"Art is not a mirror to reflect the world, but a hammer with which to shape it." - variously attributed to Bertolt Brecht, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Nikolai Nekrasov and even (in a slightly different version) Leon Trotsky.

1811 - Andreas Laskaratos (Ανδρέας Λασκαράτος, d. 1901) Greek radical satirical poet and writer, born.

1885 - André Gill (born Louis-Alexandre Gosset de Guînes; b. 1840), French republican and anti-clerical caricaturist, dies. [see: Oct. 17]

[B] 1885 - Clément Pansaers (d.1922), French language Belgian poet, artist (painting, engraving and sculpture), libertarian, internationalist and anti-militarist, born. The main proponent of the Dada movement in Belgium, he was a close friend of Carl Einstein. He was responsible for the 'Dada, sa naissance et sa mort' issue of 'Ca Ira' (no. 16) in 1921 and wrote the widely admired Dadaist works 'Pan-Pan au Cul du Nu Nègre' (1920), 'Bar Nicanor' (1921) and 'L'Apologie de la Paresse' (The Apology for Laziness; 1922), and also published under the pseudonym Julius Krekel.

1931 - Olivier O. Olivier (Pierre Marie Olivier; d. 2011), French painter, Pataphysician and cultural anarchist, born. Member of the Mouvement Panique (Panic Movement), an anarchist avant-garde collective, with Fernando Arrabal, Alejandro Jodorowsky, Roland Topor, Christian Zeimert and Jacques Sternberg. Awarded the Ordre de La Grande Gidouille of the Collège de Pataphysique in 1957, later appointed the Régent d'Onirographie 2005 and a Transcendent Satrap posthumously in 2012.

1973 - Asger Oluf Jorn (b. 1914), Danish painter, sculptor, ceramic artist, printmaker, author, founding member of the avant-garde movement COBRA and the Situationist International, dies. [see: Mar. 3]

1978 - Sylvia Townsend Warner (b. 1893), English feminist and lesbian writer and poet, dies. Active in the CPGB and visited Spain during the Civil War as a Red Cross representative. [see: Dec. 6]

1995 - Artür Harfaux (born Arthur Julien René Harfaux; b. 1906), French designer, photographer, writer and screenwriter, dies. [see: May 29]

2000 - Churchill's statue gets a green mohican during the Millennium May Day protests.

2008 - Frédéric H. Fajardie (b. 1947), French libertarian writer of detective, adventure and 'neo-thriller' fiction, screenplays, film dialogue and radio plays, dies. [see: Aug. 28]
[B] 1860 - Luigi Francesco Giovanni Parmeggiani aka Louis Marcy (d. 1945), Italian anarchist individualist expropriator, onetime apprentice typographer, shoemaker, and latterly a journalist, publisher, antiques dealer and forger of medieval and Renaissance caskets, jewellery and reliquaries, born. A notorious exiled anarchist individualist in London in the late 1880s and early 1890s, where Parmeggiani adopted the pseudonym Louis Marcy. Amongst the victims of his forgeries were, much to their embarrassment, was the Victorian and Albert and British Museums, the Louvre, the Musée du Grand Palais and the Metropolitan Museum. Published a book of poems, 'Versi', in 1899. Co-founder of the Galleria Anna e Luigi Parmeggiani in Reggio Emilia. [other sources cite d.o.b. as July 24 1858]

1921 - Paul Wulf (d. 1999), German anarchist and communist artist, and anti-fascist victim of the Nazi regime's sterilisation programmes, born. One-time member of the KPD and the Vereinigung der Verfolgten des Naziregimes (Association of Victims of the Nazi Regime; VVN). Known for his John Heartfield and Ernst Friedrich-inspired political collages and anti-fascist exhibitions. Strongly influenced by the writing of Erich Mühsam.

1921 - Roger Boussinot (d. 2001), French director, writer, screenwriter, critic, film historian and libertarian, who used the pseudonyms Emmanuel Le Lauraguais and Roger Mijema, born. Son of the anarchist teacher and Freinet member Jean Charles Boussinot. Author of the monumental 'Encyclopedia of Cinema' (1967); 'Les Mots de l'Anarchie: Dictionnaire des Idées, des Faits, des Actes, de l'Histoire et des Hommes Anarchistes' (Anarchist Words: Dictionary of Ideas, Facts, Actions, Histories and Anarchists; 1982); and of more than 20 novels, many of which have been dramatised, including: 'Le Sixième Sens' (The Sixth Sense; 1959), 'Les Guichets du Louvre' (The Louvre Ticket Offices; 1960 - adapted for the script to his 1974 anti-fascist film 'Les Guichets du Louvre' aka 'Black Thursday'), 'Le Treizième Caprice' (The Thirteenth Caprice; 1962 - also a 1967 Boussinot-directed film) and 'Vie et Mort de Jean Chalosse' (Life and Death of Jean Chalosse; 1976).

1943 - In the Vilnius (Vilna) Ghetto, the Polish poet Hirsh Glik (1922 - 1944) sings his famous song 'Zog Nit Keynmol' for the first time to fellow poet Shmaryahu Kaczerginski. It quickly spread through the ghettos and camps, becoming a symbol of hope and defiance, and was adopted by Jewish partisans, sometimes being called the 'Song of the Partisans'.
Born into a poor family in 1922 in Vilnius, during the German occupation of Vilnius on June 26, 1941, Glik and his father were among those Jews arbitrarily seized and sent to work in the peat bogs at Biala-Waka and Rzesza. In early 1943 the Biala-Waka camp was liquidated and Glik was sent to the Vilnius Ghetto, where he joined the Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye (FPO; United Partisan Organisation). On 1 September 1943, the FPO unit to which Glik belonged was captured and he was deported to Estonia, initially to the camp at Narva, subsequently to that at Goldfilz. In summer 1944, together with eight other FPO men, Glik escaped from Goldfilz. The advancing Soviet Army was in the region and the intention was to join the local partisans. But Glik and all of his companions disappeared, probably captured and executed by German soldiers in the area.

1974 - Stefan Kozakiewicz aka ‘Marcinek’ (b. 1914), Polish professor, arts historian and syndicalist, dies. [see: Sep: 12]

1977 - 'Bloody Revolutions' c/w 'Persons Unknown', the joint Crass / Poison Girls single is released on Crass Records, "and sold 20,000 in the first week, with HMV destroying copies (which only helped)". The Crass side is the band's response to the anti-fascist action at the 'notorious' Conway Hall gig on September 8, 1979. The single raised £20,000 to fund the Wapping Autonomy Centre.
1808 - French execute Spanish rebels — inspires Goya's 'Executions of the 3rd of May'.

[B] 1886 - Robert Collino (d. 1975), wrote under the pseudonym Ixigrec; a science fiction author - 'Panurge au Pays des Machines' (1940) and 'Essais Fantastiques du Dr Rob.' (1966) - and anarchist, who wrote for many, many libertarian publications, born.

1890 - Alternative birth date [see: 23 February 1882] for enigmatic novelist, German anarchist revolutionary, B. Traven (d. 1969) aka Otto Feige, Albert Otto Max Wienecke, Berick Traven Torsvan, Hal Croves, Torsvan Croves, Ret Marut, Bent Traven.

1892 - Hugo Gellert (Gellért Hugó; d. 1985), Hungarian-born American artist, radical illustrator, muralist, socialist and anti-fascist, born. A committed radical, taught art classes at the Ferrer school after it had moved from New York to the anarchist colony at Stelton. He would later join the Communist Party of America.

[C] 1917 - María del Milagro Pérez Lacruz aka 'La Jabalina' (The Wild Sow)(d. 1942), Spanish anarchist and member of Juventudes Libertarias, who fought with the Iron Column, born. Following the defeat of the Revolution, and pregnant, she was arrested and eventually sentenced to death. On 9 January 1940 she gave birth, never to see her child again. She was shot by firing squad on August 8 1942 alongside 6 male comrades in Huerta Oeste, Valencia. Her life was the basis for the novel 'Si Me Llegas a Olvidar' (If I Get to Forget; 2013) by Rosana Corral-Márquez.

1929 - René E. Mueller (Ernst René Müller; d. 1991), Swiss writer, poet, Lebenskünstler and anarchist, born.
'Poetische Aderlässe' (Poetic Bloodletting; 1960), 'Geheul um Gabriela. Ein Lyrisches Pamphlet' (Howl at Gabriela. A Lyrical Pamphlet; 1968), 'Engel der Strasse. Ein Anti-Roman' (Angels of the Road. An Anti-Novel; 1976) and 'Geliebte Tödin. Poetische Aderlässe' (Beloved Tödin. Poetic Bloodletting; 1986).

"Das Brot ist hart, das Wasser fade,
Keine Cigaretten – schade,
Aus dem Kübel der Gestank
Macht mich krank,
Doch auf meinem Arsche tanzen
Quietschvergnügt zwei Dutzend Wanzen!"

(The bread is hard, the water stale,
No cigarettes - shame
The smell from the bucket
Makes me sick,
But dancing on my ass
Happily are two dozen bugs!)


1955 - Rudolf Schlichter (b. 1890), German Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) artist, Dadaist, and member of the KPD, who helped for the Rote Gruppe alongsdie John Heartfield and George Grosz, dies. [see: Dec. 6]

1958 - Gérard de Lacaze-Duthiers (b. 1876), French individualist anarchist, friend of the arts, pacifist intellectual and originator of the slogan "Make your life a work of art", dies. A prolific author of over 40 books and pamphlets dealing with the arts, literature and pacifism, he founded the magazine 'L'Action d'Art' in 1913 with André Colomer and Manual Devaldès. [see: Jan. 26]

2008 - Hanon Reznikov (born Howard Reznick; b. 1950), American anarchist, theatre and film actor, writer and co-director of The Living Theatre in New York City (with Judith Malina) following Julian Beck's death in 1985, dies. [see: Sep. 23]

2009 - Marilyn French (b. 1929), American feminist author and academic, dies. [see: Nov. 21]

2013 - Russian performance artist and political activist Pyotr Pavlensky performs 'Carcass', a political protest action against the repressive policies of the Putin government.
[B] 1867 - Dynam-Victor Fumet (d. 1949), French composer, organist, anarchist and bombmaker, born. Dynam (his adopted nickname that either came from his musical dynamism or his penchant for practicing bomb-making) wrote anarchist verse (which earned him the cancellation of a scholarship), contributed articles to 'La Révolte' and was a friend of Kropotkin and Louise Michel, as well as the likes of Satie and a number of other La Chat Noir regulars (Dynam was the cabaret's orchestra conductor).

1871 - Mynona aka Salomo Friedlaender (d. 1946), German philosopher, author and anarchist individualist, associated with Expressionism and Dada, born. Mynona is an anagram of "anonym" (i.e., anonymous). A Stirneite, he claimed his philosophy as a "synthesis between Immanuel Kant and Charlie Chaplin". Close to amongst others Martin Buber, Alfred Kubin, Gustav Landauer, Else Lasker-Schüler, Erich Mühsam and Ludwig Rubiner, he was also associated artistically with Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Ludwig Meidner and Paul Scheerbart. Mynona also wrote for 'Die Aktion', 'Der Sturm', 'Die Neue Jugend' and 'Den Weißen Blättern' (The White Sheets). In 1919 he co-founded the Stirner-Bund with Anselm Ruest (Ernst Samuel) and its magazine 'Der Einzige'. His final work, 'Der Lachende Hiob' (The Laughing Job; 1935), was published in France after he had fled to Paris in 1933 fearing the posiblity of being picked up by the Gestapo and transported to Auschwitz. The novel, which is narrated by Jusua Zander, a Jewish mine owner Jusua Zander, is a grotesque satire on the Nazi ideology (lampooned as "Organotechnik" by Mynona). Zander faces down the brutality of the Nazis with laughter and his superior rationality: "Wer der Vernunft gehorcht, wird zum Gott der Erde." (Whoever obeys reason, is God of the Earth.)

1880 - Bruno Taut (Bruno Julius Florian Taut; d. 1938) German architect, urban planner and author of the Weimar period, born. He was also a social reformer, anarchist and anti-militarist, whose ideas, including his architectural work, were influenced by the ideas of Kropotkin and Landauer, especially the latter's 'Aufruf zum Sozialismus' (Call to Socialism; 1911), born. His 'Die Auflösung der Städt' (The Dissolution of the City; 1920) displays a clear affiliation with Kropotkinian communitarian ideas of community organisation.

[CC] 1912 - Elvi Aulikki Sinervo-Ryömä (d. 1986), Finnish working-class writer, novelist, poet, dramatist, translator, anti-fascist and post-war member of the Suomen Kommunistisessa Puolueessa (SKP; Communist Party of Finland), born. She joined the leftist cultural group Kiilaa (Wedge) in 1936, becoming its most important prose author, starting with her first work, 'Runo Söörnäisistä' (A Poem about Söörnäinen, 1937), a collection of short stories about working-class life in Helsinki. She would later described herself during this period as having been a "professional revolutionary" and, in 1941 during the so-called Continuation War (Jatkosota Käytiin, June 1941 - September 1944, when Finish and German forces jointly took part in the invasion of Russia following the end of the Talvisota (Winter War), when Russia invaded Finland), she was sentenced to four years in prison for participating in illegal anti-fascist activities.
All her work is expressly political in tone and content: 'Pilvet' (Clouds; 1944), a collection of poems, was written in part during her time in prison and depicts her experiences there; 'Viljami Vaihdokas' (Viljami the Changeling; 1946), which is considered Sinervo’s most significant work and the one most obviously in the anti-Fascist literary tradition, depicts the war between Finland and the Soviet Union as part of a worldwide struggle and the importance of collective action; the novel 'Toveri, älä Peta' (Comrade, Don’t Betray Me; 1947) is about a prisoner who accidentally betrays a fellow inmate and suffers the fate of being ostracised because of it; and, 'Vuorelle Nousu' (Climbing the Mountain, 1948), is a collection of short stories, about the experiences of those in the underground Communist movement in Finland.

1959 - François Truffaut's 'Les Quatre Cents Coups' (The 400 Blows), a French Nouvelle Vague (New Wave) classic influenced by Jean Vigo's 'Zéro de Conduite' (1933), in fact it has one scene lifted wholesale from Vigo's film, premières in Paris.

1966 - Stefano Sollima, radical Italian filmmaker, screenwriter and son of the spaghetti western director Sergio Sollima, born. Known initially for his TV series: ' Gomorra' (2014), 'Romanzo Criminale' (2008-12) and 'La Squadra' (2003-07), his first feature film is 'ACAB - All Cops Are Bastards' (2012).
1891 - The first issue of Zo d'Axa's weekly magazine 'L'Endehors' (The Outside) is published in Paris. It follows an individualist anarchist agenda and is a showcase for the movement's literary talent. "Celui que rien n'enrôle et qu'une impulsive nature guide seule, ce passionnel tant complexe, ce hors la loi, ce hors d'école, cet isolé chercheur d'au delà ne se dessine-t-il pas dans ce mot: "L'Endehors"..." (That which nothing enlists and which an impulsive nature only guides, this passion so complex, it is outside the law, it is outside of school, this lone seeker of the beyond does not emerge from this word: "Endehors"…)

1913 - Belgrado Pedrini (d. 1979), Italian writer, poet, anarchist and partisan, born. One evening in 1942, in a bar, Pedrini, with his comrades Giovanni Zava and Gino Giorgi, disarmed and beat up five fascists. Searched for by the authorities, they went to Milan where in November 1942, they were surprised by a police patrol whilst sticking up posters calling on Italians to rise up against the war. After a long shoot out during which one of the police died, the three managed to escape and get to Genoa and then La Spezia. Now on the wanted list of Mussolini’s secret police, the OVRA, and described in the daily 'I'l Popolo d’Italia' as dangerous "criminals and saboteurs of the armed resistance", Pedrini, Zava and Giorgi were surrounded by the police in a hotel there. Another shoot out began which lasted several hours and which ended with the arrest of the three anarchists, seriously wounded, and the death of a police officer. Taken to La Spezia jail, Belgrado was transferred in 1943 to the Massa prison, in preparation for a trial and a certain death by firing squad.
In June 1944, partisans of the Elio detachment carried out a spectacular action and managed to free the prisoners of the Massa jail. Belgrado then joined in the guerrilla struggle against the fascists and the Germans. He took part in much combat and in various acts of sabotage carried out by the partisan detachment. In May 1945 shortly after the Liberation, Pedrini was again arrested for the incident at La Spezia, and for other acts from this period which included the expropriation of marble industrialists at Carrara, Milan and La Spezia.
The magistrature turned a blind eye to the political and anti-fascist nature of these acts, preferring to see them as ordinary crimes and sentenced him in May 1949, to life imprisonment, which was then commuted to 30 years imprisonment. Continually transferred from one prison to another because of his escape attempts and the many prison revolts he had instigated, Pedrini avidly read all the classics of literature and philosophy. A brilliant autodidact, he wrote many poems in prison, among which 'Schiavi' (Slaves) – written in 1967 at Fossombrone – which, put to music, became celebrated within the anarchist movement under the title of 'Il Galeone'. He was finally let out of jail on the April 17, 1975, thanks to an intensive international campaign with a strong anarchist input.

'Il Galeone' (1967)

Siamo la ciurma anemica
d’una galera infame
su cui ratta la morte
miete per lenta fame.

Mai orizzonti limpidi
schiude la nostra aurora
e sulla tolda squallida
urla la scolta ognora.

I nostri dì si involano
fra fetide carene
siam magri smunti schiavi
stretti in ferro catene.

Sorge sul mar la luna
ruotan le stelle in cielo
ma sulle nostre luci
steso è un funereo velo.

Torme di schiavi adusti
chini a gemer sul remo
spezziam queste catene
o chini a remar morremo!

Cos’è gementi schiavi
questo remar remare?
Meglio morir tra i flutti
sul biancheggiar del mare.

Remiam finché la nave
si schianti sui frangenti
alte le rossonere
fra il sibilar dei venti!

E sia pietosa coltrice
l’onda spumosa e ria
ma sorga un dì sui martiri
il sol dell’anarchia.

Su schiavi all’armi all’armi!
L’onda gorgoglia e sale
tuoni baleni e fulmini
sul galeon fatale.

Su schiavi all’armi all’armi!
Pugnam col braccio forte!
Giuriam giuriam giustizia!
O libertà o morte!

Giuriam giuriam giustizia!
O libertà o morte!

(We're the crew aenemic,
of an infamous prison
on which the quick death
rages with slow hunger.

Never clear horizonts
unclenchs our dawn
and over the sleazy blanket
screams the guide every hour.

Our days fly
between stinky keels
we're thin, pallid, slaves
tied with iron chains.

The moon rises above the see
revolve the stars in the sky
but over our lights
lied a funeral veil.

Crew of waterless slaves
bent to suffer on the oar
broke these chains
or bent to row we'll die!

Suffering slaves
what is this rowing?
Better to die between the waves
on the whitening see.

We row until the ship
crashed the reefs
highs the black and reds
between winds hiss!

And be pitiful bed
the scummy and wicked wave
but rises a day over the martyrs
the sun of the anarchy.

Come now slaves to arms, to arms!
Fight with the strong arm!
Swear, swear justice!
Freedom or death!

Swear, swear justice!
Freedom or death!)


1952 - Alberto Savinio (Andrea Francesco Alberto de Chirico; d. 1891), Italian writer, painter, musician, journalist, essayist, playwright, set designer, composer and Nietzchean-inspired "proto-anarchist" associated with Dada and Surrealism, dies. [see: Aug. 25]

[B] 1954 - Henri Laurens (b. 1885), French Cubist sculptor, painter, illustrator, theatre designer, engraver, stonemason and anarchist, who turned down the Légion d'honneur, dies. [see: Feb. 18]
1786 - Carl Ludwig Börne (d. 1837), German journalist, literary and theatre critic and political satirist, who was singled out by Gustav Landauer in 'Börne und der Anarchismus' (1900) as an early German forerunner of anarchism, born.
"Nicht darauf kommt es an, daß die Macht in dieser oder jener Hand sich befinde: die Macht selbst muß vermindert werden, in welcher Hand sie sich auch befinde. Aber noch kein Herrscher hat die Macht, die er besaß, und wenn er sie auch noch so edel gebrauchte, freiwillig schwächen lassen. Die Herrschaft kann nur beschränkt werden, wenn sie herrenlos (ist) - Freiheit geht nur aus Anarchie hervor. Von dieser Notwendigkeit der Revolution dürfen wir das Gesicht nicht abwenden, weil sie so traurig ist. Wir müssen als Männer der Gefahr fest ins Auge blicken und dürfen nicht zittern vor dem Messer des Wundarztes. Freiheit geht nur aus Anarchie hervor - das ist unsere Meinung, so haben wir die Lehren der Geschichte verstanden."
(It does not depend on that power is located in this or that hand power itself must be reduced, which hand she also finds it. But still no ruler has the power he possessed, and if he ever so classy cars leave voluntarily weaken. The rule can only be limited if it ownerless (is) - freedom is only apparent from anarchy. From this necessity of the revolution, we must not turn away his face, because she is so sad. We need to look than men of the danger straight in the eye and must not tremble before the knife of the surgeon. Freedom emerges only from anarchy - that is our opinion, we have understood the lessons of history.)

