Miner's Day [День шахтера]: Celebrated in Russia, Belarus, Estonia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Ukraine on the last Sunday in August.
Soviet-style official holiday for those in the mining industry that originated in 1947 (and first celebrated on August 29, 1948) based on the date (the night shift of Aug. 30-31) in 1935 when Russian miner Alexei Stakhanov (Алексе́й Стаха́нов) set a production record (he extracted 102 tons of coal at a rate of 7 tons per hour), which effectively signalled the beginning of the Stakhanovite movement.
1765 - Following the posting of a notice in the local newspaper the Northampton Mercury inviting "well-wishers to the Cause now in Hand" to a football match at West Haddon, a tumultuous mob assembles and pulls down and burn the fences of a recently enclosed field.

1834 - Britain finally abolishes slavery despite having outlawed the trading of slaves through out the Empire as far back as 1807 (it had been illegal since 1772 in England and made a punishable offence though out the Empire in 1881).

1855* - Alternative date for the birth of Teresa Fabbrini (Teresa Maria Anna Carolina Fabbrini Ballerini; b. 1855), Italian anarchist and feminist, who from a young age was distinguished both as a tireless propagandist of anarchist ideas and as a lecturer and writer in favour of anarchism and women's rights. [see: Oct. 1]

1857 - Ida C. Craddock (August 1 1857 - October 16 1902), US free speech and women's rights advocate, and student of 'religious eroticism' whose distribution of her own instructional tracts on human sexuality led to a series of jail sentences and her committing suicide rather than served a five-year prison term under the the federal Comstock law for distributing 'obscene materials', born.

1863 - Stuart Merrill (d. 1915), American Symbolist poet, who wrote mostly in French, and anarchist sympathiser, born. Taught in Paris by Stéphane Mallarmé and by the time he published his first book of poems, 'Les Gammes', he was active Parisian anarchist circles. He campaigned for the Haymarket Martyrs and for the release of Oscar Wilde. His other works include 'Les Fastes' (1891), and 'Petits Poèmes d'Automne' (1895).
"Le Symbolisme... fut un movement libertaire en littérature."

1869 - The first issue of the weekly 'La Federación', "Organo de la Federacion Barcelonesa de la Asociacion Internacional de los Trabajadore", is published in Barcelona.

[B] 1875 - François-Henri Jolivet (d. 1955), French worker-poet, anarchist and pacifist songwriter, born. Member of La Muse Rouge goguette, participated in the Vache Enragée's fêtes ouvrières and the pacifist 'La Patrie Humaine'.

1884 - The first issue of 'L'Ami des Ouvriers', "Organe des travailleurs de langue française aux Etats-Unis", is published in Hastings, Pennsylvania.

1885 - Pierre Mauldes (Pierre-Louis Beauchet; d. 1966), French militant anarchist, collaborated on 'Libertaire', 'La Revue Anarchiste', 'La Revue Internationale Anarchiste', etc., born.

1889 - The first issue of the German-language anarchist-communist periodical 'Der Anarchist' is published in St. Louis, Missouri.

1892 - Emma Goldman chairs a meeting of over three hundred anarchists to discuss Berkman's attempt to assassinate Henry Clay Frick. Other speakers include Autonomie group leader Josef Peukert, Dyer D. Lum, editor of the 'Alarm', and Italian anarchist Saverio Merlino, an editor of 'Solidarity'.

1892 - The first issue of the satirical weekly newspaper 'De Roode Duivel' (The Red Devil) is published in Amsterdam by Louis M. Hermans, who is also the paper's editor and illustrator.

1897 - André Pierre Daunis (d. 1985), French railway worker, farmer, electrician, mason and militant libertarian communist, born.

[E] 1902 - Lola Iturbe (Dolores Iturbe Arizcuren; d. 1990), Catalonian militant anarcho-syndicalist and member of Mujeres Libres, born. Wrote many of her Mujeres Libres article under the pseudonym Kyralina, in tribute to the famous novel by Panaït Istrati. Secretary of Sindicato del Vestido de Barcelona and editor of the collection 'La Mujer en la Lucha Social y en la Guerra Civil de España' (Editores Mexicanos Unidos, 1974).

1905 - [O.S. Jul. 19] Ivanovo Soviet [Иваново-Вознесенский Депутатов] / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Faced with further repression, the Ivanovo-Voznesensky Citywide Council of Workers' Deputies (Иваново-Вознесенский Общегородской Совет Рабочих Депутатов) hold its final meeting at which the deputies decide to resume work. Hunger has indeed forced the workers to be satisfied with only partial concessions and return to work.

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 19] Sveaborg Rebellion [Свеаборг Восстание]: During the morning, the Helsingfors Red Guards reinforced the rebels, who resumed the bombardment of the islands occupied by loyalist troops. That evening the Revel (Ревеля) squadron, which included the battleships Tsarevich (Цесаревич) and Glory (Слава) and the cruiser Hercules (Богатырь), arrived off Sveaborg and, having given the agreed signal (four shots) that they were on the rebels' side, the insurregents' spirits lifted. However, their new found optimism was ill-founded as the fleet command had already ordered the arrest of the revolutionary sailors, replacing them with the Cadets Marine Corps; the signal was false and the ships did not join the uprising. Instead, at 18:00, the ships with longer-range large-calibre guns began shelling the fortress from beyond the range of the rebels' guns. At the same time, government troops that had been moved in from St. Petersburg and elsewhere began an attack from Helsingfors and Lagernyi Island.
Facing overwhelming odds, the following day the rebels' military council decided that the chances of success for the uprisng were zero and decided to give up their struggle. The fort again raised the government's flag and 900 soldiers and 100 civilians, including 79 Finnish Red Guards, who had participated in the uprising were arrested. At least 600 others were killed during the uprising or simply disappeared, including Johan Kock, head of the Red Guard, and the Bolshevik Captain Sergey Tsion (Сергея Циона), a senior member of the rebel's military council, smuggled out of the city by supporters of the uprising.
The soldiers and sailors subsequently faced courts-martial, with 28 of their number found to have been leaders of the uprising being sentenced to death. 967 others were convicted by a military court to a variety of prison terms or sent to serve terms in disciplinary battalions. The Red Guards were tried separately in the Finnish civil courts, who sentenced 81 people to prison terms of 4-8 years. More about 600 were killed or disappeared.
On August 24 [11], 1906, the leaders of the uprising, including Arkady Emelyanov (Аркадий Емельянов) and Eugene Kochanski (Евгений Коханский), were amongst 43 soldiers and sailors [including those from the Pamiat Azova (Память Азова) mutiny] shot in the Kronstadt fortress.

[DD] 1906 - [O.S. Jul. 19] Pamiat Azova Mutiny [Память Азова мятеж]: A mutiny briefly breaks out on the cruiser Pamiat Azova (Память Азова) in the Bay of Papon (Папон), 60km off Revel (Ревеля). The RSDLP (b) had already planned for a general uprising in the Baltic Fleet to take place on August 10 (July 29), 1906, however events in the Sveaborg (Свеаборг) garrison and 20th Naval Depot, located on the island of Skatudden (Скатуден), led to the uprising beginning prematurely during the night of July 17-18th. In order to take control of the situation, the RSDLP Committee in Revel had dispatched representatives to Sveaborg and to the artillery training detachment of the Baltic Fleet, which consisted of the the cruisers Pamiat Azova, Voivod (Воевода), Abrek (Абрек), the training ship Riga (Рига), and 6 destroyers.
The RSDLP's representative Arseny Koptyukh (Арсений Коптюх) aka 'Oscar' (Оскар) arrived on board the Pamiat Azova in secret to communicate the Committee's decision that the ships of the artillery training detachment should support the Sveaborg Rebellion (Свеаборг Восстание). However, during the night guards discovered Koptyukh and arrested him. Members of the Pamiat Azova crew decided to take action on their own initiative, turning off the ship's dynamo and seizing rifles from the armoury.

1907 - Angelo Pellegrino Sbardellotto (d. 1932), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, born. Exiled in France following the rise of Fascism in Italy, he is arrested on June 4, 1932, having planned to assassinate Mussolini. He is summarily tried and executed by a fascist firing squad on June 17.

1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: With employers promising that Barcelona workers would receive a full weeks salary, if they returned to work as if nothing had happened, most did. In many other Catalan towns, full normality did not return until Thursday August 5.
In Barcelona the casualty list for the week's upheavals was 75 dead workers, most killed by police and government installed snipers on rooftops or in battle defending the barricades (some sources put the figure at more than 104). Three soldiers also dies. More than 500 workers were injured, some of whom went on to die subsequently, conscious of the fact that if they went to the authorities for healthcare would end up in prison. Also, one hundred and fifteen buildings (of these, 80 were religious buildings) were destroyed through arson.
[àgicaágica_(España) tragica.html]

1909 - A general strike called across Spain by the PSOE in protest against Prime Minister Antonio Maura's call-up of the reservists to fight in the Second Rif War, passes off almost unnoticed following the pre-emptive arrest of the party's leadership in Madrid on July 28.

1910 - Gerda Taro (Gerta Pohorylle; d. 1937), German photographer and anti-fascist, is born into a Jewish Polish family in Stuttgart. In 1929, the family moved to Leipzig and Pohorylle joined a young communist organisation and distributing anti-Nazi leaflets and fly-posting anti-Nazi propaganda under cover of darkness. She was arrested by the Nazis on March 19, 1933, and interrogated about a supposed Bolshevik plot to overthrow Hitler. Eventually, the entire Pohorylle household was forced to leave Nazi Germany toward different destinations, Gerta moving to Paris never to see her family again. In 1935, she met the photojournalist Endre Friedmann, a Hungarian Jew, becoming his personal assistant and learning photography, and they fell in love. Pohorylle began to work for Alliance Photo as a picture editor. However, she and Friedmann were unable to find any photography work and they came up with curious idea. They invented a character called Robert Capa, who was supposedly a reputed photographer having arrived from the United States to work in Europe. As he was so famous, he would only sell his photos through his representatives: Friedman and Pohorylle, and ar three times the price of those of a French photographer. This trick worked perfectly and soon they received lots of orders and finally began to make money.
1936 and the beginning of the Civil War in Spain would prove decisive for both of them. The pair went to Spain to cover the conflict, putting themselves on the front lines and taking enormous risks to capture images of the conflict. They took photographs side by side (often in the company of fellow photographer David 'Chim' Seymour), but always sold them under the pseudonym Robert Capa. For many years, it was not known which photos were taken by Robert and which ones by Gerda, but photographic historians eventually managed to differentiate between their early war photographs because they used distinctly different types of camera (Taro a Rollei camera, which gave square photographs, while Capa produced rectangular pictures with a Leica - she quickly abandoned the bulky Rollei for her own Leica). Also, as they both began to gain names for themselves and their work, they sometimes published their work jointly under the byline of Capa/Taro as well as visiting the front lines on their won. Taro, who was petite and attractive, and almost recklessly brave, quickly gained the nickname of 'la pequeña rubia' (the little blonde) amongst the Republican soldiers.
Though both were obviously socialists, Taro's commitment to Spain was always a more directly political i.e. anti-Fascist one than Capa's; and despite their continued close working relationship, she eventually refused his marriage proposal. In March 1937 launched her own 'photo taro' label for the work she carried out outside of their professional relationship, and she covered the Battle of Guadalajara (March 8–23), a Loyalist victory over Mussolini’s troops, producing the first major reportage to be published as photo taro (in 'Regards', April 8, 1937). On July 25, whilst covering the Battle of Brunette, Taro found herself trapped in a foxhole with her Canadian friend and lover Ted Allan. She continued photographing throughout the fighting and, as the Republican troops pulled out of the area, she and Allan jumped out of the foxhole and onto the running board of a car. In the chaos, an out-of-control Republican tank accidentally rammed the car, badly injuring Taro. She died the following morning at the age of 26. According to the nurse on duty at a field hospital of the 35th Division at El Escorial - the first female photographer to be killed while reporting on war. Taro's last words were: "Did they take care of my camera?"
More than 10,000 people, including an inconsolable Robert Capa, attended her funeral in the Père-Lachaise cemetery in Paris on August 1, 1937.

1912 - Vincent Ruiz Gutiérrez (d. 1998), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who participated in the Spanish Civil War, born [expand].

1913 - Paterson Silk Strike: The strike ends officially and the Paterson children who were sent to New York City on May 1 return home. [see: Jan. 27 & Feb. 24]

1916 - Revolución Mexicana: Venustiano Carranza calls out troops to break up strike in México City.

[F] 1917 - Frank H. Little (b. 1879), US labour leader, IWW organiser and executive board member, and anti-war protester, is taken forcibly from his boarding house in Butte, Montana, and lynched – his body left dangling from a railway trestle with a sign around his neck as a warning to potential victims.
In the summer of 1917, Frank had been helping to organise copper workers in a strike against the Anaconda Copper Company, but it was most likely his stand against WWI that so infuriated his assassins. He argued that all working men should refuse to join the army and fight on behalf of their capitalist oppressors. As he said in the last speech before his death, "I stand for the solidarity of labour." Frank understood that his stand against the war might get him killed, but even this prospect did not deter him. He was a true revolutionary.
Not much is known about the early life of Frank Little. He was born in 1879 and before joining the IWW in 1906 had been an organiser for the Western Federation of Miners. Disabled, with a heavy limp and blind in one eye from an industrial accident, he was active in the 1913 free speech campaigns in Missoula, Fresno, Spokane, Peoria, and elsewhere. Frank was also active in organising lumberjacks, mineworkers and oilfield workers into the union. By 1916, Frank was a member of the Industrial Workers of the World General Executive Board. He was also a strong opponent of the War, a minority position within the IWW, but Little refused to back down on this issue and argued that: "...the IWW is opposed to all wars, and we must use all our power to prevent the workers from joining the army."
In June, 1917 a major accident killed over 168 Butte miners and sparked a spontaneous walk-out. The strike was crippling copper production just as America was entering the First World War, and tensions between strikers and the Anaconda Copper Mining Company – whose domination over Butte and, indeed, the entire state of Montana has been described by one historian as "the ultimate example of economic colonialism in the American West" – were at a breaking point. When Little arrived the strike was already a month old. Hobbling on crutches, the result of a beating at the hands of union-busters a few weeks earlier, he proceeded to make a series of inflammatory speeches designed to emboldened the strikers and shake the company's resolve. In one of those speeches he had also said that soldiers serving in Europe were "Uncle Sam's scabs in uniform." Something that was sure to get a few 'patriots'' backs up.
In the early hours of August 1, six masked men broke into Nora Bryan's boardinghouse where Little was staying. The men initially kicked in the wrong door in the boardinghouse, and when confronted by Bryan claimed to be law officers. Terrified, she directed them to room 32. They kicked in the door. Little was beaten in his room and abducted while still in his underwear, giving him no time to dress or grab his crutches. He was bundled into a car which sped away. Little was later tied to the car's rear bumper and dragged over the granite blocks of the street. Photographs of his body clearly show that his knee-caps had been scraped off. Little was taken to Milwaukee Bridge at the edge of town where was then hanged from the railroad trestle. The coroner found that Little died of asphyxiation. It was also found that his skull had been fractured by a blow to the back of the head caused by a rifle butt. "Cause of death: strangulation by hanging", said the coroner’s report.
A note with the words "First and last warning" was pinned to his thigh. The note also included the numbers 3-7-77 (a sign of Vigilantes active in the 19th century in Virginia City, Montana, some people thought referred to grave measurements), and the initials of other union leaders, suggesting they were next to be killed.
No serious attempt was made by the police to catch Little's murderers but various culprits have been identified, including Billy Oates, a notorious hired thug employed by Anaconda, and Peter Prlja, a motorcycle officer in the Butte police department and like Oates had worked as a security-guard for Anaconda.

1919 - The Police Act of 1919, which bars police from belonging to a trade union or affiliating with any other trade union body, whilst establishing the Police Federation of England and Wales as the sole representative body for the police, passes into law with only token opposition from a minority of Labour MPs in Parliament. This Act, drafted and passed into law in response to the formation of the National Union of Police and Prison Officers and the police strikes in 1918 (starting on August 30) and another strike in July 1919 (starting on July 31) led to the suppression of the union by the government.

[FF] 1919 - Liverpool Police Strike: In Liverpool, the National Union of Police and Prison Officers strike is much better observed that in London. Of the 1,874 members of the Liverpool City Police, 954 went on strike. The Bootle police union claimed that 69 out of 70 officers had joined the strike (approximately 40% of those who joined the strike were ex-service men). The grievances of police in Liverpool were for many years ignored by a local Watch Committee noted for its disciplinarian attitude, which helped foster the propensity for collective action. The poor conditions in the Liverpool Police were well-known amongst other forces in England.
On the day the strike started in Liverpool, strikers formed into ranks and decided to march on police stations around the city in an attempt to persuade those not on strike to join them. Police strikers found themselves confronting fellow officers that had not joined the strike, some of whom were union members. With the strength of the Liverpool Police cut by a half, the opportunity for widespread looting was seized by hundreds of the impoverished slum-dwellers, resulting in what the 'Liverpool Daily Post' called "an orgy of looting and rioting". A second newspaper claimed: "central Liverpool ... represents a war zone", while another account described it as "rather reminiscent of early occupation days in some of the Cologne districts".
The first mass attempt at looting in Liverpool was on the night of Friday 1st, when a crowd of men, women and kids smashed their way into Sandon Dock, battering down the gates. There were just 11 cops hidden inside, but armed with staves and given the order to beat the shit out of the 'mob'. Most of these had been hastily recruited demobbed soldiers who’d been brutalised by the trenches of the war and far from having qualms about cracking skulls and breaking limbs, were enthusiastically into it. In the minds of ruling class ideology, the justification for the use of the brute force of the cops, this 'mob' were "Dock rats reeling like ships in a storm from the drunken spite within them, and brandishing a weaponry of axes, sticks and crowbars…a pack of wild women, hair streaming over shawled shoulders, ready to back them with their talons, grasping bricks and broken bottles…rodents, bloody rodents every one of them" [A.V.Sellwood - 'Police Strike, 1919' (1978)].
Another group of rioters broke into O'Brien's beer bottling store in Vauxhall Road and looted it. They continued to a bonded store in Love Lane and started to loot whisky. Two lorry loads of men from 3 Sherwood Foresters arrived to deal with the situation. During the course of a mass attempt to free prisoners taken by the troops, one of the looters Cuthbert Thomas Howlett was shot by a L/Cpl Seymour. Howlett died 12 hours later in hospital and Seymour was fo8und not guilty at trial, having pleaded justifiable homicide. Elsewhere, under cover of darkness windows were smashed and premises looted in the Scotland Road, Byrom Street and Great Homer Street. Police Officers from Hatton Garden and Rose Hill were quickly on the scene, though whilst they were at one location elsewhere similar events were taking place. Clothes and shoe shops were the obvious targets but the areas also had jewellers and of course pawn brokers that also fell victim to looters. First light on Saturday morning saw the extent of the mob's work the previous night; glass littered the street and the odd shoe and discard clothing a reflection of the night's events.
This continued for three or four days before the military, aided by non-striking police, brought the situation under control as Liverpool was put under effective military occupation as tanks patrolled the streets and three thousand soldiers seized key public buildings and brutally restored order. Many were injured by baton-charges, one looter [see above] was shot dead and more than 200 people were arrested for looting. Demonstrating the extent of Government fears, a battleship and two destroyers were sent to Liverpool. Public declarations by trade unionists that looting simply played into the hands of the State fell on deaf ears, underlining the lack of influence wielded by organised labour over the city’s lumpen elements. As in London, all striking policemen were dismissed and replaced within days. As local branches throughout the country dissolved themselves within days of the strike, and the Police Bill was passed by Parliament despite the half-hearted opposition of the Labour Party, it was evident that the Union was utterly defeated. The final outcome of the strike was that every man who had gone on strike throughout the country was dismissed from his respective force. Not one striker was reinstated anywhere and all lost their pension entitlements.

1919 - Alexander Metodiev Nakov (d. unknown), Bulgarian militant anarchist and Esperantist, born.

1921 - William Sidney 'Sid' Hatfield (b. 1891*), a staunch supporter of the United Mine Workers of America and the Police Chief of Matewan, West Virginia during the Battle of Matewan, is assassinated along side his deputy Ed Chambers by Baldwin-Felts detectives on the steps of the McDowell County courthouse located in Welch, West Virginia.
[* some sources give the year as 1893]

1925 - The first issue of the Italian-language monthly anarchist magazine 'Culmine' (Summit) is published in Buenos Aires by Severino Di Giovanni.

1927 - André Veidaux (anagrammatic pseudonym of Jean-Baptiste Adrien Devaux; b. 1868), French Symbolist writer, poet, critic and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Jun. 7]

1933 - Revolución del 33 / Cuban General Strike: During a strike of bus and truck drivers, soldiers fire on demonstrators in Havana on August 1, killing two. In Santa Clara the same day, shops and theatres were closed.

1936 - José Sánchez Rosa (b. 1864), Spanish autodidact, teacher, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, is assassinated by Francoist forces. A few days after the fascist uprising of 18 July 1936 he is arrested. A squad of Requetés loaded a truck with his books, pamphlets and all his documents, placing the old Anarchist teacher, who had taken to his sickbed suffering from diabetes, on a mattress on top of his confiscated library. On the morning of August 1, 1936, he is placed up against a wall in the cemetery of Seville and shot. His body is then thrown into the mass grave.

1941 - Carlo Abate (b. 1859), Italian-American anarchist sculptor and teacher, who was the printer and engraver for the militant Italian language journal 'Cronaca Sovversiva', dies. [see: Oct. 20]

1941 - Étienne Roda-Gil (Esteve Roda Gil; d. 2004), French-born poet, songwriter, screenwriter, libertarian and anarcho-syndicalist, born. The son of militant libertarian Spanish exiles, he was born in the Montauban (Tarn-et-Garonne) refugee camp [his father was interned at nearby Camp de Septfonds prisoner camp]. During the Algerian war he refused to join the French army even though, as a stateless alien, he would obtain a French passport. Instead he fled to London, participating in Spanish libertarian circles and Committee of 100 activities. He also discovered rock 'n' roll. Back in France he was active in the FIJL and CNT. [expand]

1943 - Będzin Ghetto Uprising: Members of the Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Combat Organisation) led by Frumka Płotnicka stage an uprising [August 1-3] against attempts to deport 8,000 Jews to Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp.

[C] 1943 - During the final liquidation of the ghetto at Sosnowiec, Poland, the underground resistance units organised under the leadership of Hashomer Hatzair activist Zvi Dunski, began a spirited resistance with a couple of hundred, Jews including Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Fighting Organisation) members, holed up in improvised bunkers holding off almost 800 German soldiers and policemen until around August 8th. Dunski had previously organised the various Jewish youth movements to teach the ghetto's children when the schools were closed and they had also conducted a campaign urging their fellow Jews not to report for the deportations, before arming themselves and building their bunkers to fight against the inevitable liquidation of the ghetto.

1943 - Lydia Vladimirovna Litvyak (Лидия Владимировна Литвяк; b. 1921), pioneer WWII Soviet Air Force pilot and fighter ace, who was the first female fighter pilot to shoot down an enemy plane and remains the holder of the record for the greatest number of kills by a female fighter pilot, is shot down and killed as she attasks a large group of German bombers, her fourth sortie of the day. Litvyak was 21 years old. [see: Aug. 18]

1944 - Jean Prévost (b. 1901), French writer, journalist, and Résistance fighter under the nom de guerre Captaine Goderville, is killed in a German ambush at the Pont Charvin, in Sassenage, whilst fighting with the Maquis du Vercors. [see: Jun. 13]

[D] 1944 - Warsaw Uprising: As part of the countrywide Operation Burza (Tempest), the Polish Armia Krajowa (AK) begins the Powstanie Warszawskie to liberate Warsaw from the Nazis. It would end with the capitualtion of Polish forces to the Wehrmacht on October 2 and the entire civilian population of Warsaw being expelled from the city and sent to the Durchgangslager 121 transit camp.
[ Article.htm]

1944 - Warsaw Uprising: The 104 Kompania Związku Syndykalistów Polskich (Company 104 of the Union of Polish Syndicalists) is formed in Warsaw district of Old Town on August 1, 1944, on the first day of the Uprising, as part of Company Róg (Horn) of the Northern Group (Grupa 'Północ') of the Armia Krajowa (AK; Home Army). It fought throughout the Uprising and amongst the last armed group left defending the barricades from the advancing Nazis - many argue that the AK deliberately exposed the fighters to almost certain capture or death after they had withdrawn from the Old Town. However, the last 70-80 fighters managed to withdraw from the area in late August, escaping through the sewage canals to the Warszawa-Śródmieście .

1947 - Following the killing of two British army sergeants by Irgun paramilitaries in the Palestine Mandate, [see: Jul. 31] and the sensationalised newspaper headlines, a wave of anti-Jewish rioting breaks out across the UK on the Bank Holiday weekend, this despite widespread condemnation by the British Jewish community. The attacks would continue until at least the Tuesday (5th).
As a direct consequence of the events in Palestine, the fascist movement gained new members and a fresh impetus.

1977 - The August 13 Ad Hoc Organising Committee issues statement calling for a 'They Shall Not Pass' rally to assemble at Clifton Rise in New Cross at 12 on the day of the NF demonstration (the NF were planning to assemble at Clifton Rise at 14:00). The statement also 'welcomed the decision of the ALCARAF to route their march to reach New Cross by 13:00.

1986 - Jeanne Humbert (Henriette Jeanne Rigaudin; b. 1890), French writer, journalist, pacifist and anarchist militant, who belonged to the néo-Malthusien movement, fighting for sexual freedom and for contraception and abortion rights, dies. She was sent to prison alongside her companion Eugène Humbert for spreading neo-Malthusian propaganda in 1921. [see: Jan. 24]

1995 - Squatters take over the derelict West pier in Brighton.

[A] 2003 - The Earth Liberation Front burn down a 206-unit condominium being built in San Diego, California causing damage in excess of $50 million.
1848 - Amy Post, Sarah D. Fish, Sarah C. Owen, and Mary H. Hallowell convene a women's rights convention in Rochester, New York. Abigail Bush chairs the public meeting, a first for American women. [2nd US women's rights convention 2 weeks after the Seneca Falls Convention]

1861 - Fernando Tarrida del Mármol (d. 1915), Cuban-born Spanish anarchist theorist, writer, free-thinker, engineer, teacher and director of the Escuela Politecnica of Barcelona, born.

1888 - [N.S. Aug. 14] Xenia Alexandrovna Myshetskaya 'Roach' (Ксения Александровна Мышецкая 'Вобла'; d. 1957), Russian revolutionary, who was active in the movement from 1904 onwards, born.

