[DD] 1649 - The Diggers occupy St. George's Hill, Watton in Surrey and begin tilling the land.

1812 - Luddite Timeline: Smith’s workshop near Holmfirth has all his dressing-frames and shears damaged. At Honley, James Brook has new shearing-frame destroyed.

1820 - Scottish Insurrection of 1820 aka The Radical War: A Proclamation, signed "By order of the Committee of Organisation for forming a Provisional Government. Glasgow April 1st. 1820" is published in Glasgow. [expand]

[B] 1856 - Charles Maurin (d. 1914), French painter, engraver, anti-clerical and anarchist, born. Worked in a variety of styles including Post-impressionism and Symbolism. Inspired by the work of Japanese artists and the growing popularity of the 18th-century print, he was one of a small group of artists who experimented with colour plates and in 1891 he patented a new technique of colour printing. He also produced wood-engravings, many depicting working class life. A friend of the anarchist painter Felix Vallotton, he collaborated on various newspapers including Fénéon's 'La Revue Blanche' and Jean Grave's 'Le Temps Nouveaux'. Bizarrely, Winston Churchill used the pseudonym Charles Maurin to exhibit his painting under.

[F] 1865 - Dreigroschenstreik [Threepenny Strike]: A strike by employees in the book printing industry in Leipzig from April 1 to June 6, 1865, involving 500 of the approximately 800 printers in the German city, was an important step in the founding of the Deutschen Buchdruckerverbandes (German Print Workers Association). The strike was aimed at higher wages and shorter working hours, with the employers bringing in strike breakers from Bohemia and whilst planning to employ unskilled women as settlers. Initially there was no financial strike support but the arrest and sentencing of some of the leading protagonists of the strikes to fourteen days of imprisonment triggered a wave of solidarity across Germany. Despite the fact the Allgemeine Deutsche Arbeitserverein (German General Workers' Association), the first mass party of the German workers' movement, came out against the strike and the various attempts by leading liberal publishers to successfully mediate a solution, the employers eventually conceded a pay increase of 28 Pfennig, though 50 sacked strikers failed to be reinstated after the strike's end.

1871 - Émile Digeon is arrested, following the army's defeat of the Narbonne Commune yesterday.

1883 - Louise Michel is incarcerated in Saint-Lazare prison.

1883 - The first issue of 'La Lutte: Organe Anarchiste' is published in Lyon. It succeeds 'L'Etendard Révolutionnaire' (The Revolutionary Banner). Only 19 issue [last issue dated Aug. 5 1883] are printed and it is succeeded by 'Le Drapeau Noir' on Aug. 12 1883. A victim of police repression, only 4 issues emerge in 1894, but the newspaper returns from 6 January 1895 until the end of the year.

1894 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Le Plébéien', "Journal communiste-anarchiste", "Organe de combat pour l'émancipation des travailleurs" covering "Sociologie -Arts - Littérature", is published in Dison, Belgium.

1899 - The Landsorganisasjonen i Norge (Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions), the largest of Norway's trade union confederation [representing 26 trade unions in 2017], is founded under its original name of Arbeidernes Faglige Landsorganisasjon (Workers' National Trade Union).

1901 - Francisco Ascaso Abadia (d. 1936), Spanish anarchist militant and anarcho-syndicalist, CNT member, born. Emblematic figure of the anti-Francoism, member of Los Justicieros and of Los Solidarios. [expand]

1901 - Eugène Léon Tricheux (d. 1963) French building worker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Francoist activist, born. He began work as a sheet metal worker in a Toulouse aviation factory before working on construction sites. Listed as an anarchist and anti-militarist in the 'Carnet B' in June 1924, the following year he and his brother Marius with others founded an independent union building, which later aligned itself with the CGT-SR. He was also prominent in the city's Bien-Être et Liberté anarchist group. On August 23 1927, he was arrested, along with his parents, following a demonstration in support of Sacco and Vanzetti and was sentenced to two months in prison. He then became a taxi driver and, in 1933, created a union for the industry, becoming its secretary.
At outbreak of the revolution in Spain in July 1936, Eugène went there together with his parents, brother and sister, and settled in Puigcerdà, the city then in the hands of the Republicans and, in particular, the anarchists. They lived there for almost a year, active the management of the city. When his father was arrested June 11, 1937 by the communists, Eugene tried to intervene with the help of a Spanish comprade, but Eugène himself was arrested and imprisoned for a number of weeks in Barcelona's Modelo prison (the rest of the family also ended up under arrest). Eventually released, the family returned to France. In 1940, he initiated the creation in Toulouse of the Cercle d'études économiques et sociales and the Groupe Orobon-Fernandez and, with the exiled Spanish CNT and the SIA, organised shows, film screenings and information meetings in the city's neighborhoods to raise funds for the Spanish comrades. In June 1940, being on the police files, he was arrested. along with his brother and father, and interned in prison St-Michel. Eugène was sent to the Camp de Noé, close to Toulouse and held in the block for réfractaires de la Relève of the Service du Travail Obligatoire (STO), going on to work as forced labourer in the Hautes-Alpes, participating in the building of fortifications. The rest of the family during this period were involved in the reconstruction of French anarchist movement.

1902 - The first issue of the "périodique et gratuite" newspaper 'La Petite Feuille Anarchiste' (The Little Anarchist Sheet), appearing roughly monthly, is published in Roubaix.

1912 - Paul Brousse (b. 1844), French medical doctor, anarchist and socialist, member of the Jura Federation (IWMA), dies. [see: Jan. 23]

1914 - The first issue of 'Le Réveil Anarchiste' (The Anarchist Alarm) is published in Lilas, near Paris. It replaces the 'Réveil Anarchiste Ouvrier'.

1915 - At the IX Congreso of the Federación Obrera Regional Argentina, which had a built-in revolutionary syndicalist majority with the participation of new trade unions and other autonomous organisations, the Congress resolved by 46 votes in favour, 14 against and one abstention, repudiated the avowal to anarcho-communism established at the V Congreso in 1905. This would lead to the split

[E] 1916 - Julia Hermosilla Sagredo (d. 2009), Basque anarcho-syndicalist, miliciana and member of the anti-Franco resistance movement, born. [expand]
Actress in the Grup Artístic Confederal de Santurtzi.
[NB: some sources give March 30 as the date]

1918 - The first wartime trial against the IWW, involving 113 prominent members, begins. Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis quickly dismissed charges against a dozen defendants, including one A.C. Christ, who turned up to court in military uniform and on leave from his army unit. Eleven others were also dismissed, leaving 101 defendants in all. George Vanderveer, Otto Christenson, and Caroline Lowe represented the IWW men. The trial almost collapsed at the outset when the court came to choose a jury. Obvious irregularities in that process aided the prosecution. There are suggestions that Attorney General Gregory had privately urged Landis to start the selection procedure all over again after the prosecution quickly used up their challenges on prospective jurors. The selection process was indeed halted, and the existing pool of jurors dismissed, after it was discovered that members of the defence team had approached one of their relatives. The new pool proved more amenable to the prosecution than the first might have been.
The trial lasted for more than four months, from April 1 through to the middle of August. The prosecution made no attempt to prove the charges listed in the indictment. Prosecutors instead read out inflammatory passages from IWW newspapers, circulars and pamphlets to the court. They "indicted the organisation", Melvyn Dubofsky writes, "on the basis of its philosophy and its publications". Guilt by the written word replaced guilt by deed. The defence team did its best under the circumstances. George Vanderveer, the IWW’s principal attorney, brought Wobblies to the witness stand by the score. J.T. 'Red' Doran, one of the IWW’s most popular agitators, lightened the mood in the courtroom when he gave testimony in June and illustrated his lecture on political economy with chalk and blackboard. "Usually we have questions and literature for sale and collections", he finished, to laughter from the court, "but I think I can dispense with that today."
Vanderveer refused to give a closing statement, possibly on the grounds that as the prosecution had not attempted to prove their case there was no point rebutting arguments that had not been made. It probably made no difference to the outcome of the trial. In mid-August, Judge Landis, who had studiously maintained an air of impartiality throughout the proceedings, instructed the jury on how to go about determining guilt or innocence in a case involving more than 10,000 violations of federal law. The jury retired to consider their verdict on August 17.
They did not make the defendants wait very long. Less than an hour later they returned and found all 101 Wobblies guilty on every charge that the prosecution had thrown at them. The defence was naturally shocked; but on reflection they probably should not have been. The government and press had carefully nurtured a public image of the IWW as anarchist bomb-throwers, pro-German saboteurs and slavish supporters of the Bolshevik Revolution, and the prosecution team had successfully reinforced that image in the minds of the jurors even if they didn’t choose to substantiate the contents of their indictment. The defendants were the kind of people who might do such dastardly things, even if nobody had proved that they had done them; this was probably the line of reasoning that led twelve jurors to find the Wobblies guilty on all counts. On August 31, Judge Landis handed the accused their sentences. Fifteen received the legal maximum of twenty years in jail, thirty-three received ten years, thirty-one received five, eighteen received lesser sentences, and together they incurred more than $2 million in fines. It later transpired than one of them, 19-year-old Ray Fanning, was not even an IWW member. Guilty or not, the defendants were quickly bundled off to the federal prison at Leavenworth, Kansas.

1919 - Johannes Baader announces the death and the resurrection of the Oberdada (starting year 1 in a new era).

1922 - Mimmi Kanervo (Tuticorin Grönlund; b. 1870), Finnish servant, trades unionist, militant feminist, Social Democrat (Suomen Sosialidemokraattinen Puolue) MP and lecturer, who cooperated with the communists later in her political life, dies. [see: May 26]

[D] 1924 - Adolf Hitler is sentenced to five years in prison for high treason for his role in the Beer Hall Putsch.

1926 - Charles Angrand (b. 1854), Impressionist, Néo-Impressionist, Divisionist and Pointillist painter and anarchist illustrator, dies. [see: Apr. 19]

1926 - The first issue of the anarchist monthly (then fortnightly) Italian language newspaper 'Germinal' is published in Chicago. It ceases printing in May 1930.

1927 - The first issue of 'Etica: Journal of Personal Education, Philosophy, Literature, Art and Naturism' is published in Barcelona. Amongst its many employees will be Isaac Puente, E.Armand, Federica Montseny, Han Ryner and E. Goldman. The magazine will cease publication in Jan. 1929, giving way to 'Iniciales' (Initials), but the title 'Etica' will reappear in Valencia between 1935-1936.

1930 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Anarchia', published by the Italian anarchist Aldo Aguzzi, appears in Buenos Aires.

1939 - Franco declares victory in his war against the Republic. The U.S. recognises the Franco government in Spain.

1940 - Wangari Muta Maathai (d. 2011), Kenyan environmental and political activist, who founded the Green Belt Movement, an environmental non-governmental organisation focused on the planting of trees, environmental conservation, and women's rights in 1977, born. In 2004, she became the first African woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for "her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace".

[C] 1958 - Björn Söderberg (d. 1999), Swedish anarcho-syndicalist militant of the Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation (SAC), born. He was assassinated by neo-Nazis (three bullets in the head) as he left his home in revenge for his exposure of Robert Vesterlund, a celebrity in the Swedish neo-Nazi movement, to the union's newspaper 'Arbetaren' that he was a member of the board of the local Chamber of Trade Union Trade at Svanströms store in Stockholm. Vesterlund was forced to resign from his job and was forced out of the union.

1968 - Further demonstrations against new airport at Narita in Japan. [see: Mar. 11]

1971 - Boots Riley (Raymond Lawrence Riley), US hip hop artist, producer and radical community activist, best known as the lead vocalist of The Coup and Street Sweeper Social Club.

1972 - Dissolution of the Situationist International.

1974 - The first issue of the monthly magazine 'Le Réfractaire: Organe Libertaire Pour la Défense de la Paix et des Libertés Individuelles', Journal of the Association of Friends of Louis Lecoin, is published in Paris by May Picqueray. It ceases publication following his death in December 1983.

1976 - Max Ernst (b. 1891), German Dadaist and Surrealist painter, sculptor, graphic artist and poet, dies. [see: Apr. 2]

1983 - 14 mile long human chain links Burghfield, Greenham Common and Aldermaston to oppose Cruise and Pershing missiles.

1990 - The Strangeways prisoner uprising begins in the chapel and quickly spreads to most of the prison, with prisoners occupying the roofs of the 5 accommodation wings. HMP Hull - sit-down protest in the exercise yard and rooftop occupation in support. Also disturbance at HMPs Gartree, Kirkham and Rochester.

1997 - The Federation of Unions of South Africa, the second largest national trade union confederation in South Africa, is founded

[AA] 1998 - Christopher Alder, a 37-year-old father-of-two and former paratrooper, dies in a Hull's Queens Gardens police station. Arrested in hospital, where he was being treated after being assaulted outside a nightclub, he he was "partially dragged and partially carried" handcuffed and unconscious, into the custody suite with the cops speculating that he was faking illness. 12 minutes later he is dead. A coroner decided that he had been unlawfully killed but the 5 police officers tried for manslaughter were all cleared.

[A] 2009 - Innocent bystander Ian Tomlinson dies of his injuries after being attacked by PC Simon Harwood of the Territorial Support Group at the protests against the G20 summit in London. Meanwhile, G-20 protesters break into the Royal Bank of Scotland.

2010 - Izabela Horodecka (b. 1908), Polish nurse, canoeist, AK soldier and participant in the Warsaw Uprising, dies. [see: May 1]
1821 - [N.S. Apr. 14] Greek Revolution [Ελληνική Επανάσταση] or Greek War of Independence: During the evening the first news of the Greek Revolt in southern Greece reaches Constantinople and prominent members of the Greek community began to be accused of having knowledge or even participated in the revolt. The Sultan, Mahmud II, requested a fatwa allowing a general massacre against all Greeks living in the Empire (which was subsequently recalled) and the Ecumenical Patriarch, Gregory V, was forced by the Ottoman authorities to excommunicate the revolutionaries, which he did on Palm Sunday, April, 3 [Apr. 15] 1821.

1840 - Émile Zola (d. 1902), French writer, experimental novelist and activist, born. Author of 'Germinal', one of whose central characters is Souvarine, a Russian anarchist and political émigré who arrives in Montsou seeking a living in the pits. The basis for some of the ideas expounded in Germinal stem from a series of discussions on the anarchist challenges to Marx's ideas that Zola held with Turgenev shortly before his death in 1882. Zola was at the forefront of the campaign to support Alfred Dreyfus, and his open letter 'J'accuse' ultimately led to Zola being sentenced to prison in 1898. He fled to England, and returned only after Dreyfus was pardoned.

1851 - Joseph Lane (d. 1920), British anarchist, born. A decade after his death Max Nettlau, who had known him in the Socialist League, wrote in his history of anarchism: "I consider him to be the best head English socialism possessed in the years from 1879 to 1889, and I regret that his activity came to an end - not through his fault - in the first months of 1889; a man like him has been lacking from that time to this."

[E] 1863 - Richmond Women's Bread Riot: Thousands of starving women storm from Capitol Square to Cary Street and the 17th Street market, smashing in shop fronts and liberating food in the Southern States' largest civil disturbance during the Civil War. "We celebrate our right to live. We are starving. As soon as enough of us get together we are going to the bakeries and each of us will take a loaf of bread. That is little enough for the government to give us after it has taken all our men."

1879 - [Apr. 14 N.S.] Alexsander K. Soloviev (Александр Константинович Соловьёв; b. 1846), a member of Land and Liberty (Zemlya i Volya) fires five shots at Tsar Alexsander II as he takes his morning walk on the grounds of the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg. He misses his mark and is arrested. He will be hanged on May 28, 1879 [June 9 N.S.].

[B] 1891 - Max Ernst (d. 1976), German Dadaist and Surrealist painter, sculptor, graphic artist and poet, born. Read and was influenced by Stirner's 'The Ego and His Own' in his youth, as did many Dadaist, long claiming it as one of his favourites, and studied philosophy at university. He also titled a 1925 frottage 'L'Unique et sa Propriété'.

1892 - Hans Leybold (d. 1914), German Expressionist poet and anarchist fellow traveller, whose small body of work was a major inspiration behind Berlin Dada, and in particular the works of his close friend Hugo Ball, born. He was involved in editing and contributing to Expressionist magazines, including Franz Pfemfert's 'Die Aktion'. He and Ball produced poetry together under the pseudonym Ha Hu Baley and also started the short lived magazine 'Die Revolution', which that had Erich Mühsam's (another close friend of Leybold) slogan "Laßt uns chaotisch sein" (Let us be chaotic) in its masthead, and in which and his colleagues issued their literary manifestos.
"Protect yourself against responsibilities! Hit out: against old household rubbish! And if some valuable piece gets torn up in the process: what does it matter? You respected people! You well-polished ones! You bigwigs! We ought to stick our tongues out at you! Boys, you'll say. Old men! we'll reply"

1894 - Jeanne Deroin (Jeanne-Françoise Deroin; b. 1805), French embroiderer, schoolteacher, journalist and socialist feminist, who during the 1848 Revolution was the first woman in France to run for national office, dies. William Morris, the founder of the Socialist League, which Deroin had joined during her self-imposed exile in England, delivered the oration at her funeral. [see: Dec. 31]

1895 - Marietta 'Maria' Bibbi (d. 1993), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, who life and militancy was closely linked to that of her brother Gino Bibbi, who affectionately called her Zingrina, born.
[* some sources give the date as August 2, 1895]

1899 - Ferdinand Félix Fortin (d. 1988), French anarchist militant, member of the trade union of proofreaders, manager of 'The Libertarian Review', born.

1903 - A demonstration of 10,000 in Monterrey, Nuero Leon, protesting the re-election of General Bernardo Reyes as state governor, are fired on by federales under the command of Reyes himself. 15 protesters are killed and many more wounded.

1905 - Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Father Georgy Gapon (Гео́ргий Гапо́н), allegedly now an Okrana spy, chairs a revolutionary conference in Geneva, which is secretly sponsored by Japanese intelligence chief Motojirō Akashi (明石 元二郎), who has been given ¥1,000,000 by the Japanese government to subvert Russia. The meeting is boycotted by the Bolsheviks and the Jewish Bund.

[F] 1908 - In Rome, during a funeral for a worker who died in an industrial accident, confrontations occur with the police, who oppose the procession. Police draw their guns and open fire, killing four and wounding 17. Among the dead is the anarchist militant Paolo Chiarelli. A General Strike is declared, and subsequently, several anarchists are arrested, tried and condemned to heavy prison sentences.

1908 - Ramón Vila Capdevila aka 'Caracremada' or 'Caraquemada' (Burnt-face), 'Peus Llargs' (Big Feet), Capità Raymond (Captain Raymond), Ramon Llaugí Pons, 'El Jabalí' (The Wild boar) (d. 1963), Catalan militant anarcho-syndicalist and guérilla fighter, born. [expand]

1915 - Battle of the Wazzir: about 2,500 Australian and New Zealand soldiers riot over recent price increases, poor quality drinks, and concerns about the spread of venereal disease on Haret el Wasser, a street an area of Cairo where there were a large number of brothels and drinking establishments

1916 - In Paris, during WWI, Sebastien Faure, with the help of Mauricius (Maurice Vandamme) launches the anarchist paper 'Ce Qu'il Faut Dire' (What Must Be Said). The newspaper elicits a keen interest, despite heavy censorship due to its antiwar views.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: All the union locals have been closed ddown and their leaders jailed. Amongst those arrested today is Ángel Pestaña, editor in chief of 'Solidaritat Obrera', which is also banned.

1920 - Märzaufstand / Ruhraufstand: The Reich government send the Reichswehr (the German army) and rightwing Freikorps units into the Ruhr area to suppress the uprising. This force also contains units that had supported the putsch only days previously, such as the Marinebrigade von Loewenfeld and even the Marinebrigade Ehrhardt. General Watter and his staff led the civil war , based in Münster, successfully suppressed the Red Ruhr Army. The fighting was followed by death sentences and mass executions. Those who were found carrying weapons at the time of their arrest were shot—including the wounded. Reichspräsident Ebert forbade these summary executions.

1934 - John Brailey (d. 2012), English printer, bookseller, anti-war activist and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1939 - Mauro Bajatierra Morán (b. 1884), Spanish journalist, prolific writer, novelist, playwright, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist propagandist, summarily tried and executed in Madrid following the Fascist victory. [see: Jul. 8]

1945 - Chris Lebeau (Joris Johannes Christiaan Lebeau; b. 1878), Dutch artist, designer, painter, art teacher, theosophist and anarchist, dies of exhaustion in Dachau concentration camp. [see: May 26]

1948 - Magdalena Cäcilia Kopp (d. 2015), German photographer, member of the Frankfurt Revolutionären Zellen (Revolutionary Cells) and partner of Ilich Ramírez Sánchez aka 'Carlos the Jackal', born.

[EE] 1950 - Safiyah Bukhari (d. 2003), African-American community activist and former political prisoner, who was a founding member of the Jericho Amnesty Movement, born. In November 1969, she joined the Black Panther Party after she had witnessed an NYPD officer harassing a Black Panther for selling the organisation’s newspaper on a Harlem street corner. The young pre-med student felt compelled to intervene in defence of the Panther’s First Amendment right; she ended up handcuffed and thrown into the back of a police car. Shortly after joining Safiyah helped form the National Committee to Defend Political Prisoners in support of the Panther 21 defendants and other COINTELPRO victims. The following year Safiya joined the Black Liberation Army. In 1974, she was subpoenaed to testify before a grand jury in a case against the BLA. Safiyah refused to testify and went underground. On January 17, 1975, she was captured, convicted and sentenced to 40 years. On December 31, 1976 Safiyah escaped from the Virginia Correctional Center for Women. She was re-captured on February 21, 1977 and returned to prison. On August 22 1983, Safiyah made parole. She went on to work on the cases of political prisoners, including the New York 3 and Mumia Abu-Jamal. She is the author of the posthumously published 'The War Before: The True Story of Becoming a Black Panther, Keeping the Faith in Prison & Fighting for Those Left Behind' (2010)

1951 - Vaga de Tramvies / Huelga de Tranvías [Barcelona Tram Strike / General Strike]: The protest spreads to Madrid. [see: Mar. 1&12] [expand]

1952 - Lettrist Gil Wolman's 'L'Anticoncept' (1951) is banned by the French film censorship commission.

1958 - Mary Barbour (Mary Rough; b. 1875), Scottish political activist, community leader and social policy pioneer, who played an outstanding part in the Red Clydeside movement in the early 20th century and especially for her role as the main organiser of the women of Govan who took part in the rent strikes of 1915, dies. [see: Feb. 20]

1959 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Massachusetts Representative Alexander Celia unsuccessfully proposes a bill posthumously pardoning Sacco and Vanzetti.

1962 - Pierre Carles, French libertarian documentary filmmaker, agent provocateur and one-time anarcho-communist, born. Co-directed (with Georges Minangoy) 'Ni Vieux Ni Traître' (2006), a documentary film about the involvement of French and Catalan anarchists in the fight against Franco.

[D] 1968 - In the first Rote Armee Fraktion (RAF) action, long delay fused incendiary devices are placed at the Kaufhof and Kaufhaus Schneider department stores in Frankfurt by Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin, Thorwald Proll and Horst Söhnlein. Triggered shortly before midnight, the devices set off three fires - one in the Kaufhof damages part of the sporting goods and toy department on the fourth floor, the other two on the first and third floors of the M. Schneider store damage a locker room and storage. From a pay phone Ensslin told the Deutschen Presse-Agentur (German Press Agency) that:, "This is a political act of revenge!"
No one was hurt but the fires cause over 1.9 million marks (roughly €3m at today's equivalent) damage. It could have been much more if the two store's sprinkler systems had not kept the fires localised. Unable to resist the urge to brag about their exploits, the four were arrested two days later, and on October 31, 1968, they were sentenced to three years in prison.

1969 - Twenty-one Black Panther Party members are charged with plotting to charged with conspiring to kill cops, bomb five New York City stores, shooting at police and trying to blow up police stations. Thirteen are prosecuted in September

1970 - After an eight month trial, the jury took only two-and-a-half hours to vote to acquit the defendants, rejecting the prosecution's crusade to discredit the Black Panthers.

1976 - Maurice Dommanget (b. 1888), French historian of the labour movement and militant syndicalist, dies. [see: Jan. 14]

[C] 1980 - A police raid on the 'Black and White' cafe in the mainly Afro-Caribbean working class district of St Paul's in Bristol sparks rioting.

1990 - Minor disturbances at HMP Lindholme, Low Newton and Bedford in support of Strangeways. Unconnected and long-planned escape attempt at Long Lartin involving a JCB.

1996 - Antonio Ortiz Ramirez (b. 1907), Catalan member of the CNT in 1936 during the Spanish Revolution and Civil War, dies. [see: Apr. 13]

2004 - Shahid Aziz, 30, on remand at Armley prison is killed by his cell mate Peter McCann, who had been assessed by prison staff as “low-risk” for cell-sharing despite a history of violence and knives, within minutes of being locked in a cell with him.

2009 - 300 masked protesters arrested in Strasbourg overnight in lead-up to the NATO summit.

2009 - Docklands G20 Summit [expand?]

[A] 2011 - Prisoners mutiny in Lebanon's notorious Roumieh prison, setting fire to bedding and smashing doors and windows, demanding an amnesty for unconvicted prisoners and better prison conditions. After 4 days security forces using rubber bullets, stun grenades and tear-gas retake the prison. Two prisoners die and 45 are injured, as prisoners fight riot police with sticks and Molotovs.
[A] 1820 - Scottish Insurrection of 1820 aka The Radical War: Following a call by 'A Committee of Organisation for Forming a Provisional Government' on April 1, workers across central Scotland stopped work and armed themselves. Workers trying to raid the Carron Company ironworks in Falkirk in search of arms were ambushed by police and Hussars. Other actions over the following week saw a number of skirmished between Radicals and the military, with numerous arrests; 88 men were charged with treason. In subsequent trials James Wilson, a weaver from Bonnybridge, was sentenced to death on July 24, 1820, in spite of a plea by jury for mercy, and was hung and beheaded at Glasgow Green in front of a crowd of 20,000 including many sympathisers; Glasgow weavers John Baird and Andrew Hardie, and James Cleland, a blacksmith, were sentenced to death on August 4, 1820. Baird and Hardie were hung and beheaded in Stirling with just 2,000 looking on, whilst Cleland’s sentence was subsequently commuted to transportation for life. Eighteen other radicals, including a 15-year-old weaver, Alexander Johnstone, were also sentenced to transportation to Australia.

1821 - [N.S. Apr. 15] Greek Revolution [Ελληνική Επανάσταση] or Greek War of Independence: On Palm Sunday, the Ecumenical Patriarch, Gregory V, in Constantinople is forced by the Ottoman authorities to excommunicate the Filiki Eteria revolutionaries and their supporters. Later in the day the Sultan orders the execution of the Grand Dragoman, Konstantinos Mourouzis, who is beheaded and his body displayed in public. His brother and various other leading members of the Phanariote families are also executed, although in fact only a few Phanariotes were connected with the revolutionaries.

1837 - Paul Robin (d. 1912), largely forgotten French anarchist educator and néo-Malthusian, whose libertarian legacy influences the educators Sébastien Faure and Francisco Ferrer, born.

1858 - Albert Victor Samain (d. 1900), French Symbolist poet, writer and anarchist, born. A habituee of Le Chat Noir, his most famous poetry collection is 'Le Jardin de l'Infante' (1893).

1881 - [N.S. Apr. 15] Sophia Lvovna Perovskaya (Russian: Со́фья Льво́вна Перо́вская; b. 1853), Russian revolutionary and prominent member of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), who helped to organise the successful assassination of Tsar Alexander II of Russia, for which she was executed by hanging, born. [see: Sep. 13]

1887 - [N.S. Apr. 15] Maria Feodorovna Nagovitsyna (Мария Фёдоровна Наговицына; d. 1966), Russian revolutionary and member of the RSDLP, born. [see: Apr. 15]

[C] 1909 - Joan Borràs Casanova (d. 1987), Spanish anarchist, proletarian painter, poster artist and writer, born. Following the Fascist coup, he joined the CNT's Aliança d'Intellectuals per a la Defensa de la Cultura i al Sindicat de Dibuixants (Alliance of Intellectuals for the Defence of Culture and the Union of Artists). During the revolution, he worked as a member of the Libre-Studio designing posters for the Delegació de Propaganda i Premsa del Consell Executiu Popular (Office of Propaganda and Popular Media Executive Council; CEP) - becoming known as a painter of the Revolution - and illustrations for the libertarian press such as 'Estudios', 'Libre-Studio', etc.

1912 - Federico Borrell García aka 'El Taino' (d. 1936), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Founder of the local branch of the Libertarian Youth (FIJL) in 1932. FAI militant and during the Spanish Revolution a militiaman in the Columna Alcoiana led by the local anarchist activist, Enrique Vaño Nicomedes. He is best known now by the iconic photo 'The Fallen Soldier', by Robert Capa, which captured his moment of death on September 5, 1936.

[CC] 1912 - Grigoris Lambrakis (Greek: Γρηγόρης Λαμπράκης; d. 1963), Greek resistance fighter, leftist politician, physician, and track and field athlete, born. A champion athlete throughout his life, he held the Greek record for long jump (for twenty-three years from 1936 to 1959) and the triple jump record. During the Axis occupation of Greece during WWII (1941–1944), Lambrakis participated actively in the Greek Resistance. In 1943 he set up the Union of Greek Athletes (Ένωση των Ελλήνων Αθλητών, Enosi ton Ellínon Athlitón) and organised regular competitions, using the revenue from these games to fund public food-banks for the starving population. Elected to the Greek parliament in 1961 as a candidate of the Pandemocratic Agrarian Front (Πανδημοκρατικόν Αγροτικόν Μέτωπον) on the ticket of the United Democratic Left (Ενιαία Δημοκρατική Αριστερά), which was Greece's farthest left party outside of the banned communists, he used his Parliamentary immunity to march unmolested in a walk for peace, from Marathon to central Athens after it had been banned by the police who had beaten up the other marchers. It was this march that brought him to the forefront of Greek politics, making him a hero of the left and an enemy of the right.
Lambrakis' ideals captured the imagination of the Greek left who after a quarter a century of oppression by the right in the name of fighting communism, were ready to embrace his goals of peace and a nuclear-free world. Unfortunately these ideals and Lambrakis' speeches incited the right-wing to hysteria, believing him to be a communist and a danger to pro-America Greece. A plot was hatched to set him up and murder him after he had delivered the keynote speech at an anti-war meeting in Thessaloniki in 1963. Two hired thugs, far-right extremists Emannouel Emannouilides and Spyro Gotzamani, in a trikyklo (three wheeled vehicle), one driving and the other in the back with a club, were allowed to approach the event unmolested by the police. There they clubbed Lambrakis over the head in plain view of the police and a large number of people. Having slowed down almost to a halt in order to deliver the fatal blow, the crowd charged after the trikyklo as it tried to make its getaway, caught it and dragged the hapless assassins out. At that point, the police did not have alternative but to arrest the perpetrators. Lambrakis suffered brain injuries in the attack and died in the hospital five days later, on May 27. The next day, in Athens, his funeral became a massive demonstration, with more than 500,000 people ralling to protest against the right-wing government and the Royal Court, seen by many to support the activities of the right-wing extremists.
Within hours of his death composer Mikis Theodorakis founded the Lambrakis Youth Movement, the first mass-movement of its kind in Greece. The letter Z, which means zei, or in English he lives became the rallying cry of the Greek youth who found their voice following the Lambrakis murder. And when the government was eventually overthrown by the military Junta of April 21, 1967, one of the many things they banned was the letter Z. In 1969 Costa-Gavras released the movie 'Z', about the Lambrakis murder and investigation. That investigation was palced in the hands of a young magistrate by the name of Christos Sartzetakis, who was really only being tasked to find the proof that Lambrakis' death had been an accident. However, Sartzetakis courageously implicated the leaders of the police in a conspiracy to murder Lambrakis and uncovered a secret right-wing organisation used for such dirty work, controlled by the police and others. The Lambrakis murder eventually ended up bringing down Constantine Karamanlis and his pro-American government. Though never implicated in the murder, the perception was that even if Karamanlis was not a part of it, he should have had more control over the police.

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Four houses and the Free Church at Hampstead Garden Suburb are set on fire. Thirteen pictures in the Manchester Art Gallery smashed with hammers. An empty train near Stockford, in Cheshire, is partly wrecked by explosives.

1914 - Suzanne Hans (d. 1936), French anarchist and miliciana, who fought and died alongside her partner Louis Recoule in the Centúria Sébastian Faure of the Columna Durruti, born. Both her parents Suzanne Camus and Henri Hans and one of her grandmothers were active anarchists, and she and Louis met as members of the Union Anarchiste group in Paris' 13è Arrondissement. They had two daughters, born in 1935 and 1936, both of whom died as infants of meningitis and whooping cough respectively. When the couple learned of the fascist uprising in Spain, they both left in September 1936 to join the International Group of the Durruti Column - Suzanne joining up under the surname of Louis' mother. Both are thought to have died along with comrades such as Émile Cottin and Pietro Ranieri during the fascist offensive at Farlete on October 8, 1936 [though it is possible that Louis in fact died at Perdiguera eight days later].

1915 - The first issue of the pre-Dadaist Expressionist journal 'Der Mistral', "Literarische Kriegszeitschrift" (literary war journal), is published by Hugo Kersten , Emil Szittya and Walter Serner in Zurich. Printed by the mysterious anarchist printer Julius Heuberger, it has a distinctly anarchist political tone, criticising the "grammar of war", one based on bourgeois linguistic structures and rages against religion, law, politics and the current cultural industry. Three issues were published, the last on April 26, 1915, which bears the subtitle "Zeitschrift für Literatur und Kunst" (Journal of Literature and Art).

1915 - Karl Ibach (d. 1990), German communist member of the resistance against the Third Reich and later, a writer and politician, born. A member of the Kommunistischer Jugendverband Deutschlands (KJVD; Young Communist League of Germany) and later the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, he was arrested in spring 1933 and detained at the Kemna concentration camp in Wuppertal. Released in October 1933 after 2.5 months, he continued his resistance activities, fleeing to the Netherlands, but was arrested again shortly after returning to Germany. Charged with suspicion of preparing to commit high treason, he was sentenced to 8-year and imprisoned in various Nazi concentration camps and prisons (Zuchthouses). In 1943, he was transferred to a Punishment Division and ended up as a Soviet prisoner of war. Released in 1947, he went on to publish a report about his experiences at Kemna in 1948, was a co-founder and director of the Union of Persecutees of the Nazi Regime, vice chair of the Zentralverband demokratischer Widerstandskämpfer und Verfolgtenorganisationen (Central Association of Democratic Resistance Fighters and Persecuted Organisations) and a member of the presidium of the Fédération Internationale Libre des Déportés et Internés de la Résistance (Free International Federation of Deportees and Internees of the Resistance).

1917 - In Kansas City police today escort "off duty" navy sailors to destroy the Industrial Workers of the World union headquarters. This action inspires similar terrorist attacks in Detroit, Duluth, and other IWW centres.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The president of the Spanish government Romanones takes everyone by surprise and issues a decree (Real Decreto de 3 de abril de 1919: Jornada máxima legal en todos los trabajos) introducting the 8-hour working day for both Catalonia and throughout Spain against the opposition of the military and radical elements, who favour continuing the conflict until the unions are 'defeated'.

1920 - Märzaufstand / Ruhraufstand: A large part of the Ruhr Army fled before the Reichswehr to the region occupied by the French Army. The Reichswehr stopped itself only at the river Ruhr, as the British occupation forces were threatening to occupy the Bergisches Land due to the breach of the Versailles Treaty.

1927 - Leonora O’Reilly (b. 1870), US feminist, suffragist, and trade union organiser, dies. [see: Feb. 16]

1929 - The first issue of the monthly magazine 'Elevacion', dedicated to the art, science, literature and sociology, and edited by Juan Raggio, is published in Buenos Aires.

1933 - Zamfir Constantin Arbore (Zamfir Ralli; b. 1848), Romanian amateur historian, geographer, ethnographer, member of the International Workingmen's Association, international anarchist and a disciple of Mikhail Bakunin, dies. [see: Nov. 14]

1942 - The first deportation [April 3-4] from the Kolomyja Ghetto to Belzec (about 5,000 Jews) begins.

1945 - Himmler orders the execution of all those who show white capitulation flags on their houses.

1963 - Achille Daudé (Achille Daudé-Bancel; b. 1870), French anarchist, trade union activist and advocate of cooperatives, dies. [see: Dec. 15]

[F] 1968 - Martin Luther King, Jr., returns to Memphis, Tennessee, to support striking sanitation workers and delivers his 'I've Been to the Mountaintop' speech at a church filled with union members and supporters. He was assassinated the next day.

[B] 1968 - Nina Paley, American cartoonist, animator, libertarian and free culture activist, born.

[E] 1970 - Luisa Amanda Espinoza (b. 1949), a member of the Nicaraguan Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional becomes the first female Sandanista to be killed in battle against the Somoza regime after she is betrayed by an informant. [see: Aug. 19]

[D] 1974 - Patty Hearst announces in a taped message to a Berkeley radio station, the fifth since her abduction, that she has joined her kidnappers, the Symbionese Liberation Army.
The 19-year-old university student and newspaper heiress was kidnapped earlier that year on February 4th by three members of the SLA from her Berkeley apartment. Held in a cupboard blindfolded with her hands tied for a week, she was let out for meals and, blindfolded, subject to threats and political indoctrination. Eventually, she was asked if she wanted to stay and fight with the SLA and, having agreed, her blindfold was taken off. Twelve days after the tape's release, Hearst is photographed using an assault rifle while robbing the Sunset District branch of the Hibernia Bank in San Francisco.

1975 - Angela Bambace (b. 1898), Italian-American garment worker, feminist, anti-fascist, anarchist, communist, and labour organiser for the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union for over fifty years, dies of cancer. [see: Feb. 14]

1989 - 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: A strike breaks out at the Lenin mine in Mezhdurechensk (Междуреченска) when one brigade of miners stops work and refuses to come to the surface, demanding increased bonuses and a reduction in the number of engineering-technical staff in the mine. [expand][see: Jul. 10]

1994 - Richard O’Brien, 37, dies after being pinned to the ground by three police officers who are arresting him for being drunk and disorderly. An inquest jury found the 19 stone father of seven had been “unlawfully killed”; three officers stood trial for his manslaughter in 1999 and were acquitted.

1994 - Agostinho da Silva (b. 1906), Portuguese philosopher, essayist, writer, Christian humanist and millenarian, essential an utopian anarchist whose ideas on freedom were close to those of Gustav Landauer, dies. [see: Feb. 13]

1996 - 'Unabomber' Theodore Kaczynski is arrested at his cabin outside of Lincoln, Montana.

2008 - Ester Soriano(-Hewitt) (b. 1946), Filipino-American civil rights activist and skilled mediator, whose partner was Raymond 'Masai' Hewitt, the Black Panthers' Minister of Education and a member of the Central Committee, dies from complications following surgery for liver cancer. [see: Apr. 6]

2009 - 25,000 cops on duty to try and prevent 'trouble' at the NATO summit in Strasbourg.

2011 - Marian Pankowski (b. 1919), Polish writer, poet, literary critic and translator, and anti-Nazi fighter, dies. [see: Nov. 9]

2013 - Mutiny in Koridallos female prison, Greece.

2013 - FEMEN activists burn the Salafist flag in front of the Great Mosque of Paris as part of a solidarity protest with Amina Tyler.
[E] 1810 - Désirée Gay (Jeanne Désirée Véret; d. ca. 1891), French seamstress, feminist and utopian socialist, born. A follower of the utopian socialist Henri de Saint-Simon, in 1832 she and Marie-Reine Guindorff founded 'La Femme Libre' [it later went through a number of name changes - 'La Femme nouvelle', 'L'Apostolat des femmes' and 'La Tribune des femmes'], the first French feminist newspaper produced and published only by women, in reaction to the exclusion of women from decision making among the Saint-Simonites. She would go on to act as an intermediary between the Owenites, the Saint-Simonites and Charles Fourier, as weel as play a prominent role after the February Revolution of 1848 and would eventually Desirée become president of the International Workingmen's Association's women's section in 1866.

1812 - Luddite Timeline: Luddite Riots at Stockport; Mr Goodwin's steam-looms destroyed.

1819 - William Batchelder Greene (d. 1878), US individualist anarchist, Unitarian minister, soldier and promoter of free banking, born.

1846 - Comte de Lautréamont (pseudonym of Isidore-Lucien Ducasse; d. 1870), Uruguayan-born French poet and proto-surrealist, born. His only works, 'Les Chants de Maldoror' (1869) and 'Poésies' (1870), had a major influence on modern literature, particularly on the Surrealists and the Situationists. He coined the phrase "the chance encounter of an umbrella and a sewing machine on an operating table", later adopted by the Surrealists.

[B] 1858 - Remy de Gourmont (d. 1915), French Symbolist poet, novelist, journalist, art critic, anti-nationalist and anarchist, born. One of the founders of the 'Mercure de France', in which much of his work was published,including his anti-nationalist text 'Joujou Patriotisme', which in 1891 led to the bourgeois press labelling him "un dangereux anarchiste" and his being forced to resign from the Bibliothèque Nationale, despite Octave Mirbeau's intercession. A friend of Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stéphane Mallarmé, he was also co-editor alongside Alfred Jarry, of 'L'Ymagier', a magazine dedicated to symbolist wood carvings. His 1899 anarchist novel, 'Le Désarroi', remained unpublished until 2006.
"Art is free of any freedom of conscience"

[1871 - Commune de Marseille: the army attacks the préfecture and the Commune of Marseilles falls.

[D] 1871 - Commune de Limoges: As in many towns and cities across France, Limoges had regularly seen crowds of people on the street, waving red flags marched to cries of "Vive la Commune! Vive Paris! Down with Versailles!", since news of the declaration of the Commune in the capital. So it was inevitable that, when the 9e Régiment d'Infanterie was ordered to Paris and, having marched to the train station, they would face attempts to stop them. The crowd, composed mainly of women and children, greeted the troops with cries of "Long live the Republic Paris. Vive la Commune!", and asked the soldiers if they would "fire upon your brethren?" Accompanied by a detachment of the Guard Nationale, led by a porcelain painter named Couessac, they invaded the station, preventing the reinforcements leaving for Versailles and Paris. Some of the soldiers offered up their rifles and ammunition to the crowd, with around 80 weapons falling into the hands of the population of Limoges. Meanwhile, another group of protesters invaded the préfecture. The préfect fled, disguised as a servant. The Hôtel de Ville was also occupied and the Commune de Limoges was proclaimed, whilst the surrounding streets were blocked with barricades.
The first attempts that day by the military to regain control of the city ended in confusion, as a detachment of the 81st Infantry Regiment came under fire from the barricades erected in the streets around the Hôtel de Ville, and in the dark the commander of the 4th Cuirassiers cavalry regiment, Colonel Billet, was shot and mortally wounded. That night a siege was proclaimed and reinforcements sent to the city: three infantry regiments, a battalion of light infantry, a second regiment of cuirassiers, two artillery batteries, a half battery of machine guns. The headquarters of the Société Populaire, where mutinous soldiers had found refuge, was surrounded. On April 10, the Commune's Conseil Municipal (City Council) resigned, and was replaced by a military committee of 22 members, under the command of General Dalesme. The Commune ended somewhat peacefully, one might say with a whimper, but in the aftermath there were numerous arrests and denunciations, so many of the latter that the prosecutor ended up complaining of the "large number of letters and anonymous information."

[A] 1871 - Paris Communards take the archbishop of Paris hostage.

1872 - The Second Congress of the Spanish Regional Federation of AIT (FRE de la AIT) begins [Apr. 4-11] in clandestine session in Zaragoza in anticipation of being banned by the Government, which eventually happened after it officially opened its sessions on April 8, 1872 at the Teatro Novedades. During the congress the Bakunist majority expel the Marxist 'autoritaria' minority based around 'La Emancipación' (Francisco Mora, Ángel Mora, Pablo Iglesias, Valentín Sáez, José Mesa, Victós Pagés, Hipólito Pauly, Inocente Calleja and Luis Cantillón).
www.rojoynegro.info/sites/default/files/El anarcosindicalismo y sus Congresos.Completo.pdf

1872 - Mary Dennett (Mary Coffin Ware; d. 1947), US artist, interior designer, women's rights activist, pacifist, and pioneer in the areas of birth control, sex education, and women's suffrage, whose 1929 landmark court case helped redefine the legal definition of obscenity, born. In 1904, her divorce proceedings attracted a certain notority, not last because of its rarity, but because she divorced her husband Hartley Dennett, keeping custody of her children, when he formed a ménage à trois with a couple whose house they were working on. Active in the National American Women's Suffrage Association in the early 1910s, she eventually became disillusioned with the organisation and resigned from her position to focus her energies elsewhere. In 1913 she co-founded the Twilight Sleep Association, which advocated the use of scopolamine and morphine to allow women to have painless childbirth and, when war broke out in 1914, she join the anti-war movement Women's Peace Party. In 1915 she co-founded the National Birth Control League and the same year Dennett wrote a sex education pamphlet for her children, later published in 1918 as 'The Sex Side of Life: An Explanation for Young People' in the 'Medical Review of Reviews', and a year later as an educational pamphlet.
In 1918 she became a member of the organising committee of the People’s Council for Democracy and Peace and, around the same time, joined the Heterodoxy Club, a Bohemian feminist debating group in Greenwich Village. The following year she co-founded the Voluntary Parenthood League and decided to focus her efforts on a "straight repeal" of the birth control provisions of the Comstock Laws, which prevented the distribution of material on contraception and planned parenthood though the US Mail. In 1928, she was indicted under the law for distributing the 'The Sex Side of Life' pamphlet. Convicted and fined $300, she appealed and the conviction was set aside six months later. Her conviction was eventually overturned in 1930, and planned parenthood materials would go on to be freely distributable via the post.
Mary Dennett died of myocarditis in New York on July 25, 1947.

[BB] 1876 - Maurice de Vlaminck (d. 1958), French landscape and still-life painter, lithographer, wood-engraver, etcher, writer, poet, violinist and anarchist, born. Along with André Derain and Henri Matisse he is considered one of the principal figures in the Fauve movement, later dabbling with Cubism (despite his professed hostility to it and it's debt to Cézanne, who was a great influence on Vlaminck's art) and graduating to a more abstract art. He grew up in a musical household and helped support his young family by giving music lessons and playing in popular orchestras and café-concerts in Paris, alongside working as a wrestler, billiards shooter, mechanic, labourer and professional cyclist before a bout with typhus weakened him. He also discovered that he could write, penned three risqué novels ]in collaboration with Fernand Sernada, including 'D'un Lit Dans l'Autre' (From One Bed to Another; 1902)] as well as writing vehemently anti-bourgeois articles for the anarchist press including 'Le Libertaire'.
While serving his mandatory 3-year military obligation, he met the painter André Derain in 1900, when the train on which both men were riding derailed. A lifelong friendship was struck, as well as a deal to share a studio in Chatou. Much of his work is of Expressionist landscapes with few featured human figures and represents a largely nostalgic (the modern world was also largely absent too as exampled by his hatred of the railways - "a gaping sore which admits infection"), view of the countryside, and certainly one that hated its annexing by the bourgeoisie and their houses built on once productive farming land.
In addition to his books written with Serada, he wrote some 20 works - novels, poems and memoirs - including 'Tournant Dangereux' (Dangerous Turn' 1929), 'Le Ventre Ouvert' (The Open Stomach; 1937), 'Portraits Avant Décès' (Portraits Before Death; 1943) and 'Paysages et Personnages' (Landscapes and Characters; 1953). He also illustrated with drawings, woodcuts, etchings and lithographs more than 20 books, including 'Les Hommes Abandonnés' (Man Abandoned; 1927) by Georges Duhamel, 'Le Diable au Corps' (The Devil Made Flesh; 1926) by Raymond Radiguet and works by other writers such as Julien Green and Marcel Aymé, in addition to books that he himself had written.
Participated, alongside fellow Fauvists André Derain and Kees van Dongen, in the November 1941 Weimar congress of European artists organised by the Nazi "official state sculptor" Arno Breker, and was considered a collaborationist post-WWII.
"What I could have done in real life only by throwing a bomb...I tried to achieve in painting."

1892 - Jules Thomas (b. 1839), French Icarien [follower of Étienne Cabet], Parisian communard, Blanquist, then a militant anarchist, dies. Fled France following the fall of the Commune and took refuge in New York, founding the Société des Réfugiés de la Commune which, in addition to its solidarity actions, commemorated the anniversary of the March 18 Paris uprising. [see: Jul. 7]

1894 - In Paris, during the trial of Émile Henry, a bomb explodes at the Foyot restaurant. The libertarian writer Laurent Tailhade, who was there by chance, lost an eye in the explosion. The anarchist Louis Matha was suspected of being the author of the attack, but no proof could be found against him.

1912 - Émile Armand assumes the editorship of 'L’Anarchie', from April 4th, 1912 to September of this year.

1912 - San Diego Free Speech Fight: The citizens' vigilance committee is summonded in San Diego with the warning that between 90 and 100 IWW’s had hopped a train at Santa Ana headed for San Diego. A meeting in District Attorney Utley's office decides to deputise as many people so they could and stop the train at the county line. That afternoon 30 prisoners vanished from jail. Some said police turned them over to a citizens’ committee for 're-education' at Sorrento Valley. An estimated 45 newly deputised constables rode on horseback to San Onofre. Over 100 other San Diegans headed north in cars or on the 15:00 train. They packed blankets and provisions for several days and vowed "inspirational lessons in patriotism."
The night before, a posse had stopped the Santa Fe at the county line. They ordered 72 'vagrants' down from the freight cars and beat them. In the morning, bragging about the 'fun' they were having, vigilantes herded their captives across the county line. Three couldn’t walk. The official word: two tripped when hopping down from the train; the third broke his leg when he slipped on tracks and fell off a bridge. Charles Hanson, a veteran of three free-speech fights, was that third victim. He told the 'Industrial Worker' that vigilantes forced him to kiss the flag ("You son of a bitch, come on, kiss it, God damn you!") and run a gauntlet through over 100 men – two lines, 50 each – armed with whips, clubs, and broken whiskey bottles. He didn’t get far when a wagon spoke shattered his kneecap. As he bled in the dust, Hanson watched a "cowardly and inhuman cracking of heads".
At 1:00 a.m. on April 5, a freight train from Los Angeles reached the county line. On board were over 100 men, half under 21. The train slowed to an unscheduled halt. Four hundred 'citizens' – men, and some women – lined both sides of the tracks. Some carried lanterns. Many sported constables’ badges and all wrapped a white handkerchief around the left elbow: the sign of a vigilante. Albert Tucker was one of the 'free travelers' on the train. "The moon was shining dimly through the clouds,” he recalled, “and I could see pick handles, wagon spokes, and every kind of club imaginable swinging from the wrists of all of them." He also saw rifles, aimed at the Wobblies, and 'black snakes' – 18-inch fire hoses filled with sand at one end, tacks at the other. A black snake left no marks.
"We were ordered to unload," Tucker recalled, "and we refused. Then they closed around the flat car we were on and began clubbing and knocking and pulling men off by their heels." A half-hour later, hundreds of "drunk and hollering and cursing" vigilantes marched "bruised and bleeding" captives single-file to a nearby cattle corral. Inside, the men had to keep moving in a circle with their hands over their heads. Those who fell were beaten. Anyone acting like a leader got "an extra beating." Vigilantes dragged unconscious Wobblies out of the corral and into the darkness. Rifle fire chased those who tried to flee. "Afterwards," says Tucker, "there was a lot of our men unaccounted for and never have been heard from since."
At dawn, constables opened the corral gate and released four or five prisoners at a time. They marched up the tracks and stopped before a mob of vigilantes. Each prisoner had to kneel, kiss the American flag, and sing the 'Star Spangled Banner'. If someone refused, or even looked like he might not cooperate, black snakes beat him senseless. Then, Tucker says, each had to "run a gauntlet of 106 men, every one of which was striking at us as hard as they could." As he watched the man before him run, fall, and crawl through two rows of flying handles, Tucker noticed that the clubbers were headhunters: whenever a man raised his head, vigilantes took dead aim.
When Tucker ran the gauntlet, he kept his head low. He emerged black-and-blue. As he hobbled to the county line he bled from "a dozen" wounds and vowed: "If I ever take part in another [free-speech fight], it will be with machine guns and aerial bombs. There must be a better way of fighting – and better results." That night, the war continued in town. Unmasked members of the citizen’s committee kidnapped Abraham Sauer, editor of the pro-Free Speech 'San Diego Herald'. They drove him to East County, put a noose around his neck, and told him never to return – or identify them. Sauer never took legal action or named names.
That morning, while the edition was still being printed, 30 vigilantes burst into the printer’s shop and smashed the galleys. From that point on, Sauer smuggled the weekly 'Herald' from Los Angeles and distributed it on the sly.
The 'San Diego Union' editorials praised the vigilantes: "If this action be lawlessness, make the most of it" (April 7); "These anarchists have gone far enough…hereafter they will not only be carried to the county line and dumped there, we intend to leave our mark on them…so that the outside world may know that they have been to San Diego" (April 12). Stumpy, the correspondent for 'Solidarity', wrote in reply: "The jails are full, but they seem to think there is plenty of room in the cemetery."

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: An attempt is made to blow up the railway station at Oxted, in Surrey. Suffragettes failed in their efforts to wreck a stationary train at Stockport. Unoccupied mansion near Chorleywood in Hertfordshire, valued at £2,500, burned down.

[FF] 1914 - Unemployed Riot in Union Square, NYC:
"At one-thirty in the afternoon on the fourth of April, crowds enjoying the Saturday half-holiday in Union Square were startled at a sudden incursion by a massive contingent of police. Four hundred officers hurriedly deployed, asserting control over the area. Some patrolled the outer boundaries. Others swept up and down along the pathways of the park, warning idlers to “move on.” Fifty uniformed men filed into hiding within a pavilion at the north end of the plaza; scores more concealed themselves inside a construction shed, and another hundred or so plainclothesmen mingled among the spectators.
Commissioner McKay arrived in his green automobile, and established a command post on 17th Street, between Broadway and Fourth Avenue. During the previous two weeks, he had endured ceaseless criticism for having failed to prevent the anarchists’ last parade through the wealthiest neighborhood in Manhattan. This morning, he had received word that they were planning to repeat the performance, and he was absolutely determined to forestall them. To do so, he called on all the department’s resources. Besides the men on the scene, he had two hundred more officers dispersed among the basements of every fashionable club and hotel from the Ladies’ Mile to Harlem. One thousand more reserves stood ready in the precincts to act as reinforcements. A general order issued to all these forces that morning was terse and direct: “Break ‘em up!”
There were two rallies planned for the afternoon. The Central Federated Union, a conglomeration of AFL locals, had received official approval from the city to hold their meeting. The anarchists, as usual, had not deigned to beg for “the kind permission of the master class and its armed hirelings. ”Berkman suspected that the police were intentionally pitting the groups against each other, using the moderate trade unionists to discredit the radical unemployed. Newspapers, he knew, would gleefully exaggerate any conflict between rival labor factions. So, he had two choices. He could march, and face accusations of fomenting dissension within the working class, or he could postpone his parade.
It was after 2 p.m., and no one outside Berkman’s inner circle yet knew what he had decided. Six or seven thousand demonstrators were milling around at the northern edge of Union Square, where the trade-union meeting was just being called to order. Spectators hovered on the periphery, or watched from windows, hoping to see some excitement. Three motion-picture cameras swept the scene. McKay and his inspectors surveyed the crowd, while reporters and photographers scrambled to cover any potential outbreak. Lincoln Steffens stood on tiptoe trying to get an adequate view. Everyone kept sharp for the anarchists.
And then with shout and shove, they were here. The group surged forward in a tight, organized mass, “seeming to spring from the ground,” wrote a reporter, “so rapid was their approach.” The militants pushed through the crowd, distributing propaganda as they forced a path toward the speaker’s platform. The mob tightened in, cheering crazily. At the front, Berkman scaled a stacked tower of lumber, which served as an improvised stage. As the highest spot in the area, the platform also happened to be the police operations center, so as he turned to address the demonstrators he was just a few feet from McKay and his inspectors. Everyone craned closer to hear.
He started with his usual imprecations against labor fakirs and the “capitalist class.” Then came the substance of his address. “We will postpone our meeting,” he said, “because we want the people of New York and of the country to see our solidarity with labor, whether organized or unorganized.” As Berkman clambered down to the sidewalk, the police inspectors momentarily relaxed.
At the very moment their attention lapsed, they lost control of the situation. A different group of radicals – either unaware that their rally had been put off, or unwilling to abide by the decision – chose this instant to raise signs reading, “Hunger,” “Unemployed Union Local No. 1,” and “Tannenbaum MUST Be Freed.” Seeing the placards, policemen at the boundaries of the demonstration thought a parade was forming, and recalled their orders to “Break ‘em up.”Forming wedges, they sliced in to the throng. Commanders signaled frantically, but whether to stop the assault or urge it on, it was impossible to know. “The crowd jeered and yelled and the banners continued to wave for a moment or two,” a reporter wrote. “Then the flags were jerked from the hands of the color bearers, and a minute later those color bearers … were on their way to the East Twenty-second Street Police Station.”
Riotous demonstrators trailed the officers and their prisoners to the upper edge of the park, shouting threats, and turning back only when a line of mounted policemen cantered over to block their path. Facing south, the leaders improvised a new plan. “Come on, men,” shouted an unemployed anarchist named Joe O’Carroll, “We’ll march to Rutgers Square.” With him in the lead was Becky Edelsohn – “a comely young woman” of “electric vitality” in her mid-twenties – who was a former lover of Berkman’s, and was becoming a leading campaigner for militancy. During the previous parade up Fifth Avenue, she had been the one who even shocked some of her own cohort by prying open the door to a limousine to spit at the faces of the women inside.
Arm in arm, they showed the way, and within a minute, hundreds had fallen into line behind them. The column soon stretched the entire length of the park. Demonstrators shouted “Kill the Capitalists!” and “Revenge Tannnenbaum!” Detectives scurried to head off the leaders, while the mounted patrol trotted menacingly on the parade’s flank, and the hidden officers streamed out from their concealed positions. For a few moments, the two sides marked each other. Then, at 14th Street, the detectives ordered the protesters to disband. The crowd responded with taunts and hisses. And, at last, detectives Gegan and Gildea – the detectives who had been pining for this moment since early March – ordered the attack.
The horsemen formed a column, drew their batons, and spurred directly toward the middle of the parade. “Invective and imprecations hurled at the policemen changed to yells of alarm and terror” as the surging cavalry struck the mass of demonstrators. Protesters fled, if they could, or were ridden down. Officers wheeled and charged, wheeled and charged, knocking dozens to the sidewalks, raising a clamor that could be heard for blocks around. At the front of the march, plainclothesmen and uniformed policemen pushed their way towards the heart of the mob. “The officers fought coldly, contemptuously, systematically, shoulder to shoulder and elbow to elbow,” a reporter wrote. “The IWW and anarchists battled wildly and lost all judgment in a furious rage.” Each side unleashed its resentment and hatred on the other. “The yells of defiance, the curses, the screams of pain from men and women, the clacking of galloping horses, the curt orders from police commanders made a chorus which overwhelmed the ordinary song of the streets.”
In the first moments of fighting, detectives had grabbed O’Carroll, and dragged him – struggling – from the melee. His friends chased behind, cuffing and shouting at the arresting officers, pulling their hair in a wild attempt to pry him free. The panicked and outnumbered cops lashed out indiscriminately, beating the thin, sickly O’Carroll on the head until a deep gash opened across his scalp, and blood was pouring over his face and soaking his clothes. Becky threw her body over his, shielding him as best she could from the policemen’s blows, and shouting desperately, “Save Joe from the oppressors of the poor!”
Hearing her calls for help, an unemployed radical named Arthur Caron moved to intervene. Within seconds, he too was on the ground, being struck again and again with blackjacks and fists on his head and legs. “For Christ’s sake,” he pleaded, “stop hitting me.” They grabbed him up, manhandled him toward a patrol wagon, and threw him into the hold. O’Carroll and an officer were already in the back, two more officers rode up in the cab, and several plainclothesmen stood out on the running board. The door slammed shut as the vehicle coughed into motion. A cop hissed at him, “You bastard, we’ve got you now,” and punched him in the face. He tried to get up, blood racing from his nose. “You Bastard, lie still!” they yelled, as they all beat him on the back of his skull. O’Carroll staggered over and cradled Caron’s wounded head. “Poor boy!” he muttered in shock. “Jesus! You’re getting it awful.”
At the East 22nd Street station, the two crushed protesters were dragged from the wagon and shoved down onto opposite ends of a long bench. Before they could be booked, the detectives made them wash the blood off their faces, necks, and hands so they could be presentable to the magistrate. Then they had to think of what charges they would file against their prisoners.
“That’s O’Carroll,” one of them said. “We’ll charge him with striking an officer and resisting arrest.”
“What’ll we charge that big bastard with?” asked another, gesturing to Caron.
“Charge the fuck with trying to take him away from the police and yelling, ‘Kill the bastards!’”
“No scene in New York for years has approached the violence of the outbreak in Union Square yesterday,” proclaimed the next morning’s Sun. There had been eight arrests, and dozens of injuries. For more than a week, newspaper editors had been calling for stern measures against protest demonstrations, and for now the press seemed satisfied with the result. “The police,” a Times reporter wrote, “led by a detachment of mounted men, wielded their clubs right and left, and left many aching heads in their wake.” The World expressed similar contentment at seeing “a couple of hundred vile-tongued IWW’s … routed by unmerciful clubbing.” After the battle, Commissioner McKay surveyed the scene of his masterstroke with complacency. “Though what did happen was bad enough,” he told reporters, “anything might have happened, and we were prepared for it.” Surely, no one would now accuse him of overindulging these anarchists." [Thai Jones - 'More Powerful than Dynamite Radicals, Plutocrats, Progressives, and New York’s Year of Anarchy' (2012)]

1914 - [O.S. Mar. 22] Yelena Grigórievna Mazanik (Елена Григорьевна Мазаник; d. 1996), Belarusian member of the anti-fascist underground, who planted the timebomb in the matress of Generalkommissar Wilhelm Kube, SS Gauleiter for Weissruthenien (Belarus), that killed him on September 22, 1943, in his apartment in occupied Minsk, born. Yelena and the two other women involved in the operation, Maria Osipova and Nadezhda Troyan, were honoured with the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Salvador Seguí and other anarcho-syndicalist leaders, who wanted above all to maintain the strength of the CNT as a union against the more confrontational elements, issues call to return to work by April 7, but unlike before the union is in no position now to negotiate terms for the release of thousands of prisoners, layoffs or retaliation against the mostly CNT-affiliated workers who had supported the general strike.

