"Art is not a mirror to reflect the world, but a hammer with which to shape it." - variously attributed to Bertolt Brecht, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Nikolai Nekrasov and even (in a slightly different version) Leon Trotsky.

1788 - Étienne Cabet (d. 1856), French philosopher, lawyer, utopian socialist and founder of the Icarian movement, born. In 1839 he published a novel, 'Voyage et Aventures de Lord William Carisdall en Icarie'. Influenced by the ideas of Robert Owen, it expounded Cabet's ideas about a communist ideal city, replete with a primitive Christian morality. [NB: dispute over exact date. See: Jan. 2]

[B2] 1818 - Mary Shelley publishes 'Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus'.

1864 - Alfred Stieglitz (d. 1946), American photographer, gallery owner and anarchist sympathiser, born. Renowned both for his photography and his promotion of modern art through his galleries 291 and The Intimate Gallery, and magazines such as '291' and 'Camera Work'. He was also married to painter Georgia O'Keeffe.

1886 - Ethel Carnie Holdsworth (d. 1962), English working class writer, socialist and feminist who started in the mills in Lancashire at the age of 11. Her poetry brought her to the attention of the editor of The Clarion, Robert Blatchford, who helped her to get work as a writer . She wrote poetry, novels and children's stories, edited the 'Woman Worker' as well as the anti-fascist monthly magazine 'The Clear Light' (1920-25), with her husband Alfred. Her 1913 novel, 'Miss Nobody', is widely believed to be the first published novel written by a working-class woman in Britain and another of her novels, 'Helen of Four Gates', was filmed in 1920. She was also national organiser for the anti-fascist organisation the National Union for Combating Fascismo (NUCF), formed in 1924 by E. Burton Dancy.
The composer Ethel Smyth set two of Holdsworth's poems in the song cycle 'Three Songs' (1913). Smyth dedicated 'Possession' to Emmeline Pankhurst and 'On the Road: a marching tune' to Christabel Pankhurst. She also published a series of sonnets in the early 1920s in the anarchist journal 'Freedom', protesting at the imprisonment of anarchists in Soviet jails.
Her works include poetry: 'Rhymes from the Factory' (1907), 'Songs of a Factory Girl' (1911), and 'Voices of Womanhood' (1914); children stories: 'Lazy-Land, And Other Delightful Stories' (1911), 'The Magic Shoe And Other Tales' (1912), and 'The Lamp Girl, and other stories' (1913); and novels: 'Miss Nobody' (1913), 'Helen of Four Gates' (1917), 'The Taming of Nan' (1919), 'The Marriage of Elizabeth' (1920), 'The House that Jill Built' (1920), 'General Belinda' (1924), 'This Slavery' (1925), 'The Quest of the Golden Garter' (1927), 'Eagles' Crag' (1928), 'All On Her Own' (1929), and 'Barbara Dennison' (1929).

[CC] 1898 - Viktor Ullmann (d. 1944), Silesia-born Austrian-Jewish composer, conductor and pianist, born. On September 8, 1942 he was deported to the Theresienstadt (Terezín) concentration camp. Theresienstadt was something of an anomaly within the Nazi death camp infrastructure. Like other ghettos, it had its own Jewish Council which nominally ran the ghetto, provided their own police force (that reported directly to the SS) and made the selection of people, when required by the German authorities, for transport to the extermination camps. It also provided slave labour for the nearby industry - mica works, making boxes and coffins or uniforms for the Eastern front. And it acted as a transit camp for Treblinka and Auschwitz. However, its most important role was as a part of the Nazi propaganda machine, a "model Jewish settlement" created to try and camouflage what was really taking place in concentration camps across Nazi occupied Europe. To this end, many of the Jews specifically singled out for being sent there were what they termed Jews of "special merit", which included artists, musicians and scholars who were able to continue their creative activities. Amongst those was Ullmann, and it was in Theresienstadt that he wrote his last work, 'Der Kaiser von Atlantis oder Die Tod-Verweigerung' (The Emperor of Atlantis or The Disobedience of Death), a one-act opera or "legend in four scenes" by Viktor Ullmann with a libretto by Peter Kien. Written in 1943 and rehearsed in March 1944, it was due to be première that autumn but the SS camp commander, seeing that it was an obvious allegory of the Third Reich with Hitler as the Kaiser von Atlantis, that he banned it. Both Ullmann and Kien were deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau on on October 16, 1944, and Ullman died there in the gas chambers two days later. The opera received its world première in Amsterdam on 16 December, 1975.

[B1] 1919 - Sara Berenguer Laosa (d. 2010), Catalan poet, anarchist and member of Mujeres Libres, is born in Barcelona. Wrote a narrative autobiography 'Entre El Sol y la Tormenta' (Between the Sun and the Storm; 1988). [expand]

1924 - The first issue of the magazine 'Pensiero e Volontà' (Thought and Will) appears in Rome. This review of social studies and general culture is managed by Errico Malatesta and appears fortnightly. Its final issue will appear on 10 October 1926.

1938 - Erik Heino Jaeger (d. 1997), German painter, graphic artist, comedian, satirist, story teller and cabaret artist, born.

1939 - Georgy Ivanovich Chulkov (Гео́ргий Ива́нович Чулко́в; b. 1879), Russian Symbolist poet, editor, writer, critic and the founder and popularised of the theory of Mystical Anarchism, dies. [see: Feb. 1]

1949 - Douglas George Fetherling, American-born Canadian poet, novelist, journalist and essayist, born. Author of the dystopian Vietnam War novel 'The File on Arthur Moss' (1995) and 'The Gentle Anarchist: A Life of George Woodcock' (1998), the only biography of his long-time friend.

[A2] 1960 - Johnny Cash's first San Quentin concert.

2003 - Giorgio Gaber, stage name of Giorgio Gaberscik (b. 1939), Italian singer-songwriter, actor, theatre director, playwright and anarchist sympathiser, who was one of the first Italian rock and rollers, dies. [see: Jan. 25]
1788 - Étienne Cabet (d. 1856), French philosopher, lawyer, utopian socialist and founder of the Icarian movement, born. [Dispute over exact date. See: Jan. 1].

1886 - Gaetano Gervasio (d. 1964), Italian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, carpenter, painter and sculptor, born.

[B1] 1946 - Jean-Bernard Pouy, French creator of Gabriel Lecouvreur, a libertarian detective nicknamed 'The Octopus', born. Born into a family of Catalan anarchists, whilst he himself is not an activist, he retains a strong sympathy for anarchists and anarcho-syndicalist militants in particular.

1948 - Vicente García-Huidobro Fernández (b. 1893), Chilean poet, who was an exponent of the artistic movement called Creacionismo (Creationism), dies. [see: Jan. 10]

1949 - Dynam-Victor Fumet (b. 1867), French composer, organist, anarchist and bomb-maker, dies. [see: May 4]

[B2] 1974 - Jean de Boe (b. 1889), Belgian anarchist militant, trade unionist and co-operativist dies in Anderlecht. Condemned as an accomplice to the Bonnot Gang, in February 1913, to 10 years hard labour in French Guiana. Escaped and returned to Belgium in 1922, where he was active in several strikes and he founded 'Les Arts Graphiques' (The Graphic Arts) co-operative. [see: Mar. 20]

1979 - Trial of Sid Vicious for the October 1978 murder of girlfriend Nancy Spungen, begins in New York City.
[B2] 1882 - Docking in New York, Oscar Wilde is asked by customs if he has anything to declare; he replies: "Nothing but my genius."

[C1] 1892 - John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (d. 1973), English writer, poet, and professor, known for his literary works, 'The Hobbit' and 'The Lord of the Rings', born. His anti-Communist views led to his condemnation of the Spanish Republic and his vocal support of the Spanish Nationalist and of Franco during and after the Spanish Civil War. It has been argued that this stemmed purely from his Catholicism but he maintained a twenty year subscription to 'Candour', the paper of A. K. Chesterton's British National Front but he also repudiated Hitler and Nazism and later apartheid. There is also the question of the latent racism in his early work but generally his political views were somewhat confused as can be seen in the following quote from a letter to his son Christopher in 1943: "My political opinions lean more and more to Anarchy (philosophically understood, meaning abolition of control not whiskered men with bombs) - or to 'unconstitutional' Monarchy. I would arrest anybody who uses the word State (in any sense other than the inanimate realm of England and its inhabitants, a thing that has neither power, rights nor mind); and after a chance of recantation, execute them if they remain obstinate!... Government is an abstract noun meaning the art and process of governing and it should be an offence to write it with a capital G or so as to refer to people... The most improper job of any man, even saints, is bossing other men. Not one in a million is fit for it, and least of all those who seek the opportunity."

1921 - Robert Lapoujade (d. 1993), French painter, radical experimental filmmaker, cinematographer, writer and libertarian Marxist, born. Signatory of 'Manifeste des 121', who is best known for his portraits of French literary figures including Jean-Paul Sartre and Andre Breton. Amongst his short films are 'Prison' (1962), 'Trois portraits d'un oiseau qui n'existait pas' (1964) and 'Un Comedien Sans Paradoxe' (1974). [expand]

[BB] 1922 - André Breton announces a "Congrès international pour la détermination des directives et la défense de l'esprit moderne" (International Congress for the determination of guidelines and the defence of the modern spirit) in an explicit attempt to fracture the Dadaist movement, whose apparent nihilism he sees as mere infantilism: "that Dada may have served no other purpose than to keep us in the perfect state of availability, where we are currently and from which we will now proceed with clarity on what is calling us [i.e. Surrealism]."

1922 - The first edition of 'La Revue Anarchiste' appears in Paris.

[B1] 1923 - Jaroslav Hašek (b. 1883), author of 'Osudy Dobrého Vojáka Švejka za Světové Války' (The Fateful Adventures of the Good Soldier Švejk During the World War; 1923), dies having finished only four volumes of the projected six volumes of his classic anti-authoritarian novel. [see: Apr. 30]

1972 - Frans Masereel (b. 1889), Belgian radical woodcut artist, printmaker, illustrator, draughtsman, libertarian, communist, pacifist and Master of the wordless novel, dies, age 82. [see: Jul. 30]
1856 - (Jean Valérien) Maurice Mac-Nab (d. 1889), French poet, songwriter, performer and postal worker, born. Famed for his ironic songs of working-class life performed at the Club des Hydropathes, at the the literary club Café de l'Avenir, in the Latin Quarter, and at Le Chat Noir in Montmartre. Many of his popular songs, such as 'L'Expulsion' and 'Le Grand Métingue du Métropolitain', were explicitly anarchist in sentiment and were sung at demonstrations.

1857 - Émile Cohl (Émile Eugène Jean Louis Courtet; d. 1938), French caricaturist, cartoonist, and animator, born. Disciple of André Gill, member of the Hydropathes and of the largely forgotten Les Arts Incohérents (Incoherents), which included Eugène Bataille (Sapeck) and Jules Levy. Prolific animator whose work embraced his clearly libertarian political views, including the series 'Les Aventures des Pieds Nickelés' (Adventures of the Leadfoot Gang) may have been the best work of Cohl's career. It was based on a working class comic strip by Louis Forton, about a gang of anarchistic youngsters constantly getting into trouble with both the criminal underground and the law. See also his character Toto, who featured in a short entitled 'Toto Devient Anarchiste' (1910).

[B2] 1878 - Augustus Edwin John (d. 1961), Welsh Post-Impressionist painter, draughtsman and etcher, born. The King of Bohemia frequented the London anarchist clubs whilst a student at the Slade in the late 1890s, was familiar with Kropotkin’s 'Memoirs of a Revolutionist' and temporarily named his son Ravachol after the anarchist bomber in 1902 before finally plumping for David. Later in life, he joined the Freedom Defence Committee, the Committee of the National Campaign for the Abolition of Capital Punishment and the Committee of 100.

[C] 1886 - Armand Guerra aka José Silavitse (José Maria Estivalis Cabo; d. 1939), Spanish anarchist, scenario writer, filmmaker, actor, typesetter and member of the young C.N.T., born. In 1913 he created the Paris film co-operative Le Cinéma du Peuple, which made a number of films social nature, including 'La Commune' (1914) and 'The Old Docker'. Guerra was both a producer and actor in these films and used old Communards and anarchists in them. After a 12 year period living in Germany, working on all aspects of the film industry (editor, dubbing director, producer, director, screenwriter, actor), he returned to Spain following the rise of Hitler. There he made his first full-length film during the summer of 1936, before going to the front to fight fascism with a camera. 'Carne de Fieras' (Meat of Wild Animals) was never released, and thought lost forever, until a negative was discovered and released in 1993. He also wrote a diary of his Civil War years entitled 37 'A Través de la Metralla: Escenas Vividas en Los Frentes y en La Retaguardia' (Through Shrapnel. Vivid scenes at the Fronts and in the Rearguard), 1937.
Filmography: 'Un cri dans la jungle' (A cry in the jungle; 1913); 'Les Misères de l'Aiguille' (The miseries of the needle; Dec. 1913), the story of a seamstress who, after the death of her husband, to escape misery, attempts suicide with her ​​baby, staring the rench actress, film director and writer, Musidora (Jeanne Roques) in her first role; 'Le Vieux Docker' (The Old Docker; Feb. 1914); 'La Commune' part 1 (1914); 'Sommernachtstraum' (A Midsummer Night's Dream; 1925), as actor; 'Luis Candelas o El bandido de Madrid' (Luis Candelas or The Bandit of Madrid; 1926); 'Batalla de Damas' (1928); 'Die Geschenkte Loge' (The Gift of the Lodge; 1928), banned by the German censors on the pretext that a gardener busy watering his garden appeared to be urinating; 'El Amor Solfeando' (1930); 'La Alegría que Pasa' (Joy Happens; 1934), playing the part of a clown; 'Carne de Fieras' (Flesh of Beasts; 1936); and 'Estampas Guerreras' Nos. 1&2 (Warrior Prints; 1937), shot with the 'España Libre' Column. [see also: Mar. 10]

[B1] 1896 - André-Aimé-René Masson aka André Masson (d. 1987), French Surrealist painter, sculptor, illustrator, designer, writer and anarchist, born. Masson studied painting in Brussels and then in Paris. He fought in World War I and was severely wounded. He joined the emergent Surrealist group in the mid-1920s after one of his paintings had attracted the attention of André Breton. Masson soon became the foremost practitioner of automatic writing, which, when applied to drawing, was a form of spontaneous composition intended to express impulses and images arising directly from the unconscious. However, Masson rejected Breton's increasingly egotistic and dogmatic political stance, and especially the notion of having to join the PCF if he remained in the Surrealist group, and he left the Breton's circle.
Masson’s paintings and drawings from the late 1920s and the ’30s are turbulent, suggestive renderings of scenes of violence, eroticism, and physical metamorphosis. A natural draftsman, he used sinuous, expressive lines to delineate biomorphic forms that border on the totally abstract. The fascist riots in Paris on February 6, 1934 prompted Masson and his wife-to-be, Rose Maklès, to depart for Spain. They eventually settled in Tossa de Mar, where they immersed themselves in Spanish culture and politics. Masson supported the Republican government's attempts to create educational reforms, redistribute land, and improve living conditions for factory workers and rural labourers. He also joined an anarchist syndicate and designed the flags of the German and British forces in the International Brigades. His art from this period reveals his concern about the rising threat of Franco and Fascism [see: 'The Barcelona Acéphale: Spain and the Politics of Violence in the Work of André Masson' by Robin Greeley]. After Franco staged his 1936 coup, Masson and his family returned to France when civil war broke out in 1936, but the artist remained deeply concerned for the Spanish people. With the German occupation of France in 1939, Masson was in danger of persecution by the Nazis because of his degenerate art and the Surrealists had ties to the Communist Party, and the fact that his wife Rose was Jewish. In 1941, Masson managed to travel to the Caribbean island of Martinique, and from there to enter the United States.
Although Masson never learned English, he used his years in exile to educate Americans about contemporary French art, lecturing and collaborated with other European exiles on conferences and publications. The American critic Clement Greenberg believed that Masson's visit to America and his exhibitions played a pivotal role in the development of Abstract Expressionism in New York.
With the end of the war in 1945, Masson returned to his native France. He developed an interest in Japanese and Chinese calligraphy (as well as the Impressionist paintings of Monet and the Romantic landscapes of J. M. W. Turner) and was also drawn to the philosophy of Zen Buddhism.
"Painful contradictions are sometimes the source of the greatest riches".

1960 - Albert Camus (b. 1913), is killed, aged 46, in an automobile accident near Sens. [see: Nov. 7]

2004 - Jeff Nuttall (b. 1933), English poet, publisher, actor, painter, sculptor, jazz trumpeter, anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Jul. 8]

2007 - Carles Fontserè (b. 1916), one of the important Catalan anarchist poster artists of the Spanish Revolution, dies. Active in the Sindicato de Dibujantes Profesionales de Barcelona (Union of Professional Illustrators; SPD), whose posters plastered the walls of Barcelona - as George Orwell noted on his arrival in the city that December: "The revolutionary posters were everywhere, flaming from the walls in clean reds and blues that made the few remaining advertisements look like daubs of mud." Fontserè was to bemoan the loss of vitality of these posters once they became 'official' productions of the Republic. The F.A.I. poster 'Llibertat!' (Freedom), with the sickle-waving farmer and the red and black flag in the background, is his work. [see: Mar. 9]

2007 - Helen Hill (b. 1970), American animation filmmaker and social activist, dies. [see: May 9]
[B] 1844 - Manuel González Prada (d. 1918), noted Peruvian poet, literary and social critic, anarchist thinker, writer and polemicist, born. Numerous of his articles on anarchism and related themes appeared in the Lima newspaper 'Los Parias' (1904-1909) under the pseudonym Anarquía. Briefly head of the National Library of Peru, he resigned following the coup d'etat in 1914. Several of his collections of poetry were published or translated during his lifetime and after.

1898 - Federico García Lorca (d. 1936) born. [expand

1942 - Tina Modotti (Assunta Adelaide Luigia Modotti Mondini; b. 1896), Italian photographer, model, actress and revolutionary political activist, dies. [see: Aug. 16]

1942 - Roland Lethem, Belgian radical filmmaker, screenwriter, actor, writer and anarchist, born. Influenced by Buñuel, Cocteau, Surrealist and Japanese cinema, his work has regularly outraged bourgeois sensibilities. Amongst his better known works are 'La Ballade des Amants Maudits' (Ballad of Star-crossed Lovers; 1966), 'La Fée Sanguinaire' (The Bloody Fairy; 1968), 'Les Souffrances d'un Ouf Meurtri' (The Sorrows of a Bruised Egg; 1967) 'Bande de Cons!' (Band of Idiots; 1970) and 'Le Sexe Enragé de la Fée Sanguinaire' (The Angry Sex of the Bloody Fairy; 1979).
[B] 1848 - Hristo Botev (Hristo Botyov Petkov; b. 1876), Bulgarian poet, writer, early anarchist, propagandist and revolutionary, born. The first prominent Bulgarian anarchist, his life and writings have shamelessly been appropriated by both Bulgarian nationalists and Communists.

1874 - Michal Kácha (d. 1940), Czech shoemaker, anarchist, journalist, editor, translator and publisher, who had a great influence on young writers of his time, born. In 1904, along with the poet, activist, and co-editor of 'Červen' (June), S. K. Neumann, Kácha founded both the Česká Anarchistická Federace (Czech Anarchist Federation, or ČAF) and the Česká Federace Va̧ech Odborů (Czech Federation of All Unions, or ČFVO). Unsuccessful in creating societal change, they merged to form the Federaci Českých Anarchistů Komunistů (Federation of Czech Anarchist Communists, or FČAK) during the Anarchist Congress held in April 1914 in Prague, despite Kácha's objections ["a germ of next compromises"] that it would betray anarchist ideals and corrupt the movement.
Editor of the magazines 'Práce' (Labour, official ČAF publication; 1905–8) and 'Zádruha' (The Cooperative; 1909–14), he also published fellow anarchist Frana Sramek's poetry collection 'Života Bído, Přec Tě Mám Rád' (Life is Misery, Yet I Love You..!; 1905). After the outbreak of WWI, he was arrested and interned in Göllersdorf Castle, but was eventually sent to the front, where he was wounded and invalided out in 1917.
After the war, the anarchist movement fell apart but Kácha failed to follow many into the KSČ, but he created the anarchist-influenced magazine 'Červen' (1919–21) along with S. K. Neumann.

1952 - Serge Quadruppani, French author of romans noirs detective fiction, translator, essayist, literary editor, journalist and committed libertarian militant, born. The French translator of Andrea Camilleri's series of Inspector Montalbano novels.

1974 - David Alfaro Siqueiros (born José de Jesús Alfaro Siqueiros; b. 1896), Mexican social realist painter, muralist, trades union organiser and one-time anarchist, dies. [see: Dec. 29]

1977 - William Victor 'Bill' Gropper (b. 1897), U.S. cartoonist, Social Realist painter associated with the Ash-Can Group, lithographer, muralist, left (libertarian) communist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Dec. 3]

1977 - Three months after signing the Sex Pistols for £40,000, EMI terminates the contract after releasing only one single.

1982 - Albert Meister (b. 1927), Swiss author and anarchist sociologist, dies. The real author of 'La Soi-Disant Utopie du Centre Beaubourg' (Éditions Entente; 1976) allegedly written by 'Gustave Affeulpin', a fictional text of a future radical libertarian space under the Pompideau Centre (built on what was the working class community of Beaubourg).Participated with Jacques Vallet on the creation of the arts and satire review 'Le Fou Parle' (The Fool Speaks) in 1977. A prolific author under a host of pseudonyms and a researcher in the Ecole des Hautes Etudes de Paris (School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences). [see: Jul. 22]

2006 - C. J. Sansom's detective novel 'Winter in Madrid', is first published. Set in 1940 in the aftermath of Franco's victory, the novel describes Madrid under the yoke of political repression, food shortages, poverty, corruption, sadism and ignorance (religious and political), and puts the defeat of the Republic fully at the feet of the Communists.
1873 - Charles Péguy (d. 1914), French poet, playwright, essayist, editor, libertarian socialist and anti-clericalist, born. Strongly inspired by the anarchism of Jean Grave and, outraged at the anti-Semitism being displayed in the Dreyfus case, became an ardent Dreyfusard. His early political tracts were published in 'La Revue Socialiste' and 'La Revue Blanche', but he gradually moved towards mainstream socialist thought, nationalism and even Catholicism.