1837 - Juan Serrano y Oteiza (d. 1886), Spanish anarchist intellectual, lawyer, journalist and writer, born. His most famous work is probably his utopian novel 'Pensativo' (1885).

1851 - Aristide Bruant (d. 1925), French cabaret singer, comedian, and owner of the Mirliton nightclub, born. Credited as the creator of the chanson réaliste musical genre. Although close friend to many anarchist and expressed anti-establishment radical sentiments in his songs, his affluence attracted disdain from many anarchists: Félix Fénénon, leaving the Mirliton one night, declared: "The money that fellow used to collect in one evening during his heyday would have guaranteed a year's work to one of our people."

1905 - Kurt Schumacher (d. 1942), German sculptor, committed Communist and anti-Nazi resistance fighter with the Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, born. Married to the painter and graphic designer, Elisabeth Schumacher, they were both arrested, during which the Gestapo wrecked his studio and much of his artworks, and on December 19, 1942 they were both was sentenced to death at the Reichskriegsgericht (Reich Military Tribunal) for "conspiracy to commit high treason", espionage, and other political crimes. Schumacher was hung on December 22, 1942 at Plötzensee Prison.

1990 - Lotte Jacobi (Johanna Alexandra Jacobi; b. 1896), German photographer and unalingned socialist, dies. [see: Aug. 17]

[B] 2012 - Pierre-Valentin Berthier (b. 1911), French individualist anarchist, peace activist, poet, novelist and journalist, dies. [see: Sep. 18]
1868 - Stanisław Feliks Przybyszewski (d. 1927), Polish individualist, novelist, Symbolist dramatist and poet of the decadent naturalistic school, who wrote both in German and in Polish, born. Fascinated with the philosophy of Nietzsche and a fervent apostle of industrialism and self-expression, he became increasingly involved in Satanism and anarchism. He was active in founding the journal 'Pan', and contributed to Karl Kraus' 'Die Fackel' (The Torch). His "poems in prose" include such sensational works as 'Totenmesse' (1893), 'Vigilien' (1894), 'De Profundis' (1895), 'Epipsychidion' (1900) and 'Androgyne' (1906). He also wrote novels such as 'Satan's Kinder' (Satan’s Children; 1897) and the 'Homo Sapiens' trilogy (1895-1896).

[B] 1905 - Helios Gómez Rodríguez [INCORRECT** see: May 27]

[C] 1929 - Nazi brownshirts throw stink bombs during a performance of Kurt Weill's 'Die Dreigroschenoper' (The Three Penny Opera) in the Berlin State Opera.

1930 - Horst Bienek (d. 1990), dissident East German novelist and poet, born. A student of Bertolt Brecht, in 1951 he was arrested by the NKVD on charges of "anti-Soviet agitation", and allegedly spying for the United States, he was sentenced to 20 years hard labour in the Vorkuta gulag, an underground coal mine located above the Arctic Circle. Released as the result of an amnesty in 1955, he settled in West Germany. His books include: 'Traumbuch eines Gefangenen' (Dreambook of a Prisoner; 1957); 'Die Zelle' (The Cell; 1968), 'Bakunin: Eine Invention' (Bakunin: An Invention; 1970) and the WWII tetrology 'Gleiwitz. Eine oberschlesische Chronik in vier Romanen' (Gliwice. An Upper Silesian Chronicle in four novels): 'Die erste Polka' (The first Polka; 1975); 'Septemberlicht' (September Light; 1977); 'Zeit ohne Glocken' (Time without bells; 1979); and 'Erde und Feuer' (Earth and Fire; 1982).

1936 - Cornelius Cardew (d. 1981), English experimental music composer, born. Initially a libertarian leaning avant-garde composer, whose greatest expression was 'The Great Learning' (1969-1970). He was alos a member of the improvising group AMM and co-founding the Scratch Orchestra (1968-1972) co-operative free-for-all, but Maoism eventually bit him and he went overboard into socialist realist folk art, with membership og the CPE (ML) and the RCPB(ML).

1940 - Angela Carter (d. 1992), feminist novelist, who includes a number of anarchists amongst her characters e.g. Lizzie in 'Nights at the Circus' (1984), born.

1947 - Francesco Cucca (b. 1882), Sardinian anarchist writer and poet, dies. [see: Jan. 25]

1948 - Lluís Llach i Grande, Catalonian musician, composer and songwriter, born. Repeated banned in Spain through the Franco years for his revolutionary and pro-Catalan cultural songs, he spent a number of periods abroad in exile. Wrote the music for the Manuel Huerga film, 'Salvador (Puig Antich)' (2006). He also wrote and dedicated the song 'I si Canto Trist' to Salvador Puig Antich one month after his execution.
"I am from an anarchist background and I find the idea of states difficult to swallow. I don’t see the state as solving problems; I see it as a problem in itself."

[AA] 1996 - Albert Meltzer (b. 1920), militant anarchist, boxer, bit part actor, historian, author and publisher, dies. Co-founder, with Stuart Christie, of the Anarchist Black Cross, he helped found the Kate Sharpley Library. His best known works are his autobiography, 'I Couldn't Paint Golden Angels' (1996), 'Anarchism: Arguments For and Against' (1981) and 'The Floodgates of Anarchy' (1970; co-written with Stuart Christie). [see: Jan. 7]

2009 - Robin Francis Blaser (b. 1925), US poet, essayist and anarchist, dies. [see: May 18]
1912 - George Woodcock (d. 1995), Canadian anarchist thinker and historian, political biographer, essayist, poet and literary critic, author of 'Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements' (1962), born.

[B] 1930 - Gary Snyder, American poet, essayist, lecturer, Deep Ecology environmental activist, Buddhist anarchist and one-time Wobbly, born.
"The Frontier-type Wobbly-Thoreau anarchism is in my blood, i.e. that's my own tradition, I was raised up in it. So put it with the Oriental historical depth, and I got a fulcrum to tip the whole damn civilization over with." Gary Snyder in a letter Philip Whalen [talking about his discussions with Kenneth Rexroth]

1999 - Aguigui Mouna (aka André Dupont; b. 1911), French anarcho-prankster, agitator, pacifist propagandist, philosopher and anarchist individualist, dies. ​[see: Oct. 1]
[BB] 1866 - David Edelstadt (d. 1892), American Yiddish anarchist and poet, born. One of the New York 'Sweatshop Poets' (who included Morris Rosenfeld, Morris Vinchevsky and Joseph Bovshover), poets who were themselves workers, slaving in horrible working conditions for twelve or more hours a day. Their most creative period was the 1890s and 1900s, writing poems based on their own experiences expressing working class solidarity and a desire for a revolutionary change in the workers' conditions.
Born in Kaluga, Russia and educated in the Russian language and literature, he began publishing Russian poems aged 12. After escaping the Kiev pogrom of May 8, 1881, he emigrated to America in 1882, first living in Cincinnati, working in the garment industry and became active in the developing anarchist movement. In 1888 he moved to New York where he continued working in sweatshops and participated in the first Jewish anarchist group in the city, the Pionire der Frayhayt (Pioneers of Liberty). He also began to write his first poems in Yiddish and was chosen in 1891 to become the editor of the main Yiddish anarchist paper, 'Di Freie Areibeter Stimme' (The Free Voice of Labour), which he edited until shortly before his death. He also collaborated on 'Die Wahrheit', 'Tfileh Zakeh', 'Varhayt' and 'Der Morgenshtern', often using the pseudonym Paskarel.
Edelshtat's lyrics, sung in sweatshops and on picket lines, depict the world's imperfections and the wondrous life to come after a social revolution, with many being dedicated to the Chicago Martyrs. He died on October 17, 1892, in Denver, aged just 25, of tuberculosis contracted in the difficult labour conditions he and his fellow sweatshop workers had to endure. He was buried in the Workmen's Circle in the Golden Hill Cemetery City in Denver. After his death many Edelstadt cultural groups sprung up in cities across America (Chicago, Boston, etc.) as well as the Edelstadt Singing Society in New York and an Edelstadt Group in Buenos Aires.

Vi lang, oy vi lang vet ir blaybn nokh shklafn
Un trogn di shendlekhe keyt?
Vi lang vet ir glentsende raykhtimer shafn
Far dem, vos baroybt ayer broyt?
Vi lang vet ir shteyn, ayer rukns geboygn
Derniderikt, heymloz, farshmakht?
Es togt shoyn! Vakht oyf un tse-efnt di oygn!
Derfilt ayer ayzerne makht!
Klingt umetum in di frayhayts-glokn!
Farzamlt di laydnde knekht!
Un kemft bagaystert, un kemft undershrokn
Far ayere heylikhe rekht!
Un ales vet lebn, un libn un bli-en,
In frayen, in goldenem may!
Brider! Genug far tiranen tsu knien,
Shvert, az ir must vern fray!

(How long, oh, how long will you suffer in bondage
In slavery still to remain?
How long will you toil to create all the riches
For those who reward you with pain?
How long, oh, how long, will you carry the yoke
Of oppression and sorrow and fear?
Awaken! And see the new day that is dawning
A free song is ringing mighty clear!
Ring out, bells of freedom! Let’s gather together
The suffering slaves in all lands
Let’s struggle for life and for love and for beauty
Created by hard-toiling hands
Then all things will live and will love and will bloom
In a free and a golden-bright May.
No more will we suffer a miserable doom
Now swear that you’ll bring forth this day.)
- 'Vakht Oyf' (Wake Up).


[B] 1878 - Neno Vasco (Gregório Nazianzeno Moreira de Queiroz e Vasconcelos; d. 1920), Portuguese lawyer, journalist, poet, playwright and militant anarcho-syndicalist writer, born. [expand]

1938 - Fábio Luz (Fábio Lopez dos Santos Luz; b. 1864), leading Brazilian anarchist, doctor, writer, novelist, critic, short story writer, essayist and teacher, dies. Involved in the anti-slavery movement as a youth, he discovered anarchism with the reading of Peter Kropotkin's 'Paroles d'un Révolté'. Wrote 'D'Ideólogos' (1903), 'D'os Emancipados' (1906), and 'Virgem-Mãe' (1908), the first novels in Brazil to tackle the social question. ​[see: Jul. 31]

1970 - Helen Hill (d. 2007), American animation filmmaker and social activist, born. Co-wrote (with her husband Paul Gailiunas) the song 'Emma Goldman' on Piggy: The Calypso Orchestra of the Maritimes' 1999 album 'Don't Stop the Calypso: Songs of Love and Liberation'.
[B] 1906 - Yoshiyuki Eisuke (吉行 エイスケ; d. 1940), Japanese Dadaist poet, novelist and anarchist, born.

1906 - Angelo Galli (b. unkown), an Italian anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant is killed during a general strike in Milan. An active trade union agitator - the anarchist newspaper 'La Protesta Umana' called him "un grande signore dell'ideale, un'anima pulsante col dolore del mondo [...] smanioso d'azione" (a great lord of the ideal, his soul pulsing with the pain of the world [...] eager for action) - he had been at the forefront of organising the strike in response to a serious incident of repression, when royal guards had fired on workers on May 6, 1906, killing one and injuring 8 others. On the morning on May 10, Galli and 2 comrades went to the Macchi e Pessoni factory to intercept some scabs but he was stabbed to death by guards at the factory.
His funeral, led by 15 huge red and black flags and which resulted in heavy clashes between anarchist mourners and Italian police determined to stop any political displays, was immortalised in Carlo Carrà's 1911 work, 'The Funeral of the Anarchist Galli'. However, Carra wrongly gave the date as January 19, 1904 in his autobiography.
Carlo Carra - "I saw before me the bier, covered with red carnations, wavering dangerously on the shoulders of the pallbearers. I saw the horses becoming restive, and clubs and lances clashing, so that it seemed to me that at any moment the corpse would fall to the ground and be trampled by the horses." - 'La Mia Vita' (1943).

[C] 1933 - 25,000 books by Jewish and liberal authors are publicly burned by the Nazis in Berlin. Also today, Socialist parties are prohibited in Nazi Germany.
In university towns across Germany, nationalist students marched in torchlight parades "against the un-German spirit", which ended in the burning of upwards of 25,000 volumes of "un-German" books. These heavily scripted rituals called for high Nazi officials, professors, rectors, and student leaders to address the participants and spectators. At the gatherings, students threw the pillaged and unwanted books into the bonfires with great joyous ceremony, band-playing, songs, 'Feuersprüche' (fire oaths), and incantations. Goebbels give a speech at the book-burning in the Opernplatz in Berlin.

1943 - Régis Messac (1893-1945), French teacher, union organiser, resistance member, writer, novelist, poet, pacifist and anarchist, is arrested during the German occupation and sent to the Nazi concentration camps. [see: Aug. 2]
1904 - Salvador Dali (d. 1989), Spanish Surrealist painter and self-publicitist, monarchist and fascist supporter who in his early (falsely) claimed to be both an anarchist and communist, as well as remaining a life-long Catholic, born. A college friend of Luis Buñuel and Federico García Lorca, he was associated with the Dadaists, claiming anarchist and communist sympathies (though largely as part of his desire to shock a la Dada). He followed André Breton on the formation of the Surrealist group, though Breton constantly questioned Dali's politics, coining his derogatory anagramic nickname, Avida Dollars, and effectively forcing his excommunication for Dali's rampant self-aggrandisement and commercialism.
Dali returned to Catholicism, even claiming to be both a Catholic and an anarchist (in a 1970 memoir, 'Dali on Dali'), and, having returned to Calaonia during WWII, a prominent Franco apologist. He even sent telegrams to Franco, praising him for signing the death warrants for 5 Basque prisoners whilst he himself lay dying in bed in September 1975.

1907 - Eva Schulze-Knabe (d. 1976), German painter and graphic artist, and resistance fighter against the Third Reich, born. From 1929 she was a member of the artists' group ASSO, the Assoziation Revolutionärer Bildender Künstler Deutschlands (ARBKD; Association of Revolutionary Visual Artists of Germany), and from 1931 she was a member of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD).
She was arrested in 1933 and 1934 and confined at Hohnstein concentration camp for 6 months. She returned to her resistance activities but was arrested again in January 1941 by the Gestapo. After months of interrogation at the police headquarters in Dresden, she was tried in 1942 before the Volksgerichtshof at Münchner Platz in Dresden, where she was sentenced to life in labour prison (Zuchthaus). She was freed from Waldheim labour prison in 1945 and worked as a freelance artist in Dresden.

[B] 1932 - Virgilia d'Andrea (b. 1890), Italian poet, teacher, writer, anarchist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Feb. 11]

1950 - Eugène Ionesco's one-act anti-play 'La Cantatrice Chauve' (The Bald Soprano), which inspired the Theatre of the Absurd, premières at the Théâtre des Noctambules, Paris.
1890 - Renzo Novatore, pseudonym of Abele Ricieri Ferrari (d. 1922); Italian individualist anarchist, illegalist and anti-fascist poet, philosopher and militant, born. Best known for his posthumously published book 'Verso il Nulla Creatore' (Toward the Creative Nothing). [expand]

1917 - Private Dada soirée 'Alte und Neue Kunst' (Old and New Art) at the Gallerie Dada.
"A. Spa. from Jacopone da Todi to Francesco Meriano and Maria d'Arezzo; Music from Heusser, performed by the componist; Arp: Verses. Böhme: Of Cold and Calcinations.
'Negropoems', translated and read by Tzara/Aranda, Ewe, Basoutos, Kinga, Loritja, Baronga/Hennings, Janco, Ball etc. Aegidius Albertinus, Narrenhatz' frogsinging.
The public demand after the mix of natural recovery with wild Bamboula, which we presented successfull, forced us to a REPETITION OF THE OLD AND NEW ART-NIGHT at the 19. Mai." ['Chronique Zurichoise 1915-19' (1922) - Tristan Tzara]

1921 - Joseph Beuys (d. 1986), German Fluxus sculptor, performance artist, printmaker, theorist, teacher, theosophist, shamen, charlatan and provocateur, born. A contradictory character that many characterised as anarchist but who flew Stukas in the Luftwaffe; associated with former Nazis in the postwar period; “obsessed with Steiner’s occultism and his racial theories — and with the abstruse ideas of a Germanic soul, a German spirit and a special mission for the German people" [Hans Peter Riegel - 'Beuys. The Biography' (2013)]; who proclaimed "Kunst=Kapital"; whose artworks ("social sculptures") were largely shamanistic performance pieces; and who later in life became a pacifist, a vocal opponent of nuclear weapons and campaigned strenuously for environmental causes, joining Die Grünen and being elected to the European Parliament as a Green Party candidate.
"To make people free is the aim of art, therefore art for me is the science of freedom."

1922 - Alexandru Bogdan-Piteşti (also known as Ion Doican, Ion Duican and Al Dodan; b. 1870), Romanian Symbolist poet, essayist, art and literary critic, journalist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 13]

[B] 1933 - Oskar Maria Graf makes his famous appeal 'Verbrennt Mich!' (Burn Me Too!) in the Vienna Arbeiter Zeitung: "Verbrennt Mich!' [...] Nach meinem ganzen Leben und nach meinem ganzen Schreiben habe ich das Recht, zu verlangen, dass meine Bücher der reinen Flamme des Scheiterhaufens überantwortet werden und nicht in die blutigen Hände und die verdorbenen Hirne der braunen Mordbande gelangen. Verbrennt die Werke des deutschen Geistes! Er selber wird unauslöschlich sein wie eure Schmach!"
("Burn me too! [...] After all my life and after all my writings I have the right to demand that my books of the pure flame be delivered up to the pyre and not get into the bloody hands and the corrupt minds of the gang of brown murderers. Burn the works of the German spirit! It will be as indelible as your shame!")

1933 - The '12 Thesen wider den undeutschen Geist' (12 Theses against the Un-German Spirit) campaign is launched denouncing the Jewish, socialist, communist and liberal ideas and their representatives.

1940 - Michal Kácha (b. 1874), Czech shoemaker, anarchist, journalist, editor, translator, and publisher, who had a great influence on young writers of his time, dies. [see: Jan. 6]

1965 - Roger Vailland (b. 1907), French novelist, essayist, screenwriter, youthful anarchist and, having fought alongside Communists in the Résistance, a Communist Party member dies. [see: Oct. 16]

1968 - António Pedro Ribeiro (António Pedro de Basto e Vasconcelos Ribeiro da Silva), Portuguese poet "of anarchist tendencies", who stood for the Portuguese presidency in 2011, born. Performer of poetry, both as a member of the rock bands such as Os Ébrios (The Drunkards) and solo; creator of numerous poetry and arts magazines; and writer of books including 'Declaração de Amor ao Primeiro-Ministro e Outras Pérolas – Manifestos do Partido Surrealista Situacionista Libertário' (Declaration of love to the Prime Minister and other pearls: Manifestos of the Libertarian Surrealist Situationist Party; 2006), 'Queimai o Dinheiro' (Burn the Money; 2009) and 'Fora da Lei' (Outlaws; 2012).

1985 - Jean Philippe Arthur Dubuffet (b. 1901), French Art Brut painter, sculptor, lithographer, writer, anarchist, atheist, anti-militarist and anti-patriot, dies. [see: Jul. 31]
1840 - Alphonse Daudet (d. 1897), French novelist, short story writer, playwright, poet and anarchist sympathiser, whose texts appeared in 'Le Révolté', born. He was the father of writers Léon Daudet and Lucien Daudet, and grandfather of anarchist and poet Philippe Daudet.

