAI.

1944 - Viktor Ullmann (b. 1898), Silesia-born Austrian, composer, conductor and pianist, dies. [see: Jan. 1]

1966 - Miguel Chueca Cuartero (b. 1901), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies in Paris. [see: Jan. 3]

[A] 1968 - American track medallists John Carlos and Tommie Smith suspended and stripped of awards for their 'black power' salute on the 16th at the México City Olympics.

[CC] 1976 - Laureano Cerrada Santos (b. 1902), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist counterfeiter, facilitator and guerilla veteran of the plot to kill Franco and Hitler together, is murdered in Paris by a Spanish Nazi who was later given asylum in Canada. A student of José Alberola, he was a member of the CNT (railroad union) and anarchist organisations. Active under the republic, in 1936 he helped in the taking of the Atarazanas barracks and Captaincy-General building in Barcelona and, as the man in charge of the Central Railway Administration Fund, was a great help to the Aragon front. He really became popular, though, in exile in France after the civil war, becoming very active in the struggle against the Nazis. A key figure in the WWII anti-Nazi Resistance and escape and evasion networks, he organised extensive propaganda networks, clandestine arms dumps and safe houses and was also in contact with many underground guerillas and dabbled in arms-trafficking. Cerrada was also a master forger and an influential figure in France’s criminal demi-monde, especially the Parisian and Marseilles milieux, and was, undoubtedly, one of the most problematic, enigmatic and mysterious figures of the Spanish anarchist diaspora.
After the end of the Second World War, he enjoyed enormous prestige in CNT circles: he was secretary of the Paris regional committee (1945), but appears to have refused the position of CNT general secretary (declining to have his name included in the list of candidates) and some take the view that his refusal led to the success of Esgleas’s candidacy in 1945. He funded CNT propaganda and direct action activity against Franco and furnished forged papers to many victims of persecution. He also purchased a powerful US Navy Vedette speedboat used by the CNT’s defence committee to transport arms, propaganda and militants from France into Spain, and the high point in his war on Franco came in 1948 when, together with Ortiz, he prepared the aerial attack on Franco’s yacht in San Sebastian. He also tried to flood the country with counterfeit currency. His star began to wane in 1951: an informer brought him to the attention of the police who accused him of being a counterfeiter (of currency and official papers): many CNT personnel distanced themselves from him (and he was even expelled from the CNT for resorting to "unacceptable methods") and his life was lived on the blurred margins shared by criminality and anarchist idealism, torn between one and the other. Jailed again from 1970 to 1974, he was murdered in his old age. A very energetic man of tremendous daring, a born activist none too scrupulous in fighting the enemy, his style did not go down well with some people.

1979 - Prudencio Iguacel Piedrafita (b. 1913), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist resistance fighter, dies. [see: Apr. 28]

1983 - Diego Abad de Santillán (born Sinesio Vaudilio García Fernández; b 1897), Spanish author, economist, historian and leading figure in the Spanish and Argentine anarchist movements, dies. [see: May 20]
1893 - Maria del Pilar Grangel Arrufat (d. 1987), Spanish rationalist educator and militant anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1899 - Michele Schirru (d. 1931), Italian-American anarchist and anti-fascist, born. Arrested in a hotel room in Rome on February 3, 1931, with two bombs intended for an assassination attempt on Mussolini's life, he attempts to kill himself before falling into police hands. On May 28, 1931 a Special Court rules that he has acknowledged having had the intention to kill Mussolini. Convicted, he is sentenced to death and is shot the following morning at Fort Braschi.

[C] 1913 - Vasco Pratolini (d. 1991), Italian novelist, playwright, poet, screenwriter, communist, anti-Nazi partisan and a major figure in Italian Neorealismo, born. Born into a working class family in Florence, his mother died when he was just five years old and, estranged from his father, he lived with his maternal grandparents. Having to work from an early age - labourer in a workshop of printers, apprentice, street vendor, bartender, waiter, salesman, etc. - he rarely attended school but never neglected his great love for books and his 'apprenticeship' for the life of a writer. At eighteen, he left his job to devote himself fully to the literary life and the study of the habits of the community that he grew up in, something that would informal all his works.

Following a period hospitalised in a sanatorium with tuberculosis in 1935-36, he returned to Florence in 1937 and became involved in the political journal 'Il Bargello'. The same year his first literary works were published in the quarterly journal 'Letteratura'. During his university years he was aligned with the fascismo di sinistra (left-wing fascism) tendency and was involved with the Gruppi Universitari Fascisti and Littoriali della Cultura e dell'Arte, both Partito Nazionale Fascista organisations. However, as with many of those who identified with fascismo di sinistra, he quickly migrated to anti-fascism. A key influence in this move was his friendship with the poet Alfonso Gatto, with whom he founded the polemical literary magazine 'Campo di Marte' (Field of Mars).

Pratolini meanwhile moved to Rome where in 1941 he published his first book of short stories 'Il Tappeto Verde' (The Green Carpet) and actively participated in the anti-fascist partisan resistance. He would go on to write numerous novels, many of which were strongly autobiographical and often dealt with the rise of fascism, such as 'Cronache di Poveri Amanti' (1947), translated as 'A Tale of Two Poor Lovers', and his great anti-fascist novel 'Un Eroe del Nostro Tempo' (A Hero of Our Time) from the same year, which depicts how fascism survived the end of the war (and the supposed end of fascism). A later novel, 'La Costanza della Ragione' (1963), translated as 'Bruno Santini. A Novel', would detail his ideological struggles with his membership of the Communist party. He also wrote screenplays, including 'Paisà' for Roberto Rossellini, 'Rocco ei Suoi Fratelli' for Luchino Visconti , and Nanni Loy's 'Le Quattro Giornate di Napoli'.

1920 - Clash between cenetistas and pistoleros del Libre (rightwing gunmen) on the street of Riera Alta in Madrid. CNT member Jaime Martínez Palau is arrested; also apprehended are Juan Lopez and Bartholomew Llabrés. The latter cenetistas are implicated in several atentados and end up spending six years in jail.

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: General José Morais da Silva, Chief of Staff of the Air Force, issue an order that 1,200 serving paratroopers would now become part of the military reserve. This decision would play an important part in the events of November 25th.

1998 - Pier Carlo Masini (b. 1923), Italian anarchist historian and journalist, dies. [see: Mar. 26]

2000 - Kati Horna (Kati Deutsch; b 1912), Hungarian photographer and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: May 19]
1895 - Gaston Leval (born Pierre Robert Piller; also used the pseudonyms Max Stephan, Silvio Agreste, José Benito, Felipe Montblanc, Josep Venutto and Robert Le Franc; d. 1978), French anti-authoritarian writer, combatant and historian of the Spanish Revolution of 1936, born. Wrote 'The Collectives in Aragon' (1938), and 'Collectives in Spain' (1945).

1935 - Aquilino Gómez Pozo (b. 1871), Basque anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies.

[C] 1945 - El Quico (Francisco Sabaté) and two other anarchist guerillas, Jaime 'Abisinio' Pares Adán and Juan 'El Roget' Salas Millón, at the request of Committee of Resistance of the CNT, break three prisoners out of jail in Barcelona.

[A] 1971 - Home of Bryant, Birmingham building boss, bombed while his workers are on strike. Communique issued by the Angry Brigade.

1971 - Eduard Vives (b. 1917), Catalan militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 15]

1974 - Adelchi Argada, Italian left-wing militant of the Revolutionary Communist Popular Front of Calabria, is killed by fascists in Lamezia Terme, Calabria.

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: Following calls by the Socialists for Brigadier General Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho to be sacked for COPCON’s failure to defend the government on November 13th, the MFA’s (Movimento das Forças Armadas) council replaced him as commander of the Região Militar de Lisboa (Military Region Lisbon) with the moderate, Captain Vasco Correia Lourenço. At the same time the Partido Socialista and the Partido Popular Democrático hold discussions about the possibility of moving the Constituent Assembly to the north, away from the radical heartland. On the same day a manifesto appears signed by junior officers calling for the arming of the working class.

1975 - Joan Enseñat Rigo, aka 'El Periodista' (b. 1901), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [expand]

1983 - Juan Francisco Abad Fornieles (b. ca. 1921), Spanish anarchist, journalist, poet and writer, dies. In the libertarian ranks from an early age, he joined the war at fifteen years old together with his father and in 1938 served as a press correspondent, writing regularly in 'Solidaridad Obrera' (Workers Solidarity) and 'Tierra y Libertad' (Land and Freedom). Imprisoned by the Fascists on January 8, 1940, he spent time in a number of prisons including Torrero-Zaragoza (1942), Ocaña (1945) and Puerto de Santa Maria (1947), where he formed a lasting friendship with the social prisoner Vega Álvarez. Released in June 1951, survived like other anarchists (Guzman, Gomez Casas, Vega, Olcina) by writing western novels, policieres, war stories and romances (publishing more than two hundred under several pseudonyms, including Juan de España and Marsh Scrape) and from 1955 onwards he combined his "survival writing" with working in a factory until his emigration (first to France, where was not understood by the Toulouse libertarians, and then, since 1960, in Germany). In his German years he stopped writing and quit politics until well into the seventies, when animated by Cristóbal Vega he returned to the anarchist fold and to the pen. A poet from the age of eleven, he wrote much, but published very little and was a poet of "bitter sweetness" in the opinion of Vega Álvarez. He collaborated on 'Correo Literario', 'Espoir', 'Ideas-Ortho', 'Solidaridad Obrera' in Barcelona (during the war and in the post-Franco era), 'Tierra y Libertad' in Spain and Mexico and 'Umbral' (Threshold). He also wrote the preface to Raimundo Ramirez de Antón's poetry collection 'Antes de Ser el Alba' (Before the Dawn; 1984) and author of 'Tierra de olvido y seis poemas a norte fijo' (Land of oblivion and six poems of fixed north; 1981) and 'Pulsando mi Lira' (Playing my Lyre; 1982).

