"Art is not a mirror to reflect the world, but a hammer with which to shape it." - variously attributed to Bertolt Brecht, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Nikolai Nekrasov and even (in a slightly different version) Leon Trotsky.

1882 - Sara Bard Field (d. 1974), American poet, pacifist, suffragist, Christian socialist and anarchist sympathiser, born. Partner to philosophical anarchist Charles Erskine Scott Wood, her work appeared in the anarchist periodical 'The Blast' alongside that of C.E.S. Wood.

[B] 1887 - Blaise Cendrars (born Frédéric-Louis Sauser; d. 1961), Swiss Modernist novelist, amputee left-handed poet, adventurer, soldier, failed film director and an anarchist fellow-traveller who never fully committed himself to the movement, born. A poor student, he left school early and in 1904 was apprenticed to a Swiss watchmaker in Moscow, where he frequented Russian anarchist circles and was present during the 1905 Revolution. In 1912, he and the anarchist writer Emil Szittya, who owned a clandestine printing press, started the journal 'Les Hommes Nouveaux' (also the name of his press where he published his early poems). In the same year Cendrars held a conference a few days after the death of Jules Bonnot on the theme 'La Beauté Devant l'Anarchisme', proclaiming "La vie est anarchisme. La Vie est beauté. La beauté est anarchisme. L'anarchisme est la vie." (Life is anarchism. Life is beauty. Beauty is anarchism. Anarchism is life.) Amongst those who attended was Kibaltchie, aka Victor Serge, who translated Cendrars' first novel, 'L'Or' (1925; published in English as 'Sutter's Gold'), into Russian.
His masterpiece is generally held to be the barely disguised autobiographical second novel 'Moravagine' (1926), which features the eponymous patient number 1731 at the Waldensee Sanatorium, a mental institution near Berne, Switzerland, who is last descendant of a degenerate East European noble lineage. The narrator, Dr. Raymond la Science, a young, brilliant, newly-graduated psychologist, who becomes his analyst, is fascinated by the personality of this "grand fauve humain" (great human beast) and subsequently engineers his patient's escape, accompanying him as he rampages around the world.
As with a significant number of foreign artists living in France and of anarchists who chose to fight in WWI, Cendrars joined the Foreign Legion and fought on the Western Front, which is where he lost his right arm in the Second Battle of Champagne in 1915, which in turn led to him having to learn to type left-handed.
"It is an outrage towards the masses.. ..It’s wanting to treat them as though they’re incapable of raising themselves up to this new realism (promoted by Léger and Le Corbusier) which is that of their area, which they’ve made with their hands.. ..To want to say to these men ‘the modern is not for you it’s an art for the rich bourgeoisie.." (attack on the notion of a social realist art, c. 1949)

1895 - Gil Bel Mesonada (d. 1949), Spanish militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, writer, journalist, novelist and avant-garde arts theorist, born. On January 1, 1929 created a Biblioteca Popular in Utebo and creating a radical avant garde manifesto, printed on red and black paper. In 1930 he was editor of the anarchist journal 'Cultura y Acción' (Culture and Action) and published an article entitled 'Propositos', which is considered to be the first statement on the theoretical principles of the plastic arts issued in Catalonia. During the Civil War, he organised the Sindicato de Espectáculos (Entertainment Union) and created the anarchist colony at Torrelodones (Madrid), to which he invited Luis Buñuel. Following Franco's victory, he remined in Spain, working under the pseudonym of Vicente Gil for the film distributor and publisher UFILMS and as editor of 'Fermina Bonilla'. He also wrote under various other pseudonyms including Fray Luzbel, Luzbel (Lucifer) and G. Bellini on publications such as 'El Comunista', 'La Democracia', 'La Gaceta Literaria' (Literary Gazette), 'Lucha Social' (Social Control), 'Nueva Senda' (New Path), 'Pluma Aragonesa' (Aragonese Pen), 'Revista de la Casa de América-Galicia' (Journal of the House America-Galician), etc.. He is the author of 'El Último Atentado' (The Last Bombing; 1922), 'Nazarenos de Violencia' (Nazarene of Violence; 1923), 'Voces Interiores' (Inner Voices; 1923), 'Delicadeza' (Delicacy; 1923), 'Abajo lo Burgués' (Down with the Bourgeois; 1932), 'Fuego en el Mar' (Fire at Sea; 1942), amongst others.

1903 - Bernard Lazare (Lazare Marcus Manassé Bernard; b. 1865), author, journalist, anarchist, polemicist and Dreyfusard, dies. [see: Jun. 14]

[C] 1906 - Missak Manouchian (d. 1944), French-Armenian poet, a militant communist in the MOI (Main d'Œuvre Immigrée or Immigrant Workers Movement), and military commissioner of the FTP-MOI (Francs-Tireurs et Partisans de la Main d'Œuvre Immigrée; Partisan Irregular Riflemen of the MOI) in the Paris region, born in Adıyaman (now in southeastern Turkey). Manouchian's father died during the Armenian Genocide of 1915, and , with his mother dying soon afterwards, he and his brother, Karabet, now orphaned, joined the stream of Armenian refugees heading south into the French protectorate of Syria. In an orphanage there they learned the French language, carpentry and other manual skills. They remained until they were able to secure passage to Marseilles in 1925. In Paris Missak took a job as a lathe operator at a Citroën plant and joined the CGT (Confédération Générale du Travail). He also began writing poetry and with his Armenian friend Kégham Atmadjian, who used the pseudonym of Séma, founded two literary magazines, 'Tchank' (Effort) and 'Mechagouyt' (Culture). With the outbreak of war, in September 1939 Manouchian was evacuated from Paris as a foreigner. After the defeat of June 1940, he returned to occupied Paris and was arrested on June 22, 1941, by the Germans in an anti-Communist round-up in Paris. Interned in a prison camp at Compiègne, he was eventually released without charge due to the efforts of his wife. He was then the political chief of the Armenian section of the underground MOI until February 1943, when Manouchian transferred to the FTP-MOI, where he made his name commanding three detachments, totalling about 50 fighter. The Manouchian group, as it became known, is credited with the assassination on September 28, 1943, of General Julius Ritter, the assistant in France to Fritz Sauckel, head of forced labour under the German STO (Service du Travail Obligatoire) in Nazi-occupied Europe, and carrying out around thirty successful attacks on German interests from August to November 1943. However, the efforts of the Special Brigade No. 2 of General Intelligence eventually led to the complete dismantling of the FTP-MOI of Paris by mid-November 1943. On the morning of November 16, 1943, Manouchian was arrested in his headquarters at Évry-Petit Bourg. He and the other FTP-MOI fighters were tortured for information, and eventually handed over to the Germans' Geheime Feldpolizei (GFP). The 23 were given a 1944 show trial for propaganda purposes before execution. Manouchian and 21 of his comrades were shot at Fort Mont-Valérien near Paris on February 21, 1944.
Following the executions, the Germans printed 15,000 propaganda posters on red background paper, the notorious 'Affiche Rouge', featuring the photos of ten of the dead, each within its own black medallion. The central photo was of Manouchian and had the inscription: "Armenian gang leader, 56 bombings, 150 dead, 600 wounded". Aimed at portraying the MOI (and the Resistance in general) as criminal, murderous foreigners who were a danger to law-abiding, cooperative citizens, they were defaced with the words "Morts pour la France!"

1941 - Jiří Orten (Jiří Ohrenstein; b. 1919), Czech poet and nephew of the anarchist poet Josef Rosenzweig-Moir, dies 2 days after being knocked down in a Prague street by a German ambulance and refused hospital treatment as a Jew. [see: Aug. 30]
[B] 1854 - Hans Henrik Jaeger (d. 1910), Norwegian writer, playwright, novelist, bohemian and anarchist, an important friend and influence on Edvard Munch, born. Abused and driven out by the bourgeoisie and police in Kristiania, his portrait is Munch's final work. Member of the bohemian group Kristianiabohemen and friend of Edvard Munch, he was prosecuted for his novel 'Fra Kristiania-Bohêmen' (Scenes from Kristiania-Bohêmen; 1885) and sentenced to 60 days' imprisonment in 1886. His 1906 book, 'Anarkiets Bibel' (The Bible of Anarchism), advocating his philosophy of the expropriative general strike coupled with the need for individual and sexual liberation, encompassing a raging attack on religion, capitalism, private property and the state.

1956 - (2nd-8th) First World Congress of Free Artists at Alba, Italy. Participants: Enrico Baj (Nuclear Art Movement, Milan; excluded in the course of the conference on the Lettrist delegate's demand), Jacques Calonne, Constant (ex-Cobra; Christian Dotremont does not attend, ostensibly because of illness), Giuseppe Pinot Gallizio, Asger Jorn, Piero Simondo, Ettore Sottsass Jr, Elena Verrone (International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus), Gil J. Wolman (Lettrist International/Potlatch), Sandro Cherchi, Franco Garelli (Turin), Jan Kotik, Pravoslav Rada (Czechoslovakia), Charles Estienne, Klaus Fischer, several others.
Two exhibitions are held simultaneously: 'Futurist Ceramics 1925-33', organized by Jorn and Gallizio, at Alba town hall; and an exhibition by the experimental laboratory at Corino cinema, involving Constant, Gallizio, Garelli, Jorn, Kotik, Rada, Simondo and Wolman.

1973 - John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (b. 1892), English writer, poet, and professor, known for his literary works, 'The Hobbit' and 'The Lord of the Rings', dies. [see: Jan. 3]

1979 - RAR/ANL Carnival Brockwell Park, London. Aswad, Stiff Little Fingers and Verdict on the bill.

1984 - Manos Katrakis (b. 1908), Greek theatre and film actor, who fought with the EAM/ELAS communist anti-fascist resistance during WWII and refused to sign a declaration of repentance during the Greek Civil War of 1946-49, dies. [see: Aug. 14]
1867 - Jehan-Rictus (Domitille-Camille-Gabrielle-Adine Randon de Saint-Amand; d. 1933), French poet and anarchist, born. His early Symbolist work was published under his birth name, Gabriel Randon, but he later adopted the pen name Jehan-Rictus and published more popular working class poems including his best known collection 'Les Soliloques du Pauvre' (1897), but by the time of WWI he had become a nationalist and Royalist. His early passion for anarchism resulted in an unpublished novel, 'l'Impostor' (c. 1892), recounting the return of Christ to France, a theme returned to in his most famous poem 'Le Revenant' about a meeting between a tramp and Jesus.

[B] 1878 - Madeleine Vernet (Madeleine Cavelier; d. 1949), French libertarian educator, novelist, feminist, peace activist and propagandist, born. [expand]

[C] 1899 - Wilhelm (or Vilmos) Stepper-Tristis (d. unknown), Hungarian novelist, journalist, literary critic, communist and anti-fascist, who joined the French Résistance and is presumed to have died in a concentration camp, born. [expand]

1940 - Eduardo Hughes Galeano, Uraguayan libertarian writer, novelist and journalist, born. Author of 'Días y Noches de Amor y de Guerra' (Days and Nights of Love and War; 1982).

1943 - Michael Anthony 'Mick' Farren (d. 2013), English journalist, writer, poet, musician, activist, agent provocateur and anarchist, born. Frontman for anarchist proto-punk band The Deviants (1967-69) plus various reunions/one-offs. Solo artist whose albums include the wonderfully titled 'Vampires Stole My Lunch Money' (1978). Co-writer on songs for The Pink Faries, Hawkwind and Motörhead. Organiser of the Phun City Festival in 1970.
Writer for, and briefly editor of, 'International Times' and later 'New Musical Express'. Columnist for 'Trouser Press' and 'LA CityBeat'. Author of 23 science fiction novels, including: the 'DNA Cowboys Trilogy' (actually a quartet; 1976-1989) and 'Jim Morrison's Adventures in the Afterlife' (1999); plus 11 non-fiction books, such as 'Conspiracies, Lies And Hidden Agendas: Our Deepest Secret Fears, from the Antichrist to the Trenchcoat Mafia' (1999), 'Who's Watching You?: The Chilling Truth about the State, Surveillance and Personal Freedom' (2007), 'Elvis Died for Somebody's Sins But Not Mine: A Lifetime's Collected Writing' (2013), and his 2001 memoir, 'Give The Anarchist A Cigarette'; and reams of poetry, including the collection 'Black Dogs Circled' (2012).
He was also a prominent activist in the White Panthers UK, helping organised free food and other support services for free festivals from the Windsor Free Festival in 1972 onwards.
"There I was, cocky and paranoid, yet another anarchist art student teenage asshole, rebel without a clue, too dumb to recognize the impossible but with that burning desire to do it. It was 1967, and all things seemed possible, we wanted the world and we wanted it now. Vietnam was getting ugly and LSD-25 was hitting the headlines." - Notes for 'PTOOFF!' [A thousand miles of barbed wire starts with the first barb…]

1993 - Baltasar Lobo (b. 1910), Spanish artist, illustrator, sculptor and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 22]
[B] 1871 - Georges Delaw (Henri Georges Deleau; d. 1938), French anarchist, poet, artist, designer and illustrator, born.

1882 - Leonhard Frank (d. 1961), German Expressionist novelist, short story writer, playwright, libertarian pacifist and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. A regular visitor to the Monte Verità libertarian writers colony at Ascona in Switzerland, he was heavily influenced by the ideas of the psychoanalyst Otto Gross and became close to the likes of Franz Jung, Karl Otten, Oskar Maria Graf and Erich Mühsam.

1896 - Antonin Artaud (Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud; d. 1948), French playwright, poet, actor, theatre director, theoretician, who invented the concept of the Théâtre de la Cruauté (Theatre of Cruelty), born. One of the most influential figures in the evolution of modern drama theory, Artaud associated himself with Surrealist writers, artists, and experimental theater groups in Paris during the 1920s. When political differences resulted in his break from the Surrealists, he founded the Theatre Alfred Jarry with Roger Vitrac and Robert Aron. 'Héliogabale ou L'Anarchiste Couronné' (1934), with its six vignettes by André Derain, is the novelised biography of the 3rd-century Roman Emperor Heliogabalus and it is probably Artaud's most inflammatory work. Shot full of blood, shit and other human effluvia, it is a poetic, even mystical interpretation of the corrupt and decadent life of an Emperor crowned almost despite himself.
"Avoir le sens de l'unité profonde des choses c'est avoir le sens de l'anarchie et de l'effort à faire pour réduire les choses en les ramenant à l'unité." (To have a sense of the profound unity of things is to have a sense of anarchy and the effort to reduce things by returning them to unity) - from 'Héliogabale ou L'Anarchiste Couronné' (1934)

1897 - Ramón Sempau i Barril (1871-1909), Catalan lawyer, writer and journalist attempts to assassinate Lieutenant Narciso Portas, 'el botxí de Montjuïc', chief torturer at the Montjuïc prison. Editor of 'El Divulio'(The Flood) and a member of the Catalan modernist group Colla del Foc Nou (League of New Fire), he was influenced by republicanism and anarchism and, at the start of the Procés de Montjuïc in 1896, he was forced to flee to France to avoid standing trial for his criticism of the actions of the Spanish authorities in Cuba. After visiting London and Brussels returned to Barcelona, ​​where, on September 3 1897, he attempted to shoot Narciso Portas, head of the policia judicial in Barcelona, specialising in the repression of the anarchism, and primarily responsible for torture at Montjuïc. His poor marksmanship and ancient pistol led to failure and he was captured. Sentenced to death before a court martial, his case was eventually moved into the civil jurisdiction, following the Liberals' victory in the 1989 general election, where he was acquitted (though he got two months and a day for using a false name). He was author of 'El capitán Dreyfus. Un proceso célebre' (1899); 'Los victimarios. Notas relativas al proceso de Montjuïc' (1900); and the novel 'Esclavas del oro (Trata de blancas)' (Handmaids of gold (Trafficking of whites); 1902).

[C] 1910 - Heinz Kiwitz (d. 1938), German Expressionist artist and anti-fascist, born. Arrested following the Nazis' seizure of power, he survived imprisonment in Kemna and Börgermoor concentration camps and was released in 1934. He went into exile in 1937, first living in Denmark, then in France, where he again began to fight Nazism. In 1938, he went to Spain to fight in the Spanish Civil War, where he apparently died (exact date unknown).

1914 - Charles Péguy (b. 1873), French poet, playwright, essayist, editor, libertarian socialist and anti-clericalist, dies. [see: Jan. 7]

[BB] 1934 - Jan Švankmajer, Czech Surrealist filmmaker, animator and artist, born. His themes are: freedom versus oppression, anarchy versus authoritarianism; with Svankmajer always questioning the difference between the lunatics and the people running the asylum - a mix of agitprop and Surrealism, which gradually brought him into conflict with the authorities and he was banned from making films in 1972 following his film 'Leonardo’s Diary'. Returning to literary themes in 1979 helped eased the restrictions, though the political satire crept back and led to many of his later films again being suppressed. Since 1964 many of his films have been made in association with his wife Eva Švankmajerová including he major films 'Alice' (Něco z Alenky; 1987) and 'Little Otik' (Otesánek; 2000).
“I’m an anarchist. I insist on my own creation..."

1956 - Francisco Tortosa (b. 1880), Spanish-Mexican anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and painter, dies.

1989 - Georges Simenon (b. 1903), Belgian author, creator of Inspector Maigret novels, dies. Though not an activist, during an interview he stated that he considered himself an anarchist from the age of 16: "Je me considère comme un anarchiste non violent, car l'anarchie n'est pas nécessairement violente, celui qui s'en réclame étant un homme qui refuse tout ce qu'on veut lui faire entrer de force dans la tête ; il est également contre ceux qui veulent se servir de lui au lieu de lui laisser sa liberté de penser." (I consider myself as a nonviolent anarchist, because anarchy is not inevitably violent, it does not claim that a man that refuses to change will be hit around the head; it is also against those who want to manipulate instead of allowing for the freedom of thought.) [see: Feb. 13]
1568 - Tommaso Campanella (d. 1639), Italian philosopher, theologian, astrologer, precursor of egalitarian utopian communism and poet, born.

1900 - Nguyen An Ninh (d. 1943), influential Vietnamese nationalist journalist, poet and libertarian communist, who was active in the revolutionary struggle against the French colonial empire, born.

1905 - Arthur Koestler (d. 1983) Hungarian-born British novelist, journalist and critic, born. In 1931 Koestler joined the Communist Party of Germany but disillusioned by Stalinism, he resigned in 1938. During the Spanish Revolution, he was sent by the Comintern to spy on Frenco's headquarters disguised as a right-wing Hungarian journalist working for the 'News Chronicle'. However, he came under suspicion and was arrested in February 1937 and held under a sentence of death in a Seville jail. He narrowly escaped execution because of a prisoner exchange the following year, writing about his experiences in 'Spanish Testament' (1937). His first novel, 'The Gladiators' (1939), was based upon the Spartacus slave revolt, which Koestler used as an allegory for the corruption of socialism by Stalin. He followed thus up in 1940 with the novel 'Darkness at Noon', an anti-totalitarian work, which further reflected his break with Stalinism and Communist Party and gained him international fame. In 1940 he was interned as a political prisoner in Le Vernet Concentration Camp by the Vichy government until January 1940. After his release he moved to England and wrote his first book in English, 'The Scum of the Earth' (1941), an account of his experiences of internment.
Koestler's oeuvre covered everything from novels, a play (the 1945 'Twilight Bar') and autobiography to political journalism and writings on the paranormal and the use of hallucinogens. Probably the least known of his works is the trilogy of sex encyclopaedias which he agreed to write in the early 30s in order to support himself, and which were published under the titles: 'The Encyclopœdia of Sexual Knowledge' (1934); 'Sexual Anomalies and Perversions, Physical and Psychological Development, Diagnoses and Treatment' (1936), both by the pseudonymous "Drs. A. Costler, A. Willy, and Others"; and 'The Practice of Sex' (1940).
"I think most historians will agree that the part played by impulses of selfish, individual aggression in the holocausts of history was small; first and foremost, the slaughter was meant as an offering to the gods, to king and country, or the future happiness of mankind. The crimes of Caligula shrink to insignificance compared to the havoc wrought by Torquemada. The number of victims of robbers, highwaymen, rapists, gangsters and other criminals at any period of history is negligible compared to the massive numbers of those cheerfully slain in the name of the true religion, just policy, or correct ideology ... the evils of mankind are caused, not by the primary aggressiveness of individuals, but by their self-transcending identification with groups whose common denominator is low intelligence and high emotionality ... The continuous disasters of man's history are mainly due to his excessive capacity and urge to become identified with a tribe, nation, church or cause, and to espouse its credo uncritically and enthusiastically, even if its tenets are contrary to reason, devoid of self-interest and detrimental to the claims of self-preservation ... We are thus driven to the unfashionable conclusion that the trouble with our species is not an excess of aggression, but an excess capacity for fanatical devotion." from 'The Ghost in the Machine' (1967)

1907 - Henri Storck (d. 1999), Belgian author, filmmaker, documentarist, actor, Surrealist and anarchist, born. He co-founded the Cinémathèque Royale de Belgique (Royal Belgian Film Archive) and was an actor in Jean Vigo's 'Zéro de Conduite' (1933), playing the curé.

1912 - John Cage (d. 1992), American composer, music theorist, writer, poet, artist and anarchist, born.

[B] 1914 - Nicanor Parra, Chilean mathematician, theoretical physicist, social ecologist, philosophical anarchist in an age ''without brotherhood'' and a poet who writes what he calls 'anti-poetry', born.


Quien haya estudiado a fondo
El mundo actual
No puede dejar de hacerse
Quien haya estudiado a fondo
El partido comunista
No puede dejar de hacerse anarquista
Believe me
No ser idealista a los 20
Es no tener corazón
Seguir siéndolo a los cuarenta
Es no tener cabeza


Anyone who has studied thoroughly
The world today
You can not stop being
Anyone who has studied thoroughly
The Communist Party
You can not stop being anarchist
Believe me
Not to be idealistic at 20
Does not have a heart
Continue to be so at forty
Does not have a brain)

'Also Sprach Altazor', Stanza XIII


[C] 1936 - 24-year-old Federico 'Taino' Borrell (b. 1845) dies. Anarquista, member of the FAI, made famous by the iconic photo 'The Fallen Soldier' by Robert Capa, who captured his moment of death. Later attempts to discredit Capa and the photograph have themselves been discredited. [see: Dec. 14]


1936 - Gustave Kahn (b. 1859), French Symbolist poet, novelist, playwright, art critic, Dreyfusard and anarchist, dies. [see: Dec. 21]

1986 - Maurice Pernette (b. 1913), French anarchist, small press publisher, poet and author, dies. [see: Jul. 13]
[B] 1949 - Lucien Descaves (b. 1861), French libertarian novelist, dies. [see: Mar. 18]
1859 - Paul Vigné d'Octon (Paul-Étienne Vigné; d. 1943), French physician, writer, poet, journalist, libertarian, rationalist, anticlerical, neo-Malthusian, freethinker and anti-colonialist, born.

1907 - Roberto Barreto Pedroso das Neves aka Ernst Izgur (d. 1981), Portuguese-born Brazilian writer, journalist, poet, historian, Freemason, Esperantist, graphologist, anarchist individualist, vegetarian and naturist, born. Having worked on the anarchist journals 'A Batalha' and 'O Libertario', and been persecuted by the Salazar police (13 arrests), he left Portugal in 1942 for Brazil. There he founded and led the Editora Germinal (Editions Germinal), which published anarchist books, and collaborated on the anarchist publications 'Relações Anarquistas', 'Acção Directa' and 'A Plebe'.
His works include the poetry collection 'Assim Cantava um Cidadão do Mundo - poemas que levaram o autor treze vezes aos cárceres do Santo Oficio de Salazar' (Just One Song of a World Citizen - poems that led the author thirteen times the prisons of Salazar's Inquisition; 1952) and the anti-religion polemic 'O Diário do Dr. Satã. Comentários subversivos às escorrências cotidianas da sifilização cristã' (The diary of Dr. Satan. Subversive comments on the daily seepage of christian syphilisation; 1954) [NB Satã was the name das Neves used when he joined the Masons].

1911 - Guillaume Apollinaire is arrested and jailed on suspicion of aiding and abetting the theft of the 'Mona Lisa' from the Louvre. Five days later his innocence is proved. Though Apollinaire was a friend of Géry Piéret, someone who had been stealing artifacts from right under the guards' noses for quite a while, there was no evidence that he had any knowledge or had in any way participated in the theft of the 'Mona Lisa'.

