"Art is not a mirror to reflect the world, but a hammer with which to shape it." - variously attributed to Bertolt Brecht, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Nikolai Nekrasov and even (in a slightly different version) Leon Trotsky.

[BB] 1889 - Hannah Höch (Anna Therese Johanne Höch; d. 1978), German artist, photomontagist, Dadaist and feminist, born. The lone woman among the Berlin Dada group, she was largely treated with contempt (except as Hausmann's partner) and her importance as an innovator of photomontage and collage forgotten. She also worked at Ullstein Verlag, Berlin's major publisher of magazines and newspapers, in women's magazines and handicraft department, a source of images that fuelled her highly political anti-bourgeois art and whose obvious misogyny and drove her androgynous imagery. Bisexual, she had a nine-year relationship with the Dutch writer Til Brugman in her years living in Holland. During the National Socialist regime, Höch was forbidden to exhibit but continued to live in Germany.
"None of these men were satisfied with just an ordinary woman. In protest against the older generation they all desired this 'New Woman' and her ground-breaking will to freedom. But - they more or less brutally rejected the notion that they, too, had to adopt new attitudes. This led to these truly Strindbergian dramas that typified the private lives of these men".

1907 - Alfred Jarry (b. 1873), French writer, novelist, playwright, anarchist, freelance scoundrel, proto-surrealist inventor of Pere Ubu and of Pataphysics, the science of imaginary solutions and the laws governing exceptions, dies. [see: Sep. 8]

1922 - Lima Barreto (Alfonso Henriques de Lima Barreto; b. 1881), important Brazilian libertarian, novelist, journalist and social critic, dies. He wrote for the labour and anarchist press. Author of the classic novel 'Triste Fim de Policarpo Quaresma', a satire of the first years of the República Velha in Brazil. [see: May 13]

1952 - Andre Breton's 'La Luminosa Torre' appears in 'Le Libertaire'. Published by the Federacion Anarquista Francesa, the surrealists previously published articles here, including a manifesto, May 22, 1947, 'Freedom is a Vietnamese word', signed by Bonnefoy, Bousquet, Breton, Péret, Tanguy and 10 others.

1979 - 'L'Age d'Or' has its formal première exhibition in the U.S., at the The Roxie, in San Francisco.

1993 - Georges Navel (Charles François Victor Navel; b. 1904), French writer, novelist and libertarian, dies. [see: Oct. 30]

[B] 2012 - Agustín García Calvo (b. 1926), Spanish philologist, translator, linguist, playwright, poet, philosopher and anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 15]
1910 - Paul Berthelot aka Marcelo Verema (b. 1881), French Esperantist, anarchist, journalist, writer, scientist and anthropologist, dies. [see: Jul. 26]

1919 - Laurent Tailhade (b. 1854), French satirical poet, writer, anarchist polemicist, opium addict ('La Noire Idole', after de Quincey) and translator ('Satyricon de Pétrone'), dies. [see: Apr. 16]

[B] 1923 - Robert Bodanzky, aka Danton (born Isidor Bodanskie; b. 1879), Austrian journalist, essayist, playwright, poet, librettist, artist, anti-militarist and anarcho-communist, dies. [see: Mar. 18]

1960 - A verdict of not guilty is declared in the No. 1 court of the Old Bailey at the end of R v Penguin Books Ltd., as D.H. Lawrence's 'Lady Chatterley's Lover' is found to not be obscene under the terms of the Obscene Publications Act 1959.
1871 - Hanns Heinz Ewers (Hans Heinrich Ewers; b. 1943), German writer, poet, novelist, playwright, song writer, filmmaker, globetrotter, comedian and Stirnerite individualist, born. A notorious best-selling author of fairy tales and children's books, as well as his more scandalous novels, plays and films, which he had to repeatedly defend, both in public and in the courts, against the charges that his works were trivial, immoral and pornographic.
His first literary works appeared in 'Der Eigene' (The Treasury), considered to be the first gay magazine and he was involved in the Gemeinschaft des Eigenen (Community of the Self), a pioneering association campaigning for equal rights for homosexuals. He was also imprisoned for fornication i.e. homosexual acts. He was also involved in the Cabaret Überbrettl in Berlin, on of the first literary cabarets in Germany, writing satirical texts and reciting them on stage. There he met fellow 'Der Eigene' contributor Erich Mühsam, with whom he collaborated on the children's book 'Billy's Erdengang. Eine Elephantengeschichte für Artige Kinder' (Billy's Life. An Elephant Story for Kids; 1904).
However, he was also a cultural nationalist, acting as a propagandist for the German Empire in America during WWI, and was eventually interned by the US administration. He was also an occultist associated with Aleister Crowley and Ernst 'Putzi' Hanfstaengl, who would later go on to become an ardent Hitler supporter. He himself joined the NSDAP in 1931 and engaged in propaganda work. But in 1934 he suffered a general ban on his publications and, with the passing of the Nuremberg Laws in 1935 he left the Party and campaigned for exit visas for his Jewish friends.
Amongst his other works were the novel 'Alraune. Die Geschichte eines lebenden Wesens' (1911), which involved the artificial insemination of a prostitute with the sperm of a sex killer taken during his execution. The baby, Alraune (or Mandrake), then grows up to pursue the head of the team involved in the experiment. The book was the supposed basis for 6 different films, including 'Alraune, die Henkerstochter, genannt die rote Hanne' (Alraune, the hangman's daughter, named Red Hanna), a 1918 silent vampire film directed by Eugen Illés and Joseph Klein, whose only link was the name Alraune. Closer to the original is the 1928 silent classic starring Brigitte Helm in the lead role. Another vampire novel was his much translated classic 'Vampir Ein verwilderter Roman in Fetzen und Farben' (Vampire. A feral Novel of Scraps and Colours; 1921).

1901 - André Malraux (d. 1976), French novelist, art theorist, anti-fascist and post-war Minister of Cultural Affairs, born.

[B] 1913 - Albert Cossery (d. 2008), Egyptian-born French novelist, self-proclaimed anarchist and "lazy old sod", writing only one book per decade, born. Cossery was a dandy who practised a type of contemplative idleness and lived most of his life unemployed. His novels, which explore the political and cultural pitfalls of the Middle East, display a biting wit and characters that display a common outlook: the only true recourse against a world governed by "scoundrels" is an utter disregard for convention.

1914 - Pierre Chabert (d. 2012), French professor of French, Latin and Greek, poet and anarchist, born.

1917 - Léon Bloy (b. 1846), French novelist, essayist and diarist, dies. [see: Jul. 11]

1938 - Jean Michel Rollin Roth Le Gentil (d. 2010), French cult erotic horror filmmaker, actor, novelist and anarchist, born. Rollin is best known for his work in the fantastique genre such as the vampire films 'Le Viol du Vampire' (The Rape of the Vampire; 1968) and 'Lèvres de Sang' (Lips of Blood; 1974); the erotic horror 'Les Démoniaques' aka 'Deux Vierges pour Satan' (The Deamoneses; 1974); as well as the first French gore film 'Les Raisins de la Mort' (1978) and the rare thriller 'La Nuit des Traquées' (Night of the Hunted; 1980). His pseudonyms included Michel Gentil, Michael Gentle, J.A. Laser, J.A. Lazar, J.A. Lazer, Jean Pierre Sammut and Robert Xavier.

1959 - Hal Hartley, American film director, screenwriter, producer and composer, born. Has written and directed many films with anarchist themes, including 'Simple Men' (1992), a fictional tale about the children of an anarchist on the run from the law.
1870 - Comte de Lautréamont (pseudonym of Isidore-Lucien Ducasse; b. 1846), Uruguayan-born French poet and proto-surrealist, dies at the age of 24. [see: Apr. 4]

[B] 1885 - Delfín Lévano (Delfín Amador Lévano Goméz; d. 1941), Peruvian anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist agitator, journalist, poet, musician and lecturer, born. Son of another prominent activist, anarchist, Manuel Caracciolo Lévano and founder of the newspaper 'La Protesta' in its first phase (1911-26).

1890 - Klabund (psedonym of Alfred Henschke; d. 1928), German Expressionist poet, playwright, novelist, consumptive and anarchist, who influenced German literature with his adaptations and translations of Oriental literature, born. His pseudonym derived from a conflation of the words Klabautermann (hobgoblin) and Vagabund (vagabond) which appeared in the title of his first volume of poetry 'Morgenrot! Klabund! Die Tage Dämmern!' (Dawn! Klabund! The Days Break!), and which stuck. A close friend of Hugo Ball, they went on to collaborate on poems under the joint pseudonym of Klarinetta Klaball following the 1913 confiscation of copies of 'Die Revolution' and 'PAN' for allegedly obscene poems by both (Ball, for the poem 'Der Henker', in the first and Klabund in 'PAN'). It is also claimed (one of the many attributions to the name's origins) that Dada first appeared in one of their jointly authored poems first performed by Marietta di Monaco in 1914 at the Simplicissimus cabaret in Munich.
Amongst his 25 plays, 14 novels,17 volumes of poetry and his adaptations from the Chinese is his 1925 drama 'Der Kreidekreis' (The Chalk Circle), based upon some of his Chinese poetry translations, that went on to be the inspiration for both Alexander von Zemlinsky's opera 'Der Kreidekreis' (1933) and Bertolt Brecht's play 'Der Kaukasische Kreidekreis' (The Caucasian Chalk Circle; 1948).

1954 - Stig Dagerman, (b. 1923), Swedish playwright, novelist, poet and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Oct. 5]

1985 - Ado (Adonis) Kyrou (b. 1923), Greek-born French filmmaker, cinematographer, critic, author and anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 18]

2005 - Simon Watson Taylor (b. 1923), English anarchist, actor and translator, closely associated with the Surrealist movement, dies. [see: May 15]
1855 - Eugene V. Debs (d. 1926), labour activist, IWW founding member and jailed seditionist, born. Author of the prison critique, partly written whilst incarcerated, 'Walls and Bars: Prisons and Prison Life In The 'Land Of The Free'' (1899-1922). Debs appeared as a historical figure in John Dos Passos 'U.S.A Trilogy' and the lead character and narrator, Eugene Debs Hartke, in Kurt Vonnegut's novel 'Hocus Pocus' is named in his honour.

1871 - Kōtoku Shūsui (幸徳秋水), pen name of Kōtoku Denjirō (幸徳傳次郎; Kōtoku Denjirō; d. 1911), Japanese journalist, writer, and one of the most outstanding figures of Japanese anarchism, who translated many works of contemporary European and Russian anarchists, such as Peter Kropotkin, into Japanese, born. Partner of Kanno Sugako (管野須賀子), he would dies alongside her following their supposed involvement in the High Treason Incident (大逆事件; Taigyaku Jiken) or Kōtoku Incident (幸徳事件; Kōtoku Jiken) plot against the Japanese Emperor's life. [see: May 20] Wrote '廿世紀之怪物帝国主義' (Imperialism, Monster of the 20th Century; 1901). NB: Some sources claim Sept. 22 as his birth date.

[B] 1878 - Mikhail Petrovich Artsybashev (Михаи́л Петро́вич Арцыба́шев; d. 1927), Russian writer, playwright and individualist anarchist, who was a major proponent of the literary style known as Naturalism, born. Best remembered by the clearly Stirner-influenced novel 'Sanin' (1907). A staunch enemy of the Bolshevik regime, he published his anti-Bolshevik work 'Notes of a Writer' n 1917-18 before gaining Polish citizenship in 1923, where he edited the newspaper 'За свободу!' (For Liberty!).

1885 - Diego Rodríguez Barbosa (d. 1936), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist militant, anarcho-naturalist propagandist, writer, poet and novelist, born. Wrote under a selection of pseudonyms (including Ile Gales, Juan de la Barre and Silvestre del Campo) for the libertarian press e.g. 'Ética', 'Germinal', 'Iniciales', 'El Luchador', 'La Madre Tierra', 'La Revista Blanca', 'La Semana', 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Solidaridad Proletaria', 'Tierra y Libertad', 'La Voz del Campesino', etc. His output included poetry and 5 novels, published in the 'La Novela Libre' and 'La Novela Ideal' series: 'La Hija del Sepulturero' (The Gravedigger's Daughter; 1929), 'Desahuciados' (Homeless; 1933), 'Pastora' (Shepherd; 1933), 'Amor , Sacrificio y Venganza' (Love, Sacrifice and Revenge; 1935) and 'Bohemia' (1935) - all written whilst he was in prison and published by La Novela Libre and La Novela Ideal.

1887 - Robert van 't Hoff (Robbert van 't Hoff; d. 1979), Dutch architect and furniture designer, who was an influential member of the De Stijl movement, born. A member of the Communistische Partij Nederland in the years following WWI who, following the failure of Pieter Jelles Troelstra's call for a socialist revolution in the Netherlands in 1919 (De Roode Week/Vergissing van Troelstra [Red Week/Troelstra's mistake]), quit De Stijl and withdrew from artistic activity, declaring himself an "ex-architect" in 1922, and spending much of the rest of his life promoting utopian anarchist communities.

1894 - [O.S. Oct. 22] Varvara Fyodorovna Stepanova (Варва́ра Фёдоровна Степа́нова; d. 1958), Russian-Lithuanian painter and designer initially associated with the Cubo-Futurists and zaum poets, but later a Constructivist, born. Like her partner Aleksandr Rodchenko, she was involved in the newspaper 'Anarkhiia' but, unlike him, appears to not have been an active anarchist.

1911 - The unveiling in Brussels of a monument dedicated to Francisco Ferrer, made by the sculptor Robert Gnyslens and erected thanks to an international subscription. The inscription reads: "For Francisco Ferrer shot at Montjuic on October 13, 1909. Martyr of freedom of consciousness." The Germans were to remove the monument during the WWI Occupation and it was not until 1984 that it was replaced.

1960 - The unveiling, at the Statsgymnasium in Århus, of the 'Keramikrelieffet' (Ceramic Relief), 27 meters long and 3 high, created by one time Situationist Asger Jorn.

1974 - Angela Nathalie Gossow, German lead vocalist for the Swedish melodic death metal band Arch Enemy, born. A vegan, she also considers herself to be an anarchist.

1983 - Jean-Marc Reiser (b. 1941), one of France's foremost cartoonists and comic artists, dies. [see: Apr. 13]
[B] 1915 - María Bruguera Pérez (d. 1992), Spanish member of Mujeres Libres, anarchist, antifascist fighter, born. Daughter and sister of anarchists, she joined the Juventudes Libertarias (Libertarian Youth) since its foundation in 1932 and is particularly involved in the activities of the artistic and theatrical group called Ni Dios No Amo (Neither God Nor Master).

1933 - Jehan-Rictus (b. 1867), French poet and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 23]

1960 - Olivia Rossetti Agresti (b. 1875), British author, editor and interpreter, dies. [see: Sep. 30]

1970 - Henri Jeanson (b.1900), libertarian pacifist, journalist, screenwriter, pataphysician and author, dies. [see: Mar. 6]
1910 - Florencio Sánchez (b. 1875), Uruguay's leading playwright, journalist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 17]

[B] 1912 - Ernest Riebe's Mr. Block, IWW labour comic strip, makes it's first appearance in the 'Industrial Worker'.

[BB] 1913 - Albert Camus (d. 1960), French novelist, playwright, journalist, libertarian sympathiser, opponent of totalitarianism and campaigner against capital punishment, born into a poor French 'pied-noir' settler family in Algeria. His father was killed in WWI and Camus spent much of his time with his uncle, butcher and anarchist Gustave Acault, who was a great influence on him. His high school philosophy teacher Jean Grenier also introduced him to revolutionary syndicalist theories. In 1935, he joined the French Communist Party and, when the independence-orientated Algerian Communist Party (BCP) was formed the following year, joined its rank. However, he also became involved with the Le Parti du Peuple Algérien (Algerian People's Party), which got him denounced as a Trotskyite and expelled from the party in 1937.
During WWII, Camus joined the French Resistance cell Combat, which published an underground newspaper of the same name, assuming the nom de guerre Beauchard. Camus became the paper's editor in 1943 and, when the Allies liberated Paris in August 1944, Camus witnessed and reported the last of the fighting.
In 1948 anarchist André Prudhommeaux introduced Camus to the Cercle des Étudiants Anarchistes (Anarchist Student Circle) and Camus went on to write for anarchist publications including 'Le Libertaire', 'La Révolution Proletarienne' and 'Solidaridad Obrera'. He also supported the anarchists' stand in support for the uprising of 1953 in East Germany, the 1956 workers’ uprising in Poznań, Poland and, later the same year, the Hungarian Revolution.
"L'histoire d'aujourd'hui nous force à dire que la révolte est l'une des dimensions essentielles de l'homme." ("Present history forces us to say that revolt is one of the essential dimensions of man.") - 'L'Homme Révolté' (1951).

1931 - Giuseppe Guidi (b. 1881), Italian painter, printmaker/etcher and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 15]

1938 - Ethel Mannin, Irish novelist and anarchist, successfully assumes Emma Goldman's role as SIA representative in London.

1960 - Charles d'Avray (Charles Henri Jean; b. 1878), French anarchist poet and prolific propagandist songwriter, dies. His concerts (conférences chantées) were advertised with the slogan 'Avec le passé détruisont le présent pour devancer l'avenir' (With the past destroy the present and anticipate the future). [see: Sep. 9]

1990 - Lawrence George Durrell (b. 1912), British-born novelist, poet, dramatist, biographer, travel writer and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies. [see: Feb. 27]
1856 - Étienne Cabet (b. 1788), French philosopher, lawyer, utopian socialist and founder of the Icarian movement, dies. [see: Jan 1]

1867 - Carl Sadakichi Hartmann (d. 1944), critic, poet and playwright of German and Japanese descent, born. Helped found the magazine 'Mother Earth' with Emma Goldman, Edwin Bjorkman, and John R. Coryell.
"One of the strangest and most original men of letters of the day — in the United States at all events — is Sadakichi Hartmann, the poet, art critic, and lecturer. He was born in the land of wistarias and chrysanthemums, and he sees life with that Japanese anarchy of perspective." - Vance Thompson, 'Paris Herald', (September 1906)

1918 - Olga Vladimirovna Rozanova (Ольга Владимировна Розанова; b. 1886), Russian Cubo-Futurist and Suprematist painter, graphic artist, illustrator, designer, art theorist and poet, associated with early C20th Moscow anarchist circles, dies of diphtheria. [see: Jul. 4]

1948 - 'Le Cause Était Entendue' (The Case is Closed), declaration signed by Karel Appel, Guillaume Corneille, Christian Dotremont, Asger Jorn, Constant Nieuwenhuys and Joseph Noiret in Paris, marks the foundation of Cobra.

1951 - Ezequiel Endériz Olaverri (b. 1889), Spanish libertarian journalist, poet, novelist, playwright, libreticist, etc., dies. [see: Nov. 30]

1976 - Jean-Pierre Lajournade (b. 1937), French anarchist filmmaker, dies. [see: Apr. 19]

[B] 2012 - The kids book 'A Rule Is To Break: A Child's Guide To Anarchy' by writer John Seven and illustrator Jana Christy is published by Manic D Press, to the consternation of the Tea Party.
1871 - Felipe Cortiella y Ferrer (b. 1937), prominent Catalan author, poet, translator and dramatist, born. An anarchist militant and CNT fighter, the chief focus of his literary and cultural effort was the theatre (he founded the Agrupació Avenir company) which he sought to place in the service of the common people. In Cortiella’s view theatre has a duty to set out a libertarian project for society, so he rejected theatre as mere entertainment, which explains why so many of his characters embody the virtues of honesty, justice and integrity that he saw in anarchism. Thus, society should not turn a blind eye to society but indeed should have a didactic function to perform. He is mistakenly regarded by some as a Catalanist; Cortiella drew a precise distinction between language and culture on the one hand and political independence movements and creation of borders on the other; he was a dyed-in-the-wool internationalist. It is a fact, though, that some of the positions he espoused caused surprise because of the zeal he displayed in championing the Catalan tongue (he refused the editorship of Solidaridad Obrera because the CNT would not accept his suggestion that it be printed in Catalan only). He contributed to the labour press ('La Revista Blanca', 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Avenir', etc.) and a school of thought grew up around him (it included Mas Gomeri, Albert, Claudio and Bausà) and was the author of: 'Els Artistes de la Vida' (1898), 'La Brava Joventut' (an anti-Lerrouxist piece from 1933), 'Dolora' (1903), 'El Morenet' (1904), 'El Cantor de l’Ideal' (1901), 'El Plor del Alba', 'El Teatro y el Arte Dramático', 'La Vida que jo he Viscut', 'La Vida Gloriosa' 2 vols. (1918-1927). These in addition to poetry ('Anarquines', published in 1908) and translations in which his enthusiasm for Ibsen was evident.

1899 - Mezz Mezzrow (Milton Mesirow; d. 1972), American jazz clarinetist and saxophonist, who claimed that a "creative musician is an anarchist with a horn, and you can't put any shackles on him", born. His identification of jazz and freedom strectched to his personal life, where his disregard for the law and his prolific dealing of marijuana earned him 3 spells in jail and the nickname of the 'Muggles King' [muggles being slang for marijuana. He also married a black woman and declared himself a "voluntary Negro", something that he insisted upon when he was jailed in 1940 for the possession of sixty joints whilst trying to enter a jazz club, resulting in his transfer to the segregated prison's black section.

1919 - Marian Pankowski (d. 2011), Polish writer, poet, literary critic and translator, and anti-Nazi fighter, born. He made his debut as a poet with the publication of his poem 'Czytanie w zieleni' (Reading the green) in the leftist Lviv magazine 'Sygnały' (Signals). He took part in the September 1939 campaign and later joined the Związek Walki Zbrojnej (ZWZ; Union of Armed Struggle). In 1942, he was arrested by the Gestapo and held as a prisoner in Auschwitz, Gross-Rosen, Nordhausen, and Bergen-Belsen concentration camps. After the war, he settled in Belgium, where he died in Brussels from pneumonia on April 3, 2011, at the age of 91.

1929 - Imre Kertész, Hungarian author, Holocaust concentration camp survivor, and recipient of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Literature, born. He was deported at the age of 14 with other Hungarian Jews to the Auschwitz concentration camp, and was later sent to Buchenwald. His best-known work, 'Sorstalanság' (Fatelessness; 1975), describes the experience of 15-year-old György Köves in the concentration camps of Auschwitz, Buchenwald and Zeitz.

[B] 1950 - The première of Luis Buñuel's 'Los Olvidados' in Mexico where the film was shot.

1953 - Dylan Thomas (b. 1914), Welsh boyo, poet and prose writer, dies of pneumonia, with pressure on the brain and a fatty liver as factors contributing to his death. No sign of liver cirrhosis was found post-mortem, despite his image as a hard drinker.