1893 - Régis Messac (d. 1945), French teacher, union organiser, Résistance member, writer, novelist, poet, pacifist and anarchist, born. Like his parents, he was a teacher but suffers a serious brain injury during WWI. Demobilised in 1919 and disgusted with the war, he wrote 2 autobiographical novels: 'Le Voyage de Néania, à travers la guerre et la paix' (1926) and 'Ordre de Transport' (unpub.); a play, 'Phobie du Bleu' (unpub.); a pamphlet, 'Le Pourboire du Sang' (1936), and a small book of poems: 'Poèmes Guerriers' (1926).
Having learnt English from British troops at the end of the war, he went on to work and teach in various universities in England and in Canada. He returned to France in 1929, teaching at a college in Montpellier and obtained his doctorate in arts with a thesis 'Le Detective Novel et l'Influence de la Pensée Scientifique' (1929).
An anarcho-syndicalist and pacifist, he called into question the standard pedagogy and dogmas of official teaching, and as an active militant, became, in 1936, secretary of the Fédération Générale de l'Enseignement (General Federation of Teachers).
As a writer and poet, Messac published two science fiction novels 'Quinzinzinsili' (1935) and 'La Cité des Asphyxiés' (1937), as well pieces for various reviews, on libertarian and proletarian literature. In all, his work includes 30 books, one of which is a posthumous novel 'Valcrétin', a sort of sci-fi anti-colonial satire written in 1943, which was published in 1973.
During the German occupation in WWII, Messac was a member of the Résistance, organising escape routes for those fleeing compulsory labour conscription, and wrote an anti-Vichy tract 'Pot-pourri Fantôme', a chronicle of the war and occupation between 1939 and 1942. Arrested on May 10 1943 during the German occupation and sent to the Nazi concentration camps, he is believed to have dies some time during 1945 in Gross-Rosen or Dora.
Many of his books are currently being reprinted by the French publisher Ex nihilo.

1894 - The Italian anarchist Jeronimo Santo Caserio goes on trial for the assassination of French President Sadi Carnot, in revenge for the death of Auguste Valliant.

1897 - Philippe Soupault (d. 1990), French writer, poet, novelist, playwright, critic and political activist, born. Active in Dadaism and later co-founder of the Surrealist movement with his friend André Breton. Soupault, Breton and Louis Aragon initiated the periodical 'Littérature' in Paris in 1919, which, for many, marks the beginnings of Surrealism. He and Breton also co-authored the first book of automatic writing, 'Les Champs Magnétiques' (Magnetic Fields; 1920), a Surrealist classic avant la lettre. Along with Robert Denos and Antonin Artaud, Soupault refused to be part of the Breton-instigated en mass movement of the surrealists into the Communist Party and was expelled from the group in 1926. According to Breton the reason for his exclusion was "he was too literary", having authored the none too surreal novels 'Le Bon Apôtre' (The Good Apostle; 1923), 'Les Frères Durandeau' (The Brothers Durandeau; 1924), 'Georgia' (1926) and 'Le Nègre' (The Negro; 1927).
He helped launch a new Front Populaire anti-fascist station Radio Tunis, which he directed from 1937 to 1940. Jailed for 6 months by the Nazis, he managed to escape via Algeria to America.

1900 - On the Avenue Malakoff in Paris, anarchist François Salsou tries unsuccessfully to kill Muzaffar al-Din, the Shah of Persia, during an official visit to France. Jumping on the Shah's open coach, he points his pistol at the chest of the Shah but the weapon is defective and fails to fire. Disarmed by the crowd, he narrowly escapes being lynched.

[C] 1900 - Ilya Grigoryevich Starinov (Илья Григорьевич Старинов; d. 2000), Soviet military officer, who served with the Republican forces during the Spanish Civil War and was one of the leaders of the Soviet partisan movement during the WWII, born. Starinov trained Republican forces in sabotage and guerrilla tactics, and during the 'Great Patriotic War' he was in chage of the preparation of obstacles, the mining railroads, highways, and other vital facilities in advance of the German invasion forces. He later trained and organised partisan forces in places such as the Ukraine, Poland and Yougoslavia. He is known as the "grandfather of the Russian spetsnaz".

[E] 1901 - [O.S. Jul. 20] Ida Mett [Ида Метт] (Ida Meyerovna Gilman [Ида Мееровна Гилман]; d. 1973) Belarusian-born anarchist, syndicalist and author, born. Member of the Dielo Truda (Дело Труда / Workers' Cause) group from 1925 to 1928. Author of 'The Kronstadt Uprising' (1921) and 'The Russian Peasant in the Revolution and Post Revolution' (1968) amongst others. [expand]

1901 - Ángel Borda (d. 1980), Argentinian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, trades union organiser, popular library founder, autodidact, sculptor, story and song (chamarritas and coplas) writer, born.

[A/D] 1903 - [O.S. Jul. 20] Ilinden Uprising [Илинденско въстание]: An uprising, in planning since May, begins across large parts of the areas around Bitola, in the south-west of what is now the Republic of Macedonia and some of the north of Greece. The day chosen for the uprising was August 2 (July 20 in the old Julian calendar), the feast day of St. Elias (Elijah). This holy day was known as Ilinden.
During the night of August 2 and early morning of August 3, the town of Kruševo is attacked and captured by 800 Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) rebels.

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 20] Sveaborg Rebellion [Свеаборг Восстание]: The military council of the rebels decide to end their hopeless struggle. The fort again raises the government's flag. 900 soldiers and 100 civilians (including 79 Finnish Red Guards) who participated in the uprising are arrested and the soldiers and sailors court-martialed. More about 600 were killed or disappeared.

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 20] Pamiat Azova Mutiny [Память Азова мятеж]: Following the arrest of the Bolshevik's representative Arseny Koptyukh (Арсений Коптюх) aka 'Oscar' (Оскар) yesterday night, the mutineers had turned off the ship's dynamo and seized rifles from the armoury. Then, at 03:00, the first shots in the mutiny were fired, killing the officer of the watch, and seriously wounding a senior officer, ship's Captain Second Class George Mazur (Георгий Мазуров). Those officers who resisted were driven to the stern of the ship. from which they escaped on a barge. The remaining five officers were arrested. Having gained control of the ship, was released and seized the cruiser and a sailors’ committee, which included Koptyukh together with artillery quartermaster Nefed Lobadin (Нефед Лобадин) and 10 other sailors, were elected to lead the insurgency. After discussing the situation, the ship's committee decided to try to raise a rebellion on other ships in the group, and then move to Revel in order to get the support of the workers of the city and restock on food and coal.
At first light the cruiser raised a red flag, weighed anchor, and stood at the entrance of the bay in order to prevent any other ships putting sea if they did not want to join the rebellion. Preparing for battle, the cruiser signalled the other ships to follow its lead. However, the uprising failed; the cruisers Voivod and Abrek were run aground and the destroyer Obedient (Послушный) was scuttled in shallow waters. An attempted revolt by the crew of the Riga also failed. The Pamiat Azova alone put to sea. The failure to persuade other ships to join them had a depressing effect upon many of the mutineers, especially on many of the gunners who had reluctantly joined in with the rebellion, and some of the non-commissioned officers began to plot with their imprisoned superiors to retake the ship.
At 17:00, the Pamiat Azova arrived at the anchorage off Revel, where the Tsarist 146th Regiment, Cossacks and the city's police awaited them. Unable to enter the port or, with any workers and sailors attempting to reach them also being immediately arrested, the sailor's committee decided to threaten the city's government that they would begin shelling them unless food and coal was delivered to the cruiser. At the same time an armed group of non-commissioned officers and gunners, most of the students, released the imprisoned officers. A firefight between them and the mutineers broke out, during which more than 20 sailors were killed and 50 wounded, including Lobadin. The officers also managed to send a Mayday message to the port commander, who immediately dispatched two companies of infantry and a detachment of gendarmes to the Pamiat Azova. The mutiny was brutally suppressed and 307 people were arrested, amongst them Koptyukh. After a preliminary investigation, 169 of the sailors who were deemed to to have taken an active part in the mutiny were sent back to Kronstadt. 95 of the mutineers were held in Revel awaiting trail.

1913 - A warrant is issued for the arrest of Kitty Marion for failing to return to Birmingham Prison following her release under the 'Cat and Mouse' Act.

1917 - SMS Prinzregent Luitpold Mutiny: Following the Battle of Jutland, the capital ships of the Imperial Navy had been confined to inactive service in harbour. Many officers and crewmen had volunteered to transfer to the submarines and light vessels which still had a major part to play in the war. The discipline and spirit of those who remained, on lower rations, with the battleships tied up at dock-side inevitably suffered.
One of these was the dreadnought SMS Prinzregent Luitpold, whose stokers had previously protested the low quality of the food they were given on June 6 and July 19, 1917, the latter was on its way from Kiel to Wilhelmshaven in the middle of the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal, blocking it.
Subsequently, on July 24, representatives of the crew gathered to plan a peaceful demonstration, together with shipyard workers. At a shop stewards meeting held on July 27, a plan of action was finalised and a coordinating group of 4 stokers, Albin Köbis, Max Reichpietsch, Hans Beckers and Willy Sachse, and seaman Wilhelm Weber, formed.
On August 2, some 800 men on board SMS Prinzregent Luitpold and its sister ship, the Friedrich der Große, staged a hunger strike and protest demonstration in Wilhelmshaven. The ship's officers relented and agreed to form a Menagekommission, a council that gave the enlisted men a voice in their ration selection and preparation. However, the coordinating committee were among 200 men arrested following the protest, and a military court on August 25 sentenced Albin Köbis, Max Reichpietsch, Hans Beckers and Wilhelm Weber to death as the 'ringleaders of the protests', and fined Willy Sachse. Weber and Becker's death sentences were later commuted into prison sentences of 15 years and Reichpietsch and Köbis were executed by firing squad on September 5, 1917 at the Wahr firing range training grounds near Cologne. Sentences on others involved amounted to 360 years imprisonment.
During the remaining months of the war secret sailors' councils were formed on a number of the capital ships, some of which were involved in the Wilhelmshaven and Kiel mutinies the following year.
[ße_(1911)öbisöbis-1892-1917 mutiny]

1917 - Australian General Strike / 'The Great Strike': Railway and tramway employees in Sydney, Australia, go on strike to protest the introduction of a card system to record what each employee was doing and how fast the job was completed. Workers were not allowed to view or modify the cards. The strike spread from the railways to other industries until about 100,000 workers were on strike, mostly in NSW and Victoria.
With the exception of the railways, which were officially called out on 6 August, the strikes all began with rank and file walkouts and were only afterwards made official. Even on the railways, significant sections had walked out before August 6. The strike then spread to the coal mines in NSW, the waterfront and the seamen. Groups of workers would continue to join the strike right up until September on the principle of refusing to work with a delivery of coal or of goods from the waterfront. When the Melbourne waterfront joined the strike on August 11 a similar spread occurred throughout Melbourne. Other significant additions to the ranks of strikers were the Broken Hill mines, the Wonthaggi coal mine in Victoria, sugar refineries, timber workers, meat workers and gas workers in Sydney. When waterside workers in Port Pirie refused to unload a delivery of NSW coal, this threatened the operation of the refinery which provided the majority of the lead used for munitions on the Western Front. The Prime Minister, W.M. Hughes, declared Port Pirie a military zone to ensure its continued operation.
The strike was accompanied by scenes of mass protest. There were daily demonstrations in Sydney and Melbourne. At one point Adela Pankhurst led a crowd of 20,000 to confront the police outside federal parliament in Melbourne. In Sydney, the daily rallies peaked every Sunday with crowds of up to 150,000.
On September 9, 1917 the Defence Committee, an ad hoc committee of trade union officials based in the NSW Trades and Labour Council,declared the strike over on terms which amounted to a complete capitulation. The decision was denounced as a sellout in a series of furious mass meetings and, when it was clear that hundreds would be victimised, many groups of railway workers resumed strike action. But without official support, the strikers drifted back to work and, after two weeks, the railway strike had ended. The miners and waterside workers, the two groups most affected by strikebreakers remained on strike till November, in a vain attempt to remove the scabs. In the case of the Melbourne waterfront, the strike continued until December.

[F] 1918 - Vancouver General Strike: The first general strike in Canadian history, is held in protest at the killing of draft evader and labour activist Albert 'Ginger' Goodwin, who himself had called for a general strike in the event that any worker was drafted to fight in WWI against their will. The strike was overwhelmingly supported by organised workers in Vancouver, with 5600 workers striking and only two small unions opposed. In opposition to the strike, around 300 returned soldiers were given vehicles by the state, and sent to attack the Labour Temple on Dunsmuir Street in Vancouver. After storming the building, the soldiers attempted to throw Vancouver Trades and Labour Council secretary Victor Midgley out of the window. Despite the opposition the workers remained unphased; all of the strike leaders resigned their positions after the strike, and in a show of support, nearly all were re-elected. The strike took place in the context of an upsurge in labour radicalism in Western Canada, that culminated in the Winnipeg General Strike in 1919. It also tapped into the anti-war sentiment increasingly felt by Canadian workers as WWI dragged on; newly drafted soldiers would mutiny in Victoria in December of 1918, in solidarity with the revolutionary government in Russia.

[FF] 1919 - Liverpool Police Strike: On the Saturday morning an uneasy peace extended over the city. Caught by surprsie the previous day, senior officers now deployed a strategy that the policing experiences gained during the 1911 Liverpool general transport strike. Officers were driven in lorries to disturbances. Immediately they arrived at a scene of disorder they quickly organised themselves into a baton charge and ran at the rioters, who in turn ran into alleyways were other policemen would often greet them. This tactic had a good success rate, though injuries to the rioters were high. Meanwhile, the Mayor of Liverpool had enlisted 700 troops from the local garrison to guard the key points of the town – docks, railways, power plant, post offices and banks, but he was wary of exacerbating things by giving them any right to fire, and with the cops that remained loyal to the state (under half of the total), he was clear that the rules of property in the city as a whole couldn’t be upheld.
On Saturday night, when the cops turned up at a large department store – Sturla’s in Great Homer Street – they found the store totally stripped of everything that couldn’t be nailed down, and the rest – light fittings, show cases and dummies – had been trashed; even the window frames and the store’s carpeting had been nicked. The cops had expected a battle between the different religious factions of the Irish, of which Great Homer Street was the dividing line – but it appeared that proletarian unity had won over. In nearby Birkenhead, a pawnshop was stripped of its contents, and passers-by were encouraged to join in to share the good fortune of the looters. 3 more local shops were looted that night. Most of the Birkenhead looters received 2 to 3 months in prison (compare that with the almost 18th century-style draconian sentences handed out to the August 2011 rioters). In Scotland Road in Liverpool itself, a jewellers was broken into by a gang and then everyone else was invited to join in: the shop was empty within minutes, followed by the tobacconist’s, the tailor’s and a furniture store. "The women went for the clothes shops, the men for the pubs and whisky stores. The children went for the sweetshops", said an eyewitness. A distillery was broken into and the booze shared out. "Some men with iron bars were smashing shop windows and doors without even bothering to enter the premises, content to wage destruction for destruction’s sake" [A.V.Sellwood - 'Police Strike, 1919' (1978)]. The scab cops batoned left, right and centre. "Hooligans…looking for a fight…ripped cobblestones from the alleys to bombard the police as they re-formed. On three occasions [a particular cop]’s helmet was knocked off, such was the force behind this hail of missiles – and each time he manoeuvred dazedly through the crush to pick it up again. He felt protected, almost naked, without his headgear: besides, he did not want the enemy to sport it as a trophy".

1922 - Jacques-Mécislas Charrier (b. 1895), French individualist anarchist and illegalist, is guillotined in Paris. He goes to his death at four o'clock in the morning singing the 'Internationale', 'Hymn to the 17th' and 'La Carmagnole'. [see: May 2]

1922 - Mina Kruseman (Wilhelmina Jacoba Paulina Rudolphina Kruseman; b. 1839), Dutch actress, singer, writer, novelist and feminist, dies. [see: Sep. 25]

[B] 1924 - James Arthur Baldwin (d. 1987), American novelist, essayist, playwright, poet and social critic, born. Associated with the 'Why?' magazine group (later renamed 'Resistance') and anarchists including John Cage, Paul Goodman and Robert Duncan. In fact, Baldwin first publicly read parts of 'Go Tell it on the Mountain' at the weekly meetings of 'Why?' magazine at the Spanish anarchist run S.I.A. hall, in NYC in the late 1940's.
"Though not an anarchist, I definitely put my fist up. I've been doing a lot of thinking lately, more reading and realizing, I should say, and it has been totally mind-blowing."

1930 - Mill Dam Riots: Since the C19th. the port of South Shields had been a home to foreign seamen and the first Arab Seaman's Boarding House had opened in August 1909 in the Holborn riverside district of the town. During WWI, foreign labour had been used to keep the Merchant Fleet running, while British seamen were drafted into the Royal Navy. But, at the end of WWI the mainly Arab foreign seamen were now seen as unwanted guests with the post-war demobilisation of white British seamen and the onset of economic depression. 1919 saw the first serious street violence and racial unrest in areas inhabited by foreign seamen, with attacks on Arab Boarding Houses and cafes. Throughout the 1920's and 1930's popular feeling in the town seems to be firmly against the Arabs.
During this period, the left wing 'Minority Movement', a group of black and white workers formed to challenge the National Union of Seamen and the Shipping Federation, who were under-representing and failing to defend the welfare of foreign workers, was formed. Throughout 1930, the Minority Movement held public meetings at the Mill Dam to campaign against a new rota system which they felt discriminated against the Arabs. Violence over the dispute erupted in North Shields on April 29, 1930 when 13 Somalis were brought over from South Shields to sign on as Firemen as part of a crew of 41 on a steamer, Cape Verde, and a large crowd of white seamen tried to stop them reaching the Union Office. The Somalis were then attacked and, despite drawing their knives, were severely beaten. Three Arabs were imprisoned and subsequently deported.
On Bank Holiday Saturday, 2 August, members of the Minority Movement were making rousing speeches to an audience of white and Somali and Yemeni seamen outside the Shipping Foundation Offices at the Mill Dam. When four white men were hired to work on the steamer, Etheralda, the crowd were incensed, causing one of them, Ali Hamid, to call out, "They work, but there is no work for the black man". At the same time, a large mob of white seamen who had been roaming the waterfront hunting for any Arabs and foreigners, arrived at the Federation Office to the shipping office and, according to one version, racial insults from a white worker called Hamilton, provoked a violent fight between the two group.
Then, the police who had turned out in force expecting violence against white workers hired to work on the steamer Etheralda, drew their truncheons and charged, only to be met by a hail of stones and shouts of abuse. Once among the crowd, the Arabs drew their knives, stabbing four Policemen. The Police waded in with their truncheons as the riot spilled over into nearby Holborn, injuring dozens of innocent bystanders. Fifteen Arabs were jailed and deported for their part in the riot including Ali Said who had spoken out about injustices but hadn't actually taken part in the riot itself.
On Monday morning at the magistrates' court, six white men and twenty-one Arabs (seven of the Arabs' heads were swathed in bandages and had obviously not received adequate medical attention) appeared before the court. The main charges were inciting to riot and rioting, with charges of wounding police officers later brought against 3 of the defendants. All were eventually sentenced to hard labour and jailed. Fifteen Arabs were deported at the end of their sentences, including Ali Said who had spoken out about injustices but hadn't actually taken part in the riot itself.

1943 - Będzin Ghetto Uprising continues. [see: Aug. 1]

[CC] 1943 - Treblinka Prisoner Uprising: Jewish inmates organized a resistance group in Treblinka in early 1943. When camp operations neared completion, the prisoners feared they would be killed and the camp dismantled. During the late spring and summer of 1943, the resistance leaders decided to revolt. On August 2, 1943, prisoners quietly seized weapons from the camp armory, but were discovered before they could take over the camp. Hundreds of prisoners stormed the main gate in an attempt to escape. Many were killed by machine-gun fire. More than 300 did escape, though two thirds of those who escaped were eventually tracked down and killed by German SS and police as well as military units. Acting under orders from Lublin, German SS and police personnel supervised the surviving prisoners, who were forced to dismantle the camp. After completion of this job, the German SS and police authorities shot the surviving prisoners.

1943 - Berek Lajcher [also remembered by Treblinka survivors by the names Dr Marius Leichert and Dr. Lecher](b. 1893), Jewish physician, former reserve officer in the Polish Army and social activist from Wyszków before the Holocaust in Poland, who was a leading member of the Organising Committee in the prisoner uprising at Treblinka extermination camp, is killed during the uprising in which some 150 Jewish prisoners escaped. [see: Oct. 24]

1972 - Paul Goodman (b. 1911), American anarchist cultural critic, poet, playwright, novelist and psychotherapist, dies. Author of 'Communitas: Means of Livelihood and Ways of Life' (1947); 'Growing Up Absurd: Problems of Youth in the Organised System' (1960); 'Don Juan: or, The Continuum of the Libido' (1979); etc. [see: Sep. 9]

1982 - Carla Lonzi (b. 1931), Italian art critic, writer and radical feminist theorist, who founded the group Rivolta Femminile and was a proponent of the feminist theories of autocoscienza (self-awareness) and filosofia della differenza (sexual difference), dies in Milan. [see: Mar. 6]

1990 - Iraq invades Kuwait.

1997 - William Seward Burroughs II (pen name William Lee; b, 1914), American novelist, short story writer, essayist, painter, satirist, one-time junkie, celebrated queer and libertarian, dies from complications of a heart attack he had suffered yesterday. [see: Feb. 5]

2007 - BNP Red, White & Blue Festival (Friday 3 - Sunday 5) attracts noise complaints even before it has officially started, as residents living nearby are kept awake on Thursday night by the site's karaoke.

2009 - Félix (Felicísimo) Álvarez Ferreras (b. 1921), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, Civil War and Résistance fighter, writer and polyglot, dies. [see: Jun. 8]

2009 - Food packages to Vestas wind turbine factory occupiers cut off by management.
1843 - Isabel Vilà i Pujo (d. 1896), Catalan nurse, syndicalist, member of the International and rationalist educator, who is considered to have been a pioneer of syndicalism in Catalonia, born.

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantona in Sanlúcar: With the troops commanded by Brigadier José Soria Santa Cruz massed outside the city, the canton collapses before any force could be used against them.
When the troops finaly entred Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Brigadier Santa Cruz appointed Mayor Joaquin Leonar Trapero, ordered the collection of all firearms, fired the radicalised Republic Volunteers and recruited new ones, returned all confiscated goods to the Church, prohibited public disorder, and arrested Antonio Cuevas and about 200 other revolutionaries, who were imprisoned or sent to Ceuta, to the shipyards of La Carraca, or to the Philippines. Most of them were eventually pardoned in 1877.

1886 - António Gonçalves Correia (d. 1967), Portuguese anarchist, humanist, vegetarian, poet and essayist, born. Founder of the Comuna da Luz.

1887 - Paul 'Ovide' Ducauroy (d. 1953), French weaver, and anarchist individualist activist and propagandist, born.

1894 - The Italian anarchist Jeronimo Santo Caserio is condemned to die by a Rhône Court of Assizes for the assassination of French President Sadi Carnot (to avenge Auguste Valliant).

1896 - A crowd of 20,000 people gather at the statue of Étienne Dolet in the Place Maubert, Paris, following the call from Parian socialist groups for people to express their anti-clericalism and atheism. This annual gathering of freethinkers will face, over the years, repeated attempts by the authorities to ban it. The Nazis would melt the statue down during the Occupation.

1903 - [O.S. Jul. 21] Ilinden Uprising [Илинденско въстание] / Kruševo Republic [Крушевска република]: The town of Kruševo is captured during the morning by 800 Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) rebels.

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 21] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: During the night of August 2-3 (O.S. Jul. 20-21), a RDSLP (b)-dominated meeting of representatives of leftist parties and organisations is held in Terioki, Finland, which decides on the immediate declaration of a general strike in support of the rebel soldiers and sailors. The appeal 'To all the people!' (Ко всему народу!), which calls upon the workers and peasants for a decisive struggle against the tsarist regime, "for the Government of the People, for the Constituent Assembly, for land and freedom", is adopted by the meeting.
Later in the day, the strike begins in St. Petersburg.

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 21] Ivan Block (Иван Львович Блок), the Governor of Samara, is blown up by bomb thrown by Socialist-Revolutionary Grigory Frolov (Григорий Фролов).

1907 - Solidaridad Obrera (Workers Solidarity) is founded in Spain; two months later the organisation begins publishing a newspaper of the same name.

[F] 1913 - Wheatland Hop Riot: Striking hop pickers near the Northern California town of Wheatland gather to hear Industrial Workers of the World organisers, among them Richard 'Blackie' Ford. Fighting broke out when sheriff’s deputies attempted to arrest Ford while he was speaking. Four people died, including the local district attorney, a deputy, and two workers. Despite a lack of evidence, Ford and another strike leader, Herman Suhr, not even present on the day, were found guilty of murder by a 12-member jury that included 8 farmers.

1916 - Adelita del Campo (nickname of Adela Carreras Taurà; d. 1999), Spanish dancer, actress, anarchist and later a communist, born.

1917 - Green Corn Rebellion: Members of the Working Class Union [an organsiation set up by the IWW-affiliated Brotherhood of Timber Workers in western Louisiana and eastern Texas to get around the Wobblies ban the membership of farmers, who they considered not to be true wageworkers] gathered at a Pontotoc County farm in Oklahoma in preparation for a march on Washington to force President Wilson to end the draft. A posse attacked the farm and three men were killed and four hundred and fifty were arrested. The day before WCU members had ambushed a Seminole County Sheriff and his deputy in Oklahoma. Within hours raiding parties cut telegraph and telephone lines, burned railroad bridges, and allegedly dynamited oil pipelines. The revolt fueled antiradical sentiment in Oklahoma and the WCU were tarred with the same brush as the IWW.
[ Green Corn rebellion 1917.pdf]

[D / FF] 1919 - Liverpool Police Strike: The third day of riots and looting during Liverpool police strike. In Everton a Magistrate read the Riot Act proclamation, from the safety of an armoured car. It ordered, in the name of the King, the citizens to disperse within one hour and gave the authorities the right to clear the street by why what ever means after the hour's grace. An hour later the Army fired a volley over the heads of rioters.

1921 - Hayden Carruth (d. 2008), American poet, literary critic, "old-line anarchist" and "rural communist with a small c", born. 'Suicides and Jazzers' (1992). [expand]

"…. My hands
are sore, they flinch when I light my pipe.
I think of those who have done slave labor,

less able and less well prepared than I.
Rose Marie in the rye fields of Saxony,
her father in the camps of Moldavia

and the Crimea, all clerks and housekeepers
herded to the gaunt fields of torture….

… And I stand up high
on the wagon tongue in my whole bones to say

woe to you, watch out
you sons of bitches who would drive men and women
to the fields where they can only die."

- 'Emergency Haying'


1922 - Jacques-Mécislas Charrier (d. 1895), French anarchiste illégaliste, is guillotined for an attempted train robbery which he didn't commit. [see: May 2]

[A] 1927 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Gov. Fuller announces he will not intervene to stop the scheduled executions.