1994 - Antonio Ramos Palomares (aka El Carbonero; b. 1905), Andalusian anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist fighter, dies.

2005 - Eva Švankmajerová (b. 1940), Czech Surrealist artist, painter, ceramicist, poet, filmmaker and writer, dies. [see: Sep. 25]
1887 - Ramón Domínguez Basco (d. 1959), Basque militant anarcho-syndicalist, born.

[BB] 1896 - Pia Zanolli (Pia Zanolli-Misèfari; d. unknown), Italian anarchist, fashion designer, poet and writer, born. Companion of the Italian anarchist, philosopher, poet and engineer Bruno Misèfari, who she met whilst he was staying with her family as an exile in Switzerland as a deserter. In July 1919 Bruno Misèfari was expelled from Switzerland and she accompanied him first to Germany and then to Italy following an amnesty for Misèfari. She was to appeared on the list of dangerous subversives to be arrested in certain contingencies in the province of Reggio Calabria as the wife of a notorious anarchist [i.e. Misèfari], with whom she had been arrested in Domodossola in December 1919. She moved to Ponza in 1931 to be with Misèfari whilst he was in internal exile as a political prisoner, and they were married in a civil ceremony there on May 28, 1931. Once free, they settled in Calabria and, after Misèfari's death in 1936, she became his literary executor as well as publishing two memoirs of him, 'Tu o uno come te' (You or someone like you; nd) and 'L'Anarchico di Calabria' (The Anarchist of Calabria; 1967). Her own poetry was published in 2 volumes: 'Cinque Parole' (Five Words; 1965), 'Ruota del Mondo: Poesie sociali' (Wheel of the World: Social Poems; 1965)

1920 - CNT activist Ramón Jaume Mateu is attacked by Pistoleros del Libre. Attacks by these right wing assassins, supported by anti-labour businessmen and the Catholic Church, against militant workers are common during this period.

[A] 1928 - Giuseppe 'Pino' Pinelli (d. 1969), Italian railway worker, organiser in Gioventu Libertaria (Libertarian Youth) and secretary of Milan Anarchist Black Cross whose death whilst under police interrogation inspired the Dario Fo play 'Accidental Death of an Anarchist', born.

1936 - Fascist siege of Madrid begins.

1939 - Serge Livrozet, French burglar sent to prison numerous times who became an anarchist and writer, born. Was active in the struggle against high-security prisons and the death penalty and, after meeting Michel Foucault, they formed the 'Comités d'Action des Prisonniers'.

1941 - Federica Montseny, pregnant and a refugee in France with her daughter Blanca, is arrested by the Vichy police and imprisoned in Perigueux, Dordogne. She will be transferred to Limoges (where she find Caballero) and is put on trial, narrowly avoiding extradition to Spain. Instead, she is placed under house arrest and banned from being able to give birth in the maternity ward at Périgueux hospital.

[C] 1943 - The Minsk Ghetto, notable for its large scale resistance organisation, which cooperated closely with Soviet partisans and where about 10,000 Jews were able to escape the ghetto and join partisan groups in the nearby forests (as many as 20,000 are also estimated to have died trying to escape the Ghetto to join the partisans), is liquidated. By the time the Red Army retook the city on July 3, 1944, there were only a few Jewish survivors.

1949 - The anarchist Miguel Garcia is arrested. Tried and sentenced to death along with eight other companions, five of whom were executed. Garcia spent 38 days in the condemned cell until his sentence was commuted to 30 years imprisonment.

1949 - Julio Rodríguez Fernandez, aka 'El Cubano', a fighter with Catalan guerrilla groups, and his comrades José Barroso Ruiz and Francisco Martínez Márquez, aka 'Paco' (b. 1922), die in a clash with the fascist police in Barcelona.

1969 - Bolesław Stein (d. 1907), Polish doctor, anarcho-syndicalist and WWII freedom fighter, dies. [see: Apr. 29]

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: Following yesterday's replacement of Brigadier General Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho, officers of the Região Militar de Lisboa (Military Region Lisbon) refuse to obey his succesor Captain Vasco Correia Lourenço. Officers at the Beirlos barracks promise to distribute guns to the workers ("Enough to arm a demonstration"). At the Tancos base many of the paratroopers’ officers also walk out after the decision to transfer many of them to the reserves; the commander attempts to get the 1,200 troops under their command to go on leave and evacuate the base, which they refused to do, putting themselves under COPCON’s authority.

1981 - Germinal Esgleas (Josep Esgleas i Jaume; b. 1903), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Oct. 5]

1992 - Anton Ciliga (b. 1898), Croatian philosopher, Left Communist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Feb. 20]
1864 - José Sánchez Rosa (d. 1936), Spanish autodictat, teacher, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. A member of Mano Negra (1883), he was arrested several times and sentenced to various penalties, including death in 1892 as one of the supposed leaders of peasant revolt at Jerez de la Frontera, despite his avowed pacifism. The sentence was commuted to life imprisonment, during which he met his own teacher in anarchist thoughtFermín Salvochea, and in 1901 he was pardoned. Upon his release he became involved in the establishing of numerous rationalist schools across Andalusia, in which he also taught. He also undertook a speaking tour in 1904 on behalf of the Federació de Societats Obreres de la Regió Espanyola (Federation of Workers Societies of the Spanish Region; FSORE) and ended up in prison in Tangiers. Released in Jan. 1905, he settled in Aznalcóllar. In 1910 he moved to Seville, where taught in the district school in Triana and became director of the Agrupación Pro-Enseñanza Racionalista (Pro-Rationalist Education Association), as well as setting up a workers library in his home and founding and directing the anarchist newspapers 'El Productor' and 'La Anarquíay' (1919-1921). [expand]

1905 - Argentian police massacre some 200 demonstrators opposing a tax on cattle, called by the Comité Pro Abolición. Popular outrage sweeps the country and workers call a General Strike. The government declares a state of siege. Despite heavy military protection of the cowards who hide in the palace, insurreccionadas attempt to take the building.

1908 - Benigno Andrade García aka 'Foucellas' (d. 1952), Spanish locksmith, anarchist militant and anti-Francoist guerilla, born. He fought in the Civil War but with its end, he carried on with his guerilla activities alongside an autonomous band based in the Bacelo hills. Early in 1952, he was ambushed in Betanzos as a result of treachery and was wounded and arrested. Brutally tortured, he was sentenced to death and executed by garrote at 7 am on August 7, 1952 in the provincial prison of A Coruña, Galicia.

[C] 1913 - Robert Capa (Endre Friedmann; d. 1954), Hungarian combat photographer, photojournalist and anti-fascist, who covered five different wars, including the Spanish Revolution, born. [expand]

[B] 1921 - Georges Brassens (d. 1981), French anarchist singer-songwriter, poet and novelist, born. Already a published poet, 'Des Coups d’Épée dans l’Eau' (1941) and 'A la Venvole' (As the Wind Blows; 1942) having been working in a Renault car factory in Paris, he was forced by the Germans to work in a labour camp at a BMW aircraft engine plant in Basdorf near Berlin in Germany during WWII under the Service de Travail Obligatoire, but went AWOL on 10 days leave in Paris, hiding out with relatives till the end of the war.
In 1946 he joined the Fédération Anarchiste and wrote articles for 'Le Libertaire' under a number of pseudonyms, including Pépin Cadavre, Geo Cédille and Gilles Collin. He also wrote his first novel, 'La Lune Écoute aux Portes' (The Eavesdropping Moon), in 1947 and continued to write poetry and songs, performing them at fundraisers and for his friends. But it wasn't until 1952 that he actually started to perform his songs (accompanying himself on guitar) in public at cabarets such as the Caveau de la République, the Lapin Agile in Montmartre, Milord I'Arsouille and the Villa d'Este. Unsuccessful at first, it wasn't until he appeared at Les Trois Baudets (The Three Donkeys) and a Polydor recording cintract quickly followed, as did a second novel, 'La Tour des Miracles' (1953), and a part in René Clair's film 'Porte des Lilas' (Brassens also composed the film's music). A massive public success in France, he is little known elsewhere.
Amongst his best known songs are: 'La Mauvaise Réputation' (1952); 'Les Amoureux des Bancs Publics' (1952); 'Le Gorille' (1952); 'La Cane de Jeanne' (1953); 'Chanson pour l'Auvergnat' (1954); 'Les Copains d'Abord' (1964); 'Supplique pour être Enterré à la Plage de Sète' (1966); 'Fernande' (1972); and 'Mourir pour des Idées' (1972).