1881 - Lima Barreto (Alfonso Henriques de Lima Barreto; d. 1922), Brazilian novelist, short story writer, columnist, journalist and libertarian, born. Lima Barreto was a major figure on the Brazilian Pre-Modernism, best known for his novel and classic of South American literature, 'Triste Fim de Policarpo Quaresma' (The Tragic Fate of Policarpo Quaresma; 1911), a satire of the first years of the República Velha in Brazil. In 1907 he published with some friends and libertarian intellectuals (Fábio Luz, Domigos Ribeiro and Elísio de Carvalho) the short-lived magazine 'Floreal'. In 1917, during the period of social unrest, he began to collaborate in the anarchist press - 'A Plebe', 'A Voz do Trabalhador' and 'A Lanterna' - a defending labourers and anarchists victims of repression, as Brazil was hit by major social unrest, labour strikes and repression.

1885 - Clovis Poirier (stage name Clovys; d. 1955), French singer (author, composer, performer) anarchist and pacifist, born. Director of La Muse Rouge, revolutionary poets and songwriters society.

[B] 1915 - Virgili Batlle Vallmajó, better known as simply Virgilio (d. 1947), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, and self-taught Neo-Cubist painter, who later developed into a geometric abstactionist, born. At the outbreak of the fascist coup, he joined the Comitè Antifeixista de Sant Joan les Fonts (Antifascist Committee of Sant Joan les Fonts), which was dominated by the CNT and FAI, doing propaganda work. Soon after, he volunteered for the Aragon front as a sapper and fought in the Battle of Belchite in Zaragoza (August 24, 1937). Tuberculosis forced him into the Montseny sanatorium in February 1938 and the following month to the hospital in Girona, where a Medical Tribunal declared him unfit for military service.
In February 1939, he fled to France and was interned in the Argelès concentration camp, which he later escaped, making his way to Paris. There he worked with Picasso and established a close friendship with the poet Jaume Sabartés i Gual. There he discovered Malevich and Russian Suprematicism, which strongly influenced his analtyical cubist paintings.
At the outbreak of WWII the tuberculosis he had contracted fighting in Spain flared up and he moved south to the Vichy zone, settling in Toulouse, setting up a carpentry workshop manufacturing toys and participated in the activities of the Resistance and Liberation. When he died he was almost totally unknown in Spain until the Madrid gallery of José de la Mano put on an exhibition, 'Virgilio Mallmajó (1914-1947). Del neocubismo a la abstracción geométrica' (From neo-cubism to geometric abstraction) in 2005.

1921 - Dada manifestation in the Salle des Sociétés Savantes, rue Danton, Paris, where the Dadaists sit publicly in judgement on Maurice Barrès. In protest against this management, Picabia withdraws from the Dada movement and attacks it.

1928 - Première of 'L'Etoile de Mer' (The Star of the Sea), a film by Man Ray based on a poem by Robert Desnos, at the Studio des Ursulines. It continues to be shown in the same program as 'The Blue Angel' at least until December.

1933 - 'Wider den undeutschen Geist!' (Against the un-German Spirit) posters appear across Germany. [see: Apr. 12]

1971 - E. L. T. Mesens (Edouard Léon Théodore Mesens; b. 1903), Belgian Surrealist artist, collagist, writer, poet, curator, publisher and editor, who was more of a Dadaist Joker in the Surrealist pack, dies. [see: Nov. 27]
[B] 1845 - Louisa Sarah Bevington (d. 1895), English poet, journalist, essayist, Darwinist and anarchist communist, born. The occupation of her father was described as a "gentleman". She was the oldest of eight children, seven of whom were girls. She started writing verse at an early age and her first published poems were two sonnets appeared in the Quaker periodical the 'Friends' Quarterly Examiner' in October 1871. Herbert Spencer read some of these early poems and reprinted a number in the American journal, 'Popular Science Monthly'. Her first poetry collection, 'Key-Notes', was published under the pseudonym 'Arbor Leigh' and many showed a distinct Darwinist and scientific basis. As a result, Herbert Spencer also asked Bevington to write articles on evolutionary theory. Her first two articles, 'The Personal Aspects of Responsibility' and, her best-known essay, 'Modern Atheism and Mr. Mallock'.
Not long after she published her second volume of poems ('Poems, Lyrics, and Sonnets') in 1882, she went to Germany and in 1883 married a Munich artist Ignatz Felix Guggenberger. The marriage lasted less than 8 years and she returned to London in 1890. She began to frequent anarchist circles, restarting her career under her maiden name. By the mid-1890s, Bevington knew many London anarchists and was recognised as an anarchist poet. She probably became acquainted with anarchism through meeting Charlotte Wilson, who had jointly founded the anarchist paper 'Freedom' in 1886.
Rejecting the tactics of the bomb and dynamite being espoused by some anarchists in Britain, she associated with the anarchist paper 'Liberty' (subtitled: "A Journal of Anarchist Communism"), edited by the tailor James Tochatti from January 1894. She wrote many articles and poems for it, as well as for other anarchist papers, like the 'Torch', edited by the two young nieces, Helen and Olivia, of the artist Dante Gabriel Rossetti. She was involved in efforts to set up an organisation, the Anarchist Communist Alliance and wrote an Anarchist Manifesto for it , which was distributed on 1st May 1895 (the Alliance appears not to have survived long).
At the age of 50 in 1895, Bevington was still active but was suffering from bad health, namely heart disease that had been afflicting her for years. She managed to write some articles for 'Liberty' in that year and her last collection of poems for Liberty Press. She died on 28th November 1895 in Lechmere, as the result of dropsy and mitral disease of the heart. Whilst her poems, very much a product of late Victorian times, have not aged all that well, the articles and pamphlets she wrote in which she strongly argued for anarchism, still bear a look.

1892 - Arthur-Vincent Lourié (born Naum Izrailevich Luria [Наум Израилевич Лурья], later changed his name to Artur Sergeyevich Luriye [Артур Сергеевич Лурье]; d.1966), Russian experimentalist composer associated with Russian Futurism, born. Involved with the circle around the newspaper 'Anarkhiia', in which he contributed articles. Co-authored, with Benedikt Livshits and Georgy Yakulov, the Futurist manifesto 'We and the West' in opposition to the 1914 visit to St Petersburg of Italian Futurist leader Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. Wrote music to Vladimir Mayakovsky’s 'Our March' and the poetry of Anna Akhmatova. Lourié played an important role in the earliest stages of the organization of Soviet music after the 1917 Revolution but later went into exile in America.

[C] 1894 - Jindřich Honzl (d. 1953), Czech theatre and film director, theatrical theorist, translator, educator, communist and anti-fascist, born. Member of Devětsil and the Liberated Theatre, later joining the Czech Surrealist Group. He joined the KSČ in 1921 and illegally directed the anti-fascist Theatricum for 99 in Prague during the fascist occupation (1940–41 and 1943).

1912 - Johan August Strindberg (b. 1849), Swedish playwright, novelist, poet, essayist, and painter, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

[BB] 1912 - Mary Stanley Low (d. 2007), Anglo-Australian Trotskyist and later anarchist, poet, Surrealist, linguist and classics teacher, born. In 1933 she met the Cuban Trotskyist poet Juan Breá (1905-1941) in Paris. They joined the Surrealist group there, working alongside André Breton, Paul Eluard, René Magritte and Yves Tanguy. The poet and Surrealist ELT Mesens and the poet Benjamin Peret also become close friends. With the outbreak of the Revolution, she and Breá (rejecting the Breton-inspired Stalinist orthodoxy) went to Spain and joined POUM, where she helped organised the Women's Militia, edited the English-language paper 'Spanish Revolution'. Her sympathy for the anarchists was aroused by the organisation by the CNT of the shoeshine boys and the prostitutes into their own unions, and by her attendance of Durruti's funeral. In December that year, they had to flee the country after Breá narrowly avoided an assassination attempt (presumably by Stalinists, who tried to run him over as he left a POUM meeting). In London, she and Breá married and co-authored 'Red Spanish Notebook: The First Six Months of the Revolution and the Civil War' (1937), with a preface by C. L. R. James, the first book on the Revolution. Following stays in Cuba and Paris, from early 1938 the couple lived in Prague with fellow Surrealists Toyen and Jindřich Štyrský, until they were forced to flee the Nazi invasion in July 1939. Ending up in Cuba in 1940, where Breá dies the following year and Low was to marry Trotskyist Cuban journalist trade-unionist Armando Machado in 1944, and giving birth to 3 daughters. With the Cuban Revolution,
Machado was arrested and only released thanks to the protection of Guevara. Eventually they won asylum in the US in 1965, where she was involved with the Cuban anarchist exile review 'Guangara Liberteria'.
Her works include 'La Saison des Flutes' (1939); 'Alquimia del recuerdo' (Alchemy of memory; 1946); the trilingual book of poetry, 'Three Voices, Voces, Voix' (1957); 'In Caesar’s Shadow' (1975); 'Alive in Spite Of' (1981); 'A Voice in Three Mirrors' (1984); and 'Where the Wolf Sings' (1994). [The last two were illustrated by her own collages and drawings, and printed by AK Press.]

1919 - Emile de Antonio (d. 1989), American anarchist film director, producer, academic and author, who was the only filmmaker on Richard Nixon's enemies list, born. Largely a director of documentaries, including 'Point of Order' (1964); 'In the Year of the Pig' (1968); 'McCarthy: Death of a Witch Hunter' (1975) and 'Mr. Hoover and I' (1989); his only drama was the Plowshares 8 film 'In the King of Prussia' (1983). He also co-directed, with Haskell Wexler and Mary Lampson, the Weather Underground documentary 'Underground' (1976).

1931 - Viktor Dyk (b. 1877), Czech poet, novelist, playwright, journalist, youthful member of the generation of the Czech Anarchističtí Buřiči, "básníci života a vzdoru" (Anarchist Rebels, "the poets of life and defiance") and later a right-wing nationalist, dies. [see: Dec. 31]

1966 - Ludwig Meidner (b. 1884), German painter, graphic artist and poet, dies. [see: Apr. 18]

1999 - Adelita del Campo (nickname of Adela Carreras Taurà; d. 1999), Spanish dancer, actress, anarchist and later a communist, dies. [see: Aug. 3]

2000 - Karl Shapiro (b. 1913), American poet, Pulitzer Prize-winner in 1945 and Gandhian anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 10]

2001 - Roger Boussinot (b. 1921), French director, writer, screenwriter, critic, film historian and libertarian, who used the pseudonyms Emmanuel Le Lauraguais and Roger Mijema, dies. [see: May 2]
1923 - Simon Watson Taylor (d. 2005), English anarchist, actor and translator, closely associated with the Surrealist movement, born. Secretary for the British Surrealist Group he edited the English language surrealist review Free Union but later became a key player in the “science” of Pataphysics. Close friend of Marie-Louise Berneri, Veron Richrads, Philip Sansom, John Olday, George Melly, etc., becoming involved in 'War Commentary' and 'Freedom'. Founded the anarcho-surrealist review 'Free Unios/Unions Libres' (its single issue published in1946, two years after first planned due to the 'War Commentary' arrests), through which he came to know André Breton, now moving back towards anarchism in 1954 joined the recently created Collège de Pataphysique after breaking with Breton and the Surrealists.
Translated many surrealist-associated works from the French including: André Breton's 'Surrealism and Painting' (1972), Jarry's 'Ubu Plays' (1968), Boris Vian's plays such as 'The Empire Builders', 'The Generals’ Tea Party' and 'The Knackers’ ABC', plus his much reprinted translation of 'Paris Peasant' by Louis Aragon (1971).

[B] 1935 - Kazimir (or Kasimir) Malevich (b. 1879), Soviet anarchist artist and founder of the Suprematist movement, dies, neglected and in poverty following longterm persecution from the Stalinist regime. He wrote regularly for the weekly 'Anarkhiia' (Anarchy) newspaper, contributing to more than twenty issues and supported the paper financially.
“The banner of anarchism is the banner of our ego and like a free wind our spirit will billow our creative work through the vast spaces of our soul.”
"We are revealing new pages of art in anarchy’s new dawns …
We are the first to come to the new limit of creation, and we shall uncover a new alarm in the field of the lacquered arts …
The powerful storm of revolution has borne off the garret, and we, like clouds in the firmament, have sailed to our freedom.
The ensign of anarchy is the ensign of our ‘ego,’ and our spirit like a free wind will make our creative work flutter in the broad spaces of the soul.
You who are bold and young, make haste to remove the fragments of the disintegrating rudder. Wash off the touch of the dominating authorities.
And, clean, meet and build the world in awareness of your day." Malevich - 'To The New Limit' (originally published as 'K novoi grani'), 'Anarkhiia' 31 (1918) (p220-1).
[see: Feb. 23]

1942 - T-Bone Slim (Matti Valentinpoika Huhta; b. 1880), Finnish-born American IWW songwriter, dies.
"Wherever you find injustice, the proper form of politeness is attack."

1995 - Georges Charensol (1899), French journalist, arts, literary and film critic, film extra and individualist anarchist, dies. [see: Dec. 26]
1717 - Voltaire (François Marie Arouet) suspected of writing subversive satire, is imprisoned for the first time in the Bastille.

1910 - Henri Edmond Cross (Henri-Edmond-Joseph Delacroix; b. 1856), French Néo-Impressionist painter, illustrator, printmaker and anarchist, dies. [see: May 20]

1933 - John Henry Mackay (b. 1864), Swiss-German individualist anarchist and gay writer, dies. Author of 'Die Anarchisten' (The Anarchists) (1891) and 'Der Freiheitsucher' (The Searcher for Freedom) (1921). [see: Feb. 6]

1933 - The 'Prinzipelles zur Säuberung der öffentlichen Bücherein' (Principles for the Cleansing of Public Libraries), drawn up by Wolfgang Herrmann on behalf of the German National Socialists of the Berlin Librarian Commission, is published in the weekly 'Börsenblatt für den deutschen Büchhandel' (Financial Newspaper for the German Book Trade). Among the titles banned by the Nazis are the anarchist novelist B. Traven's 'The Carreta' & 'Government'.

[B] 1943 - Jon Jost, American anarchist and independent filmmaker, born.
1866 - Erik (Éric Alfred Leslie) Satie (d. 1925), French composer and pianist, born. A habituée of artist and anarchist café-cabaret Le Chat Noir, and associate of the Dadaists. At his first meeting with Man Ray, the two fabricated the artist's first readymade: 'The Gift' (1921). Satie also contributed texts to Francis Picabia's publication '391', composed an 'instantaneist' ballet, 'Relâche' (1924), in collaboration with Picabia, and contributed music to the surrealist film 'Entr'acte' by René Clair, which was given as an intermezzo for 'Relâche'.

[C] 1903 - Francisco Pérez Mateo (d. 1936), Spanish sculptor, communist and anti-Francoist fighter, born. Working in the direct carving method, he was one of the first Spaniards to engage in the styles of New Realism and the New Objectivity, and having attended the famous 1916 boxing match between Jack Johnson and Arthur Cravan, much of his work featured sporting themes. He also joined the Communist Party and the Sociedad de Artistas Ibéricos (Alliance of Antifascist Intellectuals), taking part in the Primera Exposición de Arte Revolucionario (First Revolutionary Art Exhibition) in December 1933 and exhibiting in the Spanish Pavilion of the Paris World Exhibition of 1937. He was killed during the defence of Madrid.

1947 - The dissident Revolutionary Surrealist Group is founded in Brussels by Paul Bourgignie, Achille Chavóe, Christian Dotremont, Marcel Havrenne, René Magritte, Marcel Mariën, Paul Nougé and Louis Scutenaire as a countercurrent against the Breton-led denunciation of Stalinism and the Communist Party. They renew their total faith in the Communist Party.

[B] 1993 - Robert Lapoujade (b. 1921), French painter, radical experimental filmmaker, cinematographer, writer and libertarian Marxist, dies. Signatory of 'Manifeste des 121', who is best known for his portraits of French literary figures including Jean-Paul Sartre and Andre Breton. [see: Jan. 3]

2009 - Mario Benedetti (Mario Orlando Hardy Hamlet Brenno Benedetti; b. 1920), Uruguayan journalist, novelist, and radical poet of the Uraguayan peasant revolt, dies. [see: Sep. 14]
[B] 1876 - Luigi 'Gigi' Damiani (aka 'Ausinio Acrate' & 'Simplicio'; d. 1953), Italian journalist, poet, jobbing painter, anarchist activist and propagandist, who emigrated to Brazil and directs various publications ('La Battaglia', 'A Plebe', 'Guerra Sociale', etc.), born. Editor, with Errico Malatesta, of 'Umanita Nova' (the anarchist daily paper published by Malatesta in Milan, along with Damiani, Camillo Berneri, Nella Giacomelli, Armando Borghi, Luigi Fabbri, etc), born. Under attack by fascists, Damiani was exiled in Tunisia. Active there with Giuseppe Pasotti, then returned to Rome in 1946 and involved again with 'Umanita Nova' until his death.

1897 - Bram Stoker's play 'Dracula, or the Undead' premières in London.

1925 - Robin Francis Blaser (d. 2009), US poet, essayist and anarchist, born. Associated with Jack Spicer and Robert Duncan, and was a key figure in the San Francisco Renaissance of the 1950s and early 1960s.

1949 - Raymond Espinose, French poet, writer, lecturer, anarchist and Patapysician, born.

1968 - In France, de Gaulle arrives back from Romania, 12 hours earlier than expected. Cinema professionals occupy the Cannes Film Festival. Major French directors withdraw their films from competition & the jury resigns, closing the festival.

1995 - Henri Laborit (b. 1914), French physician, libertarian writer and philosopher, dies. He appeared in the 1980 Alain Resnais film 'Mon Oncle d'Amérique', which is built around his ideas on evolutionary psychology.
1895 - José Julián Martí Pérez (b. 1853), Cuban Revolutionary, poet, essayist, journalist, revolutionary philosopher, professor, and political theorist, dies. [see: Jan. 28]

1897 - Oscar Wilde, occupant of cell C33, is released from Reading Gaol.

[C] 1912 - Kati Horna (Kati Deutsch; d. 2000), Hungarian photographer and anarchist sympathiser, born into a wealthy Jewish family. Durig her early years Hungary was to suffer many political upheavals including the persecution of Jews and Communists following the defeat of the Hungarian Soviet republic in 1919 and the seizing of power by Miklós Horthy. Sometime in the 1920s, she met the Hungarian anarchist poet, painter and thinker Lajos Kassák, who became a profound influence on her political and artistic thought, especially on her desire to take up photography. Aged 18, she moved to Berlin where she came into contact with the Bauhaus group and absorbed the influences of Dada, Surrealism, the Neue Sachlichkeit and the developing discipline of photojournalism. The latter was helped when she got a job as an assistant at the experimental Agencia Dephot photo studio run by Felix H. Man, a pioneer of modern photojournalism. However, her 3 year stay was cut short by the the Nazis gaining power and being forced to witness the burning of books, and in 1933 she returned to Budapest. Urged by her parents to get a job, she enrolled at the prestigious school of the renowned Hungarian photographer József Pécsi. There she learned the techniques of photography and re-encountered Endre Friedmann, a childhood friend who would later change his name to Robert Capa, and with whom she began a relationship. She also received her first Rolleiflex, a present from her parents. Later that year, she moved to Paris to escape the Nazis and to continue her training, working for the French news agency Agence Photo, and began assembling the first of her photo series including 'Marché aux Puces' (Flea market; 1933), 'Les Cafés de Paris' (The Cafes of Paris; 1934), 'L'Histoire d'amour dans la cuisine' (The History of Love in the Kitchen; 1935) and 'Hitlerei' (Hitler eye; 1937). With the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, she began travelling to Spain along with Capa, who she had met up with in Paris, and spent 2 years working in the country (1937-39). A member of various anarchist groups, including Mujeres Libres and Tierra y Libertad, she worked on numerous anarchist publications, amongst them 'Libre Studio', 'Mujeres Libres', 'Tierra y Libertad', 'Tiempos Nuevos' and 'Umbral'. Like Capa, she covered the was at the front, but she also recorded the everyday of the people right up til Franco's victory. Amongst those she got to know during this period were her fellow photographers Tina Modetti and Gerda Taro. In July 1937 she also met her future husband, the Andalusian artist José Horna, who she married the following year and who would become her partner in the making of collages as well. In February 1939, they both left the country for Paris but, with the expansion of Nazism in Europe, they fled Europe, embark on the De Grasse in October for exile in Mexico. There, she became on of the important figures in the exiled Surrealist circles that included Leonora Carrington, Benjamin Peret and Edward James, and befriended a fellow anarchist in Remedios Varo. Her circle also included many in the artistic, literary and architectural avant-garde in Mexico, such as Alejandro Jodorowsky, Mathias Goeritz, Germán Cueto, Pedro Friedeberg, Salvador Elizondo, Alfonso Reyes and Ricardo Legorreta. During the last 20 years of her life, she also taught photography at the Nacional de Artes Plásticas school and at the Universidad Iberoamericana. She died in October 2000, largely unknown though her work has progressively been rediscovered since then.