1942 - Francesco Ghezzi (b. 1893), Italian individualist anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies in a Soviet gulag. [see: Oct. 4]

1943 - German forces bring the Będzin Ghetto Uprising to an end. [see: Aug. 1]

[E] 1943 - Frumka Płotnicka (b. 1914) Polish Jewish resistance fighter during WWII; activist of the Żydowskiej Organizacji Bojowej (Jewish Fighting Organisation), is killed defending a bunker in Podsiadły St. against the Germans during the Będzin Ghetto Uprising. She had been a member of the Zionist organisation Dror (Freedom) before the war and joined ŻOB as a courier, and was co-organiser of self-defence squads in the Warsaw Ghetto and in the Dabrowa Basin. She was also a participant in the military preparations for the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and a co-organiser with Józef and Bolesław Kożuch and Cwi (Tzvi) Brandesem of the uprisings in the Sosnowiec and Będzin Ghettos.

1949 - Paul Roussenq (b. 1885), known as the "anarchist convict" for the long prison sentences he endured following various offences against authority, dies. [see: May 5]

1953 - Anna Laura Braghetti, former member of the Brigate Rosse group in Rome, whose apartment on the Via Montalcini was used to hold Aldo Moro, born.

1954 - Colette (Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette; b. 1873), French novelist, mime, actress and journalist, dies. [see: Jan. 28]

1961 - Lawrence Jarach, U.S. anarchist essayist and vocalist and trombonist for punk/polka band, Polkacide, born. Author of the primer 'Anarchy 101: Instead of a Meeting', Jarach is a contributing editor of 'Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed', and has published in the 'Berkeley Daily Planet', 'Killing King Abacus', 'Green Anarchy' and 'L'EnDehors'.

1962 - The NSM hold their summer camp [Aug. 3-7] at Guiting Wood, Gloucestershire, despite the ban on neo-Nazis from across Europe from entering Britain to attend. Lincoln Rockwell manages to enter the country via Northern Ireland to attend. He will subsequently be deported. The police are watching events which will prompt a raid on the NSM HQ on August 10, and the arrest of Colin Jordan, John Tyndall, Denis Pirie, Roland Kerr-Ritchie and Martin Webster on the 16th. [see: Aug. 9+10+16]

[B] 1966 - Lenny Bruce (b. 1925), Jewish-American comedian, social critic, satirist, and clergy impersonator, dies from "acute morphine poisoning caused by an accidental overdose". [see: Oct. 13]
"When you can't say 'fuck', you can't say 'fuck the government.'"

[C] 1968 - António de Oliveira Salazar, Portugal's dictator of the past 36 years, suffers a fall as he is having his toenails cut for him (although another version has him falling from his bathtub). The blow to his head precipitates a brain hemorrhage. Expected to die shortly after his fall, President Thomaz replaced him, but Salazar held on for 2 more year, believing that he was still prime minister as his circle refused to tell him otherwise and he 'ruled' on in privacy until his death in July 1970.

1986 - Florence Reece (née Patton; b. 1900), American social activist, poet and folksong writer, dies. [see: Apr. 12]

1987 - Radio Libertaire, which has fought against the government's attempts to close it down since its 1981 inception, finally get approval to broadcast from the Chirac government via the Commission Nationale de la Communication Audio-visuelle (C.N.C.L.). The harassment does not stop however.

2004 - Henri Cartier-Bresson (b. 1908), French photographer considered to be the father of modern photojournalism, dies. [see: Aug. 22]
“I’m an anarchist - anarchism is an ethic, its a way of behaving.”
"L'anarchie c'est une éthique avant tout. Une éthique d'homme libre. Relisez Bakounine." (Above all anarchism is an ethic. An ethic of free men. Reread Bakunin.)

2007 - BNP Red, White & Blue Festival takes place (Friday 3rd - Sunday 5th) on 20 acres of land adjoining The Bungalow, Codnor Denby Lane, Denby Village, Ripley, Derbyshire, DE5 8PT, which is owned by a local BNP parish councillor, Alan Warner. The event's licence was granted despite unanimous local opposition. According to the BNP, 800 people attend the event.
The previous weekend, 28-29th July, a 'Summer School' for BNP councillors was held on the same site. Both event draw little ati-fascist response.

2010 - Marilyn Jean Buck (b. 1947), US Marxist revolutionary and feminist poet, who was sentence to 80 years in prison for her participation in the 1979 prison escape of Assata Shakur [Nov. 2], the 1981 Brink's robbery [Oct. 20] and the 1983 U.S. Senate bombing [Nov. 7], dies after a long battle against a rare and aggressive form of uterine cancer, just two weeks after being released on parole. [see: Dec. 13 & Jul. 15]
1765 - Claire Lacombe aka Rose Lacombe (d. unkown), French actress, revolutionary and militant feminist, who was a founding member of the Société des Républicaines Révolutionnaires (Society of Revolutionary Republican Women), born. [expand]

1772 - William Blake is apprentice to the engraver James Basire of Great Queen Street, Lincolns Inn Fields.

1789 - La Grande Peur [The Great Fear] / Nuit du 4 Août [Night of August 4]: In an effort to appease the peasants and to forestall more of the sort of rural disorder seen during the weeks of La Grande Peur (The Great Fear) [see: Jul. 17, 1789 post], the National Assembly formally begins the process of abolishing the feudal regime, including seigneurial rights and privileges and the sale of offices, with a series of decrees passed between the 4th and 11th, signalling the impending end to the Ancien Régime. The Assemblée constituante declares the same day that the new Constitution to be drawn up will be preceded by a declaration of rights – the Déclaration des droits de l’homme et du citoyen – one of the fundamental documents of the French Revolution, which was adopted on August 26, 1789.

1792 - Percy Bysshe Shelley (d. 1822), English Romantic poet, son-in-law of William Godwin and Godwinite social radical, born.

1842 - Parliamentary Chartist petition.

1869 - John Frederick Mowbray-Clarke (d. 1953), American sculptor, anarchist fellow traveller and one of the organisers of the influential 1913 Armory Show in New York, born. He and his wife Mary Horgan Mowbray-Clarke ran the Sunwise Turn bookshop in NYC and later the Brocken farm and studio in Rockland County, New York, a centre for anarchist and socialist activities.

1870 - Luisa Pavón Muñoz aka 'Ragon' (d. unknown), Spanish dancer and anarchist, born. She and her husband, Ramon Gabarró Julian, an electrical engineer from Manresa, were expelled (to France) from Spain for their libertarian activities, later returning to live in San Sebastián, Madrid and Cartagena. Gabarró was later arrested in Bayonne whilst attempting to cross the border in 1894. That same year Ragon's name appears on a border control monitoring list of anarchists established by the French railway police.

1872 - National Conference brings together the Italian sections of the AIT (Aug. 2-4). Delegates representing 21 cities, including Cafiero, Costa, Fanelli, Malatesta, etc., meet. An Italian Federation, allied to the First International, (Federazione delle Sezioni Italiane dell'Internazionale) is founded. It opposes the Marxist General Council in London, presaging the split of the First International between authoritarian (Marxist/statist) and anti-authoritarian (anarchist/antistatist) wings.

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Cadiz: The military forces of General Pavia, entered with their troops in the city of Cadiz.

1895 - At a banquet for more than four thousand organised to celebrate the fiftieth birthday of M. Vuillemin, the director of the Compagnie des Mines d'Aniche (Aniche Mines Company) in Auberchicourt (Nord), anarchist and former miner Clément Delcoux, who had been sacked following a strike in 1893, fires several shots at Vuillemin as he leaves a celebratory Mass. Hit 4 times, the group of engineers and shareholders present attempt to disarm him but a bomb he is carrying explodes, killing Delcoux and injuring several of the guests. Vuillemin survives the attack.

[B] 1896 - José Domingo Gómez Rojas (d. 1920), Chilean poet and anarchist, who was a victim of the Guerra de don Ladislao, born. [expand]

1901 - Juan Manuel Molina Mateo aka 'Juanelo' (d. 1984), important Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1903 - [O.S. Jul. 17] Baku Strike [Бакинская Cтачка]: The first general strike of the proletariat of the city of Baku grinds to a halt.

1903 - [O.S. Jul. 22] Ilinden Uprising [Илинденско въстание]: Under the leadership of Nikola Karev (Никола Карев), a local administration is set up known as the Kruševo republic. Turkish troops begin an unsuccessful attempt to retake Kruševo.

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 22] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The St. Petersburg Soviet authorised the strike but later during the day news of the suppression of the uprising by the authorities in the Baltic Sea begins to spread. In an effort to try and maintain momentum in the strike (and save face), Lenin offers to drop the pro-mutiny slogans calling for solidarity with the strikers in Sveaborg, Helsingfors and Kronstadt, and holding a general political strike instead. The same day the government arrests the St. Petersburg committee of the RSDRP.
By August 7th the strike has almost completely fizzled out.

1907 - Joaquín Pérez Navarro (d. 2006), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, born.

1914 - Hubertine Auclert aka 'Liberta' and Jeanne Voitout [penname] (Marie-Anne-Hubertine Auclert; b. 1848), French journalist, militant feminist, women's suffrage campaigner and militant anticlerical, dies. [see: Apr. 10]

1918 - Race Riots begin in Japan. Over eight weeks, ten million peasants and workers riot.

[FF] 1919 - Liverpool Police Strike: By the Monday a state of near normality was created. 350 people appeared before the Liverpool Police Court charged with looting and rioting. 3,000 soldiers would be in the city and the police had taken on 200 new recruits. For 954 officers of the Liverpool City Police who had failed to parade for duty. The punishment extracted by the watch committee was severe; every one of those men was sacked, loosing their pension rights, and no one was reinstated.

1919 - 30,000 Rumanian troops enter Budapest, Hungary, and begin a reign of terror in crushing the Hungarian Soviet Republic (Magyarországi Szocialista Szövetséges Tanácsköztársaság).

1920 - Count de Salvatierra, ex-governor of Barcelona (the 'Pacifier of Barcelona', responsible for the repression of the CNT, and the ley de fugas (law of escape - where arrested prisoners are 'allowed' to escape so that they can be shot) murders of 30 trade unionists) is shot down by several anarchists.

1931 - Paul Avrich (d. 2006), American academic, biographer and historian of the anarchist movement in Russia and the US, born.

1933 - Ley de Vagos y Maleantes [Vagrancy Act]: Known popularly as La Gandula, the law to control beggars, pimps and thugs with no known occupation is approved by consensus by all political groups of the Second Republic. It was later ammended on July 15, 1954 by the Franco regime to include the repression of homosexuals.

[C] 1934 - The Rassemblement Mondial des Femmes contre la Guerre et le Fascisme (First Worldwide Meeting of Women against War and Fascism) [Aug 4-7] begins in Paris.

1934 - A National Youth Congress Against War and Fascism is held at Sheffield City Hall (Aug. 4 & 5) attended by 630 delegates, including those from the YCL, ILP Guild of Youth, Labour League of Youth plus the Woodcraft Folk, the Co-operative Circle, Rambling and camping clubs as well as individuals from the Boy Scouts, Jewish Lad's Brigade and the Clarion cycling Club. [PR]

1941 - Generalmajor Henning von Tresckow [see: Jan. 10 & Jul. 20] and other members of the Schwarze Kapelle (Black Band) group planned to assassinate Hitler when he was forced to plan a visit Army Group Centre (AGC) on the Eastern Front to placate Field Marshal von Bock following his objections to Hitler's plan to remove the AGC's Panzers, leavig Bock with basically only infantry troops for its attack on Moscow. The visit was scheduled several times only to be cancelled, rescheduled, then cancelled again. Finally, in early August a fleet of cars arrived from the Führer Headquarters in East Prussia to await Hitler's arrival. Hitler refused to use cars supplied by the army for fear they might be booby trapped with explosives. When he finally arrived at Bock's headquarters in Borrisow, Tresckow and his fellow conspirators were overwhelmed at the amount of security people that accompanied him and the rigid security measures they imposed. The would-be assassins barely caught a glimpse of Hitler, much less an opportunity to shoot him.

1950 - Adolphe Tabarant (b. 1863), French libertarian socialist, journalist, writer and art critic, who wrote numerous studies on Impressionist painters and helped organise their exhibitions, dies. [see: Oct. 8]

[A] 1972 - Preservation of the Rights of Prisoners organise a 24-hour general strike involving 10,000 prisoners in 33 prisons across the UK in support of the demands in the PROP charter.

1977 - Ernst Bloch (b. 1885), German Marxist philosopher, utopian, pacifist and one-time anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 8]

1978 - Lilya Yuryevna Brik (born Lilya Kagan; b. 1891), Russian writer, film director and Futurist muse, dies. [see: Nov. 11]

1987 - The SADF launches Operation Moduler to try and stop the Angolan advance on Mavinga and thereby prevent a rout of UNITA, marking the beginning of the Battle of Cuito Cuanavale [also known as the Battle of the Lomba River], marking a turning point in the Angolan Civil War and the beginning of the end for the Apartheit regime in South Africa.

2000 - Salvador Clement (b. 1916), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, active with the CNT, who took refuge in France following the failure of the Spanish Revolution, dies.

2007 - Inés Ajuria de la Torre (b. 1920), Basque militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Oct. 1]

2008 - Juan López Romero Jiménez (aka 'Juan el Camas' or 'Chiquito de Camas' [Shorty from Camas]; b. 1928), Andalusian anarchist and flamenco singer, especially of the fandango, dies. [see: Feb. 25]

[E] 2009 - The first instance of the signature bare breast FEMEN protest when Oksana Shachko [Оксана Шачко], a Ukrainian artist and founder member of the group, appears topless during a FEMEN demonstration on Ukrainian independence day.

2010 - Lloyd Butler, aged 39, Is found dead his his cell at Stechford police station 3 hours after being arrested and locked up for being drunk and incapable.

2014 - White supremacist killer David Joseph 'Joey' Pedersen is to two concurrent life sentences by a federal judge in Portland, Oregon, for the carjacking and murder of Cody Myers of Lafayette, Oregon, and Reginald Clark of Eureka, California, in two separate incidents carried out with his girlfriend, Holly Ann Grigsby, during a 10-day killing spree. [see: Apr. 23/Sep. 26/Oct. 1 & 3]
1549 - Kett's Rebellion: The Marquess of Northampton's army arrives at Norwich and gains entrance to the city. After fierce battle at St Martins at Place Plain, Kett's forces recapture Norwich. 300 lives including that of Lord Sheffield are lost. Marquess of Northampton's army retreats to Cambridge and the rebels regain control of Norwich.

[AA] 1842 - 1842 General Strike / Plug Plot (or Plug Drawing) Riots: The Plug Plot riots (also known as the 1842 General Strike) begin in Ashton-under-Lyne in response to high unemployment, high food prices and declining wages. There was a spontaneous strike wave of weavers, spinners and miners culminating in a general strike. The riot got its name when the plugs were pulled out of factory boilers. The strikers were influenced by the Chartist movement.

1846 - Emilio Covelli (d. 1915), Italian anarchist organiser involved in the Matese insurrection of 1877, member of the Fédération Italienne de l'AIT, born.

[A] 1882 - During the night tonight, the Bande Noire of anarchist miners makes one of its first attacks against clericalism by throwing the Croix de Mission du Bois du Verne to the bottom of the mine in Montceau-les-Mines, Burgundy.

1899 - The first issue of the weekly anarchist journal 'La Protesta', " Literatura Artes ciencia Sociología" and from July 1901 "Periódico Libertario", is published in Valladolid by Ernesto Alvarez. From June 29, 1900 it will be published in Sabadell and, from May 1901, in La Linea de la Conception.

1903 - [O.S. Jul. 23] Ilinden Uprising [Илинденско въстание] / Kruševo Republic [Крушевска република]: Turkish troops continue their unsuccessful attempt to retake Kruševo. The town of Kleisoura, near Kastoria, is taken by Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) insurgents and a siege of the town of Smilevo by the rebels begins.

1905 - [O.S. Jul. 23] Ivanovo Soviet [Иваново-Вознесенский Депутатов] / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The last striking workers in Ivanovo-Voznesensk (Иваново-Вознесенский) have returned to their jobs. The deputies continued their work in the factories and when attempts were later made to dismiss the strike leader or of the deputies, the immediate response of the workers was protest.

1910 - Ricardo Flores Magón, Librado Rivera, and Antonio I. Villarreal are met by a large group of friends and supporters at the Los Angeles railroad station. In the evening, a mass meeting is held in the Labour Temple in their honour.

1910 - Constant Marie aka Le Père Lapurge (b. 1838), French anarchist militant, Communard, singer and songwriter, dies. [see: Aug. 27]

[F] 1911 - Benito Mussolini, then a socialist, publishes an article in 'Lotta di Classe', the Forli newspaper he edits, calling for a general strike against any Italian military adventures (with reference to a possible Italian invasion of Libya).
"Se la patria, menzognera finzione che ormai ha fatto il suo tempo, chiederà nuovi sacrifici di denaro e di sangue, il proletariato che segue le direttive socialiste risponderà collo sciopero generale. La guerra fra le nazioni diventerà allora una guerra alle guerre." (If the Homeland, mendacious fiction that has now run its course, ask for new sacrifices of money and blood, the socialist proletariat will respond to the directive with a general strike. The war between nations will then become a war on wars.)

1912 - The debut in Paris of the monthly magazine 'Le Mouvement Anarchiste'. When its first manager Pierre Ruff was sentenced in November 1912 to 5 years in prison, it was taken over by Georges Durupt. It ceased publication in February 1913.

[E] 1914 - Rosa Luxemburg and a few other left-wing Marxists form the Gruppe Internationale (International Group) to oppose the German Social Democratic Party's betrayal of its stated principles in coming out in support for the Great War (World War I) that began on August 1.

1917 - Eduard Vives (d. 1971), Catalan militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. Member of the National Confederation of Labour (CNT) from a young age, during the Revolution of 1936 was part of the Control Patrols and fought the fronts (Teruel) in the Los Aguiluchos column, where he was wounded several times. In 1938 he was captured by Franco's troops, weeks later, after being sentenced to death, managed to escape the day before his execution and go to the Republican zone. He rejoined the Republican army, becoming a decorated commander. When the war ended on 9 February 1939, he crossed the Pyrenees and spent a year interned in a concentration camp and working in the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers (CTE). In 1945 he founded the Local CNT Federation in Castelnaudary and was appointed secretary. In 1959 he went to America, where he directed a department of an electronics factory. In New York, he fought in the anti-Franco groups, collaborated with the newspaper 'España Libre', took part in group activities of the editorial group of Proletarian Cultural and the New York Libertarian Centre, and was secretary of the American delegation to the International Antifascist Solidarity (SIA).

1919 - With the city's garrison and the Red Guards now disarmed, the occupation of Budapest and destruction of the Hungarian Soviet Republic (Magyarországi Szocialista Szövetséges Tanácsköztársaság) complete, Rumanian troops continue their reign of terror with mass arrests and an attempt to loot the National Museum, which was thwarted by the Harry Hill Bandholtz, the US military mission commander in Hungary.

1919 - 30,000 Rumanian troops entered Budapest, Hungary, and begin a reign of terror in crushing the Hungarian Soviet republic.

1923 - September Antifascist Uprising [Септемврийско антифашистко въстание]: Following criticism from the Comitern of their inactivity during the June Uprising (Юнско въстание), and under pressure from young and radical activists of the party, headed by Georgi Dimitrov (Георги Димитров) and Vassil Kolarov (Васил Коларов), at a plenary session (Aug. 5-7) of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party (Българската комунистическа партия) begin planning an attempt to overthrow the Alexander Tsankov's new government of Bulgaria, which had come to power with the coup d'état of June 9. It is supported by the anarchist and agrarian forces that the BCP singularly failed to support during the June Uprising.

1925 - Georges Palante (b. 1862), French philosopher and sociologist, who advocated an aristocratic libertarian individualism, dies. [see: Nov. 20]

1928 - Gaetano Grassi (b. 1846), Italian anarchist, dies. [expand]

1929 - Greva Minerilor din Lupeni [Lupeni Miners' Strike]: Depite having been a member of the ILO since 1919, it was only in 1925 that Romania introduced Sunday rest and public holiday legislation and not til 1928 that, responding to international pressure, it had also adopted new laws that regulates the protection of minors and women, as well as an 8-hour working day. The independant union of miners in Lupeni, which was linked to the Partidul Național-Țărănesc (National Peasant Party) sought to claim those new 'rights' through a strike, having had no success through the courts.
The strike started on the morning of August 5, 1929, after the Lupeni Mining Company opposed the union's intention to pay each employee a day's wages from their own funds, some 200 workers met and decided to strike. About 3,000 men from the Elena and Victoria mines went on strike, going together to the Carolina and Ștefan mines. The situation quickly spun out of control, and the union leaders told the Deva authorities that they were no longer responsible for their members' actions.
The first day of the strike produced little response for the forces of law and order as there were only 18 gendarmes in the area, and strikers were able to occupy the power station controlling the mines' pumping machinery. A radical group went inside, forcing the men there to stop their work and shutting down the generators, threatening to flood the galleries and cutting off ventilation to 200 miners who had refused to come out on strike and still remained underground.

1929 - Millicent Garrett Fawcett (b. 1847), English feminist, suffragist, author and intellectual, political and union leader, dies. [see: Jun. 11]

1933 - Revolución del 33 / Cuban General Strike: Following the wave of strike that had begun with the Havana bus drivers on July 27, which were accompanies by demonstrations, such as the one on August 1, when two protesters had been killed by the military, and the sugar workers’ union's hunger marches, the general strike called for by the Confederación Nacional de Obreros de Cuba (Cuban Confederation of Labour) begins.

[EE] 1939 - Las Trece Rosas (the Thirteen Roses), a group of thirteen young women, half of them Juventudes Socialistas Unificadas members, are executed by a Francoist firing squad shortly after the conclusion of the Spanish Civil War. The thirteen were Carmen Barrero Aguado (20 years old, dressmaker, PCE), Martina Barroso García (24 years, dressmaker, JSU), Blanca Brisac Vázquez (29 years, pianist, PCE), Pilar Bueno Ibáñez (27 years, dressmaker, PCE), Julia Conesa Conesa (19 years, dressmaker, JSU), Adelina García Casillas (19 years old, JSU), Elena Gil Olaya (20, JSU), Virtudes González García (18 years, dressmaker, JSU), Ana López Gallego (21 years, dressmaker, JSU), Joaquina López Laffite (23 years, secretary, JSU), Dionisia Manzanero Salas (20 years, dressmaker, PCE), Victoria Muñoz García (18 years old, JSU) and Luisa Rodríguez de la Fuente (18 years, tailor, JSU).
Victims of the post-war purges known as the 'saca de agosto' (August round-up), they were amongst 56 anti-fascists who had been betrayed by Roberto Conesa, a police infiltrator who later went on to become a commissoner in the Brigada Político-Social, Franco's secret police, they were tried by summary court-martial on August 4*, 1939, and shot against one of the walls of the Almudena cemetery in Madrid the following day.
[* Some sources give August 3 as the trial date of some of the 56.]

1943 - Adam Kuckhoff (b. 1887), German writer, journalist and member of the anti-Nazi Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, is executed at Plötzensee Prison. [see: Aug. 30]

1943 - Cato Bontjes van Beek (b. 1920), German artist and member of the anti-Nazi resistance, who was a member of the so-called Rote Kapelle network, is guillotined at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin after being found guilty of "abetting a conspiracy to commit high treason". [see: Nov. 14]

[B] 1946 - Boris Vian, French polymath, writer, poet, jazz musician, singer, translator, critic, actor and anarchist, begins writing writing his seminal novel 'J'Irai Cracher sur vos Tombes' (I Spit on Your Graves; 1946), which he completes in 15 days [on Aug. 20].

[D] 1952 - 14 CPUSA leaders are convicted in Los Angeles of conspiracy to teach and advocate the overthrow of the US government by force and violence in violation of the Smith Act of 1940, and sentenced to five years of imprisonment and fined $10,000.

[C] 1962 - Supporters of Oswald Mosley's Union Movement, were pelted with coins, ice cream and peanuts as they try to hold a meeting in Southend-on-Sea. About 1,000 holidaymakers roared with laughter as the missiles sailed around the speakers - three young men protected by 30 policemen. Another 100 policemen stood by to prevent violence. Two of the hecklers were arrested.

1964 - US begins bombing North Vietnam.

1964 - Moa Martinson (Helga Maria Swarts; b. 1890), Swedish kitchen maid, pantry chef, journalist, novelist, syndicalist and feminist, who was one of Sweden's most noted authors of proletarian literature, dies. [see: Nov. 2]

1972 - Mezz Mezzrow (Milton Mesirow; b. 1899), American jazz clarinetist and saxophonist, who claimed that a "creative musician is an anarchist with a horn, and you can't put any shackles on him", dies. [see: Nov. 9]

1982 - Albert Guigui-Theral (aka Varlin; b. 1903), Algerian-born French anarchist, militant syndicalist, mechanic and French Résistance fighter, dies. [see: Mar. 26]

2002 - Léo Voline (Léo Eichenbaum; b. 1917), French anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, third son of Voline, dies. [see: Jan. 4]

2005 - Hisham Sliti beaten in Guantanamo Bay, triggering a hunger strike. He is still held there.
1825 - Bolivia gains independence from Peru.

1835 - Against the backdrop of the series of anticlerical riots, known as bullangas, that took place in Barcelona in July and August of 1835, during the night [Aug. 5-6] the Bonaplata factory aka 'El Vapor' is burned by the mutineers, "convinced that machine-made looms diminished the production of manual labour", according to the governed military, General Pastor. Four workers were shot as alleged perpetrators and many others were sentenced to prison terms. In addition, the civil governor established a basis of work that included a factory inspection committee to which the workers had to address their complaints, suffering the "la pena de ocho días de arresto" (the penalty of eight-day arrest) for any workers who does not comply with the system, raising the issue anywhere other than in the committee. Upon a second offense "he will be expelled from this city as a disgraceful man and harmful to society, will circulate notice to all manufacturers so as not to admit him in their factories, and if by his acts they give rise to tumult or asonada (a tumultuous and violent meeting to achieve some purpose, usually political") will be sent before a competent court for disturbing the public order."

1859 - Oreste Lucchesi (d. 1904), Italian anarchist, who was sent to prison in 1895 for killing Giuseppe Bandi, the director of the newspaper 'Il Telegrafo', and author of a series of articles attacking anarchist, born.

1869 - Marie Pitt (Marie Elizabeth Josephine Pitt; d. 1948), Australian poet, socialist, feminist, ecologist and anarchist, born.

[E] 1881 - The first issue of Benjamin Tucker's individualist anarchist newspaper 'Liberty' is published in Boston. On its cover is a picture of Sofia Perovskaya, one of the assassins of Tsar Alexander II.

1882 - La Bande Noire: During the nights of the early summer of 1882, numerous attacks on religious symbols took place: dynamite attacks on various rural crosses; on the chapel of a religious school; against the school for nuns at a hamlet near Montceau-les-Mines, as well as against the church of Bois-du-Verne. The first dynamite attack was on the mission cross of the Bois du Verne takes place during the night on August 5-6.