[B] 1929 - Gil J. Wolman (born Gil Joseph; d. 1995), French filmmaker, writer, political activist and Internationale Lettriste, born. An active agent provocateur from an early age, by 24 he had been: a member of the Young Communists, journalist for the magazine 'Combat', drug trafficker in the Algiers Casbah, long-distance lorry driver from Greenland to Pompeii, merchant marine captain, published poet and accomplished knitter. In 1950, he and Isidor Isou developed the principles of Lettrisme
In February 1952, the showing of his second film 'L'Anticoncept' (1951), at a Letterist film screening causes a major scandal. His first experiment in his new 'Cinematochrone' process, abolishing images altogether in a violent flurry of black and white strobes projected on a weather balloon, and accompanied by a soundtrack of his poems, brief reflections and syncopated texts. 'L'Anticoncept' was banned by the French censors; its screening at the Cannes Film Festival the month after it was completed was only open to the press and the banning prompts Wolman to lead a systematic disruption of the Cannes Film Festival the Letterists and he is only saved by a police escort.
In June 1952, Wolman and Debord formed the Letterist International and co-write 'A User's Guide to Détournement' and 'Theory of the Dérive' (both 1956) and published in the Belgian surrealist review 'Les Lèvres Nues' (Naked Lips). In 1955, Wolman and Debord wrote 'Why Lettrism?', published in Potlatch no. 22, and Wolman went on to represent the Letterist International at the World Congress of Artists in Alba, Italy, establishing important links between the Letterist International and others (e.g. Asger Jorn and Pinot-Gallizio of the International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus) who would go on to collaborate on forming the Situationist International.
Other Wolman innovations include the devising of his 'Scotch Art' in 1963, a process which consists in tearing off bands of printed matter and using adhesive tape to reposition them on fabrics or wood. He later developed 'dühring dühring', 'decompositions' and finally 'depicted painting' in a long line of artistic innovations and genius - "genius is what we all have when we stop improving one thing in order to make something else. When we only refuse to have talent".

1936 - Communist Josep Renau is named Director General of Fine Arts by Jesus Hernández, Minister of Public Instruction in the government of Largo Caballero. One of the artists most heavily involved in the Civil War, Renau's duties included the safeguarding of the artistic heritage of Spain. He was in charge of evacuating from Madrid to Valencia the paintings in the Prado Museum, which were threatened by the bombings.

1949 - José Clemente Orozco (b. 1883), Mexican social realist painter, muralist and lithographer, dies. [see: Nov. 23]
[B] 1873 - Alfred Jarry (d. 1907), French writer, novelist, playwright, anarchist, freelance scoundrel, proto-surrealist inventer of Pere Ubu and of Pataphysics, the science of imaginary solutions and the laws governing exceptions, born.
"Nous sommes libres de faire ce que nous voulons, même d’obéir ; d’aller partout où il nous plaît, même en prison! La liberté, c’est l’esclavage!" (We are free to do as we please, even free to obey, free to go everywhere we want, even to prison! True freedom lays in slavery!) - 'Ubu Enchainé' (1899)
"The great merit of 'Pataphysics is to have confirmed that there is no metaphysical justification for forcing everybody to believe in the same absurdity, possibilities for the absurd and in art are legion. The only logical deduction that can be made from this principle is the anarchist thesis: to each his own absurdities. The negation of this principle is expressed in the legal power of the state, which forces all citizens to submit to an identical set of political absurdities." - from 'Pataphysics - A Religion In The Making' by Asger Jorn, originally appeared in 'Internationale Situationniste' No.6 (August 1961)

1897 - Yefim or Jefim Golyshev (Ефи́м Го́лышев; d. 1970), Ukrainian-born painter and composer, who was active mainly in Europe and was a member of the Dadaist Revolutionary Central Council alongside Hülsenbeck and Hausmann, born. One of the pioneers of twelve-tone composition.

1914 - Hans Leybold (b. 1892), German expressionist poet and anarchist fellow traveller, whose small body of work was a major inspiration behind Berlin Dada, and in particular the works of his close friend Hugo Ball, dies. [see: Apr. 2]

1924 - Mimi Parent (d. 2005), Canadian surrealist artist, born. ​[expand]
"Knock hard. Life is deaf."

1969 - Alexandra David-Néel (born Louise Eugénie Alexandrine Marie David; b. 1868), Belgian-French explorer, spiritualist, Buddhist, anarchist, Freemason, opera singer, writer, lecturer, photographer, dies. [see Oct. 24]

1979 - The 'infamous' Crass and Poison Girls concert at Conway Hall in London, and a period where British Movement/National Front activity at punk gigs was particularly prominent. The gig was a fundraiser for 'Persons Unknown' and there were a number of fascists present, who Red Action and SWP members attacked and ejected. Crass' response was to issue the Conway Hall Statement Flyer and a pamphlet criticising Rock Against Racism and anti-fascist violence. Many anarchist groups, including Class War, react negatively to Crass' stance.

2006 - Première of 'Salvador' or 'Salvador (Puig Antich)', a Spanish film directed by Manuel Huerga and based on Francesc Escribano's 'Compte Enrere. La Història de Salvador Puig Antich', which describes the execution of Salvador Puig Antich, the last person executed by garrote under the dictatorship of Francisco Franco. The film is widely despised amongst anarchist as a "slick, commercial melodrama offers us no explanation of Salvador Puig Antich's actual battle, the reasons why he fought and perished, what he believed in, the process whereby he became radicalised politically and his commitment to the struggle alongside what was then the most radically anti-capitalist strand of the workers' movement." [KSL: Bulletin of the Kate Sharpley Library, #46-7, (July 2006)]
1828 - Leo Tolstoy (d. 1910), famed Russian novelist, religious pacifist and anarchist, born.

[B] 1878 - Charles d'Avray (Charles Henri Jean; d. 1960), French anarchist poet and prolific propagandist songwriter, born. His concerts (conférences chantées) were advertised with the slogan "Avec le passé détruisont le présent pour devancer l'avenir" (With the past destroy the present and anticipate the future).

1898 - Stéphane Mallarmé (real name Étienne Mallarmé; b. 1842), French Symbolist poet, critic and an anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Mar. 18]

1901 - Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (b. 1864), French painter, printmaker, draughtsman and illustrator, dies. [see: Nov. 24]

1911 - Paul Goodman (d. 1972), American anarchist cultural critic, poet, playwright, novelist and psychotherapist, born. [expand]

1918 - Guillaume Apollinaire (born Wilhelm Albert Włodzimierz Apolinary Kostrowicki ; b. 1880), French poet, playwright, short story writer, novelist, art critic, youthful anarchist and proto-Surrealist, dies. [see: Aug. 26]

1946 - Mynona aka Salomo Friedlaender (b. 1871), German philosopher, author and anarchist individualist, associated with Expressionism and Dada, dies. [see: May 4]
[B] 1890 - Franz Viktor Werfel (d. 1945), Czech-born, Austrian-Jewish novelist, playwright and poet, born. Werfel had identified himself as being an atheist and anarchist by the time of his bar mitzvah (i.e. 13-years-old), although his anarchism, like many of his fellow Expressionists, had a distinctly messianic or mystical edge to it and ended up veering towards a Tolstoyian pacifist anarchism. He was also another of the Expressionists to fall under the influence of Otto Gross. Werfel began writing at an early age and published his first book of poems, 'Der Weltfreund', (The Friend to the World) in 1911, and had befriended other German Jewish writers who frequented Prague’s Café Arco, chief among them Max Brod and Franz Kafka.
At the outbreak of WWI, Werfel served in the Austro-Hungarian Army on the Russian front in relative safety as a telephone operator, and he continue writing Expressionist poems, plays and kept up a voluminous correspondence. In 1917 he left the front-line for the Military Press Bureau in Vienna, where he joined other notable Austrian writers serving as propagandists, among them Robert Musil, Rainer Maria Rilke and Stefan Zweig. After the war he continued writing, publishing amongst others: a poetry collection; 'Der Gerichtstag' (Judgment Day; 1919); the short story collections 'Nicht der Mörder, der Ermordete ist Schuldig' (Not the Murderer, it is the Victim who is Guilty; 1920) and
'Der Tod des Kleinbürgers' (The Death of the Petty Bourgeois aka 'The Man Who Conquered Death'; 1928); novels such as 'Der Abituriententag: Geschichte einer Jugendschuld' (Class Reunion: History of a Boy's Guilt; 1928) and 'Der Veruntreute Himmel' (Embezzled Heaven; 1939); and a large number of plays, which included 'Paulus unter den Juden' (Paul among the Jews; 1926) and 'Das Reich Gottes in Böhmen' (The Kingdom of Bohemia; 1930).
He married Alma Mahler (widow of composer Gustav Mahler) in 1929, with whom he journeyed to the Middle East in 1930, encountering starving refugees which inspired his 2 volume novel 'Die Vierzig Tage des Musa Dagh' (The Forty Days of Musa Dagh) which drew world attention to the Armenian Genocide at the hands of the Turks.
After the Anschluss, Franz and Alma fled Vienna for France, only to have to flee in 1940 on foot across the Pyrenees to Spain, accompanied by Heinrich Mann, and from there to the United States. While living in Southern California, Werfel completed his most famous novel 'The Song of Bernadette' (Das Lied von Bernadette; 1941), fulfilling a vow made in 1940 in Lourdes for a safe escape. The novel was made later into the film 'The Song of Bernadette' (1943).

[C] 1897 - Georges Albert Maurice Victor Bataille (d. 1962), French philosopher, novelist, poet and critic, whose writings cover a wide range of subjects including literature, anthropology, sociology and the history of art, born. Eroticism, sovereignty and transgression are at the core of his writings, many of which propound what has been labelled a 'post-anarchist' ethics. In 1935 he co-founded an anti-Fascist group, Contre-Attaque, with André Breton.

1969 - Jorge Majfud, Uraguayan novelist, essayist and anarchist, born. Professor at Georgia, Lincoln and Jacksonville Universities. [expand]
1901 - Katri Vala (Karin Alice Wadenström; d. 1944), Finnish teacher, modernist poet, translator, radical, pacifist and anti-Fascist, who was a central member of the literary group Tulenkantajat (Torchbearers), born. An elementary school teacher, in 1928 she fell ill with tuberculosis, from which he never fully recovered, and which eventually led to his premature death aged only 42. In 1930, she married Armas Heikel, a trainee chemist and left-wing radical. She herself helped radicalise Finnish poetry as the prime instigator of Tulenkantajat's expressionistic free verse, with its mix of exoticism and primitivism. In the 1903s, she also co-founded the leftist cultural group Kiilaa (Wedge), which attempted to fuse avant-garde and proletarian culture and also included her fellow anti-fascist poet Elvi Sinervo. Vala's last collection of poems, 'Pesäpuu palaa' (The nesting tree is burning; 1942), mostly written in 1935-39 was filled with visions of war and displayed her strong anti-fascist views. She died in Eksjö sanatorium in Sweden on April 28, 1944.

1926 - In Rome, the anarchist Gino Lucetti makes an attempt on the life of Mussolini. The bomb is deflected by the car's windscreen and wounds 8 passersby. The 26-year-old Lucetti was sentenced to 30 years; he died in the Ischia prison in 1943.

[B] 1956 - The London première of the Bill Haley film 'Rock Around the Clock' results in a riot at the Trocadero Cinema, leading to national outrage and a ban on the film in major UK cities.
1896 - Elsa Yuryevna Triolet (born Ella Kagan; b. 1970), Russian-born French writer, one-time Futurist, Surrealist muse, communist and Resistance fighter, born. Wife of French Surrealist Louis Aragon and sister of Lili Brik, who was the partner and muse of the Futurist poet Vladimir Mayakovsky. Triolet would be the first to translate Mayakovsky's poetry into French.

1914 - Stefan Kozakiewicz aka 'Marcinek' (d. 1974), Polish professor, arts historian and syndicalist, born. Before WWII, worked in the National Museum in Warsaw. During occupation took part in so-called 'Pruszkow action' – saving cultural relics. Member of the radio monitoring section of syndicalist bulletin 'Iskra' (Spark). In 'Iskra' he edited a bulletin section instructing how to protect art relics during battles. After WWII vice-director of National Museum in Warsaw and lecturer in Warsaw University. Author of many publications on the history of art, incuding: 'Warszawskie wystawy sztuk pięknych w latach 1819-1845' (The Warsaw exhibition pieces beautiful in the years 1819-1845; 1952), 'Canaletto' (1955), 'Warszawska "cyganeria" malarska' (Warsaw "bohemian" painting; 1955), with Andrew Ryszkiewicz, and 'Renesans w Polsce' (The Renaissance in Poland; 1984), with his wife Helena Kozakiewicz.

1921 - Stanisław Lem (d. 2006), Polish science fiction writer, essayist and critic, born. His works explored both philosophical themes: examining the impact of technology, the nature of itelligence, man's place in the universe, etc.; as well a critical and often satirical Soviet-era dissidence. Following the fall of Lvov to the German army in 1939, the Lem family managed to obtain documents that hid their Jewish identity, saving them from being sent to their deaths. Lem was active in Poland's Jewish anti-Nazi resistance, smuggling arms into the Krakow ghetto from which he eventually saw most of his Jewish friends deported to their deaths.

[B] 1922 - Jackson Mac Low (d. 2004), American anarchist, pacifist, poet, Fluxus performance artist, composer and playwright, born.

[BB] 1951 - 'Surréalisme et Anarchisme - Déclaration Préalable' (Surrealism and Anarchism - Preliminary Statement), signed by Jean-Louis Bédouin, Robert Benayoun, André Breton, Roland Brudieux, Adrien Dax, Guy Doumayrou, Jacqueline & Jean-Pierre Duprey, Jean Ferry, Geoges Goldfayn, Alain Lebreton, Gérard Legrand, Jehan Mayoux, Benjamin Péret, Bernard Roger, Anne Seghers, Jean Schuster, Clovis Trouille "et leurs camarades étrangers actuellement à Paris", appears in the pages of 'Le Libertaire'. It announces the future engagement of the once Communist Party supporting Surrealist Group with the Fédération Anarchiste.

[C] 1992 - Battle of Waterloo: In August 1992, posters proclaiming "Skrewdriver Back in London" began appearing advertising a Blood and Honour gig due to take place in London on September 12, the first time Skrewdriver had attempted to play in London since The Main Event, which had been targeted and seriously disrupted by AFA. The concert was once more touted to be a massive affair, with up to 2,000 neo-Nazis, many from across Europe, expected to attend and several bands playing, including Skrewdriver [ironically, Ian Stuart Donaldson was attacked in a Burton pub the night before the gig], Skullhead, No Remorse and a Swedish band called Dirlewanger. Once again the gig was at a secret location with a re-direction point, which this time was at Waterloo Station at 5.30pm. AFA tried to mobilised against the event, contacting other militant anti-fascist groups but got little positive response - the ANL even decided that they were going to hold a march in Thornton Heath, more than fifteen miles away, on the day.
AFA had called a counter-demonstration at the station for 4:30pm, at exactly the time Neil Parrish, one of B&H‘s main organisers, had boasted to the media that he would be available on the station concourse to give interviews, and had managed to mobilise around 200 activists from AFA groups around the country. At 3.20pm, AFA’s Stewards’ Group appeared on the station concourse at Waterloo, causing a number of bones to flee for their lives. Others were picked off as they arrived. The police tried to intervene but, as more Nazis were attacked as they entered the station, and the police were forced to cordon off the neo-Nazis in the middle of the station concourse. Eventually, the police decided to escort the neo-Nazis out of the station to safety, but once outside, and out of view of the CCTV cameras, they were attacked by AFA Stewards who had infiltrated the original cordon.
Over the next hour and a half, groups of anti-fascists continued ambushing nazi skinheads arriving at the fron to the station or coming up the escalators from the tube station. By 5pm, there were nearly 1,000 anti-fascists on the concourse and fights were still breaking out all over the place. Shortly afterwards, the station was shut down at the request of the manager, and the fighting spread to the streets surrounding the station. Nearby underground stations were shut down to try and limit the numbers of ordinary punters reaching Waterloo, many of whom were football supporters who got caught up in the fighting. Despite continuing to be protected by a cordon of police, the nazis came under continuous attack including missiles from a nearby footbridge. Skirmishes continued all around Waterloo as the [neo-Nazis] and their police escorts came under concerted attack by large numbers of anti-fascists. The police did not know what to do with their escorts and the fascists themselves did not know where the venue was because Neil Parrish and the rest of the organisers were sat in a pub at Victoria Station.
Eventually the police managed to get things under control and escorted the remaining fash to Temple tube station where they were put on a commandeered train out of the area. In the end, less than 400 got into the gig at the Yorkshire Grey pub in Eltham, south-east London. The anti-fascists, meanwhile, were broken up into small groups by the police, cordoned off and escorted on foot across the Thames towards central and north London. The incident received international media coverage and became known as the "Battle of Waterloo".

2001 - Dolores Prat Coll aka pequeña Montseny (little Montseny)(b. 1905), Catalan textile worker and militant anarcho-syndicalist member of the CNT from the age of 15, dies. [see: Mar. 8]
[B] 1885 - Aquilino Gomes Ribeiro (d. 1963), Portuguese novelist, writer and anarchist, born. A militant anarchist in his youth, he remained very attached to his libertarian principles through out his lfe. In 1907 he was arrested when a cache of explosives in his room at the Carrião Street, in Lisbon, exploded, killing two comrades, Gonçalves Lopes and Belmonte de Lemos. On January 12 1908, he managed to escape from prison and went underground in Lisbon. He then went into exile in Paris, studying at the Sorbonne. During WWI, he returned to Portugal where he taught at the Camões College and published his first novel 'A Via Sinuosa' (The Winding Way; 1918). Took part in the failed Republican revolt of February 7, 1927, in Lisbon against the recently installed fascist Estado Novo government of Salazar and returned to exile in Paris. At the end of the year he returned to Portugal clandestinely, participating in 1928 Pinhel revolt. Incarcerated in Fontelo prison, he again managed to escape and returned to Paris. He was tried in absentia in a Lisbon military court and sentenced.
Nominated in 1960 for a Nobel Prize in literature.

1898 - Paul-Aloïse de Bock (d. 1986), Belgian novelist, poet and lawyer, born. He joined the Belgian Workers Party in 1919 and in 1923 began frequenting Italian anti-fascist circles in Brussels. In 1930, he defended the Italian anarchist Fernando De Rosa, who had attempted to attack Prince Umberto. The same year, he was the lawyer of another Italian anarchist Arturo Berneri, author of an assassination attempt on the Italian Minister of Justice. In 1940, he was in the army a few months until Belgium was occupied. He then resumed his activities and joined the Résistance.
Up until 1950, most of his writings appeared under the pseudonym Paul Bourgues. A life-long friend of the painter Paul Delvaux, he wrote 2 books about him: 'Paul Delvaux : der Mensch, der Maler' (1965) and 'Paul Delvaux. L'homme, le Peintre, Psychologie d'un Art' (1967).

1927 - Gustave Jeanneret (b. 1847), Swiss painter, member of the International Council of the Jura Federation, brother of the libertarian engraver and writer Georges-Edouard Jeanneret and uncle of Le Corbusier, dies. [see: Apr. 6]

1934 - Jean Vigo's film 'L'Atalante', his last before his early death early next month, premières in Paris.

1945 - Noël Godin, Belgian writer, critic, actor and anarcho-humourist, whose alter ego is the entarteur Georges Le Gloupier (a name appropriated from Jean-Pierre Bouyxou, born.

1971 - Leda Rafanelli (b. 1880), Italian anarchist, feminist, anti-militarist, writer, artist and member of the Futurists, who was known as the 'Gypsy anarchist', dies. [see: Jul. 4]
1793 - John Oswald (b. ca. 1760 / or 1730), Scottish philosopher, writer, poet, social critic, vegetarian and revolutionary, dies. A precursor of anti-authoritarian ideas. In his 'Review of the Constitution of Great Britain' (1984), he denounced the parliamentary system and the corruption of MPs, advocating the establishment of direct democracy, and 'The Cry of Nature or an Appeal to Mercy and Justice on Behalf of the Persecuted Animals' (1791) argued that if each man had to personally experience the death of the animals he ate, a vegetarian diet would be far more common.

1903 - Jules-César Rozental (b. 1872), Bulgarian militant anarchist, guerrilla and poet, dies. [see: Jun. 14]

1910 - [Aug. 20 by the lunar calendar] Yi Sang (Kim Hae-gyeong; d. 1937), Korean architect, draughtsman, writer, avant garde poet and novelist, essayist and social rebel, born. One of Korea's most innovative writers of modern literature, he was heavily influenced by Dadaism and Surrealism. His works are partly autobiographical and were almost unknown during his lifetime, but his poetry and short stories were rediscovered in the '50s and became very popular, in particular '날개'/'Nalgae' (Wings; 1936). Having moved to Tokyo in November 1936 and married a Japanese woman, he was arrested in early 1937 for "thought crime". In prison, the tuberculosis he had contracted in childhood worsened and he was released on bail and admitted to Tokyo University Hospital, where he died on April 17, 1937.

1920 - Mario Benedetti (Mario Orlando Hardy Hamlet Brenno Benedetti; d. 2009), Uruguayan journalist, novelist, and radical poet of the Uraguayan peasant revolt, born. Considered one of Latin America's most important 20th-century writers.

¿Qué les queda por probar a los jóvenes
en este mundo de paciencia y asco?
¿sólo grafitti? ¿rock? ¿escepticismo?
también les queda no decir amén
no dejar que les maten el amor
recuperar el habla y la utopía
ser jóvenes sin prisa y con memoria
situarse en una historia que es la suya
no convertirse en viejos prematuros

¿qué les queda por probar a los jóvenes
en este mundo de rutina y ruina?
¿cocaína? ¿cerveza? ¿barras bravas?
les queda respirar / abrir los ojos
descubrir las raíces del horror
inventar paz así sea a ponchazos
entenderse con la naturaleza
y con la lluvia y los relámpagos
y con el sentimiento y con la muerte
esa loca de atar y desatar

¿qué les queda por probar a los jóvenes
en este mundo de consumo y humo?
¿vértigo? ¿asaltos? ¿discotecas?
también les queda discutir con dios
tanto si existe como si no existe
tender manos que ayudan / abrir puertas
entre el corazón propio y el ajeno /
sobre todo les queda hacer futuro
a pesar de los ruines de pasado
y los sabios granujas del presente.

(What is left to prove to young
in this world of patience and disgust?
Do you just graffiti? Rock?? Skepticism??
also is not to say amen
do not let them kill the love
restore speech and utopia
be young without haste and memory
placed in a story that is yours
not become prematurely old

What's left to prove to young
in this world of routine and ruin?
Cocaine?? Beer? Hooligans??
are left breathing / open your eyes
discover the roots of horror
Peace and either invent hard way
terms with the nature
and with the rain and lightning
and the feeling and death
that crazy of binding and loosing

What's left to prove to young
in this world of consumption and smoke?
Vertigo?? Assaults?? Nightclubs??
also is discussing with God
whether or not there exists
Helping hands build / open doors
between the heart itself and the alien /
above all they have left to future
despite the ruines of past
sages and scoundrels of this.)

'¿Qué les queda a los jóvenes?' (What can the young people do?)

Me jode confesarlo
pero la vida es también un bandoneón
hay quien sostiene que lo toca dios
pero yo estoy seguro de que es Troilo
ya que dios apenas toca el arpa
y mal

fuere quien fuere lo cierto es
que nos estira en un solo ademán purísimo
y luego nos reduce de a poco a casi nada
y claro nos arranca confesiones
quejas que son clamores
vértebras de alegría
esperanzas que vuelven
como los hijos pródigos
y sobre todo como los estribillos

me jode confesarlo
porque lo cierto es que hoy en día
quieren ser tango
la natural tendencia
es a ser rumba o mambo o chachachá
o merengue o bolero o tal vez casino
en último caso valsecito o milonga
pasodoble jamás
pero cuando dios o Pichuco o quien sea
toma entre sus manos la vida bandoneón
y le sugiere que llore o regocije
uno siente el tremendo decoro de ser tango
y se deja cantar y ni se acuerda
que allá espera
el estuche.

