"Art is not a mirror to reflect the world, but a hammer with which to shape it." - variously attributed to Bertolt Brecht, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Nikolai Nekrasov and even (in a slightly different version) Leon Trotsky.

1842 - Fermín Salvochea y Álvarez (d. 1907), Andalusian author, teacher and insurrectionist, born. He was briefly mayor of Cadiz with the proclamation of the 1st Republic; among other measures, he implemented an 8-hour work day before he was forced to flee the country.
"Perhaps the most beloved figure in the Spanish Anarchist movement of the 19th century". - Murray Bookchin in 'The Spanish Anarchists' (1998).
The inspiration for the character Fernando Salvatierra in the novel 'La Bodega' (1905) by Vicente Blasco Ibáñez [author of the much filmed 'Los Cuatro Jinetes del Apocalipsis' (The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse; 1916)].

1883 - Adolf Wolff (d. 1944), Belgian-born American anarchist, poet and sculptor, born. Associate of Man Ray, who he first met at the Ferrer Centre in New York and whose lover, Belgian poet Adon Lacroix (Donna Lecoeur; 1887-1975), went on to become Man Ray's first wife.
Wolff also designed the urn that held the ashes of the three anarchists - Lettish (Latvian) Anarchist Red Cross members Carl Hanson and Charles Berg and IWW member Arthur Caron - killed in the Lexington Avenue bomb explosion of July 4, 1914. The urn was in the shape of a pyramid with a clenched fist reaching out of its apex. Wolff, explained the meaning of the design thus: "It conveys three meanings. By the pyramid is indicated [sic] the present unjust gradation of society into classes, with the masses on the bottom and the privileged classes towering above them to the apex, where the clenched fist, symbolical [sic] of the social revolution, indicates the impending vengeance of those free spirits who refuse to be bound by the present social system and rise above it, threatening its destruction. The urn further symbolizes the strength and endurance of the revolution in so solid a base. A third suggestion is that of a mountain in course of eruption, the crude, misshapen stern fist indicating the lava of human indignation which is about to belch forth and carry destruction to the volcano which has given it birth."

'Prison Weeds'

The isles of evil odours
a chain of islands
on the river
like ulcers
on the flesh
the isles of evil odours.

I break stones
in the stone shed
big ones
into little ones
big ones
into little ones
big ones
into little ones
big ones
into little ones
I break stones
in the stone shed.

A row of men
a row of naked men
standing against the wall
a desk,
a scribe,
a centurion,
they are recording
marks of identification:
"deep long scar on right side"
"one on palm of right hand"
"one on back of right hand"
"one on palm of left hand"
"one on back of left hand"
"one on instep of right foot"
"one on sole of right foot"
"one on instep of left foot"
"one on sole of left foot"
a barrel of bones
the bones of last week's stew
the rotten prison stew
it's not a dog
it's not a cat
it's a man
a man
made in the image of God.
I bought twenty-five onions
from a nigger
twenty-five onions
for ten cents
every night
before the lights go out
we each eat an onion
we each eat an onion.

Old men
a line of old men
like so many patriarchs
or fathers of the church
they are the bucket gang
they carry the buckets to the river
in solemn procession
like so many patriarchs
or fathers of the church
they carry the buckets to the river
with heads bowed
with trembling hands
they carry the buckets to the river.

He never speaks
he never reads
he never laughs
always silent
always brooding
always sad
deep sunken eyes
black beard
noble brow
he resembles a German Christ
no one knows why "he's up"
no one knows when he came
no one knows when he'll go
they say
"nobody home".

"The Priest"
"Who wants the priest?"
the keeper calls
"I want the priest"
"Well my son?"
"What my son?"
"the Christ is in the cooler"
The priest passed on
he did not understand.

in the morning
I look out on the river
the little barred window
faces the river
I like to watch
the life on the river
sail boats
and steamships
I watch them gliding
along on the river
some up
some down
some fast
some slow
some noisy
some silent
I watch them gliding
along the river
I like to look
at the life on the river
Late at night
I look out on the river
the little barred window
faces the river.

The warden
he's a nice old man
in uniform
so spic and span
his face is red
his hair is white
his eyes are blue
his smile is bright
his home is swell
his table fine
and I'm quite sure
so is his wine
go away
with nothing
but the best
to say
they're satisfied
beyond expression
the warden
made such good impression.

that I'm soon to be free
another day
another night
that I'm soon to be free
I feel
a strange unease
Maybe the
just before
the expiration of its sentence
on the verge of regaining
the freedom of eternal life
at the thought of separation
from the body
as I feel
at the thought of separation
from my cell.

[written whilst he served a term in the workhouse, a place for drunks and disorderlies on Blackwell’s Island (now Roosevelt Island.)]


[B] 1902 - Tiffany Ellsworth Thayer (Elmer Ellsworth jr.; d. 1959), American actor, author, atheist, anarchist, sceptic and founder of the Fortean Society, born. Author of a number of science fiction/fantasy novels including 'Doctor Arnoldi' (1934), about a world where no one dies and which has been characterised as "one of the most grotesque and repulsive works of science fiction ever written". In fact, the general verdict on his work from critics, including Dorothy Parker and F. Scott Fitzgerald who both took a particular dislike to it. Whilst he only acted in the one film - 'The Devil on Horseback' (1936) - a number of his books were made into films, including 'Strangers of the Evening' (1932), based on 'The Illustrious Corpse' (1930); 'Thirteen Women' (1932), based on the 1930 novel of the same name; 'Call her Savage' (1932), based on the 1931 novel; and 'Chicago Deadline' (1949), based on 'One Woman' (1933).

"He is beyond question a writer of power; and his power lies in his ability to make sex so thoroughly, graphically, and aggressively unattractive that one is fairly shaken to ponder how little one has been missing." - Dorothy Parker's New Yorker review of 'An American Girl' (1933)

"...curious children nosed at the slime of Mr. Tiffany Thayer in the drug-store libraries." - F. Scott Fitzgerald

"...absolutely fascinating...and disgusting... If you ever find a copy, give it to some SF fan you dislike. Your reward will be the baffled misery in his eyes after he's read it." - William Tenn, recalling 'Dr. Arnoldi' more than sixty years after he had read it.

1942 - Biófilo Panclasta (born Vicente Rojas Lizcano; d. 1879), Colombian writer, poet, militant individualist anarchist and agitator, dies. Some sources give the year as 1943. [see: Oct. 26]

1969 - 'Hermanos!' by William Herrick first published in the US.

1983 - Arthur Koestler (b. 1905) Hungarian-born British novelist, journalist, critic, and a public advocate of euthanasia as Vice President of the Voluntary Euthanasia Society (later renamed Exit), takes his own life in a suicide pact with his wife Cynthia Jefferies. He explains his death in a long suicide note that he is suffering from incurable illness (Parkinson's Disease and leukaemia) and that he does not want to face the inevitable decline. Also in the note, Cynthia Jefferies (1965-83) states that she cannot face life without Koestler.

2004 - Sidney Solomon (b. 1911), Russian-born American painter, book designer, publisher and long-time anarchist, who lived in New York, dies. [see: Dec. 8]
[B] 1820 - Eduard Douwes Dekker aka Multatuli (Latin for "I have suffered much") (d. 1887), Dutch writer and anarchist, born. Initially employed as an official in the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia), he resigned in disgust at the treatment of the natives, returned to the Netherlans destitute and devoted himself to literature, publishing the anti-colonial and anti-slavery novel 'Max Havelaar, of De koffij-veilingen der Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij' (Max Havelaar, or the Coffee Auctions of the Dutch Trading Company) under the pseudonym Multatuli in 1859, followed by other novels and literary essays. In 1866 he emigrated to Germany (initially as a semi-exile as, whilst visiting Germany, he had been tried in absentia for his part in a brawl in a theatre - the sentence was later waived) and added writing for the stage to his repertoire and large literary output. [expand]

1895 - Eugen (Eugenio, Eugène or Eugene) Relgis (originally Eisig Siegler Watchel; d. 1987), Romanian writer, pacifist philosopher, anarchist militant, poet and theorist of humanitarianism (though with a distinct eugenicist element later in life), born. Eisig Sigler adopted his new Celanesque name, Eugen D. Relgis, and began an involvement with the Romanian Symbolist publication 'Fronda', and published his first book, a collection of his philosophical essays entitled 'Triumful Nefiinţei' (The Triumph of Non-Being) in 1913. He published two books of his Symbolist poetry during WWI, 'Sonetele Nebuniei' (Sonnets of Madness; 1914) and 'Nebunia' (Madness), illustrated with his own drawings. He was drafted in 1916 when Romania entered the war but, as a conscientious objector, refused to serve and was imprisoned, and eventually discharged because of his deafness).
After the war he pursued a humanitarian and pacifist agenda, contributing to the review 'Umanitatea' (Humanity) and renewed his literary activities with 'Literatura Războiului şi Era Nouă' (Literature, the War and the New Era; 1919). In 1921 he published an abridged translation of 'The Biology of War', a leading pacifist treatise by German physician Georg Friedrich Nicolai. The following year saw 'Umanitarism sau Internaţionala Intelectualilor' (Humanitarianism or the Intellectuals' Internationale) and his principal political work was 'Principiile Umanitariste' (Humanitarian Principles; 1922), which was translated into 17 languages and made Relgis one of the best-known figures in the intellectual world between the world wars. A further 2 collections of essays followed: 'Umanitarismul şi Socialismul' (Humanitarianism and Socialism; 1925) and 'Umanitarismul Biblic' (Biblical Humanitarianism; 1926). Some of his books contained prefaces by such celebrities as Albert Einstein and Romain Rolland.
During this period he also wrote his best known novel 'Petre Arbore' (3 vols., 1924), the novels 'Melodiile Tăcerii' (Melodies of Silence; 1926) and 'Glasuri în Surdin' (Muted Voices; 1927); a poetry collection 'Poezii' (Poems; 1926) and 'Prieteniile lui Miron' (The Friendships of Miron; 1934), a novel chronicling Relgis' difficulties with his post-lingual deafness. He also translated a number of Nietzsche's works into Romanian, Knut Hamsun's 'Slaves of Love' and various books by S. Zweig, E. Armand, etc..
Eugen Relgis was also a contributor to the Bucharest left-wing dailies 'Adevărul' and 'Dimineaţa'. After editing the short-lived gazette 'Cugetul Liber' (Freethought; 1928-29), Relgis put out his own political and cultural review 'Umanitarismul' (Humanitarianism; 1929-30) as well as working with a large number of libertarian journals around the world.
Relgis also set up the First Humanitarianist Group of Romania, as well as a leftist library, Biblioteca Cercului Libertatea (Freedom Circle Library). Joined in such efforts by the veteran anarchists Han Ryner and Panait Muşoiu.
In 1925, he became a member of the War Resisters International and participated in the peace conference of Hodeston (London), and that of Sonntagsberg (Austria) in July 1928. During the Spanish Civil War, he was appointed to the international board of Antifascist Solidarity International (SIA).
The mid 1930s saw him release a series of essays on Judaism and his controversial 'Umanitarism şi Eugenism' (Humanitarianism and Eugenism). His political and literary choices inevitably made Relgis an enemy of both fascism and communism: persecuted during World War II (his Biblioteca Cercului Libertatea was banned in 1940, but Relgis secretly moved the books into a stable), he managed to escape arrest, hidden by friends. Post-WWII, he was once again active in the political press and completed his essay on Nazism, The Holocaust and sexuality: 'Eros în al Treilea Reich' (Eros in the Third Reich; 1946), but fearing further persecution and internment by the communist regime, he left Romania 'illegally', and after a brief stay in Paris, eventually took refuge in Uruguay joining his son (who had fled there in 1942). [His works were subsequently included in an official censorship list 'Publicaţii Interzise' (Works Forbidden from Publishing).]
From 1947 to the moment of his death and Relgis earned the respect of South American circles as an anarchist commentator and proponent of solutions to world peace, as well as a promoter of Latin American culture.
In 1950 he founded an international anarchist archive in Montevideo, one of the few political libraries in South America and embarked on a series of university lectures, which carried him throughout Uruguay, Argentina and Brazil. 1950 also saw a Spanish edition of 'Umanitarism şi Eugenism' (Humanitarismo y Eugenismo), renewing the controversy surrounding his view on eugenics, his advocacy of universal birth control and compulsory sterilisation in cases of "degeneration". Less controversial was his in-depth critique of Nazi eugenics 'Las Aberraciones Sexuales en la Alemania Nazi' (Sexual Aberrations in Nazi Germany).
Relgis also circulated an 'Apel Către Toţi Intelectualii Liberi şi Muncitorii Luminaţi' (Appeal to All the Free Intellectuals and the Enlightened Workers). A prolific author, many of his Romanian language works were subsequently translated into Spanish and he carried on writing on various political subjects - such as his acclaimed political essay, 'Perspectivas Culturales en Sudamérica' (Cultural Perspectives in South America; 1958) which received a prize from the Uruguayan Ministry of Public Instruction and Social Prevision, and an eugenics and sexology treatise, 'Historia Sexual de la Humanidad' (The Sexual History of Humanity; 1961).
1756 - William Godwin (d. 1836), philosopher and proto-anarchist, born. Spouse of Mary Wollstonecraft and father of Mary Shelley, his best known works are 'An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Political Justice' and the novel 'Things as They are; or, the Adventures of Caleb Williams'. His other novels were: 'St. Leon: A Tale of the Sixteenth Century' (1799); 'Fleetwood; or, The New Man of Feeling' (1805); 'Mandeville, a Tale of the Seventeenth Century' (1817), a three volume novels 'Cloudesley: A Tale' (1830) and 'Deloraine' (1833).
"Government is, abstractedly taken, an evil, a usurpation upon the private judgement and individual conscience of mankind." - 'Enquiry Concerning Political Justice' (1793).

[B] 1914 - Asger Oluf Jorn (d. 1973), Danish painter, sculptor, ceramic artist, printmaker, author, founding member of the avant-garde movement COBRA and the Situationist International, born.

1927 - Mikhail Petrovich Artsybashev (Михаи́л Петро́вич Арцыба́шев; b. 1878), Russian writer, playwright and individualist anarchist, who was a major proponent of the literary style known as naturalism, dies. [see: Nov. 5]

1936 - André Laude (d. 1995), French anarchist, anti-colonial journalist, Surrealist, Situationist, writer and "soleil noir de la poésie" (black sun of poetry), born. An encounter in 1953 with Michel Donnet, an anarchist teacher and secretary of the newly formed Fédération Communiste Libertaire, introduced Laude to the world of anarchism and led to him contributing his journalism to 'Libertaire' and 'Combat'. He published his first poetry, 'La Couleur Végétale' (The Vegetable Colour), in 1954 and, following a meeting with Serge Wellens, a renown poet and editor of 'Cahiers de l'Orphéon', his poetry collection 'Pétales du Chant' (Petals of Song) was published on the review's imprint in 1956.
Part of a grouping of anarchist poets and painters, he also met André Breton and Benjamin Peret, becoming involved in the Surrealist circle. As a militant anti-colonialist and vocal supporter of the Algerian independence struggle, Laude lived and worked on the periphery of the clandestine resistance, eventually being arrested in Paris and taken to a camp run by paratroopers in the southern Sahara, where he suffered barbaric treatment. Exchanged against five senior French officers, Laude was released after several months of hell. In Tunis he resumed work as a journalist for 'Combat' and l'Algérie-Presse-Service, visited Cuba on behalf of the Algerian nationalists, and only returned to France after the fall of Ahmed Ben Bella in 1965. On his return, Laude was put on trial for "collaboration with the enemy". André Breton came to testify on his behalf.
He now returned to his poetry as well as maintaining his political and journalistic activities, becoming involved with Raoul Vaneigem, Guy Debord and the Situationist International. Laude also became involved with artists around the CoBrA group [included the Revolutionary Surrealist Group] and with photographers like Doisneau and Cartier-Bresson.
Selected bibliography:
'Histoire de la Pensée Libertaire' (A Short History of Libertarian Thought; 1968 [essay]); 'Le Petit Livre Rouge de la Révolution Sexuelle' (The Little Red Book of the Sexual Revolution; 1969); 'Joyeuse Apocalypse' (Joyful Apocalypse; 1973 [novel]); 'Testament de Ravachol' (Ravachol's Legacy; 1975 [poetry]); 'Le Bleu de la Nuit Crie au Secours' (The Blue of the Night Crying for Help 1975 [poetry]); 'Le Surréalisme en Cartes' (A Map of Surrealism; 1976); 'Un Temps à S'ouvrir les Veines' (A Time to Open the Veins; [poetry] 1979); 'Rue des Merguez'; 1979 [novel]); 'Liberté Couleur d'Homme' (Freedom is the Colour of Man; 1980 [fictional autobiography]); 'Riverain de la Douleur' (Bordering the Pain; 1981 [poetry]); 'Roi Nu Roi Mort' (Naked King Dead King; 1983 [poetry]); 'Journaux de Voyages' (Travel Journals; 1990 [poetry]); 'Feux Cris & Diamants' (Sout Fire & Diamonds; 1993 [poetry]); etc...
As well as 'Combat' and 'Libertaire', Laude's journalism appeared in 'Tribune Socialist' (PSU), 'Jeune Afrique', 'Le Monde', 'Les Nouvelles Littéraires', 'Le Nouvel Observateur', 'Actuel', 'Politis', 'Le Fou Parle', 'Hors Jeu', 'Albatroz', 'l'Evénement du Jeudi', 'Art Tension', 'France Culture'… and even for 'Playboy'.

1938 - Samuel Schwartzbard (Sholem-Shmuel Schwarzbard/Samuil Isaakovich Shvartsburd; b. 1886), Russian Jewish watchmaker, anarchist and Yiddish poet, dies in Capetown. Escaped the Russian pogroms in 1905, settled in Paris and active in local anarcho-communist groups with Alexander Berkman, Mollie Steimer, Senya Fleshin and Nestor Makhno. In 1926 he gunned down Simon Petliura, who had directed the Ukrainian pogroms in which some of his family were murdered. He fired three times, announcing: "This, for the pogroms; this for the massacres, this for the victims." Schwartzbard was acquitted by a jury and freed. [see: Aug. 18]

1943 - Otto Luihn (b. 1890), Norwegian newspaper editor, magazine editor, poet and Communist, dies. [see: Mar. 15]

1996 - Léo Malet (b. 1909), French crime novelist, poet, Surrealist, anarchist and later Trotskyist, and creator of Nestor 'Dynamite' Burma, private detective and ex-anarchist, dies. [see: Mar. 7]
1948 - Antonin Artaud (Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud; b. 1896), French playwright, poet, actor, theatre director, theoretician, who invented the concept of the Théâtre de la Cruauté (Theatre of Cruelty), dies. [see: Sep. 4]

[B] 1964 - Buñuel's film version of the Octave Mirbeau novel 'Diary of a Chambermaid' first release in France.
1882 - Dora Marsden (d. 1960), British individualist anarchist and militant suffragette, born. Founded a number of libertarian publications: 'The Freewoman' (1912), 'The New Freewoman' (1913), and 'The Egoist' (1914-1919). Was influenced by Max Stirner's version of individualist anarchism c. 1912-14 and has been labelled by some as the 'Stirner of Feminism'. 'The Freewoman' was not only an important radical feminist and individualist anarchist publication, but it and its successor 'The Egoist' were also important conduits for modernist literary experimentalism of the likes of Ezra Pound, T. S. Eliot, D. H. Lawrence, Wyndham Lewis, Herbert Read and James Joyce, with Joyce's 'A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man' (1916) published for the first time as a series in 'The Egoist' between 1914 to 1915.

1920 - Victor François Marie Pengam (b. 1883), French anarchist propagandist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Jan. 21]

1943 - Bernard Baissat, French journalist, pacifist and libertarian filmmaker, born. A Professor of Italian and French literature, in 1967 he became a reporter for the ORTF. From 1968 to 1976 he directed in Africa and Lebanon, then returned to France in 1977 where he continued his work as a director for FR3. "A historian of the camera" he produced and directed numerous documentaires of old comrades (and partners) between 1980 and 1998, helping preserve and understand a rich anarchist and pacifist history. André Claudot, Jeanne Humbert, Eugene Bizeau, May Picqueray, Marcel Body, Aguigui Mouna, Robert Jospin, René Dumont, Serge Utgé-Royo and André Bösiger all appeared in his 'Listen' series. He also directed films on the labour movement, the Bourse du Travail and the Paris newspaper 'Le Canard Enchainé'.
[filmography: raforum.info/spip.php?article5993]

1944 - Max Jacob (b. 1876), French poet, painter, writer, critic, queer and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies in Drancy internment camp from bronchial pneumonia. [see: Jul. 12]

1966 - Anna Akhmatova (Анна Ахматова;), pen name of Anna Andreyevna Gorenko (b. 1889), Russian modernist poet and important figure in the so-called Silver Age of Russian Poetry, who is widely recognised as the greatest woman poet in Russian literature, dies. [see: Jun. 23]

1984 - Gérard Lebovici (b. 1932), Radical French publisher, film producer, friend and financial supporter of Guy Debord, dies. [see: Aug. 25]

[B] 2010 - 'Exit Through the Gift Shop: A Banksy Film' is released in the UK.
[B] 1900 - Henri Jeanson (d. 1970), French libertarian pacifist, journalist, screenwriter, Pataphysician and author, born. After working in various odd jobs, he became a potent journalist on 'La Bataille', the newspaper of the then anarcho-syndicalist dominated Confédération Générale du Travail (CGT) union. He would later work as a reporter, interviewer and film critic for the 'Journal du Peuple', 'Hommes du Jour' and 'Le Canard Enchaîné', where he defended his uncompromising pacifist line. He also started scripting films in 1932.
In July 1939 he was sentenced to 18 months in prison for publishing an article in 'Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste' in which he congratulated Herschel Grynszpan for his assassination of Ernst vom Rath, an official of the German embassy in Paris. He was arrested again in November 1939, having already joined his regiment following his call-up, for his pacifist articles and for having signed Louis Lecoin's tract 'Paix Immédiate'. He was sentenced on Dec. 20 1939 by a military tribunal to five years in prison for "calling for disobedience within the ranks".
Imprisoned days before the German army marched into Paris, his lawyer managed to obtain his release and Jeanson became the chief editor of 'Aujourd'hui', a new notionally 'independent' pacifist newspaper, that many comrades argued was effectively a collaborationist organ. The first issue was published on Sept. 10 1940 and by November the German authorities were pressuring him for the paper to take an anti-Jewish and pro-Vichy line. Jeanson resigned and went back to prison, but was freed a few months later through the intervention of an ex-ultra-pacifist and now collaborationist friend. Banned from journalism and film, he continued to script-write in secret for film (and uncredited) and for clandestine pamphlets (narrowly avoiding being rearrested in 1942 for this activity) until the Liberation.
Posy WWII, he regained the editorship of 'Le Canard Enchaîné' and wrote for 'Le Crapouillot', 'Combat' and 'L'Aurore'. In April 1947 he caused a furore by quitting 'Le Canard Enchaîné' following the cutting of an article about Louis Aragon, Elsa Triolet, Maurice Thorez and the PCF, but later returned to publish articles under the pseudonym 'Huguette ex-Micro'. He also wrote for the weekly French cinema magazine 'Cinémonde' and was a television critic for 'L'Aurore'. He quit the cinema in 1965 but remained active in journalism and the political struggle, especially around subjects close to his heart such as pacifism, the freedom of expression and anti-colonialism.
Jeanson wrote the scripts and dialogue for around 90 films, including 'Pépé le Moko' (1937), 'Hôtel du Nord' (1938), 'Les Maudits' (The Damned; 1947), 'Le Crime Ne Paie Pas' (The Gentle Art of Murder; 1962) and 'Paris When It Sizzles' (1964). He also directed one of his own scripts, 'Lady Paname' (1950), wrote a number of plays for the theatre and a handful of books including the posthumous memoir '70 Ans d'Adolescence' (1971).

1908 - Madeleine Lamberet (d. 1999), French anarchist, painter, designer, engraver, illustrator and primary-school teacher, born.

1913 - Joe Hill's song 'There is Power in a Union' first appears in the IWW's 'Little Red Song Book'.

1917 - Derek Stanley Savage (pen name D.S. Savage; d. 2007), English poet, critic and Christian anarcho-pacifist, who became General Secretary of the Anglican Pacifist Fellowship, born. Associated with the post-war New Apocalyptics poetry group.

1932 - Renato Lacquaniti (d. 1998), Italian anarchist, anti-militarist and painter, born. One of the co-founders of the artistic group 'Atoma' (created in the local group of the Anarchist Federation of Livorno) and in 1960 painted 'Composizioni Anarchiche'.