[CC] 1924 - Despite not being a member, the notorious and rabid anti-Semite William Joyce is a steward (as leader of the BF's 'I Squad' - he regularly stewarded for the British Fascisti and was a habitual participant in their street fights with anti-fascists) at a Conservative Party election meeting at Lambeth Baths Hall. There he becomes involved in a fight, receiving a razor cut from the corner of his mouth to behind his right ear that left him permanently scarred (to add to his broken nose picked up fighting during his school days). Joyce is convinced that his assailant was a "Jewish Communist" and the injury made his anti-Semitic stance even more implacable. [PR]

1974 - Thirty members of the Oxford Anti-fascist Committee force their way into an election meeting at Headington Middle School for the NF candidate Ian Anderson. The audience of five people watch in disbelief as Union flags are torn down, the speaker's table overturned and Anderson is physically thrown out of his own meeting. This fiasco is followed a few days later when a much large meeting in Oxford Town Hall is invaded by around 100 anti-fascists who force Anderson from the platform and stage their own anti-fascist speeches. [PR]
1885 - André Lorulot (aka André Georges Roulot) (d. 1963), French free-thinker, anarchist individualist, lecturer, propagandist and playwright, born. Lorulot began writing for Libertad’s journal 'l’Anarchie' from the first issue (13 April 1905), adopting the pseudonym Lorulot and essentially devoting his life, until 1914, to the cause of individualist anarchist propaganda.
In 1906 he and his partner Émilie Lamotte joined the Libertaire anarchist commune in Saint-Germain-en-Laye and in 1907 he was exempted from military service for "heart disease and deafness". The colony lasted 2 years, during which time he lectured through out the country, resulting in his arrest in May 1907 for 'incitement to murder' and being sentenced to one year in prison on Aug. 9. Then his pamphlet 'L'Idole Patrie et ses Conséquences' resulted in another prison sentence on Nov. 16 1907, of 115 months for encouraging military disobedience. Fortunately the authorities mixed up the sentence and he was paroled early in Feb. 1908.
Following the death of Libertad on November 12 1908, Lorulot took over the editorship of 'l’Anarchie' and continued extensive travels with Émilie, lecturing in France, Algeria and Switzerland. Émilie died on June 6 1909 whilst they were travelling via caravan across France and Lorulot decided to set up printing of the newspaper Romainville, where he founded and edited the magazine 'L’Idée Libre' on Dec. 1 1911 (having quit 'l’Anarchie'). The magazine developed into a combination propaganda organ for individualism and anti-clericalism, and resulted in his becoming embroiled in the case of the Bonnot Gang because of his advocacy of illegality, but is not charged during the Feb. 1913 trial.In Jan 1915 he is again arrested, this time on a counter feit currency charge as well as for insulting and defaming the army. The charges are dropped in July 1915 but his is banished from Paris for 4 years. He moved to Lyon and then Saint-Étienne, where he resumed the publication 'L’Idée Libre' in 1917.
Despite his individualism, his long term opposition to syndicalist thought (unions were mere "boîtes à cotisations") and denial of the division of society into classes, he became enamoured of the Bolshevik revolution, defending the idea of the need for "some dictatorship", even after the events at Kronstadt.
From then on his principle activities focused on his anti-clerical/free thought activities, becoming on of the main speakers for the Fédération Nationale de la Libre Pensée (Federation of Free Thinkers) and writing for the journal 'l'Antireligieux', as well as 'Réveil de l'Esclave' (The Awakening Slave; 1920-25); 'l'Action Antireligieuse' (1925); 'La Libre Pensée' (1928); and the satirical magazine 'La Calotte' (The Skullcap; 1930). In the Thirties he also participated in Sébastien Faure's 'l'Encyclopédie Anarchiste'.
In 1958 Lorulot became president of the Fédération Nationale de la Libre Pensée. A prolific writer, his misanthropy is perhaps best expressed by the title of his 1939 pamphlet: 'Les Hommes me Dégoutent' (Men Disgust Me). Amongst his other writings are: 'Le Mensonge Électoral' (The Electoral Falsehood; 1908); 'Chez les Loups' (Among Wolves; 1920); 'Méditations et Souvenirs d'un Prisonnier' (Meditations and Memories of a Prisoner; 1921); 'L'Église et la Guerre' (The Church and War; 1930); 'Histoire de Ma Vie et de Mes Idées' (Story of My Life and My Ideas; 1939); 'Histoire Populaire du Socialisme Mondial' (People's History of World Socialism; 1945); etc.
He also wrote a number of plays, including: 'Mon Royaume N'est Pas de Ce Monde' (My Kingdom is Not of This World; 1934); 'Dans les Geôles de France' (In French Jails; 1938); 'La Toile d'Araignée' (The Spider's Web; 1938); and 'La Morale de Croquemitaine' (The Moral Bogeyman; 1936).

1894 - Marcel Body (Jean Alexandre Body (d. 1984), French typographer, Bolshevik, translator and later, anarchist, born.

1899 - Arthur Lehning (d. 2000), Dutch anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, and archivist and historian of the international anarchist movement, born. Co-founder, with Rudolf Rocker and Augustin Souchy, in December 1919 of FAUD (Freie Arbeiter Union Deutschland). Establishes and becomes curator of the monumental Bakunin Files, with the International Institute of Social History (IISH( of Amsterdam, in 1971.

1903 - First attempt to test anti-anarchist immigration act: At an event at Murray Hill Lyceum, where Emma Goldman is scheduled to speak, English anarchist John Turner is arrested and charged with promoting anarchism and violating alien labour laws. Turner was held on Ellis Island until his deportation, with the words "Let freedom ring" burning in his ears.

[C] 1943 - Bergen-Belsen Transport Uprising: A transport of around 1700 of Polish Jews had arrived on passenger trains at the death camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau, although they had been told that they were being taken to a transfer camp called Bergau near Dresden, from where they would continue on to Switzerland to be exchanged for German POWs. One of the passengers was Franceska Mann, a beautiful dancer who had probably obtained her foreign passport from the Hotel Polski on the Aryan side of the Warsaw Ghetto. In July 1943 the Germans arrested the 600 Jewish inhabitants of the hotel and some of them were sent to Bergen-Belsen as exchange Jews. Others were sent to Vittel in France to await transfer to South America.
The new arrivals at Auschwitz II (also known as Birkenau) were not registered but were told that they had to be disinfected before crossing the border into Switzerland. They were taken into the undressing room next to the gas chamber and ordered to undress. Different accounts give different details of what happened next, but what is confirmed is that she fatally wounded the roll call officer Josef Schillinger, using a pistol (many accounts say his own) and fired two shots, wounding him in the stomach. Then she fired a third shot which wounded another SS Sergeant named Emmerich.
According to Jerzy Tabau [a prisoner who later escaped from Birkenau and wrote a report on the incident], the shots served as a signal for the other women to attack the SS men; one SS man had his nose torn off, and another was scalped. However, different accounts say different things; in some Schillinger and Emmerich are the only victims. Reinforcements were summoned and the camp commander, Rudolf Höss, came with other SS men carrying machine guns and grenades. According to Filip Mueller, all people not yet inside the gas chamber where mowed down by machine guns. Due to various conflicting accounts, it is unclear what truly happened next; the only things that are certain are on that day Schillinger died, Emmerich was wounded, and all the Jewish women were killed.

[A] 1956 - The Hungarian Uprising begins.

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: In Lisbon Mário Soares, leader of the Partido Socialista tells a march that he is not afraid of civil war. The crowd chants, "Discipline! Discipline!"

1999 - A massive demonstration in Stockholm commemorates Björn Söderberg, a Sveriges Arbetates Centralorganisation activist and anti-fascist murdered by neo-Nazis on October 12, 1999.
1893 - Berek Lajcher [also remembered by Treblinka survivors by the names Dr Marius Leichert and Dr. Lecher](d. 1943), Jewish physician, former reserve officer in the Polish Army and social activist from Wyszków before the Holocaust in Poland, who was a leading member of the Organising Committee in the prisoner uprising at Treblinka extermination camp, born. Lajcher became the leader and secret organiser of the Treblinka revolt. On August 2, 1943, after a long period of preparation, the prisoners stole some weapons from the arsenal and made an attempt at an armed escape from the Totenlager. Lajcher was killed in the fighting. Several Trawniki guards were killed and some 150 Jewish prisoners escaped.

1907 - Ana María Cruzado Sánchez (d. 1982), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist militant, born. Active member of the Sindicat del Vestir of thea CNT and in the Joventuts Llibertàries, where she met her future partner and fellow anarcho-syndicalist militant Antonio Zapata Córdoba (1908-2000). In February 1939 at the end the Civil War, they went into exile in France and lived in Font Romeu and Toulouse. In 1945, she returned clandestinely to Spain and was arrested. Following her release, she continued her underground activities in the CNT in Barcelona and was again arrested. In 1946, she went into exile in France and finally settled in Toulouse, where she participated in the freedom movement until her death. Her brother, Alfonso Cruzado Sánchez (1910-​​1983)[see: Oct. 27], was a member of the Sindicat del Transport of the CNT in Barcelona.

[C] 1924 - Italian anarchist militant Ernesto Bonomini (aka Dick Perry) is sentenced to eight years hard labour (later commuted to prison time) for killing fascist Nicola Bonservizi, a writer for Mussolini's fascist newspaper 'Popolo d' Italia', in a Paris restaurant. He originally faced the death penalty but the murder of Giacomo Matteotti, an Italian antifascist politician, by Mussolini's henchmen on June 10, 1924, created a sympathetic atmosphere at the time of his sentencing.