1925 - Viking Eggeling (b. 1880), Swedish avant-garde artist and filmmaker connected to Dadaism, Constructivism and Abstract art, who was one of the pioneers in absolute film and visual music alongside his longterm collaborator Hans Richter, dies. [see: Oct. 21]

[B] 1941 - Lola Ridge (b. 1873), Irish-American anarchist poet, artist's model, illustrator and organiser for the Francisco Ferrer Association's Modern School, dies. An influential editor of avant-garde, feminist and Marxist publications best remembered for her long poems and poetic sequences, first published in Emma Goldman's 'Mother Earth'. [see: Dec. 12]

1957 - Otto van Rees (b. 1884), Dutch painter and Tolstoyian anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 20]
1856 - Henri Edmond Cross (Henri-Edmond-Joseph Delacroix; d. 1910), French Néo-Impressionist painter, illustrator, printmaker and anarchist, born. Influenced Henri Matisse and his work was an instrumental influence in the development of Fauvism. Co-founded the Société des Artistes Indépendants in 1884 alongsdie Albert Dubois-Pillet, Odilon Redon, and the anarchist Georges Seurat and Paul Signac. Immerese in to anarchist and artistic milieu, he added Felix Feneon and Theo Van Rysselberghe to his circle and provided illustrations for Jean Grave's ' 'Les Temps Nouveaux', usually of an idealised future anarchist utopia. "Je veux peindre le bonheur, les êtres heureux que seront devenus les hommes dans quelques siècles quand la plus pure anarchie sera réalisée." (I want to paint happiness, the happy beings who will become the people in a few centuries when the purest anarchy will be realized.)

[A] 1937 - In Spain, author and one-time used book seller, George Orwell, is shot on the front lines whilst fighting for the Republic. His 'Homage to Catalonia' is based on his experiences during the Spanish Revolution.

1958 - Varvara Stepanova (Варва́ра Фёдоровна Степа́нова; b. 1894), Russian-Lithuanian painter and designer initially associated with the Cubo-Futurists and zaum poets, but later a Constructivist, dies. [see: Nov. 9]

[B] 2013 - Flavio Costantini (b. 1926), Italian anarchist and graphic artist who chronicled the movement's history in a series of striking images, dies. [see: Sep. 21]
1869 - Hutchins Hapgood (d. 1944), US journalist, author, novelist, free love advocate and anarchist, born. He and his wife, the novelist, playwright and journalist Neith Boyce, collaborated on a novel, 'Enemies' (1916) which they later published as a one-act play in 1921. His other books include: 'The Spirit of the Ghetto' (1902), illustrated by Jacob Epstein; 'Autobiography of a Thief' (1903); 'The Spirit of Labor' (1907); 'An Anarchist Woman' (1909), a fictionalised account of his relationship with his lover 'Marie'; and the anonymously published 'The Story of a Lover' (1919), a frank account of his open marriage.

1880 - Tudor Arghezi, or simply Arghezi (Ion N. Theodorescu; d. 1967), Romanian writer, best known for his contribution to poetry and children's literature, born. Despite his failing health, he published virulent satires of the Romanian government, its military leader - Ion Antonescu, and Romania's allegiance to Nazi Germany in the newspaper 'Informaţia Zilei' (Daily Information) in a column named after his former magazine, 'Bilete de Papagal' (Cheap Parrot). On September 30, 1943, Arghezi caused outrage and a minor political scandal, after getting the paper to publish his most radical attack, one aimed at the German ambassador Manfred Freiherr von Killinger - 'Baroane' ('Baron!' or 'Thou Baron'). The newspaper is immediately confiscated and Arghezi imprisoned for a year without trial in a penitentiary camp near Târgu Jiu.

1914 - Romain Gary (born Roman Kacew; d. 1980), French-Litvaks diplomat, novelist, film director and World War II aviator, born. Largely self-invented, he created a mythos around himself. Amongst his many fictions, he claimed to have, like Malraux, to have fought in the Spanish Civil War and to have been imprisoned there for his efforts. However, he did fight against the Nazis, escaping to London after the German invasion of France, where he becoming a real life "war hero", serving as a bomber pilot for the Free French Forces and flying missions even when recuperating from battle wounds. Gary also described himself as "testicularly anti-racist" at the time.
He also wrote under a number of pseudonyms Émile Ajar, Shatan Bogat, Rene Deville and Fosco Sinibaldi. In his most famous novel, 'Lady L' (1958), also made into a 1965 comedy film directed by Peter Ustinov and starring Sophia Loren, Paul Newman and David Niven, the main character anarchist Armand Denis.
He is also the only person to win the Prix Goncourt twice [French language literature is awarded only once to an author], firstly in 1956 for 'Les Racines du Ciel' (The Roots of Heaven) and then for his novel, published under the pseudonym Émile Ajar, 'La Vie Devant Soi' (The Life Before Us; 1975), which about an orphaned Arab boy’s devotion to a terminally ill Auschwitz survivor and ex-prostitute.

[B] 1930 - Dieter Roth (d. 1998), German-Swiss anarchist and artist-poet associated with the Fluxus movement, best known for his artist's books, editioned prints, sculptures, video installations and found materials assemblages, born. Also known as Dieter Rot and Diter Rot.

1944 - René Daumal (b. 1908) French poet, critic, essayist, Indologist, French writer and playwright, dies. [see: Mar. 16]

1964 - Tudor Vianu (b. 1898), Romanian literary critic, art critic, poet, philosopher, academic, and translator, known for his left-wing and anti-fascist convictions, dies. [see: Jan. 8]
[BB] 1887 - Arthur Cravan (born Fabian Avenarius Lloyd; d. 1918), Swiss-born pugilist, poet, lecturer, dancer, adventurer, a larger-than-life character, critic-provocateur, anarchist and an idol of the Dada and Surrealism movements, who claimed to be a nephew of Oscar Wilde (he was actually the son of Wilde’s brother-in-law), born. [expand]
With his pregnant wife Mina Loy watching from the shore, Cravan sailed from the coast of Mexico in November 1918 heading for Argentina and was never seen again.
"Every great artist has a sense of provocation."

1900 - Georgi Simeonov Popov (Георги Симеонов Попов; d. 1924), Bulgarian anarchist, poet, orator, anarchist organiser and insurrectionist guerrilla, born. His teacher father died of cholera when he was just 12 years old, and he went on to teach after his graduation but was sacked due to his participation in a railway strike in Gorna Oryahovitsa. He then became a bank clerk but was again sacked after just 3 months, becoming a labour constructing roads and working in vineyards. A member of the Bulgarian Communist Anarchist Federation (FACB), in 1920 he created the anarchist newspaper 'Бунт' (Rebellion) with Georgi Sheitanov (Георги Шейтанов). Following the announcement of a military coup against the Stamboliyski government on June 9, 1923, at a meeting the following day he was elected as a member of the Revolutionary Action Committee (Въстанически военен съвет) which organised the insurrectionary movement [June Uprising] against the coup. He helped organise armed peasant militias in Kilifarevo (Килифарево) and Debelec (Дебелец), took part in the capture of nearby Dryanovo (Дряново), and the battles at Ganchovets (Килифарево) and Sokolov (Дебелец). On June 13, 1923, a militia was formed in Kilifarevo and 4 days later Popov, togther with Totyu Saraliev (Тотю Саралиев) was involved in the assassination of the mayor of Dzhurovtsi (Джуровци ). He also took part in the capture of Sokolov (Соколово) and the disruption of the main railway line.
During this period the Bulgarian Communist Party, which had a strong militia organisation, maintained a pointed neutrality (viewing the uprising and the coup as a "struggle for power between the urban and rural bourgeoisie") - a position eventually condemned by the Comitern - which effectively allowed the new government to crush the rebels and consolidate its power.
On January 30, 1924, Popov's detachment was surrounded by the army and his lieutenant Hristo Kisyov (Христо Кисьов) was wounded and captured. To prevent his own capture he takes his own life.

1918 - Dolores Jiménez Álvarez aka 'Blanca', Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and militant in the Spanish and French anti-fascist resistance movements, born in Abejuela, Aragón. The eldest in a large family which migrated to Catalonia in the mid 1920s, she stared work aged 11 and quickly became involved in the libertarian movement. At the age of 16, along with her father and sister, she joined the Peña Abisinia theatre group, where she met he lifelong companion Teofilo Navarro Fadrique. In August 1936, she joined the Durruti Column on the Aragon front and throughout the attacks by the Stalinists against the anarchist movement, and the Franco offensive, she refused to leave the front. Based in Lanaja, in the Huesca province, she participated in cultural activities and theatrical performances, she was later arrested in Mollerusa by communist troops of Valentín González González (El Campesino) but escaped to Lleida where she rejoined the confederales forces and her partner Navarro. Following the defeat of the Republic, they crossed into France via Puigcerda and Le Perthus, where she was interned in the Couvent Saugues, a religious asylum run by nuns in Saugus. In 1940, she was reunited with Teofilo Navarro and both settled in Cordes, where she particiapted in the reorganisation of the Spanish anarchist movement, as well as the anti-Nazi Résistance and struggle against Franco as part of groups Sabaté and Facerías. She also had 3 children, Helios and the twins Juno and Blanca, with Navarro. [expand]

[B] 1925 - Jean Tinguely (d. 1991), Swiss painter, sculptor and anarchist, born. Best known for metamechanics: his kinetic sculptural machines, created in both the Dada tradition and as an anarchist critique of capitalism and the consumer society. In 1947 he joined the circle of the Basel anarchist Heiner Koechlin, read all the anarchist classics and would go on to dedicate his art to the anarchist cause.

[C] 1939 - Ernst Toller (b. 1893), Expressionist playwright, poet, pacifist, anarchist and Munich Soviet leader, dies. Driven out of Germany by the Nazis, destitute from his efforts caring for the children of refugees in Spain, and suffering from deep depression having witnessed the defeat of the Republic and seen his sister and brother arrested and sent to concentration camps, Toller commits suicide in a New York hotel room. [see: Dec. 1]

1939 - Jiří Mahen (real name Antonín Vančura; b. 1882), Czech poet, novelist, journalist, dramaturge, librarian, director, theatre critic, anarchist and anti-militarist, depressed following the Nazi invasion, commits suicide in Brno. [see: Dec. 12]

1979 - Jairus Khan, Canadian anarchist and frontman for the industrial band Ad·ver·sary, born.
[B] 1876 - Sanshiro Ishikawa (石川 三四郎; d. 1956), Japanese anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist theorist, historian, translator and novelist, born. Founded and became editor-in-chief of the magazine 'Shin Kigen' (New Era; 1905-1906). The following year he became the director of both 'Sekai Fujin' (Women in the World) and of the newspaper 'Heimin Shinbun' (Newspaper of the Man of the People Society [Heimin Sha]). Arrested a number of times for his writings, he fled the government repression of radicals in 1911, arriving in Europe in 1913. Spending his time in Belgium and France he comes to know Edward Carpenter and Paul Reclus, spending time with them in England and Brussels respectively. He finally returns to Japan in 1920 and founds an anarchist group and a newspaper, 'Kokusen'. His anarcho-syndicalism however divides Japanese anarchist and in 1927 he co-founds the Society of Mutual Education and the magazine 'Dinamikku' (Dynamic), translating and publishing the works of Kropotkin and penning countless articles. In 1946 he takes part in the founding of the Japanese Anarchist League and its official organ, 'Heimin Shinbun'.
Author of the anarchist utopia 'Go-ju Nen ato no Nihon' (Japan Fifty Years Later; c. 1946): "He imagined Japanese society organised on a co-operative basis (with Proudhonist mutual exchange banks) to enable each individual to live a life of artistic creation. His celebration of nudity reflected Carpenter's influence, but the idea of retaining the Japanese emperor as the symbol of communal affection was his very own." [Peter Marshall - 'Demanding the Impossible. A History of Anarchism' (1992/2008)]

1887 - Felipe Alaiz de Pablo (d. 1959), Spanish individualist anarchist and journalist, born. Director of Revista de Aragon, writer for 'El Sol de Madrid', 'Heraldo de Aragon' and 'La Revista Blanca'. Published novels, translations and works on anarchism. Died in exile in France.

1909 - NY Police break up Emma Goldman's Sunday lecture series, claiming she did not follow the subject of her lecture on 'Henrik Ibsen as the Pioneer of Modern Drama'; two arrests made.

2006 - Iordan Chimet (b. 1924), Romanian poet, children's writer and essayist, critic and historian of art, cinema, screenwriter and translator, whose work was inspired by Surrealism and Onirism, dies. [see: Nov. 18]

2008 - Utah Phillips (b. 1935), anarchist, labour organiser, Wobbly, protest poet and folk singer, dies.
The state can't give you freedom, and the state can't take it away. You're born with it, like your eyes, like your ears. Freedom is something you assume, then you wait for someone to try to take it away. The degree to which you resist is the degree to which you are free...
1864 - Zo D'Axa aka Alphonse Gallaud de la Pérouse (d. 1930), French lampoonist, publisher, writer, adventurer and anarchist propagandist, born. Published 'La Feuille' and 'L'EnDehors' magazines, and ran as an ass called Nul in the 1898 elections, causing mass street brawls.

[B] 1869 - Ivan Aguéli (John Gustaf Agelii; d. 1917), Swedish anarchist, animal rights activist, painter and Sufi, born. Travelled to Paris in 1890 to study art and becomes the student of the Symbolist painter Émile Bernard. Before returning to Sweden in 1890 he made a detour to London, where he met the Russian anarchist scholar Prince Kropotkin. Returning to Paris in 1892, where he met Marie Huot (1846-1930), the French poet, writer, feminist and animal rights activist, and became involved in anarchist circles and is arrested and involved in the Procès des Trente in 1984. Acquitted, he left France for Egypt and, upon returning to Paris in 1898, he converts to Islam, taking the name Abd al-Hadi. Following a trip to Ceylon, he returns to France and is active in Anarchist and Dreyfusard circles of Paris. At a bullfight outside of Paris, Aguéli shoots and wounds a bullfighter. A Symbolist and Neo-Impressionist influenced artist, he was also an art critic who was an early champion of Picasso's Cubism.

1895 - Marcel Janco (d. 1984), anarchist-influenced Romanian and Israeli visual artist, architect and art theorist, born. Known originally for his time with Dada but whose work embraced a wide range of artistic schools including post-Impressionism, Expressionisn, Constructivism and Futurism, he was also instrumental for forming other arts collectives including Das Neue Leben and the Romanian political and arts magazine 'Contimporanul'.
1895 - Oscar Wilde sentenced to two years hard labour for "gross indecency".

1897 - Bram Stoker published the novel 'Dracula'.

[C] 1926 - Samuel Schwartzbard, a young Jewish anarchist poet and watchmaker, assassinates Simon Petliura (Petlyura) in Paris in revenge for the Ukraine pogroms of 1919-1920 against Jews (directed by Petliura, a rightwing nationalist & former Hetman of Ukrainian armies) and the murder of his own family members.

1945 - Yanase Masamu (柳瀬正梦; b. 1900), Japanese manga artist and cartoonist, dies. [see: Jan. 12]

1954 - Robert Capa (Endre Friedmann; b. 1913), Hungarian combat photographer, photojournalist and anti-fascist, who covered five different wars, including the Spanish Revolution, dies. [see: Oct. 22]

[B] 2000 - Alfred Levitt (b. 1894), Belarus-born American anarchist, humanist, renowned artist, storyteller, spelunker and adventurer, dies. [see: Sep. 15]
1864 - Francis Vielé-Griffin (d. 1937), US-born French symbolist poet and anarchist, born. He founded the highly influential journal 'Entretiens Politiques et Littéraires' (1890–92) and turned it into an organ of literary anarchism, whose contributors included Paul Valéry, Henri de Régnier, Remy de Gourmont, and Stéphane Mallarmé. Following his first poetry collection, 'Cueille d'Avril' (1885), he became a prodigious writer, publishing at least one new collection of poems ever year between 1893 and 1900, with many also appearing in the French press.

1878 - Chris Lebeau (Joris Johannes Christiaan Lebeau; d. 1945), Dutch artist, designer, painter, art teacher, theosophist and anarchist, born. After the Nazis came to power in Germany, Lebeau entered into a sham marriage with a Jewish refugee who had fled Nazi Germany and later during the occupation, he used his artistic knowledge for forging documents. On November 3, 1943 he and his wife were arrested for helping Dutch Jews. He was offered his freedom if he promised to refrain from illegal work, but he refused. He was transferred from Kamp Vught to Dachau concentration camp on May 25, 1944, where he died of exhaustion April 2, 1945.

[B] 1900 - Vítězslav Nezval (d. 1958), Czech poet, writer, dramatist, translator, Dadaist, co-founder of Poetism and a leading personality of Czech Surrealism, born. Like many of his milieu, an anarchist in early life was perhaps the most prolific writer in Prague during the 1920s and 30s. An original member of the anarchist-influenced avant-garde group of artists Devětsil (Nine Forces), he was a founding figure of the Poetist movement. His output consists of a number of poetry collections, experimental plays and novels, memoirs, essays, and translations. His best work is from the inter-war period. Along with Karel Teige, Jindrich Styrsky, and Toyen, Nezval frequently travelled to Paris, engaging with the French surrealists. Forging a friendship with André Breton and Paul Eluard, he was instrumental in founding The Surrealist Group of Czechoslovakia in 1934 (the first such group outside of France), serving as editor of the group's journal 'Surrealismus'.
In 1922 he joined the Devětsil (along with Karel Teige), becoming a dramtaurge for the Osvobozeného Divadla (Liberated Theatre) and of the (anarchist) Union of Communist Groups in 1924. With the demise of Devětsil, and the formation of an official Moscow-leaning Czeck Communist Party (KSČ), he joined that and helped form the communist arts group Levá Fronta (Left Front) in 1929. Nezval also wrote for many leftist papers e.g. 'Rudém Právu' (Red Truth), 'Tvorbě' (Creation), 'Odeonu' (Odeaon), 'Nové Scéně' (New Stage), 'Lidových Novinách' (The People's Newspaper), etc.
Post-WWII, he was active within the KSČ, becoming head of the film department of the Ministry of Information and ending up as its Stalinist laureate, named National Artist of the Czechoslovak Republic in 1953.
Amongst his poetry collections, 'Pantomima' (Pantomime; 1924), which is considered to be the pinnacle of poetic creation, and more erotic and ultimately Surrealist verse such as 'Menší Rùžová Zahrada' (A Small Rose Garden; 1926) and 'Dobrodružství Noci a Vìjíøe' (Romantic Nights and Fans; 1927), the more militant collections 'Sklenìný Havelok' (The Glass Cloak; 1932) and '52 Hoøkých Balad Vìèeného Studenta Roberta Davida' (52 Bitter Ballads of the Eternal Student Robert David; 1936). Nezval also wrote everything from children stories such as 'Anička Skřítek a Slaměný Klobouk' (Elf Anna and the Straw Hat; 1936) and 'Slamìný Hubert' (Hubert the Straw Man, 1936) reminiscent of Lewis Carrol's 'Alice in Wonderland'; dramas and 'poetic scenes' (for the Liberated Theatre) including the Surrealist 'Strach' (Fear; 1930) and the allegorical anti-nuclear war 'Dnes Ještě Zapadá Slunce Nad Atlantidou' (Today, the Sun Still Sets Over Atlantis; 1956); and even a series of screen plays for films that were never made (although Gustav Machatý directed the film 'Erotikon' which was based on an uncredited Nezval story).