1876 - Rafael Barrett (Rafael Ángel Jorge Julián Barrett y Álvarez de Toledo; d. 1910), Spanish polymath, writer, essayist, journalist and anarchist thinker, who became an important figure of the Paraguayan literature during the twentieth century, born. Launched the anarchist newspaper 'Germinal' in 1908, which was quickly banned for exposing torture and abuses of power and Barrett arrested and exiled to Brazil, and them to Uruguay.

1884 - Arturo M. Giovannitti (d. 1959), Italian-American IWW activist, anarchist socialist, anti-fascist agitator and poet, born. He was involved in the IWW's organisation of the 1912 Lawrence 'Bread and Roses' textile strike (also known as the 'Strike for Three Loaves'), alongside Joseph Ettor, during which a woman striker named Anna LoPizzo, was killed as police broke up a picket line. Joseph Caruso, a striker, was charged with her murder (even though the fatal shot was fired by the police). Giovannitti and Ettor, who were not present, were later arrested and charged as accessories to murder as part of the authorities' attempts to break the union.

"A man may lose his soul for just one day
Of splendor and be still accounted wise,
Or he may waste his life in a disguise
Like kings and priests and jesters, and still may

Be saved and held a hero if the play
Is all he knew. But what of him who tries
With truth and fails and then wins fame with lies?
How shall he know what history will say?

By this: No man is great who does not find
A poet who will hail him as he is
With an almighty song that will unbind

Through his exploits eternal silences.
Duce, where is your bard? In all mankind
The only poem you inspired is this. "

- 'To Mussolini'


1887 - Henri Chassin (d. 1964), French poet, anarchist songwriter and an anti-militarist who deserted from the army in 1914, born. A "petit fils de communard" who was the author of numerous popular Parisian songs. Active in the great railway strike of 1920 and was charged with "conspiracy against state security" and imprisoned. Involved in le Groupe des Hydropathes, La Vache Enragée, the activities of La Muse Rouge and performed in many Paris cabarets such as the Grenier de Grégoire. Author of a book of poems 'Machin de Belleville' in 1927.

1891 - Zora Neale Hurston (d. 1960), US folklorist, anthropologist, novelist, short story writer and civil right activist, who was a fixture of the Harlem Renaissance before writing her masterwork, 'Their Eyes Were Watching God' (1937), born. The daughter of two former slaves, to support herself and finance her efforts to get an education, Hurston worked a variety of jobs, including as a maid for an actress in a touring Gilbert and Sullivan group. [expand]

1895 - Georgette Ryner (d. 1975), libertarian activist, writer and poet, born. Daughter of anarchist thinker Han Ryner and companion of the individualist anarchist Louis Simon. Worked on numerous newspaper and journals including 'Le Semeur de Normandie' (The Sower), 'L'en Dehors' (The Outside) and 'Ce Qu'il Faut Dire' (What Must Be Said) and was author of numerous books and poems including 'Dans la Ronde Éternelle' (In the Eternal Round; 1926) and 'Adolescente Passionnée' (1969). [NB: Numerous internet sources state that Georgette was Han Ryner's partner (pace 'The Daily Bleed'). This is incorrect.]

1900 - Ludovic Massé (d. 1982), Catalan proletarian writer, novelist and libertarian, born. Author of 'Le Refus' (1946), in praise of pacifism, and numerous other novels.

1909 - Philippe Daudet (d. 1923), youthful French anarchist and author of the posthumously published poetry collection 'Parfums Maudits' (1924), who died in mysterious circumstances, born. Son of the reactionary 'Action Française' journalist Léon Daudet (1867-1942), who was himself the son of the anarchist sympathiser Alphonse Daudet (1840-1897). Léon had been the perferred January 22, 1923, target for Germaine Berton at the 'Action Française' offices, but who instead ended up shooting Marius Plateau. This action inspired Philippe, who anonymously contacted Georges Vidal, the editor of 'Le Libertaire', on Nov. 22, 1923, laying out his anarchist sympathies and stating that he was going to assassinate Raymond Poincaré (President of the Council of Ministers) or Alexandre Millerand (President of the Republic). Two days later he visted the supposed anarchist bookseller Pierre Le Flaouter, who was in fact a police informer. Alarmed at Philippe's plans, Le Flaouter stalled him, telling him to return to the shop later that day. Meanwhile he contacted the police to warn them about the plot.
What happened next is disputed. One version is that istead of entering the bookshop where the police lay in wait, Philippe hailed a taxi and went to the St. Lazare prison, where Germaine Berton was being held, and shot himself in the head, an unknown suicide.
On Dec. 2, 'Le Libertaire' brought out a special edition with the headline "The Tragic Death of Philippe Daudet, Anarchist. Léon Daudet, his father, hushes up the truth", after 'Action Française' had announced that Philippe's death was due to illness, laying out the truth (as far as they knew it).
Léon Daudet in turn claimed that the whole thing was a bizarre conspiracy between the French state and the anarchists somehow tied up to the failed assassination attempt on him, with the Sureté killing Philippe. The taxi driver Bajot then brought a defamation suit against Léon, which was successful and Léon spent 5 months in prison and was fined 5000 francs.
Where Philippe got the gun or what really happened is not, and probably never will be, known but the smart money is on his being killed by the police.

1919 - Robert Duncan (d. 1988), queer American poet and lifelong anarchist, who set himself against orthodoxy in all its forms, whether mercantile capitalism, the communist state or - most troubling for his friends during the Vietnam War - absolute pacifism, born. A devotee of the Imagist poet H.D. (Hilda Doolittle) and wrote 'The H.D. Book' (2011), the definitive work on H.D.'s poetics. Duncan was also gay and managed to earned himself a discharge by from the University of California, Berkeley, after previously having dropped out, by outing himself as a homosexual.
Member of the San Francisco Libertarian Circle, he also lived in a small upstate New York anarchist rural commune associated with Holly Cantine and his companion, Dachine Rainer, who were publishers for several years of the anarchist quarterly, 'Retort'.

[A] 1920 - Albert Meltzer (d. 1996), English militant anarchist, boxer, bit part actor, historian, author and publisher, born in Tottenham, London. Co-founder, with Stuart Christie, of the Anarchist Black Cross, he helped found the Kate Sharpley Library. His best known works are his autobiography, 'I Couldn't Paint Golden Angels' (1996), 'Anarchism: Arguments For and Against' (1981) and 'The Floodgates of Anarchy' (1970; co-written with Stuart Christie).

[B] 1938 - Roland Topor (d. 1997), Polish-born French graphic artist, cartoonist, painter, writer, filmmaker, actor, songwriter, surrealist and cultural anarchist, born. Co-founder in 1962, with Fernando Arrabal and Alejandro Jodorowsky, of the Mouvement Panique (Panic Movement), an anarchist avant-garde collective, whose other members included Christian Zeimert, Jacques Sternberg and Olivier O. Olivier. Contributor for many years to the likes of 'Hara-Kiri' and 'Le Fou Parle' and ran the magazine 'Mépris' with Sternberg. A prolific book illustrator and poster artist, he was one of the artists to contribute original lithographs to the radical anarchist journal 'Situationist Times'. Wrote the novel 'Le Locataire Chimérique' (The Tenant; 1964), which was adapted by Roman Polanski for his 1976 film 'The Tenant'. His most famous film part was as Renfield in Werner Herzog's 'Nosferatu: Phantom der Nacht' (1979). Created the designs for René Lalouxs 'La Planète Sauvage' (1973), a 72-minute long animated film, based on a novel by Stefan Wul, and designed the magic lantern sequence in 'Il Casanova di Federico Fellini' (1976). His most famous novel is the widely translated 'Joko Fête son Anniversaire' (Joko's Anniversary; 1969), a scathing satire on social conformity. Posthumously awarded a Satrapcy in the Collège de Pataphysique.

"Cette période historique
M'a insufflé la Panique
J'ai conservé le dégoût
De la foule et des gourous
De l'ennui et du sacré
De la poésie sucrée
Des moisis des pisse-froid
Des univers à l'étroit
Des collabos des fascistes
Des musulmans intégristes
De tous ceux dont l'idéal
Nie ma nature animale
A se nourrir de sornettes
On devient pire que bêtes
Je veux que mon existence
Soit une suprême offense
Aux vautours qui s'impatientent
Depuis les années quarante
En illustrant sans complexe
Le sang la merde et le sexe"

(This historical period
I breathed Panic
I kept disgust
The crowd and gurus
Of boredom and sacred
The sweet poetry
Moldy of cold fish
Universes cramped
Of fascist collaborators
Muslim fundamentalists
All those whose ideal
Nie ma animal nature
A feed of nonsense
It is worse than beasts
I want my life
Is a supreme offence
The vultures who are impatient
Since the forties
Illustrating unashamedly
Blood shit and sex)

extract from 'Un beau soir je suis né en face de l’abattoir ' (One evening I was born in front of the abattoir; 2000).


1942 - Hellmut G. Haasis, German historian, writer, publisher and libertarian, born. His writings cover everything from social and political history to poetry, theatre and radio plays, and a novel written in the Swabian dialect. Has been a regular contributor to the quarterly anarchist magazine 'Schwarzer Faden' (Black Thread).

1948 - Jimmy Gladiator, French anarchist activist, CNT member, poet and novelist, born. Author of the surreal 'Éléphants de la Patrie' (Elephants of the Homeland; 2008).
1863 - Paul Karl Wilhelm Scheerbart (d. 1915), German author of fantastic literature and drawings and an individualist anarchist, who was chosen as on of the 'saints' of Mynona and Anselm Ruest's 'Der Einzige' (he also contributed an article to the first issue), born. He published under the pseudonyms Kuno Küfer and Bruno Küfer, including his best known work, 'Glasarchitektur' (1914), published as Kuno Küfer. Closely associated with one of the leading proponents of Expressionist architecture, Bruno Taut, and he composed aphoristic poems about glass for Taut's Glass Pavilion at the Werkbund Exhibition (1914). He was also close to Erich Mühsam, Senna Hoy (contributing to 'Der Kampf') and Paul Scheerbart. He is also remembers as having tried to invent a perpetual motion machine and having been an influence via his writings and his 'scientific research', on Alfred Jarry.

1896 - Paul Verlaine (b. 1844), French Symbolist poète maudit, dies. [see: Mar. 30]

1898 - Tudor Vianu (d. 1964), Romanian literary critic, art critic, poet, philosopher, academic, and translator, known for his left-wing and anti-fascist convictions, born. Throughout the interwar period, Vianu was an adversary of the fascist Iron Guard, and was regularly a target of attacks in the right-wing press especially in 'Cuvântul', the newspaper of the fascist philosopher Nae Ionescu. Amongst his works are 'Dualismul Artei' (The Dualism of Art; 1925); 'Poezia lui Eminescu' (The Poetry of Eminescu; 1930); 'Arta şi Frumosul' (Art and Beauty; 1932); 'Idealul Clasic al Omului' (The Classic Idea of Man; 1934); 'Estetica' (Aesthetics), a work in two volumes, 1934 & 1936; 'Filosofie şi Poezie' (Philosophy and Poetry; 1937); 'Istorism și Naționalism' (Historicism and Nationalism; 1938); 'Introducere in Teoria Valorilor: : intemeiata pe observatia constiintei' (Introduction to the Theory of Values: founded on the observation of consciousness; 1942); 'Introducere in Teoria Valorilor' (Introduction to the Theory of Values;1942); 'Istoria Literaturii Române Moderne' (The History of Modern Romanian Literature; 1944), with Serban Cioculescu and Vladimir Streinu; and 'Dicţionar de Maxime (Comentat)' (Dictionary of Maxims (Annotated); 1962); etc.

1911 - Pietro Gori (b. 1865), Italian anarchist, labour activist and lawyer, who was an ardent legal defender of numerous anarchists, dies. He was also renowned as a poet and songwriter - author of some of the most famous anarchist songs of the late 19th century, including 'Addio a Lugano' (Farewell to Lugano), 'Stornelli d'Esili' (Exile Songs) and 'Ballata per Sante Caseri' (Ballad for Sante Geronimo Caserio). Published a number of books of poetry, including 'Prigioni e Battaglie' (Jails and Battles; 1891) and 'Alla conquista dell'Avvenire' (Conquering the Future; 1892). [see: Aug. 14]

1925 - George Bellows (b. 1882), US painter and illustrator, dies. [see: Aug. 19]

1948 - Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters (b. 1887), German dadaist artist, whose unique collage work and sound poetry he labelled Merz, dies. [see: Jun. 20]

[A] 1972 - Kenneth Patchen (b. 1911), American anarchist poet, novelist, graphic designer, pacifist and war resister, dies in Palo Alto. [see: Dec. 13]

[B] 1996 - Carmen Conde Abellán aka Florentina (b. 1907), Spanish teacher, narrative writer, poet, children's author, militant anarcha-feminist and Mujeres Libres member, dies. [see: Aug. 15]
1870 - [N.S. Jan. 21] Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (Russian: Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен; b. 1812), Russian writer, journalist, novelist and thinker, who was one of the main 'forefathers' of Russian socialism and agrarian populism (an ideological ancestor of the Narodniki, Socialist-Revolutionaries, etc.), and who was greatly influenced by the anarchism, dies. [see: Apr. 6]

1875 - Julio Herrera y Reissig (d. 1910), Uruguayan poet, playwright, essayist and anarchist, born. Stylistically, he began as a Romanticist but later became an early proponent of Modernism and Surrealism.

[C] 1890 - Karel Čapek (d. 1938), Czech playwright, writer, translator, journalist, photographer, philosopher and staunch anti-fascist, who is probably best known for his science fiction, especially his 1920 play 'R.U.R.' (Rossum's Universal Robots) which introduced the word robot, born. Many of his latter works, written just before the entry of Hitler into Czechoslovakia, deal with the rise of dictatorship and the terrible consequences of war. These include his anti-fascist novel 'War with the Newts' (Válka s Mloky; 1936), 'The White Scourge' [or 'The White Plague'] (Bílá Nemoc; 1937) and 'The Mother' (Matka; 1938). One of his later poems, 'Až my budem v tmavém hrobě spáti' (When we go to lie down in a dark grave), deals with the fascist bombing of Badajoz during the Spanish Civil War.

1890 - Kurt Tucholsky (d. 1935), German-Jewish pacifist, non-aligned socialist, journalist, satirist and writer, born. He also wrote under the pseudonyms Kaspar Hauser, Peter Panter, Theobald Tiger and Ignaz Wrobel. A member of the Gruppe Revolutionarer Pazifisten (Revolutionary Pacifist Group) alongside Ernst Friedrich, Walter Mehring and Ernst Toller. His books, which included 'Deutschland, Deutschland Über Alles' (1929), a strident piece of social criticism with illustrations by John Heartfield, were listed on the Nazi's censorship as Entartete Kunst and burned, and he lost his German citizenship.

1895 - Robert Proix (d. 1978), French socialist, anarchist and pacifist, born in Jean-Baptiste André Godin's Familistère de Guise, a industrial workers community based on the principles of Fourier. A friend of André Prudhommeaux and Albert Camus, who wrote for the libertarian review, 'Témoins' (Witness), that Proix edited. Proix also edited 'Albert Camus, ses Amis du Livre' (1962) [published in english as 'Albert Camus and the Men of the Stone' (1971)], a book of remembrances of Camus by members of the printing trade that knew him. He also worked on the newspapers 'Liberté', 'Union Pacifiste' and 'Monde Libertaire' and supported Louis Lecoin's conscientious objector / antiwar activities. During WWII, he was interned in the Fort du Hâ in Bordeaux for helping Jews escape persecution.

1896 - Manuel Rojas Sepúlveda (d. 1973), Chilean anarchist writer, novelist, poet and essayist, is born in Buenos Aires.

1908 - Simone de Beauvoir (d. 1986) born. [expand]

[BB] 1911 - The funeral of 'poet of anarchism' Pietro Gori , who died yesterday in Portoferraio (Elba) at the age of 46 years. His remains are transferred from Piombino to Elba Island (Tuscany) by boat, then taken by train to Rosignano, where he is buried. These impressive funeral arrangements take place over three days in order to allow the thousands of workers from all over Tuscany to bid farewell a revered comrade.

[CC] 1915 - William Herrick (born William Horvitz; d. 2004), US author of the classic Spanish Civil War novel 'Hermanos!' (1969), which depicts the Communist Party's machinations during the Spanish Revolution through the eyes of various International Brigade members and CP apparatchiks, born. Born into a Jewish communist family, he too joined the Party, whose ideology he was later to characterise as "a kind of brainwashing, . . . a religion. The world's worst." In the '30s Depression he spent time in an anarchist utopian community in Michigan, later drifting across the country "on the bum" joining picket lines and protests wherever he found them. He was also involved in trying to organise black sharecroppers in the South, a CP policy that he later repudiated as a reckless propaganda exercise by the Communists that led to the deaths of too many Black workers, and nearly led to his own death when a secret meeting he was at was attacked by police and racists.
He joined the Abraham Lincoln Battalion and rapidly became disillusioned with the Communist Party's role in the Civil War, the incompetence of its officers and its treatment of others on the Republican side including the anarchists and POUM (Partit Obrer d'Unificació Marxista / Workers Party of Marxist Unification). The story of Oliver Law is a case in point: a black American promoted to a senior position for communists propaganda purposes, he was hopelessly inadequate in the field and caused the deaths of many of the men under his command. When he was killed in action the Party press had him dying a hero's death when leading an attack, but Herrick suggests that he was deliberately shot by some of his own troops.
On February 23, 1937, during fighting near Madrid, Herrick was shot in the neck. The bullet lodged millimetres from his spinal cord, and could not be removed. Recuperating in Spain, he had an affair with a nurse who also happened to be the wife of a top (Hungarian) Communist official. Already under suspicion, his loyalty was questioned and he was forced to watch POUM members and anarchists being executed. These experiences all formed the basis of the anti-Stalinist roman a clef, 'Hermanos!', Spanish for 'brothers'.
He returned to the United States because of his wounds and given a job in the Party-controlled Fur and Leather Workers' Union, but what he had seen in the ranks of the Communist forces made it impossible for him to remain much longer a loyal supporter of the movement. The Hitler-Stalin pact of August 1939 was the last straw. He protested against Moscow's new alliance and was blacklisted from the Furriers Union.
He went on to write 9 novels (in addition to 'Hermanos!'), including 'Shadows and Wolves' (1980), 'Love and Terror' (1981) and 'Kill Memory' (1983), all set in Spain, and a memoir, 'Jumping the Line: The Adventures and Misadventures of an American Radical' (1998).

1929 - Heiner Müller (d. 1995), German dramatist, director, poet, anarchist, born.

1931 - The first edition of the weekly satirical newspaper 'El Luchador' (The Wrestler) is published in Barcelona. After several interruptions, it will definitively cease publication after August 4, 1933 (issue 122).

[B] 1950 - Rio Reiser (Ralph Christian Möbius; d. 1996), German singer, musician, composer, songwriter, actor and queer anarchist, born. Active in the Berlin Kreuzberg scene, writting the squatters' anthem 'Rauch-Haus-Song' (Smoke House Song). Singer and main songwriter of the band Sharam (1970-85), his most well known songs include 'Macht Kaputt, Was Euch Kaputt Macht' (Destroys What Destroys You; 1969) and 'Keine Macht für Niemand' (No Power for Nobody; 1972).

2007 - Mary Stanley Low (b. 1912), Anglo-Australian Trotskyist and later anarchist, poet, Surrealist, linguist and classics teacher, dies. [see: May 14]
1885 - Vladimir Yevgraphovich Tatlin (Влади́мир Евгра́фович Та́тлин; d. 1953); Russian, and later Soviet, painter and architect, born. Initailly associated with the pre-Revolutionary anarchist movement around the Futurists, he was a member of a number of anarchist groups (including the Activist Group of the Moskovskija Associacija Anarchistov) and involved with the anarchist weekly newspaper 'Anarkhiia', alongside Malevich and Rodchenko. However, like a number of one-time anarchists who remained in Russia (rather than fleeing abroad) following the Bolshevik takeover, he joined the Constructivist orthodoxy along with the likes of Rodchenko and Aleksei Gan, which was in turn suppressed in favour of Socialist Realism.

[B] 1893 - Vicente Huidobro (Vicente García-Huidobro Fernández; d. 1948), Chilean poet, who was an exponent of the artistic movement called Creacionismo (Creationism), born. As a student Huidobro became interested in anarchism and, having become editor in 1912, published numerous anarchist and IWW texts and speeches in the modernist magazine 'Musa Joven'. He became close to the Feración de Estudiantes de la Universidad de Chile because 'Juventud' and 'Claridad' published the latest on new art and the avant-garde, as well as writings of renowned anarchists (Kropotkin, Bakunin, Proudhon), thus confirming a close bond between left-libertarianism politics and the avant-garde.

1914 - IWW labour organiser and folk singer Joe Hill, coiner of the phrase "pie in the sky", allegedly kills two men during a grocery store hold-up; he is executed for the crime amid much controversy regards his being framed, Salt Lake City, Utah.

1919 - Arrest of the author, poet, publisher, anarchist Erich Mühsam and 11 other radicals in Germany.

1928 - Philip Levine, American working-class poet, anti-fascist and anarchist, born.

1946 - Daniel Giraud, French essayist, translator, poet, Sinologist, Taoist anarchist and blues musician, who perfoms under the stage name Dan Giraud, born.