1992 - Léo Campion (Léon Louis Octave Campion; b. 1905), Franco-Belgian character actor, singer, anarchist, free thinker, Freemason, Régent de l'Institut de Pataphysique and Grand Maître de la Confrérie des Chevaliers du Taste Fesses, dies. [see: Mar. 24]

2000 - Miriam Patchen (Sirkka Miriam Oikemus; b. 1914), peace activist and dedicatee of all the works of her lifelong partner, fellow anarchist and poet, Kenneth Patchen, dies. [see: Sep. 28]

2002 - Ralph Rumney (b. 1934), English artist, writer, lifelong conscientious objector and on of the founders of the Situationist International, dies. [see: Jun. 5]

2007 - Jean Baudrillard (b. 1929), French sociologist, philosopher, cultural theorist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 27]
[B] 1909 - Léo Malet (d. 1996), French crime novelist, poet and Surrealist, born. He has written under a number of different pseudonyms: Frank Harding, Léo Latimer, Lionel Doucet, Jean de Selneuves, Noël Letam, Omer Refreger, Louis Refreger and, in association with fellow writers Serge Arcouët and Pierre Ayraud, under the collective pseudonym John-Silver Lee.
In his autobiography his tells of his individualist anarchist youth, selling 'Le Libertaire' on the streets of Montpelier and becoming associated with André Colomer, before later becoming a Trotskyist. Moved to Paris and began working as a cabaret singer at La Vache Enragee in Montmartre in 1925, continuing his anarchist associations, as well as becoming a vegan, and working in numerous odd jobs: clerk, labourer, newspaper vendor and occasional journalist (on 'L'En Dehors', 'L'Insurgé', 'Journal de l'Homme aux Sandales', 'la Revue Anarchiste', etc..
He later became a friend of Jacques Prévert, who introduced him to the Surrealists, becoming close friends with André Breton, René Magritte and Yves Tanguy, amongst others. Like many of his fellow Surrealists, he joined Benjamin Peret' Trotskyist POI (Parti Ouvrier Internationaliste) between 1936 to 1939. In 1942 he created his most famous character, Nestor 'Dynamite' Burma, private detective, ex-anarchist, serial monogamist and inveterate pipe smoker, who featured in 33 novels, beginning with the 'Les Nouveaux Mystères de Paris' series and the first novel, '120, Rue de la Gare' in 1943 under the Nazi occupation. The most 'anarchist' of these novels is arguably 'Brouillard au Pont de Tolbiac' (Fog on the Tolbiac Bridge; 1956), where Burma is taken back to his anarchist past by the arrival of a letter addressed to him beginning "Dear Comrade". Unfortunately, Malet also displayed a growing anti-Arab racism in his older writings.

1931 - Theo van Doesburg (Christian Emil Marie Küpper; b. 1883), Dutch artist, painter, poet, theorist on art and architecture, who is best known as the founder of De Stijl, dies. [see: Aug. 30]

2000 - Nicolas Walter (b. 1924), journalist, philosopher, atheist, anarchist, dies. He was a founding member of the Committee of 100 and of Spies for Peace as well as author of 'About Anarchism' (1969). [see: Nov. 22]

2005 - Philip Lamantia (b. 1927), Sicilian-American anarchist and Surrealist poet, dies. [see: Oct. 23]
[B] 1885 - Juan de Dios Filiberto (Oscar Juan de Dios Filiberti; d. 1964), Argentine anarchist, instrumentalist (piano, guitar, violin and harmonium), conductor, poet and composer, who became prominent in the Argentine tango genre, born. Amongst his most enduring compositions are 'Guaymallén', 'Quejas de bandoneón' (The Bandoneón's Woes), 'Suelo Argentino' (Argentine Soil), 'Cura Segura' (Sure Medicine), 'De mi Tierra' (From My Land), 'Se Recomienda Solo' (It's Better Alone), 'La Planchadorita' (Woman Ironing), 'El Ramito' (Spring), 'El Besito' (The Little Kiss), 'Malevaje', 'La Porteñita' (Little Girl from Buenos Aires), 'Clavel del Aire' (A Carnation from the Wind), 'Caminito' (Little path) and 'Botines viejos' (Old lace shoes). His first band was Orfeón Los del Futuro, which he formed with other militant anarchist musicians, and in 1932 he formed his famous and innovative band, Orquesta Porteña, which included 'non-standard' instruments such as clarinets and flutes. The band appeared in Luis Moglia Barth's film '¡Tango!' (1933), as well as recording numerous records for the Odeon and RCA Victor labels and becoming a fixture on the Buenos Aires radio stations during the 1930s. He went on to lead other equally important groups in the following decades, such as the Orquesta Popular de Arte Folklórico, the Orquesta de Música Popular and the Orquesta de Música Argentina y de Cámara. After his death in 1964 his last band would be renamed the Orquesta de Juan de Dios Filiberto de Música Argentina y de Cámara and, after a 1973 Presidential decree, its name was officially changed again to the Orquesta Nacional de Música Argentina Juan de Dios Filiberto.

1905 - Dolores Prat Coll aka pequeña Montseny (little Montseny)(d. 2001), Catalan textile worker and militant anarcho-syndicalist member of the CNT from the age of 15, born. Prominent in the fight for the eight hour day, she was secretary of the Sindicato de la Industria Textil in Ripoll during the Civil War years. Following the defeat of the Republic, she and her family went into exile in France and were interned in the Magnac-Laval camp. On May 15, 1940, she crossed clandestinely back into Spain on behalf of Prats de Molló. She later settled in Toulouse, continuing their trade union work as secretary of the local CNT federation and the Solidaridad Internacional Anarquista (SIA).
She appeared in Lisa Berger's film 'Chemin de Liberté' (Way of Freedom; 1997) and was the subject of 'Dolores: Une Vie Pour La liberté' (A Life for Freedom; 2002) by her son Progreso Marin.

1909 - Kikuoka Kuri (菊岡 久利; d. 1970), the pen-name of Takagi Michinokuo, Japanese poet, novelist and anarchist, born.
ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/菊岡 久利

1984 - Petr Andreevich Pavlensky (Павленский, Пётр Андреевич), Russian conceptual artist and political activist, born. He regularly protests against the repressive nature of the Russian state through his performances [see: May 3, 2013]. On November 10, 2013, Russian Police Day, he nailed his testicles with the hammer to the stone pavement of the Red Square in Moscow in a protest against the Russian "police state".
[BB] 1894 - Franz Wilhelm Seiwert (d. 1933), German painter, sculptor, poet, Marxist, anarchist sympathiser, Expresionist, Dadaist and then a Consructivist and member of the Cologne Progressives, born.
Close friend of Erich Muhsam and of Ret Marut (aka B. Traven) - Seiwart sheltered Marut whilst he was on the run in 1919-20 and was one of the last persons to see Marut before he disappeared. Seiwert was also possibly the only person who knew the Marut-Traven connection and who Marut kept in contact with in Europe following his flight to Mexico.
He was seriously burned in 1901, at the age of seven, in an experimental radiological treatment, an event that influenced his later art and made him fear that his life would be short.
In 1916 he met the Expressionist artists Carl Oskar Jatho and Käthe Jatho-Zimmermann at one of their regular anti-war discussion evening in their apartment in Cologne, beginning a close friendship and collaboration. In 1919 he also met Max Ernst and took part in Dada activities; he was invited to exhibit in the large Dada exhibit in Cologne but withdrew at the last moment, claiming Dada was part of the "bourgeois art world". In that same year he formed the Stupid group which included Heinrich Hoerle and Anton Räderscheidt. According to Ernst, "Stupid was a secession from Cologne Dada. As far as Hoerle and especially Seiwert were concerned, Dada's activities were aesthetically too radical and socially not concrete enough". He was also a key member of the Kölner Progressiven (Progressives) Constructivist group in the 1920s, who were central to the Kölner Karneval and the extravagant parties at the Paradiesvogel (Bird of Paradise) and Lumpenball (Rag Ball).
His work appeared in Marut's 'Der Ziegelbrenner' (The Brickmakers; 1917-21) and in 1932 Seiwert's magazine 'a bis z' (1929-33), the organ of the Gruppe Progressiver Künstler (Group of Progressive Artists) offered unsold copies of 'Der Ziegelbrenner' to "friends of Traven". Seiwert also published a booklet, 'Rufe' (1919 or 1920), which included the prose piece of the title and an early version of the essay 'Zeichen', a theoretical "attempt to sketch the dialectical development of the representation of world history" which discusses Marx and Copernicus, as well as Masaccio, Seurat, Picasso, Rembrandt, and Beethoven, and also contains a tribute to Ret Marut. He also published with Tristan Rémy a collection of poetry, 'Choix de Poésies' (1924), in France including both of their poems as well as Erich Mühsam's.
When Hitler came to power in 1933, Seiwert briefly fled to the mountain range Siebengebirge, but his health was badly deteriorating, and friends brought him back to Cologne, where he died.

1901 - Author, pacifist and anarchist Leo Tolstoï is excommunicated by the Russian Orthodox Church.

[B] 1916 - Carles Fontseré (d. 2007), one of the important Catalan anarquista poster artists of the Spanish Revolution, born. Active in the Sindicato de Dibujantes Profesionales de Barcelona (Union of Professional Illustrators; SPD), whose posters plastered the walls of Barcelona - as George Orwell noted on his arrival in the city that December: "The revolutionary posters were everywhere, flaming from the walls in clean reds and blues that made the few remaining advertisements look like daubs of mud." Fontserè was to bemoan the loss of vitality of these posters once they became 'official' productions of the Republic. The F.A.I. poster Llibertat! (Freedom), with the sickle-waving farmer and the red and black flag in the background, is his work. A refugee in France following Franco's victory, he worked painting stage designs and illustrating Catalan literature. After time spent in Mexico, he ended up in New York where he worked as a cartoonist, painter, poster designer and scenery decorator. He also collaborated with Salvador Dali on a photography project.

1918 - Frank Wedekind (Benjamin Franklin Wedekind; b. 1864), German playwright and satirical poet, dies. [see: Jul. 24]

[C] 1930 - Kurt Weill and Bertolt Brecht's opera 'The Rise and Fall of the Town of Mahagonny' (revised version) premiers in Leipzig. It is picketed (and later banned) by the Nazis.

1958 - Louis Moreau (b. 1883), French militant libertarian, pacifist, painter and engraver, dies. Trained as a lithographer, in 1900 he settled in Paris to practice his trade, developing a passion for drawing, painting and woodcuts. There he began contributing to Jean Grave's 'Temps Nouveaux'. Called up during WWI, his work was published in the clandestine 'Le Semeur'. [see: Apr. 15]
[BBB/C] 1896 - Nancy Cunard (d. 1965), Surrealist writer, poet, model, anarchist and anti-fascist, born into the British upper class - her father Baronet Sir Bache Cunard and mother Maud Alice Burke, a flamboyant American heiress. Her paternal great grandfather was founder of the steamship company of the same name, the origin of the family’s immense wealth.
Her poetry first appeared in magazines in 1916 and she published 3 volumes: 'Outlaws' (1921), 'Sublunary' (1923) and 'Parallax' (1925). She also became the muse of Paris Dada through her friendship with Man Ray who regularly used her as a model. Tristan Tzara wrote 'Mouchoir de Nuages' (1924), his fourth and final play, for her.
Nancy was also the model for characters in novels by 2 of her lovers: Virginia Tracy in Michael Arlen's 'Piracy' (1922), Iris March in his 'The Green Hat' (1924) and the eponymous heroine in 'Lily Chritine: A Romance' (1928). Aldous Huxley also modelled his characters Myra Viveash in 'Antic Hay' (1923) and Lucy Tantamount in 'Point Counter Point' (1928) on her. Other characters based on her include Lady Brett in Hemingways 'The Sun Also Rises' (1926) and those in Louis Aragon's 'Le Con d'Irene' (1927) and 'Blanche, ou l'Oubli' (1967); Evelyn Waugh's 'Unconditional Surrender' (1961); and Wyndham Lewis' 'The Roaring Queen' (1973).
In 1928 she bought Three Mountains Press (renamed Hours Press) that had published Hemingway, Gertrude Stein, Carlos Williams and E. Pound. She had become the lover of the surrealist poet Louis Aragon. Later she fell in love with the African-American piano player, Henry Crowder, who was playing jazz in a boîte de nuit in the then trendy Montparnasse district; due to this relationship she was disinherited and wrote 'Black Man and White Ladyship' (1931), an attack on upper class racist attitudes as exemplified by her mother's attitude to he relationship with Crowder. She also edited the massive 'Negro: an Anthology' (1934), collecting poetry, fiction and non-fiction primarily by African-American writers such as Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston, and included writing by George Padmore and Cunard's own account of the Scottsboro Boys case.
She was also a passionate anti-fascist, writing about Mussolini's annexation of Ethiopia and the Spanish Civil War - predicting that it would precipitate another world war. She fund-raised for Spanish refugees, publishing pamphlets (including the poetry collection 'Les Poètes du Monde Défendent le Peuple Espagnol' (The Poets of the World Defend the Spanish People; 1937) and helping organise relief supplies. She also worked as a Résistance interpreter during WWII. However, her Spain and WWII work serious affected her physical and mental health and she declined in the post-war years, dying in a mental hospital weighing only sixty pounds (27kg).

[B] 1920 - Boris Vian (d. 1959), French polymath: writer, poet, jazz musician, singer, translator, critic, actor, inventor, engineer and 'apolitical anarchist', born. Probably best known for his novels written under the pseudonym Vernon Sullivan including 'J'Irai Cracher sur vos Tombes' (I Spit on Your Graves; 1946). He also wrote a number of sci-fi novels: 'L'Ecume des Jours' (Foam of Days; 1947); 'L'Automne à Pékin' (Autumn in Peking; 1947); 'L'Herbe Rouge' (Red Grass; 1950); and 'L'Arrache-Coeur' (Heartsnatcher; 1953).
"On ne connaît la loi que lorsque les gens l'enfreignent." (We know the law only when people break it.)
"La vérité n'est pas du côté du plus grand nombre, parce qu'on ne veut pas qu'elle y soit." (The truth is not on the side of the majority, because we do not want it to be there.)
"Si le travail c'est l'opium du peuple, alors je ne veux pas finir drogué..." (If the work is the opium of the people, so I do not want to end up a junkie...)
"Supprimez le conditionnel et vous aurez détruit Dieu." (Remove the conditional and you destroy God.)

1935 - Jose Antonio Labordeta Subias (d. 2010), Aragonese singer-songwriter, poet, novelist, one-time libertarian who later became a resolutely non-sectarian liberal socialist politician, born into a staunchly Republican family. Popularly known as El Abuelo, his sympathies remained with anarchism and he was amongst those who helped keep the songs of the Revolution alive.

Habrá un día en que todos
Al levantar la vista
Veremos una tierra
Que ponga libertad (bis)

Hermano aquí mi mano
Será tuya mi frente
Y tu gesto de siempre
Caerá sin levantar
Huracanes de miedo
Ante la libertad

Haremos el camino
En un mismo trazado
Uniendo nuestros hombros
Para así levantar
A aquellos que cayeron
Gritando libertad

Sonarán las campanas
Desde los campanarios
Y los campos desiertos
Volverán a granar
Unas espigas altas
Dispuestas para el pan

Para un pan que en los siglos
Nunca fue repartido
Entre todos aquellos
Que hicieron lo posible
Para empujar la historia
Hacia la libertad

También será posible
Que esa hermosa mañana
Ni tú, ni yo, ni el otro
La lleguemos a ver
Pero habrá que empujarla
Para que pueda ser

Que sea como un viento
Que arranque los matojos
Surgiendo la verdad
Y limpie los caminos
De siglos de destrozos
Contra la libertad

(There will be a day when all
Looking up
We will see a land
That put freedom (x2)

Brother here my hand
Be yours my forehead
And you always gesture
Fall without lifting
Hurricane fear
Given freedom

We the way
In one path
Joining our shoulders
To raise and
To those who fell
Screaming freedom

Ring the bells
From the belfries
And the empty fields
Granar again
High tenons
Arranged for bread

For a bread that in the centuries
Never was divided
Among those
They did their best
To push the story
Towards Freedom

It is also possible
That this beautiful morning
Neither you, nor I, nor the other
The get to see
But we must push
So it can be

Make it like a wind
They start the bushes
Emerging truth
And clean the roads
From centuries of destruction
Against freedom)

'Canto a la Libertad' (Song of Freedom)

Pascual se crió menudo
Siempre esperando saber
Por qué su padre decía
A la hora del mal comer:
Pascual, Pascual, tú a lo tuyo
Que es trabajar

Segó por las tierras altas
Llegó por el olivar
Deshojó azafrán con frío
Y hasta se pensó casar
Con una moza sonora
De gran pechera y buen pie
Hasta que los padres de ella
También le hicieron saber
Pascual, Pascual, tú a lo tuyo
Que es trabajar

Se metió en lo libertario
Se hizo de la CNT
Corrió todos los caminos
Todos corrieron contra él
Estuvo en el frente el Ebro
En Andorra y en Teruel
Gritó por los barrios altos
Luego gritaron contra él
Pascual, Pascual, tú a lo tuyo
Que es trabajar

Hizo resuello por Francia
Muy cerca de Montpellier
Los nazis le hicieron preso
Y lo exportaron a Argel
De aquí pasó a Sevilla
Y luego a Carabanchel
Y en todas partes oía
Con consejos de burgués
Pascual, Pascual, tú a lo tuyo
Que es trabajar

Anda de nuevo menudo
Por marchar tanto al revés
De esperar siempre el tranvía
Hasta llegar la vejez
Camina cansado y triste
De ir desde el tajo a la mina
Desde el secano al andamio
Sin entender la consigna
Pascual, Pascual, tú a lo tuyo
Que es trabajar

El día que agonizaba
En un catre de un cuartel
Alzó la cabeza duro
Y dijo con mala fe
"trabajar, trabajar, trabajar"
¿Y para quién?"

(Pascual often raised
Always waiting to hear
Why your father said
At the time of bad eating:
Pascual, Pascual, you do your thing
What is working

He cut through the highlands
He came through the olive grove
Plucked cold saffron
And even thought wed
With a sound girl
Large front and right foot
Until her parents
Also let him know
Pascual, Pascual, you do your thing
What is working

He got into the libertarian
It made the CNT
He ran all the way
Everyone ran against him
He was in the front the Ebro
In Andorra, Teruel
He shouted Uptown
Then shouted against him
Pascual, Pascual, you do your thing
What is working

He wheezing by France
Very near Montpellier
The Nazis made him prisoner
And exported to Algiers
From this he went to Seville
And then to Carabanchel
And everywhere heard
With tips from bourgeois
Pascual, Pascual, you do your thing
What is working

Come back often
For both backward march
Always expect the tram
To reach old age
Walk tired and sad
To go from the mine pit
From dry to the scaffold
Without understanding the slogan
Pascual, Pascual, you do your thing
What is working

The dying day
In a barracks cot
He raised his head hard
He said in bad faith
"Work, work, work"
And for whom?")

'Con el sudor de tu frente' (By the sweat of your brow) [co-written with Joaquín Carbonell]


[BB] 1939 - Armand Guerra aka José Silavitse (José Maria Estivalis Cabo; b. 1886), Spanish typesetter, filmmaker, journalist, writer and anarchist, dies. Began work at 13 as a typesetter and was thrown into prison during a 1907 typesetter's strike as a member of the young C.N.T. Leaving Spain he went to Paris with his brother Vincente the following year. In 1909 he was in Geneva and Nice, where he published the newspaper 'Tierra y Libertad' (banned in Spain). In 1911 he journeyed though Italy to Cairo, where he worked on the trilingual paper 'L'Idea'. After that too was banned, he travelled round the Mediterranean before returning to France. In 1913 he created the Paris film co-operative Le Cinéma du Peuple, which made a number of films social nature, including 'La Commune' and 'The Old Docker' (both 1914). Guerra was both a producer and actor in these films and used old Communards and anarchists in them. He also contributed to various anarchist newspapers including 'Tierra' (published in Cuba) and Luigi Bertoni's 'Réveil'.
Guerra made his first full-length film during the summer of 1936 in Spain, before going to the front to fight fascism with a camera, filming for the CNT at the war front. 'Carne de Fieras' (Meat of Wild Animals) was never released, and thought lost forever, until a negative was discovered and released in 1993. Guerra also took part in propagandist speaking tours in the South of France and was imprisoned by the Stalinist police between April to August 1938 on a ship in the port of Barcelona. In February 1939, he managed to embark for Paris via Sète, thereby escaping the concentration camp in southern France.
His memoir of his time in Spain is entitled 'A Través de la Metralla: Escenas Vividas en los Frentes y en la Retaguardia' (Through the Shrapnel: Vivid Scenes at the Fronts and in the Rear; 1938).
Other films include directed: 'Luis Candelas o El Bandido de Madrid' (1926) [wrote]; 'Batalla de Damas' (1928) [also wrote]; 'El Amor Solfeando' (1930); and the 2 volumes of 'Estampas Guerreras' (1937).
Actor: 'Les Misères de l'Aiguille' (Miseries of the Needle1914); 'Ein Sommernachtstraum' (Wood Love; 1925) a fantasy by Hans Neumann based on 'A Midsummer Night's Dream'; and 'La Alegría que Pasa' (Joy Happens; 1934).
[see: Jan. 4]

1969 - A commando of situationists 'returns' a statue of Charles Fourier to its plinth in Paris, left vacant since its removal by the Nazis.

1972 - Stephen Mac Say (b. 1884), French anarchist, professor, bee-keeper and partner of Marie-Adele Anciaux aka Mary Smiles [see: 8 March], dies. [see: Oct 5]
1909 - Maurice Laisant (d. 1991), French author, anarchist and anti-militarist, born. Son of the anarchist Charles Laisant and brother of the anarchist Albert, grandson of the anarchist Charles Ange Laisant. Edited 'Le Monde Libertaire'.


[B] 19?? - Leslie Fish, US filk musician, author, Trekie, IWW member and anarchist political activist, born. A member of the 'filk outfit' DeHorn Crew - the Chicago IWW's house band and lover of fellow anarchist and band member Mary Frohman. The character Jenny Trout in the science fiction novel 'Fallen Angels' (1991) by Larry Niven, Jerry Pournelle and Michael Flynn is based on her. She has recorded morethan a dozen albums, written a number of science fiction short stories as well as 'A Dirge for Sabis' (with C. J. Cherryh; 1989), part of the 'The Sword of Knowledge' trilogy of shared world fantasy novels, and 'The Weight' (1988), a serialised anarcho-feminist Star Trek novel. She also sings (and makes several appearances) in the film 'Finding the Future: A Science Fiction Conversation' (2004).

1950 - Heinrich Mann (b. 1871), German novelist, utopian and anti-fascist, born. Broke with his brother Thomas over the later's support for WWI. [see: Mar. 27]

1963 - André Lorulot (b. 1885), French individualist anarchist, free thinker, lecturer, propagandist and playwright, dies. ​[see: Oct. 23]

1973 - Manuel Rojas Sepúlveda (b. 1896), Chilean anarchist writer, novelist, poet and essayist, dies. [see: Jan. 8]
1919 - Johannes Baader and Raoul Hausmann stage a 'Propaganda Evening' in Café Austria, where they found the Antinationaler Rat der Unbezahlten Arbeiter (Anti-National Council of Unpaid Workers; ARUDA) and the Club der Blauen Milchstraße.

1942 - Juan Montseny (aka Federico Urales) (b. 1864), Catalan teacher, novelist, publisher, individualist anarchist militant, companion of Teresa Mañé (Soledad Gustavo) and father of Federica Montseny, dies. [see: Aug. 19]

1955 - Louis Estève (b. 1884), French individualist anarchist, poet, novelist and essayist, author of 'Psychologie de l'Impérialisme' (Psychology of Imperialism; 1913), who was a regular contributor to the anarcho-individualist journals of E. Armand, 'L'En Dehors' and 'L'Unique', dies.

1955 -Theodor Plievier (orig. Plivier; b. 1892), German novelist, writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 12]

[B] 1980 - Ángel Borda (b. 1901), Argentinian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, trades union organiser, popular library founder, autodidact, sculptor, story and song writer (chamarritas and coplas), dies. [see: Aug. 2]

1986 - José Martínez Guerricabeitia (aka Felipe de Orero) (b. 1921), anarchist and founder of the anti-Francoist Ruedo Ibérico publishing house which published the first Spanish translations of Hugh Thomas' 'The Spanish Civil War', and Brenan’s 'The Spanish Labyrinth', dies at his own hands. [see: Jun. 18]

1990 - Philippe Soupault (b. 1897), French writer, poet, novelist, playwright, critic and political activist, dies. [see: Aug. 2]
1858 - Maximilien Luce (d. 1941), French Néo-Impressionist artist, painter, printmaker, engraver and anarchist, born. Initial training as a wood carver, he began to study engraving and, after 4 years military service, painting. Luce's early work was mainly landscapes and urban scenes which frequently emphasize the activities of people at work, but became better known for his pointillist canvases.
As a child he witnessed the tragic events of the Paris Commune, later becoming part of the anarchist milieu and a friend of Jean Grave. In 1887 Pissarro , Seurat and Signac welcomed him into the Néo-Impressionists group. He also submitted numerous artworks to radical newspapers ('Le Père Peinard', 'La Révolte', 'L'Endehors', 'La Feuille', etc.) and was imprisoned in 1894 during the Procès des 30 anti-anarchist hysteria following the acts of Ravachol and Valliant, labelled a "dangerous anarchist" because his drawings were considered as "inciting the populous to revolt". In 1934, Maximilien Luce was elected President of the Société des Artistes Indépendants after Signac’s retirement, but soon resigned in a protest against society's policy to restrict the admission of Jewish artists.
Luce made a series of famous lithographs on prison life, which were accompanied by a Jules Vallès text, and many of his works are on the theme of the Paris Commune and the horrors of the Great War.

[B] 1928 - René-Louis Lafforgue (d. 1967), French singer, songwriter, actor, interpreter and anarchist, born to Basque anarchist parents. The family went into exile in France following the Spanish Civil War, where his brother is killed in participating in the Résistance.
After practising several professions including as a typesetter, he became an actor and singer-songwriter. The fifties saw his talent recognised following appearances with Georges Brassens. His songs like 'Julie la Rousse' (1956) provide him popularity. He also opened a cabaret, L'Ecole Buissonnière (School of Truancy) with his partner Claudie in 1962, a venue frequented by libertarian and pacifist performers, including the likes of Pierre Louki, Boby Lapointe, Maurice Fanon, Christine Sèvres and Guy Bedos.
Some of his films: 'Sous le Ciel de Paris' (actor; 1950), 'Julie la Rousse' (actor/composer; 1958), 'Les Amants de Teruel' (actor/composer/screenwriter; 1961) and 'La Communale' (1965).