1962 - Wolfgang Wendland, German musician, filmmaker, actor, politician and satirist, born. Singer in the German anarchist punk band Die Kassierer. A member of the Anarchistische Pogo-Partei Deutschlands (AAPD), he stood as their 2005 candidate for the chancellorship and joined the Pogoanarchistischen Pogo-Partei (POP) when they split from the AAPD.

1980 - Toyen (Marie Cermínová; b. 1902), Czech-born Surrealist painter, printmaker, and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 21]

1988 - John Cage reads from 'On Anarchism' at the Cooper Union in New York City.

2004 - Stieg Larsson (b. 1954), Swedish author and journalist, dies. [see: Aug. 15]
[BB] 1859 - Théophile Alexandre Steinlen (d. 1923), Swiss-born French Art Nouveau painter and printmaker, born. His anti-bourgeois, anti-militarist, socialist and anarchist sympathies led him to become a regular contributor to the anarchist press, including the magazine 'Temps Nouveau' - alongside Aristide Delannoy, Maximilien Luce, Theo van Rysselberghe, Camille Pissarro, Paul Signac, Van Dongen, George Willaume, etc. - as well a other radical and satirical newspaper and magazines.

1886 - Virgilio Gozzoli (d. 1964 ), Italian anarchist, anti-fascist, poet, playwright, publisher and Futurist artist, born. [expand]
Co-wrote play, 'L'Aquila e il Cigno' (The Eagle and the Swan) with Enrico Arrigoni.

1891 - Arthur Rimbaud (b. 1854), French poet, anti-bourgeois anarchist, deserter and gun-runner, dies. [see: Oct. 20]

1913 - Karl Shapiro (d. 2000), American poet, Pulitzer Prize-winner in 1945 and Gandhian anarchist, born.

"I am an atheist who says his prayers.

I am an anarchist, and a full professor at that. I take the loyalty oath.

I am a deviate. I fondle and contribute, backscuttle and brown, father of three.

I stand high in the community. My name is in Who’s Who. People argue about my modesty.

I drink my share and yours and never have enough. I free-load officially and unofficially.

A physical coward, I take on all intellectuals, established poets, popes, rabbis, chiefs of staff.

I am a mystic. I will take an oath that I have seen the Virgin. Under the dry pandanus, to the scratching of kangaroo rats, I achieve psychic onanism. My tree of nerves electrocutes itself.

I uphold the image of America and force my luck. I write my own ticket to oblivion.

I am of the race wrecked by success. The audience brings me news of my death. I write out of boredom, despise solemnity. The wrong reason is good enough for me.

I am of the race of the prematurely desperate. In poverty of comfort I lay gunpowder plots. I lapse my insurance.

I am the Babbitt metal of the future. I never read more than half of a book. But that half I read forever.

I love the palimpsest, statues without heads, fertility dolls of the continent of Mu. I dream prehistory, the invention of dye. The palms of the dancers’ hands are vermillion. Their heads oscillate like the cobra. High-caste woman smelling of earth and silk, you can dry my feet with your hair.

I take my place beside the Philistine and unfold my napkin. This afternoon I defend the Marines. I goggle at long cars.

Without compassion I attack the insane. Give them the horsewhip!

The homosexual lectures me brilliantly in the beer booth. I can feel my muscles soften. He smiles at my terror.

Pitchpots flicker in the lemon groves. I gaze down on the plains of Hollywood. My fine tan and my arrogance, my gray hair and my sneakers, O Israel!

Wherever I am I become. The power of entry is with me. In the doctor’s office a patient, calm and humiliated. In the foreign movies a native, shabby enough. In the art gallery a person of authority (there’s a secret way of approaching a picture. Others move off). The high official insults me to my face. I say nothing and accept the job. He offers me whiskey.

How beautifully I fake! I convince myself with men’s room jokes and epigrams. I paint myself into a corner and escape on pulleys of the unknown. Whatever I think at the moment is true. Turn me around in my tracks; I will take your side.

For the rest, I improvise and am not spiteful and water the plants on the cocktail table."

'I Am an Atheist Who Says His Prayers'


1913 - Miguel Grau Caldú (d. 2011), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist resister and poet, born. Partner of the FILJ, MLE and CNT member Antonia Lisbona Celma. Author of 2 books of poems 'El Abuelo de los Doce' (The Grandfather of Twelve) and 'Poemas de un Campesino Aragonés' (Poems of an Aragonese Peasant).

1956 - David 'Chim' Seymour (Dawid Szymin; b. 1911), Polish photographer, photojournalist and anti-fascist, known for his images from the Spanish Civil War, dies under Egyptian machine gun fire during the Suez conflict. [see: Nov 20]

[B] 1973 - Kurt Vonnegut's novel 'Slaughterhouse 5' is burned as a "tool of the Devil" by the school board in Drake, North Dakota, and the teacher who assigned it for reading is fired.

2013 - Russian conceptual artist and political activist Pyotr Pavlensky, in an act timed to coincide with Russian Police Day, nails his testicles with the hammer to the stone pavement of the Red Square in Moscow in a protest against the Russian "police state". After the police pried him loose, he was arrested and charged with 'hooliganism'. However, in April 2014 the charge was dropped after an expert report on the performance found "a lack of motive of political, ideological, racist, ethnic or religious hatred or enmity, or a motive of hatred against any social group. Considering this, the investigating officer decided to close the case due to the lack of a crime."
1821 - Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky (d. 1881), Russian novelist, short story writer and essayist, born. His most famous works are 'Записки из подполья' or 'Zapiski iz podpol'ya' (Notes from Underground; 1864), 'Преступлéние и наказáние' or 'Prestupleniye i nakazaniye' (Crime and Punishment; 1866), 'Идиот' or 'Idiot' (The Idiot; 1869), 'Бесы' or 'Bésy' (Demons aka The Possessed; 1872) and 'Братья Карамазовы' or 'Brat'ya Karamazovy' (The Brothers Karamazov; 1880). One of the main protagonists in 'Demons' is Pyotr Stepanovich Verkhovensky, who was inspired by the revolutionary Sergey Nechayev, is used by Dostoyevsky to critique the Russian radical movement.

1863 - Paul Victor Jules Signac (d. 1935), French Néo-Impressionist painter, born.[expand]
"The anarchist painter is not the one who will create anarchist pictures, but the one who will fight with all his individuality against official conventions."

1891 - Lilya Yuryevna Brik (born Lilya Kagan; d. 1978), Russian writer, film director and Futurist muse, born. Older sister of Elsa Triolet, wife of Osip Brik and later lover and muse of Futurist poet Vladimir Mayakovsky.

1929 - Hans Magnus Enzensberger, German author, poet, playwright, essayist, translator and editor, born. A utopian anarchist because he believes that all political systems are systems of domination: "politics equals crime!" ['Politik und Verbrechen'; 1964] He has also written under the pseudonym Andreas Thalmayr. Expelled from the Hitler Youth for being, in his own words, "incapable of being a good comrade".
He wrote 2 novels on Spanish anarchism: 'Das Verhor von Habana' (Hearings from Havana; 1970) and 'Der Kurze Sommer der Anarchie. Buenaventura Durrutis Leben und Tod' (The Short Summer of Anarchy. Buenaventura Durruti's Life and Death; 1972), the later he also made into a film, 'Durruti – Biographie einer Legende' (1972), writing, producing and directing it.

1961 - Joseph Heller's novel 'Catch-22' is first published.

1961 - Vasily Vasilevich Kamensky (Васи́лий Васи́льевич Каме́нский; b. 1884), Russian Futurist poet, playwright, artist and pioneer Russian aviator, dies. [see: Apr. 17]

1964 - Oscar Juan de Dios Filiberti (b. 1885), Argentine anarcho-syndicalist, instrumentalist (piano, guitar, violin and harmonium), conductor, poet and composer, who became prominent in the Argentine tango genre, dies. [see: Mar. 8]

[B] 1968 - Gorki Águila (Gorki Luis Águila Carrasco), Cuban punk rock musician, dissident and anarchist sympathiser, born. He is leader of the band Porno para Ricardo.
[B] 1853 - Leopold Hermann Oskar Panizza (d. 1921), German anarchist, psychiatrist, avant-garde author, playwright, novelist, poet, essayist, publisher and literary journal editor, born.

1926 - José Nakens Pérez (b. 141), Spanish journalist, radical republican, insurectionist, anticlerical, writer and poet, dies. [see: Nov. 21]

1931 - William Barbotin (pseudonym of Joseph Barbotin; b. 1861), French painter, sculptor, engraver and libertarian, linked to anarchist geographer Elisée Reclus, dies. [see: Aug. 25]

1937 - Francis Vielé-Griffin (b. 1864), US-born French symbolist poet and anarchist, dies. [see: May 26]

1951 - Konstantin Biebl (b. 1898), Czech proletarian poet and Poetist, dies. [see: Feb. 26]

1968 - Jules-Félix Grandjouan (b. 1875), French libertarian, revolutionary syndicalist, painter, caricaturist, illustrator and poster artist, dies. [see: Dec. 22]

1998 - Renato Lacquaniti (b. 1932), Italian anarchist, anti-militarist and painter, dies. One of the co-founders of the artistic group 'Atoma' (created in the local group of the Anarchist Federation of Livorno) and in 1960 painted 'Composizioni Anarchiche'. [see: Mar. 6]
[B] 1887 - William Morris' 'A Dream of John Ball' begins serialisation in 'The Commonweal' [Nov. 13, 1886 - Jan. 22, 1887].

1903 - Camille Pissarro (b. 1830), French Impressionist painter, anarchist, contributor to the magazine 'Le Temps Nouveaux', dies. [see: Jul. 10]

1964 - Georges Marie Valentin Vidal (b. 1903), French anarchist, poet, novelist and proofreader, dies. [see: Apr. 24]

2010 - Luis García-Berlanga Martí (b. 1921), Spanish screenwriter, film director, actor and anarchist, dies. [see: Jun. 12]

2010 - In line for an honorary Oscar at today's award ceremony, Jean-Luc Godard backs out following a sustained campaign against his alleged anti-Semitism (i.e. his anti-Zionism) in the US press.
[B] 1898 - Benjamin Fondane or Benjamin Fundoianu (born Benjamin Wechsler, Wexler or Vecsler; d. 1944), Romanian-born French poet, critic and existentialist philosopher, also noted for his work in film and theatre, born. Influenced by libertarian and anarchist thought, and fiercely anti-communist and anti-fascist, he opposed the move by the Paris Surrealist group to affiliate themselves with the French Communist Party and became involved in a prolonged conflict with Breton and Aragon, and those associated with them. He later became involved with the 'Le Grand Jeu' group and a follower of the existentialist philosopher Lev Shestov.

1900 - Aaron Copland (d. 1990), American composer, composition teacher, writer and conductor, born. As a teenager, he was rebuked by his father and uncles for his interest in the Russian Revolution. Copland would go on to be active in various left-wing political and cultural groups, and his progressive-leftist political philosophy would bring him into conflict with McCarthy and HUAC. He was also prominent in asserting the importance of mass singing as a vehicle for communicating the "day-to-day struggle of the proletariat" as part of the development of working-class movements.

1925 - First Paris exhibition of Surrealist paintings at the Galerie Pierre. The catalog has a preface by Breton and Robert Desnos, a text playing on the titles of paintings on display: "Le moment sera venu de nous séparer de tout ce qui nous a jamais retenus, de ne plus nous perdre aux jeux du cadran muet ou de la borne : 6.396.78. Désormais la nuit est reine ; rien ne saurait émouvoir ceux dont elle comble les maisons et les cœurs - rien, pas même le silence, à peine un dialogue d'insectes." (The time is right to separate ourselves from everything that has ever held us, do we lose more games silent dial or terminal: 6.396.78. Now the night queen, nothing can move those which it fills homes and hearts - nothing, not even silence, barely a dialogue insects.)

1940 - Jacques Mesnil (pseudonym of Jean-Jacques Dwelshauvers; b. 1872), Belgian anarchist, historian, journalist and scholar of Florentine Renaissance art, dies. [see: Jul. 9]

2011 - Franz Josef Degenhardt (b. 1931), German poet, satirist, novelist, screenwriter, folk-singer/songwriter (Liedermacher), lawyer and leftist, dies. [see: Dec 3]
1862 - Gerhart Hauptmann (d. 1946), German Naturalist dramatist and novelist, chiefly known today for his early naturalistic social drama 'Die Weber' (The Weavers; 1892), born. 'Die Weber' portrays the 1844 weaver revolt in Silesia and features a realistic portrayal of the suffering and humanity of the poor, and the hopelessness of their situation. The play was inspired by the work of Max Baginski in the 'Proletarier aus dem Eulengebrige', and he helped Baginski research the play in Silesia. While Hauptmann argued that the play was merely a faithful depiction of a historic event, the Prussian government feared that it condemned contemporary conditions for weavers. Public performances were temporarily banned in Berlin and elsewhere in Europe out of a fear that it would lead to class conflict. When it was performed publicly, the German imperial family cancelled their theatre box in protest. The anarchist Johann Most participated in an American staging that included extra incendiary sections provided by its leftist performers. Hauptmann's early social dramas successfully revealed the suffering of the poor to a new middle-class audience who might otherwise have turned a blind eye to the conditions of the poor. He was criticised by leftists for not being militant enough, while conservatives considered his early social dramas to be troubling and potentially dangerous. Member of the Friedrichshagener Dichterkreis (Friedrichshagener circle of poets) naturalist writers circle.

1908 - Ricardo Peña Vallespin (d. 1956), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, and novelist, who was part of the artistic and theatrical group Mistral, born. He wrote a large number of novels which were published by La Novela Libre and La Novela Ideal. Among these were: 'Llamas de Odio' (Flames of Hate; 1926), 'La Virgen Tonta' (The Silly Virgen; 1927), 'El Asedio' (The Siege; 1929), 'Cerebro y Corazón' (Mind and Heart; 1930), 'La Propia Obra' (The Work Itself; 1930), '¡Qué Salga el Autor!' (The Exit of the Author; 1930), 'La Hechizada' (The Bewitched; 1931), 'El Amo' (Master; 1932), 'Índice Rojo. Novela Histórica' (Red Index. Historical novel; 1933), 'Redención' (Redemption; 1933), 'De la Vida que Pasa' (The Life that Passes; 1934), 'Tribunal de Amor' (The Court of Love; 1934), 'Cómo se Debe Amar' (How to love ; 1935), 'Las Leyes del Mal' (Las Laws of Evil; 1936), etc.

[B] 1920 - Ernst Toller's play 'Masse-Mensch' (Mass Man), about the workers' armed struggle against war profiteers, premières in the Stadttheater Nürnberg directed by Friedrich Neubauer.

1930 - James Graham 'J. G.' Ballard (d. 2009), English novelist and short story writer, born.

1941 - Heathcote Williams, English poet, actor, playwright, one-time anarchist, resident of Frestonia and 'International Times' stalwart, born.

1966 - Francois Truffaut film version of Ray Bradbury's novel 'Fahrenheit 451' is released.
1849 - Fyodor Dostoyevsky receives a death sentence for engaging in socialist activities; later commuted to four years hard labor in Siberia. [see: Nov. 11]

1897 - Released from Reading Gaol, Oscar Wilde writes to his friend Robert Ross: "It is curious how vanity helps keep the successful man and wrecks the failure. In old days half of my strength was my vanity."

1922 - José de Sousa Saramago (d. 2010), Portuguese writer of novels, short stories, poetry, plays, memoirs and travelogues, atheist and libertarian communist, born.
"A unique and authentic human freedom is that of the spirit, a spirit not contaminated by irrational beliefs and superstitions perhaps poetic in some case, but that distort the perception of reality and should offend the most basic reason."

'Não me Peçam Razões'

Não me peçam razões, que não as tenho,
Ou darei quantas queiram: bem sabemos
Que razões são palavras, todas nascem
Da mansa hipocrisia que aprendemos.

Não me peçam razões por que se entenda
A força de maré que me enche o peito,
Este estar mal no mundo e nesta lei:
Não fiz a lei e o mundo não aceito.

Não me peçam razões, ou que as desculpe,
Deste modo de amar e destruir:
Quando a noite é de mais é que amanhece
A cor de primavera que há-de vir.

'Do not ask me for reasons'

Do not ask me for reasons, I do not have them,
Or give you what you want: well we know
That reasons are words, all born
From the gentle hypocrisy we have learned.

Do not ask me for reasons if you understand
The tidal force that fills my chest,
Being evil in this world and in this law:
I was not the law and the world I do not accept.

Do not ask me the reasons, or the excuse,
This way of loving and destruction:
When the night is over and then it dawns
The colour of springtime is coming.

From: 'Nesta esquina do tempo' (In this corner of time)


1928 - Radclyffe Hall's novel 'The Well of Loneliness' is declared obscene and ordered destroyed.

[B] 1945 - Jan Bucquoy, Belgian anarchist filmmaker, cartoonist and author, born. [expand]

1953 - Luigi 'Gigi' Damiani (aka 'Ausinio Acrate' & 'Simplicio'; b. 1876), Italian journalist, poet, novelist, jobbing painter, anarchist activist and propagandist, dies. [see: May 18]

2007 - Vernon Scannell (John Vernon Bain; b. 1922), British poet, author, one time professional boxer who wrote novels about the sport, WWII deserter, , agricultural labourer, honorary Gypsy, member of the editorial collective of War Commentary and anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 23]
1866 - Voltairine de Cleyre (d. 1912), American anarchist, feminist, teacher and poet, born. [expand]

1876 - August Sander (d. 1964), German portrait and documentary photographer associated with the Neuen Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity), born. Member of the Kölner Progressive group alongsdie Franz Wilhelm Seiwert and Heinrich Hoerle, whose major project 'Menschen des 20. Jahrhunderts' invovled his photographing different sections of the German people including the working classes, peasants, artist, poets, etc. He also photographed many of those involved in the Sparticist revolution and later, inevitably, the Nazis. His work also brought him into conflict with the Nazi regime and, after his son Erich (a member of the left wing Socialist Workers’ Party ) was arrested in 1934 and sentenced to 10 years in prison (dying shortly before his release), he retired to the country in order to protect his negatives.

1918 - Johannes Baader, soon to reincarnate himself as the Ober-Dada, Präsidenten des Erdballs (President of the Terrestrial Globe) and 'Dadaprophet', interrupts the sermon of the Lord Chaplain Dryander in Berlin Cathedral, shouting out: "Was ist Euch Jesus Christus. Er ist Euch Wurst!" (What is Jesus Christ to you? You couldn’t care less about him! [literally: Christ is Your Sausage i.e. cock, or even, shit]). The act, mocking the clergy, laity and politicians alike, provokes a public scandal, and Baader is arrested for blasphemy and passes into history as an 'art performance' despite the apparent lack of pre-planning. Baader was simply bored as well as being outraged at the obvious hypocrisy.

1934 -
1934 - Joachim Ringelnatz (pen name of Hans Bötticher; b 1883), German author (poetry, novels, drama, memoirs, childrens books, painter and Kabarettist/satirical stand-up comedian, dies. [see: Aug. 7]

[B] 1969 - Václav Krška (b. 1900), Czech writer, director and writer, dies. [see: Oct. 4]
1863 - Richard Fedor Leopold Dehmel (d. 1920), German poet and writer, Nietzschean individualist, friend of Gustav Landauer and outspoken advocate of free love and of workers' rights, born. His early works featured naturalistic social themes and he was one of the first major German poets to write about the misery of the working classes. Influenced by Nietzsche, he extolled individualism and a life of uninhibited instincts and passion. Dehmel was tried for obscenity and blasphemy a number of times, most famously for his volume of poetry, 'Weib und Welt' (Woman and World; 1896). Despite being acquitted (as he was on other occassions), this time on a technicality, the court condemned the work as obscene and blasphemous and ordered that it be burned.

'Verklärte Nacht' (Transfigured Night)

Zwei Menschen gehn durch kahlen, kalten Hain;
der Mond läuft mit, sie schaun hinein.
Der Mond läuft über hohe Eichen;
kein Wölkchen trübt das Himmelslicht,
in das die schwarzen Zacken reichen.
Die Stimme eines Weibes spricht:

Ich trag ein Kind, und nit von Dir,
ich geh in Sünde neben Dir.
Ich hab mich schwer an mir vergangen.
Ich glaubte nicht mehr an ein Glück
und hatte doch ein schwer Verlangen
nach Lebensinhalt, nach Mutterglück
und Pflicht; da hab ich mich erfrecht,
da ließ ich schaudernd mein Geschlecht
von einem fremden Mann umfangen,
und hab mich noch dafür gesegnet.
Nun hat das Leben sich gerächt:
nun bin ich Dir, o Dir, begegnet.

Sie geht mit ungelenkem Schritt.
Sie schaut empor; der Mond läuft mit.
Ihr dunkler Blick ertrinkt in Licht.
Die Stimme eines Mannes spricht:

Das Kind, das Du empfangen hast,
sei Deiner Seele keine Last,
o sieh, wie klar das Weltall schimmert!
Es ist ein Glanz um alles her;
Du treibst mit mir auf kaltem Meer,
doch eine eigne Wärme flimmert
von Dir in mich, von mir in Dich.
Die wird das fremde Kind verklären,
Du wirst es mir, von mir gebären;
Du hast den Glanz in mich gebracht,
Du hast mich selbst zum Kind gemacht.

Er faßt sie um die starken Hüften.
Ihr Atem küßt sich in den Lüften.
Zwei Menschen gehn durch hohe, helle Nacht.

(Two people walk through a bare, cold grove;
The moon races along with them, they look into it.
The moon races over tall oaks,
No cloud obscures the light from the sky,
Into which the black points of the boughs reach.
A woman’s voice speaks:

I’m carrying a child, and not yours,
I walk in sin beside you.
I have committed a great offense against myself.
I no longer believed I could be happy
And yet I had a strong yearning
For something to fill my life, for the joys of
And for duty; so I committed an effrontery,
So, shuddering, I allowed my sex
To be embraced by a strange man,
And, on top of that, I blessed myself for it.
Now life has taken its revenge:
Now I have met you, oh, you.

She walks with a clumsy gait,
She looks up; the moon is racing along.
Her dark gaze is drowned in light.
A man’s voice speaks:

May the child you conceived
Be no burden to your soul;
Just see how brightly the universe is gleaming!
There’s a glow around everything;
You are floating with me on a cold ocean,
But a special warmth flickers
From you into me, from me into you.
It will transfigure the strange man’s child.
You will bear the child for me, as if it were mine;
You have brought the glow into me,
You have made me like a child myself.

He grasps her around her ample hips.
Their breath kisses in the breeze.
Two people walk through the lofty, bright night.)


1881 - Le Chat Noir opens at its first site, at 84 Boulevard Rochechouart, in Paris.

1887 - Henrik Ibsen's anarchist-influenced play 'Samfundets Støtter' (The Pillars of Society) premières at the Odense Teater in Copenhagen.