I heard the secrets in a kiss
the words around it circling like a line of coloured butterflies
saw thousands of bacteria
in a sick man's body
& every one of them looked like a spiky chestnut
like a cosmos making war
with a skin of scaly armour

I saw a human break free from his dying comrades
in the pit of history that has no bottom.

'The Seventh Chant' (1924)


1906 - Pierre Prévert (d. 1988), French filmmaker, actor, director, writer and libertarian, born. Younger brother of Jacques Prévert, he learned his trade under the likes of Buñuel, Jean Renoir and Jean Vigo, and co-directed his first film, 'Souvenir de Paris' in 1928, with Marcel Duhamel and his brother Jacques. His own films never proved that successful and he ended up working on other people's projects, as well as being the artistic director for the Left Bank cabaret La Fontaine des Quatre Saisons, before working in TV during the '60s.

1920 - Great Dada festival in the Salle Gaveau. Dermée, Eluard, Picabia, Tzara, Breton, Soupault, Ribemont-Dessaignes and Aragon are active participators. This event represents the culmination of the Paris dada group.

1952 - Winston Smith, anarchist, "Punk Art Surrealist and master of 'hand-carved' collage" in his own words, born. Probably best known for the artwork he has produced for the American punk rock group Dead Kennedys.

1954 - Franz Pfemfert (b. 1879), German anarchist, publisher, editor of the mass-circulation anti-war paper 'Die Aktion', poet, literary critic and portrait photographer, dies. [see: Nov. 20]
1884 - Max Brod (d. 1968), Czech author, composer, journalist and one-time anarchist fellow traveller who was the friend, literary executor and biographer of Franz Kafka, born. Both Brod and Kafka frequented the Karolinenthal public house, Zum Kanonenkreuz, a well-known anarchist meeting place and took part to in meetings of the anarchist Club of the Young, which were disguised as a mandolin club to escape police surveillance. Though less than sympathetic to Kafka's anarchism, he later wrote a novel, 'Stefan Rott oder Das Jahr der Entscheidung' (Stefan Rott or the Decisive Year; 1931), which depicted the radical atmosphere in the Zum Kanonenkreuz, retaining the real names of many of those present. Despite his prodigious literary output and occasional success - his first novel 'Schloß Nornepygge' (Nornepygge Castle; 1908) was hailed as a masterpiece of Expressionism - he is mainly remembered for his promotion of others such as Jaroslav Hašek's 'The Good Soldier Svejk' and Leoš Janáček's operas, in addition to Kafka.
In later life, Brod became a pronounced Zionist.

1894 - Dashiell Hammett (d. 1961), author and creator of Sam Spade ('The Maltese Falcon') and Nick and Nora Charles ('The Thin Man'), born. A Stalinist who worked as a Pinkerton strike-breaker.

1905 - Helios Gómez Rodríguez (d. 1956), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, painter, poster artist, poet and militant activist, known as the 'artista de corbata roja' (artist with the red tie), born. Representative of the Spanish avant-garde movement of the early twentieth century alongside the likes of Luis Buñuel , Salvador Dalí and Federico García Lorca, and who joined the Aliança d'Intellectuals Antifeixistes de Catalunya. [expand]

[B] 1907 - Nicolas Calas (Νικόλαος Κάλας), pseudonym of Nikos Kalamaris (Νίκος Καλαμάρης; d. 1988), Greek-American poet, art critic, surrealist and anarchist, who also used the pseudonyms Nikitas Randos (Νικήτας Ράντος) and M. Spieros (Μ. Σπιέρος), born.

1934 - Heimrad Prem (d. 1978), German painter and one-time Situationist, born. Formed the Gruppe SPUR with Lothar Fischer, Helmut Sturm, and Hans-Peter Zimmer. After meeting Asger Jorn, SPUR joined the Situationist International but the group were expelled in 1962. From 1960-62 he co-edited the magazine 'SPUR'.

1963 - Aquilino Gomes Ribeiro (b. 1885), Portuguese novelist, writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 13]

1977 - 'God Save The Queen' by the Sex Pistols released.

[C] 1989 - Around 100 anti-fascists from AFA and Red Action amongst others, occupy the announced rally point at Marble Arch for a secret gig, aka 'The Main Event' [sic], "somewhere in London" organised by the neo-Nazi Blood and Honour group [protests had already forced the not-so-secret' original venue at Camden Town Hall to cancel]. The anti-fascists spend all afternoon picking off the fash as they arrive in ones and two, groups and via coaches.
1882 - Fortuné Henry (b. 1821), French libertarian journalist and poet, who was one of the most influential figures in the Paris Commune, dies. [see: Jul. 20]

1968 - Kees van Dongen (Cornelis Theodorus Maria van Dongen; b. 1877), Dutch painter, cartoonist on the anarchist magazine 'La Revue Blanche' and one of the founders of Fauvism, dies. [see: Jan. 26]

[B] 2004 - Étienne Roda-Gil (Esteve Roda Gil; b. 1941), French-born poet, songwriter, screenwriter, libertarian and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 1]
1830 - Louise Michel (d. 1905), French anarchist, Paris Communard and revolutionary hero, born at the Chateau of Vroncourt, France. As well as the numerous theoretical texts and essays she wrote, she also published a number of books of poems, including 'À Travers la Vie' (Through Life; 1894), 'La Fille du Peuple' (1883) and 'L'Ère Nouvelle, Pensée Dernière, Souvenirs de Calédonie' (The New Era, Final Thought , Memories of Caledonia; 1887) [prisoners' songs and poems].

1851 - Louis Rodolphe Salis (d. 1897), French creator, host and owner of Le Chat Noir, the first modern cabaret and a meeting place for Paris' radical artists and anarchist alike, born.

1883 - Eugène Bizeau (d. 1989), French vine-grower, pacifist, anarchist poet and songwriter, born. Member of the 'Muse Rouge' who fought for his ideals until his death at 105. The subject of a Bernard Baissat film: 'Ecoutez Eugène Bizeau' (1981).

1906 - Artür Harfaux (born Arthur Julien René Harfaux; d. 1995), French designer, photographer, writer and screenwriter, born. Initially a member of Les Phrères Simplistes and involved with the anarchist-influenced 'Le Grand Jeu' group, which operated in opposition to the André Breton-dominated Communist Party-supporting Paris Surrealist group, he later quit Le Grand Jeu for Breton's group in 1932. He also followed Breton's move towards anarchism after WWII.

1913 - The première of Igor Stravinsky's ballet 'The Rite of Spring' (with choreography was by Vaslav Nijinsky plus stage designs and costumes by Nicholas Roerich), at Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes season in the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées causes a sensation and almost a riot as the audience react to the avant-garde nature of the music and choreography.

1923 - Bernard Clavel (d. 2010), French novelist, poet, essayist, anarchist and pacifist, born. Author of over 100 books, he was closely associated with Louis Lecoin and the Union pacifiste de France, writing the anti-war novel 'Le Silence des Armes' (1974) and denouncing the Algerian war in 'Lettre à un Képi Blanc' (1975).

1927 - Georges Eekhoud (b. 1854), Belgian novelist and anarchist, dies. [see: Mar. 27]

1937 - Irmin Schmidt, German keyboardist, composer and founding member of the band Can, born. Has identified himself as an anarchist and said of Can, "We were never a normal rock group. Can was an anarchist community", jokingly adding that the band's name stood for "Communism, Anarchism, and Nihilism". [NB: Comment also atributed to the band's drummer Jaki Liebezeit.]

[B] 1938 - Alberto Grifi (d. 2007), Italian film director, painter and anarchist, born. One of the foremost exponents of underground cinema and pioneer of video film in Italy, films were hailed by John Cage, Man Ray and Max Ernst in the mid 1960s. The documentary 'Anna' (1975), co-directed with Massimo Sarchielli, is probably his best known film.
[B] 1862 - Franz Held (Franz Herzfeld; d. 1908), German anarchist poet, playwright and novelist, born. Married to the textile worker and anarchist Alice Stolzenberg and father of four, including John Heartfield and Wieland Herzfelde. Accused of blasphemy in 1895, he fled the country with his wife and 3 children to Switzerland where they lived in poverty. Expelled from Switzerland, they lived in a mountain hut near Salzburg. In the summer of 1899, both disappeared, abandoning their children.
His works include: 'Ein Fest auf der Bastilla. Vorspiel zu der Revolutions-Trilogie "Massen"' (A Feast on the Bastilla. Prelude to the Revolution Trilogy "Masses"; 1891), 'Manometer auf 99!: Soziales Drama in 5 Akten' (1893), and 'Groß-Natur. Ausgewählte Gedichte' (Wholesale Natural. Selected Poems; 1893).

1886 - Randolph Silliman Bourne (d. 1918), American literary radical, essayist and anarchist, born. Wrote on literary subjects for 'The Dial', 'The Seven Arts' and the 'New Republic'. Eulogised by John Dos Passos in the chapter 'Randolph Bourne' in the novel '1919' which drew heavily on the ideas presented in Bourne's 'War Is The Health of the State', part of the unfinished essay 'The State'.

1901 - Maxim Gorky, arrested on charges of printing revolutionary literature, is released from prison after the anarchist/novelist Count Leo Tolstoy intercedes on his behalf. Gorky later served a similar role by interceding on the behalf of many writers victimised by Stalin's regime.
"When work is a pleasure, life is a joy! When work is a duty, life is slavery."

1933 - Sergio Citti (d. 2005), Italian actor, film director, screenwriter and libertarian, who was closely linked artistically to Pier Paolo Pasolini, born. Citti directed 'Ostia' (1970), with a screenplay co-written with Pier Paolo Pasolini, featuring Bandiera and Rabbino, two anarchist brothers trying to recover from their Catholic upbringing. He also co-wrote the screenplay to Pasolini's anti-fascist allegory 'Salò o le 120 giornate di Sodoma' (Salò, or the 120 Days of Sodom; 1975).
1819 - Walt Whitman (d. 1862), American Transcendentalist poet and proto-libertarian, born.

1826 - The Parisian Criminal Court of the Seine, ordered the destruction of Denis Diderot's novel 'Jacques le Fataliste et son Maître' (1796) and condemns the editor to one month in prison. Other works of Diderot experience for state censorship outrage to public morals, including 'La Religieuse' (in 1824 and 1826), where even 'Bijoux Indiscrets' (in 1835).

[B] 1836 - Jean-Baptiste Clement (d. 1903), communard and author of the famous song 'The Time of Cherries', born. Clement was several times sent to prison for his writings and lampoons.

1916 - Hugo Ball's 'Simultan Krippenspiel (Concert bruitiste)' is performed at Cabaret Voltaire featuring Marietta di Monaco, Hans Arp Hugo Ball, Emmy Hennings, Marcel Janco and Tristan Tzara.

[BB] 1925 - Julian Beck (d. 1985), US actor, director, poet and Abstract Expressionist painter, born. Founded The Living Theatre with Judith Malina in 1947. Published several volumes of poetry reflecting his anarchist principals: 'Songs of the Revolution 1-35' (1963), '21 Songs of the Revolution' (1969) and 'Songs of the Revolution 36-89' (1974); two non-fiction books: 'The Life of the Theatre' (1972) and 'Theandric: Julian Beck's Last Notebooks' (1992) and had several film appearances, including the role of Kane the evil preacher in the 1986 film 'Poltergeist II: The Other Side'.

"the breasts of all the women crumpled like gas bags when
neruda wrote his hymn celebrating the explosion of a
hydrogen bomb by soviet authorities
children died of the blistrs of ignorance for a century when
siqueiros tried to assassinate trotsky himself a killer
with gun and ice
pound shimmering his incantations to adams benito and
kung prolonging the state with great translation
cut in crystal
claudel slaying tupi guarani as he flourished cultured
documents and pearls in rio de janeiro when he
served france as ambassador to brazil
melville served by looking for contraband as he worked
in the customs house how many taxes did he requite
how many pillars of the state did he cement in
place tell me tell me tell me stone
spenser serving the faerie queene as a colonial secretary
in ireland sinking the irish back for ten times
forty years no less under the beau monde's brack
seneca served by advising nero on how to strengthen the
state with philosophy's accomplishments
aeschylus served slaying persians at marathon and salamis
aristotle served as tutor putting visions of trigonometrics
in alexander's head
dali and eliot served crowning monarchs with their gold
wallace stevens served as insurance company executive
making poems out of profits
euclides da cunha served as army captain baritoning troops
and d h lawrence served praising the unique potential of
a king

these are the epics of western culture
these are the flutes of china and the east

everything must be rewritten then

goethe served as a member of the weimar council of state
and condemned even to death

this is the saga of the state which is served

even to death"

'the state will be served / even by poets'.


1930 - Juan Genovés, Spanish painter and graphic artist, born. Greatly influenced by his cousin Ramon, a militant anarchist who takes shelter in their home following the defeat of the Republic and who recounts stirring stories of war and solidarity, and instills in Juan the importance of culture for the workers.

1953 - Vladimir Yevgraphovich Tatlin (Влади́мир Евгра́фович Та́тлин; b. 1885); Russian, and later Soviet, painter and architect, dies. [see: Jan. 10]

1978 - Hannah Höch (Anna Therese Johanne Höch; b. 1889), German artist, photomontagist, Dadaist and feminist, dies. [see: Nov. 1]

2010 - Louise Joséphine Bourgeois (b. 1911), French-American autobigraphical artist, sculptor and feminist icon, dies. [see: Dec. 25]

2010 - Steef Davidson (aka Steve Davidson; b. 1943), Dutch Provo activist, anarchist propagandist, documentary filmmaker, historian of social movements, collector of posters and comics and poster designer and printer, dies. [see: Sep. 16]

1867 - Jules Valles, French novelist, journalist, anarchist propagandist, launches the weekly magazine 'La Rue', involving artists and writers such as Emile Zola and Gustave Courbet before being suppressed.

1873 - Albert Laisant (d. 1928), French anarchist, freemason and libertarian pedagogue, born. Son of Charles Ange Laisant (1841-1920). Author of the children's novel 'Magojana: le Maître du Secret' (Magojana: Master of the Secret; 1925). Introduced to anarchist ideas by Sébastien Faure, Albert turns the whole family into anarchists, including his father and his two sons, Maurice and Charles.

1913 - The first issue of the monthly newspaper 'Haro!' is published in Uccle-Bruxelles by the illustrator Albert Daenens, bringing together avant-garde artists and writers. Seven issues came out up til Jan. 1914 and reappears after the war, with the first issue dated July 5 1919 as a fortnightly.

[B] 1940 - Katerina Gogou (Κατερίνα Γώγου; d. 1993), Greek anarchist poet, author and actress, born. [expand]

1988 - Victor Arthur James Willing (b. 1928), Egyptian-born British painter and anarchist, dies of multiple sclerosis.
1740 - Donatien Alphonse François, Marquis de Sade (d. 1814), French aristocrat, revolutionary politician, philosopher and writer of novels, short stories, plays, dialogues and political tracts, born. Marie-Louise Berneri recognised de Sade as an outstanding utopian and anarchist thinker and especially praised his insistence that "there could be no equality as long as people had not thrown off the yoke of religion" - 'Journey Through Utopia' (1982).

1876 - Hristo Botev (Hristo Botyov Petkov; b. 1848), Bulgarian poet, writer, early anarchist, propagandist and revolutionary, dies. Having led a partisan army of 200 fighters into Bulgaria to overthrow Ottoman rule, he dies in battle. [see: Jan. 6]

1903 - Max Aub (Max Aub Mohrenwitz; d. 1972), Spanish-Mexican experimentalist novelist, playwright and literary critic, born in Paris to German parents who were forced to move to Spain at the start of WWI. Joined the PSOE in 1928. Friend of Picasso and Lorca. In 1937, he was appointed cultural attaché of Spain in Paris and managed the order and purchase of 'Guernica' from Picasso for the International Exposition. Two years later, whilst in France working on Malraux's film 'L'Espoir', he was denounced by the Franco regime ans thrown into a Vichy concentration camp as a dangerous communist and "German Jew". He managed to escape and went into exile in Mexico, his home until his death. In Mexico he formed a working friendship with Luis Buñuel and in 1965 he founded the literary periodical 'Los Sesenta' (the Sixties). The author of nearly 100 novels and plays, the centrepiece of his oeuvre is the 'El Laberinto Mágico' (The Magic Labyrinth) Spanish Civil War series of six novels - 'Campo Cerrado' (Field of Honour; 1943), 'Campo de Sangre' (Field of Blood; 1945), 'Campo Abierto' (Outfield; 1951), 'Campo del Moro' (Field of the Moros; 1963), 'Campo Francés' (French Field; 1965) and 'Campo de los Almendros' (Field of Almond; 1968). Two of his other major novels were 'Las Buenas Intenciones' (The Best of Intentions; 1954) and 'La Calle de Valverde' (Valverde Street; 1961). 'Jusep Torres Campalans' (1958) is his fictional account of a Catalan anarchist Cubist painter loosely based on Picasso.

1913 - Futurist painter and anarchist Luigi Russolo introduces a prototype of his intonarumori noise machine to a completely unprepared audience at the Teatro Storchi in Modena. Preceded by a rather solemn lecture by introduction, which is interrupted by jeers and shouting.

1970 - Giuseppe Ungaretti (b. 1888), Italian modernist poet, journalist, essayist, critic and academic, dies. A one-time anarchist sympathiser who later became an active fascist. [see: Feb. 10]

1970 - Lucia Sanchez Saornil (b. 1895), Spanish poet, painter and militant anarchist-feminist, dies. A founder of the famed Mujeres Libres. [see: Dec. 13]

1975 - Scarlat Callimachi or Calimachi (nicknamed Prinţul Roşu, the Red Prince; b. 1896), Romanian journalist, essayist, Futurist poet, trade unionist, youthful anarchist and later a communist activist, dies. [see: Sep. 20]

1971 - Procession in Sofia to the monument of Christo Botev, the first Bulgarian anarchist and a national hero, who perished in the struggle for liberation of Bulgaria from Turkish power today in 1876.

[B] 2008 - Arthur Adrién Porchet (b. 1907), Swiss filmmaker, cinematographer and libertarian, who made propaganda films for the CNT during the Spanish Civil War, dies. [see: Oct. 14]
1924 - Franz Kafka (b. 1883), German-language Czech dystopian allegorist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Jul. 3]

[B] 1926 - Allen Ginsberg (d. 1997), American Beat poet, one-time Wobbly and Buddhist anarchist, born.

1928 - Donald Clarence Judd (d. 1994), US anarchist, Minimalist painter and sculptor, born.

1967 - René-Louis Lafforgue (b. 1928), French singer, songwriter, actor, interpreter and anarchist, dies in a car accident in southern France. [see Mar 13]

1995 - Jean-Patrick Manchette (b. 1942), French crime novelist, screenwriter and libertarian, dies. [see: Dec. 19]

2005 - Mary Frohman (b. 1947), American anarchist, member of the Industrial Workers of the World, singer, guitarist, dies, of a heart attack while waiting for a bus. A member of the 'filk outfit' DeHorn Crew - the Chicago IWW's house band and lover of fellow anarchist and band member Leslie Fish, the fortune-telling character Mama Sutra in the novel 'Illuminatus!' is probably based on her.
1857 - J. William Lloyd (d. 1940), American individualist anarchist, poet and doctor, born. Editor of 'Free Comrade', he wrote for Benjamin Tucker's 'Liberty'. He was known as the 'drugless physician'.

1882 - Karl Valentin (Valentin Ludwig Fey; d. 1948), German comedian, cabaret performer, clown, author, film producer and anarchist, born. A significant influence on German Weimar culture, Valentin was also the star of many silent films in the 1920's, earning him the sobriquet the 'Charlie Chaplin of Germany'. Known for his 'linguistic anarchism', which was based around linguistic dexterity and wordplay, his work parallels that of Dadaism and the social expressionism of the Neue Sachlichkeit. Bertolt Brecht was greatly influenced by Valentin, and Brecht scripted Valentin's slapstick film 'Mysterien eines Friseursalons' (Mysteries of a Barbershop; 1923). A German TV film, 'Liesl Karlstadt und Karl Valentin' (2008), was made about Valentin and his relationship with stage partner and long-term lover, Liesl Karlstadt (Elisabeth Wellano; 1892-1960).