1932 - At the first British Union of Fascists (BUF) public meeting, held in the Memorial Hall, Farringdon Street, Mosley responded to hecklers by referring to them as "three warriors of the class war, all from Jerusalem." The hecklers were abused and assaulted. Fights broke out in the hall and spilled out on to the street outside. [PR]

1970 - During the Council workers' strike a bomb explodes in the cleansing department head office, Greenford. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: In Portugal, the Communist Communist Intersindical Nacional unions call a two hour strike in the Lisbon industrial belt so the workers could discuss the situation. The SUV (Soldados Unidos Vencerão, as soldiers organisation linked to the Partido Revolucionário do Proletariado) committee at Air Force Base 3 pledges support for the Paratroopers at Tancos.
That same night in a telephone call from President Costa Gomes, the Secretary-General of the PCP Álvaro Cunhal dismisses the on-going speculation that the PCP is involved in any initiative that might lead to a military confrontation and insists on pointing out the need for a political solution to the current tension. The party also contacts some of its organisations including at the Forte de Almada and RAL 1 not to get involved in any military adventures or confrontations.

1975 - Ricard Sanz i García aka Cipriano Mera Sanz (b. 1897), French anarcho-syndicalist, militia leader and army commander in the Spanish Revolution, dies. [see: Nov. 4]

1999 - Philip Sansom (b. 1916), English anarchist pacifist and co-editor of 'War Commentary', which led to 9 months in prison accused of inciting agitation among soldiers alongside fellow editors Vernon Richards and John Hewetson, dies. [see: Sep. 19]
[B] 1881 - Pablo Ruiz y Picasso (d. 1973), Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, anarchist and later communist, born. At the age of 13 his family move to Barcelona, where he first encountered anarchism and began associating with anarchists in Madrid when he attended the Royal Academy of San Fernando. In 1901, and inspired by his first trip to Paris the previous year, he founded the magazine 'Arte Joven' (Young Art) with his friend the anarchist writer Francisco de Asís Soler [painting]. It was during this time, the Blue Period, that his art most clearly displays an anarchist influenc with its working class subject matter and method of depiction. Picasso would later be denied French citizenship because of his association with the anarchist and art dealer Pedro Mañach [painting] who was an important financial supporter during the Blue Period, signing a contract with Picasso guaranteeing to take his pictures for two years and to pay 150 francs per month by way of fixed income. He also floated the idea of a first Paris Picasso exhibition at the Galerie Vollard in 1901.

1886 - Eleuterio Quintanilla Prieto (d. 1966), Asturian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, Freemason and rationalist eductor, active in the Spanish Revolution of 1936 and the Orto group in the FAI, born.

1891 - Gregorio Jover Cortés (d. 1964), Spanish militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist activist and fighter against Franco, born. [expand]

1909 - Jean-Paul Chanois (born Jean-Paul Étienne Dreyfus; d. 1985), French filmmaker, TV and theatre director, actor, French Communist Party member and trades union activist, born. Active in the Résistance under the German occupation.

1928 - Catalan anarchists Jaime Tadeo Peña, Agustin Garcia Capdevilla and Pedro Boadas Rivas along with the Argentinians Antonio and Vicente Moretti rob the currency exchange in Messina, Montevideo, of 4,000 pesos. In the attack the director of the agency, an employee and a taxi driver are killed. Three others are wounded. All 5 anarchists are arrested on November 5.

1946 - Artur Streiter (b. 1905), German graphic artist, painter, writer, literary critic, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Jan. 17]

[C] 1948 - Over 100 fascists try to storm a Peace Conference organised by Hackney Trades Council in Stoke Newington Town Hall. The 43 Group had been warned by informants that there was a likelihood of it being attacked by fascists and told the organisers, who in turn had asked for police help. Several hundred fascists began to attack at 7.15pm, using a variety of weapons, including knuckle-dusters but were repelled a number of times by 43 Group stewards. Petrol bombs and broken bottles were also used in the fighting. The police arrived at 7.45 and refused to help the besieged members of the Trades Council to provide any of the delegates, not even the Dean of Canterbury, with an escort.

1955 - Ettore Cropalti (b. 1900), Italian shoemaker, anarchist and anti-fascist militant, dies. [see: Jul. 8]

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: An alleged radical leftist military coup supposedly fails due to action taken by members of the Grupo dos Nove (Group of Nine), a moderate grouping within the MFA (Movimento das Forças Armadas), and especially the actions of the Grupo dos Nove member Colonel António dos Santos Ramalho Eanes, who declares a State of Emergency and takes control of the MFA, COPCON and Commando units [according to fellow 'conspirator' Captain Vasco Correia Lourenço, he was "responsible for organising the operational plan", "played a key role" and "turned out to be the major operational commander" on November 25]. Eanes, a future president of the republic, aslo manages to resist the pressure from elements of the extreme right to send planes to bomb the 'rebel' units.
Many now see the 'radical leftist military coup' as in reality a 'military counter-revolutionary coup' aimed at the destruction of the Partido Comunista Português (PCP), and which had been in preparation through out the verão quente (hot summer), that in turn also failed. Amongst these prepartions had been the replacement of Brigadeiro Graduado Eurico de Deus Corvacho with the more moderate General António Pires Veloso as commander of the Região Militar Norte (RMN; Northern Military Region) [see: Sep. 13]; the so-called 'cerco a S. Bento' (siege of St. Benedict) [see: Nov. 13]; which was followed by Mário Soares and the Socialists' agitation for the sacking of Brigadier General Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho as commander of the Região Militar de Lisboa (RML; Lisbon Military Region)); his replacement by Captain Vasco Lourenço [see: Nov. 20], which in turn led to troops in the Communist-dominated RML to refuse to obey Vasco Lourenço; and also the decison on the 19th to make 1,200 serving paratroopers, a stronghold of the Esquerda Militar (Left Military), part of the military reserve.
The coup/counter-coup also effectively signalled the end of the Processo Revolucionário em Curso (or PREC; Continuing Revolutionary Process) and the beginning of the end of the Movimento das Forças Armadas (Armed Forces Movement) - the organisation of lower-ranked left-leaning officers in the Portuguese Armed Forces which had been responsible for the Carnation Revolution, the overthrown of the Estado Novo regime - as increasing divisions tore the alliance apart and ending the role of the military rank and file as a policial force.

To understand this 'military counter-revolutionary coup' and its results, it is necessary to consider that in its preparation very diverse forces participated in a complex plot of contradictory alliances. This 'grand counterrevolutionary alliance' was very fragmented internally, involving everyone from the Partido Socialista (PS) to various fascists and other reactionary radicals, all aiming to bring about the end of the PCP as a politcal force in the country and defeat the Revolution of April 25, 1974 once and for all. Mário Soares and the PS, who played an important role in the political preparations for the counter-coup, want the coup to bring about the military crushing of the PCP, the labour movement and the military left, aiming to paint themselves as having saved the country from possible communist dictatorship, and in the meanwhile seize the reins ofpower.
The fascists and neo-fascists on the other hand, groups such as the Movimento Democrático de Libertação de Portugal (MDLP; Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Portugal), the ELP (Exército de Libertação Português / Portuguese Liberation Army) and the Movimento Maria da Fonte neo-fascist front organisation, who had all been carrying out 'anti-communist' bombings and other actions throughout the verão quente (hot summer), had a much different endpont in mind. Their plans, drawn up in case of a coup, aimed at the establishment of a new dictatorship, to take violent repressive measures, including of course the banning and destruction of PCP, all on the coat-tails of the 'counter-revolutionary coup'.
However, neither of their desired endpoints materialised, especially in the case of the far-right as those reactionaries closer to the main players in the counter coup let it be known on the evening of November 25 that the 'Plano Maria da Fonte' (a maximal programme of armed rightist revolt i..e. "taking up arms and killing Communists") was not to be proceeded with, the PCP having not fallen for the 'coup' bait [see below].

At dawn Paratroopers from the Base Escola de Tropas Pára-Quedistas (BETP; Parachute Troops Base School) at Tancos occupy their bases at Montijo, Monet Real, Ota and Tancos, the Air Force Military School, and the Regional Air Headquarters at Monsanto, holding Lieutenant Colonel Aníbal Pinho Freire and demanding the resignation of General José Morais e Silva following his decision on November 19th to make 1,200 of them reservists.
These acts are considered by the military linked to the Grupo dos Nove as evidence of possible preparations for a possible coup by the more radical sectors of the left.
These acts are considered by the military linked to the Nine Group as evidence that could be preparing a coup coming from more radical sectors of the left and as a clear opening for setting entrain their plans for the counter-revolution. A request is made by staff at COPCON for Otelo Carvalho not to leave the COPCON HQ but no one knows of his whereabout. The confusion, added to that around the rumours of a possible Pinochet-style coup, gves rise to the rumour that Brigadier General Otelo Carvalho has been arrested.

The military, supported by 'moderate' political parties such as the Partido Socialista (PS) and the Partido Popular Democrático (PPD), and the then President of the Republic, General Francisco da Costa Gomes, decide intervene militarily to control the country.