(I’m fucked, confessing it,
but life too is a bandoneón
there are some who hold that God plays it
but I’m sure that it’s Troilo
since God can hardly play the harp,
and that badly

whoever it is, the one sure thing is
that it stretches us out in a proper pure solo
and then brings us down to so little almost nothing
and for sure drags confessions from us
clamoring complaints
the vertebra of happiness
hopes that return like prodigal sons
and above all like refrains

I’m fucked confessing it
because for sure, right now, today
want to be tango
the natural tendency
is to be a rumba or mambo or chachachá
or merengue or bolero or maybe casino
and at the very last a little waltz or milonga,
and a pasadoble? never
but when God or Pichuco or whoever
takes in his hands the bandoneón life
and suggests to it that it weep or cheer
you feel the tremendous decorum of being tango
you just go ahead and sing and you would never agree
that there awaits
your casket.)

- 'Bandoneón'


1927 - Hugo Ball (b. 1886), German author, poet, philosopher, literary critic and one of the leading Dada artists, anarchist and Bakunist, dies. [see: Feb. 22]

[B] 1931 - Alain Cavalier, French film director and anarchist, born. Amongst his films are 'Le Combat dans l'île' (The Fight on the Island; 1961), 'L'Insoumis' (Crossfire; 1964) and 'Les Braves' (The Braves; 2008), which deal with the Algerian War, and 'Libera Me' (1993), torture and oppression.

1985 - Julian Beck (b. 1925), actor, director, poet, and Abstract Expressionist painter, dies. [see: May 31]
1867 - Petr Bezruč (pseudonym of Vladimir Vasek; d. 1958), Czech writer, poet and anarchist, born. A representative of the turn of the century generation of Czech Anarchističtí Buřiči, "básníci života a vzdoru" (Anarchist Rebels, "the poets of life and defiance"), Petr Bezruč was one of the most famous of his many pseudonyms, all used because of his subject matter and his fear of death because of his political activities.
He cared for his poor family by working in a post office rather than pursuing a career in philology, and was said to speak eight languages. His poems, initially published in various newspapers and magazines, hold a unique place in Czech poetry, describing the tragic stories of the Silesian people, often in offensive and incendiary language to address the social and political interests of the people, as well as lyrical love poetry. Initially collected in 'Slezským Číslem' (Silesian Numbers), they went to form the 79 poems of 'Slezské Písně' (Silesian Songs; 1958), his only poetry collection. [NB: There is speculation, however, that he is not the author of most of the poems, which were supposedly by his friend Peter Ondřej Boleslav, who committed suicide in 1893.]
'Maryčka Magdonová' is one of the most famous poems from 'Silesian Songs', written about a girl from the mountains and her very tragic fate. Her father dies in a pub brawl and mother is killed by a coal lorry. Maryčka and her four siblings are orphaned. The children are hungry and are cold. Maryčka, the oldest, has to go to the forest for logs , but the gamekeeper catches her and wants to send her to the police station. But Maryčka is ashamed and jumps into the wild river and dies.
At the beginning of WWI, a French magazine published some anti-Hapsburg poems signed with the initials PB. Vladimir Vasek was arrested and imprisoned, threatened with the death penalty for treason, but he denied authorship, eventually managing to prove otherwise.

Tak málo mám krve a ještě mi teče
z úst.
Až bude růst
nade mnou tráva, až budu hnít,
kdo na moje místo,
kdo zdvihne můj štít?
V dým zahalen vítkovských pecí jsem stál,
Noc zřela mi z očí, plam z nozdry mi vál,
nech zářilo slunce, nech večer se šeřil,
já semknutou brvou jsem vrahy ty měřil:
ty bohaté židy, ty grófy ze šlachty,
já škaredy kovkop, jak vyskočil z šachty.

(So I have a little blood still flows through me
from the mouth.
When the growth
grass above me, until I rot,
who at my place
who pulled my shield?
Shrouded in smoke ovens Vítkov I stood,
Night saw my face, plam of my nostrils blowing,
Let the sun shine, let the evening twilight,
I'm a killer compact little muscle the measure:
those rich Jews, those of Grof Šlachta,
I kovkop unsightly, as he jumped out of the shaft.)

- 'Kdo na moje místo' (Who's at my place)


1881 - Giuseppe Guidi (d. 1931), Italian painter, printmaker/etcher and anarchist, born.

[B] 1893 - Tintino Persio Rasi (d. 1963), Italian individualist anarchist activist and propagandist, journalist, writer and Futurist poet, born. Used the pseudonyms of Auro d'Arcola, Tatiano d'Arcola, Gold O' Bay and Carlo Carli. After elementary school, Tintino Rasi started working at the post office and had joined, still very young, the anarchist movement. In 1914 he was a postman in Genoa and was stuck as anarchist "properly supervised." Participating in the activities of the movement, speaking at various meetings and working with the press, including 'Il Libertario', he was transferred in 1917 to Iglesias in Sardinia, where he continued his activism.
Located in Cagliari, he worked under the pseudonym of Auro d'Arcola socialist newspaper 'Il Risveglio dell'isola' and became a member of the Executive Committee of the Cagliari Camera del Lavoro (Chamber of Local Labour). Called up during WWI, he refuses to fight and during the same period the police report (January 1918) that he and Alberto Silicani are trying to (unsuccessfully) form an anarchist group (Fascio Anarchico).
Involved throughout the period Biennio Rosso in workers' struggles and organised a large number of meetings and conferences. During one of his lectures, in June 1919 in Santo Stefano Magra, he and 3 other anarchist speakers incite a riot during which a rifleman was killed and another seriously injured. Denounced as responsible for the acts, Rasi and his companions go into hiding. However, in June 1920 he is acquitted of that charge.
In 1921, along with Renzo Renzo Ferrari Novatore and Giovanni Battista Governato, he helps form an anarcho-futurist group based in La Spezia and becomes editor of its magazine 'Vertice' (Summit). However, he is forced to temporarily flee to America following the issuing of an arrest warrant for subversive activities. In 1922 the warrant is revoked and he returns to live in Clivio at the rationalist anarchist Scuola Moderna, helping with the distribution of the school's newspaper. That year he also founds, with Renato Siglich Suvarin, the journal 'Anarchismo'.
With the rise of fascism, he left for France with his wife Ave Superna and their daughter Fossati in April 1923, firstly to Nice and then to the Paris region. Responsible as the director of many of the exiled Italian anarchist newspapers such as 'La Rivendicazione' (The Claim; Paris, 1923-25); 'La Nostra Polemicha' (Paris, 1925), where he denounces the adventurism of comrades engaged in Garibaldi Legion, particularly Ricciotti Garibaldi (who he later learned was an undercover political police agent); 'La Quale' (Paris, 1926); and 'Veglia' (Paris). He was also editor of the Italian section of the 'International Anarchist Review' (Paris, 1924-25) with Ugo Fedeli and Virgilio Gozzoli. The thre would later merge their individual papers to form 'La Tempra' (Paris, 1925-26). Under the pseudonym Gold O'Bay he also worked at 'Il Commento' (London, 1924) where he called for "the right to defend ourselves and to kill fascists."
In 1929 he was producing an anarchist paper 'Il Monito' (The Reminder) when he was arrested and expelled from France. under pressure from the Italian authorities. He subsequently disappeared - possibly living in hiding either in Belgium, France of the US or working in Switzerland under the pseudonym Tatiano at the 'L'Adunata dei Refrattari' - before reappearing in 1935 in Saint-Michel-sur-Orge. On June 20-21 1936 he participated in the Paris International Conference for the right to asylum which also involved Sébastien Faure, C. Berneri Gilioli, Marzocchi, Mastrodicasa, and others. From the beginning of the Civil War he was part of the Paris Committee for aid to Spain.
Constantly monitored by agents of the fascist police and often arrested, he eventually emigrated to the United States in 1938 where he settled in Philadelphia. Under the pseudonym of Carlo Carli, he collaborated during the war on the antifascist magazine 'Chanteclair' (New York, 1942-45), co-editing it with V. Gozzoli., and supporting what he saw as a necessary war by the Allies against fascism.

1894 - Alfred Levitt (d. 2000), Belarus-born American anarchist, humanist, renowned artist, storyteller, spelunker and adventurer, born. His friends and colleagues included the likes of Jack London, Marcel Duchamp and Emma Goldman. Influenced by American artist and teacher Robert Henri, he modelled nude at the Ferrer Modern School so he could hear Henri's lectures for free. He was attracted to Cubism after studying under modernist artist Hans Hofmann. A prolific painter, Levitt was part of a group of artists, including Milton Avery and Mark Rothko, who painted together and adapted Cubism to US themes.

[C] 1908 - Abdulla Aliş (Alişev Ğabdullacan Ğäbdelbari ulı; d. 1944), Soviet Tatar poet, playwright, writer and resistance fighter, who wrote mostly novels for children, born. [expand]

1923 - Neno Vasco (Gregório Nazianzeno Moreira de Queiroz e Vasconcelos; b. 1878), Portuguese lawyer, journalist, poet, playwright and militant anarcho-syndicalist writer, dies. [NB: Many sources give the year as 1920, but this is thought to be the correct date.][see: May 9]

1927 - Hermann Gorter (b. 1864), Dutch poet and council communist, dies. [see: Nov. 26]

1940 - Norman Spinrad, US science fiction author of' 'The Iron Dream' (1972), Adolph Hitler's "unwritten science fiction novel", and 'A World Between' (1979), an examination of direct democracy which includes a SCUM-based civilisation, born. In a 1999 interview Spinrad confirmed that he was "an anarchist, but I'm a syndicalist. You have to have organised anarchy, because otherwise it doesn't work."

1973 - Victor Jara (b. 1932), Chilean political song writer, musician, teacher and Communist, is murdered in the Estadio Chile, which had been turned into a concentration camp cum torture centre post-coup. Before he is shot and his body dumped on the outskirts of Santiago, his captors broke the bones in both hands and taunted him to try and play the guitar.

1974 - Bulldozer Exhibition (Бульдо́зерная вы́ставка): so called because the unofficial art exhibition on a vacant lot in the Belyayevo urban forest put on by Moscow avant-garde artists is forcefully broken-up by a large police force that included bulldozers and water cannons.

1992 - Release date of Hal Hartley's film 'Simple Men' (1992), a fictional tale about the children of an anarchist on the run from the law.
1879 - Herwarth Walden (pseudonym of Georg Lewin; d. 1941), German Expressionist artist and gallery owner, art expert, who was the founder of the radical German Expressionist magazine 'Der Sturm', born. He was married to the German Expressionist poet Else Lasker-Schüler, who invented his pseudonym, inspired by Thoreau’s 'Walden' (1854). He was also an early collaborator on Pfemfert's anarchist magazine 'Der Kampf'. In 1919 he joined the German Communist Party (KPD) and, in 1924, he was divorced from Lasker-Schüler. With the economic depression of the 1930s and the subsequent rise of National Socialism, his activities were compromised. In 1932, he married again and left Germany shortly later because of the threat of the Gestapo. He went to Moscow, where he worked as a teacher and publisher. His sympathies for the avant-garde soon aroused the suspicion of the Stalinist Soviet government, and he had to repeatedly defend against the equation of avant-garde and fascism. Walden died in October 1941 in a Soviet prison in Saratov.

1886 - Hans or Jean Arp (d. 1966), German-French Dadaist, Surrealist and Abstraction-Création sculptor, painter, poet and multi-media artist, born. [expand]

1906 - Jacques Brunius (d. 1967), French actor, director, writer, poet, anarchist and Surrealist, born. His film work and writings are credited under various pseudonyms: Borel, Jacques Borel, Brunius, JB Brunius, Jacques B. Brunius, Jacques-Bernard Brunius, John La Montagne, Olaf Apollonius, Jacques Berne. He appeared in more than 30 films, including many of the early, more political, movies by his friend Jean Renoir e.g. 'Une Partie de Campagne' and 'Le Crime de Monsieur Lange' (both 1936), and 'L'affaire est Dans le Sac' (1932) by Jacques and Pierre Prévert.
He also directed 13 films including 'Autour d'une Évasion' (Around an Escape; 1934), based on a screenplay by Jean Vigo about the anarchist Dieudonné and his escape from prison in Guyana, and 'Violin d'Ingres' (1939), about l'art brut and 'Le Palais Idéal' of postman turned sculptor, Ferdinand Cheval, and the Surrealists.
Friend of André Breton and member of both the French and the English Surrealist groups, becoming a well-known defender of the movement on the radio in both countries, in addition to having been a radio announce of the famous coded messages to the French Resistance during WWII.

1923 - Noe Itō (伊藤野枝; b. 1895), Japanese anarchist, social critic, author, novelist, translator and feminist, dies. [see: Jan. 21]

[B] 1943 - Steef Davidson (aka Steve Davidson; d. 2010), Dutch Provo activist, anarchist propagandist, documentary filmmaker, historian of social movements, collector of posters and comics and poster designer and printer, born.

1973 - Víctor Lidio Jara Martínez (b. 1932), Chilean teacher, theatre director, poet, singer-songwriter, political activist and member of the Communist Party of Chile, is murdered by the fascist military junta. [see: Sep. 28]
1897 - José Santos González Vera (d. 1970), Chilean writer, novelist, journalist and anarchist, born.

[BBB] 1919 - Mystag (Robert François; d. 1988), French illusionist, anarchist propagandist, neo-Malthusian, pacifist and freethinker, born. In 1975 he appeared (as himself) in Agnes Varda's TV film 'Daguerréotypes' and was the basis for one of the characters in Patrick Pécherot's tribute to Léo Malet's policiers 'Belleville-Barcelone' (2003).

1925 - The bus Frida Kahlo is traveling on collides with a streetcar, Kahlo is impaled by a steel handrail, which goes into her hip and comes out the other side. She suffers several serious injuries as a result, including fractures to her spine and pelvis.

[B] 1945 - Patrice Énard, French radical filmmaker, cinematographer, director, actor, film theorist and critic, journalist and libertarian, born.

1985 - Herman Spector (b. 1905), important radical American poet who influenced many C20th US poets, dies. [see: Sep. 18]

1999 - Henri Storck (b. 1907), Belgian author, filmmaker, documentarist, actor, Surrealist and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 5]
[B] 1905 - Herman Spector (d. 1985), important radical American poet who influenced many C20th US poets, born. He was a contributing editor of the Communist magazine 'The New Masses' and the poetry magazines 'Dynamo' and 'Blues'. He contributed to many other periodicals, including 'Exile', 'The American Caravan', 'Free Verse', 'Palo Verde', 'Transition' and 'Unrest'. His poetry was anthologised in the Marcus Graham edited 'An Anthology of Revolutionary Poetry' (1929).

"teardrop from my nose should show how cold the night.
6th Avenue L vertical prison-bars blackly compel me.
they move darkly into the past, intimate the future
with close ever-more-distant and precise conjunctions.
I drink the dark, press close to it with sexual ardor.
terror subtly underplays a vast and tragic symphony.
my sigh is gobbled whistlingly up by the wind.
the vague sharp outlines of grandeur point skyscrapers
against the inertia of black fog and nescience.
Union Square is now a dreary stark desert
where evil lurks, seeps from the ground . . .
shines a pavement grin.
stares fixedly in sadist mania from out the subway signs.
strike down, O Lord of desolation and bleak murder
strangle this sick asleep chorus-girl city, smash,
press your thumb down lightly, smudge into nothing
the gross abomination of men's possessions—
answer the circumscribed and lightheaded jest—
return the facile sneer of men with interest—
kill the lousy bastards in their beds as graves!
wreck the damned machines to which all men are slaves!
let me know no more new york!
smashing, rending havoc be your work—
O Lord!
O Lord of loveliness and ugly death;
let all nights cease upon your last, chill breath!"

'Anarchist Nightsong' (1928), from: 'Bastard in the Ragged Suit'.


1911 - Pierre-Valentin Berthier (d. 2012), French individualist anarchist, peace activist, poet, novelist and journalist, born. Author of novels which include: 'Sitting Bull' (1952); 'Chéri-Bonhomme' - Vol. 1: 'L'Enfant Derrière le Grillage' (with woodcuts by Germain Delatousche) and Vol. 2: 'Mademoiselle Dictateur' (both 1956); 'L'Enfant des Ombres' (1957); 'On a Tué M. Système' (1957); and poems: 'Le Spectre...' (1936) and 'La Chair et la Flamme' (1956).

1930 - Pietro Michele Stefano Ferrua, Italian author, essayist, translator/interpreter, mixed media artist, academic, scholar of the artistic and literary avant-gardes, anarchist propagandist and founder of CIRA (Centre International de Recherches sur l'Anarchisme), born. [expand]
He is the author of numerous works and studies such as 'Gli Anarchica nella Rivoluzione Messicana: Práxedes G. Guerrero' (Anarchism in the Mexican Revolution: Práxedes G. Guerrero; 1976), 'Surréalisme et Anarchisme' (1982), 'Anarchists in Film' (1983), 'John Kenneth Turner: a Portlander in Mexican Revolution' (1983), 'Ricardo Flores Magon e la Rivoluzione Messicana' (Ricardo Flores Magon and the Mexican Revolution; 1983), 'Avanguardia Cinematografica Lettrista' (Letterist Avantgarde Cinema; 1984) 'Entretiens sur le Lettrisme' (Conversations on Letterism; with Maurice Lemaitre, 1985), 'Appunti sul Nero American Cinema' (Notes on Black American Cinema; 1987), 'Anarchists seen by Painters' (1988), 'Italo Calvino in Sanremo' (1991), 'L'obiezione di Coscienza Anarchica in Italia' (Anarchist Conscientious Objectors in Italy; 1997), 'Iphigenia in Utopia. Four Acts' (2000), etc.. His articles are found in numerous libertarian publications and international academic journals.
See also: Ursula K. Le Guin - 'L'Anarchismo : un ideale necessario' (1994), co-interviewer, editor and translator Pietro Ferrua.

1934 - Ruth Hale (b. 1887), US freelance writer, women's rights activist, early female film critic and associate of the Algonquin Round Table, dies. Took a leading role on the Sacco and Vanzetti defence committee, working alongside the likes of Dorothy Parker and John Dos Passos.

1959 - Benjamin Péret (b. 1899), French poet, Parisian Dadaist, founder member of the French Surrealist movement, automatism and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 4]

1959 - Exhibition of collages, ceramics, drawings and graphic designs by Asger Jorn at the Van de Loo Gallery in Essen (Sept. 18 - Oct. 25).

[BB] 1983 - José Pérez Ocaña (b. 1947), Andalusian naive painter, performance artist, LGBT activist and anarchist, known simply as Ocaña, dies following medical complications arising from severe burns sustained a week earlier in an unfortunate accident occurred when his Sun King costume, made ​​from paper and fabrics, occidentally caught on fire at a children's party in his home town.

2013 - Pavlos Fyssas aka Killah P (b. 1979), Greek anti-fascist rapper, is stabbed to death by Giorgos Roupakias, a supporter of the Greek fascist party Golden Dawn (Χρυσή Αυγή), in Athens. An active anti-Fascist and member of the left wing anti-capitalist Antarysa (Left Front) party, he had been a hip-hop MC since 1997. Shortly after midnight, a group of around 25 neo-Nazis attacked Pavlos and his 6 friends outside a café at 60 Panayi Tsaldari Avenue in Amfiali, in the Keratsini district of Piraeus. Pavlos was stabbed three times in the chest and heart and died a few hours later in hospital.The killing finally forces Greek politicians and police to take the threat of Golden Dawn seriously, something they singularly failed to do when they limited their murders to migrants - in the following weeks Party offices and police stations are raided and cops arrested for their links with Golden Dawn. [see: Apr. 10]
[B] 1894 - Miguel Campuzano García (d. 1964), Spanish anarchist teacher, journalist and author of the 1927 novel 'Armonía' (Harmony), published in the 'La Novela Ideal' series, born. Wrote for numerous libertarian publications such as 'Acción y Cultura', 'Acción Social Obrera', 'Albada', 'Butlletí de la Societat Ateneu Popular de Mataró', 'CNT', 'Cultura Ferroviaria', 'Llibertat', 'El Luchador', 'El Pueblo', 'La Revista Blanca', 'Solidaridad'+, 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'La Tierra', 'Voluntad', etc. and under a number of different pseudonyms including Luz de Castilla, Araceli, Fernando Martorell, Fermín Pinardell, Modesto Educador, Amador de la Paz, etc..

1923 - Ernst Toller's play 'Der Deutsche Hinkemann' (The Limping German) premières in Leipzig.

1936 - Vicente Ballester Tinoco (b. 1903), Spanish carpenter, cabinetmaker, writer, journalist, and prominent Andalusian anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies. [see: Jun. 13]

1952 - Charlie Chaplin is exiled from the USA for his supposed "un-American activities", when J Edgar Hoover sneakily gets Chaplin's re-entry permit revoked whilst he is on a trip to London for the London première of 'Limelight'.

1956 - Helios Gómez Rodríguez (b. 1905), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, painter, poster artist, poet and militant activist, known as the 'artista de corbata roja' (artist with the red tie), dies in Barcelona 2 years after being released from prison for the last time (despite the release order signed in 1950, he contined to be held in prison illegally for four further years until his release in 1954). [see: May 7]

1985 - Italo Calvino (b. 1923), Italian journalist and writer of short stories and novels, anti-fascist partisan and member of the PCI, dies of a cerebral hemorrhage in the early hours of the morning. [see: Oct. 15]
[C] 1878 - Upton Beall Sinclair, Jr. (d. 1968), American novelist, writer, journalist, socialist and later Democratic candidate for governor of California, born. Upton Sinclair was a supporter of Sacco and Vanzetti and his 'documentary novel', 'Boston' (1928), was an indictment of the American system of justice set against the background of the prosecution and execution of the 2 anarchists, who themselves feature as characters. He was also an active supporter of the IWW free speech campaigns and strikes and in his anthology, 'The Cry for Justice: An Anthology of the Literature of Social Protest' (1915) he collected selections from the likes of Alexander Berkman ('Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist'), Peter Kropotkin ('Memoirs of a Revolutionist'), Voltairine De Cleyre, Francisco Ferrer, Auguste Vaillant, Henry David Thoreau, Octave Mirbeau, Leo Tolstoy, etc.
Sinclair wrote extensively on fascism in the 1930s and 40s, both in essay and fiction form, including in 'The Flivver King' (1937), 'No Pasaran!: A Novel of the Battle of Madrid' (1937) and the eleven volume Lanny Budd anti-fascist spy series (1940-53).
"Fascism is capitalism plus murder."

1882 - Léon Bonneff (d. 1914), French proletarian writer, autodidact and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. He and his brother Maurice met the old Communard Gustave Lefrançais and the libertarian novelist Lucien Descaves shortly after their family moved to Paris in 1900. They quickly resolved to write, both together and individually, about the conditions in which the Parisian working class lived.
His works include: 'Le Soldat-phénomène: monologue militaire, dit par Polin' (The soldier phenomenon: miltary monologue, told by Polin; 1906); 'Fine carotte, comédie en 1 acte' (Thin carrot, comedy in 1 act; 1906); 'Le Cambrioleur malgré lui, comédie en un acte' (The burglar despite himself, comedy in one act; 1908); and his famous novel 'Aubervilliers' (1949); plus the works written with Maurice: 'Les Métiers qui tuent, enquête auprès des syndicats ouvriers sur les maladies professionnelles' (The trades that kill, survey for labour unions on occupational diseases; 1906); 'La Vie Tragique des Travailleurs: enquêtes sur la condition économique et morale des ouvriers et ouvrières d'industrie' (The tragic life of workers: investigations into the economic condition and morale of workers and industrial workers; 1908); 'La Classe Ouvrière: les Boulangers, les Employés de Magasin, les Terrassiers, les Travailleurs du Restaurant, les Cheminots, les Pêcheurs Bretons, les Postiers, les Compagnons du Bâtiment, les Blessés' (The working class: bakers, store employees, navvies, restaurant workers, railway workers, Breton fishermen, postal workers, building workers, the injured; 1910); 'Marchands de Folie: Cabaret des Halles et des Faubourgs - Cabaret-Tâcheron - Cabaret-Cantinier - Cabaret-Placeur - Cabaret de Luxe - L'Estaminet des Mineurs - Au pays du "Petit Sou" : sur les quais de Rouen - Au pays de l'Absinthe - De l'Infirmerie spéciale du Dépôt à la Maison de fous' ( Merchants of Madness; 1913). - which describes the employees in pubs, cabarets, on the banks of Rouen, the effects of absinthe (which will be banned in 1917) on the workers.

[B] 1896 - Scarlat Callimachi or Calimachi (nicknamed Prinţul Roşu, the Red Prince; d. 1975), Romanian journalist, essayist, Futurist poet, trade unionist, youthful anarchist and later a communist activist, born.

