"Art is not a mirror to reflect the world, but a hammer with which to shape it." - variously attributed to Bertolt Brecht, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Nikolai Nekrasov and even (in a slightly different version) Leon Trotsky.

1876 - Susan Keating Glaspell (d. 1948), US radical and feminist playwright, actress, director, novelist, biographer and poet, born.

[B] 1920 - First great Dada exhibition, the Erste Internationale Dada-Messe (First International Dada Fair) [July 1-August 25], takes place in the rooms of Dr. Otto Burchard's art-shop in Berlin. It features 174 exhibited objects and is the culmination of the Dada activities in Berlin.

1925 - Erik (Éric Alfred Leslie) Satie (b. 1866), French composer and pianist, dies. [see: May 17]

1952 - Fráňa Šrámek (b. 1877), Czech poet, novelist, short story writer, Impressionist playwright, anti-militarist and anarchist rebel, dies. [see: Jan 19]

2003 - Chicho Sánchez Ferlosio (José Antonio Julio Onésimo Sánchez Ferlosio; b. 1940), Spanish singer, poet, songwriter, journalist, one-time communist but later an anarchist and CNT member, dies. [see: Apr. 8]
1789 - Marquis de Sade shouts from the Bastille that prisoners are being slaughtered.

1877 - Hermann Hesse (d. 1962), German poet and novelist, born. Author of 'Der Steppenwolf' (1927), whose central character Harry Haller is invited to attend an: "Anarchist Evening at the Magic Theatre, For Madmen Only, Price of Admission Your Mind."

1894 - André Kertész (born Kertész Andor; d. 1985), Hungarian-born photographer and ground-breaking photojournalist, born.

[B] 1935 - Nanni Balestrini, Italian experimental poet, novelist and writer of the Neoavanguardia movement, visual artist and anarchist, born. Member of Novissimi (last Things) and Gruppo 63 writers groups.

1961 - Ernest Miller Hemingway (b. 1899), American author and journalist, dies. [see: Jul. 21]

1989 - Jean Painlevé (b. 1902), French biologist turned film director, actor, translator, animator, critic and theorist, anti-fascist and anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 20]
[B] 1883 - Franz Kafka (d. 1924), Czech-born German writer and anarchist sympathiser, born.
"I followed in the footsteps of Ravachol. They led me later to Erich Mühsam, Arthur Holitscher and the Viennese anarchist Rudolph Gassman, who called himself Pierre Ramuz and edited the journal 'Wealth for All'." - Gustav Janouch: 'Conversations with Kafka' (1953)

1933 - Franz Wilhelm Seiwert (b. 1894), German painter, sculptor, poet, Marxist, anarchist sympathiser, Expressionist, Dadaist and then a Constructivist and member of the Cologne Progressives, dies. [see: Mar. 9]

[CC] 1981 - A gig at the Hambrough Tavern in Southall involving three bands aligned to Oi! is attacked by local Asian youths objecting to the arrival of a large skinhead presence in an area with a recent history of racial conflict. By 10 p.m., the pub is ablaze beneath a hail of petrol bombs. The next day, newspaper front pages were dominated by images of cowering police officers, burnt-out vehicles and stories of a 'race riot'. Initially a form of 'working-class protest', a street-level music that sought to align working-class youth cults in the face of welfare cuts and growing unemployment. However, by 1981, the skinhead element of Oi! were actively being recruited as foot-soldiers for the British far right, both the National Front and the British Movement, and Oi! was a target for those seeking retribution for previous cowardly racist attacks.

1995 - Gil J. Wolman (born Gil Joseph; b. 1929), pioneer French filmmaker, writer, sound poet, political activist and Internationale Lettriste, dies. [see: Sep. 7]

1999 - Paul Wulf (b. 1921), German anarchist and communist artist, anti-fascist victim of the Nazi regime's sterilization programmes, dies. [see: May 2]
[BB] 1880 - Leda Rafanelli (d. 1971), Italian anarchist, feminist, anti-militarist, writer, artist and member of the Futurists, who was known as the 'Gypsy anarchist', born. At a young age she had one of her first poems published in the PSI newspaper, also moving with her family to Alexandria where she came into contact with the Baracca Rossa anarchist group and Sufism. Initially an individualist, she gradually moved towards libertarian socialism and, upon her return to Italy (with husband Ugo Polli), formed a friendship with Pietro Gori and declared her pacifism by coming out against the Manifesto of the Sixteen. Her admiration for Armando Borghi led to his asking her to write the forward to his book 'Il Nostro e l'Altrui Andividualismo' (Our and Others' Individualism; 1907). Leda and Ugo founded the publishing house Casa Editrice Rafanelli-Polli but their relationship soon ends.
Becoming involved with the Futurists, she begins a brief but intense relationship with Carlo Carrà, influencing his adherence to anarchism and results in Alberto Ciampi's book 'Leda Rafanelli, Carlo Carrà: un Romanzo, Arte e Politica in un Incontro' (Leda Rafanelli, Carlo Carrà: a novel, art and politics in a meeting; 2005). A longer-term and more fruitful relationship with Giuseppe Monnanni followed and with whom she started the magazines 'La Rivolta' (The Revolt; 1910) and 'La Libertà' (Freedom; 1913-14), and later still the anarcho-individualsit arts and literature magazine 'Vir' and also 'La Sciarpa Nera' (The Black Scarf).
Other activities included joining the editorial board of 'La Protesta Umana' (1906-09 ) with the anarchists Ettore Molinari and Nella Giacomelli, and collaborating on various libertarian publications such as Pietro Gori and Luigi Fabbri's 'Il Pensiero' (The Thought), 'Il Libertario' (The Libertarian), 'Il Grido della Folla' (The Cry of the crowd), 'Volontà' (Will), 'La Blouse' (1906-10), 'La Donna Libertaria' (1912-13), etc. In 1910, Leda also founded the Società Editrice Sociale, perhaps the most important Italian libertarian publisher.
Between 1913 and 1914 Mussolini, then a socialist participant in the Settimana Rossa fell in love with and unsuccessfully pursued her, a period that she covered in her book 'Una Donna e Mussolini: la Corrispondenza Amorosa' (1975). The rise of Fascism made publishing difficult and the Società Editrice Social was closed by the authorities in 1923, along with the magazine 'Pagine Libertarie'. Its replacement, the Casa Editrice Monann, was itself closed down by the fascist regime in 1933. Forced by economic hardship, she became a fortune teller and write popular novels under a host of pen names, all on oriental themes, much of it biographical e.g. 'Nada', 'La Signora Mia Nonna' (The Lady My Grandmother) and 'Le Memorie di una Chiromante' (The Memoirs of a Fortune Teller). Towards the end of her life, Leda taught Arabic and collaborated on 'Umanità Nova'.
Her written works include popular novels and short stories such as 'Sogno d'Amore' (Dreams of Love; 1905), 'Bozzetti Sociali' (Social Sketches; 1910), and 'L'Oasi' (1926),written under a pseudonym about fascist repression in Libya; as well as her political writings which include: 'Valide Braccia' (1907) a pamphlet against the construction of new prisons, 'Seme Nuovo' (New Seed; 1908), 'Verso la Siberia, Scene della Rivoluzione Russa' (Towards Siberia, Scenes of the Russian Revolution; 1908), 'L'Eroe della Folla' (The Hero of the Crowd; 1910), and 'Donne e Femmine' (Women and Girls; 1922).

[B] 1899 - Benjamin Péret (d. 1959), French poet, Parisian Dadaist, founder member of the French Surrealist movement, proponent of automatism and anarchist, born. Known to have used the pseudonyms Satyremont, Peralda and Peralta. Worked with and was an influence on the Mexican writer Octavio Paz, he moved to Brazil in 1929, where he published 'Le Grand Jeu' (1928) but was expelled from the country along with his wife, the Brazilian singer Elsie Houston, and his newly born son, on grounds of being a "Communist Agitator", having helped form the Brazilian Communist League. Joined the French Communist Party but fought initially with POUM but later joined the Durutti Column on the Aragon Front during the Spanish Revolution. Upon returning to France, he was interned and eventually fled the Nazi invasion, ending up in Mexico. Returning to France post-WWII, he caused a furore with his recently published pamphlet 'Le Déshonneur des Poètes' (1945), in answer to Pierre Seghers, Paul Éluard and Jean Lescure's 'L’Honneur des Poètes' (1943), a collecton of patriotic poems bringing together religious writer with communist and Surrealist poets. He also became an active member of an anarchist group in the Paris region and contributed to the anarchist paper 'Le Libertaire' e.g. 'The factory committee: motor of the social revolution' (September 4, 1952).

1900 - Robert Desnos (d. 1945), French poet, author, anti-fascist and anarchist, who was one of the most important figures of the French surrealist movement in the 1920s and 30s, born. A youthful anarchist - he was associated with the circle around Rirette Maitrejean, Henri Jeanson, etc. [Armand Salacrou, Georges Limbour] - he would fall out with André Breton and most of the Surrealists when they gravitated towards the French Comunist party in the mid-late 1920s. He was also a fervent anti-fascist, working on behalf of Republican Spain, writing amongst other things a cantata in memory of the murdered García Lorca, whom Desnos had met in 1935. At the outbreak of war he joined up as a sergeant and was deeply shocked by the defeatist attitude that prevailed within the army. He was taken prisoner June 27, 1940, and released after the Armistice. For Desnos, Hitler and fascism were now hs mortal enemies. He went on to become a writer on the journal 'Aujourd’hui', hoping to maintain its independence from censorship, whilst openly attacking Pétain and the conditions prevailing under the occupying Germans, and an active member of the French Résistance network Réseau AGIR. Much of his non-'Aujourd’hui' work was published under various pseudonyms in the underground press and for Réseau Agir, Desnos provided information collected during his job at 'Aujourd'hui' and made false identity papers. Unfortunately, his obvious anti-fascism led to his inevitable denunciation and he was arrested by the Gestapo on February 22, 1944. After a lengthy period of interrogation, Desnos was deported to the Nazi German concentration camps of Auschwitz in occupied Poland, then Buchenwald, Flossenburg's Flöha sub-camp in Saxony, making parts for Messerschmitts, and finally on a forced march to Terezín (Theresienstadt) in occupied Czechoslovakia. Through out his time in the camps he carried on his active resistance to the Nazi war machine, often earning him brutal beatings. In Terezín he died from typhoid at 5.30 on the morning of June 8, 1945, only weeks after the camp’s liberation and less than a month short of his 45th birthday. His ashes were returned to France to be interred in the Montparnasse Cemetery.

1969 - Erwin Blumenfeld (b. 1897), German-Jewish photographer, Dadaist collage artist, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Jan. 26]

1970 - Barnett Newman (b. 1905), US abstract expressionist, colour field painter and life-long anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 29]

1981 - The final Rock Against Racism Festival is held in Potternewton Park, Leeds featuring Wolfrace, The Au Pairs, Aswad, Misty in Roots, and with The Specials headlining.

2000 -
2000 - Chiquet Mawet (Michelle Beaujean; b. 1937), Belgian playwright, storyteller, poet, polemicist, social activist and professor of ethics, who was a regular contributor to the Belgian anarchist monthly 'Alternative Libertaire', dies. [see: Jan. 23]
1889 - Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (d. 1963), French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, playwright, artist and filmmaker, born. His fiche policière labelled him a "poète anarchiste homosexuel à Paris".
"Si je n'étais pas reine, je serais anarchiste. En somme je suis une reine anarchistes. C'est ce qui fait que la cour me dénigre et c'est ce qui fait que le peuple m'aime." ("If I was not a queen, I would be an anarchist. In short I am an anarchist queen. This is what makes the court denigrate me and this is what makes the people like me.") - The Queen in 'L'Aigle à Deux Têtes' (The Eagle has Two Heads; 1943) as she lies dying from a stab wound to the heart.

1927 - Lesbia Harford (Lesbia Venner Keogh; b. 1891), Australian poet, novelist, free love advocate, member of the I.W.W. and state vice-president of the Federated Clothing and Allied Trades Union, dies of lung and heart failure, exacerbated no doubt by the tuberculosis that she had suffered from for many years. She was aged just 36 years old. [see: Apr. 9]

[C] 1940 - Carl (Karl) Einstein (b. 1885), German poet, experimental prose writer, Dadaist, art historian, theorist of Expressionist poetics, art critic and theorist who was one of the first to champion Cubism, nephew of Albert Einstein and an anarchist combatant in the Spanish Revolution, dies a suicide to prevent capture by the Nazis. [see: Apr. 26]

1942 - Germaine Berton (b. 1902), French trade union militant and anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 7]

[B] 2007 - George Melly (b. 1926), English jazz and blues singer, critic, writer and lecturer on art history specialising in Surrealism who was put on charges in the aftermath of WWII for possessing anarchist literature whilst in the Navy, dies.
1535 - Thomas More (b. 1478), English lawyer, social philosopher, humanist, author and statesman, born. Best known for his satirical novel 'Utopia: A Fruitful and Pleasant Work of the Best State of a Public Weal, and of the New Isle Called Utopia' published in 1516, describes an ideal society has abolished the property and where the tolerance is a rule: "Fay ce que vouldras" (Do what you will). Claimed as a precursor to anarchism, yet slavery and religion are still posited as universal institutions.

[C] 1907 - Frida Kahlo de Rivera (born Magdalena Carmen Frieda Kahlo y Calderón; d. 1954), painter, communist, and one of Mexico's greatest artists, born. Around the age of 6, she contracted polio, which caused her to be bedridden for nine months. While she did recover from the illness, she limped when she walked because the disease had damaged her right leg and foot. Frida Kahlo began painting after she was severely injured, impaled on a steel handrail and suffering fractures to her spine and pelvis, in a bus accident in September 1925. Inspired by her marriage to Diego Rivera, her miscarriages, and her numerous operations, Kahlo's works are often characterised by their suggestions of pain: "I never painted dreams. I painted my own reality."
Through Rivera, Karlo became an active communist, in 1937 befriending Trotsky who lived initially with Rivera and then at Kahlo's home (he and Karlo had an affair).
The bisexual Kahlo had affairs with both men and women, including Isamu Noguchi and Josephine Baker; Rivera knew of and tolerated her relationships with women, but her relationships with men made him jealous. For her part, Kahlo was furious when she learned that Rivera had an affair with her younger sister, Cristina. The couple divorced in November 1939, but remarried in December 1940. Their second marriage was as troubled as the first.
At the invitation of André Breton, she went to France during 1939 and was featured at an exhibition of her paintings in Paris. And back in Mexico she befriended many Surrealist who had left Europe, fleeing from the Nazi occupation, included Leonora Carrington, Wolfgang Paalen, Alice Rahon, Luis Buñuel, Frida Kahlo, Kati Horna, Benjamin Peret, Remei Varo and the young Octavio Paz.

1923 - The falling out of André Breton and Tristan Tzara over their differing views of the Dadaist movement and 'aesthetic' came to a head, following Tzara's issuing of the manifesto 'Le Cœur à Barbe' (The Bearded Heart; 1922), at the Soirée du Cœur à Barbe hosted by Paris's Théâtre Michel. During the première of a new production of Tzara's 'Le Cœur à Gaz' André Breton "hoisted himself on the stage and started to belabour the actors", provoking a riot. According to poet Georges Hugnet, the actors could not run away because of their restricting costumes, while their attacker also managed to assault some of the writers present, punching René Crevel and breaking Pierre de Massot's arm with his walking stick. The police were called but not before rows of seats were torn up and the stage trashed, leaving the director of Théâtre Michel tearing his hair out and lamenting "My lovely little theatre!'"

[B] 1951 - The Surrealist manifesto 'Haute Fréquence', dated May 24th, appears in the anarchist periodical 'Le Libertaire' published today.

1989 - René Lochu (b. 1899), French journeyman tailor, anarchist, syndicalist union activist and pacifist, dies. His close friend Leo Ferre dedicated his song 'Les Etrangers' to him.

2002 - Pietro Valpreda (b. 1933), Italian dancer, writer and anarchist, who was one of those wrongly accused of the Piazza Fontana bombing, dies. [see: Aug: 29]
1852 - Vera Nikolayevna Figner (d. 1942), Russian revolutionary, Bakuninist socialist, poet and memoirist, born. She first became involved in revolutionary politics as a student in Zurich (1872-75), discovering the ideas of Bakunin and joining the anti-authoritarian AIT. Returning to Russia, she worked as a nurse/paramedic amongst the peasantry and became involved with firstly the Narodniks, then Zemlya i Volya (Land and Liberty) and, in 1879 following the split of Zemlya i Volya, she became a member of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya (The Will of the People), conducting propaganda activities among intelligentsia, students and military in St.Petersburg, Kronstadt and southern parts of Russia. He involvement in the paramilitary wing of Narodnaya Volya included the planning the failed Feb. 5, 1880, assassination attempt on Alexander II in Odessa and the successful assassination attempt on the tsar on March 13, 1881.
Figner was arrested in Kharkov on February 10, 1883, betrayed by Sergey Degayev, a police informer who had infiltrated her circle, and a was sentenced to death a year later during the Trial of the Fourteen. The sentence was commuted to perpetual penal servitude in Siberia. Having spent the 20 months before her trial in solitary confinement in the Peter and Paul Fortress, she was imprisoned for 20 years at Schlüsselburg and in 1904 exiled to various parts of Siberia. Allowed to emigrate in 1906, she campaign around Europe for political prisoners in Russia. In 1915 she returned to Russia but never accepted the legitimacy of the Bolshevik Government, and was constantly under Secret Police surveillance. After the 1917 Revolution she worked with the Society of the Former Political Prisoners and Exiles (Обществo бывших политкаторжан и ссыльнопоселенцев) and was Chair of the committee in 1921 to honour Kropotkin upon his death. The committee set up a museum in Kropotkin's birthplace (Kropotkingasse No. 26), of which Vera Figner was director until she was banished by the Communists on Feb. 3, 1930, aged 78, for protesting against the maltreatment of women' in communist prisons.
Her written works include a single book of poetry 'Stikhotvoreniia' (Poems; 1906) and her memoirs 'Nacht über Rußland' (Night over Russia; 1922) and 'Memoirs of a Revolutionist' (Book I: 'A Task Fulfilled' & Book II: 'How the Clock of Life Stopped'; 1927).

1884 - Lion Feuchtwanger (d. 1958), German-Jewish novelist and playwright, who was a prominent figure in the literary world of Weimar Germany, influencing many contemporaries including playwright Bertolt Brecht and was a fierce critic of the Nazi party long before it rose to power, born. One of the very first to recognise and warn against the dangers of Hitler and the Nazi Party. As early as 1920 published in the satirical text 'Gespräche mit dem Ewigen Juden' (Conversations with the Wandering Jew), a vision of what would later become the reality of anti-Semitic racist mania: "Towers of Hebrew books were burned, and bonfires were erected high up in the clouds, and people burnt, innumerable priests and voices sang: Gloria in excelsis Deo. Traits of men, women, children dragged themselves across the square from all sides, they were naked or in rags, and they had nothing with them as corpses and the tatters of book rolls of torn, disgraced, soiled with faeces Books roles. And they followed men and women in kaftans and dresses the children in our day, countless, endless."
'Erfolg: Drei Jahre Geschichte einer Provinz' (Success: Three years of history of a province; 1930), was a fictionalized account of the rise and fall of the Nazi Party in Bavaria from 1921-24 [at the time the Nazis were considered a spent force] and his 1933 novel, 'Die Geschwister Oppenheim' (The Brothers Oppenheim), the second novel of the series 'Der Wartesaal' (The Waiting Room) and which was retitled 'Die Geschwister Oppermann', has an explicitly anti-Nazi theme relating the consequences of the Nazi seizure of power in January 1933 for the members of a Jewish upper middle class family in Berlin. [expand]

1887 - Marc Chagall (born Moishe Segal; d. 1985), Russian Modernist artist who worked in virtually every artistic medium, including painting, book illustrations, stained glass, stage sets, ceramic, tapestries and fine art prints, born to a Lithuanian Jewish family. "He synthesized the art forms of Cubism, Symbolism, and Fauvism... [but] he remained most emphatically a Jewish [folk] artist." Spent the years 1911-14 living in the libertarian artists community La Ruche in Paris and was involved in the post-Revolution Russian avant-garde arts movement, founding the Vitebsk Arts College. However, he fell out with the Suprematists on the faculty and resigned his teaching job.
Like almost all the European Modernists, Chagall fell foul of the Nazis and the Entartete Kunst and had to flee France in 1941 for America.

[AA] 1896 - Charles Thomas Wooldridge is hung in Reading prison and Oscar Wilde writes 'The Ballad of Reading Gaol' in memoriam:
"Yet each man kills the thing he loves
By each let this be heard,
Some do it with a bitter look,
Some with a flattering word,
The coward does it with a kiss,
The brave man with a sword!"

1984 - George Oppen (b. 1908), American Objectivist poet and political activist, dies. [see: Apr. 24]

[B] 1997 - Erik Heino Jaeger (b. 1938), German painter, graphic artist, comedian, satirist, story teller and cabaret artist, born. [see: Jan. 1]
1822 - Percy Bysshe Shelley (b. 1792), English Romantic poet, son-in-law of William Godwin and Godwinite social radical, dies.

1867 - Käthe Kollwitz (d. 1945), German Expressionist painter, printmaker, sculptor, socialist and pacifist, who was one of the most important women artists of her period and also artists of the working classes in Europe, born.
Trained initially as a painter, but by 1890 turned to printmaking as means for social criticism, especially on proletarian and anti-war issues. A non-aligned socialist, she helped form a Workers' and Artist Council in Berlin during the 1918 Revolution, supporting Rosa Luxemburg January 1919 position against an armed uprising. Kollwitz's drawing of Karl Liebknecht in his coffin, 'Memorial for Karl Liebknecht' (1919), was condemned by the German Communist Party (KPD) because it had not been produced by a member of the party.
"I have been through a revolution, and I am convinced that I am no revolutionist. My childhood dream of dying on the barricades will hardly be fulfilled, because I should hardly mount a barricade now that I know what they are like in reality. And so I know now what an illusion I lived in for so many years. I thought I was a revolutionary and was only an evolutionary. Yes, sometimes I do not know whether I am a socialist at all, whether I am not rather a democrat instead."

1884 - Mauro Bajatierra Morán (d. 1939), Spanish journalist, prolific writer, novelist, playwright, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist propagandist, born.

1890 - Walter Hasenclever (d. 1940), radical German Expressionist poet, playwright, anti-militarist and anarchist fellow traveller, born. His first book of poems, 'Städte, Nächte, Menschen' (Cities, Nights, People) was published in 1910. At the beginning of WWI he volunteered for the army but quickly lost his enthusiasm for war and, feigning mental illness, he earn his discharge. One of the German Expressionists, in fact he one of the first to use the term 'expressionist' in relationship to drama in his series of essays 'Das Theater von Morgen' (The Theatre of Tomorrow; 1916), who were influenced by the Austrian psychoanalyst and anarchist Otto Gross. Like many of his fellow Expressionists, his work is a protest against bourgeois materialism and the war-making state. His plays include: 'Der Sohn' (The Son; 1914), about a youth who becomes a political revolutionary and brings about his father’s death, became the manifesto for the German post-WWI generation; 'Der Retter' (The Saviour; 1915), about a poet who tries to stop the war and is executed by a firing squad; and 'Antigone' (1917), a pacifist reinterpretation of Sophocles’ play. 'Die Menschen' (Humanity; 1918) however is his Expressionist masterpiece and best known work. After that his plays became more populist and he even wrote scripts for Greta Garbo and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. However, when the Nazis came to power, his works were banned and he went into exile in France in 1934, only to be interned by the Vichy regime as a 'foreign enemy'. He died of a barbiturate overdose in internment at Camp des Milles in the south-east of France.

Zum Andenken an Karl Liebknecht
Der Zug entgleist. Zwanzig Kinder krepieren.
Die Fliegerbomben töten Mensch und Tier.
Darüber ist kein Wort zu verlieren.
Die Mörder sitzen im Rosenkavalier.

Soldaten verachtet durch die Straßen ziehen.
Generäle prangen im Ordensstern.
Deserteure, die vor dem Angriff fliehen,
Erschießt man im Namen des obersten Herrn.

Auf, Dirigent, von deinem Orchesterstuhle!
Du hast Menschen getötet. Wie war dir zu Mut?
Waren es viel? Die Mörder machen Schule.
Was dachtest du beim ersten spritzenden Blut?