1888 - Torquato Gobbi (d. 1963), Italian anarchist typographer and bookbinder, born.

1891 - Marcel Vergeat (d. 1920), French mechanic, and anarchist and syndicalist, born. Invited to the Second Congress of the Communist International in Moscow in July 1920 along with fellow anarcho-syndicalist Jules Lepetit (Louis Bertho) and the socialist Raymond Lefebvre, all three were upset by what they found in Russia and said so publicly. They noted what they saw and experienced and let it be known that their report would be critical. When it was time to leave, their official escorts asked the three men for their briefcases. Fearing they would not be returned, Lefevre, Vergeat, and Lepetit refused to hand them over. They were then separated from the other delegates and put on a special train to Murmansk, a city on the Arctic coast, and told to wait there for a ship. Along the way they were mistreated. When they got there they were abandoned by their escorts and left to fend for themselves, eventually they were taken in by some fishermen. When no ship arrived to transport them, they complained in writing to Moscow but nothing came of it. They also sent letters to friends in which they expressed fears that the Bolsheviks were trying to kill them. In the end they resolved to buy a boat and try to escape on their own. Their Fishermen tried to dissuade them, but to no avail. They set sail in the last days of September (or possibly on October 1st) never to be seen again. Needless to say, the Bolsheviks told a radically different story.

1892 - The first issue of the newspaper 'L'Ordine', "Periodico settimanale popolare", is published in Turin. From November 18, 1893, it becomes a weekly. The epigram is "Otez le gouvernement, la terre et tous ses biens sont aussi communs entre les hommes que l'air et la lumière" (Remove the government, the earth and all its assets are as commons to men as air and light).

1893 - Elías Castelnuovo (d. 1982), Uruguayan journalist, storyteller, playwright, poet, essayist and anarchist, communist and then Peronist, born.

1894 - Procès des Trente: In Paris the Procès des Trente (Trial of the Thirty) begins. The authorities, hoping to put an end to 'propaganda by the deed' and other anarchist opposition, enacted lois scélérates (villainous laws, nickname for very severe anti-anarchist laws) in December 1893 and added to these in July, allowing them to intensify repression against the anarchist movement.

1916 - Pierre Martin aka 'le Bossu' (the Hunchback)(b. 1856), French anarchist, anti-miltarist and pacifist, dies. [see: Aug. 16]

1919 - Friedrich István, the leader of the rightist anti-communist organisation the White House Fraternal Association [Fehérház Bajtársi Egyesület], is installed in power having deposed the shortlived new government headed by Gyula Peidl (elected by the underground Budapest Workers' Soviet when Béla Kun and other high-ranking Communists fled to Austria on August 1) with the help of Romanian military forces, signaling the end of three and a half months of Marxist political administration in Hungary.

1927 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: The Massachusetts high court hears final plea from Sacco and Vanzetti.

[FF] 1929 - Masacrul Minerilor din Lupeni [Lupeni Miners' Massacre]: On the morning of August 6, the leading authorities of Hunedoara County came to Lupeni, accompanied by 80 troops from the 4th frontier guards regiment and some 20 gendarmes. The mining company attempted to start the power station with strike-breakers in order to prevent the mines from being flooded and those underground from being asphyxiated, but the strikers maintained a cordon around the works. The public prosecutor made a final demand that the strikers withdraw from the power station; but the strikers remained defiant. 40 gendarmes then advanced, trying to intimidate the strikers, who responded by throwing objects toward the gendarmes, wounding some of those in the front rank. The 80 troops fired warning shots into the air and then opened fre on the crowd (without orders, as established by an enquiry). When the firing ceased, dozens of men lay on the ground; the rest, panic-stricken, fled quickly. Work at the station resumed immediately; troops and gendarmes guarded the station and all mine buildings.
Different sources give different numbers of dead and wounded, but official data suggests that more than 60 people were killed (many shot in the back) and about 200 wounded. The Lupeni shooting gave rise to solidarity strikes in Bucharest, Galaţi, Cluj, and elsewhere.

1930 - Martin Bauml Duberman, American historian, playwright, novelist, and gay-rights activist, born. Whilst critical of anarchism, he has written on anarchist subjects including: 'Mother Earth: an epic drama of Emma Goldman's life' (1991) and the novel 'Haymarket' (2003).

[B] 1934 - Diane di Prima, US Beat poet, playwright, photographer, collagist, teacher and anarchist, born. Her maternal grandfather, Domenico Mallozzi, was an active anarchist, and associate of Carlo Tresca and Emma Goldman. She began writing as a child and by the age of 19 was corresponding with fellow anarchist poet Kenneth Patchen. She lived and wrote in Manhattan for many years, where she became known as an important but neglected writer of the Beat movement. During that time she co-founded the New York Poets Theatre, and founded the Poets Press, which published the work of many new writers of the period. Together with Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) she edited the literary newsletter, 'The Floating Bear' (1961-69). Her work with the NY Poets Theatre and 'The Floating Bear' resulted in several charges for obscenity, and in 1961 she was actually arrested by the FBI for publishing two poems in 'The Floating Bear'. According to di Prima, police persistently harassed her due to the nature of her poetry. In the late 1960s, she moved permanently to California, where she has lived ever since. Here, di Prima became involved with the Diggers and maintained her radical social and poltical stance. She is also the mother of 5 children, about which she has said: “I wanted everything—very earnestly and totally—I wanted to have every experience I could have, I wanted everything that was possible to a person in a female body, and that meant that I wanted to be mother.… So my feeling was, ‘Well’—as I had many times had the feeling—‘Well, nobody’s done it quite this way before but fuck it, that’s what I’m doing, I’m going to risk it.’” In 2013 Diana was diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease.
Amongst here published works are: 'This Kind of Bird Flies Backward' (1958); 'Dinners and Nightmares' (short stories; 1961); 'The New Handbook of Heaven' (1963); 'Poets Vaudeville' (1964); 'Seven Love Poems from the Middle Latin' (translations; 1965); 'Poems for Freddie' (1966); 'Earthsong: Poems 1957-1959' (1968); 'Hotel Albert' (1968); 'War Poems' (editor; 1968); 'Memoirs of a Beatnik' (fictionalised biography; 1969); 'L.A. Odyssey' (1969); 'The Book of Hours' (1970); 'Revolutionary Letters' (1971); 'The Calculus of Variation' (1972); 'Loba, Part I' (1974); 'Freddie Poems' (1974); 'Selected Poems: 1956-1975' (1975); 'Brass Furnace Going Out: Song, After an Abortion' (1975); 'Loba As Eve' (1975); 'Loba, Part II' (1976); 'Tribute to Kenneth Patchen' (1977), with Lawrence Ferlinghetti, William Everson, Hugo Manning, Michael Horovitz et al; 'Loba, Parts I-VIII' (1978); 'Pieces of a Song: Selected Poems' (1990); 'Seminary Poems' (1991); 'Recollections of My Life as a Woman The New York Years' (2001); 'The Poetry Deal, City Lights' (2014). Her theatre pieces include: 'Murder Cake' (1960) and 'Paideuma' (1960), both for the Living Theatre; 'The Discontentment of the Russian Prince' (1961); 'Like' (1964); 'Monuments' (1968); 'Discovery of America' (1972); and 'Whale Honey' (1975).
"Diane di Prima, revolutionary activist of the 1960s Beat literary renaissance, heroic in life and poetics: a learned humorous bohemian, classically educated and twentieth-century radical, her writing, informed by Buddhist equanimity, is exemplary in imagist, political and mystical modes. A great woman poet in second half of American century, she broke barriers of race-class identity, delivered a major body of verse brilliant in its particularity." - Allen Ginsberg


You cannot write a single line w/out a cosmology
a cosmogony
laid out, before all eyes

there is no part of yourself you can separate out
saying, this is memory, this is sensation
this is the work I care about, this is how I
make a living

it is whole, it is a whole, it always was whole
you do not “make” it so
there is nothing to integrate, you are a presence
you are an appendage of the work, the work stems from
hangs from the heaven you create

every man / every woman carries a firmament inside
& the stars in it are not the stars in the sky

w/out imagination there is no memory
w/out imagination there is no sensation
w/out imagination there is no will, desire

history is a living weapon in yr hand
& you have imagined it, it is thus that you
“find out for yourself”
history is the dream of what can be, it is
the relation between things in a continuum

of imagination
what you find out for yourself is what you select
out of an infinite sea of possibility
no one can inhabit yr world

yet it is not lonely,
the ground of imagination is fearlessness
discourse is video tape of a movie of a shadow play
but the puppets are in yr hand
your counters in a multidimensional chess
which is divination
& strategy

the war that matters is the war against the imagination
all other wars are subsumed in it.

the ultimate famine is the starvation
of the imagination

it is death to be sure, but the undead
seek to inhabit someone else’s world

the ultimate claustrophobia is the syllogism
the ultimate claustrophobia is “it all adds up”
nothing adds up & nothing stands in for
anything else



There is no way out of a spiritual battle
There is no way you can avoid taking sides
There is no way you can not have a poetics
no matter what you do: plumber, baker, teacher

you do it in the consciousness of making
or not making yr world
you have a poetics: you step into the world
like a suit of readymade clothes

or you etch in light
your firmament spills into the shape of your room
the shape of the poem, of yr body, of yr loves

A woman’s life / a man’s life is an allegory

Dig it

There is no way out of the spiritual battle
the war is the war against the imagination
you can’t sign up as a conscientious objector

the war of the worlds hangs here, right now, in the balance
it is a war for this world, to keep it
a vale of soul-making

the taste in all our mouths is the taste of power
and it is bitter as death

bring yr self home to yrself, enter the garden
the guy at the gate w/ the flaming sword is yrself

the war is the war for the human imagination
and no one can fight it but you/ & no one can fight it for you

The imagination is not only holy, it is precise
it is not only fierce, it is practical
men die everyday for the lack of it,
it is vast & elegant

intellectus means “light of the mind”
it is not discourse it is not even language
the inner sun

the polis is constellated around the sun
the fire is central

'Revolutionary Letter # 49'

Free Julian Beck
Free Timothy Leary
Free seven million starving in Pakistan
Free all political prisoners
Free Angela Davis
Free Soledad brothers
Free Martin Sobel
Free Sacco & Vanzetti
Free Big Bill Hayward
Free Sitting Bull
Free Crazy Horse
Free all political prisoners
Free Billy the Kid
Free Jesse James
Free all political prisoners
Free Nathan Hale
Free Joan of Arc
Free Galileo & Bruno & Eckhart
Free Jesus Christ
Free Socrates
Free all political prisoners
Free all political prisoners
All prisoners are political prisoners
Every pot smoker a political prisoner
Every holdup man a political prisoner
Ever forger a political prisoner
Every angry kid who smashed a window a political prisoner
Every whore, pimp, murder, a political prisoner
Every pederast, dealer, drunk driver, burglar
preacher, striker, strike breaker, rapist
Polar bear at the San Francisco zoo, political prisoner
Ancient wise turtle at Detroit Aquarium, political prisoner
Flamingoes dying in Phoenix tourist park, political prisoners
Otters in Tucson Desert Museum, political prisoners
Elk in Wyoming grazing behind barbed wire, political prisoners
Prairie dogs poisoned in New Mexico, war casualties
(Mass grave of Wyoming gold eagles, a battlefield)
Every kid in school a political prisoner
Every lawyer in his cubicle a political prisoner
Every doctor brainwashed by AMA a political prisoner
Every housewife a political prisoner
Every teacher lying thru sad teeth a political prisoner
Every indian on reservation a political prisoner
Every black man a political prisoner
Every faggot hiding in bar a political prisoner
Every junkie shooting up in john a political prisoner
Every woman a political prisoner
Every woman a political prisoner
You are political prisoner locked in tense body
You are political prisoner locked in stiff mind
You are political prisoner locked to your parents
You are political prisoner locked to your past
Free yourself
Free yourself
I am political prisoner locked in anger habit
I am political prisoner locked in greed habit
I am political prisoner locked in fear habit
I am political prisoner locked in dull senses
I am political prisoner locked in numb flesh
Free me
Free me
Help to free me
Free yourself
Help to free me
Free yourself
Help to free me
Free Barry Goldwater
Help to free me
Free Governor Wallace
Free President Nixon
Free J Edgar Hoover
Free them
Free yourself
Free them
Free yourself
Free yourself
Free them
Free yourself
Help to free me
Free us


[D] 1936 - The famous 'King Kong' armoured car (tiznado) is delivered to the Durruti Column by the CNT's Sindicato Metalúrgico, hastily constructed in the Casa Torras in Barcelona by members working in shifts to get it ready for the Aragón front.

[C] 1936 - Ramón Acin Aquilué (b. 1888), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, professor, writer and avant-garde artist, is murdered by pro-Francoists. Involved with the CNT and imprisoned for his support of political prisoners. [see: Aug. 30]

1937 - Franco's artillery opens fire on Madrid.

1941 - Alice Becker-Ho (Alice Debord), China-born French Situationist and poet, born.

[CC] 1942 - In one of the most famous incidents of the Warsaw Ghetto, Janusz Korczak, the pen name of Henryk Goldszmit (22 July 1878 or 1879 - August 1942), Polish-Jewish educator, children's author and pediatrician known as Pan Doktor (Mr. Doctor) or Stary Doktor (Old Doctor), who was director of a Warsaw orphanage that had been forced to move into the Ghetto, quietly marches his 192 children to the Umschlagplatz and the transport arranged to take them to Treblinka extermination camp. Korczak and his staff stayed with the children (he had already turned down a number of Nazi offers of "special treatment" and the possibility of being sent to Theresienstadt and the offer of sanctuary on the 'Aryan side' by Żegota, the Polish Council to Aid Jews; even the German officer in charge of the escort, and who had been a fan Korczak’s King Matt books as a child, offered him the chance to leave) in order not to frighten them.
Korczak and the orphan's story is told in Andrzej Wajda’s film 'Korczak '(1990) as well as a number of books, stage plays and an opera.

1945 - US drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Albert Camus declares in the August 8 edition of the newspaper 'Combat': "La civilisation mécanique vient de parvenir à son dernier degré de sauvagerie" (The mechanical civilisation has just reached its highest degree of savagery)

1945 - Ingemar Johansson (d. 2014), Swedish writer, translator, editor, chess player and historian, anarchist and Sveriges Arbeter Centralorganisation militant, who specialised in translationg and writing on Dada and Situationism, born.
[örfattare) Johansson a.pdf]

1969 - Theodor Adorno (b. 1903), German philosopher and sociologist of the Frankfurt School, dies. [see: Sep. 11]

1970 - Yippies storm Disneyland chanting "Freedom for Mickey Mouse" and Vietcong slogans.

[A] 1988 - Tompkins Square Park police riot in New York. [expand]

[F] 1997 - A 12-hour civic strike convened by the Confederación de Trabajadores de Venezuela in protest of a 27% increase in the price of petrol, noncompliance with the salary increase by employers and the massive dismissal of employees as tolerated by the government of President Rafael Caldera. According to the CTV, the strike was supported by 95% of the country's eight million workers, the biggest labour action in the past eight years.

2005 - Paul Coker, aged 32, died in a cell at Plumstead police station, South East London, just two hours after being restrained and arrested by 15 cops for causing a breach of the peace.

2007 - Former independence hero and the first president of an independent Timor-Leste Xanana Gusmão, is named the country's new prime minister, triggering widespread violence in the capital Dili.
[D] 1647 - During the English civil war, the New Model Army enters the City of London, seizing it from the Presbyterians and reinstalls excluded Independent MPs.

1842 - 1842 General Strike / Plug Plot (or Plug Drawing) Riots: The Industrial Revolution brought prosperity to Britain’s upper classes and in the process created a new industrial working class. Far from sharing in the newfound industrial wealth of their employers, workers endured abysmal working conditions, unpredictable wages, and no job security. The constant advancement of technology in the cotton mills frequently made large numbers of employees obsolete. A country-wide depression beginning in 1837 made the workers’ situation even more difficult. All of these factors added up to great hardship for working class families, who, as a rule, struggled to obtain basic necessities.
Although trade unionism was illegal in Britain, unions were well-established in many locations and frequently clashed with the government. The unionists constituted one of two powerful populist movements. The other was known as Chartism, named after the People’s Charter which demanded universal male suffrage, the eligibility of all classes to be Members of Parliament, and other political reforms. Broadly popular among labourers, Chartism also drew support from the disaffected lower-middle-class, who felt shut out of the political process.
The ongoing depression led factory owners to cut wages two or three times between 1840 and June 1842. Each occasion prompted scattered strikes and protestations, but the tide of cuts continued.
Two mass meetings of workers attended by between 8,000 and 10,000 from Ashton and Staleybridge were held on Mottram Moor on Sunday August 7 1842 against the threatened reduction in wages, and support was given for a 'Grand National Turn-Out' to begin the next day. Support for the Charter was incorporated into the resolutions passed: "that all labour should cease until the People's Charter became the law of the land".

1855 - [O.S. Jul. 26] Vera Spiridonovna Lyubatovich (Вера Спиридоновна Любатович; d. 1908*), Russian revolutionary and member of Narodnaya Volya (Земля и воля / People's Will), born. She accompanied her sister Olga to Switzerland and was persuaded by Olga to enrol in the Medical Faculty of the University of Zurich as well as joining the Fritsche circle of young Russian female radicals and worked on the journal 'Вперёд' (Forward). [expand]
[* O.S. Dec. 19 1907 / N.S. Jan. 1 1908]

1859 - Émile 'Michel' Hugonnard (d. unknown), French carpenter-cabinetmaker and anarchist militant, born.

1876 - [O.S. Jul. 26] Yekaterina Peshkova [Екатерина Пешкова] (Yekaterina Pavlovna Volzhina [Екатерина Павловна Волжина]; d. 1965), Russian proofreader, revolutionary, member of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров / ПСР), and Soviet public figure and human rights activist, born. It was as a proofreader on the 'Samara Gazeta' (Самарская газета) that she met the writer Maxim Gorky [Макси́м Го́рький] (Alexei Peshkov [Алексеем Пешковым]). They married on September 11 [O.S. Aug. З0], 1896, parting in 1903 following the death of their daughter Katya from meningitis at the age of five. She joined the ПСР in 1905 and in 1908 she and her son Maxim went abroad, living mainly in Paris where she became a prominent and influential figure in the S-R group there. In 1909 she began working in Vera Figner's 'Paris circle' (Парижский кружок) organising, support for Russian political prisoners and those in exile, and in 1912 joined the Political Red Cross (политическом Красном Кресте) on an ongoing basis. Peshkova also worked for the International Committee of the Red Cross for a period (1913-14). She returned to Russia at the outbreak of WWI and in the autumn of 1914 became a member of the society Aid to the Victims of War (Помощь жертвам войны), heading its Children's Committee, whilst maintaining her ПСР activities.
Following the February Revolution, the Political Red Cross reconstituted itself in Petrograd as the Society to Aid Released Political Prisoners (Общества помощи освобожденным политическим). That year she also became a member of the Central Committee of the ПСР. [expand]

[F] 1890 - Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, 'The Rebel Girl', (d. 1964), US labour leader, activist, and feminist, who played a leading role in the Industrial Workers of the World, was a founding member of the American Civil Liberties Union and a visible proponent of women's rights, birth control, and women's suffrage, born. She joined the Communist Party USA in 1936 and late in life, in 1961, became its first female leader.
Influenced by her parents, she became a socialist and was only 16 when she gave her first speech, 'What Socialism Will Do for Women', at the Socialist Club in Harlem. As a result of her political activities, Flynn was expelled from high school and in 1907 she became a full-time organiser for the IWW. [expand]

1897 - Albert Perier (or Perrier)(aka Germinal; d. 1970), Argentine-born French anarchist militant, revolutionary syndicalist and anti-fascist résistant , born in Buenos Aires.

1898 - The Landsorganisationen i Sverige (Swedish Trade Union Confederation), an umbrella organisation for fourteen Swedish trade unions that organise mainly 'blue-collar' workers, is founded following the January 1 conference in Stockholm called on the initiative of the 1897 Scandinavian Labour Congress and the Swedish Social Democratic Party (Sveriges socialdemokratiska arbetareparti).

1900 - The Mexican anarchist periodical 'Regeneración: Periódico Jurídico Independiente' is first published by Jesus and Ricardo Flores Magón brothers, along with the lawyer Antonio Horcasitas. Suppressed by authorities, 'Regeneración' temporarily suspends publication, eventually resurfacing in the US after Ricardo and Enrique go into exile there (January 3, 1904).
"The town in rivers of pulque sails, while the bells repican & rockets resound & centellean the knives between the flare lights.
Crowds swarm the tree-lined avenue and other prohibited streets, sagrada zone of the ladies of corsé and the gentlemen of jaqué, with the Virgin in you walk. From their high boat of lights, the wings of the Virgin protect and guide.
Today is the day of Our Lady of Los Angeles, for Mexicans signalling a week of verbenas, and, on the brink of madness, the violent joy of the town, like wanting to deserve it, is born a new newspaper. It is called Regeneration. It inherits the fervours and the debts of the Democrat, closed by the dictatorship."
'Regeneración' resumed publication in San Antonio, Texas, on November 5, 1904. It was smuggled into México clandestinely and continued to remain an annoying thorn in Mexican dictator Diaz's side. 'Regeneración' was influential enough that Diaz worked repeatedly to have it shut down, where "freedom of speech" in the United States proved deceptively false. It's circulation grew to 30,000 that year. In fact, even moderates like the Governor of Yucatan and Madero were receiving 'Regeneración' and later, when Ricardo's anarchism was more apparent, prominent anarchists, such as Voltairine de Cleyre became involved in the Mexican paper. Familiar with the works of Kropotkin, Bakunin, Grave, and Malatesta as early as 1900, Ricardo didn't openly advocate anarchism until 1907.

1908 - Robert Bernardis (d. 1944), Austrian resistance fighter involved in the July 20 Plot to kill Adolf Hitler, born.

1912 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Gladys Evans, Mary Leigh, Jennie Baines (under the nom de guerre Lizzie Baker) and Mabel Capper were sentenced at the Green Street Special Criminal Court in Dublin accused of "having committed serious outrages at the time of the visit of the British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith". The trial lasted several days during which police came under fire for initially refusing to allow admittance to women. Mary Leigh, who conducted her own defence, and Gladys Evans were sentenced to 5 years penal servitude and Jennie Baines (under the nom de guerre Lizzie Baker) to seven months hard labour. The charges against Mabel Capper were dropped.

1915 - [N.S. Aug. 20] In Kolpino (Ко́лпино), an industrial suburb of Petrograd and the location of the Izhorsk (Ижорские) Works, one of the giant shipbuilding plants of the Naval Ministry, female shoppers, mainly workers’ and soldiers’ wives, outraged at escalating prices, find that their audience with the manager of the factory results in the usual empty promises. Dissatisfied with the outcome, the women took direct action, going about the city and forcibly closing shops. About two thousand men joined them when their shift ended, and at that point the crowd became genuinely violent. Members of the crowd attacked the shops and threw stones when police tried to restrain them. When the riot came to an end around 10 p.m. that same evening, fifteen shops had been wrecked, their contents stolen or destroyed.

1919 - A month-long U.S. actors' strike closes all theatres.

1921 - Battle of Blair Mountain: With feeling running high after the murder of the Matewan Chief of Police Sid Hatfield by Baldwin-Felts Detective Agency detectives on August 1, the leaders of the United Mine Workers District 17, Frank Keeney and Fred Mooney, hold a rally at the state capitol in Charleston. Keeney and Mooney met with Governor Ephraim Morgan, and presented him with the miners' demands. Morgan rejected the demands and the miners became more restless and began to talk of a march on Mingo to free the confined miners, end martial law, and organise the county. At the rally, 'Mother' Jones called on the miners not to march into Logan and Mingo counties and set up the union by force, fearing a bloodbath in any battle between lightly armed union forces and the more heavily armed deputies from the coal company stronghold of Logan County, which stood between the miners and their destination. The miners ignored her and on August 20 armed men began gathering at Lens Creek Mountain, near Marmet, West Virginia. As the estimated 13,000 union miners marched south to the border of Boone and Logan counties or travelled on a commandeered freight train, Chafin's private army of 3,000 state police, the state militia, and coal company employees had assembled and dug trenches and set up machine gun nests to stop the miners from entering Logan County. [see: Aug. 31]

1921 - Alexander Alexandrovich Blok (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Бло́к; b. 1880), Russian Symbolist poet and important figure in the so-called Silver Age of Russian Poetry, dies. [see: Nov. 28]

1925 - Ricardo Mella (b. 1861), one of the first Spanish anarchist writers, intellectuals and activists, dies. [see: Apr. 23]

1926 - Maurice Julian Ludmer (d. 1981), British Communist, anti-fascist activist and journalist, born in Salford, the son of Ben Ludmer, a self-employed hairdresser, and his wife, Becky, née Lazarus, a teacher of Hebrew. The family moved to Birmingham in 1939 where Maurice Ludmer attended Handsworth Technical College and fostered his lifelong passion for sport. He began to read avidly, joining the Left Book Club and starting to build his impressive collection of radical literature. He started an apprenticeship at the Austin Motor Works and joined the Young Communist League.
Called up for military service, Ludmer was seconded to the War Graves Commission in Europe. He visited the concentration camp at Belsen, an experience that set the tone for the rest of the twenty-year-old's life; standing at the site of atrocities which had taken place in the heart of Europe, he pledged himself to work to ensure it would never happen again. After returning to England, he did several jobs before becoming quality controller in a Birmingham knitwear factory. He met Elizabeth (Liz) Nancy Miller (1929/30–2001), a fellow political activist, in 1954, and they married at Birmingham register office on June 25, 1956. She was the daughter of Harry May, a market trader; her previous marriage had been dissolved. They had four daughters and a son, who died young, and they brought up Liz's son from a previous marriage.
Ludmer was an active Communist in the 1950s, campaigning in several local elections in Balsall Heath and working with local tenants' associations. In the late 1950s, following the Notting Hill and Nottingham race riots, he became involved with activists from racial minorities who were concerned at the development of organized racism. Ludmer, Jagmohan Joshi of the Indian Workers' Association, and others set up the first broadly based anti-racist campaign, the Co-ordinating Committee Against Racial Discrimination, which demonstrated against the first immigration control bill, passed in 1961, and in favour of legislation against racial discrimination. The need for active intervention on race issues was particularly evident in Birmingham, where immigration control committees were set up in Handsworth, West Bromwich, and Smethwick. The last became a byword for racism when the Conservative candidate won in the general election of 1964 after a blatantly racist (though unofficial) campaign which he refused to condemn. In looking back on that period Ludmer wrote: When people ask "How did Hitler do it?" the answer is to look at Smethwick and the way people were swept up in a tide of carefully manipulated racial hatred. ['Searchlight']
The formation of the National Socialist Movement in 1962 was a harbinger of fascism's new role as a mass movement; this was taken a step further with the founding of the National Front, in 1967. Ludmer became involved with Searchlight Associates, a body of individuals set up to provide journalists with research material on the extreme right. In the late 1960s he resigned from the Communist Party for its failure to respond sufficiently to working-class racism, and devoted increasing time to anti-racist activity. He became a hero of the Asian community in the midlands when he played a leading role in strikes at Mansfield Hosiery in Loughborough and Imperial Typewriters in Leicester, where National Front activists were promoting racial disunity among the workforce.
From 1973 Ludmer worked full time as a freelance journalist. He collaborated with Gerry Gable in 1974 to produce 'A Well Oiled Nazi Machine', a booklet exposing the nature of the National Front, the title taken from the words of one of the party's leaders. He played a leading role in launching 'Searchlight' magazine in 1975, and served first as managing editor then as full-time editor. The magazine became the culmination of his life's work, crude early issues developing into an authoritative international monthly journal exposing the British far right and their links with terror networks abroad. Searchlight exposed the illegal and anti-social activities of leading fascists and, most importantly, the direct ideological links between the Nazis of the 1930s and the National Front who presented themselves as an anti-immigration pressure group. For years no fascist candidate could stand for election without Ludmer providing the media with material exposing their extremism or criminality.
Anti-fascist work, while never comfortable, became more dangerous as organized skinhead gangs were recruited to the ranks of the neo-Nazis. Ludmer often suffered attack and abuse but was never intimidated. In the late 1970s he helped to found the Anti-Nazi League, which introduced a generation of young people to anti-fascist activity. He masterminded the translation of a Jewish experience into a common British one. As the obituary in his own magazine stated, his commitment was not only that of a young Jew horrified by what had been done to his people, "for him racism was indivisible, and what had happened to the Jews in Nazi Germany could equally well happen to West Indians and Asians in post-war Britain". ['Searchlight'] The fact that such a belief became the mainstream accepted wisdom with regard to Britain's post-war fascist groups was due in no small measure to Ludmer. He suffered a stroke in February 1980 and returned to work after what was thought to be a full recovery, but had a heart attack and died at his home in Birmingham on 14 May 1981. He was buried in a Birmingham Jewish cemetery.