04:30 - The first act of the containment action takes place when four armoured cars of the Regimento de Comandos stand guard at the Palácio de Belém (Presidential Palace).
05:00 - Armoured units loyal to the democratic forces leave the Estremoz Cavalry Regiment and the Escola Prática de Cavalaria (Cavalry School Practice) at Santarém, moving towards Lisbon.
06:00 - The Regimento de Artilharia de Lisboa (RALIS; Lisbon Artillery Regiment) occupies positions on access roads to the A1 (Northern) motorway, at Lisbon Portela Airport and at the Depósito-Geral de Material de Guerra (Military Goods Stores) at Beirolas. Escola Prática de Administração Militar (EPAM; Technical College of Military Administration) troops occupy the Rádio e Televisão de Portugal (RTP) studios in Lumiar and take positions on the A1 (Northern) motorway, controlling access to the Airport. Both these military units were linked respectively with the revolutionary left and with the Esquerda Militar (Left Military) 'gonçalvistas' and the Esquerda Militar Radical (Left Radical Military) 'otelistas'.
07:00 - The GDACI (Grupo de Detecção, Alerta e Conduta da Intercepção) air defence base at Monsanto is occupied by a force of 65 paratroopers from 121 Company stationed in Lumiar led by Sergeant Rebocho, and supported by GDACI Aérea de Serviço (Air Service) police. The Commander of the 1ª Região Aérea (1st Air Region), General Pinho Freire, is arrested, but despite this he is not prevented from access to a phone and he contacts Morais da Silva, activing contingency plans focused on loyalist paratroopers based at Cortegaça. He then contacts the presidency and, assisted by José Loureiro dos Santos, General Francisco da Costa Gomes takes control of the situation. Lt. Col. Antonio Ramalho Eanes of the Regimento de Comandos (Commando Regiment) at Amadora, aligned with the Direita Militar (Right Military) ultra-conservative 'spinolistas' and Centro Militar (Centre Military) PS 'meloantunistas' or 'moderados', is also informed.
09:00 - The President holds an emergency meeting with the Conselho da Revolução (Council of the Revolution) and the military commands.
10:00 - The Communist Party (PCP) realises the situation, although apparently favorable to the revolutionaries, can have no really favourable outcome for them, since the President decided to counter the coup. The PCP gives orders to its main military power base in the Fuzileiros Navais (Marine Corps), that it "is not the time to move forward."
[ Mário Soares of the PS would later claim that the Communist Party later decides not to summon its members and supporters out onto the streets.]
13:35 - The EMGFA (Estado-Maior-General das Forças Armadas / State General Staff of the Armed Forces) in an unofficial note confirms the events, warns that the rebels will use force and considers the rebellion as having a wider political objective, beyond just the support of Morais Silva and Pinho Freire. This note, on behalf of Costa Gomes is the first statement of a legal framework for the operations of the military group being led by Ramalho Eanes against the paratroopers.
14:00 - The President calls for Otelo Carvalho to present himself at the Palácio de Belém. He also announces his decision to take direct command of COPCON and orders several commanders of military units in the Lisbon region to the Palace.
14.30 - Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho comes to COPCON. Meets behind closed doors with Arnao Metellus, Eurico Corvacho and other officials for an hour and a half. However Marques Júnior, sent from Belém, arrives to lead Othello to the President.
15:00 - Otelo Carvalho leaves the COPCON towards Belém and Costa Gomes puts COPCON under his direct command.
16:30 - The President of the Republic decrees a state of emergency in the Lisbon region.
The paratroopers spread a manifesto claiming to fight for a "true socialism".
Troops from the Regimento de Comandos (Commando Regiment) of Amadora leave their barracks and trigger the offensive in four directions:
1 - Monsanto (BETP) by CCMDS 121 (121 Commando Company) commanded by Captain Gonçalves and CCMDS 122 commanded by Captain Sampaio Faria
2 - Regimento da Polícia Militar in Ajuda by CCMDS 112 commanded by Captain Apollinaire
3 - Regimento de Artilharia de Costa (Coastal Artillery Regiment) in Oeiras
4 - RALIS and EPAM in Lumiar
Each of these operations is preceded by radio messages that declare that they are taking place on behalf of the President of the Republic.
16:30 - The President sends emissaries to the premises of the Commander of the Air Force in Monsanto requesting the surrender of the rebels, but without success.
17:00 - Forces of EPAM (Military School Management Practice) take the TV facilities. Revolutionary ballets and classical music are broadcast.
The Emissora Nacional (National Radio) premises are occupied by troops of the Polícia Militar and COPCON.
Later in the evening newspaper editions a call is made for revolution in the name of Othello and of popular power.
People in the Leiria region surround the Monte-Real base occupied by paratroopers, preventing access or exit.
17.30 - The Polícia Militar make a radio appeal for military forces to send reinforcements to the Emissora Nacional station. Shortly after the Polícia Militar troops leave but Colonel Varela Gomes of COPCON attempts to run operations.
18:00 - Captain Duran Clemente (EPAM) calls, via television, for a popular mobilisation, together with that of troops and the radio and TV stations.
The Sindicato dos Operários Metalúrgicos (Metallurgical Workers Union) appeals for a strike and mass mobilisation from the barracks.
19:15 - The troops that occupied the Headquarters of Air Region 1 at Monsanto surrender to a force of Commandos from Amadora, headed by the moderate Jaime Neves. PM Captain Faria Paulino is arrested.

Also during the afternoon:
Costa Gomes telephone contact with Alvaro Cunhal and with the Intersindical in order to demobilise the civilian population civilian population concentrated around some of the barracks.
By the end of the afternoon a few barricades were erected, but the overwhelming mood was apathetic.
Mário Soares, Jorge Campinos and Mário Sottomayor Cardia, the Standing Committee of the PS, following the previously established counter-revolutionary plan which holds that if the counter-revolutionary coup in Lisbon failed and the PS actually took power, he could help trigger a civil war to crush the 'Comuna de Lisboa' (City of Lisbon), the stronghold of the PCP from the North, leave Lisbon clandestinely during the afternoon for Porto. There they present themselves to the moderate Pires Veloso at the Headquarters of the Northern Military Region via the General Airman José Lemos Ferreira, would had been intimately involved in the opposition to his previous commander Brigadeiro Graduado Eurico de Deus Corvacho.

20.45 - Radio programme transmission of the Emissora Nacional are transferred to Porto.
21:10 - One of the most famous incidents of the revolt takes place over the television. The reading of a revolutionary statement by Captain Duran Clemente is halted and the Rádio Televisão Portuguesa (Radio Television Portugal) broadcast from Lisbon, is replaced by one from the studios in Porto. The program, transmitting symphonic music and a Chinese-style revolutionary ballet is replaced by an American movie starring Danny Kaye, 'The Man from the Diners' Club'. The transmission is transferred to the studios of Porto via technical action at the Monsanto antenna (Lisbon), which is already under the control of a Commando force who stormed in, lining the tecghnicians up against the wall, ordereding that Clemente's television signal is immediately cut and replaced by that from Porto
The image of Clemente Duran on television has become an icon of the failure of the rebel forces of November 25, 1975. "They are telling me that I can not speak because of technical reasons, is it?" were his last words.
21:15 - General Costa Gomes in a message to the country on radio and television announces his decision to impose a state of seige in the RML. Otelo Carvalho appears onscreen beside him.
22:00 - It is announced that General Pinho Freire has resumed command of the 1st Air Region.
Thousands of workers appear in support of RALIS.
22:10 - The Rádio Clube Português (Portuguese Radio Club) ceases transmissions.
22:20 - The surrender of the base at Monte Real is announced.

1986 - Ricardo Sanz Asensio (b. 1898), Valencian anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist fighter against Franco, dies. [see: Oct. 25]
[C] 1913 - José Ester i Borrás (d. 1980), Spanish anarchist, arrested by the communists in Spain, then the Nazis in France, born. Active in the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias anarchist youth movement and the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, he fought in the famous Colonna Tierra y Libertad during the Spanish Civil War, seeing combat on the Aagon front, in Madrid and catalonia. In May 1938 he was arrested by the Communists and accused with two other of having killed a member of the brigade, remaining imprisoned until the fall of the front. He later fled to France after the fall of the Spanish Republic, where fought in the Résistance against the Nazis and was arrested and deported to the Mauthausen concentration camp.
Ester returned to France in 1945 and founded the Federación Española de Deportados e Internados Políticos (Spanish Federation of Former Political Prisoners and Camp Inmates), which campaigned for political prisoners in Franco's Spain, but also for the Spanish antifascists who were deported to labour camps in the Soviet Union after the Civil War. These prisoners were released only in 1956. Ester also worked, from 1953 onwards, for the Office Français de Protection des Réfugiés et Apatrides (French Office for the Protection of Refugees and Stateless Persons) and remained active until well into the 1970s, and died in 1980.

[A] 1935 - The Minister of Press and Propaganda assumes control of the radio stations in Italy.

1956 - Russian tanks fire on unarmed demonstrators in Budapest. Armed resistance begins in industrial centres, General Strike begins, and state power disrupted as power is now in the factories and the streets.