1916 - Louis Jules Marie Montels (b. 1843), French clerk and commercial traveller, militant in the Paris Commune of 1871 and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 20]

1969 - José Tato Lorenzo (b. 1886), Spanish-born anarchist militant propagandist, who was an important figure of the Uruguayan Anarchist movement, dies. [see: Dec. 22]

1945 - The first issue of the monthly magazine 'Pensée et Action' is published in Brussels. 46 issues are published up til December 1952 and is replaced by 'Cahiers de Pensée et Action' from July 1953.

2010 - Jose Antonio Labordeta Subias (b. 1935), Aragonese singer-songwriter, poet, novelist, one-time libertarian who later became a resolutely non-sectarian liberal socialist politician, dies. [see: Mar. 35]
1881 - Ernst Frick (d. 1956), Swiss anarchist, artist, archaeologist and scholar of primitive languages, born.

1885 - Ángel Falco (d. 1971), Uruguayan career soldier, diplomat, journalist, writer, poet, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist propagandist, born into a Quaker family.

1902 - Toyen (Marie Čermínová; d. 1980), Czech-bron Surrealist painter, printmaker, illustrator, feminist and anarchist, born. A leading member of the inter-war Czech avant-garde, an innovator in painting techniques and pioneering woman artist who broke many taboos including the artistic representation of female sexuality. An anarchist from an early age, Toyen constantly sought to undermine gender roles: cross-dressing, adopting a gender-neutral name and always referring to herself in the masculine case, as well as maintaining a vehemently anti-bourgeois attitude.
She met and fell in love with fellow painter, photographer and poet, Jindřich Štyrský in 1922 and they worked closely together until his death in 1942. They joined the Czech avant-garde Devětsil 'proletarian art' group in 1923, painting in a Cubist-influenced style and co-designing book covers for some of the most prominent Czech authors. In the autumn of 1925 Toyen and Štyrský left for Paris, spending three years there and inventing their own fusion of Abstraction and Surrealism, dubbed Artificialism. After returning to Prague, they established a fashion studio where they experimented with techniques including spray-painting textiles.
Her art had a strong erotic content and she contributed a number of sketches for Štyrský's 'Erotika Revue' (1930–33) and contributed to his 6 volume series of erotic literature and illustration 'Edice 69' (Edition 69), founded in 1931. A member of the Spolku Výtvarných Umělců Mánes (the Association of Fine Artists) and associate member of the Surrealist group around André Breton and Paul Eluard, she and Štyrský also became founding members of the Skupiny Surrealistů v ČSR (Czech Surrealist Group) in Prague in 1934. In 1935, Andre Breton and the poet Paul Eluard came to Prague and began a lifelong friendship with Toyen.
She and Štyrský were forced underground during the Nazi occupation and Second World War, during which Štyrský was to die of a long-term heart condition. Whilst in hiding, she continued her artistic endeavours and also hid fellow Surrealist poet and Jew Jindřich Heisler, who would become her second artistic partner and with whom she fled to Paris before the Communist takeover of Czechoslovakia in 1948. Back in Paris, she worked until the end of her life with Breton and the French poet Benjamin Peret.

[B] 1921 - Lev Chernyi (Лев Чёрный) pseudonym of Pavel Dmitrievich Turchaninov (Павел Дмитриевич Турчанинов; b. c. 1878), Russian anarchist theorist, activist and poet, is shot by the Cheka. As head of the Black Guard, an anarchist workers' militia, he served in the so-called Third Russian Revolution resistance against the Bolsheviks.

1926 - Flavio Costantini (d. 2013), Italian anarchist and graphic artist who chronicled the movement's history in a series of striking images, born.

1970 - Yannis Youlountas, Franco-Greek anarchist philosopher, poet and writer, born.

1972 - Jean Lébédeff (Ivan Konstantinovich Lebedev; b. 1884), Russian-born French anarchist artist, Illustrator and printmaker, dies. [see: Nov. 25]
1912 - Today and tomorrow Franz Kafka writes his short story 'Das Urteil' (The Judgment).

[B] 1979 - Roberto Saviano, radical Italian journalist, writer and essayist, born. Saviano claims to be influenced by Errico Malatesta and Mikhail Bakunin, as well as the Italian anti-fascist politician Giustino Fortunato and Gaetano Salvemini, although he had regularly criticised those, like the 'Black Bloc', who use direct action politics and has publicly praised the State of Israel. Because of his anti-Maffia journalism he was placed under police protection in 2006, leaving Italy "for his own protection" 2 years later. Author of the non-fiction novel 'Gomorrah: Viaggio nell'Impero Economico e nel Sogno di Dominio della Camorra' (Gomorrah: Journey into the Economic Empire and the Dream of Domination of the Camorra; 2006) and co-creator of the TV programmes 'Vieni via con me' (Come away with me; 2010) and 'Quello che (non) ho' (What (not) I; 2012).
[B] 1871 - František Kupka (d. 1957), Czech Abstract painter, anarchist, satirist, book and magazine illustrator, born. [expand]

1880 - Gaston Couté (d. 1911), French anarchist poet and songwriter, born.

1897 - Paul Delvaux (d. 1994), Belgian painter, usually classed as a Surrealist though he was never a member of any Surrealist group, born. In fact, he had never heard of the Surrelaits until the Belgian Surrealist, and friend of Rene Magritte, E.L.T. Mesens was introduced to him in 1931.

[C] 1901 - Jaroslav Seifert (d. 1986), Czech poet, writer, journalist and translator, born. The only Czech "proletarian" poet of working class origins, he helped set up Umělecký Svaz Devětsil (Devětsil Artistic Federation), an initially anarchist avant-garde artists association, in 1920 and was a co-founder of Poetism. A youthful adherent to anarchism, he joined the initially non-Bolshevik Komunistické Strany Československa (KSČ) and went on the fight against Bolshevik tendencies within the party, signing the 'Proclamation of the Seven' in 1929. He was a regular contributor to left wing and communist journals and newspapers in the early 1920s including 'Červen' (June), 'Proletkult' (Proletarian Culture) and 'Rudé Právo' (Red Truth). Seifert's strong political inclinations, showing sympathy for the proletarian cause and for anarchism, were present in his first two, and arguably his best, poetry collections: 'Město v Slzách' (A City in Tears; 1921) and 'Samá Láska' (Nothing but Love; 1923).
His later collections 'Ruce Venušiny' (The Hands of Venus; 1936) and 'Jaro, s Bohem' (Spring, Goodbye; 1937) would address the problems of the rising tide of fascism in Europe. 'Zhasněte Světla' (Put Out the Lights; 1938), one of his most famous poems, also deals with fascism, expressly the Nazi threat hanging over Prague following the betrayal of Czechoslovakia at the Munich conference. Another poem, 'Vějíř Boženy Němcové' (1940), is a passionate protest against the Nazi occupation of Prague in the guise of a celebration of the 120th anniversary of Božena Němcová, considered the founder of modern Czech prose. These poems went some way to rehabilitating Seifert in the eyes of the Communist Party. His later collection 'Přilba z Hlíny' (Clay Helmet; 1945) celebrated the Prague uprising of 1945 against the Nazis and earned Seifert the stature as a Czech national poet.
Seifert was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1984.
"Mr. Seifert has never become a writer with a Party program. The state is there for the people and not vice versa. There is an element of anarchy in his philosophy of life - a protest against everything that cuts down life's possibilities and reduces human beings to cogs in some ideological machine or yokes them to the harness of some dogma." - Nobel Prize for Literature 1984 announcement.

1936 - Robert Capa’s seminal photograph 'The Falling Soldier', which captures the moment of death of 24-year-old anarchist Federico Borrell, appears in 'Vu' as part of a photo essay on the Alcoy local militia at Cerro Muriano during the Spanish Revolution.

1950 - Hanon Reznikov (born Howard Reznick; d. 2008), American anarchist, theatre and film actor, writer and co-director of The Living Theatre in New York City (with Judith Malina) following Julian Beck's death in 1985, born.

1973 - Pablo Neruda (Neftali Ricardo Reyes Basoalto; b. 1904), Chilean poet, youthful anarchist, then a communist and subsequently socialist diplomat and politician, dies. [see: Jul. 12]

1997 - Shirley Clarke (b 1919), American independent filmmaker, who studied under Hans Richter, dies. [see: Oct. 2]
1914 - Maurice Bonneff (d. 1884), French proletarian writer, autodidact and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies in the trenches of WWI. [see: Dec. 28]

1929 - Russian writer Evgeny Zamiatin, author of the allegorical science fiction novel 'We: A Novel' (1924), 'The Islanders' (1918), 'A Soviet Heretic: Essays' (1955), and 'The Dragon: Fifteen Stories' (1966) "resigns" under threat of expulsion from the Soviet All Russian Writers Union, having had the audacity to send the manuscript of 'We' to the United States.

[B] 1934 - John Kilian Houston Brunner (d. 1995), prolific British libertarian/socialist-orientated science fiction author, who was active in CND and wrote the CND marching song 'H-Bomb's Thunder', born. Of his novels, the dystopian 'The Shockwave Rider' (1975) features a clearly anarchist-based city, Precipice, which is run on a form of direct democracy, and where the main characters take refuge from the corporate State. Other similar novels include 'Stand on Zanzibar' (1968) and 'The Sheep Look Up' (1972).
"If you had to classify me, you'd have to put me in some vague area like 'fellow-travelling idealistic anarchist.'"

1963 - Yves Pagès, French novelist, essayist, journalist, scriptwriter, editor and anarchist, born.

1964 - Miguel Campuzano García (b. 1894), Spanish anarchist teacher, journalist and author of the 1927 novel 'Armonía' (Harmony), published in the 'La Novela Ideal' series, dies. [see: Sep. 19]

1978 - Over 100,000 marched (some sources give the figure as 150,000) from Trafalgar Square through South London to the second RAR/ANL Carnival being held in Brockwell Park, with Sham 69 headlining, along with Aswad, Misty In Roots and Elvis Costello and The Attractions on the bill. Other bands, including Crisis, Charge, Eclipse, Inganda, RAS, the Derelicts, the Enchanters, the Members, the Ruts and the Straights, played from floats along the course of the march. In an opportunist move, the NF announced that it would hold a march in the East End that afternoon, simply intending to embarrass, and hopefully split, the organisers of the anti-fascist event. And there was indeed a split over what to do: the organisers, the SWP and ANL, wanted to put all their efforts into the Carnival, and therefore put no effort into organising any opposition. Others wanted it called off, with the Spartacist League telling carnival-goers that they were "SCABBING on the struggle". In the end, 250 National Fronters marched through the East End and held a rally in Curtain Road, off Great Eastern Street, practically unopposed by all but what amounted to a small, almost token anti-racist presence (with the notable exception of the RCP and various anarchist groupings), except towards the end of the march when reinforcements arrived from Brockwell Park via the Tube. Too few, too late to do anything effective. An embarrasing event all round.
1865 - Henri Lebasque (d. 1937), French Post-Impressionist painter and anarchist sympathiser, born. He met Maximilien Luce and Paul Signac, whilst studying in Paris at the Académie Colarossi, and through them Camille Pissarro, who would go on to become a great influence upon him. Between 1900 and 1906, he donated a number of lithographs including 'Provocation' and 'Ceux qui mangent du pain noir' (Those who eat black bread) to Jean Grave's 'Les Temps Nouveaux' as well as supporting it financially with other donations. He also illustrated the cover of the 1903 'Almanach du Libertaire' and collaborated on 'Patriotisme-Colonisation', a book published that year by 'Les Temps Nouveaux'. That year also saw him found, together with his friend Matisse and other artists, the Salon d'Automne, which would be a centre for the exhibition of works by Les Fauves.

1895 - Erik Hjalmar Eriksson (d. 1973), Swedish miner, writer, novelist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Member and organiser in the Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation (SAC), Hjalmar Eriksson's novels depict working class mining communities: 'Järn och Bröd : en bergslagshistoria' (Iron and Bread: a mining history; 1946), 'Arbetets Melodi' (Work Melody: a miner's novel; 1946), 'Folket i Loälvsdalen' (The People of Loälvsdalen; 1960), 'Du Trygga Folk' (You Safeguard People; 1968), 'Gruvans Sång' (The Mine's Song; 1969) and 'Lille Hugo : berättelser från gruvorna och skogarna' (Lille Hugo: stories from the mines and forests; 1972).

1903 - Mark Rothko (Marcus Yakovlevich Rothkowitz; d. 1970), American abstract expressionist/colour field painter, poet and anarchist, born to Jewish parents in Czarist Russia (now part of Latvia). His father, taking Marcus' elder brothers, emigrated to America so his sons could escape being drafted into the Imperial Russian Army. Marcus, together with his mother and sister, joined them in 1913. In Portland, Oregan, he learned English (his fourth language after Russian, Yiddish and Hebrew) and joined in the political debates in the local Jewish community centre, becoming passionate about the worker's movement and women's right to contraception. It was in this atmosphere of radical workers' and IWW meetings, with speeches by the likes of Bill Haywood and Emma Goldman (attending her lectures in Portland in August 1915), that his anarchism was founded. I was also where he also developed his strong oratorical skills, something he would later deploy in defence of Surrealism.
In the early 1930s, he joined the anti-fascist, anti-capitalist Artists Union.
Shortly before his death from suicide (cutting his arms with a razor), and as he grappled with health problems, tormented by depression and physically debilitated, he declared: "I am still an anarchist!"

1940 - Eva Švankmajerová (d. 2005), Czech Surrealist artist, painter, ceramicist, poet, filmmaker and writer, born. Made a series of short and full-length films between 1964 and 2005 with her husband Jan Švankmajer, including 'The Pit, the Pendulum and 'Hope' (Kyvadlo, Jáma a Naděje; 1983) 'Alice' (Něco z Alenky; 1987) and 'Little Otik' (Otesánek; 2000). Her books include 'Baradla Cave' (Jeskyně Baradla; 1995) and 'Surrealist Women: an International Anthology' (1998).

1970 - Yefim or Jefim Golyshev (Ефи́м Го́лышев; b. 1897), Ukrainian-born painter and composer, who was active mainly in Europe and was a member of the Dadaist Revolutionary Central Council alongside Hülsenbeck and Hausmann, dies. [see: Sep. 8]

[B] 1977 - Sole (Tim Holland), American hip-hop artist, producer, co-founder of the record label Anticon and anarchist, who's "too Bakunin for your backpack rap", born.

1987 - Abba Kovner (אבא קובנר; b. 1918), Lithuanian Jewish Hebrew poet, writer, and commander of the Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye (FPO; United Partisan Organisation) in the Vilna Ghetto, dies in israel. [see: Mar. 14]
1908 - In Paris, a jury condemns the designer Aristide Delannoy, and Victor Meric to one year in prison and a fine of 3,000 francs for a caricatured in 'Les Hommes du Jour' of General Albert d'Amade depicted as a butcher following his brutal suppression of an uprising in Morocco. Both will be incarcerated in La Santé prison. Delannoy, who was suffering from tuberculosis, gained early release on June 21, 1909 following the intervention of his cell mates with the prison director and a support campaign meeting held on June 9, 1909. This stay in prison considerably worsened the health of Aristide, who died on May 5, 1911.

[C] 1940 - Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (b. 1892), German philosopher and 'Romantic anarchist, who made influential contributions to aesthetic theory, Western Marxism and anti-fascist thought, and is associated with the Frankfurt School, and was also a respected literary and cultural critic, essayist and translator during the Weimar Republic, is found dead after having killed himself with an overdose of morphine tablets taken the previous night. Whilst fleeing France and the approaching Nazis, he safely crossed the French-Spanish border and arrived at the coastal town of Portbou, in Catalonia. However, the Franco government had cancelled all transit visas and ordered the Spanish police to return people to France, including the Jewish refugee group Benjamin had joined, thwarting his chances of travelling to the United States. [see: Jul. 15]

1941 - José Sampériz Janina (b. 1910), Spanish journalist, writer and anarchist sympathiser, dies in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp. [see: Apr. 23]

[B] 1973 - Alessio Lega, Italian singer-songwriter, writer and anarchist militant, born.
1904 - Monny de Boully (Solomon or Salmon Moni de Buli; d. 1968) Serbian-French Surrealist writer, poet and anarchist, born. Purged from the Paris Surrealist group in 1928 following his prolonged opposition to the group's communist line. The same year, he started the magazine 'Discontinuité' with Arthur Adamov and Claude Sernet, and participated in group around the anarchist-influenced literary magazine 'Le Grand Jeu' which was established in opposition to the Surrealists.

[B] 1906 - James Myers (Jim) Thompson (d. 1977), American author and screenwriter, known for his pulp crime fiction and who was nicknamed the 'Dimestore Dostoevsky', born. Initially an oil field labourer, he joined the Industrial Workers of the World in the mid-1920s and joined the Communist Party in 1935, but had left the group by 1938.

1915 - Remy de Gourmont (b. 1858), French Symbolist poet, novelist, journalist, art critic, anti-nationalist and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 4]

1936 - Armand Guerra and his film crew set off for the front to begin recording what became the two-part lost film 'Estampas Guerreras' (1937).

1960 - The 'Resolution of the Fourth Conference of the Situationist International Concerning the Imprisonment of Alexander Trocchi' denounces the arrest and detention in the United States of the situationist and novelist Alexander Trocchi for alleged drug use and trafficking.

1979 - Pascal Pia (born Pierre Durand; b. 1903), French writer, poet, journalist, illustrator, scholar and anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 15]

2006 - Bradley Roland 'Brad' Will (b. 1970), US anarchist, documentary filmmaker and a journalist with Indymedia New York City, is shot and killed whilst filming during the teachers' strike in the Mexican city of Oaxaca. [see: Jun. 14]
1914 - Miriam Patchen (Sirkka Miriam Oikemus; d. 2000), US peace activist and dedicatee of all the works of her lifelong partner, fellow anarchist and poet, Kenneth Patchen, born.

1921 - Leopold Hermann Oskar Panizza (b. 1853), German anarchist, psychiatrist, avant-garde author, playwright, novelist, poet, essayist, publisher and literary journal editor, dies. [see: Nov. 12]

[B] 1923 - Naphtali 'Tuli' Kupferberg (d. 2010), American counter-culture poet, author, cartoonist, pacifist anarchist, publisher and co-founder of the band The Fugs, born.

1932 - Víctor Lidio Jara Martínez (d. 1973), Chilean teacher, theatre director, poet, singer-songwriter, political activist and member of the Communist Party of Chile, born. Víctor Jara was one of the most popular figures of the Nueva Canción Chilena (New Chilean Song) movement under the Allende government, he was arrested the day after the Chilean coup of 11 September 1973. Tortured by his captors (with the bones in both his hands broken; it was said that his assailants offered him a guitar to play), he was shot dead with 44 machine-gun bullets and his body was dumped in beside the road in a shanty town in Santiago.

1934 - Piero Ciampi (d. 1980) Italian anarchist singer-songwriter and poet, born.

1938 - Rosario Ferré (Rosario Ferré Ramírez de Arellano), Puerto Rican radical novelist, poet, short story writer, essayist and literary critic, born. Issues of class and gender are a common thread in her writing.

[BB] 1942 - Pierre Clémenti (d. 1999), French actor, director and libertarian, born. He played Catherine Deneuve's gangster lover in Luis Buñuel's 'Belle de Jour' (1967) and the Devil in his 'La Voie Lactée' (The Milky Way; 1969), as well as appearing in Luchino Visconti's 'The Leopard' (1962), Pier Paolo Pasolini's 'Pigsty' (1969), Liliana Cavani's reworking of 'Antigone', 'The Cannibals' (1970) and Fred Haines' 'Steppenwolf' (1974).

1950 - John Thomas Sayles, American independent film director, screenwriter, actor and author, born. His film production company is called Anarchist's Convention Films after athe lead short story (about a group of aged anarchists come together, squabbling about past internal conflicts, uniting only when someone calls the police) in his collection 'The Anarchists Convention and Other Stories' (1979). His film 'Matewan', which he wrote and directed, as well as playing the part of Hardshell Preacher, is based upon the 1920 coal miners' strike (known as the Battle of Matewan) in 1920 in West Virginia.

1966 - André Breton (b. 1896), French writer, poet, Dadaist, founder of Surrealism, member of the PCF and later an anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 19]

1970 - John Roderigo Dos Passos (b. 1896), US novelist and artist, dies. [see: Jan. 14]

1981 - Roberto Barreto Pedroso das Neves aka Ernst Izgur (b. 1907), Portuguese-born Brazilian writer, journalist, poet, historian, Freemason, Esperantist, graphologist, anarchist individualist, vegetarian and naturist, dies. [see: Sep. 7]

1985 - André Kertész (born Kertész Andor; b. 1894), Hungarian-born photographer and ground-breaking photojournalist, dies. [see: Jul. 2]
1902 - Émile Zola (b. 1840), French writer, experimental novelist and author of 'Germinal', dies. [see: Apr. 2]

1920 - José Domingo Gómez Rojas (b. 1896), Chilean poet and anarchist, dies in a lunatic asylum aged just 24, following an undiagnosed bout of meningitis. [see: Aug. 4]

[B] 1951 - Etta Federn (Marietta Federn; b. 1883), Austrian writer, translator, journalist, educator, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and member of Mujeres Libres, dies. She also published under her married names Etta Federn-Kohlhaas and Etta Kirmsse, and the pseudonym Esperanza. [see: Apr. 28]

1991 - Maurice Laisant (b. 1909), French author, anarchist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Mar. 11]

2008 - Hayden Carruth (b. 1921), American poet, literary critic, "old-line anarchist" and "rural communist with a small c", dies. [see: Aug. 3]
1869 - Henrik Ibsen's anarchist-influenced play 'De Unges Forbund' (The League of Youth) is published in Copenhagen.

1875 - Olivia Rossetti Agresti (d. 1960), British author, editor and interpreter, born. Daughter of William Michael Rossetti, one of the founding members of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and granddaughter of Gabriele Rossetti and Ford Madox Brown.
In June 1891, Olive (16 years old), her brother Arthur (14) and and sister, the future Helen Rossetti Angeli (1879-1969), began publishing an anarchist journal, 'The Torch: A Journal of International Socialism', in the basement of their family home. Handmade, they acquired a printing press the following year and the subtitle of the paper was changed to "A Journal of Anarchist-Communism" in June 1893. Later name changes included to "A Revolutionary Journal of Anarchist-Communism" and finally to 'The Torch of Anarchy: A Monthly Revolutionary Journal'. All told, the paper was in circulation for 5 years and gather a circle of prominent anarchist around it, including Peter Kropotkin and Sergei Kravchinski, and contributors included Louise Michel and Errico Malatesta, with picture supplements from Lucien Pissaro. Their publishing coups included the pamphlet 'Why I Am an Anarchist' by George Bernard Shaw and their circle is believed to have inspired Joseph Conrad's stories 'The Informer' and 'An Anarchist' (1906), as well as parts of 'The Secret Agent'. Olivia and Helen would later publish, using the pseudonym "Isabel Meredith", 'A Girl Among the Anarchists' (1903), a somewhat fictionalised memoir of their days as precocious child revolutionaries.
Olivia would later move to Italy and become an enthusiastic supporter of corporatism, as well as Mussolini's corporatist reorganisation of the Italian economy. She was also associated with the Associazione fra le Società per Azioni, a group then closely allied with the Fascists, and in 1938 co-authored the theoretical work 'The Organization of the Arts and Professions in the Fascist Guild State' with the Fascist journalist Mario Missiroli. She also developed a close friendship with fascist fellow-traveller Ezra Pound.

[B] 1896 - Panagiotis Panas (Παναγιώτης Πανάς; b. 1832), Greek anarchist revolutionary, writer, journalist, poet, theorist and anarchist, dies.

1950 - Mary Reynolds (Mary Louise Hubachekb b. 1891), American Dadaist and Surrealist bookbinder and partner of Marcel Duchamp, dies. She remained in Paris when Duchamp left and the Nazis occupied the city, joining the Résistance but later had to flee France when she came under Gestapo surveillance.

1989 - Virgil Thomson (b. 1896), American modernist composer and music critic, dies. He contributed music to Joris Ivens' pro-Republic propaganda film 'The Spanish Earth' (1937). [see: Nov. 25]

1842 - Charles Cros (d. 1888), French poet, humorous writer and inventor in the fields of photography, the telegraph and the Paléophone (a forerunner of the gramophone), born.