1927 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Huge demonstrations take place around the world against the imminent execution of Sacco and Vanzetti. In Paris, a heavily policed procession which is joined by Luigia Vanzetti, sister of Bartolomeo, brings together more than 100,000 people. There is a call for a 24-hour strike for tomorrow (Monday).

[E] 1937 - Monika Ertl (d. 1973), German member of the armed political underground movement in Germany and Bolivia, born. The daughter of Hans Ertl, cameraman during the Nazi era for Leni Riefenstahl and Ernst Rommel, Monika moved to Bolivia in 1952 when her father brought the family over from Germany. After a brief marriage, she became involved with the survivors of Che Guevara's routed guerrilla movement, finally joining the underground with the Ejército de Liberación Nacional de Bolivia. In Germany, she became known as 'Che Guevara's avenger' following her assassination of Colonel Roberto 'Toto' Quintanilla Pereira in Hamburg, where he was the Bolivian consul (Quintanilla had been responsible for the cutting off of Guevara's hands for later gfingerprint identification). She was eventually ambushed and killed by Bolivian security forces on May 12, 1973 in El Alto (in La Paz) where she was reorganising the ELN. According to Régis Debray she was also preparing the abduction of the former Gestapo Chief of Lyon Klaus Barbie to bring him to Chile and consequently to justice in France where he was wanted as a Nazi war criminal.

1937 - Valentina Kolosova [Валентина Колосова] (Valentina Pavlovna Popova [Валентина Павловна Попова]; b. 1881), Russian revolutionary, member of the S-R Combat Organisation (Боева́я организа́ция), is executed by firing squad after being convicted by a Stalinist court of counter-revolutionary activities. [see: Jan. 7]

1937 - Henri Lebasque (b. 1865), French Post-Impressionist painter and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Sep. 25]

1944 - July 20 Plotters: The trial and sentencing to death of Field Marshal Erwin von Witzleben, First Lieutenant Peter Graf Yorck von Wartenburg, Colonel-General Erich Hoepner, Lieutenant General Paul von Hase, Major General Hellmuth Stieff, Captain Karl Friedrich Klausing, Lieutenant Colonel Robert Bernardis, and First Lieutenant Albrecht von Hagen takes place in Berlin’s Plotzensee Prison.

1950 - Adriana Faranda, Italian former member of the Brigate Rosse, who was involved in the kidnapping of Aldo Moro, born.

1952 - Benigno Andrade García aka 'Foucellas' (b. 1908), Spanish locksmith, anarchist militant and anti-Francoist guerilla, is executed by garrote at 7 am in the provincial prison of A Coruña, Galicia. [see: Oct. 22]

[C] 1963 - Ramón Vila Capdevila (b. 1908), also known as 'Caracremada' (Caraquemada, Burnt-face), 'Jabalí' (the Wild Boar), or 'Capitán Raymond', famed anti-fascist guerrilla is shot down and purposely left to die following a shoot-out with the Guardia Civil. [see: Apr. 2]

[1971 - Gastown Riot / Battle of Maple Tree Square: Police attack a Yippie smoke-in.

1976 - Manuel Monleón Burgos (b. 1904), Spanish painter, illustrator, poster artist, photomontagist, naturist, Esperantist and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 23]

1985 - Blanca Luz Brum Elizalde (d. 1985), Uraguayan poet, writer and one-time communist fellow traveller, dies. [see: May 31]

[A] 1995 - Due to international pressure, state of Pennsylvania announces a stay of its planned Aug. 17 execution of political prisoner Mumia Abu-Jamal.

1999 - Three people in Pisa associated with the animal and earth liberation journal 'Il Silvestre' arrested and charged with firebombings of companies.

2012 - Francisco Carrasquer Launed (b. 1915), Aragonese poet, writer, essayist, translator, free-thinker and anarchist, dies. Older brother Felix Carrasquer Launed.
[E] 1643 - The first of a series of women's peace demonstrations with women wearing white ribbons in their hats, who marched on the House of Commons to demand an end to the war takes place, leading to clashes with male on-lookers. "[A] multitude of women described elsewhere" as two to three hundred oyster-wives, 'taking example by the unlawful and tumultuary proceedings of the former faction. . - came to the very doore of the House and there cryed . . . Peace, Peace, and interrupted divers of the members both as they went in and as they came out of the House,' and threatened violence to those members who were enemies to peace" - Sir Simonds D'Ewes.
"On Tuesday morning a large group of women came and. demanded, peace .The next day they came again in a far greater number... they became unruly and many women were killed by the trained guard." - Thomas Knyvett MP in a letter to his wife.
[’s-revolt Read.pdf]

1766 - Huelga* de Real del Monte [Real del Monte Strike]: Three Mexican silver miners, organisers of a petition to the Viceroy of New Spain requesting improvements in their working conditions and 'partido' payments are arrested and imprisoned by Royal authorities, who proclaimed that they would be held until the strike was ended. [expand]

1835 - Maria Maddalena De Lellis, aka 'la Padovella' (d. 1908), notorious Italian brigante, who was a member of Andrea Santaniello's gang, as well as his lover, born. She had a prominent role in the band, especially as she was its only literate member.

[DD/F] 1842 - 1842 General Strike / Plug Plot (or Plug Drawing) Riots: The 'Grand National Turn-Out' begins as workers left their factories and began to move from workplace to workplace, "turning out" other workers to join them. In all of these actions, women and child workers marched alongside men. Marchers were for the most part orderly and serious, although mild fighting did occur when police and managers attempted to guard factory gates. This trend continued throughout the campaign - workers typically did not seek violence in their demonstrations, but did not hesitate to fight when provoked by soldiers or police.
The derogatory name often given to these events - the "plug plot" in fact derives from this time; as the workers closed down a factory they would frequently remove the boiler plug to prevent it restarting.
As the strike went on, the workers took control. Factories were permitted to operate only with the permission of "committees of public safety" that now began to emerge to co-ordinate action. These committees gave permission, for example, for work to be completed so that goods would not spoil or for humanitarian reasons. In one case, permission was granted to keep water pumps operating without which coal mines would have flooded.

1849 - [O.S. Jul. 27] Vera Ivanovna Zasulich (Ве́ра Ива́новна Засу́лич; d. 1919), Russian revolutionary, anarchist and then a Marxist and Menshevik, born. Involved with radical politics as a student, she was arrested and imprisoned in May 1869 for her contacts with the nihilist Sergey Nechayev (Серге́й Неча́ев). Released in 1873, she joined the Kievan Insurgents, a revolutionary group of Mikhail Bakunin's anarchist supporters, becoming a respected leader of the movement. On Feb. 5 1878, Zasulich attempts to shoot General Fedor Trepov (Фёдор Тре́пов), prefect of police of St Petersburg, in revenge for his having ordered the flogging of Alexei Bogolyubov (Алексей Боголюбов), a political prisoner who had refused to remove his cap in his presence. Trepov was wounded and Zasulich acquitted at her trial after having effectively put Trepov on trial. Zasulich fled to Switzerland to avoid further arrest and there converted to Marxism, later becoming involved in the founding of 'Iskra' (Искры) and the Mensheviks, supporting the Russian war effort during WWI and opposing the October Revolution of 1917.
'Vera, or the Nihilists' (1880) by Oscar Wilde is allegedly based upon the story of her life.

1854 - Conflicte de les Selfactines: The newly appointed Captain General of Barcelona, Manuel Concha, held a meeting with the leaders of the Societats Obreres, out of which came a workers' manifesto (signed by 19 of them) calling an end to the strike, and suaranteeing pardons for all workers convicted during the strike and the opening of a period for negotiation between the manufacturers and workers. The following day the Madrid government quietly revoked the order banning 'selfactines' but, out of fear of the reaction amongst the workers, did not make the ban public until May 1855. [see: Jul. 2]

[D] 1870 - Failed Attempt at Insurrection in Marseille: 40,000 people, including Gaston Crémieux, Charles Alérini, Combes, Naquet, Brochier, Rouvier, Matheron, etc., demonstrate outside the prefecture. The arrest of Alfred Naquet causes a surge of anger and immediately forms a central revolutionary Action Committee, the crowd soon occupies the mayor and members of the Committee are brought to power by popular acclaim. The Committee, consisting mainly of members of the International and some radical Republicans, and chaired by Gaston Cremieux, express the desire of the people to proclaim a Republic and establish a revolutionary Commune.
Unfortunately, a squad of police dispersing the crowd and, after a brief exchange of gunfire, capture the Committee members. The prisoners, numbering about thirty, are locked in Fort St. John and crammed into a stinking dungeon. They later face a council of war and are imprisoned.

1876 - Princess Sophia Alexandra Duleep Singh (d. 1948), English Sikh suffragette and feminist of Punjabi descent, who was a member of the Women's Social and Political Union and played a leading role in the Women's Tax Resistance League, born. Daughter of Maharaja Duleep Singh and a one-time debutante, her godmother Queen Victoria granted to her a grace and favour apartment at Faraday House in Hampton Court, outside of which she often sold copies of 'The Suffragate'. Her status provided her with a great deal of protection and despite all her aggressive activism as a suffragette, she was never arrested but was fined on a number of occassions for not having dog licenses and refusing to pay previous fines. She also maintained contacts with the leaders of the Indian nationalist movement, including Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Sarala Devi Chaudhurani and Lala Lajpat Rai.

[A] 1879 - Emiliano Zapata (d. 1919), Mexican revolutionary hero and anarquista, born. "Tierra y libertad". [expand]

1882 - Johannes Nohl (d. 1963), German writer, anarchist pupil of Otto Gross, lover of Erich Mühsam and later one of Hermann Hesse’s analysts, born.

1886 - Émile Aubin (aka Marat; d. unknown), French anarchist and anti-militarist propagandist and songwriter, born. Author of several revolutionary songs under the pseudonym Marat.

1890 - The trial of those arrested during the May Day events in Vienna opens in Grenoble. [expand]

1897 - Anarchist Michele Angiolillo assassinates Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, the Spanish Prime Minister, who in May had ordered the execution of five anarchists held responsible for a bombing in Barcelona the year before. He is quickly tried and executed on the 20th.

1903 - [O.S. Jul. 26] Ilinden Uprising [Илинденско въстание]: After three days of fighting and a siege, the town of Smilevo is captured by Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) insurgents.

1911 - Revolución Mexicana: Gen. Victoriano Huerta sent to Cuernavaca with 1,000 federal troops and forces Emiliano Zapata to demobilise part of his peasant army.

1918 - Michel Zévaco (b. 1860), French journalist, popular novelist, publisher, film director, anti-clerical revolutionary socialist and anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 1]

1918 - American Grover Bergdoll dodges the draft in 1917 and then is arrested two years later. Having been court-martialed, and sentenced to five years in prison, he convinces his guards to look for treasure - $150,000 in gold buried in the mountains in Virginia - and escapes. He makes it to Germany and evades capture until 1939.

1920 - Workers throughout Britain stage demonstrations against planned intervention in Russia; trade union leaders threaten a General Strike.

1926 - Lizzie Holmes (Sarah Elizabeth Mary Hunt; b. 1850), American music teacher, seamstress, labour organiser, journalist, socialist and militant anarchist, dies. [see: Dec. 21]

[BB] 1936 - The supposed date of the death of the mysterious Renée Dunan (b. 1892) prolific French author of erotic historical, fantasy and science fiction novels and stories, critic, poet, Dadaist, Feminist, anarchist, naturiste and pacifist; used diverse pseudonyms: Louise Dormienne, Marcelle La Pompe, M. de Steinthal, Monsieur de Steinthal, Renée Camera, Chiquita, Ethel Mac Singh, Luce Borromée, Laure Héron, A. de Sainte-Henriette, Ky, Ky C [the pseudonyms Spaddy and Jean Spaddy once attributed to Dunan are actuually by Johannès Gros]. Collaborated in the magazines of 'Crapouillot' and 'Le Sourire'. Book critic for 'Rouge et le Noir'
In the 1940s, a certain Georges Dunan claimed to be the author of books signed by Renée Dunan [confirmed by Jean-Pierre Weber], who is believed to have died in Nice in December 1944. However, the jury is still out on the verdict and the best evidence is that the works are a collaborative effort of a Renée and Georges Dunan of 86, Boulevard Voltaire in Paris.
Another version of her biography would have it her her real name was Marcelle Lapompe, a one-time prostitute or madame. [NB: birth and death dates unknown]

1940 - Romania introduces anti-Jewish measures restricting education and employment.

1942 - María del Milagro Pérez Lacruz aka 'La Jabalina' (The Wild Sow)(b. 1917), Spanish anarchist and member of Juventudes Libertarias, who fought with the Iron Column, is shot by firing squad alongside 6 male comrades in Huerta Oeste, Valencia. Her life was the basus for the novel 'Si Me Llegas a Olvidar' (If I Get to Forget; 2013) by Rosana Corral-Márquez. [see: May 3]

1944 - July 20 Plotters: Lieutenant Colonel Robert Bernardis, First Lieutenant Albrecht von Hagen, Lieutenant General Paul von Hase, Colonel-General Erich Hoepner, Friedrich Karl Klausing, Major General Helmuth Stieff, Field Marshal Erwin von Witzleben, and First Lieutenant Peter Graf Yorck von Wartenburg are hanged naked at Berlin’s Plotzensee Prison on thin cord (some sources say piano wire) suspended from meathooks whilst being filmed for Hitler's later edification.

1944 - Robert Bernardis (b. 1908), Austrian resistance fighter involved in the July 20 Plot to kill Adolf Hitler, is tried and sentenced to death in the Volksgerichtshof (People's Court), and executed the same day in Berlin-Plötzensee prison. [see: Aug. 7]

1963 - Great Train Robbery in Cheddington, UK. A heist of £2.6 million.

[B] 1982 - Ferre Grignard (Fernand Grignard; b. 1939), Belgium anarchist songwriter, skiffle artist and protest singer, dies in abject poverty of throat cancer. [see: Mar. 13]

[C] 1999 - Gino Bibbi (b. 1899), Italian engineer, anarchist and militant anti-fascist, who became a Republican fighter pilot during the Spanish Civil war and muntions designer, dies at the age of 100. He was cremated with a red and black scarf tied round his neck. [see: Feb. 5]

2006 - Victor Massey, 54, died at King’s Mill Hospital, Nottinghamshire, while being treated with powerful painkillers for pancreatitis. He had locked himself in a shower room and threatened police, but died following the "inappropriate use" of restraint and CS spray.

2014 - The Dzerzhinsky District Court of St. Petersburg turn down an Investigative Committee petition for a psychiatric evaluation of conceptual artist and political activist Pyotr Pavlensky following his February 23, 2014 performance piece 'Liberty', a “small-scale reconstruction of Maidan" on Malo-Konyushenny (Tripartite) Bridge near the Church on Spilled Blood in central St. Petersburg.

2015 - Ada Grossi (b. 1917), Italian socialist and anti-fascist broadcaster, dies in her home town of Naples. Persceuted, her family fled Italy in 1926 for Argentina and, with the fascist uprising in 1936, she went to Spain to support the Republican cause as a radio announcer in Barcelona on Union Radio Barcelona and Radio Spagna Libera, broacasting not just to the anti-fascist side but to the Nationalists too, encouraging the 80,000 Italian soldiers sent by Mussolini to desert, as well as serving as a nurse with her mother, the opera singer Maria Olandese. Following the fall of Barcelona, she fled to France and was interned in Argelers concentration camp and, upon her release, worked as a nurse. She returned to the airwave in 1944, when she helped found the clandestine anti-fascist radio station Radio Libertà in Italy, and on which she earned the name 'la voce del popolo', informing the partisans, as a non-military radio station, on the events of the war and, at the same time, raising awareness of the threats posed by fascism, both in Italy and in Spain. Despite the lack of personnel and equipment, and the statute that it would have to close immediately after the fall of Mussolini, it continued broadcasting beyond April 25. At the end of the was, she married a Spanish doctor, Enrique Guzman, and lived in Madrid until his death, and then returned to her native Naples.
According to some historians, Ada Grossi was the inspiration for Article 21 of the Italian Constitution concerning freedom of expression.
[D] 1792 - Delegates from all quarters of Paris assemble at the Hôtel de Ville during the last hours of August 9th to form a new insurrectionary Commune. [expand]

1842 - 1842 General Strike / Plug Plot (or Plug Drawing) Riots: The strike reached Manchester, the epicenter of the industrial region. 20,000 workers marched through the streets in a peaceful demonstration of strength. The Commissioner of Police, Sir Charles Shaw, strongly desired to disperse the ‘mob’ violently, but the city magistrate apprehended the political danger of the situation and convinced Shaw not to take action.
Once the strike reached Manchester, workers rapidly spread unrest to the rest of the region. Within days, the strikers shut down every factory within fifty miles of Manchester. Workers from each industry set up “trade conferences” in each city to decide what, exactly, they wanted out of the strike. Each conference debated the crucial question of whether to steer the strike firmly in the Chartist direction or to remain narrowly focused on wage issues. Local-level strike leaders formed strike committees to negotiate arrangements between shop-owners and hungry labourers. Despite some success in procuring bread for the strikers, food stress remained a huge problem throughout the strike. Workers respected the sanctity of private property and refused to raid farms to feed themselves. Strike committees actually permitted some factories to temporarily reopen in order to make use of perishable materials. Once the materials were expended, workers walked out again. All of these measures demonstrate that, although the Charter contained elements of class warfare, the strikers were conscious of public relations and strove to present a respectable face, the best to remedy their miserable situation.

1843 - Rebecca Riots: Rebecca rioters swoop on the Walk gatehouse toll in Llandeilo, destroying it and then vanishing into the night before the troops could even get out of bed.. The following account of the affect Rebecca had on Llandeilo is provided by William Samuel in 'Llandeilo Present and Past' (1868): "Our sires, and even ourselves, have vivid recollection of the time when the Cawdor Arms Hotel was the head-quarter of a troop of her Majesty''s fourth regiment of light dragoons – kept ever on the qui vive by the "Flying Dutchman", the invisible Rebecca – nevertheless, here, there, and everywhere, like Sampson at Gaza carrying off the gates, but suddenly, rapidly, and no more seen than a clap of thunder, and infinitely less audible. Before the trumpeter could rouse to horse, or indeed before he could be roused himself, the deed was done, and behold, all around was still as night long before the cavalry could come to the charge – the assailants had not only been dismissed but had dispersed; many in their beds, the rest wending their way unconcerned in safety to their homesteads. The dragoons, thus constantly done, had only to face about and go to bed, too. The horse having failed, recourse was had to the foot; and the present vicarage became the barracks of a portion of the 41st regiment for about one year. Llandilo thus for nearly two years was a military station, and had for the time ten percent added to its population, the addition consisting, of course, of gentlemen of independent means so far as resources of the locality were concerned. Therefore the riots, as they were called, was a wind that brought much money to Llandilo."

1853 - Michael Schwab (d. 1898), German-American labour organiser, born. Served over six years in prison for charges relating to the anarchist Haymarket affair before he was pardoned in 1893. However, he was to die from tuberculosis contracted whilst in prison.

[E] 1867 - Evelina Haverfield (Evilena Scarlett; d. 1920), Scottish nurse, militant suffragette in the WSPU, aid worker and founder Women’s Emergency Corps, born. Arrested for her WSPU activities on numerous occasions, on November 18, 1910, she was charged with assaulting a policeman by hitting him in the mouth. In court it was reported that Haverfield had said during the assault that she had not hit him hard enough and that "next time I will bring a revolver".

[B] 1888 - Charles Cros (b. 1842), French poet, humourous writer and inventor in the fields of photography, the telegraph and the gramophone, dies. [see: Oct. 1]

1898 - Vassil Ikonomov (d. 1925), Bulgarian anti-fascist anarchist guerilla fighter and an important figure in the Bulgarian movement, born. [expand]

1913 - In Seattle Emma Goldman, Ben Reitman and another publicist are arrested while distributing leaflets in advance of a lecture and charged with "peddling bills without a license". They are released on five dollars bail.

[F] 1920 - The British Trades Union Congress appoint a Council of Action to arrange a General Strike if Britain declares war on the USSR.

1927 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Protests and strikes against the imminent execution of Sacco and Vanzetti scheduled for August 10 continue around the world.

1929 - Greva Minerilor din Lupeni [Lupeni Miners' Strike]: On August 9, 1929, the coffins with the bodies of those killed were taken to the cemetery in carts usually used at the dung truck. During the burial, the crowd of locals were forced back from the cemetery by several hundred yards and only close family were allowed to attend. Four hours after the burial, an infantry company still guarded the cemetery with its guns in firing position.
Twenty five strikers, some of them seriously injured, were declared missing. The law enforcement officers felt they had fled to the mountains and searched for a few days. Until Aug. 9, arrests continued, and troop trains continued to arrive in the region.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: A Sindicato Nacional de Teléfonos member is shot dead whilst playing cards in a bar.

1933 - Revolución del 33 / Cuban General Strike: Following the wave of strikes and protests that had begun on July 27th and had garnered widespread support across the country, Cuba's military decides to switch to the side of the people and placed Havana under military control on August 9. Without even the army to support him, the dictator Gerardo Machado resigned on August 11 and left the country.

1939 - Ceferí Llop Estupiñà (b. 1916), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, member of the FIJL and CNT, dies. [see: Aug. 16]

1942 - The first mass deportation of Jews to the gas chambers as 10,000 Jews are deported from the Boryslaw ghetto (now Borislav, Ukraine) to Belsen extermination camp.

1943 - Kléber Nadaud (b. 1895), French anarchist militant, dies. [see: Sep. 17]

[EE] 1956 - Approximately 20 000 women from all over the country take to the streets of Pretoria – many carrying the children of their white bosses on their backs – to stage a peaceful march to the Union Buildings to petition against the 'pass laws', a proposed amendments to the Urban Areas Act of 1950, legislation that required African persons to carry special identification documents, the 'pass', which curtailed their freedom of movement during the apartheid era. They left petitions containing more than 100,000 signatures at prime minister J.G. Strijdom's office door and stood silently outside his door for 30 minutes. The song 'Wathint'Abafazi Wathint'imbokodo!' (Now you have touched the women, you have struck a rock) was composed specially for the ocsasion, from which the phrase "you strike a woman, you strike a rock" has come to represent the strength of the women's struggle in South Africa.
South Africa's National Women's Day, inaugurated in 1994, commemorates this protest.

1962 - Hermann Hesse (b. 1877), German poet and novelist, dies. Author of 'Der Steppenwolf' (1927), whose central character Harry Haller is invited to attend an: "Anarchist Evening at the Magic Theatre, For Madmen Only, Price of Admission Your Mind." [see: Jul. 2]

[C] 1962 - George Lincoln Rockwell, leader of the American Nazi Party, is deported from England on a flight to the USA. He had been in the country as the "guest" of Colin Jordan’s British National Socialist Party at a secret rally and neo-Nazi camp in Gloucestershire.

[A] 1971 - Emergency powers of internment without trial are imposed in Northern Ireland by the British state.

1977 - Additional charge under Section 1 of the Official Secrets Act against Duncan Campbell, for collecting information. [ABC Trial]

1982 - Yekaterina Stanislavovna Samutsevich [Екатерина Станиславовна Самуцевич], Russian computer programmer, video director, political activist, and ex-member of the anti-Putinist punk rock group Pussy Riot [Пусси Райот] and the street art group Voina [Война](War), born.

2004 - 14 year old Adam Rickwood, the youngest person to die in custody in recent UK history, is found hanged in a privately-run Hassockfield secure training centre. Serco prison guards were found to have illegally used restraint techniques on Adam.

2011 - Mark Duggan, an unarmed 29-year-old black Londoner, is shot twice by police in Tottenham after they stopped the minicab in which he was travelling. That evening, police behaviour at a vigil in Tottenham that evening precipitates a riot, that quickly sweeps across the capital.

2014 - The fatal shooting of unarmed 18-year-old black teenager Michael Brown by a 28-year-old police officer, Darren Wilson, in Ferguson, Missouri takes place. Wilson fired 12 shots, 2 whilst still sitting inside a police cruiser, with Brown allegedly leaning in through the car's window. Seven of those shots hit Brown who the police claimed was reportedly walking in the middle of the street and matched the description that had been circulated of a man involved in a nearby robbery. The entire incident took 90 seconds [Brown's body was left lying on the street for 4 hours]. However, it later emerged that the 2 cops did not know about the 'strong-arm' robbery.
The incident provoked 2 weeks of protests and rioting in Ferguson, which continued sporadically over the following months and errupted into full-scale rioting again on November 24 following a grand jury decision not to indict Wilson in the shooting death of Brown.
1498 - Henry VII of England rewards John Cabot for the discovery of Canada with £10.

[D] 1792 - Journée Révolutionnaire du 10 Août 1792 [Insurrection of August 10, 1792]: One of the defining events in the history of the French Revolution, which resulted in the fall of the French monarchy after the storming the Tuileries Palace by the National Guard of the Insurrectional Paris Commune and revolutionary fédérés from Marseilles and Brittany.