1970 - Barclays Bank at Stoke Newington firebombed. Newspaper report says: "Police are investigating several similar incidents at other branches".
Today there are also simultaneous bomb attacks against Iberia Airlines in Geneva, Frankfurt, Paris and London airports. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: Following yesterday's events, COPCON is disbanded and Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho is stripped of his power. 200 far left-wing Esquerda Militar Radical (Left Radical Military) members of the military are arrested.

00:15 - The base at Ota, occupied the previous afternoon by paratroopers, returns to the control of its previous commander. Paratroopers also leave the base at Tancos.
01:00 - Members of the public help did trenches along the perimeter of the PM base in Ajuda, just five hundred metres from the Presidential Palace.
02:00 - Having failed to gain complete control of the situation, infantry forces based at Porto de Vila Real and Braga prepare to march on Lisbon.
07:20 - Regimento de Policia Militar commanders are invited to submit to the President, but a revolutionary military plenary states that the President must first explain the reasons for the call.
A military officer from the presidency gives his word of honour that liberal officers will not be will not be arrested and two of them (Maj. Mario Tome and Maj. Rosa Cuco) present themselves in the palace at 8 o'clock.
08:15 - Soldiers of the Regimento de Comandos led by Jaime Neves, who is linked to the moderates, attack the barracks of the Regimento de Lanceiros 2 (2nd Lancers Regiment) of the leftist-linked Regimento da Polícia Militar at Ajuda.
The PM surrender leaving 2 dead on the Commandos' side (Lieutenant Coimbra and Militiaman Pires) and a PM (Cadet José Baggage).
PM commanders Majors Campos Andrada, Cuco Rosa and Mário Tomé are arrested. [Vasco Lourenço had also called for the imprisonment of Diniz de Almeida (arrested later), Campos Andrada, Cuco Rosa and Mário Tomé, all notorious revolutionary military leftist political forces, the latter including affiliated with the UDP ; Officials said many 'moderate' were then tarred with the PS (with which conspired in plan preparation and operations that resulted in the '25 November 1975 ') and the PPD.]

One of the PM soldiers when questioned claimed that the regiment had indeed circulated weapons to civilians that night, but that he had not seen them ... Later Captain Rodrigo de Sousa e Castro of the Conselho da Revolução claimed that he had seen from the Palácio de Belém windows armed civilians fire on the commandos. According to official information, these had been militia groups amongst the PM ranks, but Regimento de Comandos troops stated that they were convinced that the Furriel Comando Militiaman Joaquim dos Santos Pires had been hit by gunfire from PM recruits.
All told, only one individual in civilian clothes armed with a G3 had been arrested during the day.
Also, following a call from the President, second in command of the RALIS, Major Diniz de Almeida, goes to Belém and is immediately arrested.

10:00 - Armoured vehicles from the Escola-prática de Cavalaria at Santarém arrive at the Depósito-Geral de Material de Guerra close to RALIS HQ.
Troops of Região Militar Norte (Northern Military Region) and Região Militar Centro (Central Military Region) reinforce the Região Militar de Lisboa (RML; Lisbon Military Region), and are stationed at the Escola Prática de Infantaria (Infantry Training School) at Mafra.
Trade unions call for a general strike.

During the afternoon hundreds of people remain around the RALIS building, where the situation is tense and the military remain in defensive position.
A new commander, Major Paz replaces Capitão Luz as the commander at Forte de Almada, where the situation tends to normalise. Marines disperse the members of the public that had gathered along with that unit.
The Escola Prática de Administração Militar (Technical College of Military Administration) returns to the command of the RML.
The Setúbal Regimento de Infantaria is reinforced with armoured units of the Cavalaria from Estremoz.
The President issues a new message to the people: "What drives us is the ideal that pragmatic socialism advances with decisive but cautious advances. Not with hollow verbalism, with unfounded strikes, with professionalised demonstrations can we build a classless society."
Ernesto Melo Antunes, principal author of the political program of the Movimento das Forças Armadas and minister in the Provisional Government, states on RTP television that: "the participation of the PCP in building socialism is indispensable."
The 'Comércio do Porto' is the only newspaper to be published in the country, as Porto was not covered by the state of siege.
A communication from SUV - Soldados Unidos Vencerão, a soldiers organisation linked to the Guevaraist Partido Revolucionário do Proletariado, calls for workers' resistance against yesterday's military coup.

Overnight at the Montijo base returns to the command of the 1st Air Region.

1996 - Aurelio Chessa (b. 1913), Italian anarchist baker, journalist and historian, dies. [see: Oct. 30]
[B] 1898 - Germain Delatousche (d. 1966), French painter and wood engraver, born. He illustrated numerous newspapers and magazines including: 'La Vache Enragée'; 'L'Internationale'; 'Les Chansons de la Butte'; 'La Revue Anarchiste'; 'L'Art Vivant'; 'La Revue Anarchiste'; 'Le Quotidien'; 'Les Humbles'; 'L'En Dehors'; 'L'Almanach de la Paix' (1934); 'Le Libertaire' (1945-50); etc.. Plus books by Maurice Hallé, Gaston Couté, CA Bontemps, Eugene Bizeau, Georges Vidal and Regis Messac.

1908 - Antonio Zapata Córdoba (d. 2000), Spanish construction worker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and Spanish Civil War fighter, born. The youngest of four brothers of a family of day labourers, he attended a rationalist school set up by miners from the age of 5, which had a profound effect on him. At the age of 9 he had to start work in the fields. He went to Barcelona at the age of 12 here his brothers were working. There he worked first as a market gardener, then in a belt buckle factory, before going on to the building sites. He became involved in the anarcho-syndicalist trade union, the CNT, taking part in activities during the years of repression under the Primo de Rivera dictatorship. He was imprisoned for his activities for the first time at the age of 22. Here, he came in contact with the flower of the militants of the Spanish anarchist movement, which was a school for his own anarchism.
With the declaration of the Republic in 1931, he was freed and militated in the CNT in the shanty town of Gracia. He was a member of the Groups of Confederal Defence, which physically defended the CNT from the attacks of the bosses and the State. He took part in the building workers strike, and then in the Civil War of 1936-9 joined in the fighting against the right-wing coup led by General Franco. He became a member of the Control and Administration Commission of Urban Property in Barcelona. He fought on the front, and like so many others had to flee to France with his then partner, Ana María Cruzado Sánchez (1907-1982)[see: Oct. 24]. He settled in Toulouse, remaining a supporter of the CNT until his death in on the night of January 12-13, 2000.

[C] 1912 - Conlon Samuel Nancarrow (d. 1997), US avant garde composer, jazz trumpeter, CPUSA member and anti-fascist combatant, born. He joined the Communist party in June 1935 after a period as a 'fellow-traveller' and the following year he travelled to Europe for a month as the trumpeter on a ship’s band. There he visited London, Paris, Austria and Germany, where he presumably encounters fascism for the first time. In March 1937 he set sail for Spain to fight against the Franco dictatorship. In May of that year he joined the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, fighting in various anti-aircraft batteries for the Defensa Contra Aviación (DECA) and the German Dimitrov Battery of the International Anti-Aircraft Battery until the International Brigades were disbanded in September 1938. Having stayed in Spain after demobilisation, he spent some time in the south of the country (not in combat) and managed to escape Valencia in January 1939 in the hold of a freighter bound for Barcelona. He then missed the evacuees' train in Figueres, arriving in Barcelona on January 26, the day that Barcelona fell to Franco's troops. Setting off on foot towards the border in the company of other ex-Brigaders, they found the border closed (except for women, children and old men) at Port-Bou amd continued inland. They eventually crossed into France on February 7, just after the border had been reopened to troops and men of military age, and Nancarrow spent five days in the Argelès-sur-Mer concentration camp [not Gers as is widely claimed] before being released as he was a U.S. citizen. After a brief sojourn in Paris, he arrived back in New York on February 25m, 1939, aged 27 years old.
Upon his return to the United States in 1939, he learned that his Brigade colleagues were having trouble getting their U.S. passports renewed because of their Communist Party membership. After spending time in New York City in 1940, Nancarrow eventually fled the U.S. for México City to avoid being arrested for his former Communist affiliations. Upon his first subsequent return to the U.S., in 1981 (for the New Music America festival in San Francisco), he consulted a lawyer about the possibility of returning to his native country, since the pollution in Mexico City was worsening his emphysema. He was told that he would have to sign a statement swearing that he had been "young and foolish" when he embraced communism, which he refused to do. Consequently, he continued living in Las Águilas, México City, (eventually taking up Mexican citizenship) where he remained in political exile until his death in 1997, aged 84.
"Cage isn't really an anarchist, he just doesn't want to be bothered!"

1936 - A Generalidad decree orders militarisation of Spain's People's Militias.

1937 - The Italian Fascist youth organisation, Gioventù Italiana del Littorio (GIL), is founded with the aim of increasing the spiritual, sporting and military 'education' (i.e. indoctrination) of Italian children based on the principles of the ideology of the regime. It's oath: "Nel nome di Dio e dell'Italia giuro di eseguire gli ordini del Duce e di servire con tutte le mie forze e se è necessario col mio sangue la causa della Rivoluzione Fascista." (In the name of God and of Italy swear to carry out orders of the Duce and to serve with all my strength and with my blood if it is necessary to the cause of the Fascist Revolution.)

1948 - Albert Camus' play 'L'Etat de Siege' premières in Paris.