Der Mensch ist billig, und das Brot wird teuer.
Die Offiziere schreiten auf und ab.
Zwei große Städte sind verkohlt im Feuer.
Ich werde langsam wach im Massengrab.

Ein gelber Leutnant brüllt an meiner Seite:
"Sei still, du Schwein!" Ich gehe stramm vorbei:
Im Schein der ungeheuren Todesweite
Vor Kälte grau in alter Leichen Brei.

Das Feld der Ehre hat mich ausgespieen;
Ich trete in die Königsloge ein.
Schreiende Schwärme schwarzer Vögel ziehen
Durch goldene Tore ins Foyer hinein.

Sie halten blutige Därme in den Krallen,
Entrissen einem armen Grenadier.
Zweitausend sind in dieser Nacht gefallen!
Die Mörder sitzen im Rosenkavalier.

Verlauste Krüppel sehen aus den Fenstern.
Der Mob schreit: "Sieg!" Die Betten sind verwaist.
Stabsärzte halten Musterung bei Gespenstern;
Der dicke König ist zur Front gereist.

"Hier, Majestät, fand statt das große Ringen!"
Es naht der Feldmarschall mit Eichenlaub.
Die Tafel klirrt. Champagnergläser klingen.
Ein silbernes Tablett ist Kirchenraub.

Noch strafen Kriegsgerichte das Verbrechen
Und hängen den Gerechten in der Welt.
Geh hin, mein Freund, du kannst dich an mir rächen!
Ich bin der Feind. Wer mich verrät, kriegt Geld.

Der Unteroffizier mir Herrscherfratze
Steigt aus geschundenem Fleisch ins Morgenrot.
Noch immer ruft Karl Liebknecht auf dem Platze:
"Nieder der Krieg!" Sie hungern ihn zu Tod.

Wir alle hungern hinter Zuchthaussteinen,
Indes die Opfer tönt im Kriegsgewinn.
Mißhandelte Gefangene stehn und weinen
Am Gittertor der ewigen Knechtschaft hin.

Die Länder sind verteilt. Die Knochen bleichen.
Der Geist spinnt Hanf und leistet Zwangsarbeit.
Ein Denkmal steht im Meilenfeld der Leichen
Und macht Reklame für die Ewigkeit.

Man rührt die Trommel. Sie zerspringt im Klange.
Brot wird Ersatz und Blut wird Bier.
MeinVaterland, mir ist nicht bange!
Die Mörder sitzen im Rosenkavalier.

- 'Die Mörder sitzen in der Oper' (The Murderer sitting in the Opera House; 1917)

[B] 1933 - Jeff Nuttall (d. 2004), the English poet, publisher, actor, painter, sculptor, jazz trumpeter, anarchist sympathiser and social commentator who was a key part of the British 1960s counter-culture, born.
"His books are full of anarchists -- some of them very bizarre like the anarchist aesthetes of 'The Centauri Device'." - Michael Moorcock

1940 - Yoshiyuki Eisuke (吉行 エイスケ; b. 1906), Japanese Dadaist poet, novelist and anarchist, dies. [see: May 10]

1963 - Tintino Persio Rasi (b. 1893), Italian individualist anarchist activist and propagandist, journalist, writer and Futurist poet, dies. [see: Sep. 15]

1985 - Jean-Paul Chanois (born Jean-Paul Étienne Dreyfus; b. 1909), French filmmaker, TV and theatre director, actor, French Communist Party member and trades union activist, dies. [see: Oct. 25]
1872 - Jacques Mesnil (pseudonym of Jean-Jacques Dwelshauvers; d. 1940), Belgian anarchist, historian, journalist and scholar of Florentine Renaissance art, born.

[B] 1872 - Montéhus (Gaston Mardochée Brunswick; d. 1952), French singer-songwriter, anti-militarist and "revolutionary jingoist", born. He adopted his pseudonym to avoid the anti-Semitism then rampant in French society (his concerts were often interrupted by racist violence). Initially a moderate socialist, he became virulently anti-militarist and libertarian in outlook. A contemporary of Jean-Baptiste Clément, Eugène Pottier, Jules Jouy, Pierre Dupont and Gaston Couté, he like them used his songs as propaganda tool for socialist and anarchist dissent, opposing war [cf. 'Gloire au 17ème' (1907), capitalist exploitation, prostitution, poverty, religious hypocrisy, and even income tax in his lyrics. During Lenin's exile in France, Montéhus became friendly with him and sang at some of his gatherings. The jingoism he adopted during WWI (and a Croix de Guerre) led to his post-war disgrace, which he tried to redeem by composing 'La Butte Rouge' (1923). Later a member of the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and Popular Front supporter, he managed to avoid being sent to a concentration camp, but was forced to wear the yellow star until the Liberation of France.

1923 - Mollie Steimer and photographer Senya Fleshin are deported from Russia. Arrested in November 1922 for propagating anarchism ("aiding criminal elements"), they were released soon after they begin a hunger strike to publicize their situation.

1929 - Georges Blondeaux aka Gébé (d. 2004), French journalist and cartoonist in the satirical press, film director and anarchist, born. Began as an indusrial illustrator and published his first cartoon in 1955 in 'La Vie du Rail' under the pen name Gébé, in addition to 'Le Journal du Dimanche', 'Radar', 'Paris-Match' and 'Bizarre'. In 1969, he became editor of 'Hara-Kiri' and in 1970 of 'Charlie Hebdo' (until 1982). He then spent six months in 1986 as editor of the monthly periodical 'Zero', artistic director of 'L'Idiot Internationale' (1989-92) and rejoining the relaunched 'Charlie Hebdo' in 1992.
His works included the comic books 'Rue de la Magie' (Street Magic; 1960), 'L'an 01' (Year 01; 1972) made the following year into a film with sections directed by Gébé, Jacques Doillon, Alain Resnais and Jean Rouch), 'Anarchie Douce' (Sweet Anarchy; 1982); the photo novel '17 Romans Photos' (1974; with Chenz); novels such as 'Les Résistants du Square' (1991); contributed to the collective publication 'Mai 68' (2008); and has even written radio plays and song lyrics, the most famous of which is 'Casse-Têtes' (Puzzles) as performed by Yvs Montand.

"Ils m'ont tapé sur la tête
Je ne me rappelle plus pourquoi
Ni même si ça m'a fait mal
Parce que j'en suis mort

Qu'est-ce que j'étais déjà?
Travailleur immigré, philosophe?
Résistant caché, dissident notoire?
Ou bien animal à fourrure?

Je m'appelais comment, déjà?
José, Abdel, Argentino?
Arabica, Jan Patocka?
Ou bien alors bébé phoque?

Ils m'ont tapé sur la tête
Je ne me rappelle plus pourquoi
Ni même si ça m'a fait mal
Parce que j'en suis mort

M'a-t-on assommé pour mes idées?
Ou pour faire de moi un manteau?
Pour de l'argent ou la couleur de ma peau?
J'ai un bout d'os dans la mémoire

Quand leurs pieds chaussés m'ont cerné
Étais-je allongé dans des draps?
Ou bien couché sur la banquise?
Ou est-ce que je sortais d'un café?

Je suis mort dans la rue de l'ouest
Sur la glace du nord ou chez les flics de l'est
Ou dans la pampa des casquettes
À coups de triques noires

Est-ce que je rêve de vengeance?
De têtes policières éclatées?
De têtes de chasseurs sanglantes?
De têtes de racistes en purée?

Ou bien est-ce que je vois des têtes?
Émerveillées d'elles-mêmes
Émerveillées de leur dedans
Et se découvrant Nouveau Monde?

Je suis mort, répondez pour moi
Je m'appelais Jan Patocka
Argentin et bébé-phoque arabe
Maintenant, ça me revient!"

[They hit me on the head
I can not remember why
Or even if it hurt me
Because I'm dead

What am I?
Migrant worker, philosopher?
Hidden Resistance fighter, prominent dissident?
Or furry animal?

I'm called what, again?
José, Abdel, Argentino?
Arab, Jan Patocka?
Or else baby seal?

They hit me on the head
I can not remember why
Or even if it hurts me
Because I'm dead

Did you because of my ideas?
Or to make out of me a coat?
For some money or the colour of my skin?
I have a piece of bone in the memory

When their shod feet encircled me
Was I lying in bed sheets?
Maybe asleep on the ice floe?
Or was it that I went out to a cafe?

I died on western street
On the ice in the north or with the eastern cops
Or on the safari hats
By blows of black cudgels

Do I dream about vengeance?
Of fragmented police heads?
Of bloody heads of hunters?
Of racists' heads mashed?

Or is what I see heads?
Amazed by themselves
Marvelling at their insides
And discovering the New World?

I died, answer for me
I was called Jan Patocka
Argentinian and Arab baby-seal
Now, it comes back to me!]

'Casse-Têtes' (Brain Teasers; 1970)


1962 - Georges Albert Maurice Victor Bataille (b.1897), French philosopher, novelist, poet and critic, whose writings cover a wide range of subjects including literature, anthropology, sociology and the history of art, dies. [see: Sep. 10]

1974 - Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes (b. 1884), French writer (plays, poetry, manifestos and opera librettos), painter and libertarian associated with the Dada movement, dies. [see: Jun. 19]
[B] 1830 - Camille Pissarro (d. 1903), French Impressionist painter, anarchist, contributor to the Jean Grave’s anarchist newspaper 'Les Temps Nouveaux', born.

1888 - Giorgio de Chirico (d. 1978), Greek-born Italian Nietzschean artist, painter and novelist, who was a major influence on the Surrealists, born. His family settled in Milan in 1909, where he discovered Nietzsche. He later fled to Paris in order to escape Italian military conscription in 1911, but was caught and returned to Italy, escaping back to Paris after less than a week in uniform. His paintings in that period would depict his anti (Graeco-Turkish) war sentiments and exploring Cretan myth. At the outbreak of WWI he returned to Italy and tried to enlist, but was declared unfit and sent to a military hospital.

[C] 1934 - Erich Mühsam (b. 1878), German anarchist poet, murdered on the night of July 9/10, by the Nazis at the Orianenburg concentration camp following months of beatings and torture. His battered corpse is found hanging in the latrine on the morning of 10th. [see: Apr. 6]

1944 - Lucien Pissarro (b. 1863), French Impressionist and Néo-Impressionist landscape painter, printmaker, wood engraver and designer and printer of fine books, dies. [see: Feb. 20]
1846 - Léon Bloy (d. 1917), French novelist, essayist and diarist, born. Confusing character who has been labelled a 'right wing anarchist'. Anti-bourgeois Catholic "un communard converti au catholicisme" who on occasion defended attentats. He spent his life in squalid poverty, waiting for a beatific vision which his God denied him.

[C] 1906 - Georges Hugnet (d. 1974), French poet, writer, playwright, graphic designer and filmmaker, who was the first historian of the Dada movement who was also involved with the Surrealist Group, born. Member of the French Résistance, he dedicated much of his wartime intellectual efforts towards the Résistance and published 'Non Vouloir' (1940), one of the first Resistance pieces published in France.

[B] 1974 - A Barcelona cinema screening Carlos Saura's film 'La Prima Angelica' (Cousin Angelica), which portrays the Civil War from a Republican view point, is firebombed.
1817 - Henry David Thoreau (d. 1862), American essayist, poet, practical philosopher and author of 'Walden', born.

1828 - Nikolay Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky (d. 1889), Russian radical critic, materialist philosopher and utopian socialist, born. He helped lay the basis for revolutionary populism and helped found the narodniki. Wrote 'What is to be Done?', a political novel that influenced two generations of Russian intelligentsia, including many anarchists such as Emma Goldman. [NB: Alexander Berkman used Rakhmetov as a pseudonym when he prepared to assassinate Henry Clay Frick in 1892.] It served as the manifesto of the 19th Century Russian Nihilists and prompted a number of responses, including Tolstoy and Lenin's sperarate appropriations of the title and Dostoyevsky roundly mocked the novel's utilitarianism and utopianism in his novella 'Notes from Underground' (1864) and the novel 'The Devils' (1872) aka 'The Possessed'.

1876 - Max Jacob (d. 1944), French poet, painter, writer, critic, queer and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. Jacob is regarded as an important link between the Symbolists and the Surrealists. He was one of the first friends Pablo Picasso made in Paris and both frequented anarchist circles in the city and Jacob contributed poems to Florent Fels's anarchist journal 'Action' after the war. Jacob’s brother, sister and brother-in-law died in Auschwitz and, on February 24, 1944, Jacob was arrested by the Gestapo and put into Orléans prison. He died in Drancy deportation camp on March 5, 1944, suffering from bronchial pneumonia.

1881 - Ludwig Rubiner (d. 1920), German Expressionist poet, literary critic, essayist, translator, painter and anarchist sympathiser, born. At college he was a member of the Stirner-influenced Neuen Gemeinschaft and hailed 'The Ego and Its Own' (1845) as being the "most important manifesto of the Century". He also met many writers including Erich Mühsam, Paul Scheerbart, René Schickele, Ferdinand Hardekopf, Wilhelm Herzog and Herwarth Walden, all important representatives of Expressionism. His first poem, 'Zu den Höhen' (To the Heights) was published in the anarchist journal 'Der Kampf' in 1904. Between 1911 and 1918, he worked with Franz Pfemfert on his magazine 'Die Aktion' and in 1914 began writing for the Expressionist literary magazine 'Die Weißen Blätter' (The White Sheets). When war broke Rubiner and his wife went into voluntary exile in Zurich, where he continued to work for 'Die Weißen Blätter' as well as starting the anarchist-influenced anti-war magazine 'Zeit-Echo' (Echo-Time) and beginning a correspondence with Leo Tolstoy. In December 1918 he was given an Austrian passport in Zurich which coincided with his expulsion from Switzeralnd because of his support for the Russian Revolution. Back in Berlin he founded the Bund für Proletarische Kultur (Covenant for Proletarian Culture), alongside Arthur Holitscher, Rudolf Leonhard, Franz Jung and Alfons Goldschmidt, and the Proletarischen Theaters. His books would be burned by the Nazis decades after his death.
His major works include the manifesto 'Der Dichter Greift in die Politik' (The Poet Engages in Politics; 1912), the play 'Die Gewaltlosen' (Men of Nonviolence;1919) and 'Kriminalsonetten' (1913), a book of poems hailed as a forerunner of Dadaism. He also published a detective novel, 'Die Indischen Opale' (The Indian Opal; 1910) under the pseudonym Ernst Ludwig Grombeck.

1886 - Raoul Hausmann (d. 1971), Austrian anarcho-individualist influenced artist, collagist, photographer, sculptor, writer, poet, theorist and anti-fascist, who was one of the key figures in Berlin Dada, born. Helped established 'Die Freie Strasse' (1915-18), the anarchist and Dadaist magazine, with Franz Jung, and support from Oskar Maria Graf, Max Herrmann-Neisse, Richard Oehring, Otto Gross, Clare Oehring and Georg Schrimpf. Amongst his expressly anarchist writing were those in the German individualist anarchist magazine, 'Der Einzige', where Hausmann wrote (under the pseudonym Panarchos) 'Zu Kommunismus und Anarchie', an article heavily critical of Marxist communism [issue no. 2, 'Der Einzige', Jan 26 1919].
After his engagement with Dada, Hausmann focused primarily on photography, producing portraits, nudes, and landscapes. After the Nazi seizure of power in January of 1933, Hausmann, his wife Hedwig and Vera Broido emigrated to Ibiza. The photographs he produced focused on ethnographic and architectural motifs of premodern life in Ibiza. After the outbreak of the the Spanish Civil War in 1936, and the bombardment and subsequent occupation of Ibiza by Franco's troops, Hausmann (who had been active in Spanish anti-fascist groups) had to leave Ibiza. After an adventurous voyage he shortly settled in Prague, but was forced to flee again in 1938 after the German invasion of Czechoslovakia. He then moved to Peyrat-le-Château, near Limoges where he lived illegally with his Jewish wife Hedwig, hiding for years in a small and humid rooftop chamber. After the Normandy landings in 1944, the pair finally moved to Limoges, where Hausmann lived in a secluded manner for the rest of his life. [expand]

[B] 1874 - Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven (born Else Hildegard Plötz; d. 1927), German self-proclaimed anarchist, walking Dadaist art work, artist model and poet, born. Her poetry was published posthumously in 2011 in 'Body Sweats: The Uncensored Writings of Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven'.

[BB] 1904 - Pablo Neruda (Neftali Ricardo Reyes Basoalto; d. 1973), Chilean poet, youthful anarchist, then a communist and subsequently socialist diplomat and politician, born. At the age of 13, Ricardo published his first poems, 'Entusiasmo y Perseverancia' (Enthusiasm and Perseverance; 1917). In a rage, his father burned the adolescent’s writings. After that, he would publish under the pen name of Pablo Neruda: Pablo for Paul Verlaine, his favorite French poet, and Neruda for Jan Neruda, Czech writer. It also became his legally adopted name later in life. As a university student in Chile’s capital Santiago, he participated in the anarchist student movement, and published his first volume of verse, 'Crepusculario' (Book of Twilights; 1923), followed by the collection 'Veinte Poemas de Amor y una Cancion Desesperada' (Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Desperation; 1924). The latter's erotic love poems gained him a degree of local notoriety as well as an international reputation as a poet. However, poverty forced him to take an honorary consulship in Rangoon, later working in Colombo (Ceylon), Batavia (Java, where he marries a Dutch bank employee who he quickly abandoned), and Singapore and beginning to write a number of surrealist poems.
The Chilean diplomatic service then sent him, via a post in Buenos Aires, to Republican Spain as the cultural attaché in Madrid. There he joined a group of intellectuals and artists that included Federico García Lorca, as well as his future wife, Delia del Carril. In Spain he became a staunch anti-fascist but also adopted a hardline Stalinism (despite the later Hitler-Stalin pact), that also saw him rail against the Spanish anarchist movement as he swallowed the Communist propaganda about anarchist inefficiencies and 'crimes'. His politics lost him the consulship but in 1938 the newly elected Chilean Popular Front President Pedro Aguirre Cerda appointed special consul for Spanish emigration in Paris. Responsible for shipping Spanish refugees then housed by the French in squalid internment camps to Chile, it is alleged that Neruda was involved in the excluding of anarchists and anti-Communists from the available places. Certainly only a handful of non-communist ever made it onto the 4 ships used to transport the refugees. It is also said that this discrimination is tied into his alleged links to the NKVD, which in turn is tied in with his arranging of a visa (as the then Consul General in Mexico City) for the Mexican painter David Alfaro Siqueiros following his part in a failed assassination attempt against Leon Trotsky. He would also go on to write a truly dreadful ode to Stalin upon his death and be awarded the Stalin Peace Prize that same year (1953), something that he took more pride in than his 1971 Nobel Prize for Literature
"A few years ago, I was an anarchist, editor of the anarchist trade union journal, 'Claridad', where I published my ideas and things for the first time. And I still retain the anarchist's distrust of all forms of the state, of impure politics. But I believe that my romantic intellectual's point of view is not important. What is true is that I hate proletarian, proletarianising art. In any period, systematic art can tempt only the lesser artist. There has been an invasion here of odes to Moscow, tanks [or bullet-proof agitprop trains], etc. I continue to write about dreams." [1933 letter]

1919 - Poet and expressionist Erich Mühsam, on trial in Munich since July 7 for High Treason, is sentenced to 15 years in prison for his involvement in Bavarian Workers' Councils uprising.

1929 - Robert Henri (b. 1865), American painter, teacher and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Jun. 25]

2009 - Simon Vinkenoog (b. 1928), Dutch writer, poet, Provo and anti-Drugs war activist, dies. [see: Jul. 18]

2010 - Naphtali 'Tuli' Kupferberg (b. 1923), American counter-culture poet, author, cartoonist, pacifist anarchist, publisher and co-founder of the band The Fugs, dies. [see: Sep. 28]

2012 - An unknown woman dressed in a dress, leggings, and wearing a balaclava similar to those worn by members of Pussy Riot chains herself to a cross next to St. Petersburg's Church of Saviour on Blood. She spends approximately 40 minutes tied to a cross bearing the inscription, 'This could be your democracy', before being arrested for illegally installing a city fixture, an administrative offence, and being released.
1913 - Maurice Pernette (d. 1986), French anarchist, small press publisher, poet and author, born.

1942 - Juana Belén Gutiérrez de Mendoza (b. 1875), Mexican anarcho-feminist activist, typographer, journalist and poet, dies. [see: Jan. 27]

1946 - Alfred Stieglitz (b. 1864), American photographer, gallery owner and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Jan. 1]

[B] 1949 - Clifford Harper, anarchist graphic artist, born in Chiswick, London.

1954 - Frida Kahlo de Rivera (born Magdalena Carmen Frieda Kahlo y Calderón; b. 1907), painter, communist, and one of Mexico's greatest artists, dies. The official cause of death is given as a pulmonary embolism, although some suspected that she died from an overdose that may or may not have been accidental given her frail health - her right leg had been amputated at the knee the previous year and had suffered from bronchopneumonia. [see: Jul. 6]

1979 - The Pete Townshend Band, The Pop Group, Misty In Roots and The Ruts appear at The Rainbow, Finsbury Park, in the first of a two night RAR event, which together raised £5,000 for the defendants charged by the police with public order offences following Southall.
1864 - Pierre Quillard (b. 1912), French Symbolist poet, playwright, anarchist and supporter of Dreyfuss, born.

1876 - Henri 'Dayen' Fabre (d. 1969), French anarchist (then socialist) and pacifist journalist, born. Sacked at the age of 15 for sending articles to the newspaper of L'Union des Employés. In 1896 he founded the newspaper 'La Jeunesse Nouvelle' in Lyon and wrote for Sébastien Faure's 'Le Libertaire'. In 1902, whilst a member of the anarchist group Germinal, he founded 'Action Révolutionnaire', whilst also working on 'Le Flambeau' (Organe des Ennemis de l'Autorité) and the libertarian communist 'L'Aube Nouvelle'. In 1906, he helped launch 'La Guerre Sociale' with Gustave Hervé and two years later in Paris he started another newspaper, 'Les Hommes du Jour', each issue of which featured a character biography of noted anarchists illustrated by Aristide Delannoy. During WWI, in which he refused military service, he founded the socialist newspaper 'Le Journal du Peuple', and went on to join and later be expelled from the French Communist Party.

[C] 1912 - Woody Guthrie (d. 1967), radical American singer-songwriter and folk musician, born. Amongst his political songs were 'Two Good Men', about Sacco and Vanzetti [and on 'Hard Travelin': The Asch Recordings Vol. 3'], as was the whole album, 'Ballads of Sacco & Vanzetti' (1946-47). As a member of the IWW, he also wrote and sung songs about the Wobblies, hobos, Joe Hill ['Joseph Hillstrom'] and about historic strikes. And not forgetting a guitar that proclaimed: "this machine kills fascists".
"Left wing, chicken wing, it don't make no difference to me."

1916 - The first Dada Soirée in the Zunfthaus zur Waag, Zürich. Tristan Tzara reads aloud his first 'Dada Manifesto'.

1921 - Man Ray arrives in Paris. Marcel Duchamp introduces him to Dadaists.

[B] 1939 - Dieter Kunzelmann, German left-wing radical and political activist and theoretician, Happenings artist and writer of art and social manifestos, born. Member of the Munich artist group SPUR and the Situationist International, and active in the 68er-Bewegung ('68 Movement) as one of the co-founders of Kommune 1 (K1), the Zentralrats der Umherschweifenden Haschrebellen (Central Council of Wandering Hash Rebels) and, along with Georg von Rauch, founder of the underground Tupamaros West-Berlin. Kommune 1 members Dieter Kunzelmann and Rainer Langhans, attempted to bomb Richard Nixon's motorcade in Berlin on Feb. 27 1969, but the bomb is discovered. Kunzelmann was arrested on July 21 1971 for his bombing activities in the West Berlin Tupamaros. He was later convicted and sentenced to nine years.

1949 - Gil Bel Mesonada (b. 1895), Spanish militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, writer, journalist, novelist and avant-garde arts theorist, dies. [see: Sep. 1]

1967 - Tudor Arghezi, or simply Arghezi (Ion N. Theodorescu; b. 1880), Romanian writer, best known for his contribution to poetry and children's literature, dies. [see: May 21]

1975 - Jehan Mayoux (b. 1904), French Surrealist poet, teacher, pacifist, anti-militarist and libertarian, dies. [see: Nov. 25]

1979 - Claude Le Maguet (aka Jean Salivas; b. 1887), French poet, typographer, anarchist and militant pacifist, dies. [see: Apr. 27]

1979 - The Clash, Aswad, the Enchanters and the Members appear at The Rainbow, Finsbury Park, in the second of a two night RAR event, which together raised £5,000 for the defendants charged by the police with public order offences following Southall.