1920 - During the night of the 3rd-4th April, the IRA burn over 300 abandoned RIC barracks in rural areas and almost 100 income tax offices to commemorate the Easter Uprising.

1931 - Gerardo Gatti Antuña (d. 1976?), Uruguayan anarchist militant and head of the Uruguayan graphic workers' union, born. One of the founders and the first secretary of the Plenario Intersindical de Trabajadores - Convención Nacional de Trabajadores (PIT-CNT; Intersyndical Plenary of Workers - National Convention of Workers), a leader of Resistencia Obrero Estudiantil (ROE; Student Worker Resistance), the Federación Anarquista Uruguyaya (FAU) and the Partido por la Victoria del Pueblo (Party for the People's Victory). He was disappeared by the Argentine government, tortured in the Automotores Orletti, the clandestine detention and torture centre that operated in Buenos Aires, and an attempt made to ransom him for $2m before his death (date unknown).

[C] 1933 - The SS break into John Heartfield's apartment, and he barely escapes by jumping from his balcony and flees to Czechoslovakia, where he continues his anti-fascist propaganda work (the work he left behind was confiscated and destroyed).

1935 - Relief Camp Workers' Union 'On-to-Ottawa Trek': 1,600 unemployed men living and working in Canadian federal relief camps – constructing roads and other public works at the rate of twenty cents per day – go on strike. Public support was enormous and the men decided to take their grievances to the federal government. On June 3, hundreds boarded boxcars headed east in what became known as the “On-to-Ottawa Trek.”

[F] 1944 - Crew on board five Greek Navy ships in Alexandria harbour mutiny. The destroyers Ierax and the Criti, the corvettes Sachtouris and Apostolis, the floating repair shop Hyphaistos, and in Port Said the submarine Papanicolis and the battleship Averof, all joined the mutiny. The mutiny spread to Malta, where three submarines, the submarine escort the Corinthia and the destroyers Spetses and Navarinon joined. Venizelos of the government in exile was told by Admiral Cunningham that he would lose his seat at the coming negotiations over Greece’s future if he did not act, so he appointed Rear-Admiral Petros Voulgaris "with the mission to crush the mutiny".
[libcom.org/files/Unpatriotic History of the Seco - Heartfield, James.pdf]

1945 - Daniel Cohn-Bendit, French-born student leader during the unrest of May 1968, born. The one-time anarchist was then known as Dany le Rouge but has since become Dany le Vert, having joined the German Greens.

1958 - 4,000 begin the first of what becomes eleven consecutive annual Easter protest marches from London to Aldermaston AWRE spy base in England. The march arrived three days later.

1968 - Martin Luther King assassinated in Memphis, USA.

1969 - Diana Blefari Melazzi (d. 2009), Italian member of the Nuove Brigate Rosse, who was arrested on December 22, 2003 in Santa Marinella and sentenced to life imprisonment for the murder of labour lawyer and jurist Marco Biagi, born. Sentenced to first and second degree imprisonment (primo e secondo grado all'ergastolo) on Dec. 7, 2007, the judgment was set aside due to her poor mental health (she was said to be suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder, paranoia and panic attacks). A new trail was held and on October 27, 2009 she was again sentenced to life imprisonment. On the evening of October 31, shortly after being informed of the decision, Blefari hung herself with a bedsheet in her cell in Rebibbia prison.

1975 - Zhang Zhixin (張志新; d. 1975), Chinese dissident during the Cultural Revolution, who took on the Gang of Four, publicly criticising them and the deification of Mao Zedong, for which she was imprisoned for six years (1969 - 1975) and tortured, is executed, having her throat cut before being shot. [see: Dec. 5]

1991 - Julien Toublet (b. 1906), French jewellry worker and militant anarcho-syndicalist, as was his son Jacky Toublet, dies. [see: Aug. 27]
1834 - Tolpuddle Martyrs: George Loveless, who had been too ill to travel with his five comrades to Portsmouth, is declared fit and taken to the York hulk. Six weeks later, on May, 17th he sailed aboard the William Metcalfe for Van Diemen's Land, reaching Hobart Town on September 4. [see: Mar. 17 & 18]

1839 - Gabriel-Constant Martin (d. 1906), French teacher, elected a member of the Paris Commune, First International, Blanquist, anarchist, born. Martin wrote for Sébastien Faure's paper, 'Le journal du peuple' until his death, July 9, 1906.

1871 - Élisée Reclus, serving in the National Guard, now in open revolt, during the Paris Commune, is taken prisoner. On the 16th of November he is sentenced to transportation for life; but, largely at the instance of influential deputations from England, the famed geographer and anarchist had his sentence commuted in January 1872 to perpetual banishment.

1877 - Benevento Anarchist / Banda del Matese Uprising: In Italy, the debut of the anarchist Gang of Matese. Carlo Cafiero, Errico Malatesta, Pietro Cesaré Ceccarelli and the Russian militant Sergei Stepniak are among the 26 dubbed the Gang of Matese (la banda del Matese) by the government after the town of Letino declares a social revolution and libertarian communism three days hence.

1889 - Court of Rome sentences the anarchist (and later socialist) Andrea Costa to three years in prison for "ribellione alla polizia di stato" (rebellion against the state police).

1895 - Oscar Wilde is arrested on charges of sodomy and gross indecency.

1896 - Jean Charles Boussinot (d. 1970), French anarchist schoolmaster, and writer, born. Father of the libertarian writer, director, screenwriter and film historian Roger Boussinot [see: May 2].
Wrote 'Le Cœur qui Chante: drame en 3 actes' (The Heart Sings: drama in 3 acts); the novels 'Les Meskines' (1930) and 'La Délivrance de Prométhée, 1: La Femelle' (1933); as well as a number of anti-clerical texts on education, including 'L'École, Antichambre de Caserne et de Sacristie' and 'Le Vrai Visage de L’école Laïque' (The School, Antechamber of the Barracks and Sacristy and The True Face of the Secular School; 1931) with Émile Janvion; as well as the wonderfully titled 'Mourir Pour la Patrie? Oh ! Non, Pas Ça!' (Dying for one's country? Oh! No not that!), one of a number of articles for the 'Encyclopédie Anarchiste'.

1900 - Augustin Malroux (d. 1945), French teacher, socialist politician and member of the French Résistance, born. Member of the Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière (SFIO; French Section of the Second International), on 10 July 1940, he was one of the Vichy 80, the parliamentarians voting not to grant full powers to Marshal Pétain. In September 1940, he participated in the founding of the Comité d'Action Socialiste (CAS, Socialist Action Committee) for the zone occupée, offered his Parisian residence for clandestine meetings and linking between CAS Nord and CAS Sud. From 1941, he was also a member of the Confrérie Notre-Dame (Notre-Dame Brotherhood) and of the Organisation Civile et Militaire (Civil and Military Organisation). From 1940, he was also charged with establishing a link between Libération-sud and Libération Nord. In 1942, this movement asked him to create a combat group. Finally, he participated in the clandestine rebuilding of the Syndicat National des Instituteurs (National Teachers' Union). Arrested on March 2, 1942 in Paris, Malroux was then imprisoned in Fresnes and, on September 15, 1943, he was deported to Germany. First imprisoned in the camp at Neunkirchen, he was then transferred to prisons at Frankfurt am Main, Kassel, Halle and Berlin in September–October 1943, then to the camp at Bad Saarow (Sachsenhausen), from October 1943 to February 1945, and finally to the camp at Bergen-Belsen, where he died.

[E] 1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: In the early hours of the morning militant suffragettes set fire to a private grandstand at Ayr racecourse, destroying other buildings including the stables. Copies of 'Votes for Women' and the 'Suffragette' are found in the debris. The fire is estimated to have caused £3,000 damage. Elsewhere, an attempt to destroy the grandstand at Kelso racecourse is discovered.

1913 - Léon Lacombe aka 'Leontou' & 'Le Chien' (b. 1885), French individualist anarchist and miner, who was involved in a series of illegalist actions including robberies and the killing of a police informer, cheats the guillotine by committing suicide, throwing himself from the roof of the La Santé prison. [see: Apr. 12]

[D] 1914 - Revolución Mexicana: Pancho Villa defeats 12,000 strong Huerta force at San Pedro de las Colonias.

1917 - [O.S. Mar. 23] February Revolution [Февральская Революция]: The Petrograd Soviet organises a large-scale ceremony for the burial of the victims at the the Field Of Mars (Марсовом поле)

1920 - During the night of the 4th-5th April, one hundred and twenty Royal Irish Constabulary barracks and 22 tax offices are torched to commemorate the insurrectionists of the Easter Rising. The previous night (April 3-4), the destruction had been even greater with the IRA burning over 300 abandoned RIC barracks in rural areas, to prevent their reoccupation, and almost 100 income tax offices with all their records. In a couple of days virtually the whole Irish taxation system had been dismantled.

1920 - Following a meeting in Decima Persiceto, near Bologna in Italy, the carabinieri massacre seven workers, including the anarchist Compagnoli, and injure 45 others. A general strike 's declared in the province, which is extended to many other Italian cities and lasts until April 7.

1922 - The American Birth Control League, founded by Margaret Sanger at the First American Birth Control Conference in New York City. and forerunner of Planned Parenthood, is incorporated in New York.

1926 - Jaime Cubero (d. 1998), Brazilian activist, journalist, intellectual, educator and brother of Francisco 'Chico' Cuberos Neto, who dedicated his life to the dissemination of anarchist ideas, born.

1930 - Antoine Cyvoct (b. 1861), Lyons anarchist militant, dies. [see: Feb. 28]

1943 - Peter Miller (d. 1999), English anarchist militant, secularist and trade unionist, born. Initially a member of the Trotskyist Socialist Labour League, he moved towards anarchism and, after a meeting with Albert Meltzer, began a long cooperation with the Anarchist Black Cross. A militant secularist, he was chair of the Leicester Secular Society for more than 10 years and an active trade unionist in the labourt movement in Leicestershire. He was also involved in the libertarian press, with 'Black Flag', 'Freedom', 'Cienfugos Press Anarchist Review', 'Anarchy Magazine' and published in the 70s the anarchist cultural magazine 'Z Review'.

[C] 1950 - The date most commonly given for the voluntary disbandment of the 43 Group, which has accepted that the immediate fascist threat was over. [see: Jun. 4]

[F] 1954 - The longest strike in U.S. history begins as workers at the Kohler Company in Sheboygan, Wisconsin, go out on strike when the company fails to negotiate in good faith with their union, the United Auto Workers. More than six years later, the NLRB ruled in the workers’ favor; it wasn’t until 1964 that Kohler agreed to pay $4.5 million in back wages and pension contributions.

1960 - Moriya Emori (盛弥 江森; b. 1903), Japanese poet and anarchist, also known as Soma Jukichi, dies. [see: Aug. 18]

1962 - Vaga Minaire d'Astúries / Huelga Minera de Asturias [Asturian Miners' Strike]: A 'go-slow' in operation since the beginning of the month at the San Nicolás pit (Nicolasa) in Mieres, Asturias over working conditions, the organisation of shifts and a disagreement over the set piecework rate [the company, Fábrica de Mieres, wishing to cut production] by 25 miners comes to a head with the refusal of seven others from 'taller 9' (workshop 9) to move coal. The following day the seven 'taller 9' miners were called in one by one to be informed by an engineer of their dismissal. They took the opportunity to reitterate their miners' demand for an increase in piecework rates, whilst threatening to go to the press about their sacking. On Saturday, April 7, neither the morning shift nor the afternoon shift, comes to work, in solidarity with their sacked colleagues.

1976 - Marcelo Salinas (b. 1889), Cuban anarchist, playwright and journalist, who was forced into exile by the Castro regime, dies. [see: Oct. 30]

1988 - Pierre Prévert (b. 1906), French filmmaker, actor, director, writer and libertarian, dies. [see: May 26]

1990 - Strangeways-related disturbances at HMP Durham, Winchester, Wandsworth, Full Sutton, Stafford and Brockhill.

1992 - Peace protesters Suada Dilberovic, a Bosniak medical student, and Olga Sučić, a Croat, are shot and killed on the Vrbanja Bridge in Sarajevo by Serb snipers, becoming the first casualties of the Bosnian War. The bridge was later renamed the Suada and Olga bridge in their honour.

1997 - Allen Ginsberg (b. 1926), American Beat poet, one-time Wobbly and anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 3]

[A] 2003 - 86 prisoners die in fires or are shot by the cops and guards following a riot at El Porvenir prison farm outside La Ceiba, Honduras.

[B] 2004 - Gébé (Gérard Blondeaux; b. 1929), French anarchist, prolific cartoonist, editor of 'Hara-Kiri', 'Charlie Hebdo' and 'Zero', dies. Many of his cartoons and illustrations appeared in the libertarian press, such as 'Monde Libertaire' as well as in alternative and satirical publications.
One of his comic series 'L'An 01' [i.e. after May '68], which covered topics as diverse as ecology, the negation of authority, free love, community life, the rejection of private property and labour, and which was made into a film of the same name directed in 1973 by Jacques Doillon, Alain Resnais, Jean Rouch and Gébé himself. Amongst his other comic strips are 'Armée Non!' (No Army!; 1981) and 'Anarchie Douce' (Soft Anarchism; 1982).
He also wrote works for radio, songs-like 'Casse-Tete', interpreted by Yves Montand, François Béranger, Gérard Jouannest and Juliette Gréco; novels such as 'Sept Cartouches' (Seven cartridges; 1982), 'Le Roman d'une Année Sabbatique' (Novel of a Sabbatical Year; 1988) and 'Les Résistants du Square' (The Resistance Fighters of the Square; 1991). [see: Jul. 9]

2011 - Fascists try to disrupt an Unite Against Fascism (UAF) "public meeting in Brighton to oppose David Cameron’s attack on multiculturalism and Britain’s Muslims" at the Friends Meeting House in Ship Street.
1781 - Túpac Amaru captured in Perú after being denounced by a traitor.

1812 - [O.S. Mar. 25] Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (Russian: Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен; d. 1870), Russian writer, journalist, novelist and thinker, who was one of the main 'forefathers' of Russian socialism and agrarian populism (an ideological ancestor of the Narodniki, Socialist-Revolutionaries, etc.), and who was greatly influenced by the anarchism, born. Influenced by the French revolution and the socialism of Saint-Simon. Took an active part in the Revolutions of 1848 in Paris and Rome. Founded the influential newspaper 'The Bell' (Kolokol) in London. Strongly influenced by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and other anarchists. He helped finance his close friend Mikhail Bakunin's escape from Tsarist Russia. [expand]

1847 - Gustave Jeanneret (d. 1927), Swiss painter, member of the International Council of the Jura Federation, brother of the libertarian engraver and writer Georges-Edouard Jeanneret and uncle of Le Corbusier, born. Trained as a wallpaper engraver but left for Paris in 1869 to dedicate himself fully to his art. During the Semaine Sanglante he was involved in smuggling passports into Paris to enable the escape of Communards. Back in Switzerland, Switzerland, he was secretary of the Neuchâtel section of the AIT (anti-authoritarian) and active within the Jura Federation. He specialised in realist views of the countryside and especially the vineyard.

1862 - Georges Darien (pseudonym for Georges Hippolyte Adrien)(d. 1921), French writer (novels, plays, literary magazines, etc.) associated with anarchism and an outspoken advocate of Georgism, born. His novel 'Les Pharisiens' (1891) is a fictional indictment of French anti-semitism and its most prominent advocate, Édouard Drumont. Forgotten after his death, he was rediscovered after the reissue of 'Voleur' (1897) in 1955 and of 'Bas les Cœurs!' (1889) in 1957.
"I belong to no party. I have no flag. I hate all flags, including the red flag."

[D] 1871 - Paris Commune: During the Commune, a battalion of the National Guard set up two guillotines before the statue of Voltaire and set fire to them in front of a cheering crowd, shouting: "Down with the death penalty!"

1871 - In an article in the 'Journal Officiel de la Commune', Gustave Courbet, president of the Fédération des artistes, calls on his fellow artists to join him in his efforts in re-establishing the role of the arts and help reopen the museums.

1875 - Anna Götze (d. 1958), German bookbinder, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, born. Initially a member of the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, at the end of WWI she joined the newly formed Spartakusbund. Following the murder of Rosa Luxemburg and the absorption of the Sparticists into the SPD, she joined the anarcho-syndicalist Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands (Free Workers’ Union of Germany) she joined the FAUD and was active in various cooperative projects, women's federations, free schools and free children's groups. Of the three children that she had with her fellow anarcho-syndicalist Karl Brauner, Irma and Ferdinand aka 'Nante', also FAUD members, were active along side her. Her third child, Waldemar, joined the KPD. The resulting intrafamilial disputes gave way only after the Nazis' seizure of power and all the family becoming active in the anti-fascist underground together. On May 9, 1933, the FAUD offices in Berlin-Friedrichshain were raided by the Gestapo and FAUD was forced to set up underground networks. The Götze's apartment in Leipzig quickly became one of the important meeting places for the anarcho-syndicalist resistance.
Anna was arrested for the first time in 1935 and then again on October 1, 1937. She was sentenced to 3 years imprisonment on April 12, 1938, which she served in Waldheim jail. She was then imprisoned in the Ravensbrück concentration camp, where her daughter Irma was also being held. They both managed to escape from there when the Nazis began the death march of prisoners from there in April 1945. Anna Götze died on July 18, 1958.

1878 - André Victor Hippolyte Mounier aka 'L'Agronome' (The Agronomist) & Jean Prolo (d. unknown), French labourer and member of the anarchist Colony of Aiglemont founded by Fortuné Henry, born.

[A] 1878 - Erich Mühsam (d. 1934 ), gay German poet, playwright and anarchist militant, born. A rebel from an early age (expelled from school aged 13 and a writer of satirical verse), he left his apprenticeship in the family Pharmacy in 1900 to devote himself to cultural agitation. By 1901 he was in Berlin, where he and his partner Johannes Nohl met the likes of John Henry Mackay, Johannes Schlaf and Hanns Heinz Ewers. He also joined the Neue Gemeinschaft (New Community) circle, which brought together young political intellectuals and agitated in favour of community life, and including Peter Hille, Martin Buber and Gustav Landauer. At that time Mühsam discovered the writings of a number of anarchists, especially those of Mikhail Bakunin. He also began working on numerous libertarian publications such as 'Der Freie Arbeiter', 'Der Anarchist', Johannes Holzman's (Senna Hoy) magazine 'Der Kampf', and he edited the Berlin newspaper 'Der Arme Teufel' (The Poor Devil). Culturally, he became a member of the Friedrichshagener Dichterkreis (Friedrichshagener circle of poets) naturalist writers circle and was a popular figure in literary cabarets and bohemian circles, becoming the producer of the Cabaret zum Peter Hille, named after the Neue Gemeinschaft member.
Between 1904 and 1907, he travelled throughout Europe with his partner Johannes Nohl, going to Italy ans Switzerland, where he met Fritz Brupbacher, Bakunin biographer, and participated in the Monte Verità community at Ascona, befriending Karl Gräser, co-founder of Monte Verità with his brother Gusto. He also visited Austria and France, in Paris he frequenting the cabarets Le Lapin Agile and Le Chat Noir, and participated in several meetings of the German Anarchist Club of Paris, befriending Gustave Herve, James Guillaume and former Communards. Back in Berlin, he continued working in 'Der Freie Arbeiter' and its monthly anti-militarist supplement 'Generalstreik' (General Strike), along with 'Der Jugend' and the arts magazine 'Simplicissimus'.
Following the 1907 International Anarchist Congress in Amsterdam, he made a public called for civil disobedience and refuse to pay the tax for the Army. That same year, and having also published a pamphlet on those issues, he was fined 500 marks for "incitement to class hatred and encouraging disobedience of the law." In November 1908, he settled in Munich, where he founded the Gruppe Tat (Action), which included Oskar Maria Graf and Georg Schrimpf amongst its members, and joined Landauer's newly founded Sozialistischer Bund (Socialist Federation), which was based on federated Proudhonian mutualist communities. Arrested numerous times and especially persecuted for having organised demonstrations of unemployed, in 1910 he was arrested for membership of a secret societies but eventually acquitted for lack of evidence. However, it did bring about the end of the Tat group.
Around the same time he was an active member of a Schwabian cultural circle, which included the likes of Heinrich Mann and Frank Wedekind along with many other poets and artists. He also published three books of poetry, four plays, and in the period 1911-14 was editor of the revolutionary literary monthly 'Kain: Zeitschrift für Menschlichkeit' (Cain: Journal of Humanity), in which many of his writings of the period were also published.
After the outbreak of WWI, Mühsam initially supported the Manifesto of the Sixteen, for which he was heavily criticise, especially by Landauer. However, he eventually changed his position and was involved in attempts, along with Landauer, Heinrich Mann, etc., to establish an international federation of opponents to the war. His attitude was considered "defeatist" by the authorities and he was banished to the Bavarian Alps. This failed to stop him, and on 17 June 1916, he participated in a demonstration against hunger. In January 1918, during a strike by workers in the munitions factories of Munich, he took to the floor in front of around 100,000 Krupp factory workers to call for a general strike, and was arrested. For violating his ban on political activity for refusing to participate in the then Vaterländischen Hilfsdienst (Patriotic Support Forum), he was sentenced to six months imprisonment in Traunstein and not released until November 5 1918, shortly before the revolution.
During the German Revolution of November 1918, and which proclaimed the Republic, he was a member of Revolutionären Arbeiterrats (Revolutionary Workers' Counci) which deposed the Kaiser and proclaimed the Free State of Bavaria. Following the assassination of the Bavarian Prime Minister Kurt Eisner by right-wingers, he was one of the leaders of the Bavarian Soviet Republic of April 7 1919 but, following the April 13 attempted Munich Soviet coup, he was arrested and jailed with other leaders. After the defeat of the Republic by the Reichswehr and the right-wing nationalist Freikorps, and during which his friend Landauer was murdered, he was sentenced to 15 years in prison for being a "treibendes element" (driving element).
During his imprisonment he wrote many poems and propaganda pieces including 'Brennende Erde' (Burning Earth), 'Verse eines Kämpfer' (Fighter's Poems), 'Alarm', 'Manifeste aus zwanzig Jahren' (Manifesto of 20 Years) and the five act drama 'Judas' in tribute to Gustav Landauer, killed during the post-Republic repression. Upon release on 20 December 1924 (under a general amnesty that saw Adolf Hitler, who by then had only served eight months of a five-year sentence for leading the Beer Hall Putsch in 1923, also released), he moved to Berlin and founded the anarchist periodical 'Fanal' (Beacon) together with the Anarchist Union. He also participated in campaigning for the release of Sacco and Vanzetti and against the expulsion of Durruti and other Spanish anarchist exiles. From 1925 to 1929 he was active the Rote Hilfe Deutschlands (Red Aid), the Communist Party associated prisoner support organisation, but left because of political differences . In the early 1930s, he was a member of the anarcho-syndicalist FAUD, alongside his friend and comrade Rudolf Rocker. A special issue of the journal 'Fanal' appeared in 1932, shortly before the seizure of power by the Nazis. It included his philosophical essay 'Die Befreiung Geselischaft der vom Staat' (The Emancipation of Society from the State; 1932), subtitled 'Was ist Kommunistischer Anarchismus?' (What is Communist Anarchism?), in which he rejected the doctrine of historical materialism in his work, explaining his revolutionary concepts and the need for the replacement of the state by an organisation of free manual workers and intellectuals. In it he also denounced the Communist Party for its subverting of the Russian revolution, its seizure of power and its so-called dictatorship in the name of the proletariat. From 1931-1933 Mühsam also published regular satirical political contributions in the 'Ulk' supplement in the 'Berliner Tageblattes' under the pseudonym Tobias.
From the mid 1920s onwards, Mühsam had been relentlessly denounced by the Nazi press because of his writings satirising the Nazis such as his short story 'Die Affenschande' (1923), which ridiculed the racial doctrines of the Nazi party, and the poem 'Republikanische Nationalhymne' (1924), which attacked the German judiciary for its disproportionate punishment of leftists when compared to the right wing participants in the Putsch. Following his attempts to create a broad anti-fascist front, Goebbels labelled him "the red Jewish pig" and the main Nazi organ, 'Die Völkischer Beobachter', published three photos on the front page (Rosa Luxemburg, Karl Liebknecht and Mühsam) with the caption: "The only traitors in the team that have not been executed."
On 20 February 1933, chaired the last meeting of anti-fascist artists in Berlin. Shortly thereafter, on February 28 1933, the day after the Reichstag fire, he was arrested as he tried to leave for Prague. Even after his arrest, the Nazi propaganda machine kept after him claiming that he was involved in the execution of 22 hostages in Munich on April 30 1919, unaware that from April 13 onwards he was firmly locked up in Ebrach prison. Following his arrest, Mühsam spent time in Sonnebrug, Ploetzensse and Brandenburg prison camps, where he was routinely beaten and tortured for things like not singing 'Deutschland über alles', for singing 'The Internationale', and so he could not write, etc. Suffering from heart disease, deaf, almost blind and unable to walk unaided, he was eventually hospitalised.
In February 1934 he was transferred to Orianenburg Concentration Camp, where he was put to work cleaning the latrines. During the night of July 9-10, 1934 he was brutally murdered by SS men, who left him strung up in the latrines. The Nazi press claimed: "Der Jude Erich Mühsam hat sich in der Schutzhaft erhängt" (The Jew Erich Mühsam hung himself in protective custody). His end echoed the meaning of his surname: Painfully (or Laboriously). Mühsam was buried on 16 July 1934 at the cemetery in Dahlem (Berlin, Germany).
Amongst the works published in his lifetime were 'Die Homosexualität. Ein Beitrag zur Sittengeschichte unserer Zeit' (Homosexuality. A contribution to the history of morals of our time; 1903) (pamphlet); 'Die Wüste. Gedichte 1898-1903' (The Desert. Poems 1898-1903; 1904); 'Billy's Erdengang. Eine Elephantengeschichte für artige Kinder' (Billy's Life. An Elephant Story for Kids; 1904), with Hanns Heinz Ewers; 'Die Hochstapler. Lustspiel in vier Aufzügen' (The Impostor. Comedy in four acts; 1906); 'Wüste - Krater - Wolken. Die Gedichte' (Desert - Crater - Clouds. The Poems; 1914); 'Die Freivermählten. Polemisches Schauspiel in drei Aufzügen' (The Free-weds. Polemical Drama in three Acts; 1914); '1919. Dem Andenken Gustav Landauers' (1919. In Memory of Gustav Landauer; 1919); 'Brennende Erde. Verse eines Kämpfers' (Burning Earth. Verses of a Fighter; 1920); 'Judas. Arbeiter-Drama in fünf Akten' (Judas. Workers drama in five acts; 1921); 'Revolution. Kampf, Marsch und Spottlieder' (Revolution. Battle, March and Satirical Songs; 1925); 'Staatsräson. Ein Denkmal für Sacco und Vanzetti' (Reason of state. A Monument to Sacco and Vanzetti; 1929).

Die Augen auf! Erwachen
aus Druck und Zwang und Staat!
Ihr Armen und ihr Schwachen,
besinnt euch auf die Tat!
Die ihr dem Herrn den Spaten führt,
die Häuser baut, das Feuer schürt, -
sehnt ihr euch nicht nach Brot und Land?
Den eignen Spaten in die Hand!
Fort mit der Fessel, die euch band!

In Reihen, Kameraden!
Die ihr die Arbeit haßt,
mit der man euch beladen, -
werft von euch eure Last!
Werft sie, wohin sie fallen mag!
Schafft selbst euch euern Arbeitstag
Pfeift auf des Herren Dienstgebot!
Nicht ihm - euch selbst backt euer Brot!
Nicht ihm - euch selbst helft aus der Not!

Ans Werk! Die Kinder schreien
nach Brot und Bett und Kleid!
Ans Werk, sie zu befreien
aus ihrem Weh und Leid!
Ans Werk, ihr Männer und ihr Frauen!
Den Kindern gilt's die Welt zu bauen!
Mensch, fühl dich Mensch und sei kein Hund!
Freiheit auf freiem Ackergrund!
Dem Volk den Boden! Schließt den Bund!

(The eyes! Awakening
of pressure and coercion and state!
Her arms and her weak,
remembers you in the act!
Leading her to the Lord the spade,
builds the houses, stoking the fire, -
not long after ye bread and country?
Are the spade in his hand!
Continued with the ankle, the tape you!

In rows, comrades!
You hate the work,
with the one you loaded, -
cast your burden from you!
Throw them wherever they may fall!

You yourselves create your working day!
Whistles of the gentlemen on service priority!
Not him - yourselves bake your bread!
Not him - you help yourself out of trouble!

To work! The children cry
for bread and bed and dress!
To work, to free them
from their pain and suffering!
To work, their men and their women!
The children's is to build the world!
Human, feel human and was not a dog!
Freedom at large arable ground!
The people of the ground! Makes the covenant!)

- 'Weckruf' (Wake-up call; 1909)


[BB] 1888 - Hans Richter (d. 1976), German Dadaist painter, sculptor, collagist, graphic artist, avant-garde film-experimenter, anti-militarist and anarchist, who claimed that Kropotkin's 'Mutual Aid' was the most significant book that he ever read, born. [expand]

1893 - Dyer Daniel Lum (b. 1839), American anarchist, labour activist and poet, dies. He was a prominent anarcho-syndicalist, leftist intellectual and the partner and mentor of early anarcha-feminist Voltairine de Cleyre.

1894 - In Chieti, Camillo Di Sciullo, responsible for publishing the anarchist newspaper 'Il pensiero', goes on trial. Defended by the lawyer Pietro Gori, also an anarchist; Di Sciullo is acquitted.

[B] 1902 - Margaret Michaelis (Michaelis-Sachs) (born Margarethe Gross; d. 1985), Austrian, and then Australian, photographer and anarchist, born in Dzieditz, near Krakow, to a liberal Jewsih family. She studied photography at the Graphische Lehr-und Versuchsanstalt (Institute of Graphic Arts and Research) in Vienna from 1918-1921.
'Margaret Michaelis : fotografía, vanguardia y política en la Barcelona de la República, dossier de prensa de 19 de enero al 7 de marzo de 1999'. [expand]

[F] 1903 - Spoorwegstaking [Railway Strike]: A railway strike that is hoped will lead to a general strike in The Netherlands begins today. It is called by the Comité van Verweer (Defense Committee), set up by the Nationale Federatie van Transportarbeiders (National Federation of Transport Workers) on February 20 in preparation for "a general strike, proclaimed in violation of the compulsory laws" (een algemeene werkstaking, geproklameerd tot wering der dwangwetten) that the Kuyper's Cabinet planned to bring in punishing under the Criminal Code the withdrawal of labour by civil servants and railway personnel, in response to a wave of strikes earlier in the years. That same day, soldiers took up positions in the streets to prevent disorder. Disagreement within the labour movement prevented the strike from taking off. Within five days the anti-strike legislation became law.

1904 - The case under the Alien Immigration Act of 1903 for the deportation of British philosophical anarchist John Turner is heard by the United States Supreme Court. Arrested on October 23, after giving a lecture at the Murray Hill Lyceum, Immigration officials found a copy of Johann Most's Free Society on him, together with his speaking schedule, which included a memorial to the Haymarket Martyrs. Turner challenged the Law but the Supreme Court upheld it and he was deported.

1905 - Montgomery Ward / Chicago Teamsters' Strike: Teamsters in Chicago begin a sympathy strike in support of locked out Montgomery Ward & Co. workers who were on strike to protest the company’s use of nonunion subcontractors. When other businesses rallied to the company’s defense, the dispute spread quickly. Workers battled strikebreakers, police, and scabs for 105 days; 21 people died.

[C] 1906 - Virginia Hall (d. 1982), American spy with the British Special Operations Executive during WWII and who worked as a radio operator and network manager, supporting the French Résistance in the Lyon and Haute-Loire regions, born. She was known by many aliases, including Marie Monin, Philomène, Brigitte Lecontre, Germaine, La dame qui boite, Diane, Marie de Lyon, Anna Müller, Camille, and Nicolas, as well as the codenames that the Germans gave her, including Artemis and The Limping Lady. Even her wooden leg had a codename, Cuthbert.

1912 - National Coal Strike: The strike is called off after 37 days. It ends uncertainly, and with continuing dissatisfaction among many miners. The minimum Wage Act, passed as the price of peace, conceded the principle for which the Federation had fought, although in insisting on district settlements, the owners successfully qualified their victory. [see: Mar. 1]

1915 - Battle of Celya / Revolución Mexicana: Alvaro Obregon army of 6,000 cavalry and 5,000 infantry has decisive victory over Pancho Villa's 20,000 man army. Villa loses 4,000 killed in frontal cavalry attacks on Obregon's trenches, barbed wire and machine guns. 6.000 taken prisoner. Villia's 19th century tactics do not fare well against Obregon's 20th century trench warfare methods of currently used in WWI.

1919 - Sóivéid Luimnigh [Limerick Soviet]: The IRA attempt to liberate Robert Byrne, a local postal worker and member of the Irish Volunteers who had been arrested on January 13 and charged with possession of a revolver and ammunition, and who was under arrest by the Royal Irish Constabulary police in a hospital, being treated for the effects of a hunger strike. In the rescue attempt Constable Martin O'Brien is fatally wounded and another policeman seriously injured. Byrne is also wounded and dies later the same day.

1919 - Bavarian Council Republic [Bayerische / Münchner Räterepublik]: Bavarian Raterepublik declared in opposition to the provisional government. The Central Council of Workers', Soldiers' and Farmers' Councils includes Ernst Toller, anarchists Erich Mühsam, Gustav Landauer and one 'Richard Maurhut' — the man who became famous as the novelist B. Traven. [see: Apr. 7]

1919 - Revolución Mexicana: Emiliano Zapata is killed by troops of a Carrancista officer who pretended to mutiny. Following Zapata's death, the Liberation Army of the South slowly fell apart. [expand]

1920 - Märzaufstand / Ruhraufstand: In response to the Reichswehr presence in the Ruhr, which contravened the Treaty of Versailles, the French occupied towns like Frankfurt, Hanau and Darmstadt.

1920 - Serafim Ivanovna Deryabin (Серафима Ивановна Дерябина; [June 19] 1888), Russian revolutionary and Bolshevik, who escaped from the notorious White Army 'train of death', dies of tuberculosis. [see: Jul. 1]

1929 - Curt Corrinth's controverial play 'Trojaner' (Trojans), a critique of German anti-Sematism, permières at the Volksbühne in Berlin.

1945 - Leon Feldhendler (Lejb Feldhendler; 1910), Polish-Jewish resistance fighter known for his role in organising, with Alexander Pechersky (1909 - 1990), the 1943 prisoner uprising at the Sobibor extermination camp, dies having managed to escape and survive the war. The uprising, which took place on October 14, 1943, was detected in its early stages after a guard discovered the body of an SS officer killed by the prisoners. Nevertheless, about 320 Jews managed to make it outside of the camp in the ensuing melee. Eighty were killed in the escape and immediate aftermath. 170 were soon recaptured and killed, as were all the remaining inhabitants of the camp who had chosen to stay. Some escapees joined the partisans. Of these, ninety died in combat or were killed by local collaborators or anti-Semites. Sixty-two Jews from Sobibor survived the war, including nine who had escaped earlier. Feldhendler was among those who survived the war, hiding in Lublin until the end of German occupation in July 1944. However, on April 2, 1945, he was shot through the closed door of his flat as he got up to investigate a commotion in an outer room. Feldhendler and his wife managed to escape through another door and made their way to Lublin's Św. Wincentego á Paulo hospital, where he underwent surgery but died four days later. Some sources claim Feldhendler was killed by right-wing Polish nationalist, possibly members of Narodowe Siły Zbrojne, an anti-Communist and anti-Semitic paramilitary organisation, but this doubtful.

1946 - Ester Soriano(-Hewitt) (d. 2008), Filipino-American civil rights activist and skilled mediator, whose partner was Raymond 'Masai' Hewitt, the Black Panthers' Minister of Education and a member of the Central Committee, born. One of the founders of the National Committee for the Restoration of Civil Liberties in the Philippines, she also served as the jury foreperson in the civil damages trial of Rodney King.

1948 - Philippe Garrel, French film director, cinematographer, editor, actor and libertarian, born. His oeuvre is influenced by his expreiences during May 68, including 'Les Amants Réguliers' (Regular Lovers; 2005), which is typical of his cynical political world view, is a largely autobiographical story set on and around the Latin Quarter barricades, 'Liberté, la Nuit' (1983) is set during the Algerian War, and features a teacher in the FLN who becomes involved with a young pied-noir.

1958 - Vítězslav Nezval (b. 1900), Czech poet, writer, dramatist, translator, Dadaist, co-founder of Poetism and a leading personality of Czech Surrealism, dies. [see: May 26]

1959 - Shooting begins for Guy Debord's film 'On the Passage of a Few Persons Through a Rather Brief Period of Time'.

1962 - Vaga Minaire d'Astúries / Huelga Minera de Asturias [Asturian Miners' Strike]: The seven 'taller 9' miners at the San Nicolás pit (Nicolasa) in Mieres, Asturias who had refused to load coal the previous day as part of an ongoing 'go-slow' are called in one by one to be informed by an engineer of their dismissal. They take the opportunity to reitterate their miners' demand for an increase in piecework rates, whilst threatening to go to the press about their sacking.

1972 - The 'Research Group' (研究会) of the L-Class Struggle Committee (Lクラス闘争委員会), the forerunner of anarchist East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front (東アジア反日武装戦線), bombs the Soji-ji Ossuary, having decided to blow up the ossuary where "the bones of the invaders" laid in the name of "a resistance campaign for the Korean people".

1976 - Oriol Solé Sugranyes (b. 1948), Spanish libertarian, member of the MIL (Iberian Liberation Movement) and former Centro Iberico militant, who practised expropriation policies (bank robberies) along with Salvador Puig Antich , Jean-Marc Rouillan, etc., under the dictatorship in 70s Spain, dies. On 24 July 1974, he was condemned by Franco's council of war to 48 years in prison. Incarcerated in Segovia prison, he escaped with thirty members of ETA on April 6, 1976 but was shot a few hours later by the Guardia Civil as he tried to cross the Franco-Spanish border. [see: Jan. 4]

1978 - Emmett Grogan (b. 1942), co-founder, with Peter Coyote and Peter Berg, of the Haight-Ashbury anarchist improv group the Diggers, is found dead on an F Train subway car in New York City, of heart attack. ​[see: Nov. 28]

[E] 1983 - Ana María, nom de guerre of Mélida Anaya Montes (b. 1929), El Salvadorean professor, co-founder of the FLP, and second in command of the FMLN, is assassinated – stabbed eighty six times with an ice pick (to make it look like a right wing death squad had carried it out) – by members of a faction in the FMLN around Rogelio Bazzaglia following deep idelogical divisions breaking out in the organisation. [see: May 17]

1990 - Strangeways-related disturbance at HMYOI Glen Parva.

1992 - Nepalese General Strike: A bandh or general strike called by the Joint People's Agitation Committee – made up of the Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Centre), Samyukta Jana Morcha, Communist Party of Nepal (Masal), the Nepal Communist League and the Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist-Leninist-Maoist) – who were asking for a 30-minute 'lights out' in the capital, leads to violent clashes between police and left-wing demonstrators trying to enforce the 'lights out'. During protests outside the Nepal Telecommunications building, which was set on fire, police opened fire on the crowd, killing several people. The Human Rights Organisation of Nepal estimated that 14 people, including several on-lookers, had been killed.

2008 - April 6 Youth Movement [Harket Shabab 6 April / حركة شباب 6 أبريل]: Egyptian activist group established in Spring 2008 to support the workers in El-Mahalla El-Kubra, an industrial town, who were planning to strike on April 6. Activists called on participants to wear black and stay home on the day of the strike. Bloggers and citizen journalists used Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, blogs and other new media tools to report on the strike, alert their networks about police activity, organize legal protection and draw attention to their efforts. Considered by the United States, according to a Wikileaks document, to be "outside (the) mainstream of opposition politicians and activists" .
1606 - Gunpowder Plot member Humphrey Littleton, despite his cooperation with the authorities, meets his end at Red Hill near Worcester, together with John Wintour and 3 others.

[A] 1739 - Dirk Turpin, celebrated English highwayman, hangs.

1772 - François Marie Charles Fourier (d. 1837), French utopian socialist theorist, born.

1803 - Flora Tristán (Flora Célestine Thérèse Henriette Tristán y Moscoso (d. 1844), Franco-Spanish woman of letters, militant socialist and early feminist theorist, born.

1834 - Tolpuddle Martyrs: Having been found guilty three weeks previously and transported in chains from Dorchester to the prison hulks, York and Leviathan, lying off Portsmouth, to await transportation to Australia, James Loveless, Thomas and John Stanfield, James Hammett and James Brine set sail on the Surry to Sydney, arriving on August 17, 1834. [see: Mar. 17 & 18]

1866 - William Godwin, author of 'The Inquiry Concerning Political Justice, and its Influence on General Virtue and Happiness' (1793), dies. [see: Mar. 3]

1870 - Gustav Landauer (d. 1919), German anarchist revolutionist, theorist, editor, Munich Soviet leader and Commissioner of Enlightenment and Education in the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic, born.
Member of the Friedrichshagener Dichterkreis (Friedrichshagener circle of poets) naturalist writers circle.

1872 - Dr. Marie Diana Equi (d. 1952), American medical doctor, lesbian anarchist, labour organiser and anti-militarist, born. Found guilty of sedition during WWI (as were countless others opposing American involvement in one of Europe's bloodiest wars) under a newly amended Espionage Act.

1879 - Begum Hazrat Mahal [بیگم حضرت محل‎] (Muhammadi Khanum; b. ca. 1820), the Begum of Awadh and first wife of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah (ruler of the state of Oudh or Awadh), she led a rebellion against the British East India Company during the First War of Independence (1857-58), dies in exile in Nepal.

1882 - Armando Borghi (d. 1968). Italian anarchist, friend of Errico Malatesta's, secretary of the large Unione Anarchica Italiana (UAI) as well as the head of the Italian Syndicalist Union (USI) in Bologna, born. [NB Some sources give the date as Apr. 6]

1883 [N.S. Apr. 19] - Strajk Szpularek [Spoolers' Strike] / Strajk w Żyrardowie [Żyrardów Strike]: Women in the Spooling section of the Zakłady Lniarskie Żyrardów (Żyrardów Linen Factory), popularly known as the Hille and Dittrich factory in the 'Polish Capital of Linen', in Žyrardów, Poland are informed that their pay will be cut in two weeks time, part of a cost saving/profit maintaining act by the factory management. It led to te first mass strike of Polish workers, and one of the first ever mass strikes by female workers on April 23–28, 1883. [see: Apr. 19 & 23]

[BB] 1893 - José Sobral de Almada Negreiros (d. 1970), leading Portuguese modernist artist, poet, novelist, futurist and Marxist individualist, born. A close friend of Fernando Pessoa and Mário de Sá-Carneiro, he illustrated Pessoa's 'O Banqueiro Anarquista' (The Anarchist Banker; 1996) and the three published the 'Orpheu' literary magazine as members of the Geração de Orpheu (Orpheus's Generation) or Grupo de Orfeu. Despite being visually inspired by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, his futurism was strictly leftist and embraced Russian Futurism, Dadaism and Surrealism, being much more of the post-Symbolist lineage than the proto-Fascist machine-worship of the later Italian Futurists.
Author of the 'Manifesto Anti-Dantas e por Extenso' (1915), a hilarious blistering attack on artistic conservatism focused on Júlio Dantas, a major figure of arts and culture in the Salazar regime. Amongst his other works are 'A Invenção do Dia Claro' (Invention of Daylight; 1921)', 'Nome de Guerra' (The Name of War; 1925, published in 1938), the plays 'El Uno, Tragédia de la Unidad' (The One, the Tradegy of Unity; 1928), made up of 'Deseja-se Mulher' (Woman Wanted) and 'S.O.S.'.

1901 - Violent confrontations in Switzerland with the police and the army during demonstrations against the extradition of an Italian anarchist suspected of participation in the attack on King Umberto I on July 29, 1900.

1906 - [O.S. Mar. 25] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: A Socialist-Revolutionary Party bomber blows up the Governor of Tver, Pavel Sleptsov (Павел Слепцов).

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Abortive attempt was made to burn down the Dundee Tennis Club's pavilion and an attempt to fire stands on Cardiff racecourse is discovered. Flower beds in Armstrong Park, Newcastle, destroyed. Letters and windows were damaged in Glasgow. A large unoccupied mansion in Norwich was entirely destroyed by fire. A fire breaks out in another house in Hampstead Garden Suburb. In the ruins of Dudley Castle the Suffragettes charge one of the ancient cannons and cause a shattering explosion.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: Most of the striking workers return to their jobs (if they still had them).

[D] 1919 - Bavarian Council Republic [Bayerische / Münchner Räterepublik]: Workers' Councils declare a Republic in Bavaria, in spite of the opposition of the Communists. The anarchists are the principal actors, with the Zentralrat der Arbeiter-, Bauern- und Soldatenräte (Central Council of workers, peasants and soldiers' councils) including as members Erich Mühsam, Gustav Landauer, Ernst Toller and one 'Richard Maurhut' – the man who became famous as the novelist B. Traven. But the troops sent in by the socialists will crush the revolutionaries between April 30 and May 2, 1919, killing over 700 victims. [see: Apr. 13]

[CCC] 1926 - The Hon. Violet Albina Gibson (1876-1956), the daughter of Lord Ashbourne, attempts to assassinate Benito Mussolini in Rome as he leaves a meeting of the International Congress of Surgeons after having delivered a speech on the wonders of modern medicine. Gibson shot at Mussolini three times, twice hitting him in the nose, and was almost lynched on the spot by an angry mob. Rescued by the police, who took her off for questioning, she was later deported after being released without charge. Mussolini was only slightly wounded and, after his nose was bandaged, he continued his parade. Violet Gibson spent the rest of her life in a mental asylum.

1926 - Giovanni Amendola (b. 1882), Italian journalist, politician and noted opponent of Fascism, dies in exile in France from wounds sustained in an attack by 12 fascists armed with wooden staves in Montecatini. [see: Apr. 15]

1928 - Marcel Wullens (Marcel Maurice Julien Wullens; b. 1899) dies of tuberculosis. Militant anarchist and syndicalist who helped found 'La Révolution Prolétarienne'. [see: May 9]

[E] 1930 - Vilma Espín (Vilma Lucila Espín Guillois; d. 2007), Cuban revolutionary, feminist, and chemical engineer, who was the partner of Raúl Castro, born. She was involved in the students struggles of the early 1950s, including the student demonstrations following the coup of March 10, 1952, as a member of the Federación Estudiantil Universitaria Oriental, going on to become a ember of the Acción Nacional Revolucionaria and later of the Movimiento 26 de Julio.
During the Guerra de Liberación, she became the Provincial Coordinator of the clandestine organisation in the Oriente province on July 20, 1957, She later joined the armed rebels in the Sierra Maestra, where she met Raúl Castro and fought beside him under the nom de guerre Deborah in a second front in the Sierra Cristal.
Following the defeat of Batista, Vilma Espin was in charge of reorganising the various Cuban women's organisations, going on to be head of the Federación de Mujeres Cubanas from its foundation in 1960 until her death.

[B] 1933 - 'Zéro de Conduite', Jean Vigo's hugely influential film, receives its première in Paris. It is banned by the censors and is not shown again in France until 1945.

[C] 1937 - Antonio Cieri (b. 1898), Italian anarchist rail worker, anti-fascist militant and Spanish Civil War fighter, is shot and killed [some sources give the 8th], leading a team of Bomberos during an assault on the Huesca front durign the Spainsh Revolution. [see: Nov. 11]

1951 - Gustave-Henri Jossot (aka Abdul Karim Jossot; b. 1866), French caricaturist, illustrator, poster designer, Orientalist painter, writer and libertarian individualist, dies. [see: Apr. 7]

[F] 1962 - Vaga Minaire d'Astúries / Huelga Minera de Asturias [Asturian Miners' Strike]: Another 25 miners are dismissed at the San Nicolás pit (Nicolasa) in Mieres, Asturias. In response, miners walk off the job, some occupying the pit itself in order to prevent coal from being cut. It was the starting point of a strike that lasted from April to June in the Asturian mining region, extending to Mieres, Langreo, San Martín del Rey Aurelio, Gijón , etc. and later to 27 other Spanish provinces, with acts of solidarity even stretching abroad. At the same time, miners in France and Belgium were carring out similar actions, but these were legal unlike the strikes under the fascist regime.

1977 - James Myers (Jim) Thompson (b. 1906), American author and screenwriter, known for his pulp crime fiction and who was nicknamed the 'Dimestore Dostoevsky', dies. [see: Sep. 27]

1979 - Antonio Negri arrested in Italy, along with thousands of other radicals, all on charges of 'terrorist conspiracy'.

1981 - Massacre of Monte Carmelo: In El Salvador more than 20 workers and students are dragged from their homes by police and murdered.

1982 - Pio Turroni (b. 1900), Italian anarchist and long-time anti-fascist militant, dies. He fought in the Spanish Revolution of 1936, and long-time publisher of 'Volontà'. [see: May 30]

1985 - Carl Schmitt (b. 1888), German philosopher, jurist, and Nazi political theorist, who was known as the "crown jurist of the Third Reich", dies. [see: Jul. 11]

1988 - 2,000 students attack the US embassy in Tegucigalpa after the US kidnaps a suspected drug supplier from the country... apparently incensed that the US government continues to corner the drug market for itself.

1990 - Strangeways-related disturbances at protests this weekend across the prison system:
HMP Leeds there was a sit-down protest after the arrival of over 100 prisoners who had been transferred from Strangeways.
HMP Dartmoor, between 100 and 120 prisoners wrecked D wing of the prison, and 12 prisoners also protested on the roof of C wing unfurling a banner that read "Strangeways, we are with you".
32 prisoners from Dartmoor were transferred to HMP Horsfiled (Bristol), where there was another major protest following their arrival. Up to 400 prisoners took over three wings of the prison, and held control of them for two days.
130 prisoners at HMP Cardiff destroyed cells,
Twenty-hour rooftop protest took place at HMP Stoke Heath, and disturbances occurred at HMP Armley, Brixton, Canterbury, Pentonville, Stafford and Shepton Mallet.
A second protest took place at HMP Hull, where 110 prisoners staged a sit-down protest in the exercise yard.

1996 - Yelena Grigórievna Mazanik (Елена Григорьевна Мазаник; b. 1914), Belarusian member of the anti-fascist underground, who planted the timebomb in the matress of Generalkommissar Wilhelm Kube, SS Gauleiter for Weissruthenien (Belarus), that killed him on September 22, 1943, in his apartment in occupied Minsk, dies. [see: Apr. 4]

2013 - Maria Àngels Rodríguez García aka 'La Rodri' (b. 1953), Spanish historian of the libertarian movement and anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies. [see: Feb. 11]
1798 - Ramón Dionisio José de la Sagra y Periz (d. 1871), Galician anarchist, politician, writer and botanist, who founded the world's first anarchist journal, 'El Porvenir' (The Future), born.

1865 - Victor Yarros (d. 1956), Russian-born American anarchist and author, born. Early on he was associated with the anarcho-communists but soon converted to individualist anarchism, and was very critical of everything collectivist. He was a prolific contributor to the U.S. individualist anarchist periodical 'Liberty'. He did not see anarchism as a utopian system but, like the other individualists, he envisioned a society in which coercion was used only in defence: "The anarchists, as anarchists, work directly, not for a perfect social state, but for a perfect political system."

[D] 1877 - In the Italian township of Letino (Matese) the Banda del Matese hand the city clerk an official notice before giving a speech, burning land deeds, and heading off to liberate yet another town: "We the undersigned declare to have occupied, arms in hand, the municipal building of Letino in the name of the social revolution." [expand]

1877 - Jeanne Marie Labourbe (Жанна Мари Лябурб; d. 1919), French teacher and communist militant, who actively participated in the October Revolution and helped organise the 1919 mutiny of the French Black Sea fleet, for which she was shot by French counter-intelligence, born. She went to Russia in 1896 in search of work, was a teacher in the city of Tomashov, and joined the revolutionary movement in 1903. In 1918 she worked in the Central Federation of Foreign Groups of the Central Committee of the RCP (Bolshevik), was secretary of the French Communist Group, and helped found the Third International Club, whose members conducted revolutionary work among foreign soldiers and sailors. A leader of the Foreign Collegium of the Odessa underground committee of the Ukrainian CP (Bolshevik) in February 1919, Labourb, she conducted agitation among French soldiers and sailors, helping organise the Black Sea fleet mutiny. She was shot by the French counter-intelligence service (Deuxième Bureau) together with other members of the Foreign Collegium on the night of March 1-2, 1919.

1894 - Max Sartin (Raffaele Schiavina) (d. 1987), Italian-American individualist anarchist, born. Schiavina collaborated on many US anarchist newspapers (in Italian) including 'Cronaca Sovversiva', and was imprisoned along with Luigi Galleani and both were later deported to Italy in 1919 for anti-war activities. In Italy, following a period in prison for supposed deserton in the time of war, he and Galleani republished 'Cronaca Sovversiva' and became an organiser for Arditi del Popolo. Arrested and accused of belongng to Arditi del Popolo, he spent 15 months in prison before being aquitted. Fleeing the fascist threat, he moved to Paris in March 1923, and there he participated in the defence of Sacco and Vanzetti, publishing 'Difesa for Sacco e Vanzetti'. Schiavina was imprisoned and harassed numerous times before returning to the US where he published, for 45 years, the weekly magazine 'Adunata dei Refrattari' (longest lasting paper of the Italian-American anarchist movement).

1909 - The US Court in Buffalo invalidates the citizenship of Jacob A. Kersner, Emma Goldman's legal husband, threatening Goldman's claim to US citizenship. She is forced to cancel her trip to Australia.

1911 - Revolución Mexicana: Mexicali taken by PLM forces.

[C] 1912 - Jozef Gabčík (d. 1942), Slovak soldierand resistance fighter, one of a team of Czechoslovak British-trained paratroopers who took part in Operation Anthropoid, the assassination of acting Reichsprotektor (Reich-Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia, SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, on May 27, 1942, born.

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: "Release Mrs. Pankhurst" is cut in the turf at Duthie Park, Aberdeen. The word 'release' is twelve feet long.

1914 - Revolución Mexicana: Emiliano Zapata forces now in control of most of Morelos.

[EE] 1915 - Irma Bandiera aka 'Mimma' (d. 1944), Italian anti-fascist partisan courier and fighter in the VII Brigade 'Gianni Garibaldi' of GAP in Bologna, born. Captured by the fascists at the end of a firefight, as she prepared to return home after transporting weapons to the group's Castelmaggiore base, Irma had incriminating documents on her, For six days the fascists the tortured her, trying to make her give up the names of her comrades. She remained silent nad, as a last resort, they took her to the home of her parents in Meloncello di Bologna where she had spent her childhood and gave her an ultimatum: "Speak or you will never see them again." She refused. They tortured her again, even blinding her, and eventually shot her, dumping her body in the street outside her parent's house.
In her honour, a partisan group in Bologna was named the Prima Brigata Garibaldi 'Irma Bandiera' in the summer of 1944. She was also awarded the Medaglia d'oro al valor militare posthumously.