1949 - A.J. Alexandrovitch (Alexandre Joseph)(b.1873), prolific Russian-born French libertarian artist (portraiture and landscape) in paint, ink, charcoal, as well as etching and lithograph, dies. Painted many allegorical compostions as well as portraits of all the well known contemporary anarchist figures. [Mar 11]

1961 - Dashiell Hammett (b. 1894), author and creator of Sam Spade ('The Maltese Falcon') and Nick and Nora Charles ('The Thin Man'), dies. ​[see: May 27]

1986 - Jaroslav Seifert (b. 1901), Czech poet, writer, journalist and translator, dies. [see: Sep. 23]

2004 - Ramón Liarte Viu (b. 1918), Spanish anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist militant, autodidact, journalist and writer, dies. [see: Aug. 28]
[B] 1890 - William Morris' 'News From Nowhere (or An Epoch of Rest)' begins serialisation in 'The Commonweal'.

1949 - Paco Ignacio Taibo II (born Francisco Ignacio Taibo Mahojo), Mexican intellectual, historian, professor, journalist, social activist, union organiser and world-renowned writer, born. Widely known as PIT, his working-class anarchist family fled Spain in 1958 to escape the Franco regime. In Mexico he became involved in the student movement of 1968 and later an organiser working with independent trade unions. Creator of Héctor Belascoarán Shayne, a one-eye anarchist detective from Mexico City who has appeared in 6 novels including the most recent, 'The Uncomfortable Dead' (2006), co-written with Subcomandante Marcos. Another novel, 'De Paso' (1986) published in English as 'Just Passing Through' (2000), is the story of an exiled Spanish anarchist, Sebastián San Vicente [a real historical figure] in 1920's post-revolutionary Mexico. He is also the author of '68' (2004), a study of the Tlatelolco Square massacre. [see: Oct. 2].

1999 - Fabrizio De André (b. 1940), Sardinian anarchist songster, dies in Milan. [see: Feb. 18]
1876 - Jack London (d. 1916), US author of 'The Iron Heel', 'The Sea-Wolf' and 'People Of The Abyss' amongst other works, born. A passionate advocate of unionism, socialism and considered by many as a "pre-mature anti-fascist" though, like many of his peers, he too feared the "the yellow peril".

1890 - Vasily Yakovlevich Eroshenko (d. 1952), blind Russian anarchist, novelist, linguist, translator and an important activist in the Esperanto Movement, born.

[B] 1900 - Yanase Masamu (柳瀬正梦; d. 1945), Japanese manga artist and cartoonist, born. Co-founder of the Miraiha-Bijutsu-Kyokai (Futurist Art Association) in 1920 and MAVO in 1923. Yanase was committed to both proletarian art and its more avant-garde elements as exemplified by the anarchist-influenced MAVO group. He also worked as a satirical cartoonist for various leftist papers including 'Tanemaku Hito' (The Sower), and was frequently investigated and imprisoned. One of the founders of the Japan Manga Society, Yanase also later became a member of the communist-affiliated Proletarian Artist's League and, in October 1931 after having worked on the Japanese Communist Party's officially sanctioned newspaper 'Musansha Shinbun' (Proletarian News), joined the outlawed organisation.

1991 - Vasco Pratolini (b. 1913), Italian novelist, screenwriter, communist, anti-Nazi partisan and a major figure in Italian Neorealism, dies. [see: Oct. 19]

2012 - Bernard Thomas (b. 1936) French libertarian journalist for 'Canard Enchaîné', dies. Wrote 'Alexandre Marius Jacob' (1970), 'Les Provocations Policières' (1972), 'Aurore ou la Génération Perdue' (1984), 'Anarchism & Violence: Severino di Giovanni', etc. ​[see: Oct. 25]
[B] 1883 - 'An Enemy of the People' (En Folkefiende; 1882) by Henrik Ibsen receives its first performance at the Christiania Theatre in Oslo.

1898 - Emile Zola's polemic against rampant French anti-Semitism and the military cover up in the Dreyfus Affair 'J'accuse!' is published.

1914 - Joe Hill arrested on a trumped-up murder charge. [Some sources erroneously put the date as 19 Jan 1915]

1941 - James Joyce (b. 1882), Irish novelist and poet, dies. [see: Feb. 2]

1968 - Johnny Cash records a live album at Folsom Prison.
1896 - John Roderigo Dos Passos (d. 1970), US novelist and artist, born. His anti-militarist and radical outlook was cemented by the time he spent as an ambulance driver in WWI in France and Italy, becoming involved in anarchist and IWW circles after the war. Arrested for handing out leaflets in support of Sacco and Vanzetti. [expand]

1900 - The first issue of Sébastien Faure's weekly magazine 'Les Plébeiennes' ("propos d'un solitaire") is published.

[B] 1904 - Henri-Georges Adam (d. 1967), French engraver, non-figurative sculptor, tapestry maker, anarchist, pacifist, anti-militarist and anti-clerical, born. An associate of the Paris Surrealists, in 1936 he joined the Association des Écrivains et Artistes Révolutionnaires (AEAR) and created a set of violent impressionistic engravings entitled 'Désastres de la Guerre' (Disaster of War) in response to the Spanish Civil War.

[C] 1914 - Emmy Eugenie Andriesse (d. 1953), Dutch photographer and resistance fighter, who was part of the De Ondergedoken Camera (The Underground Camera) group that documented the Nazi Occupation, born. Emmy Andriesse was the only child of liberal Jewish parents, who both worked in the textile/fashion industries. At fifteen, she lost her mother and, since her father was an international representative and often travelled abroad, she was raised by several aunts. The aunts, all independent career women, inspired Emmy in her early interest in women's and leftist political ideas. After high school she studied advertising design at the Academy of Fine Arts in The Hague with its radical curriculum based on non-authoritarian teaching methods and functionalist ideas about the fair use of materials and the application of contemporary techniques, including photography and film.
Although initially enrolled to train as a graphic designer, from her second year she focused almost exclusively on photography, gaining the nickname 'Emma Leica' - though her preferred camera would soon become the Rolleiflex that she and many other Ondergedoken Camera network members would use during the War.
At the academy Emmy belonged to the group of students gathered around the left-wing designer Paul Schuitem, some of who lived together in a 'community centre' in Voorburg. The residents maintained close contacts with various anti-fascist and communist organisations, such as the Holland Section of International Red Aid and Nederland-Nieuw Rusland [Netherlands-New Russia, a pro-Soviet Union but anti-Dutch CP grouping]. After the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War Emmy became involved in the Spaanse Burgeroorlog (Help to Spain) committee and established contact with the Bond van Kunstenaars voor Kulturele Rechten (Union of Artists for Cultural Rights), a grouping composed of various anti-fascist artists organisations. Through the latter she met a number of socially committed Nieuwe Fotografie reportage photographers based in Amsterdam, such as Eva Besnyö, Cas Oorthuys and Carel Blazer, who would all go on to be involved with her in De Ondergedoken Camera.
Following the showing of Emmy Andriesse's first major series of reportage photos, 'In de Jordaan' (In Jordaan [the Amsterdam neighbourhood]), at the Photo '37 international exhibition in the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam and her graduation, she settled in Amsterdam, where she worked as a freelance photographer for various newspapers and magazines, including the journal of the Social Democratic Party 'Wij, Ons Werk, Ons Leven' (We, Our Work, Our Lives). Her photographs for the latter were very much in the Nieuwe Fotografie (New Photography) style, displaying a strong attention to detail (portraying what the eye actually sees rather than previous more 'painterly' images photographers made), utilising surprising camera angles, close-ups, the repetition of shapes and patterns, as well as displaying the movement's penchant for diagonal structure in their documentary photographs of working class lives in cities and villages, machinery, landscape, etc.
In 1941 Emmy married with the artist and graphic designer Dick Elffers, with whom she had two sons, Cas and Joost, the eldest of whom, Cas, drowned on holiday in 1945 died at the age of two. During the German occupation, as the daughter of Jewish parents she could not work and had to go into hiding until, in 1944, her anthropologist friend Arie de Froe arranged a forged Aryan declaration for her and she could rejoin the public life. She immediately joined the clandestine resistance being carried out by her fellow Dutch photographers, which became known after the war as De Ondergedoken Camera group. The images such as 'Jongen met pannetje' (Boy with pan), 'De doodgraver' (The gravedigger) and 'Kinderen op Kattenburg' (Children on Kattenburg) that she captured during the horrific conditions of the Hongerwinter (hunger winter) of 1944-45 in Amsterdam would become iconic, not just as representatives of her work but the whole of the Ondergedoken Camera output.
After the war, she continued to photograph the cities and landscapes of the Netherlands and its peoples, producing the well-known 'Amsterdam, its beauty and character' (1949), as well as producing the series of portraits of French, Belgian and Swiss sculptors and painters taken in their studios (1947-51), a commission by the Stedelijk Museum, and the 'De Wereld van Van Gogh' (The World of Van Gogh; 1951) photos she took in Provence, and contributing to the 'Family of Man' exhibition at the New York Museum of Modern Art in 1955. She was also a member of the Vereniging van Beoefenaars van Gebonden Kunsten (Association of Practitioners of Bound Arts), founded in the immediate post-liberation period, taking part in the 'Photo '48' group show and, along with Blazer, Besnyö and Oorthuys, the 'Photographie' exhibition, both held in Amsterdam's Stedelijk Museum. She also worked as a fashion photographer and her photos of fabrics, fashion design and clothing appeared in many fashion and women's magazines, and brochures around the world.
Shortly after finishing the 'De Wereld van Van Gogh' commission she became seriously ill and died on February 20, 1953, after a long battle with cancer aged just 39 years of age.

1945 - Jean Ajalbert (b. 1863), French Impressionist poet, writer and naturalist anarchist, dies. Author of several novels and plays, he participated in numerous literary journals and editorial boards of several journals. [see: Jun. 10]

1977 - Anaïs Nin (Angela Anaïs Juana Antolina Rosa Edelmira Nin y Culmell; b. 1903), American author and diarist, who frequented anarchist circles and was involved in a long intellectual and sexual relationship with Henry Miller at the Villa Seurat in Paris, dies. [see: Feb. 21]

1978 - The Sex Pistols' final concert at the Winterland, San Francisco.

1994 - Federica Montseny (b. 1905), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, anarcha-feminist, poet and Minister of Health during the Civil War, dies. The daughter of Catalan libertarian activists and educators Joan Montseny (Federico Urales) and Soledad Gustavo (Teresa Mañé), who also co-edited the anarchists journal, 'La Revista Blanca' (1898-1905), she joined the CNT at seventeen years old. She wrote for anarchist journals such as 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Tierra y Libertad' and 'Nueva Senda', and published her first novel under the name 'Blanca Montsan' in the series 'La Novela Roja'. In 1923 she urged her parents to relaunch 'La Revista Blanca', which led to the family to establishing in the publishing firm Ediciones de La Revista Blanca, specialising in promoting libertarian ideals throughout the 1920s and 1930s. Federica Montseny participated as an editor of the serials 'La Novela Ideal' and 'La Novela Libre', writing many of the novels herself. The 'Novela Ideal' appeared in a weekly edition of 50,000 and the 'Novela Libre' a monthly 64 page publication with a print run of 20,000. [see: Feb. 12]

2005 - Conroy Maddox (b. 1912), English Surrealist painter, collagist, writer, lecturer and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Dec. 27]
1861 - Paul-Pierre Roux aka Saint-Pol-Roux (d. 1940), French Symbolist poet, novelist, playwright and anarchist, born. Somewhat of a 'forgotten poet', much of whose work was posthumously published despite being hailed by the Surrealists in the 1920s. His early work was regularly serialised in 'La Revue Blanche' including 'Le Fumier' (May-Aug. 1894), the second part of the 'Grands de la Terre' trilogy, a fervent defence of anarchism and the need for social justice and freedom. During WWI however, he became a nationalist but still pursued a strange rural pantheism, idealising the land and the people that worked it, still an essential libertarian and proto-ecological vision. Amongst his major unpublished works are 'Le Tragique dans l'Homme', Vols. I (1983) & 2 (1984).

1889 - Walter Serner (born Walter Eduard Seligmann; d. 1942), Czech-born German-language writer, essayist, Dadaist and anarchist, born. Also wrote under the pen names Vladimir Senakowski, A.D. and also used the name of his friend Christian Schad. His manifesto 'Letzte Lockerung. Manifest Dada' (Last Loosening. Dada Manifesto; 1918) was an important text of Dadaism. During World War I he was the editor of the magazines 'Sirius' and 'Zeltweg', and a writer for 'Die Aktion'. With the outbreak of World War I, he escaped to Switzerland in 1914 and participated in Dada activities in Zürich, Geneva, and Paris until 1920. From 1925, Serner became the target of anti-Semitism, having been born Jewish and converted to Catholicism in 1913 when he changed his name to Serner. His play 'Posada' premièred in Berlin in 1927, its only performance as it was then banned. In 1933 Serner's books, including 'Handbrevier für Hochstapler' (Handbook for Swindlers; 1928), were also banned by the government of Nazi Germany. Presumed to have died in Theresienstadt concentration camp sometime after 20 Aug. 1942. Serner's most successful novel 'Die Tigerin' (The Tigress) was made into an English-language feature film by writer/director Karin Howard and released in 1992'
"The Anarchists are the mere victims of spiritual collapse."
"Revolution is merely a hysterical skirmish between totally untalented beings with organic defects."

[B] 1928 - Victor Arthur James Willing (d. 1988), Egyptian-born British painter and anarchist, born. Married to the Portuguese-born British feminist painter and printmaker Paula Rego.He studied at the Guildford School of Art (1948–9), and at the Slade School of Fine Art, London (1949–54). He and Rego moved to Portugal in 1957 and he stopped painting. However, when he and his family returned to live in London in 1974, he took-up painting again. Little survives of his early purely figurative work but his later works have a vivid and highly coloured hallucinatory quality, which some claim was due to the side effects of the medication he had begun taking for his MS, which was first diagnosed in 1966:
"I have heard that people with MS sometimes get hallucinations. I have had hallucinations but due to special circumstances only indirectly due to my illness. In '74 I was started on a drug called ACTH. This is found to relieve MS symptoms in some cases. Luckily I was one of these and continue to get good results from courses of ACTH. It has however various side effects some of which are undesirable, including sleeplessness. On high doses I only slept 4 hours in 24. I was hyperactive. I would feel very tired but not sleepy, very calm but alert. In this state I would sit down in a comfortable upright chair, relax and stare at the wall. After a time, I could see through the wall - a scene, brightly lit, clearly defined on the other side, like a stage, spot-lit. No figures. No action, therefore, just a scene. The 'life-size' objects would appear in three dimensions but as though already drawn in charcoal and pastel.
"I guess this would last about 20 minutes. I don't think I closed my eyes. I was certainly not asleep ... I would remain in my chair and, taking paper and charcoal, simply copy down the scene. No interpolation was necessary, it had all been done for me - image both in the sense of symbol and form down to the mark. I did not have to do anything. Subsequently 'meanings' might occur to me but in advance there was nothing."
"Beneath even the desire to change society and the need to communicate is a need, urgent in some of us, to affirm our scratches that 'I exist'."

1933 - Agustin Gomez Arcos (d. 1998), Spanish anarchist, gay novelist and dramatist, born. He began writing plays but was forced into exile, first to England and then to Paris, because of censorship. He went on to write numerous novels about Franco's Spain: 'L'Agneau Carnivore' (The Carnivorous Lamb; 1975), 'Maria Republica' (1976), 'Ana Non' (1977), 'L'Enfant Pain' (1983), 'Un Oiseau Brûlé Vif' (A Bird Burned Alive; 1984), etc.

1939 - Hartmut Geerken, German musician, composer, writer, journalist, radio playwright, filmmaker and anarchist, prominent as a percussionist in the free/avant-garde jazz arena, especially in Holland, born.

1955 - Johannes Baader (b. 1875), German writer, artist, agent provocteur, Oberdada and member of Berlin Dada, dies. [see: Jun. 22]

1967 - David Davidovich Burliuk (Дави́д Дави́дович Бурлю́к; b. 1882), Ukrainian Futurist book illustrator, publicist, author and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 21]

1969 - Raegan Butcher, U.S. poet, singer and screenplay writer, born. Associated with the anarchist collective CrimethInc., who published his first two books of poetry, 'Stone Hotel' (2003) and 'Rusty String Quartet' (2005). In 1996, Butcher was arrested and convicted for first degree robbery and sentenced to eight years in prison, which is where he first started writing poetry.

1994 - The Ian Stuart Memorial Gig in London, already having lost its original venue in Beaconsfield a few days before the event after a visit from anti-fascists and now planned to take place in the Wellington near Waterloo Station, is cancelled after the pub is trashed when police prevent Combat 18 and Blood & Honour skins from exiting to attack AFA outside the pub. ['No Retreat']

2014 - Carmen Bruna (born Bruna Carmen Zucarelli; b. 1928), Argentinian poet, Surrealist, physician and anarchist agitator, dies. [see: Jul. 16]
1908 - Marie Anastasie Vincentine Krysinska (d. 1857), Polish-born French poet, innovator of free verse, musician, femme chansonnier, composer, and novelist of the decadent and symbolist period, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

1946 - Jean-Pierre Bouyxou, French actor, 'Happenings' participant, filmmaker, film critic, journalist, author, 'post-Situationist' and anarchist, who is seen as the father of the French underground, born. Amongst his pseudonyms are J.P Buixou, Jerôme Fandor, Georges Le Gloupier, Claude Razat and Annie Schon. Georges Le Gloupier is the imaginary film director whose name Belgian anarcho-humourist Noël Godin appropriated for his entarteur personality.

[B] 1963 - Revolutionary students in Caracas make an armed attack on an exposition of French art and carry off five paintings, which they declare they will return in exchange for the release of political prisoners.

1982 - Ramon J. Sender (Ramón José Sender Garcés; b. 3 1901), Spanish novelist, essayist, journalist, anarchist and then communist, dies. [see: Feb. 3]
1875 - Florencio Sánchez (d. 1910), Uruguayan playwright, journalist and anarchist, born. Regarded as Uruguay's leading playwright.

[BB] 1885 - Emmy Hennings (born Emma Maria Cordsen; d. 1948), German cabaret performer, poet, chanteuse, dancer, puppeteer, painter and 'mystical anarchist', born. Probably the most misunderstood and ignored of all the Dadaists, she was both anarchist and Catholic, a well-published writer and an active member of the Bohemian intelligentsia, who was THE driving force behind the Cabaret Voltaire, effectively keeping it open by managing the club's finances and occasionally making ends meet by working as a prostitute.
She had already been married with a daughter, been divorced, run away with an acting troop, travelled in France, been forced into prostitution, become a performer at the Künstlerkneipe Simplizissimus and other cabarets in Munich, as well as a friend and lover of Erich Müsham, and been involved in libertarian and anti-militarist circles, before she met the Bakuninist, and her future life partner, Hugo Ball in 1913. She had also had her poetry published in 'PAN' and 'Die Aktion', and that same year she published a short poetry collection 'Äthergedichte' (Ether Poems). She would also soon collaborate with Ball and Hans Leybold on their magazine 'Revolution'.
In 1914 she had spent time in prison for theft and the suspected forging of passports for draft dodgers and, with Ball under threat after having made a number of public anti-war pronouncements, they both moved to Zurich the following year, where they decided to form their own 'vaudeville' ensemble (called Arabella, with Ball playing the piano and Hennings reciting verse, including in their repertoire some of Erich Müsham's poetry). However, their idea for their own venue, the Künstlerkneipe Voltaire, soon mutated into the Cabaret Voltaire, and they found themselves at the forefront of the founding of Dadaism. Yet, Henning and Ball's time as Dadaist was very short, consisting of only two active years, and they went to live in Bern in 1917. In 1920 they married and Ball was to reconvert to Catholicism.
Towards the end of her life, Hennings wrote a number of revisionist memoirs, effectively writing-out her own artistic and political activities (as other have subsequently written her out of history) in favour of a catholic reinvention of her life and a hagiography of Ball's, something she admitted to Herman Hesse, who had become her closest friend after the death of Ball in 1927. And it is only due to the publication of her letters that we have gotten to know of her life as a morphine addict, prostitute and hustler, a promoter of free-love, anarchy and social revolution, and of her stints several in prison.
Amongst he other writings are the poetry collection 'Die Letzte Freude' (The Last Joy; 1913); the novels 'Gefängnis' (Prison; 1919) and 'Das Brandmal. Ein Tagebuch' (The Stigmata. A Diary; 1920); and her biographical writings: 'Hugo Ball. Sein Leben in Briefen und Gedichten' (Hugo Ball His Life in Letters and Poems; 1930), with a foreword by Hermann Hesse; 'Hugo Balls Weg zu Gott. Ein Buch der Erinnerung' (Hugo Ball's Path to God. A Book of Remembrance; 1931); and 'Ruf und Echo. Mein Leben mit Hugo Ball' (Call and response. My Life with Hugo Ball; 1953).

Dir ist als ob ich schon gezeichnet wäre
Und auf der Stunde Totenliste.
Es hält mich ab von mancher Sünde.
Langsam am Leben wie ich zehre.
Ängstlich und sind meine Schritte oft,
Mein Herz hat einen Schlag kranken
Schwacher und wird mit jedem Tag's.
Todesengel steht ein meines Zimmers in Mitte.
Tanz ich doch bis zur Atemnot.
Bald werde ich im Grabe liegen
Niemand und wird sich an mich schmiegen.
Ach, küssen will ich bis zum Tod.

(To you it's as if I was Already
Marked and waiting on Death's list.
It keeps me safe from many sins.
How slowly drains life out of me.
My steps are Often steeped in gloom,
My heart beats in a sickly way
And it gets Weaker every day.
A death angel stands in the middle of my room.
Yet I dance till I'm out of breath.
Soon lying in the grave I'll be
And No One Will snuggle up to me.
Oh, give me kisses up till death.)

- 'Tänzerin' (Dancer)

Wir warten auf ein letztes Abenteuer
Was kümmert uns der Sonnenschein?
Hochaufgetürmte Tage stürzen ein
Unruhige Nächte - Gebet im Fegefeuer.

Wir lesen auch nicht mehr die Tagespost
Nur manchmal lächeln wir still in die Kissen,
Weil wir alles wissen, und gerissen
Fliegen wir hin und her im Fieberfrost.

Mögen Menschen eilen und streben
Heut fällt der Regen noch trüber
Wir treiben haltlos durchs Leben
Und schlafen, verwirrt, hinüber...