1898 - Joris Ivens (d. 1989), Dutch communist and documentary filmmaker, who made the pro-Republican propaganda film 'The Spanish Earth' (1937), born.

1922 - At the request of Jean Cocteau, Man Ray takes a picture of Marcel Proust on his deathbed.

1924 - Iordan Chimet (d. 2006), Romanian poet, children's writer and essayist, critic and historian of art, cinema, screenwriter and translator, whose work was inspired by Surrealism and Onirism, born. An opponent of totalitarianism in general and of the Communist regime in particular, was persecuted by the latter as a dissident, and lived much of his life in obscurity. Politically active while still a teenager during World War II, he was part of an anti-fascist group in his native city, Galaţi, along with his friends Gheorghe Ursu (1926 -1985), a dissident who was killed by the Securitate secret police in 1985, and science fiction author Camil Baciu (1926 - 2005).

1952 - Paul Éluard (Eugène Émile Paul Grindel; b. 1895), French poet and communist, a one-time Dadaist who went on to become one of the founders of the Surrealist movement, dies. [see: Dec. 14]

[B] 1953 - Alan Moore, English comics writer, novelist, screenwriter, musician, cartoonist, neo-Pagan and anarchist, born. His works include 'V for Vendetta' (1982–1985); 'Watchmen' (1986–1987) and 'The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen' (1999–present).

1976 - Man Ray (Emmanuel Rudnitzky; b. 1890), American Surrealist photographer, painter, filmmaker, chess-player and anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 27]

1999 - Paul Frederic Bowles (b. 1910), American expatriate composer, author and translator, dies. [see: Dec. 30]
[C] 1908 - Gisèle Freund (Gisela Freund; d. 2000), German-born French photographer and photojournalist, socialist and anti-fascist, best known for her documentary photography and portraits of writers and artists and her book 'Photographie et Société' (1974), about the uses and abuses of the photographic medium in the age of technological reproduction, born. From a wealthy Jewish family, she took up photography initially as a hobby in 1925 and, whilst studying at the Institute for Social, Sciences, University of Frankfurt under Theodor W. Adorno, Karl Mannheim and Norbert Elias, she became an active member of a student socialist group and determined to use photography as an integral part of her socialist practice. One of her first first stories, shot on May 1, 1932, shows "a recent march of anti-fascist students" who had been "regularly attacked by Nazi groups." The photos also show Walter Benjamin, a good friend of Freund, and Bertolt Brecht. Being Jewish and a fervent opponent of National Socialism, Freund was also an active member of an anti-Fascist group. When one of her friends was imprisoned and murdered, Freund was told she must leave the country. On May 30, 1933, with little more than her camera, and with photographic negatives taped around her body to get past the border guards, Freund fled Germany in the footsteps of her friend Benjamin. She did not set foot on German soil again until 1957. In 1935 she began a relationship with Adrienne Monnier, poet, feminist writer, publisher, and a central figure in the contemporary avant-garde scene in France. Monnier went on to arrange a marriage of convenience for her lover with Pierre Blum so that Freund could obtain a visa to remain in France legally and the following year published Freund’s ground-breaking doctoral dissertation on photography in nineteenth-century France.
On June 10, 1940, with the Nazi invasion of Paris looming, Freund escaped Paris to Free France in the Dordogne. Her husband by convenience, Pierre, had been captured by the Nazis and sent to a prison camp. He was able to escape and met with Freund before going back to Paris to fight in the Résistance. As the wife of an escaped prisoner, a Jew, a lesbian and a Socialist, Freund "feared for her life". Finally, in 1942, through the intervention of her friend André Malraux (1901–1976), arrangements were made for her to find refuge in Argentina, becoming cultural attaché for the Ministry of Information of Free France while in South America, and founding Ediciones Victoria to publish books about France. Focusing on producing documentary reportage and films on remote areas such as Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia in 1944, she travelled through Chile, Peru and Bolivia, Brazil and Ecuador. In all these countries she wrote stories published by European and American magazines. She also visited Mexico, falling in love with the country and befriending Frida Kahlo. In 1947, Freund signed a contract with Magnum Photos as a Latin America contributor, but by 1954 she was declared persona non grata by the U. S. Government at the height of the Red Scare for her Socialist views, and Robert Capa forced her to break ties with Magnum. The same year she was also thrown out of Argentina for taking a set of photographs of Eva Peron wearing lavish jewellery that were published in 'Life' magazine, causing an international incident. Freund had returned to Paris in 1953, spending the rest of her life in France.

1912 - Bohuslav Brouk (d. 1978), Czech Surrealist, writer, journalist, esthetician, sociologist, biologist and psychoanalyst, born. He was one of the first promoters of psychoanalysis and critical interpreter of the works of Sigmund Freud in Czechoslovakia. A populariser of psychoanalysis, with a focus on sexuality and the (Surrealist) subconscious - he tried to reconcile Freud's teachings with the Surrealists' attempts to free the individual and to connect these with the social dimension of Marxism. However, he maintained that science and art should remain separate from ideology and dogma.
Member of Devětsil (Nine Forces) and a founding member of the Surrealist Group of Czechoslovakia in 1934. He was considered the enfant terrible of the inter-war Czech avant-garde, much of his provocative work from that period was focused on issues of sexuality and demystifying social mores and conventions. Among his most notorious in this regard are his essays 'Masturbation as Worldview' in Jindřich Štyrský’s 'Erotic Review', 'The Mácha Cult', the afterword on pornophilia to Štyrský’s 'Emilie Prichází Ke Mne Ve Snu' (Emilie Comes to Me in a Dream; 1933), and his books 'Psychoanalytical Sexology' (1933) and 'Autosexuality and Psychoeroticism' (1935). Took Karel Teige's part in his anti-Moscow show trial dispute with Nezval. After WWII he was heavily involved in political and journalistic activities, and was one of the few willing to speak out against the KSČ in Jozef Lettrich's 'Nové Prúdy' (New Currents). With the communist seizure of power in February 1948, Brouk fled the country, staying first in a refugee camp in Regensburg before settling for a short time in France. From 1951 to 1958 he lived in Melbourne, Australia, working at Commonwealth Serum Laboratories, and then in London until the end of his life, lecturing first at North Western Polytechnic and then Polytechnic of the South Bank.

1944 - Hutchins Hapgood (b. 1869), US journalist, author, novelist, free love advocate and anarchist, dies. [see: May 21]

[B] 1949 - James Ensor (b. 1860), Belgian symbolist painter and anarchist, whose work was a major influence on both expressionism and surrealism, dies. [see: Apr. 13]
[B] 1879 - Franz Pfemfert (d. 1954), German anarchist, publisher, editor of the mass-circulation anti-war paper 'Die Aktion', poet, literary critic and portrait photographer, born. Occasionally wrote under the pseudonym U. Gaday. His first poems appeared in Senna Hoy’s paper 'Der Kampf' (The Struggle) and in another anarchist paper 'Die Arme Teufel' (The Poor Devil) in 1904. Hoy also introduced Pfemfert to Alexandra Ramm, his future wife. In 1910, he became an editor of the radical democratic magazine 'Die Demokrat' but fell out with its publisher, quiting to set up his own magazine, 'Die Aktion'. In 1915 he created the Antinationale Sozialistenpartei (Anti-National Socialist Party), which secretly worked with other anti-war groups. At the end of the war Franz joined the Spartakusbund and the pages of 'Die Aktion' were thrown open to the various revolutionary currents. However, he broke with the KPD, joining the KAPD and, shortly afterwards in 1921, the AAUD-E (United General Workers Union). In 1926 he took part in the creation of the second Spartakusbund whilst maintaining his links with the anarcho-syndicalist union the FAUD. [expand]

[BB] 1902 - Jean Painlevé (d. 1989), French biologist turned film director, actor, translator, animator, critic and theorist, anti-fascist and anarchist, born. Noted documentarist, often on scientific subjects, in particular underwater marine biology, his credo was "science is fiction". He was also the son of mathematician and twice prime-minister of France, Paul Painlevé. One of his closest friends and biggest influences on his films was fellow anarchist and film director Jean Vigo and he was associated with Surrealism, collaborating on Ivan Goll's monthly revue 'Surrealisme', without ever really being considered part of the Surrealist movement (despite self-identifying as a surrealist). After a short period as an actor and assisstant director, Painlevé directed his first short, a version of Goll's play 'Mathusalem' (1927), which he followed up with his first scientific films, 'La Pieuvre' (The Octopus; 1928) and 'Oeufs d'Épinoche' (Stickelback Eggs; 1929). He was also credited during the same period as "chief ant handler" on Luis Buñuel's 'Un Chien Andalou' (1928). The Académie des sciences rejected his efforts but his films were embraced by the avant garde of France and Man Ray, for example, used Painlevé's footage of underwater starfish in his film 'L'Etoile de Mer' (1928). The rejection also spurred hin on to co-founded L'Institut du Cinema Scientifique in 1930, which helped distribute and show documentary films made all over the world. An active ananrchist, Painlevé took part in anti-Nazi demonstrations throughout WWII and his 1945 film 'Le Vampire' was expressly anti-fascist. He also served as director of the Committee for the Liberation of French Cinema (which he co-founded during the war) which sought help ressurect the post-war French film industry.

1910 - Leo Tolstoy (b. 1820), famed Russian novelist, religious pacifist and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 9]

1911 - David 'Chim' Seymour (Dawid Szymin; d. 1956), Polish photographer, photojournalist and anti-fascist, known for his images from the Spanish Civil War, born. One of the co-founders of Magnum Photos with Henri Cartier-Bresson, Robert Capa, George Rodger and William Vandivert, of which he became president following Capa's death. His famous photojournalism project 'Children of War', commissioned by UNICEF, captured the plight of children in the aftermath of World War II. He died whilst photographing the Suez conflict in 1956.

1943 - Paul Vigné d'Octon (Paul-Étienne Vigné; b. 1859), French physician, writer, poet, journalist, libertarian, rationalist, anticlerical, neo-Malthusian, freethinker and anti-colonialist, dies. [see: Sep. 7]

1962 - Mary Horgan Mowbray-Clarke (b. 1874), American art critic, writer, publisher, instructor, landscape architect, anarchist and the proprietor of the famous NY bookshop Sunwise Turn, dies.

1978 - Giorgio de Chirico (b. 1888), Greek-born Italian Nietzschean artist, painter and novelist, who was a major influence on the Surrealists, dies. [see: Jul. 10]

1991 - Working class anarchist poet Philip Levine's 'What Work Is' wins the U.S. National Book Award for poetry.

2004 - Antonio Artero Coduras (b. 1936), Spanish libertarian filmmaker and essayist, dies. [see: Apr. 30]
1841 - José Nakens Pérez (d. 1926), Spanish journalist, radical republican, insurectionist, anticlerical, writer and poet, born.

[B] 1855 - Émile Gravelle (d. 1920), French individualist anarchist and naturist activist, writer and painter, born.

1855 - Anarchist author Leo Tolstoy and Ivan Turgenev meet, the beginning a long and often tempestuous friendship.

1878 - Ludovic-Rodolphe 'Ludovic-Rodo' Pissarro (d. 1952), French post-Impressionist painter and anarchist sympathiser, born. Camille Pissarro's fourth son, at the age of sixteen, Rodo published his first wood engravings in the anarchist journal, 'Le Pere Peinard'. His work also appeared in other anarchist publications, including 'Almanach Illustré de la Révolution', 'Les Humbles' and 'Temps Nouveaux'.

1898 -René François Ghislain Magritte (d. 1967), Belgian Dada, then Surrealist artist and one-time Communist Party member, born. Member of the Revolutionary Surrealist Group.

1929 - Marilyn French (d. 2009), American feminist author, novelist and academic, born.

2007 - Fernando Fernán-Gómez (b. 1921), Argentine-born Spanish actor, screenwriter, film director, theater director, novelist, anarcho-syndicalist and lifelong anarchist, dies. During his funeral his coffin will be draped in the flag of the CNT. [see: Aug. 28]
1871 - Georges Henri Manzana Pissarro (d. 1961), French Impressionist and Post-Impressionist painter, engraver and anarchist sympathiser, born. The second son of anarchist artist Camille Pissarro.

[B] 1880 - Edmundo Bianchi (d. 1965), Uruguayan playwright, screenwriter, poet, writer, translator, composer of tango lyrics and diplomat, born. Collaborator in the anarchist press of Uruguay and Argentina, sometimes under the pseudonym of Espindola Lucretius. [expand]
'Nobleza de Esclavo' published in 'La Rebelión' (supplement to 'Futuro'; 1904)?
Wrote the lyrics to Osvaldo Fresedo's 'Pampero'.

[C] 1900 - Benigno Dominguez Bejarano (d. 1940), Spanish anarchist writer and journalist, born. Prolific author of literary, scientific, critical and humorous articles; short stories, novels and utopian fiction, much of it published under the pseudonyms Lazarillo de Tormes and Dionisiere. Arrested by the Gestapo in 1942, he was interned in France and transfered to the Neuengamme and then the Salzgitter-Watenstedt concentration camps. Suffering from lung disease, he was gassed by the Nazis in a 'ghost truck' in the summer of 1944.

1901 - Alexandre Breffort (d. 1971), French journalist, screenwriter, playwright, writer, anarchist and anti-militarist, born.

1916 - Jack London (b. 1876), author of 'The Iron Heel' and 'People Of The Abyss' amongst other works, dies.

1917 - Bridget Bate Tichenor (born Bridget Pamela Arkwright Bate; d. 1990), also known as Bridget Tichenor or B.B.T., Mexican surrealist and magic realist painter, model and fashion editor, born. A close firend of Man Ray, Leonora Carrington, Remedios Varo and Anaïs Nin, who was infatuated with her and wrote at length about her fantasies in her journals, she frequented artistic and radical circles around the world before settling permanently in Mexico in 1953.

1944 - Carl Sadakichi Hartmann (b. 1867), critic, poet and playwright of German and Japanese descent, dies.

1980 - Mary Jane 'Mae' West (b. 1893), American actress, singer, playwright and screenwriter, the Queen of Sex, dies. [see: Aug. 17]

1995 - Norman Potter (b 1923), English Christian anarchist, designer, craftsman, writer and poet, born. [see: Apr. 17]
1862 - Théodore (Théo) van Rysselberghe (d. 1926), Belgian Impressionist, Néo-Impressionist and then Pointillist painter, Member of Les XX and anarchist, born. Of a rebellious and independent spirit, he treated the official paintings "fucking art" and, when he moved to Paris in 1897, was swift to adopt the anarchist ideas of his new friends Paul Signac, Camille Pissarro and the art critic Félix Fénéon. Along with Signac, Pissarro, Maximilien Luce, Aristide Delannoy, Alexandre Steinlen, Van Dongen, George Willaume, etc., he contributed to the anarchist magazine 'Les Temps Nouveaux' as well as Emile Pouget's 'Le Père Peinard'. He also made the cover design Peter Kropotkin's 1898 pamphlet 'La Morale Anarchiste', illustrated Jean Grave's children's book 'Les Aventures de Nono' (1901) and turned his hand to decorative artworks including posters in the Art Nouveau style.

1883 - José Clemente Orozco (d. 1949), Mexican social realist painter, muralist and lithographer, born. He specialised in bold murals that established the Mexican Mural Renaissance together with murals by Diego Rivera, the anarchist David Alfaro Siqueiros, and others. During his childhood he suffered an accident while playing with gun powder, loosing his left hand and suffering permanent hearing loss and severely damaged his eyesight.
During the Mexican Revolution Orozco was an illustrator and cartoonist for the 'Batallones Rojos' of the anarcho-syndicalist Casa del Obrero Mundial (1914-15). In the early 1920s, together with Rivera and Siqueiros (Orozco, Rivera and Siqueiros were known as 'Los tres grandes'), he was one of a dozen artists invited to paint murals in public buildings by minister of education Vasconcelos. [expand]
To those who accused him later in life of being an anarchist, he answered: "Those who say I am ar anarchist do not know me. I am an partisan with absolute freedom of thought a real free thinker. Neither a dogmatist nor an anarchist. Neither an enemy of hierarchies nor a partisan of unyielding affirmations."

[B] 1920 - Paul Celan (Paul Antschel; (d. 1970), Romanian poet, translator and utopian socialist, born. Described himself as "one who grew up with the writings of Peter Kropotkin and Gustav Landauer", in 1933 he joined a largely Jewish communist anti-Fascist group which produced a mimeographed magazine 'Red Student' and helped collect money in support of the Spanish Republic in 1936. He eventually gave up his communist affiliations but remained a utopian socialist with distinct anarchist leanings.

1927 - Stanisław Feliks Przybyszewski (b. 1868), Polish individualist, novelist, Symbolist dramatist and poet of the decadent naturalistic school, who wrote both in German and in Polish, dies. [see: May 7]

1928 - Albert Laisant (b. 1873), French anarchist, freemason and libertarian pedagogue, dies. [see: Jun. 1]

1976 - André Malraux (b. 1901), French novelist, art theorist, anti-fascist and post-war Minister of Cultural Affairs, dies. [see: Nov. 3]

1988 - Wieland Herzfelde (b. 1896), German journalist, author, poet and publisher, dies. [see: Apr. 11]

1995 - Louis Malle (b. 1932), French film director, screenwriter and producer, dies. [see: Oct. 30]
1864 - Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (d. 1901), French painter, printmaker, draughtsman and illustrator, born. Whilst never expressly identifying himself as an anarchist he was part of the Parisian anarchist milieu, worked with Félix Fénéon on 'La Revue Blanche' and contributed set designs to a number of plays by anarchist authors including Jarry's 'Ubu Roi'. He also painted 9 portraits of his close friend Oscar Wilde.

1886 - Margaret Caroline Anderson (d. 1973), American anarchist and lesbian, founder, editor and publisher of the anarchist art and literary magazine 'The Little Review', born. Margaret Anderson and 'The Little Review' are renown for having published the first thirteen chapters of James Joyce's then-unpublished novel, 'Ulysses', beginning in 1918. The U.S. Post Office seized and burned four issues of the magazine, and Anderson and her lover and associate editor, Jane Heap, were later convicted of obscenity charges.
"Life is just one ecstasy after another."
"I felt a resentment against God or man for having imposed an incredible stupidity upon the world. And the world had accepted it..."
"Laws haven’t the slightest interest for me — except in the world of being in which they are, for the most part, unknown."

[B] 1910 - Jean Meckert, aka Jean or John Amila, Edouard Duret, Edmond Duret, Guy Duret, Albert Duvivier, Mariodile, Marcel Pivert (d. 1995), French libertarian novelist, screenwriter and anti-militarist, born. His libertarian father was shot for mutiny in 1917 and his mother, interned for two years, ended up only able to find work as a charwoman for the rest of her life. As a consequence Meckert grew up in a Protestant orphanage in Courbevoie. Apprenticed to a workshop building electric motors, he drifts into various jibs before joining the army, because he claims he was "starving". Post-army, he again drifts from job to job - street peddle, fairground photographer, detective agency operative, etc. until called up for WWII. He also beings to write short stories, novels and plays, in the 1930s. Following his 1941 demobilisation, his second novel 'Les Coups' (The Blows), written in 1936, is accepted for publishing. It is hailed by critics - including André Gide and Raymond Queneau - and quickly becoming a commercial success, with the first edition sold out.
He then quits his job as a minor town hall functionary and writes full time. Following his next novel, 'L'Homme au Marteau' (Man With a Hammer; 1943), he begins a prolific career writing popular fiction under a series of pseudonyms: Edouard Duret, Edmond Duret, Guy Duret and Mariodile; and thrillers under the pen names of Albert Duvivier and Marcel Pivert. Following a meeting with Marcel Duhamel , Meckert also began writing thrillers for the Série Noire (Black Series) starting with 'Y'a Pas de Bon Dieu!' (There Is No God!; 1950) and 'Motus!' (Mum's the Word!; 1953), going on to write 21 thrillers, many expounding his anarchist and anti-militarist beliefs. He also wrote a sci-fi novel, 'Le 9 de Pique' (1956), the only time he used the pseudonym John Amila.
A number of his works were adapted for film, such as 'Sans Attendre Godot' (Not Waiting for Godot; 1956) for the Yves Allégret film 'Quand la Femme s'en Mêle' (When a Woman Gets Involved; 1957); and TV e.g. 'Pitié Pour les Rats' (Pity the Poor Rats) for the 1964 novel of the same name.
Following a visit to Tahiti scouting for film locations, he published 'La Vierge et le Taureau' (The Virgin and the Bull) in 1971, a novel which denounced colonialism, nuclear testing, the army and the French secret services, and sought to defend "a people without rights". It was eventually withdrawn from sale and pulped and thought the publishers refused to give a reason, it is thought to tie into a 1974 attack on Meckert that left him hospitalised. Leaving the ORTF studios one night he was attacked by unknown assailants. Clubbed to the ground, he was found unconscious, in a pool of blood.Waking up in hospital, he did not know his name or address, but had a strange sense of "feel brand new". When questioned by the doctor as to his profession, he was able to respond: "I write thrillers." It is believed that the attack, which left him with prolonged amnesia and depression, was directly related to the publication of 'La Vierge et le Taureau'. He wrote an autobiographical novel, 'Comme un Écho Errant' (As a Wandering Echo; 1986).

1923 - Philippe Daudet, the French anarchist son of Léon Daudet (leader of fascist 'Ligue de l'Action Française'), dies under mysterious circumstances, presumed assassinated by police. [see: Jan 7]

1931 - Première of Eduard Borràs's 'El Proceso Ferrer' at the Teatre Talia in Barcelona, a historical drama in three acts based on the story of Francisco Ferrer y Guardia and the Tragic Week, is performed by the Companyia d'Anito Tormo.

1943 - Reina Princen Geerligs aka Leentjes Vandendriesch (b. 1922), Dutch writer (prose & poetry) and core member of the CS-6 anti-fascist resistance group, is executed by firing squad, along with fellow CS-6 members Truus van Lier and Nel Hissink-van den Brink, at Sachsenhausen concentration camp.