[E] 1919 - Maria Oskarovna Aveyde (Мария Оскаровна Авейде; b. 1884), Russian revolutionary, member of the RSDLP member in the Volga region and the Urals, and in late 1918 a member of an underground RCP(b) [РКП(б)] cell, is shot by White Czech forces near Ekaterinburg. [see: Feb. 25]

1920 - Märzaufstand / Ruhraufstand: The Reichswehr now controlled all of the northern Ruhr area.

[B] 1927 - Phyllis Webb, Canadian poet, radio broadcaster, anarchist and feminist, born. In 1967, she travelled to the Soviet Union, carrying out research on the Russian Revolution of 1917 and on the anarchist Peter Kropotkin, much of which appears in her 'The Kropotkin Poems', a never completed cycle of poems based on the anarchist's life.

[F] 1932 - Ley de 8 de Abril de 1932 [Law of April 8, 1932]: A product of the new bourgeois republic and its new Minister of Labour, Largo Caballero, the Ley de Asociaciones Profesionales de obreros y patronos (Law of professional associations of workers and employers) was designed to reassure the bourgeoise that nothing much would change with the advent of the Second Spanish Republic, especially within industry and for employers. Couched in terms of establishing trade union freedom: "joining a trade union is voluntary and not compulsory, i.e. joining a union is a right and not a compulsion; that the intervention of the State must be reduced to guarantee the good order of the trade union and legitimacy in its aims and activities; the Spanish government grants professional associations representativity to their respective bodies, in the public boards which arbitrate labour conditions, and enforce the application of the social legislation". It was in fact designed to effectively end the right to strike, and epecially to outlaw the C.N.T. and its direct action tactics, and maintain the status quo of widespread hunger and poverty amongst the country's proletariat.
All workers' organisations had to submit to a certain state control: participation in the state labour courts of arbitration, to which all labour conflicts were to be submitted, was compulsory; and, the date of strikes had to be announced in advance. The socialist U.G.T. submitted, of course, to those terms and put its members into the vacancies of the Jurados Mixtos (Labour Arbitration Courts). Not so the C.N.T. They did not recognise the law and did not submit to it.
According to the letter of the law they should have been dissolved automatically, yet the government did not dare to take this step. However, the anarcho-syndicalist organisation was hampered in its activities; its militant members were arrested, and its headquarters closed wherever possible. The C.N.T. and its great social revolutionary mass movements all over the country were slandered as never before. The militant workers of the Confederacióm and the Anarchist Federation of Iberia (F.A.I.) were branded as "bandits with a membership card" by the Socialists. With the U.G.T. firmly in the pocket of the government, the trades union movement was irrevocably split, something that would inevitably adversely effect the success of the 1936 revolution.
Towards the end of the Azaña government, in the summer of 1933, a new attack was prepared against the revolutionary labor movement. News items in the press for which neither the police nor the ministry of the Interior wanted to assume responsibility announced the discovery of a far reaching "anarchist-monarchist plot". The government ordered new mass arrests. The example of an Andalusian town where the chief of police received orders from Madrid to arrest a certain number of leading monarchists and the same number of anarchists shows clearly how this "plot" was "discovered". Orders were carried out. One of the best known monarchists of the town, having been on a trip, reported voluntarily to the police upon his return. But they declined to arrest him, stating that they had already the desired number of monarchists!

1940 - Chicho Sánchez Ferlosio (José Antonio Julio Onésimo Sánchez Ferlosio; d. 2003), Spanish singer, poet, songwriter, journalist, one-time communist but later an anarchist and CNT member, born. Author of numerous popular songs such as 'Gallo Rojo, Gallo Negro' (Red Cockerel, Black Cockerel) , 'La Hierba de los Caminos' (The Grass of the Roads), 'La Quinta Brigada' (The Fifth Brigade), 'A la Huelga' (To Strike), 'Hoy No Me Levanto Yo' (Today I Don't Get Up), 'Balada de las Prisiones' (Ballad of the Prisons), 'La Paloma de la Paz' (The Dove of Peace).

1942 - André Girard (known as Max Buhr) (b. 1860), French anarchist militant and trade unionist, dies. [see: Mar. 23]

1945 - Congress of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL), in Toulouse (April 8-9th).

1945 - Margherita Cagol (d. 1975), Italian founder member (along with her partner Renato Curcio and Alberto Franceschini) and a former leader of the Brigate Rosse, born. As a student activist from a typical bourgeois Catholic background, she became a student at the Facoltà di Scienze Sociali in Trento in 1964. The she met Renato Curcio through the Christian-Socialist Gruppo Democratico Intesa Universitaria Trentina (Trento University Democratic Understanding Group) and would later work on Curcio's short-lived Marxist-Leninist magazine 'Lavoro Politico' (Political Work) - "the most influential left magazine" in Italy at the time according to Curcio*, even though printing only 5000 copies. A few days after she graduated in 1969, the pair married in a Catholic ceremony, after which the couple moved to Milan, becoming full-fledged militants, founding the Collettivo Politico Metropolitano (Metropolitan Political Collective) and becoming involved in the factories movement. The CPM and its sister organisation Left Proletaria would go on to form the core of the Brigate Rosse in September 1970 following the Convegno di Pecorile Pecorile Conference. On September 17, 1970 , the first action to be claimed by the then unheard of "Brigate Rosse", when a car belonging to a Sit-Siemens executive, Giuseppe Leoni, in the Lorenteggio district of Milan, was blown up by bomb constructed from two gas canisters. [The first public appearance of the Brigate Rosse had in fact been on August 22, when hundreds of leaflets signed by the group and containing the names and addresses of Sit-Siemens executives "che devono essere colpiti dalla vendetta proletaria" (who must be struck by proletarian revenge) had been thrown into the company's plant entrance in Milan's Seventh district by a passing motorcyclist.]
In the summer of 1972, following the first wave of arrests of BR members and associates, she and Curcio moved to Turin, where they founded a new BR cell and went underground. In the spring of 1974, Cagol was the brains behind the April 18th kidnapping of Judge Mario Sossi in Genoa, organising and directing, as well as participating in the plot. Sossi was targeted because he was involved in the 1973 prosecution of the Gruppo XXII Ottobre, and at the time involved in investigations into the BR, and the BR now demanded the release of eight imprisoned Gruppo XXII Ottobre members and their transport to a 'friendly' country (though none was forthcoming). On May 22, 1974, two days after the Court of Appeal of Appeal in Genoa had given a decision in favour of the provisional liberty of the eight (though subsequently they were not released), Sossi was released in Milan - jumping on a train and returning to Genoa before telling anyone he was free!
That summer, Curcio and Franceschini were arrested on September 8, 1974. Mara Cagol and her BR comrades set to planning the escape of Curcio from Casale Monferrato prison. On the afternoon of February 18, 1975, Margherita Cagol and five other armed BR militants, including Mario Moretti, Rocco Micaletto and Pierluigi Zuffada, broke into the prison and managed to free Curcio. With the group needing a quick injection of capital, Margherita Cagol suggested the kidnapping of the rich local spumante industrialist Vittorio Vallarino Gancia. On June 4, Gancia was abducted by two unknown Brigaders near his Asti home and took him to the isolated Spiotta farmhouse near Arzello, where Cagol and another member were to keep guard on their captive until the ranson, one billion lire within ten days, another 500 million in the event of a delay in the delivery of money, was paid. However, the farmhouse proved not to be so secret a location when a 22 year old man, Massimo Maraschi, was arrested nearby. He refused to talk but claimed that he was a "political prisoner", alerting the police to the possible involvement of the Brigate Rosse in the newly discovered kidnapping, something confirmed when Maraschi was identified and the Carabinieri Special Anti-Terrorism Group confirmed his BR links. The industrialist's car and the kidnappers' van were quickly traced and a search begun. The following day around midday, four carabinieri led by Lieutenant Umberto Rocca approached the farmhouse, initially unaware that the kidnappers were present. A young man answered the door to Rocca's knock and immediately threw a grenade at the cops. Rocca was badly wounded, loosing an arm and eye, and a second carabinieri, Rosario Cattafi, was also injured. Cagol and her unidentified companion then ran out of the building, firing as they went and throwing another grenade. A third carabinieri, Giovanni D'Alfonso, was mortally wounded in this exchange of fire. The two brigadisti then jumped into their two waiting cars and drove off, firing as they went. However, the police's car was blocking their escape route and they tried to divert cross-country but one of the cars crashed into a tree and the other stalled. The two then tried to escape on foot but, according to the police account, a wounded Cagol started shouting that they surrendered and threw down a gun only to begin firing as the unknown man launched another grenade. Cagol was hit again as she turned to run and, struck in her arm, back and chest, fell and subsequently died. Meanwhile, the unknown second brigadisti made good his escape. D'Alfonso died of his wounds five days later. Gancia was freed unharmed. Curcio was arrested in Milan on January 18, 1976, and later sentenced to 30 years in prison.
Margherita Cagol was buried in Trento cemetery.
[* Curcio also claimed that "Jesus Christ was the first communist in history"!]

1946 - Ilarie Voronca (Eduard Marcus; b. 1903), Jewish Romanian-French avant-garde poet and essayist, who took part in the French Résistance, as a writer and fighter, commits suicide. [see: Dec. 31]

1948 - Paul Delesalle (b. 1870), French anarchist and syndicalist, dies. [see: Jul. 29]

[A] 1950 - José Lluis Facerias, anti-fascist guérilla, blows up the Lonja police station in Barcelona. Facerias was a veteran leader of the anarchist action groups, operating since the end of the Spanish Revolution in 1939.

1959 - Felipe Alaiz de Pablo (b. 1887), Spanish individualist anarchist and journalist dies, exiled in Paris. Director of 'Revista de Aragon', writer for 'El Sol de Madrid', 'Heraldo de Aragon', 'La Revista Blanca', 'Solidaridad Obrera' in Valencia and Sevilla. Published novels and works on anarchism and translations. [see: May 23]

1973 - Pablo Ruiz y Picasso (b. 1881), Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, anarchist and later communist, dies. [see: Oct. 25]

1978 - Gaston Leval (born Pierre Robert Piller; also used the pseudonyms Max Stephan, Silvio Agreste, José Benito, Felipe Montblanc, Josep Venutto and Robert Le Franc; b. 1895), dies. Son of a French Communard, anarchist syndicalist, combatant and historian of the Spanish Revolution of 1936. [see: Oct. 20]

1990 - Strangeways-related disturbances at protests this weekend across the prison system. [see: Apr. 7]

2013 - Five FEMEN members stage a "topless ambush" of Russian President Vladimir Putin as he is accompanied by German Chancellor Angela Merkel at the Hanover trade fair.
1553 - François Rabelais (b. 1494), French monk, Renaissance humanist, writer, doctor and Greek scholar, dies. Claimed as a precursor to anarchism after the description of Thélème, his imaginary abbey run on libertarian principles first described in in Chapter LVII of his utopian work 'La Vie Très Horrifique du Grand Gargantua' (aka 'Gargantua'; 1534).

1747 - Scottish clan chief Simon Fraser Lovat is the last person to be beheaded in Britain.

[D] 1812 - Luddite Timekline:Assault on the Horbury Mill of Joseph Foster near Wakefield. Armed crowd, of between 300 to 600, destroyed gig-mills, cropping shears and frames, and cloth. Damage amounted to about £700.

[B] 1821 - Charles Pierre Baudelaire (d. 1867), French poet, essayist, art critic, and pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe, born. His most famous and influential work is 'Les Fleurs du Mal' (The Flowers of Evil; 1857). His political activities were short-lived and to an active part in the Revolutions of June 1848 on the barricades and writing for a revolutionary newspaper. He also showed an early knowledge of the writings of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon.
"Plus l'artiste se penche avec impartialité vers le détail, plus l'anarchie augmente. Qu'il soit myope ou presbyte, toute hierarchie et toute subordination disparaissent." (The more the artist tends impartially toward detail, the more anarchy increases. Whether he is near-sighted or far-sighted, all hierarchy and all subordination disappear).

[A/DD] 1834 - Deuxième Révolte des Canuts / Sanglante Semaine: In 1831, the French economy was in a bad way and had drastically reduced the demand for silk goods, leading to serious poverty amongst the canuts (silk workers) and their families in Lyon as the workers' salaries were cut. This provoked the first Révolte des Canuts [November 21-24, 1831] when insurgents seized the town hall but, lacking any political direction, failed to maintain the initiative and, on December 3, the French military reoccupied the city without any opposition. The authorities set to making sure the radical silk workers were isolated, building a fort to separate the commune of Croix-Rousse, the centre of canut radicalism (and anarchist activity in general in Lyon), from the rest of the town of Lyon and stationed a large garrison there.
Thus, with the economy booming in late 1833-early 1834, with a resulting boom in the Lyonnais silk industry, the owners of the silk works and the Republican government came to the conclusion that the canuts were too well paid. In February that year, the bosses cut the workers' wages, provoking a series of strikes. The strike leaders were arrested and put on trial, whilst new laws were enacted against the workers' associations, the workers have reached the exploding point. These workers' associations had been set up in the wake of the failure of the 1831 revolt, when Parisian republicans had sent agents to Lyon to help organise the silk craftsmen into what became a large network of secret societies.
As the trial was beginning on April 5, the Chambre des Pairs (Chamber of Peers) were discussing a law which would intensify the repression of republican groups. The Republicans managed to amalgamate several political parties to fall within the scope of this law, as did the mutual workers' associations to which Lyon's canuts belonged. The workers were now at boiling point and, on April 9, thousands of craftsmen rebelled, beginning what was to become one of the first serious worker uprisings of the Industrial Revolution era. The army following plans established in the wake of the first uprising, swiftly occupied the city and its bridges, and troops began to fire into an unarmed crowd. The streets were immediately filled with barricades, and workers stormed and occupied the barracks of Bon-Pasteur, while others barricaded themselves in the various working class districts, some, like Croix-Rousse, making themselves into fortified camps. This was the beginning of the Sanglante Semaine (Bloody Week). The Minister of Interior, Adolphe Thiers, would now set in train the tactic that he had used in 1871 to crush the Paris Commune - withdrawing from the city, abandoning it to the insurgents, then encircling and laying siege to it.
On the 10th, the army continued to fire on the crowds as the insurrection continued in Lyon with the seizing of the Telegram office. The black flag now flew over Fourvière, l'Église Saint-Nizier and l'Hôpital de l'Antiquaille, as well as the many communes around the city. The following day [11th], the fighting continued, with the army bombarding the Croix-Rousse neighbourhood, the 'historic' centre of agitation. Meanwhile, more military reinforcements arrived in Lyon and in Saint-Étienne and Vienna other insurrections are attempted. During April 12, troops attacked and managed to take the insurgent district of Guillotière, after having destroyed numerous houses with artillery. In Vaise on the Rue Projetée soldiers massacred the 16 inhabitants of one house, claiming that a shot had been fired from one of its windows.
Over the next few days, the army gradually began retaking most of the city and, on April 14, launched their third attempt to reoccupy the Croix-Rousse district, massacring many workers. By April 15, the 'Bloody Week' in Lyon was effectively over: the Silk workers had been subdued in a blood bath, with more than six hundred victims amongst the insurgents. The authorities estimated 190 dead on the civilian side (though this is likely to have been much higher). Military losses were 131 dead, killed in action or mortally wounded, and 192 wounded. Around a 10,000 town's people were taken prisoner, to appear in a "monster trial" in Paris in April 1835. Many were subsequently sentenced to deportation or long prison sentences as part of thee harsh repression that followed.

1877 - Louis Rimbault (b. 1949), French anarchist and propagandist for vegetarianism, born.

1884 - Atala Apodaca Anaya de Ruiz Cabañas (d. 1977), Mexican teacher, feminist, anti-clericalist and anti-Diaz revolutionary propagandist, who was known as the 'conferencista de la Revolución' (speaker for the Revolution), born. She joined the antirreelecionista cause in 1911 and was a noted speaker, defending the empowerment of women during a speaking tour that she conducted throughout Mexico during 1916.

1890 - [N.S. Apr. 23] Rose Lilian Witcop Aldred (Rachel Vitkopski; d. 1932), Ukrainian-British Jewish anarchist, journalist and pioneer of birth control and sex education, who was sister of Milly Witkop and partner of Guy Aldred, born.

1891 - Lesbia Harford (Lesbia Venner Keogh; d. 1927), Australian poet, novelist, free love advocate, member of the I.W.W. and state vice-president of the Federated Clothing and Allied Trades Union, born. Afflicted with defective heart valves which restricted her mobility and caused her to tire easily, a chronic problem that was to increase with age, it did not prevent her form pursuing her political activism.

[F] 1898 - Welsh Coal Strike: South Wales and Monmouthshire miners walk out of the pits en masse as negotiations with mine owners break down. The strike quickly turned into a disastrous lockout which would last for six months and result in a failure for the colliers as the sliding scale stayed in place.
The strike was an attempt by the colliers to remove the sliding scale, which determined their wage based on the price of coal, making them volatile and unpredictable. In September 1897 the miners gave six months' notice for the scale to be terminate. The coalowners retaliated with what they described as, precautionary measures, to terminate contracts which would come into effect at the same time as the colliers' ultimatum. Before the deadline for both actions passed in March 1898, negotiations began to prevent any action. The negotiations were still underway with the deadline of March 31 looming, so both parties agreed to extend talks until April 9. The discussions broke down before the deadline as the colliers refused the options being presented to them, and they walked out of the pits on mass. The miners' demands had been a minimum price per coal of 10 shillings a ton, a sliding scale of 10% not the 8.75% in operation, plus an immediate advance of 10%. The coalowners' compromise had been below those requested on all three demands. In course of time, the miners shifted their position to the removal of the sliding scale completely but still demanded the 10% advance.
Attempts at concilliation were a failure, in large part due to the lack of organisation of the niners as well as the mineowners' intransigence, and by August the miners decided to push on the single issue of retaining the sliding scale, but with a minimum level. In the end the colliers accepted an immediate advance of 5% and a guarantee from the coalowners that if wages fell below 12.5% above the 1879 standard, then the men could give 6 months notice to terminate the scale. The strike officially ended on September 1, 1898.
Although the strike was defeated, it did result in the South Wales Miners’ Federation, known as The Fed, being formed in order to help unite the miners and oppose the strength of the local coal-owners and coal companies.

1908 - US President Theodore Roosevelt argues before a Senate committee that any material espousing anarchist opinions should be criminalised.

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Telegraph wires between Grimsby and Immingham, in Lincolnshire, were cut for a distance of seven miles.

1914 - Tampico Affair / Revolución Mexicana: Venustiano Carranza's forces were ten miles from the prosperous oil town of Tampico. There was a considerable concentration of U.S. citizens in the area due to the immense investment of American firms in the local oil industry. Several American warships commanded by Rear Admiral Harry T. Mayo settled in the area with the expectation of protecting American citizens and property. Americans sailors detained by (Victoriano) Huerta soldiers and released. American Rear Adm. demands formal apology and the American flag raised ashore with a 21 gun salute. The Mexican commander refuses.

1914 - Casilda Hernáez Vargas [sometimes cited as Casilda Méndez Hernáez] aka 'Casilda, la Miliciana', 'Kasilda' & 'Kasi' (Soledad Casilda Hernáez Vargas; d. 1992), Basque anarcha-feminst militant and member of the anti-Franco resistance, born in the Fraisoro orphanage in Zizurkil.

1915 - Frank Abarno and Carmine Carbone, members of the Italian anarchist Gruppo Gaetano Bresci, accused of planting bombs in St. Patrick's Cathedral and the Church of St. Alphonsus on the five year anniversary (October 13, 1914) of the execution of Francisco Ferrer, are today sentenced to 6 to 12 years in prison.

1918 - In Moscow, anarchist black guards confiscate the car of the American ambassador. The car is seized in an effort to effect the release of political prisoners and trade union militants imprisoned in America. This action serves as a pretext for the Bolshevik secret police, the Cheka, to mount a sweeping attack on the anarchists on the night of April 11.

1919 - Sóivéid Luimnigh [Limerick Soviet]: British Army Brigadier Griffin declares the city to be a Special Military Area, with Royal Irish Constabulary permits required for all wanting to enter and leave the city as of Monday April 14 following a failed attempt on April 6 by the IRA tried to liberate Robert Byrne, who was under arrest by the RIC police in a hospital, being treated for the effects of a hunger strike. In the rescue attempt Constable Martin O'Brien was fatally wounded and another policeman was seriously injured. Byrne was also wounded and died later on the same day.

1919 - Big Dada event in the Hall zur Kaufleuten in Zurich. Foundation of the 'artistes radicaux' (radical artists) group, with the following committee-members: Hans Arp (Alsace), Fritz Baumann (Basel), Viking Eggeling (Sweden), Augusto Giacometti (Zurich), Walter Helbig (Dresden), P.R. Henning (Berlin), Marcel Janco (Roumania), Hans Richter (Berlin) and Otto Morach (Zurich).

1927 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Death sentences for "those anarchistic bastards" (quote from the trial Judge Thayer during the trial) Nicolas Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti are upheld in Massachusetts.

1936 - The first issue of the anarchist weekly 'Más Lejos' (Beyond) is published in Barcelona. It only lasted 9 issues.

1936 - Valerie Jean Solanas (d. 1988), US radical feminist writer and playwright, best known for writing the 'SCUM Manifesto' and the shooting of Andy Warhol, is born in Ventnor City, New Jersey. The daughter of a bartender father and dental assistant mother, she had a disrupted childhood, a rebellious school career and a baby at the age of 15. Solanas claimed that she was regularly suffered sexual abuse at the hands of her father, who eventually abandoned the family (Valerie had a younger sister, Judith). After her mother divorced and quickly remarried, fell out with her mother and new stepfather, playing truant and getting into fights at her Catholic high school, including hitting one of the nuns. Unable to control her, Valerie's mother packed her off to her grandparents, where her violent alcoholic grandfather subjected her to regular beatings. At the age of 15 in 1951, she left her grandparent's house and became homeless. Two years later she gave birth to a baby boy, whose father was a married sailor and who she gave up for adoption. Despite these upheavals, she still managed to graduate from high school in 1954 and went on to study at the University of Maryland, identifying openly as a lesbian and giving advice to female listeners on how to protect themselves from men on her regular student radio programme, as well as earning a degree in psychology. Solanas later claimed that she managed to pay her way through university by prostitution and working in psychology department's experimental laboratory. It was her time working in the lab that she said she derived the knowledge that informed the scientific basis for the 'SCUM Manifesto'. After getting her degree, she enrolled on a masters programme at the University of Minnesota in 1958, dropping out soon afterwards, claiming that there was nothing there of relevance to women and all the research places and professorships were reserved for men. After a brief attempt to enrol in the University of California, Berkeley, where she began writing the 'SCUM Manifesto', she began drifting, working as a prostitute again and begging for change to support herself before ending up in New York, setting up home on the streets of Greenwich Village.
1965 saw her write her great unpublished [until 2014] play 'Up Your Ass' (aka 'From the Cradle to the Boat' or 'The Big Suck' or 'Up From the Slime') - one of its dedications being "for independent research into men, married women and other degenerates" - and the autobiographical short story 'A Young Girl's Primer on How to Attain the Leisure Class'. It was 'Up Your Ass' that led to the fateful meeting with Warhol outside The Factory, when she asked him to produce her play. He accepted a script to review but found it "so dirty that I think she must have been a lady cop", this from a man whose films were regularly shut down by the police for obscenity. When Solanas contacted him again, Warhol claimed to have lost the script and, after her had demanded payment for the lost item, he offered her $25 to appear in his film, 'I, a Man' (1967). She also had a non-speaking role in his film 'Bikeboy' (1967). That same year saw her finish and self-publish the 'SCUM Manifesto', a work that definitely ranks up there with Jonathan Swift's satirical essay 'A Modest Proposal For preventing the Children of Poor People From being a Burthen to Their Parents or Country, and For making them Beneficial to the Publick' (1792).

"Life in this society being, at best, an utter bore and no aspect of society being at all relevant to women, there remains to civic-minded, responsible, thrill-seeking females only to overthrow the government, eliminate the money system, institute complete automation, and destroy the male sex." [first paragraph of the 'SCUM Manifesto']

Solanas then began selling mimeographed copies of it on the streets and, following an encounter with Maurice Girodias, the French owner of Olympia Press and a fellow Chelsea Hotel resident, received a $600 [or $500, versions differ] advance for a novel based on the manifesto.
However, now in the grip of her growing mental instability, she concluded that the informal contract between her and Girodias meant not only that he owned all her work, but that Warhol's failure to return her manuscript was part of a joint conspiracy involving the pair. So, having secured herself a gun, probably purchased with the $50 she borrowed from the writer Paul Krassner, ay 09:00 on June 3, 1968, she first attempted to get hold of Girodias at the Chelsea Hotel but failed [this part of the day's events is disputed and some claim that Girodias invented it to boost sales of the 'SCUM Manifesto']. She then went to The Factory around noon to wait outside for Warhol and was told that he wasn't around. However, after repeated trips up in the lift to find him, she finally cornered Warhol at 16:15 and soon afterwards shot him three times. She them shot at the art critic and curator, Mario Amaya, and tried to shot Fred Hughes, Warhol's manager, in the head but the gun jammed.
After escaping, she later handed herself into the police and that night in court she told the judge: "It's not often that I shoot somebody. I didn't do it for nothing. Warhol had me tied up, lock stock, and barrel. He was going to do something to me which would have ruined me." When the judge asked if she could afford an attorney, she replied: "No, I can't. I want to defend myself. This is going to stay in my own competent hands. I was right in what I did! I have nothing to regret!" The judge struck her comments from the court record, and Solanas was taken to the Bellevue Hospital psychiatric ward for observation. At a hearing on June 13, Solanas was represented by the radical feminist lawyer Florynce Kennedy, who called Solanas "one of the most important spokeswomen of the feminist movement" but failed to get her released from Bellevue. However, not everyone in the American feminist movement agreed and the arguments over whether to support Solanas or not ended up causing a split in the National Organization for Women and sending out a shockwave that still reverberates through feminist history.
On June 28, 1968, Solanas was indicted on charges of attempted murder, assault, and illegal possession of a gun. Two months later, Solanas was declared incompetent and sent to Ward Island Psychiatric Hospital. In September 1971 , she was released from the New York State Prison for Women at Bedford Hills and, after repeated attempts at harassing Warhol and others spent the next few years in and out of mental institutions. She disappeared from view in 1977 but turned up again a decade later when Warhol acolyte Ultra Violet tracked her down in Northern California.
Valerie Solanas died broke and alone of emphysema and pneumonia in a welfare hostel in San Francisco on April 26, 1988, at the age of 52 after having returned to prostitution to support a drug habit.

1938 - The first issue of the Portuguese langauge newspaper 'Liberdade', organ of anti-fascist Portuguese refugees in France, is published in Paris.

1942 - Harold H. Thompson (d. 2008), Irish-American anarchist activist and jailhouse lawyer, born.

[E] 1944 - Leila Khaled (ليلى خالد‎), Palestinian member of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, who was involved in the 1969 TWA Flight 840 and the 1970 El Al Flight 219 hijackings, and who was later released in a prisoner exchange for hostages kidnapped on BOAC Flight 775 by her fellow PFLP members, born. She later became a member of the Palestinian National Council. [expand]

[CCC] 1945 - Johann Georg Elser (b. 1903), German carpenter, communist sympathiser and member of the Roten Frontkämpferbund (Red Front Fighters' Union), who singlehandedly tried to assassinate Adolf Hitler and other high-ranking Nazi leaders, on November 8, 1939 - the anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch - at the Bürgerbräukeller in Munich via a homemade bomb, is executed and his fully dressed body immediately burned in the crematorium at Dachau concentration camp. [see: Jan. 4]

1948 - El Bogotazo: Riots and repression in the center of Bogota, capital of Colombia, following the assassination of Liberal leader and presidential candidate Jorge Eliecer Gaitan & is considered as one of the first urban acts of the era known as La Violencia, as well as one of the most significant events of the twentieth century in the history of Colombia.

1950 - A group of Lettrists – including Serge Berna, Jean-Louis Brau, Ghislain Desnoyers de Marbaix and Michel Mourre – perpetrates the Notre-Dame Scandal, when Mourre, dressed as a Dominican monk, reads a sermon prepared by Berna announcing the death of God at Easter mass.

1952 - U.S. Steel Strike: A strike by the United Steelworkers of America against U.S. Steel and nine other steelmakers, scheduled to begin on April 9, 1952, but President Harry S Truman illegally nationalised the American steel industry hours before the workers walked out. The steel companies sued to regain control of their facilities. On June 2, 1952, in a landmark decision, the United States Supreme Court ruled in 'Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer', 343 U.S. 579 (1952), that the president lacked the authority to seize the steel mills. The Steelworkers struck to win a wage increase. The strike lasted 53 days, and ended on July 24, 1952, with the union winning essentially the same terms they had proposed four months earlier

1962 - Vaga Minaire d'Astúries / Huelga Minera de Asturias [Asturian Miners' Strike]: Following the walkout on Saturday, April 7, the action by the Asturian miners has spread to the Baltasara mine, also owned by Fábrica de Mieres, and also the Polio, Centella and Barredo mines, marking the beginning of a regional general strike that would spread like wildfire, not only affect mining, but also involving solidarity actions in the steel and ther industries. [see: Apr. 7]

1968 - Zofia Kossak-Szczucka (b. 1889), Polish writer and World War II resistance fighter, who co-founded the wartime Polish organisation Żegota, set up to assist Polish Jews to escape the Holocaust, dies. [see: Aug. 10]

1970 - Minneapolis Teachers Strike: Public school teachers go on strike in Minneapolis, defying a law prohibiting them from striking and violating court orders not to walk out. The members of Local 59 of the Minneapolis Federation of Teachers sought pay raises and the right to collectively bargain. Local Union President Norm Moen said, "As an English teacher, I remember the example of Thoreau. We are taking a courageous action against an oppressive and repressive law." The strike lasted 14 days and, with support from AFL-CIO unions and despite the opposition of groups such as the American Legion (which evicted the union from its building), the teachers reached a reasonable settlement, including amnesty for the strikers. A year later, the Minnesota Legislature passed the Public Employment Labor Relations Act (PELRA) strengthening collective bargaining rights for public employees.

1989 - The Tbilisi Massacre occurs when Soviet troops kill 20 people in Georgia.

1990 - Prisoners smashed windows at HMP Verne. Bristol recaptured. HMP Everthorpe - 65 prisoners barricade themselves on a wing for 3 hours.

[C] 1999 - The NF hold an 'anti-asylum seeker' demo in Margate, Kent. The national turnout is 85 NFers versus 3-400 anti-fascists [B&H claim the figure were 200 vs. "a handful of ragged mdle-class AnaL/Communist types that were met with rision (sic) from both marchers and locals"] who, despite the deployment of the full panoply of police weapons - riot vans, dogs, etc., manage to halt the march. [PR]

2005 - 24-year-old Wesley McGoldrick had been in prison for less than a day, remanded in custody for caught shoplifting cheese and milk from a London branch of Sainsbury’s, when he is found hanging from his cell room window on 19th April 2005. He had used bed sheets to hang himself from the bars.

2009 - John Colin Campbell Jordan (b. 1923), British neo-Nazi with a leadership role in the National Socialist Movement, British Movement and the World Union of National Socialists, dies. A public school boy who volunteered for the Fleet Air Arm and royal Airforce, but was rejected by both (failing his pilot's courses) and, unlike the majority of his contemporaries actively supported peace with Germany. Post-war, he fell under the influence of anti-Semite and longterm fascist Arnold Leese (rather than Oswald Mosley) and also became an ardent admirer of Hitler, reviving all the Nazi props of brown shirts, breeches and jackboots, swastika armbands, together with the slogans of "Sieg Heil", "Juden raus" and even the 'Horst Wessel Song' upon forming the NSM in 1962. An inveterate jailbird because of his anti-Semetic activities, he was also fined for the infamous red knickers shoplifting incident shortly after being forced out of his leadership position in the BM in 1974. He died a sad isolated figure, still ranting about his 'messiah' Hitler and was even declared too unfit to stand trial for publishing racist literature in his 2001 last hurrah, missing out on another chance at hitting the headlines. [see: Jun. 19]
nazbol.net/library/authors/Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke/Black Sun.pdf]
[E] 1782 - María Antonia Santos Plata (d. 1819), Neogranadine peasant and Colombian Independence leader, who organised and led the rebel guerrillas in the Province of El Socorro against the invading Spanish troops during the Reconquista of the New Granada, born.

1821 - [Apr. 22 (N.S.)] Greek Revolution [Ελληνική Επανάσταση] or Greek War of Independence: The Ecumenical Patriarch, Gregory V, is seized by Ottoman soldiers in Constantinople during the Easter Sunday liturgy and hanged at the central gate of the Patriarchate. Although he was completely uninvolved with the Revolution, his death was ordered as an act of revenge. That same day three bishops and a dozens of other Greeks, high official in Ottoman administration, are quickly executed in various parts of the Ottoman capital. The execution of the Patriarch signaled a reign of terror against the Greeks living in Constantinople over the following weeks, and that spread throughout the Ottoman Empire that lasted well into July 1821.

1834 - Deuxième Révolte des Canuts / Sanglante Semaine: The insurrection continues in Lyon with the seizing of the Telegram office. The black flag flies over Fourvière, l'Église Saint-Nizier and l'Hôpital de l'Antiquaille.

1848 - Mass meeting of Chartists, campaigning for civil rights, Kennington Common, Surrey. A procession to the House of Commons to present a petition for civil rights is prevented by authorities.

1848 - Karl Eduard Nobiling (d. 1878), German Doctor of Philosophy, supporter of propaganda by deed, who on June 5 1878 tries unsuccessfully to kill the German Kaiser Wilhelm I, born.

1848 - Hubertine Auclert aka 'Liberta' & Jeanne Voitout [penname] (Marie-Anne-Hubertine Auclert; d. 1914), French journalist, militant feminist, women's suffrage campaigner and militant anticlerical, born. In 1876 she founded the society Le Droit des Femmes, which supported women's suffrage, as opposed to other current women's rights organisations such as the Association pour le Droit des Femmes, which focused solely on women's legal rights. In 1883, the organisation formally changed its name to the society Le Suffrage des Femmes. These opposing positions resulted in a split in the women's movement in 1878 at the Congrès International sur les Droits des Femmes in Paris, with Auclert then trying to forge links with the socialist movement and pursuing more radical tactics, such as the tax strike that began in 1880.
On February 13, 1881, she launched the feminist monthly newspaper 'La Citoyenne' (The Citizeness), primarily to advocate French women's enfranchisement and full citizenship. In 1885, she ran as illegal candidate for the French parliament. In 1888, she left Paris to marry her long-time collaborator and legal advisers, the attorney Antonin Lévrier, moving to Algeria. She returned to Paris in 1892 and resume her activism, pursuing a more militant path including organising a demonstration in 1904 to burn French Civil Code and leading violent demonstrations during the 1908 municipal elections in Paris, when she symbolically smashed a ballot box, for which she was convicted of misdemeanour. Hubertine Auclert continued her activism until her death in 1914 at age 65. She is interred in the Père Lachaise Cemetery.

1856 - Claude Crespin (d. unknown), Lyon anarchist and syndicalist, born.

1861 - Louis Armand Matha (d. 1930), French anarchist, manager of the newspaper 'L'Endehors' and collaborator of the newspaper 'Le Libertaire' and the 'Journal du Peuple' during the Dreyfus Affair, born. A comrade of Émile Henry, he is believed to have 'cleaned out' the latter's apartment following his arrest, and to have organised the attack against the restaurant Foyot on 4 April 1894. Charged alongside Jean Grave and Sébastien Faure at the rocès des Trente, he is acquitted.

1871 - In Montereau, Seine-et-Marne, a demonstration inspired by the events of the Paris Commune is held, at which a tree of Liberty is planted, topped by a red flag. Protesters then loot a armoury and occupy the gendarmerie. Masters of the city, they sound the alarm throughout the night. The next day, the arrival of many police squads encourages the insurgents to return power to the préfectural authorities.

[1871 - Commune de Limoges: the commune falls

[F] 1887 - The launch of the Sociedad de Obreros Panaderos "Estrella del Perú" (Workers' Union of Bakeries "Star of Peru") cooperative, an important and long-lived Peruvian workers' association set up under the aegis of mutualism or as ‘resistance societies’ in accordance with the International Working Men’s Association model.

1906 - [O.S. Mar. 28] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Fr. Georgy Apollonovich Gapon (Гео́ргий Аполло́нович Гапо́н), the former labour leader turned police informer, is lynched in an isolated Finnish cottage by order of Socialist-Revolutionary terrorist leader/police agent Yevno Azef (Евгений Филиппович).
As head of the Assembly of the Russian Factory and Mill Workers of the City of St. Petersburg (Собрание русских фабрично-заводских рабочих г. Санкт-Петербурга), he had been the figurehead of the Putilov Ironworks strike in Dec. 1904-Jan. 1905 in St. Petersburg and led the crowd on Bloody Sunday (Крова́вое воскресе́нье) on January 22, 1905 [O.S. Jan. 9], when thousands had been massacred by Tsarist troops in the Russian capital. In the aftermath he had fled the country and in exile he had established ties with the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, whilst utilising his fame to court many prominent Russian émigrés including Georgy Plekhanov, Vladimir Lenin, Peter Kropotkin, and the French socialist leaders Jean Jaurès and Georges Clemenceau.
Following the October Manifesto, Gapon returned to Russia in November 1905 and resumed his contacts with the Okhrana, he made the mistake of revealing to an SR member Pinhas Moiseevich Rutenberg (Пётр Моисеевич Рутенберг) his contacts with the police when he tried to recruit him, reasoning to him that having a double loyalty is helpful to the workers' cause. However, Rutenberg reported this provocation to his party leaders, Yevno Azef (who was himself a secret police spy) and Boris Savinkov (Бори́с Са́винков). Having made arrangements to meet Rutenberg in a rented cottage outside St. Petersburg on April 10 [O.S. Mar. 28], 1906, Gapon repeated his collaboration proposal, overheard by three S.R. party combatants in an adjoining room. Rutenberg called the comrades into the room and left. When he returned, Gapon was dead. Gapon's disappearance was something of a mystery until a month later he was found there hanged.

1911 - Teresa Pons Tomàs (d. 1988), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1912 - Riots in Wigan require army intervention before they are put down. [expand]

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Suffragettes set fire to a haystack near Nottingham, and a canister containing live cartridges exploded in a third-class compartment on a passenger train.

1918 - This evening of the 10th & 11th, in reaction to growing protests of Russian anarchists to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the Cheka — the Bolshevik secret police — raids anarchist centres in Moscow. Approximately 40 anarchists are killed or wounded, more than 500 taken prisoners.

[A/D] 1919 - Anarchist-influenced revolutionary hero Emiliano Zapata (b. 1879) is ambushed and assassinated by Mexican troops. Zapata had been tricked into meeting with Colonel Jesús Guajardo Martínez, who he was trying to get to defect to the rebel's side. Col. Guajardo had been tasked by General Pablo González Garza, who was in charge of subduing the Zapatista rebellion in Morelos during the fighting between Emiliano Zapata and the then Mexican president, Venustiano Carranza, who had turned against the rebel general and one-time supporter. However, shortly after been given the task, Col. Guajardo had publicly disgraced himself, getting himself arrested drunk in a cantina. Zapata attempted to smuggle in a note to Guajardo, inviting the disgraced soldier to switch sides. Gen. González intercepted the note and hatched a plan to kill Zapata. Accusing Guajardo of not just being a drunkard, but also a traitor, that the only way he could redeem himself was by feigning defection. Guajardo wrote to Zapata, setting him up: a mock battle was held after which 50 federales (most ex-Zapatistas) were shot by a supposedly defecting Guajardo and his troops. Convinced of Guajardo's bona fides, Zapata agreed to meet hin at the Hacienda de San Juan, in Chinameca but, upon his arrival, hidden snipers of surrounding rooftops open fire, riddling him with bullets.
Zapata's body was photographed and put on display so that there would be no doubt that Zapata was dead, before being buried in Cuautla. Zapata's assassination backfired on Carranza and González, the former forced to flee the capital the following year, loosing the presidency, with Zapata becoming the apostle of the revolution and a symbol of the dispossessed peasants. Support amongst the people of Morelos grew and they continued to support the Zapatista forces, providing them with weapons, supplies and protection. To many the rebel general still rides in the hills intent on finishing the job he began on November 28, 1911 – the date of the 'Plan of Ayala', the peasants' declaration of independence.

1922 - Luisa Capetillo Perón (b. 1879), Puerto Rican writer, novelist, journalist, trade unionist, libertarian propagandist, women's rights activist and anarcha-femnist, dies of tuberculosis. [see: Oct. 28]
[NB: the date of her death is frequently given as Oct. 10, 1922. This is erroneous as notice of her death appeared in the press in April 1922. c.f. 'El Imparcial', Apr. 13, 1922 & 'Unión Obrera', Apr. 15, 1922.]

1928 - The first issue of 'Verbo Nuevo: Periódico de ideas y de Lucha' (New Word: Peridocial of Ideas and Stuggle), is published in Brussels.

1930 - Dolores Huerta (Dolores Clara Fernández), US labour leader, feminist and civil rights activist, who was the co-founder of the National Farmworkers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers, born.

1945 - Augustin Malroux (b. 1900), French teacher, socialist politician and member of the French Résistance, dies in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. [see: Apr. 5]

1946 - The first issue of the anarchist weekly 'Ação Direta' (Direct Action) is published in Rio de Janeiro.

1967 - David Rovics, US singer and songwriter, anarchist and Wobbly, born.

1969 - Simone Larcher (Rachel Willissek; b. 1903), French anarchist, proofreader, anti-militarist, dies. With Louis Louvet, she published the newspapers 'l'Éveil des Jeunes Libertaires' and 'L'Anarchie' until 1929. [see: Apr. 30]

1972 - Louis Laurent (b. 1883), French trade unionist, member of the Revolutionary Anarchist Union and the Anarchist Federation of Languedoc in the 30s, dies. Helped publish various libertarian journals, worked with the League of Conscientious Objectors and the CGT-SR (revolutionary trade union). Helped found 'Le Libertaire' in 1968. [see: Oct. 2]

[C] 1979 - Pavlos Fyssas aka Killah P (d. 2013), Greek anti-fascist rapper, who was stabbed to death by a supporter of the Greek fascist Golden Dawn (Χρυσή Αυγή) party, born. [see: Sep. 18]

[AA] 1981 - Heavy-handed attempts by Police to help a young black stab victim in Brixton help spark the following day and night's rioting. Young people set fire to buildings and cars, pelted cops with bricks, and looted stores. Roving gangs directly fought cops with bricks, iron bars and Molotovs.
Police did their best to blame anarchists, who had just squatted an empty shop at No. 121 Railton Road, and appeared the perfect patsy — but a bit difficult as the rioters were black youths with little familiarity with anarchism. Police immediately arrested ultra-pacifist and ultra-white Jim Huggon (a frequent speaker in Hyde Park, and associated with 'Freedom' and 'Peace News'). Huggon had a cast-iron alibi for the time he was alleged to have incited the riots, thrown petrol bombs and led an attack on the local police station — being some 20 miles away playing violin professionally in a church concert rather than instigating these wholesome activities.

[EE] 1985 - Maria Angelina Soares Gomes (b. ca. 1905), Brazilian embroidery-worker, teacher, feminist, anarchist, and writer, dies in Rio de Janeiro. She came under anarchist influence early in life, both by her brother, the anarcho-syndicalist Florentino de Carvalho (Primitivo Raimundo Soares), and by her stepmother, Paula Soares, and became involved in the anarchist struggle in 1914, helping Florentino produce the newspaper 'Germinal-La Barricata', which was published in Portuguese and Italian. Her writing would go on to be printed in publications such as 'A Guerra', 'A Lanterna', 'El Libertario', 'A Voz da União', 'A Plebe', and 'A Voz dos Garçons'. In São Paulo, she helped found and run the Centro Feminino de Educação as well as other escuelas modernas libertarias of the period.

1990 - 40 prisoners held a prison officer hostage for twenty-four hours after taking over a hall at HMP Shotts.

[B] 1995 - Chaoze One, German Roma rapper and anarchist, born.

2008 - Date of the founding of FEMEN by Anna Hutsol [Ганна Гуцол] following her becoming aware of stories of Ukrainian women duped into going abroad and then taken advantage of sexually.

2011 - Olivier O. Olivier (Pierre Marie Olivier; b. 1931), French painter, Pataphysician and cultural anarchist, dies. [see: May 1]
1612 - James Wightman is the last heretic to be burned at the stake for his beliefs.

1812 - Luddite Timeline: Unsuccessful attack on the Rawfolds Mill of William Cartwright at Liversedge by around 150 Luddites mainly from Huddersfield and Halifax. Two Luddites, Samuel Hartley and John Booth later died of their wounds. A decisive setback for Luddism.

1834 - Deuxième Révolte des Canuts / Sanglante Semaine: Second insurrection (following the November 21-24, 1831 uprising) by silk workers in Lyon following the occupation of the city by troops, who fire on an unarmed crowd. The streets are immediately filled with barricades, with workers storming and taking the barracks of Bon-Pasteur, while others barricade themselves in the districts, some, like Croix Rousse, making fortified camps.
There are attempted insurrections in Saint-Étienne and Vienna.

1859 - Giuseppe De Felice Giuffrida (d. 1920), Sicilian socialist politician and journalist, he is considered to be one of the founders of the Fasci Siciliani, born. As the first socialist mayor of Catania in Sicily [1902-14] he became the protagonist of a kind of municipal socialism.

1891 - The first issue of the Belgian anarchist newspaper 'L'Homme Libre: Organe de Combat pour l'Émancipation des Travilleurs' is published in Brussels. Intially a weekly, the following year it goes fortnightly and is then relaced by 'La Débacle'.

1896 - Wieland Herzfelde (d. 1988), German journalist, author, poet and publisher, born. Like his brother John Heartfield, he volunteered for the German army in WWI (the same year he added the 'e' to the end of the family name Herzfeld) but grew disillusioned with life at the front and, in 1916 with Hertfield, started the anti-war magazine 'Der Neuen Jugend', as well co-founding the legendary Malik-Verlag, which specialised in publishing avant-garde art and communist literature. Malik-Verlag's first publications were the political magazines 'Die Pleite' (Bankruptcy - co-edited by Heartfield and Grosz) and 'Der Gegner' (The Opponent - co-edited by Karl Otten and Herzfelde) and a Grosz portfolio. Post-WWI, he founded an art gallery, Grosz-Galerie, and a bookshop, as well as helping to organise the Erste Internationale Dada-Messe (First International Dada Fair) in 1920. In 1921, he and Grosz face trial for defamation of the army - the evidence against them were exhibits from the First International Dada Fair: Grosz's 'Gott Mit Uns' and Rudolf Schlichter and John Heartfield's 'Preussischer Erzengel' (Prussian Archangel), a stuffed soldier with a pig's head assemblage. Grosz received a 300RM fine and Herzfelde, his publisher, 600RM. Like Heartfield and Grosz, he joined the Kommunistischen Partei Deutschlands (KPD) at it's founding in Dec. 31, 1918, but was more orthodoxly communist that either his brother or Grosz.
Following Hitler's rise to power, Herzfelde fled to Prague in 1933, later moving to London, and in 1939 to the USA where he published works by exiled German writers. In 1949 he returned to East Germany, becoming a professor of literature at the University of Leipzig; he also wrote poetry and fiction, and worked as a translator.

[B] 1905 - Attila József (d. 1937), one of the most important and well-known Hungarian poets, born. Hailed by the Hungarian Communist Party in the 1950s as a great proletarian poet, he was in fact an anarchist who opposed the Bolsheviks. After the crushing of the revolution in 1919, during the twenties, he became a member of the Vienna Bund der Herrschaftslosen Sozialisten’ anarchist circle. Expelled from university in 1925 for his revolutionary poem 'Tiszta Szívvel' (Pure Heart), the following year he visited Paris. There he met the anarchist Achille Dauphin-Meunier (who had written his book about the proletarian revolution in Hungary, 'La Commune Hongroise et les Anarchistes' (1925)) and became involved with the Union Anarchiste Communiste. Returning to Hungary, he joined the illegal Kommunisták Magyarországi Pártja (Party of Communists of Hungary) in 1930 but was expelled soon after because of his ideological unreliability and anti-Stalinist views. His works include: 'A Szépség Koldusa' (Beggar of Beauty; 1922); 'Nem én Kiáltok' (It's Not Me Shouting; 1925); the surrealist influenced 'Nincsen Apám se Anyám' (Fatherless and Motherless; 1929); 'Döntsd a Tőkét, ne Siránkozz' (Knock Down the Capital; 1931), which was confiscated by the public prosecutor; and 'Külvárosi Éj' (Night in the Outskirts; 1932).

1910 - In Cheyenne, Wyoming, Emma Goldman and Ben Reitman are arrested at an open-air meeting.

1911 - Révolte des Cossiers / Révolte des Vignerons de la Champagne: A motion of the Senate was passed to enforce the law to ensure the enforcement of fraud. It took no more to spark things off. The Marne producers take action, and in the night, ransacked the cellars and buildings of several fraudsters or supposed in the villages of Damery, Dizy, and Ay. [see: Nov. 4]

[CCC] 1911 - Anteo Zamboni (d. 1926), 15-year old Italian anarchist, who tried to assassinate Benito Mussolini in Bologna on October 31, 1926, by shooting at him during the parade celebrating the March on Rome, and was immediately lynched, born.

[E] 1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: The Nevill Pavilion in Tunbridge Wells is destroyed in a fire set by militant suffragettes who objected to Kent County Cricket Club having a policy of no-admittance to women. The fire started in the dressing rooms, spreading quickly along the large number of stacked up practice nets. The fire was discovered by a passing lamplighter. The fire brigade extinguished the fire in an hour, too late to save the pavilion. In front of the remains of the pavilion, firemen found suffragette literature, an electric lantern and a picture of Emmeline Pankhurst who was then on hunger strike in Holloway prison. The pavillion was one of the first targets of what was an intensification in the WSPU campaign of protest.

1915 - Georges Gourdin (b. 1915), French anarchist and WWII Resistance partisan, born. Arrested and tortured by the Gestapo in May 1944 before being sent to Germany, he died in the Nazi camp of Elbruck.

1917 - Matilde Saiz Alonso (d. 1984), Spanish anarchist and miliciana, who fought with the Columna Roja i Negra and was the partner of fellow anarchist Francisco Sansano Navarro, born.

1918 - The Bolsheviks use the respite of the Brest Litovsk treaty with imperialism to attack their critics on the left. Tonight, 26 anarchist centres in Moscow are raided by the Cheka and hundreds of anarchist are arrested including Lev Chernyi.

1924 - Première issue of the Bulletin of the Anarchist Red Cross is published in New York. "Save your brothers tortured in the prisons of Russia."
Launched with a call to American workers and their organisations to put pressure on the Bolshevik authorities to put an end to persecutions and imprisonments of Russian workers, Socialist revolutionary militants, trade unionists and anarchists — victims because they refuse to kneel before the Bolshevik Party dictatorship.

1931 - "The ordinary man is an anarchist. He wants to do as he likes. He may want his neighbour to be governed, but he himself doesn't want to be governed. He is mortally afraid of government officials and policemen." - George Bernard Shaw, Address in New York, April 11, 1931.

1934 - Krwawa Środa w Lublinie [Bloody Wednesday in Lublin]: With over 8000 people were unemployed in this city, workers had held a series of rallies demanding a public works programme. Following the latest protest, the authorities had promised to respond within two days. On the morning of April 11, people had begun gathering from 08:00 outside the State Employment Agency Office (Państwowego Urzędu Pośrednictwa Pracy) at ul. Lubomelska waiting for a positive response. By 10:00 there were 3,000 people present. At midday, a junior official of the district general administration appeared to ask for an 8-member delegation, which included Communists and a member of the Polska Partia Socjalistyczna - Lewica (Polish Socialist Party - Left), to be selected. The authorities' response turned out to be negative, and the crowd began a spontaneous protest
When their demand to speak to the Voivode or Governor of Lublin, Józef Rożniecki, they started pulling down fences and levering up cobblestone to attack the building with. The few cops on the spot ran away. An 80-man police detachment arrived and managed to free the besieged workers inside the PUPP building. Fighting broke out between the police and and the growing ranks of protestors as the former attack the crowd with rifle butts, bayonets and tear gas. When the police began to fire on them, the crowd, who contained many women and children, were taken by surprise and panic, and began fleeing towards the city centre with the cops in hot pursuit. 71 protesters were arrested, with two of their number killed and twelve others hospitalised with gunshot wounds (many others sought treatment elsewhere to avoid arrest). Fourteen policemen were injured.
After the events, workers' self-help was organised to support the families of the injured workers and the unemployed. On April 18, 1934, a strike in protest at the police's actions on 'Bloody Wednesday' took place in Lublin, with about 1,500 people taking part.

1936 - Nelly Kaplan, Argentine-born French libertarian feminist writer, novelist, filmmaker, screenwriter and actress, who is still the only female film maker linked with surrealism, born.
"Buenos Aires, 1940: "When I grow up, I will do cinema," says young Nelly Kaplan , 9, at breakfast, after being dazzled by Abel Gance's 'J'accuse!'. "We do not speak with a full mouth," retorted her father, an Argentine bourgeois, accustomed to the escapades of his impetuous daughter." [Nelly Kaplan - 'Entrez, c'est ouvert! : Autobiographie', 2006]
Fourteen years later she was Gance's assistant on the filming of 'La Tour de Nesle' (1954) as well as playing a small part in the film itself (Alice, a maid seduced by the lead character Jehan Buridan, played by Pierre Brasseur). She went on to collaborate with him on 'Magirama' (1956) and 'Austerlitz' (1960). In 1955, she met Philippe Soupault and, the following year, André Breton at an exhibition of pre-Columbian art at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs in Paris, with whom she had "une éblouissante amitié amoureuse". Starting in 1961, she directed a series of art shorts and documentary films, many of which won prizes at various international festivals. These included 'Gustave Moreau' (1962), 'Abel Gance, Hier et Demain' (Abel Gance, Today & Tomorrow; 1963), 'À la Source, la Femme Aimée' (1966) and 'Le Regard Picasso' (1967), before making her best known work 'La Fiancée du Pirate' (A Very Curious Girl; 1969), which Pablo Picasso described as "insolence considered as one of the fine arts".
Amongst her other films are: 'Papa les P'tits Bateaux' (1971); 'Néa' (1976); and 'Plaisir d'Amour' (1991), as well as numerous screenplays and TV films. She is also a prolific author, beginning with three short works of fiction, which were published under her pseudonym 'Belen': 'La Géométrie dans les Spasmes' (Geometry in Spasms; 1959), 'Délivrez-nous du Mâle' (Deliver us from the Male; 1960) and 'La Reine des Sabbats' (The Queen of the Sabbaths; 1960); all three were later reprinted in 1966 under the title 'Le Réservoir des Sens' (The Reservoir of the Senses). Her novels include 'Le Collier de Ptyx' (1971); 'Mémoires d’une Liseuse de Draps' (Memoirs of a Lady Sheet Diviner; 1974) - banned by French censors; 'Aux Orchidées Sauvages' (1998); 'Ils Furent une Étrange Comète' ('2002); and 'Cuisses de Grenouille' (2005); and she has a number of film essays: 'Manifeste d'un art nouveau : la Polyvision' (1955); 'Le Sunlight d'Austerlitz' (1960) and 'Napoléon' (1994) - about Gance's classic; and collections of correspondence, such as 'Mon Cygne, mon Signe…' (2008), her correspondance with Abel Gance. Her most recent publication are 'Entrez, c'est ouvert! : Autobiographie' (2006) and 'Ecris-moi tes hauts faits et tes crimes' (Write to me of Your Deeds and Your Crimes; 2009).

1937 - André Bernard, French anarchist, pacifist and Surrealist, born. Took part in the founding of the International Centre for Research on Anarchism (CIRA). Sentenced in 1961 to 21 months in prison for "insubordination in peacetime".

1949 - Pilar Molina Beneyto (d. 2008), Valencian writer, photographer, documentary filmmaker, historian, anarcho-syndicalist and anarcha-feminist, born. [expand]

[DD] 1960 - April Revolution [4·19 혁명]: The body of Kim Ju-yul (김주열), a High School student who had disappeared during the Masan rioting of March 15, is found in the harbour at Masan by a fisherman. The authorities announce that an autopsy confirmed that the cause of his death was drowning, but many rejected this explanation. Some protesters forced their way into the hospital. They found that Kim's skull had been split by a 20 centimetre-long tear-gas grenade which had penetrated from Kim's eyes to the back of his head. President Rhee’s regime tried to censor news of this incident, however the story was reported by the Korean press along with a picture of Kim when his body was first found, and delivered to the world through AP. This incident shocked the country and would go on to become the basis of a national movement against electoral corruption on April 19.
Having failed to keep the incident out of the media, Syngman Rhee (이승만) tried claiming that the Communist Party of North Korea had been behind the Masan protests. However, a National Assembly investigating committee and the subsequent trial of the Chief of Public Security, Park Jong-pyo, would eventually find that Park had not only ordered the police to fire into the crowd in order to kill protesters rather than simply disperse the crowds, but that he had been personally involved in the tying of rocks to Kim Ju-yul's body and his dumping in the harbour.
On April 18, students from Korea University launched a non-violent protest at the National Assembly against police violence and demanding new elections. However they were attacked by gangs funded by Rhee's supporters as they returned to their campus. The following day, thousands of students marched from Korea University to the Blue House, the official residence of the South Korean head of state, and, as they marched past other high schools and universities, their numbers grew to over 100,000. Arriving at the Blue House, the protesters called for Rhee's resignation. Police opened fire on protesters killing approximately 180 and wounding thousands. The Rhee government then proclaimed martial law in order to suppress the demonstrations. On April 25, Korea's university professors came out on the streets to join students and citizens in large-scale protests outnumbering soldiers and police who refused to attack the protesters. The following day President Rhee bowed to the inevitable and stepped down from power. Lee Ki-poong (이기붕), former Defence Secretary and Rhee's hand-picked running mate for the vice presidency, is conveniently blamed for most of the corruption in the government. Lee and his entire family committed suicide the next day. On April 28, Minister of Interior Choi In-Kyu and the Chief of Security resigned taking responsibility for the Masan incident. The same day, as protesters once again converged on the Blue House, the CIA flew Rhee out of the country into exile.

1968 - Spokesperson for the German student movement Rudi Dutschke survives being shot in the head. Solidarity demonstrations on his behalf in Paris, Rome, Vienna and London take place.

1977 - Jacques Prévert (b. 1900), French poet, surrealist, libertarian, dies. [see: Feb. 4]

1981 - Rioting erupts in Brixton as a direct result of Swamp '81, a police stop and search operation.

1987 - Primo Levi (b. 1919), Italian-Jewish writer and chemist, dies - an apparent suicide. [see: Jul. 31]

1990 - 4 prisoners stage rooftop protest at HMP Dartmoor.