(We expect the last adventure
What matters sunlight?
Days filled with illusions collapse
Restless nights - Prayers in purgatory

We do not read the news of the day
It only happens sometimes we laugh secretly
Because we know everything, and malignant,
We sail here and there, frisonnants fever

Men can run well after their futile concerns
Today the rain falls more sullen
We wander through the ropes without existence
And helpless, we fall asleep to the other side...)

- 'Morfin' (Morphine)

"The world lies outside there, life roars there. There men may go where they will. Once we also belonged to them. And now we are forgotten and sunk into oblivion." - excert from 'Prison' (1916).

dspace.mic.ul.ie/bitstream/10395/1392/2/Schönfeld, C.(2000), 'Confessional Narrative/Fragmented Identity: Emily Henning's Das Brandmal. Ein Tagebuch'.(Book Chapter).pdf

1892 - Bruno Misefari (also known by the anagrammatical pseudonym Furio Sbarnemi; d. 1936), Italian anarchist , philosopher, poet, author, engineer and deserter, born. He deserted during the First World War and fled to Switzerland, marrying Pia Recati-Zanolli in Zurich who, after his death, took care of the publication of his writings. There he worked on the anarchist newspaper 'Il Risveglio Comunista Anarchico' and lectured, using his anagrammatical pseudonym, Furio Sbarnemi. On 16 May 1918 he was arrested for a bomb plot fabricated by the police and was expelled from the country after 7 months in prison. That same year he published his first poetry collection 'Diario di un disertore (Dal carcere di Zurigo)' (Diary of a Deserter (From a Zurich Prison); 1918).
After a period in Germany, he returned to Calabria in Italy in 1919 when a general amnesty for deserters was announced but, like all Italian revolutionaries in this period, he continued to be harassed by the police and, later, by fascist groups. With the anarchist dentist Giuseppe Imondi, he published the newspaper 'L'Anarchia' (Anarchy). Between late 1920 and early 1921 had close contacts with Errico Malatesta, Camillo Berneri, Pasquale Binazzi, Armando Borghi and Giuseppe Di Vittorio, amongst other revolutionaries, was a correspondent with 'Umanità Nova' and 'L'Avvenire Anarchico' (The Anarchist Future) and campaigned for Sacco and Vanzetti.
Despite the advent of fascism , in 1924 he founded the libertarian newspaper, 'L'Amico del Popolo' (The Friend of the People), which was banned after the fourth issue. He was also denied work in his chosen profession and arrested on charges of "undermining the powers of the State, for the purpose of killing the king and Mussolini", but was acquitted after 25 days in prison. On 31 March, 1931, he was arrested again and whilst in internal exile on the island of Ponza he married Pia Zanolli. Another amnesty in 1933 led to his release and returned to Calabria but is dispirited, writing to Zia: "Freed yes, but at what price: health shattered, no money, no prospects for the future", and is diagnosed with a brain tumour in November 1933. Despite reunion with Zia, things do not improve and after a failed business venture, his health deteriorates and he dies on 12 June 1936. Zia goes on to edit and publish his works, including 'Schiaffi e Carezze: poesie in brutta copia' (Slaps and Caresses: poems in draft; 1969) and 'Utopia? No!: Scritti scelti di Bruno Misefari' (Utopia? No!: Selected writings of Bruno Misefari; 1976; [Pia Zanolli (ed.]), plus two of her own memoirs of Misefari, 'Tu o Uno Come Te' (You or Someone Like You; nd) and 'L'Anarchico di Calabria' (The Anarchist of Calabria; 1967).

"La religione è il più solido puntello del capitalismo e dello Stato, i due tiranni del popolo. Ed è anche il più temibile alleato dell'ignoranza e del male."
(Religion is the strongest prop of capitalism and the state, the two tyrants of the people. It is also the most formidable ally of ignorance and evil.)
- from: 'L'Amico del Popolo' (The Friend of the People)

Qui, ne la selva densa di roveti,
A l'ombra de le quercie ho la dimora:
Gli uccelli ei grilli fanno da poeti
Lietamente da l'una a l'altra aurora.
Qui, niuna i giorni, solitari e cheti
Fiammata d'ingiustizia, ecco, m'accora:
Solo co' miei pensieri alti e segreti
E i sogni miei vivo e converso ognora.
Uomini primi abitator del mondo,
Io non v'invidio più: simile a voi
De la calma solenne io mi circondo !
Affogati nel sangue, età civile
Di prostituti e di assassini eroi:
Io ti diserto; io, che non sono un vile!

(Here we find the dense jungle of brambles,
In the shadow of the oak trees I have planted:
The birds and the crickets are the poets
Cheerfully from one to the other dawn.
Here, nobody and daylight, solitary and stealthily
Blaze of unrighteousness, behold, upset me:
Alone with my old thoughts and secrets
And my dreams alive convered.
Men first butchers of the world,
I do not envy you any more: like you
Peace solemnly surrounds me!
Drowned in the blood, the civil age
Of heroicn prostitutes and murderers:
I deserted you, and I, I'm not a coward!)

- 'Disertore' (Deserter)


[B] 1905 - Artur Streiter (d. 1946), German graphic artist, painter, writer, literary critic, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Influenced by Gustav Landauer, Leo Tolstoi and Erich Mühsam and a member of FAUD (Freien Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands), he maintained close ties with Gregor Gog and his FAUD-aligned international movement Bruderschaft der Vagabunden (Brotherhood of Vagrants).

1985 - Hashimoto Yoshiharu (橋本 義春; b. 1930), Japanese anarchist and publisher, dies in Tokyo. Founder in the 60s of the publishing house Barukan-sha and editor of 'Anaki' (Anarchy). Writer and translator into Japanese of many works by thinkers and theorists of the international anarchist movement including Proudhon, Kropotkin, Emma Goldman, as well as Oscar Wilde and many others.
1803 - Sylvain Maréchal (Pierre-Sylvain Maréchal; b. 1750), French essayist, poet, atheist, philosopher and political theorist, dies. [see: Aug. 15]

[B] 1904 - The date wrongly given by Carlo Carra in his autobiography for the death of Angelo Galli, who he immortalised in his 1911 work, 'The Funeral of the Anarchist Galli'.
Carlo Carra - "I saw before me the bier, covered with red carnations, wavering dangerously on the shoulders of the pallbearers. I saw the horses becoming restive, and clubs and lances clashing, so that it seemed to me that at any moment the corpse would fall to the ground and be trampled by the horses." - 'La Mia Vita' (1943). [see: May 10]

1927 - Roberto Freire (d. 2008), Brazilian anarchist, writer, dramaturge, journalist, doctor, psychiatrist and ex-psychoanalyst, born.

1932 - Robert Anton Wilson (d. 2007), US libertarian polymath, born.

1987 - Renato Guttuso (b.1912), Italian anti-fascist painter and polemicist, atheist and Communist, who was the leader of the social realist group in Italy, dies. [see: Dec. 26]
1809 - Edgar Allan Poe (d. 1849), US author, poet, editor and literary critic, born.

[B] 1877 - Fráňa Šrámek (d. 1952), Czech poet, novelist, short story writer, Impressionist playwright, anti-militarist and anarchist rebel, born. A representantive of the turn of the century generation of Czech Anarchističtí Buřiči, "básníci života a vzdoru" (Anarchist Rebels, "the poets of life and defiance"). In 1899 he volunteered started as a one-years military service which, however, was extended for year because of his "anarchistic attitude". After military service, he began studying law but in 1903 he decided to become a full-time poet. Moving to Prague, he joined the literary group Nový Kult (The New Cult), meeting S.K. Neumann and other anarchists and young writers. In 1905, he was arrested during an anarchist student demonstration and briefly imprisoned. He was also called up for a four-week military exercise, during which he wrote his anti-war poem 'Píšou Wed Psani' (They Write Me Letters) and, vowing a campaign of insubordination, he ended up spending 6 days in a military prison.
He went on to continue both his anarchist and literary activities, and during this time he wrote his first strongly anarchist influenced poetry collection 'Života Bído, Přec Tě Mám Rád...!' (Life is Misery, Yet I Love You..!; 1905) and his most famous work, the novel 'Stříbrný Vítr' (Silver Wind; 1910). Too ill to fight, he was still called up in Aug. 1914 and fought on the Russian front in WWI, but was wounded the following month, going on to fight on the Italian and Romanian fronts, events which fuelled his anti-war and love poetry.His works include the short story collection 'Kamení Srdce a Oblaka' (Stone Hearts and Clouds; 1906); the novels 'Stříbrný Vítr' (Silver Wind; 1910) and 'Tělo' (Body; 1919); his anti-militarist poetry collection 'Modrý a Rudý' (Red & Blue; 1906), which includes 'Píšou Wed Psani'; and the plays 'Červen' (June; 1905) and 'Léto' (Summer; 1915).

1908 - Fire burns down the building housing an office, printing plant and book stock at Benjamin Tucker's Unique Bookshop (a hotbed of individualist anarchism).

1912 - Armand Robin (d. 1961), French translator, writer/poet and anarchist, born. A visit to the Soviet Union in 1933 revealed the true nature of the Soviet dictatorship to him and pushed him towards anarchism. He later started writing his poemes de combat (fighting poems), violent attacks on 'stalanist' poets such as Eluard and above all Aragon, and a novel, 'Le Temps Qu'il Fait' (The Weather Is Like; 1942). He joined the French Anarchist Federation in 1945, which published his 'Poèmes indésirables' (Undesirable Poems; 1945). He authored 'La Fausse Parole' (The False Word; 1953), which dissected the mechanisms of propaganda in the totalitarian countries and his knowledge of 28 languages made him a prolific translator.

1919 - Joan Brossa i Cuervo (d. 1998), Dadaist-influenced Catalan language poet, playwright, graphic designer and plastic artist, born. One of the leading early proponents of visual poetry in Catalan literature and amongst the foremost innovators of poetry, the theatre and the art of the second half of the twentieth century. At seventeen Brossa joined the army and served in the Republican front Lleida and, following the defeat of the Republic and a period of national service (where he met numerous fellow avant-garde artists), he remained in Spain as a constant public critic of the Franco regime and the Catholic church. Initially an anarchist sympathiser, he became a Marxist and supporter of the clandestine PSUC following his 1947 meeting with the Brazilian poet and Marxist João Cabral de Melo and the founding of the explicitly Marxist Catalan artists group and magazine 'Dau-al-Set' in 1948.
"La verdadera insurrección no es la de los que toman el fusil, sino la que surge del fondo del hombre" (The real uprising is not to those who take the gun, but that which arises from the depths of man) - 'Clandestino'
www.pocio.cat/membres/GloriaBordons/arxius/introduccio cercle de lectors.pdf

1947 - Luigi Bertoni (b. 1872), Swiss typographer and the untiring publisher of the bilingual newspaper 'Le Reveil Anarchiste' (The Anarchist Alarm Clock) which he founded in July 1900 and edited until his death, dies.

1978 - Bohuslav Brouk (b. 1912), Czech Surrealist, writer, journalist, esthetician, sociologist, biologist and psychoanalyst, dies. [see: Nov. 19]

1980 - Piero Ciampi (b. 1934) Italian anarchist singer-songwriter and poet, dies. [see: Sep. 28]

1981 - Marietta di Monaco (Maria Kirndörfer; b. 1893), German cabaret artist, poet, chanteuse, dancer, artist's model and poet's muse, who was involved in the Cabaret Voltaire, birthplace of Dada, in Zurich, dies. [see: Mar. 14]

2005 - Carlos Cortez (b. 1923), US anarcho-syndicalist, poet, graphic artist, photographer, muralist and political activist, dies. [see: Aug. 13]
[B] 1913 - José Guadalupe Posada (b. 1852), Mexican cartoonist illustrator and artist who worked closely with the Magonistas, dies.

1914 - Georges Henein (d. 1973), Egyptian surrealist author and Trotskyist who was sympathetic to anarchism, born.
"Anarchy is the victory of the mind over certainty."
"I have come to a growing sympathy with the anarchists whose attitude despite (or because of) its innocence, is fine, consistent and honest … In truth, what is tearing me away from the strategy of the Fourth International is its lack of passion, which combines with an overabundance of plans. With Trotsky, there was passion, nobility, the explosion of gunpowder. I see nothing of these in the voice or the bearing of his successors." - letter to anarchist Nicolas Calas, explaining Henein's frustration with the politics of the Fourth International.

1938 - Émile Cohl (Émile Eugène Jean Louis Courtet; b. 1857), French caricaturist, cartoonist, and animator, dies. [see: Jan. 4]
1870 - [O.S. Jan. 9] Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (Russian: Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен; b. 1812), Russian writer, journalist, novelist and thinker, who was one of the main 'forefathers' of Russian socialism and agrarian populism (an ideological ancestor of the Narodniki, Socialist-Revolutionaries, etc.), and who was greatly influenced by the anarchism, dies. [see: Apr. 6]

1883 - Victor François Marie Pengam (d. 1920), French anarchist and anti-militarist, born. A labour activist from an early age, he became the secretary-general of the regional Union of the Trades Councils of Brest and was also active in the 'Université Populaire' and the 'Groupe d'Études Sociales. In 1912 Pengam, himself an orphan, became involved with the Pupilles de la Maison du Peuple and gave up his labour activities, devoting himself to the education of a hundred of these pupils in cultural, sporting and musical events and even founded a brass marching band that played songs such as 'l'Hymne au 17e' and 'l'Internationale' on May Day.

[B] 1895 - Noe Itō (伊藤野枝; d. 1923), Japanese anarchist, social critic, author, novelist, translator and feminist, born. Contributed to the feminist arts and culture magazine 'Seitō' (Blue Stocking). Brutally murdered in 1923 by military police in the 'Amakasu Incident'.

1898 - French author Emile Zola is sued for libel over his defense of Dreyfuss.

1950 - Eric Arthur Blair (aka George Orwell; b. 1903), dies in London aged 46. [see: Jun. 25]

1956 - Ricardo Peña Vallespín (b. 1908), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, and novelist, who was part of the artistic and theatrical group Mistral, dies. [see: Nov. 15]

1961 - Blaise Cendrars (born Frédéric-Louis Sauser; b. 1887), Swiss Modernist novelist, amputee left-handed poet, adventurer, soldier, failed film director and an anarchist fellow-traveller who never fully committed himself to the movement, dies. [see: Sep. 1]

1963 - Franz Jung (b. 1888), German Expressionist then Dadaist writer, novelist, playwright, economist, journalist and one-time anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 26]

1998 - Paul David 'Charlie' Sargent, 37, former leader of the neo-Nazi group Combat 18 and fellow C18 member Martin Cross, 35, are jailed for life for the murder on February 10, 1997, of 28 year-old C18 member Christopher 'Catford Chris' Castle. Castle had been acting as a go-between in a dispute over control of C18 and the running of Blood and honour and the lucrative neo-Nazi music scene when he was stabbed in the back by former Skrewdriver guitarist Cross using a nine-inch (22 cm) blade. 'Charlie' Sargent had been kicked out of C18 following allegations that he was a security service spy.
[BB] 1849 - Johan August Strindberg (d. 1912), Swedish playwright, novelist, poet, essayist, and painter, born. Noted for his satirising of Swedish society, in particular the upper classes, the cultural and political establishment, which brought him many enemies. During the 1880's Strindberg, his interest stirred by the history of the Paris Commune, he read a lot of anarchist and socialist texts including Rousseau and Chernyshevsky's 'What is to be Done?', sentiments that were further stirred up by his 1884 blasphemy trial for a short story in his 'Getting Married' collection, which also led to him embracing atheism. Unfortunately his radical politics were largely posturing and he soon returned to mysticism of various colours, and even abandoned his early pro-women's suffrage views.
Member of the Friedrichshagener Dichterkreis (Friedrichshagener circle of poets) naturalist writers circle.
[see his essays for claims of anarchist beliefs: 'Inferno, Alone, and other writings' (1968) and 'Selected Essays' (1996)]

1857 - Marie Anastasie Vincentine Krysinska (d. 1908), Polish-born French poet, innovator of free verse, musician, femme chansonnier, composer, and novelist of the decadent and symbolist period, born. The only female member of such fin-de-siècle literary and artistic circles as the Hydropathes, Hirsutes, Jemenfoutistes, and Zutistes, and a prominent figure at Le Chat Noir cabaret. Many of her poems appeared in the anarchist press of the time, including her famous 'Le Poème des Couleurs' in 'La Revue Blanche' in 1893.

[B] 1879 - Francis Picabia (Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; d. 1953), French painter, illustrator, designer, poet, writer, editor and "congenial anarchist", born. [expand]

1893 - Michal Mareš (Josef Mareš; b. 1971), Czech writer, poet, journalist and anarchist, born. 'Přicházím z Periferie Republiky' (I Come From the Periphery of the Republic; 2009) is his posthumous testimony of the horrors of post-war communist Czechoslovakia.

[C] 1900 - Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Busch (d. 1980), German singer and actor, born. Joined the Sozialistische Arbeiter-Jugend (SAJ; Socialist Workers Youth) in 1916 and the Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (USPD; Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany) following the November revolution. Noted for his cabaret performances, his interpretations of political songs, including those of Erich Mühsam and Kurt Tucholsky, and for his theatre and silent film work. In 1928 Ernst Busch joined the Berlin Volksbühne, the workers' theatre of the workers and the Piscator-Bühne, acting in plays by Friedrich Wolf, Bertolt Brecht, Ernst Toller and Erich Mühsam, including the latter's 'Judas. Arbeiter-Drama in fünf Akten' (Judas. Workers drama in five acts; 1921) and 'Staatsräson. Ein Denkmal für Sacco und Vanzetti' (For reasons of State. A Monument to Sacco and Vanzetti; 1929).
He was lucky to escape one of the first SA raids at the artists' colony in Berlin-Wilmersdorf on 9 March 1933. Fleeing Germany, he first went to Holland, and from there to Belgium, Zurich, Paris, Vienna and finally the Soviet Union. In 1937 he travelled to Spain as a singer with the International Brigades where he gave out song books ('Brigada de las Canciones Internacionales'), sang before members of the International Brigades and recorded records and performed on the radio.
"Das singende Herz der Arbeiterklasse" (The Singing Heart of the working class) - Hanns Eisler

1905 - The funeral of Louise Michel takes place in Paris. The procession starts out at 08:00 from the Gare de Lyon but a crowd of more than 100,000 people along the route means that it takes 9 hours to reach the Levallois-Perret cemetery.

1944 - Charles Erskine Scott Wood (b. 1852), American author, poet, painter, civil liberties advocate, soldier, attorney, Christian socialist and philosophical anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 20]

1945 - Else Lasker-Schüler (b. 1869), German-Jewish Expressionist poet and playwright, dies. [see: Feb. 11]

1975 - In Almada, Portugal the first issue of the monthly magazine 'Voz Anarquista', produced by the Centre de Culture Libertaire, appears.
1913 - Joe Hill's song 'Mr. Block' first appears in the Industrial Worker.

1920 - First great Dada event at the Palais des Fêtes in Paris, organised by the circle of the journal 'Littérature', and called 'Premier Vendredi de Littérature'.

1922 - Vernon Scannell (John Vernon Bain; d. 2007), British poet, author, one time professional boxer who wrote novels about the sport, WWII deserter, , agricultural labourer, honorary Gypsy, member of the editorial collective of War Commentary and anarchist, born.

[B] 1937 - Chiquet Mawet (Michelle Beaujean; d. 2000), Belgian playwright, storyteller, poet, polemicist, social activist and professor of ethics, who was a regular contributor to the Belgian anarchist monthly 'Alternative Libertaire', born.