1944 - Tsuji Jun (辻潤; b. 1884), Japanese individualist anarchist, avant garde writer, Dadaist poet, essayist, playwright, editor, translator, teacher, nihilist, epicurean, shakuhachi musician, actor, feminist and bohemian, dies. [see: Oct. 4]

2001 - David Gascoyne (b. 1916), English poet, novelist, Surrealist, one-time communist and later an anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 10]
1878 - Georg Kaiser (d. 1945), German Expressionist playwright, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, born. Influenced by the ideas of Gustav Landauer, as was his friend Ernst Toller, who both frequented Landauer's anarchist-communist Neue Gemeinschaft (New Community), and together were probably the 2 most prominent German Expressionist playwrights [although Gerhart Hauptmann's and Kaiser's plays were performed in the Weimar Republic more often than Toller's].
His first major play 'Von Morgens bis Mitternachts' (From Morning to Midnight; 1912), was one of the most influential German drama of the era (both Toller and Brecht cited it as a major influence) and it went on to be made into one of the classic examples of cinematic Expressionism by Karl Heinz Martin in 1920. Other politically charged and influential plays followed: 'Die Bürger von Calais' (The Burghers of Calais; 1913/1923); and the 'Gas' trilogy, 'Die Koralle' (The Coral; 1917); 'Gas' (1918); and 'Gas II' (1920). Immersed in Weimar artistic circles, he was close to Brecht, Weill and Lotte Lenya, and collaborated with Kurt Weill on his one-act operas 'Der Protagonist' (1926) and 'Der Zar lässt sich Photographieren' (1928), as well as 'Der Silbersee' (1933), and his 1923 Volksstück (people's play), 'Nebeneinander' (Side by Side), had stage designs courtesy of George Grosz.
In 1925 Georg Kaiser provided the financial backing that allowed a monument in honour of Gustav Landauer to be erected by the Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands in Munich but this was later torn down by the Nazis. Kaiser's work was also a victim of Nazi book burning on May 10 1933 and he was involved in resistance circles, writing clandestine pamphlets. Shortly before a Gestapo-house search in 1938, he fled to Switzerland, remaining there in exile. In 1940 his play 'Der Soldat Tanaka', which was critical of Japanese militarism, was passed by the Swiss censor but, under pressure from the Japanese ambassador, the performance was cancelled.

1880 - Leonard Sidney Woolf (d. 1969), English political theorist, author, publisher, civil servant, Fabian, husband of author Virginia Woolf, born. An influential member of the Bloomsbury group who established the Hogarth Press with his wife in 1917. Author of 'Quack, Quack!' (1935), a damning indictment of fascism. Fascism, he claimed was nothing new, rather it was merely a modern instance of an age-old conflict in civilisation; namely the desire of the minority to suppress the majority in order to retain their economic and social superiority. He likened Hitler and Mussolini to the barbaric leaders of savage tribes, reducing their rhetoric to quackery.

1884 - Jean Lébédeff (d. 1970), Russian-born French anarchist artist, Illustrator and printmaker, born. His book illustrations of Kropotkin, Ferrer, etc., are well-known.

1896 - Virgil Thomson (d. 1989), American modernist composer and music critic, born. Though gay, spending his entire life 'in the closet', and having spent large portions of his life mixing in avantgarde artistic and political circles in Paris, even having a close friend in the Trotskyite poet and novelist Sherry Mangan, was resolutely apolitical. Yet he provided music for Joris Ivens' pro-Republic propaganda film 'The Spanish Earth' (1937). He was also a member of the left-leaning Aaron Copland's 'Commando Unit' alongside Roger Sessions, Roy Harris and Walter Piston.

[B] 1904 - Ba Jin (aka Pa Chin, Li Fei-Kan, Li Pei-Kan, Pa Kin [pseud. of Li Yaotang]) (d. 2005), born. Chinese novelist and short story writer who discovered anarchism with the reading of Peter Kropotkin and Emma Goldman and created his pseudonym Ba (from Bakunin ) and Jin (from Kropotkin). Ba Jin was constantly harassed by the Communists and, in 1949, was forced by them to rewrite his stories, removing or replacing all anarchist references with Communist ones. In 1966 he was again in disgrace, branded "A great poisonous weed", and his writings were condemned as seditious.
tafel.levillage.org/politic/portraits d'anars.htm

[BB] 1904 - Jehan Mayoux (d. 1975), French Surrealist poet, teacher, pacifist, anti-militarist and libertarian, born. Teacher and inspector of primary education, he was drawn towards the new education methods of the Freinet movement. A trade unionist, he actively participated in the events of the Popular Front, was Assistant Secretary of the Bourse du Travail (Dunkirk region), then secretary of the Committee of the Popular Front in 1935. In 1939 he was imprisoned for refusing to respond to the mobilisation order and, when he managed to escape during the bombing of the Clairvaux prison, he was captured by the Germans and held as a prisoner of war in the Ukraine for five years. When he was repatriated after the war, he returned to teaching and, in 1951, began working on 'Libertaire'. Having signed the 'Manifeste des 121', he was suspended from duty as and Education Inspector from 1960 until 1965. He retired in 1967, participating in the May 68 movement, but was disgusted by the attitude of the unions.
He first came into contact with the Surrealists after sending André Breton and Paul Eluard "a surrealist game" in 1933 to be published in 'Le Surréalisme au Service de la Révolution' (Surrealism in the service of the revolution). A great friend of Yves Tanguy and Benjamin Peret, he remained in the Surrealist group until excluded without debate in 1967.

"Question-réponse :

Quand je serai porte de prison
je pêcherai à la dynamite

Quand je serai lapin de garenne
j'écrirai avec de l'encre de seiche

Quand je serai enclume
je laverai mon linge à la rivière

ou cette suite d'images décrivant la femme aimée :
plus spirituelle que la marée
plus sage que la hâte des suicides
plus nue que la mousse
plus discrète que l'écorce du tonnerre
plus silencieuse que Paris
plus gaie qu'un grain de sel
plus légère qu'un couteau"

(Question & Answer:

When I am prison door
I offend with dynamite

When I am rabbit
I write with squid ink

When I am anvil
I will wash my clothes in the river

or this series of images depicting the beloved:
more spiritual than the tide
wiser than hastily suicide
more naked than the foam
more discreet than the bark of thunder
quieter than Paris
gayer than a grain of salt
lighter than a knife)


1964 - Gaetano Gervasio (b. 1886), Italian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, carpenter, painter and sculptor, dies. [see: Jan. 2]

1968 - Upton Beall Sinclair, Jr. (b. 1878), American novelist, writer, journalist, socialist, anti-fascist and later Democratic candidate for governor of California, dies. [see: Sep. 20]

[C] 1970 - Yukio Mishima (三島 由紀夫; Mishima Yukio), pen name of Kimitake Hiraoka (平岡 公威 Hiraoka Kimitake; b. Jan. 14, 1925), Japanese author, poet, playwright, actor, film director and right-wing nationalist fruitcake, commits sepuku (ritual suicide) following the failure of the bizarre coup attempt at the Ichigaya Camp, the Tokyo headquarters of the Eastern Command of the Japan Ground Self-Defence Force, which he had plotted with members of Tatenokai (楯の会; Shield Society), his private militia of young nationalist students.

1988 - Louis Ségeral (b. 1928), French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, engineer, Résistance fighter, poet, painter and novelist, dies.
[A] 1731 - William Cowper (d. 1800), poet who provided us with the title of this diary: "...prisoned in a parlour snug and small, Like bottled wasps upon a southern wall", a line from his poem 'Retirement' (1782), born.

1864 - Hermann Gorter (d. 1927), Dutch poet and council communist, born. Part of the Dutch literary revolution known as the Tachtigers (movement of the Eighties), his first book, a 4,000 verse epic poem called 'Mei' (May), is regarded as the pinnacle of Dutch Impressionist literature.

1865 - Lewis Carroll's 'Alice in Wonderland' published.

[B] 1888 - Franz Jung (d. 1963), German Expressionist then Dadaist writer, novelist, playwright, economist, journalist and one-time anarchist, born. Helped introduce the theories of the psychoanalyst and anarchist Otto Gross into the Berlin Dadaist group and ran the anarchist and Dadaist paper 'Die Freie Straße' (1915-18) with Raoul Hausmann. Expelled from the KPD in 1920 and joined the Kommunistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands (Communist Workers Party) published under the pseudonym Francis Larsz and Frank Ryberg.

1895 - Arthur Arnould (b. 1833), anarchist, journalist, novelist, member of First International and the Paris Commune, friend of Michael Bakunin, dies. [see: Apr. 17]

[C] 1909 - 1909 - Eugène Ionesco (d. 1994), Romanian-born French dramatist and anti-fascist, whose first theatre piece, the one-act anti-play 'La Cantatrice Chauve' (The Bald Soprano; written in 1948 and published in 1950) inspired the Theatre of the Absurd, born. His 1959 play 'Rhinocéros', which depicts the mutation of those around him into rhinos (thugs and fascists), joining in with the destruction of their village, until he alone stands against the threat, is an anti-fascist allegory inspired by the rise of the fascist Iron Guard in Romania in the 1930s.
"Je suis un anarchiste de droit."

1964 - Emil Szittya (Adolf Schenk; b. 1886), Hungarian anarchist, writer, journalist, painter, art critic, traveler and vagabond, dies. [see: Aug. 18]

1971 - Ángel Falco (b. 1885), Uruguayan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist propagandist, one-time career soldier, diplomat, journalist, writer and poet, dies. [see: Sep. 21]

1976 - 'Anarchy In The UK' released by the Sex Pistols.

1992 - Néstor Osvaldo Perlongher (b. 1949), Argentinian sociologist, anthropologist, poet, writer, gay rights activist and anarchist, dies in São Paulo of an AIDS-related illness. [see: Dec. 24]
1903 - E. L. T. Mesens (Edouard Léon Théodore Mesens; d. 1971), Belgian Surrealist artist, collagist, writer, poet, curator, publisher and editor, who was more of a Dadaist Joker in the Surrealist pack, born. Started out as an aspiring Satie-influenced pianist and composer, and became a close friend and collaborator of René Magritte. He also organised the first surrealist exhibition in Belgium in 1934 and was co-organiser of the 1936 London International Surrealist Exhibition, which led to him setting up in city and starting the London Surrealist Group. He was also editor of the 'London Bulletin' (1938-1940), the most important of the English-language Surrealist periodicals. Mesens had an extensive contact list within the European artistic avant-garde and is better known for befriended a young George Melly and helping Kurt Schwitters after his release from his WWII internement camp. He translated Herbert Read's poetry and writings on anarchism into French as 'Poésie et Anarchisme' (1938).
Poet and historian Franklin Rosemont claimed that Mesens committed "suicide by absinthe", drinking himself to death by willfully disregarding doctors' orders to abstain completely from alcohol.

1941 - José Lavín Cobo aka Pepín or Pin el Cariñoso (Pin the Affectionate) (b. 19???), Spanish anarchist, renown Cantabrian anti-Francoist guerrilla and member of the Brigada Malumbres, is killed by security forces. Julio Llamazares' book, 'Luna de Lobos' (Wolf's Moon; 1985), is based on Pin el Cariñoso's story and it was made into a film directed by Julio Sánchez Valdés in 1987.

[B] 1953 - Eugene Gladstone O'Neill (b. 1888), Irish American playwright, Wobbly, socialist and philosophical anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 16]
1757 - William Blake (d. 1872), English Romantic poet, visionary radical, mystic, printer, engraver, subversive, proto-anarchist, born.

1785 - The Marquis de Sade completes 'Les 120 Journées de Sodome or l'École du Libertinage' (The 120 Days of Sodom, or the School of Libertinism; 1904) in the Bastille.

1800 - William Cowper (b. 1731), poet who provided us with the title of this diary: "...'prisoned in a parlour snug and small, Like bottled wasps upon a southern wall", a line from his poem 'Retirement' (1782), dies. [see: Nov. 26]

{[B] - 1862 - Théo van Rysselberghe erroneosuly listed on www.ephemanar.net/novembre28.html}

1880 - Alexander Alexandrovich Blok (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Бло́к; d. 1921), Russian Symbolist poet and important figure in the so-called Silver Age of Russian Poetry, born. Early supporter of Georgy Chulkov's Mystical Anarchism, he welcomed the October Revolution as the final resolution of these apocalyptic yearnings. However, he later became disillusioned with the Russian Revolution and tried repeated to leave, only being granted permission 3 days after his death.

1888 - Nikolay Nikolayevich Punin (Russian: Никола́й Никола́евич Пу́нин; d. 1953), Russian art scholar and writer, born. Lifelong friend and a later partner of poet Anna Akhmatova, he was also associated with the 'Anarkhiia' and Futurist circles but later became the People's Commissar of the Russian Museum and the Hermitage Museum and head of the Petrograd Committee for Education (Narkompros). In a civil union with poet Anna Akhmatova during the 1920s and 1930s, who was influential in getting Punin released following his first arrest in the '30s. In 1949 Punin was arrested on accusations of "anti-Soviet" activity and sent to the gulags, where he died in 1953, just months after Stalin's own death.

1917 - Mikelis Avlichos (Μικέλης Άβλιχος; b. 1844) Greek scholar, humorist and satirical poet, atheist, anarchist and radical, dies. [see: Mar. 18]

1930 - Buñuel and Dali's second film 'L'Age d'Or' premières at Studio 28 in Paris. [NB: There is much confusion about the sequence of events surrounding this film and the listings we have used are the best 'guesses' based on all the various versions extant.]

1942 - Emmett Grogan (d. 1978), co-founder, with Peter Coyote and Peter Berg, of the Haight-Ashbury anarchist improv group the Diggers, born. 'Ringolevio: A Life Played for Keeps' (1972) is his account of his time in the San Francisco counter culture and with the Diggers, and it is especially critical of such counterculture luminaries Timothy Leary, Jerry Rubin and, especially, Abbie Hoffman.
"So many people showed up at the Avenue B loft that night that the Anarchists' Ball had to be relocated across the street to Tompkin's Square Park with everyone telling everyone else they had been invited by "Emmett Grogan" whom nobody could find because he wasn't there. He went to the movies to see 'The Thief', a modern quasi-silent film starring Ray Milland, which has only a bit of dialogue and is seldom revived in theaters since it was made over twenty years ago. The estimated crowd of three to four thousand at the Anarchists' Ball had the cops freaked and thinking that there was about to be a riot or that some sort of gang war was going to happen. The Anarchists were delighted that their Anarchists' Ball had really turned into something chaotic and a true expression of their love for Kropotkin, Proudhon, and nihilist Dadaism, and they all agreed that Emmett Grogan was an anarchist extraordinaire. Since so many people who didn't know what he looked like were looking for him, one of the head Anarchists, Paulsky, assumed the name "Grogan" and went around through the gathering, passing as Emmett and shaking hands and making cracks about how the cops, who encircled the streets bordering the park with lines of bluecoated reinforcements from neighbouring precincts, were all scared shitless by the mob." - from 'Ringolevio: A Life Played for Keeps' (1972).

1956 - Sanshiro Ishikawa (石川三四郎; d. 1956), Japanese anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist theorist, historian, translator and novelist, dies. [see: May 23]

1993 - La Société Octave Mirbeau is founded to contribute to the knowledge of the life, the battles and the works of the great French novelist, journalist and anarchist.

2000 - Carol Bolt (b. 1941), Canadian playwright, author of the Emma Goldmann play 'Red Emma, Queen of the Anarchists' (1974), dies. [see: Aug. 25]
1886 - Nadezhda Andreeva Udaltsova (Наде́жда Андре́евна Удальцо́ва; d. 1961), Russian Cubo-Futurist and Suprematist artist and painter associated with the anarchist movement during the 1917 Revolution, born. Member of the pre-Revolution Soyuz Molodyozhi (Union of the Youth) and later of Malevich's Supremus. Associated with the 'Tvorchestvo' (Creativity or Creative Work) section specializing in art and literature in 'Anarkhiia'. Partner of Latvian artist Aleksandr Drevin.

1902 - Carlo Levi (d. 1975), Italian-Jewish painter, writer, activist, anti-fascist and doctor, born. He is best known for his book 'Cristo si è Fermato a Eboli' (Christ Stopped at Eboli; 1945), a memoir of his time spent in exile in Lucania, Italy, after being arrested in connection with activities in the Giustizia e Libertà anti-fascist movement, which he co-founded with Carlo and Nello Rosselli in 1929.

1916 - Volga Marcos Calvo (d. 2004), Castillian writer, poet, playwright and anarchist, born.

[B] 1926 - Jean Sénac (d. 1973), gay Algerian poet, Christian infidel, socialist, libertarian and friend of Albert Camus, who was known as the "poet who signed with a sun", born.

1965 - Edmundo Bianchi (b. 1880), Uruguayan playwright, screenwriter, poet, writer, translator, composer of tango lyrics and diplomat, dies. [see: Nov. 22]
[B] 1867 - Henri Gabriel Ibels (d. 1936), French illustrator, poster artist, printmaker, painter, author and anarchist, born. Founding member of Les Nabis alongside Gauguin, Utrillo, Félix Vallotton and Emile Bernard. From 1890, he worked for the newspaper 'Le Père Peinard', the 'Revue Anarchiste' with his brother André, a special edition of 'La Plume' dedicated to anarchism, along with 'Mirliton', 'L'Escarmouche', 'la Revue Blanche', 'Le Cri de Paris', 'le Courrier Français', 'l'Echo de Paris', and the Dreyfus defending 'Le Sifflet'.

1889 - Ezequiel Endériz Olaverri (d. 1951), Spanish libertarian journalist, poet, novelist, playwright, libreticist, etc., born. Wrote and braodcast under various pseudonyms including Goro Farolas and Tirso de Tudela.

1900 - Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (b. 1854), Irish writer, poet and anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 16]

1935 - Fernando Pessoa, born Fernando António Nogueira de Seabra Pessoa (b. 1888), Portuguese Modernist poet, writer, literary critic translator, publisher, philosopher and individualist, who dabbled in automatic writing and occultism, dies. [see: Jun. 13]

1938 - Pierre Quiroule (pseudonym of Joaquin Alejo Falconnet; b. 1867), French-born Argentinian militant anarchist, writer, playwright, journalist and novelist, dies. Born in Lyon, his family moved to Argentina when he was a child, possibly because of the post-Commune repression. There he joined a number of Kropotkin-inspired anarchist groups. With the arrival of Malatesta in Buenos Aires, where he organised guilds of shoemakers and bakers, many groups changed to a more pro-propaganda by deed line. This was reflected in the pages of 'El Perseguido' (The Hunted), on which Quirole worked between 1890 and 1897, and the French language 'La Liberté', which he co-founded in 1893 with Jules Alexandre Sadier and Emile Piette, and which he edited for a year. He also worked on 'La Revista Blanca', 'Sembrando Ideas: revista quincenal de divulgación sociológica' (Planting Ideas: biweekly journal of sociological outreach) and other libertarian and anarchist journals.
His anarchist ideals are reflected in the 3 utopian novels that he wrote: 'La Ruta de la Anarquía' (The Path of Anarchy; 1909), 'La Ciudad Anarquista Americana' (The American Anarchist City; 1914) and 'En la Soñada Tierra del Ideal' (In the Fabled Land of the Ideal; 1920); and, to an extent, the numerous plays, essays and works of philosophical and scientific, as well as environmentalism (of which he can be considered a precursor), stories and detective novels that he wrote later in life, after he had ceased to be an active militant.

1953 - Francis Picabia (Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; b. 1879), French painter, illustrator, designer, poet, writer, editor and "congenial anarchist", dies. [see: Jan. 22]

1968 - Carlos Latuff, Brazilian freelance political cartoonist whose works deal with an array of themes, including anti-globalization, anti-capitalism and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, born.

1994 - Guy Debord (b. 1931), member of the Situationist International, filmmaker and writer, best know for his book 'The Society of the Spectacle', dies, a suicide. His ashes are scattered on the point of Ile de la Cite, Paris. [see: Dec. 28]

1997 - Kathy Acker (Karen Lehmann; b. 1947), American novelist, punk poet, playwright, essayist, postmodernist and feminist writer, dies. [see: Apr. 18]

1886 - Rex Todhunter Stout (d. 1975), American writer of detective fiction best known as the creator of the fictional detective Nero Wolfe, born. Bizarrely, he was on the original board of the American Civil Liberties Union and helped start the Marxist magazine 'The New Masses', successor to 'The Masses' and 'The Liberator', but became a fervent anti-communist post-WWII (see 'The Second Confession' (1949)). Yet he also refused to appear before HUAC to answer questions about his early communist links. When he claimed that: "My theory is that people who don't like mystery stories are anarchists", he clearly did not know what he was talking about.

[B] 1893 - Ernst Toller (d. 1939), German Expressionist playwright, poet, pacifist, anarchist and one of the leaders of the Munich Soviet, born. He volunteered for military duty during WWI, spending 13 months on the Western Front, suffering a complete physical and psychological collapse, experiences which informed his first play 'Die Wandlung' (Transformation; 1919). In 1917, and no longer considered to be fit for combat, he attended the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, meeting Thomas Mann and Rainer Maria Rilke, and later the sociologist Max Weber. Around the same time he became involved in radical politics via a Munich discussion group involving Kurt Eisner, Felix Fechenbach, Oskar Maria Graf and Erich Mühsam, and joined the Independent Social Democratic Party (Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands - USPD). In Munich he was involved with Kurt Eisner in organising a munitions workers' strike, for which they and other trade union leaders were arrested and sent to Leonrodstrasse military prison. Charged with "attempted treason" but was released in May 1918 and returned to the German Army. Expecting to be sent to the Western Front, he was instead committed to a psychiatric clinic, only once again to be diagnosed as being unfit for active service and discharged from the army.
Following the 1918 overthrow of the Kaiser, and despite now being a convinced pacifist, Toller participated alongside Gustav Landauer, Erich Mühsam and Ret Marut (aka B. Traven) in the establishment of the Munich Soviet, becoming its President from April 6 to April 12 until the communist putsch overthrew his "Bavarian Revolution of Love", with its short-lived Workers' Councils and self-managed co-operatives.
Following the defeat of the Soviet by the Freikorps, Toller was arrested and charged with high treason. Toller expected to be found guilty and sentenced to death but his friends began an international campaign to save his life.
At his trial Toller argued: "We revolutionaries acknowledge the right to revolution when we see that the situation is no longer tolerable, that it has become a frozen. Then we have the right to overthrow it." Weber and Thomas Mann gave character references and, found guilty of high treason, the judge acknowledged his "honourable motives" and sentenced him to only five years in the prisons of Stadelheim, Neuburg, Eichstätt and, from February 1920 until his release, in the fortress of Niederschönenfeld where he spent 149 days in solitary confinement and 24 days on hunger strike.
While imprisoned, he completed work on 'Die Wandlung' (The Transformation; 1919) and wrote his Expressionist classics 'Masse Mensch' (Mass Man; 1920), 'Die Maschinenstürmer' (The Machine Breakers; 1922) and 'Der Deutsche Hinkemann' (Hinkemann, the German; 1923), along with many of his better known poems. Post-release he continued to write plays, including 'Hoppla, wir Leben!' (Hoppla, We're Alive!; 1925), a drama about a revolutionary who is discharged from a mental hospital after eight years only to discover that his once-revolutionary comrades have grown complacent and hopelessly compromised within the system they once opposed. In despair, he kills himself. 'Bourgeois bleibt Bourgeois' (Once a Bourgeois Always a Bourgeois; 1927) was his attempt to follow Brecht and 'Die Dreigroschenoper' (Threepenny Opera). He also remained active in politics, becoming a prominent figure within the League for Human Rights and the Group of Revolutionary Pacifists.
When Hitler came to power, Toller was personally denounced by Josef Goebbels, and his work was banned on the same list that included Marx, Freud, Brecht, and Mann. He was fortunate to be travelling outside of Germany when Storm Troopers arrested most of the league's members. He sought refuge in England an was able to complete his autobiography, 'I Was a German' (1933). In October 1936 Toller left London for a lecture tour of North America, where he was offered a contract to write film-scripts for MGM. While in the States, Toller became active in the campaign to raise funds to help the Spanish Republic's Civil War effort and went to Spain as a journalist. Depressed by the defeat of the Republic and the rise of Fascism in Europe, penniless from having given all his money to Spanish Republican causes, and discovering that his sister and brother had both been arrested and sent to concentration camps, he committed suicide in his hotel room in New York City.