[C] 1993 - Guillem Agulló i Salvador (b. 1974), Catalan anti-Fascist militant, who was involved in Maulets, a youth organisation attached to the Movimiento Catalán de Liberación Nacional, a Catalan antifascist independentist movement, is stabbed to death by Fascists in Montanejos, Valencia.
Pedro Cuevas, a fascist who confessed to the stabbing, was sentenced to 14 years in prison. He only served 4 years. In the 2007 Spanish municipal elections he was a candidate for the far right political party Alianza Nacional in Chiva, Valencia.

[A/D] 1993 - The Lucasville Prison rebellion begins, the longest in US prison history and significant for being organised across racial barriers and gang affiliations.

1993 - Marietta 'Maria' Bibbi (b. 1895), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, who life and militancy was closely linked to that of her brother Gino Bibbi, who affectionately called her Zingrina, dies. [see: Apr. 2]

1998 - Zapatista Uprising: The autonomous municipality Ricardo Flores Magón is dismantled in a police and military operation in the community of Taniperlas, municipality of Ocosingo. Nine Mexicans are detained and twelve foreigners are expelled from the country.

2009 - Prison riot at HMP Ashwell in Rutland causes £10,000 damage and ultimately leads to the prison's closure.
1834 - Deuxième Révolte des Canuts / Sanglante Semaine: Troops attack and take the insurgent district of Guillotière, after having destroyed numerous houses with artillery.

1861 - The American Civil War begins.

[D] 1871 - Decree of the Commune to demolish the Vendôme Column, as it is considered "a monument of barbarism, a symbol of brute force and false glory, an affirmation of militarism..."

1885 - Léon Lacombe aka 'Léontou' & 'Le Chien' (d. 1913), French individualist anarchist and miner, who was involved in a series of illegaist actions including robberies and the killing of a police informer, born. [expand]

1888 - Augusto Masetti (d. 1966), Italian anarchist and anti-militarist, born. Famed for his October 30, 1911 attack as a conscript upon his colonel (Stroppa) on the parade ground of the Cialdini barracks, in Bologna, while shouting out "Down with the war! Long live Anarchy!" in protest of the war in Libya. Turning to his fellow conscripts he declared: "Brethren, stand up". Arrested, he was found to have antiwar fliers on him calling on soldiers to target their officers. [expand]

[B] 1900 - Florence Reece (née Patton; d. 1986), American social activist, poet and folk song writer, born. The wife of an union organiser for United Mine Workers which was engaged in industrial action in Harlan County, Kentucky in 1931. One night, they heard that men were coming to kill Sam Reece and he got out of the house just before they arrived. Deputies hired by the mining company entered and searched her home, terrorising Florence and her children in the process. After they’d gone, Florence was so outraged that she tore the calendar off the kitchen wall and wrote the lyrics to 'Which Side Are You On?' on the back.

"Come all you poor workers
Good news to you I’ll tell
How that good old union
Has come in here to dwell

Which side are you on?
Which side are you on?

We’re starting our good battle
We know we’re sure to win
Because we’ve got the gun thugs
Are looking very thin

Which side are you on?
Which side are you on?

You go to Harlan County
There is no neutral there
You’ll either be a union man
Or a thug for J.H. Blair

Which side are you on?
Which side are you on?

They say they have to guard us
To educate their child
Their children live in luxury
Our children almost wild

Which side are you on?
Which side are you on?

Gentleman, can you stand it?
Oh, tell me how you can
Will you be a gun thug
Or will you be a man?

Which side are you on?
Which side are you on?

My daddy was a miner
He’s now in the Aran sun
He’ll be with you fellow workers
Till every battle’s won

Which side are you on?
Which side are you on?

Now all of you know which side you’re on
And they’ll never keep us down!"

1901 - Edgardo Ricetti Scandella (d. 1984), Argentinian-born anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anarcho-naturist and teacher, born.

1904 - Joaquín Miguel Artal, a 19-year-old anarchist, tries to stab the President of the Council of Ministers, Antonio Maura, in Barcelona. Maura leaps on to the running board of Maura's carriage whilst holding an envelope. Maura, thinking it was a petition reaches out and Artal pulls what the press claimed was a 20 inch knife(!), plunging it into the left side of Maura and shouting "Long live anarchy!" Maura, who would be the victim of another unsuccessful asssassination attempt on April 22, is only slightly injured. Artal is arrested on sentenced to 17 years in prison on June 11, 1904. He will die in prison 5 years later, a victim of the appaling conditions preveleant in Spanish jails.

1906 - Francisco Ferrer, Spanish anarchist educational theorist and teacher, continues to test the tolerance of Spanish authorities and clerics by organizing a massive demonstration today, Good Friday, in support of secular education. The government and Catholic Church are quite exercised and leap at the chance to jail him on false charges in June (for over a year).

[F] 1911 - 'Los Angeles Times' Bombing / Iron Workers' Bombing Campaign: Iron Workers union member Ortie McManigal, who had allegedly (according to the National Erectors' Association's paid spy on the Iron Workers' executive board) had been handling the Iron Workers' bombing campaign on orders from union president Frank M. Ryan and secretary-treasurer John J. McNamara, and James J. McNamara, who had been overheard by an undercover private eye boasting of having committed the bombing, are arrested in a hotel in Detroit by William J. Burns, the private detective who had been investigating the iron works bombings for the past four years. Dynamite, blasting caps and alarm clocks are found in their suitcases. They are told they were being arrested for robbing a bank in Chicago and, since they had watertight alibis for that alleged crime, both men agreed to accompany Burns and the police officers back to Chicago. They end up in the private residence of Chicago Police Sergeant William Reed, where Burns persuades McManigal that he can save himself by cutting a deal with authorities. In return for the promise of a lighter sentence, McManigal signs a statement the following day (13th) claiming that he had not participated in the Times bombing, but that James McNamara had told him all about it, and that McNamara and two others, Matthew Schmidt and David Caplan (who both evaded arrest until 1915) had carried out the bombing and that other Iron Worker leaders, including Ryan, J. J. McNamara, and the spy Herbert Hockin had also been involved. [see: Oct. 1]

1912 - Revolución Mexicana: Gen. Victoriano Huerta orders execution of Pancho Villa for Villa then resends order. Huerta defeats Pascual Orozco, forcing him to flee to the US.

[A] 1918 - Moscow headquarters of the anarchists surrounded and attacked by Bolshevik troops. For the past two days Cheka, the Bolshevik secret police has carried out raids on Moscow anarchist groups and making arrests. Very similar to what happens to anarchists, radical and labour activists in the US during this period.
"At last the Soviet government, with an iron broom, has rid Russia of Anarchism." - Leon Trotsky, who prepared the military action against the anarchists.

1919 - Sóivéid Luimnigh [Limerick Soviet]: Workers in the Condensed Milk Company’s Lansdowne factory, most of whom would be affected by the Royal Irish Constabulary permit order, strike in protest against it. [see: Apr. 9]

1920 - Märzaufstand / Ruhraufstand: General von Watter forbids his soldiers from engaging in "unlawful behaviour". The actions of both sides in the fighting have been described as showing "a maximum of cruelty". By the end of the fighting, the participants in the uprising had lost in excess of 1,000 lives, the Reichswehr 208 dead and 123 missing, and Freikorps about 273 lives.

1919 - Founding congress of the l'Union Anarchiste Communiste held in Italy, 12-14 April.

1919 - Eugene V. Debs enters prison for opposing US entry into WWI (violating Espionage Act).

[CC] 1921 - Hans Steinbrück (d. 1944), leader of the Ehrenfeld Group (sometimes called the Steinbrück Group), an anti-Nazi resistance group, active in the summer and autumn of 1944 in Cologne, born. Steinbrück, who escaped from a concentration subcamp in Cologne in July 1943, came to the Ehrenfeld district of Cologne, which had been largely destroyed by Allied bombings and was a sanctuary for enemies of the Nazi regime, including escaped prisoners, forced laborers, deserters, and Jews. There he began to stockpile weapons and foodstuffs in the cellar of a bombed-out house and stayed in close contact with escaped forced laborers, Communists, and criminals, with whom he did business, fencing stolen goods. His nickname was 'Black Hans'. The cellar also served as temporary shelter for Jews, deserters and others who had gone into hiding. In the summer of 1944, a number of young people, including teenagers, some of whom had already been Edelweiss Pirates, came into contact with Steinbrück. On September 29, 1944, an army patrol was informed about the group's cellar warehouse and raided it, seizing weapons and arresting Cilli, Steinbrück's girlfriend, and 2 Jewish women sheltering there. Later returning there, Steinbrück and Roland Lorent, a deserter who had just killed a local Nazi leader and had teamed up with Steinbrück to go on a "Nazi hunt", they ran into troops guarding the cellar. They opened fire, injuring the guard and killing a passing SA member. Later they fired into a group of people, killing a member of the Hitler Youth. On October 3, 1944, Lorent was arrested and 5 days later the Gestapo began arresting members of the group, and finally, Steinbrück as well. By October 15, they had had made 63 arrests, including 19 teenagers. Of those, thirteen German males, including several teenagers, were executed without trial in a public hanging next to the Ehrenfeld train station on November 10, 1944, in front of hundreds of curious onlookers. Among the victims were six teenagers, members of the Edelweiss Pirates:
Hans Steinbrück, born April 12, 1921, age 23
Günther Schwarz, born August 26, 1928, age 16
Gustav Bermel, born August 11, 1927, age 17
Johann Müller, born January 29, 1928, age 16
Franz Rheinberger, born February 22, 1927, age 17
Adolf Schütz, born January 3, 1926, age 18
Barthel Schink, born November 25, 1927, age 16
Roland Lorent, born March 12, 1920, age 24
Peter Hüppeler, born January 9, 1913, age 31
Josef Moll, born July 17, 1903, age 41
Wilhelm Kratz, born January 6, 1902, age 42
Heinrich Kratina, born January 15, 1906, age 38
Johann Krausen, born January 10, 1887, age 57


1927 - Shanghai Commune [上海工人三次武装起义 (Shanghai Workers March Armed Uprising)]: The Shanghai Commune is betrayed by the Communist Party and falls into the hands of K.M.T. troops. [expand]

1931 - Teresa Claramunt i Creus (b. 1862), Catalan textile worker, militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and feminist pioneer, dies. [see: Jun. 4]

1942 - Henk Sneevliet aka 'Maring' (Hendricus Josephus Franciscus Marie Sneevliet; b. 1883), Dutch union leader, Communist, Trotskyist and founder of the the Marx-Lenin-Luxemburg-Front (MLL-Front) anti-fascist resistance group, is execution in the Amersfoort KZ (concentration camp) along with other members of the MLL-Front leadership. Reportedly they went to their deaths singing 'The Internationale'.

1968 - The attack on student leader Rudi Dutschke in Germany results in riots there and supporting demonstrations in France.

1968 - Printing presses from the right-wing Springer media empire are destroyed in Munich.

1971 - Rote Armee Fraktion member Ilse 'Tinny' Stachowiak is arrested at the train station in Frankfurt.

[E] 1975 - Josephine Baker (Freda Josephine McDonald; b. 1906), African-American dancer, singer, actress and civil rights activist, who worked for the French military intelligence and the Résistance during WWII, dies following a cerebral haemorrhage. [see: Jun. 3]

1989 - Abbie Hoffman (b. 1936), Yippie peace activist of the 60's, dies at 52.

1990 - Two teenage remand prisoners at HMP Swansea barricaded themselves into their cell for seventeen hours.

1993 - Fascist try to burn down the anarchist bookshop at 121 Railton Road, Brixton.

2009 - Franklin Rosemont (b. 1943), American anarchist, poet, artist, co-founder of the Chicago Surrealist Group and historian of anarchist movement, dies. [see: Oct. 2]

2009 - Pierre Peuchmaurd (b. 1948), French poet, Surrealist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 26]

2011 - Lee Brown, 39, a British tourist is allegedly beaten to death by police after being arrested for an argument with a hotel cleaner while on holiday in Dubai, just six days at the notorious Bur Dubai police station.

[C] 2014 - The Long Man of Wilmington makes his stand against the annual racist March for England, due to be held in Brighton on March 27. [pic]
1570 - Guy Fawkes (d. 1606) born.

1848 - Heckeraufstand [Hecker Uprising]: The attempt by Baden revolutionary leaders Friedrich Hecker, Gustav von Struve, and several other radical democrats during the Märzrevolution to overthrow the monarchy and establish a republic in the Grand Duchy of Baden.

[B] 1860 - James Ensor (d. 1949), Belgian symbolist and proto-expressionist painter, printer, musician and anarchist, born. Founding member, alongside Théo van Rysselberghe, of Les XX (Les Vingt), a Belgian painters, designers and sculptors group, who held a series of exhibitions with the likes of Paul Signac, Camille Pissarro, Maximilien Luce, Odilon Redon, Cézanne, Toulouse-Lautrec, Gauguin and Van Gogh. He was also a significant influence on the likes of Klee, Grosz and the Surrealists.
'Christ’s Entry into Brussels in 1889' - "..akin to [Elisée] Reclus’s notion of the freedom of the individual as a moral imperative, and [Oscar] Wilde’s belief that artists have the responsibility to open the space for that freedom. In the tradition of Bosch, Bruegel, and Goya, Ensor created this painting as an attempt to lampoon those institutions that confused authority with greater human laws." (Patricia G. Berman - 'James Ensor: Christ's Entry into Brussels in 1889')

1877 - Enrique Flores Magon (b. 1954), Mexican revolutionary anarchist and brother of anarchist Ricardo Flores Magón, born.

1884 - Jules Vignes (d. 1970), French anarchist publisher, propagandist and Idist (Ido, international language, a simplification of Esperanto), born. In October 1908 he founded the anarchist journal 'La Torche', in 1917 the libertarian Idist newspaper 'La Feuille' (The Sheet) in Saint-Genis-Laval (Rhône) and in 1927 the first manifestation of the newspaper 'Libération' (the name was later used for the Socialist Party organ).

1884 - The first issue of the newspaper 'L'Alarme: organe anarchiste' is published in Lyon. It succeeds 'L'Hydre Anarchiste' and eight issues of this weekly Sunday newspaper are published until June 1 1884.

[A] 1901 - Clément Duval escapes from prison in French Guyana by canoe with 8 other prisoners.

[D] 1905 - Grèves de Limoges de 1905: In Limoges, 'la ville rouge' or 'la Rome du socialisme', the city undergoes significant social unrest following strikes by locksmiths, then shoe workers followed by the porcelain industry. The initial grievance that triggered the strike was a call for the removal of a tyrannical foreman which then extended throughout the whole profession. Today the bosses ordered a lockout.
The strike had begun in the wake of protests against low wages and, in particular, the tyranny of two autocratic foremen in local porcelain factories. The industrial unrest had started amongst local locksmiths, and they and the workers at a footwear manufacturers, Maison Fougeras, a makers of shoes and clogs. were the first groups of workers to go out on strike. In March 1905, a number of felt manufactures (involved in the hat industry) also joined the growing strike movement. That same month the appointment of a new general, Marie Charles Tournier, a militant Catholic, at the head of the Limoges military region, was badly received in Limoges, 'la ville rouge' or 'la Rome du socialisme' as the town was popularly known.
Subsequently, workers at the Haviland porcelain factories also went out on strike. Emboldened by the actions of their fellow workers, they too sought to challenged the conditions under which they were employed and, more expressly, the power of their supervisors – droit de seigneur – not only as to who was employed, but also how much they were paid on piecework rates and the sexual exploitation that the predominantly young and female workforce had to suffer at their hands. The main targets of the potiers-porcelainiers' ire were Penaud, the hated director of the painting workshops at Théodore Haviland's Place des Tabacs factory, who was accused of sexually exploiting and abusing young female workers subordinate to him, and Jean-Baptiste Sautour, chief engineer at Charles Haviland's Avenue Garibaldi works, accused of having sacked a worker who had buried her dead child without any religious ceremony, and who had also discriminated upon religious grounds and encouraged others to bully their fellow workers upon the same basis.
By April 13, the strike had extended throughout the whole industry and in Limoges itself the atmosphere of unrest had grown with widespread picketing and protests. The red flag was now flying over the Théodore Haviland's factory in response the owner, who had American roots, having raised the flag of the United States there. The same day the bosses ordered a lockout. On April 14, 19 of 32 porcelain factories across France were idle and in Limoges the army now intervened, with General Tournier sending in the 12e Corps d'Armée. Fighting swiftly brakes out, barricades are erected in one of the popular suburbs, Ancienne Route d'Aixe, in response to the military killing a horse, a mare named Estacade, whose body became the centre of a new barricade (something recorded in a number of popular postcards produced illustration the strike and the unrest accompanying it. That same day Théodore Haviland was hanged in effigy by a group of youths and his car, something of an expensive rarity in those days, set on fire.
The following day, Monday 15th, military reinforcement are dispatched to the town and all gatherings are banned by the préfecture. Increasingly angry, workers began invading and occupying their places of work, barricades were also being erected in the streets and armouries and gun shops looted. Elsewhere, protesters took to the streets with signs saying "Mort à Penaud, Mort à Sautour" ("Death to Penaud, Death to Sautour) and "Vous êtes tous priés d'assister à l'enterrement de Sautour et de Penaud" (You are all invited to attend the funeral of Sautour and Penaud). That night, a bomb exploded outside the house of the director of Théodore Haviland's factory, M. Chadal.
Meanwhile, the police and soldiers had arrested an increasing number of people, not just in connection with the gun shop raids but also during the street protests, and on April 17, the workers' delegation attempted to gain the release of those arrest. Initially rebuffed by the préfet, they left the préfecture empty handed and, with the waiting crowd, they then went to the town hall to request the intervention of the socialist mayor, Emile Labussière. That attempt failed also. Instead the crowd proceeded to the county prison in the Place du Champ-de-Foire is a show of solidarity with those locked-up there. A large demonstration was then held in the Jardin d'Orsay opposite the prison to demand the release of protesters arrested on the previous days. A troop of horsemen (dragons) quickly arrived, provoking a violent confrontation during which the soldiers open fire without warning, mortally wounding a 20-year-old porcelain worker, Camille Vardelle, who had been a mere onlooker. Dozens of others were also injured by the troops.
The day after the clashes outside the prison and Vardelle's death, the préfet was overwhelmed with demands for protection from Limoges' more prominent citizens, with a number of factory owners and their lieutenants complaining of having received threatening letters "de menaces de style anarchiste". News of the events of the previous days were also splashed across the pages of the world's press. Camille Vardelle's funeral on April 19 drew tens of thousands in a large demonstration of workers' solidarity.
By the end of the week the town was much more quiet and the bosses finally lifted the lockout (Friday 21) following negotiations with union representatives, but there was no such respite for those, especially the anarchists, who had taken an active part in social unrest. They now became the target of repression: arrests, dismissals, expulsions from the city and the department, as was the case for Régis Meunier. On April 22, work resumed in the porcelain factories; but the workers had not obtained satisfaction on their main demands and the movement continued in other sectors, prominent amongst these was at the Beaulieu rabbit skin plant [rabbit skins were used at the time in the manufacture of felt hats], where the factory and the owner's house were blockaded.
One year on from the Grèves de Limoges de 1905, the anniversary of the murder of Camille Vardelle in 1906 was marked by a clashes between protesting workers and police, and several libertarian militants ended up under arrest.

1905 - The French 'Illegalist' newspaper 'L'Anarchie' first appears in Paris today and every Thursday until the outbreak of WWI in 1914.

[C] 1906 - Samuel Beckett (d. 1989), Irish playwright, poet, novelist, theatre director, anti-fascist and member of the Résistance, born. He worked with the French Underground during the World War II occupation by Germany, first as a courier in Paris and later with the Maquis sabotage of the German army in the Vaucluse mountains, claiming that he preferred "France in war to Ireland in peace". For his service he was awarded the Croix de Guerre and French Médaille de la Résistance.

1907 - Jack Bilbo (Hugo Cyril Kulp Baruch; d. 1967), German-born Jewish writer, novelist, painter, illustrator, sculptor, gallery owner, adventurer and anarchist, born. Co-founder in 1930 of the anti-Nazi Kampfbunde gegen den Faschismus (Committees for Combating Fascism) and fought with anarchist militia in the Spanish Revolution. Interned on the Isle of Man in WWII, he became a friend of Kurt Schwitters, showinghis work in his Modern Art Gallery, which he opened in October 1941 on Baker Street in London. [expand]

1907 - Antonio Ortiz Ramirez (d. 1996), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-Franco and anti-fascist fighter, born. A member of the CNT at fourteen, he joined Los Solidarios in 1923 and was active in the Sindicato de la Madera, woodworkers section of the union. Following the declaration of the 1931 Republic, he was imprisoned following a strike and in 1934 joined the Nostros affinity group. During the Spanish Revolution he led the 800-strong Roja y Negra Colonna aka Ortiz Column, was made commander of the Republican 25th Division [Apr. 1937, but dismissed by the Communist authorities in the Sept.] and a volunteer French army officer during WWII, born.
Following demobilisation, he was involved with José Pérez Ibáñez and Primitivo Pérez Gómez in the 1948 attempted assassination of Franco by bombing his boat from the air at a San Sebastian regatta. The subsequent exposure in the French press, and fearing for his safety, Ramirez went into exile in Latin America in 1951, first to Bolivia, then Peru and, in 1955, to Venezuela. In 1987 he returned to Barcelona, where he managed to recoup his salary as a Republican Army sergeant.

1911 - 'Los Angeles Times' Bombing / Iron Workers' Bombing Campaign: In return for a lighter sentence, Iron Workers union member Ortie McManigal signs a statement claiming that he had not participated in the 'Times' bombing, but that James McNamara had told him all about it, and that McNamara and two others, Matthew Schmidt and David Caplan (who both evaded arrest until 1915) had carried out the bombing and that other Iron Worker leaders, including Ryan, J. J. McNamara, and the spy Herbert Hockin had also been involved. [see: Oct. 1]

1913 - General Strike in Belgium demanding universal suffrage.

1913 - Anarchist Rafael Sancho Alegre, a member of La Simpatía de Barcelona, fires three shots at King Alfonso XIII of Spain, the eighth attempt on his life, as the King is riding through the streets of Madrid. He is arrested and on July 9, 1913 is sentenced to death, but pardoned by the king himself and the sentence commuted to life imprisonment on September 3, he remains in prison until 1931.

1915 - Two Italian anarchist, Frank Abarno and Carmine Carbone, members of the Gruppo Gaetano Bresci aka the 'Bresci Circle', are convicted of conspiracy to bomb St. Patrick's Cathedral on March 2, 1915. Six days later on April 19, Frank Abarno and Carmine Carbone were sentenced to six-to-twelve years at Sing Sing Prison. [see: Mar. 2]

1917 - Criminal Syndicalism: Within a month of Idaho having past a statute on criminal syndicalsim, the State of Minnesota passes its own statute entitled: "An act defining criminal syndicalism, prohibiting the advocacy thereof and the advocacy of crime, sabotage, violence, or other unlawful methods of terrorism as a means of accomplishing industrial or political ends, and assemblage for the purpose of such advocacy; declaring it unlawful to permit the use of any place, building or rooms for such assemblage in certain cases; and providing penalties for violations of the provisions thereof." Over the next three years, twenty-one states and two territories,
most of which were in the West or Midwest, followed suit with their own criminal syndicalism laws.

1918 - The first issue of the weekly 'La Plèbe' is published in Paris. "Syndicaliste, libertaire, socialiste, la Plèbe [...] est l'organe de tous ceux qui, à l'épreuve du désastre, ont gardé intacte leur foi, leur raison, leur combativité, de tous ceux aussi des masses profondes, que la guerre a réveillés..." (The People ... is the organ of all those who, in the event of disaster, have kept intact their faith, their reason, their fighting spirit, and also all those deep masses that war has awakened ...)

[FF] 1919 - Sóivéid Luimnigh [Limerick Soviet]: A general strike is called by the city's United Trades and Labour Council, to which Robert Byrne (the local postal worker and member of the Irish Volunteers who was fatally wounded in the failed rescue attempt on April 6) had been a delegate. Running the strike was devolved to a committee that took to describing itself as a 'soviet' as of April 14.
Delegates from the thirty five unions affiliated to Limerick United Trades and Labour Council meet to consider the situation. Their discussions last for almost twelve hours, ending at 23:30 that night. In the end, the decision was unanimous. The Council decides to call a general strike of all Limerick workers beginning at 05:00 the following morning as a protest against the proclamation of the city as a special military area. At a sympathetic printing works in Cornmarket Row, printers worked through the night on a strike proclamation. Within two hours, the city's walls are covered with this notice:

"Limerick United Trades and Labour Council Proclamation
The workers of Limerick, assembled in Council, hereby declare cessation of all work from 5 am on Monday April 14, 1919, as a protest against the decision of the British Government in compelling them to procure permits in order to earn their bread.
By order of the Strike Committee
Mechanics' Institute.
Any information with reference to the above can be had from the Strike Committee."

The Council elected a Strike Committee, chaired by the Council President, John Cronin, a delegate from the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters. Cronin was an unassuming person, but a great craftsman, having won a gold medal and certificate from the Worshipful Company of Carpenters for proficiency in his trade. Cronin's father had been also been President of the Trades Council and the son had followed diligently in his footsteps. The Trades Council Treasurer, the printer James Casey, was elected Treasurer of the strike committee. The third officer of the strike committee was an engineering worker named James Carr. The strikers also elected subcommittees to take charge of propaganda (including the publishing of newspapers), finance (incl. the printing of their own money), food (incl. control food prices) and vigilance - an early indication, perhaps, that they expected a long, rather than a short, strike.

1919 - Bavarian Council Republic [Bayerische / Münchner Räterepublik]: Following its declaration on April 7th by the Workers' Councils, an attempted counter-coup, known as the Palmsonntagsputsch (Palm Sunday Putsch), is launched against the Münchner Räterepublik by the SPD-led Hoffmann Government in exile in Bamburg. Troops of the Republikanische Schutztruppe (Republican Protection Force) occupy Munich Central Station but are swiftly defeated by elements of the Roten Armee, under the command of the KPD military leader Rudolf Egelhofer. KPD factory delegates used the event to push for the transfer of power from the Assembly to a KPD-dominated Vollzugsrat (Executive Council), with Eugen Leviné and Max Levien at its head. Egelhofer becomes the Munich Stadtkommandanten, the city's military commander. Gustav Landauer and Ernst Toller acknowledge the Executive Council and initially also take part in the second phase of the Soviet Republic. In response, a ten day general strike is proclaimed.
Three days later near Dachau (north of Munich), the Workers', Soldiers' and Farmers' Councils of the Republic of Bavaria led by Ernst Toller, rout the government troops sent to quell the revolution. It will prove to be a sadly short-lived victory.

1919 - Jallianwala Bagh or Amritsar Massacre: British troops commanded by General Reginald Dyer fire on a crowd that has assembled in the Jallianwala Bagh public garden in Amritsar, India. The peaceful assembly has gathered to protest an edict by General Dyer ordering all Indian men wishing to pass through the Kucha Kurrichhan, a local street in which a British citizen was assaulted, to do so crawling along on their bellies.
Dyer had previously forbidden Indians to hold meetings of any kind, so the gathering in the Jallianwala Bagh garden is 'illegal' in his eyes. The garden is surrounded by walls; access is through narrow passageways and gates. Dyer orders his troops to seal off all exits to prevent people leaving, and then, without warning, to start firing on a crowd of 15,000-20,000 Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims. The shooting continues until the soldiers run out of ammunition (at least 1,650 rounds). Official British government figures stated that 370 died and 1,200 were wounded. However, it is much more likely that well over 1,000 were killed.

1919 - Peru General Strike for the 8-hour Work Day: The Comité Pro-Abaratamiento de las Subsistencias (Committee for the Lowering of Subsistence) publishes a manifesto demanding cheaper food and staples, transportation and rent. The committee had been launched ealier in April by Peru's anarcho-syndicalist unions to campaign for the reduction in the price of basic goods, which had been driven up by widespread specualtion in commodities. Given the post-WWI stagnation in salaries, the ordinary worker was struggling to get by, unlike the business class, who had seen a massive increase in their profits due to the availability of raw materials again. The government refused to listen to the workers' demands and on May 1 a general strike was declared.

1919 - Eugene Debs imprisoned for opposition to WWI. Socialist, pacifist and labour leader. While in prison he received over one million votes for President in 1920.

[E] 1919 - Madalyn Murray O'Hair (Madalyn Mays; d. 1995), US psychiatric social worker, anarchist, feminist and atheist activist, who was founder of American Atheists and a woman of many pseudonyms, her favourite being M. Bible, who 'Life' magazine in 1964 called "the most hated woman in America", born.
"I told my kids I just want three words on my tombstone ... Woman, Atheist, Anarchist. That's me."

1920 - Revolución Mexicana: Alvaro Obregon calls for uprising against Venustiano Carranza. Supporters, including Pancho Villa, rally to his side.

1930 - Marie Huot (Mathilde Marie Constance Ménétrier; b. 1846), French poet, writer, journalist, lecturer, anarchist, feminist néo-Maltusian, Theosophist, vegetarian propagandist, and activist for animal rights and against vaccination, who was known as 'La mère aux chats' and wrote under the penname of Edward Mill, dies. [see: Jun. 28]

[F] 1933 - Pano Vassilev (b. 1901), Bulgarian militant anarcho-syndicalist, is assassinated in Sofia by the police whilst looking for a printer in Sofia for Mayday leaflets. [see: Oct. 17]

1941 - Jean-Marc Reiser (d. 1983), one of France's foremost cartoonists and comic artists, born. In 1960, he participated in the launch of 'Hara-Kiri' magazine, together with Georges Bernier, François Cavanna and Fred. His work appeared in numerous other magazines including 'Charlie Hebdo', 'La Gueule Ouverte', 'Charlie Mensuel', 'Métal Hurlant', L'Écho des Savanes', etc., as well as the anarchist magazines 'Enragé' and 'Action'.

1945 - Ernst Cassirer (b. 1874), German neo-Kantianism philosopher and phenomenologist, dies. [see: Jul. 28]

1945 - Belsen and Buchenwald Nazi concentration camps liberated. The Allied camp will flaunt the Nazi horrors to cover their own.

1949 - Marie Louise Berneri (b. 1918), the elder daughter of Camillo and Giovanna Berneri, editor of 'Freedom' and author of 'Neither East Nor West' and 'Journey Through Utopia', dies in childbirth. [see: Mar. 1]
"Into the silence of the sun
Risen in dust the rose is gone,
The blood that burned along the briar
Branches invisibly on the air.
Flame into flame's petal
Her grief extends our grief,
Over the ashy heat-ways
A green glance from a leaf
Shivers the settled trees.
A child walks in her grace
The light glows on his face,
Where the great rose has burned away
Within the terrible silence of the day."
'In Memory of M.L.B.' - Louis Adeane

1950 - Hoche Arthur Meurant (b. 1883), French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Dec. 17]

1954 - At a meeting held in Caxton Hall, Westminster, a group of ex-Conservatives, fascists and other far-right nationalists led by Arthur K. Chesterton (a former leading figure in the British Union of Fascists and previously a member of various far-right groups including the Nordic League and The Right Club, who would later co-found the National Front) found the League of Empire Loyalists (LEL), to campaign against the dissolution of the British Empire. The League would have support from within the Conservative Party and would be particularly know for their stunts at Conservative conferences and the meetings of groups such as the Anti-Slavery Society, Movement for Colonial Freedom and CND. Amongst those who joined it were confirmed neo-Nazis such as John Tyndall, Colin Jordan and Martin Webster, and the group would go on to become primarily concerned with opposing the so-called 'demographic genocide against the British people' and be instrumental in the founding of the National Front in February 1967.

1961 - The newly formed BNP secures an 8.1% share of the vote in Deptford in the London County Council elections.

1962 - Rachel Carson's book indicting the pesticide industry, 'Silent Spring', is published.

1966 - Carlo Carrà (b. 1881), Italian futurist painter and author, dies. An anarchist in his early years, he painted his famous futurist work 'The Funeral of the Anarchist Galli' (1910-11), which Carrà was present at, in that period. However, he became an ultra-nationist during WWI and, like many of the Futurist, later became active Fascists, signing a manifesto which called for support of the state ideology through art. [see: Feb. 11]

1971 - Vicenta Sáez (or Sáenz) Barcina (d. 1971), Spanish weaver and anarchist, who was active in the prisoner support movement in Barcelona during the 1920s, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

1980 - José Ester i Borrás (b. 1913), Spanish anarchist, active in the resistance in France, arrested and sent to Mauthausen concentration camp, dies. After the liberation he co-founded the Spanish Federation of Former Political prisoners and camp inmates (FEDIP). [see: Oct. 26]

2005 - André Bösiger (b. 1913), Swiss anarchist and militant trades unionist, dies. A member of the Ligue d'Action du Bâtiment (L.A.B), and associated with Luigi Bertoni ('Réveil Anarchiste' - The Anarchist Alarmclock) and Lucien Tronchet. A founder of the CIRA (Centre International de Recherches sur l’Anarchisme). [see: Jul. 22]

2009 - Abel Paz (Diego Camacho Escámez; b. 1929), Spanish militant anarchist, historian and Civil War combattant, dies. Paz helped found the Los Quijotes del Ideal group (who opposed collaborating with the Republican government) in August 1936, along with Victor García, Liberto Sarrau and other young libertarians. [see: Aug. 12]
[A] 1736 - Porteous Riots: So named after the Captain of the Edinburgh City guards who order his men to fire warning shots on a crowd protesting the execution of 2 smugglers. 6 people died and Porteus was arrested, tried and found guilty of murder. The authorities tried to prevent his hanging but Porteus was eventually lynched by a crowd who stormed the tollbooth.

1812 - Food riots in Sheffield, Rotherham and Barnsley. [14-15 April]

1821 - [O.S. Apr. 2] Greek Revolution [Ελληνική Επανάσταση] or Greek War of Independence: During the evening the first news of the Greek Revolt in southern Greece reaches Constantinople and prominent members of the Greek community began to be accused of having knowledge or even participated in the revolt. The Sultan, Mahmud II, requested a fatwa allowing a general massacre against all Greeks living in the Empire (which was subsequently recalled) and the Ecumenical Patriarch, Gregory V, was forced by the Ottoman authorities to excommunicate the revolutionaries, which he did on Palm Sunday, April, 3 [15] 1821.

1834 - Deuxième Révolte des Canuts / Sanglante Semaine: In Lyon, where the Insurrection of the Silk Workers began the 9th of April, the army gradually begins retaking the city, attacking, for the third time, the Croix Rousse district, and massacring many workers.

1845 - Louis Genet (d. unknown), textile worker, member of the Vienna anarchist group 'Les Indignés', born.

1874 - Josiah Warren (b. 1798), US individualist anarchist and publisher of what is arguably the first anarchist periodical (first published in January 1833) dies in Boston.

1881 - Jean Biso (d. 1966), French anarcho-syndicalist, Secretary of the Syndicat des Correcteurs in Paris, participant in support groups for Sacco and Vanzetti, and the Spanish Revolution of 1936, born.

1883 - [N.S. Apr. 26] Sophia Illarionovna Bardina (Софья Илларионовна Бардина; b. 1853), Russian anarchist revolutionary, who defended the attentat against the Tsar, saying that "for us, anarchy does not signify disorder, but harmony in all social relations; for us, anarchy is nothing but the negation of oppressions which stifle the development of free societies", commits suicide, shooting herself in the head. [see: Apr. 26]

[B] 1901 - Valeriano Orobón Fernánez (d. 1936), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist theoretician, trade-union activist, translator and poet, who wrote the Spanish lyrics of the CNT anthem 'A Las Barricadas', born. [expand]

1902 - The first issue of 'Il Grido della Folla' (The Cry of the Crowd), an individualist anarchist weekly is published in Milan. It suspends publication after 11 August 1905 and, after three month hiatus, reappears on November 11, 1905, with the title: 'Grido della Folla'. There is another interruption of publication (following the printing of a single issue entitled 'La Protesta della Folla' on May 27 1906) between December 15 1906 and June 22 1907, and finally ceases publication after 15 August 1907.

[F] 1905 - Grèves de Limoges de 1905: Today and tomorrow workers invade the factories, set up barricades in the streets and loot the armouries. [expand]

1906 - The first issue of the bilingual 'l'Action Anarchiste - l'Azione Anarchica' is published in Geneva.

1912 - San Diego Free Speech Fight: A mob of vigilantes waits for Emma Goldman's arrival at the San Diego train station and follows her to the Grant Hotel in an attempt to run her out of town. Reitman is kidnapped, tarred, and sage-brushed, and his buttocks singed by cigar with the letters I.W.W.. Goldman flees from San Diego to Los Angeles.

1912 - Manuel Chiapuso Hualde (d. 1997), Basque anarcho-syndicalist writer, teacher, historian and activist, born. [expand]

1914 - Revolución Mexicana: President Wilson orders the US Atlantic Fleet to Mexico.

1914 - José Palacios Rojas aka 'Piruli' (d. 2007), Spanish farm labourer, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and Civil War combattant, born. Member of the CNT and FIJL from an early age, he received his education at the local CNT Ateneo. After the occupation of his village by Franco forces, when all of the local CNT committee and many militants were summilarily shot, he managed to escape to the Republican zone and join the militia, fighting on the Cordoba, Granada and Almeria fronts and in Madrid. Trapped in Alicante, he was taken prisoner at the end of the war and interned at the Albatera concentration camp and then in Malaga prison. Released after several years in prison without ever having been tried, Piruli continued to participate in the clandestine CNT. After the death of Franco he was involved in the reconstruction of the CNT in Seville, remaining a member until his death.

1916 - Antonio Pellicer i Paraire (b. I85I), Spanish typesetter and anarchist, who settled in Argentina in 1891 who's article in 'La Protesta Humana' and his book 'The Organisation of Labour' (1900) were important in helping form the Federation Obrera Argentina (Workers' Federation of Argentian) in 1901, dies. [see: Feb. 23]

1917 - Cabaret Voltaire's 'Fête of the Galerie Dada', Second Soirée ('Sturm'-Soirée) at Bahnhofstr. 19, Zurich. According to Tristan Tzara's 'Chronique Zurichoise 1915-19' (1922), "Second performance at the gallery Dada: Jarry, Marinetti, Apollinaire, van Hoddis, Cendrars, Kandinsky. NIGHTLY ATTACK: Heusser, Ball, Glauser, Tzara, Sulzberger, A. Ehrenstein, Hennings etc. negromusic and dance with support by Miss Jeanne Rigaud and Miss Maja Kruscek, Masken von Janco." Also taking place was the première of Oskar Kokoschka's comedy 'Sphinx und Strohmann' (Sphinx and Man of Straw). Marcel Janco directed and designed the masks. Tristan Tzara played the parrot, Emmy Hennings the unfaithful Anima, Friedrich Glauser was Death and Hugo Ball the betrayed husband Firdusi. The chaos that raged that evening on the stage of the Cabaret Voltaire was described by Ball in his 'Die Flucht aus der Zeit' (The flight from time; 1927): "Finally, when Mr Firdusi had to fall, everything got caught up in the wires and lights strung about. For a few minutes, there was total night and confusion."
Tzara again: "This show decided the role of the theatre, which will entrust the stagedirection the subtile invention of outbreaking wind, the scenery in the midst of the audience, visible conducting and grotesque pillars: The dadaesque theatre. Above all masks and 'coups de theatre', the image of the director. Bravo! and high, high!"

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The strike end. Milans del Bosch and Martínez Anido, with support from the Federation of Employers and Military Defence Juntas, dismissed Governor Montañés and police chief Doval, considered too soft, and send them back to Madrid.

[D] 1919 - Sóivéid Luimnigh [Limerick Soviet] & General Strike: A General Strike begins across the city at 05:00, which will remain in place until the ending of martial law. The committee set up by the city's United Trades and Labour Council runs the city as a 'soviet', maintaining utilities and transport, issuing their own newspaper and currency, and regulating food supply (food depots established and food sold at below market prices, profiteering prevented. The petty bourgeoisie, the small shop-keepers, participated readily enough in the strike, with a number of merchants and shopkeepers willing to give credit to the Trades Council and accept the new currency. The whole Limerick Chamber of Commerce sent to Andrew Bonar Law (the British Unionist leader and Acting Prime Minister), to Viscount French, the Lord Lieutenant, and to Griffin, a statement condemning the permit system. Sinn Féin backed the strike and Mayor O’Mara refused to leave the proclaimed area for his home, preferring to stay in an hotel through the stoppage.
Outside Limerick there was some sympathy in Dublin, but not in the main Irish industrial area around Belfast. The National Union of Railwaymen did not help.

1920 - Today the strike and Councilist factory occupations in Italy, begun March 15, has spread, and is now general in Piedmont; in the following days it spreads through much of northern Italy, particularly among the dockers and railroad workers. The government had to use warships to land troops at Genoa to march on Turin.

1921 - 'Ouverture de la Grande Saison Dada' in Paris - an attempt to provide a fresh impetus to the movement, which fails.

1925 - Members of the Koprivshtitsa (Копривщенската) anarcho-communist group – Vasil Ikonomov (Васил Икономов), Vasil Popov (Васил Попов), Nesho Mandulova (Нешо Мандулов), Nesho Toumangelov (Нешо Тумангелов) and Anton Ganchev (Антон Ганчев) – attack Bulgaria's Tsar Boris III's cavalcade as it passes through the Arabakonak Pass (Прохода Арабаконак) in the Stara Plania (Стара планина) mountains. Boris escapes unharmed. The narrowness of his escape was outlined in the 'Dawn' (Зора) newspaper two days later (Apr. 16) under the headline 'Salvation of His Majesty': "As already known, His Majesty the King was returning from hunting when he was attacked by robbers. For several years the King has been going on a regular basis every two or three months to the mountains between Orhanie, Arabakonak and Etropole, where there are ancient forests ... on Sunday, the king made his usual hunting trip ... The robbers fired directly into the car on the driver and the person standing next to him. As His Majesty the King always stands next to the driver - something that the robbers must have known - when they fired at these two places. Only by a happy coincidence, the king was not sitting on front seat in the car this time."
Given the failure of the assassination attempt, a second opportunity for an assassination attempt was secured when General Konstantin Georgiev (Константин Георгиев) was killed as part of the long-running plan to blow up the Sveta Nedelya (Света Неделя) church in the capital.
two days later at the funeral of

1927 - Enrique Martínez Marín aka 'Quique' (d. 1947), Spanish anti-Francoist anarchist guérilla, born. He belonged to the Young Libertarians of Carmelo and was the delegate for this neighbourhood to the local section of the anarchist Federation of Libertarian Youth (FIJL), which had fought in the Spanish Civil War and played an important role in the resistance to Franco after the fascist victory.
He was arrested on the August 8, 1947, but was released on the March 25, 1948. He died alongside Celedonio García Casino (aka Celes or el Largo) on the August 26, 1949, in a Guardia Civil ambush on the French frontier. José Luis Facérias and the other members of the group managed to escape.

1930 - Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Маяко́вский; b. 1893), Russian and Soviet poet, playwright, artist and stage and film actor, betrayed by the Stalinist purges, commits suicide. [see: Jul. 19]

1931 - A Republic is proclaimed in Spain.

[C] 1931 - At the Fourth Congress of the Partito Comunista d'Italia (PCd'I; Communist Party of Italy), the leadersip invites its members to work within the fascist organisations for their own ends!

1935 - The successful use of 'physical force' by the anti-fascist Left in Leicester had succeeded in driving fascist British Union of Fascists off the streets of the city, with their regular open air meetings in the Market Place or at the gates of Victoria Park gates ending in humiliation, as huge, hostile crowds of demonstrators drowned the speakers out with boos and catcalls, and their paper sellers attacked. By the end of 1934, BUF had been forced to travel to small villages and towns in the county like Ratby, Oakham, Loughborough, Market Harborough, and Melton Mowbray, where impromptu outdoor meetings and sales drives would be staged largely undisturbed, or in their constantly targeted branch headquarters.
The action taken by the forces of militant anti-fascism in the city had also forced the Chief Constable to take action and ban the fascists from holding meetings in the Market Place and at Victoria Gates for fear of the confrontations ending in violence. This fear of "anti-fascist demonstrations and consequent trouble" also led to Leicester council refusing to let De Montfort Hall to the BUF for a Mosley meeting planned for the evening of November 26, 1934 - an earlier application for November 9 had been accepted, and a large anti-fascist meeting organised’ to coincide with Mosley’s first ever political appearance in the city, but the fascist meeting was cancelled as Mosley had to appear in court in connection with his Worthing arrest [see: Oct. 9]. Instead, they were offered the much larger Granby Hall and BUF turned it down, claiming that they could not organise a meeting at such a large venue at such short notice. Alternate dates were turned down too.
However, in early April the decision was taken to organise at short notice the first ever Oswald Mosley meeting staged in Leicester. On the evening of Sunday April 14, 1935 Mosley delivered an address at the Granby Halls. The fascist leader’s speech unfolded as a unrelenting tirade against 'Jewish international power' which according to the local press was up to that time one of the most strident ever made by Mosley in the provinces on this theme. The 'Leicester Mercury' estimated a crowd of 3,000 at the 6,000-capacity venue. That may have been generous. Advance ticket sales had been calamitous in the city, and only the bused hordes of supporters from elsewhere and a sizeable contingent of anti-fascist demonstrators saved the organisers from the sight of a largely empty auditorium. Inside, security was tight. It was also ruthless: the 200 police officers were supplemented by 300 Blackshirt stewards. Cue chaos, as the address was overshadowed by a sideshow of fights and ejections.
Meanwhile, members of the Communist Party, the Unemployed Workers Movement and the Independent Labour Party had united in the Market Place to march upon Granby Halls, behind a large banner reading Unite Against Mosley. "The marchers were considerably outnumbered by the people who followed in their rear", reported the 'Mercury'. "Cyclists and motorists rang their bells and hooted continuously. The procession turned into Welford Road and had almost reached the prison gates when a remarkable development occurred. Scores of uniformed police suddenly appeared as if by magic. They had been hiding from view in the entrance to the prison. They joined hands and ran across Welford Road to form a complete cordon. At the same time, police who had been escorting the procession received instructions to turn the demonstrators back. A scuffle ensued as the police stopped the marchers. Several of the marchers fell in the struggle and the banner was torn from their leaders’ hands and ripped to shreds. Outside the gaol gates, a policeman staggered back as somebody threw a quantity of pepper into his face". Thomas Fall, described in the 'Mercury' as one of the "standard-bearers" of the anti-fascist demonstration told the 'Mercury' he’d been "bruised from head to foot" in the clash with the police.

1937 - Friends of Durruti Group, (former anarchists in the Durruti Column) issues a Manifesto opposing commemoration of the anniversary of the Republic, arguing it is merely a pretext for reinforcing bourgeois institutions and the counter-revolution.

1945 - Fioravante Meniconi (b. 1893), Italian militant anarchist individualist and anti-militarist propagandist, dies. [see: Oct. 13]

1968 - 4,000 anti-Vietnam War student protesters battle police in West Berlin. Also the peak of demonstrations in West Berlin against Axel Springer and his publishing empire, after an assassination attempt on Rudi Dutschke ("Red Rudy").

[E] 1986 - Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir (b. 1986), French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist, dies of pneumonia in Paris, aged 78. [see: Jan. 9]

1988 - Daniel Guérin (b. 1904) dies. One of France's best known revolutionary activists and thinkers, author of books such as 'Fascism and Big Business' (1936), 'Anarchism; From Theory to Practice' (1965) and 'No Gods No Masters: An Anthology of Anarchism' (1965). [see: May 19]
1812 - Food riots in Sheffield, Rotherham and Barnsley. [14-15 April]

1821 - [O.S. Apr. 3] Greek Revolution [Ελληνική Επανάσταση] or Greek War of Independence: On Palm Sunday, the Ecumenical Patriarch, Gregory V, in Constantinople is forced by the Ottoman authorities to excommunicate the Filiki Eteria revolutionaries and their supporters. Later in the day the Sultan orders the execution of the Grand Dragoman, Konstantinos Mourouzis, who is beheaded and his body displayed in public. His brother and various other leading members of the Phanariote families are also executed, although in fact only a few Phanariotes were connected with the revolutionaries.

1834 - Deuxième Révolte des Canuts / Sanglante Semaine: The end of the 'Bloody Week' in Lyon. The second great insurrection of the Silk workers is subdued in a blood bath, with several hundred victims. Those insurrectionists captured, rather than killed, will appear in a "monster trial" in Paris in April 1835.

1836 - George Engel (d. 1887), German-American anarchist, labour union activist, IWA member and Haymarket martyr, born. [expand]

1864 - Antoine Antignac (d. 1930), French anarchist and propagandist, bookstore manager, writer for numerous libertarian publications, born.

1879 - Following his defence of the attentats of May 11 and June 5 1878, where the anarchists Emil Hödel and Karl Eduard Nobiling respectively try to assassinate Kaiser Wilhelm I in separate incidents in Berlin, in the columns of 'L'Avant-Garde' in terms of "propaganda by the deed", Paul Brousse is sentenced to 2 months in prison and banished for 10 years from the Swiss Confederation.

[E] 1881 - [O.S. Apr. 3] Sophia Lvovna Perovskaya (Russian: Со́фья Льво́вна Перо́вская; b. 1853), Russian revolutionary and prominent member of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), who helped to organise the successful assassination of Tsar Alexander II of Russia, is executed by hanging for the crime. [see: Sep. 13]

1882 - Pierre Ramus (pseudonym of Rudolf Großmann) (d. 1942), Austrian anarchist writer and propagandist, born. [expand / see: May 27]

[C] 1882 - Giovanni Amendola (b. 1926), Italian journalist, politician and noted opponent of Fascism, who died in exile in France from wounds sustained in a fascist attack, born.

​[B] 1883 - Louis Moreau (d.1958), French militant libertarian, pacifist, painter and engraver, born. Trained as a lithographer, in 1900 he settled in Paris to practice his trade, developing a passion for drawing, painting and woodcuts. There he began contributing to Jean Grave's 'Temps Nouveaux'. Called up during WWI, his work was published in the clandestine 'Le Semeur'.
Post-WWI, his famous his 'Femme Libérée' series illustrated André Lorulot's magazine 'l'Idée Libre' and he contributed wood engravings to Émile Armand's 'Néo-Naturien' and 'L'EnDehors'. With Germain Delatouche, a fellow engraver and libertarian, Moreau formed the group Les Partisans in 1924.
His portraits of famous anarchists and anti-militarist illustrations embellish a lot of books and reviews of the libertarian press: 'Les Humbles', 'La Revue Anarchiste', 'l'Almanach de la Paix', 'L'Unique', 'Temps Nouveau' and numerous titles from Joseph Ishill's Oriole Press.

1887 - [O.S. Apr. 3] Maria Feodorovna Nagovitsyna (Мария Фёдоровна Наговицына; d. 1966), Russian revolutionary and member of the RSDLP, born. She was elected a member of the Ivanovo-Voznesensk Soviet of Workers' Deputies (Иваново-Вознесенского совета рабочих депутатов) during the strike of May 24 [12] - Aug. 5 [Jul. 23], 1905, and the Central Executive Committee of the USSR in 1920.

1889 - Louis Alexandre Bertho (aka Jules Marius Lepetit & 'Legrand') (d. 1920), French labourer, driver, anarcho-syndicalist, reported missing after a trip to Moscow, probably eliminated by the Communists, born. [expand]
Invited to the Second Congress of the Communist International in Moscow in July 1920 along with fellow anarcho-syndicalist Marcel Vergeat and the socialist Raymond Lefebvre, all three were upset by what they found in Russia and said so publicly. They noted what they saw and experienced and let it be known that their report would be critical. When it was time to leave, their official escorts asked the three men for their briefcases. Fearing they would not be returned, Lefevre, Vergeat, and Lepetit refused to hand them over. They were then separated from the other delegates and put on a special train to Murmansk, a city on the Arctic coast, and told to wait there for a ship. Along the way they were mistreated. When they got there they were abandoned by their escorts and left to fend for themselves, eventually they were taken in by some fishermen. When no ship arrived to transport them, they complained in writing to Moscow but nothing came of it. They also sent letters to friends in which they expressed fears that the Bolsheviks were trying to kill them. In the end they resolved to buy a boat and try to escape on their own. Their Fishermen tried to dissuade them, but to no avail. They set sail in the last days of September (or possibly on October 1st) never to be seen again. Needless to say, the Bolsheviks told a radically different story.

1889 - The first issue of fortnightly 'La Plume', "Revue de Littérature, de Critique et d'Art Indépendant" is published in Paris. 426 issues appear up til January 1914.

[A] 1902 - [O.S. April 2] During a period of uprisings, riots, arson and peasant plunder of estates [known as the 'Years of the Red Cockerel' (Годы красного петуха)], Dmitry Sergeevic Sipyagin (Дми́трий Серге́евич Сипя́гин), the head of the Russian secret police, who had taken an active role in suppressing student and labour political organisations and in obstructing the powers of the zemstvos (local rural assemblies), is assassinated by a 20-year-old Socialist-Revolutionary student, Stepan Valerianovich Balmashёv (Степа́н Валериа́нович Балмашёв), who entered the Mariinsky Palace (Мариинский дворец) ministry building in St. Petersburg disguised as an aide-de-camp of the tsar.
A military court sentenced Balmashёv to death by hanging. When his mother wrote to the tsar, Nicholas II, asking for a clemency, he would only agree to such a petition if her son personally submitted the request. Balmashёv refused and on May 16 [3], 1902, he was hung in the Shlisselburg Fortress (Шлиссельбургской крепости).

[F] 1906 - The Primeiro Congresso Operário Brasileiro (First Brazilian Workers' Congress) takes place [April 15-22] at various venues (Rua da Constituição 30/32, the Centro Galego, and the Teatro Lucinda) in Rio de Janeiro, during which the anarcho-syndicalist Confederação Operária Brasileira (Brazilian Workers Confederation) is founded under the auspices of the International.
cpdoc.fgv.br/sites/default/files/verbetes/primeira-republica/CONFEDERAÇÃO OPERÁRIA BRASILEIRA (COB).pdf]

[AA] 1906 - Ricardo Mestre Ventura (d. 1997), Catalonian anarcho-syndicalist; construction worker; CNT and FAI member, born. One of the founders of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL); exiled in México City after the Revolution of 1936; cofounder of the Unión Distribuidora de Ediciones.
“Anarchy is an art, a beautiful pink elephant; consequently, the anarchist is an artist, capable of taming his impatience, annihilating his fears and overcome his ambitions.”

1907 - The first issue of the fortnightly (then monthly) 'Páginas Libres' (Free Pages), journal of philosophy, science, sociology, literature and criticism, is published in Barcelona. 14 issues appear up til Jan 30 1908.

1908 - The first issue of the monthly magazine 'L'Ecole Rénovée: revue d'élaboration d'un plan d'éducation moderne', in association with the International Modern School in Barcelona and Francisco Ferrer, is published in Brussels. Eight issues of the magazine appear until November 1908, when it is transferred to Paris, and continues to be published during 1909.

1908 - In Paris, Eugène Humbert launches his new Malthusian journal 'Génération Consciente', covering issue of birth control, women's emancipation, etc. 77 editions are published up til Aug. 1914.

1908 - Basiliso Serrano Valero, a.k.a 'Fortuna' & 'El Manco de La Pesquera' (d. 1955), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist guérilla fighter, who later fought with the Maquis and joined the PCE, born. After the war, he became a Robin Hood-like character as a member of Agrupació Guerrillera d'Aixequi i Aragó (AGLA), carrying out raids on rich landlords and his assistance to the local poor, but was arrested by the Guardia Civil on April 27, 1952, as he prepared to take refuge in France. On November 4, 1955, he was tried and sentenced to death and executed in the Paterna military barracks in Valencia on December 10, 1955.

1910 - Francisco I. Madero is designated as the Partido Nacional Antirreeleccionista's presidential candidate to run against the incumbent Porfirio Díaz .

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: In the early hours of the morning, WSPU militant Kitty Marion sets fire to Levetleigh, the former home of Conservative MP and anti-women's rights councillor, Harvey Du Cross, at St Leonards. Contemporary newsreels reported the estimated cost of the damage to be £10,000. Hastings and St Leonards being hotbeds of Suffragette activity, they were immediately suspected of involvement and the notoriously pacifist Hastings section of the movement were later attacked by an angry male mob as described in a letter to 'The Hastings and St Leonards Observer' of May 24, 1913: "[I do] not think that anyone who was not present could have any idea of the brutalities on the Hastings Front. Women had their hats torn off, their clothes torn from their shoulders. They were struck in the face, they were pelted and unnameable indignities were offered to them."

1913 - Revolución Mexicana: Alvaro Obregon defeats Victoriano Huerta forces along US border.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The Romanones government falls but the ex-prime minister helps cover up what was in effect a local military coup.

1920 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: A paymaster and a security guard are killed and robbed of over $15,000 at the Slater-Morrill Shoe Company factory in South Braintree, Massachusetts, a crime for which anarchists Ferdinando Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti will be blamed and executed.

1922 - The first issue of the Italian language newspaper 'L'Adunata dei Refrattari' (The Gathering Resistance) is published in New York.

1923 - Horst Heilmann (d. 1942), German anti-Nazi resistance fighter and member of the (Nazi named) Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, born. As a student he was drafted into the Wehrmacht radio operator in a special intelligence unit of the Army High Command, decrypting enemy agents' radio traffic. He also joined the circle of intellectuals that had gathered around Harro Schulze-Boysen and Horst Heilmann in Berlin and towards the end of August 1942 he told Heilmann that his office had decrypted Soviet radio messages that contained the names of Harro Schulze-Boysen, John Graudenz, Arvid Harnack and others. Shortly afterwards more than 120 people linked to the Rote Kapelle network were rounded-up by the Gestapo. On December 19, 1942, the Reich Court Martial sentenced Heilmann to death and he was beheaded three days later in Plötzensee prison alongside his Rote Kapelle comrades.

1933 - The first issueof the fortnightly Italian language newspaper 'La Vecchia Umanità Nova' (The Old New Humanisty) is published in Puteaux (Hauts-de-Seine) by Antonio Cieri and Camillo Berner following the banning of 'l'Umanità Nova' and of 'La Protesta'. It too will be proscribe after just one edition.

1938 - Nationalists (fascists) break through Republican forces and reach Mediterranean at Vinaroz; Republican Spain split in two.

1939 - The first issue of the Italian language newspaper 'Intesa Libertaria' (Libertarian Agreement) is published in Philadelphia, covering the North American Libertarian Congress held in New York on 1-2 April 1939.

1942 - German headquarters at Arras, France was attacked by members of the French Résistance.

1947 - Rudolph Hess, a leading member of the Nazi party, is hanged.

[1951 - Beginning of first strike wave in fascist Spain, starting in the Basque country and spreading to Catalonia. Workers from a number of different industries and cities participate, with over 100,000 defying the government's order to return to work] - NB: this is incorrect; see: libcom.org/history/1951-barcelona-general-strike

1960 - Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), one of the main organisations of the US civil rights movement, formed.