1934 - Victor Barrucand (b. 1864), French anarchist, poet, musician, writer and journalist, dies. [see Oct. 7]

1939 - Ferre Grignard (Fernand Grignard; d. 1982), Belgium anarchist songwriter, skiffle artist and protest singer, born.

1971 - Rockwell Kent (b. 1882), US painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer and anti-fascist anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Jun. 21]

2013 - Dacajeweiah (Splitting the Sky), also known as John Boncore Hill (b. 1952), Mohawk American Indian Movement activist, part time film and screen actor, dies. Imprisoned in New York’s notorious Attica State Prison for his native American activist protests, he was at the heart of the 1971 uprising and the only prisoner convicted of murder [for the death of prison guard William Quinn] following the New York governor Nelson Rockefeller ordered military assault on the prison by State police, where 43 people died. He was sentenced to at least 20 years in prison in 1975 but was pardoned the following year by the then-Govenor Hugh Carey against the backdrop of mass recriminations against how the police acted during the assault, something that the investigating commissions' lead, New York law professor Robert McKay, described the assault as the "bloodiest one-day encounter between Americans, except for the massacres against Indians of the 19th Century."
1885 - Jules Auguste Gorion aka Alfred Breton (d. 1952), French anarchist individualist, born. Editor of the individualist newspaper 'Le Réveil de l'Esclave' (The Awakening Slave; 1920-25), he also worked on Emile Bauchet's 'Le Semeur de Normandie' (1923-36) and Lorulot's anticlerical 'La Calotte' (The Skullcap). In the 1930s he devoted himself to industrial agitation and was sentenced to 18 months in prison for "obstructing the free movement of labour". He also edited a collection of revolutionary poems: 'Cris de Révolte Contre l'Iniquité Sociale et les Exploiteurs du Peuple' (Cries of Revolt Against Social Injustice and the Exploiters of the People; 1950).

1893 - Marietta di Monaco (Maria Kirndörfer; d. 1981), German cabaret artist, poet, chanteuse, dancer, artist's model and poet's muse, who was involved in the Cabaret Voltaire, birthplace of Dada, in Zurich, born. A regular performer at the Simplicissimus cabaret in Munich, where she danced, sang and recited her own and other Expressionist poet's poetry including that of Ringelnatz, Frank Wedekind, Fred Geyer and Klabund, who was also one of her lovers and who dedicated his 1920 play 'Marietta' to her. She also notedly took part in Hugo Ball's 'Simultan Krippenspiel (Concert bruitiste)' on May 31, 1916 at Cabaret Voltaire alongside Hans Arp Hugo Ball, Emmy Hennings, Marcel Janco and Tristan Tzara.

1898 - Edward Paul Abbey (b. 1927), American novelist, essayist, polemicist and desert anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 29]

1915 - Walter Crane (b. 1845), English artist, book illustrator and libertarian socialist, dies. [see: Aug. 15]

[C] 1918 - Abba Kovner (אבא קובנר; d. 1987), Lithuanian Jewish Hebrew poet, writer, and commander of the Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye (FPO; United Partisan Organisation) in the Vilna Ghetto, born. [expand]
"Let us not go like sheep to the slaughter, Jewish youth! Do not believe those who are deceiving you. Out of 80,000 Jews of the Jerusalem of Lithuania (Vilna), only 20,000 remain. In front of your eyes our parents, our brothers and our sisters are being torn away from us. Where are the hundreds of men who were snatched away for labor by the Lithuanian kidnappers? Where are those naked women who were taken away on the horror-night of the provocation? Where are those Jews of the Day of Atonement? And where are our brothers of the second ghetto? Anyone who is taken out through the gates of the ghetto, will never return. All roads of the ghetto lead to Ponary, and Ponary means death. Oh, despairing people, - tear this deception away from your eyes. Your children, your husbands, your wives - are no longer alive - Ponary is not a labor camp. Everyone there is shot. Hitler aimed at destroying the Jews of Europe. It turned out to be the fate of the Jews of Lithuania to be the first. Let us not go like sheep to the slaughter. It is true that we are weak, lacking protection, but the only reply to a murderer is resistance. Brothers, it is better to die as free fighters than to live at the mercy of killers. Resist, resist, to our last breath!"

[B] 1944 - Peter-Paul Zahl (d. 2011), German anarchist of the '68 generation, writer, poet and novelist, born. Linked to the Bewegung 2. Juni (June 2nd Movement), he was jailed for 6 months in 1970 for printing a "Freedom for all prisoners" poster in support of RAF and June 2nd Movement prisoners. In 1972 he was involved in a shoot-out with police during a 'terrorist' manhunt, during which a cop was shot. He was convicted in 1976 double murder trial to 15 years in prison, serving 10 years during which he turned author. In 1985, he emigrated to Jamaica where he was granted Jamaican citizenship and worked as a stage director and writer. [expand]

1945 - Alexander Granach (real name Jessaja Szajka Gronach; b. 1890) [1893 also given as the date], anarchist sympathiser and popular German actor in the 1920s and 1930s as well as 1940s Hollywood, dies. Apprenticed as a baker, he attended Russian Jewish revolutionary student meetings and discovered the Yiddish theatre. Moving to Berlin he joined an amateur theatre and, in 1909, he attended the school of the famous Max Reinhardt theatre. Post-WWI (drafted into the Austro-Hungarian army), he started acting in films, playing the part of Knock in FW Murnau's 'Nosferatu' (1921) and appearing in GW Pabst's 'Kameradschaft' (Comradeship; 1931). He also played Marat in Hans Behrendt's 'Danton' (1931) but in 1933, he fled anti-Semitic persecution and took refuge in the Soviet Union, meeting old revolutionary friends. However, in 1936 he was a victim of the Stalinist purges and imprisoned. Released, he left the country for Switzerland, from where he emigrated to the United States in 1939 and a second career in Hollywood. His first film was Ernst Lubitsch's 'Ninotchka' (1939) playing Kopalsky, one of the 3 Russians in Paris to sell jewellery confiscated from the aristocracy during the Russian Revolution of 1917. He also played Paco in 'For Whom Bell Tolls' (1943) by Sam Wood, Julius Streicher in 'The Hitler Gang' (1944) as well as a number of roles as an anti-fascist. Perhaps his most notable role was as Gestapo Inspector Alois Gruber in Fritz Lang's 'Hangmen Also Die!' (1943).
His libertarian sympathies led to him giving money to the Spanish anarchists Durruti and Francisco Ascaso, assisting them to find refuge in Belgium. He also took the lead role in the play 'Staatsraison' (Reason of State), a tribute for Sacco and Vanzetti as well as a denunciation of the American judicial machinery, written by his friend Erich Mühsam. [see: Apr. 18]
1890 - Otto Luihn (d. 1943), Norwegian newspaper editor, magazine editor, poet and Communist, born. Luihn worked for the anarchist magazine 'Storm' from 1909, then worked as a journalist for 'Klassekampen', 'Social-Demokraten' (from 1914 to 1916), was editor-in-chief for the Stavanger newspaper 'Den 1ste Mai', and then journalist for the Bergen newspaper 'Arbeidet' from 1919 to 1923. He join the Communist Party in 1923, and worked for 'Norges Kommunistblad' from 1923 to 1927. He was then the first editor of the weekly magazine 'Arbeidermagasinet', with which he is most closely associated. During the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany in 1942, he was arrested by Gestapo on May 17, 1942, and was incarcerated at Bredtveit concentration camp.

[B] 1948 - Gerhard Seyfried, German anarchist comics and graphic artist, cartoonist and writer, born. Famed for his bearded anarchist dwarf with his toothy grim and bomb.

1970 - Arthur Adamov (b. 1908), Russian-born French playwright and anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 23]

1980 - Hélio Oiticica (b. 1937), Brazilian visual artist (painting and sculpture) and anarchist, dies. Grandson of José Rodrigues Oiticica. Best known for his participation in the Concrete group, his Rio de Janeiro installation 'Tropicália' (1967), a labyrinth-like environment with parrots, plants, sand, texts, and a television — a satire on the clichés of Brazilian culture and a commentary on the conflict between tradition and technology typical in the Third World, gave its name to the Tropicalismo movement. [see: Jul. 26]

1983 - Rebecca West (Cicely Isabel Fairfield; b. 1892), English author, journalist, literary critic, travel writer, socialist, militant feminist, free love advocate and staunch anti-fascist, dies. [see: Dec. 21]

1995 - Jean Meckert, aka Jean or John Amila, Edouard Duret, Edmond Duret, Guy Duret, Albert Duvivier, Mariodile, Marcel Pivert (b. 1910), French libertarian novelist, screenwriter and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Mar. 15]

2011 - David Emmanuel, aka reggae artist Smiley Culture, dies of a stab wound to the heart during a police raid on his home. The police claim that it is self-inflicted - no one belives them.
1877 - (Mary) Eleanor 'Fitzi' Fitzgerald (d. 1955), US anarchist, magazine editor, director, business manager and executive director of the experimental theatre company, the Provincetown Players, born. A close friend of Emma Goldman, she served as secretary and then assistant editor of 'Mother Earth'. Fitzgerald also became Alexander Berkman's lover and, in 1915 she joined, him in San Francisco as the assistant editor of Berkman's radical labour journal, 'The Blast'.

1908 - René Daumal (d. 1944), French writer, poet, critic, essayist, playwright and Indologist, born. Founder of the anarchist and socialist influenced magazine 'Le Grand Jeu', a counter weight to Breton's Surrealist group. Best known for his posthumously published novel 'Mount Analogue' (1952).

[B] 2001 - World Premiere of Anton Coppola's opera, 'Sacco & Vanzetti', staged by Tampa Opera at the Carol Morsani Hall. Based on music he wrote for a film his nephew Francis Ford Coppola had planned to make about the anarchists but never did.
[B] 1873 - A.J. Alexandrovitch (Alexandre Joseph)(d.1949), prolific Russian-born French libertarian artist (portraiture and landscape) in paint, ink, charcoal, as well as etching and lithograph, born. Painted many allegorical compositions as well as portraits of all the well known contemporary anarchist figures. [see: Jan 10]

[BB] 1877 - Otto Gross (also Grob; d. 1920), Austrian psychoanalyst, sexologist and libertarian revolutionary, born. Influenced by the philosophy of Max Stirner, Friedrich Nietzsche and the political theories of Peter Kropotkin. An early follower of Freudian psychoanalytic theory. Involved in the development of psychiatry and psychoanalysis as well as in the modern literature of Expressionism and Dadaism. A generation before Wilhelm Reich, Gross was the first analyst to emphasize the dialectical interdependence between individual inner change and collective political change. He tried to live his radical ideas in both his private and professional life — which he refused to separate — and thus became anathema to those trying to establish the credibility of analysis as a science in the eyes of society and academe.
In 1901 he worked as a psychiatrist and assistant doctor in Munich and Graz, published his first papers and had his first treatment for drug addiction. Sometime around 1904 he met Freud and became his assistant.
He analysed C.G. Jung and was in turn analysed by him [leading to his 1908 labelling as a hopeless lunatic]. By 1906 Gross was living in Munich and the utopian Ascona community in Switzerland, where he had an important influence on many of the expressionist writers and artists such as Karl Otten and Franz Werfel as well as anarchists radicals including Erich Mühsam.
In 1911 Gross was forcibly interned in a psychiatric institution. He subsequently wanted to found a school for anarchists in Ascona and he wrote to the Swiss medical doctor and anarchist Fritz Brupbacher that he had plans to publish a "Journal on the psychological problems of anarchism". Two years later, his father had Gross arrested as a dangerous anarchist and interned in a psychiatric institution in Austria [on the basis of Jung's diagnosis of schizophrenia]. By the time he was freed following an international press campaign initiated by his friends, Gross had become one of the psychiatrists working at the hospital.
In 1915, following a spell as an army doctor, Gross, together with Franz Jung, the painter Georg Schrimpf and others, published a journal called 'Die Freie Strasse' (The Free Road) as a "preparatory work for the revolution" and had considerable influence on Franz Jung (the writer), Raoul Hausman, Hannah Höch and the other artists who created Berlin Dada.
His personal life mirrored his libertarian views, married in 1903 to Frieda Schloffer, with whom he had a son, Peter, he later had relationships with Else Jaffé [nee von Richthofen], who gave birth to a son, Peter; an affair with Else's sister, Frieda Weekley, who later married D.H. Lawrence; Swiss writer Regina Ullmann [who later became a close friend/protégé of Rilke] and who gave birth to a daughter, Camilla; Marianne Kuh, [sister of the Austrian writer Anton Kuh] - a daughter Sophie; as well as having relationships with Marianne's sister, Nina, and possibly with the third sister, Margarethe.
He died of pneumonia after having been found in a Berlin street near-starved and frozen. A psychoanalytic outcast, in one of the very few eulogies that were published, German writer and close friend Otto Kaus wrote, "Germany's best revolutionary spirits have been educated and directly inspired by him. In a considerable number of powerful creations by the young generation one finds his ideas with that specific keenness and those far-reaching consequences that he was able to inspire." Anton Kuh also wrote of Gross as "a man known only to very few by name — apart from a handful of psychiatrists [Freud, Jung, et al] and secret policemen — and among those few only to those who plucked his feathers to adorn their own posteriors."
A minor character in David Cronenberg’s film 'A Dangerous Method' (2011) and a central one in Eric Koch’s novel 'Premonitions' (2008).
The psychology of the unconscious is the philosophy of revolution.” Otto Gross, 'Zur Ueberwindung der Kulturellen Krise, die Aktion', vol. 3, no. 14, 1913.

1897 - Jules Jouy (b. 1855), French anarchist, singer, writer, poet, journalist, painter, songwriter and pioneer of the social song, dies. [see: Apr 27]

1917 - Opening of the Galerie Dada at the Galerie Corray, Bahnhofstrasse 19, Zurich.

1953 - Ulrich Klan, German musician, composer, educator, author and libertarian, born.

1960 - János Mattis-Teutsch (b. 1884), Hungarian-Romanian painter, sculptor, graphic artist, art critic, poet, anti-Fascist and anti-Nazi exile, who later fell foul of the Soviet authorities, dies. [see: Aug. 13]

1965 - Nancy Cunard (b. 1896), Surrealist writer, poet, model, anarchist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Mar. 12]

1988 - Nikolas Asimos (Νικόλας Άσιμος [Asimopoulos (Ασιμόπουλος)]; b. 1949), Greek lyricist, composer and singer of Greek rock and 'folk' songs, and anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 20]
[B] 1842 - Stéphane Mallarmé (real name Étienne Mallarmé; d. 1898), French Symbolist poet, critic and an anarchist sympathiser, born. Mallarmé's poetry was greatly influenced by that of the 'father of Symbolism' Charles Baudelaire, who had himself not been immune to the influences of anarchism prevalent in French society at the time, and in turn himself had an influence on a number of notable anarchists such as Renzo Novatore and Fernando Pessoa. Mallarmé would also exert an influence in anarchist circles of Paris which he frequented e.g. Le Chat Noir. [c.f. fellow symbolist poet and anarchist Henri de Régnier.] But more importantly he would provide inspiration to the Dadaist, Surrealist and Futurist movements.
He financial supported a number of anarchists whilst they were on trial (incl. Félix Fénéon), regularly subscribed to 'Le Révolté' and published texts in 'Les Entretiens Politiques et Litteraires'.
"Je ne sais pas d'autre bombe, qu'un livre." (I know of no bomb other than a book.)

'L’après-midi d’un faune. Églogue', 1876

Non, mais l’âme
De paroles vacante et ce corps alourdi
Tard succombent au fier silence de midi :
Sans plus il faut dormir en l’oubli du blasphème,
Sur le sable altéré gisant et comme j’aime
Ouvrir ma bouche à l’astre efficace des vins !

Couple, adieu ; je vais voir l’ombre que tu devins.

('The Afternoon of a Faun. Eclogue'

No, but the soul
Void of words, and this heavy body,
Succumb to noon’s proud silence slowly :
With no more ado, forgetting blasphemy,
I must sleep, lying on the thirsty sand, and how I love
to open my mouth to wine’s celestial effect !

Farewell to you, both: I go to see the shadow you have become.)


1844 - Mikelis Avlichos (Μικέλης Άβλιχος; d. 1917), Greek scholar, humorist and satirical poet, atheist, anarchist and radical, born.

1861 - Lucien Descaves (d. 1949), French libertarian novelist, born. His second novel, 'Sous-Offs' (NCO; 1889), based on his 4 years military service, provoked a scandal and earned him a trial for insulting the army and offending public morality. Acquitted, he was stripped of his military rank. In 1892, he became literary editor of Séverine's 'Journal', and worked on Zo Axa's 'L'Endehors' until 1895, then on Jean Grave's 'Temps Nouveaux'.
He was editor of 'l'Aurore' at the outbreak of the Dreyfus affair and immediately took a stand against the anti-Semitism displayed during it. In 1900 he co-authors with Maurice Donnay, a theatrical comedy called 'La Clairière' (The Clearing) inspired by Aiglemont and the other Milieux Libres experimental communities. In 1901 his novel evoking the Paris Commune, 'La Colonne', appeared. A second Paris Commune novel, 'Philémon, Vieux de la Vieille', was printed in 1913. A founding member of the Académie Goncourt, he was one of the most vociferous critics of his co-académiciens after they failed to award the prize to Celine's 'Journey to the End of the Night'.

1879 - Robert Bodanzky, aka Danton (born Isidor Bodanskie; d. 1923), Austrian journalist, essayist, playwright, poet, librettist, artist, anti-militarist and anarcho-communist, born.

1910 - Julio Herrera y Reissig (b. 1875), Uruguayan poet, playwright, essayist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 9]
[B] 1976 - Adam O, Danish comics and poster artist and anarchist, born.

1998 - Jean Audard (b. 1913), French Surrealist-associated poet, critic, Marxist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Mar. 20]
[B] 1828 - Henrik Ibsen (d. 1906), Norwegian playwright, theatre director, poet and libertarian individualist, born. His first play 'Catiline' (or Catalina; 1850) actively promotes the anarchist ideal about fairness and freedom without violence, investigated in a societal context, universally and individually [expressly describing the central character Catiline as an anarchist]. Emma Goldman in her famous lecture 'The Social Significance of the Modern Drama' (1914) analyses the anarchist connotations of his drama in the plays 'The Pillars of Society', 'The Doll’s House', 'Ghosts' and 'An Enemy of Society'.
"The State is the curse of the individual. . . The State must go! That will be a revolution which will find me on its side. Undermine the idea of the State, set up in its place spontaneous action, and the idea that spiritual relationship is the only thing that makes for unity, and you will start the elements of a liberty which will be something worth possessing." [from a letter to George Brandes, shortly after the Paris Commune, 18-05-1871]

1889 - Jean de Boe (d. 1974), Belgian typographer, militant anarchist, syndicalist and co-operativist, born. Condemned in February 1913 as an accomplice to the Bonnot Gang to 10 years hard labour in French Guiana. He escaped and returned to Belgium in 1922, where he was active in several strikes and he founded 'Les Arts Graphiques' (The Graphic Arts) co-operative.

1897 - Louis Rodolphe Salis (b. 1851), French creator, host and owner of Le Chat Noir, the first modern cabaret and a meeting place for Paris' radical artists and anarchist alike, born. [see: May 29]

1913 - Jean Audard (d. 1998), French Surrealist-associated poet, critic, Marxist and anti-fascist, born. Brother of the Surrealist poet Pierre Audard (1909-1981). In the 1930s he was a contributor to 'Cahiers du Sud', and joined others associated with Surrealism in anti-Fascist efforts.


1939 - The Degenerate Art Commission ordered over one thousand paintings and almost four thousand watercolors and drawings burned in the courtyard of a fire station in Berlin.

1945 - Maria Lacerda de Moura (b. 1887), Brazilian anarcha-feminist, individualist anarchist, teacher, journalist, writer and poet, dies. [see: May 16]

1963 - Karl Otten (b. 1889), German writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 29]

1998 - Agustin Gomez-Arcos (b. 1939), Spanish anarchist, gay novelist and dramatist, dies. Wrote mostly in French about Franco's Spain, where many of his works were banned. Involved in experimental threatre works in Paris from 1968. [see: Jan 15]
1872 - Neith Boyce Hapgood (d. 1951), U.S. novelist, playwright and journalist, born. She married the anarchist Hutchins Hapgood and together they collaborated on a novel, 'Enemies' (1916) which they later published as a one-act play in 1921. Her other novels include: Novels: 'The Forerunner' (1903), 'The Folly of Others' (1904), 'Eternal Spring' (1906), 'The Bond' (1908), 'Two Sons' (1917), 'Proud Lady' (1923) and 'Harry: A Portrait' (1923). She also co-founded the Provincetown Players together with Susan Glaspell, George Cram Cook and others.

1873 - Demetrius Paparrigopoulos (Δημήτριος Παπαρρηγόπουλος; b. 1843), Greek anarchist, playwright, poet and suicide, dies.

1887 - Lajos Tihanyi Kassák (d. 1967), Hungarian poet, novelist, painter, essayist, editor, theoretician of the avant-garde, anarchist, anti-fascist and anti-Stalinist, born. He was among the first genuine working-class writers in Hungarian literature and was an important influence across the various artistic and radical intelectual groups in Budapest in the ealy 1900s. [expand]

1913 - Emile Maurin (b. 1862) (known as Elie Murmain), French anarchist militant and photographer, dies. [see: Jul 28]

[B] 1934 - Raoul Vaneigem, Belgian writer, philosopher, novelist and principal theoretician, alongside Guy Debord, of the Situationist International, born. Author of 'Traité de Savoir-Vivre à l'Usage des Jeunes Générations' (The Revolution of Everyday Life; 1967), 'Le Livre des Plaisirs' (The Book of Pleasures; 1979); 'Le Mouvement du Libre-Esprit' (The Movement of the Free Spirit; 1986), amongst other political/philosophical works. His single fiction piece is the erotic novel 'L'Ile aux Delices' (The Island of Delights; 1979).

1942 - Jindřich Štyrský (b. 1899), Czech painter , photographer, photomontagist, graphic designer, collagist, poet, Surrealist theorist and anarchist, dies of a longterm heart condition. [see: Aug. 11]
[B] 1896 - Mathias Léoni (d. 1981?), Italian sculptor of medals, mosaic artist and anarchist, born. Like his brother Leonida (born January 17, 1899), an anarchist from a young age. In 1915, he was sentenced to 25 days in jail and a fine for throwing projectiles at police during a demonstration against the war. Both brothers refuse their call up and flee to the mountains. On Nov. 20, 1917 they are discovered by the carabinieri. Leonida escapes but Mathias is arrested and imprisoned. In 1923 both brothers fleeing fascism go into exile in France, where they settled in Paris. Mathias joins the Ruche des Artistes as a medal sculptor and mosaic artist. In the late 1960s Léoni put his studio at the disposal of the Albert Camus group of the Organisation Révolutionnaire Anarchiste (ORA). He also made a series of cast and engraved medals of famous anarchists including Louise Michel, Michel Bakunin, Jules Vallès and Nestor Makhno.

1987 - Eugen Relgis (b. 1895), Rumanian poet, anti-militarist & prolific anarchist author of some distinction, dies in Uruguay. [see: Mar 2]

2001 - Tony Gibson (b. 1914), British psychologist, BBC producer, writer and anarchist, dies. His best known book was 'People Power: Community and Work Groups in Action' (1979). Active as an artist's model and posed for an advertisement of Brylcreem 1939 - in 1940 this advertisement was added a RAF cap plus the caption "For active service" but Gibson himself was at that time a conscientious objector working as an ambulance man and a farm labourer.
1813 - Jacques Marie Anselme Bellegarrigue (d. ????), French individualist anarchist, born. Wrote a novel: 'Le Baron de Camebrac, en tournée sur le Mississippi', published episodically between 1851 and 1854.
"L'Anarchie c'est l'ordre, le gouvernement c'est la guerre civile." (Anarchy is order, the government is war civil.) - 'Au fait, au fait!! Interprétation de l'Idée Démocratique' (1848)

[C] 1887 - Josef Čapek (d. 1945), Czech Expressionist painter, writer, photographer, graphic artist and book illustrator, and anti-fascist, who invented the word robot, which was introduced into literature by his brother, Karel Čapek, born. He was arrested for his anti-fascist activities in 1939 following the German invasion of Czechoslovakia and sent to various concentration camps (Dachau, Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen). He wrote 'Poems from a Concentration Camp' (Básně z koncentračního tabora) in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where he died in 1945 (somewhere between April 5th and 24th).

1917 - Opening-celebration of the Galerie Dada. Programme: Abstract dances (by Sophie Taeuber, verses by Ball and masks by Arp).- Frédééric Glauser: verses - Emmy Hennings: verses - Hans Heusser: compositions - Olly Jacques: prose by Mynona - H.L. Neitzel: verses by Hans Arp - Perottet: new music - Tristan Tzara: Negro verses - Claire Walter: expressionistic dances.