1915 - Stuart Merrill (b. 1863), American Symbolist poet, who wrote mostly in French, and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Aug. 1]

1976 - The infamous Sex Pistols' Bill Grundy interview.

1987 - James Arthur Baldwin (d. 1924), American novelist, essayist, playwright, poet and social critic, dies. [see: Aug. 2]
1814 - Donatien Alphonse François, Marquis de Sade (b. 1740), French aristocrat, revolutionary politician, philosopher and writer of novels, short stories, plays, dialogues and political tracts, dies. [see: Jun. 2]

1889 - Nathan Isaevich Altman (Натан Исаевич Альтман; d. 1970), Russian-Jewish and Soviet avant-garde artist, Cubist painter, stage designer and book illustrator, born. Associated with the anarchist circles around the weekly newspaper 'Anarkhiia', he managed to survive the Sovietisation of the Arts by focusing on stage design and was even allowed to move to Paris in 1928. He returned to Leningrad in 1936, where he worked mainly for the theatre, as well as a illustrating books and writing essays about art.

[B] 1891 - Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix (d. 1969), fiercely anti-war German artist, painter and printmaker, born. Volunteered for the German Army during WWI and fought on the Western Front, taking part in the Battle of the Somme, and was later transferred to the Eastern Front. Dix was profoundly affected by the war, and would later describe a recurring nightmare in which he crawled through destroyed houses. From a working class background, he remained close to the labour movement and, essentially a libertarian influenced by the writings of Nietzsche, never joining the Communist party despite the membership of close comrades like Grosz and Heartfiled.
In 1919 he went through an Expressionist phase before his 1920 meeting with Georg Grosz and Dresden Dada. Although initially active in Dadaist circles, he also maintained his links with the Expressionists, contributing to the Neue Sachlichkeit exhibition in Mannheim in 1925, alongside George Grosz, Max Beckmann, Georg Schrimpf, etc. In 1926, Dix became a professor in the Kunstakademie in Dresden. He maintained that position until the Nazis rose to power in 1933. His paintings 'Kriegskrüppel' (War Cripples; 1920) and 'den Schützengraben' (The Trench; 1923) were displayed at the Entartete Kunst and, like many of his works, burnt by the Nazis.
He remained in Germany and continued to paint allegorical anti-Nazi picture and in 1939 was arrested trumped-up charge of being involved in a plot against Hitler (involving Georg Elser), but was later released. During World War II Dix was conscripted into the Volkssturm, captured by French troops and was released in February 1946.
Amongst his most famous works are 'The Skat Players' (1920); 'Kriegskrüppel' (War Cripples; 1920); 'den Schützengraben' (The Trench; 1923), the last displayed at the Entartete Kunst; 'We Want Bread!' (1923); 'Portrait of the Journalist Sylvia von Harden' (1926); 'Straßenkampf' (Street Fight; 1927); 'Flandern' (Flansders; 1934); the triptychs 'Metropolis' (1928) and 'Der Krieg' (The War; 1932); and 'Ecce Homo II' (1948).

1909 - 'Le Libertaire' brings out a special edition with the headline 'The Tragic Death of Philippe Daudet, Anarchist. Léon Daudet, his father, hushes up the truth', following the mysterious death of the young anarchist and posthumous poet. [see: Jan 7]

[C] 1924 - Else Marie Pade, Danish electronic composer, who was active in the resistance during the Second World War, and was interned at the Frøslev prison camp from 1944 till the end of the war, born.

1936 - Novelist Thomas Mann stripped of German citizenship.

1944 - Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (b. 1876), Italian Symbolist poet, editor and the founder of the Futurist movement, dies. [see: Dec. 22]

1951 - Neith Boyce Hapgood (b. 1872), U.S. novelist, playwright and journalist, dies. [see: Mar. 21]

1978 - Christian Lagant (b. 1926), French anarchist militant, one-time surrealist and one of chief editors of 'Noir et Rouge', takes his own life, not wishing to live any longer in a society that in his view had returned to 'normality' after the period of unrest that had its climax in May-June 1968. A talented writer and artist, he contributed articles and drawings to the Fédération Anarchiste paper 'Le Libertaire' and was later one of the founders of the Groupes Anarchistes d'Action Révolutionnaires (GAAR), taking an active part in editing its magazine 'Noir et Rouge' over a period of fifteen years.

1980 - Romain Gary (born Roman Kacew; b. 1914), French-Litvaks diplomat, novelist, film director and World War II aviator, dies. [see: May 21]

1990 - Aaron Copland (b. 1900), American composer, composition teacher, writer and conductor, dies. [see: Nov. 14]
1857 - Józef Teodor Konrad ‪Nałęcz‬ Korzeniowski (aka Joseph Conrad; d. 1924), Polish author of the English language novel on/against anarchist attentats (based loosely on the 1894 Greenwich Bombing), 'The Secret Agent' (1907) and the anarchist-related short stories 'An Anarchist' and 'The Informer' (both 1906) [allegedly based upon the circle around Olivia and Helen Rossetti and the anarchist journal 'The Torch', born.

1897 - William Victor 'Bill' Gropper (d. 1977), U.S. cartoonist, Social Realist painter associated with the Ash-Can Group, lithographer, muralist left (libertarian) communist and anti-fascist, born. Took his first art lessons at the Ferrer School in NYC and studied under Robert Henri and George Bellows, both philosophical anarchists if not particularly politically active.
One of the most significant American artists of his generation, he contributed to several mainstream newspapers and magazines including 'The New Yorker', 'Vanity Fair' and the 'New York Post', as well as numerous radical publications, including 'The Masses', 'The Revolutionary Age', 'The Rebel Worker', 'The Liberator', 'The New Masses', 'The Worker', and 'Morgen Freiheit' (Morning Freiheit).

1930 - Jean-Luc Godard, French Marxist New Wave film maker, born. His early (and best) films include 'Le Petit Soldat' (1960; which dealt with the Algerian War of Independence and was banned by the French Government), 'Les Carabiniers' (1963; an anti-war film); 'Alphaville' (1965; dystopian sci-fi allegory); 'La Chinoise' (1967; pseudo-Maoist student rebellion) and 'Week End' (1967; anti-bourgeois morality play). Was also involved in making films with Jean-Pierre Gorin and with the Dziga Vertov group that had strong Maoist elements.

[B] 1930 - The right-wing Ligue des Patriotes (League of Patriots), outrages by the great popular success of 'L'Age d'Or' [and possibly by the links od Surrealism with the Communist party], interrupt the screening by throwing ink at the cinema screen and assaulting viewers who opposed them; they then go to the lobby and destroy art works by Dalí, Joan Miró, Man Ray, Yves Tanguy, and others.

[CC] 1931 - Franz Josef Degenhardt (d. 2011), German poet, satirist, novelist, screenwriter, folk-singer/songwriter (Liedermacher), lawyer and leftist, born. His early songs were anarchist-romantic in the tradition of Villon and the anonymous Bänkelsang (broadsheet ballad) but after 1967 his politics became more communist, joining the German Communist Party (DKP). During the events of 1968, he defended many of those on trial from the German student movement and in 1972-73, defended members of the Red Army Faction. His first novel 'Zündschnüre' (Fuses; 1973) is about working-class youths who join an anti-Nazi resistance group in 1944, and the second, 'Brandstellen' (Burn Marks; 1974), also made into a 1978 film of the same name, tells the story of a community's resistance against a NATO military training ground. His 1986 album 'Junge Paare Auf Bänken' (Young Couples on the Benches) features his translations into German of French singer-songwriter Georges Brassens, and one of his last albums was entitled 'Krieg Gegen den Krieg' (War against the War; 2003).
He also wrote the anti-fascist song 'Edelweisspiraten' (Edelweiss pirates) based on the World War II era German working class anti-Nazi network of youth groups, which emerged out of the German Youth Movement of the late 1930s in response to the strict regimentation of the Hitler Youth.

1937 - Attila József (b. 1905), one of the most important and well-known Hungarian poets, dies. [see: Apr. 11]

1940 - On the eve of Vichy premier Pétain's visit to Marseilles, Andre Breton is arrested and held for four days. An official report describes him as a "dangerous anarchist sought for a long time by the French police."

1956 - Aleksander Mikhailovich Rodchenko (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ро́дченко; b. 1891), Russian Constructivist artist, sculptor, photographer, graphic designer, photo-montagist and one-time anarchist, dies. Influenced by Cubism, Russian Futurism and Suprematism, he later became a member of the post-Revolutionary Productivist group. [see: Dec. 5]
1866 - Wassily Kandinsky (d. 1944), influential Russian painter, art theorist and teacher at the Bauhaus, born.

[B] 1886 - André Colomer (d. 1931), Catalonian poet and anarchist, born. Involved in the review 'L'Action d'Art' and also the trade union of writers and dramatic authors. Also a founder of 'Libertaire' and manager of 'La Revue Anarchiste', before he broke with anarchism in 1927.

1893 - Herbert Read (d. 1968), English poet, art critic, anarchist and political philosopher, born. Wrote 'Anarchy & Order; Poetry & Anarchism' (1938); 'Philosophy of Anarchism' (1940); 'Revolution & Reason' (1953); 'My Anarchism' (1966), etc. Early champion of Surrealism. Accepted a knighthood which caused much consternation and ridicule among the anarchist milieu.

1912 - In Jack London's 'The Iron Heel' the German fleet sinks American ships in Honolulu. War is declared between US and Germany the following day and within hours a general strike is called in both countries. The war is called off within a week as the working classes on both sides refuse to fight.

1923 - Maurice Barrès (Auguste-Maurice Barrès; b. 1862), French Symbolist novelist and journalist, dies. [see: Aug. 19]

1924 - The 'instantaneist' ballet, 'Relâche', choreographed by Jean Börlin to music by Erik Satie, with sets by Francis Picabia, is premièred at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées in Paris. During the intermission two Surrealist films, 'Entr'acte' by René Clair and 'Queue du Chien' by Francis Picabia, are shown. The première was originally planned for Nov. 27 but had to be cancelled due to illness, the irony being that relâche is the word used to indicate a cancelled show or closed theatre.

1925 - Francisco Sionil José, anti-colonial Filipino novelist and writer, born.
1891 - Aleksander Mikhailovich Rodchenko (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ро́дченко; d. 1956), Russian artist, sculptor, photographer, photo-montagist, graphic designer and one-time anarchist, born. One of the founders of Constructivism and Russian design; he founded the Profsoiuz (Professional'nyi soiuz khudozhnikov-zhivopistsev, Professional Union of Artist-Painters) and was secretary of its left or avant-garde division, the Young Federation (Molodaia federatsiia). Married to fellow artist Varvara Stepanova.
An early anarchist active in various Moscow anarchist groups, including the Activist Group of the Moskovskija Associacija Anarchistov alongside Vladimir Tatlin, he was a close associate of Malevich, publishing regularly in 'Anarkhiia' under the pseudonyms 'Anti' and Aleksandr. On April 2, 1918, the newspaper published a salute to Rodchenko, Olga Rozanova, Udaltsova and others among the avant-garde: "With pride we look upon your creative rebellion.... We congratulate the creator Rodchenko on his spirited three-dimensional constructions of colored forms..."
In an April 1919 catalogue for an exhibit in which he exhibited his black-on-black paintings (which many have interpreted as symbols of his anarchist views), Rodchenko assembled quotations from figures including Max Stirner ("That I destroy myself only shows that I exist") and poet Walt Whitman ("What invigorates life invigorates death"). Yet later that year he had already helped form Asskranov (Assotsiatsiia krainikh novatorov, Association of Radical Innovators), in opposition to Malevich's Suprematism, and by 1921, when the artistic avant garde had officially been dropped by the Bolshevik government, he had fully embraced the Communist/official Constructivism line that artistic endeavour - the intellectual production - of artist-engineers should entail the "mechanisation of creative methods and the reduction of the creative process to rational operations" (Gassner, p. 307) - when, in March of that year he, Aleksei Gan and Stepanova joined with Konstantin Nledunetskii, Karl Ioganson, Gregorii Stenberg and Vladimir Stenberg to form The First Working Group of Constructivists.
"Three artists spent the night in the mansion, since outside the museum a studio was set aside fur making art. As the artists told it, that memorial morning, 'We were awakened by shouts of, "We'll shoot! Hands up!''' Armed soldiers ordered them to get dressed, took them out to the courtyard and together with anarchists sent them off to the Kremlin." - Rodchenko's description of a government raid on the anarchist-held Morozov mansion in Moscow in the early morning of April 12, 1918, published in 'Anarkhiia'.

[BB] 1896 - Henry Poulaille (d. 1980), French novelist, anarchist, director of Éditions Grasset, the journal 'Le Nouvel Âge Littéraire', founder of Le Musée du Soir [a room for workers, which included a library of books, magazines, newspapers and brochures, organised exhibitions of photographs and engravings, as well as meetings with writers], is born into a poor working class anarchist family. Avidly devoured his father's library of anarchist books. Orphaned at 13, his brther & sister went to relatives but he chose to fend for himself selling newspapers and other unskilled jobs. Eventually he became friends with Jules Erlebach, known as Ducret, who ran an anarchist bookshop L’idée Libre (The Free Idea). Others he met around the same time were Jean Grave , Paul Delesalle , Victor Serge and Rirette Maîtrejean. During WWI he was wounded (Oct. 1917) and following his demob (Apr. 1919) he ended up working at the newspaper of the Commune Libre of Montmartre, 'La Vache Enragée' (The Angry Cow), wrote for other papers including L’Humanité and also signed the Manifesto of The International Union of Progressive Artists launched by the Dutch group De Stijl in 1922.
Later he became secretary of its press service and then its director. This helped him publish his own writings and those of other anarchist authors. He continued writing for the anarchist press (including 'La Revue Anarchiste' and 'L’Insurgé', edited by André Colomer) and promoting the idea of proletarian literature, creating the Prize Without A Name, which he promoted in his paper Journal 'Sans Nom' in 1925. The same year he published his first novel 'Ils Etaient Quatre' (They Were Four). [expand]
Many of his other novels are autobiographical: 'Le Pain Quotidien' (Daily Bread, covering the years 1903-1906; 1931); 'Les Damnés de la Terre' [Le Pain Quotidien 2: 1906-1909] (The Wretched of the Earth; 1935); 'Pain de Soldat' [1914-1917] (Soldier's Bread; 1937); 'Les Rescapés' [Pain de soldat 2, 1917-1920] (The Survivors; 1938) and, unpublished in his lifetime, 'Seul Dans la Vie à 14 Ans' [1909-1914] (Alone in the Life of a 14-year-old'; 1980) - all featuring a working class family: the Magneux; with the character of Loulou Magneux being his literary double.
During and after WWII, Poulaille also anthologised numerous stories, carols and songs, and many of these books still remain in use as reference tools.

1912 - In Jack London's 'The Iron Heel' war is declared between US and Germany following sinking of American ships in Honolulu by the German fleet. Within hours a general strike is called in both countries. The war is called off within a week as the working classes on both sides refuse to fight.

[C] 1930 - Having premièred before an invited audience the previous evening, the first showing before the paying public in Berlin of Universal Studio's dubbed (and judiciously cut) German version of 'All Quiet on the Western Front', directed by Lewis Milestone, is disrupted by Nazi protesters. Having recognised the potential propaganda potential of film, the new Gauleiter of Berlin and member of the Reichstag, Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels, organised the buying of a large number of tickets taken up by SA (Sturm Abteilung) stormtroopers and Nazi supporters. After Goebbels had given the signal by flashing his Reichstag pass (which gave him immunity from arrest), some 200 - 300 Nazis (reports vary) began booing and catcalling, threw stink bombs, and then, as the French rightist paper 'Je Suis Partout' reported the incident, released white mice "to frighten the ladies." Fighting broke out as the Nazis attacked anyone who protested at their antics. The showing of the film was stopped, and the police had to clear the Mozartsaal theatre. The Nazi version of the incident, as reported in the 'Völkischer Beobachter', was naturally somewhat different. Their account, labelled a "storm of protest," demanded that the insult to German soldiers and the fallen created by the "Jewish-Bolshevist underworld" be ended, and blamed the Marxists for starting the riot in the theatre.
The next night, Goebbels led a substantial demonstration outside the theatre, followed by nightly protests. Spectators were searched for stink bombs and white mice before entering the theatre. The 'Völkischer Beobachter' carried detailed accounts of the Nazi protests, including Goebbels's speech against the film. According to the report, he proclaimed that it was a "cultural shame" that a film that belittled "the best soldiers of all time, the German front soldiers" should be allowed to run. The Berlin police were finally forced to ban all demonstrations in front of the theatre. On December 11, the film was again reviewed by the censors and, after a five-hour inquisition, banned. Two articles in the 'Neue Preußische Kreuz-Zeitung' provide a detailed account of the censors' review and conclusions. The head censor declared it "not a presentation of German war, but of German defeat, and thus is painful and depressing to the German viewer".

[B] 1970 - 'Accidental Death of an Anarchist' premières in Varerse, Italy.

1974 - Final episode of Monty Python broadcast.

1984 - Ethel Mannin (b. 1900), Irish anarchist, novelist and author, dies. Her writing career began in copy-writing and journalism but she later became a prolific author and novelist (100 plus books published in her lifetime), encompassing many aspects of anarchism and feminism as well as her travel writing. [#] [see: Oct. 6]
1890 - Rudolf Schlichter (d. 1955), German Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) artist, Dadaist, and member of the KPD, who helped for the Rote Gruppe alongsdie John Heartfield and George Grosz, born. Painted 'Death of the Anarchist Moro' (1920) and 'Dada Roof Studio' (c. 1920).

[C] 1893 - Sylvia Townsend Warner (d. 1978), English feminist and lesbian writer and poet, born. Books include 'Lolly Willows' (1926) and 'Mr Fortune's Maggot' (1927). Active in the CPGB and visited Spain during the Civil War as a Red Cross representative.

[B] 1955 - James Koehnline, Surrealism-influenced collage artist who designs and editor of the yearly 'Autonomedia Calendar of Jubilee Saints' who illustrates numerous US anarchist projects including 'Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed' and 'Fifth Estate', born. His work is probably more widely know through the CD cover art featuring on numerous Bill Laswell releases.

1985 - Hugo Gellert (b. 1892), Hungarian-born American artist, radical illustrator, muralist, socialist and anti-fascist, dies. A communist and anti-fascist, he famously illustrated 'Das Capital' in lithographs and caused much controversy in the US art world. [see: May 3]
1861 - Han Ryner (Jacques Élie Henri Ambroise Ner; d. 1938), French teacher, anti-clerical, pacifist, individualist anarchist, philosopher (called a "contemporary Socrates"), novelist and all-round prolific writer, born. He published more than 50 books including novels, such as 'L'Humeur Inquiète' (The Worried Humour; 1894) and 'La Folie de Misère' (The Insanity of Poverty; 1895), short stories, essays, plays and poetry [he was voted prince of storytellers by the readers of the Parisian newspaper 'L'Intransigeant' in 1912] as well as his works on political theory and practice.

1862 - Paul Adam (d. 1920), French author, novelist, art critic, editor of 'Entretiens Politiques et Littéraires' and leading writer in the French anarchist movement, born. Amongst his other works is the totalitarian dystopia 'Lettres de Malaisie' (Letters from Malaysia; 1898), reprinted in 1908 under the title 'La Cité Prochaine' (The Next City).







1952 - Founding Conference of the Lettrist International at Aubervilliers, France. Participants: Serge Berna, Jean-Louis Brau, Guy-Ernest Debord, Gil J. Wolman.

1986 - Enrico Arrigoni (aka Frank Brand; b. 1894) , Italian American individualist anarchist Lathe operator, house painter, bricklayer, dramatist and political activist influenced by the work of Max Stirner, dies.

[B] 1990 - Horst Bienek (b. 1930), dissident East German novelist and poet, dies of AIDS. [see: May 7]
[B] 1880 - Shin Chae-ho (신채호; d. 1936), Korean historian, Journalist, novelist, 'nationalist' independence activist, Bakuninist anarchist and social Darwinist, born. A writer of elegant prose, he composed the draft of the 'Korean Revolutionary Manifesto' issued by the Band of Heroes (Eiyuldan), a revolutionary terrorist group responsible for a campaign of anti-Japanese violence in the 1920's. His novels are collected in 'The Dream Sky. Anthology of Novels by Shin Chae-ho' (1990), containing 'The Dream Sky' (Kkum Haneul, c. 1916) and 'The War of the Dragons' (Yonggwa Yongui Daegyeokjeon, c. 1920s-30s). His works, including his historiography, are still read in Korea today, where he is still held up as a national (sic) hero.

1886 - Diego Rivera (Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez; b. 1957), Mexican painter, muralist and Marxist, who let Trotsky sofa-surf at his pad whilst in exile, born.

1911 - Sidney Solomon (d. 2004), Russian-born American painter, book designer, publisher and long-time anarchist, who lived in New York, born. With his wife, Clara, and others, Solomon was a co-founder of the Atlantic Anarchist Circle.

1930 - Janos (John) Réty (d. 2010), Hungarian-British anarchist poet, translator, publisher, chess-player, activist, born.

1930 - Adolphe Retté (b. 1863), French Symbolist poet, writer and anarchist,dies. [see: Jul. 25]

1938 - Georges Delaw (Henri Georges Deleau; b. 1871), French anarchist, poet, artist, designer and illustrator, dies. [see: Sep. 4]

1939 - Jean Grave (b. 1854), an important activist, writer and publisher in the French anarchist and avant-garde movements, dies. Involved with Élisée Reclus' 'Le Révolté' and wrote 'Mouvement Libertaire Sous la IIIe République'. [see: Oct. 16]

1980 - Working Class Hero and de facto libertarian John Winston Ono Lennon (b. 1940), is assassinated outside his apartment building in NYC by Mark David Chapman.

2004 - Jackson Mac Low (b. 1922), American anarchist, pacifist, poet, Fluxus performance artist, composer and playwright, dies. [see: Sep. 11]
[B] 1896 - First performance (dress rehearsal) of Alfred Jarry's subversive play 'Ubu Roi' sets off a riot. An even bigger one occurs at the première tomorrow.