[B] 1926 - Judith Malina, German-born American theatre and film actress, writer, director, anarchist and pacifist, born. One of the founders of The Living Theatre alongside her long-time collaborator and husband, Julian Beck. Also noted for playing Grandma in 'The Addams Family' movie (1991); and her roles in the films 'Awakenings' (1990), 'Radio Days' (1987) and 'Dog Day Afternoon' (1975).

[C] 1937 - Pablo Picasso completes his mural 'Guernica'.

1945 - Georg Kaiser (b. 1878), German Expressionist playwright, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Nov. 25]

1953 - Guy Allix, French poet and libertarian writer, born. [expand]
[B] 1875 - Stanislav Kostka Neumann (d. 1947), Czech journalist, poet, literary and art critic, translator and anarchist, born. A representative of the turn of the century generation of Czech Anarchističtí Buřiči, "básníci života a vzdoru" (Anarchist Rebels, "the poets of life and defiance"). Expelled from business college, he participated in the clandestine youth movement, Omladina, for which he was arrested in 1893, standing trial in the notorious Proces s Omladinou (Trial of the Teenagers) and spending 14 months in Plzen-Bory prison. After returning from prison, he published his first poetry collection of 'Latinsky Nemesis, Strážkyně Dobrých / Majetku' (Latin Nemesis, Guardian of Good / Assets; 1895) and contributed to the Symbolisti magazine 'Moderní Revue' (Modern Revue). He also became publisher and editor of the anarchist literary magazine 'Nový Kult' (The New Cult) in 1897, and was active in anarchist circles and writing for movement magazines such as 'Práce' (Labour). In 1902 he co-founded the Prague Esperanto club and began to write poetry in the langauge, as well as helping form, with Michal Kácha, the Česká Anarchistická Federace (Czech Anarchist Federation, or ČAF) and the Česká Federace Va̧ech Odborů (Czech Federation of All Unions, or ČFVO).
Around this time he started to work for the Brno paper 'Lidové Noviny' (People’s Newspaper) and, thanks to the brothers Čapek, he came into a closer contact with the pre-war art group founded around the 'Almanach na Rok 1914' (Almanac for the Year 1914), which rejected Symbolism and signalled the beginning of a shift by Neumann away from anarchism. During WWI he was on the Albanian front as ambulance driver and just before the end of the war he started publishing the magazine 'Červen' (June; 1918-22), co-edited with Michal Kácha, which brought together the pre-war "moderns" (the brothers Čapek and others) and authors from the upcoming generation who dedicated themselves to "proletarian art" (e.g. Jaroslav Seifert, Vladislav Vančura, Jiří Wolker, Jindřich Hořejší).
He joined the new Česká Strana Socialistická (Czech Socialist Party), of which he became a representative in the Revoluční Národní Shromáždění (Revolutionary National Assembly) and became a high official at the Ministry of Education. In 1919 he withdrew from his parliament seat and in 1920 he left the party. He started setting up communist cells together with former anarchists in the North of Bohemia. The cells integrated in 1921 in the new KSČ (Communist Party of Czechoslovakia). He would go on to have a stormy relationship with the KSČ, leaving or being expelled on numerous occasions and during the Nazi occupation he went into hiding rather than fleeing the country due to sever ill health.
His poetry collections include: 'Sen o Zástupu Zoufajících a Jiné Básně' (Dreaming of a Despairing Crowd and Other Poems; 1903); 'Socialism a Svoboda: (1904–1908)' (Socialism and Freedom; 1909) and 'Kniha Mládí a Vzdoru' (Book of Youth and Rebellion; 1920).
NB: the decades-long feud between the proletarian poet S. K. Neumann and the avant-garde theorist Karel Teige.

1898 -Federico García Lorca (d. 1936), Andalusian poet, dramatist and artist, born. He will be murdered by Franco's fascists.

1915 -Henri Gaudier-Brzeska (b. 1891), French anarchist, sculptor, painter and draughtsman associated with the Vorticists, dies. [see: Oct. 4]

1934 -Ralph Rumney (d. 2002), English artist, writer and lifelong conscientious objector, born. One of the co-founders of the London Psychogeographical Association and a founding member of the Situationist International, he was the first to be expelled ('amiably' 7 months later) by Guy Debord. He produced a vast body of work despite living most of his life in destitution.

1998 -Dieter Roth (b. 1930), German-Swiss anarchist and artist-poet associated with the Fluxus movement, best known for his artist's books, editioned prints, sculptures, video installations and found materials assemblages, dies. [see: Apr. 21]
1921 - The première of 'Le Cœur à Gaz' (The Gas-Operated Heart), Tristan Tzara's classic Dadaist play (characterised as "the greatest three-act hoax of the century" by critics) staged as part of a Dada Salon at the Galerie Montaigne by the Paris Dadaists, ends in a near riot.

1933 - Willy Braque, French libertarian, actor, director, producer and writer, born.

[B] 1939 - Louis Andriessen, Dutch composer, pianist, anarchist and Marxist, born. Involved in the late sixties radical student movement and anti-Vietnam protests, he led the notorious Actie Notenkrakers (Nutcrackers Action) on 17 November, 1969 in which a group of activists interrupted a concert by the Concertgebouw Orchestra, demanding an open discussion of music policy. That same year, Schat contributed, together with the composers Reinbert de Leeuw, Louis Andriessen, Jan van Vlijmen, and Misha Mengelberg, and the writers Harry Mulisch and Hugo Claus, in 'Reconstructie', a sort of co-operative opera, or 'morality' theatre work, about the conflict between American imperialism and liberation. He was later to set up the political street band, Orkest de Volharding (Perseverance Orchestra), with Willem Breuker in 1972. An early piece of his, 'Volkslied' (1971), feature the Dutch national anthem, 'Wilhelmus', slowly giving way to 'The International', but his most overtly anarchist-influenced piece is the central part of his major trilogy of works 'Die Staat' (1976), 'Mausoleum' (1979) and 'De Tijd' (1979–81). The first uses texts by Plato and the latter by St. Augustine, but 'Mausoleum' was written to commemorate the centennial of Bakunin’s death and sets texts by him to music.

1978 - Kitasono Katue (北園 克衛; b. 1902), renowned Japanese poet, painter, photographer, critic and anarchist, who helped introduced Dada and Surrealism into Japan, dies. [see: Oct. 29]

1982 - Kenneth Rexroth (b. 1905), poet, essayist, critic, translator, anarchist, Wobbly, pacifist and conscientious objector, dies. [see: Dec. 22]

2000- Frédéric Charles Antoine Dard (b. 1921), French writer of romans policiers and so-called anarchiste de droite, dies. [see: Jun. 29]

2010 - Jose Saramago's coffin bizarrely receives full state honours with a military guard alongside representatives of the Portuguese, Angolan and Mozambiquean governments and the Portuguese Communist party.
1868 -André Veidaux (anagrammic pseudonym of Jean-Baptiste Adrien Devaux; d. 1927), French Symbolist writer, poet, critic and anarchist sympathiser, born. Wrote for numerous anarchist journals including: 'L'Attaque', 'L'En Dehors', 'Revue Anarchiste', 'La Revue Libertaire', 'Le Libertaire', 'Le Journal du Peuple', 'L'Education Libertaire', 'L'Homme Libre', 'Le Réveil de l'Esclave', etc.

1876 - Adya van Rees (Adrienne Catherine Dutilh; d. 1959), Dutch artist (needle art, broderies and wall hangings) who was involved with Dadaism and the Ascona colony, born. She met her partner the Dutch painter and Tolstoyian anarchist Otto van Rees at the International Brotherhood colony at Blaricum in 1904.

[B] 1902 - Germaine Berton (d. 1942), French trade union militant and anarchist, born. Previously a member of the Communist Party, she joined l'Union Anarchiste in Paris in 1922 but left to join an individualist group. That year she joined the defence committee of the 1919 Mutinerie des Marins de la Mer Noire (Mutiny of the Sailors in the Black Sea) and was also imprisoned for insulting the secretary of the Police Commissioner.
On January 22, 1923, Berton had planned to kill Leon Daudet, a notorious right-wing extremist/propagandist of l'Action Française, but instead she ended up shooting Marius Plateau, Chef des Camelots du Roi [see: Jan. 22]. She later attempted to commit suicide to escape the judgement but, defended by Henry Torres, she was acquitted on Dec. 24, 1923. 'Le Libertaire' has declared her a hero, running a vociferous support campaign which led to her adoption by the Surrealists and featuring in a famous 'La Révolution Surréaliste' collage.
Following her aquittal, Germaine undertook a lecture tour, one date (Bordeaux) was prohibited by the police, leading to a fight and mass arrests - more than 150 people, including Berton. Sentenced to four months in prison plus a 100 franc fine, she was interned at Fort du Hâ where she pursued a hunger strike and was hospitalised. Upon her release her mental health deteriorated, quit political activities and later attempted suicide on Philippe Daudet's grave at the Père Lachaise cemetry.

1966 - Hans or Jean Arp (b. 1886), German-French Dadaist, Surrealist and Abstraction-Création sculptor, painter, poet and multi-media artist, dies. [see: Sep. 16]

1977 - The police board a boat on the River Thames, where the Sex Pistols are giving live Royal Jubilee concert, arresting the band and their manager Malcolm McLaren.

1980 - Henry Valentine Miller (b. 1891), American writer, banned novelist, memoirist, critic, painter, individualist anarchist and champion of free speech, dies. [see: Dec. 26]
1943 - Penny (Lapsang) Rimbaud (Jeremy John Ratter), English writer, poet, philosopher, painter, musician and anarchist, born. A former member of the performance art groups EXIT and Ceres Confusion, and co-founder in 1972, with Phil Russell aka Wally Hope, of the Stonehenge Free Festivals. Best known for co-founding in 1977, alongside Steve Ignorant, the seminal anarchist punk band Crass, which disbanded in 1984.

[C] 1945 - Robert Desnos (b. 1900), French poet, author, anti-fascist and anarchist, who was one of the most important figures of the French surrealist movement in the 1920s and 30s, dies in Terezín he died from typhoid at 5.30 in the morning, only weeks after the camp’s liberation and less than a month short of his 45th birthday. [see: Jul. 4]

1946 - Gerhart Hauptmann (b. 1862), German Naturalist dramatist and novelist, chiefly known today for his early naturalistic social drama 'Die Weber' (The Weavers; 1892), dies. [see: Nov. 15]

1949 - George Orwell's '1984' first published. 25,000 copies are printed, with 23,000 selling within four months.

[B] 1961 - Uno Laur aka Kohtla-Järve Uno (a nickname derived from his hometown Kohtla-Järve), Estonian-Jewish anarchist and iconoclastic ex-lead singer of the Must Mamba (Black Mamba) and Röövel Ööbik (Robber Nightingale), born. "The oldest punk in Estonia".

1980 - Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Busch (b. 1900), German singer and actor, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

1986 - Elfie Gidlow (b. 1898), British-born, Canadian-American feminist poet, freelance journalist, philosophical anarchist, lesbian and Taoist, dies. [see: Dec. 29]

[BB] 2009 - Joachim Gatti (b. unknown), French libertarian cinematographer, director and writer is shot in the face by police flash-ball, loosing an eye, during a peaceful demonstration in Montreal against the eviction of the Clinic squatted social centre. Joachim is the grandson of French playwright, poet, journalist, screenwriter, filmmaker and anarchist Armand Gatti and the son of French libertarian filmmaker Stéphane Gatti.
Gatti played the part of Joachim Rivière in Peter Watkins' 2000 film 'La Commune (Paris, 1871)'.

2010 - Sara Berenguer Laosa (b. 1919), Catalan poet, anarchist and member of Mujeres Libres, dies. Wrote a narrative autobiography 'Entre El Sol y la Tormenta' (Between the Sun and the Storm; 1988). [see: Jan. 1]
1899 - Robert Jospin (d. 1990), French militant socialist, pacifist and one-time anarchist, born. Father of French socialist Prime Minister Lionel Jospin, he was deeply affected by WWI and became a pacifist. He began writing for the anarchist press ('La Patrie Humaine', 'Le Réfractaire', 'Le Libertaire', etc.) after meeting Victor Meric and Roger Monclin in the early Twenties while with the Pacifist Union. A visceral anti-communist, he also joined the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and, in the Thirties, the secretary of the Ligue Internationale des Combattants de la Paix. Bernard Baissat made an 80 minutes film, 'Robert Jospin', about him in 1990.

[B] 2013 - Iain Banks (b. 1954), Scottish novelist and self-described "evangelical atheist", who, using the pen name Iain M Banks, was the author of the Culture series of sci-fi novels that feature a pan-galactic anarchist society, dies. [see: Feb. 15]
[B] 1819 - Gustave Courbet (d. 1877), French painter, revolutionary anarchist, Communard, essayist and leader of the Realist school of art, born. A close friend of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, he was elected to the Paris Commune and participated in the anarchist congress of the Jura Federation. Probably his most notorious painting is 'L'Origine du Monde' (1866), not publicly exhibited until 122 years after it was painted.

1863 - Jean Ajalbert (d. 1947), French lawyer, Impressionist poet, naturalist writer and anarchist, born.

1885 - Le Chat Noir opens at its second site, at 12 Rue Victor-Masse, in Paris.

1966 - Henry Treece (b. 1911), British poet, novelist, short story writer, essayist, playwright, editor, teacher, pacifist and philosophical anarchist, dies. [see: Dec. 22]
1832 - Jules Vallès (d. 1885), French novelist, journalist, anarchist propagandist, born. A revolutionary from an early age, he took part in revolutionary agitation in Nantes in 1848, leading to his being expelled from school and moving to Paris. After taking part in the uprising against Napoleon III during the French coup of 1851, he flees back to Nantes where his father has him commited to a mental institution (he does not share his son's political beliefs). Thanks to help from a friend, he managed to escape a few months later and returns to Paris, joining the staff of 'Le Figaro', and becoming a regular contributor to the other leading journals.
In 1853 he was arrested for conspiring against Napoleon III, but was later freed due to a lack of evidence. Living in poverty and writing journalism for bread (the stock market page of 'Le Figaro', which fires him for his bias against capitalism). It was around this time that he wrote his first book, 'L'Argent' (1857).
Fascinated by the writings of Proudhon, he becomes a journalist and continues to write novels. On 1 June 1867, he launched the weekly 'La Rue' in collaboration with a number of artists, including Zola and Courbert. Banned after only 6 months, Vallès is imprisoned in Sainte-Pelagie for 2 months in prison for articles critical of the police. There he founds the 'Journal de Sainte-Pelagie'. Released, in 1869 he founds in quick succession 'Le Peuple', 'Le Réfractaire', resurrects 'La Rue' in 1870, and on Feb. 22, 1871, publishes the first issue of 'Le Cri du Peuple'. Condemned to 6 months in prison for his part in the October 1870 Blanquist plot, he manages to escape before arrest but his paper is banned, but will eventually become the official journal of the Commune. One of the 4 editors of the 'L'Affiche Rouge' posted on Jan. 7, he is elected to the Commune on March 26, 1871. A supporter of the minority (signing the manifesto of the minority ande publishing it in his newspaper on May 15), he opposes the Comité de Salut. He fought on the barricades during the Semaine Sanglante, making a last stand in the rue de Paris (now rue de Belleville) on May 28. He managed to escape (2 'false' Vallès are executed by the army in error) and take refuge in England. Sentenced to death in absentia, he will not return to Paris until the amnesty of 1880, when he restarts publication in 1883 of 'Le Cri du Peuple' as a voice for libertarian and Blanquist ideas. During his exile he begins writing 'Jacques Vingtras', his major autobiographical trilogy - 'L'Enfant' (1879), 'Le Bachelier' (1881), and 'L'Insurgé', published in 1886, the year after he dies, exhausted and suffering from diabetes. 60,000 follow his coffin to the Père Lachaise Cemetery.

1965 - The International Poetry Incarnation attended by philosophical anarchists, Allen Ginsberg and Lawrence Ferlinghetti, as well as other members of the Beat Generation.

[B] 1969 - Marco Rovelli, Italian musician, writer, poet, history and philosophy teacher, and anarchist, born. His band Les Anarchistes recorded 2 albums: 'Figli di Origine Oscura' (Children of Obscure Origin; 2002) and 'La Musica Nelle Strade!' (The Music in the Streets!; 2005). He also recorded a 2009 record 'LibertAria'. In addition to his books of poetry such as 'Corpo Esposto' (Exposed Body; 2004) and 'L'Inappartenenza' (Not Belonging; 2009); are his non-fiction works such as 'Lager Italiani' (Italian Lager; 2006), about Italian immigration detention centres, and 'Servi' (Servants; 2009), in which he recounts the stories of immigrants and places they work; plus 'Lavorare Uccide' (Working Kills; 2008), a novel about working place deaths.
[B] 1921 - Luis García-Berlanga Martí (d. 2010), Spanish screenwriter, film director, actor and anarchist, born. The son and grandson of republican politicians and land owners, his family fled to Tangiers after criticising the anarchists, and was later arrested by fascist regime following Franco's victory. García Berlanga was called up to fight and found himself at the Battle of Teruel. He later volunteered for the División Azul, it was claimed in order to save his father from the death penalty (elsewhere he claimed it was to stay with his falanguist friends), and fought on the Eastern Front. In 1951 he directed his first film, 'Esa Pareja Feliz' (That Happy Couple) with Juan Antonio Bardem, released in 1953, as was his first solo effort 'Bienvenido Mister Marshall' (Welcome Mr. Marshall; 1953). Many of his films, such as 'El Verdugo' (The Executioner; 1963), ended up with him being hauled before Franco's censors to explain. Following Franco's death he released his trilogy 'La Escopeta Nacional' (The National Shotgun; 1977), 'Patrimonio Nacional' (National Heritage; 1981) and 'Nacional III' (National III; 1982), whose philosophy was contrary to family, church and nation - everything Franco stood for.

1936 - Bruno Misefari (also known by the anagrammatical pseudonym Furio Sbarnemi; b. 1892), Italian anarchist, philosopher, poet, author, engineer and deserter, dies. [see: Jan. 17]

1943 - Hanns Heinz Ewers (Hans Heinrich Ewers; b. 1871), German writer, poet, novelist, playwright, song writer, filmmaker, globetrotter, comedian and Stirnerite individualist, dies. [see: Nov. 3]

1946 - Karel Toman (pen name of Antonín Bernášek; b. 1877), Czech poet, journalist, translator (from French) and representative of the generation of Anarchističtí Buřiči, dies. [see: Feb. 25]

1968 - Herbert Read (b. 1893), English poet, art critic, anarchist and political philosopher, born. Wrote 'Anarchy & Order; Poetry & Anarchism' (1938); 'Philosophy of Anarchism' (1940); 'Revolution & Reason' (1953); 'My Anarchism' (1966), etc. Early champion of Surrealism. Accepted a knighthood which caused much consternation and ridicule among the anarchist milieu.
[B] 1870 - Alexandru Bogdan-Piteşti (also known as Ion Doican, Ion Duican and Al Dodan; d. 1922), Romanian Symbolist poet, essayist, art and literary critic, journalist and anarchist, born.
www.istoria-artei.ro/resources/files/RRHA 2011-Art 04-C. Teaca.pdf]

[BB] 1888 - Fernando Pessoa, born Fernando António Nogueira de Seabra Pessoa (d. 1935), Portuguese Modernist poet, writer, literary critic translator, publisher, philosopher and individualist, who dabbled in automatic writing and occultism, born. Published under a huge number (at least 72) of heteronyms (literary alter egos), a number of which e.g. Barão de Teive were used exclusively for his individualist works. The vast majority of his oeuvre remained unpublished upon his death, including hs most renowned work 'Livro do Desassossego' (The Book of Disquiet; 1982), a "factless autobiography" found in an envelope and written under the name Bernardo Soares; 'O Banqueiro Anarquista' (The Anarchist Banker; 1996) and 'Educação do Stoica' (The Education of the Stoic: The Only Manuscript of the Baron of Teive; 2002).

"Tenho tanto sentimento
Que é freqüente persuadir-me
De que sou sentimental,
Mas reconheço, ao medir-me,
Que tudo isso é pensamento,
Que não senti afinal.

Temos, todos que vivemos,
Uma vida que é vivida
E outra vida que é pensada,
E a única vida que temos
É essa que é dividida
Entre a verdadeira e a errada.