1921 - A bomb explodes at the Teatro Diana in Milan, killing and wounding many. Among those accused are Giuseppe Mariani and Giuseppe Boldrini, who get life sentences, and Ettore Aguggini (who died in prison); also implicated are Ugo Fedeli, Pietro Bruzzi, and Francesco Ghezzi (editors of 'L’Indivi-dualista'). The work of an individualist anarchist group believed manipulated and set up by the Chief of Police Gasti, the bombing serves as a pretext for a general repression against all anarchists and also serves the interests of the fascists, who attack the offices of the trade unions and leftist organizations. They also destroyed the office of the anarchist paper 'Umanita Nova'.

[B] 1936 - Claude Faraldo (d. 2008), French actor, screenwriter and director of 'Bof... Anatomie d’un Livreur' (1971) and 'Themroc' (1973), born. Directed and wrote the screenplay for the TV programme 'Les Jupons de la revolution: La Baionnette de Mirabeau' (The Underskirts of the Revolution: Mirabeau's Bayonet; 1989).

1946 - Alberto Ghiraldo (b. 1874), Argentine journalist, playwright, poet, notable intellectual, founder and editor of numerous anarchist publications such as 'Martín Fierro', 'El Sol', 'La Protesta' and 'Ideas y Figuras', dies.

2010 - José María Nunes (b. 1930), Portuguese-Catalan filmaker, director, script writer, actor and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 2]
1894 - Emile Digeon (b. 1822), revolutionary socialist journalist, libertarian free thinker, anarchist journalist, leader of the short-lived Narbonne Commune, declared in 1871 when Paris rose up (Paris Commune).

[B] 1905 - Léo Campion (Léon Louis Octave Campion; b. 1992), Franco-Belgian character actor, singer, anarchist, free thinker, Freemason, Régent de l'Institut de Pataphysique and Grand Maître de la Confrérie des Chevaliers du Taste Fesses, born. Expelled from France at the end of a campaign against him by Action Française, he meets anarchist bookseller and Freemason Marcel Dieu (aka Hem Day) and becomes secretary of Libre Pensée de Bruxelles, secretary of the Belgian section of the War Resisters International (WRI), a cartoonist at the newspaper 'Le Rouge et le Noir' and starts a singing career. Protesting a proposed bill prohibiting pacifist propaganda and the dissemination of and anti-militarist ideas, Léo Campion and Hem Day return their military papers. Recalled under arms as punishment for thiis act of defience, the two refuse to join their units and are arrested.
At their trial before the Council of War on July 19, 1933, a crowd (including Han Ryner gathers expecting only verbal fireworks but no convictions. Their military service records are exemplary and the only thing that they can be accused of is refusing to answer a Callback. They both ridicule the judiciary and military, with Hem Day declaring from the outset: "I am here, not accused, but accuser!
Léo Campion is sentenced to 18 months in prison and Hem Day 2 years, and both face returning to the military tribunal to go through the whole process yet again at the end of their sentences. They refuse the punishment and begin a hunger strike. Public pressure eventually forces the government into a compromise by dismissing them from the army as being unworthy for membership of its ranks! The new legislation is also abandoned.
Brussels becomes a home to many Spanish refugees and Campion launches a newspaper, 'Rebellion', in 1937 dedicated to the Spanish revolution. During the occupation, he returned to France but, being a conscientious objector, he was interned with other antifascists in the Argeles detention camps of in 1940. Bizarrely, he is awarded the Croix de Guerre 1939-1945, quiet something for a life-long conscientious objector.
Returning to Brussels, in Dec. 1944 he founds the weekly satirical newspaper 'Pan' (which merged with another satirical weekly 'Ubu' in 2004), and returned to the cabaret as an actor and producer, becoming director of the Caveau de la République (1951-1953), Tabou (1952-1953). He was also a producer on French Radio (ORTF) between 1951 and 1961, hosting the radio programme 'Cabaret du Soir'. He also became a stage and screen actor, appearing in Eugène Ionesco's anti-fascist play 'Rhinocéros' in 1961, and numerous films and TV programmes, including Jean Renoir's 'French Cancan' and Michel Deville's 'La Lectrice' amongst others, whilst maintaining his links and support for the anarchist movement.
He is also author of a number of books including the humour collections 'Le Petit Campion Illustré' (1953) and 'Palabres' (Palavers; 1961), as well as books on anarchism and Freemasonry such as 'Les Anarchistes dans la Franc-Maçonnerie ou Les Maillons Libertaires de la Chaîne d'Union' (The Anarchists in Freemasonry or The Libertarian Links Chain of Union; 1969) and 'Le Drapeau Noir, l'Equerre et le Compas' (The Black Flag, the Square and the Compass; 1978).
"The refusal of military service is an insurance against death, this insurance will be viable when there are enough policyholders." - Léo Campion.

1917 - Tristan Tzara's lecture 'L'expressionisme et l'art abstrait' in Galerie Dada, Zurich.

1919 - Lawrence Ferlinghetti, U.S. poet, painter, Beat, publisher, anarchist and founder of City Lights Bookstore, born.

1926 - Dario Fo, Italian playwright, manager-director-actor-mime and author of 'Accidental Death of an Anarchist' (Morte Accidentale di un Anarchico; 1970) and 'Can´t Pay? Won´t Pay!' (Non Si Paga! Non Si Paga!; 1974), born.

1947 - José Pérez Ocaña (d. 1983), Andalusian naive painter, performance artist, LGBT activist and anarchist, known simply as Ocaña, born. Gay and proud, Ocaña moved to Barcelona to both escape intolerance and to be able to express himself artistically. There he eked out a living as a painter whilst establishing himself as a prominent character on Las Ramblas. A militant in the Front d'Alliberament Gai de Catalunya (FAGC), he was laos active in the anarchist and libertarian movement, performing at cultural events. Amongst the tributes to Ocaña following his death Ventura Pons' 1978 documentary film 'Ocaña, Retrato Intermitente' (Ocaña, an Intermittent Portrait).
[B] 1811 - Percy Bysshe Shelley (aged 18 years) is expelled from Oxford for his refusal to repudiate the authorship of the pamphlet 'The Necessity of Atheism'.

1812 - Alexander Herzen (d. 1870), Russian journalist, political writer, novelist and anarchist sympathiser, born. Influenced by revolution and the French socialism of Saint-Simon. Took an active part in the Revolutions of 1848 in Paris & Rome. Founded the influential newspaper 'The Bell' (Kolokol) in London. Strongly influenced by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon & other anarchists. He helped finance his close friend Mikhail Bakunin's escape from Tsarist Russia.

1918 - Claude Debussy (b. 1862), French composer heavily influenced by the Symbolists and Impressionist, dies. [see: Aug. 22]

[C] 1922 - René Cavanhie (aka René Cavan; d. 1996), French poet, songwriter, anarchist and resistance fighter, born. Helped organise the smuggling of people out of occupied France (via Spain) during WWII and fought in the Résistance. Wrote for 'Le Libertaire', using the pen name Cavan, for Louis Lecoin’s paper 'Liberté' and May Picqueray’s 'Le Réfractaire'. Author of a number of works including 'Révolution au Paradis' (Revolution in Paradise; 1958) and 'Poèmes et Chansons Anarchistes' (Anarchist Poems and Songs; 1983).

'Vieve la Liberté'

J'en ai rien a foutre de prosodie
De césure, d'enjambement
D'hémistiche et d'homophonie
Toutes les règles c'est emmerdant
Je veux ecrire librement

Et puis, moi, je suis pour les pauvres
Les rimes riches, ça me débonde
De Vladivostock à Hanovre*
Que d'injustices dans le monde
En ajouter serait immonde

Compter des pieds? Le globe en est plein
Dans cette innombrable sarabande
Deux ou trois de plus ou de moins
Qu'est-ce-que ça me fiche, je vous le demande?
Et je me fous bien qu'on me vilipende

Alternance des rimes? Haro!
Dites-moi ce que ça change
S'inquiéter du sexe des mots
Pourquoi pas de celui des anges?
Que voilà des règles étranges

Consonne d'appui? Pauvre étai
Je ne suis ni terrassier ni maçon
Pour étayer ce que je fais
Je veux rimer à ma façon
Au diable, toutes vos prisons!

Ma muse se batifole en liberté
Toutes vos lois sont bien trop tristes
S'il fallait vraiment les respecter
Ca ne serait pas gai d'être un artiste
Et puis, voyez-vous, moi, je suis anarchiste.

(* Les pauvres sont tellement pauvres qu'ils n'ont même pas une rime pour leur nom.)

'Enjoy The Freedom'

I have nothing to fuck prosody
Hyphenation, spanning
On hemistich and homophony
All the rules is boring
I want to write freely

And I am for the poor
The rich rhymes, I'm débonde
Vladivostok Hanover *
That injustice in the world
Would add foul

Counting feet? The world is full
In this countless sarabande
Two or three more or less
What is it that I care, I ask you?
And I do not care although I vilifies

Alternating rhymes? Haro!
Tell me what it changes
Worrying sex words
Why not the angels?
That these are strange rules

Consonant support? Stay poor
I am not a mason or laborer
To support what I do
I rhyme my way
To hell with all your prisons!

My muse frolics freely
All your laws are too sad
If I had really respect
It would not be a gay artist
And then, you see, I am an anarchist.

(* The poor are so poor they do not even have a rhyme for their name.)

[B] 1886 - Juan Serrano y Oteiza (b. 1837), Spanish anarchist intellectual, lawyer, journalist and writer, dies. His most famous work is probably his utopian novel 'Pensativo' (1885). [see: May 6]

1892 - Walt Whitman (b. 1819), American Transcendentalist poet and to some a proto-libertarian, dies. [see: May 31]

1959 - Raymond Chandler (b. 1888), American novelist and screenwriter, takes The Big Sleep. [see: Jul. 23]

1969 - B. Traven (b. 1882?), German anarchist novelist, dies. [see: Feb 23]

2000 - Alex Comfort (b. 1920), British physician, gerontologist, sexologist, anarchist, pacifist, poet, novelist, etc., dies. [see: Feb 10]
1839 - Jules Lermina (d. 1915), French prolific novelist, journalist and anarchist, whose early novels appeared under the pseudonym William Cobb, born. Author of the 'L'ABC du Libertaire' (1906), published by the Aiglemont libertarian colony and in 'Le Libertaire'

[B] 1854 - Georges Eekhoud (d. 1927), Belgian novelist and anarchist, born. In the 1880s Eekhoud took part in several of the modern French-Belgian artist movements, like Les XX and La Jeune Belgique and began to get involved with the growing Belgian anarchist movement. 'Kees Doorik', his first novel was published in 1883, about the wild life of a tough young farmhand who committed a murder and his novels continued to be markedly socio-politcal in content, portray working class life but with a distinct homosexual subtext. Gay himself, Eekhoud published his 1899 novel 'Escal-Vigor', the first novel in French literature to deal openly the homosexuality, to critical acclaim but wider public outrage and Eekhoud was unsuccessfully proscecuted for violating morality.

1871 - Heinrich Mann (d. 1950), German novelist, utopian and anti-fascist, born. [expand]

1918 - Henry Brooks Adams (b. 1838), American journalist, historian, academic and novelist, dies. [see: Feb. 16]

1920 - Dada manifestation in the Salle Berlioz dans la Maison de l'Oeuvre in Paris.

2006 - Stanislaw Lem (b. 1921), Polish writer of science fiction, philosophy and satire, essayist and critic, dies. His meisterwerk is 'Futurological Congress' (Kongres Futurologiczny; 1971), a satirical exploration of utopias and dystopias. [see: Sep. 12]
[B] 1917 - Ramón Cambra aka 'Mone' (d. 2010), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-militarist, printer, translator and poet, born.

1953 - Valentine de Saint-Point (Anna Jeanne Valentine Marianne Glans de Cessiat-Vercell; b. 1875), French artist, writer, poet, painter, playwright, art critic, choreographer, lecturer, journalist, feminist and futurist, who repudiated Marinetti's views on women, dies. [see: Feb. 16]

1985 - Marc Chagall (born Moishe Segal; b. 1887), Russian Modernist artist who worked in virtually every artistic medium, including painting, book illustrations, stained glass, stage sets, ceramic, tapestries and fine art prints, dies. [see: Jul. 7]

1994 - Eugène Ionesco (d. 1909), Romanian-born French dramatist and anti-fascist, whose one-act anti-play 'La Cantatrice Chauve' (The Bald Soprano; 1950) inspired the Theatre of the Absurd, dies. [see: Nov. 26]
1797 - The pregnant Mary Wollstonecraft marries novelist/anarchist/political theorist William Godwin. She dies in the autumn, 11 days after the birth of her daughter, Mary. Her daughter Mary goes on to marry the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley (author of 'The Mask of Anarchy') and writes the novel Frankenstein.

1891 - Yvan Goll (Isaac Lang; d. 1950), bilingual French-German Jewish writer (poetry, novels, dramas, libretti, essays, etc.) and anarchist sympathiser, who had close ties to German expressionism, Zurich Dada and to French surrealism, who also wrote under the pseudonym of Iwan Lazang, born in Alsace-Lorraine. A law and philosophy student in Berlin, he became involved in the new wave of German expressionism then flourishing in Berlin before the First World War.
A friend of the Jewish German poet and playwright Else Lasker-Schüler, he too would became a noted Expressionist poet as well as writing for the theatre. He also collaborated on the Expressionist magazines 'Der Sturm' and 'Die Aktion'. A socialist pacifist and in 1914, to escape conscription into the German army, he took refuge in Geneva, where he adopted the pseudonym Yvan Goll in 1915. In Switzerland he became a member of the Pacifist group around the French writer Romain Rolland (Pierre Jean Jouve), spent time at the Ascona commune and became associated with Hans Arp, Tristan Tzara and Francis Picabia at the Cabaret Voltaire and continued his law studies at the University of Lausanne.
In 1919, he moved to Paris with his future wife, Claire Aischmann-Studer, where they associated with a circle of poets and painters, who were followers of Apollinaire. They were also associated with artits and writers such as André Malraux, Jean Cocteau, Louis Aragon, Philippe Soupault, Fernand Léger, Marc Chagall, Fujita Tsuguharu, Robert Delaunay and Albert Gleizes.
His artwork, previously marked by Expressionism, became informed by the Cubist and Constructivist aesthetics of the circles that he moved in, and his Cubism anticipated his later Apollinaire-influenced Surrealism. Largely derived from dreams, his Surrealism waould be particularly influencial on Devětsil and the Czech Surrealists, as well as in Latin America (on the like of Vicente Huidobro) and on English speakers such as Pound and Joyce. He would present his artistic ideas in the only issue of his 1924 magazine 'Surréalisme' in his 'Manifeste du Surréalisme' essay, which threw down the gauntlet: "Monsieur Breton, prenez-en votre parti: vous ne serez pas le Pape du Surréalisme!". Breton's own 'Manifeste du Surréalisme', published a month later, largely turned out to be an attack on Goll's views on surrealism and the pair would continue an antagonistic relationship for another 20 years, until Goll assisted Breton to settle in America, introducing him to the new intellectual world that he had become a part of, when the latter arrived in the country in 1942 as an exile. Yvan and Claire Goll had emigrated to the United States in 1939 to escape Nazi persecution, settling in New York where they remained until 1947, when Yvan was diagnosed with leukaemia and decided to return to liberated France. He died on Feb. 27, 1950. Claire survived him until May 30, 1977. Both writers are buried the Père-Lachaise cemetery in Paris.
Amongst Goll's works are his Expressionist poetry collections 'Films' (1914) and 'Der neue Orpheus. Eine Dithyrambe' (1918), which was published in 'Die Aktion' and illustrated by Georg Grosz; his famous anti-war poem 'Requiem für die Gefallenen von Europa' (Requiem for the Dead of Europe; 1916); a play 'Der Unsterbliche' (The Immortal One; 1918); 'Die Chapliniade: eine Kinodichtung' (Chapliniade: A film poem; 1920), illustrated by Fernand Léger; the 1921 satiric drama, 'Methusatern oder Der ewíge Bürger' (Methusalem, or or the Eternal Bourgeois), which anarchist film maker Jean Painlevé made into his first short film in 1926, playing Hamlet, and with Antonin Artaud as a bishop at a surreal funeral; the long experimental poem 'Paris Brennt' (Paris Burns; 1921); his Apollinaire-influenced 'Manifeste du Surréalisme' (1924); 'Der Eiffelturm: gesammelte Dichtungen' (1924), illustrated by Robert Delaunay and Fernand Léger; Marc Chagall illustrated 'Poèmes d'amour' (1925), a collection of love poems by Goll and his wife Claire; the libretto for a surrealist opera, 'Royal Palace' (1927), set to music by composer Kurt Weill, and the scenario for Weill's cantata 'Der Neue Orpheus' (1927), based on his 1918 poem of the same name; 'Chansons Malaises' (1935); the epic poem 'La chanson de Jean Sans Terre' (The song of homeless John; 1936), with illustrations contributed by Marc Chagall; 'Élégie d'Ihpetonga suivi des masques de cendre' (1949; Elegy of Ihpetonga and Masks of Ashes), illustrated by Pablo Picasso; 'Traumkraut' (Dreamweed; 1951), written between 1947 and 1950, but published after his death; 'Abendgesang. Siebzehn Gedichte aus dem Nachlass' (Evening Song. Seventeen poems from his estate; 1953); and 'Bouquet de Rêves pour Neila' (1967), with illustrations by Joan Miró.

'Requiem For The Dead of Europe'

Let me lament the exodus of so many men from their time;
Let me lament the women whose warbling hearts now scream;
Every lament let me note and add to the list,
When young widows sit by lamplight mourning for husbands lost;
I hear the blonde-voiced children crying for God their father at bedtime;
On every mantelpiece stand photographs wreathed with ivy, smiling, true to the past;
At every window stand lonely girls whose burning eyes are bright with tears;
In every garden lilies are growing, as though there’s a grave to prepare;
In every street the cars are moving more slowly, as though to a funeral;
In every city of every land you can hear the passing-bell;
In every heart there’s a single plaint,
I hear it more clearly every day.


[B] 1940 - Godfrey Reggio, documentarian film director, screenwriter, actor, and anarchist, born.

1961 - Armand Robin (b. 1912), French poet, translator and anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 19]
"Que m'importe qu'on m'abatte au coin de la rue, j'écrirai des poèmes jusqu'à ce qu'on me tue." ("What does it matter to me that I am shot on the street corner, I shall write poems until they kill me.")

1968 - Monny de Boully (Solomon or Salmon Moni de Buli; b. 1904) Serbian-French Surrealist writer, poet and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 27]
[B] 1844 - Paul Verlaine (d. 1896), French Symbolist poète maudit, born. Bisexual lover of Arthur Rimbaud and, whilst never an anarchist despite the Mary Evans caricature of him as a devil with the word 'anarchist' in cyrillic letters on his forehead, he did frequent the usual Parisian anarchist haunts. French singer Léo Ferré set fourteen of his poems (along with 8 of Rimbaud's) to music on his album 'Verlaine et Rimbaud' (1964).

[BB] 1895 - Jean Giono (d. 1970), French author (novels, poetry, essays, journalism, plays) and, like his Italian-born shoemaker-father, Jean-Antoine, he was a self-taught libertarian, born. Regarded as a "paysan-anarchiste", apart from holidays and his abominated war service, spent his whole life in the small town of Manosque in Provence. Traumatised by his experiences in WWI, he became a committed lifelong pacifist. Returning to work in his local bank, he began to write fiction and following the success of his prize-winning first published novel, 'Colline' (Hill of Destiny; 1929), he quit to write full time, going on to produce a n extensive and varied output. Nature featured strongly in his work, such as 'Les Vraies Richesses' (True Riches; 1936) and the more famous 'Le Hussard sur le Toit' ( The Horseman on the Roof; 1951) and 'L'homme qui Plantait des Arbres' (The Man Who Planted Trees; 1953), both later made into films, as were a number of his other works. His more overtly political texts include his novel 'Le Grand Troupeau' (To the Slaughterhouse; 1931), which was based on his WWI experiences; pamphlets such as 'Refus d’Obéissance' (Disobedience; 1937); and the polemical 'Lettre aux Paysans sur la Pauvreté et la Paix' (Letter to Farmers on Poverty and Peace; 1938). One of his texts, 'Le Grand Théâtre', appeared in possibly the most exclusive book ever, 'L'Apocalypse de Saint Jean', encrusted with gems by Salvador Dalí, weighing 460 pounds and valued at over a million dollars. In addition, Giono directed a single film, 'Crésus' (Croesus; 1960), about the travails of a lonely shepherd who discovers a stash of money shortly after WWII.
With the rise of fascism and foreseeing another European war, he looked to join together with others to more effectively campaign against the threat of war, in February 1934 he joined the communist-inspired Association des Écrivains et Artistes Révolutionnaires (Association of Revolutionary Writers and Artists) but left in 1935 when the French Communist Party and the USSR came out in support of rearmament. His pacifism would repeated lead him into trouble during WWII. Arrested on September 14 1939 for refusing mobilisation, he escaped charges and was discharged from military service. He also continued to publish throughout the war, works that were openly critical of the Vichy regime and which he refused to submit to the censor; and was regularly accused of collaboration, despite his obvious anti-Nazism and whilst secretly protecting clandestine Jews and communists (including German Trotskyist Karl Fiedler and Marie-Berthe Aurenche, ex-wife of Max Ernst and partner of the Expressionist painter Chaïm Soutine). His supposed collaboration also resulted in the bomb that exploded outside his door during the night of 11/12 January 1943, his arrest and imprisonment in September 1944 and the banning of his books until 1947.

1916 - Gala night at Cabaret Voltaire: Huelsenbeck, Janco and Tzara recite in three languages a simultaneous poem of their own creation.

1955 - (Mary) Eleanor 'Fitzi' Fitzgerald (b. 1877), US anarchist, magazine editor, director, business manager and executive director of the experimental theatre company, the Provincetown Players, dies. [see: Mar. 16]

1966 - Erwin Friedrich Maximilian Piscator (b. 1893), German theatre director and producer and poet, dies. [see: Dec. 17]

1980 - Henry Poulaille (b. 1896), French anarchist writer and champion of Proletarian Literature, dies. [see: Dec. 5]
[B] 1885 - Jules Pascin (Julius Mordecai Pincas; b. 1930), Bulgarian-born American painter and anarchist, born. An Expressionist, he was influenced first by Fauvism and, for a brief period, by Cubism. A member of the so-called Paris School, his work included satirical cartoons, drawings, watercolours, oils, pastels, etching and lithographs.

1888 - Jean-Marie Guyau (b. 1854), French poet and libertarian philosopher, dies. Kropotkin labelled him as being "unconsciously anarchist". [see: Oct. 29]

1936 - Marge Piercy, American poet, novelist, and social activist, born. Author of 'Woman on the Edge of Time'.

1945 - Maurice Donnay (b. 1859), French playwright, dies. [see: Oct. 12]

2000 - Gisèle Freund (Gisela Freund; b. 1908), German-born French photographer and photojournalist, socialist and anti-fascist, best known for her documentary photography and portraits of writers and artists and her book 'Photographie et Société' (1974), about the uses and abuses of the photographic medium in the age of technological reproduction, dies. [see: Nov. 19]

[B] 1856 - Charles Maurin (d. 1914), French painter, engraver, anti-clerical and anarchist, born. Worked in a variety of styles including Post-impressionism and Symbolism. Inspired by the work of Japanese artists and the growing popularity of the 18th-century print, he was one of a small group of artists who experimented with colour plates and in 1891 he patented a new technique of colour printing. He also produced wood-engravings, many depicting working class life. A friend of the anarchist painter Felix Vallotton, he collaborated on various newspapers including Fénéon's 'La Revue Blanche' and Jean Grave's 'Le Temps Nouveaux'. Bizarrely, Winston Churchill used the pseudonym Charles Maurin to exhibit his painting under.

1919 - Johannes Baader announces the death and the resurrection of the Oberdada (starting year 1 in a new era).

1926 - Charles Angrand (b. 1854), Impressionist, Néo-Impressionist, Divisionist and Pointillist painter and anarchist illustrator, dies. [see: Apr. 19]

1971 - Boots Riley (Raymond Lawrence Riley), US hip hop artist, producer and radical community activist, best known as the lead vocalist of The Coup and Street Sweeper Social Club.

1976 - Max Ernst (b. 1891), German Dadaist and Surrealist painter, sculptor, graphic artist and poet, dies. [see: Apr. 2]
1840 - Emile Zola (d. 1902), French writer, experimental novelist and activist, born. Author of 'Germinal', one of whose central characters is Souvarine, a Russian anarchist and political émigré who arrives in Montsou seeking a living in the pits. The basis for some of the ideas expounded in Germinal stem from a series of discussions on the anarchist challenges to Marx's ideas that Zola held with Turgenev shortly before his death in 1882. Zola was at the forefront of the campaign to support Alfred Dreyfus, and his open letter 'J'accuse' ultimately led to Zola being sentenced to prison in 1898. He fled to England, and returned only after Dreyfus was pardoned.

[B] 1891 - Max Ernst (d. 1976), German Dadaist and Surrealist painter, sculptor, graphic artist and poet, born. Read and was influenced by Stirner's 'The Ego and His Own' in his youth, as did many Dadaist, long claiming it as one of his favourites, and studied philosophy at university. He also titled a 1925 frottage 'L'Unique et sa Propriété'.