1993 - Léo Ferré (b. 1916), Franco-Monégasque anarchist singer, poet, composer and interpreter of the French poètes maudits, dies. [see: Aug. 24]
[B] 1884 - Robert Berkeley 'Bob' Minor (d. 1952), US political cartoonist, radical journalist, anarchist, and later a central figure in the Communist Party of the USA, born.
editorsnotes.org/topic/minor-robert-1884-1952/]Brazil hold a conference at the University of Ceara, (July 15-17).

1892 - Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (d. 1940), German philosopher and 'Romantic anarchist, who made influential contributions to aesthetic theory, Western Marxism and anti-fascist thought, and is associated with the Frankfurt School, and was also a respected literary and cultural critic, essayist and translator during the Weimar Republic, born. Exposed to Zionism as a university student, he quickly rejected its political and nationalist aspects, developing his own form of 'cultural Zionism', a concept that would inform all his later ideas. He studied at Freiburg's Albert Ludwigs University , Berlin's Humboldt University, where he was elected president of the Freie Studentenschaft (Free Students Association), Munich's Ludwig Maximilian University and the University of Bern. Along the way he met met Rainer Maria Rilke, Gershom Scholem, Ernst Bloch and Leo Strauss. In 1923, he moved to franfurt and there met Theodor Adorno, befriended Georg Lukács, and began his association with the Institut für Sozialforschung (Institute for Social Research). During the ensuing decade he would write much of his most important work as well as spending time in Paris and Moscow, and also considered emigrating to Palestine. He also expanded on his journalistsic work, having been writing for the German newspapers 'Frankfurter Zeitung' (The Frankfurt Times) and 'Die Literarische Welt' (The Literary World), and began working with Bertold Brecht and in radio. In the summers of 1932 and 1933, he stayed on the Spanish island of Ibiza, falling in love at Ibiza in the Dutch painter Anna Maria Blaupot ten Cate on his second visit. Unsettled by the rise of Hitler and the Nazis, after his first visit to Nice he had flown to Nice, where he planned to take his life in a hotel room. Instead he went to Italy, returning to Germany at the year's end.
When the National Socialists fianlly seized power, his knew his life was under threat as he was classified a "Jewish intellectual" and already having suffered the increasing everyday anti-Jewish harrassment, he took refuge in Svendborg, Denmark with Bertold Brecht, and later in San Remo. Eventually, he settled in Paris, where he began working with Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer, receiving financial support from the Institut für Sozialforschung. He also befriended fellow German refugees Hannah Arendt, Hermann Hesse and Kurt Weill, and also became a member of Georges Bataille's secret society Acéphale. At the end of February 1939, the Gestapo stripped Benjamin of his German citizenship, which meant that he could not leave France without a residence permit in the country of destination, fully establishing his status as a German refugee. On September 1st, he was interned with other German refugees in the Camp Vernuche at Nevers. Released in later November following the intervention of French friends, he returned to Paris but was forced to flee Paris the day before the Nazis arrived in the city. In August, he obtained a travel visa to the US with the assistance of Max Horkheimer, hoping to travel via Portugal. Continuing to keep one step ahead of the German Army, he managed to safely cross the French-Spanish border and arrive at the coastal town of Portbou, in Catalonia. However, the Franco government had cancelled all transit visas and ordered the Spanish police to return people to France, including the Jewish refugee group Benjamin had joined, thwarting his chances of travelling to the United States. On the night of September 25, 1940, he took an overdose of morphine tablets in his room in the Hotel de Francia. The Portbou registry records September 26, 1940 as the official date of death.
Amongst his most important works are 'Zur Kritik der Gewalt' (Critique of Violence; 1921), 'Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit' (The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction; 1936) and 'Über den Begriff der Geschichte' (On the Concept of History / Theses on the Philosophy of History; 1940). See also 'Surrealism: The Last Snapshot of the European Intelligentsia' (1929).

1919 - Robert Brayton Nichols (d. 2010), US political radical and anti-war activist, Beat poet, playwright, anarchist-themed sci-fi novelist and architect, who was married to the "cooperative anarchist" and writer Grace Paley, born.

[C] 1976 - Eva Schulze-Knabe (b. 1907), German painter and graphic artist, and resistance fighter against the Third Reich, dies. [see: May 11]

1978 - Rock against Racism Northern Carnival: March from Strangeways to Alexandra Park and 35,000 people watch Steel Pulse, Buzzcocks, Exodus and China Street.

2003 -
2003 - Roberto Bolaño Ávalos (b.1953), Chilean novelist, poet, one-time Trotskyist and latterly an anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 28]
1919 - Berlin Dadaist Johannes Baader carries out a leaflet drop of 'Dadaisten gegen Weimar' (Dadaists against Weimar) and his new broadside manifesto, 'Die Grüne Leiche' (The Green Corpse), during the first meeting of the Weimar Nationalversammlung (National Assembly) as they approve Article 118 of the Weimar Constitution: "Every German has the right to his opinions in speech and writing, or in any other form, to give free expression."
In the final issue (N° 10 'Präsident Baader') of the anarchist and dadaist magazine 'Die Freie Straße' (The Free Road) in December 1918, Baader had already declared himself President of the Republic. And he followed this up with 'Dadaisten gegen Weimar' (Feb. 6 1919), published [along with the Berlin Dada newspaper 'Jedermann sein eigner Fussball' (Everyman his own Football)] in part as a response to brutal suppression of the communist-inspired Spartakist uprising (January 1919) by the Socialist Weimar government. In it Baader went one stage further and proudly proclaimed himself to be the Oberdada Baader "Präsidenten des Erdballs" (President of the Terrestrial Globe) and the 'Dadaprophet'. 'Die Grüne Leiche' in turn states that "Der Präsident des Erdballs sitzt im Sattel des weissen Pferdes Dada" (The President of the globe sits in the saddle of the white horse Dada) and askes the question: "Ist das deutsche Volk bereit, dem Oberdada freie Hand zu geben? Fällt die Volksabstimmung bejahend aus, wird Baader Ordnung, Freiheit und Brot schaffen." (Are the German people willing to give the Oberdada a free hand? If the referendum answers yes then Baader will create order, joy, freedom and bread.) The document is signed by Die Dadaistischen Zentralrat der Weltrevolution (The Dadaist Central Committee for World Revolution).
"Wir werden Weimar in die Luft sprengen." (We will blow Weimar into the Air.)

"Ein Dadaist ist ein Mensch, der das Leben in allen seinen unübersehbaren Gestalten liebt und der weiß und sagt:
"Nicht allein hier, sondern auch da, da, da ist das Leben!
Also beherrscht auch der wahrhafte Dadaist das ganze Register der menschlichen Lebensäußerungen, angefangen von der grotesken Selbstpersiflage bis zum heiligsten Wort des Gottesdienstes auf der reif gewordenen, allen Menschen gehörenden Kugel Erde. Und ich werde dafür sorgen, daß auf dieser Erde Menschen leben künftig. Menschen, die ihren Geist in der Gewalt haben und mit diesem Geist die Menschheit neu schaffen.""
(A Dadaist is a man who loves life in all its incalculable forms, and the white and says: "Not only here, but also because, there, there is life! So also the true Dadaist dominates the whole register of human manifestations of life, ranging from the grotesque self-mockery to the worshipful holy word on the ripe, people carrying spherical earth. And I will ensure the people of this earth life in the future. People, in your spirit of strength and with the spirit of violence you will create a new humanity.")
- from 'Die Freie Straße', issue N° 10 'Präsident Baader'.

[B] 1928 - Carmen Bruna (born Bruna Carmen Zucarelli; d. 2014), Argentinian poet, Surrealist, physician and anarchist agitator, born. Since 1955, she has worked for various newspapers and literary magazines, including 'Clepsidra' and 'Sr. Neón'. A trained medical doctor, from from 1956 to 1969 she practised her profession in the villages around Salta in the rural hinterland of north-west Argentina. Her first book, 'Bodas' (Weddings; 1980), received the 1979 Premio Lorraine (Lorraine Award) for Argentinan Poetry. In 1982 she joined the Signo Ascendente surrealist group and has since published a number of books of her poetry, including 'Morgana o el Espejismo' (Morgana or the Mirage; 1983), 'La Diosa de las Trece Serpientes' (The Goddess of Thirteen Snakes; 1986), 'Lilith' (1987), 'La Luna Negra de Lilith' (The Black Moon of Lilith; 1992), and 'Melusina o la búsqueda del amor extraviado' (Melusine or finding lost love; 1993). She died on January 15, 2014, one of the last remaining Argentinian surrealists.
"The world of Lautréamont and Rimbaud is my world, barbaric and amazing. My poetry is the poetry of the damned poets. My poetry is actually an invitation to insubordination and revolt. And that is why my motto is that of the anarchists: Neither God Nor Master."
"Poetry does not sell. Perhaps that is because true poetry is, by definition, not for sale."

'Jam Session'

El sol ilumina los cantos rodados
atraviesa las aguas hasta el fondo
contempla la sombra de las truchas
que son almas en pena al atardecer.
El astro rojo se muere.
Ellas también se mueren.
En ríos extraños
en manantiales ciegos.
Los faros se apagaron,
la nave se estrelló contra las rocas.
Descalzos van los penitentes
sus pies sangrando entre las piedras
delgados son sus miembros de anacoretas.
Las bellas jóvenes lloran cuando ellos pasan.
Los olores alquímicos del azufre y el sabor del coriandro
conjuran el perfume de las ruinas
entre las tumbas anónimas de un viejo cementerio.
Y sirven en bandejas de plata
los mejores manjares a los sobrevivientes.
El lamento de las diosas es poco audible.
Thelonius Monk la revolución negra
el brillante Mississippi
la medianoche clandestina
no confiable
el piano que se vuelve loco a la luz de la lun
y rompe todas las camisas de fuerza
sólo un gigolo.
Las arterias estallan
la sangre borda los transparentes espejos viscosos
de las teclas y el saxo.
La lluvia pulveriza las estalactitas del corazón.
Los bellos gatos juegan a perseguir a las mariposas
con sus ojos hipnóticos.
La quimera clava sus uñas y muerde con sus dientes agudos
a los cuerpos enfermos.
Se padece el suplicio
se toleran todas las torturas
en el reino de las pesadillas
noche tras noche
en esa hora sórdida de los aparecidos
con sus órbitas vacías.


1936 - Armand Guerra begins filming 'Carne de Fieras' in Madrid.

1948 - Founding of the Dutch Experimental Group by Karel Appel, Guillaume Corneille, and Constant and Jan Niewenhuys, Amsterdam.

1951 - Franco (Francesco) Serantini (d. 1972), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, born. On May 5 1972, whilst taking part in an action against the fascist MSI in Pisa Franco was severly beaten by riot police. Arrested and transferred to a police station, he is interrogated the following day and, despite obvious illness and injury, the police, interrogating judge and prison guards, ignore his symptoms. On May 7 he is found in a coma in his cell and dies at 09:45. His life is the inspiration for Corrado Stajano's book 'Il Sovversivo: Vita e Morte dell'Anarchico Serantini' (The Subversive. Life and Death of the Anarchist Serantini; 1975) and Francesco Filidei's opera for 6 voices and 6 percussionists, 'NN'.
[B] 1917 - Christiane Rochefort (d. 1998), French writer, novelist, essayist, translator, journalist, feminist and anarchist, born. She has also written novels under the pseudonym of Dominique Fejös.
[B] 1928 - Simon Vinkenoog (d. 2009), Dutch writer, poet, performer, Provo and anti-Drugs War activist, born.

[C] 1933 - Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Yevtushenko, Russian poet, novelist, essayist, dramatist, screenwriter, actor, editor, director and political dissident, born. His early poems were profoundly influenced by Vladimir Mayakovsky and he gained international fame in 1961 with 'Babi Yar', in which he denounced Nazi and Russian anti-Semitism. It was the first inklings of dissent and the poem was not published in Russia until 1984, although it was frequently recited in both Russia and abroad. 'The Heirs of Stalin' (1961), which warned that Stalinism had long outlived its creator, cause further unease in the Communist Party but it wasn't until he published his 'A Precocious Autobiography' (1963) in English, and his privileges (including foreign travel) were withdrawn, though they were restored two years later.

1936 - Armand Guerra begins writing his journal of the Civil War that will become 'A Través de la Metralla' (1937).

1939 - Hunter S. Thompson (aka Raoul Duke; d. 2005), American author and Gonzo journalist, born.
"I hate to advocate drugs, alcohol, violence or insanity to anyone, but they've always worked for me." [unknown]
"I sat there for a long time, and thought about a lot of things. Foremost among them was the suspicion that my strange and ungovernable instincts might do me in before I had a chance to get rich. No matter how much I wanted those things that I needed money to buy, there was some devilish current pushing me off in another direction- toward anarchy poverty and craziness. That maddening delusion that a man can lead a decent life without hiring himself out as a Judas goat." - 'The Rum Diary' (1998)
"America... just a nation of two hundred million used car salesmen with all the money we need to buy guns and no qualms about killing anybody else in the world who tries to make us uncomfortable." - 'Fear and Loathing: On the Campaign Trail '72' (1973)
"I have in recent months come to have a certain feeling for Joe Hill and the Wobbly crowd who, if nothing else, had the right idea. But not the right mechanics. I believe the IWW was probably the last human concept in American politics." - 'The Proud Highway: 1955–67, Saga of a Desperate Southern Gentleman' (1997)

[BB] 1943 - Gérard Tolck (d. 2005), Swiss painter, engraver, sculptor, editor, agitator and cultural anarchist, born. He was responsible for 2 important Les Breuleux libertarian publications, 'Le Détonateur: Journal de Contre Information et de Réflexion pour l'Unité de la Gauche Autogestionnaire' (1977-81) and 'Le Réveil Anarchiste' (1979-83), de la Fédération Libertaire des Montagnes (Libertarian Federation of the Jura Mountains; FLM). He was also one of the founders of 'Cahiers Noirs' and collaborated on 'Réfractions: Recherches et Expressions Anarchistes'. In 1980 he co-founded Le Café du Soleil, a self-managed libertarian cultural centre in Saignelégier, which organised its famous painting and writing workshops.

1973 - Georges Henein (b. 1914), Egyptian surrealist author and Trotskyist who was sympathetic to anarchism, dies. [see: Jan. 20]
[B] 1893 - Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Маяко́вский; d. 1930), Russian and Soviet poet, playwright, artist and stage and film actor, born.

1913 - Charles Keller (b. 1843), French poet, Paris Communard and Bakuninist, dies. [see: Apr. 30]

1937 - Official opening of the 'Entartete Kunst' (Degenerate Art) exhibition in Munich. "Insolent mockery of the Divine under centrist rule" - one of the slogans on the wall in Room One of the exhibition.
1821 - Fortuné Henry (d. 1882), French libertarian journalist and poet, who was one of the most influential figures in the Paris Commune, born. Father of Émile Henry (1821-1882) and Jean-Charles Fortuné Henry (1869-19??).

1945 - Paul Valéry (b. 1871), French poet, essayist, philosopher, polymath and non-doctrinal an-archiste, dies. [see: Oct. 30]

[B] 1964 - Henri Chassin (b. 1887), French poet, anarchist songwriter and an anti-militarist who deserted from the army in 1914, dies. A "petit fils de communard" who was the author of numerous popular Parisian songs. Active in the great railway strike of 1920 and was charged with "conspiracy against state security" and imprisoned. Involved in le Groupe des Hydropathes, La Vache Enragée, the activities of La Muse Rouge and performed in many Paris cabarets such as the Grenier de Grégoire. Author of a book of poems 'Machin de Belleville' in 1927.

1968 - After the events of July 18 in Avignon, a new protest rally against censorship takes place. It is dispersed by CRS riot cops who carry out further arrests. But while the local press spread its hateful and racist diatribes against the cast of Living Theatre, during the night fascist thugs (recruited from the sports of the city by the mayor and politicians left and right) attack the school where are Living Theatre actors are lodged, beating the director of the New York theatre and a passing youth whose only crime was to have long hair. [see also: 27 and 28 Jul.]

1994 - Paul Delvaux (b. 1897), Belgian painter, usually classed as a Surrealist though he was never a member of any Surrealist group, dies. [see: Sep. 23]
[B] 1882 - David Davidovich Burliuk (Дави́д Дави́дович Бурлю́к; d. 1967), Ukrainian Futurist book illustrator, publicist, author and anarchist, born. Often called "the father of Russian Futurism". Brother of fellow artist Volodymyr (Wladimir) Burliuk and of anarchist Nikolay, who was arrested by the Red Army in December 1920, sentenced to be shot and executed on December 27. Burliuk himself had to flee Moscow after the Cheka raid against anarchists in April 1918. Co-author of the manifesto 'A Slap in the Face of Public Taste' (1912), said to be the spark that began Russian Futurism.

1899 - Ernest Miller Hemingway (d. 1961), American author, journalist and all-round macho man, born. In 1937 he began reporting on the Spanish Revolution for the North American Newspaper Alliance, writing his one and only play, 'The Fifth Column', later that year in Madrid as the city was being bombarded. He was also present at the Battle of the Ebro, the longest and bloodiest battle of the war, and was one of the last journalists to visit the scene. Hemingway's novel 'For Whom The Bell Tolls' (1940) is largely based upon his Spanish experiences during 1937-39.

1955 - André Robèr, French anarchist writer, poet, painter and editor of the annual review 'Art & Anarchie', born. Founder of Editions K'A which publishes books in Creole.
1867 - Gustave Le Rouge (Gustave Henri Joseph Lerouge; d. 1938), French writer, journalist, socialist and anarchist, born. A prolific author (Blaise Cendrars claims 300+ published works) of almost every genre: poetry, memoirs, plays, screenplays for thrillers, anthologies, essays, critical works, adventure novels, spy thrillers, fantasy, science fiction, etc.. Many of his works, such as 'La Conspiration des Milliardaires' (The Conspiracy of Billionaires; 1900), display a clear anti-American and/or anti-capitalist undercurrent.

1882 - José Oiticica (d. 1957), lawyer, student of medicine, teacher, poet and an influential figure in the Brazilian anarchist and labour movement, born. Founder in 1946 of the newspaper 'Ação Direta' (Direct Action).

Sou aquele que vai de fronte erguida,
Entre turbas hostis ou indiferentes,
Cheio de bênçãos para os maldizentes,
Certo do que serei na minha vida.

Domador de demônios e serpentes,
Tenho a índole e as manhas do que lida.
Para o arranco final da acometida
Minhas células todas vão contentes.

Tenho alma de guerreiro e missionário,
Mãos de ferro e palavras de evangelho...
Fui herói num passado legendário.

E, Poeta da Anarquia, anjo do povo,
Fecho as portas cardeais do templo velho
E ilumino o altar-mór do templo novo

'Marcadores' (1919 )


[B] 1894 - Oskar Maria Graf (d. 1967), Bavarian author, poet, novelist and anarchist, who occasionally used the pseudonym Oskar Graf-Berg, born. Much of his work is autobiographical and has an anarchist and/or socialist outlook.
Drafted during WWI, in 1915 he had a short story published in 'Die Freie Straße', through the offices of which he got to know Franz Jung, Georg Schrimpf, Dadaist such as Raoul Hausmann and Richard Hülsenbeck, and, in particular, the influential psychologist Otto Gross. In 1916 he was jailed for refusing orders and, after 10 days on hunger strike, he was taken to a psychiatric hospital and dismissed from the military. A year later he was arrested for participating in an ammunition worker's strike, and again in 1919 for his involvement in the revolutionary movements in Munich alongside Erich Mühsam. In 1920, he became active in the working class theatre Die Neue Bühne (The New Stage), and made his literary breakthrough in 1927 with his autobiographical 'Wir Sind Gefangene' (We Are Prisoners).
Bizarrely, when the Nazis came to power his works were not censored and, in 1933, he published in the 'Vienna Arbeiterzeitung' his famous anti-Nazi appeal, 'Verbrennt Mich!' (Burn Me Too!) [see: May 12], which they duly did the following year. Graf left Germany for Czechoslovakia and on Mar. 24 had his citizenship stripped by the Third Reich. In 1938 he left Europe for the US
His books include the early Impressionist-influenced revolutionarypoetry collections 'Die Revolutionäre' (1918) and 'Amen und Anfang' (Amen and the Beginning; 1919); a number of autobiographical works including 'Wir sind Gefangene' (1927) and 'Zur Freundlichen Erinnerung' (For Friendly Rememberance; 1922); 'Das Proletarische Schicksal' (The Proletarian Destiny; 1929), poetry citicism; and novels such as 'Bolwieser' (1931), made into a two-part 1977 TV film by Rainer Werner Fassbinder, 'Der Abgrund' (The Abyss; 1936), the satirical anti-Nazi 'Anton Sittinger' (1937) and 'Die Eroberung der Welt' (The Conquest of the World; 1949).

1914 - Charles Maurin (b.1856), French painter, engraver, anti-clerical and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 1]

1922 - Serge Michel (pseudonym of Lucien Douchet; d. 1997), French libertarian journalist, novelist, poet, painter and anti-colonialist, born.

1927 - Albert Meister (d. 1982), Swiss author and anarchist sociologist, born. The real author of 'La Soi-Disant Utopie du Centre Beaubourg' (Éditions Entente; 1976) allegedly written by 'Gustave Affeulpin', a fictional text of a future radical libertarian space under the Pompideau Centre (built on what was the working class community of Beaubourg). Participated with Jacques Vallet on the creation of the arts and satire review 'Le Fou Parle' (The Fool Speaks) in 1977. A prolific author under a host of pseudonyms and a researcher in the Ecole des Hautes Etudes de Paris (School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences).

1967 - Lajos Tihanyi Kassák (b. 1887), Hungarian poet, novelist, painter, essayist, editor, theoretician of the avant-garde, anarchist, anti-fascist and anti-Stalinist, dies. [see: Mar. 21]

1972 - Max Aub (Max Aub Mohrenwitz; b. 1903), Spanish-Mexican experimentalist novelist, playwright and literary critic, dies. [see: Jun. 2]
1888 - Raymond Chandler (d. 1959), Amrican novelist and screenwriter, creator of Sam Spade, born.

[CC] 1908 - Elio Vittorini (d. 1966), Italian writer, novelist, one-time 'fascista di sinistra' and latterly an anti-fascist, born. At thirteen, he ran away from home to see the world, using free tickets gained via railwayman father. Begins to attend the Technical Institute for accountants and binds friendship with the anarchist Alfonso Faihla, participating in the activities of anarchist groups Syracuse. In 1927, after a daring elopement and wedding to Rosa Quasimodo, sister of the poet Salvatore Quasimodo, he became associated with those around the literary review 'Solaria', which saw to establish an art free of the prevailing ideology i.e. fascism and tradition, and was therefore implicitly anti-fascist, pan-European and pro-Modernism. During this period his work had already began to be published more widely and one article published in the pro-fascist magazine 'La Conquista dello Stato' (The conquest of the state) saw him bizarrely being identified with the bourgeois fascist tendency. However, his work that was subsequently published in 'Solaria' and elsewhere including 'Il Mattino' (Morning) and 'Il Lavoro Fascista' (Fascist Worker), and especially the essay 'Scarico di coscienza' (Discharge of consciousness) in 'Italia Letteraria', in which he accused the Italian literature of provincialism, cause something of a scandal and began to earn him a name as "uno scrittore tendenzialmente antifascista" (a writer of the anti-fascist tendency). In 1931, edizioni di Solaria published his first book, 'Racconti di piccola borghesia' (Tales of the petty bourgeoisie), a collection of short stories and 'Solaria' serialised his novel 'Il Garofano Rosso' (The Red Carnation) between 1933 and 1934 as fascist censorship prevented its publication, the fate of many of his novels and short stories from this period ('Il Garofano Rosso' was not published until after World War II). Living in poverty, in the years 1931-1937, he worked on the 'Bargello', the weekly of the Fascist Federation of Florence, on which he expresses his views of the fascista 'di sinistra' (leftist) tendency, and in 1937, he was expelled from the National Fascist Party for expressing in print his support of the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War and calling for Italian youth to got to fight. In fact, he had planned to go to Spain with his friend and fellow writer Vasco Pratolini but never made the trip. Becoming more conscious of the contradictions of fascism and annoyed by the "continuing harassment" of the fascists, leave Florence in 1938 and moved to Milan, where he goes to work at Simon and Schuster. An anthology of American literature which he edited for them was ceased by the fascist censors. Remaining an outspoken critic of Benito Mussolini's regime, Vittorini joined the Italian Communist Party and began taking an active role in the Resistance, which provided the basis for his 1945 novel 'Uomini e No' (Men and not Men). In 1943 he was commissioned by the Italian Communist Party to strengthen its contacts in Sicily and, on July 26 that year, he was arrested and remained in San Vittore prison until September. Upon his release, he became involved in the underground press, as well as helping found the Fronte della Gioventù (Youth Front) and organise a general strike in Florence in February 1944. Fearing arrest by the fascist police, he hid out in the mountains where, between the spring and autumn of 1944, he wrote 'Uomini e No', published by Simon and Schuster the following year. Also in 1945, he briefly became the editor of the Italian Communist daily 'L'Unità'.