1842 - 1842 General Strike / Plug Plot (or Plug Drawing) Riots: "On Wednesday, the 10th instant, a body of men and women, computed at six and seven thousand, made their appearance in New Mills, Derbyshire, and turned out all the hands from the mills; from there they proceeded to Mr. Walsh's print-works, at Furnis, and ordered all hands out. Mr. Walsh entreated them to let him work one day more, to complete an order, but they refused, drew the fire from under the boilers, let off the steam, and forced him to stop his works; from there they proceeded to Messrs. Wright and Hodgson's cotton mills, at Bugsworth, and turned all the hands out; from there to Bugsworth Basin, where they turned out all the lime-burners and stone-getters at Christ quarry, belonging to the Peak Forest Canal Company; from there they proceeded to the paper-works at Whitehall, near Chapel-en-le-Frith, belonging to Messrs. Ingam, Barnes, and Hughes. Mr. Ingam wished to know their object. One of the turn-outs explained that they would have the same rate of wages as they received in 1840, and that they would have it before they went to work again. By this time night had approached, and they returned by the same route to New Mills. Early on Thursday morning they re-assembled, and proceeded to Bridgham-green Mills, belonging to Mr. Riley, and turned the hands out; from there to Chapel-en-le-Frith, where, also, they stopped all kinds of works, and also stopped the carts on the road; from there they went to Mr. Kirk's iron-works, and compelled all his men to leave work; from there they proceeded to Blackhole limestone quarries, and stopped all the men at work belonging to Peak Forest Canal Company; and from there to Doveholes limekilns, which they stopped also. On Friday, the mob having heard that Mr. Walsh's works were resumed, proceeded to the Furnis print-works with all haste, let his reservoir off, and did a great deal of damage. All the collieries have been stopped."
'The Derby Mercury', Wednesday, August 24, 1842

1860 - Jules Leroux (d. 1926), French anarchist co-opertivist activist, born.

1878 - Bruno Alfred Döblin (d. 1957), German Expressionist novelist, essayist, doctor, and Landauerian Christian socialist with a strong affiliation with anarchist thought, especially Kropotkin (though he was never active), born. Alfred Döblin's oeuvre encompasses over a dozen novels ranging in genre from historical novels to science fiction to novels about the modern metropolis; several dramas, radio plays (he was amongst the first to utilise the new medium), and screenplays; a true crime story; a travel account; two book-length philosophical treatises; scores of essays on politics, religion, art, and society; and numerous letters. Many of his works, including the best known for his novel 'Berlin Alexanderplatz' (1929), his science fiction novel 'Berge Meere und Giganten' (Mountains Seas and Giants; 1924) and the four part 'November 1918, Eine Deutsche Revolution' (November 1918: A German Revolution; 1934-45)[Vol. I: 'Bürger und Soldaten' (Citizens and Soldiers), Vol. II 'Verratenes Volk' (A People Betrayed), Vol. III, 'Heimkehr der Fronttruppen' (Return of the Frontline Troops), and Vol. IV, 'Karl und Rosa' (Karl and Rosa)] clearly display his anarchist sympathies.
In 1910, Döblin became involved with the newly founded Expressionist journal 'Der Sturm', contributing numerous essays and literary pieces, including his early novel 'Der Schwarze Vorhang' (The Black Curtain; 1912). He also became part of the circle that included Erich Mühsam, who, along with Gustav Landauer's Christian anarchism, greatly influenced his political outlook. In order to avoid conscription in WWI, Döblin volunteered in December 1914 as a doctor and, despite sharing the widespread early enthusiasm for the war common among many German intellectuals, he soon became avowedly anti-war. His politicisation continued in the immediate post-war period, writing a series of satirical and polemical political essays under the pseudonym 'Linke Poot', some later published in 'Der Deutsche Maskenball' (The German Masked Ball; 1921). On March 12 1919, his sister Meta also died after being injured during skirmishes between the Spartacists and nationalist troops in Berlin.
In late 1918, Döblin joined the Independent Social Democratic Party (USPD), which ideologically stood between Social Democratic Party (SPD) and the Communist party (KPD) of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg and later joining the SPD when the USPD dissolved in 1921. Never an active member, he resigned from the SPD in 1928 "out of protest against bureaucracy and bossism", in his own words.
In 1925 he also joined the Gruppe 1925, a discussion circle of progressive and communist intellectuals including Bertolt Brecht, Johannes R. Becher, Ernst Bloch, Hermann Kasack, Rudolf Leonhard, Walter Mehring, Robert Musil, Joseph Roth, Ernst Toller, Kurt Tucholsky and Ernst Weiß, among others - Brecht went on to consider Döblin one of his most important influences.
In Döblin's 'Berlin Alexanderplatz', one of the classic Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) novels, is the story of Franz Biberkopf, an ex-convict, who falls in with a gang of burglars. In Book 6 he is involved in a discussion with an old anarchist (having resumed his old life as a pimp and petty criminal and gone along to the meeting to be disruptive and have fun). He expounds his vaguely Nietzschean individualism via: "A man's got only himself, just himself. I look after myself. I'm a self-provider, I am!" Which the old anarchist (who, it has been argued, is Döblin's mouthpiece in the book) counters with the need for solidarity: "And I've told you that three dozen times already: you can't do anything alone. We need a fighting organisation".
Originally projected to have a second volume, it was never written as Döblin was forced into exile in 1933 with the Nazi accession to power.
"A comradely association of free men, forms the natural basic cell of all society, the small community; there one must begin. . . . That's what Prince Kropotkin had long known and taught, what he learned from the Swiss watchmakers in the Jurabund, in political jargon: syndicalism, anarchism"

1879 - Paul-Eugène Trouillier (d. unknown), French gardener, labourer, itinerant singer, anarchist and anti-militarist, born.

1882 - [N.S. Aug. 22] Henrietta Karlovna Derman [Генрие́тта Ка́рловна Де́рман (ru.) / Henriete Matilde Dermane (lv.)] (nee Abel [Абеле (ru.) / Ābele (lv); d. 1954), Latvian librarian and one of the country's first revolutionaries, who spent the last 15 years of her life in Soviet gulags, born. [see: Aug. 20]

[B] 1884 - Panaït Istrati (Ghérasim Istrati; d. 1935), Romanian-French writer (short stories and novels) and revolutionary communist, and later libertarian, born. Nicknamed the Maxim Gorky of the Balkans. The title of his novel 'Kyra Kyralina' (1923) was appropriated by Lola Iturbe as her pseudonym, and the story of his time in the Sviet Union and his resulting disillusionment with Stalinist is told in 'La Véritable tragédie de Panaït Istrati' (2013) by Eleni Samios-Kazantzaki, who was one of his travelling companions during that period. [expand]

1889 - Zofia Kossak-Szczucka (d. 1968), Polish writer and World War II resistance fighter, who co-founded the wartime Polish organisation Żegota, set up to assist Polish Jews to escape the Holocaust, born. In 1943 she was arrested by the Germans and sent to Auschwitz Concentration Camp, but survived the war.

1912 - The first issue of 'El Libertario' is published in Gijon, replacing 'Acción Libertaria' which ceased publication earlier on in the year.

1916 - Elba Piñeyro (d. 2007), Argentine textile worker and anarchist militant, born.

1917 - Huelga General Revolucionaria [Revolutionary General Strike] / Vaga General Espanyola [Spanish General Strike]: Despite the agreements made with the CNT contained in the 'Pacto de Zaragoza' and the the 'Manifiesto Conjunto de la UGT y la CNT' / 'Manifest Conjunt de la UGT i la CNT' (Joint Manifesto of the UGT and the CNT), the latter setting out the joint plan by the two organisations to call for a general strike, a countrywide strike on the railways begins, called by UGT and PSOE's joint strike committee. The socialist strike committee had also agreed to independantly call a general strike for three days later on August 13, days before the planned date by the joint strike committee. The strike spreads rapidly over the following days, as workers in many areas joined the strike movement in advance of August 13, quickly taking on the guise of the planned for revolutionary general strike in many areas of the country. Activities in almost all major industrial, urban and mining areas: Vizcaya, Madrid, Valencia, Zaragoza, La Coruña, Asturias, León, Rio Tinto, etc., ground to a halt. In Catalonia, the move was widely supported in Badalona, Terrassa, Manresa, Mataró and other Catalan cities. In Barcelona street clashes took and barricaded were constructed, and in Sabadell a Republic was proclaimed and savagely repressed.
The Socialists had believed that, as in Russia in February 1917, that they could make common cause with the military, whose clandestine Juntas de Defensa (Defence Boards) – a sort of military pressure group who in 1916 had demanded reforms of the civil power, including wage rises – had been repressed by the government of Manuel García Prieto in June that year. However, the Juntas de Defensa proved to still be part of the established order, and not only did the soldiers not form Soviets with the workers, but in general obeyed their bosses, mounting a bloody repression against the workers. The unofficial Assemblea de Parlamentaris (Parliamentary Assembly), which had been set up to try and get the Cortes reopened and had in June affirmed its support of the independence of Catalonia, denounced the strike, intially by disregarding it and later openly condemning it.

1923 - Krwawego Piątku [Bloody Friday] / Strajk Robotników w Raciborzu [Racibórz Workers' Strike]: Workers' protests against hyperinflation and lack of basic food items result in riots in Raciborz, four people were killed and many others were injured.

1924 - Giacomo Matteotti (b. 1885), Italian socialist member of parliament and prominent opponent of the Fascist regime, is murdered by fascist thugs. [see: May 22]

1937 - The Council of Aragon's agricultural self-management is forcibly disbanded by the Republican government.

1942 - The Germans initiated a two-week long Aktion to annihilate the inhabitants of the Krzemieniec Ghetto, setting fire to the remaining buildings to drive out those in hiding. Fifteen hundred able-bodied persons were dispatched to slave labour in Bialokrynica, where they later met their death. The vast majority of the ghetto inhabitants rounded up in the Aktion are taken in groups and murdered over trenches dug near the railway station, near a former army camp. Only 14 of the Kremenets community survived the Holocaust.

1944 - Strage di Piazzale Loreto [Piazzale Loreto Massacre]: At dawn, fifteen antifascist prisoners are taken from their cells in the San Vittore prison in Milan and loaded on a truck. They are Umberto Fogagnolo, one of the organizers of the general strike in March 1944, who was arrested for having tried to prevent a fascist inflicting a savage beating on a worker; Domenico Fiorani, a socialist who worked on clandestine newspapers and belonged to the Brigate Matteotti; Vitale Vertemati, a mechanic linked to various partisan groups; Giulio Casiraghi, a militant communist and engineer, who had returned from exile and was a radio operator, receive messages from London about airdrops of arms for the partisans; Tullio Galimberti , deserter and Gappista; Eraldo Soncini, militant socialist worker at Pirelli Bicocca and member of the 107ª Brigata Garibaldi (Squadre d'Azione Patriottica); Andrea Esposito, communist militant and partisan in the113th Garibaldi brigade; Andrea Ragni, partisan captured during an operation to recover weapons; Libero Temolo, militant communist and Squadre d'Azione Patriottica organiser; Emilio Mastrodomemico, GAP commander; Salvatore Principato, militant socialist and teacher, politically persecuted under fascism, who was arrested by the SS as a member of the Partito Socialista Italiano di Unità Proletaria and of the 33rd Matteotti Brigade; Renzo del Riccio, mechanic, socialist and anti-fascist partisan, who was arrested after having escaped deportation; Angelo Poletti, partisan at the Isotta Fraschini car factory and socialist militant; Vittorio Gasparini, operator of a clandestine OSS radio transmitter; and Gian Antonio Bravin, partisan and head of Group III of GAP.
At 06:10, the fifteen antifascists are executed by a firing squad of fascist Ettore Muti in the Piazzale Loreto. The massacre of Piazzale Loreto is perpetrated in retaliation for a bomb attack three days earlier against a German truck, which was parked in Viale Abruzzi. In the attack no German soldier was killed, but six Milan citizens were killed instead.
After the shooting the bodies of fifteen antifascists are left in the sun all day. A sign reading "Assassins" is placed next to them, and the Ettore Muti legionnaires remain to check that no one comes close, preventing the relatives from taking away the bodies, and as a continuing insult to the fallen. Only late in the evening, thanks to the mediation of Cardinal Schuster, were the bodies finally given to their families. On some corpses are found, hidden in the pockets of clothes and scribbled with uncertain writing on tiny pieces of paper, letters to family members and classmates, written a few moments before the shooting.

[F] 1946 - Strajk Dokerów w Porcie Gdańskim [Port of Gdańsk Dockers' Strike]: Around 2000 dock workers protesting poor working conditions outside the employment offices at Gdansk's Nowym Porcie (New Port) were confronted by three Public Security (Urzędy Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego) officers. One of them, fearing for his safety, fires on the crowd, killing one of the workers, Roman Hersztek. In retaliation, the workers caputured the senior officer and beat him to death. The other two UB men escaped with a severe beating. After the protests, the security forces threw up a cordon around the port but the protests continued until August 14. After the protests were suppressed, more than 500 dock workers were arrested and many others sacked in reprisals. On August 31, the District Court in Gdańsk handed down one life sentence, one 15 years imprisonment and two to 10 years of imprisonment, and at least a dozen port workers were deported.

1948 - Emmy Hennings (born Emma Maria Cordsen; b. 1885), German cabaret performer, poet, chanteause, dancer, puppeteer, painter and 'mystical anarchist', dies. [see: Jan. 17]

1948 - Former prominent Birminghan fascist Michael McLean defects from the Union Movement and together with 2 other UM defectors, Basil McClory and Charles Wegg-Prosser, launch the National Anti-Fascist League to campaign against Mosley's 'artificial' anti-semetism and pro-European politics. [see: Graham Macklin - 'Very Deeply Dyed in Black: Sir Oswald Mosley and the Resurrection of British Fascism after 1945' (2007)]

1956 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: As a reprisal for the FLN shootings of June 21-24, the former military intelligence officer in the SDECEE (Service de documentation extérieure et de contre-espionnage) and supporter of a French Algeria, with the assistance of the 'Ultra' pieds noirs terrorist group the Union Française Nord-Africaine, André Achiary plants a bomb in the Algiers Kasbah during the night of August 10th. It explodes, killing 73 Muslims and marks a turning point in the war in Algeria.

1960 - A Union Movement member was arrested for assaulting the Ghana High Commissioner.

[C] 1962 - The HQ of the National Socialist Movement is raided and searched by a dozen Special Branch officers. 12 pounds of sodium clorate, enough to produce explosives equal in blast power to more than 100 grenades if the chemical was mixed with sugar, is siezed from the building. Other premises including the homes of a number of NSM members are also raided.

[E] 1963 - Phoolan Devi ( फूलन देवी; d. 2001), Indian 'Bandit Queen' and later a Member of Parliament and assasssin's victim, born.

[A] 1975 - Prisoners' Justice Day originates in Canada's Millhaven penitentiary when prisoners there commemorate the first anniversary of the death of Eddie Nalon, who committed suicide while in solitary confinement in Millhaven's SHU. This first observance took the form of a hunger strike and day of mourning.

2005 - Gérard Tolck (b. 1943), Swiss painter, engraver, sculptor, editor, agitator and cultural anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 18]

2007 - Elba Piñeyro (b. 1916), Argentine tetxtile worker and anarchist militant, dies on her 91st birthday.

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Following yesterday's police killing of unarmed 18-year-old black teenager Michael Brown, a day of memorials began peacefully, but by the evening candlelight vigil looting of businesses, trashing of vehicles and confraontations with 150 local cops in riot gear from the mostly white police force. Some people began looting businesses, vandalizing vehicles, and confronting police officers who tried to block off access to several areas of the city. At least 12 businesses were looted or smashed up and a QuikTrip convenience store and gas station set on fire, leading to over 30 arrests.
1882 - [N.S. Aug. 23] Voline (Во́лин)(Vsévolod Mikhailovich Eikhenbaum or Eichenbaum [Все́волод Миха́йлович Эйхенба́ум]; d. 1945), Russian anarchist, Makhnovist revolutionary and historian, born. Author of 'Red Fascism' (1934), in which he compared Bolshevism to Fascism. In 1936, with André Prudhommeaux having gone to Spain, Volin took on he took over the editing of 'L’Espagne Antifasciste' (CNT-FAI-AIT), which later became 'L’Espagne Nouvelle' and, like Prudhommeaux, Volin denounced CNT-FAI participation in the Republican government. [expand]

1898 - In Brussels, a commissaire de police attempts to arrest anarchist Henri Willems at his home but it met by gunfire. Willems escapes, firing 22 times at the pursuing crowd and police. A young sculptor/carver and director since 1893 of the Belgian newspaper 'Le Libertaire', and subsequently banned by the police on February 20, 1894, following its publication of articles inciting civil disobedience whilst saluting the memory Auguste Vaillant. Arrested in early 1895, Willems was sentenced to two and a half years in prison for articles written in 'Le Libertaire' and in 'L'Antipatriote'.

1899 - Jindřich Štyrský (d. 1942), Czech painter , photographer, photomontagist, graphic designer, collagist, poet, Surrealist theorist and anarchist, born. He met and fell in love with the Surrealist artist, feminist and anarchist Toyen (Marie Čermínová), with whom he formed a close artistic collaboration for the rest of his life. Initially influenced by the Cubist, he gradually absorbed Surrealist tropes, becoming a member of the anarchist-influenced arts group Devětsil in 1923, and between 1928-29 the director of the Osvobozeného Divadla (Liberated Theatre), the group's drama wing, where he collaborated with Vítězslav Nezval (on a dance performance of his poetry collection 'Abeceda' (Alphabet)) among others, created stage designs (including for Jarry's 'Ubu Roi').
Štyrský and Toyen travelled to Paris in 1925, where they lived lived and worked together for three years. Štyrský's main activities at this time focused on his photography, his collages and photomontages, and his publications. His 'Erotika Revue' (1930–33) was illustrations by a wide range of well-known Czech artists, including Toyen, for whom the eroticisation of the world was a life-long theme, and who was one of the most uninhibited. She also contributed to the 6 volume series of erotic literature and illustration 'Edice 69' (Edition 69), which he founded in 1931. He also designed, often with Toyen, numerous book covers (he was one of the first to illustrate 'Maldoror') and also wrote studies of both Rimbaud and Marquis de Sade. [see also: 'Emilie Prichází Ke Mne Ve Snu' (Emilie Comes to Me in a Dream; 1933) in the final edition of 'Edice 69']
A member of the Spolku Výtvarných Umělců Mánes (the Association of Fine Artists) and associate member of the Surrealist group around André Breton and Paul Eluard, he and Toyen were founding members of the Skupiny Surrealistů v ČSR (Czech Surrealist Group) in Prague in 1934. In 1935, invited by the French Surrealists, Štyrský went back to Paris. There, he fell seriously ill, and had to return to Czechoslovakia. Štyrský and Toyan were forced underground during the Nazi occupation and Second World War, during which Surrealism as an underground movement flourished but during which Štyrský was also to die of a long-term heart condition.
[řich_Štyrskýů_v_ČSR styrsky]

1899 - Dario Cagno (d. 1943), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, born. [expand]

1905 - Radical Revolution of 1905 [Revolución de 1905]: Catalan labourer and anarchist sympathiser Salvador Planas i Virella attempts to shoot the Argentine President, Manuel Quintana, as his coach approaches the Casa Rosada. He fires his old pistol 3 times but the gun is defective and Quintana escapes unharmed.
He then turns the gun on himself but it again fails to work properly. He is arrested and, despite the allegations of mental instability by his lawyer, is sentenced to 10 years in prison for attempted murder and locked up in Las Heras prison. On January 6,1911, he and Francisco Solano Regis, serving 20 years for an assassination attempt on President José Figueroa Alcorta, escape through a tunnel and are never heard of again.

1906 - The first issue of the weekly 'L'Emancipateur' ,"Organe du Groupement Communiste Libertaire", is published in Stockel-Bois, near Brussels.

1917 - [N.S. Aug. 24] The first issue of 'Golos Truda' (The Voice of Labour) appears in Petrograd under banner of the Union of Anarcho-Syndicalist Propaganda, published by Voline upon his return from America. Edited by G.P. Maximov, it is shut down by the government in May 1918 and its successor 'Volny Golos Truda' (The Free Voice of Labour) is closed down after its fourth issue (September 16, 1918). [see: Aug. 24]

[E] 1919 - Ukrainian anarchist partisan Maria Grigorevna Nikiforova [Марія Григорівна Никифорова (uk) / Мария Григорьевна Никифорова (ru)] or Nykyforovna [Никифоровна / Никифорова] aka Marusya, and her companion Witold Bzhostek (or Brzostek) are recognised on the street in Sébastopol and arrested by the Whites. Marusya's group, despairing of being able to rescue her, head for the Kuban region to return to the partisan fight in the rear of the Whites. They will be tried and executed before a field court-martial held on September 16, 1919. [see: Sep. 16]

1921 - Léon Prouvost (aka the 'Libertarian Philanthropist'; b. 1856), French individualist anarchist, anti-militarist and anti-clericalist, dies. [see: Sep. 28]

[F] 1923 - Cuno-Streiks: On January 11 1923, French and Belgian troops marched into the Ruhr area. The reason was that Germany had only partially delivered the war reparations to which it was obliged after the defeat in WWI. The real reason was that French imperialism, under Prime Minister Poincaré, wanted to consolidate its supremacy in Europe, which he had acquired through the Versailles Treaty of Peace in 1919. The German government under Wilhelm Cuno, the former director of the shipping company HAPAG, opted for a campaign of "passive resistance": Any cooperation with the French occupiers was forbidden, the reparation payments halted, production and transport remained largely silent. There were terrorist acts of right-wing extremists, some with official support. The French responded with expulsions, arrests, executions. All parties in the German Reichstag supported the government, with the exception of the KPD, and the French communists were the main ally. "Schlagt Poincaré an der Ruhr und Cuno an der Spree!/Battre Cuno sur la Spree et Poincaré sur le Rhin" (Beat Poincaré on the Ruhr and Cuno on the Spree!)
A labour dispute in the Berlin printing industry triggered a wildcat strike. Instigated by the KPD, the Reichsdruckerei (Reich printing plant) was also affected, causing the banknote presses to be stopped and before long, a noticeable lack of paper money. Workers from power stations, construction and the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (transport companies) joined the strike. The wave of strikes demanded the resignation of the Cuno government. Against the will of KPD party chairwoman Ruth Fischer, Otto Wels, head of the SPD was able to forestall a general strike.
Pressured by the SPD, a conference of trade unions on August 10, 1923 rejected a call for a general strike favoured by the left-wing Allgemeiner Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund. The KPD, not accepting this defeat, the next day held a meeting of all the revolutionary works councils in greater Berlin. They called a general strike to bring down the Cuno government, but were hindered from publicising the call widely because 'Die Rote Fahne' (The Red Flag) had been banned. Nevertheless, the strikes, supported by some in the SPD, spread out from Berlin to other cities and regions, such as Hamburg, Lusatia, Saxony Province, as well as the states of Saxony and Thuringia. Factories were occupied by Communist workers and factory managements sent fleeing. In the Ruhr region, there was passive resistance rather than strikes. The response to the strike surpassed even the expectations of the leadership of the KPD. In total, three and a half million workers went on strike indirectly forcing Cuno and his cabinet to resign on August 11th.

[B] 1932 - Fernando Arrabal Terán, Spanish playwright, screenwriter, film director, novelist, poet, painter, anti-Communist, anti-Francoist, Surrealist and Pataphysician, born. The son of a Spanish Army Officer stationed in Melilla in what was then Spanish Morocco. In 1936, his father refused to participate in General Franco's military coup, was arrested, and sentenced to death for mutiny. His sentence was later commuted to thirty years’ imprisonment. He went on to feign psychological illness in order to be transferred to a lower security prison. On December 29, 1941, Fernando Arrabal Senior escaped from the hospital in his pyjamas, and disappeared into the countryside covered in 3 feet of snow, never to be seen again.
Author of seven feature films; short films; nearly 70 plays; 5 operas; twelve novels; 6 collections of poetry; around 150 books for bibliophiles and poems illustrated by Dalí, Picasso, Saura, etc.; essays and his notorious 'Letter to General Franco'. After having seen and raved about Arrabal's 'Guernica', Sartre wanted to publish the play in 'Les Temps Modernes' but was told he was an anti-Communist anarchist and halted its publication.
Co-founder in 1962, with the Chilean-French filmmaker, playwright, actor, author, musician, comics writer and one-time anarchist Alejandro Jodorowsky and the Polish-born French illustrator, painter, writer, filmmaker actor and surrealist Roland Topor, of the Mouvement Panique (Panic Movement), an anarchist avant-garde collective inspired by and named after the Greek God Pan and influenced by Luis Buñuel and Antonin Artaud's Theatre of Cruelty, which concentrated on chaotic performance art and surreal imagery.
Elected Transcendent Satrap of the Collège de Pataphysique in 1990, in the company of Camilo José Cela, René Clair, Jean Dubuffet, Marcel Duchamp, Max Ernst, M. C. Escher, Eugène Ionesco, Michel Leiris, Man Ray, The Marx Brothers, Joan Miró, Jacques Prévert, Raymond Queneau, Boris Vian, Roland Topor, Umberto Eco, Dario Fo and Jean Baudrillard.

"Cette période historique
M'a insufflé la Panique
J'ai conservé le dégoût
De la foule et des gourous
De l'ennui et du sacré
De la poésie sucrée
Des moisis des pisse-froid
Des univers à l'étroit
Des collabos des fascistes
Des musulmans intégristes
De tous ceux dont l'idéal
Nie ma nature animale
A se nourrir de sornettes
On devient pire que bêtes
Je veux que mon existence
Soit une suprême offense
Aux vautours qui s'impatientent
Depuis les années quarante
En illustrant sans complexe
Le sang la merde et le sexe"

(This historical period
I breathed Panic
I kept disgust
The crowd and gurus
Of boredom and sacred
The sweet poetry
Moldy of cold fish
Universes cramped
Of fascist collaborators
Muslim fundamentalists
All those whose ideal
Nie ma animal nature
A feed of nonsense
It is worse than beasts
I want my life
Is a supreme offense
The vultures who are impatient
Since the forties
Illustrating unashamedly
Blood shit and sex)



1935 - Jean-Gabriel Goujon (b. 1859), French technical officer, bridge engineer, co-operativist and militant anarchist, dies.

1937 - The Republican government, toeing the Communist line, disolves the Council of Aragon, the last bastion of the revolutionary anarchist ideals of social revolution and libertarian communism as practiced for the past year in the Aragon farming communities. Its president Joaquín Ascaso and other board members are arrested. To quell any revolt by the peasants, the government sent the 11th Division commanded by the Stalinist Líster. Destroying all collective achievements, it forces farmers to return the collectivised land and tools to the wealthy landowners. He also arrests over six hundred CNT activists, some of whom are shot in the name of reestablishing state order.

1937 - The membership of the Pacific Coast district of the International Longshoremen’s Association – with the exception of three locals in the Northwest – votes to disaffiliate and forms the International Longshoremen’s and Warehousemen’s Union. The ILWU today represents over 59,000 workers primarily on the West Coast of the United States, Hawaii, and Alaska.