1867 - Fernand Pelloutier (d. 1901), French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist activist, journalist, poet and founder of the Federation of Bourses du Travail, born. A revolutionary syndicalist, he rejected proaganda by deed in favour of genuinely revolutionary unions participating in direct action, sabotage and the general strike, all independent of political parties.
Pelloutier's poems, published under the pseudonym Jean Reflec, were frequently to be found amongst the pages of 'L’Ouvrier des Deux Mondes' and were reprinted in book form with the melancholic title 'De la Colere, de l’Amour, de la Haine' (Anger, Love, Hatred; 1898).
"Partisans de la suppression de la propriété individuelle, nous sommes en outre ce que ne sont pas les politiciens, des révoltés de toutes les heures, hommes vraiment sans dieu, sans maître et sans patrie, les ennemis irréconciliables de tout despotisme, moral ou collectif, c'est-à-dire des lois et des dictatures (y compris celle du prolétariat), et les amants passionnés de la culture de soi-même" (Supporters of the elimination of private property, we are moreover not what the politicians are, rebels of every hour, really godless men, homeless and without a master, the irreconcilable enemy of all despotism, moral or collective, that is to say the laws and dictatorships (including the proletariat), and passionate lovers of the culture itself.)

[B] 1911 - Aguigui Mouna (aka André Dupont; d. 1999), French anarcho-prankster, agitator, pacifist propagandist, philosopher and anarchist individualist, born. Master of the slogan and aphorism, he repeatedly stood as a 'non-candidate' in the presidential elections. Bernard Baissat made a documentary, 'Mouna', about him in 1989 and he recorded the track 'Proclamation D'Aguigui Mouna' on the French punk band Gogol Premier Et La Horde's album 'Ennemi Public N°1' (1989). The subject of a biography 'Aguigui Mouna, Gueule ou Crève' (2004) by Cabu Cavanna and Anne Galois.

1917 - Ivan Aguéli (John Gustaf Agelii; b. 1869), Swedish anarchist, animal rights activist, painter and Sufi, is killed on a village railway crossing at L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, near Barcelona. [see: May 24]

1943 - Leo Herman Frijda (b. 1923), Dutch resistance fighter with the CS-6 group and poet, is executed along with 18 other members of CS-6. Prohibited as a Jew from studying medicine at university and therefore became an apprentice medical analyst in the CIZ laboratory in Amsterdam. In the autumn of 1941 he, along with former school mate Theo Hondius, explored the possibility of escaping to England via sailboat but abandoned the plan. He joined the CS-6 sabotage group in 1942 and was involved, among other things, in the successful attack (along with Jan Verleun) on Lieutenant-General Seyffardt, the commander of the Volunteers' Legion in the Netherlands (February 5, 1943), in the attack on the railway in Rietlanden (March 1943) and the assassination of 2 Sipo informants Daan Blom and B. Hoff. On August 20, 1943, Herman Frijda was caught in Amsterdam and, following interrogation and a trial involving the majority of the members of the CS-6 group, 19 members of the group were condemned to death on 30 September. The following day they were shot in the dunes near Overveen, where most anti-Nazi resistance fighters were executed (unless sent to concetration camps in the East). His grave is at the Eerebegraafplaats in Bloemendaal.

1951 - Karel Teige (b. 1900), Czech graphic artist, photographer, typographer and "poet-anarchist", dies. [see: Dec. 13]
1461 - Poet François Villon is freed from prison. His crime is not known, but is supposed to have been church-robbing. Villon owed his release to a general amnesty at the accession of King Louis XI. He had also killed a priest 6-years previously during a brawl.

1890 - Julius Henry 'Groucho' Marx (d. 1977), the only true Marxist, born.

1919 - Shirley Clarke (d. 1997), American independent filmmaker who studied under Hans Richter, born. Her best known films include 'Skyscraper' (1960); 'The Connection' (1961), based on Jack Gelber's play by about heroin-addicted jazz musicians; 'Robert Frost: A Lover's Quarrel With the World' (1963) and her last film, 'Ornette: Made in America' (1985).
"I was once a member of the Communist Party when I was very young. I was always that kind of person: always involved. I did the early marches against the atom bomb. We'd take petitions to ban the bomb to the factories after the World War II. Basically, I am against the establishment, the state. I'm an anarchist, I've finally decided. But an anarchist in a somewhat gentle way. I'll go on a march, but I'm not going to bomb something. To me, a kind of society that would work has to be anarchistic. We have to survive: I help you and you help me."

[B] 1941 - John Sinclair, American poet, one-time manager of the band MC5, anarchist and co-founder of the White Panther Party, born. Involved with the Detroit underground newspaper, 'Fifth Estate', in the late '60s and as a jazz writer for Down Beat (1964-65). Managed the proto-punk band MC5 (1966-69), the only band who managed to perform at the free concert outside the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago before riot police broke up the anti-Vietnam war rally. In 1969 he was sentenced to 10 years in prison for selling two Joints to an undercover cop. His imprisonment became a cause célèbre, sparking protests which culminated in the landmark John Sinclair Freedom Rally at Ann Arbor's Crisler Arena in December 1971.
A poet, he has performed and recorded his spoken word pieces with his band The Blues Scholars alongside the MC5's Wayne Kramer, as well as recording his poems with various jazz ensembles.

1943 - Franklin Rosemont (d. 2009), American anarchist, poet, artist, street speaker, co-founder of the Chicago Surrealist Group and historian of anarchist movement, born.
"I am a revolutionary mammal, an alchemical atheist, and an aquatic-aerial anarchist as well as a poet."

1944 - Benjamin Fondane or Benjamin Fundoianu (born Benjamin Wechsler, Wexler or Vecsler; b. 1898), Romanian-born French poet, critic and existentialist philosopher, also noted for his work in film and theatre, dies. [see: Nov. 14]

1968 - Marcel Duchamp (b. 1887), French-American artist, painter, sculptor, writer, chess player and individualist anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 28]

1978 - Demetrio Urruchúa (b. 1902), Argentinian painter, printmaker, muralist, libertarian and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Apr. 19]
[B] 1867 - Pierre Bonnard (d. 1947), French Post-Impressionist painter and printmaker, and a founding member of Les Nabis, born. Despite a youthful flirtation with anarchism as a student, having a number of active anarchist friends and collegues such as Félix Fénéon and Félix Vallotton, and his works appearing in a number of anarchist and anarcchist associated publications, Bonnard was never active within the movement in France.

1896 - William Morris (b. 1834), utopian socialist, poet, artist, designer, printer and founder of the Arts and Crafts Movement, dies. Best known for 'News From Nowhere' (1890).

1897 - Louis Aragon (d. 1982), French poet, novelist, editor, Dadaist then Surrealist, and a long-time member of the Communist Party, born. Fought with the resistance. [expand]

1905 - Hirabayashi Taiko (平林 たい子; d. 1972), pen-name of Hirabayashi Tai (平林タイ), Japanese fiction writer, feminist and one-time anarchist, born.

1909 - Lois Waisbrooker (b. 1826), American anarchist and feminist author, novelist, editor, publisher, spiritualist and campaigner on birth control, women's rights and free speech, dies.

1936 - Nancy Joyce Peters, American poet, writer, Surrealist, publisher and co-founder with Lawrence Ferlinghetti of City Lights Books and Publishers in San Francisco, born. Partner of the Surrealist-Beat Generation poet Philip Lamantia. She also helped found (with Ferlinghetti) the Bay Area arts magazine 'Circle' (1944-48), made with "anti-war, anarchist, or anti-authoritarian, civil libertarian attitudes, coupled with a new experimentation in the arts". Contributors included Kenneth Patchen, Henry Miller, Anais Nin, E.E. Cummings, Kenneth Rexroth, Robert Duncan, Ferlinghetti, etc.
Author of 'Literary San Francisco: A Pictorial History from its Beginnings to the Present Day' (1981) with Lawrence Ferlinghetti; 'Unamerican Activities: The Campaign Against the Underground Press' (1981), co-authored with Geoffrey Rips and Anne Janowitz; 'The Literary World of San Francisco & its Environs' (1985), co-authored with Don Herron; and 'City Lights Enters the Modern Age: 1975-2003 : Literary Mecca' (2003), with Ferlinghetti.
She also edited 'Free Spirits: Annals of Insurgent Imagination' (1982); 'The Terrible Girls' (1991), a collection of short stories by the lesbian author Rebecca Brown (with Lawrence Ferlinghetti); 'Reclaiming San Francisco: History, Politics, Culture (A City Lights Anthology)' (2001), with James Brook and Chris Carlsson; 'Howl on Trial: The Battle for Free Expression' (2006), with Bill Morgan; 'The Beats: A Graphic History' (2009), with Paul Buhle and Harvey Pekar; and a series of 'City Lights Reviews', including 'War After War' ('City Lights Review', No. 5; 1992).
Her own poetry has been published in 'It’s In the Wind' (1977), 'Surrealist Women, An International Anthology' (1998) and 'Anthologie des Poètes Surréalistes Américains' (2002). Peters also translated 'Dreams of Dreams and the Last Three Days of Fernando Pessoa' (1999) by Antonio Tabucchi.

1947 - John Perry Barlow, American poet, essayist, former lyricist for the Grateful Dead, cyber-libertarian and founding member of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, born. Has on many occasions declared his adherence to anarchism.

1967 - Woody Guthrie (b. 1912), radical American singer-songwriter and folk musician, dies. [see: Jul. 14]

1981 - Walter Mehring (b. 1896), German-Jewish Expressionist poet and prose writer, anti-militarist and anarchist, who was one of the most prominent satirical authors in the Weimar Republic, dies. [expand] [see: Apr. 29]

1987 - Jean Marie Lucien Pierre Anouilh (b. 1910), French dramatist, film director, screenplay writer and a so-called (oxymoronic) "anarchiste de droite", dies. [see: Jun. 23]

1993 - Katerina Gogou (Κατερίνα Γώγου; b. 1940), Greek anarchist poet, author and actress, dies. [see: Jun. 1]
1816 - Eugène Edine Pottier (d. 1887), French poet, revolutionist, participant in the Revolution of 1848 and the Paris Commune of 1881, author of 'The Internationale', born.

"Arise ye starvelings from your slumbers,
Arise ye prisoners of want,
For reason in revolt know thunders,
And at last ends the age of cant.
So away with all your superstitions
Servile masses, arise, arise,
We'll change henceforth the old tradition
And spurn the dust to win the prize."

[BB] 1884 - Tsuji Jun (辻潤; d. 1944), Japanese individualist anarchist, avant garde writer, Dadaist poet, essayist, playwright, editor, translator, teacher, nihilist, epicurean, shakuhachi musician, actor, feminist and bohemian, born. Later known as Ryūkitsu Mizushima. Initially a Tolstoyan Humanist influenced by Shūsui Kōtoku's socialist anarchism became a fervent proponent of Stirnerite egoist anarchism and translated 'The Ego and Its Own' into Japanese. He married Noe Itō, who he had taught English. She was to leave him for his close friend Sakae Ōsugi.
Following what populalry became known as the 'Tengu Incident', Tsuji was institutionalised in 1932 in a psychiatric hospital and eventually became a Buddhist monk. He was later depicted a film biography, 'Erosu Purasu Gyakusatsu' (Eros + Massacre; 1969), directed by Yoshishige Yoshida. Amongst his works are 'Dada no Hanashi' (Dada Talk; 1922), his own introduction to Dada, and his Dadaist play 'Death of an Epicurean' (「享楽主義者の死」 / Kyōraku-shugi-sha no Shi). He also wrote one of the prologues for famed feminist poet Hayashi Fumiko's 'I Saw a Pale Horse' (『蒼馬を見たり』 / Ao Uma wo Mitari; 1929).

[B] 1891 - Henri Gaudier-Brzeska (d. 1915), French anarchist, sculptor, painter and draughtsman associated with the Vorticists, born.

1900 - Václav Krška (d. 1969), Czech director and writer, born. The básník českého filmu (Czech poet of film) was famous for his film adaptations of anarchist Fráňa Šrámek's poetry. 'Měsíc Nad Řekou' (Moon Over the River; 1953) and 'Stříbrný Vítr' (Silver Wind; 1954). His homosexuality stymied him in career and led to this arrest in 1952.

1961 - Max Weber (b. 1881), Jewish-American Cubist painter, poet, and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 18]
1713 - Denis Diderot (d. 1784), French essayist, philosopher and playwright, claimed to be a forebearer of anarchism, born.

1923 - Stig Dagerman (d. 1954), Swedish playwright, novelist, poet and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1934 - Jean Vigo (b. 1934), Surrealist/anarchist filmmaker, dies. [see: Apr. 24]

[B] 1939 - A. R. Penck (aka Ralf Winkler), German painter, draughtsman, printmaker, sculptor, film maker, writer and musician, one-time East German dissident and "anarchist par excellence", born. He was the drummer in the Free Jazz/Improv band 'TTT' which he co-founded with Frank and Heinz Wollny and during the 1980s palyed with some of the foremost jazz and improvising musicians including Butch Morris, Frank Wright, Billy Bang, Louis Moholo, Alan Silva and Frank Lowe.
www.bb10k.com/PENCK.html [discog]

1949 - Madeleine Vernet (Madeleine Cavelier; b. 1878), French libertarian educator, novelist, feminist, peace activist and propagandist, dies. [see: Sep. 3]

2010 - Bernard Clavel (b. 1923), French novelist, poet, essayist, anarchist and pacifist, dies. [see: May 29]
1897 - The first issue of Zo Axa's newspaper 'La Feuille' makes it début in Paris. It will be illustrated front and back by a number of talented artists including René Hermann-Paul, Maximilien Luce, Théophile Steinlen, Adolphe Willette, etc.

[B] 1900 - Ethel Mannin (d. 1984), Irish anarchist, novelist and author, born. Her writing career began in copy-writing and journalism but she later became a prolific author and novelist (100 plus books published in her lifetime), encompassing many aspects of anarchism and feminism as well as her travel writing. A member of the Solidaridad Internacional Antifascista, taking over Emma Goldman's as the London SIA representative, she listed Bart de Ligt and A. S. Neill as thinkers who influenced her ideas. Amongst her works were her biography of Emma Goldman, 'Red Rose: A Novel based on the Life of Emma Goldman' (1941); her first (of 6) autobiographical volumes 'Confessions and Impressions' (1930), one of the first Penguin paperbacks; 'Song of the Bomber' (1936), a book of poetry whose title poem was written in response to the fascist bombing raids during the Spanish Revolution; 'Spain and Us' (with J.B. Priestley, Rebecca West, Stephen Spender, Francis Meynell, Louis Golding, T. F. Powys, J. Langdon-Davies, Catherine Carswell; 1936); 'Against Race-Hatred and for a Socialist Peace' (with Richard Acland, Vera Brittain, G. D. H. Cole, Victor Gollancz, Augustus John, James Maxton and J. B Priestley; 1940); 'Bread and Roses: An Utopian Survey and Blue-Print' (1944); 'Rebels' Ride. A Consideration of the Revolt of the Individual' (1964); 'Jungle Journey: 7000 Miles through India and Pakistan' (1950); etc..
1849 - Edgar Allan Poe (b. 1809), US author, poet, editor and literary critic, dies. [see: Jan. 19]

[B] 1864 - Victor Barrucand (d. 1934), French anarchist poet, musician, writer and journalist, born. A musician, he played the flute and oboe in Parisian cafés and frequent bohemian Paris. His meeting and subsequent friendship with Felix Fénéon is critical for his new commitment to art (especially his interest in the theatre) but also his anarchism, working on Zo Axa's newspaper 'L'Endehors' at the time. In 1893, he participated in the conference group l'Idée Nouvelle and is involved in the trial of Émile Henry. He also wrote Jean Grave's newspaper 'Les Temps Nouveaux' and launched in 1895, a national campaign for free bread for all measures deemed by some anarchists to be reformist (the idea was taken up in 1906 by Charles Dhooghe) . In 1897, he moved towards a socialist federalist position and in 1899 was one of the delegates of the Socialist Congress in Paris, as well as working at 'La Revue Blanche'. An ardent supporter of Dreyfus, he was sent to Algeria by the League of Human Rights to counter anti-Semitism. In 1902 he became editor of 'L'Akhbar' (The News) and a columnist for literary and artistic newspaper 'La Depeche Algerian'.
His poetry works include: 'Rythmes et Rimes à Mettre en Musique' (Rhythms and Rhymes Set to Music; 1886); 'Amour Idéal, Poème en Vingt-Quatre Sonnets' (Ideal Love, Poem in Twenty-Four Sonnets; 1889)
'Une Partie d'Échecs, Poème Scénique' (A chess game, scenic poem; 1889); a novel - 'Avec le Feu' (With Fire; 1900, reissued in 2005); plays - 'Pour le Roi' (1897); 'Le Chariot de Terre Cuite, 5 Actes d'Après la Pièce du Théâtre Indien Attribuée au Roi Soudraka' (The Chariot of terracotta; 1895) - an adaptation of Sanskrit Theatre; and journalism, etc.: 'D'un Pays Plus Beau : Afrique, Espagne, Italie, heures de France, Variations sur des Thèmes Étrangers...' (In a country more beautiful...; 1910) and 'L'Algérie et les Peintres Orientalistes' (Algeria and Orientalist Painters; 1930).

1879 - Joel Emmanuel Hägglund, better known as Joe Hill (d. 1915), Swedish-American labour organiser, folk-poet, songwriter and member of the Industrial Workers of the World, born.

1931 - André Colomer (b. 1886), Catalonian poet and individualist anarchist, dies. [see: Dec. 4]

1933 - Charles Joseph Antoine 'Jo' Labadie (b. 1850), US labour activist, writer, poet, printer, non-violent individualist anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 18]
1863 - Adolphe Tabarant (d. 1950), French libertarian socialist, journalist, writer and art critic, who wrote numerous studies on Impressionist painters and helped organise their exhibitions, born.

[B] 1872 - John Cowper Powys (d. 1963), Welsh novelist, essayist, poet and individualist anarchist, born. He was a long-term friend and correspondent of Emma Goldmann.

1963 - Remedios Varo (María de los Remedios Alicia Rodriga Varo y Uranga; b. 1908), Catalan-Mexican anarchist, anti-fascist and Surrealist painter, dies. [see: Dec. 16]

1970 - Jean Giono (b. 1895), French author (novels, poetry, essays, journalism, plays) and, like his Italian-born shoemaker-father, Jean-Antoine, he was a self-taught libertarian, dies. [see: Mar. 30]

1980 - Arvo Albin Turtiainen (b. 1904), Finnish left-wing poet, translator and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Sep. 16]
1892 - Johannes Theodor Baargeld aka Zentrodada (Alfred Emanuel Ferdinand Grünwald; d. 1927), German Dadaist painter and poet, born. He cofounded the Cologne Dada group with Max Ernst and Hans Arp. In 1918 Baargeld joined the short-lived Independent Socialist Party of Germany (USPD). Died in August 1927 (dates vary between 16th - 18th) whilst climbing Mont Blanc.

[B] 1908 - Harry Hooton (d. 1961), Australian poet, philosopher, anarchist, Wobbly and pacifist, who participated in the Sydney Push scene in Syndey, is born in Doncaster, England. He arrived in Australia aged 16 in October 1924, with 59 other boys, as part of the Dreadnought Trust child migration scheme, part of the restrictive immigration policy known as the 'White Australia' policy. The boys worked on farms in the Outback from 7.30am to 5 pm, clearing land, milking, ploughing, etc. Hooton's first poetry began to be published in 1936, with his first self-financed book of poetry, 'These Poets', published in 1941 in a run of around 400 copies. 'Things You See When You Haven't Got A Gun' was also self-published two years later. His other verse was published as 'It is Great To Be Alive' (1961) and in 'Poet of the 21st Century - Collected Poems - Harry Hooton' (1990), in addition to appearing regularly in literary journals like 'Forward: A Australian Review', 'Bohemia', 'Pertinent', 'A Comment' and 'Meanjin Papers', as well as more mainstream publications like the Workers' Education Association's 'The Australian Highway' and the Australian Institute of Political Science's 'The Australian Quarterly'.
Hooton was at home in the post-war atmosphere of Sydney's intellectual circles, the 'Sydney Push', "Mecca of the Australian arts", where he formed a focus of opposition to the Libertarian Society and it's pro-Modernist poetics and, according to fellow poet Richard Appleton, "Hooton held that polemic was an art form and that all poetry should be didactic." Very much a bohemian, he corresponded with literary people and counter-culture figures across the world, including fellow anarchist Tuli Kupferberg of The Fugs.
Philosophically, he came up with the theory of Anarcho-technocracy, basically arguing that man must have have power over things, including machines, but never over other men, and which was expounded in a series of essays and pamphlets: 'Anarcho - Technocracy. The Politics of Things' (four-page pamphlet; 1953), 'The Politics of Things' (1955 essay) and the U.S. collection 'Power Over Things' (1955). His philosophical treatise 'Militant Materialism', was never finished, though he did complete five of its eight chapters.
Sadly, during his lifetime his work was largely been dismissed by the critics, in terms such as: "an anarchist whose writings were without talent or coherent ideas"; "when we had read half-way through 'Things You See . . .' we had a crude impulse to put our hands to our ears and scream for God's sake, Harry, stop that noise" and "'Power Over Things' contains a few pages of alleged verse and a good deal of exclamatory prose in the interests of a new world theory Anarcho-Technocracy ... Anarchism with a Science Fiction face-lift", and even today he is seen by many as just another bohemian guru.

1922 - Karl Capek's play 'R.U.R.' opens in NYC.

1924 - Anthony Earnshaw (d. 2001), English Surrealist artist, author, illustrator and self-styled "armchair anarchist", born.

1946 - Eugene O'Neill's play 'The Iceman Cometh' (1940), amongst his most obviously political, with its numerous anarchist characters and debates on racism, the Boer War and police informers, premiers at the Martin Beck Theatre in New York City.

1997 - The Italian playwright and actor Dario Fo, author of 'Accidental Death of an Anarchist', is awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in Stockholm.
[BB] 1916 - David Gascoyne (d. 2001), English poet, novelist, Surrealist, one-time communist and later an anarchist, born. He helped prepare the 'First English Surrealist Manifesto' (1935), which spoke in favour of "the proletarian revolution" and "the historic materialism of Marx, Engels, and Lenin", and came out against "humanism, liberalism, idealism, anarchist individualism." It was therefore inevitable that, like many surrealist of the period, he joined the Communist Party of Great Britain in 1936 and broadcast radio talks for the Barcelona-based propaganda ministry during the Spanish Revolution. However, he soon discovered "that the Communists hated the Anarchists and the POUM much more than they hated the Fascists", and left the party. On his return to England, he became involved in the Mass Observation movement and joined the Artists' International Association. He also moved closer to anarchism following contact with Henry Miller, Lawrence Durrell and those based around them at the Villa Seurat in Paris.

1917 - Thelonious Sphere Monk (d. 1982), uniquely innovative black American jazz pianist and compser, born.

1922 - Luisa Capetillo (b. 1879), Puerto Rican writer, novelist, labour organiser, women's rights activist and anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 28]

[B] 1941 - Peter Coyote (born Rachmil Pinchus Ben Mosha Cohon), American actor, author, director, screenwriter, narrator and Buddhist anarchist, born. After a period in the San Francisco Actors' Workshop, he joined the San Francisco Mime Troupe, a radical political guerrilla street theatre and later became one of the co-founders of the Haight-Ashbury anarchist improv group the Diggers. His radical politics led to him becoming a friend of Leonard Peltier in the 1960s as well as Gary Snyder. Through the latter he discovered the San Francisco Libertarian Circle and Zen Buddhism.

1958 - Opening of La Méthode, a cabaret operated by Michèle Bernstein and Guy Debord on the Rue Descartes, Paris.

1961 - Jean-Marc Leclercq aka JoMo, French musician, Esperantists and libertarian, born. Has played in numerous bands including Les Diam's, Les Gringos, Les Évadés d'Alcatraz, Dougherty, Les Vicomtes, Les Rosemary's Babies, Leclerq et les Mammouths, Black & Wesson and his current band Libertarios (originally Leclercq y los Libertarios), and in numerous styles from ska and reggae via punk to country and rockabilly. In 1999 he gave a concert with 22 songs in 22 languages ​​and ended up as the Guinness Book of World Records in 2000

1996 - Ono Tozaburo (小野十三郎; b. 1903), Japanese poet and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 27]

2014 - The St. Petersburg Investigative Committee withdraws its motion on a mental examination of conceptual artist and political activist Pyotr Pavlensky following a number of his controversial performance pieces, including this February 23, 2014 “small-scale reconstruction of Maidan" 'Liberty'.
1877 - Henrik Ibsen's anarchist-influenced play 'Samfundets Støtter' (The Pillars of Society) is first published in Copenhagen.