1892 - Hans Leybold (d. 1914), German Expressionist poet and anarchist fellow traveller, whose small body of work was a major inspiration behind Berlin Dada, and in particular the works of his close friend Hugo Ball, born. He was involved in editing and contributing to Expressionist magazines, including Franz Pfemfert's 'Die Aktion'. He and Ball produced poetry together under the pseudonym Ha Hu Baley and also started the short lived magazine 'Die Revolution', which that had Erich Mühsam's (another close friend of Leybold) slogan "Laßt uns chaotisch sein" (Let us be chaotic) in its masthead, and in which and his colleagues issued their literary manifestos.
"Protect yourself against responsibilities! Hit out: against old household rubbish! And if some valuable piece gets torn up in the process: what does it matter? You respected people! You well-polished ones! You bigwigs! We ought to stick our tongues out at you! Boys, you'll say. Old men! we'll reply"

1939 - Mauro Bajatierra Morán (b. 1884), Spanish journalist, prolific writer, novelist, playwright, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist propagandist, summarily tried and executed in Madrid following the Fascist victory. [see: Jul. 8]

1945 - Chris Lebeau (Joris Johannes Christiaan Lebeau; b. 1878), Dutch artist, designer, painter, art teacher, theosophist and anarchist, dies in Dachau concentration camp. [see: May 26]

1952 - Lettrist Gil Wolman's 'L'Anticoncept' (1951) is banned by the French film censorship commission.

1962 - Pierre Carles, French libertarian documentary filmmaker, agent provocateur and one-time anarcho-communist, born. Co-directed (with Georges Minangoy) 'Ni Vieux Ni Traître' (2006), a documentary film about the involvement of French and Catalan anarchists in the fight against Franco.
1858 - Albert Victor Samain (d. 1900), French Symbolist poet, writer and anarchist, born. A habituee of Le Chat Noir, his most famous poetry collection is 'Le Jardin de l'Infante' (1893).

1909 - Joan Borràs Casanova (d. 1987), Spanish anarchist, proletarian painter, poster artist and writer, born. Following the Fascist coup, he joined the CNT's Aliança d'Intellectuals per a la Defensa de la Cultura i al Sindicat de Dibuixants (Alliance of Intellectuals for the Defence of Culture and the Union of Artists). During the revolution, he worked as a member of the Libre-Studio designing posters for the Delegació de Propaganda i Premsa del Consell Executiu Popular (Office of Propaganda and Popular Media Executive Council; CEP) - becoming known as a painter of the Revolution - and illustrations for the libertarian press such as 'Estudios', 'Libre-Studio', etc.

1912 - Federico Borrell García aka 'El Taino' (d. 1936), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Founder of the local branch of the Libertarian Youth (FIJL) in 1932. FAI militant and during the Spanish Revolution a militiaman in the Columna Alcoiana led by the local anarchist activist, Enrique Vaño Nicomedes. He is best known now by the iconic photo 'The Fallen Soldier', by Robert Capa, which captured his moment of death on September 5, 1936.

1915 - The first issue of the pre-Dadaist Expressionist journal 'Der Mistral', "Literarische Kriegszeitschrift" (literary war journal), is published by Hugo Kersten , Emil Szittya and Walter Serner in Zurich. Printed by the mysterious anarchist printer Julius Heuberger, it has a distinctly anarchist political tone, criticising the "grammar of war", one based on bourgeois linguistic structures and rages against religion, law, politics and the current cultural industry. Three issues were published, the last on April 26, 1915, which bears the subtitle "Zeitschrift für Literatur und Kunst" (Journal of Literature and Art).

[B] 1968 - Nina Paley, American cartoonist, animator, libertarian and free culture activist, born.

2011 - Marian Pankowski (b. 1919), Polish writer, poet, literary critic and translator, and anti-Nazi fighter, dies. [see: Nov. 9]
1846 - Comte de Lautréamont (pseudonym of Isidore-Lucien Ducasse; d. 1870), Uruguayan-born French poet and proto-surrealist, born. His only works, 'Les Chants de Maldoror' (1869) and 'Poésies' (1870), had a major influence on modern literature, particularly on the Surrealists and the Situationists. He coined the phrase "the chance encounter of an umbrella and a sewing machine on an operating table", later adopted by the Surrealists.

[B] 1858 - Remy de Gourmont (d. 1915), French Symbolist poet, novelist, journalist, art critic, anti-nationalist and anarchist, born. One of the founders of the 'Mercure de France', in which much of his work was published,including his anti-nationalist text 'Joujou Patriotisme', which in 1891 led to the bourgeois press labelling him "un dangereux anarchiste" and his being forced to resign from the Bibliothèque Nationale, despite Octave Mirbeau's intercession. A friend of Joris-Karl Huysmans and Stéphane Mallarmé, he was also co-editor alongside Alfred Jarry, of 'L'Ymagier', a magazine dedicated to symbolist wood carvings. His 1899 anarchist novel, 'Le Désarroi', remained unpublished until 2006.
"Art is free of any freedom of conscience"

[BB] 1876 - Maurice de Vlaminck (d. 1958), French landscape and still-life painter, lithographer, wood-engraver, etcher, writer, poet, violinist and anarchist, born. Along with André Derain and Henri Matisse he is considered one of the principal figures in the Fauve movement, later dabbling with Cubism (despite his professed hostility to it and it's debt to Cézanne, who was a great influence on Vlaminck's art) and graduating to a more abstract art. He grew up in a musical household and helped support his young family by giving music lessons and playing in popular orchestras and café-concerts in Paris, alongside working as a wrestler, billiards shooter, mechanic, labourer and professional cyclist before a bout with typhus weakened him. He also discovered that he could write, penned three risqué novels ]in collaboration with Fernand Sernada, including 'D'un Lit Dans l'Autre' (From One Bed to Another; 1902)] as well as writing vehemently anti-bourgeois articles for the anarchist press including 'Le Libertaire'.
While serving his mandatory 3-year military obligation, he met the painter André Derain in 1900, when the train on which both men were riding derailed. A lifelong friendship was struck, as well as a deal to share a studio in Chatou. Much of his work is of Expressionist landscapes with few featured human figures and represents a largely nostalgic (the modern world was also largely absent too as exampled by his hatred of the railways - "a gaping sore which admits infection"), view of the countryside, and certainly one that hated its annexing by the bourgeoisie and their houses built on once productive farming land.
In addition to his books written with Serada, he wrote some 20 works - novels, poems and memoirs - including 'Tournant Dangereux' (Dangerous Turn' 1929), 'Le Ventre Ouvert' (The Open Stomach; 1937), 'Portraits Avant Décès' (Portraits Before Death; 1943) and 'Paysages et Personnages' (Landscapes and Characters; 1953). He also illustrated with drawings, woodcuts, etchings and lithographs more than 20 books, including 'Les Hommes Abandonnés' (Man Abandoned; 1927) by Georges Duhamel, 'Le Diable au Corps' (The Devil Made Flesh; 1926) by Raymond Radiguet and works by other writers such as Julien Green and Marcel Aymé, in addition to books that he himself had written.
Participated, alongside fellow Fauvists André Derain and Kees van Dongen, in the November 1941 Weimar congress of European artists organised by the Nazi "official state sculptor" Arno Breker, and was considered a collaborationist post-WWII.
"What I could have done in real life only by throwing a bomb...I tried to achieve in painting."

1933 - The SS break into John Heartfield's apartment, and he barely escapes by jumping from his balcony and flees to Czechoslovakia, where he continues his anti-fascist propaganda work (the work he left behind was confiscated and destroyed).
1895 - Oscar Wilde is arrested on charges of sodomy and gross indecency.

1896 - Jean Charles Boussinot (d. 1970), French anarchist schoolmaster, and writer, born. Father of the libertarian writer, director, screenwriter and film historian Roger Boussinot [see: May 2].
Wrote 'Le Cœur qui Chante: drame en 3 actes' (The Heart Sings: drama in 3 acts); the novels 'Les Meskines' (1930) and 'La Délivrance de Prométhée, 1: La Femelle' (1933); as well as a number of anti-clerical texts on education, including 'L'École, Antichambre de Caserne et de Sacristie' and 'Le Vrai Visage de L’école Laïque' (The School, Antechamber of the Barracks and Sacristy and The True Face of the Secular School; 1931) with Émile Janvion; as well as the wonderfully titled 'Mourir Pour la Patrie? Oh ! Non, Pas Ça!' (Dying for one's country? Oh! No not that!), one of a number of articles for the 'Encyclopédie Anarchiste'.

1943 - Peter Miller (d. 1999), English anarchist militant, secularist and trade unionist, born. Initially a member of the Trotskyist Socialist Labour League, he moved towards anarchism and, after a meeting with Albert Meltzer, began a long cooperation with the Anarchist Black Cross. A militant secularist, he was chair of the Leicester Secular Society for more than 10 years and an active trade unionist in the labourt movement in Leicestershire. He was also involved in the libertarian press, with 'Black Flag', 'Freedom', 'Cienfugos Press Anarchist Review', 'Anarchy Magazine' and published in the 70s the anarchist cultural magazine 'Z Review'.

1960 - Moriya Emori (盛弥 江森; b. 1903), Japanese poet and anarchist, also known as Soma Jukichi, dies. [see: Aug. 18]

1976 - Marcelo Salinas (b. 1889), Cuban anarchist, playwright and journalist, who was forced into exile by the Castro regime, dies. [see: Oct. 30]

1988 - Pierre Prévert (b. 1906), French filmmaker, actor, director, writer and libertarian, dies. [see: May 26]

1997 - Allen Ginsberg (b. 1926), American Beat poet, one-time Wobbly and anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 3]

[B] 2004 - Gébé (Gérard Blondeaux; b. 1929), French anarchist, prolific cartoonist, editor of 'Hara-Kiri', 'Charlie Hebdo' and 'Zero', dies. Many of his cartoons and illustrations appeared in the libertarian press, such as 'Monde Libertaire' as well as in alternative and satirical publications.
One of his comic series 'L'An 01' [i.e. after May '68], which covered topics as diverse as ecology, the negation of authority, free love, community life, the rejection of private property and labour, and which was made into a film of the same name directed in 1973 by Jacques Doillon, Alain Resnais, Jean Rouch and Gébé himself. Amongst his other comic strips are 'Armée Non!' (No Army!; 1981) and 'Anarchie Douce' (Soft Anarchism; 1982).
He also wrote works for radio, songs-like 'Casse-Tete', interpreted by Yves Montand, François Béranger, Gérard Jouannest and Juliette Gréco; novels such as 'Sept Cartouches' (Seven cartridges; 1982), 'Le Roman d'une Année Sabbatique' (Novel of a Sabbatical Year; 1988) and 'Les Résistants du Square' (The Résistance Fighters of the Square; 1991). [see: Jul. 9]
1847 - Gustave Jeanneret (d. 1927), Swiss painter, member of the International Council of the Jura Federation, brother of the libertarian engraver and writer Georges-Edouard Jeanneret and uncle of Le Corbusier, born. Trained as a wallpaper engraver but left for Paris in 1869 to dedicate himself fully to his art. During the Semaine Sanglante he was involved in smuggling passports into Paris to enable the escape of Communards. Back in Switzerland, Switzerland, he was secretary of the Neuchâtel section of the AIT (anti-authoritarian) and active within the Jura Federation. He specialised in realist views of the countryside and especially the vineyard.

1862 - Georges Darien (pseudonym for Georges Hippolyte Adrien)(d. 1921), French writer (novels, plays, literary magazines, etc.) associated with anarchism and an outspoken advocate of Georgism, born. His novel 'Les Pharisiens' (1891) is a fictional indictment of French anti-semitism and its most prominent advocate, Édouard Drumont. Forgotten after his death, he was rediscovered after the reissue of 'Voleur' (1897) in 1955 and of 'Bas les Cœurs!' (1889) in 1957.
"I belong to no party. I have no flag. I hate all flags, including the red flag."

[A] 1878 - Erich Mühsam (d. 1934 ), gay German poet, playwright and anarchist militant, born. A rebel from an early age (expelled from school aged 13 and a writer of satirical verse), he left his apprenticeship in the family Pharmacy in 1900 to devote himself to cultural agitation. By 1901 he was in Berlin, where he and his partner Johannes Nohl met the likes of John Henry Mackay, Johannes Schlaf and Hanns Heinz Ewers. He also joined the Neue Gemeinschaft (New Community) circle, which brought together young political intellectuals and agitated in favour of community life, and including Peter Hille, Martin Buber and Gustav Landauer. At that time Mühsam discovered the writings of a number of anarchists, especially those of Mikhail Bakunin. He also began working on numerous libertarian publications such as 'Der Freie Arbeiter', 'Der Anarchist', Johannes Holzman's (Senna Hoy) magazine 'Der Kampf', and he edited the Berlin newspaper 'Der Arme Teufel' (The Poor Devil). Culturally, he became a member of the Friedrichshagener Dichterkreis (Friedrichshagener circle of poets) naturalist writers circle and was a popular figure in literary cabarets and bohemian circles, becoming the producer of the Cabaret zum Peter Hille, named after the Neue Gemeinschaft member.
Between 1904 and 1907, he travelled throughout Europe with his partner Johannes Nohl, going to Italy ans Switzerland, where he met Fritz Brupbacher, Bakunin biographer, and participated in the Monte Verità community at Ascona, befriending Karl Gräser, co-founder of Monte Verità with his brother Gusto. He also visited Austria and France, in Paris he frequenting the cabarets Le Lapin Agile and Le Chat Noir, and participated in several meetings of the German Anarchist Club of Paris, befriending Gustave Herve, James Guillaume and former Communards. Back in Berlin, he continued working in 'Der Freie Arbeiter' and its monthly anti-militarist supplement 'Generalstreik' (General Strike), along with 'Der Jugend' and the arts magazine 'Simplicissimus'.
Following the 1907 International Anarchist Congress in Amsterdam, he made a public called for civil disobedience and refuse to pay the tax for the Army. That same year, and having also published a pamphlet on those issues, he was fined 500 marks for "incitement to class hatred and encouraging disobedience of the law." In November 1908, he settled in Munich, where he founded the Gruppe Tat (Action), which included Oskar Maria Graf and Georg Schrimpf amongst its members, and joined Landauer's newly founded Sozialistischer Bund (Socialist Federation), which was based on federated Proudhonian mutualist communities. Arrested numerous times and especially persecuted for having organised demonstrations of unemployed, in 1910 he was arrested for membership of a secret societies but eventually acquitted for lack of evidence. However, it did bring about the end of the Tat group.
Around the same time he was an active member of a Schwabian cultural circle, which included the likes of Heinrich Mann and Frank Wedekind along with many other poets and artists. He also published three books of poetry, four plays, and in the period 1911-14 was editor of the revolutionary literary monthly 'Kain: Zeitschrift für Menschlichkeit' (Cain: Journal of Humanity), in which many of his writings of the period were also published.
After the outbreak of WWI, Mühsam initially supported the Manifesto of the Sixteen, for which he was heavily criticise, especially by Landauer. However, he eventually changed his position and was involved in attempts, along with Landauer, Heinrich Mann, etc., to establish an international federation of opponents to the war. His attitude was considered "defeatist" by the authorities and he was banished to the Bavarian Alps. This failed to stop him, and on 17 June 1916, he participated in a demonstration against hunger. In January 1918, during a strike by workers in the munitions factories of Munich, he took to the floor in front of around 100,000 Krupp factory workers to call for a general strike, and was arrested. For violating his ban on political activity for refusing to participate in the then Vaterländischen Hilfsdienst (Patriotic Support Forum), he was sentenced to six months imprisonment in Traunstein and not released until November 5 1918, shortly before the revolution.
During the German Revolution of November 1918, and which proclaimed the Republic, he was a member of Revolutionären Arbeiterrats (Revolutionary Workers' Counci) which deposed the Kaiser and proclaimed the Free State of Bavaria. Following the assassination of the Bavarian Prime Minister Kurt Eisner by right-wingers, he was one of the leaders of the Bavarian Soviet Republic of April 7 1919 but, following the April 13 attempted Munich Soviet coup, he was arrested and jailed with other leaders. After the defeat of the Republic by the Reichswehr and the right-wing nationalist Freikorps, and during which his friend Landauer was murdered, he was sentenced to 15 years in prison for being a "treibendes element" (driving element).
During his imprisonment he wrote many poems and propaganda pieces including 'Brennende Erde' (Burning Earth), 'Verse eines Kämpfer' (Fighter's Poems), 'Alarm', 'Manifeste aus zwanzig Jahren' (Manifesto of 20 Years) and the five act drama 'Judas' in tribute to Gustav Landauer, killed during the post-Republic repression. Upon release on 20 December 1924 (under a general amnesty that saw Adolf Hitler, who by then had only served eight months of a five-year sentence for leading the Beer Hall Putsch in 1923, also released), he moved to Berlin and founded the anarchist periodical 'Fanal' (Beacon) together with the Anarchist Union. He also participated in campaigning for the release of Sacco and Vanzetti and against the expulsion of Durruti and other Spanish anarchist exiles. From 1925 to 1929 he was active the Rote Hilfe Deutschlands (Red Aid), the Communist Party associated prisoner support organisation, but left because of political differences . In the early 1930s, he was a member of the anarcho-syndicalist FAUD, alongside his friend and comrade Rudolf Rocker. A special issue of the journal 'Fanal' appeared in 1932, shortly before the seizure of power by the Nazis. It included his philosophical essay 'Die Befreiung Geselischaft der vom Staat' (The Emancipation of Society from the State; 1932), subtitled 'Was ist Kommunistischer Anarchismus?' (What is Communist Anarchism?), in which he rejected the doctrine of historical materialism in his work, explaining his revolutionary concepts and the need for the replacement of the state by an organisation of free manual workers and intellectuals. In it he also denounced the Communist Party for its subverting of the Russian revolution, its seizure of power and its so-called dictatorship in the name of the proletariat. From 1931-1933 Mühsam also published regular satirical political contributions in the 'Ulk' supplement in the 'Berliner Tageblattes' under the pseudonym Tobias.
From the mid 1920s onwards, Mühsam had been relentlessly denounced by the Nazi press because of his writings satirising the Nazis such as his short story 'Die Affenschande' (1923), which ridiculed the racial doctrines of the Nazi party, and the poem 'Republikanische Nationalhymne' (1924), which attacked the German judiciary for its disproportionate punishment of leftists when compared to the right wing participants in the Putsch. Following his attempts to create a broad anti-fascist front, Goebbels labelled him "the red Jewish pig" and the main Nazi organ, 'Die Völkischer Beobachter', published three photos on the front page (Rosa Luxemburg, Karl Liebknecht and Mühsam) with the caption: "The only traitors in the team that have not been executed."
On 20 February 1933, chaired the last meeting of anti-fascist artists in Berlin. Shortly thereafter, on February 28 1933, the day after the Reichstag fire, he was arrested as he tried to leave for Prague. Even after his arrest, the Nazi propaganda machine kept after him claiming that he was involved in the execution of 22 hostages in Munich on April 30 1919, unaware that from April 13 onwards he was firmly locked up in Ebrach prison. Following his arrest, Mühsam spent time in Sonnebrug, Ploetzensse and Brandenburg prison camps, where he was routinely beaten and tortured for things like not singing 'Deutschland über alles', for singing 'The Internationale', and so he could not write, etc. Suffering from heart disease, deaf, almost blind and unable to walk unaided, he was eventually hospitalised.
In February 1934 he was transferred to Orianenburg Concentration Camp, where he was put to work cleaning the latrines. During the night of July 9-10, 1934 he was brutally murdered by SS men, who left him strung up in the latrines. The Nazi press claimed: "Der Jude Erich Mühsam hat sich in der Schutzhaft erhängt" (The Jew Erich Mühsam hung himself in protective custody). His end echoed the meaning of his surname: Painfully (or Laboriously). Mühsam was buried on 16 July 1934 at the cemetery in Dahlem (Berlin, Germany).
Amongst the works published in his lifetime were 'Die Homosexualität. Ein Beitrag zur Sittengeschichte unserer Zeit' (Homosexuality. A contribution to the history of morals of our time; 1903) (pamphlet); 'Die Wüste. Gedichte 1898-1903' (The Desert. Poems 1898-1903; 1904); 'Billy's Erdengang. Eine Elephantengeschichte für artige Kinder' (Billy's Life. An Elephant Story for Kids; 1904), with Hanns Heinz Ewers; 'Die Hochstapler. Lustspiel in vier Aufzügen' (The Impostor. Comedy in four acts; 1906); 'Wüste - Krater - Wolken. Die Gedichte' (Desert - Crater - Clouds. The Poems; 1914); 'Die Freivermählten. Polemisches Schauspiel in drei Aufzügen' (The Free-weds. Polemical Drama in three Acts; 1914); '1919. Dem Andenken Gustav Landauers' (1919. In Memory of Gustav Landauer; 1919); 'Brennende Erde. Verse eines Kämpfers' (Burning Earth. Verses of a Fighter; 1920); 'Judas. Arbeiter-Drama in fünf Akten' (Judas. Workers drama in five acts; 1921); 'Revolution. Kampf, Marsch und Spottlieder' (Revolution. Battle, March and Satirical Songs; 1925); 'Staatsräson. Ein Denkmal für Sacco und Vanzetti' (Reason of state. A Monument to Sacco and Vanzetti; 1929).

Die Augen auf! Erwachen
aus Druck und Zwang und Staat!
Ihr Armen und ihr Schwachen,
besinnt euch auf die Tat!
Die ihr dem Herrn den Spaten führt,
die Häuser baut, das Feuer schürt, -
sehnt ihr euch nicht nach Brot und Land?
Den eignen Spaten in die Hand!
Fort mit der Fessel, die euch band!

In Reihen, Kameraden!
Die ihr die Arbeit haßt,
mit der man euch beladen, -
werft von euch eure Last!
Werft sie, wohin sie fallen mag!
Schafft selbst euch euern Arbeitstag
Pfeift auf des Herren Dienstgebot!
Nicht ihm - euch selbst backt euer Brot!
Nicht ihm - euch selbst helft aus der Not!

Ans Werk! Die Kinder schreien
nach Brot und Bett und Kleid!
Ans Werk, sie zu befreien
aus ihrem Weh und Leid!
Ans Werk, ihr Männer und ihr Frauen!
Den Kindern gilt's die Welt zu bauen!
Mensch, fühl dich Mensch und sei kein Hund!
Freiheit auf freiem Ackergrund!
Dem Volk den Boden! Schließt den Bund!

(The eyes! Awakening
of pressure and coercion and state!
Her arms and her weak,
remembers you in the act!
Leading her to the Lord the spade,
builds the houses, stoking the fire, -
not long after ye bread and country?
Are the spade in his hand!
Continued with the ankle, the tape you!

In rows, comrades!
You hate the work,
with the one you loaded, -
cast your burden from you!
Throw them wherever they may fall!
You yourselves create your working day!
Whistles of the gentlemen on service priority!
Not him - you yourselves bake your bread!
Not him - you help yourself out of trouble!

To work! The children cry
for bread and bed and dress
To work, to free them
from their pain and suffering!
To work, their men and their women!
The children's is to build the world!
Human, feel human and was not a dog!
Freedom at large arable ground!
The people of the ground! Makes the covenant!)

- 'Weckruf' (Wake-up call; 1909)


[BB] 1888 - Hans Richter (d. 1976), German Dadaist painter, sculptor, collagist, graphic artist, avant-garde film-experimenter, anti-militarist and anarchist, who claimed that Kropotkin's 'Mutual Aid' was the most significant book that he ever read, born. [expand]

1893 - Dyer Daniel Lum (b. 1839), American anarchist, labour activist and poet, dies. He was a prominent anarcho-syndicalist, leftist intellectual and the partner and mentor of early anarcha-feminist Voltairine de Cleyre.

[B] 1902 - Margaret Michaelis (Michaelis-Sachs) (born Margarethe Gross; d. 1985), Austrian, and then Australian, photographer and anarchist, born in Dzieditz, near Krakow, to a liberal Jewsih family. She studied photography at the Graphische Lehr-und Versuchsanstalt (Institute of Graphic Arts and Research) in Vienna from 1918-1921.
'Margaret Michaelis : fotografía, vanguardia y política en la Barcelona de la República, dossier de prensa de 19 de enero al 7 de marzo de 1999'. [expand]

1919 - Bavarian Raterepublik declared in opposition to the provisional government. The Central Council of Workers', Soldiers' and Farmers' Councils includes Ernst Toller, anarchists Erich Mühsam, Gustav Landauer and one 'Richard Maurhut' — the man who became famous as the novelist B. Traven. [see: Apr. 7]

1929 - Curt Corrinth's controverial play 'Trojaner' (Trojans), a critique of German anti-Sematism, permières at the Volksbühne in Berlin.

1948 - Philippe Garrel, French film director, cinematographer, editor, actor and libertarian, born. His oeuvre is influenced by his expreiences during May 68, including 'Les Amants Réguliers' (Regular Lovers; 2005), which is typical of his cynical political world view, is a largely autobiographical story set on and around the Latin Quarter barricades, 'Liberté, la Nuit' (1983) is set during the Algerian War, and features a teacher in the FLN who becomes involved with a young pied-noir.

1958 - Vítězslav Nezval (b. 1900), Czech poet, writer, dramatist, translator, Dadaist, co-founder of Poetism and a leading personality of Czech Surrealism, dies. [see: May 26]

1959 - Shooting begins for Guy Debord's film 'On the Passage of a Few Persons Through a Rather Brief Period of Time'.