1947 - Pierre Bonnard (b. 1867), French Post-Impressionist painter and printmaker, and a founding member of Les Nabis, dies. [see: Oct. 3]

1962 - Rolf Engert (b. 1889), German poet, playwright, publisher and writer on Stirner and Ibsen, dies. [see: Oct. 31]

1972 - Miguel García Vivancos (b. 1895), Spanish Naïve painter, militant anarchist and member of the Los Solidarios group, dies. [see: Apr. 19]

1986 - Joseph Beuys (b. 1921), German Fluxus, conceptualist and performance artist, sculptor, installation artist, graphic artist, art theorist, pedagogue of art, theosophist "anarchist and shaman", dies. [see: May 12]

1989 - Salvador Dali (b. 1904), Spanish Surrealist painter and self-publicitist, monarchist and fascist supporter who in his early years (falsely) claimed to be both an anarchist and communist, who also remained a life-long Catholic, dies. [see: May 11]
B] 1890 - Jeanne Humbert (Henriette Jeanne Rigaudin; d. 1986), French writer, journalist, pacifist and anarchist militant, who belonged to the néo-Malthusien movement, fighting for sexual freedom and the right to contraception and abortion, born. Raised in Romans-sur-Isère and then, from 1901, in Tours, Jeanne Rigaudin was greatly influenced from the age of ten onwards by her mother's companion, the anarchist weaver Auguste Delalé. In Tours Jeanne got to know anarchist figures such as Laurent Tailhade and Jean Marestan. After Delalé was dismissed following his militant activities, the family went up to Paris where they were helped by Alfred Fromentin, 'l'anarchiste milionnaire', who owned the garage in Choisy run by Jules Dubois where Jules Bonnot and Octave Garnier were killed on April 28, 1912. In Paris Jeanne became the pupil of Eugène Vigo, aka Miguel Almereyda, the father of the libertarian filmmaker Jean Vigo, with Eugène teaching her shorthand. Following his birth in 1905, Jeanne became the secular godmother of Eugène's son Jean.
Among Eugène Vigo's circle was the Néo-Malthusien militant Eugène Humbert, whom Jeanne met in 1908 after she had become involved with the Ligue de la Régénération Humaine (League of Human Regeneration). Impressed by Humbert's views on free motherhood and women's emancipation, when in 1909 he asked her to join the secretariat running his Neo-Malthusian newspaper 'Génération Consciente', she accepted and they went on to collaborate closely, as well as becoming life partners, later marrying in 1924, and together they had a daughter in September 1915. Jeanne also collaborated on numerous other anarchist, pacifist and naturist publications including 'Le Libertaire', 'La Voie de la Paix', 'Liberté', 'Le Monde Libertaire', 'La Patrie Humaine', etc.
In the pre-war period, neo-Malthusian propaganda encountered severe repression, and Eugène had several periods in prison and when the war broke out in 1914, he took refuge in Barcelona. Jeanne joined him there. After their return to France in 1919, Eugène was arrested and sentenced to 5 years in prison. On November 5, 1921, under the new laws (passed in 1920) to repress anti-natalist propaganda, Jeanne and Eugène were both sentenced to two years in prison and a fine of 3,000 francs. Jeanne, who spent her prison term in Saint-Lazare prison, was on July 30, 1922. Eugène however was not released until February 1924.
They continued their activities promoting free motherhood but also in the naturist movement, of which Jeanne was inspired to write the 1928 novel 'En Pleine Vie' (In Full Life). With Eugène, she also participated in the creation of the French section of the World League for Sexual Reform (Ligue Mondiale pour la Réforme Sexuelle) andthey collaborated on Humbert's new publication 'La Grande Réforme' (May 1931- Aug. 1939), paper of the Ligue de la Régénération Humaine. From 1932 to the declaration of war she was a member of the Ligue internationale des Combattants de la paix (International League of Fighters for Peace), created by Victor Méric, writing articles and making numerous lectures for the movement.
During the same period she also collaborated on the Parisian review 'Controverse' (Jan. 1932 - Nov. 1934) and the Bordeaux bulletin Lucifer (1929-1931 and 1934-1935), edited by Aristide Lapeyre. She also authored numerous articles for Sébastien Faure's 'Encyclopedia Anarchiste' and toured widely in France lecturing on birth control and pacifism, famously being quoted on the theme of both saying: "Et d'abord les femmes ne doivent plus faire d'enfants tant que les patries auront le droit de les assassiner" (And first of all, women must not make children until their homelands have the right to assassinate them). This led to her being sentenced on July 18, 1934, to three months' imprisonment and a 100 francs fine but was pardoned following the protests of friends, fellow writers and intellectuals.
During the war she had taken refuge with her daughter Claude in Lisieux, where Eugène was arrested and imprisoned before dying under a bombardment at Amiens on June 25, 1944. In March 1946, Jeanne Humbert resumed the publication of 'La Grande Réforme', which she had to stop publishing for lack of resources three years later, after the thirty-second issue, having "vendu mes quelques bijoux que je tenais de ma mère, mes meubles, enfin tout" (Sold my few jewels that I held of my mother, my furniture, finally everything). In 1981, Bernard Baissat made the film, 'Ecoutez Jeanne Humbert', interviewing Jeanne on her life and times.
Jeanne Humbert's many works include 'Sous la cagoule. A Fresnes, prison modèle' (Under the cowl. In Fresnes, model prison; 1933), 'Contre la guerre qui vient', (Against the coming War; 1933), Éditions de la Ligue internationale des combattants de la paix, 'Jean Vigo, cinéaste avant-garde' (1957), 'Eugène Humbert : la vie et l'œuvre d'un néo-malthusien' (Eugène Humbert: the life and work of a neo-Malthusian; 1947), 'Sébastien Faure : l'homme, l'apôtre, une époque' (Sébastien Faure: the man, the apostle, an era; 1949), 'Les Problèmes du couple' (The Problems of the Couple; 1970), 'Deux grandes figures du mouvement pacifiste et néo-malthusien : Eugène Humbert et Sébastien Faure' (Two great figures of the pacifist and neo-Malthusian movement: Eugène Humbert and Sébastien Faure), as a special issue of 'La Voix de la Paix', 1970.
Jeanne Humbert died on August 1, 1986 in Paris.

1911 - Kōtoku Shūsui (幸徳秋水), pen name of Kōtoku Denjirō (幸徳 傳次郎; Kōtoku Denjirō; b. 1871), Japanese journalist, writer, and one of the most outstanding figures of Japanese anarchism, who translated many works of contemporary European and Russian anarchists, such as Peter Kropotkin, into Japanese, is executed alongside his partner Kanno Sugako (管野須賀子) and 9 other anarchists for their supposed part in the High Treason Incident (大逆事件; Taigyaku Jiken) or Kōtoku Incident (幸徳事件; Kōtoku Jiken). [see: Nov. 5]

1978 - Robert Proix (b. 1895), French socialist, anarchist and pacifist, born in Jean-Baptiste André Godin's Familistère de Guise, a industrial workers community based on the principles of Fourier. A friend of André Prudhommeaux and Albert Camus, who wrote for the libertarian review, 'Témoins' (Witness), that Proix edited. Proix also edited 'Albert Camus, ses Amis du Livre' (1962) [published in English as 'Albert Camus and the Men of the Stone' (1971)], a book of remembrances of Camus by members of the printing trade that knew him. He also worked on the newspapers 'Liberté', 'Union Pacifiste' and 'Monde Libertaire' and supported Louis Lecoin's conscientious objector / antiwar activities.

1993 - Manuel Medina González (aka Manolo Medina i Ariel; b. 1903), Andalusian journalist, poet, writer, Mason, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, then a Falangist, dies. [see: Aug. 23]

2011 - Peter-Paul Zahl (b. 1944), German anarchist of the '68 generation, writer, poet and novelist, dies of cancer in Jamaica. [see: Mar. 14]
1882 - Francesco Cucca (d. 1947), Sardinian anarchist writer and poet, born. [expand]

[B] 1939 - Giorgio Gaber, stage name of Giorgio Gaberscik (d. 2003), Italian singer-songwriter, actor, theatre director, playwright and anarchist sympathiser, who was one of the first Italian rock and rollers, born. Affectionately known as Il signor G (Mr. G) by his admirers (as well as being called "anarchico", "filosofo ignorante" (philosopher of ignorance) and "vate dei cani sciolti" (bard of the mavericks)), he was an accomplished guitarist and, together with Sandro Luporini, he pioneered the musical genre known as teatro canzone (song theatre).

Vorrei essere libero, libero come un uomo.
Vorrei essere libero come un uomo.

Come un uomo appena nato che ha di fronte solamente la natura
e cammina dentro un bosco con la gioia di inseguire un'avventura,
sempre libero e vitale, fa l'amore come fosse un animale,
incosciente come un uomo compiaciuto della propria libertà.

La libertà non è star sopra un albero,
non è neanche il volo di un moscone,
la libertà non è uno spazio libero,
libertà è partecipazione.

Vorrei essere libero, libero come un uomo.
Come un uomo che ha bisogno di spaziare con la propria fantasia
e che trova questo spazio solamente nella sua democrazia,
che ha il diritto di votare e che passa la sua vita a delegare
e nel farsi comandare ha trovato la sua nuova libertà.

La libertà non è star sopra un albero,
non è neanche avere un'opinione,
la libertà non è uno spazio libero,
libertà è partecipazione.

La libertà non è star sopra un albero,
non è neanche il volo di un moscone,
la libertà non è uno spazio libero,
libertà è partecipazione.

Vorrei essere libero, libero come un uomo.
Come l'uomo più evoluto che si innalza con la propria intelligenza
e che sfida la natura con la forza incontrastata della scienza,
con addosso l'entusiasmo di spaziare senza limiti nel cosmo
e convinto che la forza del pensiero sia la sola libertà.

La libertà non è star sopra un albero,
non è neanche un gesto o un'invenzione,
la libertà non è uno spazio libero,
libertà è partecipazione.

La libertà non è star sopra un albero,
non è neanche il volo di un moscone,
la libertà non è uno spazio libero,
libertà è partecipazione.

(I would like to be free, free as a man.
I would like to be as free as a man.

As a man born just in front of him only the nature
and walking through a forest with the joy of chasing adventure,
always free and vital, makes love like an animal,
unconscious as a man pleased with his own freedom.

Freedom is not star on a tree,
it is not the flight of a fly,
freedom is not free space,
Freedom is participation.

I would like to be free, free as a man.
As a man who needs to explore with their imagination
and that this space is only in its democracy,
who has the right to vote and who spends his life to delegate
and in taking control has found its new freedom.

Freedom is not star on a tree,
not even have an opinion,
freedom is not free space,
Freedom is participation.

Freedom is not star on a tree,
it is not the flight of a fly,
freedom is not free space,
Freedom is participation.

I would like to be free, free as a man.
As man evolved more that rises with their own intelligence
that defies the nature of science with the power unchallenged,
with him the enthusiasm of space without limits in the cosmos
and convinced that the power of thought is the only freedom.

Freedom is not star on a tree,
not even a gesture or an invention,
freedom is not free space,
Freedom is participation.

Freedom is not star on a tree,
it is not the flight of a fly,
freedom is not free space,
Freedom is participation.)

'La Libertà' (1972)


1961 - Nadezhda Andreeva Udaltsova (Наде́жда Андре́евна Удальцо́ва; b. 1886), Russian Cubo-Futurist and Suprematist artist and painter associated with the anarchist movemnet during the 1917 Revolution, dies. [see: Nov. 29]
1876 - Gérard de Lacaze-Duthiers (d.1958), French Individualist anarchist, friend of the arts, pacifist intellectual and originator of the slogan "Make your life a work of art", born. A prolific author of over 40 books and pamphlets dealing with the arts, literature and pacifism, he founded the magazine 'L'Action d'Art' in 1913 with André Colomer and Manual Devaldès.




1877 - Kees van Dongen (Cornelis Theodorus Maria van Dongen; d. 1968), Dutch painter, cartoonist on the anarchist magazine 'La Revue Blanche' and one of the founders of Fauvism, born. [expand]
Participated, alongside fellow Fauvists André Derain and Maurice de Vlaminck, in the November 1941 Weimar congress of European artists organised by the Nazi "official state sculptor" Arno Breker, and was considered a collaborationist post-WWII.

1897 - Erwin Blumenfeld (d. 1969), German-Jewish photographer, Dadaist collage artist, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, born.
"Dadaism was a good vehicle from which to launch darts at all those aspects of society for which he felt contempt… he was intensely disillusioned with capitalism, nationalism, communism…all the isms except Dadaism and anarchism." - Yorick Blumenfeld, on his father.

[B] 1924 - Armand Gatti, prolific French libertarian playwright, poet, journalist, screenwriter, filmmaker and Maquis member, born. Captured by the Germans during WWII, he was tortured and sentenced to a concentration camp in Hamburg where he was forced to work in a diving bell at the bottom of the Baltic Sea. Gatti eventually escaped and made his way back into France on foot, and then to London where he joined a British Special Air Service special forces parachutist team. Post-war he became a journalist successively for 'Le Parisien Libere', 'Paris-Match', 'France Observateur', 'L'Express' and 'Libération', in order to pay for his travel and political adventures. He abandoned his journalism in 1959 to devote himself to the theatre. His works include the plays 'Chant Public Devant Deux Chaises Électriques' (Public Singing Before 2 Electric Chair; 1966) - on Sacco and Vanzetti; 'La Colonne Durruti' (The Durruti Column; 1972); 'La Passion du Général Franco par les Émigrés Eux-Mêmes' (The Passion of General Franco by the Émigrés Themselves; 1976). Husband of Hélène Châtelain, French actress (in Chris Marker's 'La Jetée'), writer, filmmaker and director of the film 'Nestor Makhno, un Paysan d’Ukraine' (1995).


1935 - Maria Paula Figueiroa Rego, Portuguese-born British feminist and anti-fascist/Salazar painter, collagist and printmaker, born. She was married to the British anarchist painter Victor Willing.
[B] 1875 - Juana Belén Gutiérrez de Mendoza (d. 1942), Mexican anarcho-feminist activist, typographer, journalist and poet, born.
1970 - Bomb attack on offices of the Spanish Cultural attache in Paris. [First of May Group]

[B] 1995 - George Woodcock (b. 1912), Canadian anarchist thinker and historian, political biographer, essayist, poet and literary critic, author of 'Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements' (1962), dies. [see: May 8]
[B] 1905 - Barnett Newman (d. 1970), US abstract expressionist, colour field painter and life-long anarchist, born. Wrote 'The True Revolution is Anarchist' (1968) as a foreword to Kropotkin's ' Memoirs of a Revolutionist'. Little more than a week before the 1933 election, Newman and his friend Alexander Borodulin offer themselves as write-in candidates for New York City mayor and comptroller, respectively. They circulate thousands of copies of their manifesto, 'On the Need for Political Action by Men of Culture', which promotes a three-prong program of "more extensive education, a greater emphasis upon the arts and crafts, and the fostering of cultural living conditions."
"Anarchism ... the only criticism of society which is not a technique fro the seizure and transfer of power by one group against another... What is particualr about anarchism is not its criticism of society but the creative way of life it offers that makes all progrommatic doctrine impossible." - 'The True Revolution is Anarchist!' (1968), Newman's foreword to 'Memoirs of a Revolutionist' by Peter Kropotkin.

1910 - Maurice Joyeux (d, 1991), prominent figure in French anarchism, born. Constantly in and out of prison for his militant activities, including a five year sentence for refusing conscription in 1940. The following year he organised a mutiny in Montluc prison, near Lyon, and escaped only to be recaptured. He opened a bookshop in Paris, 'Le Château des Brouillards' (The Castle of Mists) and in 1953 he founded the newspaper 'Le Monde Libertaire'.

1927 - Edward Paul Abbey (d. 1989), American novelist, essayist, polemicist and desert anarchist, born.
"Freedom begins between the ears."
"Anarchism is not a romantic fable but the hardheaded realisation, based on five thousand years of experience, that we cannot entrust the management of our lives to kings, priests, politicians, generals, and county commissioners."
"Anarchism is founded on the observation that since few men are wise enough to rule themselves, even fewer are wise enough to rule others."

2008 - Claude Faraldo (b. 1936), French actor, screenwriter and director of 'Bof... Anatomie d’un Livreur' (1971) and 'Themroc' (1973), dies. [see: Mar. 23]
1907 - Takami Jun (高見順; d. 1965), pen-name of Takami Yoshio, Japanese novelist, poet, Marxist and anarchist, born.


Water wants to disappear under the ground
Even the water that welled up from my heart,
as soon as it falls on the ground with the rest,
it already wishes it were disappearing
The pure thoughts of my dirty mind
are also quick to hide from the public eye

'消えたがる' (Wanting to Disappear)


1908 - The first issue of 'Cultura', a monthly review of teaching, science, arts and literature, appears in Catalonia. Bilingual in Catalonian and Spanish, the publication of the Ecole Intégrale in Sabadell ceases after just 6 issues due to financial difficulties.

[BB] 1925 - Jack Spicer (d. 1965), San Francisco Renaissance poet and gay anarchist son of a Wobbly, born. Spicer formed the Committee for Anarchist Unity as well as an 'Unpopular Front' whilst an undergraduate at Berkeley. After graduating, he found work as a teaching assistant there, but lost his postgraduate post after refusing to sign the Loyalty Oath, a provision of the Sloan-Levering Act that required all California state employees (including graduate teaching assistants at Berkeley) to swear loyalty to the United States. Just as problematic in terms of a career was his open and avowed homosexuality.
His anarchist convictions also led him to refuse copyright on his poetry since he believed that he was in no sense its owner, hardly even its creator. He later forged an alliance with fellow gay poets Robert Duncan (whom he met at an anarchist meeting) and Robin Blaser, and together they referred to their common work as the Berkeley Renaissance.
An alcoholic, he collapsed into a pre-hepatic coma in the elevator of the building he lived in and died several weeks later in the poverty ward of San Francisco General Hospital.

Your life does not count. It is the rules of
the tribe. No
Your life does not count.
counting it all does not count. It is the rules
of the tribe that your life doesn’t count.
Numbering it doesn’t count. Madness doesn’t
Being mad at the numbers doesn’t count.
It is a rule of the tribe (dead as they are)
told over the dead campfires
That it doesn’t count.
That your life doesn’t count.
Countess Death give me Some life in this
little plain we live in from start to finish
Let me slit their throats and smash their heads on the

from 'Golem'


[B] 1926 - The chief of police in Paris forbids the playing of jazz versions of the French national anthem, 'La Marseillaise'.

1940 - Denis Langlois, French lawyer, anarchist pacifist writer, who served prison time as a conscientious objector (see: 'Le Cachot' [The Dungeon]), born. He also wrote 'Les Dossiers Noirs de la Police Française' (Black Files of the French Police; 1971), 'L'Injustice Racontée aux Enfants' (The Injustices Told to Children1978), 'Le Nouveau Guide du Militant' (1979), 'L'Utopie est Morte! Vive l'Utopie!' (2005), 'Slogans Pour les Prochaines Révolutions' (Slogans for the Coming Revolution; 2008). He has also written a number of novels including 'Un Assassin Très Ordinaire' (A Very Ordinary Assassin; 1978), 'La Révoltution' (1985) and 'L'Affaire Seznec: un Innocent au Bagne' (The Seznec Affair: an Innocent in the Penal Colony; 1988)'.

1958 - The first issue of 'Liberté' newspaper published by the militant anarcho-pacifist Louis Lecoin appears.
1903 - Roger Monclin (d. 1985), French author and libertarian peace activist, born. Author of a book on the anarchist poet and songwriter 'Gaston Couté, 1880-1911, Poète Maudit' (1962).

[B] 1924 - Georgi Simeonov Popov (Георги Симеонов Попов; b. 1900), Bulgarian anarchist, teacher, poet, orator, anarchist organier and insurrectionist guerrilla, dies at his own hands to avoid being capture by the army. [see: May 22]

1929 - Erich Maria Remarque novel 'Im Westen Nichts Neues' (All Quiet On The Western Front) is published.

1945 - The first issue of the journal 'Estudios Sociales' (Social Studies) is produced by Spanish anarcho-syndicalist activists in exile in Mexico.

2004 - William Herrick (born William Horvitz; b. 1915), US writer of the classic Spanish Civil War novel 'Hermanos!' (1969), dies. [see Jan 10]

2011 - Don Lacoss (b. 1964), US radical scholar, writer, adventurer, surrealist and anarchist, dies. Don was a contributing editor for 'The Fifth Estate' and an active member of the Chicago Surrealist Group.

2012 - Dorothea Margaret Tanning (b. 1910), American Surrealist painter, printmaker, sculptor, writer, poet, ballet set and costume designer, dies. [see: Aug. 23]

1851 - Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin Shelley (b. 1797) dies. [see: Aug. 30]

1860 - Michel Zévaco (d. 1918), French journalist, novelist, publisher, film director, anti-clerical revolutionary socialist and anarchist, born. Popularly known for his 'Les Pardaillan' series of swashbuckling novels which were serialised in a number of daily newspapers. [expand]
www.encres-vagabondes.com/dossier epee/dossier zevaco.htm]

1879 - Georgy Ivanovich Chulkov (Гео́ргий Ива́нович Чулко́в; d. 1939), Russian Symbolist poet, editor, writer, critic and the founder and populariser of the theory of Mystical Anarchism, born.

[B] 1962 - Ken Kesey’s 'One Flew Over Cuckoo's Nest' is first published.

1971 - Raoul Hausmann (b. 1886), Austrian artist, collagist, photographer, sculptor, writer, poet, theorist and one of the key figures in Berlin Dada, dies. [see: Jul. 12]

1976 - Hans Richter (b. 1888), German Dadaist painter, sculptor, collagist, graphic artist, avant-garde film-experimenter, anti-militarist and anarchist, who claimed that Kropotkin's 'Mutual Aid' was the most significant book that he ever read, dies. [see: Apr. 6]

1986 - The opening of TLP, the Théâtre Libertaire de Paris (formerly Théâtre Déjazet) as a new home for libertarian arts, culture and eduction in Paris, with Léo Ferré the opening act. It closed in 1992 when the lease was cancelled.
[B] 1852 - José Guadalupe Posada (d. 1913), Mexican cartoonist illustrator and artist who worked closely with the Magonistas, born.

1882 - James Joyce (d. 1941), Irish novelist and poet, born.

1930 - José María Nunes (d. 2010), Portuguese-Catalan filmmaker, director, script writer, actor and anarchist, born in Portugal. His family moved to Spain in 1942, ending up in Barcelona in 1946, ​​where he lived until his death. Always fascinated by the cinema (he had written his first screenplay before the age of thirteen), one of the first books he read in Castilian was 'Cómo Escribir un Guión Cinematográfico' (How to Write a Screenplay) by Enrique Gómez. Living in a shack in the shadow of the Montjuic mountain, he began to write short novels, novelas rosa, 2 of which he managed to sell to a publisher. Having tried a number of different jobs and unable to go to university to study architecture (no high school education), he decided to devote himself to photography as a way into the cinema.
His first film in 1957, 'Mañana...' (Tomorrow...) laid the foundations for the establishment of the Escola de Cinema de Barcelona and he would go on to establish himself as one of its main proponents, alongside Joaquim Jordà, Jacinto Esteva and Pere Portabella. His other films include: 'No Dispares Contra Mí' (1961); 'La Alternativa' (1963); 'Noche de Tino Tinto' (1966); 'Biotaxia' (1968); 'Sexperiencias' (1968); 'Iconockaut' (1975); 'Autopista A-2-7' (1977); 'En Secreto... Amor' (1983); 'Gritos a Ritmo Fuerte' (1984); 'Amigogima' (2002); 'A la Soledad' (2008); and 'Res Publica' (2009).
1901 - Ramon J. Sender (Ramón José Sender Garcés; d. 1982), Spanish novelist, essayist, journalist, anarchist and then communist, born.
tafel.levillage.org/politic/portraits d'anars.htm

[B] 1902 - Hélène Patou (d. 1975), French writer, militant anarchist and néo-Malthusian, born. She first encountered anarchism working in a textile mill and subsequently went on to live and work in the libertarian community of Le Milieu Libre at Vaux and was one of the founders of the Bascon commune. In 1936, she modelled for Matisse and Picabia and was a member of the Durutti Column during the Spanish Civil War. She later became a proofreader and partner of the French anarchist writer and champion of Proletarian Literature, Henry Poulaille. Hélène Patou was also author of the novel 'Le Domaine du Hameau Perdu' (The Domain of the Lost Hamlet; 1972).