Qual porém é a verdadeira
E qual errada, ninguém
Nos saberá explicar;
E vivemos de maneira
Que a vida que a gente tem
É a que tem que pensar."

(I have so much feeling
Which often persuades me
That I am sentimental,
But I recognise when measuring myself,
This is all thought,
I did not feel it at all.

We all have to live,
A life that is lived
And another life that is thought,
And the only life we ​​have
Is that this which is divided
Between right and wrong.

But what is the right
And what is wrong, no one
In the know can explain;
And so we live
The life we ​​have
You have to believe that.)

- 'Tenho tanto sentimento'

[* verdadeira: true, real; actual; natural, rightful; sincere, truthful; unfeigned, veracious; veritable.
errada: incorrect, wrong; awry, amiss.]


1901 - Jean Prévost (d. 1944), French writer, journalist, and Résistance fighter under the nom de guerre Captaine Goderville, born. He joined the underground National Committee of Writers, created by Louis Aragon and his wife Elsa Troilet, and took part in the creation of the clandestine newspaper 'Les Étoiles' at the end of 1942, He was killed in a German ambush at the Pont Charvin, in Sassenage, whilst fighting with the Maquis du Vercors in August 1944.

1903 - Vicente Ballester Tinoco (d. 1936), Spanish carpenter, cabinetmaker, writer, journalist, and prominent Andalusian anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, born. In 1920' he was a member of the anarchist group Fermín Salvochea, along with José Bonat, and in 1921 was a delegate in Cádiz anarchist underground plenum El Arahal, where it was decided that the anarchist groupings would enter the CNT. The following year he was named vice president of Ateneo Obrero and participated in the editorial group of the journal 'Alba Roja'. During the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, he became the president of the Sindicato de la Construcción of the CNT in Cadiz in 1924 and in 1926 joined the Fermin Salvochea Freemason lodge, where he was active until 1930, leaving following the trade union conference held in Seville in October.
In 1927, he married Ramona Sierra Estudillo whom he had five children (Aurora, Rafael Joaquin, Jose Antonio) and the following year was a member of the anarchist group Germinal, with Bonat, Elias Garcia, Lucero and Galé among others. He was arrested for the first time at Jerez in 1929 and was imprisoned for a month and a half. In 1930 he was Vice President of the Ateneo Popular Enciclopèdic where he hosted debates and lectured on Esperanto. In September 1932, he was appointed secretary of the Regional Committee of the CNT in Andalusia and Extremadura. During the insurrection of January 1933, Rafael Peña García (CNT) and Juan Arcas Moreda (FIJL), he was a member of the Comité Revolucionario Andaluz (Revolutionary Committee Andalusian). It was during this period that the massacre in Casas Viejas of 25 people, including Francisco Cruz 'Seisdedos', were burned alive by the Republican Guard assault, a crime that inspired his most famous work 'Han Hasado los Bárbaros. La Verdad Sobre Casas Viejas' (Gone are the barbarians. The Truth about Casas Viejas; 1933). Editor of 'CNT', he was arrested in 1934 in Madrid following the Asturian revolution and in 1935 he was one of the reorganisers of the CNT in Cadiz alongside Manuel Pérez.
In 1936 he lived 2 Calle de la Libertad in Cadiz and in May took part in a rally in the arena alongside the Socialist leader Largo Caballero. He was then Secretary of CR Andalusian. The same month of May was one of the delegates to the Congress of Cadiz CNT in Zaragoza where he participated in the development of the motion on libertarian communism came at the meeting and closing of the conference.
On July 18, 1936 shortly after the outbreak of the Civil War, his son Rafael warned him of the imminent arrival of the Assault Guards and he went into hiding, where he would live for several months in different houses. In the early morning of 19 September, he was arrested following his betrayal. He was summarily tried by court martial and shot that afternoon in the trenches of Las Puertas de Tierra.
His literary work includes the children's story 'Pepin' (1927) and the novels 'La Voz de la Sangre' (The Voice of Blood; 1930), 'El último Cacique' (The Last Political Boss; 1930), 'El asalto' (The assault; 1932), 'Escoria social' (Social Scum; 1932), 'Han Hasado los Bárbaros. La Verdad Sobre Casas Viejas' (1933) and 'La tragedia vulgar de un hombre libre' (The Tragedy of a Vulgar Free Man; 1934).

1982 - André Claudot (b. 1892), French anarchist, artist and teacher, dies. [see: Feb. 14]
1872 (or poss. 1878) - Jules-César Rozental (d. 1903), Bulgarian militant anarchist and poet, born. Son of a Polish-born Russian revolutionary, doctor and refugee in Bulgaria, he became a libertarian partisan in Macedonia with the Stara Zagora group led by Nicolas Detchev. On the night of September 11 to 12, 1903, the local Macedonian population revolted together with various insurgent groups and engaged a battle near the village of Loukovo. More than 400 were killed along with 113 Turkish Bulgarian militia including Nicolas Detchev. Julius Caesar Rozental was also wounded and died a few days later on September 14. His poetry collection, 'Unfinished Songs' was posthumously published in 1904.

1914 - Ruthven Campbell Todd (d. 1978), Scottish poet, artist, novelist and writer of children's books, who also wrote detective fiction under the pseudonym R. T. Campbell, born. A conscientious objector during WWII, he was a member of the post-war New Apocalyptics poetry group. His novel 'Over the Mountain' (1939) is a satire on fascism where its hero travels to a 'Lost World' style dystopian country with an oppressive government.

1942 - Johann Heinrich Vogeler (b. 1872), German painter, printmaker, architect, designer, educator, writer and communitarian, dies. [see: Dec. 12]

[B] 1947 - Yves Fremion (Yves Frémion-Danet), French anarchist author and former editor of the French science fiction magazine 'Univers', born. He has written under a range of psedonyms: Art(h)ur Conan Doc, Batteste Monokini, Bethsabée Mouchot, Hassen Seffaf, Yvan E. Frémov, Jean-Edern Hyerestation-du-RER, Laurent Tharbes, Les Frères L. et D. Corson de Rojayheart, Max de Blé, Noël Hobalcon et Paco Tison, Théophraste Épistolier, Yves Frémion de la Fermez, Yves Mousse, and under the collective pseudonym, Colonel Durruti, in his collaboration with Emmanuel Jouanne. Fremion is also the author of 'Orgasms of History: 3000 Years of Spontaneous Insurrection' (2002) and 'Léauthier l'Anarchiste, De la Propagande par le Fait à la Révolte des Bagnards (1893-1894)' (2011), the story of Leon Léauthier, his attentat and his fate on the Island of St. Joseph, Guyana; as well as editing a number of anthologies and having his work appear in 'Anarchy Comics'. Member of the political party The Greens , MEP (1989-94), and regional councilor of Île-de-France (1998-2010).

1970 - Bradley Roland 'Brad' Will (d. 2006), US anarchist, poet, documentary filmmaker and a journalist with Indymedia New York City, born. He was shot and killed on October 27, 2006 during the teachers' strike in the Mexican city of Oaxaca.

2005 - Marie 'Mimi' Parent (b. 1924), Canadian surrealist artist, dies. [see: Sep. 8]
1921 - Isidre Guàrdia Abella aka Leopoldo Arribas, 'Codine', Juan Lorenzo, 'Viriato', Juan Ibérico, 'Isigual', etc. (d. 2012), Spanish writer, autodidact, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. Orphaned at 10 years old, he was forced to work in numerous jobs (bellhop, busboy (waiter's assistant), apprentice barber, labourer, cashier, etc.), all the time trying to make up for his lack of schooling. In 1935 he joined the Sindicat Gastronòmic of the CNT. With the fascist coup in 1936, he joined the militia and was a member of the Joventuts Llibertàries in the Barri del Centre de València. On 2 August 1936, he participated in the assault on the headquarters of the Regiment de Cavalleria Lleuger Cuirassat (Light Armored Cavalry Regiment) 'Lusitania' No. 8, located on Passeig d'Àlbers in Valencia. During the civil war, he fought as a volunteer in the Primera Columna Confederal de Llevant and, following the militarisation of the brigades, he was appointed, aged 17, a sergeant in the 82 Mixed Brigade on the Teruel front, also writing for the brigades news sheet under the pseudonym Isigual. After Franco's victory, he was held in the Utiel concentration camp. After his release, he joined the clandestine struggle, becoming a member of the Comité Provincial del Movimiento Libertario in Valencia and, from November 1939, head of the Organización del Comité Provincial de la Agrupación Libertaria (which included the CNT, FAI and FIJL). On his 19th birthday, he was arrested by Franco's police for his involvement in the distribution of an Alianza Democrática Española manifesto that Francisco Ponzán Vidal had printed in France. On 8 November 1941, along with 32 members of the CNT and the FIJL, he was tried by court martial and sentenced to death for "conspiracy against the regime" and membership of the Agrupació Llibertària. The sentence was commuted to 30 years in prison in January 1942. During the 8½ years he spent in the central prison of San Miguel de los Reyes in Valencia, he was secretary of the Juventudes Libertarias for 4 years and a member of the prison's Comité Libertario for 4 years. In this period, in addition to expand his knowledge of French and Italian, he studied accounting, published the Boletín de CNT (Bulletin of CNT), edited the newspaper of the Juventudes Libertarias and was a correspondent with the anarchist press in exile, thanks to the assistance of Castor Garcia Rojo, a prison official who smuggled out his mail. He was released on October 7, 1950, after serving ten years, three months and twenty three days. In 1974, his testimony (under the pseudonym Juan Lorenzo) was included in the Cuadernos de Ruedo Ibérico (Journal of Iberian Arean ) entitled 'El movimiento libertario español' (The Spanish libertarian movement). After the death of Franco, he participated in the reconstruction of the CNT and, from 1976, he was director of a chemical company, the same year as he was amongst the 10 finalists for the Planeta Prize for his unpublished autobiographical novel 'Saca', later published as 'Otoño de 1941' (1977). He was involved in various agricultural enterprises and continued to write for many libertarian publications e.g. 'España Libre',' Comunidad Iberica', 'Frente Libertario', 'Revista Iberoamericana de Autogestión y Acción Comunal', 'Sindicalismo', 'Umbral', 'La Verdad', etc. He is also author of 'Entre el ensayo y la historia' (Between phases and history; 1976); 'La CNT ante el presente, pasado y perspectiva' (The CNT to the past, present and perspective; 1977); 'Conversaciones sobre el movimiento obrero: Entrevistas con militantes de la CNT' (Talk about the labour movement: Interviews with members of the CNT; 1978); 'Escritos del silencio' (Writings of silence; 2005, articles written in prison); and 'Entre muros y sombras' (Between walls and shadows; 2006).

1970 - José Sobral de Almada Negreiros (b. 1893), leading Portuguese modernist artist, poet, novelist, futurist and Marxist individualist, dies. [see: Apr. 7]

1974 - Sara Bard Field (b. 1882), American poet, pascifist, suffragist, Christian socialist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Sep. 1]

[B] 2003 - Enrico Baj (b. 1924), Italian anarchist painter, sculptor, writer and activist, best known for his collages of ridiculous-looking generals made from shards of glass, scraps of flowery material and shells, dies aged 79. [see: Oct. 31]
[B] 1904 - James Joyce meets Nora Barnacle, a chambermaid at Finn's Hotel, Dublin, and takes her for a walk. This is the day (Bloomsday) of Leopold Bloom's fictional odyssey through Dublin in Ulysses.

1913 - Emma Goldman begins a lecture tour (June 16-July 9) in Los Angeles on anarchism and modern drama. General lecture topics include 'Friedrich Nietzsche, the Anti-Governmentalist', 'The Social Evil', and 'The Child and Its Enemies: The Revolutionary Developments in Modern Education'. Dramatists discussed include Henrik Ibsen, Hermann Sudermann, Otto Hartleben, J. M. Synge, William Butler Yeats, Lady Isabella Gregory, Lennox Robinson, Thomas C. Murray, and E. N. Chirikov.

1970 - Elsa Yur'evna Triolet (born Ella Kagan; b. 1896), Russian-born French writer, one-time Futurist, Surrealist muse, communist and Resistance fighter, dies. [see: Sep. 12]
1945 - Luigi Francesco Giovanni Parmeggiani aka Louis Marcy (d. 1945), Italian anarchist individualist expropriator, one-time apprentice typographer, shoemaker, and latterly a journalist, publisher, antiques dealer and forger of medieval and Renaissance caskets, jewellery and reliquaries, dies. [see: Apr. 2]

[B] 1958 - Jello Biafra (Eric Reed Boucher), American hardcore musician, spoken words artist, political activist and former lead singer and songwriter for San Francisco punk rock band Dead Kennedys, born. A self-declared anarchist who sees no contradictions in working with the Green Party.

1963 - John Cowper Powys (b. 1872), Welsh novelist, essayist, poet and individualist anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 8]

1968 - Aleksei Eliseevich Kruchenykh (Russian: Алексе́й Елисе́евич Кручёных) (b. 1886), Russian Cubo-Futurist or zaum (‘transrational language') poet, critic and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 21]
1977 - John Lydon aka Johnny Rotten is attacked in the street by a crazed bunch of pro-royalists in revenge for 'God Save the Queen'. Lydon is stabbed in the hand several times, damaging tendons.

[B] 2010 - José de Sousa Saramago (b. 1922), Portuguese writer of novels, short stories, poetry, plays, memoirs and travelogues, atheist and libertarian communist, dies. [see: Nov. 16]
1881 - František Gellner (d. 1914), Czech poet, short story writer, artist and Bohemian anarchist, born. Wrote for 'Nový Kult' and was involved in Prague anarchist circles with S.K. Neumann, Karel Toman, Fráňa Šrámek and Marie Majerová. His poetry was deeply ironic and provocatively recorded his fleeting sexual exploits as well as being critical of society in terms similar to French anarchist chanson. Gellner died in the trenches of WWI and his body was never recovered.

[BB] 1884 - Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes (d. 1974), French writer (plays, poetry, manifestos and opera librettos), painter and libertarian associated with the Dada movement, born. One of the forefathers, along with Marcel Duchamp and Francis Picabia, of Paris Dada, following the arrival of Tristan Tzara and Hans Arp who carried the seeds of the Cabaret Voltaire from Zurich. His great-grandfather Jean-Philibert Dessaignes helped found the school of Vendôme. Close to Marcel Duchamp and Francis Picabia, he worked with the later on his '391' magazine in 1917, and the three founded the magazine 'Littérature' in May 1918. Ribemont-Dessaignes was involved in the bizarre trial of the reactionary and anti-Semitic writer Maurice Barrès, reluctantly playing the role of prosecutor, that signalled the end of Dada. He said afterwards, "Dada could be a criminal, a coward, a destroyer or a thief, but not a judge." He did not join the exodus to Surrealism in 1924 but went on to found the politics, arts and philosophy magazine 'BIFUR' in 1930, which brought together some of the writers excommunicated by the surrealist movement, as well as Marxist and anarchist contributors, both French and non-French. Condemned by Benjamin Péret as the Grand-Rat-Déjeté following his criticism of Péret's post-war pamphlet 'Le Déshonneur des Poètes' (1945) and his attack on those who stayed in France during WWII.
”We know what Dadaism had done with politics, it had destroyed it with a stroke of the pen, ignored it. The movement revolted against power of all sorts,in favor of liberties of all sorts”

[B] 1891 - Helmut Franz Joseph Herzfeld (John Heartfield) (d. 1968), German painter, graphic artist, photomontage artist, anti-fascist propagandist, Dadaist and stage designer, born. His father was the anarchist poet, playwright and novelist Franz Held (pen name of Franz Herzfeld). Worked in printing designing advertising until he enlisted in the German army in 1915 but faked mental illness to be discharged (De. 1915). To protest the war and especially the propaganda against England, he Anglicised his name in 1916 to John Heartfield and later joined the Kommunistischen Partei Deutschlands (KPD) though had strong anarchist sympathies. In 1917, Heartfield became a member of Berlin Club Dada, helping to organize the Erste Internationale Dada-Messe (First International Dada Fair) in Berlin in 1920. In 1917 he co-founded the Malik-Verlag publishing house in Berlin with his brother Wieland Herzfelde. He would go on to design dust jackets and covers for Malik-Verlag and also built theatre sets for Erwin Piscator and Bertolt Brecht.
In 1919, Heartfield was dismissed from the Reichswehr film service because of his support for the strike that followed the assassination of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. With George Grosz, he founded the satirical magazine 'Die Pleite' (Bankruptcy; 1919-1924) and would later edit the satirical (KPD) magazine 'Der Knüppel' (The Truncheon).
His experiments with Grosz led to his political photomontage discoveries, honed at two publications: the daily 'Die Rote Fahne' and the weekly 'Arbeiter-Illustrierte-Zeitung' (AIZ). On April 4, 1933, the SS broke into his apartment, and he barely escaped by jumping from his balcony and fled to Czechoslovakia, where he continued his anti-fascist propaganda work (the work he left behind was confiscated and destroyed). With the imminent German occupation of Czechoslovakia, he fled to England, where he was interned for a time in England as an enemy alien, and his health began to seriously deteriorate. His brother Wieland was refused an English residency permit in 1939 and, with his family, left for the United States. John wished to accompany his brother but was refused entry.
He returned to East Berlin in 1950 but was unable to work as a artist and was denied health benefits as he was suspected of "collaboration" by the authorities. It was only through the intervention of Bertoldt Brecht and Stefan Heym that, after eight years of official neglect, Heartfield was formally admitted to the East German Akademie der Kúnste (Academy of the Arts) in 1956. However his health has deteriorated and, although he subsequently produced some memorable montages, he was never as prolific again.

1993 - Marcel Béalu (b. 1908), French poet, writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 30]
1887 - Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters (d. 1948), German dadaist artist, whose unique collage work and sound poetry he labelled Merz, born.

[B] 1912 - Voltairine de Cleyre (b. 1866), anarchist-feminist, atheist, poet and free-thinker, dies. Two thousand attended the funeral at Waldheim cemetery where she was buried next to the Haymarket Martyrs. [see: Nov. 17]

[C] 1981 - The Specials organise a 'Peaceful Protest Against Racism' concert at the Butts athletic stadium in Coventry to demonstrate their stance against race hate and to raise money for Satnam Singh Gill's family and for the Coventry Committee Against Racism and other anti-racist groups. It is also the day that their classic single 'Ghost Town' was released.
1882 - Rockwell Kent (d. 1971), US painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer and anarchist sympathiser, born. [expand]

[B] 1886 - Olga Vladimirovna Rozanova (d. 1918), Russian Cubo-Futurist and Suprematist artist, painter, graphic artist, illustrator, designer, art theorist and poet, born. In 1911 she joined and became one of the most active members of Soyuz Molodyozhi (Union of the Youth). She was also close to the Futurist poets Velimir Khlebnikov and Aleksei Kruchenykh, her future husband. She later joined Malevich's avant-garde artists group Supremus in 1916 and was involved with the weekly anarchist newspaper 'Anarkhiia'. She published a number of polemical articles in the paper's arts and literature section, 'Tvorchestvo' (Creativity or Creative Work), including 'Art - only in Independence and Freedom!' and 'Suprematism and the Critics'. On April 2, 1918, 'Anarkhiia' also published a salute to Rodchenko, Olga Rozanova, Udaltsova and others among the avant-garde: "With pride we look upon your creative rebellion".
Rozanova died of diphtheria in 1918.

1905 - Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (d. 1980), French novelist, playwright, Marxist existentialist philosopher and literary critic, born.

1908 - Yun Bong-gil (윤봉길; d. 1932), Korean independence activist, teacher and poet, best known for orchestrating the deadly bombing of a gathering of Japanese dignitaries in the Shanghai International Settlement in April 29, 1932, the Japanese Emperor’s birthday, born. Yun was arrested at the scene and convicted by the Japanese military court in Shanghai on May 25. He was transferred to Osaka prison on 18 November, and executed in Kanazawa on December 19, 1932. Shot in the forehead by a single bullet, he took 13 minutes to die.

1914 - Arthur Moyse (d. 2003), anarchist, artist, bus conductor and stalwart of Freedom (Press, Bookshop and newspaper), born.

1974 - 'Nada', Claude Chabrol's classic film about an anarchist group's kidnapping of an American Ambassador, is released.
1846 - The saxophone is patented.