1978 - Emmett Grogan (b. 1942), co-founder, with Peter Coyote and Peter Berg, of the Haight-Ashbury anarchist improv group the Diggers, is found dead on an F Train subway car in New York City, of heart attack. ​[see: Nov. 28]
[BB] 1893 - José Sobral de Almada Negreiros (d. 1970), leading Portuguese modernist artist, poet, novelist, futurist and Marxist individualist, born. A close friend of Fernando Pessoa and Mário de Sá-Carneiro, he illustrated Pessoa's 'O Banqueiro Anarquista' (The Anarchist Banker; 1996) and the three published the 'Orpheu' literary magazine as members of the Geração de Orpheu (Orpheus's Generation) or Grupo de Orfeu. Despite being visually inspired by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, his futurism was strictly leftist and embraced Russian Futurism, Dadaism and Surrealism, being much more of the post-Symbolist lineage than the proto-Fascist machine-worship of the later Italian Futurists.
Author of the 'Manifesto Anti-Dantas e por Extenso' (1915), a hilarious blistering attack on artistic conservatism focused on Júlio Dantas, a major figure of arts and culture in the Salazar regime. Amongst his other works are 'A Invenção do Dia Claro' (Invention of Daylight; 1921)', 'Nome de Guerra' (The Name of War; 1925, published in 1938), the plays 'El Uno, Tragédia de la Unidad' (The One, the Tradegy of Unity; 1928), made up of 'Deseja-se Mulher' (Woman Wanted) and 'S.O.S.'.

[B] 1933 - 'Zéro de Conduite', Jean Vigo's hugely influential film, receives its première in Paris. It is banned by the censors and is not shown again in France until 1945.

1951 - Gustave-Henri Jossot (aka Abdul Karim Jossot; b. 1866), French caricaturist, illustrator, poster designer, Orientalist painter, writer and libertarian individualist, dies. [see: Apr. 7]

1977 - James Myers (Jim) Thompson (b. 1906), American author and screenwriter, known for his pulp crime fiction and who was nicknamed the 'Dimestore Dostoevsky', dies. [see: Sep. 27]
[B] 1927 - Phyllis Webb, Canadian poet, radio broadcaster, anarchist and feminist, born. In 1967, she travelled to the Soviet Union, carrying out research on the Russian Revolution of 1917 and on the anarchist Peter Kropotkin, much of which appears in her 'The Kropotkin Poems', a never completed cycle of poems based on the anarchist's life.

1940 - Chicho Sánchez Ferlosio (José Antonio Julio Onésimo Sánchez Ferlosio; d. 2003), Spanish singer, poet, songwriter, journalist, one-time communist but later an anarchist and CNT member, born. Author of numerous popular songs such as 'Gallo Rojo, Gallo Negro' (Red Cockerel, Black Cockerel) , 'La Hierba de los Caminos' (The Grass of the Roads), 'La Quinta Brigada' (The Fifth Brigade), 'A la Huelga' (To Strike), 'Hoy No Me Levanto Yo' (Today I Don't Get Up), 'Balada de las Prisiones' (Ballad of the Prisons), 'La Paloma de la Paz' (The Dove of Peace).

1946 - Ilarie Voronca (Eduard Marcus; b. 1903), Jewish Romanian-French avant-garde poet and essayist, who took part in the French Résistance, as a writer and fighter, commits suicide. [see: Dec. 31]

1959 - Felipe Alaiz de Pablo (b. 1887), Spanish individualist anarchist and journalist dies, exiled in Paris. Director of 'Revista de Aragon', writer for 'El Sol de Madrid', 'Heraldo de Aragon', 'La Revista Blanca', 'Solidaridad Obrera' in Valencia and Sevilla. Published novels and works on anarchism and translations. [see: May 23]

1973 - Pablo Ruiz y Picasso (b. 1881), Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, anarchist and later communist, dies. [see: Oct. 25]
1553 - François Rabelais (b. 1494), French monk, Renaissance humanist, writer, doctor and Greek scholar, dies. Claimed as a precursor to anarchism after the description of Thélème, his imaginary abbey run on libertarian principles first described in in Chapter LVII of his utopian work 'La Vie Très Horrifique du Grand Gargantua' (aka 'Gargantua'; 1534).

[B] 1821 - Charles Pierre Baudelaire (d. 1867), French poet, essayist, art critic, and pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe, born. His most famous and influential work is 'Les Fleurs du Mal' (The Flowers of Evil; 1857). His political activities were short-lived and to an active part in the Revolutions of June 1848 on the barricades and writing for a revolutionary newspaper. He also showed an early knowledge of the writings of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon.
"Plus l'artiste se penche avec impartialité vers le détail, plus l'anarchie augmente. Qu'il soit myope ou presbyte, toute hierarchie et toute subordination disparaissent." (The more the artist tends impartially toward detail, the more anarchy increases. Whether he is near-sighted or far-sighted, all hierarchy and all subordination disappear).

1891 - Lesbia Harford (Lesbia Venner Keogh; d. 1927), Australian poet, novelist, free love advocate, member of the I.W.W. and state vice-president of the Federated Clothing and Allied Trades Union, born. Afflicted with defective heart valves which restricted her mobility and caused her to tire easily, a chronic problem that was to increase with age, it did not prevent her form pursuing her political activism.

1919 - Big Dada event in the Hall zur Kaufleuten in Zurich. Foundation of the 'artistes radicaux' (radical artists) group, with the following committee-members: Hans Arp (Alsace), Fritz Baumann (Basel), Viking Eggeling (Sweden), Augusto Giacometti (Zurich), Walter Helbig (Dresden), P.R. Henning (Berlin), Marcel Janco (Roumania), Hans Richter (Berlin) and Otto Morach (Zurich).

1950 - A group of Lettrists – including Serge Berna, Jean-Louis Brau, Ghislain Desnoyers de Marbaix and Michel Mourre – perpetrate the Notre-Dame Scandal, when Mourre, dressed as a Dominican monk, reads a sermon prepared by Berna announcing the death of God at Easter mass.
1967 - David Rovics, US singer and songwriter, anarchist and Wobbly, born.

1979 - Pavlos Fyssas aka Killah P (d. 2013), Greek anti-fascist rapper, who was stabbed to death by a supporter of the Greek fascist party Golden Dawn (Χρυσή Αυγή), born. [see: Sep. 18]

[B] 1995 - Chaoze One, German Roma rapper and anarchist, born.

2011 - Olivier O. Olivier (Pierre Marie Olivier; b. 1931), French painter, Pataphysician and cultural anarchist, dies. [see: May 1]
1896 - Wieland Herzfelde (d. 1988), German journalist, author, poet and publisher, born. Like his brother John Heartfield, he volunteered for the German army in WWI (the same year he added the 'e' to the end of the family name Herzfeld) but grew disillusioned with life at the front and, in 1916 with Hertfield, started the anti-war magazine 'Der Neuen Jugend', as well co-founding the legendary Malik-Verlag, which specialised in publishing avant-garde art and communist literature. Malik-Verlag's first publications were the political magazines 'Die Pleite' (Bankruptcy - co-edited by Heartfield and Grosz) and 'Der Gegner' (The Opponent - co-edited by Karl Otten and Herzfelde) and a Grosz portfolio. Post-WWI, he founded an art gallery, Grosz-Galerie, and a bookshop, as well as helping to organise the Erste Internationale Dada-Messe (First International Dada Fair) in 1920. In 1921, he and Grosz face trial for defamation of the army - the evidence against them were exhibits from the First International Dada Fair: Grosz's 'Gott Mit Uns' and Rudolf Schlichter and John Heartfield's 'Preussischer Erzengel' (Prussian Archangel), a stuffed soldier with a pig's head assemblage. Grosz received a 300RM fine and Herzfelde, his publisher, 600RM. Like Heartfield and Grosz, he joined the Kommunistischen Partei Deutschlands (KPD) at it's founding in Dec. 31, 1918, but was more orthodoxly communist that either his brother or Grosz.
Following Hitler's rise to power, Herzfelde fled to Prague in 1933, later moving to London, and in 1939 to the USA where he published works by exiled German writers. In 1949 he returned to East Germany, becoming a professor of literature at the University of Leipzig; he also wrote poetry and fiction, and worked as a translator.

[B] 1905 - Attila József (d. 1937), one of the most important and well-known Hungarian poets, born. Hailed by the Hungarian Communist Party in the 1950s as a great proletarian poet, he was in fact an anarchist who opposed the Bolsheviks. After the crushing of the revolution in 1919, during the twenties, he became a member of the Vienna Bund der Herrschaftslosen Sozialisten’ anarchist circle. Expelled from university in 1925 for his revolutionary poem 'Tiszta Szívvel' (Pure Heart), the following year he visited Paris. There he met the anarchist Achille Dauphin-Meunier (who had written his book about the proletarian revolution in Hungary, 'La Commune Hongroise et les Anarchistes' (1925)) and became involved with the Union Anarchiste Communiste. Returning to Hungary, he joined the illegal Kommunisták Magyarországi Pártja (Party of Communists of Hungary) in 1930 but was expelled soon after because of his ideological unreliability and anti-Stalinist views. His works include: 'A Szépség Koldusa' (Beggar of Beauty; 1922); 'Nem én Kiáltok' (It's Not Me Shouting; 1925); the surrealist influenced 'Nincsen Apám se Anyám' (Fatherless and Motherless; 1929); 'Döntsd a Tőkét, ne Siránkozz' (Knock Down the Capital; 1931), which was confiscated by the public prosecutor; and 'Külvárosi Éj' (Night in the Outskirts; 1932).

1931 - "The ordinary man is an anarchist. He wants to do as he likes. He may want his neighbor to be governed, but he himself doesn't want to be governed. He is mortally afraid of government officials and policemen." - George Bernard Shaw, Address in New York, April 11, 1931.

1936 - Nelly Kaplan, Argentine-born French libertarian feminist writer, filmmaker, screenwriter and actress, born. A close friend ("une éblouissante amitié amoureuse") of André Breton who she first met in 1956, she went on to make a number of deocumentary films including 'Gustave Moreau' (1962), 'Abel Gance, hier et demain' (Abel Gance, today & tomorrow; 1963) and 'The Picasso Look' (1967), before making her best known work 'La Fiancée du Pirate' (A Very Curious Girl; 1969), which Pablo Picasso described as "insolence considered as one of the fine arts".

1937 - André Bernard, French anarchist, pacifist and Surrealist, born. Took part in the founding of the International Centre for Research on Anarchism (CIRA). Sentenced in 1961 to 21 months in prison for "insubordination in peacetime".

1977 - Jacques Prévert (b. 1900), poet, surrealist, libertarian, dies. [see: Feb. 4]

1987 - Primo Levi (b. 1919), Italian-Jewish writer and chemist, dies - an apparent suicide. [see: Jul. 31]
[B] 1900 - Florence Reece (née Patton; d. 1986), American social activist, poet and folk song writer, born. The wife of an union organiser for United Mine Workers which was engaged in industrial action in Harlan County, Kentucky in 1931. One night, they heard that men were coming to kill Sam Reece and he got out of the house just before they arrived. Deputies hired by the mining company entered and searched her home, terrorising Florence and her children in the process. After they’d gone, Florence was so outraged that she tore the calendar off the kitchen wall and wrote the lyrics to 'Which Side Are You On?' on the back.

"Come all you poor workers
Good news to you I’ll tell
How that good old union
Has come in here to dwell

Which side are you on?
Which side are you on?

We’re starting our good battle
We know we’re sure to win
Because we’ve got the gun thugs
Are looking very thin

Which side are you on?
Which side are you on?

You go to Harlan County
There is no neutral there
You’ll either be a union man
Or a thug for J.H. Blair

Which side are you on?
Which side are you on?

They say they have to guard us
To educate their child
Their children live in luxury
Our children almost wild

Which side are you on?
Which side are you on?

Gentleman, can you stand it?
Oh, tell me how you can
Will you be a gun thug
Or will you be a man?

Which side are you on?
Which side are you on?

My daddy was a miner
He’s now in the Aran sun
He’ll be with you fellow workers
Till every battle’s won

Which side are you on?
Which side are you on?

Now all of you know which side you’re on
And they’ll never keep us down!"

2009 -Franklin Rosemont (b. 1943), American anarchist, poet, artist, co-founder of the Chicago Surrealist Group and historian of anarchist movement, dies. [see: Oct. 2]

2009 - Pierre Peuchmaurd (b. 1948), French poet, Surrealist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 26]
[B] 1860 - James Ensor (d. 1949), Belgian symbolist and proto-expressionist painter, printer, musician and anarchist, born. Founding member, alongside Théo van Rysselberghe, of Les XX (Les Vingt), a Belgian painters, designers and sculptors group, who held a series of exhibitions with the likes of Paul Signac, Camille Pissarro, Maximilien Luce, Odilon Redon, Cézanne, Toulouse-Lautrec, Gauguin and Van Gogh. He was also a significant influence on the likes of Klee, Grosz and the Surrealists.
'Christ’s Entry into Brussels in 1889' - "..akin to [Elisée] Reclus’s notion of the freedom of the individual as a moral imperative, and [Oscar] Wilde’s belief that artists have the responsibility to open the space for that freedom. In the tradition of Bosch, Bruegel, and Goya, Ensor created this painting as an attempt to lampoon those institutions that confused authority with greater human laws." (Patricia G. Berman - 'James Ensor: Christ's Entry into Brussels in 1889')

[C] 1906 - Samuel Beckett (d. 1989), Irish playwright, poet, novelist, theatre director, anti-fascist and member of the Résistance, born. He worked with the French Underground during the World War II occupation by Germany, first as a courier in Paris and later with the Maquis sabotage of the German army in the Vaucluse mountains, claiming that he preferred "France in war to Ireland in peace". For his service he was awarded the Croix de Guerre and French Médaille de la Résistance.

1907 - Jack Bilbo (Hugo Cyril Kulp Baruch; d. 1967), German-born Jewish writer, novelist, painter, illustrator, sculptor, gallery owner, adventurer and anarchist, born. Co-founder in 1930 of the anti-Nazi Kampfbunde gegen den Faschismus (Committees for Combating Fascism) and fought with anarchist militia in the Spanish Revolution. Interned on the Isle of Man in WWII, he became a friend of Kurt Schwitters, showinghis work in his Modern Art Gallery, which he opened in October 1941 on Baker Street in London. [expand]

1941 - Jean-Marc Reiser (d. 1983), one of France's foremost cartoonists and comic artists, born. In 1960, he participated in the launch of 'Hara-Kiri' magazine, together with Georges Bernier, François Cavanna and Fred. His work appeared in numerous other magazines including 'Charlie Hebdo', 'La Gueule Ouverte', 'Charlie Mensuel', 'Métal Hurlant', L'Écho des Savanes', etc., as well as the anarchist magazines 'Enragé' and 'Action'.

1949 - Marie Louise Berneri (b. 1918), the elder daughter of Camillo and Giovanna Berneri, editor of 'Freedom' and author of 'Neither East Nor West' and 'Journey Through Utopia', dies in childbirth.
"Into the silence of the sun
Risen in dust the rose is gone,
The blood that burned along the briar
Branches invisibly on the air.
Flame into flame's petal
Her grief extends our grief,
Over the ashy heat-ways
A green glance from a leaf
Shivers the settled trees.
A child walks in her grace
The light glows on his face,
Where the great rose has burned away
Within the terrible silence of the day."
'In Memory of M.L.B.' - Louis Adeane

1966 - Carlo Carrà (b. 1881), Italian futurist painter and author, dies. An anarchist in his early years, he painted his famous futurist work 'The Funeral of the Anarchist Galli' (1910-11), which Carrà was present at, in that period. However, he became an ultra-nationist during WWI and, like many of the Futurist, later became active Fascists, signing a manifesto which called for support of the state ideology through art. [see: Feb. 11]
1874 - Josiah Warren (b. 1798), US individualist anarchist and publisher of what is arguably the first anarchist periodical (first published in January 1833) dies in Boston.

[B] 1901 - Valeriano Orobón Fernánez (d. 1936), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist theoretician, trade-union activist, translator and poet, who wrote the Spanish lyrics of the CNT anthem 'A Las Barricadas', born.

1916 - Antonio Pellicer i Paraire (b. I85I), Spanish typesetter and anarchist, who settled in Argentina in 1891 who's article in 'La Protesta Humana' and his book 'The Organisation of Labour' (1900) were important in helping form the Federation Obrera Argentina (Workers' Federation of Argentian) in 1901, dies. [see: Feb. 23]

1917 - Cabaret Voltaire's 'Fête of the Galerie Dada', Second Soirée ('Sturm'-Soirée) at Bahnhofstr. 19, Zurich. According to Tristan Tzara's 'Chronique Zurichoise 1915-19' (1922), "Second performance at the gallery Dada: Jarry, Marinetti, Apollinaire, van Hoddis, Cendrars, Kandinsky. NIGHTLY ATTACK: Heusser, Ball, Glauser, Tzara, Sulzberger, A. Ehrenstein, Hennings etc. negromusic and dance with support by Miss Jeanne Rigaud and Miss Maja Kruscek, Masken von Janco." Also taking place was the première of Oskar Kokoschka's comedy 'Sphinx und Strohmann' (Sphinx and Man of Straw). Marcel Janco directed and designed the masks. Tristan Tzara played the parrot, Emmy Hennings the unfaithful Anima, Friedrich Glauser was Death and Hugo Ball the betrayed husband Firdusi. The chaos that raged that evening on the stage of the Cabaret Voltaire was described by Ball in his 'Die Flucht aus der Zeit' (The flight from time; 1927): "Finally, when Mr Firdusi had to fall, everything got caught up in the wires and lights strung about. For a few minutes, there was total night and confusion."
Tzara again: "This show decided the role of the theatre, which will entrust the stagedirection the subtile invention of outbreaking wind, the scenery in the midst of the audience, visible conducting and grotesque pillars: The dadaesque theatre. Above all masks and 'coups de theatre', the image of the director. Bravo! and high, high!"

1921 - 'Ouverture de la Grande Saison Dada' in Paris - an attempt to provide a fresh impetus to the movement, which fails.

1930 - Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Маяко́вский; b. 1893), Russian and Soviet poet, playwright, artist and stage and film actor, betrayed by the Stalinist purges, commits suicide. [see: Jul. 19]
1864 - Antoine Antignac (d. 1930), French anarchist and propagandist, bookstore manager, writer for numerous libertarian publications, born.

[B] 1883 - Louis Moreau (d.1958), French militant libertarian, pacifist, painter and engraver, born. Trained as a lithographer, in 1900 he settled in Paris to practice his trade, developing a passion for drawing, painting and woodcuts. There he began contributing to Jean Grave's 'Temps Nouveaux'. Called up during WWI, his work was published in the clandestine 'Le Semeur'.
Post-WWI, his famous his 'Femme Libérée' series illustrated André Lorulot's magazine 'l'Idée Libre' and he contributed wood engravings to Émile Armand's 'Néo-Naturien' and 'L'EnDehors'. With Germain Delatouche, a fellow engraver and libertarian, Moreau formed the group Les Partisans in 1924.
His portraits of famous anarchists and anti-militarist illustrations embellish a lot of books and reviews of the libertarian press: 'Les Humbles', 'La Revue Anarchiste', 'l'Almanach de la Paix', 'L'Unique', 'Temps Nouveau' and numerous titles from Joseph Ishill's Oriole Press.

1889 - The first issue of fortnightly 'La Plume', "Revue de Littérature, de Critique et d'Art Indépendant" is published in Paris. 426 issues appear up til January 1914.

1980 - Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (b. 1905), French novelist, playwright, Marxist existentialist philosopher and literary critic, dies. [see: Jun. 21]
1844 - Paul Ambrose Paillette (d. 1920), French poet, songwriter, amour-libriste, anarchist, vegetarian and supporter of free love, born. An engraving worker, he became a full-time singer in the Montmartre cabarets and produced an estimated ten thousand verses among them 'Heureux Temps' (Happy Times), a lyrical treatment of the future anarchist communist society, which was published in 'Le Libertaire' in 1895 and which is still popular in anarchist circles today.

[B] 1854 - Laurent Tailhade (d. 1919), French satirical poet, writer, anarchist polemicist, opium addict ('La Noire Idole', after de Quincey) and translator ('Satyricon de Pétrone'), born. Probably best known for his poetry collections, 'Au Pays du Mufle' (In the Land of the Boor; 1891) and 'Imbéciles et Gredins' (Imbecile and Scoundrels; 1900). A strong supporter of propaganda by deed, especially the bombings of Valliant - "Qu'importe la victime si le geste est beau" (Who cares about the victim if the gesture is beautiful), and vehemently anti-clerical, he too fell victim to an attentat bombing at the Restaurant Foyot onn April 4 1894, loosing the sight in one eye. True to his word, he refused to condemn the bombing. He was charged with "incitement to murder" on October 10, 1901, following an article written in 'La Libertaire' on the occasion of the visit of the Tsar in France, he was sentenced to one year in prison despite the intervention of his friend Emile Zola, who claimed that the beauty of his style could help excuse his incendiary views.

1866 - Gustave-Henri Jossot (aka Abdul Karim Jossot; d. 1951), French caricaturist, illustrator, poster designer, Orientalist painter, writer and libertarian individualist, born. Deeply libertarian, yet he refuses the label anarchist, his revolt was through the medium of his cartoons, targeting the institutions of society: family, army, justice, churches, schools, etc.. His first drawings were published in 1891 in 'Le Rire', then in 'L'Assiette au Beurre', the anticlerical newspaper 'Le Diable', 'Les Temps Nouveaux', etc.. He abandoned his libertarianism in 1907 and, after a long bout of depression, retired to Tunisia in 1911 and converted to Islam (taking the name Abdul Karim Jossot), though his individualism ran counter to the religion's practice and his newspaper articles made plain. He later became a Sufi, which fitted better with his his anti-clericalism and pacifism, and painted in the Orientalist style. In his 1951 memoir 'Goutte à Goutte' (Drip by Drip; never published), he proclaimed his recovering of his atheism.

1896 - Tristan Tzara (born Samuel or Samy Rosenstock, also known as S. Samyro; d. 1963), Romanian-French avant garde poet, essayist, performance artist, journalist, playwright, literary and art critic, composer and film director, who was strongly influenced by individualist anarchism in his early years before joining the PCF in 1937, born. Alarmed by the establishment of Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime, which also signified the end of Berlin's avant-garde, he merged his activities as an art promoter with the cause of anti-fascism. In 1936, he published a series of photographs secretly taken by Kurt Schwitters in Hanover, works which documented the destruction of Nazi propaganda by the locals, ration stamp with reduced quantities of food, and other hidden aspects of Hitler's rule. After the outbreak of the Civil War in Spain, he briefly left France and joined the Republican forces, visiting beseiged Madrid alongside Soviet reporter Ilya Ehrenburg. Upon his return, he published the collection of poems 'Midis Gagnés' (Conquered Southern Regions). Some of them had previously been printed in the brochure 'Les Poètes du Monde Défendent le Peuple Espagnol' (The Poets of the World Defend the Spanish People; 1937), which was edited by two prominent authors and activists, Nancy Cunard and the Chilean poet Pablo Neruda. Tzara had also signed Cunard's June 1937 call to intervention against Francisco Franco. Though close to the PCF (some sources claim he joined in 1934) and adhering to many of the Party's cultural demands, he was never fully trusted and seen to be too independant.
Following the German occupation, he moved to the Vichy zone where, on one occasion, the anti-Semitic and collaborationist publication 'Je Suis Partout' made his whereabouts known to the Gestapo [his parents were Jewish Romanians who reportedly spoke Yiddish as their first language]. Based in Marsille amongst the group of anti-fascist and Jewish refugees protected by American diplomat Varian Fry, he joined the French Résistance, working with the Maquis. He also contributed to the various magazines published by the Résistance and took charge of the cultural broadcast for the Free French Forces clandestine radio station. His son Cristophe was also a Résistance member, having joined the Franc Tireurs Partisans in northern France. In 1942, with the generalisation of antisemitic measures, Tzara was also stripped of his Romanian citizenship rights. At the end of the war and the restoration of French independence, Tzara became a naturalised French citizen. [expand]

[BB] 1919 - Anarchist choreographer Merce Cunningham (d. 2009) born. [expand]
"I have in a sense tried to avoid any concern with power and ego, self-expression and all that. . . . We represent anarchy so to speak." - 'The Dancer and the Dance: Merce Cunningham in Conversation with Jacqueline Lesschaeve' (1985).

1997 - Roland Topor (b. 1938), Polish-born French graphic artist, cartoonist, painter, writer, filmmaker, actor, songwriter, surrealist and cultural anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 7]
1833 - Arthur Arnould (d. 1895), French anarchist, journalist, novelist, member of First International and the Paris Commune, friend of Michael Bakunin, born. Collaborated on the 'Bulletin of the Jura Federation'. Arnould wrote 'L'Etat et la Révolution' (1877), a history of the Paris Commune, and a number of novels as A. Matthey - 'Le Roi des Mendiants' (The King of Beggars; 1885), 'La Revanche de Clodion' (Revenge of Clodion; 1882), 'Le Point Noir' (The Black Dot; 1885) and 'Le Pendu de la Baumette' (The Hanging of Baumette; 1881).

1854 - Benjamin Tucker (d. 1939), American philosophical individualist anarchist, bookseller (Unique Bookshop) and publisher, born.

1870 - Robert Tressell (pen name of Robert Croker, latterly Robert Noonan; d. 1911), Irish writer best known his novel 'The Ragged Trousered Philanthropists', born.

1884 - Vasily Vasilevich Kamensky (Васи́лий Васи́льевич Каме́нский; d. 1961), Russian Futurist poet, playwright, artist and pioneer Russian aviator, born. Member of the early Moscow-based Futurist literary group Hylaea (involving the Burlyuk brothers, Vasily Kamensky, Velimir Khlebnikov, Aleksey Kruchenykh and Vladimir Mayakovsky. Also involved in Moscow anarchist circles but was one of the first writers elected to the Moscow Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies and later joined Mayakovsky's LEF group.