1911 - Robert Tressell (pen name of Robert Croker, latterly Robert Noonan; b. 1870), Irish writer best known his novel 'The Ragged Trousered Philanthropists', dies. [see: Apr. 17]

1924 - Edward Palmer Thompson (d. 1993), British historian, writer, novelist, poet, socialist and peace campaigner, born.

1953 - Daniel Villanova, French libertarian actor, playwright, songwriter and self-described "comico-maquisard", who specialises in one-man shows, born. Amongst his theatre works are 'Le Grand Bluff' (1992), a tragicomedy and indictment against racism and xenophobia; 'Maestro (Une corrida goyesque)' (1994), a comedy co-written with Doux-Douille and Daniel Gros; 'La Corde folle n° 2' (Rope crazy n° 2; 1996); the tetrology 'Quatre saisons': 'L'Automne' (November 1999), 'L'Hiver' (March 2002), 'Le Printemps' (2005) and 'L'Été' (The Summer; 2009); 'Hommage à Lucette' (Tribute to Lucette; 2007); 'Jean-Charles Président' (President Jean-Charles), created during the 2011 French presidential campaign as an indictment against Nicolas Sarkozy; and 'La Croisade des Rabat-Joie (No gazarán!)' (The Killjoy Crusade (No enjoying!)), 2013.

1988 - Robert Duncan (b. 1919), American poet and lifelong anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 7]

2010 - Janos (John) Réty (b. 1930), Hungarian-British anarchist poet, translator, publisher, chess-player and activist, dies. [see: Dec. 8]
1849 - Jean Richepin (d. 1926), French poet, dramatist, novelist, actor, sailor and stevedore, born. An atheist and anarchist like his one-time mentor, about whom he wrote 'Etapes d'un Réfractaire: Jules Vallès' (1872), he returned from the Franco-Prussian war and was present in Paris during the 1871 Commune (there are conflicting stories of his involvement as a pro-Commune sniper or as a neutral non-combatant, and his 1888 Commune novel 'Cesarine' pursues an ambiguous narrative line, something Vallès criticised him for). He co-wrote and produced a play, 'L'Etoile' in 1873 with the Republican caricaturist André Gill, but remained unknown until the publication in 1876 of his poetry collection 'La Chanson des Gueux', which immediately brought him a trial for obscenity and a month in prison and 100 franc fine. His signature style of both his poetry, novels and theatre works was it use of slang, obscenity, sensuality and all-round anti-bourgeois sentiment, which earned him the opprobrium of the critics and public alike as a "métaphysique d'égoutier" (metaphysical sewerman).
Became part of the Parisian boheminan/anarchist milieu, frequenting 'Le Chat Noir' alongside the likes of Adolphe Willette, Paul Verlaine, Claude Debussy, Erik Satie, Paul Signac, Maurice Mac-Nab, August Strindberg, Jules Jouy and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. However, his rebellious nature was to become tame enough to allow his admission to the l’Académie Française in 1909, something which made him a target for 'Le Canard Enchaîné'.

1856 - Paul Napoléon Roinard (d. 1930), French libertarian poet, playwright, librettist, painter and victim of absinthe, born. [expand]
"Un peuple a-t-il jamais profité d'une guerre?
S'ils changent leur couleur, elle ne change guère,
Tous sont rouges du sang qu'on a versé pour eux.
Guerre à la guerre!" - from 'Les Patries'.

[B] 1900 - Jacques Prévert (d. 1977), French poet, surrealist and libertarian, born. Wrote screenplays and dialogue for a host of films including his brother Pierre's film 'L'Affaire est Dans le Sac' (It's in the Bag; 1932) and for Marcel Carné's classic 'Les Enfants du Paradis' (1945), and co-wrote that for Carné's 'Le Jour Se Lève' (1939). An extra, alongside his brother Pierre, in Vigo's 'L'Atlante'. Prévert's poems are widely taught in French schools.
'Ni Dieu, ni Maître: Mieux d'Etre' (Neither God nor Master: Better to Be)
'Rêve + Evolution = Révolution' (Dream + Evolution = Revolution)
'Quand la vérité n'est pas libre, la liberté n'est pas vraie.' (When the truth is not free, freedom is not true.)

1908 - Franz Held (Franz Herzfeld; b. 1862), German anarchist poet, playwright and novelist, father of John Heartfield and Wieland Herzfelde, dies in a mental hospital in Bolzano, northern Italy.

1912 - Pierre Quillard (b. 1864), French Symbolist poet, playwright, anarchist and supporter of Dreyfus, dies. ​[see: Jul. 14]

1926 - Adolphe Willette (b. 1867), French painter, caricaturist and anarchist who bizarrely also ran as an 'anti-semitic' candidate in the Paris elections in 1889, dies.​ [see: Jul. 31]

1937 - Jean-Pierre Bastid, French anarchist-influenced author, film director, screenwriter and writer, born.

1947 - Luigi Russolo (b. 1883), Italian Futurist painter, composer and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 30]
1875 - Manuel Devaldès (aka Ernest-Edmond Lohy) (d. 1956), French individualist anarchist, pacifist and neo-Malthusian, born. Member of 'l'Action d'Art'. Opposed WWI and found refuge in England, which granted him conscientious objector status in 1914. Wrote 'Contes d'Un Rebelle' (Thoughts of a Rebel; 1925) and 'Anthologie des Écrivains Réfractaires' (Anthology of Writer of Resistance; 1927).
"En tout esclave consentant à sa servitude est un maître qui sommeille. Qui obéit volontiers à plus fort que soi est prêt à imposer à plus faible sa volonté."

[B] 1914 - William Seward Burroughs II (pen name William Lee; d, 1997), American novelist, short story writer, essayist, painter, satirist, one-time junkie, celebrated queer and libertarian, born.
"The people in power will not disappear voluntarily, giving flowers to the cops just isn't going to work. This thinking is fostered by the establishment; they like nothing better than love and nonviolence. The only way I like to see cops given flowers is in a flower pot from a high window."

[BB] 1916 - First performance of the Cabaret Voltaire at the Holländische Meierei in Spiegelgasse 1, Zurich. The Künstlerkneipe (artists' local) Voltaire as it was initially called was advertised in the local Zürcher Allgemeine Zeitung with the following press notice:
"Cabaret Voltaire. Under this name a group of young artists and writers has been formed whose aim is to create a centre for artistic entertainment. The idea of the cabaret will be that guest artists will come and give musical performances and readings at the daily meetings. The young artists of Zurich, whatever their orientation, are invited to come along with suggestions and contributions of all kinds."
Amongst those present were founders Hugo Ball, Emmy Hennings, Marcel Janco and Tristan Tzara, plus Georges Janco, Arthur Segal and Marcel Slodki and his balalaika orchestra.
[B] 1864 - John Henry Mackay (d. 1933), Scottish gay individualist anarchist poet, writer and populariser of Stirner's writings, born. Author of 'Die Anarchisten' (The Anarchists; 1891) and 'Der Freiheitsucher' (The Searcher for Freedom; 1921).
"Ever reviled, accursed, ne'er understood,
Thou art the grisly terror of our age.
"Wreck of all order," cry the multitude,
"Art thou, & war & murder's endless rage."
0, let them cry. To them that ne'er have striven
The 'truth that lies behind a word to find,
To them the word's right meaning was not given.
They shall continue blind among the blind.
But thou, O word, so clear, so strong, so true,
Thou sayest all which I for goal have taken.
I give thee to the future! Thine secure
When each at least unto himself shall waken.
Comes it in sunshine? In the tempest's thrill?
I cannot tell - but it the earth shall see!
I am an Anarchist! Wherefore I will
Not rule, & also ruled I will not be!" - 'Anarchy'.

1919 - Johannes Baader's broadside Dada manifesto 'Dadaisten gegen Weimar' (Dadaists against Weimar) proudly proclaims the Oberdada Baader "Präsidenten des Erdballs" (President of the Terrestrial Globe).

1938 - Han Ryner (Jacques Élie Henri Ambroise Ner) (b.1861), French teacher, anti-clericalist, pacifist, anarchist philosopher, dies. [see: Dec. 7]

1954 - Maurice Eugène Marie Hallé (b. 1888), French anarchist activist, poet and songwriter, dies. [see: Oct. 17]

1975 - Hélène Patou (b. 1902), French writer, militant anarchist, néo-Malthusian and artist's model (Matisse and Picabia, among others) who was a member of the Durruti column, dies.

1991 - René E. Mueller (Ernst René Müller; b. 1929), Swiss writer, poet, Lebenskünstler and anarchist, dies. [see: May 3]
1478 - Thomas More (d. 1535), English lawyer, social philosopher, humanist, author and statesman, born. Best known for his satirical novel 'Utopia: A Fruitful and Pleasant Work of the Best State of a Public Weal, and of the New Isle Called Utopia' published in 1516, describes an ideal society has abolished the property and where the tolerance is a rule: "Fay ce que vouldras" (Do what you will). Claimed as a precursor to anarchism, yet slavery and religion are still posited as universal institutions.

1870 - Henri Gauche (aka René or Henri Chaughi) (d. 1926), French militant anarchist journalist for Jean Grave's journal 'La Révolte' and the arts and literature review 'La Plume', born.



[B] 1941 - Maximilien Luce (b. 1858), French painter, engraver and anarchist, dies. As a child he witnessed the tragic events of the Paris Commune, later becoming part of the anarchist milieu and a friend of Jean Grave. In 1887 Pissarro , Seurat and Signac welcomed him into the Néo-Impressionists group. He also submitted numerous artworks to radical newspapers and was imprisoned in the anti-anarchist hysteria following the acts of Ravachol and Valliant. [see: Mar. 13]

2009 - 23-year-old graffiti artist Tom Collister is found dead in his prison cell at HMP Camp Hill on the Isle of Wight. The coroner's enquiry finds the prison guilt of multiple failures in the care it provided.
1910 - Hans Henrik Jæger (b. 1854), Norwegian writer, novelist, philosopher and anarchist advocate of naturalism, dies. [see: Sep. 2]

[B] 1920 - Richard Fedor Leopold Dehmel (b. 1863), German poet and writer, friend of Gustav Landauer and outspoken advocate of free love and of workers' wrights, dies. [see: Nov. 18]

1969 - Leopoldo Méndez (b. 1902), politically charged Mexican printmaker, painter and muralist, dies. [see: Jun. 30]
1881 - Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky (b. 1821), Russian novelist, short story writer and essayist, dies. [see: Nov. 11]

1893 - Charles-Auguste Bontemps (d. 1981), French 'Social Individualist' anarchist, pacifist, freethinker and naturist activist, prolific writer and poet, born.
He collaborated in the anarchist publication 'Ce Qu'Il Faut Dire' led by Sebastien Faure, was later a member of Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste during the Spanish civil war and prominent in the rebuilding of the Francophone Fédération Anarchiste in 1945 and again in 1953.

1923 - Émile Masson (b. 1869), Breton militant, professor, writer and libertarian socialist propagandist, dies. A friend of Élisée Reclus and of Kropotkin, he took part in the universitaire populaires (1899–1905) and later on tried to reconcile his libertarian socialism and his Breton nationalist sympathies. Author of 'Les Rebelles' (1908), "anarchico-bretons" tales. [see: Jul. 28]

[B] 1948 - Karl Valentin (Valentin Ludwig Fey; b. 1882), German comedian, cabaret performer, clown, author, film producer and anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 4]
1888 - Giuseppe Ungaretti (d. 1970), Italian modernist poet, journalist, essayist, critic and academic, born. Briefly associated with the Dadaists, he developed his own poetics which he labelled Hermeticism. For a time he was also an anarchist sympathiser, getting to know Mussolini is his socialist phase, but like Mussolini and many of Ungaretti's Futurist friends, supported the irredentist position at the outbreak of WWI and went on to become an active Fascist.

1898 - Bertolt Brecht (d. 1956) born. [expand]

[B] 1920 - Alex Comfort (d. 2000), British physician, gerontologist, sexologist, anarchist, pacifist, poet, novelist, etc., born. Comfort considered himself "an aggressive anti-militarist", and believed that pacifism rested "solely upon the historical theory of anarchism" - he even formed a peace corps in opposition to this school's army cadets. He was an active member of the Peace Pledge Union (PPU) and Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament [running a mobile pirate radio station broadcasting anti-nuclear propaganda to the factory workers building Blue Streak missiles in Stevenage], and a conscientious objector in World War II.
A poet talked of in the same breath as Auden and Spender, he also wrote novels [including 'No Such Liberty' (1941), which compared British wartime actions to Nazi Germany's (George Orwell reviewing the book declared its author "objectively pro-Fascist"); 'The Power House' (1944); 'On This Side Nothing' (1949); 'A Giant's Strength' (1952); 'Come Out to Play' (1961); 'Tetrarch' (1981); 'Imperial Patient' (1987); and 'The Philosophers' (1989) - a sci-fi satire on the Thatcher government]; a handful of plays; volumes of travel writing; studies of political corruption, medical ethics, eastern philosophy; works on gerontology, on human evolution and art ['Art and Social Responsibility' (1946)]. He also wrote the preface to 'Outlaw of the Lowest Planet' (1946), a collection of Kenneth Patchen's poems.
However, 'The Joys of Sex: A Gourmet Guide to Lovemaking' (1972) is the book that he will always be remembered for (Comfort would have much preferred to be remembered for his poetry) and should be seen as an anarchist elegy to personal responsibility and freedom from political and sexual repression.
His major writings on anarchism are 'Peace and Disobedience' (1946) and 'Authority and Delinquency in the Modern State' (1946), with many of his writing on anarchism collected in 'Writings Against Power and Death' (1994).

1925 - Aristide Bruant (b. 1851), French cabaret singer, comedian, and owner of the Mirliton nightclub, dies. [see: May 6]

1997 - Christopher 'Catford Chris' Castle, who was acting as a go-between in a dispute between rival groups over control of Combat 18 and the running of Blood and honour and the lucrative neo-Nazi music scene, is stabbed in the back by former Skrewdriver guitarist Cross using a nine-inch (22 cm) blade as he attempts to meet former C18 leader 'Charlie' Sargent at his mobile home. Sargent had been kicked out of C18 following allegations that he was a security service spy and Wilf 'The Beast' Browning, who had driven Castle to the rendezvous and had subsequently taken him to hospital, where he died, had been trying to get Sargent to rejoin C18.
1869 - Else Lasker-Schüler (d. 1945), German-Jewish Expressionist poet and playwright, born. Friend of Gustav Landauer and Johannes Holzmann (it was Else that thought up his pseudonym Senna Hoy). In her 1924 polemic, 'Ich Räume Auf!' (I’m Cleaning Up!), she also praised Ernst Toller and Erich Müsham, claiming: "The poet is better equipped to build a world than to form a state."

[B O.S. date] [1879 - Kazimir Malevich see: Feb 23]

1881 - Carlo Carrà (d. 1966), Italian futurist painter and author, born. An anarchist in his early years, he painted his famous futurist work 'The Funeral of the Anarchist Galli' (1910-11), which Carrà was present at, in that period. However, he became an ultra-nationist during WWI and, like many of the Futurist, later became active Fascists, signing a manifesto which called for support of the state ideology through art.

1888 - Joseph Ishill (d. 1966), Romanian-American anarchist typesetter, born. One of the founders of the Ferrer Colony was founded in Stelton, N.J. in 1915, Ishill began helping print the Colony's magazine, 'The Modern School', and a year later he published Oscar Wilde's 'The Ballad of Reading Gaol'. From the publication of that book in 1916 until his death fifty years later, Ishill published more than 200 books and pamphlets, all of them typeset and printed by hand, mostly via the Oriole Press, which he founded in 1926.

[C] 1890 - Virgilia d'Andrea (d. 1932), Italian anarchist poetess, anti-fascist, teacher and writer, born. She first became interested in anarchism aged 12 at convent school when the nuns made her pray for the dead King Umberto I, who had been shot and killed by the anarchist Gaetano Brescia in revenge for the May 1898 Protesta dello Stomaco (Protest of the Stomach) massacre. Her sympathies were more with the young avenger than the king. Her curiosity aroused, she began to supplement her passion for poetry by reading political works. Qualifying as a teacher, she left the convent in 1908 and taught in a number of elementary schools in the Abruzzo region. She joined the Italian Socialist Party, helping establish a women's section. But having witnessed the Settimana Rosso (Red Week) in Milan in 1914 and the state's inadequate response to the 1915 Abruzzo earthquake, she became even more radicalised, participating in the anti-interventionist movement at the beginning of WWI and developing a greater admiration for the anarchists she met. In 1917 she was introduced to the anarcho-syndicalist Armando Borghi, secretary of the USI (Union Syndicale Italian) and its newspaper, the weekly 'Guerra di Classe’ (Class War), then interned in Abruzzo. He would become her life-long companion and collaborator. She then became involved in the USI (editing 'Guerra di Classe’ when Borghi was exiled to Isernia), giving talks and writing prose for the movement in addition to her poetry. The political police also began to take notice of her, labelling her an effective and dangerous radical anti-war agitator and she too was placed under house arrest for the duration of the war.
In 1922 D'Andrea published her first book of poetry, 'Tormento' (Torment), which featured an introduction by Errico Malatesta. The Italian state seized and banned all copies, charging her prose with the ability to disrupt public order and incite class hatred. Sadly, the rest of her literary output is slim: 'L’Ora di Maramaldo’ (The Hour of the Defenceless; 1925), a collection of prose published in France in 1928; and 'Torce Nella Notte’ (Torches in the Night; 1933), a collection of articles and treatises published in New York a few days before her death.
With the rise of fascism, something d'Andrea was to describe as a war of violence waged against civilisation, she wrote advocating an all-out struggle against it: "attacking fascism amounts to a defence of humanity's present and future." Inevitably, her and Borghi's high profile anti-fascist activities led to death threats and, following the fascist March on Rome, the went into exile, first in Berlin (1923), then Paris (1924), where she founded the magazine 'Veglia' (Vigil) and became active in support of Sacco and Vanzetti, then finally to the US in 1928. There they continued their political activities, campaigning for Sacco and Vanzetti, doing anti-fascist work whilst collaborating on the anarchist newspaper 'L'Adunata dei Refratari’ (Call of the Refractaires [i.e. the unmanageable]). Meanwhile her health deteriorated and she was diagnosed with bowel cancer. On May 1, 1933, she was hospitalised in New York and died a few days later, during the night of May 11, aged forty-three.

“Ancora due che salgono il monte del martirio”, mi disse qualcuno con la voce piena di tristezza.
“Ma siamo qui tutti noi” rispose un giovanetto forte a cui i venti anni empivano d’avvenire le pupille radiose.
“Viva Sacco e Vanzetti!” gridò un fanciullo esuberante, e agitò un lembo della bandiera guardando fissamente in alto…
…Non so se il cielo grigio che pesava sul nostro capo o la distesa fresca e canora dei suoi magnifici sogni…
“Non vi addolorate, non vi scoraggiate per il nostro destino” essi avevano scritto. “Ci vogliono morti e sia”.
Io avevo guardato a lungo la lettera dei due morituri. Non una lacrima, non una esitazione, non una sillaba mal certa.
I due uomini che hanno vissuto da anni a faccia a faccia con la morte si sono sovrumanati si sono sublimati.
Avrebbero potuto impazzire.
Hanno invece saputo trovare nella sapiente capacità dello spirito loro, tutto il perchè vero e vivo della vita.
Avrebbero potuto morire.
Hanno saputo invece ricercare nell’intrico dell’oscurità che non ha più mattino, la sorgente sovrana che rinnova lo spirito.
Avrebbero potuto rinnegare.
Hanno saputo invece serbare per i viventi, dopo i colloqui aspri e freddi con la morte, le parole più belle e più pure dello spirito che si denuda per la tomba.
Quelle che sorgono nel cuore allorchè recisa è la visione dei sogni.
Quelle che sembrano raccolte da una fiorita di rose.
Quelle che sembrano distaccate da una roccia di perle.

("Two more to go up the mountain of the martyr," someone said to me, her voice full of sadness.
"But we are all of us here," said a young man whose strong in the twenty years empivano of the future pupils radiant.
"Viva Sacco and Vanzetti , "cried an exuberant child, and waved a piece of the flag looking steadily at the top ...
I do not know ... if the gray sky that weighed on our head or the expanse of fresh and beautiful singing of his dreams ...
"Do not grieve, do not be discouraged for our destiny," they had written. "It takes dead and it is."
I had a long look at the letter of the two moribund. Not a tear, not a hesitation, not a syllable sore certain.
The two men who have lived for years in face-to-face with death were sovrumanati you are sublimated.
They could go crazy.
Instead, they have been able to find the skilled ability of spirit, because all the true and living life.
They could die.
They knew how to be sought in the tangle of darkness that no longer am, the sovereign source that renews the spirit.
They could deny.
They have instead been able to preserve the living, after talks harsh and cold with death, the words most beautiful and purest spirit that is laid bare to the grave.
Those that are in the heart severed policies where is the vision of dreams.
What appear gathered from a flowering of roses.
Those that seem detached from a rock of pearls.)
- extract from 'Torce Nella Notte’ (Torches in the Night; 1933)


1952 - The Lettrist film festival at the Avant-Garde 52 cinema club, where the showing of Gil J. Wolman's 'L'Anticoncept' (1951) causes outrage. Due to be shown at the Cannes Film Festival, Wolman's film is banned by the censors and can only be shown to an invited audience of critics. As a result, Wolman leads a systematic disruption of the Cannes Film Festival by the Lettrists and is only saved by a police escort.