[C] 1945 - Having established an International Camp Committee at Buchenwald under the leadership of the German Communist, Walter Bartel, in mid 1943 and the International Military Organisation of Buchenwald, as well as rescuing numerous Jewish children through collective and individual actions, and sabotaged the work in the ammunition factories as well as smuggling weapons into the camp, the imates rose up against the SS guards as the Soviet army neared, taking over the camp. The gaurds fled the camp and when the Soviets arrived, they found armed groups of prisoners hunting the SS in the nearby woods.

1954 - Salut Borràs i Saperas (b. 1878), Catalan anarchist militant, who participated in the Mexican Revolution along side her partner Octave Jahn in Emiliano Zapata's ranks, dies. Born in January 1878 in Barcelona, she was the eldest daughter of two anarchist members of the AIT, Martí(n) Borràs i Jover and Francesca Saperas i Miró, in the late 1880's and '90's, she assisted her mother in the distribution of subscription copies of the newspaper that her father had founded, 'Tierra y Libertad'. The partner of Lluís Mas Gasio since 1895, following his arrest after the attack on the Carrer de Canvis Nous in 1896, she was forced by the authorities to marry legally under the threat of her son Lluís being imprisoned, the ceremony taking place in a convent two hours before Lluís Mas' execution on May 4, 1897. She was also detained along with her mother and imprisoned a year before being expelled to France, where he settled in Marseille. Active within the anarchist movement, she maintained contact with its prisoners, establishing contacts with clandestine committees and groups, secretly burying their dead, practising solidarity with the persecuted, etc.
She began a relationship with the French anarchist Octave Jahn in Charanta (Jarnac, Cognac ...) and from 1908 lived in Mexico, where they participated in the revolution in the ranks of Emiliano Zapata's forces. In 1911, when Salud decided to return to Barcelona, Jahn remained in Mexico and Guatemala, whilst also carrying out propaganda trips around Europe, disseminating news of the Mexican Revolution on behalf of the Central Obrera del Món until his death on June 9, 1917 in Mexico.
Salud Borràs settled in Paris in 1913 with her son and worked as a dressmaker, making constant trips between France, Catalonia and Mexico. In 1930 she returned to Barcelona, ​​where she settled in a small house on the Calle de Robador, in the Raval district. Following the victory of the Franco regime, she went into exilein France. During a field trip her son was killed.
Salut Borràs Saperas died on August 11, 1954 at the Salpetrière hospice in Paris.

[A/D] 1964 - Stuart Christie and Fernando Carballo Blanco are arrested with explosives in Spain, on a mission to blow up Franco. [expand]

1965 - The Watts Riots begin in Los Angeles, USA. [expand]

1969 - Woodstock festival begins.

1997 - Conlon Nancarrow (b. 1912), American-born composer, jazz trumpeter, communist and anti-fascist, who fought in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade in Spain, dies. [see: Oct. 27]

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Police fire tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse a crowd at the burnt shell of the QuikTrip convenience store, set on fire by looters last night. Gunshots are heard in Ferguson and rocks are thrown at police. The police responded by firing tear gas and bean bag rounds upon those protesting. Five arrests.
1812 - Lady Ludd leads a riot over high bread prices in Nottingham. [source?]

1827 - William Blake (b. 1757), English Romantic poet, visionary radical, mystic, printer, engraver, subversive and proto-anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 28]

1842 - 1842 General Strike / Plug Plot (or Plug Drawing) Riots: A mass meeting of around 3,000 cotton workers took place at Chadwick’s Orchard in Preston. They pledged to "strike work until they had a fair days wages for that work, guaranteeing its continuance with the Charter", the Chartist newspaper 'The Northern Star' reported that "Before night every cotton mill was turned out without resistance - all done chiefly by boys and girls".

1861 - Luigi Galleani (d. 1931), influential Italian anarchist militant, born. [expand]
"When we talk about property, State, masters, government, laws, courts, and police, we say only that we don't want any of them." - 'The End of Anarchism?' (1925).

1874 - Oreste Ristori (d. 1943), Italian journalist, militant individualist anarchist, anarcho-communist and anti-fascist, born.

1882 - La Bande Noire: Anarchist miners from Montceau-les-Mines, Burgundy, continue their attacks against clericalism by destroying the cross at Alouettes in an attack during the night on August 11-12. [see: Aug. 6]

1883 - The newspaper 'Drapeau Noir' (Black Flag), "Organe Anarchist" begins publishing in Lyons. A victim of repression, it ceases publication on Dec. 2, 1883, to be replaced by 'L'Emeute' (The Riot).

[E] 1886 - Louise Michel is sentenced to four months in prison and a 100 franc fine for her part in the June 3 meeting at the Chateau d’Eau Theatre in Paris in support of the striking Decazeville miners. Paul Lafargue, Jules Guesde and Dr. Paul Susini, who refused to appear at the trial, were sentenced in absentia to 4 to 6 months in prison and fined 100 francs each.

1887 - María Cano (María de los Ángeles Cano Márquez; d. 1967), Colombian union militant, feminist and campaigner for basic civil rights, who was the first prominent female political leader in Colombia, as well as one of the founders of the Partido Socialista Revolucionario, born.

1889 - Great London Dock Strike: At 7.30am, Will Thorne, fresh from his victory at the Beckton Gasworks spoke at the South Dock gates of the West India Docks in a meeting organised by Will Harris who worked on the tugs at the Albert Docks. Ben Tillett joined Thorne on the platform and they appealed for the men to form a union and then refuse to go to work unless their pay was raised by 1d an hour to 6d – the 'Dockers Tanner' – with overtime raised to 8d (3.5p) an hour. In addition the dockers demanded that no one should be employed for less than four hours. As was the tradition of the period – and for many years afterwards – the dockers agreed to the resolutions by a show of hands, which on this occasion was unanimous.
When Ben Tillett took these demands to the dock directors they refused to listen; he returned to tell the men the strike had begun. Despite the obvious hardships ahead there was enthusiasm. [see: Aug. 14]
[ Great Dock Strike of 1889 - web booklet11-23272.pdf]

1894 - Procès des Trente: The Procès des Trente comes to an end. Intended to justify repressive measures against the anarchists and to reassure the public after the recent attacks, the indictment of Advocate General Whelk fails to prove an agreement and alleged criminal conspiracy between the various defendants (19 anarchist theorists and 11 common thieves) as the defendants, some of whom do not even know each other, had no trouble refuting the charges.
The jurors acquitted all 26 appearing in court except Philippe Léon Ortiz (sentenced to fifteen years hard labour), Annette Chericotti (eight years of hard labour) and Orsini Bertani (six months imprisonment and a fine of sixteen francs)
Paul Reclus, Alexander Cohen, Constant Martin, Louis Duprat and Émile Pouget will in the meantime be sentenced in absentia on October 31 to 20 years hard labour. When they return to France following an amnesty, they are (with the exception of Paul Reclus) all acquitted. [see: Aug. 6]

1894 - [N.S. Aug. 24] Varvara Nikolaevna Batiushkov (Варвара Николаевна Батюшкова; b. 1852), Russian revolutionary and narodnitsa member of the Moscow Tchaikovsky (чайковцы) circle, and later a Socialist-Revolutionary, dies. [see: Aug. 24]

1900 - Dorvalina Martins Ribas (d. 1944), Brazilian teacher, lecturer and militant anarchist, who became a disciple of Francisco Ferrer and supporter of secular education whilst still a student, born. [expand]

[D] 1903 - [O.S. Jul. 30] Ilinden Uprising [Илинденско въстание] / Kruševo Republic [Крушевска република]: Following the 10 hours Battles of Sliva (Слива) and Mechin Stone (Мечкин Камен), the rebels retreat from the town and a 18,000 people strong Ottoman force recaptures a heavily shelled Kruševo. It had been held by Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) insurgents for just ten days.

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 30] Pamiat Azova Mutiny [Память Азова мятеж]: In Revel the trial of 95 Pamiat Azova mutineers begins before a special commission.

1917 - Huelga General Revolucionaria [Revolutionary General Strike] / Vaga General Espanyola [Spanish General Strike]: The socialist strike committee publishes the 'A los obreros ya la opinión pública' (To the workers and to the public opinion) manifesto, which stated that the strike would not stop "until it has obtained the sufficient guarantees of initiation of the regime change", and called upon the Juntas de Defensa (Defence Boards) to support the workers.

[F] 1919 - Learning that their boss, Florenz Ziegfeld, was joining the Producing Managers’ Association during the strike by the Actors' Equity Association [Aug. 7 - Sep. 6, 1919], the chorus girls in his Ziegfeld Follies form their own union, the Chorus Equity Association. Marie Dressler, a former chorus girl, was elected its first president. The union’s first action was to march down Broadway in solidarity with the Actors’ Equity Association strike.

[C] 1920 - Bernard Voyenne (d. 2003), French anarcho-syndicalist activist, federalist, Résistance fighter, journalist, professor and writer on Proudhon, born. Worked on the 'Combat' newspaper alongside Albert Camus. Author of 'Proudhon et Dieu: Le combat d' un anarchiste' (Proudhon and God: The struggle of an anarchist; 2004).

1921 - Abel Paz (Diego Camacho; d. 2009), Spanish militant anarchist, historian and Civil War combatant, born. Paz helped found the 'Los Quijotes del Ideal' group in August 1936, along with Victor García, Liberto Sarrau and other young libertarians. (Los Quijotes del Ideal opposed anarchist collaboration with the Republican government.) Author of 'Durruti, the People Armed' (1976), 'CNT 1939-1951: El Anarquismo contra el Estado Franquista' (Anarchism versus the Francoist State; Madrid: 2001); etc. [expand]

[A] 1936 - The first International Brigade volunteers arrive in Spain.

1944 - Jehan Jonas (d. 1980), French chanteur libertaire, cabaret singer, poet, playwright and screenwriter, born.

1975 - Laurance Labadie (b. 1898), American individualist and mutualist anarchist writer and theorist, son of Joseph Labadie, dies. [see: Jun. 4]

1977 - Battle of Lewsiham: "At least 2000 police will be in the borough... and in reserve the police will have about 200 shields and helmets... Lewisham council has moved old and disabled people away from potential trouble spots, and public buildings, shops and public houses on the routes have been closed or boarded up." ['Times', Aug. 13]

1979 - Imperial Valley Lettuce Strike: The United Farm Workers of America holds its convention in Salinas, California, after seven months of its so far unsuccessful strike against major California vegetable growers. Delegates approve a resolution to expand the dispute into a general strike in a new attempt to pressure growers through consumer boycotts. In response West Coast Farms and Sun Harvest eventually settled. Cal Coastal did not and eventually went out of business in 1985.
[ The 1979 Lettuce Strike.pdf]

[B] 1992 - John Cage (d. 1912), American composer, music theorist, writer, poet, artist and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 5]

2012 - The final day of La Rencontre Internationale de l'Anarchisme (Aug. 8-12), celebrating 140 years of the creation of the anti-authoritarian International, in Saint-Imier, Switzerland.

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Several hundred protesters gather in Clayton, the county seat, demanding criminal prosecution of the officer involved in the shooting. Protesters in Ferguson carriy signs and many held their hands in the air while shouting "don't shoot!" According to police, some protesters threw bottles at them, prompting the use of tear gas to disperse the crowd. The following day, a SWAT team of around 70 officers arrived at a protest demanding that protesters disperse. That night, police use smoke bombs, flash grenades, rubber bullets, and tear gas to disperse the crowd. Video footage of the events recorded by KARG Argus Radio shows Ferguson Police firing tear gas into a residential neighborhood and ordering the journalist to cease recording.
During the night of the 12th-13th, police fire tear gas and rubber bullets at lines of protesters and reporters. At least seven protesters are arrested after being told by the cops to "go home or face arrest." CNN cameras film on cop taunting protesters by saying "Bring it, you fucking animals, bring it."
That night a peaceful protester was also shot in the head non-fatally by an unknown assailant. The gunshot survivor, Mya Aaten-White, later criticised the police for not investigating her case in a timely manner.
1762 - Anne-Josèphe Théroigne de Méricourt (Anne-Josèphe Terwagne; d. 1817), French singer, orator and prominent personality during the French Revolution for which the Parisian royalist press caricatured her as a "patriots' whore", born.

[A] 1830 - When a police force is introduced in Wiltshire [England], the people of Calne riot. One cop is killed, several badly injured.

1842 - Lune Street Riot / 1842 General Strike: Following yesterday's strike meeting in Preston, news spread that some mills had resumed work. The remaining strikers met in Chadwick’s Orchard on Saturday around 06:00 and went to Messrs. Sledden’s machine shop on North Road and compelled workers there to turn out, "after several windows were broken and a few slight wounds inflicted on both sides." They then started moving through Preston from factory to factory. The Mayor Samuel Horrocks, officials and the police were called upon to deal with the unrest and protect property. They enlisted the help of soldiers stationed in the town from the 72nd Highlanders to help stop the riot.
The strikers moved into the centre of town to Messrs Paley’s Mill where they met Preston officials accompanied by about 30 soldiers from the 72nd Highlanders and members of the County and Borough police. Their final confrontation was on the bottom of Lune Street outside the Preston Corn Exchange. Members of the crowd including men, women and boys gathered stones from near the canal and began throwing them at the police and military.
The Mayor Samuel Horrocks read the Riot Act. This gave local authorities the right to use force if necessary to disperse unlawful assemblies and stop riots. When the violence escalated and the crowd did not disperse the military then fired, shooting at least eight men, four of whom - John Mercer, William Lancaster, George Sowerbutts and Bernard McNamara - where killed. The rioters then fled in shock and the injured men were taken to the House of Recovery.
Accounts vary as to who exactly gave the order and how shots were fired, but, at the later trial of chartist leader Feargus O’Connor, the police officer Mr Bannister stated that it was Samuel Horrocks who had given the order, but that he had not heard the order himself. Whatever the case, public discontent for the shooting was quickly directed at the Mayor Samuel Horrocks.

1842 - 1842 General Strike / Plug Plot (or Plug Drawing) Riots: In London, Home Secretary Sir James Graham dispatched artillery and troops toward Lancashire. On this same date, Queen Victoria issued an edict declaring the illegality of the strikes and offering a £50 reward for turning in a fellow striker. Although some labourers earned only £5 per month, few chose to desert the campaign.

1871 - Probable date of birth of Hippolyte Havel (d. 1950), Czech anarchist, scholar and bohemian. editor of several anarchist publications, including the 'Chicago Arbeiter Zeitung', 'The Revolutionary Almanac' (1914), and 'Revolt' (1916). Companion of Emma Goldman, who met him in London and brought him to the States; married to the anarchist Polly Holliday, who ran the famous eponomous Greenwich Village resturant with him; friend of Eugene O'Neill, who based the character Hugo Kalmar of 'The Iceman Cometh' on him; and 'adopted' the photographer Berenice Abbott.

1871 - Karl Liebknecht (d. 1919), German socialist and co-founder, with Rosa Luxemburg, of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany, born.

[E] 1880 - Mary Reid Macarthur (Mary Reid Anderson; d. 1921), Scottish suffragist and trades unionist, born. In 1903 she became the general secretary of the Women's Trade Union League and in 1906 formed the National Federation of Women Workers and assisted in the creation of the National Anti-Sweating League.

1882 - La Bande Noire: Destruction of the cross in Bois Roulot in an attack during the night on August 12-13. [see: Aug. 6]

1883 - La Bande Noire: It is the turn of the engineer Chevalier to see his house dynamited but this time the anarchists again missed their target, receiving some minor scratches and bruises from the projectile material.

1884 - János Mattis-Teutsch (d. 1960), Hungarian-Romanian painter, sculptor, graphic artist, art critic, poet, anti-Fascist and anti-Nazi exile, who later fell foul of the Soviet authorities, born. [expand]

1889 - Great London Dock Strike: A small strike beaks out in the South West India Dock in response to Ben Tillett's statement the previous day. The spreads spontaneously and rapidly across the whole of London’s docks. [see: Aug. 14]

1890 - Lucien Émile François Barbedette (d. 1942), French professor and anarchist, who wrote for many newspapers and reviews, and worked on Sébastien Faure's 'Anarchist Encyclopedia', born.

1994 - Zdzisława Bytnarowa aka 'Sławska', 'Sława', 'Sławka' (b. 1901), Polish teacher, who fought in the ranks of the Armia Krajowa (Home Army) during the Warsaw Uprising, dies. [see: Mar. 12]

1903 - [O.S. Jul. 31] Ilinden Uprising [Илинденско въстание] / Kruševo Republic [Крушевска република]: Despite the white flags flying above the town, Ottoman forces continue to shell Kruševo. It had been held by Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) insurgents for just ten days. Krusevo was bombed, robbed and destroyed. Shops and houses were looted, robbed and burned, the women raped, and any men discovered they beat and killed. 117 people, including 15 women, 5 girls and 6 children, died. More than 150 girls and women were raped, 159 houses and 210 shops, including most of the bazaar, were burned.

1905 - [O.S. Jul. 31] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The All-Russian Peasants’ Union organise a clandestine conference in Moscow (Aug. 13-14).

1908 - Corruganza Boxmakers' Strike: The factory is picketed and as a result seven women, who were taken on that morning refused to return to work the following morning.

1910 - The beginning of 3 days of events in Besancon surrounding the inauguration of the statue of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. Proposed the previous year to mark the centenary of his birth, it was financed by subscription and Georges Laethier won the competition to design it. The statue has unfortunately disappeared, melted (like many others) by the Nazis during the occupation.

1910 - The bi-weekly German language magazine 'Freiheit', "Internationales Organ der anarchisten deutscher Sprache", first published on Jan. 4, 1879 in London by Johann Most and from 1882 in New York, ceases publication today.
[ 19000055&searchType=1&permalink=y]

1917 - Huelga General Revolucionaria [Revolutionary General Strike] / Vaga General Espanyola [Spanish General Strike]: Despite the Socialists having taken strike action independantly of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT, anarchist workers came out on strike across Catalonia and elsewhere. From August 13 to 17, a large part of the country was paralyzed, but transport and especially the railways, a key sector and the one that precipitated the strike, remained largely uneffected by strike action. Even so, at the beginning of the strike, activities in all major industrial zones (Vizcaya and Barcelona, including some smaller ones such as Yecla and Villena), urban (Madrid, Valencia, Zaragoza, La Coruña) and mining (Jaén, Asturias and León) were shut down. However, the strike action only remained effective for a few days, and at the most a week in activist strongholds. In small towns and rural areas it had little impact. The government declare a state of war and order the security forces to act with its full might and without hesitation.

1917 - Eugene Bonaventure de Vigo (b. 1883) aka Miguel Almereyda (anagram: Y'a la merde), anarchist and anti-militarist propagandist, is murdered in his prison cell – strangled by a shoelace. Father of anarchist film maker Jean Vigo; founder and director of the ultra-leftist paper 'Le Bonnet Rouge', for which he was in prison when murdered (and his collaborator Émile Joseph Duval was executed in July 1918 for receiving money from Germany to support the newspaper); co-founder of the newspaper 'La Guerre Sociale'; founding member of l'Association Internationale Antimilitariste (A.I.A.) and founder of Les Jeunes Gardes révolutionnaires, action combat groups which clash in the street with the extreme-right-wingers.
[Costantini pic]

[B] 1923 - Carlos Cortez (d. 2005), US anarcho-syndicalist, poet, graphic artist, photographer, muralist and political activist, born. The son of a Mexican-Indian Wobbly union organiser father and a German socialist pacifist mother, he was active for six decades in the Industrial Workers of the World. As an accomplished artist and a highly influential political artist, Cortez is perhaps best known for his wood and linoleum-cut graphics, and his cartoons for the union newspaper the 'Industrial Worker'.
[ Cortez/CarlosCortez.htm]

1936 - The first issue of 'El Frente' (The Front), "Boletin de guerra de la Columna Durruti CNT-FAI" on the Aragon front, is publsihed in Pina de Ebro.

[F] 1936 - 35 journalists at the William Randolph Hearst-owned 'Seattle Post-Intelligencer' walk off the job to protest the firing of two colleagues for joining the American Newspaper Guild. The 'Post-Intelligencer' was forced to suspend publication during the 105 day strike and the striking employees began publishing their own newspaper, 'The Guild Daily', which reached a circulation of 60,000 copies a day. The strike was one of the first significant and successful strikes by white collar workers in the U.S. ended in a victory in late November when the newspaper settled with the Guild.

1945 - Tom Wayman, Canadian worker-poet, essayist, academic and co-founder of the Vancouver Industrial Writers' Union (IWW), a work-writing circle and participant in a number of labour arts ventures, born.

1955 - Lamar Smith (b. 1892), U.S. civil rights figure, black farmer, World War I veteran and an organiser of black voter registration, is shot to death in broad daylight at close range on the lawn of the Lincoln County courthouse in Brookhaven, Mississippi. Some contemporary reports say there were many white witnesses, including the local sheriff, who saw a white man covered with blood leaving the scene. No witnesses would come forward and the three men who had been arrested went free.

1961 - East German border guards begin construction of Berlin Wall.

1964 - The last 2 people to be executed by the British State, Gwynne Owen Evans and Peter Anthony Allen, are hanged in Manchester's Strangeways and Liverpool's Walton prisons respectively.

[C] 1977 - Battle of Lewsiham: Opposing the planned NF march, from Clifton Rise and through the centre of Lewisham (the council refused to hire them the Concert Hall as, "The NF is a racialist organisation, and the hall belongs to the community which is multi-racial." ['Kentish Mercury', Jul. 28]), is opposed by three different protests: the All Lewisham Campaign Against Racism and Fascism (ALCARAF) demonstration of more than 5000 people from over 80 organisations from Ladywell Fields to New Cross (12.00 - 1.00 pm), whose policy for the day is that "if the police cordon off the road from Algernon Road to Clifton Rise, then the marchers will disperse. But if there is no police opposition the march will continue to Clifton Rise" ['South London Press', Aug. 12]; the August 13 Ad Hoc Organising Committee calling for a 'They Shall Not Pass' rally to assemble at Clifton Rise in New Cross at 12 on the day of the NF demonstration, marching with ALCARAF and occupying the site; and, London Anti Racist/Anti-Fascist Co-ordinating Committee (ARAFCC) who mobilsed for anti-fascists to physically stop the march.
11:55 am: ALCARAF march sets off down Ladywell Road and into Lewisham High Street.
12:10: First clash between police and anti-fascists in New Cross: "The SWP were occupying the derelict shop next to the New Cross House pub. Police broke down a door and evicted the squatters, arresting 7 and taking a quantity of propaganda and banners". ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 18]
12:45: A wall of police prevent ALCARAF march reaching New Cross. "Police block the way to New Cross at the junction of Loampit Hill and Algernon Road. As the lorry leading the march turns in Algernon Road, march stewards try and stop it. Commander Randall shouts "Keep that lorry on the move". ['South London Press', Aug. 12] The police want marchers "to go along Algernon Road back to Ladywell". The Mayor of Lewisham, Councillor Roger Godsiff, formally appeals to police Commander Douglas Randall to "allow the march to go on the original route that was agreed" (i.e. on to New Cross) - this is refused.
1:00: Mike Power of ALCARAF tells the crowd "ALCARAF is not prepared to be directed away from Deptford" and appeals "for the march to disband peacefully there and then'' ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 16] Although the march as such is halted, many of the demonstrators managed to get to New Cross via other routes. "The order is given to disperse [the ALCARAF march]. The police allow hundreds of people to pass on to New Cross". ['South London Press', Aug. 16]
1:30: National Front begin to assemble behind police lines in Achilles Street. New Cross Road is closed with at thousands of anti-NF protesters in Clifton Rise and New Cross Road. ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 18] Estimates of anti-NF crowd vary from 2000 ['Kentish Mercury'] to up to 4000. ['Times']
2:00 pm: "Police in two wedges - one from Clifton Rise the other from New Cross Road - moved into the crowd to eject them from Clifton Rise". Two orange smoke bombs are thrown, and a tin of red paint. Clifton Rise and New Cross Road "became a seething mass of demonstrators and police. Police helmets were knocked off as arrests were made". ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 18]
2:00 pm: As fighting rages in New Cross, the Bishop of Southwark leads a church service against racism and for peace at St Stephens Church, Lewisham High Street. 200 people attend, with a banner outside with the words 'Justice, love and peace'. ['South London Press', Aug. 16]
2:06 pm: "10 mounted police moved into the crowd from New Cross Road to be greeted by a sustained bombardment of bottles, cans, and attacks with poles. The ferocity of the attack drove the horsemen back. Youths began to gather bricks from a builders yard in Laurie Grove and pelt police". ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 18] "Running battles broke out at the top of Clifton Rise and, after, a smoke bomb exploded, mounted police moved in to drive the crowd back into New Cross Road". ['South London Press', Aug. 16] Two mounted police are dragged from their horses.
2:10 pm: "The police line on foot at Clifton Rise broke, but reformed. A youth attacked a policeman with a stick". ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 18]
2:20 pm: "Police drew truncheons and used them against the crowd. Most of Clifton Rise and New Cross Road was cleared of demonstrators. The battle for control of Clifton Rise was over. A man lay unmoving outside the New Cross Inn and was taken off in an ambulance. Another stretcher case lay in New Cross Road". ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 18]
3:00 pm: Police escort National Front marchers out of Achilles Street, up Pagnell Street and into New Cross Road, behind a large 'Stop the Muggers' banner. Estimates of NF marchers range from 600 ['South London Press'] to 1000 ['Kentish Mercury']. "Suddenly the air was filled with orange smoke, and a hail of bricks, bottles and pieces of wood fell onto the Front from demonstrators and householders leaning out of their windows... At one point the Front marchers stopped. Half the marchers remained in Pagnell Street, afraid to walk into the hail of missiles". ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 18]
Anti-fascists break through police lines and attack back of NF march, "separating them from the main body". ['South London Press', Aug. 16] There is hand to hand fighting in New Cross Road, and NF marchers are forced off the road onto the pavement.
"One young man, perhaps 16 years old, rushed into the Front ranks and grabbed a flagpole from one of them, broke it in half and held the pieces up while the crowd cheered. Others hurled dustbins and fence stakes into the Front column from close range". ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 18] 'The protesters then burnt captured NF banners". ['South London Press', Aug. 16]
Police separate NF and anti-fascists, and mounted police clear a path through crowd attempting to block progress of march towards Deptford Broadway. For part of the route the NF are forced off the road onto the pavement.
Police lead the march "through deserted streets of Lewisham" with crowds held back by "by road blocks over the whole area". ['Kentish Mercury']. Marchers are flanked by three deep police on either side, with 24 mounted police in front. The march route goes down Depford Broadway/Blackheath Road, Lewisham Road and Cressingham Road, where "more missiles were hurled at the marchers". ['South London Press', Aug. 16]
While small groups attack the march from side streets, large numbers of anti-fascists head East along Lewisham Way. They reach Lewisham Town Centre and block the High Street.
The NF approach the town centre. "The fighting intensified as the Front members were escorted from Cressingham Road to their rally in Conington Road". ['South London Press', Aug. 16]
Unable to meet in the town centre proper, the NF hold a short rally in a car park in Conington Road, addressed by NF Chairman John Tyndall, police usher NF "through a tunnel in Granville Park and then into Lewisham station, where trains were waiting to take them away". ['Times', Aug. 15]
Clashes continue between the police and crowd, the latter largely unaware that the NF have already left the area. Anti-fascists occupy the area by the Clock Tower. "A road barrier was dragged across the High Street by demonstrators". ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 18]
Police bring out riot shields for the first time in England, and attempt to disperse crowd south down Lewisham High Street towards Catford. Bricks and bottles are thrown. "On the corner of Molesworth Street, mounted police prepared to charge. Beside them were police on foot, truncheons drawn. Police came racing down the street. One officer shouted 'get out of the way' and as he ran a man was hit. The officer then apparently collided with an elderly woman. She went sprawling on the pavement". ['Kentish Mercury', Aug. 18]
A police Special Patrol Group van is surrounded and its windows smashed, and part of the crowd attempts to surround Lewisham Police Station in Ladywell Road. A press photographer's BMW motorbike is set on fire near Ladywell Baths. Several shop windows are smashed in Lewisham High Street, including Currys (no.131), Kendall & Co. (no.256) and Caesars' fancy goods (no.230).
4:40 pm: "...the riot in Lewisham High Street had been quashed, but there were continuing outbreaks in side streets. It was not until after 5 pm that the fighting ceased and an uneasy calm settled over Lewisham". ['South London Press', Aug. 16] 214 people have been arrested and at least 111 injured. ['Times', Aug. 15]

1994 - Zdzisława Bytnarowa aka 'Sławska', 'Sława', 'Sławka' (b. 1901), Polish teacher, who fought in the ranks of the Armia Krajowa (Home Army) during the Warsaw Uprising, dies. [see: Mar. 12]

2000 - Ria Deeg (b. 1907), German socialist, communist, anti-fascist and resistance fighter against Nazism, who was imprisoned in 1935 for "preparing high treason", dies. [see: Oct. 2]

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: As night fell projectiles, including Molotov cocktails, are thrown and police launch tear gas and smoke bombs. While police are clearing a McDonald's restaurant, 'The Washington Post' reporter Wesley Lowery and 'The Huffington Post' reporter Ryan Reilley are arrested having been asked by the cops to leave and then given a 45-second countdown when they were not moving fast enough. Then, according to Lowery: "Officers slammed me into a fountain soda machine because I was confused about which door they were asking me to walk out of. Al Jazeera America journalists including correspondent Ash-har Quraishi covering the protests in Ferguson on Wednesday night were also tear-gassed and shot at with rubber bullets by a police SWAT team. An officer was captured on video turning the reporters' video camera toward the ground and dismantling their equipment.
1846 - Henry David Thoreau jailed for tax resistance to the Mexican War.