1921 - Sergio Sollima, Italian film director and script writer, born. Initially proponent of Eurospy films, he became one of the major proponents of the spaghetti western alongside the other 2 Sergios - Leone ('Il Buono, il Brutto, il Cattivo' aka 'The Good, the Bad and the Ugly'; 1966) and Corbucci ('Django'; 1966). He was the most radical of the genre's directors, displaying a clealry anarchist version of the genre's inherently militant anti-American/imperialist/Viet Nam war subtexts. His two most obviously political film were 'La Resa dei Conti' (The Big Gundown; 1966), which was based upon an original story by Franco Solinas ('Battle of Algiers' and 'Burn!'), and 'Corri Uomo Corri' (Run, Man, Run!; 1968).

[B] 1923 - Jacques Sternberg (d. 2006), Belgian novelist, writer of science fiction and fantastique, pamphleteer, essayist, journalist, columnist, anti-competitive yatchsman and anarchist, born into a Polish Jewish family. Fleeing the Nazi advance, the family attempted to escape to Spain via the south of France, but were returned and interned in the Gurs camp. Stenberg's father was deported to Poland, dying in Majdanek. Jacques escaped and joined the underground, returning to Belgium after the war.
Member of the Mouvement Panique (Panic Movement), an anarchist avant-garde collective, with Fernando Arrabal, Alejandro Jodorowsky, Roland Topor, Christian Zeimert and Olivier O. Olivier. Participant in 'Hara-Kiri' and was a director of the magazine 'Mépris' (Contempt) with his friend Roland Topor. Much of his fiction features his dark humour and his pessimistic anarchist/libertarian outlook. Has also written under the pseudonyms Jacques Bert, Charles Sabatier and Christine Harth, penned the script for Alain Resnais' 1968 time travel film 'Je t'aime, Je t'aime' and for a number of TV programmes.
Amongst his volumous output are novels such as 'L'Employé' (The Employee; 1958), 'L'Architecte' (The Architect; 1960), 'La Banlieue' (The Suburb; 1976) and the powerful anti-political dystopia of 'Mai 86' (1978); short story collections 'La Géométrie dans l'Impossible' (The Impossible Geometry; 1953), 'La Géométrie dans la Terreur' (The Terror Geometry; 1958), 'Contes Glacés' (Icy Tales; 1974) and 'Contes Griffus' (Clawed Tales; 1993); science fiction story collections such as 'Entre Deux Mondes Incertains' (Between Two Uncertain Worlds; 1957), 'Univers Zéro' (Universe Zero; 1970) and 'Futurs sans Avenir' (Future Without Future; 1971), which feature tales of aliens misguidedly posing as African-Americans to invade America, the 533rd crucifixion of Jesus and the casual destruction of Earth by aliens who cannot understand humanity.

1923 - Norman Potter (d. 1995), English Christian anarchist, designer, craftsman, writer and poet, born. A cabinetmaker and design teacher at the Royal College of Art, he also helped establish a Construction School at the West of England College of Art and Design in Bristol. Imprisoned several times for his political actions, he was active during the student revolts of 1968.

1937 - Yi Sang (Kim Hae-gyeong; d. 1937), Korean architect, draughtsman, writer, avant garde poet and novelist, essayist and social rebel, dies. [see: Sep. 14]

1989 - Eugène Bizeau (b. 1883), French vine-grower, pacifist, anarchist poet and chansonnier, member of the 'Muse Rouge', dies. [see: May 29]

2003 - Clifford Harper's exhibition 'Graphic Anarchy' opens at the Guardian newsroom.
1850 - Charles Joseph Antoine 'Jo' Labadie (d. 1933), US labour activist, writer, poet, printer, non-violent individualist anarchist, born. His collection of radical pamphlets and ephemera became the Labadie Collection at the University of Michigan.

I shall speak out!
Like the roar of the sea, I have a message.
There is danger ahead and I would give warning.
The greater the danger the louder the roar,
And my foghorn voice is pitched deep and
I am the spirit of Discontent.
I chafe under the galling collar of wrongful
And Nature has conferred upon me the power
of insight, of foresight.
The things 1 see I shall tell,
And the world shall judge be they true or false.
I shall speak out!
Who art thou that sayest me nay.?
Whence come thy right and power to stopple
my mouth
And barricade the free flow of words to willing
Who appointed thee guardian of speech?
Who made thee custodian of ideas?
Who commissioned thee jailor of progress?
Thou art usurper and 1 flout thy authority!
I shall speak out!
My words shall sting thee, shall cut thy hide,
shall drive thee to shame, shall whelm
thee with remorse!
Fool! thou standest in the light (»f thine own
Casting a blighting shadow on thine own soul!

I come with the blaze of the sun in my face.
And thou canst not gaze with candor in mine
I shall speak out!
Thy criminal purpose would blow out the lights
that guide the mariners to ports of safety;
Would ruthlessly take the breast from hungry
Would blot out the signboards on the road to
Would fasten cords across the pathway to the
spring of righteousness
To trip the unwary and impede the watchful.
I shall speak out!

'Freedom of Speech', in 'Doggerel for the Underdog' (1910)

1881 - Max Weber (d. 1961), Russian-born Jewish-American Cubist painter, poet, and anarchist, born. 'Cubist Poems' (1914); 'Primitives: Poems and Woodcuts' (1926).

1884 - Ludwig Meidner (d. 1966), German painter, graphic artist and poet, born. A revolutionary anarchist in his early years and associated with the individualists around 'Der Einzige', he later became a religious mystic and ended his life as a strictly observant painter of biblical themes. The foremost and most radical exponent of a second wave of Expressionism, a movement which championed the cause of the exploited and suppressed. Military service during WWI turned Meidner into an avowed pacifist and he advanced socialist goals in his 1919 'An alle Künstler, Dichter, Musiker' (To all Artists, Poets, and Musicians), a work that challenged the existing social order and urged artists to become socialists and protect the "greater good". In 1933, Meidner was placed on the list of banned writers and artists, and works by and about him were burned during the Nazi book burnings of 1933. Also in danger because of his Jewishness, Meidner left Germany in 1939, and did not return until 1953.

1890 - Alexander Granach (real name Jessaja Szajka Gronach; d. 1945), anarchist sympathiser and popular German actor in the 1920s and 1930s, born. [NB: 1893 also given as his DOB] [see: Mar. 14]

[B] 1899 - Rene Shapshak (d. April ?? 1986), Paris-born South African sculptor, painter, illustrator and anarchist sympathiser, born.

1908 - The IWW poem 'We Have Fed You All For A Thousand Years' is published in the Industrial Union Bulletin.
"We have fed you all for a thousand years
& you hail us still unfed
Though there's never a dollar of all your wealth
But marks the workers dead
We have yielded our best to give you rest
& you lie on crimson wool
But if blood be the price of all your wealth
Good God we have paid in full..."

1935 - Panaït Istrati (Ghérasim Istrati; b. 1884), Romanian-French writer and revolutionary communist, and later libertarian, dies. [see: Aug. 10]

1947 - Kathy Acker (Karen Lehmann; d. 1997), American novelist, punk poet, playwright, essayist, postmodernist and feminist writer, born.
1854 - Charles Angrand (d. 1926), Impressionist, Neo-impressionist, Divisionist and Pointillist painter and anarchist illustrator, born. After being denied entry into École des Beaux-Arts, he moved to Paris in 1882, where he began teaching mathematics whilst befriending the artists of the Parisian avant-garde including Georges Seurat, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Signac, Maximilien Luce, and Henri Edmond Cross. In 1884 he co-founded Société des Artistes Indépendants, along with Seurat, Signac, Odilon Redon, and others. His Impressionist paintings of the early 1880s, generally depicting rural subjects but in the mid-1880s, his style evolved towards Neo-Impressionism and, following a meeting in 1887, his thick brush strokes and Japanese-inspired compositional asymmetry heavily influenced van Gogh. In the early 1890s, he abandoned painting, instead creating dark Symbolist conté drawings and pastels of subjects including rural scenes and depictions of mother and child (many also include a signature image of a black cat). He also drew illustrations alongside Signac, Luce, and Théo van Rysselberghe for anarchist publications such as 'Les Temps Nouveaux'.

1895 - Miguel García Vivancos (d. 1972), Spanish anarchist militant and combatant, and Naïve painter, born. Formed the Los Solidarios group, together with Buenaventura Durruti, Francisco Ascaso, Juan García Oliver, Gregorio Jover, Ramona Berri, Eusebio Brau, Manuel Campos, and Aurelio Fernández). In 1924, he was condemned to three months of prison. Released, exiled in France, he travelled with Ascaso, Durruti and Jover in Latin America (Mexico, Cuba, Peru, Chile). On his return to France, he was arrested because of the expropriations practised by the group on their trip. Escaping extradition, he was expelled and found refuge in Belgium. In 1927, he returned to Barcelona, participating in the clandestine struggles and took part in the Thirties in several insurrectionary attempts. Captured, he was interned for one year in Burgos.
García Vivancos was active during the Spanish Civil War, leading the Aguiluchos Column on the Huesca Front, as well as other major units in Belchite and Teruel. He opposed the anti-militarist line of the intransigentes anarchists and willingly cooperated with the Stalinist militarisation of fighting units. In September 1937 he was made responsible major units, 126 Brigada and the 25 División (in the place of Antonio Ortiz), winning battles in Belchite and then Teruel where he was wounded in January 1938. In May 1938 he was promoted to colonel.
At the end of the war he was charged with handling the evacuation to France of Spanish refugees escaping the fascists in the Puigcerda sector. He himself wound up being interned for four years in the French concentration camp at Vernet-les-Bains before being liberated during WWII by the Maquis and joining the French Résistance for the duration. At the CNT Congress in Marseilles in 1945, he was excluded from the organisation. Having gone astray, his views were deemed incompatible with libertarian practice.
Living in poverty in Paris , he discovered and developed his talent for painting. He was introduced in 1947 to Pablo Picasso, who helped open up the art world for him. His first exhibition was held in 1948 at the Gallery Mirador and won him instant recognition amongst the likes of surrealist André Breton.

1902 - Demetrio Urruchúa (d. 1978), Argentinian painter, printmaker, muralist, libertarian and anti-fascist, born. Collaborated in the '30s on 'Nervio' (Nerve), a libertarian-socialist publication in which he criticised the Mexican communist muralists and their concept of "proletarian art", and in particular David Alfaro Siqueiros and his political agenda. Urruchúa himself was strongly influenced by the events of the Spanish Revolution and the fight against fascism and they strongly inform his use of paint used as a weapon to fight against injustice, against all dictatorships and against the horror of war.

1928 - Ladislav Klíma (b. 1878), Czech Expressionist novelist, playwright, poet and individualist philosopher, dies. [see: Aug. 22]

1937 - Jean-Pierre Lajournade (d. 1976), French anarchist filmmaker, born. Best known for his experimental film 'Le Joueur de Quilles' (1969).

1938 - Georg Schrimpf (b. 1889), German painter and graphic artist, dies. [see: Feb. 13]

[B] 1957 - Ian Heavens (d. 2000); Scottish anarchist, co-founder of the punk/samba band Bloco Vomit, born. A co-founder of the online Spunk Archives.

1983 - Jerzy Andrzejewski (b. 1909), prolific Polish author and dissident, dies. [see: Aug. 19]

2009 - James Graham 'J. G.' Ballard (b. 1930), English novelist and short story writer, dies. [see: Nov. 15]

2013 - Alfredo Guevara Valdés (b. 1925), Cuban founder of the Cuban Institute for the Arts and Industry of Cinematography (ICAIC) and the Havana Film Festival, and a key figure in the New Latin American Cinema, dies. [see: Dec. 31]
1884 - Otto van Rees (d. 1957), Dutch painter and Tolstoyian anarchist, born. Son of Jacob van Rees, he grew up a home frequented by freethinkers, anarchists, philosophers and artists. In 1899 he founded the Landbouwkolonie van de Internationale Broederschap (International Brotherhood Agricultural Colony) at Blaricum and was a regular at the Ascona colony. He also taught painting and formed a lifelong relationship with one of his pupils, Catherine (Adya) Dutilh,in 1904. Mobilised by the Dutch military at the beginning of WWI, he was discharged from military service in the autumn of 1915 after making a collage of empty cigarette packs. With Adya and his children, he moved to Ascona where he and Adya met various Dadaist and became involved in the Cabaret Voltaire. Both were also profoundly effected by the horrors of the war and, influenced by the ideas of the writer Pieter van der Meer the Walcheren and the French philosopher Jacques Maritain, converted to Catholicism. In 1918 Van Rees signed the Dadaist Manifesto in Berlin and was the co-founder in 1924 of the Swiss artist group Der Große Bär, which included Ernst Frick and Richard Seewald.

1893 - Joan Miró i Ferrà (d. 1983), Catalan painter, sculptor and ceramicist associated with the Surrealists, but whose work was closer to Magic Realism and can even be seen as a forerunner of Abstract Expressionism, born. Before the Spanish Revolution, when he largely lived in France whilst spending his summers in Spain, he was viewed as apolitical but took up the Republican government's commission of a mural, 'El Segador' (The Reaper) or 'El Campesino Catalán en Rebeldía' (Catalan Peasant in Revolt), for the Spanish Republican Pavilion at the 1937 Paris Exhibition. He also designed the explicitly political 'Aidez l’Espagne' poster. Having been prevented from visiting Spain by the war and then by Franco's victory, but the German invasion of France forced him to flee to Spain, narrowly avoiding capture. In Spain he underwent a self-imposed internal exile, first in Palma and later in Barcelona, returning permanently to Palma in 1956. After the war, he also made regular trips to Paris. He also went on to make other political statement via his art, including the triptych 'L'Esperança del Condemnat a Mort' (The Hope of a Condemned Man; 1974), inspired by the execution of the Catalan anarchist Salvador Puig Antich and through which he made explicit his opposition to Franco. There were also the lithograph set (the Barcelona Series, published in 1944 and which he would revisit in colour in 1966), which were based on Alfred Jarry's Pere Ubu character, through which he expressed his experiences of the Spanish Revolution and its aftermath, with the lithographs clearly depicting Franco and his generals as versions of the fictional tyrant. Similarly, the 1978 collaboration with the experimental theatre company La Claca called 'Mori el Merma' (Death to the Bogeyman), for which he designed a series of grotesque puppets, stand-ins again for Franco and his generals.

1897 - George (Gueorgui) Getchev (d. 1965), Bulgarian anarcho-communist, poet, writer of children's stories, translator and journalist, born.

1903 - Octave Mirbeau's 'Les Affaires sont les Affaires' (Business is Business) premières at the Comédie-Française in Paris.

[B] 1920 - Donald Rooum, English anarchist cartoonist and writer with a long association with Freedom Press, born. Best known for his Wildcat cartoons.

1920 - Man Ray, Marcel Duchamp and Katherine Dreier sign the constitution of Société Anonyme, Inc., an arts organisation created to promote the work of the international avant-garde.

1927 - The Dielo Truda (Workers Cause) group, formed by Nestor Makhno, Peter Arshinov and other exiled Russian and Ukrainian anarchists in Paris and then including Ida Mett, organise an international anarchist conference in L'Ha-les-Roses, France. Among the delegates are Bifolchi, an Italian delegation from the magazine 'Pensiero e Volonta', Luigi Fabbri, Camillo Berneri, and Ugo Fedeli.

1930 - Aldo Tambellini, Italian American painter, sculptor, poet and anarchist, who was a pioneer in electronic intermedia, born. Tambellini's art has always been overtly political and directed towards his community activism. Founding member in 1962 of the counter-culture group, Group Center, which involved Ben Morea, and working closely with the Umbra poetry collective. In 1965 he made his first moves as an avant-garde filmmaker, pioneering the technique of painting directly on film, and beginning his Black Film Series. In 1966 Tambellini founded The Gate Theater in New York's East Village and the following year helped co-found a second theatre, the Black Gate.

1951 - Guy-Ernest Debord meets the Lettrists at the Cannes Film Festival, following the screening of Isou's 'Traité de Bave et d'Éternité' (Treatise on Slime and Eternity).

1953 - Jindřich Honzl (b. 1894), Czech theatre and film director, theatrical theorist, translator, educator, communist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: May 14]

1964 - August Sander (b. 1876), German portrait and documentary photographer associated with the Neuen Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity), dies. [see: Nov. 17]

1967 - Aldino Felicani (b. 1891). Italian-American anarchist, typographer, editor, and publisher of many papers, dies. Friend and supporter of Sacco and Vanzetti, founding their Defence Committee. Published, until his death, the Italian-American paper 'Controcorrente' (Countercurrent). [see: Mar. 15]

1970 - Probable date of the death by drowning of Paul Celan (b. 1920) in the Seine in Paris. [see: Nov. 23]

1974 - Richard Hülsenbeck (b. 1892), Dadaist propagandist, poet, writer, collagist, anarchist, drummer and Jungian psychoanalyst, dies. [see: Apr. 23]
1885 - Ethel Duffy Turner (d. 1969), American journalist and author who took an active part in the Mexican Revolution alongside the Magonistas, born. Her books include 'Writers and Revolutionists: Oral History Transcription' (1966), 'Revolution In Baja California: Ricardo Flores Magon's High Noon' (1981) and 'Ricardo Flores Magón y el Partido Liberal Mexicano (Textos de la Revolución Mexicana)' (1984). Ethel Duffy Turner also wrote a novel, 'The Orange Tree', a novella and a number of short stories.

[B] 1914 - The first public performance by Futurist painter and anarchist Luigi Russolo's intonarumori noise machines takes place at the Teatro dal Verme in Milan. Initially banned by the police fearing a riot, 2 local politicians intervene to get the programme of 3 pieces - 'Risveglio di una Città' (Awakening of a City), 'Colazione sulla Terrazza del Kursaal Diana' (Breakfast on the Terrace of Kursaal Diana), and 'Convegno di Automobili e di Aeroplani' (A Meeting of Automobiles and Aeroplanes) - put on. Half an hour before the concert was due to start, a large crowd was already en riot, throwing missiles at the stage. So loud was the noise throughout the concert that the music was inaudible. Marinetti likened it to "showing the first steam engine to a heard of cows."

1984 - Marcel Janco (b. 1895), anarchist-influenced Romanian and Israeli visual artist, architect and art theorist, dies. [see: May 24]
[B] 1899 - Kate Chopin publishes the early feminist novel 'The Awakening'.

1945 - Käthe Kollwitz (b. 1867), German Expressionist painter, printmaker, sculptor, socialist and pacifist, who was one of the most important women artists of her period and also artists of the working classes in Europe, dies. [see: Jul. 8]

1970 - Kikuoka Kuri (菊岡久利; b. 1909), the pen-name of Takagi Michinokuo, Japanese poet, novelist and anarchist, dies. [see: Mar. 8]

2007 - Alberto Grifi (b. 1938), Italian film director, painter and anarchist, dies. [see: May 29]
1821 - Pierre Dupont (d. 1870), French Republican song-writer, poet and socialist balladeer, born. Forerunner of the workers' song as exemplified by Eugene Pottier ('The International') and Jean-Baptiste Clément ('Time of the Cherries'), his socialist songs earned him seven years exile from France in 1851. His song 'Les Carriers' was popular amongst the Communards. The lyrics of the popular 1871 Paris Commune song ‘La Commune’ was set to the music to his song 'Les Carriers' (The Quarrymen). In his 1851 preface to the collection of 'Chants et Chansons (Poésie et Musique)', Baudelaire wrote in a tribute to the man and the poet:
"When I browse the work of Dupont, I still feel returning in my memory, probably because of some secret affinity, this sublime movement of Proudhon , full of tenderness and enthusiasm he is heard humming the song of Lyon,

Allons, du courage,
Braves ouvriers !
Du cœur à l'ouvrage !
Soyons les premiers."

[B] 1892 - Richard Hülsenbeck (d. 1974), Dadaist propagandist, poet, writer, collagist, anarchist, drummer and Jungian psychoanalyst, born. Like many of the Dadaists, and more specifically Hugo Ball, Tristan Tzara, the Janco brothers, Hülsenbeck was well read in contemporary political theory and sympathised with anarchist ideas of social and political organisation.
In 1912 he went to Munich to study medicine but after a year changed to studying German literature and art history. He also met the then anarchist Hugo Ball, who would become a decisive influence on his intellectual and artistic development. Hülsenbeck also began collaborating with the journal 'Der Sturm' (1914-32) and wrote the first of many theoretical and satirical essays, which were later published by the magazines 'Die Aktion' [1911-32; anarchist Franz Pfemfert's Expressionist and Leftist magazine that he started after his time editing the anarchist magazine ‘Der Kampf'] and 'Die Freie Strasse' [1915-18; anarchist and Dadaist magazine edited by Franz Jung, Georg Schrimpf, Richard Oehring, Otto Groß, Raoul Hausmann and Johannes Baader]. When he went to study at the Sorbonne during the winter of 1912–1913, he contributed as a "Paris correspondent" to ‘Revolution’, a polemical literary magazine started by Ball and his friend Hans Leybold (which also involved Erich Mühsam).
Hülsenbeck’s readings of Balls’ social and political critiques of Germany and its bourgeois social system reinforced his own political understanding and the two began to collaborate more closely when Hülsenbeck followed Ball to Berlin in 1914. He continued to study German literature and began to publish poems, essays, and book reviews in ‘Die Aktion’. A few months into WWI, he volunteered for the army, serving several months in a field artillery unit (Ball also volunteered but was turned down as unfit), but never made it to the front as he was released from service because of neuralgia. Both Hülsenbeck and Ball became increasingly opposed to the war [Ball witnessing the invasion of Belgium, saying: "The war is founded on a glaring mistake, men have been confused with machines"] and to the intensity of German nationalist sentiment, organising several protests against the war effort in the spring of 1915, and in commemoration for fallen fellow poets.
Ball left for Zürich with his wife, Emmy Hennings, and soon after sent for Hülsenbeck. He arrived [Feb. 26, 1916] shortly after Ball had founded the Cabaret Voltaire [Feb. 1, 1916; with the first soirée in the Holländische Meierei at Spiegelgasse 1 on Feb. 5, with Ball writing of him, in ‘Escape from Time’, on 11 February 1916: "Hülsenbeck has arrived. He pleads for an intensification of rhythm (Negro rhythm). He would best love to drum literature and to perdition."], becoming the house drummer as well as reciting his poetry - "adopt[ing] an arrogant and offensive posture, brandishing his cane at the audience and reciting his poems, according to Marcel Janco, "as if they were insults." His poetry attacked the church, the fatherland, and the canon of German literature (Friedrich von Schiller and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe), and was accompanied by big drums, roars, whistles, and laughter. Hülsenbeck's use of a military drum alluded to the proximity of the war, demanding an immediate and uninhibited bodily response from the audience." [biog., National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC]
His own ill health, and that of his father's, led to his return to Germany in Dec. 1916. In early 1917 he brought the Dada ideas to a largely unsuspecting Berlin, starting the Dada group there, recruiting Georg Grosz, Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Johannes Baader, Walter Mehring, Wieland Herzfelde and John Heartfield. The fruits of their many collaborations included ‘Jedermann sein eigner Fussball’ (1919), 'Der Dada' (1919-20) and 'Dadaco' (1920) [announced in 'Der Dada' in June 1919 as an ambitious collection of Dada poems, essays, collages and drawings, promoted as a 'Dadaistischer Handatlas', to be edited by Richard Hülsenbeck but never published].
Hülsenbeck became the organiser, promoter, and historian of Dada, delivering the 'Dada-Rede in Deutschland' (First Dada Speech in Germany) in January 1918 and participated in the First International Dada Fair [International Erste Dada-Messe], held in Berlin, June 5, 1920 at the gallery of Dr. Otto Burchard.
He also edited the 'Dada Almanach' (1920), wrote 'En Avant Dada' (1920), a history of Dadaism, and 'Deutschland Muss Untergehen! Erinnerungen Eines Alten Dadaistichen Revolutionärs’ (Germany Must Perish! Memories of an Old Dadaist Revolutionary; 1920), and contributed to numerous publications such as the Dadaist-Constructivist magazine 'G' (1923-26), and periodicals such as 'Die Pleite', 'Die Rosa Brille', 'Das Bordell', etc.
Throughout his Dada years, Hülsenbeck also continued his medical studies and began to practice in 1920. He also travelled widely as a ship's doctor, which led to his writing a series of popular travel books: ‘Afrika in Sicht’ (Africa Came into View; 1928), 'Der Sprung nach Osten’ (Air in the East; 1928) and ‘China frißt Menschen’ (China eats People; 1930). Beginning in 1933, Hülsenbeck was repeatedly investigated by the Nazi authorities. Forbidden to write and in constant fear of imminent arrest, he finally obtained passage for himself and his wife Beate Wolff to the United States in 1936. By 1939 he was practicing medicine and psychiatry in Long Island, New York, under the name Charles R. Hulbeck. He also continued to write arts reviews and articles on cultural issues for the 'Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung' and the 'Neue Zürcher Zeitung', and contributing to numerous Dada revivals and exhibitions. In 1970 he returned and settled in Switzerland.
His works include 3 Dada novels 'Azteken oder die Knallbude' (Aztecs or the Blast Booth; 1918), 'Verwandlungen' (1918), and 'Doctor Billig am Ende' (Doctor Cheap at the End; 1921); the 'expatriate' novel [auswandererroman] 'Der Traum vom Großen Glück' (The Dream of Great Happiness; 1933), his last German publication; and poetry collections including 'Schalaben, Schalomai, Schalamezomai' (1916); 'Phantastische Gebete' (Fantastic Prayers; 1916), 'Die New Yorker Kantaten’ (The New York Cantatas; 1952), and 'Die Antwort der Tiefe' (The Response of Depth; 1954). In 1959 he also published 'Sexualität und Persönlichkeit' (Sexuality and Personality). His two memoirs 'Mit Witz, Licht und Grütze' (With Wits, Light and Grits; 1957) and 'Memoirs of a Dada Drummer' (1969) offer reminiscences of his Dada experiences.