1905 - Dalton Trumbo (d. 1976), American writer, director, anti-Fascist and anti-militarist, who was the author of the 1939 anti-war novel, 'Johnny Got His Gun', born. Trumbo was part of the anti-fascist Popular Front coalition of communists and liberals in the late 1930s, at the time of the Spanish Civil War. By the time of America's entry into World War II, Trumbo was one of the most respected, highest paid screenwriters in Hollywood. He had also established a name for himself as a left-wing political activist whose sympathies coincided with those of the American Communist Party (CPUSA), and his anti-War views coincided with the CPUSA's support for the USSR's non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany and firmly against the interventionist standpoint. However he reportedly did not join the Party until 1943 and continued to harbour personal reservations about its policies as regards enforcing ideological conformity. Pro-peace and anti-FDR, his stance changed when Nazi Germany invaded the USSR and Trumbo instructed his publisher to recall all copies of 'Johnny Got His Gun' and to cease publication of the book. He would go on to fall foul of HUAC, refusing to testify before it in 1947. Blacklisted in October 1947, he went on to write numerous scripts under a pseudonym but his blacklisting effectively ended when he was 'outed' after Kirk Douglas made public Trumbo's credit for the screenplay for 'Spartacus' (1960).

1912 - Jura Soyfer (d. 1939), Russian-born Austrian political journalist, cabaret writer and anti-fascist, born.

[C] 1985 - Hugo Gellert (Gellért Hugó; b. 1892), Hungarian-born American artist, illustrator, muralist, socialist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: May 3]
1896 - The première of Alfred Jarry's subversive play 'Ubu Roi' sets off a riot, with different sections of the crowd alternately booing, whistling and shouting their outrage prompted by its scatological references [its first word is "Merde"], pompous style and bastardised French, or cheering and applauding the reaction of the outraged bourgeoisie. This follows similar disturbances at the dress rehearsal yesterday and these would be the only 2 performances of the play during the author's lifetime.
Interestingly, Joan Miró would go on to produce a set of lithographs (the Barcelona Series, published in 1944 and which he would revisit in colour in 1966), whilst in internal exile in Mallorca, based on the Ubu character. Produced in reaction to his experiences of the Spanish Revolution and its aftermath, the lithographs clearly depict Franco and his generals as versions of the fictional tyrant.

1930 - The Prefect of Police in Paris, Jean Chiappe, has 'L'Age d'Or' banned from further public exhibition after the regular organised disturbances that followed the mini-riot of the 3rd., by getting the Board of Censors to re-review the film.

1970 - 'Accidental Death of an Anarchist' published in Italy.

[CC] 1976 - Blues singer Carol Grimes tops the bill at the first RAR gig at the Princess Alice pub in East London, on . On the door were a group of dockers organised by Mickey Fenn, Eddie Prevost and Bob Light from the Royal Group of Docks Shop Stewards Committee. Fenn and Prevost had left the Communist Party in 1972 and later joined Light in the International Socialists. Stewarding RAR events was to become an important activity for anti-fascists. Hundreds of gigs followed the one at the Princess Alice." ['Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)]

[B] 2008 - The Athens Surrealist Group release a statement, 'To φάντασμα της ελευθερίας έρχεται πάντα με το μαχαίρι στα δόντια' (The phantom of liberty always comes with a knife in its teeth), in support of the unrest in Greece.
"Let's not allow this flaming breath of poetry to loosen or die out. Let's turn it into a concrete utopia: to transform the world and to transform life! No peace with cops and their masters! All in the streets! Those who cannot feel the rage may as well shut their traps!"
1864 - Maurice Leblanc (d. 1941), French novelist and creator of the fictional gentleman thief and detective Arsène Lupin, who was based on the anarchist illegalist burglar Marius (Alexandre) Jacob, born.

1918 - Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn (d. 2008), Russian author and chronicler of the Soviet gulags, born.

1922 - Grace Paley (d. 2007), American short story writer, poet, teacher, feminist and "somewhat combative pacifist and cooperative anarchist", born. Her works include three collections of fiction: 'The Little Disturbances of Man' (1959), 'Enormous Changes at the Last Minute' (1974), 'Later the Same Day' (1985) as well as 'The Collected Stories of Grace Paley' (1994); her collection of essays, 'Just As I Thought' (1998); and her poems appear in several collections, including 'Long Walks and Intimate Talks' (1991) and 'Begin Again: Collected Poems' (2002).

1928 - Tomás Gutiérrez Alea (d. 1996), post-Revolutionary Cuban film maker who trod the fine line between support and criticism of the social, economic, and political conditions of the country, born.

[B] 1930 - Jean-Louis Trintignant, French actor and leftist sympathiser, born. In 2012 declared himself: "contre l'autorité, la politique... plutôt socialiste. Voire anarchiste... L'idée de l'anarchie me plaît beaucoup, même si je sais qu'on ne sauvera pas le monde avec elle, born." (Against the authority, politics... rather socialist. Even anarchist... The idea of the anarchy pleases me a lot, even if I know that we will not save the world with it.)

[C] 1930 - The German language version of the film 'All Quiet on the Western Front' is banned by censors following 5 days of Nazi protests. [see: Nov. 5]

1953 - Patrick Pécherot, French journalist, novelist and libertarian, born. Probably best known for his Série Noire detective fiction, including 'Tiurai' (1996), his début novel which was a tribute to anarchist writer Jean Meckert, and the trilogy of books featuring Léo Malet's character Nestor Burma: 'Les Brouillards de la Butte' (The Mists of the Hill 2002), 'Belleville Barcelone' (2003) and 'Boulevard des Branques' (2005). He has also written a novel about Bonnot gang member André Soudy, 'L'Homme à la Carabine' (The Man with the Rifle; 2011).
1872 - Johann Heinrich Vogeler (d. 1942), German painter, printmaker, architect, designer, educator, writer and communitarian, born. Member of the artistic community of Worpswede. Founder of the Barkenhoff artists commune. Having been a dandy and aesthete in the years before WWI, he volunteer for the German army in 1914 and became a pacifist in 1917. Influenced by utopian socialism and anarchism, and also by the English Garden City movement, he later became a member of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) and of the Rote Hilfe Deutschland. He emigrated to the Soviet Union in 1931.

1873 - Lola Ridge (d. 1941), Irish-American anarcho-feminist poet, artist's model, illustrator and organiser for the Francisco Ferrer Association's Modern School, born. An influential editor of avant-garde, feminist and Marxist publications best remembered for her long poems and poetic sequences. She was particularly active in the campaign against the execution of Sacco and Vanzetti in 1927, for which she was arrested, and in support of Tom Mooney, and Warren Billings, who had been framed for a bombing at the Preparedness Day Parade in San Francisco in 1916. Much of her political poetry is collected in 'Red Flag' (1927). Her other writings include 'The Ghetto, and Other Poems' (1918); 'Sun-Up: and Other Poems' (1920); 'Firehead' (1929); and 'Dance of Fire' (1935).

'The Ghetto'

Section I

Cool, inaccessible air
Is floating in velvety blackness shot with steel-blue lights,
But no breath stirs the heat
Leaning its ponderous bulk upon the Ghetto
And most on Hester street…

The heat…
Nosing in the body’s overflow,
Like a beast pressing its great steaming belly close,
Covering all avenues of air…

The heat in Hester street,
Heaped like a dray
With the garbage of the world.

Bodies dangle from the fire escapes
Or sprawl over the stoops…
Upturned faces glimmer pallidly–
Herring-yellow faces, spotted as with a mold,
And moist faces of girls
Like dank white lilies,
And infants’ faces with open parched mouths that suck at the air
as at empty teats.

Young women pass in groups,
Converging to the forums and meeting halls,
Surging indomitable, slow
Through the gross underbrush of heat.
Their heads are uncovered to the stars,
And they call to the young men and to one another
With a free camaraderie.
Only their eyes are ancient and alone…

The street crawls undulant,
Like a river addled
With its hot tide of flesh
That ever thickens.
Heavy surges of flesh
Break over the pavements,
Clavering like a surf–
Flesh of this abiding
Brood of those ancient mothers who saw the dawn break over Egypt…
And turned their cakes upon the dry hot stones
And went on
Till the gold of the Egyptians fell down off their arms…
Fasting and athirst…
And yet on…

Did they vision–with those eyes darkly clear,
That looked the sun in the face and were not blinded–
Across the centuries
The march of their enduring flesh?
Did they hear–
Under the molten silence
Of the desert like a stopped wheel–
(And the scorpions tick-ticking on the sand…)
The infinite procession of those feet?


[B] 1882 - Jiří Mahen (real name Antonín Vančura; d. 1939), Czech poet, novelist, journalist, dramaturge, librarian, director, theatre critic, anarchist and anti-militarist, born. Cousin of Vladislav Vančura. He was influenced by the turn of the century generation of Czech Anarchističtí Buřiči, "básníci života a vzdoru" (Anarchist Rebels, "the poets of life and defiance"), but later wrote in an Impressionist style.
He joined a group of anarchists around S.K. Neumann’s magazine 'Nový Kult' (New Cult) in 1902, along with his contemporary Rudolf Těsnohlídek. and wrote for a number of other anarchist and socialist journals including 'Novým Životem' (New Life) and 'Prací' (Work). In 'Nový Kult' he first used the pseudonym Mahen inspired by a character in Zola's novel 'Germinal'.
From 1907 he worked as a supply teacher at secondary schools in Moravia, and in 1910 he settled permanently in Brno. Between 1910 and 1919, he worked as an editor of Brno’s 'Lidové Noviny' (Popular Newspaper), as a director and dramaturge of Brno National Theatre (1918-22) and from 1920 to 1924 he taught at the Brno Conservatory. In 1921 he became librarian and later director of the Brno Municipal Library. Jiří Mahen sympathized with postwar literary generations especially with Vitezslav Nezval and Frantisek Halas, who were his pupils and friends for life. As a result of the German occupation and personal depression, Jiří Mahen committed suicide in 1939. He was later to have found to have been amongst the first on the Nazi's list of those destined to be sent to the concentration camps.
A prolific author, his most important texts are the novels 'Kamarádi Svobody' (Friends of Freedom; 1907, which depicts the material poverty and political activity of his student years) and 'Mesíc' (The Moon; 1920), a fantastic novel evoking the relaxed style of Poetism; the theatre plays 'Janosík' (Janosik; 1910), based on the popular legend of the highwayman Juraj Jánošík; 'Mrtve Moře' (Dead Sea; 1917); and the three strongly socially critical and anti-war dramas: 'Nebe, Peklo, Ráj' (Heaven, Hell, Paradise; 1919), 'Desertér' (1923) and 'Generace' (Generation; 1921). He was the author of many essay books; of them 'Rybařská Knízka' (Fishermen's Book; 1921) is the most well-known.
"Odstranění militarismu se dá provést jen absolutním odstraněním autority vůbec. Autority každé, tedy především i státu. Militarismus a autorita, militarismus a stát, tyto pojmy, které trvání své navzájem podmiňují, určují také jediný prospěšný způsob boje, jaký má být proti nim veden." (Removal of militarism can be done only by the total removal of all authority. Every authority, and particularly the State. Militarism and authority, militarism and the State, these notions are conditional on each other, and determine the only useful way of fighting the battle that has to be conducted against them.)

1926 - Jean Richepin (b. 1849), French poet, dramatist, novelist, actor, sailor and stevedore, dies. [see: Feb. 4]

1937 - Mae West causes a scandal on NBC radio by performing a typically risque skit on the subject of Adam and Eve, which will eventually lead to her being banned from NBC airwaves for 15 years.

1970 - Nathan Isaevich Altman (Натан Исаевич Альтман; December 22 1889), Russian-Jewish and Soviet avant-garde artist, Cubist painter, stage designer and book illustrator, dies. [see: Dec. 2]
1797 - Heinrich Heine (d. 1856), German lyric poet, satirist, journalist and rebel, born. Despite a friendship with Marx, Heine feared that communist matrialism would result in a cutural desert as happened with socialist realism. His books were burnt by the Nazis (at the destruction of the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft archives).

1895 - Lucía Sánchez Saornil (d. 1970), Spanish poet, painter, anarchist and feminist, born. Her early highly erotic paeans to female beauty, which were written under the male psuedonym of Luciano de San-Saor, first appeared in the literary magazine 'Los Quijotes' in 1918. She was considered one of the foremost Ultraïsmo poets, an avant-garde literary movement of the era, and certainly the only female one. Becoming a convinced anarchist in the '20s, she was appointed editorial secretary of the CNT in Madrid and began having articles regularly published in 'Tierra y Libertad', 'La Revista Blanca' and 'Solidaridad Obrera', expounding on the centrality of the feminist cause to the class struggle. As a result of the resistance to these ideas amongst her male colleagues, she co-founded Mujeres Libres, along with Mercedes Comaposada and Amparo Poch y Gascon, in 1936. During the was some of her poems, now much less lyrical and more directed towards expressing her political views, were collected in 'Romancero de Mujeres Libres' (Ballads of Free Women; 1937), as were several of her articles in 'Horas de Revolución' (Hours of Revolution; 1938). In May 1938, she became general secretary of Solidaridad Internacional Antifascista (SIA) and later editor of the weekly 'Umbral' (Threshold), were she met her companion América Barroso. Following Franco's victory, they fled to Paris but were forced to return clandestinely to Spain after the Nazi invasion of France.

'Romance de Durruti'

¿Qué bala te cortó el paso
-¡Maldición de aquella hora!-
atardecer de noviembre
camino de la victoria?

Las sierras del Guadarrama
cortan la luz y sombra
un horizonte mojado
de agua turbia y sangre heroica.
Y a tus espaldas Madrid,
con el ojo atento a tu bota,
mordido por los incendios,
con jadeos de leona,
tus pasos iba midiendo
prietos el puño y la boca.

¡Atardecer de noviembre,
borrón negro de la historia!

Buenaventura Durruti,
¿Quién conoció otra congoja
más amarga que tu muerte
sobre tierra española?

Acaso estabas soñando
las calles de Zaragoza
y el agua espesa del Ebro
caminos de laurel rosa
cuando el grito de Madrid
cortó tu sueño en mal hora...

Gigante de las montañas
donde tallabas tu gloria,
hasta Castilla desnuda
bajaste como una tromba
para raer de las tierras
pardas la negra carroña,
y detrás de ti, en alud,
tu gente, como tu sombra.

Hasta los cielos de Iberia
te dispararon las bocas.
El aire agito tu nombre
entre banderas de gloria
-canto sonoro de guerra
y dura función de forja-

Y una tarde de noviembre
mojada de sangre heroica,
en cenizas de crepúsculo
caía tu vida rota.

Sólo hablaste estas palabras
al filo ya de tu hora:
Unidad y firmeza, amigos;
¡para vencer hais de sobra!

Durruti, hermano Durruti,
jamás se vió otra congoja
más amarga que tu muerte
sobre la tierra española.

Rostros curtidos del cierzo
quiebran su durez de roca;
como tallos quebradizos
hasta la tierra se doblan
hercules del mismo acero
¡Hombres de hierro, sollozan!

Fúnebres tambores baten
apisonando la fosa.

¡Durruti es muerto, soldados,
que nadie mengüe su obra!

Sen buscan manos tendidas,
los odios se desmoronan,
y en las trincheras profundas
cuajan realidades hondas
porque a la faz de la muerte
los imposibles se agotan.

-Aquí está mi diestra, hermano,
calma tu sed en mi boca,
mezcla tu sangre a la mía
y tu aliento a mi voz ronca.
Parte conmigo tu pan
y tus lágrimas si lloras.
Durruti bajo la tierra
en esto espera su honra.

Rugen los pechos hermanos.
Las armas al aire chocan.
Sobre las rudas cabezas
sólo una enseña tremola.

Durruti es muerto. ¡Malhaya
aquel que mengüe su obra!


[B] 1900 - Karel Teige (d. 1951), Czech graphic artist, photographer, typographer and "poet-anarchist", born. A major figure in the Czech avant-garde movement Devětsil (Nine Powers) in the 1920s, he edited and contributed graphics to the most influential avant-garde journals on Czech and international cultural affairs (including 'Revue Devětsilu', 'Disk' and 'Pásmo'), wrote essays and books on the theory and criticism of art and architecture. He also produced paintings, collages, photomontages, film scripts, book covers, and typefaces and participated in theatrical performances.
An anarchist communist aligned with the (anarchist) Union of Communist Groups, in 1929 he co-founded and chaired the communist arts group Levá Fronta (Left Front), which replaced the now defunct Svaz Moderní Kultury Devětsil (Devětsil Union of Modern Culture), which had split following fallout over the news of the Stalinist purges and trials in Russia. [At the time he had a running battle with fellow poet and hard-liner Josef Hora over keeping Devětsil independent of party influence, even though Teige's opportunism ended up with him as a party apparatchik and the more principled and independent Hora c.f. the 'Proclamation of the Seven', whose concept of proletarian art was much the broader, eventually outside of it.] And, despite his suspicions about the wider surrealist movement (he claimed that it neglected the political and was too anarchistic) he eventually became a member of the newly founded Czech Surrealist Group in 1934, serving time as its theoretical spokesman.
Following the Soviet takeover in 1948, Teige was first hailed as a progressive but then silenced by the Communist government, who prevented him from writing for official journals and study for a doctorate. Instead he published the samizdat 'Sborníku Znamení Zvěrokruhu' (Proceedings of the Zodiac). However, he committed suicide following a press campaign that labelled him a "Trotskyite degenerate", his papers were destroyed by the secret police, and his published work was suppressed for decades.
NB The decades-long feud between S. K. Neumann and Karel Teige.

[BB] 1911 - Kenneth Patchen (d. 1972), American anarchist and pacifist poet and novelist, born. Author of 'The Journal of Albion Moonlight' (1941) and 'Memoirs of a Shy Pornographer' (1945).

1943 - Ivan Kliun (Иван Васильевич Клюн; b. 1873), Russian Suprematist and Constructivist painter, graphic artist and sculptor, dies. [see: Aug. 20]

1947 - Marilyn Buck (d. 2010), American Marxist revolutionary, convict, and feminist poet, who was imprisoned for her participation in the 1979 prison escape of Assata Shakur [Nov. 2], the 1981 Brinks robbery [Oct. 20] and the 1983 U.S. Senate bombing [Nov. 7], born.

1960 -
1960 - Dora Marsden (b. 1882), British individualist anarchist, militant suffragette and literary publisher, dies. [see: Mar. 5]

1971 - White Panther Party founder, author, music critic and one-time manager of the band MC5, John Sinclair (sentenced to 10 years in jail for selling two marijuana joints) is freed

1981 - Cornelius Cardew (b. 1936), English experimental music composer and Maoist, dies in a hit-and-run incident. [see: May 7]
1851 - Joseph Lane (d. 1920), British anarchist, born. One of the little-known founders of the libertarian socialist movement in Britain. Author of 'An Anti-statist, Communist Manifesto' (1887).

[C] 1895 - Paul Éluard (Eugène Émile Paul Grindel; b. 1952), French poet and communist, a one-time dadaist who went on to become one of the founders of the Surrealist movement, born. Wrote under the noms de plume of Didier Desroches and of Brun. Involved in the Résistance during WWII (he used the noms de guerreJean du Haut and Maurice Hervent) and later fawned over Stalin whilst in the French CP.

"Sur mes cahiers d'écolier
Sur mon pupitre et les arbres
Sur le sable sur la neige
J'écris ton nom

Sur toutes les pages lues
Sur toutes les pages blanches
Pierre sang papier ou cendre
J'écris ton nom

Sur les images dorées
Sur les armes des guerriers
Sur la couronne des rois
J'écris ton nom

Sur la jungle et le désert
Sur les nids sur les genêts
Sur l'écho de mon enfance
J'écris ton nom

Sur les merveilles des nuits
Sur le pain blanc des journées
Sur les saisons fiancées
J'écris ton nom

Sur tous mes chiffons d'azur
Sur l'étang soleil moisi
Sur le lac lune vivante
J'écris ton nom

Sur les champs sur l'horizon
Sur les ailes des oiseaux
Et sur le moulin des ombres
J'écris ton nom

Sur chaque bouffée d'aurore
Sur la mer sur les bateaux
Sur la montagne démente
J'écris ton nom

Sur la mousse des nuages
Sur les sueurs de l'orage
Sur la pluie épaisse et fade
J'écris ton nom

Sur les formes scintillantes
Sur les cloches de couleurs
Sur la vérité physique
J'écris ton nom

Sur les sentiers éveillés
Sur les routes déployées
Sur les places qui débordent
J'écris ton nom

Sur la lampe qui s'allume
Que la lampe qui s'éteint
Sur mes maisons réunies
J'écris ton nom

Sur le fruit coupé en deux
Du miroir et de ma chambre
Sur mon lit coquille vide
J'écris ton nom

Sur mon chien gourmand et tendre
Sur ses oreilles dressées
Sur sa pate maladroite
J'écris ton nom

Sur le tremplin de ma porte
Sur les objets familiers
Sur le flot du feu béni
J'écris ton nom

Sur toute chair accordée
Sur le front de mes amis
Sur chaque main qui se tend
J'écris ton nom

Sur la vitre des surprises
Sur les lèvres attentives
Bien au-dessus du silence
J' écris ton nom

Sur mes refuges détruits
Sur mes phares écroulés
Sur les murs de mon ennui
J'écris ton nom

Sur l'absence sans désir
Sur la solitude nue
Sur les marches de la mort
J'écris ton nom

Sur la santé revenue
Sur le risque disparu
Sur l'espoir sans souvenir
J'écris ton nom

Et par le pouvoir d'un mot
Je recommence ma vie
Je suis né pour te connaître
Pour te nommer"

- 'Liberté'.

(On my school notebooks
On my desk and trees
On the sand on the snow
I write your name

On all pages read
On all blank pages
Stone blood paper or ash
I write your name

On the golden image
Arms warriors
On the crown of kings
I write your name

The jungle and the desert
On nests on the broom
The echo of my childhood
I write your name

About the wonders of the night
On white bread days
The seasons brides
I write your name

On all my blue rags
Sun on the pond mold
Lake living moon
I write your name

The fields on the horizon
On the wings of birds
And the mill of shadows
I write your name

On each breath of dawn
Sea on boats
The insane mountain
I write your name

The foam clouds
The sweat of the storm
The thick rain fade
I write your name

On sparkling form
On the bells of colors
On the physical truth
I write your name

On waking trails
Deployed on roads
Squares overflowing
I write your name

The lamp lights
The lamp is extinguished
On my home together
I write your name

The fruit cut in half
Mirror and my room
On my bed empty shell
I write your name

On my dog greedy and tender
Its ears pricked
On his clumsy paste
I write your name

On the springboard of my door
Of familiar objects
On the flow of the blessed fire
I write your name

On any given flesh
On the front of my friends
On each hand reaching
I write your name

On the glass of surprises
On careful lips
Well above the silence
I write your name

On my shelters destroyed
Collapsed on my headlights
On the walls of my boredom
I write your name

Of absence without desire
On the bare loneliness
On death marches
I write your name

Health back
The risk disappeared
On hope without memory
I write your name

And by the power of a word
I start my life
I was born to know you
To name you.)