1924 - Founding of the Bureau of Surrealist Research.

1958 - Maurice de Vlaminck (b. 1876), French landscape and still-life painter, lithographer, wood-engraver, etcher, writer, poet, violinist and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 4]

1959 - Adya van Rees (Adrienne Catherine Dutilh; b. 1876), Dutch artist (needle art, broderies and wall hangings) who was involved with Dadaism and the Ascona colony, dies. [see: Apr. 16]

[B] 1963 - Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (b. 1889), French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, playwright, artist and filmmaker, dies. His fiche policière labelled Cocteau a "poète anarchiste homosexuel à Paris".

1978 - Ruthven Campbell Todd (b. 1914), Scottish poet, artist, novelist and writer of children's books, who also wrote detective fiction under the pseudonym R. T. Campbell, dies. [see: Jun. 14]

1982 - Elías Castelnuovo (b. 1893), Uruguayan journalist, storyteller, playwright, poet, essayist and anarchist, later joining the communists and becoming a Peronist, dies. [see: Aug. 6]

2005 - Sergio Citti (b. 1933), Italian actor, film director, screenwriter and libertarian, who was closely linked artistically to Pier Paolo Pasolini, dies. [see: May 30]

2006 - Jacques Sternberg (b. 1923), Belgian novelist, writer of science fiction and fantastique, pamphleteer , essayist, journalist, columnist, anti-competitive yatchsman and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 17]
1859 - Maurice Donnay (d. 1945), French playwright, born. A frequenter of Le Chat Noir (he composed songs with Alphonse Allias there) and of Fortuné Henry's libertarian community at Aiglemont, about which he based a theatrical comedy called 'La Clairière' (The Clearing), which he co-authored with Lucien Descaves in 1900.

1860 - Émile Pouget (d. 1931), anarcho-communist militant and propagandist, born. A key figure of French and international anarchism and revolutionary syndicalism between 1880 and 1914, one of the most vocal militants and cunning strategists, a prolific journalist and pamphlet-writer whose career spans three decades. In the late 1870s formed a shopkeepers' union in Paris, although he did not become a wholehearted advocate of revolutionary trade unionism until the early 1890s. In 1883 he was imprisoned for leading a demonstration of unemployed workers with Louise Michel at Les Invalides, which ended in a bout of rioting and looting. It was on this occasion that the anarchist black flag is believed to have appeared for the first time. In 1888 he founded 'Le Père Peinard', a fiercely anti-bourgeois, pro-strikes, and anti-colonial paper addressed to the worker, famous for its biting slang and artistic contributions. He was one of those indicted in the 1894 anti-anarchist Procès des Trente . He sought refuge in Britain and was condemned in absentia. Also author and signatory to the 'Charte d’Amiens' (Charter of Amiens; 1906), adopted by the CGT.
[Portrait by Aristide Delannoy]

[B] 1964 - Resignation of novelist Alexander Trocchi from the Situationist International.

1966 - Arthur-Vincent Lourié born Naum Izrailevich Luria (Наум Израилевич Лурья), later changed his name to Artur Sergeyevich Luriye (Артур Сергеевич Лурье; b. 1892), Russian experimentalist composer associated with Russian Futurism, dies. [see: May 14]
1925 - Lenny Bruce (d. 1966), US standup comedian, social rebel, satirist and clergy impersonator, who was hounded to death by 'the man' for using such words as fuck and cocksucker on stage and barred from entering England by Home Office as an “undesirable alien", born.
"When you can't say 'fuck,' you can't say 'fuck the government'."

1932 - Dušan Makavejev (Душан Макавеј
ев), Serbian radical film director and screenwriter, renown for his ground-breaking films in the late 1960s and early 1970s as part of the so-called Black Wave alongside Zivojin Pavlovic, Aleksandar Petrovic and Zelimir Zilnik, born. His best known film is the 1971 political satire 'WR: Mysteries of the Organism', which was banned in Yugoslavia (as it was around the world, and if not it was heavily censored) for its sexual-political content, plus it's follow-up 'Sweet Movie' (1974). The banning of 'WR: Mysteries of the Organism' led to Makavejev's exile from the country for over a decade. Of his 11 full length films, probably the most mainstream is 'Manifesto' aka 'A Night of Love' (1988), which is set in a Central European country a provincial town prepares for the king’s visit, and the chief of the secret police arrives to uncover a suspected anarchist plot.

[B] 1952 - The second showing (and the first full projection following the June 30th riot) of Debord's of 'Hurlements en faveur de Sade' (Howls for de Sade), at the Ciné-club du Quartier Latin, Paris.
[C] 1907 - Adrién Porchet (d. 2008), Swiss filmmaker, cinematographer and libertarian, who made propaganda films for the CNT during the Spanish Civil War, born. Son of the Swiss film pioneer Arturo-Adrien Porchet and brother of cinematographer Robert, who also worked on a number of his films for the CNT, including those made by Adrién. Amongst Porchet's Spanish films were 'Aguiluchos de la FAI por Tierras de Aragón. Estampas de la Revolución Antifascista' (1936), a trio of documentary shorts; 'La Toma de Sietamo' (1936) [both CNT - AIT, Sindicato Único de Espectáculos Públicos]; plus 'División Heroica (En El Frente de Huesca CNT)' (1937), 'Aurora de Esperanza' (Dawn of Hope; 1937) and 'Un Pueblo en Armas' (A People Armed; 1937 - English release title 'Fury over Spain'), a documentary on the activities of the Durruti Column that was later re-edited by Louis Frank as 'Amanecer sobre España' (Dawn Over Spain; 1938 - English release title 'The Will of a People'), all for the Sindicato de la Industria del Espectáculo (Entertainment Industry Union). He was also cinematographer on the prisoners of war documentary 'Le Drapeau de l'Humanité' (1942), made for the ICRC.
www.christiebooks.com/Film Database/anarquismo/details/10108.html]

[B] 1914 - Tony Gibson (d. 2001), British psychologist, BBC producer, writer and anarchist, born. His best known book was 'People Power: Community and Work Groups in Action' (1979). Active as an artist's model and posed for an advertisement of Brylcreem 1939 - in 1940 this advertisement was added a RAF cap plus the caption "For active service" but Gibson himself was at that time a conscientious objector working as an ambulance man and a farm labourer.

1941 - Arthur Holitscher (b. 1869), Hungarian playwright, novelist, essayist, travel writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 22]

2003 - François Béranger (b. 1937), French libertarian singer, born. [see Aug. 28]

2007 - Derek Stanley Savage (pen name D.S. Savage; b. 1917), English poet, critic and Christian anarcho-pacifist, who became General Secretary of the Anglican Pacifist Fellowship, dies. [see: Mar. 6]

2010 - Robert Brayton Nichols (b. 1919), US political radical and anti-war activist, Beat poet, playwright, anarchist-themed sci-fi novelist and architect, who was married to the "cooperative anarchist" and writer Grace Paley, dies. [see: Jul. 15]
1844 - Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (d. 1900), German philosopher, poet, composer, cultural critic and classical philologist, born.

1884 - Stephen Mac Say (d. 1972), French anarchist, professor, bee-keeper and partner of Marie-Adele Anciaux aka Mary Smiles [see: 8 March], born. Teacher at Sébastien Faure's libertarian school La Ruche until 1910, after which he becomes an itinerant and beekeeper. In 1909 he also founded the newspaper 'Le Fouet' (The Whip) "Organe du Groupe d'Action des Régions d'Avesnes, de Verviers et de Valenciennes", a monthly paper of education and class struggle. He also wrote for numerous libertarian publications: 'l'Anarchie', 'Le Combat', 'Le Combat Social', 'Le Cri Populaire', 'Le Cubillot', 'L'Ecole Rénovée', 'Hors du Troupeau', 'l'Idée Libre: Revue d'Éducation Sociale Fondée', 'L'Insurgé', 'Le Libertaire', 'Les Réfractaires', 'Les Temps Nouveaux', etc.
During WWI, as anti-militarists listed in 'Carnet B', he and Mary Smiles were forced to seek refuge in la Creuse. After the war he continued to make his living as a beekeeper, selling his honey in rural markets, and the couple returned to their activism, writing for numerous papers including 'L'Anarchie', 'Le Combat', 'Controverse', 'L'Emancipateur', 'l'En-Dehors', Émile Armand's individualist newspaper, 'Germinal', 'Le Réfractaire', newspaper of the Ligue des Réfractaires à Toutes Guerres, 'Le Semeur', 'La Vie Universelle', 'La Voix Libertaire', paper of l'Association des Fédéralistes Anarchistes (AFA), and collaborated on Sebastien Faure's 'L'Encyclopédie Anarchiste'.
During WWII he was denounced as a Jew and forced into hiding with Mary. Amongst his other writings, books and pamphlets were a number on vivisection, children's education and health ['Pour les Petits: Recueil de Chansons, Chœurs et Petites Comédies' (For Children: Songbook, Choruses and Small Comedies; 1907)], religion including 'The Buffoons of Faith. The Teaching of Christ' (1952) and poetry: 'Révoltes et Sanglots' (Revolts and Sobbings; 1913) and 'Emois et Révoltes' (Agitations and Revolts; 1950).

1896 - Célestin Freinet (d. 1966), French anarchist pacifist educator and Ferrer School activist, born. Célestin and Elise Freinet are depicted in René Frégni's 1994 autobiographical novel 'Le Maître qui Laissait les Enfants Rêver' (A Stolen Childhood (Denol, 1994) as 'Dad Freinet' and 'Mom Freinet' in his depiction of a troubled small boy named René-Jean who spends two school years at the school in Vence. [expand]

1902 - André Prudhommeaux (d. 1968), French communist, then an anarchist, agronomist, editor of 'Le Libertaire' and 'Le Monde Libertaire', writer, poet and publicist. is born in the Guise familistère. He founded a Paris bookshop specialising in social history, and the scene of many lively debates. Introduced Camus into the Cercle des Etudiants Anarchistes in 1948.

[B] 1913 - In his diary entry for today, Franz Kafka writes, "Don't forget Kropotkin!". Kropotkin's 'Memoirs of a Revolutionist' were amongst Kafka's favourite books, as were the memoirs of Alexander Herzen.

1915 - Paul Karl Wilhelm Scheerbart (b. 1863), German author of fantastic literature and drawings and an individualist anarchist, who was chosen as on of the 'saints' of Mynona and Anselm Ruest's 'Der Einzige' (he also contibuted an article to the first issue), dies. [see: Jan. 8]

[C] 1923 - Italo Calvino (d. 1985), Italian journalist and writer of short stories and novels, anti-fascist partisan and member of the PCI, born in Cuba. Brought up in a secular family - his father, Mario, was a tropical agronomist and botanist, who "had been in his youth an anarchist, a follower of Kropotkin and then a Socialist Reformist" ['Political Autobiography of a Young Man', 'Hermit in Paris' (Eremita a Parigi. Pagine autobiografiche), 1994] and his mother, Eva, a botanist and university professor, was a pacifist educated in the "religion of civic duty and science" [ibid], and both were anti-Fascist freethinkers - refused to give their sons any religious education. His mother used various ruses to delay Calvino's compulsory enrolment into the Balilla Moschettieri, the Fascist armed scouts, and win him exemption from attending church services as an atheist.
In the first half of WWII, he continued with his studies but, following the setting up Benito Mussolini's puppet Republic of Salò in northern Italy by the Nazis, now twenty years old, Calvino refused military service and went into hiding. Using the nomme de guerre of 'Santiago', Calvino joined the Garibaldi Brigades, a clandestine Communist group and, for twenty months, endured the fighting in the Maritime Alps until 1945 and the Liberation. As a result of his refusal to be a conscript, his parents were held hostage by the Nazis for an extended period. Calvino wrote of his mother's ordeal that "she was an example of tenacity and courage… behaving with dignity and firmness before the SS and the Fascist militia, and in her long detention as a hostage, not least when the Blackshirts three times pretended to shoot my father in front of her eyes. The historical events which mothers take part in acquire the greatness and invincibility of natural phenomena." [ibid]
Despite his obvious libertarian and anarchist sympathies, he went on to join the PCI and remained a committed and active communist writer and intellectual until 1956, quitting following the Russian suppression of the Hungarian uprising.
During the late forties and early fifties, Calvino began writing and publishing stories dealing with his wartime experiences as a partisan and as an anti-Fascist, and his first novel, 'Il Sentiero dei Nidi di Ragno' (The Path to the Nest of Spiders; 1947), which tells the story of a cobbler's apprentice in a town on the Ligurian coast, who steals a pistol from a Nazi sailor, and becomes involved in the Italian Resistance, is an obvious novelisation of his experience as a partisan during the anti-fascist resistance.

1926 - Agustín García Calvo (d. 2012), Spanish philologist, translator, linguist, playwright, poet, philosopher and anarchist, born. Formed the student anarchist protest movement Acratas, also known as the 'anti-crats', at Complutense University of Madrid in 1967. His philosophical and linguistic works include: 'Del Lenguaje' (On Language; 1991), 'Contra la Paz. Contra la Democracia' (Against Peace. Against Democracy; 1993), 'Contra el Tiempo' (Against Time; 1993), 'Contra la Pareja' (Against the Couple; 1994), 'De Dios' (On God; 1996) and 'Contra la Realidad, Estudios de Lenguas y Cosas' (Against Reality, Studies of Language and Stuff; 2002).
A published poet, his collections include: 'Sermón de Ser y No Ser' (Sermon on Being and Not Being; 1972), 'Libro de Conjuros' (Book of Spells; 1979), 'Relato de Amor' (Story of love; 1980), 'Del Tren (83 Notas o Canciones)' (Of the Train (83 Notes or Songs); 1981), 'Canciones y Soliloquios' (Songs and Soliloquies; 1982), 'Más Canciones y Soliloquios' (More Songs and Soliloquies; 1988) and 'Ramo de Romances y Baladas' (Branch of Romances and Ballads; 1991). He is also the author of several dramatic pieces, such as the tragi-comedic musical 'Ismena' (1980), 'Rey de una Hora' (King of an Hour; 1984) and 'Baraja del Rey Don Pedro' (Deck of the King Don Pedro; 1998), which won the Premio Nacional de Literatura Dramática 1999.

1940 - Charlie Chaplin's satire on fascism, and also his first talkie, 'The Great Dictator' receives its premiere in New York.

1957 - Guy Debord's 'Remarques sur le Concept d'Art Expérimental' (Remarks on the Concept of Experimental Art), a critique of the text 'Pour un Concept d'Expérimentation Musicale' (Toward a Concept of Musical Experimentation) by Walter Olmo of the Situationist International's Italian Section, is published in Paris.

1969 - 'Erosu Purasu Gyakusatsu' (Eros + Massacre), a film biography of anarchist Sakae Ōsugi directed by Yoshishige Yoshida is released (in France; 14 March 1970 in Japan).
[B] 1854 - Jean Grave (d. 1939), a leading activist, writer and publisher in the French anarchist and avant-garde movements, born. Initially a socialist, he became an anarchist after 1880 and a populariser in France of Peter Kropotkin's ideas. Involved with Élisée Reclus' 'Le Révolté' and wrote 'Mouvement Libertaire Sous la IIIe République' (1930). Also wrote 'Les Aventures de Nono' (1901), a libertarian utopia for children, which was used by the Spanish écoles modernes in a translation by the militant anarchist and syndicalist Anselmo Lorenzo; novels, including 'Terre Libre: les Pionniers' (1908), a novel for young people featuring a group of prisoners shipwrecked on a desert island during their voyage to the New Caladionia prison colony; and even a play.

1854 -
1854 - Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (d. 1900), Irish writer, poet and anarchist, born. His 1891 essay, 'The Soul of Man under Socialism', expounds his anarchist world-view. Wilde was the sole literary signatory of George Bernard Shaw's petition for a pardon of the anarchists arrested (and later executed) after the Haymarket massacre in Chicago in 1886.
"I was formerly a poet and a tyrant; now I'm an artist and an anarchist!" [in 'L'Ermitage'; July 1893]
"Progress in thought is the assertion of individualism against authority." [in his 'Commonplace Book']
"Art is individualism, and individualism is a disturbing and disintegrating force. There lies its immense value. For what it seeks is to disturb monotony of type, slavery of custom, tyranny of habit, and the reduction of man to the level of a machine." ['The Soul of Man under Socialism'; (1891)]

1888 - Eugene Gladstone O'Neill (d. 1953), Irish American playwright, Wobbly, socialist and philosophical anarchist, born. He was eighteen-year-old when he discovered Benjamin Tucker's anarchist bookstore in New York in 1906, and associated with anarchist and socialist during his early life: "Time was when I was an active socialist, and, after that, a philosophical anarchist." Many of his early plays and poems are expressly political in content and one of his most famous, 'The Iceman Cometh' (1940), set in Greenwich Village in 1912, contains numerous anarchist characters and highlights issues such as racism, the Boer War and the thought processes of police informers. Eugene O'Neill's expressionist play 'The Hairy Ape' (1922), which was first produced by the Provincetown Players in the same year, is expressly pro-IWW with its depiction of the oppressed industrial working class and capitalism.
Member of the Hollywood Anti-Fascist League alongside Humphrey Bogart, John Garfield, Dashiell Hammett, Lillian Hellman, Langston Hughes, Pablo Picasso, Paul Robeson, Donald Ogden Stewart and Orson Welles.

1907 - Roger Vailland (d. 1965), French novelist, essayist, screenwriter, youthful anarchist and, having fought alongside Communists in the Résistance, a Communist Party member, born. Fellow-traveller of the Paris Surrealist group who fell out with Breton and Aragon and helped form 'Le Grand Jou' in 1928.

1927 - Günter Wilhelm Grass, German novelist, poet, playwright, illustrator, graphic artist, sculptor and anti-fascist who hid that he had enrolled into the Waffen-SS aged 17 at the end of the Second World War, born.

1936 - Georgette Léontine Roberte Augustine Kokoczinski aka 'La Mimosa' (Georgette Léontine Brivadis-Ango; b. 1907), French anarchist, actress and nurse, disappears during the Battle of Perdiguera (Zaragoza) and dies (possibly shot by firing squad on Oct. 17) in circumstances that are not entirely clear. [see: Aug. 16]

1985 - Margaret Michaelis (Michaelis-Sachs) (born Margarethe Gross; b. 1902), Austrian, and then Australian, photographer and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 6]
1813 - Karl Georg Büchner (d. 1837), German dramatist, poet, prose writer and radical, born. His plays 'Dantons Tod' (Danton's Death; 1835), about the French Revolution, and 'Woyzeck', unfinished at his death, were greatly influential upon many artists in German anarchist and Expressionist circles, including Ernst Toller, Oskar Maria Graf, Erich Mühsam, Berthold Brecht and, in the case of 'Woyzeck', Jaroslav Hašek's 'The Good Soldier Švejk' (1923).

1840 - André Gill (born Louis-Alexandre Gosset de Guînes; d. 1885), French republican and anti-clerical caricaturist, born. Took his pseudonym André Gill in homage to his hero, James Gillray. Part of the Parisian bohemian/anarchist milieu, frequenting Le Chat Noir, designed the sign for the anarchist cabaret haunt Le Lapin Agile and collaborated on a number of projects with anarchists including providing illustrations for Jules Vallès' socialist paper, 'La Rue', during the 1871 Commune. Member of the Fédération des Artistes alongside Gustave Courbet, Eugène Pottier, Honoré Daumier, Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, Jules Dalou, and Édouard Manet.

1873 - Alfred Polgar (originally: Alfred Polak; d. 1955), Austrian-born journalist, short story writer, screenwriter, satirist, translator, essayist, who also wrote under the pseudonyms Archibald Douglas and L. A. Terne, born. One of the most renowned intellectuals of the Vienna literary cafés, he contributed to number of anarchist journals, particularly 'Die Zukunft'. Polgar fled to Prague in 1933 after the Nazis proscribed and burned his books, later going to Switzerland and France. At the invasion of France he moved with Heinrich Mann, Franz Werfel and Leonhard Frank across the Spanish frontier and finally reached New York in October 1940. He worked briefly in Hollywood for Metro Goldwyn Mayer, returning to Europe after the War.

[BB] 1888 - Maurice Eugène Marie Hallé (d. 1954), French anarchist activist, poet, songwriter and cabaret singer, born. At the age of 13 he began working in his father's blacksmiths. After a failed attempt to live in Paris, he returned to work in his father's workshop, and joins the local young poets group Gàs d'Cheu Nous. In 1910 he published a set of poems, 'Au Pays où qu'on Parl' Ben: Recueil de Monologues Beaucerons' and began singing in cabarets in the region, but his satirical verses were not much appreciated by the farmers of the region, who considered him arrogant. After the death of his parents, he returned to Paris, where he befriended other singers, especially Paul Besnard, and he began to sing the Parisian cabaret. He also frequented libertarian circles, for which he was persecuted and imprisoned by the police on several occasions. In 1913 he began to work with La Muse Rouge, a group of singers revolutionary poets and singers whose songs were published in proletarian newspapers such as 'La Guerre Sociale', 'La Bataille Syndicaliste', 'La Chanson du Peuple', 'La Vache Enragée', 'La Muse Rouge', etc..
During WWI his poor health helped him avoid conscription and he continued performing in cabarets (Théâtre de Montmartre, Caveau de la République, Lapin Agile, La Bolée, Quat'z-Arts, Noctambules, etc.), performing songs against war and injustice of all kinds. On 18 May, 1917, with Roger Toziny, he launched the satirical weekly 'La Vache Enragée' [using the title previously used by Adolphe Willette (1896-97)] and two years later founded the cabaret La Goguette de la Vache Enragée, which was especially frequented by artists and writers. This cabaret also became (after using a room in the Lapin Agile) the headquarters of the council of the Commune Libre de Montmartre (the artists' bohemian neighbourhood was declared to secede from the municipality of Paris and form a town of its own), which Hallé created with his fellow 'La Vache Enragée' editors: the painter, caricaturist, poet, and humorist Jules Depaquit, who was appointed mayor, and the poet and chansonnier Roger Toziny.
In 1921, the Commune created the Foire aux Croûtes, initially an outdoor art exhibition that went on to become a rauchous fair. That same year, Hallé published a collection of poems and songs, 'Par Grand'route et les Chemins Creux'. In 1928, after falling out with the owner of the premises, the cabaret was expelled and he ended up working as a proofreader at the 'Journal Officiel'. In 1935 he published 'Les Laveuses, Poésie Beauceronne' and in 1942 'Les Oeuvres de Maurice Hallé: Darrièr'la ch'vaille, poésie beauceronne créée par l'auteur à la Vache enragée, au Coucou, et par Lucie Touchais dans les cabarets'. His other works are 'Poésies Beauceronnes' (1934), 'J'veux pas qu'tu t'Marises, récit Beauceron' (1937), and 'Prière d'un p'tit alo au p'tit Jésus' (1942), amongst others.

1889 - Nikolai Chernyshevsky (b. 1828), Russian radical critic, dies. He helped lay the basis for revolutionary populism. Wrote 'What is to be Done?' (Что делать?), a political novel that influenced two generations of Russian intelligentsia, including many anarchists such as Emma Goldman. It served as the manifesto of the 19th Century Russian Nihilists.

1892 - David Edelstadt (b. 1866), American Yiddish anarchist and poet, dies. [see: May 9]

1930 - Thomas Mann gives his speech 'An Appeal to Reason'. The Nazis disrupt it.

[B] 1934 - Christian Zeimert, French painter, illustrator and anarchist, born. Member in the '60s of the Mouvement Panique (Panic Movement), an anarchist avant-garde collective, with Fernando Arrabal, Alejandro Jodorowsky, Roland Topor, Jacques Sternberg and Olivier O. Olivier. In the '70s Zeimert founded, along with Henry Cueco, Lucien Fleury, Jean-Claude Latil, Michel Parré and Gérard Tisserand, the Front Révolutionnaire des Artistes Plasticiens (FRAP), which refused any involvement in mainstream cultural institution, preferring instead to attempt to subvert them. In the 1980’s, he also played an important part in the legendary French magazine 'Le Fou Parle', as well as 'Hara-Kiri', and for 3 years made a regular arts programme on Radio Libertaire alongside writer and 'Le Fou Parle' founder, Jacques Vallet. In his 70’s, he remained a major figure of the French art scene with his 'peinture calembourgeoise', paintings based on puns.

1957 - French-Algerian author, and one-time anarchist, Albert Camus is awarded Nobel Prize for literature.