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: At dawn, a couple of dozen military officers arrested for their involvement in the coup arrive at Custóias prison in Porto. Besides the three PM majors (Campos Andrada, Cuco Rosa and Mário Tomé) and Diniz de Almeida, these include Captain Faria Paulino, Lieutenant Commander Marques Pinto and sergeants of the Comissão Coordenadora de Sargentos (Coordinating Committee of Sergeants) of the Air Force.

At the last meeting in COPCON with Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho, Colonel Artur Batista, Captain Lourenço Marques, Major Arlindo Ferreira, Captain Tasso de Figueiredo, Captain Ferreira Rodrigues, Lieutenant Colonel Arnão Metelo, Commander Gouveia and Major Barão da Cunha discuss the situation and acknowledge that it has been a setback. Meanwhile COPCON is to be dissolved and its units integrated into EMGFA (Estado-Maior-General das Forças Armadas / State General Staff of the Armed Forces).
Lieutenant Colonel Ramalho Eanes is named interim Chefe do Estado-Maior do Exército (CEME; Chief of Staff of the Army).
COPCON is surrounded by elements of the Regimento de Comandos and a number of unnamed officers arrested. The operation is led by Ramalho Eanes. Otelo is not among those arrested.
A delegation from the Parachute Troops school at Tancos discuss in Lisbon, with President of the Republic, General Francisco da Costa Gomes, and Chief of Staff of the Air Force, General José Morais da Silva, the terms of the negotiations for the normalisation of the situation at that unit.
Generals Carlos Fabião and Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho are removed from their posts as CEME and as COPCON Commander respectively, and asked for their resignation from the Conselho da Revolução (CR; Council of the Revolution).
The CR dismiss "all current members of the administration" of the nationalised newspaper companies, suspending the publication of newspapers and magazines published by these companies until the appointment by the Government of new directors, accused of having collaborated with the coup. Only the boards of companies in Porto are renewed.
Costa Gomes decrees a partial lifting of the state of seige imposed 2 days before in the RML (Região Militar de Lisboa).

1958 - Gusto Gräser (Gustav Arthur Gräser; b. 1879), German nomadic 'poet-prophet' who, with his brother Karl Gräser (1875–1920), co-founded the Monte Verità utopian anarchist/vegetarian community in Ascona, Switzerland, dies. [see: Feb. 16]

1969 - 22-year-old Cesare Pardini Italian student is killed by police in Pisa. Following an attack on a group of students by Fascists, a large demonstration is called by trade unions and left-wing parties. 100,000 take to the streets including Cesare. After the march, hundreds try to break through police lines and attack the HQ of the fascist MSI. Vicious hand to hand fighting breaks out. Cesara is struck in the chest at pointblank range by a tear-gas bomb and then brutally clubbed by the police, suffering a broken a rib and other injuries, from which he dies.

1979 - At a Two-Tone Tour gig at Hatfield Polytechnic featuring The Specials, The Selecter and Madness, the latter who at the time had an unwanted hardcore following of nazi skinheads, a bloody battle breaks out between local anti-fascists and the skins. National Front and British Movement skinheads wrecking concerts by multi-racial Ska bands at various Two-Tone gigs and they had met very little resistance up to this point. The vicious fight left many injured on both sides, but the Nazis took the worse of it and the Nazis never felt confident enough to turn up at any more Two-Tone concerts. [PR]

2001 - Liberto Sarrau Royes (b. 1920), Spanish militant anarchist, anti-fascist fighter and writer, dies age of 81. [see: Oct. 27]
1872 - Giuseppe Emanuele Modigliani (d. 1947), Italian anarchist, socialist, trades union organiser, pacifist and anti-fascist, born. Brother of the artist Amedeo Modigliani. In 1894 he co-founded the Livorno section of the Italian Socialist Party and was imprisoned for 6 months in 1898 for running an anarchist newspaper in Piacenza. He was also the Italian representative on the executive of the Sozialistische Arbeiter-Internationale (SAI) between 1923 and 1940.
[ Modigliani]

1879 - Gérard Hervé Coatmeur aka C. Hervé (d. 1944), French militant anarchist individuaklist propagandist, writer, naturist, docker, porter, bookseller and fairground showman, born.

1904 - François-Charles Carpentier (d. 1988), French militant anarchist and combatant during the Spanish Revolution, born.

[C] 1909 - Claude Bourdet (d. 1996), French writer, journalist, anti-fascist, anti-colonialist and militant socialist, born. During WWII, he was active in the Résistance, helping found the 'Combat' newspaper, the Noyautage des Administrations Publiques (NAP) intelligence and sabotage network, becoming its leader, and a member of the Conseil National de la Résistance. In 1944, he was arrested by the Gestapo and, after being imprisoned at Fresnes, he was deported to various concentration camps, including Neuengamme, Sachsenhausen, and Buchenwald, emerging in an emaciated state from the latter.
After the Liberation, he was involved in the Centre d'Action des Gauches Indépendantes (CAGI) and, with various members of Socialisme et Liberté, founded the journal 'Octobre'. He also continued writing for 'Combat', succeeded Albert Camus as editor in 1947. He resigned in 1950 to found 'L'Observateur', which went on to become 'L'Observateur Aujourd'hui' (1953), then 'France Observateur' (1954) and finally the 'Nouvel Observateur' (1964). In the spring of 1956, he was arrested at his home, handcuffed and hauled off to be strip-searched at Fresnes Prison, where the Gestapo had taken him upon his arrest in 1944. The 1956 seizure followed a series of articles in which Bourdet attacked the French campaign to destroy the guerillas battling for Algerian independence and condemned plans to call up 100,000 military reservists. In 1961, he investigated and denounced Maurice Papon, the prefect of the police force, in connection with the shootings of Algerian FLN demonstrators on October 17 in what became known as the 'Paris Massacre'.

1921 - Workers uprising in Argentina.

[CC] 1925 - Four members of the National Fascisti appear in court charged with a breach of the peace in connection with the hijacking of a 'Daily Herald' van earlier in the month - the Left were outraged at the fact that they were not facing larceny charges and claiming this as clear evidence of the government's 'class' prejudice. They were eventually bound over for 12 months.
The four, dressed in black shirts, had held up the van and its cargo of eight thousand newspapers as it was being driven en route to Euston train station. The driver was forced out into the street at gun-point before the van was driven off. Police found the crashed van a few hours later. The hijacking followed an expose of the National Fascisti in the 'Daily Herald' a few month earlier which had left the organisation smarting.
At the trial, during which the Director of Public Prosecutions dropped the original charges of larceny against the men and substituted it with breach of the peace (one was also charged with possession of a revolver without a licence, for which he was convicted and fined £20, or one month's imprisonment), the four read out a statement: "We the undersigned, being loyal subjects to his Majesty the King, having noted of late that a certain paper known as the 'Daily Herald' has been publishing certain matters which did not lead us to suppose that it is loyal to this country consider that some action should be taken."
The four were bound over in a surety of £100 to be of good behaviour for 12 months, or in default to be imprisoned for six months. The fascist fined £20 for the offence against the Firearms Act could neither pay his fine nor find a surety, and was banged up in Wandsworth Prison. [PR]

1934 - In the lead up to Mosley addressing a meeting at the Albert Hall in London on October 28, it was rumoured that he would delcare BUF's position on the 'Jewish question'. He announced that the BUF leadership had decided to openly endorse anti-Semitism (as flagged up in Belle Vue the month previous) and the fascist movement would now be overtly campaigning against the perceived 'Jewish threat' (perceived as a national rather than a religious or racial issue) in Britain: "I have encountered things in this country which I did not dream existed in Britain. One of them is the power of organised Jewry which is today mobilised against Fascism .... Today we do not attack Jews on racial or religious grounds; we take up the challenge they have thrown down because they fight against Fascism and against Britain .... Tonight we take up that challenge: they will it: let them have it!" [Mosley's speech as quoted in a MI5 report] He attacked plutocratic ‘Big Jews’ and ‘Small Jews’ for swamping British culture: "The Jews owe no allegiance to this country, but only to their friends, kith and kin in other countries ... Fascism will end the system of international usury whereby the Jews live. We accept the challenge of this alien race which Is trying to rob us of our heritage!"
Reading out a list of 64 people convicted of attacks on fascists since June, 32 were Jewish, he added cynically: "Spontaneous rising of the British people against Fascism!" He also tied BUF's new position into what was happening in Germany: "We fought Germany once in a British quarrel, but we are not going to fight her again in a Jewish quarrel." [PR]

1942 - A group of around 25, led by Shmuel Gruber (also known as Samuel Gruber; 1913 - 2006) and another prisoner named Kaganowicz (first name either Berko or Josef), escape from the Lipowa Street camp in Lublin. Kaganowicz was later found dead.

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: Arrest warrants are issued against the officers Clemente Duran, Varela Gomes and several leaders of the radical left movements.
The government resumes activities and the Council of Ministers promises the right of owners to recoup expropriated land. It also announces the beginning of an inquiry into the events of November 25 led by Marques Júnior.

1959 - Camilo Cienfuegos (b. 1932) dies when his small plane disappears. Raised in a family of Spanish anarchist emigres, he became a key figure of the Cuban Revolution. [see: Feb. 6]

1987 - André-Aimé-René Masson aka André Masson (b. 1896), French Surrealist painter, sculptor, illustrator, designer and writer, dies. [see: Jan. 4]
1922 - General Strike throughout Spain.