1897 - Mirbeau's 'Les Mauvais Bergers' (The Bad Shepherds) premières at the Théâtre de la Renaissance in Paris.

1923 - Théophile Alexandre Steinlen (b. 1859), Swiss-born French Art Nouveau painter, printmaker and contributor to the anarchist magazine 'Temps Nouveau', along with Aristide Delannoy, Maximilien Luce, Théo van Rysselberghe, Camille Pissarro, Paul Signac, Van Dongen, George Willaume, etc., dies. [see: Nov. 10]

1926 - Théo van Rysselberghe (b. 1862), Belgian Impressionist, Néo-Impressionist and then Pointillist painter, Member of Les XX and anarchist, dies. Contibuted to the anarchist magazine 'Temps Nouveaux'. [see: Nov. 23]

[B] 2012 - State television channel CCTV-6 shows 'V for Vendetta' for the first time in China. Confusion reigns over whether it was previously officially banned but the newly dubbed into Chinese version was shown under a new title, 'V Special Forces', rather than the more lurid 'V the Revenge Killing Squad' rendering previously used in China.
1913 - Muriel Rukeyser (d. 1980), US feminist poet, radical political activist, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, born.

1927 - Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven (born Else Hildegard Plötz; b. 1874), German self-proclaimed anarchist, walking Dadaist art work, artist model and poet, dies. [see: Jul. 12]

1936 - George Orwell dispatches manuscript of 'The Road to Wigan Pier' to his publishers and leaves for the revolution in Spain.

[B] 2010 - Jean Michel Rollin Roth Le Gentil (b. 1938), French cult erotic horror filmmaker, actor, novelist and anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 3]
1897 - Alphonse Daudet (b. 1840), French novelist, short story writer, playwright, poet and anarchist sympathiser, whose texts appeared in 'Le Révolté', dies. [see: May 13]

[B] 1908 - Remedios Varo (María de los Remedios Alicia Rodriga Varo y Uranga; d. 1963), Catalan-Mexican anarchist, anti-fascist and Surrealist painter, born. A member of the Logicophobiste artists' group, she met the French Surrealist and libertarian communist poet Benjamin Peret in 1936, when he had come to Spain to fight in the POUM and anarchist militias, and became his companion and was active in the Spanish Revolution herself, collaborating with the Republican and Anti-fascist resistance. In 1937, they moved to Paris to escape the fighting, taking part in the activities of the French Surrealist group around André Breton (1937-1940). However, she later found herself unable to return to Spain following Franco's closure of the border in 1939 because of her anti-fascist work. When Paris fell to the Nazis, Varo and Peret were put in a concentration camp until 1941, when the Emergency Rescue Committee rescued her and she then fled to Mexico with Peret. During WWII, she also made dioramas for display in the windows of a British anti-fascist propaganda office. In 1948, when Benjamin returned to France, she remained in Mexico and became married the surrealist painter Gunther Gerzo.

1928 - Philip K. Dick (d. 1982), science fiction novelist par excellence, born.

1989 - Emile de Antonio (b. 1919), American anarchist film director, producer, academic and author, who was the only filmmaker on Richard Nixon's enemies list, dies. [see: May 14]
[B] 1893 - Erwin Friedrich Maximilian Piscator (d. 1966), German theatre director and producer and poet, born. Along with Bertolt Brecht, the foremost exponent of epic theatre. Associate of Erich Mühsam. Had a number of anti-militarist poems published in the radical Expressionist literary magazine 'Die Aktion' in 1915-16.
[B] 1939 - Michael Moorcock, Nebula award-winning science fiction author and anarchist, born.

1969 - Áurea Cuadrado Castillón, also known as Áurea Cuadrado Alberola (b. 1894), Spanish militant anarcho-feminist and fashion designer, dies. [see: Aug. 23]

2012 - Pierre Chabert (b. 1914), French professor of French, Latin and Greek, poet and anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 3]
[B] 1894 - Senya (Simon) Fléchine (alternate spellings, Flechin, Fleshine) (d. 1981), Ukranian anarchist activist, propagandist and photographer, born. He emigrated to the U.S. in 1910 and worked for 'Mother Earth' in New York, In 1917 he returned to Russia and joined the Nabat Confederation of Anarchist Organisations of Ukraine. In December 1921, he worked at the museum of the revolution in Petrograd, and met Mollie Steimer (also expelled from the USA) who became his companion in love and struggle.
After several arrests, including being senteced to two years in exile in Siberia an a hunger strike, they were released and, following another hunger strike, allowed to leave Russia in 1923. In Berlin, they became members of the Joint Committee for the Defence of the revolutionaries imprisoned in Russia (1923-26), the Relief Fund of the International Association Workers (AIT) for Anarchists and Syndicalists Imprisoned or Exiled in Russia (Paris and Berlin) (1926-1932), and a number of other aid groups for anarchists. They emigrated to Mexico in 1941, and their house became a meeting place for political refugees, and they corresponded with the anarchists worldwide.

1902 - Voltairine de Cleyre (b. 1866), American anarchist, feminist, teacher and poet, is shot by an insane former student named Herman Helcher. She refused to testify against her assailant, who was a familiar face in the anarchist scene.

1922 - Karel Destovnik aka 'Kajuh' (d. 1944), Slovenian poet, translator and resistance fighter, both in the Yugoslav army and Slovene partisans, born.

[C] 1932 - Yun Bong-gil (윤봉길; b. 1908), Korean independence activist, teacher and poet, best known for orchestrating the deadly bombing of a gathering of Japanese dignitaries in the Shanghai International Settlement in April 29, 1932, the Japanese Emperor’s birthday, is executed - shot in the forehead by a single bullet, he takes 13 minutes to die. [see: Jun. 21]

[BB] 1942 - Jean-Patrick Manchette (d. 1995), French crime novelist, screenwriter and libertarian, born. Widely recognised as the foremost French crime fiction author of the 1970s - 80s, he is credited with reinventing and reinvigorating the néo-polar genre of Leo Malet and Georges Simenon. Politically active during the Algerian War, he was particularly influenced by the writings of the Situationist International. Initially a screenwriter, he was later advised to take his first novel, 'L'Affaire N'Gustro' (The N'Gustro Affair; 1971) to the famous crime fiction imprint Série Noire at Gallimard publishers, who would go on to publish the majority of his novels. Amongst these was 'Nada' (1972), made by Claude Chabrol into a film with a Manchette screenplay in 1974. He also co-wrote the 1982 Franco-Hungarian animated science fiction feature film 'Les Maîtres du Temps', directed by René Laloux and designed by Mœbius; as well as writing science fiction brain teasers in 'Métal Hurlant', under the pseudonym Général-Baron Staff; film criticism for 'Charlie Hebdo'; was editor of the comic 'La Bande Dessinée'; had numerous novels turned into comics, collaborating with French cartoonist Jacques Tardi on the 'Griffu' series; as well as translating Alan Moore's 'Watchmen' into French. Manchette also wrote a novelisation of the Sacco and Vanzetti story ('Sacco and Vanzetti' under the pseudonym Pierre Duchesne) in 1971.
[B] 1920 - George Leite (d. 1985), American libertarian author, poet and publisher, dies. A close associate of Henry Miller and Kenneth Rexroth, he published the anti-war, anarchist and anti-authoritarian arts magazine 'Circle' and 'Circle Editions', its companion literature magazine.

1967 - António Gonçalves Correia (b. 1886), Portuguese anarchist, humanist, vegetarian, poet and essayist, dies. [see: Aug. 3]

1968 - Max Brod (b. 1884), Czech author, composer, journalist and one-time anarchist fellow traveller who was the friend, literary executor and biographer of Franz Kafka, dies. [see: May 27]
[B] 1859 - Gustave Kahn (d. 1936), French Symbolist poet, novelist, playwright, art critic, Dreyfusard and anarchist, born. Used the pseudonyms: Cabrun, MH, Walter Linden, Pip, and Hixe. A close friend of Felix Fénéon, he edited the anarchist review 'La Société Nouvelle' and played a major role editing and writing for the likes of 'La Revue Blanche'. He was also prominent amongst those that publicly supported Auguste Vaillant in a prominent article in 'La Société Nouvelle'. He was an early supporter of the Impressionists and much of his work is Symbolist in style, including one of the few examples (along with Paul Adam's 'Les Demoiselles Goubert' co-written with Jean Moréas), of Symbolist novel, 'Le Roi Fou' (The Mad King; 1896), a biting humorous social and political critique of the collusion of governments and financiers and the fleecing of the poor and of the colonies.

[C] 1892 - Rebecca West (Cicely Isabel Fairfield; d. 1983), English author, journalist, literary critic, travel writer, socialist, militant feminist, free love advocate and staunch anti-fascist, born. She took the name Rebecca West (after the heroine of Ibsen's 'Rosmersholm') while studying at the Academy of Dramatic Art (1910–11) and began working as a journalist on the feminist journal 'The Freewoman' in 1911. Its first edition carried a West article in support for free-love, which provoked widespread outrage: "Marriage had certain commercial advantages. By it the man secures the exclusive right to the woman's body and by it, the woman binds the man to support her during the rest of her life... a more disgraceful bargain was never struck."
Having been influenced politically by the Dreyfus affair and become a militant feminist and active suffragette, as well as a socialist attending Fabian meetings, she was at first hopeful about the outcome of the 1917 Revolution. However, she quickly became critical of the Bolsheviks, a position reinforced by Emma Goldman's visit to Britain in 1924. Later, she was critical of the lack of support for the Spanish Republic in 1936 and for the appeasing of Nazi Germany, both from the British government and the pacifist Left.

1925 - Eisenstein's silent movie 'Battleship Potemkin' ('Броненосец «Потёмкин»' or 'Bronenosets Potyomkin') premières in Moscow.

1935 - Kurt Tucholsky (b. 1890), German-Jewish pacifist, non-aligned socialist, journalist, satirist and writer, dies. [see: Jan. 9]

1958 - Lion Feuchtwanger (b. 1884), German-Jewish novelist and playwright, who was a prominent figure in the literary world of Weimar Germany, influencing many contemporaries including playwright Bertolt Brecht and was a fierce critic of the Nazi party long before it rose to power, dies. [see: Jul. 7]
1875 - Jules-Félix Grandjouan (d. 1968), French libertarian, revolutionary syndicalist, painter, caricaturist, illustrator and poster artist, born. Participated prominently on 'L'Assiette au Beurre' from 1901-1912 with his favourite themes including anti-militarism, anti-patriotism and anti-clericalism. His caricatures and illustrations, executed mainly in pastels, feature both in political papers such as 'Le Libertaire', 'La Voix du Peuple', 'Les Temps Nouveaux', 'La Guerre Sociale', 'La Bataille Syndicaliste', 'Le Travailleur du Bâtiment', 'Le Conscrit', etc. and the more satirical press, including 'Le Rire', 'Le Sourire' and 'Le Charivari'. Tried and sentenced to 18 months in prison for his caricature drawings of Clemenceau. He moved to Germany, where he met Isadora Duncan, who became his mistress and muse.
"Shame on those who do not revolt against social injustice"

1876 - Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (d. 1944), Italian Symbolist poet, editor and the founder of the Futurist movement, born. He spent much of the 1900s in Paris, associating with the anarchist and artistic milieu and was to become a regular at the Abbaye de Créteil utopian community. Although an Italian nationalist, he was avowedly anarchist and socialist, and strongly influenced by the writings of the French syndicalist theorist Sorel, himself inclined towards Proudhonian anarchism. These elements, together with his anti-clerical and Malthusian tendencies, all helped form his early leftist Futurism, already on display in his 1904 poem 'Destruction', his "erotic and anarchist poem", an eulogy to the "avenging sea" as a symbol of revolution.
Marinetti's debt to anarchism can also be seen in his dedication of his satirical tragedy 'Le Roi Bombance' (1905) to the anarchist Paul Adam (Henri de Régnier was another Marinetti dedicatee). Heavily influenced by Alfred Jarry (and from whom he stole much of his image/demeanour), the play was not performed until 1909, when its première at the Théâtre de l’Oeuvre in Paris provoked a riot. By this time he was already working on the 'Futurist Manifesto', written in French and published that year on the front page of 'Le Figaro', and was reprinted in the Italian anarcho-syndicalist newspaper of Ottavio Dinale, 'La Demolizione'.
In 1910, Marinetti forged links with the pro-labour, proto-syndicalist wing of the Italian Nationalist Association (ANI), but the rise of nationalism in Italy ultimately led to the progressive abandonment of Futurism's radical and avant garde elements in order to shoe-horning it into the ideology of another ex-fellow traveller of anarchism, Mussolini's Fascism. Marinetti even went as far as becoming a Catholic, in part to try and get Futurism adopted as the national Catholic art movement.
"9. Nous voulons glorifier la guerre – seule hygiène du monde -, le militarisme, le patriotisme, le geste destructeur des anarchistes, les belles Idées qui tuent et le mépris de la femme." (We will glorify war—the world’s only hygiene—militarism, patriotism, the destructive gesture of freedom-bringers, beautiful ideas worth dying for, and scorn for woman.) - 'Manifeste du Futurisme' (1909).
"We love the indomitable bellicose patriotism that sets you apart; we love the national pride that guides your muscularly courageous race; we love the potent individualism that doesn't prevent you from opening your arms to individualists of every land, whether libertarians or anarchists." - 'Futurist Speech to the English' (1910), Lyceum Club, London.

1905 - Kenneth Rexroth (d. 1982), poet, essayist, critic, translator, anarchist, Wobbly, pacifist and conscientious objector, born. He active in groups like the Randolph Bourne Council (an anarchist group), the John Reed Club, the Libertarian Circle, and the Waterfront Workers Association in San Francisco. Apart from his numerous books of poems and his collections of essays, his 2 most important works which describe his libertarianism are 'Communalism: From Its Origins to the Twentieth Century' (1974) and 'An Autobiographical Novel' (1991). [expand]

1907 - Fermin Rocker (d. 2004), English artist, book illustrator and anarchist, born. Wrote 'East End: A London Childhood' (1992). [exland]
www.andrewwhitehead.net/blog/category/fermin rocker

[B] 1911 - Henry Treece (d. 1966), British poet, novelist, short story writer, essayist, playwright, editor, teacher, pacifist and philosophical anarchist, born. Member of the post-war New Apocalyptics poetry group, a fusion of anarchism and surrealism, alongside the likes of Alex Comfort, Ruthven Todd, Dylan Thomas and Vernon Watkins.
"The only way Left, as I see it is that of anarchism."

1989 - Samuel Beckett (b. 1906), Irish playwright, poet, novelist, theatre director, anti-fascist and member of the Résistance, dies. [see: Apr. 13]

2000 - Ian Heavens (b. 1957), Scottish anarchist and co-founder of the punk/samba band Bloco Vomit, dies.
[B] 1952 - Vasily Eroshenko (b. 1890), a blind Russian anarchist, novelist, translator and an important activist in the Esperanto Movement, dies. [see: Jan. 12]
1914 - Léon Bonneff (b. 1882), French proletarian writer, autodidact and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies as the result of injuries he received on December 13 during fighting in Lorraine. [see: Sep. 20]

1938 - Bruno Taut (Bruno Julius Florian Taut; b. 1880) German architect, urban planner and author of the Weimar period, dies. He was also a social reformer, anarchist and anti-militarist, whose ideas, including his architectural work, were influenced by the ideas of Kropotkin and Landauer, especially the latter's 'Die Auflösung der Städt' (Call to Socialism; 1911). [see: May 4]

[B] 1949 - Néstor Osvaldo Perlongher (d. 1992), Argentinian sociologist, anthropologist, poet, writer, militant Queer activist and theorist, and anarchist, born. As a student, he was a member of the trotskyist Partit Obrer and a delegate to the Student Assembly responsible for self defence during his university's Faculty of Philosophy and Letters student demonstrations. He later particpated in various anarchist and May 68-influenced autonomist groups. In 1971, he was one of the founders of the Frentre de Liberación Homosexual Argentino (FLHA), the first gay political organization in Latin America, and the libertarian Eros group. He also edited the FLHA magazine 'Somos' and Eros' publication 'Sexo y Revolución'. In 1976, he was arrested during the Argentine dictatorship's suppression of the FLHA. He graduated in sociology in 1982, later moving to São Paulo, where he received a doctorate in urban anthropology at the University of Campinas, and there became Professor of Anthropology in 1985. He 26 November 1992 he died of AIDS in São Paulo on November 26, 1992.
Perlongher's poetry was integral to his political activity, and was quoted as saying that "poetry emerged in the late '70s because of the way in which the military dictatorship of the time closed down other spheres of political debate and cultural intervention in politics. Poetry was one of the few areas of oppositional discourse that survived," becoming a key avenue in which to express individual opinion at the time. He published six volumes of his poetry in his lifetime: 'Austria-Hungría' (1980); 'Alambres' (Wires; 1987), which won the Boris Vian Prize for Literature in Argentina; 'Hule' (Rubber; 1989), 'Parque Lezama' (Lezama Park; 1990); 'Aguas Aéreas' (Air Water; 1990); and 'Chorreo de las Iluminaciones' (Drips from the Illuminations; 1992), in which he created his own literary style "neobarroso", which he claimed merged the neo-Baroque with the language of the slums of the Rio de la Plata. The 'message' of this neobarroso poetry was rendered opaque by the use of 'hidden meanings' - cultural allusions and plays-on-words - which meant that the poems did not reveal their true meanings at first reading - they had to be 'decoded'. This makes translation of his poetry into other languages difficult.
His other books included: 'O Que é AIDS?' (What is AIDS?; 1987); 'El Fantasma del SIDA' (The Phantom of AIDS; 1988); 'Territórios Marginais' (Marginal Territories; 1989); 'Poesía Neobarroca Cubana y Rioplatense' (Neobarroca Poetry Cuban and River Plate; 1991); 'La Prostitución Masculina' (Male Prostitution; 1993); and 'Prosa Plebeya' (Plebeian Prose; 1997). Perlongher also contributed to publications such as 'El Porteño' (Of Buenos Aires), 'Alfonsina', 'Último Reino' (Last Kingdom), 'Cerdos & Peces' (Pigs & Fishes), 'Fin de Siglo' (End of Century), 'Folha de São Paulo' (São Paulo Sheet), 'Parque' (Garden), 'Utopía', 'Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia' (Brazilian Archives of Psychology), 'Chimères' (Chimeras), 'Xul', 'Sociétes', and the 'Diario de Poesía' (Poetry Diary).
1889 - (Jean Valérien) Maurice Mac-Nab (b. 1856), French poet, songwriter, performer and postal worker, dies. Famed for his ironic songs of working-class life performed at the Club des Hydropathes, at the the literary club Café de l'Avenir, in the Latin Quarter, and at Le Chat Noir in Montmartre. Many of his songs, such as 'L'Expulsion' and 'Le Grand Métingue du Métropolitain', were explicitly anarchist in sentiment and were popularly sung at demonstrations.

1911 - Louise Joséphine Bourgeois (d. 2010), French-American autobiographical artist, sculptor and feminist icon, born. Bourgeois' mother was a follower of the militant feminist anarchist Louise Michel in the late 1800s and named her daughter after Michel.

1938 - Karel Čapek (b. 1890), Czech playwright, writer, translator, journalist, photographer, philosopher and staunch anti-fascist, who is probably best known for his science fiction, especially his 1920 play 'R.U.R.' (Rossum's Universal Robots) which introduced the word robot, dies of double pneumonia shortly after the German annexation of the 'Sudetenland'. [see: Jan. 9]

1946 - William Claude (W.C.) Fields (b. 1880) dies. Loved kids and dogs.

1955 - Aurèle Patorni (b. 1880), French anarchist, writer (plays, operettas, etc.), journalist, pacifist and néo-malthusien, dies of complications following surgery. [see: Jun. 26]

1958 - Baldo aka Baldomero Jose-Luis Ortas, Spanish-born French artist, musician and libertarian, born. Son of a bohemian anarchist artist.

1963 - Tristan Tzara (born Samuel or Samy Rosenstock, also known as S. Samyro; b. 1896), Romanian-French avant garde poet, essayist, performance artist, journalist, playwright, literary and art critic, composer and film director, who was strongly influenced by individualist anarchism in his early years before joining the PCF in 1937, dies. [see: Apr. 16]

[B] 1972 - Staceyann Chin "poet, performer, and anarchist extraordinaire", LGBT rights political activist.

1977 - Charlie Chaplin (b. 1889) dies.

1983 - Joan Miro (b. 1893), Spanish surrealist, dies.

2006 - James Brown (b. 1933), Godfather of Soul, dies.
[BB] 1891 - Henry Valentine Miller (d. 1980), American writer, banned novelist, memoirist, critic, painter, individualist anarchist and champion of free speech, born. Miller's grandfather, Valentin Nieting, who regularly looked after him was an anarchist sympathiser whose anti-war ideals was a significant initial catalyst in his politics. However, Miller claimed that his attending of a 1912 lecture by Emma Goldman and later personally meeting her in 1913 was "a turning point in my life". At the lecture he purchased books there Nietzsche and Max Stirner and would come to embrace an individualist anarchism. However, he also began to read Kropotkin, Bakunin and other anarchist classics which would eventually temper his individualist outlook. Kropotkin's mutualism would become especially important in moderating Miller's individualist outlook.
His is best known for the novels 'Tropic of Cancer' (1934), 'Black Spring' (1936), 'Tropic of Capricorn' (1939) and 'The Rosy Crucifixion' trilogy: 'Sexus' (1949), 'Plexus' (1953) and 'Nexus' (1960) - all of which clearly display strong elements of his anarchist individualism, one tempered by his desire for community and compassion. The early books, 'Tropic of Cancer' and 'Black Spring', together with his resolutely anti-communist/pro-anarchist 'An Open Letter to Surrealists Everywhere' (1938), was a primary influence in turning the English Surrealists, which included Herbert Read and David Gascoyne and fellow travellers like Alex Comfort, away from Surrealism's André Breton-inspired communist orthodoxy towards an anti-authoritarian politics. This influence, via the literary community that had sprung up around Miller at the Villa Seurat in Paris (and which included Anais Nin and Lawrence George Durrell), would also affect the likes of Robert Duncan and George Woodcock?
"I have no money, no resources, no hopes. I am the happiest man alive. A year ago, six months ago, I thought that I was an artist. I no longer think about it, I am. Everything that was literature has fallen from me. There are no more books to be written, thank God. This then? This is not a book. This is libel, slander, and defamation of character. This is not a book, in the ordinary sense of the word. No, this is a prolonged insult, a gob of spit in the face of Art, a kick in the pants of God, Man, Destiny, Time, Love, Beauty." - 'Tropic of Cancer' (1934) pp. 1-2.
"There are barely a half-dozen names in the history of America which have meaning for me. Thoreau's is one of them ... that rarest thing on earth: an individual. He is nearer to being an anarchist than democrat, socialist or communist. However he was not interested in politics; he was the sort of person who, if there were more of his kind, would soon cause governments to become non-existent. This to my mind is the highest type of man a community can produce. And that is why I have an unbounded respect and admiration for Thoreau." - Letter to Herbert Read (1936)

[B] 1899 - Georges Charensol (d. 1995), French journalist, arts, literary and film critic, film extra and individualist anarchist, born. Worked on fellow anarchist individualist Florent Fels' journal 'L'Art Vivant' and befriended many writers and artists including Maurice de Vlaminck, André Derain, Marc Chagall and especially Rene Clair, working as an extra in 'Entr'acte'. Foreseeing the revolution, he went to Spain in 1930 a correspondent for 'Vu' and 'Le Soir' He later became literary editor of the individualist anarchist paper 'L'Intransigeant'.