1960 - Thierry Maricourt, prolific French proletarian writer, poet, novelist, essayist, anarchist, anti-fascist and anti-militarist, with numerous reference works to his credit, born.

2005 - Ba Jin (aka Pa Chin, Li Fei-Kan, Li Pei-Kan, Pa Kin [pseud. of Li Yaotang]) (b. 1904), Chinese novelist who discovered anarchism with the reading of Peter Kropotkin and Emma Goldman and created his pseudonym Ba (from Bakunin ) and Jin (from Kropotkin), dies. [see: Nov. 25]

2011 - Étienne O'Leary (b. 1944), Québécois actor, director and soundtrack composer of experimental short film, painter and libertarian, dies. [see: Oct. 24]
1869 - Henrik Ibsen's play 'De Unges Forbund' (The League of Youth) premières in Christiania.

[B] 1923 - Ado (Adonis) Kyrou (d. 1985), Greek-born French filmmaker, cinematographer, critic, author and anarchist, born. Active in the Greek resistance, he was wounded and left Greece for Paris. There he became involved with the Surrealists and worked on the magazine 'Le Surréalisme Même' and later collaborated on the Paris anarchist newspaper 'Libertaire', writing criticism and reviews under the pseudonym Jean Charlin. Kyrou wrote three major texts on the Surrealist cinema: 'Le Surréalisme au Cinéma' (1953), 'Amour - Érotisme et Cinéma' (1957) and 'L'Âge d'Or de la Carte Postale' (1966). His film work includes 10 shorts; a number of TV series and one-off programmes, includng the Swiss science fiction series 'Sial IV', and 2 full-length films: 'To Bloko' (The Roundup; 1965) about the Greek resistance and 'Le Moine' (The Monk; 1972) with a screenplay by Luis Buñuel based on Matthew Gregory Lewis' gothic novel, 'The Monk'.

1940 - Paul-Pierre Roux aka Saint-Pol-Roux (b. 1861), French Symbolist poet, novelist, playwright and anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 15]

1944 - Viktor Ullmann (b. 1898), Silesia-born Austrian, composer, conductor and pianist, dies. [see: Jan. 1]

2004 - Fermin Rocker (b. 1907), English artist, book illustrator and anarchist daughter of Rudolf Rocker and Milly Witkop Rocker, dies. Wrote 'East End: A London Childhood' (1992). [see: Dec. 22]
[C] 1913 - Vasco Pratolini (d. 1991), Italian novelist, playwright, poet, screenwriter, communist, anti-Nazi partisan and a major figure in Italian Neorealismo, born. Born into a working class family in Florence, his mother died when he was just five years old and, estranged from his father, he lived with his maternal grandparents. Having to work from an early age - labourer in a workshop of printers, apprentice, street vendor, bartender, waiter, salesman, etc. - he rarely attended school but never neglected his great love for books and his 'apprenticeship' for the life of a writer. At eighteen, he left his job to devote himself fully to the literary life and the study of the habits of the community that he grew up in, something that would informal all his works.

Following a period hospitalised in a sanatorium with tuberculosis in 1935-36, he returned to Florence in 1937 and became involved in the political journal 'Il Bargello'. The same year his first literary works were published in the quarterly journal 'Letteratura'. During his university years he was aligned with the fascismo di sinistra (left-wing fascism) tendency and was involved with the Gruppi Universitari Fascisti and Littoriali della Cultura e dell'Arte, both Partito Nazionale Fascista organisations. However, as with many of those who identified with fascismo di sinistra, he quickly migrated to anti-fascism. A key influence in this move was his friendship with the poet Alfonso Gatto, with whom he founded the polemical literary magazine 'Campo di Marte' (Field of Mars).

Pratolini meanwhile moved to Rome where in 1941 he published his first book of short stories 'Il Tappeto Verde' (The Green Carpet) and actively participated in the anti-fascist partisan resistance. He would go on to write numerous novels, many of which were strongly autobiographical and often dealt with the rise of fascism, such as 'Cronache di Poveri Amanti' (1947), translated as 'A Tale of Two Poor Lovers', and his great anti-fascist novel 'Un Eroe del Nostro Tempo' (A Hero of Our Time) from the same year, which depicts how fascism survived the end of the war (and the supposed end of fascism). A later novel, 'La Costanza della Ragione' (1963), translated as 'Bruno Santini. A Novel', would detail his ideological struggles with his membership of the Communist party. He also wrote screenplays, including 'Paisà' for Roberto Rossellini, 'Rocco ei Suoi Fratelli' for Luchino Visconti , and Nanni Loy's 'Le Quattro Giornate di Napoli'.

[B] 1973 - Margaret Caroline Anderson (b. 1886), American anarchist and lesbian, founder, editor and publisher of the anarchist art and literary magazine 'The Little Review', dies. [see: Nov. 24]

2000 - Kati Horna (Kati Deutsch; b 1912), Hungarian photographer and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: May 19]
[B] 1854 - Arthur Rimbaud (d. 1891), French poet, anti-bourgeois anarchist, deserter, gun-runner and notorious homosexual absinthe and hashish aficionado, born. He published his first poem at the age of 16 and quit writing aged 20. A rebel from an early age, he ran away from home three times – most notoriously, in February 1871, to join the anarchist insurgents of the Paris Commune. The precocious boy-poet of French symbolism, he wrote some of the most remarkable poetry and prose of the 19th century before he abandoned writing for gun-running.
"J'ai choisi d'attaquer les clichés, les a priori, les fantasmes, voire les mensonges publiés au sujet du poète. Le but de cet essai est d'essayer de savoir pourquoi l'adolescent, qui rassemblait tous les ingrédients de l'anarchie, s'écarta de la lutte sociale, de l'amour et enfin de la poésie, pour plonger dans un individualisme itinérant." ("I chose to tackle the stereotypes, assumptions, fantasies or lies published about the poet. The purpose of this test is to find out why the teenager, who brought together all the ingredients of anarchy, moved away from the social struggle, love poetry and finally, to dive into a travelling individualism.")

1859 - Carlo Abate (d. 1941), Italian anarchist sculptor and teacher, who was the printer and engraver for the militant Italian language journal 'Cronaca Sovversiva', born. Emigrated to America in 1896 and settled in the Italian neighborhood of Barre, Vermont, one of the cradles of U.S. granite industry and a hotbed of industrial militancy. One of the more active groups there were the small Italian anarchists grouped around a number of different Italian language newspapers, including the Galleanist 'Cronaca Sovversiva'. Abate also taught for many years in industrial design school.

1923 - Philip Whalen (d. 2002), America Beat poet and Zen anarchist, born. A close friend of Gary Snyder (and fellow Zen anarchist), they were both associated with the anarchist circle around fellow San Francisco poet Kenneth Rexroth. Jack Kerouac dramatised him as Ben Fagan in 'Big Sur' and as Warren Coughlin in 'Dharma Bums'.

1983 - Juan Francisco Abad Fornieles (b. 1921?), Spanish anarchist, journalist, poet and writer, dies. In the libertarian ranks from an early age, he joined the war at fifteen years old together with his father and in 1938 served as a press correspondent, writing regularly in 'Solidaridad Obrera' (Workers Solidarity) and 'Land and Freedom' (Tierra y Libertad). Imprisoned by the Fascists on January 8, 1940, he spent time in a number of prisons including Torrero-Zaragoza (1942), Ocaña (1945) and Puerto de Santa Maria (1947), where he formed a lasting friendship with the social prisoner Vega Álvarez. Released in June 1951, survived like other anarchists (Guzman, Gomez Casas, Vega, Olcina) by writing western novels, policieres, war stories and romances (publishing more than two hundred under several pseudonyms, including Juan de España and Marsh Scrape) and from 1955 onwards he combined his "survival writing" with working in a factory until his emigration (first to France, where was not understood by the Toulouse libertarians, and then, since 1960, in Germany). In his German years he stopped writing and quit politics until well into the seventies, when animated by Cristóbal Vega he returned to the anarchist fold and to the pen. A poet from the age of eleven, he wrote much, but published very little and was a poet of "bitter sweetness" in the opinion of Vega Álvarez. He collaborated on 'Correo Literario', 'Espoir', 'Ideas-Ortho', 'Solidaridad Obrera' in Barcelona (during the war and in the post-Franco era), 'Tierra y Libertad' in Spain and Mexico and 'Umbral' (Threshold). He also wrote the preface to Raimundo Ramirez de Antón's poetry collection 'Antes de Ser el Alba' (Before the Dawn; 1984) and author of, 'Tierra de olvido y seis poemas a norte fijo' (Land of oblivion and six poems of fixed north; 1981) and 'Pulsando mi Lira' (Playing my Lyre; 1982).

1985 - Jean-Roger Caussimon (b. 1918), French libertarian, comedian, actor, poet, singer and songwriter, dies. [see: Jul. 24]

1990 - Bridget Bate Tichenor (born Bridget Pamela Arkwright Bate; b. 1917), also known as Bridget Tichenor or B.B.T., Mexican surrealist and magic realist painter, model and fashion editor, dies. [see: Nov. 22]

2005 - Eva Švankmajerová (b. 1940), Czech Surrealist artist, painter, ceramicist, poet, filmmaker and writer, dies. [see: Sep. 25]
1858 - Henri Willems (d. 19??), Belgian sculptor/carver, anarchist and director of the Belgian newspaper 'Le Libertaire', born. [see: Aug. 11]

1868 - Mécislas Golberg (or Goldberg; d. 1908), Polish anarchist thinker and prolific writer (in French), born.

1880 - Viking Eggeling (d. 1925), Swedish avant-garde artist and filmmaker connected to Dadaism, Constructivism and Abstract art, who was one of the pioneers in absolute film and visual music alongside his long-term collaborator Hans Richter, born. His film 'Diagonal-Symphonie' (1924) is one of the seminal abstract films in the history of experimental cinema. An anarchist sympathiser, he paid a number of visits to the Ascona colony following his 1917 move to Zurich and re-encountering Hans Arp, befriending Marcel Janco, Richard Hülsenbeck, and Sophie Taeuber whilst participating in the Cabaret Voltaire. In 1918, Tristan Tzara introduced Eggeling to Hans Richter and the pair went on to co-found the Artistes Radicaux (Association of Revolutionary Artists) group in Zurich, a more political section of the Das Neue Leben (New Life) group (which featured Marcel Janco, Hans Arp, Sophie Taeuber, Augusto Giacometti and others). Back in Berlin, Eggeling and Richter joined the radical Weimar artists group Novembergruppe.

[BB] 1896 - Pia Zanolli (Pia Zanolli-Misèfari; d. unknown), Italian anarchist, fashion designer, poet and writer, born. Companion of the Italian anarchist, philosopher, poet and engineer Bruno Misèfari, who she met whilst he was staying with her family as an exile in Switzerland as a deserter. In July 1919 Bruno Misèfari was expelled from Switzerland and she accompanied him first to Germany and then to Italy following an amnesty for Misèfari. She was to appeared on the list of dangerous subversives to be arrested in certain contingencies in the province of Reggio Calabria as the wife of a notorious anarchist [i.e. Misèfari], with whom she had been arrested in Domodossola in December 1919. She moved to Ponza in 1931 to be with Misèfari whilst he was in internal exile as a political prisoner, and they were married in a civil ceremony there on May 28, 1931. Once free, they settled in Calabria and, after Misèfari's death in 1936, she became his literary executor as well as publishing two memoirs of him, 'Tu o uno come te' (You or someone like you; nd) and 'L'Anarchico di Calabria' (The Anarchist of Calabria; 1967). Her own poetry was published in 2 volumes: 'Cinque Parole' (Five Words; 1965), 'Ruota del Mondo: Poesie sociali' (Wheel of the World: Social Poems; 1965)

1904 - Isabelle Eberhardt (b. 1877), the great anarchist writer and adventurer is swept away by a flash flood in the Algerian desert at the age 27. [see: Feb. 17]

[B] 1929 - Ursula K. Le Guin, libertarian science fiction and fantasy novelist, born. Author of 'The Dispossessed' (1974), an anarchist dystopia, and 'The Left Hand of Darkness' (1969), an examination of gender and power politics.

1963 - Shooting on Buñuel's film version of the Mirbeau novel 'Diary of a Chambermaid' begins.

1984 - Maurice-Henry (b. 1907), French poet, painter, filmmaker and cartoonist, dies. [see: Dec. 29]
1851 - Joseph Déjacque, French anarchist, is sentenced to two years in prison for a volume of poetry 'Lazaréennes: Socialist Fables and Poems'.

1867 - Émile Derré (d. 1938), French sculptor, pacifist, Dreyfusard and anarchist sympathiser, born. An activist for a "brotherly and largely human art" . He frequented the Parisian anarchist and almost all his works have a political connotation. In 1905 he made the bust of Louise Michel that adorns her grave. A year later for the Salon des Artistes Français he created 'le Chapiteau des Baisers' (the Capital of Kisses), originally known as 'Rêve Pour une Maison du Peuple' (Dream House of the People) with its recognisable images of Louise Michel, Elisée Reclus and Auguste Blanqui.
After WWI, which deeply affected him, he made the monumental statue entitled 'Réconciliation. Tu ne tueras pas' (Reconciliation. Thou shalt not kill), representing the embrace of a French and a German soldier. Exhibited at the Salon d'Automne of 1932, it caused a scandal and caused its immediate withdrawal. With the threat on a new war, he killed himself in 1938.

[C] 1913 - Robert Capa (d. 1954), Hungarian combat photographer and photojournalist, who covered five different wars, including the Spanish Revolution, born.

[B] 1921 - Georges Brassens (d. 1981), French anarchist singer-songwriter, poet and novelist, born. Already a published poet, 'Des Coups d’Épée dans l’Eau' (1941) and 'A la Venvole' (As the Wind Blows; 1942) having been working in a Renault car factory in Paris, he was forced by the Germans to work in a labour camp at a BMW aircraft engine plant in Basdorf near Berlin in Germany during WWII under the Service de Travail Obligatoire, but went AWOL on 10 days leave in Paris, hiding out with relatives till the end of the war.
In 1946 he joined the Fédération Anarchiste and wrote articles for 'Le Libertaire' under a number of pseudonyms, including Pépin Cadavre, Geo Cédille and Gilles Collin. He also wrote his first novel, 'La Lune Écoute aux Portes' (The Eavesdropping Moon), in 1947 and continued to write poetry and songs, performing them at fundraisers and for his friends. But it wasn't until 1952 that he actually started to perform his songs (accompanying himself on guitar) in public at cabarets such as the Caveau de la République, the Lapin Agile in Montmartre, Milord I'Arsouille and the Villa d'Este. Unsuccessful at first, it wasn't until he appeared at Les Trois Baudets (The Three Donkeys) and a Polydor recording cintract quickly followed, as did a second novel, 'La Tour des Miracles' (1953), and a part in René Clair's film 'Porte des Lilas' (Brassens also composed the film's music). A massive public success in France, he is little known elsewhere.
Amongst his best known songs are: 'La Mauvaise Réputation' (1952); 'Les Amoureux des Bancs Publics' (1952); 'Le Gorille' (1952); 'La Cane de Jeanne' (1953); 'Chanson pour l'Auvergnat' (1954); 'Les Copains d'Abord' (1964); 'Supplique pour être Enterré à la Plage de Sète' (1966); 'Fernande' (1972); and 'Mourir pour des Idées' (1972).

1922 - French composer Jacques Ibert's tone poem, 'La Ballade de la Geôle de Reading' (Ballad of Reading Gaol; 1922), premières at the Paris Concerts Colonne.

1964 - Jean-Paul Sartre turns down the Nobel Prize for Literature, claiming: "a writer must refuse to allow himself to be transformed into an institution."
1885 - André Lorulot (aka André Georges Roulot) (d. 1963), French free-thinker, anarchist individualist, lecturer, propagandist and playwright, born. Lorulot began writing for Libertad’s journal 'l’Anarchie' from the first issue (13 April 1905), adopting the pseudonym Lorulot and essentially devoting his life, until 1914, to the cause of individualist anarchist propaganda.
In 1906 he and his partner Émilie Lamotte joined the Libertaire anarchist commune in Saint-Germain-en-Laye and in 1907 he was exempted from military service for "heart disease and deafness". The colony lasted 2 years, during which time he lectured through out the country, resulting in his arrest in May 1907 for 'incitement to murder' and being sentenced to one year in prison on Aug. 9. Then his pamphlet 'L'Idole Patrie et ses Conséquences' resulted in another prison sentence on Nov. 16 1907, of 115 months for encouraging military disobedience. Fortunately the authorities mixed up the sentence and he was paroled early in Feb. 1908.
Following the death of Libertad on November 12 1908, Lorulot took over the editorship of 'l’Anarchie' and continued extensive travels with Émilie, lecturing in France, Algeria and Switzerland. Émilie died on June 6 1909 whilst they were travelling via caravan across France and Lorulot decided to set up printing of the newspaper Romainville, where he founded and edited the magazine 'L’Idée Libre' on Dec. 1 1911 (having quit 'l’Anarchie'). The magazine developed into a combination propaganda organ for individualism and anti-clericalism, and resulted in his becoming embroiled in the case of the Bonnot Gang because of his advocacy of illegality, but is not charged during the Feb. 1913 trial.In Jan 1915 he is again arrested, this time on a counter feit currency charge as well as for insulting and defaming the army. The charges are dropped in July 1915 but his is banished from Paris for 4 years. He moved to Lyon and then Saint-Étienne, where he resumed the publication 'L’Idée Libre' in 1917.
Despite his individualism, his long term opposition to syndicalist thought (unions were mere "boîtes à cotisations") and denial of the division of society into classes, he became enamoured of the Bolshevik revolution, defending the idea of the need for "some dictatorship", even after the events at Kronstadt.
From then on his principle activities focused on his anti-clerical/free thought activities, becoming on of the main speakers for the Fédération Nationale de la Libre Pensée (Federation of Free Thinkers) and writing for the journal 'l'Antireligieux', as well as 'Réveil de l'Esclave' (The Awakening Slave; 1920-25); 'l'Action Antireligieuse' (1925); 'La Libre Pensée' (1928); and the satirical magazine 'La Calotte' (The Skullcap; 1930). In the Thirties he also participated in Sébastien Faure's 'l'Encyclopédie Anarchiste'.
In 1958 Lorulot became president of the Fédération Nationale de la Libre Pensée. A prolific writer, his misanthropy is perhaps best expressed by the title of his 1939 pamphlet: 'Les Hommes me Dégoutent' (Men Disgust Me). Amongst his other writings are: 'Le Mensonge Électoral' (The Electoral Falsehood; 1908); 'Chez les Loups' (Among Wolves; 1920); 'Méditations et Souvenirs d'un Prisonnier' (Meditations and Memories of a Prisoner; 1921); 'L'Église et la Guerre' (The Church and War; 1930); 'Histoire de Ma Vie et de Mes Idées' (Story of My Life and My Ideas; 1939); 'Histoire Populaire du Socialisme Mondial' (People's History of World Socialism; 1945); etc.
He also wrote a number of plays, including: 'Mon Royaume N'est Pas de Ce Monde' (My Kingdom is Not of This World; 1934); 'Dans les Geôles de France' (In French Jails; 1938); 'La Toile d'Araignée' (The Spider's Web; 1938); and 'La Morale de Croquemitaine' (The Moral Bogeyman; 1936).

1887 - Salvador Cordón Avellán (d. 1958), Andalusian writer, journalist, rationalist teacher, propagandist anarchist, playwright and novelist, born. [expand]
His fictional works include: 'Pedazos de mi Alma: girones de mi vida' (Pieces of my Soul: shreds of my life; 1911), 'La Familia Política: drama en tres actos y en prosa' (The Family Policy: drama in three acts and in prose; 1913) (with Isabel Pereyra), 'La Virgen Roja: drama social en tres actos y un cuadro, en prosa' (The Red Virgin: social drama three acts and a picture in prose; 1913), 'La Caída: novela social' (The Fall: social novel; 1915), 'País al Rojo: tragedia social en tres actos, divididos en siete cuadros' (The Red Country: social tragedy in three acts, Divided into seven tables; 1922), 'Entre Rejas: novela' (Behind Bars: novel; 1924) and '¡Al jabalí! La Novela Ideal' (The boar! The ideal novel; 1925).
Amongst his other writings are 'Andalucía Bajo el Látigo de Suspensión Negreros' (Andalusia under the lash of slave trader; 1919), 'Frente al Estado' (Against the State; 1919), 'Frente a la Masa' (Facing the Masses; 1920), 'El Grito' (The Cry; 1920), 'La Siega que Viene' (The harvest to come; 1920), 'De mí Bohemia Revolucionaria' (From A Bohemian Revolutionary; 1921), 'Hermanos!' (Brothers!; 1925), 'Locos' (Crazy; 1925) and 'Pueblo en la Sombra' (People in the Shadows; 1928), plus numerous other unpublished works.

[B] 1927 - Philip Lamantia (d. 2005), Sicilian-American anarchist and Surrealist poet, born. A key link between the Surrealists and, as an influence, the Beats. Expelled from a junior high school for "intellectual delinquency", Lamantia discovered Surrealism as a teenager. He was immediately drawn to this movement and began to write poetry, leaving California for NY to meet André Breton, who recognised his talent and began publishing his poems. Lamantia's work appeared in Breton's 'VVV', as well as Charles Henri Ford's 'View' and other experimental journals.
Married to Nancy Peters, a surrealist poet and co-owner, with Lawrence Ferlinghetti, of City Lights Books publishers.

1940 - J. William Lloyd (b. 1857), American individualist anarchist, poet and writer, dies.
[B] 1868 - Alexandra David-Néel (born Louise Eugénie Alexandrine Marie David; d. 1969), Belgian-French explorer, spiritualist, Buddhist, anarchist, Freemason, opera singer, writer, lecturer, photographer, born. Known for her writings on her travels (many disguised as a man) to India in 1890-91; Sikkim and Nepal in 1911-16 (where she met the Dalai Lama, lives in a cave for 2 years and adopts a young Sikkimese monk, Aphur Yongden, who becomes her travelling companion); Japan in 1916; Korea and China in (1916-21); spend 3 years on the route to Tibet, arriving in Lhasa (1924-28) [her most famous and beloved work, Mystiques et Magiciens du Tibet (Magic and Mystery in Tibet; 1929)] and the eastern Tibetan highlands in early 1937. She and Aphur Yongden remain trapped in China and the Tibetan marches following the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War later that year and war in Europe in 1939, only returning to France in 1946.
At the age of 18, having already visited England (to study Eastern philosophies), Switzerland (walking and mountain climbing) and Spain (cycling tour), all on her own, she moved to Paris and became involved with Madame Blavatsky's Theosophical Society. She also joined various secret societies, reaching the thirtieth degree in the mixed Scottish Rite of Freemasonry and moved with anarchist and circles, writing a number of feminist articles and in 1899, Alexandra composed an anarchist treatise with a preface by the French geographer and anarchist Elisée Reclus (a great friend of her father, anarchist teacher and journalist Louis David). Publishers were, however, too terrified to publish a book written by a woman so proud she could not accept any abuses by the State, army, Church or high finance. Her friend the composer Jean Haustont however printed copies himself and it was eventually translated into five languages.
As a young woman (and following family financial problems) Alexandra tried to make a living as an opera singer (1894-1900), touring Europe, Africa and Asia, including one stint touring Indochina with a French opera company (1895-97), appearing at the Hanoi Opera House and elsewhere as La Traviata and Carmen. But by 1900 her career was going nowhere and she accepted a job with the municipal opera in Tunis, where she met railway engineer, Philip Neel, whom she married in 1904, but never travelled with (divorcing him in 1928). She is also the author of the murder mystery 'La Puissance de Néant' (The Power of Nothingness; 1954), a Buddhist whodunnit set in Tibet and co-written with her adopted son, Aphur Yongden.

1923 - Denise Levertov (d. 1997), British-born American poet, anti-war activist and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. Socially committed from an early age (he father was a Jewish refugee and members of the family campaigned against Italy's invasion of Abyssinia, Britian's lack of support for Republican Spain and worked on behalf of refugees from Facism), and became renowned as one of the better English Neo-Romantic poets, who included the likes of Alex Comfort, George Woodcock and Herbert Read. Moving to the States, she became influenced by the Black Mountain poets and became involved with the San Francisco poets around Rexroth, Ferlinghetti and Robert Duncan, whom she carried out a long correspondence with and who famously criticised he pacifism from an anarchist viewpoint [see: 'The Letters of Robert Duncan and Denise Levertov', ed. by Robert J. Bertholf and Albert Gelpi. Stanford (2004) and 'Decision at the Apogee : Robert Duncan's anarchist critique of Denise Levertov' (2006) - Robert J. Bertholf]
"In the '40s, when I was an anarchist activist, Denise Levertov was perhaps loyal in sentiment to the cause, although not herself in any way active. During the '60s she became an activist, and her actions certainly proved her sincerity. What disappoints one in her writing on this subject, however, is that it rarely goes beyond emotional generalities." - George Woodcock, 'Pilgrimage of a Poet', in 'New Leader', March 4, 1974, (pp. 19-20).