"The cows sit on the telegraph poles and play chess
The cockatoo under the skirts of the Spanish dancer
Sings as sadly as a headquaters bugler and the cannon lament all day
That is the lavender landscape Herr Mayer was talking about
when he lost his eye
Only the fire department can drive the nightmare from the drawing-
room bur all the hoses are broken
Ah yes Sonya they all take the celluloid doll for a changeling
and shout: God save the King
The whole Monist Club is gathered on the steamship Meyerbeer
But only the pilot has any conception of high C
I pull the anatomical atlas out of my toe
a serious study begins
Have you seen the fish that have been standing in front of the
opera in cutaways
for the last two days and nights...?
Ah ah ye great devils - ah ah ye keepers of bees and commandments
With a bow wow wow with a bow woe woe who does today not know
what our Father Homer wrote
I hold peace and war in my toga but I'll take a cherry flip
Today nobody knows whether he was tomorrow
They beat time with a coffin lid
If somebody had the nerve to rip the tail feathers
out of the trolley car it's a great age
The professors of zoology gather in the medows
With the palms of their hands they turn back the rainbows
the great magician sats the tomatoes on his forehead
Again thou hauntest castle and grounds
The roebuck whistles the stallion bounds
(And this is how the world is this is all that's ahead of us)."

'The End Of The World' (1916)


1910 - José Sampériz Janina (d. 1941), Spanish journalist, writer and anarchist sympathiser, born in Candasnos, Huesca. His family moved to Cuba in 1925 but returned to Spain in 1932 due to the repression during the dictatorship of Gerardo Machado y Morales. There he became involved in anarchist and intellectual circles, publishing several novels including 'El Sacrílego' (The Sacrilegious; 1931) and 'Candasnos' (1933), and essays, in 'Hitos Ibéricos' (Iberian Milestones; 1935). [expand]
During the Civil War he collaborated on several libertarian newspapers including 'Acracia', 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Orientacion Social', 'Surcos', etc., defending the collectivisation process. In 1937, with his brother Cosme, he went over to communism, affiliating to the Aragonese Federation of the Federació de Treballadors de l'Ensenyament (FETE), part of the Unió General de Treballadors (UGT). A refuge in France during the Retirada, it appears that he was probably sent with the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers to work on the fortifications of the Maginot Line. Taken prisoner by the Germans and deported and died in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp on September 26, 1941.

1926 - Maurice Lemaître (Moïse Maurice Bismuth), French lettriste artist, writer, poet, experimental cinematographer and anarchist, born. One of the key figures of Lettrism from the 1950s to the present.

1945 - Camille Mauclair (pseudonym of Séverin Faust; b. 1872), French Symbolist poet, novelist, biographer, travel writer, art critic, dies. [see: Dec. 29]
1903 - Georges Marie Valentin Vidal (d. 1964), French anarchist, proofreader, poet, novelist and friend of André Colomer, born. From an early age he wrote poetry, heavily influenced by Verlaine, Samain, Guerin and Laforgue, and was expelled from a number of schools for anarchist propaganda. At 15 he published a small booklet of lyrics, 'Quelques Rimmes', and began travelling widely.
He contributed to various publications, including 'L'Essor', 'Primaires', 'La Criée', 'La République des Alpes', etc.. helped found the anarchist newspaper 'Terre Libre' in Marseilles. On 16 November 1922 he was sentenced to two months in prison in Marseille and 100 francs fine for one of his poems published in 'Terre Libre' and 'Le Libertaire'. Days later, on November 24, he was sentenced to three months in prison in Paris and fined 200 francs for the same offense and imprisoned in Petite Roquette. He successfully gained political prisoner status following a hunger strike and fund-raising campaign in the press ('L'Oeuvre', 'L'Humanité', 'L'Ère Nouvelle', etc.). After he was transferred to the prison of Aix-en-Provence, where he wrote the poem 'Devant la Vie...'.
Once free he was appointed secretary and manager of 'Le Libertaire'. In November 1923 he and Colomer were involved in l’Affaire Daudet, with Vidal writing about Daudet, both in the columns of 'Le Libertaire' and in his book 'Comment Mourut Phillipe Daudet' (How Phillipe Daudet Died; 1924).
At this time he published essays on aesthetics 'Art et Action'. In 1925 he published the poem 'The Halt'. In 1926 he co-authored 'Dix-huit ans Bagne' (18 Years in Prison) with his friend André Colomer, and published in April that year 'Jules le Bienheureux', with drawings by Germain Delatouche. In 1926 he went into exile in Costa Rica, where he collected many themes later developed in his stories. In 1928 he returned to France, where he earned his living as a proofreader and began writing detective novels and screenplays and adventure that signed with various pseudonyms (Georges de Guérigny, Jorge Jimenez, Jorge El Macho, Edward G. Georgie, Georgie Vale, Georges-Marie Valentin, etc.).
His other works include: 'Han Ryner: L'Homme et l'Oeuvre' (1924); 'Commentaires' (1923-24); 'Six-Fours: Bourgade Provençale' (1925); 'La Grande Illusion? : Le PCF et la Défense Nationale à l'Époque du Front Populaire'; and his contributions to Sébastien Faure's 'Anarchist Encyclopedia' (1934).

[C] 1908 - George Oppen (d. 1984), American Objectivist poet and political activist, born. In 1933 Oppen set up the Objectivist Press together with fellow poets William Carlos Williams, Louis Zukofsky and Charles Reznikoff. However, faced with the aftermath of the Depression and the rise of fascism, he became increasingly politically active and though closer to anarcho-communism in his political outlook, joined the CPUSA. But, disillusioned with the CPUSA and, despite having been deferred from military service because he worked in the defence industry, wanting to be active in the fight against fascism (something he thought the CP were not), he quit his job and was drafted, fighting in France and helping liberate the concentration camp at Landsberg am Lech. After the war, he moved to Mexico, fearing being called before HUAC, and was kept under surveillance by the Mexican authorities and the FBI. He returned to the US in 1958 and resumed writing poetry.

1955 - Alfred Polgar (originally: Alfred Polak; b. 1873), Austrian-born journalist, short story writer, screenwriter, satirist, translator, essayist, dies. [see: Oct. 17]

[B] 1963 - Tõnu Trubetsky aka Tony Blackplait, Estonian punk rock singer, film and music video director, journalist, poet, novelist and anarchist, born.

1967 - Jacques Brunius (b. 1906), French actor, director, writer, poet, anarchist and Surrealist, dies. [see: Sep. 16]

1998 - Christiane Rochefort (b. 1917), French writer, novelist, essayist, translator, journalist, feminist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 17]
1800 - British poet William Cowper (b. 1731), after six years of nearly unbroken madness, dies. Author of 'Retirement', the poem from which the title of this diary originates:
"There prison'd in a parlour snug and small,
Like bottled wasps upon a southern wall"

1937 - Emma Goldman organises a concert at Victoria Palace in aid of Spanish refugees with Paul Robeson on the bill. An artistic success, it fails to raise as much money as hoped.

[B] 1938 - George Orwell's 'Homage to Catalonia' first published.

1949 - Jankel Adler (b. 1895), Polish painter, printmaker and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 26]

1955 - Clovis Poirier (stage name Clovys; b. 1885), French singer (author, composer, performer) anarchist and pacifist, dies. Director of La Muse Rouge, revolutionary poets and songwriters society. [see: May 13]

1979 - Robert van't Hoff (Robbert van't Hoff; b. 1887), Dutch architect and furniture designer, who was an influential member of the De Stijl movement, dies. [see: Nov. 5]
1885 - Carl (Karl) Einstein (d. 1940), German poet, experimental prose writer, Dadaist, art historian, theorist of Expressionist poetics, art critic and theorist who was one of the first to champion Cubism, and nephew of Albert Einstein, born. Amongst his numerous achievements are his début anti-novel 'Bebuquin oder die Dilettanten des Wunders' (1912), first published in 'Die Aktion', on which he worked, along with 'Die Pleite' and 'Der Blutige Ernst' and his 1921 passion play 'Die Schlimme Botschaft' (The Sad Tidings) was deemed blasphemous (he had placed revolutionary ideas in mouth of his Jesus) and resulted in a conviction for blasphemy in 1922, with a 15,000 marks fine. Fearing further repression with the rise of the Nazis, he moved to Paris in 1928, and a year later he co-founded with Georges Bataille and Michel Leiris the legendary avant-garde arts journal 'Documents: Doctrines, Archéologie, Beaux-arts, Ethnographie', covering then unknowns such as Picasso, Braque, Léger and André Masson. He also co-scripted the 1935 film 'Toni', with director Jean Renoir, assisted by Luchino Visconti, one of the founding members of the neorealist movement. The film, made at the height of Renoir's career, is notable for its use of non-professional actors and is also generally considered the major precursor to the Italian neorealist movement. Einstein was an anarchist combatant in the Spanish Revolution of 1936, with the famed Durruti Column, and committed suicide to prevent his capture by the Nazis.

[B] 1905 - Jean Vigo (d. 1934), French anarchist filmmaker, born. Son of the anarchist Eugene Vigo. Directed only 4 films before he died of tuberculosis but they included the classics buorgeois-baiting 'À Propos de Nice', 'Zéro de Conduite' - inspired Lindsay Anderson's 'If' and the lyrical, innovative and highly influential 'L'Atlante'.

1968 - John Heartfield (b. 1891), German anti-Fascist photomontage artist and propagandist, dies in East Berlin. [see: Apr. 26]
[BB] 1855 - Jules Jouy (d. 1897), French anarchist, singer, writer, poet, journalist, painter, songwriter and pioneer of the social song, born. A prolific songwriter (4,000+) in a number of forms: the Montmartre song, political song and the café-concert (goguette) song; many with topical social/political and working class sentiments as displayed by his chanson au jour le jour, his quickly written topical songs that appeared daily in Jules Vallès' 'Cri du Peuple' newspaper.
In 1876 he began publishing in the 'Tintamarre' newspaper songs and articles about his favourite subjects: anti-clericalism, injustice, anarchism; not shying away from using the most macabre, humorous, pornographic and scatological language. In September 1878 he participated in the founding of 'Le Sans-Culotte', a virulent anti-clerical republican newspaper that campaigned for amnesty for the Communards. He was a member of the Le Cercle des Hydropathes and Les Hirsutes literary clubs, and frequented the Chat Noir, founded by a dissident cabaret group called Le Chien Noir which performed in the cabarets of Montmartre.
In Dec 1881 he co-founded, with Eugène Bataille (Sapeck), leader of Des Fumistes [for the Exposition des Arts Incohérents in 1883, Sapeck created 'Mona Lisa Fumant la Pipe' which prefigured Duchamp's 'LHOOQ'], 'L'Anti-Concierge: Organe Officiel de Défense des Locataires', a tenants' newspaper which also became the title of one of his songs. In 1882 he wrote and published the only issue of the 'Journal des Merdeux' and his 1884 collaboration, 'La Lanterne des Curés', is condemned as pornographic. In 1886 he joined the anarchist group La Ligue des Antipropriétaires and 1888 saw his prolonged and violent written tirade against the dictatorship of General Boulanger - "L'Infâme à Barbe", whose supporters labelled him le Poète Chourineur (The Murderous Poet). Around the same time he joined Le Parti Ouvrier (Labour Party) for a period, publishes his second song collection, 'Chansons de Bataille' (1889) and is active within the goguette circles of Paris. In 1893 , he published several violently anti-Semitic songs in 'La Libre Parole Illustrée' and the following year takes over management of Café des Décadents, successor to Café des Incohérents. Unfortunately his health has suffered, not just because of his constant activity but also because of his tobacco and absinthe abuse, and his friends end up committing him to a psychiatric clinic in May 1895, where he dies aged 42 on March 17 1897. Three days later all the Montmartre cabaret milieu attend his funeral at the Père Lachaise Cemetery.
Amongst his more famous songs are 'La Soularde' (The Drunkard; 1897), written for Yvette Guilbert; 'La Veuve' (The Widow; 1887), a song about the guillotine and the death penalty, 'Le Tombeau des Fusillés' (1887), in memory of the Communards. His 'Chanson de la Grève' (Song of the Strike; 1888) was later revived and adopted by French Mayday demonstrators.

[B] 1878 - Victor Arendorff (d. 1958), Swedish writer, journalist, poet, lyricist, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Also wrote under the pseudonym Captivus. Began his journalistic career on the right wing 'Stockholms Dagblad' but resigned after 4 years there and began working for trade union, anarchist and socialist journals, including 'Brand' (Fire). His books include 'Herr Husvills Visor och Andra Dikter' (Mr Husvills Ballads and Other Poems; 1915) and 'De Valkiga Händernas Folk och Andra Dikter' (The Calloused Hands People and Other Poems; 1928).

1887 - Claude Le Maguet (known as Jean Salivas) (d. 1979), French poet, typographer, anarchist and militant pacifist, born. Placed in an orphanage at the age of six (directed by the anarchist Paul Robin), from the age of 16 he became a typographer. Deeply libertarian, he worked for the paper 'L'Anarchie', then in the community of Aiglemont founded by Fortuné Henry. Refusing military service, Le Mauet was forced into clandestine activity. He took refuge in Belgium for a while, then in Lille (where he was arrested and imprisoned for a month, his identity undiscovered) and finally in Geneva, Switzerland, and remained committed to his pacifist ideals when WWI was declared.
In 1916, he helped found the pacifist review 'Les Tablettes' with Albert Ledrappier and Frans Masereel, and contributed to various Swiss newspapers. Returning to France in 1939, he was imprisoned for a period in Lyon by the fascists, then went back to Switzerland, where he devoted himself until his death to his poetry.

1949 - Didier Daeninckx, prolific French author of detective fiction, novelist, essayist, anti-fascist, one-time communist and latterly a libertarian, born to an anarchist father and communist mother. His works are resolutely politically and socially critical, which has resulted in him ending up embroiled in a number of controversies. His second novel 'Meurtres pour Mémoire' (Murder in Memoriam; 1984) about Nazi collaborators, appeared shortly before the Papon trial and 'Le Der des Ders' (A Very Profitable War; 1985) is set in the post-WWI Parisian anarchist militant milieu.

1957 - Situationist International founding conference at Cosio d'Arroscia, Italy.

1974 - Aldo Rossi and Anna Pietroni, anarchist militants involved with various publications and causes (defending the poet/militant Giovanni Marini), die this evening in a car accident. Anna was from a family of anarchists, and both she and Aldo broke with the Communist Party following WWII.
1893 - The first appearance of the term Pataphysics occurs in the text of Alfred Jarry's play 'Guignol' in 'L'Écho de Paris Littéraire Illustré'.

1917 - Third Dada evening 'Abend Neuer Kunst' (Evening of New Art) in Zurich. Amongst those in the audience are Olga Sacharoff, Mary Wigman, Clotilde von Derp, Marianne von Werefkin, Alexej von Jawlensky, Harry Graf Kessler and Elisabeth Bergner.

1944 - Charlotte Wilson (b. 1854), English anarchist who co-founded Freedom newspaper in 1886 with Peter Kropotkin, dies a week short of her ninetieth birthday.
"The genuine Anarchist looks with sheer horror upon every destruction, every mutilation of a human being, physical or moral. He loathes wars, executions and imprisonments, the grinding down of the worker's whole nature in a dreary round of toil, the sexual and economic slavery of women, the oppression of children, the crippling and poisoning of human nature by the preventable cruelty and injustice of man to man in every shape and form." from 'Anarchism and Homicidal Outrage' (1893)

1944 - Katri Vala (Karin Alice Wadenström; b. 1901), Finnish teacher, modernist poet, translator, radical, pacifist and anti-Fascist, who was a central member of the literary group Tulenkantajat (Torchbearers), dies. [see: Sep. 12]

1950 - Brian Brett, Canadian poet and novelist, born.
"I was a rabid anarchist and, out of eccentricity, carried a business card declaring my membership in the I.W.W., the International Workers of the World, the 'Wobblies' - the last great romantic revolutionary organisation of America."

The old poet and writer of fiction—
that’s him in the photograph beside the door,
the little fellow with the moustache,
the aesthete with the taste for whips,
for women in leather,
the man with a trembly upper lip
which made him resemble a rabbit
when he ate his lettuce—
once said to me, years ago:
Everyone should be an anarchist
at the age of twenty.

This was the knowledge of a man
who had gone beyond sixty years,
and had come to love the conservative,
who raced this horses
and drank the best cognacs,
who denied what he used to believe,
concluding that all of us will
eventually Judas the life we once lived.

Young then, I thought it was wise of him
to understand the boil and tidal ebb of blood,
the hormones that control the run, the rush….
But today, when I contemplate not just
my own unfinished home and garden,
but the gardens of those who can afford gardeners—
I can only witness the savage landscape
we have made out of our collapsing planet.
Perhaps this is why, now that I have
more than doubled by years, sometimes,
I want to burn down all our houses.

'Considerations of Anarchy'


[B] 1953 - Roberto Bolaño Ávalos (d. 2003), Chilean novelist, poet, one-time Trotskyist and latterly an anarchist, born. At the time his novel 'Los Detectives Salvajes' (The Savage Detectives; 1998) was published he was a Trotskyist and the novel parodied aspects of the movement.
"The problem is, once among the Trotskyites, I didn't like their clerical unanimity either, so I ended up being an anarchist. I was the only anarchist I knew and thank God, because otherwise I would have stopped being an anarchist. Unanimity pisses me off immensely. Whenever I realize that the whole world agrees on something, whenever I see that the whole world is cursing someone in chorus, something rises to the surface of my skin that makes me reject it."

1976 - Promoe (Mårten Edh, born Nils Mårten Ed), Swedish rapper and member of Swedish hip hop group Looptroop Rockers and anarchist, born.

1986 - Paul-Aloïse de Bock (b. 1898), Belgian novelist, poet and lawyer, dies. [see: Sep. 13]
[#] 1896 - Walter Mehring (d. 1981), German-Jewish Expressionist poet and prose writer, anti-militarist and anarchist, who was one of the most prominent satirical authors in the Weimar Republic, born. Founding member of Berlin Dada. As a writer who during 20s and 30s wrote anti-Fascist literature, he caused scandals and rage in the Nazi party with his plays and chansons. When the Nazis came to power his books were burnt, he was prosecuted as a ''Jewish subversionist," stripped of his citizenship and imprisoned. After escaping an internment camp, he fled to the USA where he eventually got a citizenship. [expand]

1980 - Jehan Jonas (Gérard Béziat; b. 1944), French chanteur libertaire, cabaret singer, poet, playwright, screenwriter, dies. [see: Aug. 12]

2009 - Leonidas Christakis (Λεωνίδας_Χρηστάκης; b. 1928), Greek writer, painter, editor and anarchist, dies.
1843 - Charles Keller (d. 1913), French poet, Paris Communard and Bakuninist, born. Companion of Mathilde Roederer, a militant in the A.I.T. and Jura Federation. Author of the song 'La Jurassienne' which was put to music by James Guillaume.

[BB] 1883 - Luigi Russolo (d. 1947), Italian Futurist painter, composer and anarchist, born. The author of the manifesto 'L'Arte dei Rumori' (The Art of Noises; 1913), who designed and constructed his noise-generating devices or Intonarumori. Born into a very musical family, he seriously considered becoming a musician but moved to Milan and studied art at the Accademia di Brera. He joined the Famiglia Artistica di Milano group where he first met Carlo Carrà and Umberto Boccioni. At this stage he was interested mainly in Symbolist-influenced painting and engraving.
Russolo joined the Futurist movement at the beginning of 1910 and immediately became an activist, taking part in all the serata, or Futurist evenings, and other activities. He signed the 'Manifesto of the Futurist Painters' (1910) and the 'Technical Manifesto of Futurist Painting' (1910). Russolo was committed to being the movement's musical activist as well as a political activist. Like many others, Russolo supported the Anarchist movement and contributed to their journals. In 1913 he co-signed, with Marinetti, Boccioni and Carrà, the manifesto 'Political Programme of Futurism' that was published in 'Lacerba' on October 15. During 1914 he participated in the interventionist demonstrations and was arrested and imprisoned for six days with Marinetti, Boccioni, Carrà and Mazza. When Italy entered the First World War, Russolo joined the Lombard Volunteer Cyclist Battalion with many of his Futurist friends.
The first public performance of his Intonarumori noise machines took place at the Teatro dal Verme in Milan on April 21 1914 provoked a riot. So loud was the audience that the music was all but inaudible. Concerts followed that year at the Politeama Genovese in Genoa and at the London Coliseum. In 1921, after WWI, he presented three concerts in Paris (Théatre des Champs-Elysées) and, in 1922, the intonarumori provided a musical backdrop to Filippo Tommaso Marinetti's play 'Il Tamburo di Fuoco' (The Drums of Fire).
Due to his opposition to Fascism, Russolo spent most of his time between 1927 and 1932 in Paris. In 1931 he moved to Tarragona in Spain, where he studied occult philosophy and then in 1933 returned to Italy, settling in Cerro di Laveno on Lake Maggiore. Russolo published his philosophical investigations 'Al di là della Materia' (Beyond Matter) in 1938. In 1941-42, he took up painting again in a realist style that he called "classic-modern". Russolo died at Cerro di Lavenio in 1947.

[A] 1883 - Jaroslav Hašek (d. 1923), Czech novelist, satirist, Bolshevik, story writer, journalist and anarchist, born. Austrian police informers considered him "particularly dangerous". Author of the classic four-volume anti-militarist novel, 'The Good Soldier Švejk'. Described by Cecil Parrott, his biographer and an unrivalled authority on him and his work, as: "Truant, rebel, vagabond, anarchist, play-actor, practical joker, bohemian (and Bohemian), alcoholic, traitor to the Czech legion, Bolshevik and bigamist", a list that also omits bank teller, chemist’s assistant, dog breeder, sketch writer, cabaret performer, soldier and POW.
In 1906 he joined the anarchist movement, having taken part in the 1897 anti-German riots in Prague as a schoolboy, and gave regular lectures to groups of proletarian workers. In 1907 he became editor of the anarchist magazine 'Komuna' and faced regular periods of arrest and imprisonment for his anarchist activities. In 1911 he created the Strana Mírného Pokroku v Mezích Zákona (Party of Moderate Change within the Boundaries of the Law), wrote its manifesto and ran for office under its banner.
His journalist career encompassed 'Ženský Obzor' (Women's Horizon; 1908); 'Svět Zvířat' Animal World, from which he was fired for inventing animals and advertising werewolves; 'Českého Slova' (Czech Word; 1911); followed by 'Pochodně' (Porches), 'Humoristických Listů' (Humorist Pages), 'Kopřiv' (Nettle) and 'Karikatur' (Cartoons). Later on he also started the Kynologický ústav (Cynology Institute) [Cynology is the study of matters related to canines or domestic dogs], from where he sold stolen dogs with forged pedigrees, and which later inspired him to write the book 'Můj Obchod se Psy' (My Business is Dogs; 1986). He also ended up writing for and performing in cabaret alongside Emil Artur Longen.
Drafted into the 91st Infantry Regiment of the Austro-Hungarian Army, he fought on the Galician front before being captured by the Russians on September 24, 1915, all experiences that fed into 'The Good Soldier Švejk' (orig. 'Osudy Dobrého Vojáka Švejka za Světové Války' or 'The Fateful Adventures of the Good Soldier Švejk During the World War'). As a POW he contracted typhus but was recruited as a volunteer in June 1916 to fight in the revoluční dobrovolná vojska (revolutionary voluntary army), the Českých Budějovicích (Czechoslovak Legion), where he acted as a clerk, journalist, soldier and recruitment agent. In March 1918, the Czechoslovak Legion was sent to the Western Front, but Hašek decide to desert, joining the Red Army, mainly working as a recruiter and propaganda writer. He also fought as a commander of the Czechoslovak section of Red Army soldiers against the White Army, as well as apparently presiding over a number of executions and working as a Political Commisar.
Already having been married to Jarmila Mayerová in 1910, he embarked on a second short-lived, bigamous marriage in 1920 and shortly after Czeck papers carried the news that the traitor and bigamist was dead. That however did not stop him from resuming his bohemian lifestyle in Prague (it is said that the Soviet authorities sent him back to Czechoslovakia to help organise the Communist movement), where he poked fun at his own obituary, penning an article called 'How I Met the Author of My Obituary'. More importantly he settled down to write the Švejk books, which remained unfinished when he died from the tuberculosis that he had caught during the war. His death largely passed unremarked as the Czechoslovak Finance Minister, Alois Rašín, had just been assassinated by an anarchist.
In Czech, Švejk’s name is now a verb, and a strategy of passive resistance close to Zen: to rebel against the world it is enough to agree to everything, completely.

[B] 1936 - Antonio Artero Coduras (d. 2004), Spanish libertarian filmmaker and essayist, is born to an anarchist mother held in Zaragoza prison.

1978 - 100,000 people marched six miles from Trafalgar Square via the Strand, Fleet Street and Shoreditch to Bethnal Green in the East End of London, where the first Rock Against Racism/ANL Carnival is held in Victoria Park, East London. The Clash, Tom Robinson, Steel Pulse, X-Ray Spex and others played to an audience of at least 80,000 people.
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)
2010 - Jason Pearce dies of the mysterious new condition "excited delirium" whilst being arrested and restrained by two police officers in Market Drayton. No one is charged.philadi