1979 - Belgrado Pedrini (b. 1913), Italian writer, poet, anarchist and partisan, dies. [see: May 5]

1992 - Angela Carter (b. 1940), feminist novelist, who includes a number of anarchists amongst her characters, dies. [see: May 7]

1994 - Mercedes Comaposada i Guillén (b. 1901), militant Catalan anarcho-feminist, teacher and lawyer, dies. Born into a militant household, she starts work at an early age and becomes an editor at a film production company and joins the CNT Public Performances syndicat in Barcelona. Later, after studying law, she became a women's educator and helped found the Mujeres Libres in April 1936 and started publishing the group's magazine, illustrated by her partner, the libertarian sculptor Baltasar Lobo. After the defeat of the Republic, she and Lobo move to Paris under the wing of Pablo Picasso, where she works as a secretary and translates the work of a number of Castilian writers, especially Lope de Vega.
She also contributed to the 'Mujeres Libres' magazine (and was also editor in chief), 'Ruta' , 'Tiempos Nuevos' , 'Tierra y Libertad' and 'Umbral'. She was also author of 'Esquemas' (Schemes; 1937, a book of poetry), 'Las Mujeres en Nuestra Revolución' (Woment in Our Revolution; 1937), 'La Ciencia en la Mochila' (Science in a Rucksack; 1938), 'Conversaciones Cono los Artistas Españoles de la Escuela de París' (Coverstions with Spanish Artists of the Paris School; 1960, under the pseudonym Mercedes Guillén), 'Picasso' (1973, as Mercedes Guillén) and an unpublished work 'Mujeres Libres'. [see: Aug. 14]
1837 - Carl Ludwig Börne (b. 1786), German journalist, literary and theatre critic and political satirist, who was singled out by Gustav Landauer in 'Börne und der Anarchismus' (1900) as an early German forerunner of anarchism, dies. [see: May 6]

[B] 1892 - Theodor Plievier (orig. Plivier; d. 1955), German novelist, writer and anarchist, born. During his early years he worked as a bricklayer's apprentice, sailor, panned gold in South America, vagabond, ranch hand, fisherman, barman and cook. He had a short story 'Proletariers Ende' published in 'die Freie Arbeiter' in 1909 and his WWI experiences, which included participating in the 1918 Wilhelmshaven mutiny, led to his sensational first novel, 'Des Kaisers Kulis' (The Kaiser’s Coolies; 1930), about the Keil revolt. Close to Müsham and Toller, in the early 1920s he started the anarchist publishing house Verlag der Zwölf (Publisher of the 12). An individualist anarchist, he lived largely in extreme poverty, cutting a rather odd messianic figure with his long red beard and street corner anti-war ranting.
Around this time he met the Russian anarchist Alexander 'Sascha' Shapiro - he features in Shapiro's wife's, the anarchist and journalist Hanka Grothendieck (also mother of the anarchist mathematician Alexander Grothendieck), unpublished autobiographical novel 'Eine Frau' as the young anarchist and budding writer Gerd - with whom he worked as a boat builder and photographer. Following another period in South America, where he absorbed anarcho-syndicalist ideas, he returned to Germany and published 'Des Kaisers Kulis', becoming an overnight sensation and going onto be staged by director Erwin Piscator as a play later that year. Three other novels, including 'Der Kaiser ging, die Generäle Blieben' (The Kaiser Goes: The Generals Remain; 1932) were published before the Nazis took power, banning his works. He fled to Moscow, via Prague, Zurich, Paris and Oslo. There, in order to avoid Soviet censorship, he avoided political commentary, writing 'adventure' stories.
Plievier interrogated captured German soldiers for the background to his famous documentary novel 'Stalingrad' (1945), the first part of his WWII trilogy with 'Moscow' (1952) and 'Berlin' (1954). He left the Soviet Union in 1948, settling in West Germany.

1905 - Federica Montseny i Mañé (d. 1994), Spanish poet, novelist, essayist, and children's writer, anarchist, anarcho-feminist, naturist and Minister of Health during the Civil War, born in Madrid. The daughter of Catalan libertarian activists and educators Joan Montseny (Federico Urales) and Soledad Gustavo (Teresa Mañé), who also co-edited the anarchists journal, 'La Revista Blanca' (1898-1905), she wrote her first novel, 'Peregrina de amor' (Pilgrim of Love), which was published under the name Blanca Montsan in the series 'La Novela Roja' (most copies of which were destroyed in a fire), when still only 15 and her first play, 'La tragedia del pueblo' (The tragedy of the people) about the Barcelona working class, soon afterwards. She also joined the CNT at seventeen years old and wrote for anarchist journals such as 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Tierra y Libertad' and 'Nueva Senda'. In 1923 she urged her parents to relaunch 'La Revista Blanca', which led to the family to establishing in the publishing firm Ediciones de La Revista Blanca, specialising in promoting libertarian ideals throughout the 1920s and 1930s. Federica Montseny participated as an editor of the serials 'La Novela Ideal' and 'La Novela Libre', writing many of the novels herself. The 'Novela Ideal' appeared in a weekly edition of 50,000 and the 'Novela Libre' a monthly 64-page publication with a print run of 20,000.

1966 - Elio Vittorini (b. 1908), Italian writer, novelist, one-time 'fascista di sinistra' and laterly an anti-fascist, dies. [see: Jul. 23]

1980 -Muriel Rukeyser (b. 1913), US feminist poet, radical political activist, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Dec. 15]

1994 - Donald Clarence Judd (b. 1928), US anarchist, Minimalist painter and sculptor, dies. [see: Jun. 3]
[B] 1889 - Georg Schrimpf (d. 1938), German painter and graphic artist, born. Along with Otto Dix, George Grosz and Christian Schad, Schrimpf is broadly acknowledged as a main representative of the art trend Neue Sachlichkeit (usually translated New Objectivity), which developed in the 1920s as a counter-movement to Expressionism and Abstraction.
In 1913 he lived in an anarchist colony in Switzerland, where he formed a friendship with Oskar Maria Graf, also a baker, but later a famous novelist. At the outbreak of WWI, the anti-militaristic Schrimpf "successfully employed every possible trick to avoid military service; in so doing, however, he ruined his health" ['New Objectivity' (1994), Sergiusz Michalski] Schrimpf played an active role in the short-lived Münchner Räterepublik (Bavarian Soviet Republic) and joined the KPD (Communist Party of Germany) for a couple of months. Listed as a producer of Degenerate Art by the Nazis, he was not persecuted until his 'Red' past, which included membership of Rote Hilfe, came to light.

1902 - The first issue od 'La Protesta Umana', a social sciences, arts and literature monthly, is published in Chicago. The paper was to move to San Francisco in 1903 and become a weekly 'Di Lavaratori in Difesa dei Lavaratori' (The Workers in Defense of Workers).

[BB] 1903 - Georges Simenon (d. 1989), Belgian-born French author, anarchist and creator of Inspector Maigret, born. Whilst not active as an anarchist, he admitted to having been a habitue of anarchist circles since the age of 16 (his favourite uncle was an active anarchist): "Je me considère comme un anarchiste non violent, car l'anarchie n'est pas nécessairement violente, celui qui s'en réclame étant un homme qui refuse tout ce qu'on veut lui faire entrer de force dans la tête ; il est également contre ceux qui veulent se servir de lui au lieu de lui laisser sa liberté de penser." (I consider myself as a nonviolent anarchist, because anarchy is not inevitably violent, it does not claim that a man that refuses to change will be hit around the head; it is also against those who want to manipulate instead of allowing for the freedom of thought.) [Anti-Semitism & Vichy collaboration?]

1906 - Agostinho da Silva (d. 1994), Portuguese philosopher, essayist, writer, Christian humanist and millenarist, born. Essential an utopian anarchist whose ideas on freedom were close to those of Gustav Landauer.
"No Político distingo dois momentos, o do presente e do futuro. Principiando pelo segundo, desejo o desaparecimento do Estado, da Economia, da Educação, da Sociedade e da Metafísica; quero que cada indivíduo se governe por si próprio, sendo sempre o melhor do que é, que tudo seja de todos, repousando toda a produção, por uma lado, no , por outro lado, na fábrica automática; que a criança cresça naturalmente segundo as suas apetências, sem as várias formas de cópia e do ditado que têm sido nas escolas, publicas e de casa; que o social com as suas regras, entraves e objectivos dê lugar ao grupo humano que tenha por meta fundamental viver na liberdade, e que todos em vez de terem metafísica, religiosa ou não, sejam metafísica. Tudo virá, porém, gradualmente, já que toda a revolução não é mais do que um precipitar de fases que não tiveram tempo de ser. Por agora, para o geral, democracia directa, economia comunitarista, educação pela experiência da liberdade criativa, sociedade de cooperação e respeito pelo diferente, metafísica que não discrimine quaisquer outras, mesmo as que pareçam antimetafísicas. Mas, fora do geral, para qualquer indivíduo, o viver, posto que no presente, já quanto possível no futuro; eliminando o supérfluo, cooperando, aceitando o que lhe não é idêntico – e muito crítico quanto a este -, não querendo educar, mas apenas proporcionando ambiente e estímulo, e procurando tão largo pensamento que todos os outros nele caibam. Se o futuro é a vida, vivamo-la já, que o tempo é pouco; que a Morte nos colha e não, como é hábito, já meio mortos, aliás, suicidados."
(The Political distinguish two moments, the present and the future. Beginning with the second, I wish the disappearance of the State, Economy, Education, Society and Metaphysics; want each individual to govern itself, always being better than it is, that everything is all, resting all production , on the one hand, on the other hand, the automatic factory, the child grows naturally by their appetites, without copying, and many forms of which have been dictated in schools and public house, with the social its rules, obstacles and objectives give rise to human group which has the ultimate goal to live in freedom, and that instead of having all metaphysical, religious or not, are metaphysical. It will, however, gradually, since every revolution is not more than a precipitate phase that did not have time to be. For now, to the general, direct democracy, communitarian economy, education, the experience of creative freedom, society, cooperation and respect for different metaphysics that does not discriminate against any other, even those that seem antimetaphysical. But out of the general, for any individual, living, since at present, as already possible in the future, eliminating the superfluous, cooperating, accepting what you are not identical - and very critical of this - not wanting to educate, but only providing environment and encouragement, and looking as wide as everyone else thought it fit. If the future is life, vivamo it already, that time is short, that Death in crop and not, as usual, already half dead indeed suicidados.)
from 'Reflexos, Aforismos e Paradoxos' (Reflections, Aphorisms and Paradoxes; 1999)
1885 - Jules Vallès (b. 1832), French journalist, anarchist propagandist and novelist dies. [see: Jun. 11]

1892 - André Claudot (d. 1982), French anarchist, artist and cartoonist, born. His illustrations in 'Le Libertaire' in 1911 earned him the attentions of the authorities and an entry in the 'Carnet B'. Drafted on 1914, he persists with his work for the anarchist press. In 1926, he goes to China, where he became a professor at the National Institute of Arts in Beijing, then Hangchow in 1928. In 1930 he returned to Paris and then to Dijon as a teacher. He moves away from anarchism and in 1941 joins the resistance and is active in the Communist Party of Liberation. The end of his life is mainly devoted to painting. The libertarian filmmaker Bernard Baissat made a film of his life, 'Ecoutez Claudot' (1979).

1928 - Pío Tamayo, poet and influential militant anarquista, arrested in Venezuela along with student leaders Rómulo Betancourt, Jóvito Villalba and Guillermo Prince Lara. La Federación de Estudiantes demanded their release.

[B] 1937 - Dumitru Ţepeneag (pen names Ed Pastenague and Dumitru Tsepeneag), Romanian novelist, essayist, short story writer, translator and anarchist, who currently resides in France, born. He was one of the founding members of the Oniric group, and a theoretician of the Onirist trend in Romanian literature, while becoming noted for his activities as a dissident. In 1975, the Communist regime stripped him of his citizenship.

1968 - 'L'Affaire Langlois': Following the sacking of Henri Langlois, the director of the Cinémathèque Française, on Feb. 9th, 5,000 protesters are brutally attacked by police near the Palais de Chaillot in Paris.
1906 - Musa Cälil (Musa Mostafa ulı Cälilev; d. 1944), Soviet Tatar poet and resistance fighter, born. [expand]

[B] 1946 - Jean Renoir's film version of the Octave Mirbeau novel 'The Diary of a Chambermaid' is released.

[C] 1997 - During the night of the 15th-16th, the anarchist bookshop in Lyon, La Plume Noire, is torched by right-wing extremists. The books and furniture suffer heavy fire damage but, thanks to a wonderful show of solidarity, the bookstore reopens in a few months.
1838 - Henry Brooks Adams (d. 1918), American journalist, historian, academic and novelist, born. One of the chief subjects of his writings and thought was on the nature of power.
"I am an anarchist in politics and an impressionist in art as well as a symbolist in literature. Not that I understand what these terms mean, but I take them to be all merely synonyms of pessimist." [in a letter, to Charles Milnes Gaskell, October 28, 1894.]

[BBB] 1848 - Octave Mirbeau (d. 1917), prolific short story writer, novelist, anarchist, anti-militarist, pamphleteer, art critic and dramatist. Author of 'Le Jardin des Supplices' (Torture Garden; 1899) 'Le Journal d'une Femme de Chambre' (Diary of a Chambermaid; 1900), the Expressionist novel 'Les Vingt et un Jours d'un Neurasthénique' (21 Days of a Neurasthenic; 1901) and 'Dingo' (1913), written from the point of view of the dog; as well as a number of books of short stories; plays, such as the proletarian drama 'Les Mauvais Bergers' (The Bad Shepherds; 1897) and 'Le Foyer' (Charity; 1908), on the subject of the economic and sexual exploitation of adolescents in so-called charitable homes; and a novelistic travelogue, 'LA 628-E8' (Sketches of a Journey; 1907), an excoriating critique of Belgian colonialism dressed up a report on his journey through Belgium - LA 628-E8 being the numberplate of the car and main character during the trip. He worked as a journalist/columnist/polemicist on Séverine's newspaper 'Le Cri du Peuple' and on Zo d'Axa's 'L'Endehors' and was foremost amongst Dreyfus' supporters. In 1893, he wrote the preface to Jean Grave's 'La Société Mourante et l'Anarchie' (The Dying Society and Anarchism; 1893).
"Toutes les lois sont oppressives et criminelles. Elles ne protègent que les riches et les heureux." ("All the laws are oppressive and criminal. They protect only the rich and the happy.")

[B] 1875 - Valentine de Saint-Point (Anna Jeanne Valentine Marianne Glans de Cessiat-Vercell; d. 1953), French artist, writer, poet, painter, playwright, art critic, choreographer, lecturer, journalist, feminist and Futurist, who repudiated Marinetti's views on women, born.

1879 - Gusto Gräser (Gustav Arthur Gräser; d. 1958), German nomadic 'poet-prophet' who, with his brother Karl Gräser (1875–1920), co-founded the Monte Verità utopian anarchist/vegetarian community in Ascona, Switzerland, born. Another brother was the painter Ernst H. Graeser (1884–1944). Numerous anarchist including Gustav Landauer, Erich Mühsam, Otto Gross and Ernst Toller, as well as writers, artists and philosophers, who including Ernst Bloch, Herman Hesse, Patricia Cavalli, Hugo Ball, Emmy Hennings, Klabund, Tristan Tzara, Oskar Schlemmer, Hans Richter, Marcel Janco and Gerhart Hauptmann, etc. were all frequenters of Monte Verità.
Amongst his published works were 'Efeublätter' (Ivy leaves; 1902), together with books of sayings and poems such as 'Winke zur Genesung unsres Lebens' (Signs to the recovery of our lives; 1918) and 'Wortfeuerzeug' (Word lighter; 1930).

1933 - Yoshishige Yoshida, Japanese film director and screenwriter, born. Co-wrote (with Masahiro Yamada) and directed 'Erosu Purasu Gyakusatsu' (Eros + Massacre), a film biography of anarchist Sakae Ōsugi, who was assassinated by the Japanese military in 1923.

1939 - Jacques Vallet, journalist, poet, art critic, dramatist and libertarian author, born. Author of a book of poems 'Les Chiens de la Nuit' (The Dogs of the Night; 1964) and participant in the poetry review 'Strophes' (Stanzas), he also wrote for numerous newspapers, including 'Libération', as well as starting in 1977 his own libertarian arts and satire magazine 'Le Fou Parle' (The Madman Speaks), a Grand Prix de l'Humour Noir winner. Vallet also delved into crime fiction, writing a series of novels including 'L’Amour Tarde à Dijon' (Love is Slow in Dijon; 1996), based on Jean-Bernard Pouy's Octopus character; 'Pas Touche à Desdouches' (Do Not Touch; 1997); 'La Trace' ( 1998); 'Une Coquille dans le Placard' (A Shell in the Closet; 2000); 'Sam Suffit' (Enough Sam; 2001), a whodunnit involving the cast of 'Waiting For Godot'; and 'Monsieur Chrysanthème' (2001). He is also involved in the libertarian review 'Anartiste' [a term created by Marcel Duchamp to describe his position in the art world] started in June 2002 by the La Vache Folle (The Mad Cow) group.

1939 - Jura Soyfer (b. 1912), Russian-born Austrian political journalist, cabaret writer and anti-fascist, dies of typhus in Buchenwald concentration camp the day after his release was granted. [see: Dec. 12]

1954 - Iain Banks (d. 2013), Scottish novelist and self-described "evangelical atheist", who, using the pen name Iain M Banks, was the author of the Culture series of sci-fi novels that feature a pan-galactic anarchist society, born.

1958 - Victor Arendorff (b. 1878), Swedish writer, journalist, poet, lyricist, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Apr. 27]
1877 - Isabelle Eberhardt (d. 1904), Swiss explorer and writer, who lived and travelled extensively in North Africa dressed as man, using the name Si Mahmoud Essadi, born. Daughter of the Armenian-born anarchist, ex-priest and convert to Islam, Alexandre Trophimowsky. Isabelle was an extremely liberated individual, rejecting conventional European morality in favor of her own path and that of Islam. She died in 1904, in a flash flood in the Algerian desert at the age of 27. Her life was the basis for 'Song from the Uproar: The Lives and Deaths of Isabelle Eberhardt', an opera composed by Missy Mazzoli.

1913 - Armory Show, the first large exhibition of modern art in America. The three-city exhibition starts in New York City's 69th Regiment Armory, on Lexington Avenue (February 17, 1913 to March 15, 1913).

[B] 1929 - Alejandro Jodorowsky, Chilean-French filmmaker, playwright, actor, author, musician, comics writer and one-time anarchist, born. At sixteen he became interested in anarchism and associated with Chilean poets Nicanor Parra and Enrique Lihn. In 1960 he became a founding member of the anarchistic Paris avant-garde Panic Movement of performance artists. In 'La Danza de la Realidad' (The Dance of Reality; 2013) his son Adan Jodorowsky aka Adanowsky plays the part of Adan the Anarchist.

1958 - Petr Bezruč (pseudonym of Vladimir Vasek; b. 1867), Czech writer, poet and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 15]

1971 - Michal Mareš (Josef Mareš; b. 1893), Czech writer, poet, journalist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

1972 - Hirabayashi Taiko (平林 たい子; b. 1905), pen-name of Hirabayashi Tai (平林タイ), Japanese fiction writer, feminist and one-time anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 3]

1982 - Thelonious Sphere Monk (b. 1917), dies.
1884 - Moscow police seize all copies of anarchist Leo Tolstoy's 'What I Believe' at the printers.

1885 - Henri Laurens (d. 1954), French Cubist sculptor, painter, illustrator, theatre designer, engraver, stonemason and anarchist, who turned down the Légion d'honneur, born. Closely associated with fellow Cubists Juan Gris, Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque and especially his fellow sculptor, anarchist and anti-fascist Baltasar Lobo, who he hid from the Nazis in his house during WWII.

[B] 1924 - Francisco 'Chico' Cuberos Neto (d. 2010), Brazilian militant anarchist and theatre and TV actor, born. An anarchist activist from boyhood, he was involved for decades was part of the Centre de Cultura Social (Center for Social Culture) in São Paulo, along with his brother Jaime Cubero and others. He was also active in the Societat Naturista Amics de la Nossa Chácara (Society of Friends of Our Orchard), which played a key role in organsing anarchist conferences in Brazil.

1927 - Osvaldo Bayer, journalist, screenwriter for the cinema, historian of the anarchist movement in Argentina and self-declared "ultra-pacifist anarchist", born. Member of the Federación Libertaria Argentina (FLA), he worked for various Argentine newspapers and in 1958 he founded 'La Chispa' (The Spark), "the first independent newspaper of Patagonia". Under the government of President Maria Estela Martinez de Peron, Bayer was threatened and persecuted because of his work, especially his book 'Los Vengadores de la Patagonia Trágica' (various volumes 1972-75; also known as 'La Patagonia Rebelde'), eventually leading to his exile in Berlin in 1975, which lasted until the fall of the military dictatorship in 1983.
In Berlin he continued his work as a journalist and historian, publishing 'Los Anarquistas Expropiadores y Otros Ensayos' (Anarchists Expropriators and Other Essays; 1975); 'Rebeldía y Esperanza' (Rebellion and Hope; 1993) and 'Severino Di Giovanni, el Idealista de la Violencia' (Severino Di Giovanni, the Idealist of Violence; 1998) amongst other books. He has also written the screenplays and dialogue for, as well as produced and appeared in, a dozen films, including one based on 'La Patagonia Rebelde' (1974); plus 'Fútbol Argentino' (1990) and 'Awka Liwen - Rebelde Amanecer' (Awka Liwen - Rebel Dawn; 2010), a documentary about the massacres and appropriation of lands of the indigenous peoples in Argentina, which was declared of national interest by the then President of Argentina, Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner. He has even ventured into the world of the novel, with 'Rainer y Minou' (2001), the story of a tortuous love between the son of an Nazi SS officer responsible for Auschwitz and the young daughter of a couple of German Jewish refugees in Argentina.

1940 - Fabrizio De André (d. 1999), Sardinian anarchist songster, born.

1956 - Gustave Charpentier (b. 1860), French composer, artistic and political radical, dies. [see: Jun. 25]

2008 - Alain Robbe-Grillet (b. 1922), French writer, literary theorist, screenwriter and filmmaker, dies. [see: Aug. 18]
1837 - Karl Georg Büchner (b. 1813), German dramatist, poet, prose writer and radical, dies. [see: Oct. 17]

1887 - Eduard Douwes Dekker (b. 1820), Dutch anarchist writer/novelist best known under his pseudonym, Multatuli (Latin, "I have suffered much"), dies in Germany. Wrote the autobiographical novel 'Max Havelaar'. [expand]

1888 - Konrad Świerczyński aka 'Wicek' (d. 1956), Polish anarchist, bookstore owner and poet, born. Father of Bernard Świerczyński aka 'Aniela' & 'Kondek'. Participant of Winter Palace assault in 1917 in Petersburg. During the interwar period he was a leading light in the Polish anarchist movement, and was imprisoned many times for his anarchist activity. During the Nazi occupation, he helped his son, Bernard, to hide Jews smuggled out of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, he was a soldier of Syndicalist Brigade (104 Kompania Związku Syndykalistów Polskich). ADC [aide de camp] of General Skokowski in Polska Armia Ludowa (PAL; Polish People's Army). After WWII, he lived in Tarnow,south Poland), and was a power plant worker. Died 29th February 1956 in Tarnow.