[B] 1961 - Woodrow Tracy 'Woody' Harrelson, American actor, born.
"I don't believe in politics. I'm an anarchist, I guess you could say. I think people could be just fine looking after themselves."

2012 - At 3 pm, Russian performance artist and political activist Pyotr Pavlensky arrives at Kazan Cathedral, St. Petersburg with his mouth sewn up with a coarse thread, holding a banner reading: Action of Pussy Riot was a replica of the famous action of Jesus Christ (Matthew.21:12–13) in protest at the jailing of Pussy Riot members Nadezhda Tolokonnikova and Maria Alyokhina. He then stands for an hour and a half outside the Kazan cathedral before policemen arrive, forming a circle around him and taunting and threatening him. The officers appear afraid to touch him, but he is eventually taken away in an ambulance for psychiatric examination and is determined by doctors to be sane.
[B] 1864 - Frank Wedekind (Benjamin Franklin Wedekind; d. 1918), German playwright and satirical poet, born. A forerunner of Expressionism, his works criticised bourgeois attitudes, particularly towards sex, and was an important influence on the Weimar theatre and cabaret scenes. Best known for the 'Lulu' plays 'Erdgeist' (Earth Spirit; 1895) and 'Die Büchse der Pandora' (Pandora's Box; 1904) [which served as templates for Alban Berg's opera 'Lulu' (1937) and the silent films 'Erdgeist' (1923) by Leopold Jessner and 'Pandora's Box' (1929) by Georg Wilhelm Pabst]. He also wrote the poem 'Der Anarchist', which Ernst Busch set to music and made famous.

1870 - Pierre Dupont (b. 1821), French Republican song-writer, poet and socialist balladeer, dies. [see: Apr. 23]

1918 - Jean-Roger Caussimon (d. 1985), French anarchist singer-songwriter and film actor, born.
1863 - Adolphe Retté (d. 1930), French Symbolist poet, writer and anarchist, born. His key works date from his early phase amongst the Parisian anarchist milieu (before his conversion to Catholicism): 'Thulé des Brumes' (1892) and 'Promenades Subversives' (1897); and include the essays in 'Réflexions sur l'Anarchisme' (1894).

1901 - Andreas Laskaratos (Ανδρέας Λασκαράτος, b. 1811) Greek radical satirical poet and writer, dies. [see: May 1]

1905 - Elias Canetti (d. 1994), author of 'Crowds & Power' and the novel 'Auto de Fe', born.

[B] 1908 - Luce Fabbri (d. 2000), Italian anarchist writer, journalist, theorist, publisher, poet and daughter of Luigi Fabbri, born. Amongst her output was political writings: 'Camisas Negras: Estudio crítico histórico del origen y evolución del fascismo, sus hechos y sus ideas' (Blackshirts: Historical critical study of the origin and evolution of fascism, its facts and ideas; 1935) and, under the pseudonym Luz de Alba, '19 de Julio Antología de la Revolucíon Española' (July 19. Anthology of Spanish Revolution; 1937); literary criticism: 'La Poesía de Leopardi'; 1971); and her poetry: 'I Canti dell'Attesa' (The Songs of Expectancy; 1932), and the unpublished 'Propinqua Libertas'.

[C] 1969 - Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix (b.1891), fiercely anti-war German artist, painter and printmaker, dies. Singled out by the Nazis for particular denigration. Arrested on trumped-up charges in connection with Georg Elser's 1939 assassination attempt on Hitler. [see: Dec. 2]
1881 - Paul Berthelot aka Marcelo Verema (d. 1910), French Esperantist, anarchist, journalist, writer, scientist and anthropologist, born. In 1900 he began to study medicine in Paris and joined the anti-militarist movement. In late 1901 he fled to Switzerland to avoid having to do military service. Having moved to Spain and, moving in anarchist circles, he founded a Catalan Esperanto Association in 1904 and worked on a number of Catalan and Esperantist newspapers. In 1907, Berthelot visit Uruguay and Argentina, settling permanently in Brazil. He first taught Esperanto and French at Berlitz Academy in Rio de Janeiro, then became director of its branch in Petropolis, before being fired for anti-militarist propaganda. He then attempted to establish an anarchist agricultural colony at Dumba, near Leopoldina in the state of Goya, which failed. He also wrote three plays in Portuguese - 'Os Judgment' (The Judgement), 'O Grande Dia' (The Great Day) and 'Impossivel Felicidade' (Impossible Happiness) - and the book of anthropology 'Entre Sertanejos e Indios do Norte' (1910). His most famous book, 'L'Evangile de l'Heure' (The Gospel of the Hour; 1912), was written in French and published in Paris in 'Temps Nouveaux'. The book is a transposition of the parables and teaching of Jesus from a libertarian point of view and appeals to the passions: not to pay rent, workers solidarity, equitable justice, the collectivisation of land, disobedience towards the state and religion, etc..

1893 - George Grosz (Georg Ehrenfried Groß; d. 1959), German artist and libertarian, Expressionist who became a prominent member of the Berlin Dada and New Objectivity group during the Weimar Republic, born. In November 1914 Grosz volunteered for military service, hoping for a safe post away from the front and was eventually discharged as medically unfit the following year. Like John Heartfiled, he too Anglicised his name in protest against German nationalism but was drafted in Jan. 1917 but against discharged as permanently unfit (he apparently tried to commit suicide and narrowly avoided the firing squad) that May.
Arrested during the Sparticist uprising in Jan. 1919, he managed to escape using false papers. Although active in the Kommunistischen Partei Deutschlands (KPD), he was much more aligned with anarchist thought and organisation, and having spent five months in Russia in 1922 and meeting Lenin and Trotsky, he left the KPD because of his antagonism to any form of dictatorial authority. [In 1933 he was condemned by his former comrades in the Communist Party as "a petty-bourgeois traitor".]
A member of the Berlin Dada group, with John Heartfiled he co-founded the satirical magazine 'Die Pleite' (Bankruptcy; 1919-1924) and would later edit the satirical (KPD) magazine 'Der Knüppel' (The Truncheon). He also co-edited 'Jeder sein eigener Fussball' (Everyman his own Football) with Franz Jung; and 'Der Blutige Ernst' (In Bloody Earnest), with Carl Einstein. In 1921 he stood trial with his published Wieland Herzfelde for defamation of the army for his portfolio 'Gott Mit Uns'. He was fined 300 marks and the print run destroyed. Again in 1923 he was in court, this time charged (using a law that had not been invoked in centuries) with defaming public morals, corrupting the inborn sense of shame and virtue innate in the German people for his portfolio 'Ecce Homo'. Found guilty, he was ordered to pay a 6000 marks fine; and 24 the portfolio's plates were confiscated and banned from publication.
In 1924, he and Wieland Herzfelde formed the artists' association Rote Gruppe (Red Group) based on the program outlined in their 1925 publication 'Die Kunst ist in Gefahr, Drei Aufsätze' (Art is in Danger, Three Essays), and Grosz would chair the group until 1928, when he was co-founder of the Association Revolutionärer Bildender Künstler Deutschlands (German Association of Revolutionary Artists). Grosz was again on trial in 1929, this time charged with blasphemy for his drawing 'Maul Halten und Weiter Dienen' (Shut Up and Obey) featuring a crucified Christ in a gas mask. The judge decided that it was a critique of militarism and not of religion and dismissed the charge.
Bitterly anti-Nazi, Grosz left Germany shortly before Hitler came to power, first on a summer teaching job in 1932 in the US and then, having returned to Germany, he emigrated with his family to New York. During the 1937 Entartete Kunst exhibition he is labelled a "cultural Boshevik" and his art is confiscated and destroyed for its "anarchist implications".
In the States the style of his art changed but he exhibited regularly, and in 1946 he published his autobiography, 'A Little Yes and a Big No'.
"Civilian again, I experienced in Berlin the rudimentary beginnings of the Dada movement, the start of which coincided with the 'swede' period of malnutrition. The roots of this German Dada movement were to be found in the recognition that it was perfectly crazy to believe that the spirit, or anything spiritual ruled the world. Dadaism was the only significant artistic movement in Germany for decades. Dadaism was no artificially fostered movement but an organic product, at its origin a reaction to the cloudlike ramblings of so-called sacred art. Dadaism forced artists to declare openly their position .. . What did the Dadaists do? They said that it did not matter whether a man blew a 'raspberry' or recited a sonnet by Petrarca or Shakespeare or Rilke, whether he gilded jack-boot heels or carved statues of the Virgin. Shooting went on regardless, profiteering went on regardless, people would go on starving regardless, lies would always be told regardless – what was the good of art anyway? In those days we saw the mad final excrescences of the ruling order of society, and burst out laughing. We did not yet see that there was a system behind all this madness." - 'Die Kunst ist in Gefahr, Drei Aufsätze' (Art is in Danger, Three Essays; with Wieland Herzfelde, 1925)

[BB] 1895 - Jankel Adler (d. 1949), Polish painter, printmaker and anarchist, born. Member of the Gruppe Progressiver Künstler Köln (Group of Progressive Cologne Artists) alongside Frans Seiwert and Gerd Arntz. As a modern artist and a Jew, he was forced to flee when Hitler came to power in 1933, the same year his work went on display as degenerate art (and he would also feature in the 1937 Muncih Entartete Kunst exhibition). Taking refuge in Paris, he saw his exile as a conscious act of political resistance against the fascist regime in Germany but eventually ended up in London, where he became involved with 'Freedom', something that would lead to his being refused British nationality after the war.

1937 - Hélio Oiticica (d. 1980), Brazilian visual artist (painting and sculpture) and anarchist, born. Grandson of José Rodrigues Oiticica. Best known for his participation in the Concrete group, his Rio de Janeiro installation 'Tropicália' (1967), a labyrinth-like environment with parrots, plants, sand, texts, and a television — a satire on the clichés of Brazilian culture and a commentary on the conflict between tradition and technology typical in the Third World, gave its name to the Tropicalismo movement.

1937 - Gerda Taro (Gerta Pohorylle; b. 1910), German photographer and anti-fascist, dies in a Spanish Republican field hospital in the aftermath of the Battle of Brunette - the first female photographer to be killed while reporting on war. [see: Aug. 1]

[B] 1945 - M. John Harrison (pen name of Michael John Harrison), English anarchist, science fiction and fantasy author and critic, born.
"His books are full of anarchists -- some of them very bizarre like the anarchist aesthetes of 'The Centauri Device'." - Michael Moorcock

1948 - Jean-Michel Carré, French director, cinematographer, film producer and screenwriter, born. A one-time Maoist who now claims to be a libertarian.

1948 - Pierre Peuchmaurd (d. 2009), French poet, Surrealist and anarchist, born.

1985 - Fredy Perlman (b. 1934), author, publisher, anti-authoritarian activist and important anarchist theorist, dies. [see: Aug. 20]
1849 - Vera Zasulich (d. 1919), Russian revolutionary, anarchist and then a Marxist and Menshevik, born. Involved with radical politics as a student, she was arrested and imprisoned in May 1869 for her contacts with the nihilist Sergey Nechayev. Released in 1873, she joined the Kievan Insurgents, a revolutionary group of Mikhail Bakunin's anarchist supporters, becoming a respected leader of the movement. On Feb. 5 1878, Zasulich attempts to shoot General Trepov, prefect of police of St Petersburg, in revenge for his having ordered the flogging of Alexei Bogolyubov, a political prisoner who had refused to remove his cap in his presence. Trepov was wounded and Zasulich acquitted at her trial after having effectively put Trepov on trial. Zasulich fled to Switzerland to avoid further arrest and there converted to Marxism, later becoming involved in the founding of 'Iskra' and the Mensheviks, supporting the Russian war effort during WWI and opposing the October Revolution of 1917.
'Vera, or the Nihilists' (1880) by Oscar Wilde is allegedly based upon the story of her life.

1903 - Ono Tozaburo (小野十三郎; d. 1996), Japanese poet and anarchist, born. He attended Tokyo University in 1920, dropping out after 8 months because of his objections to the authoritarian forms of education there. He then came in contact with the growing anarchist movement. He started contributing to the new paper 'Aka to Kuro' (Red and Black) in 1923 writing anarchist poetry for it, which was suppressed in 1924. He founded his own paper 'Dam-Dam', a Dadaist-anarchist publication, which he was only able to produce for one issue. No publisher would print his collection of poems 'Hanbun Hiraita Mado' (A Half-Opened Window) so he printed it himself in 1926. He published another anarchist magazine 'Dando' (Trajectory) with anarchist poet Kiyoshi Akiyama which they were unable to publish for a year (1930-31). By about 1934 he had moved to a Marxist-realist position, but his poetry continued to be filled with social criticism. He was one of many active in the cultural wing of a vigorous anarchist movement.

下の方で しずかに

Climb the mountain
and the ocean rises to meet the sky.
Surrounded by an avalanche of young green leaves.
Quietly far below
a cuckoo cries.
Standing in the wind at such a height
anyone would naturally think about the breadth of the world.
I cover my mouth with my hands
wanting to shout something down below.
The mountain in May
is dazzlingly radiant.
Have you ever seen the horizon
draw its long blue arc
higher than the mountaintop?

'山頂から' (From the Summit)


[C] 1942 - Paintings by Picasso, Dalí, Ernst, Klee, Léger, Miró and many others are destroyed by the Nazis n a bonfire in the gardens of the Galerie Nationale du Jeu de Paume in Paris.

1948 - Susan Keating Glaspell (b. 1876), US radical and feminist playwright, actress, director, novelist, biographer and poet, dies. [see: Jul. 1]

1968 - Following the events of the 18th and 20th July and the banning of all protests and rallies in the city, the Living Theatre's play 'Paradise Now' is banned under a local decree. The give a free performance in the street.

[B] 2013 - Michael Anthony 'Mick' Farren (b. 1943), English journalist, writer, poet, musician, activist, agent provocateur and anarchist, dies after having collapsed on stage at London's Borderline while performing with his band The Deviants. [see: Sep. 3]
[B] 1862 - Émile Maurin (d. 1913) (known as Élie Murmain), French anarchist militant and photographer, born. Implicated and sentenced in absentia at the Procès des 66 on January 19, 1883 to five years in prison. In exile in Geneva, he was amnestied in 1889 and returned to France, where he became a travelling photographer under the name of Murmain, in spite of serious problems with his eyesight (he gradually went blind). Maurin used this travelling trade to propagate anarchist ideas. In 1891, he is again sentenced to prison (for six months) for encouraging soldiers to revolt.

[BB] 1887 - Marcel Duchamp (d. 1968), French-American artist, painter, sculptor, writer, chess player and individualist anarchist, born. Brother of the painter and printmaker Jacques Villon (1875–1963), the sculptor Raymond Duchamp-Villon (1876–1918) and the painter Suzanne Duchamp (1889–1963). The inventor of the 'readymade' who 'gave up' painting for chess in 1913. In Munich on his 1912 visit to Germany, where he painted 'Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors', he discovered Stirner's 'Der Einzige und sein Eigentum' (1845), which he considered a major turning point in his artistic and intellectual development, calling it "...a remarkable book ... which advances no formal theories, but just keeps saying that the ego is always there in everything." [NB: The previous year he had met Francis Picabia, who might also have introduced Duchamp to the works of Stirner, possibly including his essay 'Art and Religion'.] 'Three Standard Stoppages' (1913-14) was one of the first of his works produced under the expressed influence of Stirner's work.
His 'Nu Descendant un Escalier No. 2' (Nude Descending a Staircase No. 2) on show at the NYC Armory Show scandalised Americans and, following the outbreak of WWI in which he was exempted military service, he left for New York in 1915. There he fell in with Man Ray, with both frequenting anarchist circles and becoming the core of what was later labelled New York Dada.

1968 - Following the municipal and prefectural bans on the Living Thetare's play 'Paradise Now', the company decide to withdraw from the festival to which they were invited to give 16 performances. In the Palace des Papes, police and hired thugs hunt down "hairies and hippies". The theatre troupe play the outdoor free Festival de Châteauvallon on August 1 without incident.

1969 - White Panther Party founder, author, music critic and one-time manager of the band MC5, John Sinclair is sentenced to 10 years in jail for selling two marijuana joints.

1973 - Robin Gunningham, outed by the 'Daily Mail' as the 'real' identity of English graffiti artist, political activist, film director and all round artistic agent provocateur Banksy, born.
“[I] wouldn’t want to be remembered as the guy who contaminated a perfectly legitimate form of protest art with money and celebrities. I do sometimes question whether I’m part of the solution or part of the problem.” 'Time Out' (2010)

2006 - Richard Mock (b. 1944), printmaker, painter, sculptor, and editorial cartoonist best known for his linocut illustrations that appeared on the Op-Ed page of 'The New York Times', dies. His art frequently appeared on the covers of the magazines 'Fifth Estate', 'Alternative Press Review' and 'Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed'.
1870 - Paul Delesalle (d. 1948), French mechanic, anarchist and syndicalist, born.

[B] 1889 - Karl Otten (d. 1963), German Expressionist writer, novelist, poet, playwright, essayist, artist and anarchist, born. He joined Erich Mühsam's Gruppe Tat in 1910 alongside Franz Jung, Oskar Maria Graf and Georg Schrimpf. During WWI his anarchist and pacifist beliefs got him interned at first and was forced to work as a Arbeitssoldat (working soldier) in a censorship office. In 1918 he published a book of poetry 'Die Thronerhebung des Herzens' and was rearrested and locked up in the fortress of Koblenz. |He was only was after the November Revolution had begun. During the war he also became involved in 'Die Aktion', contributing woodcuts and texts, and collected his short stories in 'Der Sprung aus dem Fenster' (1918).
He fled Nazi Germany in 1933, moving to Paris and then Mallorca. When the island became under threat from the Fascists and fearing internment, he fled via France to England. There he worked for the BBC on English and German publications and broadcasts, as well as anthologising English translations of his own anti-Nazi writings in 'A Combine of Aggression: Masses, Elite and Dictatorship in Germany' (1942). His major novel 'Torquemadas Schatten' (Torquemada's Shadow; 1938) is an important novelistic examination of the Spanish Revolution.

1983 - Luis Buñuel (b. 1900), Spanish surrealist filmmaker/director, dies. [see: Feb. 22]
1874 - Aristide Delannoy (d. 1911), French painter, cartoonist and libertarian, born. Passionate artist who survived financially by the publishing of his cartoons, which appeared numerous in anarchist and anti-militarist papers including 'Assiette au Beurre', 'Les Temps Nouveaux', 'La Guerre Sociale' and 'Hommes du Jour', producing over 150 covers for the latter including the first issues picture of Clemenceau's head on a pike. A cartoon of General Albert d'Amade represented a butcher, and published in the 'Hommes du Jour' gained him a year in prison in 1908. His health suffered during his prison sentence and he was released after 4 months, dying of tuberculosis less than 2 years later.

[B] 1889 - Frans Masereel (d. 1972), Belgian radical woodcut artist, printmaker, illustrator, draughtsman, libertarian, communist, pacifist and Master of the wordless novel, born. Passionately anti-war, he sought refuge in Switzerland during WWI, there befriending Stefan Zweig and Romain Rolland and began working for the pacifist publications 'La Feuille' and 'Les Tablettes'. It was there that he published his first works, three anti-war albums: 'Les Morts Parlent' (The Dead Speak; 1917), 'Debout les Morts' (Arise, You Dead; 1917) and the better known '25 Images de la Passion d´un Homme' / 'Die Passion eines Menschen' (25 Images of a Man's Passion; 1918). In 1922 Masereel returned to Paris and began painting his lesser known street scenes. He also travelled, living for a period in Berlin where he became close to George Grosz, sharing a house with him. With the rise of fascism, he reknewed his involvement in anti-war activities, participating in the World Congress Against War and Fascism in Amsterdam in 1932. However, the fear of war weighed heavily on him, with the Nazis banning and destroying his books and the Spanish Republic under threat. In 1937 Masereel travelled to Republican Spain as a member of a delegation of French artists and was involved with the Pavilion of the World Peace Movement at the 1937 World Exhibition in Paris. With the German invasion of France, he fled Paris and, following a failed attempt to leave for South America, his out in the south of France.
His other works include: 'Le Soleil' (The Sun; 1919); 'Mon Livre d'Heures' aka 'Passionate Journey' (1919); 'Histoire Sans Paroles' / 'Geschichte ohne Worte: Ein Roman in Bildern' (Story Without Words: a Novel in Pictures; 1920); 'Die Idee' / 'L' Idée' (The Idea; 1920), also made into a 1932 film by Berthold Bartosch with Masereel's assisstance; 'La Ville' / 'Die Stadt' (The City; 1925); 'Bilder der Großstadt' (Images of the Great City; 1926); 'Das Werk' (The Work; 1928) and 'La Sirene' (The Siren; 1932).
He also illustrated numerous works by others, including Victor Hugo, Tolstoy, Thomas Mann, Oscar Wilde ('The Ballad of Reading Goal'), Hemingway, Hermann Hesse (who wrote an afterword for his 'Histoire Sans Paroles', Romain Rolland (who provided a foreword to 'Mon Livre d'Heures'), Klaus Mann, Kurt Tucholsky, Thomas Mann, Émile Zola, Upton Sinclair and Stefan Zweig. Of these, 2 particulalry stand out: the 100 woodcuts in 1943 reprint of Charles de Coster's 'The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel and Lamme Goedzak' [originally 'La Légende et les Aventures héroïques, joyeuses et glorieuses d'Ulenspiegel et de Lamme Goedzak au pays de Flandres et ailleurs' (1867)] and Romain Rolland's 'Die Révolte der Maschinen, ou la Pensée Déchainée' (1921), with its 33 woodcuts.

"Masereel is also affected by the new course in Germany. Although he is not a Jew, nor a communist (not even salon-communist), his views on humanity, war and peace, rulers and oppressed are today not held highly in the country and as a result it could cost the windows of any bookseller who displayed Masereel's '25 Images de la Passion d´un Homme' in his shop window."
- Letter from George Reinhart to Hermann Hesse (dated 1 April, 1933)

1922 - Paterne Berrichon (Pierre-Eugène Dufour; b. 1855), French poet, painter, cartoonist, anti-militarist and anarchist, born. Best known for being the brother-in-law and the much despised editor of Arthur Rimbaud. During his military service he was sentenced to two years in prison for disobedience, but pardoned after sixteen months. On returning to Paris, he was mostly homeless and destitute, frequenting anarchist and literary circles around publications such as 'Le Mercure de France', 'Le Chat Noir' and 'La Revue Blanche', and published a book of poems 'Le Vin Maudit' (1896), with a frontispiece by Paul Verlaine. He also participated in the many anti-militarist and 'ligue des anti-propriétaires' protests in the Latin Quarter, looting bakeries alongside Louise Michel and being arrested for resisting arrest.

1925 - Alexander Trocchi (d. 1984), Scottish novelist and International Situationist, born. Best known for his heroin addiction and the novel 'Cain's Book'.

1941 - Jean-Louis Comolli, French writer, film director, screenwriter, editor, actor, jazz aficionado and libertarian, born. Amongst his films are 'Cecilia' (1976), which tells the true story of an Italian anarchist colony in Brazil in the 1890s, and 'Buenaventura Durruti, Anarchiste' (1999). He also played a part in Jean-Luc Godard's 'Alphaville, une étrange aventure de Lemmy Caution' (1965).