1861 - Félix Fénéon (d. 1944), French art critic, anarchist and friend of Seurat, Paul Signac, Theo van Rysselberghe, Henri-Edmond Cross, André Gide, et al., born. The remarkable Fénéon was the first French publisher of James Joyce and the 'discoverer' of the artist Seurat - he coined the term Néo-Impressionsits to identify the group of artists around Seurat, when he wrote his 'Les Impressionnistes en 1886'.
Fénéon worked in the Ministry of War between 1881 to 1894, where he put his talent for writing to use creating reports on a wide range of subjects, all in perfect 'administrativese'. From 1886 he also worked for numerous anarchist newspapers and magazines including 'L' Endehors' (assuming the editorship when Zo d'Axa was in exile in London), 'La Renaissance', 'La Revue Anarchiste', etc.. He also co-founded 'La Libre Revue' and 'La Revue Indépendante' (1884); one of the main editors of the C19th literary magazine 'Vogue'; writer, translator and copy editor for the 'La Revue Blanche' (1894 - 1903; see below); as well as collaborating on 'La Revue Moderniste', 'Le Symboliste', 'La Cravache', 'La Plume', 'Le Chat Noir'; 'Les Entretiens Politiques et Littéraires' with the Symbolist poet Francis Vielé-Griffin; and on Emile Pouget's anarchist weekly newspaper, 'Père Peinard'. He helped discover or first published authors such as Jules Laforgue, Alfred Jarry, Mallarmé, Apollinaire, Rimbaud, etc..
Instigator of the April 4, 1894 bomb attack on the Foyot restaurant, he was arrested when a search of his home and his office at the War Department discovered materials, including mercury, which the police claimed could be used to build a bomb, and stood trial in the Procès des Trente. Numerous authors including Stéphane Mallarmé and Octave Mirbeau, gave evidence in his defence whilst Fénéon himself ridiculed the prosecution. He was acquitted but fired by the Ministry of Defence.
His lawyer at the trial Thadee Natanson, co-owner of the 'La Revue Blanche', hired him as a copy editor on the basis of his performance in the witness box, later becoming the managing editor of the magazine, one of the most important literary journals of its time. Fénéon was also involved in the defence of Alfred Dreyfus and later started writing his grand guignol stories of true crime, suicide and everyday occurrences, which appeared anonymously in 'Le Matin' and 'Le Figaro', later collected in 'Nouvelles en Trois Lignes' (Novels in Three Lines; 2007).
Giving up journalism in late 1906, he became director of the Bernheim-Jeune art gallery (until 1925) and helped raise awareness initially about established artists such as Seurat (he saw Seurat's 'La Grande Jatte' at the eighth and final Impressionist exhibition in 1886) and Pissarro, and subsequently Pierre Bonnard, Paul Signac, Van Dongen, Henri Matisse, Maurice Denis, Emile Compard. etc..
"Strange as it might seem to us now, many artists, including Paul Signac, Camille Pissarro and Lucien Pissarro, Maximilien Luce, Théo van Rysselberghe, and others not only justified and glorified Anarchists, but supported them financially."

1875 - Johannes Baader (d. 1955), German writer, artist, agent provocteur, Oberdada and member of Berlin Dada, born. The crowned prince of Dada clowns, Baader politically had a distinctly individualist anarchist outlook, which he pursued under the auspices of Dada and its associated anarchist and socialist-based publications. Additionally, his diagnosis of manic depression allowed for him to act out his ideas and desires to the hilt.
Originally trained as a stonemason and studied architecture, he moved to Berlin in 1905 where he met Raoul Hausmann, with whom he formed a distinctly anarchist faction within Berlin Dada (as opposed to the communist faction around Grosz and the brothers Herzfelde), and began designing utopian architecture such as his World Temple for interdenominational harmony, a 1500m high building and, later on designs, for an unbuilt zoo. [expand]

[B] 1882 - José Rodrigues Oiticica (d. 1957), Brazilian anarchist, poet and activist, born. He was founder and editor of the anarchist journal 'Ação Direta' (Direct Action). [expand]

1940 - Walter Hasenclever (b. 1890), radical German Expressionist poet, playwright, anti-militarist and anarchist fellow traveller, commits suicide in a Vichy detention camp rather than falling into the hands of the Nazis.

2002 - Première of 'Voyage', the first part of Tom Stoppard's trilogy of plays, 'The Coast of Utopia' ('Shipwreck' and 'Salvage' being the other 2 plays), set in Tsarist Russia amongst a group of 19th-century Russian revolutionaries - Mikhail Bakunin, Alexander Herzen, Ivan Turgenev, and Vissarion Belinsky, at the National Theatre's Olivier auditorium.

2008 - Albert Cossery (b. 1913), Egyptian-born French novelist, self-proclaimed anarchist and "lazy old sod", writing only one book per decade, dies. [see: Nov. 3]
1787 - The Marquis de Sade begins writing his novel 'Justine'.

[B] 1884 - José Martins Fontes (d. 1937), Brazilian doctor, lecturer, prolific poet, anarchist, militant activist in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, born.

1889 - Anna Akhmatova (Анна Ахматова;), pen name of Anna Andreyevna Gorenko (d. 1966), Russian modernist poet and important figure in the so-called Silver Age of Russian Poetry, who is widely recognised as the greatest woman poet in Russian literature, born. She suffered greatly under Stalinism and one of her most famous works is the lyrical cycle 'Requiem' (1935–40), where "one hundred million voices shout" through her "tortured mouth", giving witness to the Stalinist terror.
Her early poetry was championed by the founder of Mystical Anarchism, Georgy Chulkov, and his fellow poet and foolwer Vyacheslav Ivanov, and she was involved in the circle around 'Anarkhiia' and had poems published in its pages. Following the 1917 Revolution and the success of the Bolshevik takeover, she refused to leave the country unlike many she knew and her first husband,the influential poet Nikolay Gumilev (or Gumilyov) and anti-Bolshevik, was arrested and executed by Cheka in 1921 as part of the non-existent monarchist conspiracy Tagantsev conspiracy that was fabricated to cover up the post-Kronstadt uprising repression. Her son by Gumilev, Lev, was imprisoned on numerous occasions through the 1930s by the Stalinist regime, accused of counter-revolutionary activity because of his parentage. At the end of 1949 he was again arrested and sentenced to 10 years in a Siberian prison camp. Many of her friends and associates, included her close friend and fellow poet Mandelstam (who died in the gulags), were also sent to the camps, often dying there, or committed suicide to avoid the purges.
Akhmatova's poetry was deemed to represent an introspective "bourgeois aesthetic", reflecting only trivial "female" preoccupations, not in keeping with these new revolutionary politics of the time and her work was unofficially banned by a party resolution of 1925. Despite the constant suspicion and persecution by the Soviet authorities, she herself avoided the camps, but a later partner and lifelong friend, the art scholar Nikolai Punin, was also repeatedly arrested and he too died in the Gulags in 1953. Other relationship included marriage to the prominent Assyriologist and poet Vladimir Shilejko and affairs with the poet Osip Mandelstam, possibly the lyric poet Alexander Blok, mosaic artist and poet Boris Anrep, theatre director Mikhail Zimmerman and composer Arthur Lourié.

1910 - Jean Marie Lucien Pierre Anouilh (d. 1987), French dramatist, film director, screenplay writer and so-called anarchiste de droite [anti-bourgeois but not anti-state or capital literary movement], born. Best known for his 1943 play 'Antigone', an adaptation of Sophocles' classical drama, that was seen as an attack on Pétain's Vichy government.

1915 - Jules Lermina (b. 1839), French prolific novelist, journalist and anarchist, whose early novels appeared under the pseudonym William Cobb, dies. [see: Mar. 27]

[C] 1937 - Following the Communist suppression of the anarchists and P.O.U.M., George Orwell flees Spain with his wife, Eileen O'Shaughnessy.
[B] 1924 - Michel Ragon, prolific French writer, poet, novelist, art and architecture critic, art historian, historian of proletarian literature, anarchist and autodidact, born. Author of the controversial 'Dictionnaire de l'Anarchie' (2008).

1957 - František Kupka (b. 1871), Czech Abstract painter, anarchist, satirist, book and magazine illustrator, dies. [see: Sep. 23]

1959 - Boris Vian (b. 1920), French polymath: writer, poet, jazz musician, singer, translator, critic, actor, inventor, engineer and 'apolitical anarchist', dies. [see: Mar. 20]

[BB] 1995 - André Laude (b. 1936), French anarchist, anti-colonial journalist, Surrealist, Situationist, writer and "soleil noir de la poésie" (black sun of poetry), dies. Barely out of the womb Laude was subject to the torments of history - his communist father went off to Spain in the International Brigades, and then, in 1942, his Polish-Jewish stepmother was sent to Auschwitz (where she died).
In 1953, Laude discovered anarchist ideas and joined the Libertarian Communist Federation. In 1954, as an anti-colonialist journalist, he supported the Algerian revolutionists and was arrested in Paris and imprisoned for a year in a camp in the South-Sahara, where he underwent torture.
When he was freed, Laude joined a news service in Algiers, returning to France only after the fall of Ben Bella (1965) and was again arrested, this time for "collaborating with the enemy". The surrealists, especially Benjamin Péret and André Breton (who testified in his behalf) took up his cause, and Laude joined their movement.
Poetry now became Laude's "raison de vivre", rather than journalism. Politically he was briefly involved with the PSU (Left Socialist Unified), but in 1968, as a friend of Raoul Vaneigem, Guy Debord and Dany Cohn-Bendit, he participated in the l'Internationale Situationniste. He remained, basically, a libertarian and a true poet until his death.
His poetry includes: 'Testament de Ravachol' (1975), 'Le Bleu de la Nuit Crie Au Secours' (The Blue of the Night Crying For Help; 1975), 'Un Temps à S’ouvrir les Veines' (A Time to Open the Veins; 1979), 'Riverain de la Douleur' (Bordering on Pain; 1981), 'Roi Nu Roi Mort' (Naked King Dead King; 1983), 'Journaux de Voyages' (Travel Journals; 1992), 'Feux Cris & Diamants' (Lights, Cries & Diamonds; 1993); as well as short stories: 'Joyeuse Apocalypse' (Joyful Apocalypse; 1973) and 'Rue des Merguez' (1979); and children's books: 'Éléfantaisies' (1974) and 'Les Aventures de Planti l'Ourson' (The Adventures of Planti the Pooh; 1975).

"Je longe le long sillon qui conduit aux morts muets.
Je songe à la neige, aux chevaux de feu,
à l’hiver des paroles.
Je vois des bois brûlés, des vaisseaux échoués,
des mouettes prises par le gel.
Je longe le fleuve de sang et de larmes
qui traverse les inquiétantes ruines.
Je sens l’odeur des prédateurs, l’urine
de la hyène, la matière fécale des jeunes bébés.
J’écris à partir d’un noyau de nuit.
J’écris à partir d’une tranchée noyée de boue.
J’écris corde au cou.
La trappe déjà tremble sous mes pieds.
Je longe le marbre froid qui donne le frisson
et chante une très étrange et vieille chanson,
qui dit qu’aujourd’hui et pour toujours
le ver est dans le fruit."

(I follow the long path that leads to dead silent.
I think of snow, of horses on fire,
of the winter of words.
I see wood burnt, vessels stranded,
seagulls taken by frost.
I follow the river of blood and tears
which crosses the disturbing ruins.
I smell the odour of predators, the urine
Of the hyena, the faeces of young babies.
I write from a night's heart.
I write from a mud-filled trench.
I write the noose around my neck.
The trapdoor already shaking under my feet.
I walked along the cold marble which makes me shiver
and sings a very strange and old song
who say that today and forever
the worm is in the fruit.)

- 'Le ver dans le fruit' (The worm is in the fruit)

"Only the poets who preach disorder are, in my eyes, authentic poets." - 'Comme une Blessure Rapprochée du Soleil' (1979).


1997 - Serge Michel (pseudonym of Lucien Douchet; b. 1922), French libertarian journalist, novelist, poet, painter and anti-colonialist, dies. [see: Jul. 22]
1860 - Gustave Charpentier (d. 1956), French composer, artistic and political radical, born. Best known for his 'worker's' opera' 'Louise' (1900), which depicts Parisian working-class life and tells the story of the love between Louise, a seamstress living with her parents in Paris, and Julien, a young artist, and includes a number of allusions to then current anarchist attentats.

1865 - Robert Henri (d. 1929), American painter, teacher and anarchist sympathiser, who taught Man Ray at the Ferrer Modern School in New York, born. He was a leading figure of the Ashcan School of American realism and an organizer of the group known as The Eight, a loose association of artists who protested the restrictive exhibition practices of the powerful, conservative National Academy of Design. His friend Emma Goldman once called the painter: "an anarchist in his conception of art and its relation to life."
"Art is art whether on a canvas, on stone, on a book cover, on advertisement, or a piece of furniture."

1903 - Eric Arthur Blair (aka George Orwell; d. 1950), born.
"All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others."

[B] 1921 - In Czechoslovakia the word "robot" enters the world's languages when Karel Capek's play 'R.U.R.' (Rossum's Universal Robots) premières.

1937 - José Martins Fontes (b. 1884), Brazilian doctor, lecturer, poet, anarchist militant activist, dies. [see: Jun. 23]
1880 - Aurèle Patorni (d. 1955), French anarchist, writer (plays, operettas, etc.), journalist, pacifist and néo-Malthusien, born. Collaborated on many, many journals and reviews, including Eugène Humbert's 'La Grande Réforme', with Louis Lecoin on 'SIA' (organe de la Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste), Louis Louvet's 'CQFD' and Lecoin's 'Défense de l'Homme'.

[B] 1957 - Bruno Alfred Döblin (b. 1878), German Expressionist novelist, essayist, doctor, and Landauerian Christian socialist with a strong affiliation with anarchist thought, especially Kropotkin (though he was never active), dies. [see: Aug. 10]

1974 - Georges Hugnet (b. 1906), French poet, writer, playwright, graphic designer and filmmaker, who was the first historian of the Dada movement who was also involved with the Surrealist Group, dies. [see: Jul. 11]

2002 - Philip Whalen (b. 1923), America Beat poet and Zen anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 20]
1869 - Emma Goldman (d. 1940), anarchist rebel, feminist and anti-militarist, born in Lithuania. Author of 'Anarchism and Other Essays' (1910), which contained the essay 'The Modern Drama: A Powerful Disseminator of Radical Thought'; 'My Disillusionment in Russia' (1923) and 'Living My Life' (1931).

[B] 1961 - Harry Hooton (b. 1908), Australian poet, philosopher, anarchist, Wobbly and pacifist, dies. [see: Oct. 9]

1962 - Ralf Burnicki, German educator, author, post-anarchist theorist and poet, born.
1911 - Gaston Couté (b. 1880), French anarchist songster, dies. [see: Sep. 23]

1919 - In reaction to the Treaty of Versailles, Johannes Baader puts out his 'Buch des Weltfriedens' (Book of World Peace), which became known as the 'Handbuch des Oberdada' (HADO).

1929 - Edward Carpenter (b. 1844), homosexual and early proponent of gay rights, utopian and anarchist, poet, songwriter, philosopher and pacifist, dies. Sheffield propagandist who ran the Socialist Centre, wrote the socialist marching song 'England Arise', and books such as 'Civilisation, Its Cause and Cure' (1889) and 'Non-Governmental Society' (1911).

1934 - Anarchist poet Kenneth Patchen marries his life-long muse Miriam Oikemus.

[B] 1935 - Dieter Schrage (d. 2011), Austrian art historian, ceramicist and anarchist, who was involved in 1976 in the Vienna Arena Movement and went on to become member of and policy wonk for Die Grüne Alternative in 1987, born.

1936 - Valeriano Orobón Fernánez (b. 1901), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist theoretician, trade-union activist, translator and poet, who wrote the lyrics of the CNT anthem 'A Las Barricadas', dies shortly after having been released from prison, his health destroyed by numerous prison sentences and fatally weakened by tuberculosis.

1947 - Stanislav Kostka Neumann (b. 1875), Czech journalist, poet, literary and art critic, translator and anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 5]

1967 - Oskar Maria Graf (b. 1894), Bavarian author, poet, novelist and anarchist, who occassionally used the pseudonym Oskar Graf-Berg, dies. [see: Jul. 22]

1989 - Joris Ivens (b. 1898), Dutch communist and documentary filmmaker, who made the pro-Republican propaganda film 'The Spanish Earth' (1937), dies. [see: Nov. 18]

2006 - Léo Ferré performs at the Teatro Calabresi in San Benedetto del Tronto.
[B] 1905 - Jean Émile Louis Scutenaire (d. 1987), Belgian poet, anarchist, atheist, surrealist and civil servant, born. One of the central figure in the Belgian Surrealist movement, along with his close friend René Magritte, Paul Nougé, Marcel Lecomte and his wife, Irène Hamoir. Sympathetic to communism during the 1930s and '40s but as the truth about Stalin's regime became more apparent, he grew disenchanted with it and became an anarchist.

1921 - Frédéric Charles Antoine Dard (d. 2000), French writer of romans policiers and so-called anarchiste de droite, born. Has written an unknown number (possibly 200+) of novels - detective fiction, crime novels, suspense, etc. - under a plethora of pseudonyms including F. D. Ricard, Sydeney, Fred Astor, Fred Charles, F.R. Daroux, Frédéric Valmain, San-Antonio, Frédéric Charles, Mr Joos, Alex de la Glunière, R. Fréroux, Frédard, Georges Quatremenon, Alex de la Glunière, Jérôme Patrice, Frédéric Antony, Cousin Jules, Freddy Dor, Jules Albert, Patrice, Ric, Jules Durand, Charles d'Ars, Cornel Milk, Verne Goody, Well Norton, Maxel Beeting, Odette Damaizin, Kill Him, L'Ange Noir, Charly, Antoine, Paul Antoine and Kaput. The plot of his Commissaire San-Antonio novel 'Plein les moustaches' (Full whiskers; 1985) features the hunt for Nazi war criminals.
The French punk band Bérurier Noir are named in part in tribute to the sidekick (Bérurier) of his main fictional character, Commissaire San-Antonio.
"Last year I was a bit pretentious, this year I am perfect."
"(...) au fond de moi, je suis un rebelle, je suis un anarchiste. Il y a anarchie dans ma manière d'écrire : anarchie du style, anarchie de l'intrigue, puisque ce ne sont pas de vrais romans policiers, anarchie dans l'utilisation des gadgets modernes - qu'est-ce que ça peut me foutre qu'une fusée marche à l'hydrogène liquide ou au gruyère râpé ? - il y a anarchie sur toute la ligne. C'est finalement une rébellion contre tout ce que l'on m'a enseigné."
("(...) In my heart, I am a rebel, I'm an anarchist There is anarchy in the way I write. Style anarchy, anarchy of the plot, since it is not real novels police lawlessness in the use of modern gadgets - what can it make me a rocket running on liquid hydrogen or grated cheese - there is anarchy on the line. It is ultimately a rebellion against everything I was taught.")

1992 - Pierre Boujut (b. 1913), French cooper, writer, poet, pacifist and libertarian, dies. [see: Feb. 27]

2011 - Dieter Schrage (b. 1935), Austrian art historian, ceramicist and anarchist, who was involved in 1976 in the Vienna Arena Movement and went on to become member of and policy wonk for Die Grüne Alternative in 1987, dies. [see: Jun. 28]
[B] 1952 - During the first showing of Guy Debord's film 'Hurlements en Faveur de Sade' (Howls in Favour of de Sade; 1952; 75mins, with voice-overs by Gil J. Wolman, Guy Debord, Serge Berna, Barbara Rosenthal and Jean-Isidore Isou), which is dedicated to Gil Wolman, a mass brawl involving the audience and the film club managers breaks out after a few minutes, leading to police intervention, and it does not receive a full showing until October 13. Several Lettrists then dissociated themselves from such a crudely extremist film.

1957 - José Rodrigues Oiticica (b. 1882), lawyer, student of medicine, teacher, poet and an influential figure in the Brazilian anarchist and labour movement, dies. [see: Jun. 22]
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)
Birthday of Bradley Manning [WikiLeaks defendant]2010 - Jason Pearce dies of the mysterious new condition "excited delirium" whilst being arrested and restrained by two police officers in Market Drayton. No one is charged.philadi