1968 - Amparo Poch y Gascon (b. 1902), Spanish anarchist feminist, Mujeres Libres founding member, doctor and propagandist for sexual freedom, dies. [see: Oct. 15]

1973 - Laura Meneses de Albizú Campos (Laura Meneses del Carpio; 1894), Puerto Rican revolutionary, social and political activist, who campaigned for Puerto rican independence and for the release of political prisoners in the United States and Puerto Rico, dies in Havana from a brain aneurysm. [see: Mar. 31]

1978 - 2,400 cops police a NF by-election meeting in Lambeth.

1980 - Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (b. 1905), French novelist, playwright, Marxist existentialist philosopher and literary critic, dies. [see: Jun. 21]

2000 - A16 IMF/World Bank meeting protests in Washington DC.

2005 - Ahvaz Protests: Four days of rioting (April 15-18) by Iranian Arabs in the city of Ahvaz in southwestern Iranian province of Khuzestan leaves 15-20 people dead.

2007 - Maria-Antonietta Macciocchi (b. 1922), Italian journalist, writer, feminist and politician, member of the Radical Party and member of the Italian and European Parliaments, dies. [see: Jul. 23]

2010 - Eliud Nyenze, a 40-year-old Kenyan, dies in Oakington immigration detention centre after staff ignore his pleas for a doctor and medication.

[D] 2011 - Ahvaz Days of Rage: Protests to mark the anniversary of the 2005 Ahvaz Protests, and in part as a response to the Arab Spring. The protests lasted for 4 days (April 15-18) and resulted in 12-15 protesters (plus one security officer) killed and many wounded and arrested.
[A] 1797 - The entire British naval Channel fleet mutinies off Portsmouth.

1844 - Paul Ambrose Paillette (d. 1920), French poet, songwriter, amour-libriste, anarchist, vegetarian and supporter of free love, born. An engraving worker, he became a full-time singer in the Montmartre cabarets and produced an estimated ten thousand verses among them 'Heureux Temps' (Happy Times), a lyrical treatment of the future anarchist communist society, which was published in 'Le Libertaire' in 1895 and which is still popular in anarchist circles today.

[B] 1854 - Laurent Tailhade (d. 1919), French satirical poet, writer, anarchist polemicist, opium addict ('La Noire Idole', after de Quincey) and translator ('Satyricon de Pétrone'), born. Probably best known for his poetry collections, 'Au Pays du Mufle' (In the Land of the Boor; 1891) and 'Imbéciles et Gredins' (Imbecile and Scoundrels; 1900). A strong supporter of propaganda by deed, especially the bombings of Valliant - "Qu'importe la victime si le geste est beau" (Who cares about the victim if the gesture is beautiful), and vehemently anti-clerical, he too fell victim to an attentat bombing at the Restaurant Foyot onn April 4 1894, loosing the sight in one eye. True to his word, he refused to condemn the bombing. He was charged with "incitement to murder" on October 10, 1901, following an article written in 'La Libertaire' on the occasion of the visit of the Tsar in France, he was sentenced to one year in prison despite the intervention of his friend Émile Zola, who claimed that the beauty of his style could help excuse his incendiary views.

1854 - Jacob (Koos) van Rees (d. 1927), Dutch professor, Christian anarchist, teetotaler and anti-militarist, born. Father of Otto van Rees.

1866 - Gustave-Henri Jossot (aka Abdul Karim Jossot; d. 1951), French caricaturist, illustrator, poster designer, Orientalist painter, writer and libertarian individualist, born. Deeply libertarian, yet he refuses the label anarchist, his revolt was through the medium of his cartoons, targeting the institutions of society: family, army, justice, churches, schools, etc.. His first drawings were published in 1891 in 'Le Rire', then in 'L'Assiette au Beurre', the anticlerical newspaper 'Le Diable', 'Les Temps Nouveaux', etc.. He abandoned his libertarianism in 1907 and, after a long bout of depression, retired to Tunisia in 1911 and converted to Islam (taking the name Abdul Karim Jossot), though his individualism ran counter to the religion's practice and his newspaper articles made plain. He later became a Sufi, which fitted better with his his anti-clericalism and pacifism, and painted in the Orientalist style. In his 1951 memoir 'Goutte à Goutte' (Drip by Drip; never published), he proclaimed his recovering of his atheism.

[D] 1871 - Demonstration in Hyde Park in London, in support of the Paris Commune.

1892 - A month after a failed bombing in Liege at the house of Renson, one of the 2 magistrates involved in the trial of the Belgian anarchists Hansen, Bustin and Langendorf for the March 28, 1891 theft of more than 900 kilograms of dynamite from the powder magazine at Ombret, a second attempted bombing takes place at the residence of the other prosecutor Beltjens.

[C] 1896 - Tristan Tzara (born Samuel or Samy Rosenstock, also known as S. Samyro; d. 1963), Romanian-French avant garde poet, essayist, performance artist, journalist, playwright, literary and art critic, composer and film director, who was strongly influenced by individualist anarchism in his early years before joining the PCF in 1937, born. Alarmed by the establishment of Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime, which also signified the end of Berlin's avant-garde, he merged his activities as an art promoter with the cause of anti-fascism. In 1936, he published a series of photographs secretly taken by Kurt Schwitters in Hanover, works which documented the destruction of Nazi propaganda by the locals, ration stamp with reduced quantities of food, and other hidden aspects of Hitler's rule. After the outbreak of the Civil War in Spain, he briefly left France and joined the Republican forces, visiting beseiged Madrid alongside Soviet reporter Ilya Ehrenburg. Upon his return, he published the collection of poems 'Midis Gagnés' (Conquered Southern Regions). Some of them had previously been printed in the brochure 'Les Poètes du Monde Défendent le Peuple Espagnol' (The Poets of the World Defend the Spanish People; 1937), which was edited by two prominent authors and activists, Nancy Cunard and the Chilean poet Pablo Neruda. Tzara had also signed Cunard's June 1937 call to intervention against Francisco Franco. Though close to the PCF (some sources claim he joined in 1934) and adhering to many of the Party's cultural demands, he was never fully trusted and seen to be too independant.
Following the German occupation, he moved to the Vichy zone where, on one occasion, the anti-Semitic and collaborationist publication 'Je Suis Partout' made his whereabouts known to the Gestapo [his parents were Jewish Romanians who reportedly spoke Yiddish as their first language]. Based in Marsille amongst the group of anti-fascist and Jewish refugees protected by American diplomat Varian Fry, he joined the French Resistance, working with the Maquis. He also contributed to the various magazines published by the Resistance and took charge of the cultural broadcast for the Free French Forces clandestine radio station. His son Cristophe was also a Resistance member, having joined the Franc Tireurs Partisans in northern France. In 1942, with the generalisation of antisemitic measures, Tzara was also stripped of his Romanian citizenship rights. At the end of the war and the restoration of French independence, Tzara became a naturalised French citizen. [expand]

1903 - The buildings of the anarquista newspaper 'El Hijo del Ahuizote' are seized by the police for the second time. The staff, Ricardo and Enrique Flores Magón and Librado Rivera are arrested for having "ridiculed public authorities".

1906 - Georgi Grigorov, a.k.a. Georges Balkanski, G. Grigoiev and G. Hadjiev (d. 1996), Bulgarian anarchist theorist and historian, born.

1912 - RNK Split (Radnički Nogometni Klub Split; Workers Football Club) is formed in the poor working class district of Varos by the Croat anarchist Šimun Rosandić under its original name HRŠD Anarh (HDG Anarchy).

1915 - Revolución Mexicana: Alvaro Obregon occupies Salamanca.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: The 'Real Decreto de 3 de abril de 1919: Jornada máxima legal en todos los trabajos' on the 8-hour day is published in the 'Diario de Barcelona'.

1919 - Bavarian Council Republic [Bayerische / Münchner Räterepublik]: Near Dachau (north of Munich), the Workers', Soldiers' and Farmers' Councils of the Republic of Bavaria led by Ernst Toller, rout the government troops sent to quell the revolution - a sadly short-lived victory.

[BB] 1919 - Anarchist choreographer Merce Cunningham (d. 2009) born. [expand]
"I have in a sense tried to avoid any concern with power and ego, self-expression and all that. . . . We represent anarchy so to speak." - 'The Dancer and the Dance: Merce Cunningham in Conversation with Jacqueline Lesschaeve' (1985).

1925 - St Nedelya Church Assault [Атентат в църквата Света Неделя]: A group of activists of Military Organisation (Военната организация) of the Bulgarian Communist Party (Българската комунистическа партия; БКП) blows up the roof of the Sveta Nedelya (Света Неделя) church in Sofia during the funeral service of General Konstantin Georgiev (Константин Георгиев), in an attempt to wipe out the military and political elite, including Tsar Boris III. One hundred and fifty people are killed in the attack – including twelve generals, fifteen colonels, seven lieutenant colonels, three majors, nine captains and three Deputies – and around 500 injured, as the dome is brought down by 25kg secreted in the attic of St Nedelya's above one of the columns of the main dome. The explosives had been smuggled into the church over the course of a couple of weeks by БКП members Peter Abadzhiev (Петър Абаджиев) and Asen Pavlov (Асен Павлов), assisted by a sexton at the church and former Communist Party member, Peter Zadgorski (Петър Задгорски), who had been recruited specially for the attentat.
The original plan had been to assassinate the Chief of Police in Sofia, Vladimir Nachev (Владимир Начев), and target his funeral. However, when they saw the level of security surrounding Nachev's funeral, which had been increased when two members of the Communist Party's central committee, one of which was Asen Pavlov, were arrested, leading the police to believe that some sort of attack was imminent, they postponed the bombing. Instead, they chose the funeral of General Konstantin Georgiev (Константин Георгиев), who had been assassinated by Atanas Todovichin (Атанас Тодовичин) and Zhivko Dinov (Живко Динов) when he attended evening mass at the Seven Saints (Свети Седмочисленици) church on the same day as the failed Arabakonak Pass (Прохода Арабаконак) attack. With the assistance of the sexton Petar Zadgorski, the person chosen to light the 15m long slow fuse, Nikola Petrov (Никола Петров), entered the churches attic at 07:00. At 15:20, the signal to light the fuse was given by Zadgorski and he and Petrov left he church. The later was quickly driven to the border by Atanas Todovichin and escaped but Zadgorski, who the plotters were planning to kill, managed to surrender to the police and he revealed the location of the head of the БКП's Military Organisation Kosta Jankov (Коста Янков) and his assistant, Ivan Minkov (Иван Минков), who had help plan the attack – Jankov was killed defending himself during the attempt to arrest him and Minkov committed suicide before being captured.
Ironically, the main target of the bomb, Tsar Boris III, was not in the church, as he was attending the funerals of those killed in the attempt on his own life in the Arabakonak Pass (Прохода Арабаконак) in the Stara Plania (Стара планина) mountains.
Shortly after the bombing, the Central Committee of the Communist Party, many of whose members had been lukewarm if not outright hostile to the plan initially, officially declared it a "reckless act disastrous for the anti-fascist movement", and later in Communist literature the perpetrators were described as his "left sectarians" acting against the will of the party.

1925 - Prominent anarchist activist Emma Goldman gives a lecture at the South Place Institute in London entitled 'An Exposure of the Trade Union Delegation's Report on Russia'. The talk, which was repeated again in London on the 27th, had been organized by the British Committee for the Defence of Polish Prisoners in Russia. [expand]

[F] 1934 - Minneapolis General Strike: When employers refuse to recognise their union, members of the Minneapolis General Drivers and Helpers Union Local 574 of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters go on strike, bringing trucking operations in the city to a halt. Despite a concerted and violent effort by employers, the police, and military, the strike ended successfully in August 1934, and was a turning point in Minneapolis labour history as well as being one of the important catalysts for the rise of industrial unionism in the 1930s.
The Minneapolis general strike of 1934 grew out of a strike by the International Brotherhood of Teamsters against most of the trucking companies operating in Minneapolis, one of the major hauling centres of the United States, and the major distribution center in the Upper Midwest. Thousands of truck drivers were employed in the city's trucking industry, but many were unorganised and the General Drivers Local 574 of the Teamsters had been trying for several years – with little success – to organise drivers in Minneapolis.
Since the turn of the century, the Citizens Alliance employers' organisation, a council of prominent local property owners and various right-wing elements active in local politics, had been the major force active during labour disputes in the city. The Alliance took a strongly anti-union line, and was often not averse to using violence to break up strikes. But Local 574 finally got a break. In February of 1934, the local won a difficult strike at a coal yard and the victory prompted thousands of workers to join the union en masse over the next few months. This gave Local 574 an unprecedented boost, both in terms of membership numbers and credibility among drivers and warehouse workers. By May, the number of organised drivers and warehouse workers in Minneapolis had grown from 75 to 5,000. However, many companies in the city refused to recognise the union. The only recourse left to the workers was to call a general drivers' strike.
The strike began on May 16, 1934 in the Market District (the modern day Warehouse District) with the workers demanding recognition of the union, wage increases, shorter working hours and the right of the union to represent 'inside workers' – workers employed in distribution centres but who were not drivers, such as warehouse and loading bay workers.
The strike brought all trucking inside the city to a standstill. It also used some techniques that were not at that time normally used in labour actions. Flying pickets were established and deployed from the union headquarters. They patrolled the streets in a vast fleet of cars and trucks to ensure that no scab trucks were on the move. They displayed a special union sign so as to prevent confusion. A committee of 100 strikers, which had broad representation from workers of most hauling companies in the city, was established to direct day-to-day issues and coordinate relief to strikers' families. The committee established a daily newspaper, 'The Organiser', which reported information and news about the strike to members and the community at large. A Women's Auxiliary group consisting of female supporters and the wives of strikers was set up to conduct solidarity work from the union headquarters, such as organise daily demonstrations at city hall, beef up picket lines, run a food commissary and help operate a small hospital for strikers injured on the picket lines and their families. Some of the women even took part in street fighting when workers clashed with police.
The strikers committee also established an important link between the striking workers and organisations of the unemployed, who made up a third of Minneapolis' working population at the time. The support of the jobless towards the strike undermined the employer's ability to find scab drivers.
The first major instance of violence was on May 19 when police attacked a group of strikers who were attempting to stop scabs unloading a truck in the city's market area. The market area became a central location for strike action and violence. Police attacks occurred again on May 21 and 22 when officers and members of the Citizens Alliance advanced on a group of 20,000 workers and supporters trying to stop the opening of the market area. By this time, many other workers in Minneapolis had followed the Teamsters on strike in solidarity. About 35,000 building workers had walked out in protest of the police violence and many more struck for union recognition.
On May 25, employers in the city accepted many of the striker's demands and worked through other issues with the help of mediators appointed by the governor. The strikers returned to work, but in a matter of weeks it became apparent that the employers were not abiding by the terms of the agreement. Many union members were fired. Between May and July workers filed more than 700 cases of discrimination. The companies also refused to recognise their agreement to let the union organise inside workers.
The workers again took up the strike on July 17. Three days later, the most violent episode of the strike took place. A large group of unarmed workers were fired on by more than 100 police officers. They had been were lured to a street corner by deputies in a scab truck. The incident became known as 'Bloody Friday'. A public commission set up after the strike later testified that "Police took direct aim at the pickets and fired to kill. Physical safety of the police was at no time endangered. No weapons were in possession of the pickets". Two pickets, John Belor and Henry Ness, were killed and the hail of bullets. More than 65 other workers were injured. Many were shot in the back.
The police violence left the working class of Minneapolis stunned, and offers of support and donations flooded in from other unions. Workers took part in strikes to protest the shootings, including a one-day strike of all of the city's transport workers. 'The Minneapolis Labour Review' reported that a crowd of 100,000 people attended Henry Ness' funeral.
Governor Floyd B. Olson immediately declared martial law in Minneapolis, deploying 4,000 National Guardsmen at his disposal. Picketing was banned and scab driven trucks – issued military permits – began to move again. The union, seeing this as an attempt to break the strike, demanded that all permits be revoked and in defiance of the martial law, the workers vowed again to return to the picket lines on August 1. On the night of July 31, the union headquarters were surrounded and raided by the National Guard troops, who arrested many of the strike leaders. But rather than hide, the union rank and file called a mass rally demanding the release of the arrested union leaders. Nearly 40,000 people marched on the stockade. The leaders were released and the captured union headquarters was surrendered.
The strike finally ended on August 21. Through mediation, the employers and Citizens Alliance accepted the union's major demands. Elections were held in workplaces and many more workers joined the union. Many workers also later won major pay increases through arbitration. The Citizens Alliance had been broken, and with it the backbone of resistance towards union organization in Minneapolis. Workers in many other industries began to organise themselves, and the city maintained a strong union presence throughout the 1930s. The strike was instrumental in building a strong union tradition in Minneapolis and across the Midwest, with a writer of the 'Minneapolis Labour Review 'later noting that, "The winning of this strike marks the greatest victory in the annals of the local trade union movement ... it has changed Minneapolis from being known as a scab's paradise to being a city of hope for those who toil."

1958 - Rosalind Elsie Franklin (b. 1920), English chemist and X-ray crystallographer, who was largely written out of the discovery of the structure of DNA in her lifetime, despite the fact that her research and expertise in X-ray diffraction techniques was essential to the determination of the structure of DNA, dies aged just 37 from ovarian cancer. [see: Jul. 25]

1962 - Vaga Minaire d'Astúries / Huelga Minera de Asturias [Asturian Miners' Strike]: The strike has spread as far as Turón and will soon involve workers in the Nalón Valley. At this point 60,000 workers are striking. The slogan taken up by the strikers is: "General salary raises and solidarity with our comrades". Franco responds with brutal repression, including detentions and beatings of workers and women picketing mines, coupled with deportations.
Solidarity was important in sustaining what was an illegal strike. Shopkeepers and small famers provided food. In the neighbouring Basque Country fishermen worked extra hours so they could provide the strikers with fish. On Mondays throughout the strike, the women of the mining communities regualrly turned up to picked to prevent blacklegs entering mines and the management found that not enough works to run the pit so they usually declared a lock-out. The miners’ struggle also proved a spark for other workers for a general protest against the wage freeze. Over the coming weeks this involved 500,000 workers throughout Spain. [see: Apr. 7]

1975 - Claudio Varalli, an 18-year-old Italian technical school student and a member of the Workers' Movement for Socialism is shot dead by a fascist in Milan. After chasing fascists from the Avanguardia Nazionale away from the University of Milan, Claudio was shot in the face by one of them who hid in his car where he retrieved a gun.

[E] 1979 - Idania de Los Angeles Fernandez (b. 1952), prominent Sandanista militant, is executed by the Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua after the Comando Regional Occidental had been betrayed by an informer. Held up as a martyr of the Revolution, she is often compared to Camilo Torres Restrepo, Che Guevara and José Martí. [see: Jul. 23]

1997 - Roland Topor (b. 1938), Polish-born French graphic artist, cartoonist, painter, writer, filmmaker, actor, songwriter, surrealist and cultural anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 7]

2000 - A16 IMF/World Bank meeting protests in Washington DC.

[CC] 2006 - Alexander Ryukhin aka 'Shtopor' (Bottleopener)(b. 1986), Russian anti-fascist, is murdered by a group of neo-Nazis in Moscow, just nine days before his twentieth birthday. A third-year student at the Moscow Electronics and Mathematics Institute, he had been on his way to an anti-fascist hardcore punk gig on the outskirts of Moscow, when several skinheads attacked Sasha and his friend Yegor near the Domodedovskaya metro station. With no struggle to speak of, one of the attackers stabbed Ryukhin in the chest with a knife. The attackers fled, leaving Sasha lying on the ground with the knife still embedded in his chest, and with no fingerprints on its handle. Ryukhin died almost instantly, well before an ambulance arrived.
Three of the attackers, Alexander Shitov (a member of the Format 18 gang), Andrei Antsiferov and Vasily Reutsky (both members of Slavic Union), were detained and Nazi paraphernalia and literature were found in their homes. In June 2007 they were sentenced to between 4 and 6.5 years in prison for 'hooliganism'. Two other suspects, Alexander Parinov and Nikita Tikhonov, together with another unidentified person, were also named in connection with the killing. Tikhonov was later arrested for the murder of human rights lawyer Stanislav Markelov, who had first named Tikhonov in connection with Sasha's murder. Tikhonov was later sentence in May 2011 to life for the murder of Markelov and that of Anastasiya Baburova, a trainee reporter at the 'Novaya Gazeta' newspaper.

[CC] 2006 - Tomás Vilches Araneda, an 18-year-old Chilean anti-Fascist punk is murdered by a gang of neo-Nazis in Santiago. Vilches had been shopping for music with two friends when a quarrel began with a neo-Nazi named Héctor Herrera Soto. Herrera, 28, left and returned with a group of friends, including two policemen. Herrera then killed Vilches with a knife. The two policemen were later expelled from the force (caught because their cop car had traces of Tomás' blood in it) but no criminal charges were brought against them. Additionally, two Chilean soldiers were also expelled during the investigation.
in November 2007, Héctor Herrera was sentenced to 7 years. Two fellow neo-Nazis, who had both cooperated with the prosecution, Esteban González Araneda aka 'Tito van Damme', who was the leader of the neo-Nazi cell, and Herrera Soto's counsin, Miguel Ángel Herrera, were sentenced to 6 and 5 years respectively. A four suspect, Esparza Cesar Zuniga aka 'El Caballo', 32, was extradited from Argentina in January 2014.
1833 - Arthur Arnould (d. 1895), French anarchist, journalist, novelist, member of First International and the Paris Commune, friend of Michael Bakunin, born. Collaborated on the 'Bulletin of the Jura Federation'. Arnould wrote 'L'Etat et la Révolution' (1877), a history of the Paris Commune, and a number of novels as A. Matthey - 'Le Roi des Mendiants' (The King of Beggars; 1885), 'La Revanche de Clodion' (Revenge of Clodion; 1882), 'Le Point Noir' (The Black Dot; 1885) and 'Le Pendu de la Baumette' (The Hanging of Baumette; 1881).

1854 - Benjamin Tucker (d. 1939), American philosophical individualist anarchist, bookseller (Unique Bookshop) and publisher, born.

1870 - Robert Tressell (pen name of Robert Croker, latterly Robert Noonan; d. 1911), Irish writer best known his novel 'The Ragged Trousered Philanthropists', born.

1884 - Vasily Vasilevich Kamensky (Васи́лий Васи́льевич Каме́нский; d. 1961), Russian Futurist poet, playwright, artist and pioneer Russian aviator, born. Member of the early Moscow-based Futurist literary group Hylaea (involving the Burlyuk brothers, Vasily Kamensky, Velimir Khlebnikov, Aleksey Kruchenykh and Vladimir Mayakovsky. Also involved in Moscow anarchist circles but was one of the first writers elected to the Moscow Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies and later joined Mayakovsky's LEF group.

1905 - Grèves de Limoges de 1905: In Limoges a large protest by striking workers and their supporters, including a number carrying red and black flags, outside the Préfecture as a workers' delegation led by the socialist Pierre Bertrand attempt to negotiate the release of strikers arrested for looting gunsmiths two days previously.
The strike had begun in the wake of protests against low wages and, in particular, the tyranny of two autocratic foremen in local porcelain factories. The industrial unrest had started amongst local locksmiths, and they and the workers at a footwear manufacturers, Maison Fougeras, a makers of shoes and clogs. were the first groups of workers to go out on strike. In March 1905, a number of felt manufactures (involved in the hat industry) also joined the growing strike movement. That same month the appointment of a new general, Marie Charles Tournier, a militant Catholic, at the head of the Limoges military region, was badly received in Limoges, 'la ville rouge' or 'la Rome du socialisme' as the town was popularly known.
Subsequently, workers at the Haviland porcelain factories also went out on strike. Emboldened by the actions of their fellow workers, they too sought to challenged the conditions under which they were employed and, more expressly, the power of their supervisors – droit de seigneur – not only as to who was employed, but also how much they were paid on piecework rates and the sexual exploitation that the predominantly young and female workforce had to suffer at their hands. The main targets of the potiers-porcelainiers' ire were Penaud, the hated director of the painting workshops at Théodore Haviland's Place des Tabacs factory, who was accused of sexually exploiting and abusing young female workers subordinate to him, and Jean-Baptiste Sautour, chief engineer at Charles Haviland's Avenue Garibaldi works, accused of having sacked a worker who had buried her dead child without any religious ceremony, and who had also discriminated upon religious grounds and encouraged others to bully their fellow workers upon the same basis.
By April 13, the strike had extended throughout the whole industry and in Limoges itself the atmosphere of unrest had grown with widespread picketing and protests. The red flag was now flying over the Théodore Haviland's factory in response the owner, who had American roots, having raised the flag of the United States there. The same day the bosses ordered a lockout. On April 14, 19 of 32 porcelain factories across France were idle and in Limoges the army now intervened, with General Tournier sending in the 12e Corps d'Armée. Fighting swiftly brakes out, barricades are erected in one of the popular suburbs, Ancienne Route d'Aixe, in response to the military killing a horse, a mare named Estacade, whose body became the centre of a new barricade (something recorded in a number of popular postcards produced illustration the strike and the unrest accompanying it. That same day Théodore Haviland was hanged in effigy by a group of youths and his car, something of an expensive rarity in those days, set on fire.
The following day, Monday 15th, military reinforcement are dispatched to the town and all gatherings are banned by the préfecture. Increasingly angry, workers began invading and occupying their places of work, barricades were also being erected in the streets and armouries and gun shops looted. Elsewhere, protesters took to the streets with signs saying "Mort à Penaud, Mort à Sautour" ("Death to Penaud, Death to Sautour) and "Vous êtes tous priés d'assister à l'enterrement de Sautour et de Penaud" (You are all invited to attend the funeral of Sautour and Penaud). That night, a bomb exploded outside the house of the director of Théodore Haviland's factory, M. Chadal.
Meanwhile, the police and soldiers had arrested an increasing number of people, not just in connection with the gun shop raids but also during the street protests, and on April 17, the workers' delegation attempted to gain the release of those arrest. Initially rebuffed by the préfet, they left the préfecture empty handed and, with the waiting crowd, they then went to the town hall to request the intervention of the socialist mayor, Emile Labussière. That attempt failed also. Instead the crowd proceeded to the county prison in the Place du Champ-de-Foire is a show of solidarity with those locked-up there. A large demonstration was then held in the Jardin d'Orsay opposite the prison to demand the release of protesters arrested on the previous days. A troop of horsemen (dragons) quickly arrived, provoking a violent confrontation during which the soldiers open fire without warning, mortally wounding a 20-year-old porcelain worker, Camille Vardelle, who had been a mere onlooker. Dozens of others were also injured by the troops.
The day after the clashes outside the prison and Vardelle's death, the préfet was overwhelmed with demands for protection from Limoges' more prominent citizens, with a number of factory owners and their lieutenants complaining of having received threatening letters "de menaces de style anarchiste". News of the events of the previous days were also splashed across the pages of the world's press. Camille Vardelle's funeral on April 19 drew tens of thousands in a large demonstration of workers' solidarity.
By the end of the week the town was much more quiet and the bosses finally lifted the lockout (Friday 21) following negotiations with union representatives, but there was no such respite for those, especially the anarchists, who had taken an active part in social unrest. They now became the target of repression: arrests, dismissals, expulsions from the city and the department, as was the case for Régis Meunier. On April 22, work resumed in the porcelain factories; but the workers had not obtained satisfaction on their main demands and the movement continued in other sectors, prominent amongst these was at the Beaulieu rabbit skin plant [rabbit skins were used at the time in the manufacture of felt hats], where the factory and the owner's house were blockaded.
One year on from the Grèves de Limoges de 1905, the anniversary of the murder of Camille Vardelle in 1906 was marked by a clashes between protesting workers and police, and several libertarian militants ended up under arrest.

[D] 1910 - Partido Liberal Mexicano military chiefs meeting in Tlaxcala decide that, because of the general unrest through out the states of Mexico, it is now time for a new revolutionary uprising.

1911 - José Luis Quintas Figueroa (aka 'El Quintas', 'Alfonso' & Clemente Cabaleiro Covelo; d. 1976), Spanish tinsmith, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist member of FIJL, MLE and CNT, and anti-Franco guerrilla, born. [expand]

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: Joseph Caruso is arrested in Lawrence as an 'accomplice' to the supposed shooter in the killing, 'Salvatore Scuito'. Having apparently been singled out by the police as a potential fall guy, he had been dismissed from various mills in Lawrence through the actions of the Callahan Detective Agency of Boston and Lawrence Police Inspector Vose had endeavored to persuade him to seek employment elsewhere with the intention no doubt to have the alleged principal disappear, a fugitive from justice. Instead, Caruso changed his name, secured employment and stayed in the city until his arrest.
The mysterious 'Salvatore Scuito' was never found.

[F] 1912 - [O.S. Apr. 4] Lena Massacre [Ленский расстрел] / Lena Goldfields Strike [Приисках Ленского Забастовка]: The arrival of the troops, sent for on March 22 [9] by the company in order to crush a strike by more than 6,000 gold miners, sees the swift arrest of the entire strike committee in the early hours of the morning in Bodaybo. A march had been organised the same day, and by mid afternoon about 2,500 workers march to the local prosecutor's office to demand the strike committee's immediate release. Met by a thick line of soldiers under the command of a gendarmerie officer, Captain Treshchenkov, near the Naderzhdinsky field, the unarmed marchers are fired upon. When the shooting stops, an estimated 270 protesters lie dead, with anthier 250 wounded.

1913 - Congreso de Campesinos, Córdoba: Held from April 17 to 24 on the initiative of Catalan peasants. Representations from Spain and Portugal came and it was decided to create the Federación Nacional de Agricultores (National Federation of Farmers) to protect and build the anarchist ideology in the peninsula. It was agreed to publish a newspaper entitled 'La Voz del Campesino' under the motto: "la tierra para los que la trabajan" (the land for those who work it). Their demands focused on the extension to the field of the Ley de Accidentes de Trabajo (Work Accidents Act) and the establishment of a maximum day and a minimum wage. It was recommended to extend the creation of rationalist schools.
During the course of 1916-17 there were important strikes in the Andalusian agriculture, being of special importance those that began on May 1, 1917; The state would have to declare state of siege on May 28, 1918.
www.rojoynegro.info/sites/default/files/El anarcosindicalismo y sus Congresos.Completo.pdf

1913 - Paterson Silk Strike: Modesto Valentino is shot and killed by private detectives, hired gunmen imported from New York by the mill owners, murdered as he stood on his front porch. His only crime against the mill owners was that he was watching the strikers hoot at the scab-herders. He was not a striker, nor was he a member of the Industrial Workers of the World. The hooting so bothered the gunmen that they felt compelled to open fire on unarmed workers. Gurley Flynn described how he died: "[He] grabbed his child and started through the doorway, when he was shot in the back. His wife grabbed the child and her husband fell dead at her feet." Gurley Flynn went with a committee of strikers to visit the widow: "She was in bed, awaiting the birth of a second child. On the other side of a folding partition was the casket of her dead husband, parallel to the bed. The priest came in while we were there but he made no objection to our request [for the IWW to provide for the funeral.] She was a simple grief-stricken woman, who expressed her sympathy with the strikers, many of whom were her neighbors. She placed the blame where it belonged-on the company thugs who murdered her husband. It was a tragic example of force and violence by the employers in the class struggle-a worker dead , a woman widowed, two children, one unborn, left orphans-a story repeated all too often in my experience." [see: Jan. 27 & Feb. 24]

[A/E] 1914 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Suffragettes Evaline 'Hilda' Burkitt, 37, and Florence Tunks, 22, set fire to the grand pavilion on Great Yarmouth's Britannia Pier, according to local gossip because the pier owners had refused permission for them to hold a meeting there. The pair would set fire to the empty Bath Hotel in Felixstowe, causing £35,000 worth of damage (roughly £2.6m in today's money), for which they would end up in jail.
www.theheritagetrail.co.uk/piers/britannia pier.htm

1921 - Sergio Sollima, Italian film director and script writer, born. Initially proponent of Eurospy films, he became one of the major proponents of the spaghetti western alongside the other 2 Sergios - Leone ('Il Buono, il Brutto, il Cattivo' aka 'The Good, the Bad and the Ugly'; 1966) and Corbucci ('Django'; 1966). He was the most radical of the genre's directors, displaying a clealry anarchist version of the genre's inherently militant anti-American/imperialist/Viet Nam war subtexts. His two most obviously political film were 'La Resa dei Conti' (The Big Gundown; 1966), which was based upon an original story by Franco Solinas ('Battle of Algiers' and 'Burn!'), and 'Corri Uomo Corri' (Run, Man, Run!; 1968).

[B] 1923 - Jacques Sternberg (d. 2006), Belgian novelist, writer of science fiction and fantastique, pamphleteer, essayist, journalist, columnist, anti-competitive yatchsman and anarchist, born into a Polish Jewish family. Fleeing the Nazi advance, the family attempted to escape to Spain via the south of France, but were returned and interned in the Gurs camp. Stenberg's father was deported to Poland, dying in Majdanek. Jacques escaped and joined the underground, returning to Belgium after the war.
Member of the Mouvement Panique (Panic Movement), an anarchist avant-garde collective, with Fernando Arrabal, Alejandro Jodorowsky, Roland Topor, Christian Zeimert and Olivier O. Olivier. Participant in 'Hara-Kiri' and was a director of the magazine 'Mépris' (Contempt) with his friend Roland Topor. Much of his fiction features his dark humour and his pessimistic anarchist/libertarian outlook. Has also written under the pseudonyms Jacques Bert, Charles Sabatier and Christine Harth, penned the script for Alain Resnais' 1968 time travel film 'Je t'aime, Je t'aime' and for a number of TV programmes.
Amongst his volumous output are novels such as 'L'Employé' (The Employee; 1958), 'L'Architecte' (The Architect; 1960), 'La Banlieue' (The Suburb; 1976) and the powerful anti-political dystopia of 'Mai 86' (1978); short story collections 'La Géométrie dans l'Impossible' (The Impossible Geometry; 1953), 'La Géométrie dans la Terreur' (The Terror Geometry; 1958), 'Contes Glacés' (Icy Tales; 1974) and 'Contes Griffus' (Clawed Tales; 1993); science fiction story collections such as 'Entre Deux Mondes Incertains' (Between Two Uncertain Worlds; 1957), 'Univers Zéro' (Universe Zero; 1970) and 'Futurs sans Avenir' (Future Without Future; 1971), which feature tales of aliens misguidedly posing as African-Americans to invade America, the 533rd crucifixion of Jesus and the casual destruction of Earth by aliens who cannot understand humanity.

1923 - Norman Potter (d. 1995), English Christian anarchist, designer, craftsman, writer and poet, born. A cabinetmaker and design teacher at the Royal College of Art, he also helped establish a Construction School at the West of England College of Art and Design in Bristol. Imprisoned several times for his political actions, he was active during the student revolts of 1968.

1937 - Yi Sang (Kim Hae-gyeong; d. 1937), Korean architect, draughtsman, writer, avant garde poet and novelist, essayist and social rebel, dies. [see: Sep. 14]

1952 - The Central Obrera Boliviana (Bolivian Workers' Centre) is founded within the framework of the 1952 Revolution, replacing the Confederación Sindical de Trabajadores de Bolivia (Trade Union Confederation of Bolivian Workers), and has had difficult relations with all Bolivian governments since. It also supported the overthrow of President Carlos Mesa in 2005, calling for a general stike that January.

1961 - CIA invasion force lands at the Bay of Pigs. A fiasco, defeated within two days.

1967 - Émile Bachelet (b. 1888), French individualist anarchist, anti-militarist and member of the Bonnot Gang, dies. [see: Jan. 14]

1968 - Further Anti-Vietnam demonstration at US Army Hospital in Tokyo. [see: Mar. 30]

1975 - In the aftermath of the death of anti-Fascist Claudio Varalli the previous day, Giannino Zibecchi, a 28-year-old Italian militant with the Coordinamento dei Comitati Antifascisti, is knocked down by a police jeep on the Corso XXII Marzo in Milan and killed.

1975 - Tonino Micciche aka the 'Mayor of Falchera', an Italian 23-year-old former FIAT factory worker, fired for his trade union activity, and long time anti-Fascist activist, is shot dead in Turin by a deranged right-wing security guard who owned a garage that was being occupied by Lotta Continua as part of a mass public housing project.

[C] 1976 - National Front march organised through the centre of Manningham, the main Asian area in Bradford. 24 people are arrested in pitched battles as the police struggle to stop counter-demonstartors reaching the NF march and the school where the end-of-march meeting was held. [expand]

1986 - Cipriano Damiano González (b. 1916), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Franco underground resistance, dies. [see: Sep. 22]

1989 - Eugène Bizeau (b. 1883), French vine-grower, pacifist, anarchist poet and chansonnier, member of the 'Muse Rouge', dies. [see: May 29]

1999 - Nail bomb (planted by a fascist) explodes in Electric Avenue in Brixton. 50 people injured.

2000 - A16 IMF/World Bank meeting protests in Washington DC.

2003 - Clifford Harper's exhibition 'Graphic Anarchy' opens at the Guardian newsroom.

2007 - Michael Taylor, a 39-year-old long-term crack cocaine addict, is found hanging from the window bars of his cell by torn bed sheets in HMP Bedford after being forced to go 'cold turkey' by the prison.

2008 - Rosario Sánchez Mora aka 'La Dinamitera' (b. 1919), Spanish seamstress, member of the Juventudes Socialistas Unificadas and miliciana during the Civil War, famed for her expertise in explosives, which was immoralised in Miguel Hernández's poem 'Rosario, dinamitera', dies. [see: Apr. 21]

2014 - Conxa (Concha) Pérez (Concepció Pérez Collado; b. 1915), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, miliciana in the Columna Ortiz and anti-Franco resister, dies. [see: Oct. 17]
1791 - National Guardsmen prevented Louis XVI and his family from leaving Paris, an event foreshadowing the notorious Flight to Varennes, his attempt to secretly flee with his family from Paris on June 20 to the royalist fortress town of Montmédy on the northeastern border of France, where he would join the émigrés and be protected by Austria.

1812 - Luddite Timeline: Failed attempt to murder William Cartwright.

[D] 1812 - First Manchester food riot.

1850 - Charles Joseph Antoine 'Jo' Labadie (d. 1933), US labour activist, writer, poet, printer, non-violent individualist anarchist, born. His collection of radical pamphlets and ephemera became the Labadie Collection at the University of Michigan.

I shall speak out!
Like the roar of the sea, I have a message.
There is danger ahead and I would give warning.
The greater the danger the louder the roar,
And my foghorn voice is pitched deep and
I am the spirit of Discontent.
I chafe under the galling collar of wrongful
And Nature has conferred upon me the power
of insight, of foresight.
The things 1 see I shall tell,
And the world shall judge be they true or false.
I shall speak out!
Who art thou that sayest me nay.?
Whence come thy right and power to stopple
my mouth
And barricade the free flow of words to willing
Who appointed thee guardian of speech?
Who made thee custodian of ideas?
Who commissioned thee jailor of progress?
Thou art usurper and 1 flout thy authority!
I shall speak out!
My words shall sting thee, shall cut thy hide,
shall drive thee to shame, shall whelm
thee with remorse!
Fool! thou standest in the light (»f thine own
Casting a blighting shadow on thine own soul!

I come with the blaze of the sun in my face.
And thou canst not gaze with candor in mine
I shall speak out!
Thy criminal purpose would blow out the lights
that guide the mariners to ports of safety;
Would ruthlessly take the breast from hungry
Would blot out the signboards on the road to
Would fasten cords across the pathway to the
spring of righteousness
To trip the unwary and impede the watchful.
I shall speak out!

'Freedom of Speech', in 'Doggerel for the Underdog' (1910)

[F] 1872 - During the Toronto’s Printers' Strike for the nine-hour day, the Canadian Prime Minister John A. Macdonald introduces the Trade Union Act into parliament. [expand]

1881 - Max Weber (d. 1961), Russian-born Jewish-American Cubist painter, poet, and anarchist, born. 'Cubist Poems' (1914); 'Primitives: Poems and Woodcuts' (1926).

1884 - Ludwig Meidner (d. 1966), German painter, graphic artist and poet, born. A revolutionary anarchist in his early years and associated with the individualists around 'Der Einzige', he later became a religious mystic and ended his life as a strictly observant painter of biblical themes. The foremost and most radical exponent of a second wave of Expressionism, a movement which championed the cause of the exploited and suppressed. Military service during WWI turned Meidner into an avowed pacifist and he advanced socialist goals in his 1919 'An alle Künstler, Dichter, Musiker' (To all Artists, Poets, and Musicians), a work that challenged the existing social order and urged artists to become socialists and protect the "greater good". In 1933, Meidner was placed on the list of banned writers and artists, and works by and about him were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Also in danger because of his Jewishness, Meidner left Germany in 1939, and did not return until 1953.

1888 - The first issue of the fortnightly anarchist communist journal 'La Justicia Humana' is published in Barcelona. Edited by Emilio Hugas and Martí Borràs (a proponent of propaganda by deed, who committed suicide in prison in Barcelona on May 9, 1894), is the first newspaper to promote anarchist communism in Spain. Eight issues emerged until 25 November 1886.

1890 - Alexander Granach (real name Jessaja Szajka Gronach; d. 1945), German anarchist sympathiser and popular actor in the 1920s and 1930s, born. [NB: 1893 also given as his DOB] [see: Mar. 14]

[E] 1899 - Rosa Luxemburg writes and dates the introduction to her classic work, 'Reform or Revolution' (Sozialreform oder Revolution; 1899).

[B] 1899 - Rene Shapshak (d. April ?? 1986), Paris-born South African sculptor, painter, illustrator and anarchist sympathiser, born.

1908 - The IWW poem 'We Have Fed You All For A Thousand Years' is published in the Industrial Union Bulletin.
"We have fed you all for a thousand years
& you hail us still unfed
Though there's never a dollar of all your wealth
But marks the workers dead
We have yielded our best to give you rest
& you lie on crimson wool
But if blood be the price of all your wealth
Good God we have paid in full..."

[FF] 1912 - Paint Creek-Cabin Creek Miners' Strike: The U.S. National Guard is called out against striking West Virginia coal miners. Paint Creek-Cabin Creek coal miners on strike in Kanawha County, West Virginia are forced to defend themselves, beginning one of the most dramatic and bloody conflicts in the early 20th-century labour struggles in southern West Virginia known as the Mine Wars. The strike began on April 18, 1912, when the coal operators on Paint Creek near Charleston rejected the demand of their unionised workers for a wage increase. As the strike spread to nearby Cabin Creek and other non-union mining sections, the dispute focused increasingly on the larger issue of unionisation. While economics remained important, more of the strikers’ demands focused on recognition of the United Mine Workers of America as their bargaining agent and sought an end to the use of mine guards, black listing, and the denial of workers’ rights to free speech and assembly.
The striking miners' demands were:
1. That the operators accept and recognize the union.
2. That the miners right to free speech and peaceable assembly be restored.
3. That black-listing discharged workers be stopped.
4. That compulsory trading at company stores be ended.
5. That cribbing be discontinued and that 2,000 pounds of mined coal constitute a ton.
6. That scales be installed at mines to weigh the tonnage of the miners.
7. That miners be allowed to employ their own check-weighmen to check against the weights found by company check-weighmen, as provided by law.
8. That the two check-weighmen determine all docking penalties.
The Paint Creek miners very quickly decided to join the Cabin Creek miners and declared their own strike.
The strike was one of the most violent strikes in the country's history and the ensuing guerrilla war between the strikers on one side and the mine oerators' hired thugs and strikebreakers on the other lasted from April 18, 1912 through July 1913. The confrontation directly caused perhaps fifty violent deaths, as well as many more deaths indirectly caused by starvation and malnutrition among the striking miners. In the number of casualties it counts among the worst conflicts in American labour history.

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Suffragettes had an elaborate plot to blow up the grandstand at the Crystal Palace on this date, the day before the FA Cup final, but it never took place.

1934 - Krwawa Środa w Lublinie [Bloody Wednesday in Lublin]: A week after the events of 'Bloody Wednesday', a strike is held in Lublin with about 1,500 people taking part in protest at the police action that day. [see: Apr. 11]

1935 - Panaït Istrati (Ghérasim Istrati; b. 1884), Romanian-French writer and revolutionary communist, and later libertarian, dies. [see: Aug. 10]

1937 - The Friends of Durruti Group, hold their first public meeting, with four speakers addressing about 1,000 workers.

1937 - Leon Trotsky called for the overthrow of Soviet leader Josef Stalin. A bad mistake.

1946 - Irene Fernandez (d. 2014), Malaysian human rights activist and the director and co-founder of the non-governmental organisation Tenaganita, which promotes the rights of migrant workers and refugees in Malaysia, born.

1947 - Kathy Acker (Karen Lehmann; d. 1997), American novelist, punk poet, playwright, essayist, postmodernist and feminist writer, born.

1960 - April Revolution [4·19 혁명]: Students from Korea University launch a non-violent protest at the National Assembly against police violence and demanding new elections. However they are attacked by gangs funded by Rhee's supporters as they returned to their campus.

[C] 1975 - Rodolfo Boschi, a 28-year-old Italian militant communist and anti-Fascist, is shot dead by plain clothes policemen after a group of protesters came to the aid of a boy being beaten up by police during an anti-Fascist demo, following death of Claudio Varalli in Milan two days before.

[A] 1977 - Native American activist Leonard Peltier found guilty of murdering two FBI agents, despite government testimony that he was not present at the scene of the killings.

1989 - '89 Democracy Movement [八九民运]*: Late the previous evening, thousands of students from Peking and Tsinghua Universities had marched to Tiananmen Square, swelling the ranks of those already gathered there in memory of the disgraced former Party Secretary, Hu Yaobang, who had died on the 15th, and developing into a full-scale protest. Some of the students then set to drafting the famous Seven Demand (7項要求):
Affirm as correct Hu Yaobang's views on democracy and freedom;
Admit that the campaigns against spiritual pollution and bourgeois liberalization had been wrong;
Publish information on the income of state leaders and their family members;
End the ban on privately run newspapers and stop press censorship;
Increase funding for education and raise intellectuals' pay;
End restrictions on demonstrations in Beijing
Provide objective coverage of students in official media
Many of the protesters stayed in the Square overnight and during the morning of April 18, they began to split ino different groups; some of the students gathered around the Monument to the People's Heroes (人民英雄纪念碑), singing patriotic songs and making impromptu speeches, other congregated at the nearby Great Hall of the People (人民大會堂), whilst a couple of thousand others assembled at Xinhua Gate (新華門), the entrance to Zhongnanhai (中南海), the seat of the party leadership, where they demanded dialogue with the leadership. Police restrained the students from entering the compound as they tried to storm Communist Party headquarters in Beijing. The students then staged a sit-in inside the gatehouse. The sit-in continues until April 20, when the students are persuaded to leave.
[* or as the Chinese Communist Government prosaically call it 1989年春夏之交的政治风波, the Political turmoil of the Spring and Summer of 1989]

1996 - Israel shells the United Nations headquarters in Qana, Lebanon, killing more than 100 civilians being sheltered there.

2004 - 15 year old Gareth Myatt, 3 days into a 12 month sentence, dies while being restrained by guards at the privately-run Rainsbrook Secure Training Centre in Northamptonshire. No one is charged over the incident.

2008 - Germaine Tillion (b. 1907), French ethnologist and member of the French résistance, who spent time in the Ravensbrück concentration camp, dies. [see: May 30]

2011 - Michael Sweeney, a 38-year-old father-to-be, dies face-down handcuffed to a trolley with a burst eyeball in the Royal London hospital after being detained by 10 police officers during an apparent altercation at a pub in east London.

2011 - Ryan Clark, aged 17, is found hanging in his cell at Wetherby young offenders' institution, near Leeds, while on remand.
1854 - Charles Angrand (d. 1926), Impressionist, Neo-impressionist, Divisionist and Pointillist painter and anarchist illustrator, born. After being denied entry into École des Beaux-Arts, he moved to Paris in 1882, where he began teaching mathematics whilst befriending the artists of the Parisian avant-garde including Georges Seurat, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Signac, Maximilien Luce, and Henri Edmond Cross. In 1884 he co-founded Société des Artistes Indépendants, along with Seurat, Signac, Odilon Redon, and others. His Impressionist paintings of the early 1880s, generally depicting rural subjects but in the mid-1880s, his style evolved towards Neo-Impressionism and, following a meeting in 1887, his thick brush strokes and Japanese-inspired compositional asymmetry heavily influenced van Gogh. In the early 1890s, he abandoned painting, instead creating dark Symbolist conté drawings and pastels of subjects including rural scenes and depictions of mother and child (many also include a signature image of a black cat). He also drew illustrations alongside Signac, Luce, and Théo van Rysselberghe for anarchist publications such as 'Les Temps Nouveaux'.

1883 [O.S. Apr. 7] - Strajk Szpularek [Spoolers' Strike] / Strajk w Żyrardowie [Żyrardów Strike]: The first mass strike of Polish workers, and one of the first ever mass strikes by female workers, took place at the Zakłady Lniarskie Żyrardów (Żyrardów Linen Factory), popularly known as the Hille and Dittrich factory in the 'Polish Capital of Linen', Žyrardów, [to be more accurate, in Osada Fabryczna, the Fabryczna workers settlement/village just outside of Žyrardów] on April 23–28, 1883. The immediate cause of the strike was the decision by the factory's owners to cut wages due to the financial crisis of 1882. Increases in costs had to be compensated for in some way so as not to diminish the profit of numerous highly-paid directors and department heads. After many discussions, they decided that the spooling section would be the first target - it did not make much money compared to other departments of the factory and the female spoolers, would be the least likely to fight back. On April 7, 1883, they were informed that according to the 1873 regulations, which only regulated the requirements and obligations of employees, without mentioning any obligations of manufacturers, that their next salary, paid every two weeks, would be reduced. According to workers' calculations, this would mean a reduction of more than 13%, which, given their already starvation wages, would require them working from 05:00 to 19:00 just to earn the same amount as previously, the equivalent of suicide. After many conversations, it was decided to hit, in the opinion of the manufacturers, into the weakest link, or women - the spikes, which were announced that their next salary, paid every two weeks, will be lower.

1889 - Juana Rouco Buela (d. 1969), Spanish-Argentinian dress maker, autodidact, anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist and anarcha-feminist pioneer, who helped create the Centro Femenino Anarquista (Women’s Anarchist Centre), with Virginia Bolten, Teresa Caporaletti, Marta Newelstein and Maria Collazo, and others, born. The daughter of Galicians who had emigrated to Madrid, her father died when she was four years old and her mother worked as a seamstress to support the family. Juana emigrated from Spain to Argentina with her brother Ciriaco at the age of fifteen on July 24, 1900 and settled in Buenos Aires. At the age of 15 she joined the May Day demonstrations of 1904, her first participation in the workers movement. She became a leading light among the women workers of the Refineria Argentina, the huge sugar refinery of Rosario and was their delegate at the Congress of the anarchist workers organisation Federacion Obrera Regional Argentina in the same year. At this conference the final aim of anarchist communism was adopted by the FORA. It was in the FORA libraries that Juana educated herself, yet another example of the autodidacticism that has characterised the anarchist movement. In 1907, she organised the Centro Femenino Anarquista (Women’s Anarchist Centre), with Virginia Bolten, Teresa Caporaletti, Marta Newelstein and Maria Collazo, and others. This represented the phenomenon of the development of a whole layer of anarchist women who were speakers and organisers in Argentina; a first wave with Bolten and a second generation with Juana and others.
Juana took part in the tenants strike in Buenos Aires and with Maria Collazo spoke during the massive demonstration protesting against rent rises and evictions. Rents had tripled in real terms since 1870. One hundred and twenty thousand people were involved in this tenants movement, which was crushed by the police and military. She was deported to Spain under the law of residency which was also used to remove Bolten and Collazo. There, after a brief period in Madrid, she moved to Barcelona where she made the acquaintance of leading anarchist militants like Teresa Claramunt, Anselmo Lorenzo and Leopoldo Bonafulla and took part in the campaigns to free Francisco Ferrer. As a result of this she had to move to Marseilles and then Switzerland. On her return, because she was banned from Argentina, she settled in Montevideo, Uruguay, and together with Virginia Bolten and Maria Collazo, led an intensive propaganda campaign, setting up the paper 'La Nueva Senda' (The New Path). She spoke at a rally protesting at the shooting of the Spanish libertarian educationalist Francisco Ferrer. As a result of this she suffered new persecutions. She escaped a police raid disguised in men’s clothing. She returned in secret to Argentina - disguised as a widow with her face concealed by a black veil - and participated in a general strike organised by the FORA. In this period she started using the surname Rouco to dodge the authorities. She was arrested and extradited to Uruguay where she was imprisoned for a year. In 1914 she decided to move to Paris secretly, and when she was discovered on the boat there was disembarked in Brazil. She settled in Rio de Janeiro for three years where she took part in anarchist activity and where Juan Castiñeira became her partner. She once again returned to Argentina, and took part in the events of the Semana Tragica (Tragic Week). Along with her partner Jose Cardelle she undertook a speaking tour of the towns of the interior, building up her reputation as a speaker, writer and champion of women’s liberation. In 1921 she founded the Centro de Estudios Sociales Femeninos (The Centre of Women’s Social Studies) in Necochea and set up the feminist paper 'Nuestra Tribuna' (Our Tribune) subtitled "Ideas, Art, Criticism and Literature".
This was an international anarchist paper published between 1922 and 1923 which attracted much criticism and controversy in anarchist circles over its outspoken advocacy of women’s liberation. The publication also faced financial difficulties and the refusal of its printers to continue printing as well as threats from the police. The last issue appeared in November 1923. She was forced to leave Buenos Aires and settled in the town of Tandil in 1924. In 1928 she took part in the Third International Women’s Congress.
The coup of General Uriburu in 1930 caused her to cease activity. The Spanish Civil war re-galvanised her and she organised solidarity campaigns between 1936 and 1939. In the 1940s the rise of the Peronist movement which she had agitated against once again forced her into inactivity. In the 1950s she joined the Federacion Libertaria Argentina and contributed articles to the eponymous paper of the exiled Spanish anarchist women’s organisation Mujeres Libres. In 1964 she published her autobiography 'Historia de un ideal vivido por una mujer'.
Juana Rouco Buela died in October 31, 1969 in Buenos Aires at the age of 80.
"At the age of eighteen, the police considered me to be an element dangerous for the tranquillity of capitalism and the State".

1890 - Max Nettlau publishes 'The Historical Development of Anarchism' in 'Freiheit'.

1895 - Miguel García Vivancos (d. 1972), Spanish anarchist militant and combatant, and Naïve painter, born. Formed the Los Solidarios group, together with Buenaventura Durruti, Francisco Ascaso, Juan García Oliver, Gregorio Jover, Ramona Berri, Eusebio Brau, Manuel Campos, and Aurelio Fernández). In 1924, he was condemned to three months of prison. Released, exiled in France, he travelled with Ascaso, Durruti and Jover in Latin America (Mexico, Cuba, Peru, Chile). On his return to France, he was arrested because of the expropriations practised by the group on their trip. Escaping extradition, he was expelled and found refuge in Belgium. In 1927, he returned to Barcelona, participating in the clandestine struggles and took part in the Thirties in several insurrectionary attempts. Captured, he was interned for one year in Burgos.
García Vivancos was active during the Spanish Civil War, leading the Aguiluchos Column on the Huesca Front, as well as other major units in Belchite and Teruel. He opposed the anti-militarist line of the intransigentes anarchists and willingly cooperated with the Stalinist militarisation of fighting units. In September 1937 he was made responsible major units, 126 Brigada and the 25 División (in the place of Antonio Ortiz), winning battles in Belchite and then Teruel where he was wounded in January 1938. In May 1938 he was promoted to colonel.
At the end of the war he was charged with handling the evacuation to France of Spanish refugees escaping the fascists in the Puigcerda sector. He himself wound up being interned for four years in the French concentration camp at Vernet-les-Bains before being liberated during WWII by the Maquis and joining the French Resistance for the duration. At the CNT Congress in Marseilles in 1945, he was excluded from the organisation. Having gone astray, his views were deemed incompatible with libertarian practice.
Living in poverty in Paris , he discovered and developed his talent for painting. He was introduced in 1947 to Pablo Picasso, who helped open up the art world for him. His first exhibition was held in 1948 at the Gallery Mirador and won him instant recognition amongst the likes of surrealist André Breton.

1902 - Demetrio Urruchúa (d. 1978), Argentinian painter, printmaker, muralist, libertarian and anti-fascist, born. Collaborated in the '30s on 'Nervio' (Nerve), a libertarian-socialist publication in which he criticised the Mexican communist muralists and their concept of "proletarian art", and in particular David Alfaro Siqueiros and his political agenda. Urruchúa himself was strongly influenced by the events of the Spanish Revolution and the fight against fascism and they strongly inform his use of paint used as a weapon to fight against injustice, against all dictatorships and against the horror of war.

1905 - Grèves de Limoges de 1905: Camille Vardelle's funeral draws a large workers' demonstration. The lockout is finally lifted, but the anarchists who took a very active part in social unrest become the target of repression: arrests, dismissals, expulsions of the city and the department, as was the case for Régis Meunier . The anniversary of the murder of Camille Vardelle in 1906, is still marked by a clash between police and several libertarian militants are arrested.

[F] 1908 - The anarcho-syndicalist Confédération Syndicale Belge (Belgian Trade Union Confederation), the last of the various anarcho-syndicalist union movements formed in Belgium in the years prior to WWI, is founded in Liège.

1909 - In Paris, Jean Goldschild, with Miguel Almereyda (Eugène Vigo; his adopted name, Almereyda, is an anagram: Y'a la merde), Rene de Marmande, Georges Durupt and others, are part of a group of friends who today form the 'Fédération Révolutionnaire', promoting direct action for "La destruction radicale de la société capitaliste et autoritaire".