1957 - José Rodrigues Oiticica (b. 1882), Brazilian anarchist, poet, and activist dies. He was founder and editor of the anarchist journal 'Ação Direta' (Direct Action). [see: Jul. 22]
1784 - Denis Diderot (b. 1713), French essayist, philosopher and playwright, claimed to be a forebearer of anarchism, dies. [see: Oct. 5]

[B] 1857 - Adolphe Willette (b. 1926), painter, caricaturist and anarchist who bizarrely also ran as an 'anti-semitic' candidate in the Paris elections in 1889, born.

1864 - Fábio Luz (Fábio Lopez dos Santos Luz; d. 1938), leading Brazilian anarchist, doctor, writer, novelist, critic, short story writer, essayist and teacher, born. Involved in the anti-slavery movement as a youth, he discovered anarchism with the reading of Peter Kropotkin's 'Paroles d'un Révolté'. Wrote 'D'Ideólogos' (1903), 'D'os Emancipados' (1906), and 'Virgem-Mãe' (1908), the first novels in Brazil to tackle the social question.

1901 - Jean Philippe Arthur Dubuffet (d. 1985), French Art Brut painter, sculptor, lithographer, writer, anarchist, atheist, anti-militarist and anti-patriot, born.

1919 - Primo Levi (d. 1987), Italian-Jewish writer, chemist and Auschwitz survivor, born.

1937 - Felipe Cortiella y Ferrer (b. 1871), prominent Catalan author, poet, translator and dramatist, dies. [see: Nov. 9]

1863 - Stuart Merrill (d. 1915), American Symbolist poet and anarchist sympathiser, who wrote mostly in French, born. Taught in Paris by Stéphane Mallarmé and by the time he published his first book of poems, 'Les Gammes', he was active Parisian anarchist circles. He campaigned for the Haymarket Martyrs and for the release of Oscar Wilde. His other works include 'Les Fastes' (1891), and 'Petits Poèmes d'Automne' (1895).
"Le Symbolisme... fut un movement libertaire en littérature."

[B] 1875 - François-Henri Jolivet (d. 1955), French worker-poet, anarchist and pacifist songwriter, born. Member of La Muse Rouge goguette, participated in the Vache Enragée's fêtes ouvrières and the pacifist 'La Patrie Humaine'.

1910 - Gerda Taro (Gerta Pohorylle; d. 1937), German photographer and anti-fascist, is born into a Jewish Polish family in Stuttgart. In 1929, the family moved to Leipzig and Pohorylle joined a young communist organisation and distributing anti-Nazi leaflets and fly-posting anti-Nazi propaganda under cover of darkness. She was arrested by the Nazis on March 19, 1933, and interrogated about a supposed Bolshevik plot to overthrow Hitler. Eventually, the entire Pohorylle household was forced to leave Nazi Germany toward different destinations, Gerta moving to Paris never to see her family again. In 1935, she met the photojournalist Endre Friedmann, a Hungarian Jew, becoming his personal assistant and learning photography, and they fell in love. Pohorylle began to work for Alliance Photo as a picture editor. However, she and Friedmann were unable to find any photography work and they came up with curious idea. They invented a character called Robert Capa, who was supposedly a reputed photographer having arrived from the United States to work in Europe. As he was so famous, he would only sell his photos through his representatives: Friedman and Pohorylle, and ar three times the price of those of a French photographer. This trick worked perfectly and soon they received lots of orders and finally began to make money.
1936 and the beginning of the Civil War in Spain would prove decisive for both of them. The pair went to Spain to cover the conflict, putting themselves on the front lines and taking enormous risks to capture images of the conflict. They took photographs side by side (often in the company of fellow photographer David 'Chim' Seymour), but always sold them under the pseudonym Robert Capa. For many years, it was not known which photos were taken by Robert and which ones by Gerda, but photographic historians eventually managed to differentiate between their early war photographs because they used distinctly different types of camera (Taro a Rollei camera, which gave square photographs, while Capa produced rectangular pictures with a Leica - she quickly abandoned the bulky Rollei for her own Leica). Also, as they both began to gain names for themselves and their work, they sometimes published their work jointly under the byline of Capa/Taro as well as visiting the front lines on their won. Taro, who was petite and attractive, and almost recklessly brave, quickly gained the nickname of 'la pequeña rubia' (the little blonde) amongst the Republican soldiers.
Though both were obviously socialists, Taro's commitment to Spain was always a more directly political i.e. anti-Fascist one than Capa's; and despite their continued close working relationship, she eventually refused his marriage proposal. In March 1937 launched her own 'photo taro' label for the work she carried out outside of their professional relationship, and she covered the Battle of Guadalajara (March 8–23), a Loyalist victory over Mussolini’s troops, producing the first major reportage to be published as photo taro (in 'Regards', April 8, 1937). On July 25, whilst covering the Battle of Brunette, Taro found herself trapped in a foxhole with her Canadian friend and lover Ted Allan. She continued photographing throughout the fighting and, as the Republican troops pulled out of the area, she and Allan jumped out of the foxhole and onto the running board of a car. In the chaos, an out-of-control Republican tank accidentally rammed the car, badly injuring Taro. She died the following morning at the age of 26. According to the nurse on duty at a field hospital of the 35th Division at El Escorial - the first female photographer to be killed while reporting on war. Taro's last words were: "Did they take care of my camera?"

1927 - André Veidaux (anagrammatic pseudonym of Jean-Baptiste Adrien Devaux; b. 1868), French Symbolist writer, poet, critic and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Jun. 7]

1941 - Carlo Abate (b. 1859), Italian-American anarchist sculptor and teacher, who was the printer and engraver for the militant Italian language journal 'Cronaca Sovversiva', dies. [see: Oct. 20]

1941 - Étienne Roda-Gil (Esteve Roda Gil; d. 2004), French-born poet, songwriter, screenwriter, libertarian and anarcho-syndicalist, born. The son of militant libertarian Spanish exiles, he was born in the Montauban (Tarn-et-Garonne) refugee camp [his father was interned at nearby Camp de Septfonds prisoner camp]. During the Algerian war he refused to join the French army even though, as a stateless alien, he would obtain a French passport. Instead he fled to London, participating in Spanish libertarian circles and Committee of 100 activities. He also discovered rock 'n' roll. Back in France he was active in the FIJL and CNT. [expand]
[fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Étienne _Roda-Gil

1944 - Jean Prévost (b. 1901), French writer, journalist, and Résistance fighter under the nom de guerre Captaine Goderville, is killed in a German ambush at the Pont Charvin, in Sassenage, whilst fighting with the Maquis du Vercors. [see: Jun. 13]
1893 - Régis Messac (d. 1945), French teacher, union organiser, resistance member, writer, novelist, poet, pacifist and anarchist, born. Like his parents, he was a teacher but suffers a serious brain injury during WWI. Demobilised in 1919 and disgusted with the war, he wrote 2 autobiographical novels: 'Le Voyage de Néania, à travers la guerre et la paix' (1926) and 'Ordre de Transport' (unpub.); a play, 'Phobie du Bleu' (unpub.); a pamphlet, 'Le Pourboire du Sang' (1936), and a small book of poems: 'Poèmes Guerriers' (1926).
Having learnt English from British troops at the end of the war, he went on to work and teach in various universities in England and in Canada. He returned to France in 1929, teaching at a college in Montpellier and obtained his doctorate in arts with a thesis 'Le Detective Novel et l'Influence de la Pensée Scientifique' (1929).
An anarcho-syndicalist and pacifist, he called into question the standard pedagogy and dogmas of official teaching, and as an active militant, became, in 1936, secretary of the Fédération Générale de l'Enseignement (General Federation of Teachers).
As a writer and poet, Messac published two science fiction novels 'Quinzinzinsili' (1935) and 'La Cité des Asphyxiés' (1937), as well pieces for various reviews, on libertarian and proletarian literature. In all, his work includes 30 books, one of which is a posthumous novel 'Valcrétin', a sort of sci-fi anti-colonial satire written in 1943, which was published in 1973.
During the German occupation in WWII, Messac was a member of the resistance, organising escape routes for those fleeing compulsory labour conscription, and wrote an anti-Vichy tract 'Pot-pourri Fantôme', a chronicle of the war and occupation between 1939 and 1942. Arrested on May 10 1943 during the German occupation and sent to the Nazi concentration camps, he is believed to have dies some time during 1945 in Gross-Rosen or Dora.

1897 - Philippe Soupault (d. 1990), French writer, poet, novelist, playwright, critic and political activist, born. Active in Dadaism and later co-founder of the Surrealist movement with his friend André Breton. Soupault, Breton and Louis Aragon initiated the periodical 'Littérature' in Paris in 1919, which, for many, marks the beginnings of Surrealism. He and Breton also co-authored the first book of automatic writing, 'Les Champs Magnétiques' (Magnetic Fields; 1920), a Surrealist classic avant la lettre. Along with Robert Denos and Antonin Artaud, Soupault refused to be part of the Breton-instigated en mass movement of the surrealists into the Communist Party and was expelled from the group in 1926. According to Breton the reason for his exclusion was "he was too literary", having authored the none too surreal novels 'Le Bon Apôtre' (The Good Apostle; 1923), 'Les Frères Durandeau' (The Brothers Durandeau; 1924), 'Georgia' (1926) and 'Le Nègre' (The Negro; 1927).
He helped launch a new Front Populaire anti-fascist station Radio Tunis, which he directed from 1937 to 1940. Jailed for 6 months by the Nazis, he managed to escape via Algeria to America.

1901 - Ángel Borda (d. 1980), Argentinian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, trades union organiser, popular library founder, autodidact, sculptor, story and song (chamarritas and coplas) writer, born.

[B] 1924 - James Arthur Baldwin (d. 1987), American novelist, essayist, playwright, poet and social critic, born. Associated with the 'Why?' magazine group (later renamed 'Resistance') and anarchists including John Cage, Paul Goodman and Robert Duncan. In fact, Baldwin first publicly read parts of 'Go Tell it on the Mountain' at the weekly meetings of 'Why?' magazine at the Spanish anarchist run S.I.A. hall, in NYC in the late 1940's.
"Though not an anarchist, I definitely put my fist up. I've been doing a lot of thinking lately, more reading and realizing, I should say, and it has been totally mind-blowing."

1972 - Paul Goodman (b. 1911), American anarchist cultural critic, poet, playwright, novelist and psychotherapist, dies. Author of 'Communitas: Means of Livelihood and Ways of Life' (1947); 'Growing Up Absurd: Problems of Youth in the Organised System' (1960); 'Don Juan: or, The Continuum of the Libido' (1979); etc. [see: Sep. 9]

1997 - William Seward Burroughs II (pen name William Lee; b, 1914), American novelist, short story writer, essayist, painter, satirist, one-time junkie, celebrated queer and libertarian, dies from complications of a heart attack he had suffered yesterday. [see: Feb. 5]
1916 - Adelita del Campo (nickname of Adela Carreras Taurà; d. 1999), Spanish dancer, actress, anarchist and later a communist, born.

1921 - Hayden Carruth (d. 2008), American poet, literary critic, "old-line anarchist" and "rural communist with a small c", born. 'Suicides and Jazzers' (1992). [expand]

"…. My hands
are sore, they flinch when I light my pipe.
I think of those who have done slave labor,

less able and less well prepared than I.
Rose Marie in the rye fields of Saxony,
her father in the camps of Moldavia

and the Crimea, all clerks and housekeepers
herded to the gaunt fields of torture….

… And I stand up high
on the wagon tongue in my whole bones to say

woe to you, watch out
you sons of bitches who would drive men and women
to the fields where they can only die."

- 'Emergency Haying'


1961 - Lawrence Jarach, U.S. anarchist essayist and vocalist and trombonist for punk/polka band, Polkacide, born. Author of the primer 'Anarchy 101: Instead of a Meeting', Jarach is a contributing editor of 'Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed', and has published in the 'Berkeley Daily Planet', 'Killing King Abacus', 'Green Anarchy' and 'L'EnDehors'.

[B] 1966 - Lenny Bruce (b. 1925), Jewish-American comedian, social critic, satirist, and clergy impersonator, dies from "acute morphine poisoning caused by an accidental overdose". [see: Oct. 13]
"When you can't say 'fuck', you can't say 'fuck the government.'"

1986 - Florence Reece (née Patton; b. 1900), American social activist, poet and folksong writer, dies. [see: Apr. 12]

2004 - Henri Cartier-Bresson (b. 1908), French photographer considered to be the father of modern photojournalism, dies. [see: Aug. 22]
“I’m an anarchist - anarchism is an ethic, its a way of behaving.”
"L'anarchie c'est une éthique avant tout. Une éthique d'homme libre. Relisez Bakounine." (Above all anarchism is an ethic. An ethic of free men. Reread Bakunin.)

2010 - Marilyn Buck (b. 1947), American Marxist revolutionary, convict, and feminist poet, who was imprisoned for her participation in the 1979 prison escape of Assata Shakur [Nov. 2], the 1981 Brinks robbery [Oct. 20] and the 1983 U.S. Senate bombing [Nov. 7], dies. [see: Dec. 13]
1772 - William Blake is apprentice to the engraver James Basire of Great Queen Street, Lincolns Inn Fields.

1792 - Percy Bysshe Shelley (d. 1822), English Romantic poet, son-in-law of William Godwin and Godwinite social radical, born.

1869 - John Frederick Mowbray-Clarke (d. 1953), American sculptor, anarchist fellow traveller and one of the organisers of the influential 1913 Armory Show in New York, born. He and his wife Mary Horgan Mowbray-Clarke ran the Sunwise Turn bookshop in NYC and later the Brocken farm and studio in Rockland County, New York, a centre for anarchist and socialist activities.

[B] 1896 - José Domingo Gómez Rojas (d. 1920), Chilean poet and anarchist, who was a victim of the Guerra de don Ladislao, born. [expand]

1950 - Adolphe Tabarant (b. 1863), French libertarian socialist, journalist, writer and art critic, who wrote numerous studies on Impressionist painters and helped organise their exhibitions, dies. [see: Oct. 8]

1978 - Lilya Yuryevna Brik (born Lilya Kagan; b. 1891), Russian writer, film director and Futurist muse, dies. [see: Nov. 11]

2008 - Juan López Romero Jiménez (aka 'Juan el Camas' or 'Chiquito de Camas' [Shorty from Camas]; b. 1928), Andalusian anarchist and flamenco singer, especially of the fandango, dies. [see: Feb. 25]
1910 - Constant Marie aka Le Père Lapurge (b. 1838), French anarchist militant, Communard, singer and songwriter, dies. [see: Aug. 27]

[B] 1946 - Boris Vian, French polymath, writer, poet, jazz musician, singer, translator, critic, actor and anarchist, begins writing his seminal novel 'J'Irai Cracher sur vos Tombes' (I Spit on Your Graves; 1946), which he completes in 15 days [on Aug. 20].

1972 - Mezz Mezzrow (Milton Mesirow; b. 1899), American jazz clarinetist and saxophonist, who claimed that a "creative musician is an anarchist with a horn, and you can't put any shackles on him", dies. [see: Nov. 9]
1893 - Elías Castelnuovo (d. 1982), Uruguayan journalist, storyteller, playwright, poet, essayist and anarchist, communist and then Peronist, born.

1930 - Martin Bauml Duberman, American historian, playwright, novelist, and gay-rights activist, born. Whilst critical of anarchism, he has written on anarchist subjects including: 'Mother Earth: an epic drama of Emma Goldman's life' (1991) and the novel 'Haymarket' (2003).

[B] 1934 - Diane di Prima, US Beat poet, playwright, teacher and anarchist, born. Her maternal grandfather, Domenico Mallozzi, was an active anarchist, and associate of Carlo Tresca and Emma Goldman. She began writing as a child and by the age of 19 was corresponding with fellow anarchist poet Kenneth Patchen. [expand]


You cannot write a single line w/out a cosmology
a cosmogony
laid out, before all eyes

there is no part of yourself you can separate out
saying, this is memory, this is sensation
this is the work I care about, this is how I
make a living

it is whole, it is a whole, it always was whole
you do not “make” it so
there is nothing to integrate, you are a presence
you are an appendage of the work, the work stems from
hangs from the heaven you create

every man / every woman carries a firmament inside
& the stars in it are not the stars in the sky

w/out imagination there is no memory
w/out imagination there is no sensation
w/out imagination there is no will, desire

history is a living weapon in yr hand
& you have imagined it, it is thus that you
“find out for yourself”
history is the dream of what can be, it is
the relation between things in a continuum

of imagination
what you find out for yourself is what you select
out of an infinite sea of possibility
no one can inhabit yr world

yet it is not lonely,
the ground of imagination is fearlessness
discourse is video tape of a movie of a shadow play
but the puppets are in yr hand
your counters in a multidimensional chess
which is divination
& strategy

the war that matters is the war against the imagination
all other wars are subsumed in it.

the ultimate famine is the starvation
of the imagination

it is death to be sure, but the undead
seek to inhabit someone else’s world

the ultimate claustrophobia is the syllogism
the ultimate claustrophobia is “it all adds up”
nothing adds up & nothing stands in for
anything else



There is no way out of a spiritual battle
There is no way you can avoid taking sides
There is no way you can not have a poetics
no matter what you do: plumber, baker, teacher

you do it in the consciousness of making
or not making yr world
you have a poetics: you step into the world
like a suit of readymade clothes

or you etch in light
your firmament spills into the shape of your room
the shape of the poem, of yr body, of yr loves

A woman’s life / a man’s life is an allegory

Dig it

There is no way out of the spiritual battle
the war is the war against the imagination
you can’t sign up as a conscientious objector

the war of the worlds hangs here, right now, in the balance
it is a war for this world, to keep it
a vale of soul-making

the taste in all our mouths is the taste of power
and it is bitter as death

bring yr self home to yrself, enter the garden
the guy at the gate w/ the flaming sword is yrself

the war is the war for the human imagination
and no one can fight it but you/ & no one can fight it for you

The imagination is not only holy, it is precise
it is not only fierce, it is practical
men die everyday for the lack of it,
it is vast & elegant

intellectus means “light of the mind”
it is not discourse it is not even language
the inner sun

the polis is constellated around the sun
the fire is central


[C] 1936 - Ramón Acin Aquilué (b. 1888), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, professor, writer and avant-garde artist, is murdered by pro-Francoists. Involved with the CNT and imprisoned for his support of political prisoners. [see: Aug. 30]

1941 - Alice Becker-Ho (Alice Debord), China-born French Situationist and poet, born.
[B] 1883 - Joachim Ringelnatz (pen name of Hans Bötticher; d. 1934), German author (poetry, novels, drama, memoirs, childrens books), painter and Kabarettist/satirical stand-up comedian, born. Best known for his humorous word-play and poems, and his creation Kuddel Daddeldu, an anarchist sailor whose drunken antics and disdain for authority proved immensely popular. A one-time sailor in the Imperial Navy, he became the house poet at the Munich Künstlerkneipe ('artistspub' i.e. cabaret) Simplicissimus, rubbing shoulders with the likes of Erich Mühsam, Emmy Hemmings, Klabund and Marietta di Monaco. His poetry and essays also appeared in the 'Simplicissimus' house magazine.
Amongst his writings were poetry: 'Die Schnupftabakdose' (The Snuffbox; 1912), 'Kuttel Daddeldu oder das Schlüpfrige Leid' (Kuttel Daddeldu or the Slippery Suffering; 1920), where Kuttel Daddeldu made himself known, and 'Vorstadt-Bordell' (Suburban Brothel; 1923); prose such as 'Kuttel Daddeldu erzählt seinen Kindern das Märchen vom Rotkäppchen und zeichnet ihnen sogar was dazu' (Kuttel Daddeldu tells his children the story of Little Red Riding Hood and even what draws them to; 1923); drama, such as his first play 'Mannimmond, eine einaktige Groteske' (Mannimmond, a one-act grotesque; 1921); and children's books, with his 'Geheimes Kinder-Spiel-Buch mit vielen Bildern' (Secret kids game book with lots of pictures; 1924), instructing kids to destroy furniture, make dumplings out of excrement and to build bombs, being banned by the Berlin Chief of Police for threatening the morals of the city's children.
Ringelnatz also exhibited in the 1920s alongside the likes of Otto Dix and George Grosz, but he was banned by the Nazi government as a 'degenerate artist' and most of his paintings and drawings were lost during WWII. His books were also confiscated and burnt.

1890 - Elizabeth Gurley Flynn (d. 1964), American labour leader, activist and feminist who played a leading role in the Industrial Workers of the World, and later joined the USACP, born. The subject of Joe Hill's popular song, 'The Rebel Girl', and she features in John Updike's novel 'In the Beauty of the Lilies', which also depicts her relationship with the anarchist Carlo Tresca.

1919 - A month-long U.S. actors' strike closes all theatres.

1921 - Alexander Alexandrovich Blok (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Бло́к; b. 1880), Russian Symbolist poet and important figure in the so-called Silver Age of Russian Poetry, dies. [see: Nov. 28]

1937 - Henri Lebasque (b. 1865), French Post-Impressionist painter and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Sep. 25]

1976 - Manuel Monleón Burgos (b. 1904), Spanish painter, illustrator, poster artist, photomontagist, naturist, Esperantist and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 23]

2012 - Francisco Carrasquer Launed (b. 1915), Aragonese poet, writer, essayist, translator, free-thinker and anarchist, dies. Older brother Felix Carrasquer Launed.
1886 - Émile Aubin (aka Marat; d. 19??), French anarchist and anti-militarist propagandist and songwriter, born. Author of several revolutionary songs under the pseudonym Marat.

1918 - Michel Zévaco (b. 1860), French journalist, popular novelist, publisher, film director, anti-clerical revolutionary socialist and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 1]

[BB] 1936 - The supposed date of the death of Renée Dunan (b. 1892) prolific French author of erotic historical, fantasy and science fiction novels and stories, critic, poet, Dadaist, Feminist, anarchist, naturiste and pacifist; used diverse pseudonyms: Louise Dormienne, Marcelle La Pompe, M. de Steinthal, Monsieur de Steinthal, Spaddy, Jean Spaddy, Renée Camera, Chiquita, Ethel Mac Singh, Luce Borromée, Laure Héron, A. de Sainte-Henriette, Ky, Ky C. Collaborated in the magazines of 'Crapouillot' and 'Le Sourire'. [NB: birth and death dates unknown] Book critic for 'Rouge et le Noir'
In the 1940s, a certain Georges Dunan claimed to be the author of books signed by Renée Dunan [confirmed by Jean-Pierre Weber], who is believed to have died in Nice in December 1944. However, the jury is still out on the verdict and the best evidence is that the works are a collaborative effort of a Renée and Georges Dunan of 86, Boulevard Voltaire in Paris.
Another version of her biography would have it her her real name was Marcelle Lapompe, a one-time prostitute or madame.