Two girls discover
the secret of life
in a sudden line of

I who don’t know the
secret wrote
the line. They
told me

(through a third person)
they had found it
but not what it was
not even

what line it was. No doubt
by now, more than a week
later, they have forgotten
the secret,

the line, the name of
the poem. I love them
for finding what
I can’t find,

and for loving me
for the line I wrote,
and for forgetting it
so that

a thousand times, till death
finds them, they may
discover it again, in other

in other
happenings. And for
wanting to know it,

assuming there is
such a secret, yes,
for that
most of all.

'The Secret' [in 'O Taste and See: New Poems' (1964)]


1932 - Adrian Mitchell (d. 2008), English poet, novelist, playwright, librettist, anti-authoritarian social-anarchist and anti-war activist, born.

My brain socialist
My heart anarchist
My eyes pacifist
My blood revolutionary

- 'Loose Leaf Poem' [in 'Ride the Nightmare' (1971)]

I was run over by the truth one day.
Ever since the accident I’ve walked this way
So stick my legs in plaster
Tell me lies about Vietnam.

Heard the alarm clock screaming with pain,
Couldn’t find myself so I went back to sleep again
So fill my ears with silver
Stick my legs in plaster
Tell me lies about Vietnam.

Every time I shut my eyes all I see is flames.
Made a marble phone book and I carved out all the names
So coat my eyes with butter
Fill my ears with silver
Stick my legs in plaster
Tell me lies about Vietnam.

I smell something burning, hope it’s just my brains.
They’re only dropping peppermints and daisy-chains
So stuff my nose with garlic
Coat my eyes with butter
Fill my ears with silver
Stick my legs in plaster
Tell me lies about Vietnam.

Where were you at the time of the crime?
Down by the Cenotaph drinking slime
So chain my tongue with whisky
Stuff my nose with garlic
Coat my eyes with butter
Fill my ears with silver
Stick my legs in plaster
Tell me lies about Vietnam.

You put your bombers in, you put your conscience out,
You take the human being and you twist it all about
So scrub my skin with women
Chain my tongue with whisky
Stuff my nose with garlic
Coat my eyes with butter
Fill my ears with silver
Stick my legs in plaster
Tell me lies about Vietnam.

'To Whom It May Concern' (1964)?


1944 - Étienne O'Leary (d. 2011), Québécois actor, director and soundtrack composer of experimental short film, painter and libertarian, born.
[B] 1881 - Pablo Ruiz y Picasso (d. 1973), Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, anarchist and later communist, born. At the age of 13 his family move to Barcelona, where he first encountered anarchism and began associating with anarchists in Madrid when he attended the Royal Academy of San Fernando. In 1901, and inspired by his first trip to Paris the previous year, he founded the magazine 'Arte Joven' (Young Art) with his friend the anarchist writer Francisco de Asís Soler [painting]. It was during this time, the Blue Period, that his art most clearly displays an anarchist influenc with its working class subject matter and method of depiction. Picasso would later be denied French citizenship because of his association with the anarchist and art dealer Pedro Mañach [painting] who was an important financial supporter during the Blue Period, signing a contract with Picasso guaranteeing to take his pictures for two years and to pay 150 francs per month by way of fixed income. He also floated the idea of a first Paris Picasso exhibition at the Galerie Vollard in 1901.

1909 - Jean-Paul Chanois (born Jean-Paul Étienne Dreyfus; d. 1985), French filmmaker, TV and theatre director, actor, French Communist Party member and trades union activist, born. Active in the Resistance under the German occupation.

1936 - Bernard Thomas (d. 2012), French libertarian journalist, including theatre critic and columnist for 'Canard Enchaîné', born. Wrote 'Alexandre Marius Jacob' (1970), 'Les Provocations Policières' (1972), 'Aurore ou la Génération Perdue' (1984), 'Anarchism and Violence: Severino di Giovanni', etc.

1946 - Artur Streiter (b. 1905), German graphic artist, painter, writer, literary critic, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Jan. 17]
[B] 1879 - Biófilo Panclasta (born Vicente Rojas Lizcano; d. 1942), Colombian writer, poet, militant individualist anarchist and agitator, born. Biófilo Panclasta translates as "lover of life, enemy of all", his pen name. A prolific propagandist for his Stirnerite and Nietszchean views, he visited more than fifty countries - bannished from many, imprisoned in others - carrying the anarchist message, participating in demonstrations and workers' protests and in the process meeting the likes of Kropotkin, Ravanchol, Lenin and Maxim Gorky. Author of numerous articles published in the world's press, of a series of memoirs on his many years in prison including 'Mis prisiones, mis destierros y mi vida' (My prisons, my destiny and my life; 1929) and 'Siete años enterrado vivo en una de las mazmorras de Gomezuela: Horripilante relato de un resucitado' (Seven years buried alive in one of the dungeons of Gomezuela: A harrowing tale of one of the resurrected; 1932), and a series of letters in the form of prose poems.

Your beautifully expressed sympathies have come to comfort my spirit in this, the sad solitude of the prisoner.

But it was not the solitude of things that sunk it in its long and nostalgic meditations.

It was the solitude of thought.

Believing oneself a defender without anyone to defend.

A liberator without anyone liberated.

A man of heart among heartless beings.

To feel alone is to feel useless.

Therefore your letter transcends for me, in a very superior way, the kind of fraternal palliative usually shared in times of misfortune.

My suffering has something of greatness.

I am not I who suffers; it is the living and suffering humanity that paints on the sensible canvas of my soul all the sufferings of its uncomprehended misery.

I am not imprisoned by myself.

If I am feared, it is because they know that my word, as the miraculous medicine of a doctor of the soul, can remove from the eyes of the prejudiced the blindfold that keeps them in the land of the “dark barbarians.”

To be persecuted is to be feared.

And I who can teach nothing and preach nothing, I am feared because like the “firefly fleeing from the light, carrying the light, I illuminate the same shadows that I go seeking.”

For me, prison cannot exist.

Like all tyrannies, it is only in the heart of slaves.

I consider my guardians to be beings of a prehistoric nature. And I despise them.

They are too human!

I am not in the habit of making feline madness logical, and I leave its proof to the empire of force; force is the reason of beasts.

As such, even behind walls I believe myself, and am, free.

Free, free as my thought, neither limitless nor incommunicable.

And as this thought is the language of our souls, I send from here, to you, to that place, all the psychic wealth of my evoked feeling as a tribute of reciprocity on the altar of love that the god of Harmony has erected.

We struggle, but we struggle like Prometheus, for being beginnings...

We struggle against death, that Christianity of life.

Let us live.

For life and with it.

Art and freedom.

That is a path.

Let us live for ourselves.

And let us unite, yes, let us unite against everything weak, everything small, everything vile.

To be a Christian is to be defeated.

Let us be biófilos (lovers of life).

Let us be strong. Like crystal. Light and hardness, hardness and light.

And may others learn.

Without us teaching. To be a teacher is to be a tyrant. Leave thought out like meat.

Have no duties. Leave that to the moralists.

We alone, among those who go alone, let us each walk our path; personally; intensifying life, increasing pleasure, feeling existence...


For man is not born but to live.

And to live is not to suffer.

Because life is beautiful!

It can be beautiful!

Let us make it beautiful!

Be biófilos!

Let us be that!


Biófilo Panclasta.

Barranquilla Police Station, April 19, 1910.

[published as 'Carcelarias' (Prisons) by the editors of 'Biófilo Panclasta, el eterno prisionero' (Biófilo Panclasta, the eternal prisoner; 1992)]


1903 - Maurice Rollinat (b. 1846), French poet, habituee of Le Chat Noir and member of Les Hydropathes, dies. [see: Dec. 29]
[B] 1898 - Germain Delatousche (d. 1966), French painter and wood engraver, born. He illustrated numerous newspapers and magazines including: 'La Vache Enragée'; 'L'Internationale'; 'Les Chansons de la Butte'; 'La Revue Anarchiste'; 'L'Art Vivant'; 'La Revue Anarchiste'; 'Le Quotidien'; 'Les Humbles'; 'L'En Dehors'; 'L'Almanach de la Paix' (1934); 'Le Libertaire' (1945-50); etc.. Plus books by Maurice Hallé, Gaston Couté, CA Bontemps, Eugene Bizeau, Georges Vidal and Regis Messac.

[C] 1912 - Conlon Samuel Nancarrow (d. 1997), US avant garde composer, jazz trumpeter, CPUSA member and anti-fascist combatant, born. He joined the Communist party in June 1935 after a period as a 'fellow-traveller' and the following year he travelled to Europe for a month as the trumpeter on a ship’s band. There he visited London, Paris, Austria and Germany, where he presumably encounters fascism for the first time. In March 1937 he set sail for Spain to fight against the Franco dictatorship. In May of that year he joined the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, fighting in various anti-aircraft batteries for the Defensa Contra Aviación (DECA) and the German Dimitrov Battery of the International Anti-Aircraft Battery until the International Brigades were disbanded in September 1938. Having stayed in Spain after demobilisation, he spent some time in the south of the country (not in combat) and managed to escape Valencia in January 1939 in the hold of a freighter bound for Barcelona. He then missed the evacuees' train in Figueres, arriving in Barcelona on January 26, the day that Barcelona fell to Franco's troops. Setting off on foot towards the border in the company of other ex-Brigaders, they found the border closed (except for women, children and old men) at Port-Bou amd continued inland. They eventually crossed into France on February 7, just after the border had been reopened to troops and men of military age, and Nancarrow spent five days in the Argelès-sur-Mer concentration camp [not Gers as is widely claimed] before being released as he was a U.S. citizen. After a brief sojourn in Paris, he arrived back in New York on February 25m, 1939, aged 27 years old.
Upon his return to the United States in 1939, he learned that his Brigade colleagues were having trouble getting their U.S. passports renewed because of their Communist Party membership. After spending time in New York City in 1940, Nancarrow eventually fled the U.S. for México City to avoid being arrested for his former Communist affiliations. Upon his first subsequent return to the U.S., in 1981 (for the New Music America festival in San Francisco), he consulted a lawyer about the possibility of returning to his native country, since the pollution in Mexico City was worsening his emphysema. He was told that he would have to sign a statement swearing that he had been "young and foolish" when he embraced communism, which he refused to do. Consequently, he continued living in Las Águilas, México City, (eventually taking up Mexican citizenship) where he remained in political exile until his death in 1997, aged 84.
"Cage isn't really an anarchist, he just doesn't want to be bothered!"

1914 - Dylan Thomas (d. 1953), Welsh boyo, poet and prose writer, born. A drunk and serial philanderer, his youthful poems were paeans to masturbation [c.f. 'My hero bares his nerves' (1934)].

1948 - Albert Camus' play 'L'Etat de Siege' premières in Paris.

1958 - Gusto Gräser (Gustav Arthur Gräser; b. 1879), German nomadic 'poet-prophet' who, with his brother Karl Gräser (1875–1920), co-founded the Monte Verità utopian anarchist/vegetarian community in Ascona, Switzerland, dies. [see: Feb. 16]

1975 - Rex Todhunter Stout (b. 1886), American writer of detective fiction, and one-time communist fellow traveller, who was best known as the creator of the fictional detective Nero Wolfe, dies. [see: Dec. 1]

1979 - At a Two-Tone Tour gig at Hatfield Polytechnic featuring The Specials, The Selecter and Madness, the latter who at the time had an unwanted hardcore following of nazi skinheads, a bloody battle breaks out between local anti-fascists and the skins. National Front and British Movement skinheads wrecking concerts by multi-racial Ska bands at various Two-Tone gigs and they had met very little resistance up to this point. The vicious fight left many injured on both sides, but the Nazis took the worse of it and the Nazis never felt confident enough to turn up at any more Two-Tone concerts. [PR]
1726 - Jonathan Swift's 'Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of Several Ships', better known as 'Gulliver's Travels', first published.

1846 - Albert Dubois-Pillet (d. 1890), French Néo-Impresssionist and Pointillist painter and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. Fought the Franco-Prussian War, during which he was made prisoner by the Germans but took up art after the war, adding his mother's maiden name (Pillet) to disguise his art activities from the military. A friend of Georges Seurat, he become one of the first artists to adopt Pointillism. His association with anarchists and anti-militarists such as Seurat, Angrand and Signac is thought to have led to his posting to Le Puy in south central France in 1889 as commander of the local gendarmerie. He died there during a smallpox outbreak in 1890.

1879 - Luisa Capetillo (d. 1922), Puerto Rican writer, novelist, labour organiser, women's rights activist and anarchist, born.

[B] 1913 - Le Cinéma du Peuple, a co-operative film company, is created by a group of Parisian anarchists. They would produce the first full length film on the Paris Commune.

1987 - André-Aimé-René Masson aka André Masson (b. 1896), French Surrealist painter, sculptor, illustrator, designer and writer, dies. [see: Jan. 4]
1854 - Jean-Marie Guyau (d. 1888), French poet and libertarian philosopher, born. Kropotkin labelled him as being "unconsciously anarchist".

[B] 1902 - Kitasono Katue (北園克衛; d. 1978), real name Hashimoto Kenkichi (橋本健吉), renowned Japanese poet, painter, photographer, critic and anarchist, who helped introduced Dada and Surrealism into Japan, born. Editor and graphic designer for more than 500 magazines and poetry books, and created numerous covers for novels, trade journals, commercial magazines, etc.. Chief among the magazines were his own journal 'VOU', published from 1935 to 1940, and then again from 1945 until his death in 1978; the Dadaist magazine 'GE GJMGJGAM PRRR GJMGEM' and later issues of 'MAVO'. Introduced to poetry and art by his brother the sculptor Hashimoto Heihachi (橋本平八), he became an early master of the haiku, later expanding his art to embrace Dadaist, Surrealist and Futurist poetics;. He later began creating his coloured drawings or 'katto' (cuts), took up photography in the 1950s, and began his Plastic Poems (造型詩), a form of visual poetry inspired in the mid 1960s by the work of some of his fellow photographers involved in 'VOU'.
Nicknamed Kit Kat by Ezra Pound, he was considered by many of his contemporaries to be one of the most important world poets and famously designed the first four covers of the Black Mountain Review. Amongst his volumes of poetry are 'White Album / Shiro in Arubamu' (白のアルバム; 1929); 'Black Fire / Hi Kuroi' (黒い火; 1951); and 'Black Rain' (1954). 'Monotonous Space / Tanchona Kukan' (単調な空間; in 'VOU' no. 58, 1957), considered by many to be his masterpiece.

'Monotonous Space'

white square
within it
white square
within it
black square
within it
black square
within it
yellow square
within it
yellow square
within it
white square
within it
white square

within it
within it
within it
within it
within it
within it
within it

's glass
's umbrella
's building
's handkerchief

white square
within it
white square
within it
white square
within it
white square
within it
white square

'Night Mechanist' (1924)

the café girl
is completely transparent
continuing her pink breathing
she makes her expensive finger shine
and hides mint-coloured talk
in a lobelia leaf
while playing the table’s piano
dreamer of chairs and curtains
bohemian of a pitiful city.
from the shadow of curacao
and peppermint
she flashes a seven-coloured heart
seducer with stunning matches
on stove chimneys
ties passion ribbons
and dissolves her lovers
into cash register buttons—
mechanist of splendid night

from 'Human Dismantled Poems' (1926)


on the back of the face
insert a blue lens
and peep everyday


burn sulphur
and weird smoke fills it up
a triangular ornament
tinplate nose
twist it
stuff a brush inside
and drag that spiral out from the rear!

'Dessin du Poéte'

Opening a thick, oval window, a Latin round-body
pronounces the following. Acts. Signals.
* It is said, "How could a self be rational which isn't even
conscious of itself as emotional?" A movement to
awaken people to that.
* A movement to make innocent friends perceive the
degree that we love loss of innocence.
* It is said, "How could you who haven't even passed
through anarchism become communists? And you who
haven't even comprehended futility. A magical
movement to stress that.
* It is said, "In a socialist world there is no room for
sneers, scorn and deceptive logic." This is deceptive
logic to sneer and scorn at not even understanding that.
* It is said, "A small bird."
* As for the saying, "Your limitless, orderly negativity
doesn't even have an affirmative value," if one says,
"How civilized?" it's the logic of you boarding a soap
bubble and being able to fly outside the earth's orbit. Yet
you are educated for an airship. For that overly physical
airship you try to imagine even a soap bubble space
expedition. Such an affirmatively affirmative you. You
don't perceive that.
* Materialistic. Materialistic art.
* Noblelady where small birds live.
* Noblelady where fish live.
* Gavo . . . Gavo . . . Gavo . . . Gavo . . . pon pon pon . . . pan . . .
pim . . . pum . . . Gattan . . . GovoGovoGovo? . . . I am lonely.
* Noblelady where fish and small birds live.
* The time you can say "Lonely, lonely" isn't lonely at all.
* The story of a boy on a dirigible balloon.
* A glass dish gathering tears.
* A bulb that doesn't breathe.
* Red curtain.
* Red.
* Mephistopheles with parasol today also displays a white
heel through the window of a high-rise building. The
view of an ocean that wants to smoke tobacco.
* Metaphysics without kangaroos.
* Brontasaurus.
* Sincerity, in moderation, speaks of lies. At least. That's
what becomes of it.
* If truth is so necessary, let me teach you one inventive
art. That is to search for the most stupid thing. But now.
Could anything be the most stupid?
* Roses and books.
* Midair-falling-doll.
* The surface where pressure operates. The surface where
pressure doesn't operate.

The Latin round-body completely quit his tactics of low-
altitude flying. Then he closed the thick, oval window. Space
stretched out infinitely. Insects within white gas probably
sing acetylene tunes. He doesn't know. Probably no one gets
to know.


1935 - Peter Watkins, radical English film and television screenwriter and director, whose films have included biographical films on explicitly anarchist subjects including 'Edvard Munch' (1974) and 'La Commune (Paris, 1871)' (2000), born. Amongst his other films are classics such as 'Culloden' (1964), 'The War Game' (1965) and 'Punishment Park' (1970).

1947 - Asger Jorn participates in the International Conference of Revolutionary Surrealism in Brussels.

1952 - 'No More Flat Feet', a tract denouncing Charlie Chaplin signed by the Lettrist International (Berna, Brau, Debord and Wolman), is thrown into the crowd at a press conference for Chaplin's film 'Limelight' at the Ritz Hotel, Paris.

1978 - Recording of anarcho-punk band Crass's second album 'The Feeding of the 5000'.

1981 - Georges Brassens (b. 1921), French anarchist singer-songwriter and poet, dies. [see: Oct. 22]
"Je suis anarchiste au point de toujours traverser dans les clous afin de n'avoir pas à discuter avec la maréchaussée." ("I'm an anarchist, so much so that I always cross at the zebra crossing to avoid arguing with the police.")
1871 - Paul Valéry (d. 1945), French poet, essayist, philosopher, polymath and non-doctrinal an-archiste, born. Considered to be the last of the French Symbolists (or Anarcho-Symbolists).
His 'Les Principes d'Anarchie Pure et Appliquée' (1984), which features his thoughts on an-archie as he termed it, was published posthumously.

1889 - Marcelo Salinas (d. 1976), Cuban anarchist, playwright and journalist, who was forced into exile by the Castro regime, born.

[B] 1904 - Georges Navel (Charles François Victor Navel; d. 1993), French proletarian writer, novelist and libertarian, born. His works include the autobiographical novel 'Travaux' (Work; 1945). He was involved with Émile Malespine and his (post-Dadaist/pre-Surrealist) Suridéalist magazine 'Manomètre' (Revue trimestrielle, mçlange les langues, enregistre les idées, indique la pression sur tous les méridiens, est polyglotte et supranational; 1922-28).

1908 - Marcel Béalu (d. 1993), French poet, writer and anarchist, born. His first collection of poetry, 'Poèmes sur un Même Thème' (Poems on a Similar Theme) in 1932 and later met the influential Cubist poet Max Jacob in 1937 as well as discovering the Surrealist poets the following year. When mobilised at the beginning of WWII, his papers warned "un anarchiste dangereux, à surveiller".

1910 - Miguel Hernández Gilabert (d.1942), Spanish poet, playwright and anti-fascist, born. Hernández campaigned for the Republic during the Spanish Civil War, writing poetry and addressing troops deployed to the front. However, he was unable to escape following the fall of the Republic and was constantly harassed, arrested and imprisoned for his anti-fascist sympathies, and was eventually sentenced to death. His death sentence, however, was commuted to a prison term of 30 years, leading to incarceration in multiple jails under extraordinarily harsh conditions until he eventually succumbed to tuberculosis in 1942. Just before his death, Hernández scrawled his last verse on the wall of the hospital: "Goodbye, brothers, comrades, friends: let me take my leave of the sun and the fields."

1932 - Louis Malle (d. 1995), French film director, screenwriter and producer, born. His 1967 film 'Le Voleur' (The Thief of Paris), a fierce attack on bourgeois society, is based on the anarchist novelist Georges Darien's book of the same name and was responsible for the rediscovery of this largely forgotten writer. Much of his work bears the influence of his friend Luis Buñuel.
Malle's films 'Le Voleur' (The Thief of Paris; 1967), 'Lacombe Lucien' (1974) and 'Au Revoir, les Enfants' (1987) all address anti-Semitism (and Dreyfus - 'Le Voleur', in passing) and/or the Résistance and the Nazi occupation.

1938 - A broadcast of HG Wells' 'War of the Worlds' by Orson Welles causes widespread panic in north eastern USA as many American's think that little green men are invading.
1889 - Rolf Engert (d. 1962), German poet, playwright, publisher and writer on Stirner and Ibsen, born. Wrote under the pseudonyms Angelus Saxonicus and Maximus, and co-founded the Vereinigung der Stirnerfreunde (Friends of Stirner Association) with John Henry Mackay in 1918. A figure in the anti-Nazi Inner Emigration underground. Was excluded from the Deutscher Schriftstellerverband (East German Writers' Association) in 1950.

1892 - The first Sherlock Holmes story, 'The Adventures of Sherlock Homes', published.

[B] 1913 - Jesús Guillén Bertolín aka Guillembert (d. 1999), Spanish anarchist, painter and designer, partner of Sara Berenguer, born.

1922 - Karl Capek's play 'The World We Live In' (The Insect Comedy) opens in NYC.

1922 - Clément Pansaers (b. 1885), Belgian poet, artist (painting, engraving and sculpture), libertarian, internationalist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: May 1]

1924 - Enrico Baj (d. 2003), Italian anarchist painter, sculptor, writer and activist, best known for his collages of ridiculous-looking generals made from shards of glass, scraps of flowery material and shells, born. He fled Italy in 1944 for Geneva to avoid being enlisted in Mussolini's army. Following the conclusion of the Second World War and after having joined the radical COBRA group in the late 1940s, he founded the Nuclear Art Movement with Sergio Dangelo with the goal of "demolishing all the 'isms' of painting that inevitably lapses into academicism, whatever their origins might be." One of his major works is his 1972 painting 'Funeral Of The Anarchist Pinelli'.

1941 - Herwarth Walden (pseudonym of Georg Lewin; b. 1879), German Expressionist artist and gallery owner, art expert, who was the founder of the radical German Expressionist magazine 'Der Sturm', dies in a Soviet prison in Saratov. [see: Sep. 16]

1955 - François-Henri Jolivet (b. 1875), French worker-poet, anarchist and pacifist songwriter, dies. [see: Aug. 1]

1961 - Augustus Edwin John (b. 1878), Welsh Post-Impressionist painter, draughtsman and etcher, dies. [see: Jan. 4]

1966 - Germain Delatousche (b. 1898), French painter and wood engraver, dies. [see: Oct. 27]
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)
2010 - Jason Pearce dies of the mysterious new condition "excited delirium" whilst being arrested and restrained by two police officers in Market Drayton. No one is charged.philadi
2010 - Jason Pearce dies of the mysterious new condition "excited delirium" whilst being arrested and restrained by two police officers in Market Drayton. No one is charged.philadi