[E] 1912 - Joséphine Coueille, aka Andrée Prevotel (d. 1995), French postal worker and lifelong anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and free thinker, born. Arrested alongside her partner André Prévotel, and fellow anarchist militants Aristide Lapeyre and Louis-Emile Harel, for the promotion of vasectomies in the 'Sterilizers of Bordeaux' case (also known as the affaire Norbert Bartosek after the anarchist and neo-Malthusian doctor who performed the operations. Since vasectomies were not illegal in themselves, they were charged under the penal code that prevents castration and with violence against the person. Her charges were dropped and only spent 12 days in custody, but her husband and Harel were convicted and sent to six months in prison. A member of the CGT-SR, she was again arrested in 1939 for defeatism and incitement to disobedience in the military.
Both were also involved in the SIA, starting a branch in the Gironde in 1942 to aid Spanish refugees. [expand]

1915 - Two Italian anarchist, Frank Abarno and Carmine Carbone, members of the Gruppo Gaetano Bresci aka the 'Bresci Circle', are sentenced to six-to-twelve years at Sing Sing Prison for plotting to bomb St. Patrick's Cathedral on March 2, 1915. [see: Mar. 2 & Apr. 13]

[D] 1919 - La Révolte de la Mer Noire: Sailors Mutiny in the Black Sea, April 19-21. A French delegation, made up partly of anarchist sailors, demands suspension of the war against Russia, the return of the ships to France, and no disciplining for their rebellion.
Like much of the radical history of the first half of the twentieth century, the Communists (in this case, the PCF) got to write much of the history of the insurrections, revolts and revolutions that took place. The naval mutiny amongst the French fleet sent into the Black Sea, which was part of the wider 'White' attack on revolutionary Russia, which by then had still not fully succumbed to the Bolshevik counter-revolution, is one such example. So, the PCF would have everyone believe that André Marty, a chief engineer and socialist on board the destroyer Protet (and, coincidentally, the only officer involved in the events), heroically led the mutiny (despite being under arrest most of the time for his plot to take over the Protet and not having been released until after the red flag had been raised on the Jean-Bart and the France on April 20). This version of events was fabricated by the PCF after Marty had been pardoned [he had been sentenced to 20 years hard labour for attempting to seize control of the Protet] and joined the party in 1923, going on to become one of its leading lights, hence the hagiography.

1928 - Ladislav Klíma (b. 1878), Czech Expressionist novelist, playwright, poet, youthful anarchist and individualist philosopher, dies. [see: Aug. 22]

1930 - Congrès de l’Union Anarchiste Communiste Révolutionnaire (U.A.C.R.) held in Paris [19-21].

1935 - Gaetana Teresa Recchia (b. 1899) Italian union organsier, Trotskyist and anti-fascist activist, dies of tuberculosis in the Tenon hospital in Paris, a victim, as her comrades of the Union Communiste wrote, "of a long illness contracted in the course of her underground revolutionary activity against Italian Fascism, and aggravated by the hard privations of exile".

1937 - The first issue of the weekly newspaper 'L'Espagne Nouvelle', replacing 'L'Espagne Antifasciste', is published in Nîmes. From Sept. 17 1937 it goes fortnightly and adopts the subtitle: "Organe pour la défense des militants, des conquêtes et des principes de la Révolution espagnole".

1937 - Jean-Pierre Lajournade (d. 1976), French anarchist filmmaker, born. Best known for his experimental film 'Le Joueur de Quilles' (1969).

1938 - Georg Schrimpf (b. 1889), German painter and graphic artist, dies. [see: Feb. 13]

[A/C] 1943 - Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: On the eve of Passover, police and SS auxiliary forces enter the Warsaw Ghetto. They have plans to complete the deportation action within three days, but are ambushed by Jewish insurgents firing and tossing Molotov cocktails and hand grenades from alleyways, sewers, and windows as thousands
f the 50,000 Jews remaining in the ghetto rise up in armed struggle against the Nazi deportations to the extermination camps. The Germans suffer casualties and their advance is bogged down. Two of their combat vehicles are set on fire by insurgent petrol bombs. In a symbolic act that afternoon, two boys climb up onto the roof of a building on Muranowski Square, where the longest resistance took place (and where the ŻZW chief leader, Dawid Moryc Apfelbaum, was killed in combat) and raise two flags, the red-and-white Polish flag and the blue-and-white banner of the ŻZW. These flags remain there, highly visible from the Warsaw streets, for four days.
As the battles continue inside the Ghetto, Polish resistance groups Armia Krajowa (AK; Home Army) and Gwardia Ludowa (GL; People's Guard) engaged the Germans (between April 19 and 23) at six different locations outside the Ghetto walls, firing at German sentries and positions, and making a failed attempt to breach the Ghetto walls with explosives.

1944 - Takis Oikonomakis (Τάκης Οικονομάκης; b. 1886) Greek writer, lawyer, journalist and anarchist, dies.

1945 - Julius Nolden, the former head of the Free Workers' Union of Germany (FAUD), is freed from Lüttringhausen prison by the arriving Allies.

[B] 1957 - Ian Heavens (d. 2000); Scottish anarchist, co-founder of the punk/samba band Bloco Vomit, born. A co-founder of the online Spunk Archives.

1960 - April Revolution [4·19 혁명]: Thousands of students marched from Korea University to the Blue House and, as they march past other high schools and universities, their numbers grows to over 100,000. Arriving at the Blue House, the protesters call for Rhee's resignation. Police open fire on protestors killing approximately 180 and wounding thousands. The Rhee government proclaims martial law in order to suppress the demonstrations.

1974 - Fernand Planche (b. 1900), French writer and activist of the Anarchist Synthesis tendency, dies. [see: Feb. 12]

1979 - Ciro Principessa, a 23-year-old activist in the Italian Communist Youth Federation, is stabbed to death by a neo-Fascist in Rome. On April 19, 1979 Claudio Minetti, a right-wing extremist and frequenter of the MSI HQ in the Via Acca Larentia, entered the headquarters of the Communist Party on the Via di Torpignattara, asking to borrow a book from its small library. When asked to show proof of identity, Minetti refused, taking a book from a table and then running away down the street. Pursued by two members of the PCI, the neo-fascist spun round and stabbed Ciro Principessa with a knife. Principessa, whose condition was initially thought to be not serious, died in hospital the following day.
Minetti was arrested shortly afterwards and turned out to have serious mental health problems, as well as to be the son of Leda Pagliuca, a close friend of the notorious neo-fascist fanatic and terrorist Stefano Delle Chiaie. Minetti was sentenced to 10 years in a secure mental hospital.

1979 - 200 police are deployed to prevent anti-fascist protests in Battersea.

1983 - Jerzy Andrzejewski (b. 1909), prolific Polish author and dissident, dies. [see: Aug. 19]

1989 - Food riots in Jordan.

1993 - The ATF, FBI and Texas National Guard siege of the Koresh compound in Waco, Texas ends, leaving 24 people dead.

2005 - Violeta Fernández Saavedra (b. 1913), Spanish-Mexican teacher, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies in Puebla, Mexico from a respiratory illness. [see: Jun. 30]

2008 - London anti-fascists attack a British Peoples Party meeting in Victoria, London.

2009 - James Graham 'J. G.' Ballard (b. 1930), English novelist and short story writer, dies. [see: Nov. 15]

2013 - Alfredo Guevara Valdés (b. 1925), Cuban founder of the Cuban Institute for the Arts and Industry of Cinematography (ICAIC) and the Havana Film Festival, and a key figure in the New Latin American Cinema, dies. [see: Dec. 31]

2014 - Concha Liaño (Concepción Liaño Gil; b. 1916), Spanish anarcha-feminist militant, who was one of the founders of the Agrupación Cultural Femenina (Women’s Cultural Association) and the magazine 'Mujeres Libres' (Free Women), dies. [see: Nov. 24]
1812 - Luddite Timeline: Colliers from Hollinwood and local mob attacked Mr Burton's manufactory in Middleton and again on April 22, 10 rioters killed. Food riots in Manchester, Bolton, Ashton, Oldham, and all through Cheshire north-east of Stockport.

1848 - Heckeraufstand [Hecker Uprising]: Hecker's 800 revolutionaries are faced with the overwhelming power of 2,000 men of the federal troops in the small Baden town Kandern. This situation was hopeless despite all the enthusiasm and courage of the revolutionaries. Hecker's troops suffered a crushing defeat, known as the Gefecht auf der Scheideck (Battle on the Scheideck or the Battle of Kandern) but he was able to escape to Switzerland. Disappointed, he emigrated to America.

[E] 1853 - Harriet Tubman begins helping slaves escape on the Underground Railroad, a network of people and places that helps slaves escape to the North and to Canada. During her first trip, she brought her own sister and her sister's two children out of slavery in Maryland. She later rescued her brother and her parents, among the approximately 70 slaves she personally escorted to the North during an estimated 13 expeditions over 8 years into Maryland [the figures of 300 slaves freed over 19 expeditions over 10 years stem from Sarah Bradford exaggerated accounts in her 1868 biography of Tubman, 'Scenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman'].

1884 - Otto van Rees (d. 1957), Dutch painter and Tolstoyian anarchist, born. Son of Jacob van Rees, he grew up a home frequented by freethinkers, anarchists, philosophers and artists. In 1899 he founded the Landbouwkolonie van de Internationale Broederschap (International Brotherhood Agricultural Colony) at Blaricum and was a regular at the Ascona colony. He also taught painting and formed a lifelong relationship with one of his pupils, Catherine (Adya) Dutilh,in 1904. Mobilised by the Dutch military at the beginning of WWI, he was discharged from military service in the autumn of 1915 after making a collage of empty cigarette packs. With Adya and his children, he moved to Ascona where he and Adya met various Dadaist and became involved in the Cabaret Voltaire. Both were also profoundly effected by the horrors of the war and, influenced by the ideas of the writer Pieter van der Meer the Walcheren and the French philosopher Jacques Maritain, converted to Catholicism. In 1918 Van Rees signed the Dadaist Manifesto in Berlin and was the co-founder in 1924 of the Swiss artist group Der Große Bär, which included Ernst Frick and Richard Seewald.

1893 - Joan Miró i Ferrà (d. 1983), Catalan painter, sculptor and ceramicist associated with the Surrealists, but whose work was closer to Magic Realism and can even be seen as a forerunner of Abstract Expressionism, born. Before the Spanish Revolution, when he largely lived in France whilst spending his summers in Spain, he was viewed as apolitical but took up the Republican government's commission of a mural, 'El Segador' (The Reaper) or 'El Campesino Catalán en Rebeldía' (Catalan Peasant in Revolt), for the Spanish Republican Pavilion at the 1937 Paris Exhibition. He also designed the explicitly political 'Aidez l’Espagne' poster. Having been prevented from visiting Spain by the war and then by Franco's victory, but the German invasion of France forced him to flee to Spain, narrowly avoiding capture. In Spain he underwent a self-imposed internal exile, first in Palma and later in Barcelona, returning permanently to Palma in 1956. After the war, he also made regular trips to Paris. He also went on to make other political statement via his art, including the triptych 'L'Esperança del Condemnat a Mort' (The Hope of a Condemned Man; 1974), inspired by the execution of the Catalan anarchist Salvador Puig Antich and through which he made explicit his opposition to Franco. There were also the lithograph set (the Barcelona Series, published in 1944 and which he would revisit in colour in 1966), which were based on Alfred Jarry's Pere Ubu character, through which he expressed his experiences of the Spanish Revolution and its aftermath, with the lithographs clearly depicting Franco and his generals as versions of the fictional tyrant. Similarly, the 1978 collaboration with the experimental theatre company La Claca called 'Mori el Merma' (Death to the Bogeyman), for which he designed a series of grotesque puppets, stand-ins again for Franco and his generals.

1897 - George (Gueorgui) Getchev (d. 1965), Bulgarian anarcho-communist, poet, writer of children's stories, translator and journalist, born.

1903 - Octave Mirbeau's 'Les Affaires sont les Affaires' (Business is Business) premières at the Comédie-Française in Paris.

[D] 1910 - Revolución Mexicana: Hailey's Comet appears, many Mexicans believe is a harbinger of war, pestilence and death.

[F] 1914 - Ludlow Massacre: State militia and company guards attack the tent city that striking coal miners set up in Ludlow, Colorado. Following a machine gun assault, they set fire to the camp. The exact number of men, women, and children who were killed that day remains unknown – the 'official' figure was 19, including two women and eleven children, asphyxiated and burned to death in pit dug under a tent that was meant to be safe in case of an attack by company goons. However, the true figure is more likely to have been around sixty six dead, many of whose bodies were abused by the thugs in uniform afterwards. In 2009, the site of the Ludlow Massacre was designated a National Historic Landmark.
Ludlow was the deadliest single incident in the United Mine Workers of America-organised Southern Colorado Coalfield Strike (aka Southern Colorado Coalfield War), which lasted from September 1913 through December 1914 and formed part of the 40 years of the so-called Coal Wars in America as the mine owners sought to maximise the exploitation of the miners, using public law enforcement officers and hire goons to prevent the miners from organising at all costs – everything from harassment and intimidation to mass murder. Though heavily out-resourced and out-gunned, the miners and unions fought back resulting in an era of armed labour conflicts stretching from the Cripple Creek miners' strike of 1894, via the Colorado Labor Wars of 1903-04, the Paint Creek-Cabin Creek strike of 1912, the West Virginia Coal Mine Wars, which included the Matewan Massacre on May 19, 1920, to the Harlan County War of 1931-31. [expand]

[EE] 1915 - Maria Silva Cruz aka 'La Libertaria' (d. 1936), Spanish anarchist and popular hero of the Casas Viejas Uprising in Andalusia, born. She earned her nickname from an incident when a guardia civil had ordered her to take off the red and black scarf that she habitually wore and she had refused, slapping the guard when her tried to take it off her. A participant in the Sucesos de Casas Viejas in January 1933, she was one of only two survivors (the other being a neighbour's child who she carried from the flames) of the conflagration of the hut of Francisco Cruz Gutierrez, nicknamed Seisdedos (Six Fingers), her grandfather, during the brutal suppression of the uprising. When the fascists took the city of Ronda in August 1936, the Guardia Civil sought her out and arrested her, snatching her son who was only a few months old violently from her arms. She was shot at dawn on August 23 1936 along side two others. She was later immortalised by Federica Montseny in her book 'María Silva: la libertaria' (1951).

1918 - On Memorial Day during a parade that included the Governor of Washington, the Mayor of Centralia, and other dignitaries, the IWW hall in Centralia is attacked by members of the Elks Club and the Red Cross(!). The IWW office is destroyed and the workers in it are beaten and told to leave town. Instead, they opened a new hall and continued their efforts toward improving the living standards of the working class. [NB. This is the date (a Saturday) given in Thompson & Murvin's 'The IWW: Its First Seventy Years' (1976). Other sources give the date as Tuesday 30th (wikipedia) and Monday 15th (editorsnotes.org). Memorial Day that year was on Tuesday May 27! Ralph Chaplin's original 'The Centralia Conspiracy' pamphlet only gives April 1918 as the date.]

1918 - Nadezhda Prokofievna Suslova (Надежда Прокофьевна Суслова; b. 1843), Ruaaia's first qualified female doctor, who was also a youthful revolutionary and onetime close friend of Fyodor Dostoyevsky (her sister Apollonia Suslova was Dostoyevsky's lover, dies. [see: Sep. 13]

1919 - La Révolte de la Mer Noire: Easter Sunday, almost all the sailors of the France and the Jean-Bart, instead of saluting the tricolour flag raised aft, stood facing the bow and sang the Internationale, while the red flag was raised on the bowsprit mast on both boats simultaneously.

[B] 1920 - Donald Rooum, English anarchist cartoonist and writer with a long association with Freedom Press, born. Best known for his Wildcat cartoons.

1920 - Man Ray, Marcel Duchamp and Katherine Dreier sign the constitution of Société Anonyme, Inc., an arts organisation created to promote the work of the international avant-garde.

1927 - The Dielo Truda (Workers Cause) group, formed by Nestor Makhno, Peter Arshinov and other exiled Russian and Ukrainian anarchists in Paris and then including Ida Mett, organise an international anarchist conference in L'Ha-les-Roses, France. Among the delegates are Bifolchi, an Italian delegation from the magazine 'Pensiero e Volonta', Luigi Fabbri, Camillo Berneri, and Ugo Fedeli.

1930 - Aldo Tambellini, Italian American painter, sculptor, poet and anarchist, who was a pioneer in electronic intermedia, born. Tambellini's art has always been overtly political and directed towards his community activism. Founding member in 1962 of the counter-culture group, Group Center, which involved Ben Morea, and working closely with the Umbra poetry collective. In 1965 he made his first moves as an avant-garde filmmaker, pioneering the technique of painting directly on film, and beginning his Black Film Series. In 1966 Tambellini founded The Gate Theater in New York's East Village and the following year helped co-found a second theatre, the Black Gate.

1946 - The All-Korean Anarchist Congress [국 아나키스트 대회] meets (April 20-23) at Geumgang-sa [금강사] in Gyeongsang Province [경남안].

1951 - Guy-Ernest Debord meets the Lettrists at the Cannes Film Festival, following the screening of Isou's 'Traité de Bave et d'Éternité' (Treatise on Slime and Eternity).

1953 - Jindřich Honzl (b. 1894), Czech theatre and film director, theatrical theorist, translator, educator, communist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: May 14]

[C] 1962 - [Hitler's birthday, natch] The neo-Nazi National Socialist Movement is formed by Colin Jordan, with John Tyndall as his deputy after spliting from the British National Party. The split was caused by John Bean's condemnation of Jordan's open Nazism, with Jordan managing to secure the support of both Tyndall and Denis Pirie, the rump of the paramilitary Spearhead group, whilst also gaining control of the BNP's Notting Hill headquarters. Roland Kerr-Ritchie and Peter Ling both resigned from the BNP National Council to support Jordan.
nazbol.net/library/authors/Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke/Black Sun.pdf]

1963 - A FLQ bomb explodes at the Canadian Army recruiting centre downtown. The night watchman is killed in the first casualty of their campaign.

1964 - August Sander (b. 1876), German portrait and documentary photographer associated with the Neuen Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity), dies. [see: Nov. 17]

1967 - Aldino Felicani (b. 1891). Italian-American anarchist, typographer, editor, and publisher of many papers, dies. Friend and supporter of Sacco and Vanzetti, founding their Defence Committee. Published, until his death, the Italian-American paper 'Controcorrente' (Countercurrent). [see: Mar. 15]

[A] 1968 - Enoch Powell's 'Rivers of Blood' speech: Powell spouts his racist bile in his 'Rivers of Blood' speech at the Midland Hotel in Birmingham.

1970 - Probable date of the death by drowning of Paul Celan (b. 1920) in the Seine in Paris. [see: Nov. 23]

1974 - Richard Hülsenbeck (b. 1892), Dadaist propagandist, poet, writer, collagist, anarchist, drummer and Jungian psychoanalyst, dies. [see: Apr. 23]

1986 - As part of mass social upheaval in Spain, riots erupt in Guernica. [expand]

2001 - Quebec City has the dubious honor of hosting the Summit of the Americas. The Anti-Capitalist Convergence (La Convergence des luttes anti-capitalistes, or CLAC, in French) participate in a large-scale grassroots mobilisation against the FTAA.

2014 - Rubin 'Hurricane' Carter (b. 1937), black American middleweight boxer, who was wrongly convicted twice of the same murder and later freed after spending almost 20 years in prison, dies. Wrongfully arrested and convicted for triple murder, he was sentenced to three life terms, narrowly escaping the electric chair in a case that is a classic example of US police and judicial racism.
1509 - Feasting, dancing and general rejoicing greets the death of Henry VII, the first 'modern' British monarch.

1812 - Luddite Timeline: Flogging of soldier who refused to fire on the Luddites during the siege of Rawfolds Mill. Cartwright himself intervenes to stop the punishment after 25 strokes. The full 300 strokes would probably have resulted in death. Food riot at Tintwistle and machinery destroyed at Rhodes' woollen cloth mill.

[F] 1834 - Tolpuddle Martyrs: A massive demonstration is held on Copenhagen Fields near King's Cross, London against the sentences of transportation imposed on the Tolpuddle Martyrs. Between 35,000 to 100,000 people attended the demonstration, which was organised by the Central Committee of the Metropolitan Trade Unions and marched through London to Kennington Common with a wagon carrying a petition with over 200,000 signatures for the remission of the Martyrs' sentences. Lord Melbourne at the Home Office refused to accept the petition although it was successfully delivered a week later.

1841 - Anselmo Lorenzo Asperillo (d. 1914), 'The Grandfather of Spanish anarchism', printer and prolific author of early anarchist theory in Spain, born. [expand]

1848 - Heckeraufstand [Hecker Uprising]: Hecker's 800 revolutionaries are faced with the overwhelming power of 2,000 men of the federal troops in the small Baden town Kandern. This situation was hopeless despite all the enthusiasm and courage of the revolutionaries. Hecker's troops suffered a crushing defeat, known as the Gefecht auf der Scheideck (Battle on the Scheideck or the Battle of Kandern) but he was able to escape to Switzerland. Disappointed, he emigrated to America.

[DD] 1851 - Motín de Urriola [Urriola Yprising]: On the streets of the Chilean capital Santiago revolutionaries erect barricades for the first time in Chilean history. It marks the beginning of the 1851 Chilean Revolution.
Shortly after midnight that morning a detachment of troops from the Valdivia Battalion try to seize the civic headquarters in Santiago as part of an attempt to overthrow the Conservative president, Manuel Bulnes. The liberal opposition fearing what they saw as the inevitable replacement of Bulnes by another Conservative, Manuel Montt, in the upcoming election decided that a coup was their only hope of gaining power. Backed by Colonel Pedro Urriola Balbontín of the Valdivia Battalion, members of the liberal Sociedad de la Igualdad (Society of Equality) had hoped to seize power but the attack on the civic headquarters is thwarted and the five thousand men Urriola had been promised by his liberal allies fail to materialise (only 15 turning up). At dawn Urriola, realising he is short of men and ammunition, mounts an attack on the artillery barracks was at the foot of Cerro Santa Lucía. The assault is repulsed a number of times and, in the midst of the fray, the revolutionaries replace the Urriola with Colonel Justo Arteaga Cuevas. During the government counter-offensive from the Alameda and Cerro Santa Lucia Urriola is killed by a stray bullet and after five hours of fierce fighting, during which more than 200 are killed on both sides, with success then impossible, Arteaga took refuge in the American legation. By 11:00 the revolt had been quashed.

1869 - Anthelme Girier aka Jean Baptiste Lorion (d. 1898), French anarchist orator, who was imprisoned and involved in the revolt at the Iles du Salut penal colony, born.

1883 [N.S. May 3] - Strajk Szpularek [Spoolers' Strike] / Strajk w Żyrardowie [Żyrardów Strike]: On Saturday April 21, 1883, pay day, two weeks after having been told that their already starvation level wages were to be cut, the women from the 120 desperate women from the Spooling section headed to the director Tomasz Garva to ask him not to lower their wages. They explained that they could not live on this new salary rate but, despite their ardent pleas, they were thrown out the door. The women decided to reconvene tomorrow on their day off to decided what to do now. [see: May. 3]

1885 - Ethel Duffy Turner (d. 1969), American journalist and author who took an active part in the Mexican Revolution alongside the Magonistas, born. Her books include 'Writers and Revolutionists: Oral History Transcription' (1966), 'Revolution In Baja California: Ricardo Flores Magon's High Noon' (1981) and 'Ricardo Flores Magón y el Partido Liberal Mexicano (Textos de la Revolución Mexicana)' (1984). Ethel Duffy Turner also wrote a novel, 'The Orange Tree', a novella and a number of short stories.

[1894 - Workers storm the prison in La Salle, Illinois and liberate striking miners. NO SOURCE]

1898 - In Ancône, Italy anarchists, including Errico Malatesta, go on trial (21st-27th) for criminal conspiracy gainst "the public safety of people and property".

1905 - [O.S. Apr. 8] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Strikes break out in factories and at the docks in Odessa; the first of many in the city.

1913 - Three members of the anarchist Bonnot Gang, André Soudy (b. 1892), Raymond Callemin (b. 1890) and Elie Monier (b. 1889), are executed. [see: Feb. 25; Mar. 26 & Aug. 20 respectively]

1913 - Revolución Mexicana: Emiliano Zapata besieges Victoriano Huerta's garrison at Cuautla. Federal train blown up,killing 100 federal troops, federals round up civilians.

1913 - Paterson Silk Strike: With the AFL now trying to muscle in on the strike after sending United Textile Workers organisers "with rosy promises of an easy settlement" [to quote Margaret Sanger] to try and take over the strike, they hold a meeting in the Armory where UTW leaders address the strikers. [see: Jan. 27 & Feb. 24]

1914 - Revolución Mexicana: 800 American seamen and marines land at Veracruz.Snipers open fire on Americans, 4 Americans killed. 400 more Americans are sent ashore.Eventually 3,300 sailors and 2,000 marines land. Sniper fire continues.126 Mexicans and 17 Americans killed.Resentment against Americans grows in Mexico.Arms and supplies from Germany to Victoriano Huerta cut off.

[B] 1914 - The first public performance by Futurist painter and anarchist Luigi Russolo's intonarumori noise machines takes place at the Teatro dal Verme in Milan. Initially banned by the police fearing a riot, 2 local politicians intervene to get the programme of 3 pieces - 'Risveglio di una Città' (Awakening of a City), 'Colazione sulla Terrazza del Kursaal Diana' (Breakfast on the Terrace of Kursaal Diana), and 'Convegno di Automobili e di Aeroplani'(A Meeting of Automobiles and Aeroplanes) - put on. Half an hour before the concert was due to start, a large crowd was already en riot, throwing missiles at the stage. So loud was the noise throughout the concert that the music was inaudible. Marinetti likened it to "showing the first steam engine to a heard of cows."

[E] 1919 - Rosario Sánchez Mora aka 'La Dinamitera' (d. 2008), Spanish seamstress, member of the Juventudes Socialistas Unificadas and miliciana during the Civil War, famed for her expertise in explosives, which was immortalised in Miguel Hernández's poem 'Rosario, dinamitera', born. Her mother died before the outbreak of the Civil War, and at the age of 16 Rosario left her mechanic father's home in the village of Villarejo de Salvanés, in the central Madrid region of Spain, and moved to the capital where she lived with relations and found employment as a sempstress. Shortly after her arrival General Franco staged his military coup against the government of Spain's Second Republic, and Rosario enlisted as a volunteer in the defence of Madrid against the Fascist forces. Under the command of Valentin Gonzalez aka 'El Campesino' (The Farmer), she was instructed in explosives and acquired her nickname from her comrades. In September 1936, whilst attempting to set a booby trap in the mountains around Madrid, she lost her right hand in an explosion.
After hospital treatment Rosario Sánchez Mora was posted to the Republican headquarters at Ciudad Lineal, near Madrid, where she met Miguel Rosario Hernandez, Vicente Aleixandre and Antonio Aparicio, three writers who had dedicated themselves to the Republican cause. Hernandez wrote a famous poem, 'Rosario, dinamitera', which extolled her as a role model for all Republicans during the Civil War. The following summer she was sent back to the Front, joining the brigades which were defending Madrid. She was given the rank of sergeant, and commanded a unit in charge of communications, ensuring that correspondence from the soldiers reached headquarters in Madrid. By July 1937, however, the 46th Division, of which she was part, was in disarray and retreating to the city of Alcalá de Henares. It was there, on September 12 1937, that Rosario Sánchez Mora married a fellow Republican, Sergeant Francisco Burcet Lucini. While Burcet continued north with the Republican forces, Rosario, who was now pregnant, returned to Madrid, where she worked for an organisation that recruited women to fill jobs left vacant by men who had gone to fight in the Civil War.
In July 1938 she gave birth to her daughter, Helena. Later that year, after the Battle of Ebro, letters from her husband ceased, and she had no idea whether he had died in the fighting, had escaped to France or had become one of the thousands of prisoners captured by Franco's forces. It was only years later that she managed to locate him, discovering that he had settled in the northern city of Oviedo, where he had remarried and fathered two more children (his marriage to Rosario, in common with many other Republican unions from the Civil War, had been declared void by General Franco.)
When Madrid fell to the Fascists, Rosario Sánchez Mora left her daughter with relatives and, accompanied by her father, attempted to flee Spain through the port of Alicante. They were among 15,000 Republicans caught by the Fascists as they sought passage on ships sent by the League of Nations. Her father was shot and Rosario herself was condemned to death, but the sentence was commuted to 30 years in prison. She served three before being sent to live at the village of El Bierzo, some 125 miles from Madrid. Although forbidden to travel, Rosario Sánchez Mora eventually managed to make her way to the Spanish capital, where she scratched out a living selling smuggled American snuff. She remarried and gave birth to a daughter, but the
marriage failed after only two years, and ended up renting a tobacconist's shop, living in a flat above the shop with her two daughters until she retired.
Rosario Sánchez Mora died on April 17, 2008 in Madrid.

Rosario, dinamitera,
sobre tu mano bonita
celaba la dinamita
sus atributos de fiera.
Nadie al mirarla creyera
que había en su corazón
una desesperación
de cristales, de metralla
ansiosa de una batalla,
sedienta de una explosión.

Era tu mano derecha,
capaz de fundir leones,
la flor de las municiones
y el anhelo de la mecha.
Rosario, buena cosecha,
alta como un campanario,
sembrabas al adversario
de dinamita furiosa
y era tu mano una rosa
enfurecida, Rosario.

Buitrago ha sido testigo
de la condición de rayo
de las hazañas que callo
y de la mano que digo.
¡Bien conoció el enemigo
la mano de esta doncella,
que hoy no es mano porque de ella,
que ni un solo dedo agita,
se prendó la dinamita
y la convirtió en estrella!

Rosario, dinamitera,
puedes ser varón y eres
la nata de las mujeres
la espuma de la trinchera.
Digna como una bandera
de triunfos y resplandores,
dinamiteros pastores,
vedla agitando su aliento
y dad las bombas al viento
del alma de los traidores.

[Rosario the dynamiter
In your beautiful hand
Dynamite liked to conceal
The wild beast within.
Who would think, upon seeing her,
Such despair lurking
In her heart, made of
Glass and shrapnel,
So greedy for battle,
Athirst for an explosion.

Your right hand
Could smelt lions,
It was the flower of munitions
And the longing of the fuse.
Rosario the good harvest,
Tall as a belfry,
You sowed the dynamite fury
In the enemy’s camp,
And your hand was
A raging rose, Rosario.

Buitrago bears witness
To your being a bolt of lightning,
The exploits I keep for myself, and
The hand I evoke.
It serves the enemy right,
This maiden’s hand,
A hand no more today,
Missing all fingers, for dynamite
Detonated on it
Turning it into a star!

Rosario the dynamiter
You could well be a man and you’re
The cream amongst women,
The froth of the trenches.
Fitting as a flag all
Triumph and splendor,
You, dynamiter shepherds,
See her brandishing her breath, and
Do submit your bombs to the wind
Carrying the traitors’ souls!]

[Miguel Hernández, 1937]


1926 - The first issue of the weekly newspaper 'l'Anarchie', "Organe d'Action et de Philosophie Anarchistes", is published by Simone Larcher and Louis Louvet in Paris. It replaces 'l'Éveil des Jeunes Libertaires' and continues in the individualist tradition of Libertad and 'l'Anarchie', producing 52 issues until April 1929.

1930 - 322 killed at Ohio Penitentiary in Columbus, Ohio, after fire starts on scaffolding. Most died of smoke inhalation as guards fail to open cell doors.

1935 - Auguste Garnery (b. 1865), French jeweller, anarchist militant, revolutionary trade unionist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Jul. 3]

1937 - The Delegated Committee for the Defence of Madrid dissolved.

[C] 1948 - In Leeds 100 members of the Jewish Ex-Servicemen's Association (AJEX) and 100 CPGB members prevent an outdoor Union Movement, whose members were simply intimidated by the anti-fascists' presence. [PR]

1951 - Giuseppe Pasotti (b. 1888), Italian anarcho-syndicalist and member of the Italian League of Human Rights, dies. [see: Feb. 10]

[D] 1961 - Putsch des Généraux [General's Putsch]: A second military coup takes place in Algiers, [see: May 13] led by Generals Maurice Challe, Edmond Jouhaud, Raoul Salan and André Zeller, and backed by many junior ranks in the French army in Algeria. The coup is in reaction to the January 8, 1961 referendum on self-determination in Algeria organised in France and Algeria, and in which almost 75% had voted in favour of self-determination, and the actions of de Gaulle and his government, which they saw as having lied toward French Algeria colonists and loyalist Muslims who trusted it, the equivalent of treason and the abandonment of French Algeria.
1962 - Raissa Adler (Raissa Timofevna Epstein [Раиса Тимофеевна Эпштейн]; b. 1872), Russian-Austrian feminist and Trotskyist, who co-founded the Internationalen Arbeiterhilfe (Workers International Relief) in Austria and was a member of Roten Hilfe and the Kommunistischen Partei Österreichs, dies in New York. [see: Nov. 9]

1962 - Raissa Adler (Raissa Timofevna Epstein [Раиса Тимофеевна Эпштейн]; b. 1872), Russian-Austrian feminist and Trotskyist, who co-founded the Internationalen Arbeiterhilfe (Workers International Relief) in Austria and was a member of Roten Hilfe and the Kommunistischen Partei Österreichs, dies in New York. [see: Nov. 9]

1967 - CIA-assisted right-wing coup deposes elected Greek civilian government, military junta takes over.

1968 - Armando Borghi (b. 1882), important Italian anarchist figure, propagandist, dies. [see: Apr. 7]

[CC] 1979 - In Leicester, an estimated 2,000 anti-fascists mobilise to oppose around 800 NF supporters from holding their St. George's day march and election meeting. Planning to march from the Welford Road recreation ground to hold their rally at a Wyggeston Collegiate School close to Leicester University, the police are forced to re-route the NF march out of Leicester city centre, and later they attack the remaining anti-fascists who were trying to reach the school. Eighty-two people are arrested and there are 40 injuries as protesters hurl bricks, bottles and smoke bombs at NF supporters and police, injuring at least twenty-five of the latter. All told, the costs of deploying more than 5,000 police was estimated at £14,200.
According to a former cop on duty that day: "The main clash erupted in and around University Road and in ugly scenes, 25 policemen were injured, with two Leicester constables, Dave Cowling and John Norman, detained in hospital. There were also 14 casualties among the demonstrators. Missiles thrown at police included paving slabs, bricks, granite cobbles from Leicester University car park and stones."
"Despite the cordon of five thousand police, the National Front march was attacked within a hundred yards of its start. Supporters of the Anti Nazi League had occupied some waste ground and began pelting police and marchers alike with rocks. The marchers ducked and scrambled by, but some of them were injured and immediately the police abandoned the planned route of the march through the city centre. The counter demonstrators hailed it as a triumph."
"But the demonstrators were not satisfied with aborting the Front's march. They wanted to get at the school where the meeting was taking place. Then ensued a series of battles which lasted for two hours. The demonstrators using rocks and stones and the police inching forward behind riot shields.
"Some of the worst violence occurred at the campus of the University of Leicester. The demonstrators controlled the area inside the fought off police attempts to reach them. In any event, police brought in dogs behind the riot shields. All the time, they were being pelted with rocks and stones. Finally, they gave leash to the dogs. At least twenty-five police were injured, a number of demonstrators, and there were 87 arrests IN TOTAL. It was some of the worst violence Britain has been in the last few years." ['ITN News' broadcast 21/04/79]

1984 - Marcel Janco (b. 1895), anarchist-influenced Romanian and Israeli visual artist, architect and art theorist, dies. [see: May 24]

[A] 1993 - The Lucasville prison rebellion ends after 450 inmates surrendered and released the last five guards they had held hostage for the 11 days of the siege.

2011 - Stokes Croft in Bristol erupts into violence when the 'Telepathic Heights' squat is raided. The new, unwanted Tesco 'supermarket' ends up trashed.

2012 - 36-year-old remand prisoner Christopher Oldham is found hanged in his cell in HMP Preston. Two married prison officers, Shaun and Linda Percy, later admitted misconduct and perverting the course of justice after having tried to cover up the Shaun Percy had failed to carry out mandatory cell checks on prisoners who were assessed as feeling suicidal and falsely recorded he had carried out these checks. Lisa Percy, the senior officer on the night of Christopher's death, also tried to cover up her husbands misconduct by making entries in her husband's name falsely recording that he made two further checks on Mr Oldham.

2013 - March for England: In what the organisers claimed was going to be a "family day out", police bus in less than 150 male nationalists to Brighton seafront for a 400m march (200m there and 200m back in what was effectively a mobile kettle) with no speaches, all cordonned off and protected by 700 cops drafted in from as far away as Wales, only to be bused out of town even quicker than they came. Lining their 'route' were 2,000 loud counter-protesters behind a police organised cordon. In addition, there were about 200, mainly local, masked-up anti-fascists roaming the streets picking off stragglers and fascist latecomers plus the handful of boneheads who took the opportunity of a visit to town to harrass the locals and possibly pick off the occassiona anti-fascist when the odds were heavily in their favour. The police made a number of attempts to kettle or otherwise control the independant antifa, trying to pull off their masks and confiscate their armoured Antifa banner, leading to several confrontations and de-arrests.
The day saw 13 arrests made for public order offences, theft, criminal damage and possessing weapons.
www.theargus.co.uk/news/10370124.Nineteen_arrests_during_March_for_England with_video_/

2013 - At 1.20am on Sunday moring (after more than 16 hours on the final day of a week-long trial) a court in Brazil sentences 23 police officers to 156 years in jail each for their part in the notorious Carandirú prison massacre in São Paulo in 1992 that left 111 prisoners dead, and another 87 wounded. [see: Oct. 2]
[E] 1766 - Germaine de Staël, Madame de Staël (Anne Louise Germaine Necker; d. 1817), French-Swiss woman of letters, philosopher, political propagandist, and scourge of Napoleon Bonaparte, born.

1812 - Third and final day of food rioting in Manchester.

[D] 1821 - [O.S. Apr. 10] Greek Revolution [Ελληνική Επανάσταση] or Greek War of Independence: The Ecumenical Patriarch, Gregory V, is seized by Ottoman soldiers in Constantinople during the Easter Sunday liturgy and hanged at the central gate of the Patriarchate. Although he was completely uninvolved with the Revolution, his death was ordered as an act of revenge. That same day three bishops and a dozens of other Greeks, high official in Ottoman administration, are quickly executed in various parts of the Ottoman capital. The execution of the Patriarch signalled a reign of terror against the Greeks living in Constantinople over the following weeks, and that spread throughout the Ottoman Empire that lasted well into July 1821.

1873 - Luigi Lucheni (d. 1910), Italian anarchist, born. Notably, on September 10, 1898, Luccheni stabs the impératrice Elisabeth of Austria 'Sissi', in Geneva, using a frayed file, as a symbolic blow against "the persecutors of the workers". The Swiss courts sentenced him to forced labour. He was found hung in prison in 1910.

1891 - Nicola (Ferdinando) Sacco (d. 1927), Italian-American anarchist, born. [expand]

1897 - In Rome the anarchist Pietro Acciarito, 26, attempts to stab the king of Italy, King Umberto I. Tried and sentenced May 28, following a parody of a trial, Acciarto gets life in prison.

1898 - Adrien Perrissaguet (d. 1972), French founder of L'Association des Fédéralistes Anarchistes, of the weekly magazine 'The Libertarian Voice' and of 'Combat syndicaliste', born. An activist in the Sacco and Vanzetti committee, he also fought in the Spanish Revolution of 1936 and was a member of the French Resistance during WWII.

[B] 1899 - Kate Chopin publishes the early feminist novel 'The Awakening'.

[F] 1906 - The anarcho-syndicalist dominated Federación Obrera Regional Paraguaya (Paraguayan Regional Workers' Federation) is founded by the Sociedad de Obreros Gráficos (Society of Graphical Workers), the Sindicato de Resistencia de Obreros Carpinteros (Union of Resistance of Carpenters) and the Sindicato de Cocheros (Union of Coal Miners). FORP's paper 'El Despertar' appeared for the first time shortly after on May 1.
portalguarani.com/665_francisco_gaona/1662_introduccion_a_la_historia_gremial_y_social_del_paraguay_[ ]_tomo_ii_fra

1907 - [O.S. Apr. 9] Following his capture by police on March 20 [O.S. Mar. 7], 1907, after he had assassinated Vasilenko, head of the main railroad yard at Aleksandrovsk and a notorious and pitiless oppressor of workers, Peter Arshinov (Пётр Арши́нов) had been cruelly beaten, and two days later sentenced to hang by a military tribunal. Suddenly, when the sentence was about to be administered, it was established that Arshinov’s act should by law not be tried by the military tribunal, but by a higher military court. This postponement gave Arshinov the chance to escape Aleksandrovsk prison. On the night of April 22-23, 1907, during Easter mass, while the prisoners were being led to the prison church, the prison guards assigned to watch the prisoners at the church were surprised by the audacious attack of several comrades. All the guards were killed, and all the prisoners had the chance to escape. Fifteen men escaped together with Arshinov.

1911 - 'Los Angeles Times' Bombing / Iron Workers' Bombing Campaign: Private detective William Burns and two local police burst into an executive board meeting of the International Association of Bridge, Structural, Ornamental and Reinforcing Iron Workers in Indianapolis and arrest John McNamara. J. J. McNamara is taken before a local circuit court, where the judge refuses McNamara's request for an attorney and, without legal authority to do so, releases McNamara into the custody of Burns. From arrest to departure took 30 minutes. The same day, McManigal and J. B. McNamara are taken by Los Angeles police by train to California. All three men arrived in Los Angeles on April 26. [see: Oct. 1]

1912 - Wage Earners' League for Woman Suffrage holds first mass rally at New York's Cooper Union's Great Hall of the People. Rose Schneiderman and Leonora O'Reilly officially founded the Wage Earner’s League for Woman Suffrage on March 22, 1911 in New York City.

1916 - Oscar William Neebe I (b. 1850), US anarchist, labour activist and one of the defendants in the Haymarket bombing trial, dies. [see: Jul. 12]

1920 - Grande Grève des Cheminots [Great Railwayworkers' Strike]: In the wake of the victimisation of strikers (despite the companies' agreement not to) and the ultimate provocation of paying non-strikers on the État, PLM and PO networks double, at the congress of the Fédération des Travailleurs du chemin de fer de France [Apr. 22-24], the revolutionaries in the Fédération Nationale become the majority. [see: Jan. 27 & Feb. 19]

1934 - Oswald Mosley addresses a large (approx. 9,500) BUF rally at the Albert Hall, speaking for an hour & half almost without interruption. A small number of anti-fascists from the Surrey Federation of Youth had managed to fool the BUF stewards and get into the meeting by dressing up in black. Inside they handed out 3,000 copies of their own free programme, undermining the official 6d one sold in the hall. The free programme turned out to be an anti-fascist pamphlet entitled 'British Fascism Explained'. [PR]

1943 - Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: The Nazis' ultimatum to surrender is rejected by the defenders, and German forces resort to systematically burning houses block by block using flamethrowers and fire bottles, and blowing up basements and sewers.

1945 - Käthe Kollwitz (b. 1867), German Expressionist painter, printmaker, sculptor, socialist and pacifist, who was one of the most important women artists of her period and also artists of the working classes in Europe, dies. [see: Jul. 8]

1947 - Ana Maria Lanzilotto (d. ca. 1976), Argentine teacher and member of the Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores (Revolutionary Workers Party), who later became an Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo (People 's Revolutionary Army) guerrilla and was kidnapped on July 19, 1976 in the town of Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires and has remained missing since then. Like Liliana Delfino, who was one of the three people (plus Delfino's two children) who detained with her, she was six months pregnant at the time and it is believed that Lanzilotto was taken to clandestine El Campito detention centre called located inside the military garrison of Campo de Mayo, where she would have given birth. After the delivery, she would have been transferred to the concentration camp called Vesuvius, which was located in the town of Ciudad Evita and was used by the Army to hold, torture and dispatch the disappeared.

1968 - Enoch Powell's 'Rivers of Blood' speech: Powell is dismissed from the cabinet for his 'Rivers of Blood' speech. Fifty construction workers from a Wolverhampton firm who were working at Rugeley power station and fifty workers at the Metro-Cammell factory in Birmingham stage unofficial strikes in favour of Powell.

1970 - First Earth Day observed. Millions of US citizens participate in anti-pollution demonstrations and events. Corporate sponsorships to hide their real practices were notably absent.

1970 - Kikuoka Kuri (菊岡 久利; b. 1909), the pen-name of Takagi Michinokuo, Japanese poet, novelist and anarchist, dies. [see: Mar. 8]

1971 - Committal proceedings for Jake Prescott and Ian Purdie start at Barnet Court. The committal is to decide whether or not the magistrate feels there is enough evidence against the two of them for a trial to be set at the Old Bailey. There is no doubt that he will find so, but nevertheless proceedings proceed... interminably... until May 27. Jake had been presented (April 15) with three more charges: having conspired with Ian to cause explosions `with others' between July 1970 and March 1971 and having actually caused the Miss World and DEP bombings. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1975 - Police Inspector José Ramón Morán is killed by ETA in Algorta, prompting the Spanish State to declare a state of emergency in the provinces of Vizcaya and Guipuzcoa.

1978 - The Anti Nazi League hold a mass picket at NF election meeting in Leeds just prior to the May local elections. "Some 80 NF members, including Martin Webster, were attacked on their way into the meeting by a mob of about a thousand Anti Nazi League and SWP banners. The NF members were again attacked on the way out. After about 20 minutes of persistent attacks the mob succeeded in fragmenting the group of NF members. As soon as the Anti Nazi League mob saw that Martin Webster was left with only nine other persons, he was beaten up and had to be taken to Leeds Infirmary to receive hospital treatment." ['Lifting the lid off the Anti Nazi League' - an NF publication, October 1978]

1979 - 5,000 people marched to Ealing Town Hall to protest against the National Front being allowed to use council premises. They handed in a petition signed by 10,000 residents.

1982 - Car bomb attack outside the Parisian offices of anti-Syrian newspaper 'Al-Watan Al-Arabi', attributed to Carlos the Jackal, leaves 1 dead and 60 injured.

1990 - 80-100 remand prisoners staged an eighteen-hour rooftop protest at HMP Pucklechurch. 24-hour rooftop protest at HMP Winson Green.

[A] 1993 - Stephen Lawrence murdered by racists in south-east London.

1994 - Karl Hess (b. 1923), US political philosopher, journalist, editor, tax resister, gun smuggler, atheist and libertarian activist, who was often described as the “most beloved libertarian" and vacilated between right-wing and leftist politics before embracing oxymoronic 'Free-market anarchism', dies. [see: May 25]

1999 - NATO try to blow up Slobodan Milošević when an early morning missile hits his house at 15 Uzicke St. in Belgrade.

2007 - Alberto Grifi (b. 1938), Italian film director, painter and anarchist, dies. [see: May 29]

[C] 2012 - March for England: St. George's supporters are well and truly put to the sword as around 2,000 anti-fascists run the nationalists out of town, after having lined their route blotting out their view of the Brighton public and drowning out the racist and homophobic bile that had been all too audible from them in previous years. Numerous attempts are made to stop the march, successfully in Queen's Road and later in Church Street, blocking the streets and building barricades out of whatever was available. The police resort to baton charges, the liberal use of pepper spray and deploy horses to force their way through into what was effectively a police march with a hundred or so nationalist boneheads tagging along behind. Eventually the march makes its way to the pen in Victoria Gardens pre-prepared for the MfE, except there are loads of anti-fascists there before them, jumping their pitch, and they spend the next 2 hours being jeered at by the sort of people that these little Englanders have nightmares about. Job done, the cops swiftly escort them back to station (jeered all the way, natch) with their tails well and truly between their legs. All told, there are 3 arrests (though East Sussex's finest released photos of 5 people 'wanted' for throwing missiles at the MfE) and 2 cops (of the 400 or so on duty) are injured, one being taken to hospital.
www.theargus.co.uk/news/9663359.Bottles_thrown bins_torched_and_arrests_during_heated_March_for_England/

2013 - Prisoners’ food abstention from mess in Larisa prison, Greece.
1821 - Pierre Dupont (d. 1870), French Republican song-writer, poet and socialist balladeer, born. Forerunner of the workers' song as exemplified by Eugene Pottier ('The International') and Jean-Baptiste Clément ('Time of the Cherries'), his socialist songs earned him seven years exile from France in 1851. His song 'Les Carriers' was popular amongst the Communards. The lyrics of the popular 1871 Paris Commune song ‘La Commune’ was set to the music to his song 'Les Carriers' (The Quarrymen). In his 1851 preface to the collection of 'Chants et Chansons (Poésie et Musique)', Baudelaire wrote in a tribute to the man and the poet:
"When I browse the work of Dupont, I still feel returning in my memory, probably because of some secret affinity, this sublime movement of Proudhon , full of tenderness and enthusiasm he is heard humming the song of Lyon,

Allons, du courage,
Braves ouvriers !
Du cœur à l'ouvrage !
Soyons les premiers."

1861 - Ricardo Mella Cea (d. 1925), Spanish anarchist, born. A leading movement theorist, Mella headed publishing teams of 'Solidaridad', 'El Libertario', 'Acción Libertaria'. [expand

[F] 1883 - La Bande Noire: A bomb explodes at the home of a miner called Menénager in Mont-Saint-Vincent. This attack is the last of a series of six or seven actions over the past two months against informers providing information to the police. [see: Feb. 23]

1883 [N.S. May 5] - Strajk Szpularek [Spoolers' Strike] / Strajk w Żyrardowie [Żyrardów Strike]: On the first day of the strike, 245 workers of the Żyrardów linen factory fail to turn up for work in protest at their pay cuts. [see: May 5]

1890 - [O.S. Apr. 9] Rose Lilian Witcop Aldred (Rachel Vitkopski; d. 1932), Ukrainian-British Jewish anarchist, journalist and pioneer of birth control and sex education, who was sister of Milly Witkop and partner of Guy Aldred, born.

[B] 1892 - Richard Hülsenbeck (d. 1974), Dadaist propagandist, poet, writer, collagist, anarchist, drummer and Jungian psychoanalyst, born. Like many of the Dadaists, and more specifically Hugo Ball, Tristan Tzara, the Janco brothers, Hülsenbeck was well read in contemporary political theory and sympathised with anarchist ideas of social and political organisation.
In 1912 he went to Munich to study medicine but after a year changed to studying German literature and art history. He also met the then anarchist Hugo Ball, who would become a decisive influence on his intellectual and artistic development. Hülsenbeck also began collaborating with the journal 'Der Sturm' (1914-32) and wrote the first of many theoretical and satirical essays, which were later published by the magazines 'Die Aktion' [1911-32; anarchist Franz Pfemfert's Expressionist and Leftist magazine that he started after his time editing the anarchist magazine ‘Der Kampf'] and 'Die Freie Strasse' [1915-18; anarchist and Dadaist magazine edited by Franz Jung, Georg Schrimpf, Richard Oehring, Otto Groß, Raoul Hausmann and Johannes Baader]. When he went to study at the Sorbonne during the winter of 1912–1913, he contributed as a "Paris correspondent" to ‘Revolution’, a polemical literary magazine started by Ball and his friend Hans Leybold (which also involved Erich Mühsam).
Huelsenbech’s readings of Balls’ social and political critiques of Germany and its bourgeois social system reinforced his own political understanding and the two began to collaborate more closely when Hülsenbeck followed Ball to Berlin in 1914. He continued to study German literature and began to publish poems, essays, and book reviews in ‘Die Aktion’. A few months into WWI, he volunteered for the army, serving several months in a field artillery unit (Ball also volunteered but was turned down as unfit), but never made it to the front as he was released from service because of neuralgia. Both Hülsenbeck and Ball became increasingly opposed to the war [Ball witnessing the invasion of Belgium, saying: "The war is founded on a glaring mistake, men have been confused with machines"] and to the intensity of German nationalist sentiment, organising several protests against the war effort in the spring of 1915, and in commemoration for fallen fellow poets.
Ball left for Zürich with his wife, Emmy Hennings, and soon after sent for Hülsenbeck. He arrived [Feb. 26, 1916] shortly after Ball had founded the Cabaret Voltaire [Feb. 1, 1916; with the first soirée in the Holländische Meierei at Spiegelgasse 1 on Feb. 5, with Ball writing of him, in ‘Escape from Time’, on 11 February 1916: "Hülsenbeck has arrived. He pleads for an intensification of rhythm (Negro rhythm). He would best love to drum literature and to perdition."], becoming the house drummer as well as reciting his poetry - "adopt[ing] an arrogant and offensive posture, brandishing his cane at the audience and reciting his poems, according to Marcel Janco, "as if they were insults." His poetry attacked the church, the fatherland, and the canon of German literature (Friedrich von Schiller and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe), and was accompanied by big drums, roars, whistles, and laughter. Hülsenbeck's use of a military drum alluded to the proximity of the war, demanding an immediate and uninhibited bodily response from the audience." [biog., National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC]
His own ill health, and that of his father's, led to his return to Germany in Dec. 1916. In early 1917 he brought the Dada ideas to a largely unsuspecting Berlin, starting the Dada group there, recruiting Georg Grosz, Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Johannes Baader, Walter Mehring, Wieland Herzfelde and John Heartfield. The fruits of their many collaborations included ‘Jedermann sein eigner Fussball’ (1919), 'Der Dada' (1919-20) and 'Dadaco' (1920) [announced in 'Der Dada' in June 1919 as an ambitious collection of Dada poems, essays, collages and drawings, promoted as a 'Dadaistischer Handatlas', to be edited by Richard Hülsenbeck but never published].
Hülsenbeck became the organiser, promoter, and historian of Dada, delivering the 'Dada-Rede in Deutschland' (First Dada Speech in Germany) in January 1918 and participated in the First International Dada Fair [International Erste Dada-Messe], held in Berlin, June 5, 1920 at the gallery of Dr. Otto Burchard.
He also edited the 'Dada Almanach' (1920), wrote 'En Avant Dada' (1920), a history of Dadaism, and 'Deutschland Muss Untergehen! Erinnerungen Eines Alten Dadaistichen Revolutionärs’ (Germany Must Perish! Memories of an Old Dadaist Revolutionary; 1920), and contributed to numerous publications such as the Dadaist-Constructivist magazine 'G' (1923-26), and periodicals such as 'Die Pleite', 'Die Rosa Brille', 'Das Bordell', etc.
Throughout his Dada years, Hülsenbeck also continued his medical studies and began to practice in 1920. He also travelled widely as a ship's doctor, which led to his writing a series of popular travel books: ‘Afrika in Sicht’ (Africa Came into View; 1928), 'Der Sprung nach Osten’ (Air in the East; 1928) and ‘China frißt Menschen’ (China eats People; 1930). Beginning in 1933, Hülsenbeck was repeatedly investigated by the Nazi authorities. Forbidden to write and in constant fear of imminent arrest, he finally obtained passage for himself and his wife Beate Wolff to the United States in 1936. By 1939 he was practicing medicine and psychiatry in Long Island, New York, under the name Charles R. Hulbeck. He also continued to write arts reviews and articles on cultural issues for the 'Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung' and the 'Neue Zürcher Zeitung', and contributing to numerous Dada revivals and exhibitions. In 1970 he returned and settled in Switzerland.
His works include 3 Dada novels 'Azteken oder die Knallbude' (Aztecs or the Blast Booth; 1918), 'Verwandlungen' (1918), and 'Doctor Billig am Ende' (Doctor Cheap at the End; 1921); the 'expatriate' novel [auswandererroman] 'Der Traum vom Großen Glück' (The Dream of Great Happiness; 1933), his last German publication; and poetry collections including 'Schalaben, Schalomai, Schalamezomai' (1916); 'Phantastische Gebete' (Fantastic Prayers; 1916), 'Die New Yorker Kantaten’ (The New York Cantatas; 1952), and 'Die Antwort der Tiefe' (The Response of Depth; 1954). In 1959 he also published 'Sexualität und Persönlichkeit' (Sexuality and Personality). His two memoirs 'Mit Witz, Licht und Grütze' (With Wits, Light and Grits; 1957) and 'Memoirs of a Dada Drummer' (1969) offer reminiscences of his Dada experiences.

"The cows sit on the telegraph poles and play chess
The cockatoo under the skirts of the Spanish dancer
Sings as sadly as a headquaters bugler and the cannon lament all day
That is the lavender landscape Herr Mayer was talking about
when he lost his eye
Only the fire department can drive the nightmare from the drawing-
room bur all the hoses are broken
Ah yes Sonya they all take the celluloid doll for a changeling
and shout: God save the King
The whole Monist Club is gathered on the steamship Meyerbeer
But only the pilot has any conception of high C
I pull the anatomical atlas out of my toe
a serious study begins
Have you seen the fish that have been standing in front of the
opera in cutaways
for the last two days and nights...?
Ah ah ye great devils - ah ah ye keepers of bees and commandments
With a bow wow wow with a bow woe woe who does today not know
what our Father Homer wrote
I hold peace and war in my toga but I'll take a cherry flip
Today nobody knows whether he was tomorrow
They beat time with a coffin lid
If somebody had the nerve to rip the tail feathers
out of the trolley car it's a great age
The professors of zoology gather in the medows
With the palms of their hands they turn back the rainbows
the great magician sats the tomatoes on his forehead
Again thou hauntest castle and grounds
The roebuck whistles the stallion bounds
(And this is how the world is this is all that's ahead of us)."

'The End Of The World' (1916)


1905 - [O.S. Apr. 10] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The government orders the establishment of local commissions to suppress peasant revolts but the harsh repression fails to stem rural unrest.

1906 - [O.S. Apr. 10] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: At the 4th Party or 'Unity' Congress of the RSDRP (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party) in Stockholm (Apr. 23-May. 8 [O.S. Apr. 10-25]), the Mensheviks, the Bolsheviks, and the Jewish Bund nominally reunite, but actually continue as separate parties. Lenin sets up a secret Bolshevik Central Committee, advocates an armed rising and the nationalisation of land. Stalin proposes distributing land to the peasants to revolutionise them. The Bolsheviks ignore condemnations of their ‘expropriations’

1907 - [O.S. Apr. 9] On March 20 [O.S. Mar. 7], 1907, a former Bolshevik metal worker and then member of the revolutionary anarchist underground*, Peter Andreyevich Arshinov (Пётр Андре́евич Арши́нов), aka Peter Marin (Пётр. Ма́рин), had assassinated Vasilenko (Василенко), head of the main railroad yard at Aleksandrovsk (Александровск). A notorious and pitiless oppressor of workers, Vasilenko had turned over to the military tribunal more than 100 workers who were accused of taking part in the armed uprising in Aleksandrovsk in December, 1905; many of them were condemned to death or forced labor because of Vasilenko’s testimony.
Caught by the police, Arshinov had been cruelly beaten, and two days later was sentenced to hang by a military tribunal. Suddenly, when the sentence was about to be administered, it was established that Arshinov’s act should by law not be tried by the military tribunal, but by a higher military court. This postponement gave Arshinov the chance to escape Aleksandrovsk Central (Александровский централ) prison. On the night of April 22-23, 1907, during Easter mass, while the prisoners were being led to the prison church, the prison guards assigned to watch the prisoners at the church were surprised by the audacious attack of several comrades. All the guards were killed, and all the prisoners had the chance to escape. Fifteen men escaped together with Arshinov.
[* Arshinov would later participate in the Ukrainian Makhnovist movement, writing the well-known 'History of the Makhnovist Movement' (1921)]

1910 - José Sampériz Janina (d. 1941), Spanish journalist, writer and anarchist sympathiser, born in Candasnos, Huesca. His family moved to Cuba in 1925 but returned to Spain in 1932 due to the repression during the dictatorship of Gerardo Machado y Morales. There he became involved in anarchist and intellectual circles, publishing several novels including 'El Sacrílego' (The Sacrilegious; 1931) and 'Candasnos' (1933), and essays, in 'Hitos Ibéricos' (Iberian Milestones; 1935). [expand]
During the Civil War he collaborated on several libertarian newspapers including 'Acracia', 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Orientacion Social', 'Surcos', etc., defending the collectivisation process. In 1937, with his brother Cosme, he went over to communism, affiliating to the Aragonese Federation of the Federació de Treballadors de l'Ensenyament (FETE), part of the Unió General de Treballadors (UGT). A refuge in France during the Retirada, it appears that he was probably sent with the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers to work on the fortifications of the Maginot Line. Taken prisoner by the Germans and deported and died in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp on September 26, 1941.