1942 - María del Milagro Pérez Lacruz aka 'La Jabalina' (The Wild Sow)(b. 1917), Spanish anarchist and member of Juventudes Libertarias, who fought with the Iron Column, is shot by firing squad alongside 6 male comrades in Huerta Oeste, Valencia. Her life was the basus for the novel 'Si Me Llegas a Olvidar' (If I Get to Forget; 2013) by Rosana Corral-Márquez. [see: May 3]

[B] 1982 - Ferre Grignard (Fernand Grignard; b. 1939), Belgium anarchist songwriter, skiffle artist and protest singer, dies in abject poverty of throat cancer. [see: Mar. 13]

2014 - The Dzerzhinsky District Court of St. Petersburg turn down an Investigative Committee petition for a psychiatric evaluation of conceptual artist and political activist Pyotr Pavlensky following his February 23, 2014 performance piece 'Liberty', a “small-scale reconstruction of Maidan" on Malo-Konyushenny (Tripartite) Bridge near the Church on Spilled Blood in central St. Petersburg.
[B] 1888 - Charles Cros (b. 1842), French poet, humourous writer and inventor in the fields of photography, the telegraph and the gramophone, dies. [see: Oct. 1]

1962 - Hermann Hesse (b. 1877), German poet and novelist, dies. Author of 'Der Steppenwolf' (1927), whose central character Harry Haller is invited to attend an: "Anarchist Evening at the Magic Theatre, For Madmen Only, Price of Admission Your Mind." [see: Jul. 2]
1878 - Bruno Alfred Döblin (d. 1957), German Expressionist novelist, essayist, doctor, and Landauerian Christian socialist with a strong affiliation with anarchist thought, especially Kropotkin (though he was never active), born. Alfred Döblin's oeuvre encompasses over a dozen novels ranging in genre from historical novels to science fiction to novels about the modern metropolis; several dramas, radio plays (he was amongst the first to utilise the new medium), and screenplays; a true crime story; a travel account; two book-length philosophical treatises; scores of essays on politics, religion, art, and society; and numerous letters. Many of his works, including the best known for his novel 'Berlin Alexanderplatz' (1929), his science fiction novel 'Berge Meere und Giganten' (Mountains Seas and Giants; 1924) and the four part 'November 1918, Eine Deutsche Revolution' (November 1918: A German Revolution; 1934-45)[Vol. I: 'Bürger und Soldaten' (Citizens and Soldiers), Vol. II 'Verratenes Volk' (A People Betrayed), Vol. III, 'Heimkehr der Fronttruppen' (Return of the Frontline Troops), and Vol. IV, 'Karl und Rosa' (Karl and Rosa)] clearly display his anarchist sympathies.
In 1910, Döblin became involved with the newly founded Expressionist journal 'Der Sturm', contributing numerous essays and literary pieces, including his early novel 'Der Schwarze Vorhang' (The Black Curtain; 1912). He also became part of the circle that included Erich Mühsam, who, along with Gustav Landauer's Christian anarchism, greatly influenced his political outlook. In order to avoid conscription in WWI, Döblin volunteered in December 1914 as a doctor and, despite sharing the widespread early enthusiasm for the war common among many German intellectuals, he soon became avowedly anti-war. His politicisation continued in the immediate post-war period, writing a series of satirical and polemical political essays under the pseudonym 'Linke Poot', some later published in 'Der Deutsche Maskenball' (The German Masked Ball; 1921). On March 12 1919, his sister Meta also died after being injured during skirmishes between the Spartacists and nationalist troops in Berlin.
In late 1918, Döblin joined the Independent Social Democratic Party (USPD), which ideologically stood between Social Democratic Party (SPD) and the Communist party (KPD) of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg and later joining the SPD when the USPD dissolved in 1921. Never an active member, he resigned from the SPD in 1928 "out of protest against bureaucracy and bossism", in his own words.
In 1925 he also joined the Gruppe 1925, a discussion circle of progressive and communist intellectuals including Bertolt Brecht, Johannes R. Becher, Ernst Bloch, Hermann Kasack, Rudolf Leonhard, Walter Mehring, Robert Musil, Joseph Roth, Ernst Toller, Kurt Tucholsky and Ernst Weiß, among others - Brecht went on to consider Döblin one of his most important influences.
In Döblin's 'Berlin Alexanderplatz', one of the classic Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) novels, is the story of Franz Biberkopf, an ex-convict, who falls in with a gang of burglars. In Book 6 he is involved in a discussion with an old anarchist (having resumed his old life as a pimp and petty criminal and gone along to the meeting to be disruptive and have fun). He expounds his vaguely Nietzschean individualism via: "A man's got only himself, just himself. I look after myself. I'm a self-provider, I am!" Which the old anarchist (who, it has been argued, is Döblin's mouthpiece in the book) counters with the need for solidarity: "And I've told you that three dozen times already: you can't do anything alone. We need a fighting organisation".
Originally projected to have a second volume, it was never written as Döblin was forced into exile in 1933 with the Nazi accession to power.
"A comradely association of free men, forms the natural basic cell of all society, the small community; there one must begin. . . . That's what Prince Kropotkin had long known and taught, what he learned from the Swiss watchmakers in the Jurabund, in political jargon: syndicalism, anarchism"

[B] 1884 - Panaït Istrati (Ghérasim Istrati; d. 1935), Romanian-French writer (short stories and novels) and revolutionary communist, and later a libertarian, born. Nicknamed the Maxim Gorky of the Balkans. The title of his novel 'Kyra Kyralina' (1923) was appropriated by Lola Iturbe as her pseudonym, and the story of his time in the Sviet Union and his resulting disillusionment with Stalinist is told in 'La Véritable tragédie de Panaït Istrati' (2013) by Eleni Samios-Kazantzaki, who was one of his travelling companions during that period. [expand]

1948 - Emmy Hennings (born Emma Maria Cordsen; b. 1885), German cabaret performer, poet, chanteause, dancer, puppeteer, painter and 'mystical anarchist', dies. [see: Jan. 17]

2005 - Gérard Tolck (b. 1943), Swiss painter, engraver, sculptor, editor, agitator and cultural anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 18]
1899 - Jindřich Štyrský (d. 1942), Czech painter , photographer, photomontagist, graphic designer, collagist, poet, Surrealist theorist and anarchist, born. He met and fell in love with the Surrealist artist, feminist and anarchist Toyen (Marie Čermínová), with whom he formed a close artistic collaboration for the rest of his life. Initially influenced by the Cubist, he gradually absorbed Surrealist tropes, becoming a member of the anarchist-influenced arts group Devětsil in 1923, and between 1928-29 the director of the Osvobozeného Divadla (Liberated Theatre), the group's drama wing, where he collaborated with Vítězslav Nezval (on a dance performance of his poetry collection 'Abeceda' (Alphabet)) among others, created stage designs (including for Jarry's 'Ubu Roi').
Styrski and Toyen travelled to Paris in 1925, where they lived lived and worked together for three years. Štyrský's main activities at this time focused on his photography, his collages and photomontages, and his publications. His 'Erotika Revue' (1930–33) was illustrations by a wide range of well-known Czech artists, including Toyen, for whom the eroticisation of the world was a life-long theme, and who was one of the most uninhibited. She also contributed to the 6 volume series of erotic literature and illustration 'Edice 69' (Edition 69), which he founded in 1931. He also designed, often with Toyen, numerous book covers (he was one of the first to illustrate 'Maldoror') and also wrote studies of both Rimbaud and Marquis de Sade. [see also: 'Emilie Prichází Ke Mne Ve Snu' (Emilie Comes to Me in a Dream; 1933) in the final edition of 'Edice 69']
A member of the Spolku Výtvarných Umělců Mánes (the Association of Fine Artists) and associate member of the Surrealist group around André Breton and Paul Eluard, he and Toyen were founding members of the Skupiny Surrealistů v ČSR (Czech Surrealist Group) in Prague in 1934. In 1935, invited by the French Surrealists, Styrsky went back to Paris. There, he fell seriously ill, and had to return to Czechoslovakia. Štyrský and Toyan were forced underground during the Nazi occupation and Second World War, during which Surrealism as an underground movement flourished but during which Štyrský was also to die of a long-term heart condition.

[B] 1932 - Fernando Arrabal Terán, Spanish playwright, screenwriter, film director, novelist, poet, painter, anti-Communist, anti-Francoist, Surrealist and Pataphysician, born. The son of a Spanish Army Officer stationed in Melilla in what was then Spanish Morocco. In 1936, his father refused to participate in General Franco's military coup, was arrested, and sentenced to death for mutiny. His sentence was later commuted to thirty years’ imprisonment. He went on to feign psychological illness in order to be transferred to a lower security prison. On December 29, 1941, Fernando Arrabal Senior escaped from the hospital in his pyjamas, and disappeared into the countryside covered in 3 feet of snow, never to be seen again.
Author of seven feature films; short films; nearly 70 plays; 5 operas; twelve novels; 6 collections of poetry; around 150 books for bibliophiles and poems illustrated by Dalí, Picasso, Saura, etc.; essays and his notorious 'Letter to General Franco'. After having seen and raved about Arrabal's 'Guernica', Sartre wanted to publish the play in 'Les Temps Modernes' but was told he was an anti-Communist anarchist and halted its publication.
Co-founder in 1962, with the Chilean-French filmmaker, playwright, actor, author, musician, comics writer and one-time anarchist Alejandro Jodorowsky and the Polish-born French illustrator, painter, writer, filmmaker actor and surrealist Roland Topor, of the Mouvement Panique (Panic Movement), an anarchist avant-garde collective inspired by and named after the Greek God Pan and influenced by Luis Buñuel and Antonin Artaud's Theatre of Cruelty, which concentrated on chaotic performance art and surreal imagery.
Elected Transcendent Satrap of the Collège de Pataphysique in 1990, in the company of Camilo José Cela, René Clair, Jean Dubuffet, Marcel Duchamp, Max Ernst, M. C. Escher, Eugène Ionesco, Michel Leiris, Man Ray, The Marx Brothers, Joan Miró, Jacques Prévert, Raymond Queneau, Boris Vian, Roland Topor, Umberto Eco, Dario Fo and Jean Baudrillard.

"Cette période historique
M'a insufflé la Panique
J'ai conservé le dégoût
De la foule et des gourous
De l'ennui et du sacré
De la poésie sucrée
Des moisis des pisse-froid
Des univers à l'étroit
Des collabos des fascistes
Des musulmans intégristes
De tous ceux dont l'idéal
Nie ma nature animale
A se nourrir de sornettes
On devient pire que bêtes
Je veux que mon existence
Soit une suprême offense
Aux vautours qui s'impatientent
Depuis les années quarante
En illustrant sans complexe
Le sang la merde et le sexe"

(This historical period
I breathed Panic
I kept disgust
The crowd and gurus
Of boredom and sacred
The sweet poetry
Moldy of cold fish
Universes cramped
Of fascist collaborators
Muslim fundamentalists
All those whose ideal
Nie ma animal nature
A feed of nonsense
It is worse than beasts
I want my life
Is a supreme offense
The vultures who are impatient
Since the forties
Illustrating unashamedly
Blood shit and sex)



1997 - Conlon Nancarrow (b. 1912), American-born composer, jazz trumpeter, communist and anti-fascist, who fought in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade in Spain, dies. [see: Oct. 27]
1827 - William Blake (b. 1757), English Romantic poet, visionary radical, mystic, printer, engraver, subversive and proto-anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 28]

1944 - Jehan Jonas (d. 1980), French chanteur libertaire, cabaret singer, poet, playwright and screenwriter, born.

[B] 1992 - John Cage (d. 1912), American composer, music theorist, writer, poet, artist and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 5]
1871 - Probable date of birth of Hippolyte Havel (d. 1950), Czech anarchist, scholar and bohemian. editor of several anarchist publications, including the 'Chicago Arbeiter Zeitung', 'The Revolutionary Almanac' (1914), and 'Revolt' (1916). Companion of Emma Goldman, who met him in London and brought him to the States; married to the anarchist Polly Holliday, who ran the famous eponomous Greenwich Village resturant with him; friend of Eugene O'Neill, who based the character Hugo Kalmar of 'The Iceman Cometh' on him; and 'adopted' the photographer Berenice Abbott.

1884 - János Mattis-Teutsch (d. 1960), Hungarian-Romanian painter, sculptor, graphic artist, art critic, poet, anti-Fascist and anti-Nazi exile, who later fell foul of the Soviet authorities, born. [expand]

1917 - Eugene Bonaventure de Vigo (b. 1883) aka Miguel Almereyda (anagram: Y'a la merde), anarchist and anti-militarist propagandist, is murdered in his prison cell - strangled by a shoelace. Father of anarchist film maker Jean Vigo; founder and director of the ultra-leftist paper 'Le Bonnet Rouge'; co-founder of the newspaper 'La Guerre Sociale'; founding member of 'l'Association Internationale Antimilitariste' (A.I.A.) and founder of 'Les Jeunes Gardes révolutionnaires', action combat groups which clash in the street with the extreme-right-wingers.
[Costantini pic]

[B] 1923 - Carlos Cortez (d. 2005), US anarcho-syndicalist, poet, graphic artist, photographer, muralist and political activist, born. The son of a Mexican-Indian Wobbly union organizer father and a German socialist pacifist mother, he was active for six decades in the Industrial Workers of the World. As an accomplished artist and a highly influential political artist, Cortez is perhaps best known for his wood and linoleum-cut graphics, and his cartoons for the union newspaper the 'Industrial Worker'.

1945 - Tom Wayman, Canadian worker-poet, essayist, academic and co-founder of the Vancouver Industrial Writers' Union (IWW), a work-writing circle and participant in a number of labour arts ventures, born.
[BB] 1865 - Pietro Gori (d. 1911), Italian anarchist, labour activist and lawyer, who was an ardent legal defender of numerous anarchists, born. He was also reknowned as a poet and songwriter - author of some of the most famous anarchist songs of the late 19th century, including 'Addio a Lugano' (Farewell to Lugano), 'Stornelli d'Esili' (Exile Songs), 'Ballata per Sante Caseri' (Ballad for Sante Geronimo Caserio). Published a number of books of poetry, including 'Prigioni e Battaglie' (Jails and Battles; 1891) and 'Alla conquista dell'Avvenire' (Conquering the Future; 1892).

1890 - Rafael Farga i Pellicer (b. 1844), Catalonian typesetter, political cartoonist, journalist, painter, syndicalist and anarchist, also known as Justo Pastor de Pellico, dies.

1901 - Mercedes Comaposada i Guillén (d. 1944), militant Catalan anarcho-feminist, teacher and lawyer, born into a militant household. She starts work at an early age and becomes an editor at a film production company and joins the CNT Public Performances in Barcelona. Later, after studying law, she became a women's educator and helped found the Mujeres Libres in April 1936 and started publishing the group's magazine, illustrated by her partner, the libertarian sculptor Baltasar Lobo. After the defeat of the Republic, she and Lobo move to Paris under the wing of Pablo Picasso, where she works as a secretary and translates the work of a number of Castilian writers, especially Lope de Vega.
She also contributed to the 'Mujeres Libres' magazine (and was also editor in chief), 'Ruta' , 'Tiempos Nuevos' , 'Tierra y Libertad' and 'Umbral'. She was also author of 'Esquemas' (Schemes; 1937, a book of poetry), 'Las Mujeres en Nuestra Revolución' (Woment in Our Revolution; 1937), 'La Ciencia en la Mochila' (Science in a Rucksack; 1938), 'Conversaciones Cono los Artistas Españoles de la Escuela de París' (Coverstions with Spanish Artists of the Paris School; 1960, under the pseudonym Mercedes Guillén), 'Picasso' (1973, as Mercedes Guillén) and an unpublished work 'Mujeres Libres'.

1904 - Helmut Klose aka 'Vagabund' (d. 1987), German anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist tailor, short story writer, poet, actor and itinerant, born. A member of FAUD (Freien Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands) and later of the FAUD-aligned international movement Bruderschaft der Vagabunden (Brotherhood of Vagrants). He played a role alongside Gregor Gog, founder of the Bruderschaft der Vagabunden, in Fritz Weiss's film 'Vagabund' (1930). Fleeing the rise of the Nazis, he spent time in Austria and Yougoslavia, from which he was expelled for possession of Spanish anarchist literature. Ending up in Spain, he fought in the French Batalló de la Costa section of the Durruti Column and, in Catalonia, joined the Deutsche Anarcho-Syndikalisten (DAS), working on a collective farm. [expand]

[C] 1908 - Manos Katrakis (d. 1984), Greek theatre and film actor, who fought with the EAM/ELAS communist anti-fascist resistance during WWII and refused to sign a declaration of repentance during the Greek Civil War of 1946-49, born.

[B] 1926 - Lina Wertmüller (Arcangela Felice Assunta Wertmüller von Elgg Español von Braueich), Italian film writer and director, born. Her films depict her largely libertarian and feminist world view, none more expressly than 'Film d'amore e d'anarchia - Ovvero "Stamattina alle 10 in via dei Fiori nella nota casa di tolleranza..."' (Film of Love and Anarchy - Or "This morning at 10 in via dei Fiori at the noted brothel ..."; 1973) aka 'Love and Anarchy', about an anarchist who stays in a brothel while preparing to kill Mussolini.

1928 - Klabund (psedonym of Alfred Henschke; b. 1890), German Expressionist poet, playwright, novelist, consumptive and anarchist, who influenced German literature with his adaptations and translations of Oriental literature, dies. [see: Nov. 4]

1943 - Nguyen An Ninh (b. 1900), influential Vietnamese nationalist journalist, poet and libertarian communist, who was active in the revolutionary struggle against the French colonial empire, dies in Pulo Condore prison whilst serving his fifth prison sentence.

1956 - Bertolt Brecht (b. 1898) dies in East Berlin. [see: Feb. 10]
1750 - Sylvain Maréchal (Pierre-Sylvain Maréchal; d. 1803), French essayist, poet, atheist, philosopher and political theorist, born. A precursor of utopian socialism, he can be labelled an anarchiste avant la lettre, although the Marxists also claim him. Creator of the Revolutionary Maréchal calendar.

[B] 1845 - Walter Crane (d. 1915), English artist, book illustrator and libertarian socialist, born. Influenced both politically and artistically by William Morris, he produced illustrations and cartoons for the Socialist papers 'Justice', 'The Commonweal' and 'The Clarion', and was part of the Arts and Crafts movement and produced an array of paintings, illustrations, children's books, ceramic tiles and other decorative arts.

1903 - Pascal Pia (born Pierre Durand; d. 1979), French writer, poet, journalist, illustrator, scholar and anarchist, born. He also used the pseudonyms Avinin Mireur, Léger Alype, Pascal Rosé and Pascal Fely amongst others. Friend and collaborator of Albert Camus, to whom Camus dedicated his 'Le Mythe de Sisyphe' (The Myth of Sisyphus; 1942).

1907 - Carmen Conde Abellán aka Florentina (d. 1996), Spanish teacher, narrative writer, poet, children's author, militant anarcho-feminist and Mujeres Libres member, who worked on the group's magazine and undertook lecture tours, born. In 1931 she married the poet Antonio Oliver Belmar and had a long-term lesbian relationship with Amanda Junquera. A prolific author of prose, poetry, childrens stories, essays, biography, etc., some published under a series of pseudonyms, including Magdalena Noguera, Florentina Sea and others, whilst living clandestinely after the defeat of the Republic.

1935 - Paul Victor Jules Signac (b. 1863), French Néo-impressionist painter, dies. [see: Nov. 11]

1951 - The first performance of the Living Theatre takes place in the house of Judith Malina and Julian Beck as the could find a room or the money to finance its hire. Four plays are performed: 'Childish Jokes' by Paul Goodman, 'Ladies' Voices' by Gertrude Stein, 'He Who Says Yes and He Who Says No' by Bertolt Brecht, and Federico Garcia Lorca's 'The Dialogue of the Mannequin and the Young Man'.

[C] 1954 - Stieg Larsson (d. 2004), Swedish author and journalist, born. Editor of the magazine 'Expo', a member of the Communist Workers' League and editor of the Trotskyist journal 'Fjärde Internationalen'. A leading expert on anti-democratic right-wing extremist and Nazi organisations. He died in 2004, shortly after delivering the manuscripts of the Millennium series: 'Män Som Hatar Kvinnor' (The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo; 2005), 'Flickan Som Lekte Med Elden' (The Girl Who Played with Fire; 2006) and 'Luftslottet Som Sprängdes' (The Girl Who Kicked the Hornet's Nest; 2007), novels featuring the characters Lisbeth Salander and Mikael Blomkvist.

1967 - René François Ghislain Magritte (b. 1898), Belgian Dada, then Surrealist artist and one-time Communist Party member, dies. [see: Nov. 21]

1987 - Jean Émile Louis Scutenaire (b. 1905), Belgian poet, anarchist, surrealist and civil servant, dies. [see: Jun. 29]
[B] 1896 - Tina Modotti ( Assunta Adelaide Luigia Modotti Mondini; d. 1942), Italian photographer, model, actress and revolutionary political activist, born. She appeared in several plays, operas, and silent movies in the late 1910s and early 1920s, and also worked as an artist's model. Her Hollywood movie career, which often involved her playing the femme fatale, culminated in the 1920 film 'The Tiger's Coat'. Her bohemian circle of friends included the photographer Edward Weston, who used her as a model, becoming her lover and helped her develop her photography skills. [expand]

1907 - Georgette Léontine Roberte Augustine Kokoczinski aka 'La Mimosa' (Georgette Léontine Brivadis-Ango; d. 1936), French anarchist, actress and nurse, born. At the age of 16, unable to get on with her parents any longer, she left for Paris where she was taken in by André Colomer and his partner Magdalena who introduced her to libertarian ideas. She frequented the cabarets in Montmartre and was attracted to show business and poetry. In 1928 she started using the stage name Mimosa as part of a theatre group that added colour to libertarian meetings and festivals in the area through singing, poetry readings and staging dramas.
She disappeared on October 16 during the Battle of Perdiguera (Zaragoza) and died the same day (or on Oct. 17), possibly shot by firing squad, in circumstances that are not entirely clear.
1883 - Jeanne Françoise 'Jane' Morand (d. 1969), French militant individualist anarchist and anti-militarist activist, born. Jane Morand participated in the creation of a diction course for amateur actors at the libertarian Théâtre du Peuple collective and also participated in the creation of Armand Guerra's film co-operative, Cinéma du Peuple.

1893 - Mary Jane 'Mae' West (d. 1980), American actress, singer, playwright and screenwriter, the Queen of Sex, born. She fought the Hays Code and won.
"Between two evils, I always pick the one I haven't tried before."

1896 - Lotte Jacobi (Johanna Alexandra Jacobi; d. 1990), German photographer and unaligned socialist, born. Jacobi began taking pictures as a young child, using a pinhole camera that her father constructed for her as a birthday present. The oldest of three children, she grew up in a family of photographers stretching back to her great-grandfather Samuel Jacobi, who learned his craft in 1839 from Louis Daguerre. Her family was also active in the leftist social and political movements during the Weimar period and she got to know and take photographs of Ernst Thalmann, Erwin Piscator and Erich Mühsam. Other visitors to the Jacobi studio included high-ranking German officials who, unaware that she was Jewish, often praised her work as "good examples of Aryan photography". From October 1932 to January 1933, she travelled to the Soviet Union, and in particular to Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, taking photographs of all that she saw. Whilst she was away, the Nazis came to power and due to her Jewish ancestry and her Leftist sympathies (she had also worked for the communist Berlin Unionbild agency), Lotte was a prime target. However, altered by her mother that the Gestapo were looking for her, she bought a large fur coat shortly before her return to Berlin under which she hid her camera and walked right by the Gestapo waiting at customs, and who were looking for a photographer with a torn leather jacket. As the Nazi repression and persecution of Jews increased, during which many people she knew were being arrested and killed e.g. Thalmann and Mühsam, she decided it was time to leave Germany. In 1935, she rejected the Nazis’ offer to grant her honorary Aryan status and, shortly after her father's death [like many Jews of the period, he had decided that he was a German first, that he was safe and that he wanted to die in Germany, not some foreign country] fled with her son, first to London and then to the United States, arriving in September 1935 in New York City, where she opened a studio in Manhattan. In 1940, Jacobi married Erich Reiss, a distinguished German publisher and writer who had survived the concentration camps and immigrated to the US, a marriage that lasted until his death in 1951. Lotte also continued portrait photography at her studio, whilst also embarking upon various camera-less and manipulated photography experiments including that with the artist Leo Katz, later named photogenics: abstract black-and-white images produced by moving torches and candles over light-sensitive paper.

1926 - George Melly (d. 2007), English jazz and blues singer, critic, writer and lecturer on art history specialising in Surrealism who was court-martialled during WWII for distributing anarchist literature whilst in the Navy, born.

1939 - Ed Sanders, American poet, singer, social activist, environmentalist, author, publisher and co-founder of The Fugs with anarchist Tuli Kupferberg, born. "I'm a democratic-socialist and Tuli's an anarchist - between those poles, an interesting tension derives. It fuels some of our [The Fugs] songwriting." His 2007 collection 'Revs of the Morrow' (2007) contains poems 'For Emma Goldman' and the environmentalist Rachel Carson.

1945 - George Orwell's 'Animal Farm' first published.

1965 - Takami Jun (高見順; b. 1907), pen-name of Takami Yoshio, Japanese novelist, poet, Marxist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 30]

1965 - Jack Spicer (b. 1925), San Francisco Renaissance poet and gay anarchist son of a Wobbly, dies. [see: Jan. 30]

2001 - Anthony Earnshaw (b. 1924), English artist, author, illustrator and self-styled "armchair anarchist", dies. [see: Oct. 9]

[B] 2004 - Jaceguay Lins (b. 1947), Brazilian composer, conductor, music teacher, writer, poet and anarchist beekeeper, dies in destituion complications associated with throat cancer.