[B] 1896 - André Breton (d. 1966), French writer, poet, Dadaist, founder of Surrealism, member of the PCF and later an anarchist, born. [expand]

1899 - Lucio Fontana (d. 1968), Argentinian anarchist, painter and sculptor, born.

1902 - Kay Boyle (d. 1992), American writer, novelist, poet, journalist, educator, ant-war activist and anarchist fellow traveller, born. Author of the anti-Nazi novel 'Death of a Man' (1936) and blacklisted victim of McCarthyism, who campaigned against the Vietnam War, set up the San Francisco chapter of Amnesty International and worked for the NAACP.

1962 - Émile Armand (pseudonym of Ernest-Lucien Juin) (b. 1872), individualist anarchist, free love activist and poet, dies. Author of 'Poésies Composées en Prison, l'Initiation Individualiste Anarchiste' (1923) and 'La Révolution Sexuelle et la Camaraderie Amoureuse' (1934). He also wrote for and edited the individualist anarchist publications 'L’Ère Nouvelle' (The New Era; 1901–1911); 'L’Anarchie' (1905-1914); 'Hors du Troupeau' (Out of the Flock; 1911); 'Les Réfractaires' (The Objectors; 1912-1914), 'Par delà la Mêlée' (Beyond the Fray; 1916) 'L'En Dehors' (The Outside; 1922–1939) and 'L’Unique' (1945–1953). He also contributed articles for Sebastien Faure's 'Anarchist Encyclopedia' and suffered repeatedly convictions, including "aiding and abetting desertion" during the 1st World War as well as internment during WWII. [see: Mar. 26]

1978 - Heimrad Prem (b. 1934), German painter and one-time Situationsit, dies. [see: May 27]
1852 - Charles Erskine Scott Wood (d. 1944), American author, poet, painter, civil liberties advocate, soldier, attorney, Christian socialist and philosophical anarchist, born. He contributed to Benjamin Tucker's 'Liberty', Emma Goldman's 'Mother Earth' and 'The Blast', and is best known as the author of the 1927 satirical bestseller, 'Heavenly Discourse'.

[B] 1863 - Lucien Pissarro (d. 1944), French Impressionist and Néo-Impressionist landscape painter, printmaker, wood engraver and designer and printer of fine books, born. The eldest of the seven children of the Impressionist painter Camille Pissarro and his wife Julie (née Vellay). He studied with his father, and was influenced by Georges Seurat and Paul Signac. His works appeared in 'Le Père Peinard'.

[BB] 1894 - Curt Corrinth (d. 1960), German Expressionist poet, novelist, dramatist, screenwriter and 'Bohemian anarchist', born. His anti-bourgeois experimental novel 'Potsdamer Platz' (1919), illustrated by Paul Klee, about the son of a war-proiteering millionaire who persuades Berlin's prostitutes to give up selling their bodies and instead embrace free love to create a 'heaven' on Earth - an anarchist celebration of prostitution as a potential revolutionary challenge to bourgeois order, which ends with the women mimicking the C19th image of bare-breasted Liberty by manning the barricades and laughing at and seducing the soldiers trying to retake the city.
Another of his works, the play 'Trojaner' (Trojans), is directed against the anti-Semitism rampant in German society, and caused outrage when first performed in 1929, and was banned by the Nazis in 1933 along with all his other works. He was taken into 'protective custody' by the Nazis in 1934 but later released and continued writing, opening the Leichlingen bookshop in 1945.

1911 - The publication in Germany of the first issue of Franz Pfemfert's magazine 'Die Aktion', subtitled 'Journal for literature and a libertarian politics'. This high quality weekly brought together the Expressionist arts movement and radical social criticism from anarchist writers. It was subject to numerous fines, bans and seizures because of its anti-militarist position. It became bimonthly in 1919, moving closer to become Councilist movement and, towards the end of its publication (1931), became the official organ of the Trotskyist opposition.

2005 - Hunter S. Thompson (aka Raoul Duke; b. 1939), American author and Gonzo journalist, dies. [see: Jul. 18]
1826 - Lois Waisbrooker (d. 1909), American anarchist and feminist author, editor, publisher, spiritualist and campaigner on birth control, women's rights and free speech, born. Probably best remembered for her 1893 novel 'A Sex Revolution'.

1886 - Aleksei Eliseevich Kruchenykh or Kruchonykh or Kruchyonykh (Russian: Алексе́й Елисе́евич Кручёных; d. 1968), Russian Cubo-Futurist or zaum (‘transrational language') poet, critic and anarchist, born. Associated both with the Futurist poets around Vladimir Mayakovsky and David Burliuk, and Suprematist artists artists Kazimir Malevich, Natalya Goncharova, Mikhail Larionov and Olga Rozanova, the last of whom he married in 1912. Kruchenykh wrote the libretto for the Futurist opera Victory Over the Sun, with sets provided by Kazimir Malevich, and is famed for his series of books including 'Universal War' (ВсеЛенская Война Ъ; 1916), illustrated with Malevich lithographs.

1903 - Anaïs Nin (Angela Anaïs Juana Antolina Rosa Edelmira Nin y Culmell; d. 1977), American author and diarist, who frequented anarchist circles and was involved in a long intellectual and sexual relationship with Henry Miller at the Villa Seurat in Paris, born.
"When we blindly adopt a religion, a political system, a literary dogma, we become automatons."

1936 - Shin Chae-ho (b. 1880), Korean historian, novelist, nationalist independence activist, anarchist and social Darwinist, dies. [see: Dec. 8]

1944 - Missak Manouchian (b. 1906), French-Armenian poet, a militant communist in the MOI (Main d'Œuvre Immigrée or Immigrant Workers Movement), and military commissioner of the FTP-MOI (Francs-Tireurs et Partisans de la Main d'Œuvre Immigrée; Partisan Irregular Riflemen of the MOI) in the Paris region, is executed along with 21 of his FTP-MOI comrades at Fort Mont-Valérien near Paris. [see: Sep. 1]

[B] 1962 - Charles Michael 'Chuck' Palahniuk, American cult author and freelance journalist, born. One-time member of the proto-Situ/dada Cacophony Society, started in 1986 by surviving members of the now defunct Suicide Club of San Francisco. The Cacophony Society was used as the basis for the proto-Nihilist Project Mayhem in his first novel 'Fight Club' (1996), which was also made into film of the same name by David Fincher, and starring Edward Norton, Brad Pitt, and Helena Bonham Carter, in 1999.
[B] 1886 - Hugo Ball (d. 1927), German author, poet, philosopher, literary critic and one of the leading Dada artists, anarchist and Bakunist, born. Along with Raoul Hausmann, he was the most active of the Dadaists in anarchist circles.

1900 - Luis Buñuel Portolés (d. 1983), Spanish Surrealist filmmaker/director, anarchist, atheist, anticlerical, anti-bourgeois, anti-fascist and blasphemer, born.
"I'm a revolutionary but revolution horrifies me, I'm an anarchist, but I'm totally against the anarchists."
"At twenty-eight I was an anarchist, and the discovery of Sade was to me quite extraordinary. It had nothing to do with the erotology, but with thought atheist. Turns out what had happened, until this moment, is that purely and simply had hidden me freedom, completely deceived me regarding what was religion and, above all, about morality. I was an atheist, had lost faith, but replaced it with liberalism and anarchism, with the sense of the innate goodness of man, and at the bottom was convinced that the man had a predisposition to goodness spoiled by the organization of the world by capital and soon discovered that all that was nothing, that everything that could exist (and if not that, something else), and that nothing, absolutely nothing, should be taken into account as it were the total freedom that if he felt like the man could move, and that there was good and there was bad. Imagine what that means for an anarchist."
Max Aub - 'Conversations with Luis Buñuel' (1984)

1910 - Baltasar Lobo (d. 1993), Spanish artist, illustrator, sculptor and anarchist, born. Lifelong companion of poet and anarchist Mercedes Comaposada Guillén. Abandoning his early job in a religious sculpture workshop, he got a scholarship he studied at the Reial Acadèmia de Belles Arts de San Fernando (Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando) in Madrid but, dissatisfied with their curricula, he left to work in woodcarvers run by CNT member Ángel Garzón, his first contact with anarchism, as well as making gravestones. He also too lessons at the Cercle de Belles Arts (Academy of Fine Arts) in Madrid. In 1933, and following a year's military service, he met the militant anarcho-feminist Mercedes Comaposada Guillén, one of the founders of the Mujeres Libres. In 1935 he made his first trip to Paris and, in 1936, joined the FIJL and began illustrating 'Tierra y Libertad', 'Castilla Libre', 'Frente Libertario', 'Tiempos Nuevos', 'Umbral', 'Mujeres Libres', 'Campo Libre', etc.. An active member of the Secció de Tallistes del Sindicat de la Fusta (Woodcarvers Section of the Woodworkers Union) of the CNT, he enlisted in the militia at the outbreak of war and participated in the Arts i Lletres group, give lessons at the front to those militants who could neither read nor write, "harmonising in this way the anarchist philosophy of making revolution (personal growth and humanising the individual) at the same time as being at war, fighting fascism".
Following the defeat of the republic, he went to France and settled in Paris, occupying the abandoned factory Naum Gabo. In 1945 he was part of the Masters of Contemporary Art exhibition alongside Matisse, Picasso, Leger, Utrillo, Bonnard and Laurens, later becoming Picasso's secretary for many years.

1930 - Giuliano Montaldo, radical Italian film director, who directed the docudrama 'Sacco e Vanzetti' (1971), born.

1937 - Tomás Herreros Miquel (or Miguel) (b. 1877), Spanish typesetter, anarcho-syndicalist, writer, gifted speaker, organiser, street activist, dies. A key figure in the early days of Spanish anarcho-syndicalism, he was active in the Arte de Imprimir, chaired the Junta de Defensa dels Drets Humans (Council fot the Defence of Human Rights) in Barcelona and was part of the anarchist group Quatre de Maig. Editor of the newspaper 'Solidaridad Obrera' since its creation and a close friend of Francisco Ferrer . In July 1909 he was arrested at the beginning of the Semaine Tragique and in 1910 attended the founding congress of the CNT. The following year he became editor of 'Tierra y Libertad' (and a member of the organisation). [expand]
Author of 'Huelga General en Barcelona' (General Strike in Barcelona; 1902); 'El Obrero Moderno' (The Modern Worker; 1911) and 'La Política y los Obreros' (Politics and The Workers; 1913).

1944 - Karel Destovnik aka 'Kajuh' (b. 1922), Slovenian poet, translator and resistance fighter, both in the Yugoslav army and Slovene partisans, his unit of the XIVth Slovene Partisan Division is attacked by a German patrol and Kajuh is one of the first to be killed. [see: Dec. 19]

1971 - Alexandre Breffort (b. 1901), French journalist, screenwriter, playwright, writer, anarchist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Nov. 22]

2003 - Arthur Moyse (b. 1914), English anarchist, artist and bus conductor, dies at the ripe young age of 88. [see: Jun. 21]

2013 - Fake press release stating that Banksy had been arrested by the Mat Police Anti-Graffiti Task Force released, starting a minor media feeding frenzy.
1851 - Antonio Pellicer i Paraire (d. 1916), Catalan Bakuninist anarchist, typographer, writer and playwright, born. Member of the Spanish Regional Federation of the AIT and secretary of the Unión of Noógrafos of Barcelona. Between 1871 and 1875 he lived in Mexico , Cuba and the United States In exile?). Helped found the Sociedad Tipográfica in 1879 and the later La Solidaria, a breakaway from the Sociedad Tipográfica, in 1881. He edited the weekly newspaper 'Acracia' between 1886 and 1888, and was on the steering and editorial committees of other newspapers such as 'La Crónica de los Trabajadores', 'La Revolución Social', 'Revista Social' and 'El Productor', collaborating with Ricardo Mella [see 21 Apr] amongst others.
In 1891 he emigrated to Buenos Aires, Argentina where he ran a professional journal entitled 'Éxito Gráfico i La Noografía' and was president of the Instituto Argentino de las Artes Gráficas.
As a writer, he wrote a number of Obrerista (Workers' Theatre) plays in Catalan including 'En lo Ball' (In The Dance), 'Celos' (Jealosy), 'Jo Vaig' (I), 'La Mort de la Proletària' (Death of the Proletariat) and 'Sense Esperança' (No Hope).

[B on 11th/O.S. date] 1879 - Kazimir Malevich (d. 1935), Suprematist painter and anarchist who, like many other avant garde artists, fell foul of the Communist authorities, born. He wrote regualrly for the weekly 'Anarkhiia' (Anarchy) and its arts and literature section 'Tvorchestvo' (Creativity or Creative Work), contributing to more than twenty issues and supported the paper financially.
“The banner of anarchism is the banner of our ego and like a free wind our spirit will billow our creative work through the vast spaces of our soul.”
"'Clean the squares of the remains of the past, for the temples of our image are going to be erected.
Clean yourselves of the accumulation of forms belonging to past ages." (in 'Anarkhiia' 1918)
"We are revealing new pages of art in anarchy’s new dawns …
We are the first to come to the new limit of creation, and we shall uncover a new alarm in the field of the lacquered arts …
The powerful storm of revolution has borne off the garret, and we, like clouds in the firmament, have sailed to our freedom.
The ensign of anarchy is the ensign of our ‘ego,’ and our spirit like a free wind will make our creative work flutter in the broad spaces of the soul.
You who are bold and young, make haste to remove the fragments of the disintegrating rudder. Wash off the touch of the dominating authorities.
And, clean, meet and build the world in awareness of your day." Malevich - 'To The New Limit' (originally published as 'K novoi grani'), 'Anarkhiia' 31 (1918) (p220-1).
"The banner of anarchism is the banner of our ego and like a free wind our spirit will billow our creative work through the vast spaces of our soul."

[B] 1882 - B. Traven (d. 1969), Anarchist author/novelist, aka Ret Marut, Hal Croves, Bruno Traven, Traven Torsvan, Otto Feige, born in Poznañ, Poland. Spent a portion of his life hiding his tracks, changing identity, country and jobs. [This is the best guess for the date and location of this mysterious author's birth.]

1903 - Jean-Baptiste Clément (b.1836) dies. Communard, poet, singer and author of the famous Commune songs 'Le Temps des Cerises' (The Time of Cherries) and 'La Semaine Sanglante' (The Bloody Week) - though most of his other songs have been lost. Prior to 1870 he had spent several periods in prison for his newspaper articles (in Jules Vallès' 'Le Cri du Peuple' amongst others), his own (single issue?) satrical political magazine 'Les Carmagnoles' (1868) and pamphlets such as 'La Lanterne du Peuple' and '89 !... Les Souris. Dansons la Capucine' (both 1868). On 28 May he was with Varlin and Ferré on the last of the Commune barricades but manages to evade capture, before finding refuge in England, via Belgium. Sentenced to death in absentia in 1874, he returned to France after the amnesty of 1879.

[C] 1904 - Manuel Monleón Burgos (d. 1976), Spanish painter, illustrator, poster artist, photomontagist, naturist, Esperantist and anarchist, born. One of the most important poster and photomontage artists of the Spanish Revolution.

2014 - In a performance timed to coincide with Russian Army Day, St. Petersburg conceptual artist and political activist Pyotr Pavlensky and others performed his piece 'Liberty', a “small-scale reconstruction of Maidan" on Malo-Konyushenny (Tripartite) Bridge near the Church on Spilled Blood in central St. Petersburg, where they built an imitation barricade, raised Ukrainian and anarchist flags, set dozens of car tires on fire and banged on sheets of metal, in support of the Maidan protests in Kiev. Police interrupted the performance, arresting Pavlensky and his fellow performers. Pavlensky and his assistant Yaroslav Gradil were released from prison 2 days later after being held accused of hooliganism.
1938 - Gustave Le Rouge (Gustave Henri Joseph Lerouge; b. 1867), French writer, journalist, socialist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 22]

1962 - Michelle Shocked (stage name of Karen Michelle Johnston), American singer-songwriter, who at one point called herself "a radical skateboard punk-rock anarchist", born. Once arrested during an Occupy L.A. protest (her first big album, 'Short Sharp Shocked', featured a cover photo of a San Francisco riot cop with a choke-hold around her neck during an 1980s protest) and who for many years was presumed gay, is now a born again christian who came out with the following anti-gay rant: "When they stop Prop 8 and force priests at gunpoint to marry gays, it will be the downfall of civilisation, and Jesus will come back" on stage in San Francisco on 18/03/13.

1978 - At a Rock Against Racism 'Smash Race Hate in '78' gig at the Central London Polytechnic, the BM are present in numbers but discretion was the better part of their valour and the event is largely peaceful, ending with Jimmy Pursey from Sham 69 joining Misty in Roots on stage for a version of the old skinhead classic, 'Israelites'. [PR]

[B] 2012 - 'Song from the Uproar: The Lives and Deaths of Isabelle Eberhardt', an opera composed by Missy Mazzoli about the anarchist adventurer, premières in New York City.
1877 - Karel Toman (pen name of Antonín Bernášek; d. 1946), Czech poet, journalist, translator (from French) and representative of the generation of Czech Anarchističtí Buřiči, "básníci života a vzdoru" (Anarchist Rebels, "the poets of life and defiance"), born.

[B] 1928 - Juan López Romero Jiménez (aka 'Juan el Camas' or 'Chiquito de Camas' [Shorty from Camas]; d. 2008), Andalusian anarchist and flamenco singer, especially of the fandango, born.

1932 - Pierre Lariviere (b. 1884?), French anarchist, painter and caricaturist who illustrated some of Jean Grave's 'Temps Nouveaux', dies.

[BB] 1970 - Mark Rothko (Marcus Yakovlevich Rothkowitz; b. 1903), American abstract expressionist/colour field painter, poet and anarchist, his health failing and suffering from depression, commits suicide. [see: Sep. 25]
1894 - Jean Grave is charged for writing and publishing 'La Société Mourante et l'Anarchie' (The Dying Society and Anarchy) with its preface by Octave Mirbeau. Grave is subsequently sentenced to two years in prison and fined a thousand francs for "incitement to looting, murder, theft, fire, etc." and the destruction of the offending book ordered.

1898 - Konstantin Biebl (d. 1951), Czech proletarian poet and Poetist, born. Member of Devětsil and the Czech Surrealist group. In January 1918 he was on the Balkan front, wounded, captured and sentenced to death, escaped execution by fleeing from captivity. Strongly held anti-war and anti-fascist views.

1920 - Richard O. Moore, US poet, pacifist and philosophical anarchist, associated with Kenneth Rexroth and the San Francisco Renaissance, born.

[B] 1950 - Adam Cornford, British poet, librettist, essayist, cartoonist and editor at 'Anarchy Comics', born.

1969 - Jeanne Françoise 'Jane' Morand (b. 1883), French militant individualist anarchist and anti-militarist activist, dies in Paris. [see: Aug. 17]
[B] 1912 - Lawrence George Durrell (d. 1990), British-born novelist, poet, dramatist, biographer, travel writer and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. His close relationship with Henry Miller that spanned 45 years and encompassed much cross-fertilisation of their literary efforts, especially during their period living at the Villa Seurat in the later '30s. It also led to his involvement in the Miller-inspired shift of the English Surrealists away from its communist orthodoxy towards an anti-authoritarian/anarchist politics, which would influence the likes of Herbert Read, David Gascoyne, Robert Duncan and Kenneth Rexroth. Politically Durrell was a 'non-joiner' and refused to have his writings included in expressly political publications and anthologies when requested (cf: his refusal of Comfort's Egyptian request during WWII). However, after the war he was published in a number of anarchist publications including George Woodcock's magazine 'NOW', Duncan's 'Experimental Review', the anarchist influenced New Apocalyptics poetry group and Rexroth's 'Circle Editions'; had his works regularly discussed in the pages of 'Freedom' and was anthologised by Comfort and Rexroth.

1913 - Pierre Boujut (d. 1992), French cooper, writer, poet, pacifist and libertarian, born. Published 3 literary journals over a sixty year period: 'Reflets' (Reflections; 1933-1936), 'Regains' (Regains; 1937-1939) and 'La Tour de Feu' (The Fire Tower; 1946-1991); as well as numerous poetry collections and a memoir, 'Un Mauvais Français' (A Bad Frenchman; 1989).

1920 - Ludwig Rubiner (b. 1881), German Expressionist poet, literary critic, essayist, translator, painter and anarchist sympathiser, dies following a protracted bout of pneumonia. [see: Jul. 12]

1950 - Yvan Goll (born Isaac Lang; b. 1891), bilingual French-German Jewish writer (poetry, novels, dramas, libretti, essays, etc.) and anarchist sympathiser, who had close ties to German expressionism, Zurich Dada and to French surrealism, dies. [see: Mar. 29]

1970 - José Santos González Vera (b. 1897), Chilean writer, novelist, journalist and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 17]
[B] 1938 - Klaus Staeck, German lawyer and publisher best known in Germany for his radical political graphic design work, born.
1944 - Félix Fénéon (b. 1861), French art critic, novelist, anarchist and friend of Seurat, Paul Signac, Théo van Rysselberghe, Henri-Edmond Cross, André Gide, et al, dies. [see: Jun. 22]

1956 - Konrad Świerczyński aka 'Wicek' (b. 1888), Polish anarchist, bookstore owner and poet, dies. [see: Feb. 19]
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)
Birthday of Bradley Manning [WikiLeaks defendant]2010 - Jason Pearce dies of the mysterious new condition "excited delirium" whilst being arrested and restrained by two police officers in Market Drayton. No one is charged.philadi