1914 - The first issue of the newspaper 'La Gioventu Libertaria' (Libertarian Youth) is published in Cleveland, Ohio.

[E] 1917 - Lois Orr, aka Louise or Lois Cusick (Lois Cutler; d. 1985), US socialist revolutionary and miliciana, who fought in POUM's women's militia during the Spanish Civil War, born. She and her husband, Charles Orr, survived the May Days Stalinist coup, fighting on the Barcelona streets along side the CNT-FAI militants. Arrested on June 17, the day after the arrest of Andrés Nin and the POUM executive, they were released on July 1, and left for Marseilles two day later, en route to Mexico.

[D] 1918 - General Strike in Ireland ends conscription of Irishmen into British army during WWI.

1919 - Sóivéid Luimnigh [Limerick Soviet] & General Strike: The Chamber of Commerce discussed seriously whether its members should scab, as they were beginning to be hurt by the money shortage. They decided against for the time being.

1919 - The first issue of the anarchist periodical 'Iconoclasta!', paper of the Circolo Studi di Pistoia Sociali, is published in Pistoia, Tuscany. Open to all the trends within anarchism, its key collaborators are: Carlo Molaschi, Cesare Zaccaria, Camillo Berneri, Pietro Bruzzi, Leda Rafanelli and Renzo Novatore, but it falls victim to brutal fascist repression, and ceases publication after February 15 1921, following the destruction of the printing press and the arrest of the Arditi del Popolo local.

1922 - 'Boy' Segundo Jorge Adelberto Ecury (d. 1944), Dutch communist and Resistance fighter in WWII, who was a member of the Oisterwijk Raad van Verzet (Oisterwijk Resistance Council), born on the island Arruba in the Dutch Antillies.

1923 - Nair Lazarine Dall'Oca (d. 2010), Brazilian seemstress and anarchist, born. When Nair Lazarine married Virgilio Dall'Oca, she was joining a well-known Bralian anarchist family and they quickly became involved in the Centre de Cultura Social (CCS) after the couple moved to São Paulo to live with Aida and Nicola D'Albenzio, Virgilio's aunt and uncle. Both were active anarchist militants, with involved in the Federação Operária de São Paulo (Workers Federation of São Paulo; FOSP). Nair worked as a seamstress and Virgilio worked as a construction builder, collector bus, truck driver, and finally, a taxi driver. Despite financial difficulties, they contributed financial to many solidarity campaigns, especially those supporting the numerous Spanish anarchist refugees that arrived in Brazil at the end of the Spanish Civil War.
The closure of the CCS by the State in November 1937 was a blow to the Brazilian anarchist movement but a group of mainly vegetarian and naturalist anarchists created a farm community in Itaim near São Paulo, buying the land and building the Chácara Nossa (our farm), where Nair and Virgilio went to live. The Societat Naturista Amics de la Nossa Chácara (Friends of the Naturist Society of Nossa Chácara) was established in November 1939 and went on to reopen the CCS in São Paulo on July 9, 1945. The Dall'Ocas were also financed and helped distributed the newspapers 'O Libertarian', created in October 1960, and 'Dealbar', started in September 1965. They were also involved in the Editora Mundo Livre in Rio de Janeiro, which published many anarchist classics as well as the works of prominent Brazilian intellectuals and libertarians.
Following the establishment of the military dictatorship April 1, 1964, the Societat Naturista Amics de la Nossa Chácara decided to sell the farm and buy a new one at Mogi das Cruzes they thought better sited for their libertarian project. The Dall'Ocas and the daughter Clara were involved in raising the money for the Nosso Sítio (Our Place). In early 1969, the CCS was forced to close its door as it was no longer safe to operate there against the background of persecution by the military. After several years living in Itanhaem, the Dall'Oca family took up residence in the city of Santos and it was there that Nair died of a heart attack on August 20, 2010, after several years suffering from Alzheimer's disease.

1926 - Maurice Lemaître (Moïse Maurice Bismuth), French lettriste artist, writer, poet, experimental cinematographer and anarchist, born. One of the key figures of Lettrism from the 1950s to the present.

1936 - Zenzl Mühsam is arrested in Moscow for "counter revolutionary activities".

1938 - The Poor Man’s Improvement and Land Settlement Association, representing over 800 farmworkers in Jamaica, petition the Governor for a minimum wage law: "We are the Sons of Slaves who have been paying rent to the Landlords for fully many decades. We want freedom in this the hundredth year of our Emancipation. We are still economic slaves, burdened in paying rent to Landlords who are sucking out our vitalities."

1939 - Lyudmila Nikolayevna Stal (Людмила Николаевна Сталь; b. 1872), Russian revolutionary and member of the RSDLP, who was repeatedly arrested and exiled from the 1890s onwards, dies. [see: Mar. 14]

1942 - Olga Benário Prestes (Olga Gutmann Benário; b. 1908), German-Brazilian Jewish communist militant, is gassed by the Nazis in the Bernburg Euthanasia Centre (NS-Tötungsanstalt Bernburg). [see: Feb. 12]

1945 - Camille Mauclair (pseudonym of Séverin Faust; b. 1872), French Symbolist poet, novelist, biographer, travel writer, art critic, dies. [see: Dec. 29]

1946 - An important anarchist congress (20-23 April 1946) at Anwui in Korea ends. Organised by the Korean historian Shin-Ho Chae (1880-1936), one of the forebearers of anarchism in the country, the brothers Li Jung-Kyu (1897-1983) and Li Eul Kyu (1894-1972) (the latter being nicknamed 'The Korean Kropotkin') and another prominent figure in Korean anarchism, Ha Ki Rak, who also participated in the 1987 Congress of the Korean Anarchist Federation. This congress lays the ground work for establishing the influence of Kroptokin's ideas in post-war Asia.

1947 - Bernadette McAliskey (Josephine Bernadette Devlin), Irish socialist and republican political activist, born.

1962 - Vaga Minaire d'Astúries / Huelga Minera de Asturias [Asturian Miners' Strike]: In less than fifteen days the strike has already affected many distant mines, including some of the large production mines such as La Camocha de Gijón and Minas de Riosa, flowing out of the central Asturian area and reaching smaller pits in Siero, Bimenes, Oviedo, Llanera, Carreño, Gozón, Quirós, Teverga, Tineo, Degaña, Cabranes, etc. [see: Apr. 7]

1968 - Enoch Powell's 'Rivers of Blood' speech: Following Enoch Powell's 'Rivers of Blood' speech, and on the same day that the Race Relations Bill is being debated in the House of Commons, a thousand workers - mainly dockers (some of the 1,000 who failed to turn up to work that day at the West India Dock in Poplar, together with some meat porters from Smithfield Market and building workers - march on Westminster protesting against the "victimisation" of Powell, with slogans including "Back Britain not Black Britain". Those on the left are surprised by the strength of pro-Powell sentiment across the country, including torrow's protests at Smithfield and other mass demonstrations of working class support, much of it from trade unionists, in London and Wolverhampton. However, only 1,000 of the 23,000 workers in the capital joined that protest and many of those were from St. Katherine's Dock, where a small group of fascists who normally had no influence exploited the opportunity to agitate and stir up fears over job losses. [PR]

1976 - Enric Duran i Giralt, aka Robin Bank, Robin Banks or the Robin Hood of the Banks, Catalan anarchist and anti-capitalist activist, member of the Tiempo de Re-vueltas collective and InfoEspacio, born. On September 17, 2008, he publicly announced that he had 'robbed' dozens of Spanish banks of nearly half a million euros as part of a political action to denounce "el depredador sistema capitalista" (the predatory capitalist system) and to finance various anti-capitalist social movements - among the projects financed was the free newspaper publication 'Crisi', 200,000 copies of which were distributed throughout Catalonia by volunteers.

[C] 1977 - Battle of Wood Green: A 1,200-strong National Front march through Wood Green is opposed by some 3,000 anti-racists, members of Haringey Labour Party, the Indian Workers’ Association, local West Indians, trade unionists, and members of Rock Against Racism and the Socialist Workers’ Party. While Communists and churchmen addressed a rally at one end of Duckett’s Common, a contingent of anti-fascists organized by the SWP broke away and subjected the NF column to a barrage of smoke bombs, eggs and rotten fruit. Some 81 people were arrested, including 74 anti-fascists. But, in spite of the numbers arrested, they managed to reduce the NF to "an ill-organised and bedraggled queue", in large part because the police were outnumbered and allowed the anti-fascists to get up close and personal with the NF.

1979 - Southall, the NF and a full-scale police riot. Following the announcement by the National Front that they would be holding an election meeting in Southall on St. George's Day, and a number of failed attempts to get the meeting banned, local workplaces, including Ford Langley, SunBlest bakery, Walls pie factory and Quaker Oats, which had agreed to strike in protest against the Front, local shops and public transport, had all closed down by 1pm as people began to block the road from lunchtime onwards.
1-2pm: young Asians started to fight the skinheads, and the police responded by attacking the Asians.
By 3.30pm, the entire town centre was closed, and the police declared it a 'sterile' area, meaning that it was free of anti-racists. Rain had begun to fall in buckets, further dampening the mood.
By this time, 60 NF members had assembled on the outskirts of the area ready to be escorted into the meeting. Protecting them were 2,756 police officers, including the SPG, plus the usual contingent of horses, dogs, vans, riot shields and a helicopter.
6pm: The police use the horses, as well as dribving vans into the crowd, to push back the protesters. Snatch squads are deployed to deplete anti-fascist numbers. The protesters respond with bricks and whatever came to hand. Chaos ensues.
As the tiny group of NF members arrive at the town hall, some of them raise their arms in Heil Hitler salutes.
Around this time, the police decide to close down the 'Peoples Unite' building, which anti-fascist demonstrators are using as their makeshift headquarters. Those inside are given ten minutes to leave. Police officers, form up along the stairs, beat people as they try to leave. Tariq Ali, one of those in the building, exits bleeding from his head. Clarence Baker, the pacifist manger of Misty in Roots, is beaten so badly that he lapses into a coma. Police smash medical equipment, a sound system, printing and other items that end up having to be dumped as unrepairable, and the damage to the building is so bad that that Peoples Unite has to be closed down.
All told, more than 160 people, including 97 police, were injured as a result of the police riot. 750 anti-fascists were arrested, of whom 342 were charged. At least three protesters suffered fractured skulls. Others were beaten until they lost consciousness. One person, Blair Peach, died from a blow to the head from a SPG truncheon.
Widespread accounts of police beating and racially abusing people appear in the media. A reporter from the Daily Telegraph witnessed: "several dozen crying, screaming coloured demonstrators ... dragged bodily along Park View Road towards the police station ... Nearly every demonstrator we saw had blood flowing from some sort of injury; some were doubled up with pain. Women and men were crying."
Jack Dromey, then a full-time official of the Transport and General Workers' Union, would tell a later inquiry, "I have never seen such unrestrained violence against demonstrators ... The Special Patrol Group were just running wild."

[A] 1979 - Clement Blair Peach (b. 1946), a New Zealand-born teacher for special needs children in east London and committed anti-racism activist, is murdered by the Special Patrol Group as he sought to escape from the fighting at an anti-fascist demonstration against the National Front in Southall, London. His death took place at around 8.30pm on Beachcroft Avenue, a narrow suburban road. Peach was attempting to shelter from the police when struck and was sheltered by a family opposite where he fell, not realising that Blair was already dying.
As the police chased demonstrators into side roads, local resident Parminder Atwal saw from the front of his house what happened to the young bearded man whom he later learned was a New Zealander called Blair Peach: "As the police rushed past him, one of them hit him on the head with the stick. I was in my garden and I saw this quite clearly. He was left sitting against the wall. He tried to get up, but he was shivering and looked very strange. He couldn't stand. Then the police came back and told him like this, "Move! Come on, move!" They were very rough with him and I was shocked because it was clear he was seriously hurt."
The SPG serial involved in his death was from carrier U.11: Constables Murray, White, Lake, Freestone, Scottow and Richardson. When the lockers of their unit were searched in June 1979, one officer Greville Bint was discovered to have in his lockers Nazi regalia, bayonets and leather covered sticks. Other unauthorised weapons including illegal truncheons, knives, two crowbars, a whip, a 3ft wooden stave and a lead-weighted leather stick. No disciplinary action was taken against any officers for these items. All the officers refused to cooperate with the subsequent Cass internal inquiry, to take part in any identity oarades and some even changed their apperence, shaving off a moustace in one instance and grwoing a beard in another, and no officer was ever prosecuted in connection with Peach's death.

1990 - HMP Pucklechurch siege ended by force.

2014 - White suprematist killer Joey Pedersen pleads guilty to two counts of carjacking resulting in death — one for the death of teenager Cody Myers on the Oregon Coast and the other for the killing of Reginald Clark in Eureka, California. Pedersen will be sentenced to life in prison at an Aug. 4 hearing in federal court. He is already serving life for the murder of his father David 'Red' Pedersen and Leslie 'Dee Dee' Pedersen, his step mother. [see: Sep. 26/Oct. 1 & 3]
[FF] 1812 - Luddite Timeline: The steam powered Westhoughton Mill and its looms is destroyed by a large crowd of weavers and mechanics after a small force of Scots Greys that had been called from nearby Bolton by the mill manager earlier in the day had left. The crowd then ran across nearby fields and set fire to Westhoughton Hall, the home of R. J. Lockett, the previous owner of the Mill, before the troops and the mill manager, who had set out for Bolton to implore them to return and protect the looms, returned. The Riot Act was later read in the village square.
Of the 24 men arrested and sent for trial at Lancaster Assizes, four men [James Smith, Thomas Kerfoot, John (or Job) Fletcher and Abraham Charlston] were hanged for the burning of the mill and eleven others were sentenced to be transported to Australia for seven years for the act of taking or administering an illegal oath. Afterwards, the owners quit the town for good and power looms didn't return to Westhoughton for 30 years. [Luddites]

1853 - Jean-Baptiste Thuriot (or Thuriault; d. 1924), French worker, considered by authorities to be the "Grand Master" of anarchism in the Nièvre department, born.

1878 - Marie Mayoux (nee Gouranchat) (d. 1969); known as Joséphine Bourgon, teacher, militant revolutionary, pacifist and libertarian trade unionist, born. Partner of François Mayoux and mother of Jehan Mayoux. Marie and François joined the socialist SFIO in 1915, earning places in the 'Carnet B'. They were heavily fined and sentenced to 2 years in prison for the pacifist pamphlet 'Les Instituteurs Syndicalistes et la Guerre' (The Teachers Union and War) in 1917 and were excluded from the French Communist party in 1922 during the purge of syndicalists. Both participated in the anarchist press including 'La Revue Anarchiste', 'La Voix Libertaire', 'CQFD', 'Défense de l'Homme', 'Le Monde Libertaire', etc. Excluded from the CGTU in 1929, they went on to support the Spanish Revolution and denounced the Stalinist repression.

1884 - Pierre Marie Le Meillour (d. 1954), French boilermaker, printworker, anarchist, anti-militarist and revolutionary syndicalist, born. [expand]

[E] 1889 - Johanna 'Hanna' Kirchner (Johanna Stunz; d. 1944), German Social Democrat, feminist, member of the German anti-Nazi underground and resistance fighter in the French Résistance, born. At 14, she joined the Sozialistischen Arbeiter-Jugend and, four years later, the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands. Living in Frankfurt, she became active in the women's movement there and became a close friend of the communist Eleonore 'Lore' Wolf. During WWI, as a mother with two young daughters, she became involved in communal welfare, dedicating herself to local women's and children's welfare. She then went on, in 1919 with Marie Juchacz, to found and work in the Arbeiterwohlfahrt (Workers' Welfare organisation), focusing on the child victims of the widespread poverty and the malnutrition and ill-health that many suffered from as a consequence during the war and post-war inflation years. Kirchner took many of these children to Switzerland for their health and, during the Ruhrkampf, helped evacuate thousands of children from the Ruhr district, sending them to stay with families in Hesse.
In 1933, she joined the anti-fascist underground after becoming known to the authorities as a committed anti-fascist and for helping Carlo Mierendorff, a pacifist and anti-Nazi, flee from the Gestapo. She fled to Saarbrücken (then still under League of Nations administration and French occupation), leaving her family behind. There she worked at various kitchen jobs and as a waitress in the restaurant run by her friend Marie Juchacz, whilst supporting other German émigrés through the Hilfskomitee für verfolgte Antifaschisten (Persecuted Anti-Fascists' Aid Committee) and worked closely with her friend Lore Wolf, organising the emigration of many of the working-class emigrants from the Reich with Rote Hilfe Deutschlands. Hanna's other activities whilst in the Saar including writing for 'Deutsche Freiheit' (German Freedom), an independent daily SPD newspaper, drawing up reports for the SPD's executive in exile, and producing and distributing illegal leaflets. When the Saar was reoccupied by the German Reich during the Anschluss of 1935, Johanna Kirchner fled further west to Forbach, then Metz (both in Alsace-Lorraine) and finally to Paris, from where she continued her anti-Nazi resistance activities, leading the Saar Refugees' Committee (Saarflüchtlingskommitee).
After the Nazis invaded France in 1940, she was interned with other emigrants by the French authorities in the camp at Gurs, at the foot of the Pyrenees. When the camp commander, who knew her from Forbach, discovered that Johanna Kirchner was on the list of Nazis, he released her and she joined the refugee stream heading south to Avignon. She happened to meet the former Catholic journalist Johannes Hoffmann, who she knew from Saarbrücken, and he arranged for Hanna to lodge in the Notre-Dame de Lumieres monastery. She worked for a priest in Aix les Bains as a housekeeper, where she hid for the next two years before in 1942 Kirchner was discovered by the Vichy authorities and handed over to the Nazis. After periods in Paris, Saarbriicken, Frankfurt and Berlin-Moabit prisons, she finally ended up in Cottbus, where she shared a cell with several female members of the Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group. During her stay in the Hammelgasse prison in Frankfurt, she was able once again to see her two daughters. In May 1942, she was condemned to ten years in prison for treason but in 1944 she was retried in the Volksgerichtshof and popular incitement, high treason and espionage, and sentenced on April 20, 1944 to death. Johanna Kirchner was beheaded on June 9, 1944, at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin.

1903 - Georges Marie Valentin Vidal (d. 1964), French anarchist, proofreader, poet, novelist and friend of André Colomer, born. From an early age he wrote poetry, heavily influenced by Verlaine, Samain, Guerin and Laforgue, and was expelled from a number of schools for anarchist propaganda. At 15 he published a small booklet of lyrics, 'Quelques Rimmes', and began travelling widely.
He contributed to various publications, including 'L'Essor', 'Primaires', 'La Criée', 'La République des Alpes', etc.. helped found the anarchist newspaper 'Terre Libre' in Marseilles. On 16 November 1922 he was sentenced to two months in prison in Marseille and 100 francs fine for one of his poems published in 'Terre Libre' and 'Le Libertaire'. Days later, on November 24, he was sentenced to three months in prison in Paris and fined 200 francs for the same offense and imprisoned in Petite Roquette. He successfully gained political prisoner status following a hunger strike and fund-raising campaign in the press ('L'Oeuvre', 'L'Humanité', 'L'Ère Nouvelle', etc.). After he was transferred to the prison of Aix-en-Provence, where he wrote the poem 'Devant la Vie...'.
Once free he was appointed secretary and manager of 'Le Libertaire'. In November 1923 he and Colomer were involved in l’Affaire Daudet, with Vidal writing about Daudet, both in the columns of 'Le Libertaire' and in his book 'Comment Mourut Phillipe Daudet' (How Phillipe Daudet Died; 1924).
At this time he published essays on aesthetics 'Art et Action'. In 1925 he published the poem 'The Halt'. In 1926 he co-authored 'Dix-huit ans Bagne' (18 Years in Prison) with his friend André Colomer, and published in April that year 'Jules le Bienheureux', with drawings by Germain Delatouche. In 1926 he went into exile in Costa Rica, where he collected many themes later developed in his stories. In 1928 he returned to France, where he earned his living as a proofreader and began writing detective novels and screenplays and adventure that signed with various pseudonyms (Georges de Guérigny, Jorge Jimenez, Jorge El Macho, Edward G. Georgie, Georgie Vale, Georges-Marie Valentin, etc.).
His other works include: 'Han Ryner: L'Homme et l'Oeuvre' (1924); 'Commentaires' (1923-24); 'Six-Fours: Bourgade Provençale' (1925); 'La Grande Illusion? : Le PCF et la Défense Nationale à l'Époque du Front Populaire'; and his contributions to Sébastien Faure's 'Anarchist Encyclopedia' (1934).

[C] 1908 - George Oppen (d. 1984), American Objectivist poet and political activist, born. In 1933 Oppen set up the Objectivist Press together with fellow poets William Carlos Williams, Louis Zukofsky and Charles Reznikoff. However, faced with the aftermath of the Depression and the rise of fascism, he became increasingly politically active and though closer to anarcho-communism in his political outlook, joined the CPUSA. But, disillusioned with the CPUSA and, despite having been deferred from military service because he worked in the defence industry, wanting to be active in the fight against fascism (something he thought the CP were not), he quit his job and was drafted, fighting in France and helping liberate the concentration camp at Landsberg am Lech. After the war, he moved to Mexico, fearing being called before HUAC, and was kept under surveillance by the Mexican authorities and the FBI. He returned to the US in 1958 and resumed writing poetry.

1912 - In Ivry-sur-Seine, a suburb of Paris, the Assistant Director of Security, Jouin, who that morning had arrested gang member Elie Monier in a hotel of Belleville, arrives to search the shop of the discount trader and suspected fence Antoine Gauzy in Ivry. Having arrested Gauzy, they stummble across Bonnot himself whilst searching the premises. A hand-to-hand fight ensues and Bonnot succeeds in shooting two of the policemen. Jouin is killed instantly and Inspector Colmar is seriously injured. Bonnot is wounded in the hand but escapes through an adjoining apartment and through nearby gardens and alleys. Antoine Gauzy narrowly escapes being lynched by a gathering crowd. Bonnot subsequently visited a pharmacist about his hand wound, claiming that he had fallen off a ladder. The pharmacist is not convinced and, connecting his patient to the events in Ivry-sur-Seine, informs the police, who tack him down three days later to Choisy-le-Roi.

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: An explosion of a tin containing gunpowder wrecked the platform and smashed the windows of the Manchester Free Trade Hall.

[D] 1916 - Start of the Easter Uprising in Dublin led by the Silk Weavers' Union and the Irish Transport and General Workers' Union.

1919 - Sóivéid Luimnigh [Limerick Soviet] & General Strike: Following discussions with the Roman Catholic Bishop of Limerick, Dr. Hallinan, and the Mayor of Limerick, Alphonsus O'Mara, the workers' solidarity began to crumble. The strike committee, under strong pressure, shifted ground. After a long meeting, John Cronin addressed a big meeting outside the Mechanics' Institute, the headquarters of the strike committee in Lower Glentworth Street, and announced the terms of the decision taken. He called on all workers who could resume work without military permits to do so, and those who could not to continue "in their refusal to accept this sign of subjection and slavery". And the strike committee issued its final proclamation outlining the terms of the decision and ending on a hopeful if unrealistic note: "We... call upon our fellow-countrymen and lovers of freedom all over the world to provide the necessary funds to enable us to continue this struggle against military tyranny." The 'Irish Times' reported: "This decision was made at the close of an anxious day of conferences and conversations'... After an exchange of views with a delegation from the conference, the Most Rev. Dr. Hallinan, Roman Catholic Bishop of Limerick, and the Mayor called upon Brigadier-General Griffin and discussed the situation at length. Subsequently, his Lordship and the Mayor sent a joint communication to the conference, and it was as a result of this document that the decision was reached... This announcement, while giving intense relief to the citizens generally, had been received with mixed feelings by the strikers. Many of them are glad to get back to work, but others regard the result as a defeat, and feel that their sacrifices have gone for nothing. They were basing their hopes upon a national strike and, even when it became evident that this would not take place,they expressed their determination to continue the struggle. Their leaders, however, saw the futility of pursuing such a course and wisely decided to get out of an awkward situation as eracefullv as possible. When the decision was conveyed to the men this evening, they received it in silence, and the subsequent speeches of their leaders did not put them in better heart."

1920 - A General Strike in Piedmont, which spread on the 15th across northern Italy, raising the possibility of a victorious insurrection across the whole country, is today suppressed.

1923 - In Sliven, Bulgaria, the anarchists Nicolai Dragnev and the brothers Panayot and Ilia Kratounkov are shot by soldiers under the pretext of "attempting to escape".

1929 - Caroline Rémy de Guebhard, better known as Madame Séverine, (b. 1855), French libertarian, militant feminist, pacifist, journalist and co-founder of the League of Human Rights, dies. [see: Apr. 27]

1932 - Mass trespass on Kinder Scout in the Peak District begins the right to roam movement in UK.

1941 - Karin Maria Boye (b. 1900), Swedish writer, poet, translator, socialist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Oct. 26]

1955 - Alfred Polgar (originally: Alfred Polak; b. 1873), Austrian-born journalist, short story writer, screenwriter, satirist, translator, essayist, dies. [see: Oct. 17]

1957 - Juan Fernández Ayala aka Juanín (b. 1917), Spanish miliciano and anti-Francoist guérilla, is shot dead in an ambush near the Vega de Liebana (Santander) by Guardia Civil corporal Leopoldo Rollan Arenales and guard Angel Agüeros Rodríguez de Cabarceno. [see: Nov. 27]

[B] 1963 - Tõnu Trubetsky aka Tony Blackplait, Estonian punk rock singer, film and music video director, journalist, poet, novelist and anarchist, born.

1967 - Jacques Brunius (b. 1906), French actor, director, writer, poet, anarchist and Surrealist, dies. [see: Sep. 16]

1968 - Enoch Powell's 'Rivers of Blood' speech: 400 meat porters from Smithfield Market march to the House of Commons to protest against the dismissal of Enoch Powell from the Shadow Cabinet and hand in a 92-page petition in support of Powell. At St. Katherine's Dock, a strike vote has just 300 in support of Powell. However, 500 walk off the job there and on the London Dock, plus 150 at 2 wharfs at Deptford. [see above]

1972 - A 15-year-old plants a home-made bomb at police HQ, Sleaford, Lancs.

1975 - Six Red Army Faction members – Siegfried Hauser, Hanne-Elise Krabbe, Karl-Heinz Dellwo, Lutz Taufer, Bernhard-Maria Rössner,and Ullrich Wessel – most of whom were former members of the Heidelberg Sozialistisches Patientenkollektiv (Socialist Patients Collective), take over the West German Embassy in Stockholm, taking 11 hostages. [expand]

1976 - National Front march organised through the centre of Manningham, the main Asian area in Bradford. Police vans were overturned 24 people are arrested in pitched battles as the police struggle to stop counter-demonstrators, who had chosen not to attend the main counter-rally in the centre of Bradford, harrying the NF march and reaching the school where the end-of-march meeting was held. Thousands of asian youths from the area also took part in the anti-NF actions, labelled 'The Battle of Bradford' in the local papers, throwing up barricades, fighting their way through police lines and hurling bricks at the school windows. The events are seen as an early catAlyst for the formation of the Asian Youth Movement the following year.

1977 - Further charges are added under section 1 of the Official Secrets Act. [ABC Trial]

1978 - Ilona Duczyńska (b. 1897), Polish-Hungarian revolutionary, journalist, translator, engineer, and historian, dies in Pickering, Canada. [see: Mar. 11]

1979 - 200 ANL supporters, led by local anarchist Graham Short, occupy Coburg Street school hall, booked by the NF for a pre-general election address from John Tyndall, preventing the NF meeting. "The move was well planned and the anti-nazis got in early and set up an outside picket. Socialists, trades unionists, revolutionaries, students, working class people, "punks with their banner, ‘Never Mind the Bollocks - Stop The National Front’." The NF sent the police in to clear the ANL out. Nothing doing! People sat down ‘we’re not going’. Eventually the police gave up, the NF disappeared, John Tyndall had his car damaged as he got away in a hurry. The rest of the evening at the school hall turned into an anti-nazi party, with piano player, beer and political discussion." ['An Anarchist Bricklayer in Plymouth']

1988 - Alexandra 'Sasha' Shevchenko [Олександра Шевченко], Ukrainian founder member of the international feminist protest group FEMEN, along with Anna Hutsol [Ганна Гуцол] and Oksana Shachko [Оксана Шачко], born.

1989 - Tens of thousands of students strike in Beijing. On the 27th, 50,000 students march to Tiananmen Square in defiance of authorities. A prelude to anti-government protests in Tiananmen Square, where up to one million gather in May.

1998 - Christiane Rochefort (b. 1917), French writer, novelist, essayist, translator, journalist, feminist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 17]

1999 - Nail bomb (planted by a fascist) explodes in Brick Lane, injuring thirteen.

[A] 1999 - International Longshoremen’s & Warehousemen’s Union halts West Coast shipping in solidarity with Mumia Abu-Jamal, a Philadelphia journalist whom many believed was on death row because he was an outspoken African-American. 20,000 demonstrators attended a rally and messages of support for their action came from around the world.

[F] 2006 - Revolución Pingüina [Penguin Revolution]: Following an announcement on April 24 of a new increase in fees for the Prueba de Selección Universitaria (University Selection Test - up to $28,000 Chilean Pesos or around £30 or US$50) and the rumoured introduction of a new restriction in the students's transport pass (Pase Escolar) that would limit reduced bus fares to only two travels per day, several schools in Santiago organised demonstrations in the Alameda Avenue (Santiago's main street) demanding free transport passes, bus fares and university admissions tests. These demonstrations by Chilean high school students, known as the Revolución Pingüina after the colour of their uniforms, regularly ended in some outbursts of violence and on the first large protest demonstration on April 26, the Carabineros (the uniformed police) arrested 47 secondary students.

2011 - March for England: "This year saw the first significant counter-mobilisation by anti-fascists to the MfE as by then it was seen as a front group for the then expanding EDL. Unite against Fascism (UAF) staged a counter demonstration against the MfE, taking the form of a rally opposite the King and Queen pub on the Old Steine, the end point of the march. Other non-aligned anti-fascists actually joined the MfE, by taking them at their word as being anti-racists and joining their parade to announce why. They were roundly condemned by the MfE on the day and received a great deal of abuse for handing out an 'England For All' leaflet celebrating a different kind of pride in Englishness. One MfE marcher, Ryan Williams from Dorset plead guilty to assault (in October 2010) following an incident on this march." [Brighton Anti-fascists blog]
"Trust the fash to screw the sunniest bank holiday weekend in Brighton in years. Around 100 of the March for England’s finest shambled their pot-bellied way through town on Sunday. In the event they needed a mass mobilisation of 350 cops from six forces to force their march through town.
For weeks March for England had been claiming to be nothing to do with the EDL, but of course on the day, inside their mobile kettle, out came the flags and up went the chant of "E,E,EDL".
Passers-by were subjected to racist and homophobic abuse, but the march was protected throughout by the cops, who held the counter-demo in a kettle.
The not St George’s Day march by the not EDL was, for a family event, remarkably short of kids. A hilarious attempt to liberalise their image by carrying a rainbow flag foundered after the mob began chanting "You lot take it up the arse!" The march was interrupted by anti-fascist demonstrations throughout the day and the MFE didn’t quite get the stroll in the sunshine they may have been hoping for." [' Schnews ' 769]
1792 - Nicolas Jacques Pelletier, a French highwayman who is the first person to be executed by means of the guillotine.

1800 - British poet William Cowper (b. 1731), after six years of nearly unbroken madness, dies. Author of 'Retirement', the poem from which the title of this diary originates:
"There prison'd in a parlour snug and small,
Like bottled wasps upon a southern wall"

1838 - Tolpuddle Martyrs: The five returned Martyrs are the star guests at a Grand Dinner at White Conduit House, London.


1849 - A Tory mob protesting the passage of the Rebellion Losses Bill sets fire to Canada’s Parliament buildings in Montreal. They are enraged because the legislation, passed by the majority of reformers in the legislature, will indemnify supporters of the rebellion of 1837-8, as well as those who opposed it. The rioters first ransack the legislative building, and then set a fire which destroys the parliamentary libraries, the public archives, and then spreads to adjacent buildings, including the general hospital. Firefighters who come to put out the fire are prevented from doing so by the rioters.
The following day, Tory gangs attack and vandalize the residences of reformist Members of Parliament. The violence continues into May; it eventually dies down after the British Parliament approves the legislation. That fall, a group of Montreal businessmen, nearly all of them English-speaking Tories, publish a manifesto calling for Canada’s annexation by the United States.

1883 - [N.S. May 7] Strajk Szpularek [Spoolers' Strike] / Strajk w Żyrardowie [Żyrardów Strike]: News of the dispute had reached Warsaw and as a consequence the Governor M. Medem and his assistant Martynow, arrived in Żyrardów on Apil 25. They were accompanied by troops from the tsarist army and Cossacks, to show the workers that if they did not return to work, the strike would be suppressed by force. [see: May 7]

1886 - 'The New York Times' declares the struggle for an eight-hour workday to be "un-American" and calls public demonstrations for the shorter hours "labor disturbances brought about by foreigners".

1892 - On the eve of trial of François Ravachol, a bomb explodes at the Resturant Véry in Paris, where Ravachol had been arrested on March 30, 1892, killing the owner and one of his customers. The perpetrator is Théodule Meunier, who fled to England where he lived as a political refugee until his arrest at Victoria Station on April 4, 1894. Extradited to France in June, Meunier stood trial the following month andwas sentenced to life imprisonment in the Îles du Salut penal colony in Cayenne. He died of fever and exhaustion fourteen years on July 25, 1907, following a failed escape attempt.

1905 - [O.S. Apr. 12] The Bolsheviks, having hijacked the RDSLP (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party / Росси́йская социа́л-демократи́ческая рабо́чая па́ртия, РСДРП) following the vote to limit party membership to 'professional' revolutionaries only at the Second Congress in August 1903, the Lenin supporters (Bolsheviks, from the Russian bol'shinstvo [majority]) hold a 'Third Congress' (Apr. 25-May. 10) so secretive that the name of the venue in London is not known. Only with a handful of the supporters of Lenin's principal opponent at the Second Congress, Julius Martov (Mensheviks, from the Russian men'shinstvo [minority]), who organised an alternative conference in Geneva.
The Menshevik Central Committee had voted against calling the Congress on February 7, 1905 and voted to expel Lenin. Two days later nine of the eleven members of this committee were coincidentally (?) arrested.

1906 - [O.S. Apr. 12] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The St. Petersburg City Council meets with the 'Soviet of the Unemployed' (Петербурский Совет безработных), and pledges aid programs

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Slight damage caused by the explosion of a bomb in the county hall at Newcastle.

1913 - Prisoners (Temporary Discharge for Ill-Health) Act (Cat and Mouse Act), which allows hunger-striking prisoners to be released when their health was threatened and then re-arrested when they had recovered, with the time spent recuperating was not counted as part of the currency of the sentence, receives Royal Assent.

1913 - Paint Creek-Cabin Creek Miners' Strike: The new West Virginia governor, Dr. Henry D. Hatfield, issues what amounts to an ultimatum that the "strife and dissension must cease within thirty-six hours" under a set of terms for a settlement that he had drawn up.

1919 - Sóivéid Luimnigh [Limerick Soviet] & General Strike: There are the beginning of a return to work. [expand]

1920 - Silvano Fedi (d. 1944), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist partisan, born. Already an active anti-fascist, he was arrested on October 12, 1939, along with Fabio Fondi, Giovanni La Loggia and Carlo Giovanelli, by the secret police OVRA, and they were sentenced by a Special Tribunal to a year in prison for communist activity i.e. organising an anti-fascist group. Upon his release from prison, he now identified himself as a libertarian communist and returned to the anti-fascist struggle in his home town, Pistoia. His contact with the older anarchist generation led to the formation of the Federazione Comunista Libertaria, and a growing confrontation with the underground Communist Party. Fedi was again arrested by the police in January 1942. With the fall of fascism and the armistice of Italy with the Allies, he was among the first to go to the main piazza (square) and address the crowds. On the 26th July 1943 he was addressing a factory gate meeting at the San Giorgio factory and called on the workers to strike. He was arrested by the police of Marshal Badoglio. On hearing of his arrest, a large crowd gathered outside the Palace of Justice and demanded his release. The authorities were forced to free him a few hours later. Fedi now set up the most important partisan unit in the Pistoia area. Formed mostly of anarchist or libertarian-inluenced peasants, workers, students and ex-soldiers, it carried out several spectacular actions, including raiding the fascist arms dump at the Santa Barbera Fortress three times. He also attacked the Ville Sbertoli prison, freeing 54 mostly political prisoners. Fedi planned to continue the armed resistance after the Anglo-American forces arrived, but his plans were cut short when he was caught in a German ambush on July 29, 1944 and shot. He remains a local hero to this day.

1926 - Ellen Key (Ellen Karolina Sofia Key; b. 1849), Swedish suffragist and feminist writer of the 'difference' persuasion, who was known as the 'Pallas of Sweden', dies. [see: Dec. 11]

1937 - Emma Goldman organises a concert at Victoria Palace in aid of Spanish refugees with Paul Robeson on the bill. An artistic success, it fails to raise as much money as hoped.

[B] 1938 - George Orwell's 'Homage to Catalonia' first published.

[F] 1947 - Workers at the nationalised Renault factory in Boulogne-Billancourt just outside of Paris go on strike over wage freezes. The day before, the Cabinet Ramadier had reduced the daily ration of bread from 300 to 250 grams. Within three days, wildcat strikes broke out throughout the factory, and nearly half of the company’s 30,000 workers were on strike.
The government agreed to a 3 francs wage increases on May 8 and other economic benefits but, despite the CGT going back to work the following day, a third of the workers remained out paralysing factory operations until the government announced a 1,600 franc bonus and an immediate 900 franc advance on back wages..

1949 - Jankel Adler (b. 1895), Polish painter, printmaker and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 26]

1955 - Clovis Poirier (stage name Clovys; b. 1885), French singer (author, composer, performer) anarchist and pacifist, dies. Director of La Muse Rouge, revolutionary poets and songwriters society. [see: May 13]

1959 - Georges Alexandre Cochon (b. 1879), French tapestry maker, anarchist and very popular secretary of the 'Federation of Tenants' (ancestor of the DAL), dies. [see: Mar. 26]

1960 - April Revolution [4·19 혁명]: Professors join students and citizens in large-scale protests outnumbering soldiers and police who refused to attack the protestors.

1968 - Enoch Powell's 'Rivers of Blood' speech: 500 dockers absent from the riverside wharves in the Upper and Lower Pools (Southwark and Bermondsey). [see above]

[C/D] 1974 - The beginning of the Carnation Revolution and fall of the dictatorship in Portugal. [expand]

1977 - Albert Perrier (or Perier), aka Germinal, (b. 1897), French militant revolutionary syndicalist and resistance fighter, dies. [see: Aug. 7]

1979 - Robert van't Hoff (Robbert van't Hoff; b. 1887), Dutch architect and furniture designer, who was an influential member of the De Stijl movement, dies. [see: Nov. 5]

1979 - More than 4,000 officers, including Special Branch, SPG and mounted police, are deployed against an anti-fascist protest in Newham.

1980 - Operation Eagle Claw: In Iran, a farcical commando mission to rescue hostages is aborted after mechanical problems disabled three of the eight helicopters involved. During the evacuation, a helicopter and a transport plan collided and exploded. Eight U.S. servicemen were killed. The mission was aimed at freeing American hostages that had been taken at the U.S. embassy in Tehran on November 4, 1979.

[E] 1988 - Valerie Jean Solanas (b. 1936), US radical feminist writer and playwright, best known for writing the 'SCUM Manifesto' and the shooting of Andy Warhol, dies of pneumonia in San Francisco, aged 52. [see: Apr. 9]

[A] 1990 - The Strangeways prison mutiny ends after 25 days in Manchester.

1990 - Sandinista rule ends in Nicaragua. Having overthrown the dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza Debayle in 1979, withstood the insurrgency of the US-back Contra militia for 11 years (1979–1990) and won the 1984 national elections, the Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional (Sandinista National Liberation Front) looses the 1990 election to the National Opposition Union alliance (UNO's Violeta Barrios de Chamorro getting 55% of the popular vote against Daniel Ortega's 41%), thereby ending the Contra war.
After the war, a survey of voters found that 75.6% agreed that if the Sandinistas had won, the war would never have ended. 91.8% of those who voted for the UNO agreed with this too.

1997 - Goldy Parin-Matthèy (b. 1911), Swiss psychoanalyst and anarchist, dies. [see: May 30]

2004 - A March for Women’s Lives brings more than one million to Washington, asking for safe and legal access to reproductive service including abortion and birth control.

2010 - March for England: The nationalist event - a St.George's day celebration cum nationalist pissup by the seaside - first staged in Brighton in 2008, but which largely went unnotcied until this year, takes place with nearly 200 boneheads celebrate some long-dead Greek Christian born in Palestine. There are a few skirmishes with anti-fascists but things would change in future years.

2012 - The jury acquits all defendants of violent disorder at a 2010 student demo except Alfie Meadows, who suffered a brain haemorrhage from a police truncheon attack. In his case the jury failed to reach a verdict (?)
1607 - The British established an American colony at Cape Henry, Virginia. It was the first permanent English base for their invasion of Northern America.

[A] 1649 - The first Diggers manifesto ('The True Leveller's Standard Advanced') is published.

[D] 1789 - Affaire Réveillon [Réveillon Riots]: A popular revolt takes place at the Faubourg Saint-Antoine in Paris, a harbinger of the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789. Rumours that Jean-Baptiste Reveillon, the owner of a luxury wallpaper factory employing 300 non-guild workers, was about to lower wages during the particularly harsh winter when food was scarce and prices were increasing rapidly, unemployment was high and wages were low, provoke rioting. Two days later crowds gathered on the Île de la Cité and in the Faubourg Saint-Marcel, Marais, and Faubourg Saint-Antoine for three large protest marches that ended in confrontations with troops, with protesters throwing stones at the troops, as well as tiles and furniture from the roofs of houses. The troops opened fire. The confrontation left twelve dead and 80 wounded on the military side; casualties amongst the insurgents were inevitably much greater, with 200 killed and 300 injured.

1864 - Régis Meunier (d. 1936), French militant syndicalist and anarchist propagandist, born. [expand]

1883 [N.S. May 8] - Strajk Szpularek [Spoolers' Strike] / Strajk w Żyrardowie [Żyrardów Strike]: The whole of the Zakłady Lniarskie Żyrardów (Żyrardów Linen Factory) workforce was now on strike, and crowds of workers from the plant (about 8,000 people) turned up the streets. [see: May 8]

1883 - [O.S. Apr. 14] Sophia Illarionovna Bardina (Софья Илларионовна Бардина; b. 1853), Russian anarchist revolutionary, who defended the attentat against the Tsar, saying that "for us, anarchy does not signify disorder, but harmony in all social relations; for us, anarchy is nothing but the negation of oppressions which stifle the development of free societies", commits suicide, shooting herself in the head. [see: Jun. 27]

1885 - Giuditta 'Yudith' Maria Zanella (d. 1962), Italian anarchist propagandist, anti-fascist and miliciana, who fought in the Columnas Ortiz and Durruti along with her partner, the Italian anarchist militant Ilario Margarita, born.

1885 - Carl (Karl) Einstein (d. 1940), German poet, experimental prose writer, Dadaist, art historian, theorist of Expressionist poetics, art critic and theorist who was one of the first to champion Cubism, and nephew of Albert Einstein, born. Amongst his numerous achievements are his début anti-novel 'Bebuquin oder die Dilettanten des Wunders' (1912), first published in 'Die Aktion', on which he worked, along with 'Die Pleite' and 'Der Blutige Ernst' and his 1921 passion play 'Die Schlimme Botschaft' (The Sad Tidings) was deemed blasphemous (he had placed revolutionary ideas in mouth of his Jesus) and resulted in a conviction for blasphemy in 1922, with a 15,000 marks fine. Fearing further repression with the rise of the Nazis, he moved to Paris in 1928, and a year later he co-founded with Georges Bataille and Michel Leiris the legendary avant-garde arts journal 'Documents: Doctrines, Archéologie, Beaux-arts, Ethnographie', covering then unknowns such as Picasso, Braque, Léger and André Masson. He also co-scripted the 1935 film 'Toni', with director Jean Renoir, assisted by Luchino Visconti, one of the founding members of the neorealist movement. The film, made at the height of Renoir's career, is notable for its use of non-professional actors and is also generally considered the major precursor to the Italian neorealist movement. Einstein was an anarchist combatant in the Spanish Revolution of 1936, with the famed Durruti Column, and committed suicide to prevent his capture by the Nazis.

1892 - The trial of François Ravachol begins in Paris for the Resturant Véry bombing, with co-defendants Charles Achille Simon aka 'Biscuit' , Charles Ferdinand Chaumartin aka 'Chaumartin', Joseph Marius Béala aka 'Jas-Béala' and his wife Rosalie Mariette Soubère. Everyone expects the death sentence but the jury give life with hard labour for Ravachol and Simon (the latter crying "Vive la Sociale! Vive l'Anarchie!"; Chaumentin, Béala and Mariette Soubère are acquitted. On June 21, Ravachol will return to court in Montbrison to be tried for three murders, two of which he denied (admitting that of the hermit Chambles). Found guilty, he will be guillotined on July 11.

1899 - Catina Ciullo (Caterina D'Amico Willman; d. 1991), Italian-American anarchist and anti-fascist activist, born.

[B] 1905 - Jean Vigo (d. 1934), surrealist / anarchist film-maker, born. Son of the anarchist Eugene Vigo. Directed only 4 films before he died of tuberculosis but they included the classics buorgeois-baiting 'À Propos de Nice', 'Zéro de Conduite' - inspired Lindsay Anderson's 'If' and the lyrical, innovative and highly influential 'L'Atlante'.

1907 - Belfast Lockout / Dockers & Carters’ Strike: The series of strikes that eventually mutated into the 1907 Dock Strike begins at the Samuel Davidson's Sirocco Engineering Works in East Belfast with a walk-out by non-union workers demanding higher wages. The union members amongst Sirocco's employees were promptly sacked and the rest of the workers were each obliged to sign a document pledging not to join a trade union. The next strike occurred on Queen's Quay by employees of the coal merchant Samuel Kelly. This was after he had dismissed union members from his workforce and the Liverpool-born trade union leader James Larkin, who had successfully organised the dock workers to join the National Union of Dock Labourers, called for the rest of the coal workers to go on strike. On May 6, dockers working on the SS Optic owned by Belfast Steamship Company also went out on strike after refusing to work alongside non-union members.
The strike unified both Protestant and Catholic in their battle for union recognition and the more than 5,000 striking dockers were soon joined by carters, shipyard workers, sailors, firemen, boilermakers, coal heavers, transport workers, and women from the city's largest tobacco factory. Most of the dock labourers were employed by powerful tobacco magnate Thomas Gallaher, chairman of the Belfast Steamship Company and owner of Gallaher's Tobacco Factory. Gallaher and Kelly were forewarned about the strike, and had sent to Dublin for 50 blackleg dockers and coal heavers to fill the strikers' places. Feeling that a strike was premature at this point in time, Larkin sent the dockers and coal heavers back to work. Upon their return, however, the men discovered that they were locked out with the imported blacklegs working in their stead. The locked-out NUDL dockers and coal heavers proceeded to force the blacklegs away from the Belfast Steamship Company's sheds and the coal merchant's quay.
Although Kelly gave in and recognised his workers' rights to union membership, when Gallaher sacked seven women for attending a meeting held by Larkin, one thousand female employees of his tobacco factory walked out of their workplace in a display of solidarity on May 16. They marched to a strike meeting held that afternoon in Corporation Square. The women, however, were compelled to return to work the following day, in large part due to the fact that there were too many of them for any trade union in Belfast to take on and support financially through a strike.
Following an incident on July 19 when an Royal Irish Constabulary constable refused to escort a blackleg driver of one of the traction engines used to replace the striking carters, 200-300 police officers attended an angry meeting at Musgrave Street police station. A week later, another illegal meeting attracted perhaps 800 officers, about two thirds of the Belfast force. Having prevaricated for a month, the military now rushed thousands of troops including cavalry into the city. Warships arrived in Belfast lough. This was effectively the imposition of martial law, and by early August some transport was moving in the city.
A body blow to the unity of the strike, or at least the perception of working class unity, was the military reaction to rioting on the lower Falls. After responding to stone and bottle throwers with bayonet and cavalry charges, soldiers fired on the crowds on Monday, August 12. Although troops were withdrawn from the area on the following day, the damage had been done. A distinction had been drawn between nationalist and unionist sections of the working class, and opportunistic unionist and nationalist politicians, as well as the press, particularly the 'Belfast Telegraph', drummed home the sectarian message.
By the end of August, the strikers were as good as defeated. Settling with non-unionised workers, retaining blacklegs, and locking out union members, the employers isolated Larkin and the dockers. Despite localised outbursts of unrest carrying on into the winter, the strike was effectively over and the employers’ reaction began.
The Dock strike was ultimately ended on August 28 not by Larkin but by James Sexton, the overall head of the NUDL in Britain and Ireland. Although largely unsuccessful, the dock strike did led to the establishment of the Irish Transport and General Workers' Union.

1911 - 'Los Angeles Times' Bombing / Iron Workers' Bombing Campaign: On the same day that J. J. and J. B. McNamara, and Ortie McManigal arrive in Los Angeles after their arrests, the private detective William J. Burns is arrested in Indianapolis for the kidnapping of John McNamara. [see: Oct. 1]

1912 - Revolución Mexicana: Col. Pedro Leon mutinies in Mexico City. Revolt fails and Leon is executed.

1913 - Paterson Silk Strike: Passaic County Grand Jury indicts IWW leaders Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Carlo Tresca, Patrick Quinlan, and Adolph Lessig, one of the local silk workers' leaders and future IWW buisness agent, for unlawful assemblage and incitement to riot. [see: Jan. 27 & Feb. 24]

[E] 1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: In the early hours of the morning, WSPU member Kitty Marion sets fire to a train left standing between Hampton Wick and Teddington, almost totally destroying it.

1914 - In a poll organised by Séverine (Caroline Rémy de Guebhard) – an unlikely candiate given her prominence as an anarchist, despite her obvious feminist credentials – and the Ligue du Droit des Femmes section of the Association de Etudiantes on behalf of 'Le Journal' takes place. When the votes are counted, it is found that 505 972 women voted in favour of the proposition "I want to vote", with just 114 voting "no".

1914 - Revolución Mexicana: Fortress San Juan de Ulua surrenders to Americans. American forces remain most of the year.

[F] 1920 - Grande Grève des Cheminots [Great Railwayworkers' Strike]: 'L'Humanité' appeals to the "Mineurs, Marins et Dockers, à la rescousse des Cheminots" (Miners, Sailors & Dockers, to the rescue of the Railwayworkers". On May 3, the dockworkers come out on strike, followed on May 7 by metalworkers and builders, on May 11 by the gas and electricity workers... One after another, the major professional federations launch this "strike by waves". An unprecedented social conflict in France.

1922 - The Sociedad Cosmopolita de Cacahueros 'Tomás Briones' (Cosmopolitan Society Of Cacao Workers 'Tomás Briones') disaffiliates from the Confederación Obrera del Guayas, since "its organisational systems is embryonic and deficient and does not allow for protest action, nor does it meet the necessary conditions for the emancipation of the Proletariat - as stated In the Workers' Congress of 1920 - does not respond in any way to the futurist needs, demands and aspirations of the Proletariat, which, acting on a higher social plane, requires, consequently, institutions of higher principles, more compatible with the spirit of the century." [Sociedad Cosmopolita de Cacahueros 'Tomás Briones' manifesto, August 21, 1922]
The ultimate outcome of this would be the country's first revolutionary trade union centre.

1934 - Ex-ILP member and one-time Labour MP for Gateshead, John Beckett, who was once suspended from the House of Commons for removing the mace, and later joined the British Union of Fascists attempts to speak at a BUF meeting at the Corn Exchange in Plymouth. A full-scale riot breaks out involving up to 100 people weilding broken chairs. When Beckett tries to leave the sage to join in, he is felled by a rugby tackle and his head repeatedly bounced off the floor. Three men and one woman are taken to hospital and polcie eventually restore order. [BF]

1936 - Mosley succeeds in holding a meeting at the Pontypridd Town Hall, protected by 300 police. A counter-demonstration was organised by the Pontypridd Trades and Labour Council, the local Communist Party and the Cambrian Combine Committee. "Allegations by Lewis Jones that Mosley had dined the night before with Colonel Lionel Lindsay, the Chief Constable of Glamorgan, at the house of Lady Rhondda, daughter of D.A.Thomas, architect of the Cambrian Coal Combine, injected into the already tense atmosphere an air of credibility to the theory of a conspiracy between the police, the fascists and the coalowners."

[AA/C] 1937 - The bombing of Guernica by German and Italian planes during the Spanish Civil War.

1960 - April Revolution [4·19 혁명]: President Rhee steps down from power. Lee Ki-poong, Rhee's handpicked running mate for the vice presidency, is blamed for most of the corruption in the government.

1967 - María Cano (María de los Ángeles Cano Márquez; b. 1887), Colombian union militant, feminist and campaigner for basic civil rights, who was the first prominent female political leader in Colombia, as well as one of the founders of the Partido Socialista Revolucionario, dies. [see: Aug. 12]

1968 - Students at hundreds of colleges and high schools across the United States go on a one-day strike to protest the U.S. war against Vietnam.

1968 - John Heartfield (b. 1891), German anti-Fascist photomontage artist and propagandist, dies in East Berlin. [see: Apr. 26]

1968 - Enoch Powell's 'Rivers of Blood' speech: 4,400 dockers on strike at the Royal Group of docks in Newham, about sixty per cent of the registered labour force. [see above]

1972 - Bomb blast and fire at Tory HQ, Billericay, Essex. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1973 - André Gaudérique Jean Respaut (b. 1898), Catalan author, resistance fighter, anarchist, survivor of Buchenwald, dies. Author of 'Buchenwald Terre Maudite' (Buchenwald Cursed Earth; 1946) and 'Sociologie Fédéraliste Libertaire' (1961). [see: Sep. 28]

[CCC] 1982 - Bradford 12: The 12's trial begins in Leeds Crown Court, where the 12 spring a surprise on the prosecution, claiming a defence of 'community self-defence'. "Yes, we made these petrol bombs, the young men said. We were forced to, to defend our communities from the threat of an invasion by the far-right National Front, against which we knew from previous experience there would be no police protection." [IRR website] The trial lasted 31 days and the jury returned an 11 to 1 verdict of not guilty. [see: Jul. 11]
libcom.org/files/politics of asian youth movement.pdf
libcom.org/files/The struggle of Asian workers in Britain.pdf]

1986 - Chernobyl nuclear disaster occurs.

1998 - Two days after releasing a report blaming the U.S.-backed military government for atrocities, Guatemalan Bishop Juan Gerardi Conedera is murdered by army officers led by a Colonel trained in the School of the Americas.

2008 - 23 year old Lee Donovan, arrested in Newport, South Wales, is placed in a police cell in nearby Pontypool at 10.45pm. By 1am the next morning he is dead.
1759 - Mary Wollstonecraft (d. 1797), English moral and political philosopher, novelist, travel writer, educational theorist and feminist author of 'A Vindication of the Rights of Women', born. [expand]

[D] 1812 - Luddite Timeline: Huddersfield. Assassination of William Horsfall, owner of shearing-frames and fervent, sworn enemy of the Luddites.

1824 - Francisco Pi y Margall (d. 1901), Catalan liberal statesman, federalist, historian, journalist, art critic, philosopher, economist and romanticist writer, who contributed to the popularisation of anarchism in Spain, born. His 'La Reacción y la Revolución' (1885) was influenced by G.W.F. Hegel's philosophy of history and the writings of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, who he translated into Spanish. President of the first Republic in 1873, with the fall of King Amédée (hastened by Andalusian anarchist agitation of workers and peasants). Sought a federal republic, separate from the church, and to redistribe land to the peasants. In Andalusia and in several cities in the Southeast, a libertarian federalism emerged, but the Monarchist reactionaries defeated all revolutionary aspirations and Pi i Margall resigned.

1848 - Heckeraufstand [Hecker Uprising]: The 650 men in the Herwegh group that arrived too late to help Hecker's forces on April 20th at Scheideck, are defeated at Dossenbach. The uprising is over and the remaining forces scatter.

[E] 1855 - Séverine, (Caroline Rémy de Guebhard; d. 1929), French libertarian, feminist, pacifist, journalist and co-founder of the League of Human Rights, born. The first female editor of a major French newspaper, 'Le Cri du Peuple', in 1885 before a falling out with the Marxist Jules Guesde caused her to leave the newspaper in 1888. She also wrote for 'La Fronde' (under the pen name Arthur Vingtras), the first feminist daily newspaper and, despite her pacifism, was a strong defender of anarchists, included Clément Duval, Auguste Vaillant, Germaine Berton, Ascaso, Durruti, Jover, and Sacco and Vanzetti.

[BB] 1855 - Jules Jouy (d. 1897), French anarchist, singer, writer, poet, journalist, painter, songwriter and pioneer of the social song, born. A prolific songwriter (4,000+) in a number of forms: the Montmartre song, political song and the café-concert (goguette) song; many with topical social/political and working class sentiments as displayed by his chanson au jour le jour, his quickly written topical songs that appeared daily in Jules Vallès' 'Cri du Peuple' newspaper.
In 1876 he began publishing in the 'Tintamarre' newspaper songs and articles about his favourite subjects: anti-clericalism, injustice, anarchism; not shying away from using the most macabre, humorous, pornographic and scatological language. In September 1878 he participated in the founding of 'Le Sans-Culotte', a virulent anti-clerical republican newspaper that campaigned for amnesty for the Communards. He was a member of the Le Cercle des Hydropathes and Les Hirsutes literary clubs, and frequented the Chat Noir, founded by a dissident cabaret group called Le Chien Noir which performed in the cabarets of Montmartre.
In Dec 1881 he co-founded, with Eugène Bataille (Sapeck), leader of Des Fumistes [for the Exposition des Arts Incohérents in 1883, Sapeck created 'Mona Lisa Fumant la Pipe' which prefigured Duchamp's 'LHOOQ'], 'L'Anti-Concierge: Organe Officiel de Défense des Locataires', a tenants' newspaper which also became the title of one of his songs. In 1882 he wrote and published the only issue of the 'Journal des Merdeux' and his 1884 collaboration, 'La Lanterne des Curés', is condemned as pornographic. In 1886 he joined the anarchist group La Ligue des Antipropriétaires and 1888 saw his prolonged and violent written tirade against the dictatorship of General Boulanger - "L'Infâme à Barbe", whose supporters labelled him le Poète Chourineur (The Murderous Poet). Around the same time he joined Le Parti Ouvrier (Labour Party) for a period, publishes his second song collection, 'Chansons de Bataille' (1889) and is active within the goguette circles of Paris. In 1893 , he published several violently anti-Semitic songs in 'La Libre Parole Illustrée' and the following year takes over management of Café des Décadents, successor to Café des Incohérents. Unfortunately his health has suffered, not just because of his constant activity but also because of his tobacco and absinthe abuse, and his friends end up committing him to a psychiatric clinic in May 1895, where he dies aged 42 on March 17 1897. Three days later all the Montmartre cabaret milieu attend his funeral at the Père Lachaise Cemetery.
Amongst his more famous songs are 'La Soularde' (The Drunkard; 1897), written for Yvette Guilbert; 'La Veuve' (The Widow; 1887), a song about the guillotine and the death penalty, 'Le Tombeau des Fusillés' (1887), in memory of the Communards. His 'Chanson de la Grève' (Song of the Strike; 1888) was later revived and adopted by French Mayday demonstrators.