2012 - 'Pussy Riot Global Day'. FEMEN co-founder Inna Shevchenko takes a chainsaw to a 4m high cross, erected as a memorial to the victims of Stalinist repression and the famine of the 1930s, outside the Ukrainian capital Kiev.
1824 - André Léo (pen name of Victoire Léodile Béra; d. 1900), French feminist, revolutionary, Communard, Bakuninist, novelist and journalist, born. Member of the International who was also involved with the Association of Women for the Defence of Paris and Aid to the Wounded. After writing her first novel 'La Vieille Fille' (1864), Béra took the pen name André Léo, she started the newspaper 'La Coopération', advocating workers associations. Returning to Paris in 1860, she became involved with the Republicans and with the feminist activists Paule Minck and Louise Michel, and was arrested alongside Louise Michel at a protest put down by the army in Sept. 1870. She then founded a newspaper, 'La République des Travailleurs', and joined the Paris Commune, publishing editorials in 'La Sociale', which had a distribution of 100 000 copies, and for ' Cri du Peuple', and organising girl's eduction with Noémie Reclus and Anna Jaclard. She escaped the repression of the Bloody Week and went into exile in Switzerland and Italy, taking a prominent part in the publication of the journal 'Le Socialisme Progressif'.

1886 - Samuel Schwartzbard (Sholem-Shmuel Schwarzbard/Samuil Isaakovich Shvartsburd; d. 1938), Russian Jewish watchmaker, anarchist and Yiddish poet, born. Escaped the Russian pogroms in 1905, settled in Paris and active in local anarcho-communist groups with Alexander Berkman, Mollie Steimer and Senya Fleshin, & Nestor Makhno. In 1926 he gunned down Simon Petliura, who had directed the Ukrainian pogroms in which some of his family were murdered. He fired three times, announcing: "This, for the pogroms; this for the massacres, this for the victims." Schwartzbard was acquitted by a jury and freed.

[BB] 1886 - Emil Szittya (Adolf Schenk; d. 1964), Hungarian anarchist, writer, journalist, painter, art critic, traveller and vagabond, born. He arrived in Paris in 1906 and, later that year moved into the Monte Verità settlement at Ascona. Around 1908, he met Blaise Cendrars in Leipzig, then they meet in Paris. In 1910, Emil Szittya published in Paris a first series of anarchist magazine, the Franco-German 'Neue Menschen: Les Hommes Nouveaux' (The New Men). A second series will be published in 1911 in Vienna and Munich. In October 1912, he collaborated with Marius Hanot, Blaise Cendrars and Freddy Sausey on the first issue (third series) of the French version of 'Les Hommes Nouveaux. Review Libre'. One issue emerged. When war broke out in 1914, he moved to Zurich, where he remained until 1918, getting to know Lenin , Radek and Trotsky.
In 1915, in collaboration with Hugo Kersten, he published the pre-Dadaist 'Der Mistral' and frequented the Cabaret Voltaire from it inception in 1916. There he met a fellow Hungarian, the painter and writer Lajos Kassák who published the avant-garde magazine 'A Tett' and with whom he returned to Hungary in 1918 to take part in the revolution. Following time spent in Budapest, Vienna and Berlin publishing numerous magazines including 'Horizont-Flugschriften' with Hans Richter, he fled the rise of fascism and returned to Paris, where he published the anti-fascist magazine 'La Zone' (1933-1934), a "cross-section of German politics, culture, science, art, theater, music and radio." With the Nazi invasion, he fled to the south of France and took part in the Résistance. In 1961 he met in Paris another marginal revolutionary, Franz Jung, and his 'Hommage à Franz Jung' (1988) would be published posthumously. He also published a series of monographs on numerous leading contemporary European artists.
He also knew most of the European avant-garde such as the members of Les XX: Stravinsky, Darius Milhaud, Arthur Honneger, Erik Satie, etc., numerous artists including Picasso, Otto Dix, Dressler, Derain and was important in championing Chagall. And his memoir, 'Das Kuriositäten-Kabinett: Begegnungen mit seltsamen Begebenheiten, Landstreichern, Verbrechern, Artisten, religiös Wahnsinnigen, sexuellen Merkwürdigkeiten, Sozialdemokraten, Syndikalisten, Kommunisten, Anarchisten, Politikern und Künstlern' (The Cabinet of Curiosities: Encounters with strange events, vagrants, criminals, artists, religious lunatic, sexual oddities, social democrats, syndicalists, communists, anarchists, politicians and artists; 1923), caused something of a scandal when published.

1890 - Albert Dubois-Pillet (b. 1846), French Néo-Impresssionist and Pointillist painter and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies. [see: Oct. 28]

1900 - Albert Victor Samain (b. 1858), French Symbolist poet, writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 3]

[B] 1903 - Moriya Emori (盛弥江森; d. 1960), Japanese poet, children's writer and anarchist, also known as Soma Jukichi, born. Beginning around 1924, he published poems in and collaborated on anarchist different newspapers, especially 'Genshi' (Origins). He was a founder of the anarchist journal 'Bungei Kaiho' (Literary Liberation) and wrote for 'Musanaha Simbun' (Proletarian Weekly). With the demise of 'Musanaha Simbun' in August 1929, he helped start 'Daini Musansha Simbun' (Second Proletarian Weekly). In March 1940 he participated in the creation of the anarchist journal 'Shiga' (Plain Poetics). In 1945 he became editor of 'Jinto Shimbun Jinming' (People's Journal) and, when the paper of the Japanese Communist Party, 'Akahata' (Red Flag) was banned, he became editor of 'Tone Dokuritsu Heiwa' (Peace and Independence).
Amongst his publications are 'Gendai Rōdō Seisaku' (Modern Labour Policy; 1941) and 'Shijin no Sei to Shi ni Tsuite' (About the Life and Death of the Poet; 1959).

1922 - Alain Robbe-Grillet (d. 2008), French writer, literary theorist, screenwriter and filmmaker, born. One of the figures most associated with the Nouveau Roman. His first published novel (second completed), 'Les Gommes' (The Erasers; 1953), is a detective story set within 24 hours in an unnamed northern French coastal city with a plot involving an anarchist group who kill a string of 'officials' to a strict timetable.

1961 - Leonhard Frank (b. 1882), German Expressionist novelist, short story writer, playwright, libertarian pacifist and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies. [see: Sep. 4]
1862 - Maurice Barrès (Auguste-Maurice Barrès; d. 1923), French Symbolist novelist and journalist, born. Initially an individualist, he was elected to parliament as a socialist within the populist nationalist Boulangist coalition. However, he became an ardent nationalist and anti-Semite during the Dreyfus Affair, becoming a leading mouthpiece, alongside Charles Maurras, of the Anti-Dreyfusard side. Amongst the Dadaists, Breton and Aragon initially admired Barrès' anarchist views in 'Un Hommes Libre' (189), the 'Culte du Moi' trilogy (1888-91) and 'L'Ennemi des Lois' (1892), whose main character spends three months in Sainte-Pelagie prison for anarchist propaganda, but eventually subjected him to the mock trial [charged with an "attentat à la sûreté de l'esprit" (attempt against the security of the spirit)] that signalled the end of the Dadaist movement in the spring of 1921.

1864 - Juan Montseny i Carret (aka Federico Urales) (d. 1942), Spanish teacher, novelist, publisher, anarchist militant, companion of Teresa Mañé (Soledad Gustavo) and father of Federica Montseny, born. A cooper, he joined the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party in 1885 and 3 years later was appointed general secretary of the National Federation of Barrel Workers. He married Soledad Gustavo, a secular teacher in Vilanova i la Geltrú, and the two became local figures of Anarchism in Reus. Following the repression sparked by the June 7 1896 attack, the authorities closed down the school, and Joan Montseny was detained along with hundreds of activists in Barcelona's Montjuïc prison. After a year in prison he was expelled from Spain and, after a few months exile in England, returned clandestinely to Spain under the name of Federico Urales, publishing 'La Revista Blanca' in Madrid in 1898. Gaining a retrial, he was amnestied but the paper was shut down in 1905. He then devoted himself to agriculture, journalism, writing books and plays including the novels 'La Novela Ideal' (1925), 'La Novela Libre' (1929) and 'El Luchador' (The Wrestler; 1931). He signed the manifesto in favour of the Allies during the WWI and, together with his wife and their daughter Federica Montseny, started publishing a new version of 'La Revista Blanca' in 1923. He remained by his daughter's side throughout the Spanish Civil War and was forced to flee for France in 1939 following the defeat of the remaining Republican armies, dying in an internment camp.
Amongst Montseny's other pseudonyms were Mario del Pilar, Siemens, Doctor Boudín, Remigio Olivares, Un profesor de la normal, Rudolf Sharfenstein, Ángel Cunillera, Antonio Galcerán, Ricardo Andrés, Un Trimardier, Charles Money, Ricos de Andes, etc.
His other works include: 'El Hombre y la Locura Humana' (Man and Human Madness; undated); 'Sembrando Flores' (Planting Flowers; 1920); 'La Barbarie Gubernamental' (Governmental Barbarism; 1933) and 'La Evolución de la Filosofía en España' (The Evolution of Philosophy in Spain; 1934) in 2 Volumes.

1882 - George Bellows (d. 1925), US painter and illustrator, born. Associated with a group of radical artists and activists called the Lyrical Left, who tended towards anarchism in their extreme advocacy of individual rights. Teacher at the Modern School in New York. [also listed as being born on 12th]

1909 -
1909 - The first edition of the IWW's 'The Little Red Songbook' is published.

1909 - Jerzy Andrzejewski (d. 1983), prolific Polish author, born. His novels, 'Popiół i Diament' (Ashes and Diamonds; 1948), about the immediate post-war situation in Poland, and 'Wielki Tydzień' (Holy Week; taken from the 1945 collection 'Noc' [Night]), which deald with the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, have been made into film adaptations by the Polish director Andrzej Wajda.
Having joined the communist party in 1950, he left the party after the 1956 October Revolution. In 1976 he was one of the founding members of the intellectual opposition group Komitet Obrony Robotników (KOR; Workers' Defence Committee), formed to provide aid for prisoners and their families after the June 1976 protests and government crackdown.

[B] 1921 - Georges Darien (pseudonym for Georges Hippolyte Adrien)(b. 1862), French writer (novels, plays, literary magazines, etc.) associated with anarchism and an outspoken advocate of Georgism, dies. His novel 'Les Pharisiens' (1891) is a fictional indictment of French anti-semitism and its most prominent advocate, Édouard Drumont. Forgotten after his death, he was rediscovered after the reissue of 'Voleur' (1897) in 1955 and of 'Bas les Cœurs!' (1889) in 1957. [see: Apr. 6]

[C] 1936 - Federico García Lorca (b. 1898), Andalusian poet,dramatist and artist, is murdered by fascist militiamen. [see: Jun. 5]

1977 - Julius Henry 'Groucho' Marx (b. 1890), the only true Marxist, dies. [see: Oct. 2]

2000 - Luce Fabbri (d. 1908), Italian anarchist writer, journalist, theorist, publisher, poet and daughter of Luigi Fabbri, dies. [see: Jul. 25]
1873 - Ivan Kliun (Иван Васильевич Клюн; d. 1943), Russian Suprematist and Constructivist painter, graphic artist and sculptor, born. Participated in exhibitions of the Soyuz Molodyozhi (Union of Youth) group and joined Malevich's Supremus group in 1915. Also associated with the 'Tvorchestvo' (Creativity/Creative Work) section introduced into 'Anarkhiia' in early 1918, that specialised in art and literature. Later taught at the Vkhutemas (Moscow state art and technical school) before sinking into obscurity like many of the reviolutionary artists that chose to stay in the Soviet Union rather than go abroad.

[C] 1944 - During an uprising by the Resistance in Toulouse, André Malraux (aka Colonel Berger, commander of the Lot maquis), who had been held their since his arrest in July, takes command of the Saint-Michel prison.

[B] 1949 - Nikolas Asimos (Νικόλας Άσιμος [Asimopoulos (Ασιμόπουλος)]; d.1988), Greek lyricist, composer and singer of Greek rock and 'folk' songs, and anarchist, though he never apparently expressly self-identified himself as such, born. "[T]he greatest troubadour of the anarchist movement in Greece and one of the figures that made Exarcheia diachronic habitat of radical thinking and practice" according to Libcom.

'Εγώ με τις ιδέες μου' (I only come with ideas)

Εγώ με τις ιδέες μου
κι εσείς με τα λεφτά σας,
νομίζω πως τα θέλετε μονά ζυγά δικά σας,
δε θέλω την κουβέντα σας
ούτε τη γνωριμιά σας.

Θα χτυπήσω εκεί που σας πονάει,
κανένα δε θα αφήσω εμένα να κερνάει.
θα με χρίσω ιππότη και τζεντάι
και άμα ξεμεθύσω
σας λέω και γκοντμπάι.

Και οι θεοί σαν πείθονται
εάν υπάρχει ανάγκα,
για πόλεμο δεν έκανα
ποτέ εγώ το μάγκα
και ούτε νεροπίστολο
δεν έχω στην παράγκα.

Θα τραβήξω το δρόμο μου όσο πάει
κανένα δε θα αφήσω
εμένα να κερνάει,
Θα απολύσω κι όποιον με περιγελάει,
χιλιάδες δυο αλήθειες
ο πόνος μου γεννάει.

Εγώ στα δίνω έτοιμα
κι εσύ τα θες δικά σου
λιγούρα που σε έδερνε
παρ' όλα τα λεφτά σου
και ούτε στο νυχάκι μου
δε φτάνει η αφεντιά σου.

Δε σε παίρνει εμένα να κοιτάξεις
χωρίς καμιά ουσία εσύ
θα τα τινάξεις.
Είσαι θύμα του νόμου και της τάξης
δεν ξέρεις καν το λόγο
για να με υποτάξεις

(Ι only come with ideas
you only come with money
I think you want it all yours, heads and tails
I don't need your small talk
neither knowing you at all

I'll punch you where it hurts
I won't let anyone to pay for me
I'll dub myself a knight and jedi
and if I sober up
I'll tell you a "goodbye"

Even gods may change their mind
when great need there is
I never played brave
when it comes to war
and neither a water pistol
I have in my shack

I'll keep my way as far as it takes
I won't let anyone to pay for me
I will fire anyone that laughs on me
my pains gives birth
to a thousand truths

I hand it all prepared to you
but you want it all yours
your greed won't let you in peace
take your money and go
and neither with my small toe
I can compare your pride

You can't look me in the eyes
and you'll die without a past
You are a victim of law and order
you don't even know the reason
to conquer me.)


1961 - Greg Egan, Australian science fiction author, born. His novel 'Distress' (1995) sympathetically renders an anarcho-syndicalist society called Stateless.

1996 - Rio Reiser (Ralph Christian Möbius; b. 1950), German singer, musician, composer, songwriter, actor and queer anarchist, dies. [see: Jan 9]

1999 - Jesús Guillén Bertolín aka Guillembert (b. 1913), Spanish anarchist, painter and designer, dies. Partner of Sara Berenguer and brother of Conchita Guillén Bertolín. [see: Oct. 31]

2010 - Francisco 'Chico' Cuberos Neto (b. 1924), Brazilian militant anarchist and theatre and TV actor, dies. [see: Feb. 18]
1869 - Jean-Charles Fortuné Henry (d. 19??), French anarchist militant, anti-militarist and founder of the libertarian Aiglemont community, born. His father, Henry Fortune (1821-1882) was sentenced to death in absentia for being a member of the Paris Commune, and his brother, Emile, was guillotined for committing two attentats, including the Café Terminus bombing on February 26, 1894.
Artists who came to Aiglemont included the cartoonist Alexandre Steinlen, playwright Maurice Donnay, journalist and novelist Lucien Descaves, the painter Francis Jourdain, and the novelist Anatole France.

1953 - Nikolay Nikolayevich Punin (Russian: Никола́й Никола́евич Пу́нин; b. 1888), Russian art scholar and writer, dies. [see: Nov. 28]

[B] 1996 - René Cavanhié (pen name René Cavan; b. 1922), French poet, songwriter, anarchist and resistance fighter, dies. [see: Mar. 25]
1862 - Claude Debussy (d. 1918), French composer heavily influenced by the Symbolists and Impressionist, born. Whilst never an anarchist (although his father was a Communard and definitely sympathetic to anarchism), he was also influenced by the Parisian anarchist milieu and associated with the 'Revue Blanche' (as its music critic) and the likes of Félix Fénéon and Felix Vallotton. A youthful play he had written, 'Frères en Art' (Brothers in Art), features a series of discussions amongst a group musicians, painters and poets featuring anarchist ideas, and he had in fact published two poems, 'De Rêve' and 'De Grève' (Dec. 1892), that were set to music in the song cycle 'Proses Lyriques' (1893), in Francis Viele-Griffin's anarchist-leaning 'Les Entretiens Politiques et Litteraires'.

1869 - Arthur Holitscher (d. 1941), Hungarian playwright, novelist, essayist, travel writer and anarchist, born. Helped found the Bund für Proletarische Kultur (League for Proletarian Culture) in 1919. Amongst his works are his first novel, 'Weiße Liebe' (White Love; 1896); 'O. Wilde: Ballade des Zuchthauses zu Reading' (1918), his translation of 'The Ballad of Redaing Gaol'; travel books, including those from his visit to revolutionary Russia, 'Drei Monate in Sowjet-Russland' (Three Months in Soviet Russia; 1921) and 'Stromab die Hungerwolga' (Downstream of the Volga famine; 1922); plus his books on anarchism and related subjects, including 'Frans Masereel', with Stefan Zweig (1923) and 'Ravachol und die Pariser Anarchisten' (Ravachol and the Paris anarchists; 1925). His books were on the Nazi's 1933 Black List of burnt books, and shortly after he fled to Paris, moving to Geneva in 1939, where he lived in obscurity and died in poverty.

1878 - Ladislav Klíma (d. 1928), Czech Expressionist novelist, playwright, poet and individualist philosopher, born. His philosophical texts were inspired by Berkeley, Schopenhauer and Nietzsche.

[B] 1908 - Henri Cartier-Bresson (d. 2004), famed French photographer and life-long anarchist, considered to be the father of modern photojournalism, born.
“I’m an anarchist - anarchism is an ethic, its a way of behaving.”
"L'anarchie c'est une éthique avant tout. Une éthique d'homme libre. Relisez Bakounine" (Above all anarchism is an ethic. An ethic of free men. Reread Bakunin.)

1936 - Diego Rodríguez Barbosa (b. 1885), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist militant, anarcho-naturalist propagandist, writer, poet and novelist, is arrested whilst in hiding following the July Fascist uprising, and is tortured and killed by Phalangists. The fascists cut off his head and play football with it. [see: Nov. 5]

[BBB] 1988 - Mystag (Robert François; b. 1919), French illusionist, anarchist propagandist, neo-Malthusian, pacifist and freethinker, dies. [see: Sep. 17]

2007 - Grace Paley (b. 1922), American short story writer, poet, teacher, feminist and "somewhat combative pacifist and cooperative anarchist", dies. [see: Dec. 11]
1894 - Áurea Cuadrado Castillón, also known as Áurea Cuadrado Alberola (d. 1969), Spanish militant anarcho-feminist and fashion designer, born. Member of the Sindicat del Vestit de la Confederació Nacional del Treball (Union of Dressmakers of the CNT) and participated in the foundation of the Grup Cultural Femení (Women's Cultural Group) in 1934, the forerunner of the Mujeres Libres.
barcelonaenfemeni.org/Les Corts/Aurea Cuadrado.htm

1903 - Manuel Medina González (aka Manolo Medina i Ariel; d. 1993), Andalusian journalist, poet, writer, Mason, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, then a Falangist, born. Active member of the CNT and FAI in Seville, he was forced to resign as director of Solidaridad Obrera de Valencia in 1932 was forced to resign after having posted criticism of Ángel Pestaña and the National Committee of the CNT. As a journalist, he worked for numerous newspapers including 'Acción Social Obrera', '¡Despertad!', 'Estudios', 'Iniciales', 'El Productor', 'La Revista Blanca', 'Solidaridad', 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Tierra Libre', etc. and directed 'Tierra y Libertad'.
When the Civil War broke out, he joined the Phalange in Seville and was director of the Falangist daily newspaper 'Azul' (Blue).

[B] 1908 - Arthur Adamov (d. 1970), Russian-born French playwright and anarchist, born. One of the foremost exponents of the Theatre of the Absurd.

1946 - Peter Marshall, English philosopher, historian, biographer, travel writer, poet, ecologist, Green anarchist and animal liberationist, born. Author of 'William Godwin' (1984); 'The Anarchist Writings of William Godwin' (1986) [ed.]; 'William Blake: Visionary Anarchist' (1988); 'Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism' (1992/2008); and 'Nature's Web: An Exploration of Ecological Thinking' (1992).

1956 - Ernst Frick (b.1881), Swiss anarchist, artist, archaeologist and scholar of primitive languages, dies. [see: Sep. 21]

1959 - Tiffany Ellsworth Thayer (b. 1902), American actor, author, atheist, anarchist, skeptic and founder of the Fortean Society, dies. [see: Mar. 1]
1887 - Joseph Rosenzweig Moir (d. 1944), Czech anarchist poet, writer and lawyer of Jewish origin, born. The uncle of the Czech poet Jiří Orten. In February 1942, Rosenzweig Moir and his wife were deported to the Theresienstadt concentration camp during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia. He was selected for transfer to Auschwitz on October 12 1944 (the last record of him), where he is persumed to have died.

[B] 1916 - Léo Ferré (d. 1993), Franco-Monégasque anarchist singer, poet, composer and interpreter of the French poètes maudits, born.

1922 - Howard Zinn (d. 2010), American anarchist historian, author, playwright, and activist, born.

1964 - Virgilio Gozzoli (b. 1886), Italian anarchist, anti-fascist, poet, playwright, publisher and Futurist artist, dies. [see: Nov. 10]

1982 - Ludovic Massé (b. 1900), Catalan proletarian writer, novelist and libertarian, dies. [see: Jan. 7]

[C] 1998 - 'If You Tolerate This Your Children Will Be Next', the Manic Street Preachers' anti-fascist Spanish Civil War song is released. Penned in support of Welsh volunteers in the International Brigades.

The future teaches you to be alone
The present to be afraid and cold
"So if I can shoot rabbits then I can shoot fascists."

Bullets for your brain today
But we'll forget it all again
Monuments put from pen to paper
Turns me into a gutless wonder.

And if you tolerate this then your children will be next
And if you tolerate this then your children will be next
Will be next, Will be next, Will be next.

Gravity keeps my head down
Or is it maybe shame
At being so young and being so vain.

Holes in your head today
But I'm a pacifist
I've walked La Ramblas but not with real intent.

And if you tolerate this then your children will be next
And if you tolerate this then your children will be next
Will be next, Will be next, Will be next.

"And on the street tonight
An old man plays with newspaper cuttings of his glory days."

And if you tolerate this then your children will be next
And if you tolerate this then your children will be next
Will be next, will be next, will be next.
1861 - William Barbotin (pseudonym of Joseph Barbotin; d. 1931), French painter, sculptor, engraver and libertarian, linked to anarchist geographer Elisée Reclus, born. In 1886, he visited communard and fellow artist Jules Perrier and fell in love with Sophie Guériteau, a young female member of the Reclus family. Under Reclus' influence, Barbotin became an anarchist and began attending the Parisian anarchist milieu and provides support and collaboration on 'La Révolte' and Jean Grave's 'Temps Nouveaux', creating woodcut portraits of Proudhon, Bakunin, Kropotkin, Carfiero, Reclus, Pierre Leroux, Auguste Conmtechisel, etc. and numerous etchings.

1891 - Alberto Savinio (Andrea Francesco Alberto de Chirico; d. 1952), Italian writer, painter, musician, journalist, essayist, playwright, set designer, composer and Nietzchean-inspired "proto-anarchist" associated with Dada and Surrealism, born. He was the younger brother of 'metaphysical' painter Giorgio De Chirico. He was influenced by and a contemporary of Apollinaire, Picasso, Jean Cocteau, Max Jacob and Fernand Léger, and in turn was an important influence alongside Erik Satie on John Cage. Trying to differentiate himself from his increasingly famous artist-brother, Andrea adopted the penname Alberto Savinio in 1914, the same year he founded the musical movement Sincerismo (Sincerism). In 1915 he returned with his brother Giorgio back to Italy to enlist and ended up serving in the same military hospital as Carlo Carrà, where they formed the Schola Metafisica (Metaphysical School).
Both he and his brother were denounced by the fascist press for their pro-European attitude during the early 1930s after both returned from a period spent in France. In 1943 he also had to go into hiding after being denounced as an anti-fascist.