[C] 1912 - Renato Guttuso (d. 1987), Italian anti-fascist painter and polemicist, atheist and Communist, who was the leader of the social realist group in Italy, born. His best-known paintings include 'Flight from Etna' (1938–39), 'Crucifixion' (1941) and 'La Vucciria' (1974). [expand]

1992 - María Bruguera Pérez (b. 1915), Spanish member of Mujeres Libres, anarchist, anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Nov. 6]

2010 - Ramón Cambra aka 'Mona' (b. 1917), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-militarist, printer and poet, dies. [see: Mar. 28]
[B] 1821 - Joseph Déjacque (d. 1864), early French anarcho-communist poet and writer, born. The first recorded person to employ the term libertarian (libertaire) for himself in a political sense, in a letter written in May 1857 criticizing Pierre-Joseph Proudhon for his sexist views on women, his support of individual ownership of the product of labour, and of a market economy, saying: "it is not the product of his or her labour that the worker has a right to, but to the satisfaction of his or her needs, whatever may be their nature."
Arrested and imprisoned for a time for socialist agitation during the revolutionary upheavals in France in 1848, he was released but rearrested in 1851, and sentenced to two years of prison (plus a fine of 2000 francs) for his collection of poems 'Les Lazaréennes, Fables et Poésies Sociales'. He fled to Jersey, by way of Brussels and London, around the time of the December 2, 1851 coup d'état, publishing 'La Question Révolutionnaire' (1854), an exposition of anarchism. Moving the the States in 1854, he he wrote his famous anarchist utopia 'L'Humanisphère, Utopie Anarchique', but failed to find a publisher. However he serialised his book in his periodical 'Le Libertaire: Journal du Mouvement Social'. Published in 27 issues from June 9, 1858 to February 4, 1861, 'Le Libertaire' was the first anarcho-communist journal published in America and the first to use the term "libertarian".

1912 - Conroy Maddox (d. 2005), English Surrealist painter, collagist, writer, lecturer and anarchist sympathiser, born. He discovered Surrealism in 1935 and dived into the mileau head first, visiting the International Surrealist Exhibition in London in 1936, spending the summer of 1937 in Paris, where he took art classes, and getting involved in the British surrealsi scene. Passionately anti-war and anti-clericial, both views he gained from his father, he escaped military duties during WWII through his 'reserved' occupation as a draughtsman of aircraft parts for a Birmingham design firm. At the height of the war, several of his collages were seized by the special branch during a raid on the home of Simon Watson Taylor (they were looking for John Olday), on suspicion of being coded messages to the enemy or anarchist propaganda. Whilst not politically active, he did contribute to the various London and Birmingham Surrealist groups' interventions (e.g. support for Cohn-Bendit in 1968) and contibuted alongside George Melly to issue number 3 of 'The Raven' anarchist quarterly.
When he died he had been the last surviving Surrealist painter from the original pre-war British avant-garde.

1992 - Kay Boyle (b. 1902), American writer, novelist, poet, educator, political activist and anarchist fellow traveller, dies. [see: Feb. 19]

1999 - Pierre Clémenti (b. 1942), French actor, director and libertarian, dies. [see: Sep. 28]
1884 - Maurice Bonneff (d. 1914), French proletarian writer, autodidact and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. He and his brother Léon met the old Communard Gustave Lefrançais and the libertarian novelist Lucien Descaves shortly after their family moved to Paris in 1900. They quickly resolved to write, both together and individually, about the conditions in which the Parisian working class lived.
He wrote 'Didier, homme du peuple' (Didier, man of the people; 1914); together with the studies jointly authored with Léon: 'Les Métiers qui tuent, enquête auprès des syndicats ouvriers sur les maladies professionnelles' (The trades that kill, survey for labor unions on occupational diseases; 1906); 'La Vie Tragique des Travailleurs: enquêtes sur la condition économique et morale des ouvriers et ouvrières d'industrie' (The tragic life of workers: investigations into the economic condition and morale of workers and industrial workers; 1908); 'La Classe Ouvrière: les Boulangers, les Employés de Magasin, les Terrassiers, les Travailleurs du Restaurant, les Cheminots, les Pêcheurs Bretons, les Postiers, les Compagnons du Bâtiment, les Blessés' (The working class: bakers, store employees, navvies, restaurant workers, railway workers, Breton fishermen, postal workers, building workers, the injured; 1910); 'Marchands de Folie: Cabaret des Halles et des Faubourgs - Cabaret-Tâcheron - Cabaret-Cantinier - Cabaret-Placeur - Cabaret de Luxe - L'Estaminet des Mineurs - Au pays du "Petit Sou" : sur les quais de Rouen - Au pays de l'Absinthe - De l'Infirmerie spéciale du Dépôt à la Maison de fous' ( Merchants of Madness; 1913). - which describes the employees in pubs, cabarets, on the banks of Rouen, the effects of absinthe (which will be banned in 1917) on the workers.

1931 - Guy Debord (d. 1994), French Marxist theorist, writer, filmmaker, member of the Letterist International and founding member of the Situationist International, born.

1945 - Theodore Herman Albert Dreiser (b. 1871), American novelist, poet and journalist of the naturalist school, dies. [see: Aug. 27]

1945 - Daniel Reeves Carter, American free jazz saxophone, flute, clarinet and trumpet player and anarchist, born. Best known for his work alongside bassist William Parker and pianist Matthew Shipp, but has played with a plethora of other musicians including Sun Ra, Billy Bang, Medeski Martin & Wood, Sam Rivers, Sunny Murray, Hamiet Bluiett, Cecil Taylor, Gunther Hampel, Sam Rivers, Sunny Murray, Hamiet Bluiett, David S. Ware, Butch Morris, Other Dimensions In Music, The Celestrial Communication Orchestra, Talibam!, the Merce Cunningham dancers, string trios, punk bands and many others.

[B] 2008 - Adrian Mitchell (b. 1932), English poet, novelist, playwright, librettist, anti-authoritarian social-anarchist and anti-war activist, dies. [see: Oct. 24]
"My brain socialist
My heart anarchist
My eyes pacifist
My blood revolutionary"

- 'Loose Leaf Poem' [in 'Ride the Nightmare' (1971)]
1846 - Maurice Rollinat (d. 1903), French poet, habituee of Le Chat Noir and member of Les Hydropathes, born. Although not an an anarchist, he did associate with anarchists, especially at Le Chat Noir and his poems appeared in 'La Revue Anarchiste'.

1872 - Camille Mauclair (pseudonym of Séverin Faust; d. 1945), French Symbolist poet, novelist, biographer, travel writer, art critic and anarchist, born. Prolific author and critic of the avant-guard arts, whose work appeared in numerous mainstream and anarchist publications including: 'L'En Dehors', 'La Revue Blanche', 'le Mercure de France', 'les Essais d'Art Libre', 'Les Entretiens Politiques et Littéraires', 'La Société Nouvelle', 'L'Aurore', 'La Dépêche de Toulouse', etc. He was also an anti-Semite and anti-Dreyfusard, becoming a nationalist during the thirties and an active supporter of the Vichy government. His best known work is 'Le Soleil des Mort' (1898), a roman à clef featuring fictionalised portraits of the literary and anarchist fin de siècle.
"L'exécution de Vaillant m'inclina à l'anarchisme." (The execution of Vaillant [which he attended] tilted me towards anarchism.)

[BB] 1896 - David Alfaro Siqueiros (born José de Jesús Alfaro Siqueiros; d. 1974), Mexican social realist painter, muralist, trades union organiser and one-time anarchist, born. Exposed to anarcho-syndicalist writings at an early age, he was also involved in the Mexican revolution, bizarrely fighting for Venustiano Carranza’s Constitutional Army against bith the Huerta government and the political factions of Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata. In 1919 he travelled to Paris and reacquainted himself with Diego Rivera, who introduced to Georges Braque and other Cubists. He also discovered and was strongly influenced by Cezanne. Returning to Mexico in 1922, he began his first mural, The Elements (1922), painted in a stairway of the National Preparatory School. The following year, having gravitated towards Marxism, he joined the recently-formed Mexican Communist Party (PCM) and gathered a group of artists to form the Sindicato de Trabajadores Técnicos, Pintores y Escultores (Syndicate of Revolutionary Mexican Painters, Sculptors and Engravers), of which he was elected secretary general. In 1924, they began to publish the newspaper 'El Machete', with a stated goal of safeguarding the revolution and protecting the interests of the working class. Continuing his union activities, he quickly became persona non grata with the government, and was harassed and detained several times by the police. In 1928, he visited the Soviet Union to attend the Congress of Red Trade Unions. Around this time, he met Uruguayan writer and fellow Communist Blanca Luz Blum, who loyalty was questioned by the PCM, leading to Siqueiros being expelled from the Party.
In 1930, he was arrested while participating in a May Day parade and thrown into prison, without trial or hearing of any sort. After several months in limbo, he was allowed to go free, on condition that he would leave Mexico City and settle in the town of Taxco, without the right to travel. In 1932, he had his first one-man exhibition in Mexico City, which included such politically-charged paintings as 'Mine Accident', 'Peasant Mother', 'Proletarian Mother' and 'Portrait of a Dead Child'. That year he secured a six-month visa to L.A. but the US authorities refused to extend his stay. Expelled from America, he traveled to Montevideo in February of 1933, and by the end of May in that same year he had established himself in Buenos Aires only to be expelled that December.
In January 1936, Siqueiros was sent as a delegate to the American Artists' Congress in NYC, where he exhibited two works, 'The Birth of Fascism' (1936) and 'Stop the War' (1936), painted using pyroxylin paint and a spray gun, using techniques which still today influences grafitti artists.
He left America and arrived in Valencia in January 1937, six months after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War and enlisted in the Fifth Regiment, a part of the International Brigades. Restored to his Mexican Civil War rank of Captain, he passed up the ranks and commanded the Spanish anarchists 82nd Brigade amongst others. Now a fuly fledged Stalinist, whilst in Spain he had worked closely with members of the Comintern and even petitioned President Cardenas and the Mexican government to expel Trotsky, to whom they had granted asylum. Back in Mexico, he continued to try and get Trotsky expelled, to no avail. So he took matters into his own hands, when he organised 25 men with Comitern finances to assassinate Trotsky. On the night of May 23-24th, 1940, Siqueiros and his men overpowered the police guard posted around the exterior of Trotsky's house, they gained access to the building via a traitor among Trotsky's bodyguards. Once inside, the would-be assassins opened indiscriminate fire with automatic firearms. In his bedroom, Trotsky and his wife Natalya hid behind their heavy bed as the house around them was riddled with bullets. Fearing being caught by police reinforcements, they fled. Some of Siqueiros' men were arrested and implicated hime, forcing him to flee via Ecuador and Peru to Chile.
'Del Porfirismo a la Revolución' (The Porphyria to the Revolution; 1957-1966) is by far one of Siqueiros' most iconic works and in it it included the images of Kropotkin (with his hands bound in front of him), Proudhon and Ricardo Flores Magon, all standing next to Marx with the good red book in his hand.

[B] 1898 - Elfie 'Elsa' Gidlow (d. 1986), British-born, Canadian-American feminist poet, freelance journalist, philosophical anarchist, lesbian and Taoist, born. Known as 'The Poet Warrior', she is the author of 'On A Grey Thread' (1923), possibly the first volume of openly lesbian love poetry published in North America. The author of thirteen books, she appeared as herself in the documentary film, 'Word Is Out: Stories of Some of Our Lives' (1977) and published her autobiography, 'Elsa, I Come With My Songs' (1986), a month before she died. Amongst her other works are 'California Valley with Girls' (1932); 'From Alba Hill' (1933); 'Bridge Builders' (1938); 'Wild Swan Singing' (1954); 'Letters from Limbo' (1956); 'Moods of Eros' (1970); 'Makings for Meditation: Parapoems Reverent and Irreverent' (1973); 'Wise Man's Gold' (1974); 'Ask No Man Pardon: The Philosophic Significance of Being Lesbian' (1975); 'Shattering the Mirror' (1976); 'Sapphic Songs: Seventeen to Seventy' (1976); 'Sapphic Songs: Eighteen to Eighty, the Love Poetry of Elsa Gidlow' (1982); and 'A Creed for Free Women' (n.d.).

'Chains Of Fires'

Each dawn, kneeling before my hearth,
Placing stick, crossing stick
On dry eucalyptus bark
Now the larger boughs, the log
(With thanks to the tree for its life)
Touching the match, waiting for creeping flame.
I know myself linked by chains of fire
To every woman who has kept a hearth

In the resinous smoke
I smell hut and castle and cave,
Mansion and hovel.
See in the shifting flame my mother
And grandmothers out over the world
Time through, back to the Paleolithic
In rock shelters where flint struck first sparks
(Sparks aeons later alive on my hearth)
I see mothers , grandmothers back to beginnings,
Huddled beside holes in the earth
of igloo, tipi, cabin,
Guarding the magic no other being has learned,
Awed, reverent, before the sacred fire
Sharing live coals with the tribe.

For no one owns or can own fire,
it ]ends itself.
Every hearth-keeper has known this.
Hearth-less, lighting one candle in the dark
We know it today.
Fire lends itself,
Serving our life
Serving fire.

At Winter solstice, kindling new fire
With sparks of the old
From black coals of the old,
Seeing them glow again,
Shuddering with the mystery,
We know the terror of rebirth.


1907 - Maurice-Henry (d. 1984), French poet, painter, filmmaker and cartoonist, born. Initially a member of Les Phrères Simplistes and involved with the anarchist-influenced Le Grand Jeu group, which operated in opposition to the André Breton-dominated Communist Party-supporting Paris Surrealist group, he later quit Le Grand Jeu for Breton's group in 1933. He also followed Breton's move towards anarchism after WWII.

2001 - Giovanni Marini (b. 1942), Italian working class poet, writer and anarchist, dies. Caught up in Italy's Strategy of Tension, he was framed for the murder of a fascist in 1974.
1910 - Paul Frederic Bowles (d. 1999), American expatriate composer, author and translator, born. Bowles first came into contact with the Communist Party of the USA (CPUSA) in 1935, joining in 1938 only to leave in 1940.
Q: What was it about communism that appealed to you?
A: Oh, I imagined it could destroy the establishment. When I realized it couldn't, I got out fast and decided to work on my own hook.
Q: Back to destroying the world. . . .
A: Well, who doesn't want to? I mean, look at it!
- Interview with Daniel Halpern in 1980.

[B2] 1995 - Heiner Müller (b. 1929), German dramatist, director, poet, anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 9]

[B1] 1997 - Denise Levertov (b. 1923), British-born American poet, anti-war activist and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies. [see: Oct. 24]

1998 - Joan Brossa i Cuervo (b. 1919), Catalan language poet Dadaist-influenced, playwright, graphic designer and plastic artist, dies. [see: Jan. 19]
1854 - Paul Bilhaud (d. 1933), French poet, writer, humorist, author of verse drama, monologues and songs, born. Famous for his Les Incohérents all-black painting by poet Paul Bilhaud called 'Combat de Nègres dans une Cave, Pendant la Nuit' (Negroes Fighting in a Cellar at Night; 1882) [appropriated by Alphonse Allais (1854-1905) for a series of paintings including: 'Première Communion de Jeunes Filles Chlorotiques par un Temps de Neige' (First Communion of Anaemic Young Girls In The Snow); ‘Récolte de la Tomate par des Cardinaux Apoplectiques au Bord de la Mer Rouge’ (Tomatoes Harvested by Apoplectic Cardinals at the Edge of the Red Sea); ‘Stupeur de Jeunes Recrues de la Marine en Apercevant pour la Première fois la Méditerranée’ (Fear of Navy Recruits Seeing the Mediterranean for the First Time); ‘Des Souteneurs, Encore Dans la Force de l'Âge, le Ventre dans l'Herbe, Buvant de l'Absinthe’ (The Pimps, Still in the Prime of Life, Face Down in the Grass, Drinking Absinthe); ‘Manipulation de l'Ocre par des Cocus Ictériques' (Jaundiced Cuckolds Handling Ochre); and ‘Bande De Pochards Poussiéreux Dans Le Brouillard’ (Band Of Dusty Drunks In The Fog). Allias also wrote 'Marche Funèbre Composée pour les Funérailles d'un Grand Homme Sourd' (Funeral March for the Obsequies of a Deaf Man; 1897), nine blank measures en avat de Cage's '4'33"']. Also member of des Hydropathes alongside Maurice Mac-Nab and Maurice Rollinat.

1877 - Viktor Dyk (d. 1931), Czech poet, novelist, playwright, journalist, youthful member of the generation of the Czech Anarchističtí Buřiči, "básníci života a vzdoru" (Anarchist Rebels, "the poets of life and defiance") and later a right-wing nationalist, born.

[C2] 1903 - Ilarie Voronca (Eduard Marcus; d. 1946), Jewish Romanian-French avant-garde poet and essayist connected with Eugen Lovinescu's Sburătorul group, and later Ion Vinea's 'Contimporanul', Constructivism (with 'Punct', 'Integral' and his own '75 HP') and Surrealism, born. A French citizen in 1938 (having settled there in 1933), Voronca took part in the French Résistance as a writer and fighter. He visited Romania in January 1946, and was acclaimed for his writings and anti-fascist activities. He never finished his 'Manuel du parfait bonheur' (Manual for Perfect Happiness), committing suicide later in the same year.

[B2] 1925 - Alfredo Guevara Valdés (d. 2013), Cuban founder of the Cuban Institute for the Arts and Industry of Cinematography (ICAIC) and the Havana Film Festival, and a key figure in the New Latin American Cinema, born. An anarchist in his youth, he became a Marxist at the university, supporting what he called "Fidel’s Revolution" after the toppling of the Batista government. Initially a theatre director until he participated in the making of 'El Mégano', a documentary about the poor vegetable carbon makers in the Zapata swamps, which went on to become a seminal part of Cuba’s film history. And in 1958 he worked as assistant director for Luis Buñuel on 'Nazarín'.

[B1] 1928 - Maurice Albert Sinet aka Siné, French anarchist, anti-capitalist, anti-colonialist and anti-clerical cartoonist, writer, ex-cabaret singer [in the group Garçons de la Rue (1946-48)] and régent in the Collège de Pataphysique, born. He published his first drawing in France Dimanche in 1952 and went on to win the Grand Prix de l'Humour Noir in 1955 for his collection 'Complainte sans Paroles'. He later became the political cartoonist at 'L'Express' but his anti-colonialist views caused friction within the paper during the Algeria War and he left in 1962 to start his own newspaper, 'Siné Massacre', as a platform his anti-colonialist, anti-Zionist, his anti-capitalist, anti-clericalist and pro-anarchism views.
In May 1968 , he founded the satirical newspaper 'L’Enragé' with Jean-Jacques Pauvert, covering the May 68 events and their immediate aftermath. In 1981, he also joined the team on 'Charlie Hebdo' and, in 1984, the weekly 'Hara-Kiri Hebdo' but was ousted from the former in 2008 as a result of l'Affaire Siné, the events surrounding his published attack on Sarkozy's son Jean, and the cartoonist's perceived anti-Semitism, He then went on to launch his own weekly 'Siné Hebdo', replaced in 2010 by the monthly 'Siné Mensuel'. His deep love of jazz also led him to publish a 'Sinéclopédie du Jazz' in 1996 as well as a series of album selections of his favourite tracks and to illustrate numerous jazz album covers.

1941 - "Jewish youth! Do not trust those who are trying to deceive you. Hitler plans to destroy all the Jews of Europe… We will not be led like sheep to the slaughter! True, we are weak and defenceless, but the only reply to the murderer is revolt! Brothers! Better to fall as free fighters than to live by the mercy of the murderers. Arise! Arise with your last breath!" With these words on December 31, 1941, Lithuanian Jewish Hebrew poet and partisan leader Abba Kovner galvanized the divided factions of the Vilna ghetto resistance to join together and fight back against their would-be murderers. Three weeks later, the Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye (FPO; United Partisan Organisation) was born. Kovner would go on to command the FPO and lead the famed Avengers partisan unit. [see: Mar. 14]

1959 - Arturo M. Giovannitti (b. 1884), Italian-American IWW activist, anarchist socialist, anti-fascist agitator and poet, dies. [see: Jan. 7]

1988 - Nicolas Calas (Νικόλαος Κάλας), pseudonym of Nikos Kalamaris (Νίκος Καλαμάρης; b. 1907), Greek-American poet, art critic, surrealist and anarchist, who also used the pseudonyms Nikitas Randos (Νικήτας Ράντος) and M. Spieros (Μ. Σπιέρος), dies. [see: May 27]
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)
Birthday of Bradley Manning [WikiLeaks defendant]
2010 - Jason Pearce dies of the mysterious new condition "excited delirium" whilst being arrested and restrained by two police officers in Market Drayton. No one is charged.philadi


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AfrikaansAlbanianArabicArmenianAzerbaijaniBasqueBelarusianBengaliBosnianBulgarianCatalanCebuanoChichewaChinese (Simplified)Chinese (Traditional)CroatianCzechDanishDutchEnglishEsperantoEstonianFilipinoFinnishFrenchGalicianGeorgianGermanGreekGujaratiHaitian CreoleHausaHebrewHindiHmongHungarianIcelandicIgboIndonesianIrishItalianJapaneseJavaneseKannadaKazakhKhmerKoreanLaoLatinLatvianLithuanianMacedonianMalagasyMalayMalayalamMalteseMaoriMarathiMongolianMyanmar (Burmese)NepaliNorwegianPersianPolishPortuguesePunjabiRomanianRussianSerbianSesothoSinhalaSlovakSlovenianSomaliSpanishSundaneseSwahiliSwedishTajikTamilTeluguThaiTurkishUkrainianUrduUzbekVietnameseWelshYiddishYorubaZulu

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