[B] 1878 - Victor Arendorff (d. 1958), Swedish writer, journalist, poet, lyricist, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Also wrote under the pseudonym Captivus. Began his journalistic career on the right wing 'Stockholms Dagblad' but resigned after 4 years there and began working for trade union, anarchist and socialist journals, including 'Brand' (Fire). His books include 'Herr Husvills Visor och Andra Dikter' (Mr Husvills Ballads and Other Poems; 1915) and 'De Valkiga Händernas Folk och Andra Dikter' (The Calloused Hands People and Other Poems; 1928).

1879 - Alberto Meschi (d. 1958), prominent Italian anarchist, syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. Emigrated to Argentina in 1905 but was expelled in 1909 due to his libertarian and trades union activities. Active in Italy until forced to leave for France in 1922 with the rise of Fascism. In 1936 Meschi fought in Spain in the Rosselli Column until to the fall of the Republic. He returned to France, where he was interned in a concentration camp until the end of 1943 when he returned to Italy, joining the resistance movement and heading the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale (National Liberation Committee) plus the Trade Union Headquarters of Carrara until 1947. For the next 20 years or so he worked on the anarchist trade union paper 'Il Cavatore' (The Quarryman).

1883 [N.S. May 9] - Strajk Szpularek [Spoolers' Strike] / Strajk w Żyrardowie [Żyrardów Strike]: The funeral of the dead strikers took place on Friday April 27 in the early hours of the morning in the Wiskitki cemetery. [see: May 9]

1887 - Claude Le Maguet (known as Jean Salivas) (d. 1979), French poet, typographer, anarchist and militant pacifist, born. Placed in an orphanage at the age of six (directed by the anarchist Paul Robin), from the age of 16 he became a typographer. Deeply libertarian, he worked for the paper 'L'Anarchie', then in the community of Aiglemont founded by Fortuné Henry. Refusing military service, Le Mauet was forced into clandestine activity. He took refuge in Belgium for a while, then in Lille (where he was arrested and imprisoned for a month, his identity undiscovered) and finally in Geneva, Switzerland, and remained committed to his pacifist ideals when WWI was declared.
In 1916, he helped found the pacifist review 'Les Tablettes' with Albert Ledrappier and Frans Masereel, and contributed to various Swiss newspapers. Returning to France in 1939, he was imprisoned for a period in Lyon by the fascists, then went back to Switzerland, where he devoted himself until his death to his poetry.

1894 - Trial of the French anarchist Émile Henry for bombing the Terminus café February 12, 1894 and blowing up the Bons-enfants police station, November 8, 1892. Henry proudly acknowledged his actions, reading a declaration in which he laid out his analysis of France's corrupt society and called for further revolt. The jury convicted him, finding no extenuating circumstances for his actions. He is sentenced to death and on leaving, he dock, he exclaims: "Camarades, courage! Vive l'anarchie."

1897 - Italian anarchist Romeo Frezzi is arrested because he is found in possession of a photo that showed, in a group of people, Pietro Acciarito, who had 5 days ealier tried to assassinate King Umberto I. He would die on May 2 of injuries sustained under interrogation.

1899 - In the early hours of the morning, and after having publicly boasted to the editor of the Paris newspaper 'La Petite République', Errico Malatesta 'mysteriously' escapes from the Mediterranean island prison of Lampedusa shortly before the planned arrival of an State Police inspector due to take him to the notorious prison on the island of Lipari. He flees to Tunis and then on to London.

1906 - [O.S. Apr. 14] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Premier Sergei Witte (Серге́й Ви́тте) secretly resigns in disgust over the oppressive policies of conservative Interior Minister Pyotr Durnovo (Пётр Дурновó).

[C] 1907 - Amir Sjarifuddin Harahap (or Amir Sjarifoeddin Harahap; d. 1948), Indonesian socialist politician and one of the Indonesian Republic's first leaders, who was a major leader of the Left during the Revolution, born. He was executed in 1948 by Indonesian Republican officers following his involvement in a Communist revolt. Amir led a group of younger Marxists in the establishment of Gerindo ('Indonesian People's Movement'), a radical co-operating party opposed to international fascism as its primary enemy, following the Soviet Union’s Dmitrov doctrine of the United Front. Sjarifuddin was the only prominent Indonesian politician next to Sutan Sjahrir to organize active resistance. The Japanese arrested Sjarifuddin in 1943 and he escaped execution only due to intervention from Sukarno. Following the Japanese surrender on 15 August 1945 and the proclamation of Indonesian independence two days later, he was appointed as Information Minister despite still being in prison. He then became, sucessively, Minister for Defence in November 1945 and Prime Minister in July 1947. In August 1948, the 1920s leader of the banned Indonesian Communist Party (Partai Komunis Indonesia; PKI), Musso, arrived in Yogyakarta from the Soviet Union and Amir admitted membership of the underground PKI since 1935 and his faction went over to Musso. Following a premature coup (the so-called Madiun Affair) launched on September 18, Amir and 300 rebel soldiers were captured by government forces on December 1 and, following the intervention of Dutch forces, the army killed Amir and fifty other leftist prisoners rather than risk their release.

1911 - Second Guangzhou Uprising [黃花崗起義]: The Uprising took place on April 27 (the 29th day of the 3rd month in Chinese Calendar), 1911 and is subsequently known as 3.29 Guangzhou Uprising (三·二九廣州起義).

1911 - The first issue of the daily newspaper 'La Bataille Syndicaliste', official organ of the CGT and its militant revolutionary syndiclaist members, is published in Paris. The newspaper quickly gains a widde circulation (45,500 copies in December 1912) but is discontinued in late October 1915 after 1638 issues.

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Suffragettes set fire to Perthshire Cricket Club's Pavillion causing damage worth £1,250.

1913 - Paterson Silk Strike: Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Carlo Tresca and Patrick Quinlan, three out of the five IWW leaders are arrested at the train station following yesterday's indictment for unlawful assemblage and incitement to riot as they return from New York. This provokes a backlash from the strikers as they increace their picketing and other protests. Additionally, Haywood begins to take most of the lead. [see: Jan. 27 & Feb. 24]

1919 - Sóivéid Luimnigh [Limerick Soviet] & General Strike: Late on Sunday night, the Strike Committee issues another proclamation: "Whereas for the past fortnight the workers of Limerick have entered an emphatic and dignified protest against military tyranny, and have loyally obeyed the orders of the Strike Committee, we, at a special meeting assembled, after carefully considering the circumstances, have decided to call upon the workers to resume work on Monday morning. We take this opportunity of returning our thanks to every class of the community for the help tendered during the period of the strike."
The Limerick Soviet had ended as suddenly as it began, exactly fourteen days previously.

[F] 1934 - The Federacion Obrera de Chile (FOCH) headquarters located at Calle San Francisco 608 in Santiago is assaulted by Carabineros and 'white guards' during a municipal workers' strike. Five workers die in the attack and 20 other left with bullet and sabre wounds.

1937 - Armed conflict between anarchist and Generalidad forces in Bellver de Cerdaña, April 27 & 28. Antonio Martin, the anarchist mayor of Puigcerdá, is shot dead.

[A] 1945 - Three anarchist editors (Phil Sansom, Vernon Richards and John Hewitson - Marie Louise Berneri is aquitted) of 'War Commentary' are jailed for nine months for 'incitement to disaffection'.

1945 - Benito Mussolini is intercepted in a convoy of lorries carrying German troops to the Swiss border, when one of the partisans of the 52nd Garibaldi brigade became suspicious about a man in the corner of the fifth truck. He was wearing glasses, wrapped in a greatcoat with his helmet pulled down. One of the Germans explained that he was a "drunken comrade". But the partisan remained dubious. Knowing that Italy's fascist dictator was attempting to flee the country, and the troop convoy had been given safe passage only on condition no Italians were hidden among the retreating soldiers, he called in Urbano Lazzaro the political commissar of his unit. "When I saw him," Urbano Lazzaro recalled, "I called out 'excellency'. But he didn't reply. I also shouted 'comrade'. Still nothing. So I got into the lorry. I went up to him and I said: 'Cavaliere (sir) Benito Mussolini'. It was as if I had given him an electric shock." [see: Nov. 4]

1949 - Didier Daeninckx, prolific French author of detective fiction, novelist, essayist, anti-fascist, one-time communist and latterly a libertarian, born to an anarchist father and communist mother. His works are resolutely politically and socially critical, which has resulted in him ending up embroiled in a number of controversies. His second novel 'Meurtres pour Mémoire' (Murder in Memoriam; 1984) about Nazi collaborators, appeared shortly before the Papon trial and 'Le Der des Ders' (A Very Profitable War; 1985) is set in the post-WWI Parisian anarchist militant milieu.

1957 - Situationist International founding conference at Cosio d'Arroscia, Italy.

1960 - April Revolution [4·19 혁명]: Lee Ki-Poong and his entire family commit suicide.

1968 - The Abortion Act 1967 passes into law, legalising abortion in Britain.

1968 - Former anarchist Daniel Cohn-Bendit is arrested.

1974 - Anna Pietroni and Aldo Rossi, anarchist militants involved with various publications and causes eg. support campaigns for anarchist poet and militant Giovanni Marini and for Pietro Valpreda, die this evening in a car accident. Anna was from a family of anarchists, and both she and Aldo broke with the Communist Party following WWII. [see: Jan. 13]

2001 - No Gods, No Masters: Conference for an Anarchist Future, in Melbourne, 27th -30th.

2014 - March for England: Hundreds of anti-fascists descended upon Brighton pier today to run the EDL boneheads out of town from their daytrip 'March for England' rally. Less than 150 nationalists, opposed by at least ten times that number of anti-fascists, were proected by more than 200 police including mounted cops and dogs. A number of fascists got a good kicking and 27 people are arrested.
[F] April 28 - International Workers Memorial Day.
An international day of remembrance and action for workers killed, disabled, injured or made unwell by their work. First declared by the AFL-CIO in 1970. "Remember the dead – Fight for the living."

1789 - Affaire Réveillon [Réveillon Riots]: Crowds gather on the Ile de la Cité and in the Faubourg Saint-Marcel, Marais, and Faubourg Saint-Antoine for 3 large protest marches that end in confrontations with troops. Protestors throw stones at the troops, as well as tiles and furniture from the roofs of houses. The troops open fire. On the soldiers' side, 12 are killed and 80 wounded; 200 insurgents are killed and 300 injured.

1861 - Henry Bauer (d. 1934), German-American anarchist, born.

1883 [N.S. May 10] - Strajk Szpularek [Spoolers' Strike] / Strajk w Żyrardowie [Żyrardów Strike]: On the Saturday, the strike came to an end and the workers returned to work in the factory. [see: May 10]

1883 - Etta Federn (Marietta Federn; d. 1951), Austrian writer (essays, biographies, novels, poems, etc.), translator, journalist, educator, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and member of Mujeres Libres, born. She also published under her married names Etta Federn-Kohlhaas and Etta Kirmsse, and the pseudonym Esperanza. [expand]

1889 - António de Oliveira Salazar (d. 1970), Portuguese professor and politician who founded the Estado Novo (New State) and served as its Prime Minister/dictator from 1932 to 1968, born.

1893 - The first appearance of the term Pataphysics occurs in the text of Alfred Jarry's play 'Guignol' in 'L'Écho de Paris Littéraire Illustré'.

1895 - Irmgard Enderle (Irmgard Rasch; d. 1985), German socialist politician, trade unionist and journalist, whose party codenames included Kleopatra and J. Reele, born. A student member of the Spartakusbund and later of the KPD, from mid 1919 she was a full-time worker for the party, including as the trade union editor of the KPD daily newspaper 'Klassenkampf' in Halle and, in 1927, on 'Rote Fahne' (Red Flag). A member of its right-wing, she was amongst those purged in early 1929, joining the newly formed Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (Opposition) and in 1932 she joined the newly formed Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands (SAPD)...

1896 - Ida Pilat Isca (d. 1980), Ukrainian-American anarchist writer, translator and activist, who was prominent in the Sacco and Vanzetti campaign in New York and later joined the Socialist Party, born.

[E] 1896 - Na Hye-sok (나혜석; d. 1948), pioneering Korean poet, novelist, painter, educator, journalist, independence and feminist activist, and all-round rebel, whose pen name was Jeongwol (정월 / the bright moon), born She was the first female professional painter in Korea, creating some of the earliest Western-influenced paintings (including Fauvism and post-Impressionism) in the country. She was also the first Korean feminist writer, publishing feminist novels and short stories in addition to her essays.

1898 - In Ancône, Italy the show trial of the anarchists accused of criminal conspiracy against "the public safety and property" concludes. The trial began on the the 21st, following the failure of a General Strike in mid-January against price increases for bread. The defendants are represented by the anarchist lawyers Francisco Saviero Merlino, Pietro Gori and Errico Ferri. Errico Malatesta is sent to prison for seven months (but escapes in early 1899). Bread riots also break out in Bari and Foggia.

1901 - Paule Mink (or Minck) (Adèle Paulina Mekarski; November 9, 1839 - April 28, 1901), French writer (stories, poems and plays), journalist, seamstress, franc-maçonne (female Freemason), Pétroleuse, socialist revolutionary, prominent feminist and the mother of the anarchist Henri Jullien, who participated in the Paris Commune and in the First International, dies. [see: Nov. 9]

[D] 1903 - [O.S. Apr. 15] Thessaloniki Bombings: The Boatmen of Thessaloníki (Bulgarian: Гемиджиите, Macedonian: Гемиџиите; the Gemidzhii or Gemidzhiite) or the Assassins of Salonica, was Bulgarian anarchist group active in the Ottoman Empire in the years between 1900 - 1903. Most from its members were young graduates from the Bulgarian Men's High School of Thessaloniki. From April 28 until May 1 [O.S. Apr. 15-18] the group launched a campaign of terror bombing in Thessaloniki, which had the group and its three cells (in Thessaloniki, the Tsarigradsko cell in Constantinople and the Edirne cell in Thrace) had been plotting for the past four year. Amongst the more grandiose plans was for the Edirne cell to hold up of the Orient Express on Turkish territory in order to rob the mail carriage and finance the network's campaign.
The first target of the Gemidzhii was a French ship called the Guadalquivir, which was blown up with dynamite planted by Pavel Shatev (Павел Шатев; 1882-1951) as it was leaving the Thessaloniki harbour. That evening Iliya Bogdanov (Илия Богданов), Vladimir Pingov (Владимир Пингов; 1883-1903) and Milan Arsov (Милан Арсов; 1884-1908), blew up the Thessaloniki-Istanbul railway line in an attempt to derail a train, however the train suffered only slight damage and no one on board was injured. The following evening, Konstantin Kirkov (Костадин Кирков; 1882-1903) blew up a gas pipeline under the bridge at the station in Serres, putting Thessaloniki's electricity and water supply systems out of action. This was the signal for widespread actions. Shortly after Jordan Popjordanov (Йордан Пoпйopдaнoв; 1881-1903) aka 'Orceto' (Opцe) blew up the building of an Ottoman Bank office, under which the Gemidzhii had previously dug a tunnel from a shop rented by Marko Boshnakov (Марко Бошнаков; 1878-1908) and secreted a large amount of explosives that they had smuggled into the city. In another attentat, Milan Arsov threw bombs in the Alhambra Café and, upon returning to Thessaloniki, Kirkov threw a bomb at the Grand Hotel. That same night Iliya Bogdanov threw a bomb through the windon of the Café Nyonyo and Vladimir Pingov, during an attempt to target a Turkish government building, was shot by Turkish soldiers. Dimitar Mechev (Димитър Мечев; 1870-1903) and Iliya Trachkov (Илия Тръчков; 1884-1903) also failed in their attempts to blow up the gas tank at a coal gas-producing plant. They were later killed at their hideout during a shoot-out with army and gendarmerie forces, after exhausting their store of more than 60 bombs trying to hold them off. Jordan Popjordanov died the following night (April 30) after throwing his last bombs at the Turkish soldiers besieging him.
Four of the Gemidzii, Paul Shatev, Georgi Bogdanov, Marko Boshnakov and Milan Arsov, were arrested following the Thessaloniki attacks and brought before a special court. All four were sentenced to death but later had their sentences commuted to life imprisonment. Arsov died in prison in 1908 of tuberculosis
On May 1, Kostadin Kirkov was killed while trying to blow up a postal office. Rather than be caught, Cvetko Traikov (Цвятко Трайков), whose mission was to kill the local governor, Hasan Fehmi Pasha (Хасан Фехми паша), killed himself the same day by setting off a bomb and then sitting on it.
The Gemidzhii cells continued the campaign, bombing a passenger train at Kuleliburgaz railway station in a raid led by Mihail Gerdzhikov (Михаил Герджиков; 1877-1947) and the Anton Prudkin (Антон Прудкин; 1880-1942)-led attack on the passenger ship Vaskapu in Burgas Bay, both August 1903 attentats organised by anarchists close to the allied Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация).

1904 - Elisabeth Schumacher (née Hohenemser; d. 1942), German artist and resistance fighter in the Third Reich, who belonged to the Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, born. On September 12, 1942, she and her husband, the sculptor and staunch Communist Kurt Schumacher, were both arrested and on December 19, 1942, they were both was sentenced to death at the Reichskriegsgericht (Reich Military Tribunal) for "conspiracy to commit high treason", espionage, and other political crimes. Schumacher was beheaded on December 22, 1942 at Plötzensee Prison.

1912 - Jules Bonnot (b. 1876), the French illegalist gang leader, is killed in a police shootout after managing to kill three of the estimated 500 armed police officers, soldiers, firemen and military engineers, not to mention a lynch mob of local citizens, laying seige to the house and garage of Joseph Dubois in Choisy-le-Roi where he was hiding out. Having failed to extracate Bonnot by seige (and during which he had had time to write a letter exonerating Eugène Dieudonné, his mistress Judith Thollon, her husband and Antoine Gauzy), Paris Police Chief Louis Lépine ordered the building bombed, using a dynamite charge. The explosion demolished the front of the building. Injured and hiding under a mattress, Bonnot is shot 10 times before a coup de grace to the head is given by Lépine.

1912 - Joseph Dubois (b. 1870), mechanic and anarchist illegalist member of the Bonnot Gang, is killed during the first moments of the police raid on his Choisy-le-Roi garage where Bonnot is also shot and killed following a seige.

1912 - José Pellicer-Gandia (d. 1942), Valencian anarchist militant and syndicalist, a commander in Durruti's Iron Column during the Spanish Revolution, born.

1913 - Prudencio Iguacel Piedrafita (d. 1979), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist resistance fighter, born.

1914 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Suffragettes Evaline 'Hilda' Burkitt, 37, and Florence Tunks, 22, set fire to the empty Bath Hotel in Felixstowe, causing £35,000 worth of damage (roughly £2.6m in today's money). They were jailed for two years and nine months respectively following a trial in May 1914, but released under a general amnesty not long after the outbreak of World War One in August 1914. Eleven days earlier, the pair had set fire to the grand pavilion on Great Yarmouth's Britannia Pier, according to local gossip because the pier owners had refused permission for them to hold a meeting there.

1917 - Third Dada evening 'Abend Neuer Kunst' (Evening of New Art) in Zurich. Amongst those in the audience are Olga Sacharoff, Mary Wigman, Clotilde von Derp, Marianne von Werefkin, Alexej von Jawlensky, Harry Graf Kessler and Elisabeth Bergner.

1919 - After receiving a bomb in the mail, Seattle Mayor Ole Hanson declared that the government should "buck up and hang or incarcerate for life all the anarchists".

1920 - Grande Grève des Cheminots [Great Railwayworkers' Strike]: With the strike movements in the transport sector running out of steam, the Fédération Nationale des Cheminots decides to call for a staggered unlimited strike (grève illimitée) from May 1. Those opposed to the strike in the different sectrs of the industry begin to assert themselves, and many railwaymen publicly declare their refusal to follow the militants, abandoning the strike. [see: Mar. 26]

1922 - Mécislas Charrier, French anarchist illégaliste, goes on trial for his attempt, along with two others, to rob the Paris-Marseilles train, in which one person was killed.

1943 - Mariarosa Dalla Costa, Italian autonomist feminist, member of Lotta Femminista and Potere Operaio, who co-authored the classic 'The Power of Women and the Subversion of the Community' (1972), with Selma James, born.

1944 - Charlotte Wilson (Charlotte Mary Martin; b. 1854), English Fabian, anarchist, feminst and co-founder of 'Freedom' and Freedom Press, dies a week short of her ninetieth birthday. [see: May 6]
"The genuine Anarchist looks with sheer horror upon every destruction, every mutilation of a human being, physical or moral. He loathes wars, executions and imprisonments, the grinding down of the worker's whole nature in a dreary round of toil, the sexual and economic slavery of women, the oppression of children, the crippling and poisoning of human nature by the preventable cruelty and injustice of man to man in every shape and form." from 'Anarchism and Homicidal Outrage' (1893)

1944 - Katri Vala (Karin Alice Wadenström; b. 1901), Finnish teacher, modernist poet, translator, radical, pacifist and anti-Fascist, who was a central member of the literary group Tulenkantajat (Torchbearers), dies. [see: Sep. 12]

[A/CCC] 1945 - Benito Mussolini is shot and strung-up by partisans in the Piazzale Loreto, Milan.

[CC]1945 - Rupprecht Gerngroß (1915 - 1996), one-time German lawyer, Captain in an interpreter company in Munich and leader of the Freiheitsaktion Bayern (Bavarian Freedom Initiative, a group of around 400 military and civilians who had decided to oppose the Nazis in the final months of the war), orders the occupation of radio transmitters in Schwabing-Freimann and Erding and he broadcast messages in multiple languages, encouraging soldiers to resist the Nazi regime. The group had been armed by Jürgen Wittenstein, a friend of the members of the Weiße Rose, who collected weapons from wounded soldiers at the Italian front, where he had volunteered to serve in order to escape the Gestapo.
In the final days of the war, when the order was issued to defend Munich to the last man by blowing up all bridges and using the Munich trams to form barricades, he decided to resist this order to prevent a complete destruction of the infrastructure of the city. The call for people to display white flags from their homes as a sign of surrender and claim that the Freiheitsaktion had taken control over Munich was sadly premature and led to other uprisings against the Nazis in the region, which were often brutally suppressed by the SS. However, the braodcast had triggered an uprising in Dachau were supposed to be sent on a death march south with their SS guards to be used as laborers in the Alpenfestung. The SS left in panic, abandoning the inmates who were liberated by the arriving US forces soon after. The action also saved much of the city of Munich from further destruction and the announcement of the end of the Nazis in Munich led many German soldiers to desert the lost cause and the US forces arriving in Munich on 30 April experienced virtually no resistance when taking the city.

1950 - Brian Brett, Canadian poet and novelist, born.
"I was a rabid anarchist and, out of eccentricity, carried a business card declaring my membership in the I.W.W., the International Workers of the World, the 'Wobblies' - the last great romantic revolutionary organisation of America."

The old poet and writer of fiction—
that’s him in the photograph beside the door,
the little fellow with the moustache,
the aesthete with the taste for whips,
for women in leather,
the man with a trembly upper lip
which made him resemble a rabbit
when he ate his lettuce—
once said to me, years ago:
Everyone should be an anarchist
at the age of twenty.

This was the knowledge of a man
who had gone beyond sixty years,
and had come to love the conservative,
who raced this horses
and drank the best cognacs,
who denied what he used to believe,
concluding that all of us will
eventually Judas the life we once lived.

Young then, I thought it was wise of him
to understand the boil and tidal ebb of blood,
the hormones that control the run, the rush….
But today, when I contemplate not just
my own unfinished home and garden,
but the gardens of those who can afford gardeners—
I can only witness the savage landscape
we have made out of our collapsing planet.
Perhaps this is why, now that I have
more than doubled by years, sometimes,
I want to burn down all our houses.

'Considerations of Anarchy'


[B] 1953 - Roberto Bolaño Ávalos (d. 2003), Chilean novelist, poet, one-time Trotskyist and latterly an anarchist, born. At the time his novel 'Los Detectives Salvajes' (The Savage Detectives; 1998) was published he was a Trotskyist and the novel parodied aspects of the movement.
"The problem is, once among the Trotskyites, I didn't like their clerical unanimity either, so I ended up being an anarchist. I was the only anarchist I knew and thank God, because otherwise I would have stopped being an anarchist. Unanimity pisses me off immensely. Whenever I realize that the whole world agrees on something, whenever I see that the whole world is cursing someone in chorus, something rises to the surface of my skin that makes me reject it."

1960 - April Revolution [4·19 혁명]: Minister of Interior Choi In-Kyu and the Chief of Security resign taking responsibility for the Masan incident.

1968 - 1,500 people marched to Downing Street chanting "Arrest Enoch Powell". as the march nears Parliament there is some fighting between marchers and Powell supporters.

1969 - On Okinawa Day, students take over the trains in Tokyo and bring the railway network to a halt in protests about the United States occupation of Okinawa. Protests spread across the city as 20,000 students, workers, high school students and others carried out often violent actions, whilst 100,000, including many from Okinawa, took part in a peaceful mass rally elsewhere in Tokyo.

1974 - Lilian Wolfe (Lilian Gertrude Woolf; b. 1875), English pacifist, anarcha-feminist and member of the Freedom Press publishing collective, dies. [see: Dec. 22]

1976 - Promoe (Mårten Edh, born Nils Mårten Ed), Swedish rapper and member of Swedish hip hop group Looptroop Rockers and anarchist, born.

1977 - In Stuttgart, West Germany, the lengthy trial of the leaders of the Red Army Faction, ends with Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin, and Jan-Carl Raspe being found guilty of four counts of murder and more than 30 counts of attempted murder. Each defendant was sentenced to life imprisonment.

1977 - First rally by Mothers of the Disappeared at Plaza de Mayo, Buenos Aires.

1979 - In 1979 at a National Front Election meeting held at Cronehills Primary School, West Bromwich, a number of missiles were thrown at police cordons, the meeting broke up and arrests were made. 2,675 officers were deployed, 27 arrested.

[C] 1979 - Fifteen thousand people march in honour of Blair Peach past the spot where he died. Workers at SunBlest bakery raise £800 for Peach's widow.

1986 - Paul-Aloïse de Bock (b. 1898), Belgian novelist, poet and lawyer, dies. [see: Sep. 13]

1988 - Lucio Arroyo Fraile aka 'El Verdejo' and 'El tuerto Teruel' (b. 1904), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 22]

1996 - Claire Culhane (b. 1918), Canadian nurse, hospital records librarian, socialist, leading anti-Vietnam War activist in the Enough/Assez campaign and prisoner rights advocate, dies. [see: Sep. 2]
[D] 1839 - Chartists riot and occupy Lanidloes in Mid Wales for five days.
In early April 1839 there had been a large but peaceful and orderly public meeting in Llanidloes addressed by Henry Hetherington, a leading London Chartist and campaigner for a free press. At that time, wealthy landowners, magistrates, clerics and Members of Parliament had all the local power and influence and were determined to retain their exclusive rights of privilege and property. When, later that month, there were rumours locally of an armed uprising, the magistrates became alarmed and demanded military and police support from the Government. The normal force in the town consisted of just one elderly night watchman and some part-time unpaid constables but when the Llanidloes magistrates issues a warning of "serious unrest", three constables were sent from London and the authorities were asked to recruit 'special constables' locally. Thomas Edmund Marsh, a wealthy landowner, lawyer, magistrate, and former mayor, and one of the most powerful man in the town at the time, promptly recruited 300 men, mostly believed to be his own tenants who would have been unable to refuse for fear of losing their jobs and homes. The arrival of this improvised and crudely armed force on the streets of the town on April 29,1839 only served to aggravate the situation and increase the tension locally. The three police constables despatched from London arrived in Llanidloes that evening.
On the morning of April 30, 1839 a Chartist meeting was called on the Long Bridge over the River Severn at Llanidloes, during which news came that three of their supporters had been arrested by the London policemen and were being held at the Trewythen Arms. This prompted the crowd to head there from the bridge, only to find the Trewythen surrounded by fifty of Marsh's 'special constables' armed with wooden staves. Shortly afterwards the mob stormed the hotel (seen left, after the later addition of a classical style timber porch) and released their fellow Chartists. The interior of the hotel was wrecked, one of the London policemen was severely beaten, and the other two managed to escape and hide, fearing for their lives. It is widely believed that Marsh himself started the riot either to enable him to escape from the angry crowd or to deliberately discredit the Chartists. The authorities seem to have greatly exaggerated the scale of the disorder in Llanidloes with reports of very large numbers of armed Chartists, and called upon the Lord Lieutenant at Powis Castle for immediate assistance to control the situation.
From Tuesday April 30 to Saturday May 4, 1839, Llanidloes remained quiet and orderly due to Chartist patrols. On the Saturday the troop reinforcements requested by the authorities arrived, including Infantrymen from Brecon and a combined force of Yeoman Cavalry - some 200 strong riding into town with sabres drawn. The military encountered no resistance at all and doubtless soon judged that the response was excessive. The town was later sealed off and over thirty Chartists, including three women, were arrested and sent to Montgomery jail. A military garrison was maintained in the town until the summer of 1840.
Following the trial in July of those involved in the troubles, three Llanidloes men, Abraham Owen, Lewis Humphreys, and James Morris, a nineteen year old weaver, were transported from Woolwich in October 1839. One man, Thomas Jerman, escaped via Liverpool to America where he settled and had a family, fighting in the American Civil War of the 1860s for the North. Others involved were imprisoned at Montgomery for up to one year. [adapted from history.powys.org.uk]

1858 - Pierre-Joseph Proudhon publishes 'De la Justice dans la Révolution et dans l'Eglise' (Of Justice in the Revolution and the Church, 1858).

[F] 1871 - In reaction to the Paris Commune, the civil governor of Barcelona decrees the prohibition of strikes and meetings and orders an assault on the local of the Las Tres Clases del Vapor, accompanies by the arrest of its president Climent Bové

1891 - Albert de Jong (d. 1970), militant Dutch anarcho-syndicalist, anti-militarist, author and editor, born. [expand]

[B] 1896 - Walter Mehring (d. 1981), German-Jewish Expressionist poet and prose writer, anti-militarist and anarchist, who was one of the most prominent satirical authors in the Weimar Republic, born. Founding member of Berlin Dada. As a writer who during 20s and 30s wrote anti-Fascist literature, he caused scandals and rage in the Nazi party with his plays and chansons. When the Nazis came to power his books were burnt, he was prosecuted as a ''Jewish subversionist," stripped of his citizenship and imprisoned. After escaping an internment camp, he fled to the USA where he eventually got a citizenship. [expand]

1896 - Séverin Ferandel (d. 1978), French travel agency interpreter, anarchist militant, syndicalist, ran a radical bookstore, aided Spanish refugees, etc. while living in France and Mexico, born.

[C] 1907 - Bolesław Stein (d. 1969), Polish doctor, anarcho-syndicalist and WWII freedom fighter, born. In November 1926, he was a co-founder of the Organizacja Młodzieży Radykalnej (Organisation of Radical Youth) in Krakow. From November 1929 chairperson of ZPMD in Krakow. Expelled from University for political reasons. Continued his studies in Wilnus [Vilna] (nowadays Lithuania). Worked in Liga Samopomocy Gospodarczej (League of Economic Mutual Aid). Since 1936 chairman of District Council of Związku Związków Zawodowych (ZZZ; Union of Workers Unions) in Wilnus. In April 1938 stood up court accused of libelling Stanislaw Mackiewicz, editor of the conservative paper 'Słowo'. He was also penalized for publishing a leaflet and taking part in a strike. After his studies, worked in a military sanatorium in Rabka (southern Poland). On April 2, 1939, he became a member of Central Department of ZZZ. In 1939 mobilized in Vilna, but managed to get to Lviv (nowadays Ukraine) where he was co-initiator of anti-soviet conspiracy Rewolucyjny Zwiazek Niepodległosci i Wolnosci (Revolutionary Union of Independence and Freedom) which included syndicalists, socialists and peasant movement activists. The organisation was crushed in January 1940. At the same time Boleslaw Stein organized the evacuation of children from the TB hospital in Rabka. During WWII member of ZWZ-AK. From 1940 lived in Krakow. As director of St. John of God Hospital, he provided help to soldiers of Armia Krajowa (AK; Home Army), Armia Ludowa (AL; People's Army), Jews, English pilots and others. After Warsaw Uprising he helped Warsaw fugitives. In 1945 he joined the Polska Partia Socjalistyczna (PPS; Polish Socialist Party) – after unification he stayed in Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza (PZPR; Polish Unified Workers Party – communist regime party). Died 21st October 1969 in Krakow.

1915 - The Women's International League of Peace and Freedom, a non-profit non-governmental organisation working "to bring together women of different political views and philosophical and religious backgrounds determined to study and make known the causes of war and work for a permanent peace", is founded at the International Women's Congress for Peace and Freedom, then (April 28-30) being held in The Hague.

1919 - Bavarian Council Republic [Bayerische / Münchner Räterepublik]: With Ebert's troops massing on Bavaria's northern borders, the Red Guards began arresting people they considered to be hostile to the new regime. On April 29, 1919, eight men were executed after being found guilty of being right-wing spies. From April 29 to May 2, government forces go on to crush the Republic of the Councils of Bavaria in Munich. Resistance results in many hard-fought street battles. Many resistors (workers, socialists, anarchists, sympathisers) are summarily executed, leaving over 700 dead.

1920 - Grande Grève des Cheminots [Great Railwayworkers' Strike]: The Fédération Nationale des Cheminots issues its public call for the various French trade union confederations to come out on strike in a staggered series of strikes in support of railway workers. [see: Mar. 26]
In response, the Conseil des Ministres meets to dicuss and plan for the new strike announced by the Fédération Nationale des Cheminots and other public services across France.

1943 - April-Meistakingen: Workers in the Dutch town of Hengelo and the factories of Twente walk off their jobs in a protest strike following the German announcement that 300,000 Dutch army soldiers, who had been captured and released in 1940, were to be recaptured and sent to German labour camps, quickly spreads across rural northern and eastern Netherlands. The strike gradually spread to businesses in the north, east and south of the country. In the city of Eindhoven, every Philips factory shut down. In the province of Limburg, over 10,000 miners went on strike, followed by 40,000 total miners striking the next day. In Friesland, it was known as the Melkstaking because dairy farmers refused to deliver to dairies and gave their milk away free to the public instead.
To combat these strikes, Nazi troops began shooting at the strikers throughout the country, and those strikers who were arrested were sentenced to death. This caused the strikes to be suppressed everywhere except in Limburg. To put down the strikes in Limburg, a German police force was sent to suppress the strikes with much violence. [see: May 5]

1943 - Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: Having lost all its commanders, the remaining fighters of the the ŻZW escape the Ghetto through the Muranowski tunnel and relocated to the Michalin forest, marking the end of significant fighting as organised defence collapses.

[E] 1943 - Mire Golą* (Miriem Golą; b. 1911), Polish Jewish communist, poet and member of the anti-Nazi underground resistance in the Kraków Ghetto, is shot whilst trying to escape Nazi custody. As a teenager she was a member of the leadership of Ha-Shomer ha-Za’ir, a Socialist-Zionist secular Jewish youth movement, but in 1932 she was expelled from the organisation because of her radical stand on relations with the Soviet Union. She went on to join the Polska Partia Robotnicza and in 1936 participated in organizing a strike at the Kontakt factory, where she was employed. She was arrested together with twelve other strike leaders and sentenced to six months in jail. After her release she renewed her activities in the Communist underground and she was picked up in a mass arrest with about twelve other young women. The right-wing Polish government staged a show trial in which the defendants, who refused to accept a lawyer, were instantly silenced when they attempted to speak for themselves. Relatives of Golą who attended her trial later told a friend of hers that only Golą spoke for an hour and a half without being silenced. She was sentenced to twelve years’ imprisonment. In prison she fought for improvements in the prisoners’ conditions and creating a better relationship between them and the guards. When WWII broke out on September 1, 1939, the prison guards fled, leaving Fordon Prison near the German border locked. Led by Golą, the women somehow managed to break the gate open and flee before the Germans arrived. She made her way to Białystok and was reunited with her partner Olek Hausman. They travelled together to Lvov, which was also under Soviet rule, and there they were married. The Soviet authorities appointed her a member of the city council and commissar, whilst she also served as an arbitrator in work disputes among the activists.
After the German conquest of June 1941, Olek fled eastward to join the Red Army and was never again heard from. Golą, who was close to the end of her pregnancy, was unable to join him and had to go into hiding in Lvov, where she was too well known and where the Germans were searching for her. Finding shelter in a dilapidated basement, she gave birth alone and managed to survive for two or three months before having to ask her relatives. With the help of a family friend, she made it to Kraków, only for her son to die in her arms. Eventually, she returned to her underground activities as a member of the Gwardia Ludowa (GL-PPR), the armed underground organisation of the communist Polish Workers Party in German occupied Poland, trying to recruit people such as Aharon 'Dolek' Liebeskind (1912-1942) and Shimshon Draenger (1917-1943), leaders in the Akiva movement, and Adolf (Avraham) Leibovich aka 'Laban' (1917-1943), a leader in the Dror movement [Akiva and Dror would join together to form the He-Haluz ha-Lohem (Fighting Organisation of the Pioneering Jewish Youth)], to the anti-Nazi struggle. Another group, Iskra, led by Heshek 'Zvi' Bauminger (1919-1943) was persuaded to join Mire's GL-PPR groups and, given her organisational experience, Golą effectively took over the organisation and coordination of the various resistance groups activities [usually referred to under the catch-all name of the Žydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŽOB; Jewish Fighting Organisation)]. This led to the December 22, 1942, bombing attacks against the German authorities in Kraków, capital of the Generalgouvernement (the territory in the interior of occupied Poland). Golą's Iskra group and He-Haluz ha-Lohem, under Liebeskind’s command. The operation, code-named Cyganeria after the exclusive "Germans only" café, a favourite of Schutz Staffeinel (SS) and Gestapo, involved the throwing of grenades into three cafés frequented by Nazi officers, the sabotage military vehicles, distribution of anti-Nazi leaflets encouraging resistance against the occupiers, the raising Polish flags on bridges over the Vistula River, and laying flowers at the monument to the Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz, which had been destroyed by the Germans. The biggest success was at the café Cyganeria [also referred to as La Bohema], where at least seven German officers were killed and many more wounded. However, many members of the He-Haluz ha-Lohem were either captured or killed in the operation, or turned over to the Germans by an informer.
Golą however remained free and Iskra continued to carry out operations, bombing targets outside the city, due in large part to her influence. However, at the beginning of March 1943 Golą was captured at the PPR printing office that she had established in Kraków and imprisoned at Montelupich prison, which was known as one of the harshest prisons. After fourteen days of solitary confinement and terrible torture, during which she revealed nothing, she was transferred to the women’s wing in the adjacent Helzlaw monastery, where women from He-Haluz ha-Lohem were held, together with others. Her hair and fingernails had been torn out and she looked grey and exhausted but she still managed to write poetry in Yiddish and Hebrew. When the women were transferred to the basement, they realized the end was near. Golą and Tova Draenger (one of the He-Haluz ha-Lohem leaders) conceived the idea of escaping as they were taken to the truck that would bring them to the 'Hill of Death' [Hujowa Górka (Prick Hill)] at the nearby Płaszow concentration camp. The He-Haluz ha-Lohem men in another part of the prison had also had the same idea.
At dawn Mire Golą and most of the women were taken from the basement cell and, as they were being led to the truck with a group of men, the sign was given to scatter. The guards were taken by surprise as the women and men fled for their lives but chased after them, firing their weapons. Most of them were killed as they ran. Golą managed to escape the courtyard out into the empty street outside, where she was shot and killed.
[* sometimes confusingly rendered as Gola or Gole Mire]

1951 - Irene Goergen aka 'Peggy', founding member of the Rote Armee Fraktion, who was involved in the 1970 freeing of Andreas Baader in Berlin and several bank robberies, born.

1961 - 826 arrested in nuclear disarmament demonstration, London.

1968 - Lin Zhao [林昭] (Peng Lingzhao [彭令昭]; b. 1932), Chinese Communist student, poet and prominent dissident during the Hundred Flowers Movement (百花運動) of 1957, who was later imprisoned and executed by the People's Republic of China during the Cultural Revolution for her criticism of Mao Zedong's policies, is executed in secret at Shanghai’s Longhua Airport. Two days later public security officers went to Lin Zhao mother's home to obtain the five cents costs of the bullet used to kill her. Her remains were never given to her family, neither were they informed of how they had been disposed of. [see: Dec. 16]

1978 - 10,000 demonstrate against nuclear power plant expansion, Windscale, Cumbria.

1980 - Jehan Jonas (Gérard Béziat; b. 1944), French chanteur libertaire, cabaret singer, poet, playwright, screenwriter, dies. [see: Aug. 12]

1989 - I Congreso Extraordinario de CNT-CGT: The CNT-Congreso de Valencia aka CNT-U(nificación) changes its name to the Confederación General del Trabajo having lost the legal battle for the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo name.
cgt.org.es/congresos -breve-introduccion-historica-0

[A] 1992 - Jury acquits two white police officers who had been filmed beating black motorist Rodney King. Mass rioting breaks out across Los Angeles.

2009 - Leonidas Christakis (Λεωνίδας_Χρηστάκης; b. 1928), Greek writer, painter, editor and anarchist, dies.

2013 - 580 prisoners on hunger strike in Larisa prison, Greece.
1843 - Charles Keller (d. 1913), French poet, Paris Communard and Bakuninist, born. Companion of Mathilde Roederer, a militant in the A.I.T. and Jura Federation. Author of the song 'La Jurassienne' which was put to music by James Guillaume.

1844 - H.D. Thoreau accidentally burns 300 acres of forest near Concord, Massachusetts during a fishing trip, causing $2,000 in damages.

1855 - Primera Huelga General de España: The civil governor of Barcelona, Pascual Madoz, prohibited both factory closures by employers and the "collective abandonment of labour" by workers, and also introduced that requirement for workers' associations to get government authorisation in order to continue functioning. [see: Jul. 2]

1865 - Max Nettlau (Max Heinrich Hermann Reinhardt Nettlau; d. 1944), German anarchist, historian, bibliographer and philologist, born. Edited and financed 'The Anarchist Labour Leaf'. A member of the Freedom Group, Max also helped fund the 'Torch for Freedom'. His writings include 'Bibliographie de l'Anarchie' (1897), and 'Errico Malatesta: The Biography of an Anarchist' (1924). [expand]

1871 - Following a call to boycott elections in La Guillotière, the Town Hall (Place du Pont) is occupied by the Guard Nationale to prohibit access to the polls with the complicity of the majority of the population. Barricades are erected on the Grand rue de la Guillotière and the Cours des Brosses. Under orders from the Préfet Valentin, the army arrives from Perrache to face a crowd of 20 000 to 25 000 people shouting "Do not shoot! [Rifle] Butts in the air! Don't go against the people!" The two columns of infantry take up positions by the Pont de la Guillotière and by the Rue de Marseille, and begin dispersing the demonstrators around 19:45 by shooting. The insurgents fight back from behind their barricades and the battle lasts until 23:00, when the military are getting artillery ready to break down the doors of the Town Hall. Thirty are killed in the fighting.

[BB] 1883 - Luigi Russolo (d. 1947), Italian Futurist painter, composer and anarchist, born. The author of the manifesto 'L'Arte dei Rumori' (The Art of Noises; 1913), who designed and constructed his noise-generating devices or Intonarumori. Born into a very musical family, he seriously considered becoming a musician but moved to Milan and studied art at the Accademia di Brera. He joined the Famiglia Artistica di Milano group where he first met Carlo Carrà and Umberto Boccioni. At this stage he was interested mainly in Symbolist-influenced painting and engraving.
Russolo joined the Futurist movement at the beginning of 1910 and immediately became an activist, taking part in all the serata, or Futurist evenings, and other activities. He signed the 'Manifesto of the Futurist Painters' (1910) and the 'Technical Manifesto of Futurist Painting' (1910). Russolo was committed to being the movement's musical activist as well as a political activist. Like many others, Russolo supported the Anarchist movement and contributed to their journals. In 1913 he co-signed, with Marinetti, Boccioni and Carrà, the manifesto 'Political Programme of Futurism' that was published in 'Lacerba' on October 15. During 1914 he participated in the interventionist demonstrations and was arrested and imprisoned for six days with Marinetti, Boccioni, Carrà and Mazza. When Italy entered the First World War, Russolo joined the Lombard Volunteer Cyclist Battalion with many of his Futurist friends.
The first public performance of his Intonarumori noise machines took place at the Teatro dal Verme in Milan on April 21 1914 provoked a riot. So loud was the audience that the music was all but inaudible. Concerts followed that year at the Politeama Genovese in Genoa and at the London Coliseum. In 1921, after WWI, he presented three concerts in Paris (Théatre des Champs-Elysées) and, in 1922, the intonarumori provided a musical backdrop to Filippo Tommaso Marinetti's play 'Il Tamburo di Fuoco' (The Drums of Fire).
Due to his opposition to Fascism, Russolo spent most of his time between 1927 and 1932 in Paris. In 1931 he moved to Tarragona in Spain, where he studied occult philosophy and then in 1933 returned to Italy, settling in Cerro di Laveno on Lake Maggiore. Russolo published his philosophical investigations 'Al di là della Materia' (Beyond Matter) in 1938. In 1941-42, he took up painting again in a realist style that he called "classic-modern". Russolo died at Cerro di Lavenio in 1947.

[A] 1883 - Jaroslav Hašek (d. 1923), Czech novelist, satirist, Bolshevik, story writer, journalist and anarchist, born. Austrian police informers considered him "particularly dangerous". Author of the classic four-volume anti-militarist novel, 'The Good Soldier Švejk'. Described by Cecil Parrott, his biographer and an unrivalled authority on him and his work, as: "Truant, rebel, vagabond, anarchist, play-actor, practical joker, bohemian (and Bohemian), alcoholic, traitor to the Czech legion, Bolshevik and bigamist", a list that also omits bank teller, chemist’s assistant, dog breeder, sketch writer, cabaret performer, soldier and POW.
In 1906 he joined the anarchist movement, having taken part in the 1897 anti-German riots in Prague as a schoolboy, and gave regular lectures to groups of proletarian workers. In 1907 he became editor of the anarchist magazine 'Komuna' and faced regular periods of arrest and imprisonment for his anarchist activities. In 1911 he created the Strana Mírného Pokroku v Mezích Zákona (Party of Moderate Change within the Boundaries of the Law), wrote its manifesto and ran for office under its banner.
His journalist career encompassed 'Ženský Obzor' (Women's Horizon; 1908); 'Svět Zvířat' Animal World, from which he was fired for inventing animals and advertising werewolves; 'Českého Slova' (Czech Word; 1911); followed by 'Pochodně' (Porches), 'Humoristických Listů' (Humorist Pages), 'Kopřiv' (Nettle) and 'Karikatur' (Cartoons). Later on he also started the Kynologický ústav (Cynology Institute) [Cynology is the study of matters related to canines or domestic dogs], from where he sold stolen dogs with forged pedigrees, and which later inspired him to write the book 'Můj Obchod se Psy' (My Business is Dogs; 1986). He also ended up writing for and performing in cabaret alongside Emil Artur Longen.
Drafted into the 91st Infantry Regiment of the Austro-Hungarian Army, he fought on the Galician front before being captured by the Russians on September 24, 1915, all experiences that fed into 'The Good Soldier Švejk' (orig. 'Osudy Dobrého Vojáka Švejka za Světové Války' or 'The Fateful Adventures of the Good Soldier Švejk During the World War'). As a POW he contracted typhus but was recruited as a volunteer in June 1916 to fight in the revoluční dobrovolná vojska (revolutionary voluntary army), the Českých Budějovicích (Czechoslovak Legion), where he acted as a clerk, journalist, soldier and recruitment agent. In March 1918, the Czechoslovak Legion was sent to the Western Front, but Hašek decide to desert, joining the Red Army, mainly working as a recruiter and propaganda writer. He also fought as a commander of the Czechoslovak section of Red Army soldiers against the White Army, as well as apparently presiding over a number of executions and working as a Political Commisar.
Already having been married to Jarmila Mayerová in 1910, he embarked on a second short-lived, bigamous marriage in 1920 and shortly after Czeck papers carried the news that the traitor and bigamist was dead. That however did not stop him from resuming his bohemian lifestyle in Prague (it is said that the Soviet authorities sent him back to Czechoslovakia to help organise the Communist movement), where he poked fun at his own obituary, penning an article called 'How I Met the Author of My Obituary'. More importantly he settled down to write the Švejk books, which remained unfinished when he died from the tuberculosis that he had caught during the war. His death largely passed unremarked as the Czechoslovak Finance Minister, Alois Rašín, had just been assassinated by an anarchist.
In Czech, Švejk’s name is now a verb, and a strategy of passive resistance close to Zen: to rebel against the world it is enough to agree to everything, completely.

1886 - On the eve of May 1, 50,000 workers in Chicago are on strike. 30,000 more swell their ranks tomorrow, bringing most of Chicago manufacturing to a standstill. Chicago cops kill four unionists on the 3rd. A demonstration will be held on the 4th in Haymarket Square; a cop is killed by a never identified assailant and eight anarchists (some not in attendance) are tried for murder and sentenced to death.

1894 - Raymond Lachèvre (d. 1976), French militant anti-militarist, anarchist and syndicalist, born.

1902 - Carlo Gambuzzi (b. 1837), Italian Anarchist, who fought alongside Garibaldi at the Battle of Aspromonte in 1862, dies. [see: Apr. 30]

1903 - Simone Larcher (true name Rachel Willissek) (d. 1969), French proofreader, anti-militarist and anarchist, born. With her companion, Louis Louvet, she publishes the newspapers 'l'Éveil des Jeunes Libertaires' and 'L'Anarchie', which continues until 1929. [expand]

1906 - [O.S. Mar. 18] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: In a crackdown on the freedom of the press, new laws are introduced increasing the government’s control of the press.

[E] 1913 - Police raid the WSPU’s offices at Lincoln’s Inn House, arresting Beatrice Saunders, the financial secretary of the Union, Harriet Kerr, the office manager, Rachel Barrett, an assistant editor of the 'Suffragette', Geraldine Lennox, a sub-editor, Agnes Lake, the business manager, and Flora Drummond.
The same day police also raided Anne Keeney’s flat (19 Mecklenburgh Square) and the Victoria House Press, which was printing the 'Suffragette' for the first time.

1919 - Criminal Syndicalism: The Criminal Syndicalism Act of 1919 passes into law in California, making it a felony to encourage or provoke, in anyway, violence with a political motivation. It was used to outlaw speaking out against the government and to punish individuals who did so. The act’s main target was the IWW. The Act was not repealed until 1991.
The act defined criminal syndicalism as "any doctrine or precept advocating, teaching or aiding and abetting the commission of crime, sabotage (which word is hereby defined as meaning willful and malicious physical damage or injury to physical property), or unlawful acts of force and violence or unlawful methods of terrorism as a means of accomplishing a change in industrial ownership or control, or effecting any political change." A person in violation of the act could be sentenced to prison. Whitney was tried, convicted, and sentenced to imprisonment.

1920 - Grande Grève des Cheminots [Great Railwayworkers' Strike]: In the light of the railway workers' strike coming on top of the traditional workers' May Day demonstrations, the Conseil des Ministres orders the reinforcement of Paris' gendarmerie with cavalry regiments and infantry, who will collaborate with the forces of law and order service. The military will also occupy all train stations in the capital to try and prevent disruption and disorder.
The Fédération Nationale reiterrates its call for a new 'débrayage général' (general strike/walkout). At the same time, a large number of unionised railway workers have begun resigning from the federation over the past few days since the announcement of the new strike. [see: Mar. 26]

1920 - Following a meeting in Rome on the Russian Revolution, attended by the anarchist Spartaco Stagnetti, the police open fire on the crowd wounding several demonstrators. The crowd fight back killing one guard and wounding several others.

1923 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: In the Sacco and Vanzetti case, the Hamilton motion for a new trial for the anarchists is filed. It is based upon criminologist and gun case expert Hamilton who signed an affidavit stating that said the bullets at the scene and in Berardelli did not come from Sacco’s gun.

1930 - Félix Guattari (d. 1992), French militant, anti-capitalist, institutional psychotherapist, philosopher and semiologist, born.

[B] 1936 - Antonio Artero Coduras (d. 2004), Spanish libertarian filmmaker and essayist, is born to an anarchist mother held in Zaragoza prison.

1939 - Chief Inspector of the Hospitalet police in Spain is killed by the anti-fascist urban guérilla Pallarés group.

[F] 1943 - April-Meistakingen: Countrywide strike. The Germans retaliate, executing over 200 strikers. The Dutch railways however keeps working. Radio Orange in London urges former Dutch POW's not to report again and advices the public to remain calm. [see: Apr. 29]

1943 - 2,000 Jews being deported from Wlodawa to Sobibor Death Camp attack the death camp's SS guards upon arrival at the unloading ramp. All of the Jews are killed on the spot by the SS guards using machine guns and grenades.

1945 - Adolph tops himself.

1962 - Vaga Minaire d'Astúries / Huelga Minera de Asturias [Asturian Miners' Strike]: By the end of April, about 65,000 Asturian workers in mining and industry are on strike and the 'contagion' began to break out in the neighbouring province of Euzkadi, both in mining and in the iron and steel industry, effecting around 50,000 other workers. Demands to end a state-imposed wage freeze are also added to the strikers’ demands. The regime responds with mass arrests, beatings and torture. Strikers are forcibly sent to live hundreds of miles away. [see: Apr. 7]

[D] 1966 - Spanish ecclesiastic adviser to the Vatican, the prelate Marcos Ussia, is kidnapped by the anarchist 1st May Group. The action was explained by Luis A. Edo, demanding the release of all political prisoners of Franco's jails. This action was mainly symbolic, designed to bring international attention to the plight of Spanish anarquistas and other victims of the repression in fascist Spain. Ussia was released on May 11, in good health.

1976 - Gaetano Amoroso (b. 1955), Italian draftsman and student-worker, attending evening classes at an Art School that now bears his name, dies in Milan of stab wounds inflicted by a gang of neo-fascists. A member of the Vento Rosso and Partito Comunista Italiano (Marxista Leninista), he and other comrades of the Comitato Rivoluzionario Antifascista di Porta Venezia (Revolutionary Anti-Fascist Committee of Porta Venezia) are ambushed by a group of well-known MSI squadristi (Cavallini, Folli, Cagnani, Pietropaolo, Terenghi, Croce, Frascini, Forcati) on the evening of April 27, 1976. Gaetano and 2 of his comrades suffer knife wounds and 8 of the fascists are arrested within hours. Gaetano Amoroso died from his injuries 3 days later.

[EE] 1977 - The Movimiento de las Madres de Plaza de Mayo is founded following a meeting on Friday April 30, 1977, of fourteen mothers of the desaparecidos – victims of forced disappearance during the dictatorship of Jorge Rafael Videla and Argentina's Dirty War – at which they hoped to deliver a letter to the secretary of the military chaplain, Adolfo Tortolo, at the Curia Metropolitana in Buenos Aires, demanding information on their loved ones. Nobody received them, so they decided that they would begin a protest campaign across the Plaza de Mayo from the presidential office building, at the Casa Rosada (the Pink House), traditionally the place where political demonstrations took place. The following Saturday the founding group of mothers – Azucena Villaflor de De Vincenti, Berta Braverman, Haydée García Buelas; María Adela Gard de Antokoletz, Julia, María Mercedes and Cándida Gard (four sisters); Delicia González, Pepa Noia, Mirta Baravalle, Kety Neuhaus, Raquel Arcushin, and Senora De Caimi – began their protest. The police ordered them to 'circulate', static gatherings of more than five people being prohibited', so they walked around the Pirámide de Mayo in the centre of the square arm-in-arm in groups of two. However the Plaza was largely empty and the Mothers decided to return the following Friday, when more people would be around. More mothers of the desaparecidos joined them and after that they chose Thursdays ("Viernes es día de brujas" [Friday is a day of witches]) from 15:30 to 16:00 and to make themselves recognisable, they began wearing their iconic white scarves, made initially from babies' cloth nappies.

1978 - 100,000 people marched six miles from Trafalgar Square via the Strand, Fleet Street and Shoreditch to Bethnal Green in the East End of London, where the first Rock Against Racism/ANL Carnival is held in Victoria Park, East London. The Clash, Tom Robinson, Steel Pulse, X-Ray Spex and others played to an audience of at least 80,000 people.

1979 - More than 1,000 officers are deployed against an anti-fascist protesters outside a NF election meeting in Bradford.

1990 - Jean Jérôme (Michał Feintuch; b. 1906), Polish-born French Communist activist, Jew and Résistance member, who helped organise shipments of weapons to Republican Spain and aid for Republican refugees post-defeat, dies. [see: Mar. 12]

[C] 1999 - The Admiral Duncan pub in Soho is targeted by neo-Nazi nail bomber David Copeland. Three people are killed and 79 are injured, four loosing limbs.

2005 - Unarmed 24-year-old Azelle Rodney, is shot dead in the back seat of a car by a police officer in Edgware, north-west London.

2012 - Cleveland 5: 5 Occupy Cleveland activists are arrested in an FBI sting operation, jointly charges with conspiracy, attempted use of an explosive device to destroy property in interstate commerce, and attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction to destroy property in interstate commerce, after allegedly having planned to blow up Ohio bridges.

2013 - 28-year-old Marlon McIntosh, who was serving a nine-week sentence for theft, is discovered hanging in his cell at G4S-run HMP Birmingham.
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C] 2016 [D] 2017 [E] 2018 [F]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC] 2016 [DD] 2017 [EE] 2018 [FF]
Monthly features: 2013 [AAA] 2014 [BBB] 2015 [CCC] 2016 [DDD] 2017 [EEE] 2018 [FFF]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)