1900 - Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (b. 1844), German philosopher, poet, composer, cultural critic and classical philologist, dies. [see: Oct. 15]

1910 - Dorothea Margaret Tanning (d. 2012), American Surrealist painter, printmaker, sculptor, writer, poet, ballet set and costume designer, born. Tanning married Max Ernst in 1946, in a double wedding with Man Ray and Juliet Browner. [expand]

[B] 1932 - Gérard Lebovici (d. 1984), radical French publisher, film producer, friend and financial supporter of Guy Debord, born. Radicalised during the events of May 1968, he frequented libertarian circles, founding Editions Champ Libre in 1969 and, following a meeting in 1971, formed a close association with Debord, republishing 'The Society of the Spectacle' and financing his film of the same name. Champ Libre also republished some classic revolutionary tracts and radical writers such as Bakunin and Landauer. He later bought up the Studio Cujas, a cinema located in the Latin Quarter of Paris, which became a centre for Situationist cinema. He also became fascinated by the libertarian character of Jacques Mesrine, adopting Mesrine's daughter Sabrina after his death in 1979 and planned in 1984 to republish his autobiography 'L'Instinct de Mort' (Killer Instinct). He was shot and killed on March 5 1984 in what many see as a police-inspired assassination.

1941 - Carol Bolt ( 2000), Canadian playwright, author of the Emma Goldmann play 'Red Emma, Queen of the Anarchists' (1974), born.

1944 - Abdulla Aliş (Alişev Ğabdullacan Ğäbdelbari ulı; b. 1908), Soviet Tatar poet, playwright, writer and resistance fighter, who wrote mostly novels for children, is guillotined with fellow resistance fighter and poet Musa Cälil (b. 1906) in Plötzensee prison. [see: Sep. 15 & Feb. 15]

[C] 1944 - Musa Cälil (Musa Mostafa ulı Cälilev; b. 1906), Soviet Tatar poet and resistance fighter, is guillotined with fellow resistance fighter and poet Abdulla Aliş (b. 1908) in Plötzensee prison. [see: Feb. 15 & Sep. 15]

1963 - Sébastien Doubinsky, French bilingual writer (English and French), translator, editor, poet and anarchist, born.
[B] 1880 - Guillaume Apollinaire (born Wilhelm Albert Włodzimierz Apolinary Kostrowicki ; d. 1918), French poet, playwright, short story writer, novelist, art critic, youthful anarchist and proto-Surrealist, born in Rome. At school in Nice he discovers anarchism and becomes a Dreyfusard, before moving to Paris in 1899. There he becomes part of the artistic and anarchist communities of Montmartre and Montparnasse, befriending the likes of Cocteau, Jarry, Picasso, Breton, de Vlaminck, Derain, etc.
www.la-presse-anarchiste.net/spip.php?article3037 - La Revue Anarchiste n°6 (juin 1922) w/ de Vlaminck on Apollinaire

1899 - René Lochu (d. 1989), French journeyman tailor, anarchist, syndicalist union activist and pacifist, born. His close friend Leo Ferre dedicated his song 'Les Etrangers' to him and contributed a freface and afterword to his autobiography 'Libertaires, Mes Compagnons de Brest et d'Ailleurs' (Libertarians, My Comrades in Brest and Elsewhere; 1983).

1936 - The Grup Sindical d'Escriptors Catalans (GSEC; Association of Catalan Writers Group) is established as part of the Sindicat d'Arts Gràfiques of the CNT, and later to the Sindicat Únic de la Ensenyança i Professions Liberals. Members include Jaume Balius Mir, Marc Benet, Manuel Cruells, Delfí Dalmau, Alexandre G. Gilabert, J. Guivernau Jané, Miquel Llor, Enric Lluelles, Carme Montoriol Puig, Víctor Mora, Anna Murià Romaní, Josep Maria Murià Romaní, Josep Pons Pagès, Dídac Ruíz, Joan Sallarès, Manuel Tarragó Romeu and Xavier Viura.

1945 - Franz Viktor Werfel (b. 1890), Czech-born, Austrian-Jewish novelist, playwright and poet, dies. [see: Sep. 10]

1995 - John Kilian Houston Brunner (b. 1934), prolific British libertarian/socialist-orientated science fiction author, who was active in CND and wrote the CND marching song 'H-Bomb's Thunder', dies. [see: Sep. 24]
1838 - Constant Marie aka Le Père Lapurge (d. 1910), French anarchist militant, Communard, singer and songwriter, born. Author of the revolutionary songs 'Dame Dynamite', 'le Père Lapurge' and 'la Muse Rouge'.

1871 - Theodore Herman Albert Dreiser (d. 1945), American novelist, poet and journalist of the naturalist school, born. A socialist who was involved in a number of social justice campaigns including Sacco and Vanzetti, against the deportation of Emma Goldman (whose writings he regarded as "the richest of any woman’s of the century"), the conviction of the trade union leader Tom Mooney and was involved with the National Committee for the Defence of Political Prisoners. He joined the American Communist Party shortly before his death.

[B] 1890 - Man Ray (born Emmanuel Rudnitzky; d. 1976), American Surrealist photographer, painter, filmmaker, chess-player and anarchist, born. In the autumn of 1911 he began to life classes at the anarchist Modern School in Harlem (New York), also known as Ferrer School, and met a number of prominent anarchist intellectuals including Robert Henri, Emma Goldman Will Durant, Adolf Wolff, Jack London, John Reed, Alexander Berkman, Upton Sinclair, Hart Crane, Wallace Stevens, William Carlos Williams, Margaret Sanger, Isadora Duncan, Eugene O'Neill, etc. and studied several libertarian authors such as Max Stirner, Tolstoy, Walt Whitman, Thoreau, etc. and radical philosophers (Nietzsche, etc.).
Man Ray contributed to Emma Goldman's journal, ‘Mother Earth,’ by designing two covers of the magazine and, together with the Belgian anarchist Adon LaCroix (who he met while taking art lessons from Robert Henry and George Bellows at the Ferrer Center in New York, and who would later become his companion) would launch their own periodical, ‘The Ridgefield Gazook’, a proto-dadaist and anti-war broadsheet with explicit anarchist references. After befriending Adolph Wolff, Man Ray became acquainted with Stieglitz and Duchamp, joined the avant-garde, conceived Dada as a form of artistic anarchy, and forever changed the course of American art.

1960 - Curt Corrinth (b. 1894), German Expressionist poet, novelist, dramatist, screenwriter and 'Bohemian anarchist', dies. His play 'Trojaner' (Trojans), a staunch critique of German anti-Sematism, caused controversy following its 1929 première in Berlin. [see: Feb. 20]

2001 - Juan Gómez Casas (b. 1921), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, anarchist, underground militant, writer and historian, who was the first post-Franco Secretary General of the CNT, dies. Born in Bordeaux into a family of Spanish anarcho-syndicalists, who had emigrated for economic reasons, with proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931, his family returned to the Iberian Peninsula. After college, he joined his father as a member of the CNT (Chemical Industry section of Miscellaneous Crafts Guild) and, from 1936, the Federació Ibèrica de Joventuts Llibertàries (FIJL) in Madrid. During the civil war, he was appointed secretary of the FIJL in the Retiro district and had articles published in the CNT paper 'Castilla Libre'. In April 1938, he joined the 39th Mixed Brigade of the Republican Army and fought on the Teruel front for three months. With the triumph of Franco, he was arrested in the port of Alicante and interned in the Albatera concentration camp, but managed to escape from a juvenile prison. Returning to Madrid, he took up the clandestine struggle with the FIJL. Member of the Sindicat de la Construcció in the CNT and was an anti-collaborationist.
In 1947, he was elected as the Secretary General of the Juventudes Libertarias del Centro in Toulouse, France. Upon his return to Spain, he was arrested with his partner (María del Carmen Martínez Herranz) and his sons. In a search of his home they discovered the printing press used for the clandestine publishing of 'Tierra y Libertad' and 'Juventud Libre'. In July 1948, he was sentenced to 30 years in prison for "membership in illegal organization". On February 6 1956, he made a failed escape attempt and was finally freed from prison in 1962 and went on to work as an antiques painter, a trade he learned in prison, and was an accountant for a Madrid hotel. Despite having no formal education, he wrote many books, including 'Historia del anarcosindicalismo español' (The history of Spanish Anarcho-syndicalism; 1968), 'Historia de la FAI' (The history of the FAI; 1977) and other historical books that are still considered classical texts. He even translated the classic book 'Moby Dick' into Spanish. He also wrote under the pseudonyms of Jacques de Gaulle (for dectective novels, etc.) and Benjamín.
During the late 1960s, he was a member of the Grup Anselmo Lorenzo in Madrid, alongside Mariano Trapero, Pedro Amijeiras, Florentino Rodríguez and Pedro Barrios, and, among other things, published in Paris in 1969 the anti-Marxist dicussion document 'Manifest Llibertari' and the pamphlet 'Problemas presentes y futuros del sindicalismo revolucionario en España' (Present and Future Problems of Revolutionary Unionism in Spain; 1969). In the seventies, he became one of the leading representatives of the CNT during its reorganisation and its first post-Franco secretary, from August 1976 to April 1978.
1918 - Ramón Liarte Viu (d. 2004), Spanish anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist militant, autodictat, journalist and writer, born. Born in Almudébar, Huesca, his poor working class family moved to Barcelona whilst he was a child. During the Second Spanish Republic to become the general secretary of the Juventudes Libertarias of Catalonia. During the fascist uprising of July 1936, he was caught working in Jaca as a waiter and crossed the Pyrenees into Catalonia via Seu d'Urgell. He fought at the front in the Durruti Column and later in the 26th Division, becoming the editor of its newspaper 'El Frente'. In February 1937, at the Second Congress of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL) held in Valencia, was appointed secretary of the organisation. Also in June of that year, following the plenary session of the Cataln Regional Committee of the CNT, he was appointed as its secretary, a position he held until September of that year. On July 21, 1927, he participated in the CNT-organised rally held at the Olympia in Barcelona, along with Federica Montseny, Francisco Isgleas and Joaquim Cortes, to protest against the events of the Hecho de Mayo 1937 and the the repression that followed, and defending the FIJL's opposition to the Stalinist counter-revolution. In February 1938, following the Second Congress, he was appointed Secretary of the Organización del Comité Peninsular of the FIJL and later made secretary of the Organización del Comité Peninsular of the FAI. In March 1939, he joined the Comité de Coordinación y Defensa (Defence Coordination Committee) in opposition to the Consejo General del Movimiento Libertario Español (General Council of the Spanish Libertarian Movement; MLE).
With the fascist victory, he crossed into France and was held in various prisons (El Templo, Fresnes, Roland Corvejones, etc.) and concentration camps (Vernet, etc.). In 1942, he managed to escape the Algeria camp at Djelfa. He then fought in the French resistance and participated in a failed attempt to invade the mainland via the Basque Country. He was also arrested during a clandestine crossing into Spain and held in Cuevas de Almanzora, Almería and Granada prisons. Once freed, he returned to France, where he helped rebuild the MLE whilst hodling various post in the moderate i.e. collaborationist wing of the movement. In 1951 he was delegate to the Congress of the International Workers Association (IWA), was secretary of the Subcomité pro España and was proposed as a potential minister in a possible Republican coalition goverment. In 1955 he replaced Miguel Sebastián Vallejo as Secretary General of the collaborationist wing of the CNT. In 1957, he was appointed chair of the Alianza Sindical de España designed to united the anti-Francoist activities of the CNT, Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT) and Sindicato de Trabajadores Vascos (STB). In 1962, he was made the Cultural Secretary of the CNT in Toulouse and went on to direct 'Solidaridad Obrera' between 1980 and 1982, following on from his editorship of 'España Libre', 'Esfuerzo', 'Estudios' and 'El Frente' at various times.
A prolific author, also writing under the pseudonyms 'Rotaeche' and 'Rali', he wrote for various newspaper and magazine, contributed to and wrote numerous pamphlets and books, including: 'AIT: La Internacional del sindicalismo revolucionario' (AIT: The International of revolutionary syndicalism); 'Estudio de la revolución española' (A Study of the Spanish Revolution); 'Voces juveniles: Interpretación àcrata de nuestra revolución' (The Voice of Youth: Our Interpretation of the anarchist revolution; 1937, with others); 'La CNT y los pueblos de España' (CNT and the people of Spain); 'La revolución social española' (The Spanish social revolution; 1975); 'La CNT y el federalismo de los pueblos de España' (CNT and the federalism of the peoples of Spain; 1977); 'La lucha del hombre: Anarcosindicalismo' (The struggle of man: Anarchosyndicalism; 1977); 'La CNT al servicio del pueblo' (CNT in the Service of the People; 1978); 'Marxismo, socialismo y anarquismo' (Marxism, Socialism and Anarchism; 1978); 'La sociedad federal' (Federal Society; 1989); 'Fermín Salvochea "El libertador"' (Fermín Salvochea "The Liberator"; 1991); and 'Bakunin, la emancipación del pueblo' (Bakunin, the emancipation of the people; 1995), etc. However, his most famous works are probably the 'Los pasos del tiempo' (The steps of time) trilogy - 'El camino de la libertad' (The Road to Freedom; 1983), '¡Ay de los vencedores!' (Woe to the winners!; 1985) and 'Entre la revolucion y la guerra' (Between Revolution and War; 1986) - a largely autobiographical account of the Civil War in which this fictional protagonist, Ramiro Rueda, travels the winding paths of Spanish history from the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera to exile.

[BB] 1921 - Fernando Fernán-Gómez (d. 2007), Argentine-born Spanish actor, screenwriter, film director, theatre director, novelist, anarcho-syndicalist and lifelong anarchist, born. He attended a CNT-organised Escuela de Actores (Actors College) in Madrid during the Revolution and was involved with the CNT-AIT for the rest of his life. He directed 30 or so films and acted in over 200, including Pedro Almodóvar's 'Todo Sobre mi Madre' (All About My Mother; 1999); José Luis Cuerda's 'La Lengua de las Mariposas' (Butterfly's Tongue; 1999) and Víctor Erice's 'El Espíritu de la Colmena' (The Spirit of the Beehive; 1973). He also wrote the play 'Las Bicicletas son Para el Verano' (Bicycles Are for the Summer) in 1984 (and released as a popular film in the same year, directed by Jaime Chávarri), which deals with the effects of Spanish Civil War on citizens of Madrid.

1929 - Jean-Louis Bédouin (d. 1996?), French poet, writer, critic, Surrealist artist and collagist, and anarchist, born. Joined the Surrealists via a meeting with Andre Breton and began publishing his work in 'Le Libertaire'. In 1960 signed the 'Manifeste des 121' (Manifesto of the 121) against the French State's war in Algeria, denouncing the use of torture by the French army, and calling for French conscientious objectors to be respected. His books include his poetry collections: 'Libre Espace et Autres Poemes' (1967), 'L'Arbre Descend du Singe' (1975) and 'L'Épaule du Large' (1992); a biography of Benjamin Peret (1961); 'Vingt Ans de Surrealisme, 1939-1959' (1961); and the anthology, 'La Poésie Surréaliste' (1964). His assemblages of articles found washed up on the Oleron beaches is the inspiration for his film 'L'Invention de Monde' (1952), co-directed by fellow anarchist and Surrealist Michel Zimbacca, and with spoken text by Benjamin Peret.

1937 - François Béranger (d. 2003), French libertarian singer, born. After working in a Renault factory, then as an itinerant street artist, he returned from an eighteen month stint as a conscript in Algeria disgusted by France's war there. He returned to the Renault factory, but also got some work in radio and cinema. In 1968 the social revolt encouraged him to write and pursue a career in music, becoming known for his French folk songs, and notorious during the 1970s for the controversial themes that he addressed through his music. Amongst his more famous works are the albums 'Tranche de Vie' (1970), 'L'Alternative' (1975) and 'Participe Présent' (1978).

[B] 1947 - Frédéric H. Fajardie (d. 2008), French libertarian writer of detective, adventure and 'neo-thriller' fiction, screenplays, film dialogue and radio plays, born. As a student he was involved in May '68 and later a Maoist and member of Secours Rouge (Red Aid). He wrote is first novel 'Tueurs de Flics' (Killers of Cops) in 1975 (published in 1979) and has been at the forefront of the néo-polar (neo-thriller) genre. He has also been a columnist on 'Charlie-Hebdo'.

1954 - Marius (Alexandre) Jacob (b. 1879), French anarchist illegalist burglar who was the inspiration for Maurice Leblanc's fictional gentleman thief and detective Arsène Lupin, takes his own life with an overdoes of morphine. [see: Sep. 29]

1965 - George (Gueorgui) Getchev (b. 1897), Bulgarian anarcho-communist, poet, writer of children's stories, translator and journalist, dies. [see: Apr. 20]

1967 - Alfons Vila i Franquesa (b. 1897), Spanish cartoonist, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. Better known as 'Joan Baptista Acher' or 'Shum', how he signed his paintings and drawings, and by his friends as 'el Poeta'. His cartoons regularly appeared in the Barcelona press including 'Papitu', 'L’Esquella de la Torratxa', 'L’Opinió' and 'La Humanitat'. [expand]

1986 - Elvi Aulikki Sinervo-Ryömä (b. 1912), Finnish working-class writer, novelist, poet, dramatist, translator, translator, anti-fascist and post-war member of the Suomen Kommunistisessa Puolueessa (SKP; Communist Party of Finland), dies. [see: May 4]

1993 - Edward Palmer 'E.P.' Thompson (b. 1924), British historian, writer, novelist, poet, socialist and peace campaigner, dies. [see: Feb. 3]

2012 - Isidre Guàrdia Abella aka Leopoldo Arribas, 'Codine', Juan Lorenzo, 'Viriato', Juan Ibérico, 'Isigual', etc. (b. 1921), Spanish writer, autodictat, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Jun. 15]
1844 - Edward Carpenter (d. 1929), English early queer activist, utopian and libertarian socialist, poet, songwriter, pacifist, born.

1849 - Émile Goudeau (d. 1906), French journalist, novelist and poet, born. Founder of the proto-anarchist and proto-Surrealist Cercle des Hydropathes in 1878.

1903 - Ernst Kreuder (d. 1972), German novelist, short story writer and poet, born. His novel, 'Die Unauffindbaren' (The Undiscoverables; 1948), concerns a clandestine anarchist society working against the drudgery of life under capitalism.

1933 - Tomás Granado Pozo, Spanish anarchist, Esperantist and poet, born. In 2007 he published a book of his poems 'Gotes de Poesías. Desde el Languedoc a Extremadura' (Drops of Poetry. From the Languedoc to Extremadura).

[B] 1933 - Pietro Valpreda (d. 2002), Italian dancer, writer and anarchist, who was one of those wrongly accused of the Piazza Fontana bombing, born. He grew up in Milan and was involved in the Circolo la Gioventù Libertaria (Libertarian Youth Cicle), alongside Giuseppe Pinelli, and later the Circolo Ponte della Anarchica Ghisolfa (Anarchist Circle of the Ghisolfa Bridge). Moving to Rome, he frequented the Circolo Bakunin, later helping form the more confrontational Circolo 22 Marzo (believed to largely be a tool of the State, controlled by the intelligence services via the neo-fascist infiltrator and provocateur Mario Merlino). An ideal target to use as a cover for the fascist bombing of Milan's Piazza Fontana on December 12 1969, which left 16 dead and 88 injured, and the group was rounded up with Valpreda's arrested on Dec. 15. Vilified in the press, he languished in jail awaiting trial for 3 years. Eventually released in 1972, it would not be until 1979 that he was acquitted and officially declared innocent in 1985. It would not be until 2001, the year before Valpreda died, that Delphi Zorzi, Carlo Maria Maggi, Giancarlo Rognoni and Stephen Tringali will be found guilty of the bombing (Zorzi, Maggi and Rognoni's convictions were later overturned and Tringali's sentence reduced).
piazzafontana.altervista.org/pietro_valpreda.htm ]

1947 - Virgili Batlle Vallmajó, better known as Virgilio or Virgilio Vallmajó (b. 1915), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, and self-taught Néo-Cubist painter, who later developed into a geometric abstactionist, dies of tuberculosis. [see: May 13]

1952 - The John Cage composition '4 Minutes 33 Seconds', scored for piano or any group of instruments, premières in Woodstock, NY.
1797 - Mary Shelley (d. 1851), daughter of anarchist philosopher William Godwin and feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, and author of 'Frankenstein', born.

1883 - Theo van Doesburg (Christian Emil Marie Küpper; d. 1931), Dutch artist, painter, poet, theorist on art and architecture, who is best known as the founder of De Stijl, born. He also published under a number of pseudonyms, including his Dada pseudonym I. K. Bonset (possibly an anagram of "Ik ben zot", Dutch for "I am foolish") and Aldo Camini, his Dada anti-philosopher encarnation, which he used to attack the whole school of German idealist philosophy (as practised by many of his fellow De Stijl members). De Stijl promoted an utopian ideal of spiritual harmony and order which, despite his part in its origins, van Doesburg instinctively reacted against, largely because of his libertarian sympathies. So much so that he was attracted to the anarchist-nihilist element in Dada, moonlighting as his alter ego I. K. Bonset especially with Kurt Schwitters, Hans Arp and Tristan Tzara. He also taught at the Weimar Bauhaus, where he associated with Raoul Hausmann, Le Corbusier, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Hans Richter.
"There is little doubt, that van Doesburg saw Dada’s revolutionary character and its engagement in the destruction of an old culture as a necessary preparation for the realization of De Stijl’s utopian aims." - Joost Baljeu in 'Theo van Doesburg' (1974).

1888 - Ramón Acin Aquilué (d. 1936), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, professor, writer and avant-garde artist (painter, sculptor, cartoonist), born. Involved with the CNT and imprisoned for his support of political prisoners. A friend of film director Luis Buñuel, he helped finance 'Las Hurdes: Tierra Sin Pan' (1932), with money he won on the lottery, and is credited as co-producer on the film.

1919 - Jiří Orten (Jiří Ohrenstein; d. 1941), Czech poet and nephew of the anarchist poet Josef Rosenzweig-Moir, born. The foremost representative of the so-called 'war generation' in Czech literature, he was never a member of any artistic group, but his work was influenced by existentialism, surrealism and folklore. His first collection of poems, 'Čítanka Jaro' (Reader of Spring), was published in 1939. With the Nazi occupation, and being a Jew, his freedom was extremely restricted and he published his next book, 'Cesta k Mrazu' (Journey towards frost; 1940), under the pseudonym Karel Jílek and the long poem 'Jeremiášuv Plác' (The Lamentations of Jeremiah; 1940) was signed Jiří Jakub. Forced to give up writing, he worked as a labourer on a farm and later survived by taking odd jobs. 'Ohníč' (Challock; 1941) was work last published in his lifetime as on August 30, 1941, the day of his twenty-second birthday, Jirí Orten was knocked down in a Prague street by a German ambulance. A friend took him to the General Infirmary in Prague, but as a Jew, Orten could not be treated there and had to be moved to a different hospital. Two days later, he died.

1930 - Zo D'Axa (b. 1864), French lampoonist, publisher, writer, adventurer and anarchist propagandist, commits suicide. [see: May 24]

[B] 1946 - Jacques Tardi, leading French comics author and illustrator, libertarian, anti-militarist and anti-capitalist, born. He is the creator of Adèle Blanc-Sec and has made a series of adaptions of various authors works including the four-volume series on the Paris Commune, 'Le Cri du Peuple' (2001-04), based on a novel by Jean Vautrin, and the Nestor Burma series, based on novels by anarchist Léo Malet, is often credited solely as Tardi. On New Years Day 2013, he was surprised and disgusted to learn that he had received the Légion d'Honneur, which he swiftly turned down "avec la plus grande fermeté" (with the greatest firmness).

1973 -Jean Senac (b. 1926), gay Algerian poet Christian infidel, socialist, libertarian and friend of Albert Camus, who was known as the "poet who signed with a sun", is murdered by an unknown assailant(s). [see: Nov. 29]

1991 -Jean Tinguely (b. 1925), Swiss painter, sculptor and anarchist, dies. [see: May 22]
1867 - Charles Pierre Baudelaire (b. 1821), French poet, essayist, art critic, and pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe, dies. [see: Apr. 9]

[B] 1928 - Brecht and Weill's 'Die Dreigroschenoper' (The Threepenny Opera) premières in Berlin.
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC]
Birthday of Bradley Manning [WikiLeaks defendant]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)
2010 - Jason Pearce dies of the mysterious new condition "excited delirium" whilst being arrested and restrained by two police officers in Market Drayton. No one is charged.philadi