1941 - Kaunas Massacre: In the Kaunas Ghetto around 9,200 Jews are murdered by SS Einsatzgruppen units, in collaboration with Lithuanian partisans, in a single day at the Ninth Fort, Kaunas [Каунас] (also known by an earlier Russian name Kovno [Ковно]), Lithuania. Known as the 'Grosse Aktion', it was the second of two aktions to take place at the Ninth Fort, which had been used by the NKVD to house political prisoners on their way to the labour camps in Siberia during the 1940-41 Soviet occupation. The previous had taken place on September 25.
In both aktions, selected ghetto inmates were taken to the Fort, which had been used by the NKVD to house political prisoners on their way to the labour camps in Siberia during the 1940-41 Soviet occupation, and shot in ditches dug by prisoners of war. First children were thrown in, then the naked women, and finally the men. On this single day 2,007 Jewish men, 2,920 women, and 4,273 children were killed - the largest mass murder of Lithuanian Jews.
Kaunas is also notorious for the Lietūkis Garage Massacre when, on June 25 (or 27 [two contradictory date given for the event that was part of a pogrom stretching over four days as the Germany army invaded Lithuania and the Red Army beat a hasty retreat]), 1941, when local Lithuanian "patriots" wearing the white armbands of the Lithuanian Activist Front (LAF), butchered dozens of Jewish passers-by at the NVKD garage on Kaunas’s Vytautas Avenue, using a variety of execution methods, including clubbing to death with crowbars, and particularly, forcing water from high-pressure hoses into bodily orifices of the victims until they burst. A growing crowd, including women holding up their young children to get the best views, cheered them on. Nealry 4,000 Jews were murdered in Kaunas during the four-day (June 25–29) pogrom and a further 1,200 in other towns in the immediate region.

1948 - Safsaf Massacre: During an operation (Operation Hiram) in Galilee, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) kill 52-64 villagers during the capture of the Palestinian Arab village of Safsaf. The village, which is defended by the Arab Liberation Army's Second Yarmuk Battalion, is attacked by two platoons of armored cars and a tank in a battle that lasts until the early hours of the following day. Evidence suggests that 52 of the dead men had their hands tied and shot and killed, and then buried in a pit. Several women were also allegedly raped, including a 14-year-old, and killed.

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: President Costa Gomes invests the new Chief of Staff of the Navy, Admiral Souto Cruz, saying at the time: " Several times I have stated that I can not allow ideological conflicts between Portuguese to be resolved by violent military confrontations."
The non-state-owned press is allowed to resume publication.
Francisco de Sá Carneiro, leader of the Partido Popular Democrático, accuses the Partido Comunista Português of being responsible for the military insubordination verified. The Partido Socialista is of the same opinion.

1981 - Georges Brassens (b. 1921), French anarchist singer-songwriter and poet, dies. [see: Oct. 22]
"Je suis anarchiste au point de toujours traverser dans les clous afin de n'avoir pas à discuter avec la maréchaussée." ("I'm an anarchist, so much so that I always cross at the zebra crossing to avoid arguing with the police.")

[C] 1993 - Stanislaw Marusarz (b. 1913), Polish Nordic skiing competitor and anti-Nazi resistant, dies. [see: Jun. 18]

2006 - Peter Gingold (b. 1916), German Communist resistance fighter against National Socialism, dies. [see: Mar. 8]
[B] 1904 - Georges Navel (Charles François Victor Navel; d. 1993), French proletarian writer, novelist and libertarian, born. His works include the autobiographical novel 'Travaux' (Work; 1945). He was involved with Emile Malespine and his (post-Dadaist/pre-Surrealist) Suridéalist magazine 'Manomètre' (Revue trimestrielle, mçlange les langues, enregistre les idées, indique la pression sur tous les méridiens, est polyglotte et supranational; 1922-28).

1910 - Miguel Hernández Gilabert (d. 1942), Spanish poet, playwright and anti-fascist, born. Hernández campaigned for the Republic during the Spanish Civil War, writing poetry and addressing troops deployed to the front. However, he was unable to escape following the fall of the Republic and was constantly harassed, arrested and imprisoned for his anti-fascist sympathies, and was eventually sentenced to death. His death sentence, however, was commuted to a prison term of 30 years, leading to incarceration in multiple jails under extraordinarily harsh conditions until he eventually succumbed to tuberculosis in 1942. Just before his death, Hernández scrawled his last verse on the wall of the hospital: "Goodbye, brothers, comrades, friends: let me take my leave of the sun and the fields."

1913 - Aurelio Chessa (d. 1966), Italian anarchist baker, journalist and historian, born. Militant in Gruppi of Iniziativa Anarchica (GIA), created following the 1965 split in the Federazione Anarchica Italiana (FAI), and infatigable editor of the Berneri Family Archive, a role taken over by his daughter Fiamma.

1932 - Louis Malle (d. 1995), French film director, screenwriter and producer, born. His 1967 film 'Le Voleur' (The Thief of Paris), a fierce attack on bourgeois society, is based on the anarchist novelist Georges Darien's book of the same name and was responsible for the rediscovery of this largely forgotten writer. Much of his work bears the influence of his friend Luis Buñuel.
Malle's films 'Le Voleur' (The Thief of Paris; 1967), 'Lacombe Lucien' (1974) and 'Au Revoir, les Enfants' (1987) all address anti-Semitism (and Dreyfus - 'Le Voleur', in passing) and/or the Résistance and the Nazi occupation.

1937 - At the congress of the Union Anarchiste in Paris (Oct. 30 - Nov. 1) the Comité pour l'Espagne Libre created by Lecoin, Faucier, Odéon and Le Meillour is transformed (at the request of the CNT-FAI) into the French section of the Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste (SIA).

[A] 1971 - Post Office Tower in London is bombed by the Angry Brigade.

[C] 1979 - Prominent National Front member Martin Webster is found guilty of inciting racial hatred. He is fined £150 and ordered to pay costs up to £350 as the judge did not "want to make a martyr" of him.

2011 - At 3am the Occupy Newcastle camp is attacked by 20-30 EDL, SDL and BNP supporters, who had been demonstrating in the city the day before. People were held down and punched and kicked. Bricks where thrown, whilst one occupier was hit in the face and another was stamped on. The police were called, it took them ten minutes to arrive, by which time the EDL thugs had vanished. one occupier was hit in the face, bricks were thrown. Nobody had to be hospitalised but it could have been worse.
1889 - Rolf Engert (d. 1962), German poet, playwright, publisher and writer on Stirner and Ibsen, born. Wrote under the pseudonyms Angelus Saxonicus and Maximus, and co-founded the Vereinigung der Stirnerfreunde (Friends of Stirner Association) with John Henry Mackay in 1918. A figure in the anti-Nazi Inner Emigration underground. Was excluded from the Deutscher Schriftstellerverband (East German Writers' Association) in 1950.

1892 - Maurizio Garino (d. 1977), Italian anarchist and syndicalist, who was involved in the Biennio Rosso and the Italian factory council movement, born.

[B] 1913 - Jesús Guillén Bertolín aka Guillembert (d. 1999), Spanish anarchist, painter and designer, partner of Sara Berenguer, born.

1922 - The headquarters of the Italian anarchist newspaper 'Umanità Nova' are ransacked by fascists after Benito Mussolini is announced as prime minister.

1924 - Enrico Baj (d. 2003), Italian anarchist painter, sculptor, writer and activist, best known for his collages of ridiculous-looking generals made from shards of glass, scraps of flowery material and shells, born. He fled Italy in 1944 for Geneva to avoid being enlisted in Mussolini's army. Following the conclusion of the Second World War and after having joined the radical COBRA group in the late 1940s, he founded the Nuclear Art Movement with Sergio Dangelo with the goal of "demolishing all the 'isms' of painting that inevitably lapses into academicism, whatever their origins might be." One of his major works is his 1972 painting 'Funeral Of The Anarchist Pinelli'.

[(CCC)] 1926 - Anteo Zamboni (b. 1911), 15-year old Italian anarchist, who having just attempted to assassinate Benito Mussolini in Bologna by shooting at him during the parade celebrating the March on Rome, is immediately attacked and lynched by nearby squadristi. The man who first detained him and identified him as the would-be assassin was cavalry officer Carlo Alberto Pasolini, father of film director Pier Paolo Pasolini. The event was used as political leverage by the fascist government to abolish liberties and dissolve the remaining opposition parties. The son of a former anarcho-syndicalist (and now fascist) Mammolo Zamboni, his extended family is arrested and his father Mamolo and his aunt Virginia Tabarroni were both sentenced to 30 years in prison after being found guilty of "guilty of complicity in failed premeditated murder". [see: Apr. 11]

1941 - Herwarth Walden (pseudonym of Georg Lewin; b. 1879), German Expressionist artist and gallery owner, art expert, who was the founder of the radical German Expressionist magazine 'Der Sturm', dies in a Soviet prison in Saratov. [see: Sep. 16]

1966 - Germain Delatousche (b. 1898), French painter and wood engraver, dies. [see: Oct. 27]

[C] 2002 - Bernard Konrad Świerczyński aka 'Aniela' & 'Kondek' (b. 1922), Polish journalist, libertarian and a key figure in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, dies. [see: Aug. 20]
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)