1861 - Massacro di Pontelandolfo e Casalduni [Massacre of Pontelandolfo & Casalduni]: The towns of Pontelandolfo and Casalduni are sacked and torched by the Piedmontese military during the so-called "war against brigandage" in Southern Italy. On the orders of General Enrico Cialdini the towns are reduced to rubble and townspeople indiscriminately slaughtered - women and children are burnt alive in their houses; girls are raped and hanged; unarmed old and young are gutted and killed with bayonets by Piedmontese troops - all in retaliation for the death of 41 soldiers at the hands of partisan loyalists.

[BB] 1865 - Pietro Gori (d. 1911), Italian anarchist, labour activist and lawyer, who was an ardent legal defender of numerous anarchists, born. He was also reknowned as a poet and songwriter - author of some of the most famous anarchist songs of the late 19th century, including 'Addio a Lugano' (Farewell to Lugano), 'Stornelli d'Esili' (Exile Songs), 'Ballata per Sante Caseri' (Ballad for Sante Geronimo Caserio). Published a number of books of poetry, including 'Prigioni e Battaglie' (Jails and Battles; 1891) and 'Alla conquista dell'Avvenire' (Conquering the Future; 1892).

1878 - The opening in the Benevento Assize Court of the prosecution of the Banda del Matese internationalists for armed insurrection in April 1877 in the villages of Matese. The best known of the defendants are Errico Malatesta , Carlo Cafiero and Cesare Ceccarelli. They are charged with "the crime of conspiracy to destroy and change the form of government, to encourage people to take up arms against the state power in order to provoke civil war (...) an attack by an armed group, and complicity in the crimes of: voluntary injuring by firearm on the person of the king's riflemen...", injuries that caused the death of a rifleman. The defence of the accused is provided by four lawyers, including a very young 21 years old Neapolitan Saverio Merlino, whose passionate defence leads to the acquittal of the defendants.

1883 - La Bande Noire: The house of the mayor of Sanvignes, Grelin, is targeted by a bottle containing explosives thrown through a glass door.

1887 - Rirette Maîtrejean (Anna Henriette Estorges; d. 1968), French individualist anarchist activist and propagandist, born. Editor of the newspaper 'l'Anarchie' after the death of Albert Libertad, companion to the anarchist Mauricius (Maurice Vandamme) and to Viktor Kibaltschin alias Victor Serge. Both were tried as members of the Bonnot Gang - both knew the gang members (Serge having grown up with a number of them), both were involved in pro-Bonnot propaganda and 2 revolvers linked to the gang were found in their house. She was acquitted but Serge received 5 years in solitary. She wrote for many anarchist publications, such as 'La Revue Anarchiste', 'La Défense de l'Homme' and 'La Liberté' (founded by Louis Lecoin in 1959).[expand]

1888 - [O.S. Aug. 2] Xenia Alexandrovna Myshetskaya 'Roach' (Ксения Александровна Мышецкая 'Вобла'; d. 1957), Russian revolutionary, who was active in the movement from 1904 onwards, born. In 1905-1906 she joined the Union of Socialist-Revolutionaries Maximalists (союзу социалистов-революционеров максималистов), was part of the leadership of the 'opposition faction' within ПСР, the S-R Maximalist Combat Organisation, the Moscow Union of S-R Maximalists, propagandist and organiser of attentats.
During the Russian Civil War (1917 - 1922/23) she was part of the organisation of the SRs-maximalists and Left SRs, and participated in the planning for the 1919 assassination attempt on General Anton Denikin (Анто́н Дени́кин) that never actually took place.
From the 1930's onwards, she served more than 20 years in the camps and exile.

1889 - Great London Dock Strike: In 1889 only 5% of the labour force were members of trade unions and those who were, tended to be skilled craftsman and workers in the textile and mining industries. The success of the Bryant & May amtchgirls' strike encouraged other unskilled workers in Britain to consider the possibility of forming unions. Amongst the dock workers in the Port of London, apart from the Thames Watermen and Lightermen and the Stevedores, the vast majority of workers were both ununionised and casual labourers who competed daily for a limited number of jobs, living from hand to mouth never knowing if they had work tomorrow or the money for a doss-house bed for the night. Ben Tillett, General Secretary of the Tea Operatives & General Labourers' Association, described what a degrading business searching for work and food was: "To tramp hour after hour round the dock; to see men picking the rubbish heaps....of refuse, the furtive search for any kind of food,... ...this was at times the only means of living and of hope to many. No wonder the contractors called the casuals dock rats.......The dock labourer came in for the foulest contempt......the submerged being a term of respect for the casual labourer. All of us who were dock labourers concealed the nature of our occupation from our families as well as our friend."
The dock strike began over a dispute about 'plus' money during the unloading of the Lady Armstrong in the West India Docks. 'Plus' money was a bonus paid for completing work quickly. The East and West India Dock Company had cut their 'plus' rates to attract ships into their own docks rather than others. A trade depression and an oversupply of docks and warehousing led to fierce competition between the rival companies. The cut in payments provided the opportunity for long-held grievances among the workforce to surface.
Led by Ben Tillet, the men across the three West India Docks struck on August 14 and immediately started persuading other dockers to join them. The Tea Operatives & General Labourers' Association (renamed after the strike as the Dockers' Union Dock, Wharf, Riverside and General Labourers' Union, or more commonly Dockers' Union) had no funds and needed help. The support they needed came when the Amalgamated Stevedores Union, under Tom McCarthy, joined the strike. Not only did they carry high status in the port but their work was essential to the running of the docks. The stevedores' union and dock labourers issued a joint manifesto, entitled 'To the Trade Unionists and People of London'. This called on other workers to support the dockers:
"Friends and Fellow Workmen. The dock labourers are on strike and asking for an advance in wages ... 6d per hour daytime and 8d per hour overtime. The work is of the most precarious nature, three hours being the average amount per day obtained by the docker.
We, the Union of the Stevedores of London, knowing the condition of the dock labourers, have determined to support their movement by every lawful means in our power...
We now appeal to members of all trade unions for joint action with us, and especially those whose work is in connection with shipping - engineers and fitters, boiler makers, ships' carpenters, etc. and also the coal heavers, ballast men and lightermen. We also appeal to the public at large for contributions and support on behalf of the dock labourers."
Other workers followed the lead of the stevedores, including the seamen, firemen, lightermen, watermen, ropemakers, fish porters and carmen. Strikes broke out daily in factories and workshops throughout the East End. [expand]
The strike resulted in a victory for the 100,000 strikers and established strong trade unions amongst London dockers, one of which became the nationally important Dock, Wharf, Riverside and General Labourers' Union. The strike is widely considered a milestone in the development of the British labour movement, symbolising the growth of the New Unions of casual, unskilled and poorly paid workers, in contrast to the craft unions already in existence; as well as helping draw attention to the problem of poverty in Victorian Britain and the dockers' cause attracted considerable public sympathy.

1890 - Rafael Farga i Pellicer (b. 1844), Catalan typesetter, political cartoonist, journalist, painter, syndicalist, member of the International and anarchist, also known as Justo Pastor de Pellico, dies. [expand]

[E] 1901 - Mercedes Comaposada i Guillén (d. 1944), militant Catalan anarcho-feminist, teacher and lawyer, born into a militant household. She starts work at an early age and becomes an editor at a film production company and joins the CNT Public Performances in Barcelona. Later, after studying law, she became a women's educator and helped found the Mujeres Libres in April 1936 and started publishing the group's magazine, illustrated by her partner, the libertarian sculptor Baltasar Lobo. After the defeat of the Republic, she and Lobo move to Paris under the wing of Pablo Picasso, where she works as a secretary and translates the work of a number of Castilian writers, especially Lope de Vega.
She also contributed to the 'Mujeres Libres' magazine (and was also editor in chief), 'Ruta' , 'Tiempos Nuevos' , 'Tierra y Libertad' and 'Umbral'. She was also author of 'Esquemas' (Schemes; 1937, a book of poetry), 'Las Mujeres en Nuestra Revolución' (Woment in Our Revolution; 1937), 'La Ciencia en la Mochila' (Science in a Rucksack; 1938), 'Conversaciones Cono los Artistas Españoles de la Escuela de París' (Coverstions with Spanish Artists of the Paris School; 1960, under the pseudonym Mercedes Guillén), 'Picasso' (1973, as Mercedes Guillén) and an unpublished work 'Mujeres Libres'.

1903 - [O.S. Aug. 1] Ilinden Uprising [Илинденско въстание]: Under the leadership of Nikola Pushkarov, some Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) bands near Skopje attack and derail a military train. Further east in Razlog in Pirin Macedonia (the Blagoevgrad Province in present-day Bulgaria) the population join in the uprising.

1904 - Helmut Klose aka 'Vagabund' (d. 1987), German anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist tailor, short story writer, poet, actor and itinerant, born. A member of FAUD (Freien Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands) and later of the FAUD-aligned international movement Bruderschaft der Vagabunden (Brotherhood of Vagrants). He played a role alongside Gregor Gog, founder of the Bruderschaft der Vagabunden, in Fritz Weiss's film 'Vagabund' (1930). Fleeing the rise of the Nazis, he spent time in Austria and Yougoslavia, from which he was expelled for possession of Spanish anarchist literature. Ending up in Spain, he fought in the French Batalló de la Costa section of the Durruti Column and, in Catalonia, joined the Deutsche Anarcho-Syndikalisten (DAS), working on a collective farm. [expand]

1904 - [N.S. Aug. 28] Mariola Milkova Sirakov (Мариола Милкова Сиракова; d. 1925), Bulgarian actor and anarcho-communist revolutionary, born. [see: Aug. 28]

1905 - [O.S. Aug. 1] A pogrom in Białystok leaves sixty Jews dead and 200 wounded.

[C] 1908 - Manos Katrakis (d. 1984), Greek theatre and film actor, who fought with the EAM/ELAS communist anti-fascist resistance during WWII and refused to sign a declaration of repentance during the Greek Civil War of 1946-49, born.

1917 - Huelga General Revolucionaria [Revolutionary General Strike] / Vaga General Espanyola [Spanish General Strike]: In Catalonia the repression of the labour movement started with the imprisonment of the strike committee (among others, Francisco Miranda, Ángel Pestaña and Salvador Seguí) and spread over many union leaders; the Strike Committee was arrested by the police and a mutiny that broke out in the model prison was repressed with great harshness, resulting in the death of several prisoners, including seven prominent socialist militants.
In Sadabell, the first clashes between anarcho-syndicalists and Guàrdia Civil at 08:00 on the Gurugú tavern frequented by workers when mounted guards carrying out a raid are fired on, killing one. Captain Tegido and 14 guàrdies civil returned but the strikers resisted and beat a tactical retreat, leaving two passersby killed in the crossfire and the tavern owner, his son and a waiter under arrest. Events at the Gurugú caused outrage amongst the striking workers and at 09:30, the seals on the Obrera union offices in carrer de l'Estrella 110 were broken, a red and black flag hoisted and the building barricaded. The surrounding streets (carrers Corominas and Jovellanos) were alo barricaded with bails of wool and the neighbours warned to leave. Around noon, guards tried to attack but overwhelming fire from the barricades on the carrers Calderón and Colón forced them to retreat. Two syndicalists were killed and Tegido was nearly killed when a bomb blew up under the legs of his horse. After around 16 hours of fighting, the workers withdrew from the barricades and the Obrera building pursued by the Guàrdia Civil, leaving three or four dead workers behind. The Red Cross set up three field hospitals and made continuous trips to collect the dead and wounded. At 23:00, three companies of the Regimiento de Vergara arrived from Barcelona with two artillery pieces, setting up at the Guàrdia Civil barracks.

[A] 1924 - Colin Ward (d. 2010), British anarchist writer - "one of the greatest anarchist thinkers of the past half century, and a pioneering social historian" [Roman Krznaric], born.

[B] 1926 - Lina Wertmüller (Arcangela Felice Assunta Wertmüller von Elgg Español von Braueich), Italian film writer and director, born. Her films depict her largely libertarian and feminist world view, none more expressly than 'Film d'amore e d'anarchia - Ovvero "Stamattina alle 10 in via dei Fiori nella nota casa di tolleranza..."' (Film of Love and Anarchy - Or "This morning at 10 in via dei Fiori at the noted brothel ..."; 1973) aka 'Love and Anarchy', about an anarchist who stays in a brothel while preparing to kill Mussolini.

1928 - Klabund (psedonym of Alfred Henschke; b. 1890), German Expressionist poet, playwright, novelist, consumptive and anarchist, who influenced German literature with his adaptations and translations of Oriental literature, dies. [see: Nov. 4]

1936 - In Spain fascist insurgents take Badajoz; over 4,000 people are massacred in the next 10 days.

1943 - Nguyen An Ninh (b. 1900), influential Vietnamese nationalist journalist, poet and libertarian communist, who was active in the revolutionary struggle against the French colonial empire, dies in Pulo Condore prison whilst serving his fifth prison sentence.

1944 - Ivan Vasilyevich Turkenich (b. 1920), Ukrainian partisan, who was one of the leaders of the underground anti-Nazi Komsomol organisation the Young Guard, which operated in Krasnodon district during the German-Soviet War (1941-44), dies of his wounds following a battle near the Polish town of Głogów. [see: Jan. 15]

1944 - Irma Bandiera aka 'Mimma' (b. 1915), Italian anti-fascist partisan courier and fighter in the VII Brigade 'Gianni Garibaldi' of GAP in Bologna, is murdered by the Nazis after 7 days of torture during which she refused to give up the names of her comrades. Her body was then dumped in the street outside her parent's house. [see: Apr. 8]

[D] 1945 - August Revolution [Cách mạng tháng Tám] / August General Uprising [Tổng Khởi nghĩa tháng Tám]: Uprising launched by the Việt Minh against the French colonial rulers in Vietnam.

1954 - Nikos Ploumpidis (or Ploumbidis)(Νίκος Πλουμπίδης; 31 December 1902), Greek member and leading cadre of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) during the Metaxas dictatorship, the German Occupation and the Civil War in Greece, but also one of the most tragic figures in the history of the Communist Party, is executed by firing squad in Agia Marina, near Dafni. The Greek government release a photo of his execution to the Greek press, however 'Rizospastis' and 'I Avgi', the two left newspapers, do not publish the photos following KKE's allegations that the execution was fake and Ploumpidis is spending the money he took for his treason. [see: Dec. 31]

1956 - Bertolt Brecht (b. 1898) dies in East Berlin. [see: Feb. 10]

1962 - Following the riot at the National Socialist Movement rally in Trafalgar Square on August 4th, the Ministry of Works announces a ban on three Sunday afternoon rallies in the Square planned by extreme Right-wing organisation. The rallies were planned by the National Socialist Movement on August 19, the British National Party on September 2 and the Union Movement on September 23.

1969 - Hem Day (Marcel Camille Dieu / Henri Day; b. 1902), Belgian scholar, secondhand bookseller, pacifist, anarchist and writer, dies. [see: May 30]

1974 - The East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front (東アジア反日武装戦線) anarchist urban guerrilla group try to blow up the Morotomo (もろとも) iron bridge over which Emperor Hirohito's royal train was travelling, which they code-named the Rainbow Operation (虹作戦). However, the plot was aborted because a member was spotted shortly before it was to be put into action.

1975 - Joan Little, a 21-year-old female African-American petty criminal serving seven to ten years, who had stabbed to death a male prison guard at Beaufort County Jail in Washington, North Carolina, on August 27, 1974, is acquitted of first degree murder, having become the first woman in United States history to successfully use the defence that she used deadly force to resist sexual assault. [see: Aug. 27]

[F] 1980 - Sierpień 1980 [August 1980]: After two months of labour unrest, 16,000 Polish workers seize the Lenin Shipyard, Gdansk. [expand]

1996 - Eleonore 'Lore' Wolf (b. 1900), German stenographer, Communist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Mar. 11]

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Following yesterday's targetting of the media, the St. Charles County Regional SWAT Team put out a press release stating that "... the SWAT Team has not been any part of attempting to prevent media coverage" and that the SWAT team had helped journalists move their equipment at their request. A raw video captured a vehicle marked clearly as "St. Charles County SWAT" rolling up to the Al Jazeera lights and camera and taking them down. Tom Jackson, the Ferguson police chief, also denied any suppression of the media.
During the evening a large march in Ferguson passes off peacefully.
1750 - Sylvain Maréchal (Pierre-Sylvain Maréchal; d. 1803), French essayist, poet, atheist, philosopher and political theorist, born. A precursor of utopian socialism, he can be labelled an anarchiste avant la lettre, although the Marxists also claim him. Creator of the Revolutionary Maréchal calendar.

[F] 1766 - Huelga* de Real del Monte [Real del Monte Strike]: The strike turned violent as workers stoned a district magistrate, Miguel Ramon de Coca, and the overseer of the La Joya mine, Manuel Barbosa, to death after pay had been doled out. For most workers, wages and partido were paid in full by the overseers, but known strike leaders, including those who had been held hostage a week earlier, were forced to mix their partidos with quota bags and therefore receive the same, lower grade partido they had been striking against. A local priest attempted to quell the angry workers and give them a lunch break, but that afternoon the anger boiled over.
[* The word "huelga" did not come into common used in Spanish until the late C19th and the workers of Real del Monte never used it.]

1832 - Presumed date for the first issue of 'La Femme Libre', the first French feminist newspaper produced and published only by women. Founded by Désirée Gay and Marie-Reine Guindorff in reaction to the exclusion of women from decision making among the Saint-Simonites. Subtitled 'Apostolat des femmes', it carries a single article 'Appel aux femmes', whose three sections are signed by Jeanne-Victoire (Jeanne Deroin), Jeanne Désirée (Gay) and Marie-Reine (Guindorff). It would subsequently go though a number of title changes, including to 'La Femme nouvelle', 'L'Apostolat des femmes' and 'La Tribune des femmes'.

1842 - 1842 General Strike / Plug Plot (or Plug Drawing) Riots: In Blackburn five men - named Ingham, Walmsley, Rawlinson, Hartley and Proctor - plot to pull the plugs out of the boilers of the factories along Darwen Street and extinguish the flames thereby stopping production. They thought they could then demand better pay and conditions. They hoped the textile workers would follow them from factory to factory. A very brave plan, but if it failed it could mean death to them all. However their plot is overheard and the local magistrate infomred. He in turn called for a platoon of Highland Infantry Red Coats to be called in. Meanwhile, the five had broken in to the first factory, pulled out the plugs from the boilers with great success and had been joined by the textile workers from the factory. Making their way to the next factory they were intercepted by the Red Coats. The Riot Act was read and the Infantry opened fire on the unarmed textile workers. Arrested, the five were brought before the Magistrate the following day and sentenced to death. The 5 lads pleaded their case and their sentences were commuted to transportation. They never saw their families or walked the streets of Blackburn again and all five had died of exhaustion within five weeks of arriving in Tasmania.

[D] 1842 - 1842 General Strike / Plug Plot (or Plug Drawing) Riots: Great Delegate Trades Conference is held in Manchester, with each local trade conference sending a representative. Each delegate stood and voiced the concerns of his local tradespeople; then, the conference overwhelmingly voted to endorse both the Charter and a return to 1840 wage rates. That evening, city magistrates entered to disperse the meeting. The delegates left, but agreed to meet the next day at a different location.

1842 - 1842 General Strike / Plug Plot (or Plug Drawing) Riots: Today and tomorrow, soldiers fired on demonstrators in several cities, killing approximately eight and wounding many more. Despite this violence, the fact remained that the government simply did not have sufficient law enforcement manpower to forcibly remove all the strikers. City governments conscripted special constables from among the middle class, but many of these constables empathized with the workers and refused to fight them.

[B] 1845 - Walter Crane (d. 1915), English artist, book illustrator and libertarian socialist, born. Influenced both politically and artistically by William Morris, he produced illustrations and cartoons for the Socialist papers 'Justice', 'The Commonweal' and 'The Clarion', and was part of the Arts and Crafts movement and produced an array of paintings, illustrations, children's books, ceramic tiles and other decorative arts.

1849 - Pavlos Argyriadis (Παύλος Αργυριάδης; d. 1901), Greek journalist, writer, libertarian socialist and member of the Paris Commune, born.

1882 - La Bande Noire: During the night of August 14-15, an armory is looted by a group from the Bois-du-Verne Bande Noire, headed by a certain Devillard, and twenty-two hours later a series of dynamite and ax attacks against the hamlet's chapel began. The seized weapons are handed out to a gathering of 2-300 sympathisers and Bande Noire members, who then move off towards the chapel of the Bois-du-Verne, which is attacked with axes, ransacked, set on fire and the entrance is destroyed by a bomb. About two hundred protesters then marched off to the neighbouring villages, led by a red flag, to the cries of "Vive la sociale! Mort aux bourgeois!"

1887 - [N.S. Aug. 27] Irina Konstantinova Kakhovskaya (Ири́на Константи́новна Кахо́вская; d. 1960), Russian revolutionary, memoirist and translator, a member of the Union of Revolutionary-Socialists-Maximalists (Союз социалистов-революционеров-максималистов) ca. 1906 and, after the October 1917 split, the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries [The Party of the Left, Internationalist -Revolutionary-Socialists](Партия левых социалистов-революционеров-интернационалистов) and its combat organisation, born. [see: Aug. 27]

1903 - Pascal Pia (born Pierre Durand; d. 1979), French writer, poet, journalist, illustrator, scholar and anarchist, born. He also used the pseudonyms Avinin Mireur, Léger Alype, Pascal Rosé and Pascal Fely amongst others. Friend and collaborator of Albert Camus, to whom Camus dedicated his 'Le Mythe de Sisyphe' (The Myth of Sisyphus; 1942).

1906 - Krwawa Środa [Bloody Wednesday]: The Organizacja Bojowa Polskiej Partii Socjalistycznej (Combat Organisation of the Polish Socialist Party) carries out a series of attacks on Russians, primarily police officers and informants during the Revolution in the Kingdom of Poland (1905-07).

1907 - Carmen Conde Abellán aka Florentina (d. 1996), Spanish teacher, narrative writer, poet, children's author, militant anarcho-feminist and Mujeres Libres member, who worked on the group's magazine and undertook lecture tours, born. In 1931 she married the poet Antonio Oliver Belmar and had a long-term lesbian relationship with Amanda Junquera. A prolific author of prose, poetry, childrens stories, essays, biography, etc., some published under a series of pseudonyms, including Magdalena Noguera, Florentina Sea and others, whilst living clandestinely after the defeat of the Republic.

1909 - The first issue of the bimonthly revolutionary syndicalist 'Le Terrassier' (The Digger), "Organe du syndicat général (CGT) des Ouvriers Terrassiers, Puisatiers-Mineurs, Tubistes, Poseurs de Rails et Parties Similaires du département de la Seine" (Paper of the Road Labourers, Well Diggers, Pipe Layers, Railsway Workers and Similar Trades section of CGT). The cover illustration is by Aristide Delannoy of a labourer belabouring 'the man'.

1917 - Huelga General Revolucionaria [Revolutionary General Strike] / Vaga General Espanyola [Spanish General Strike]: There are clashes in Asturias and Bilbao and in Sabadell the troops fired on the barricades causing 32 deaths. In Madrid a clash took place in Cuatro Caminos where there were barricades. Demonstrators are joined by women and children carrying placards, however their presence did not prevent a cavalry charge.
In Sabadell troops of the Regiment de Vergara and the Guàrdia Civil lay siege to the locals of the Federació Obrera de Sabadell (FOS), of the Obrera a Sabadell at carrer de l'Estrella 110, which was affiliated to the CNT, and of the Fraternidad Republicana Radical at Via Massagué 55. [expand]
In Madrid, the Socialist strike committee organisers are arrested on the carrer Desengano, where the Committee headquarters is located.

1918 - In the U.S., Ricardo Flores Magon and Librado Rivera are sentenced to twenty years in prison and a $5,000 fine and fifteen years respectively for having published on March 16, 1918, in their journal 'Regeneración' the manifesto to 'the members of the party, to the anarchists of the world and the workers in general'. They are taken to McNeil Island Penitentiary.

1920 - A national meeting of Italian anarchists is held in Florence to plan increased solidarity and agitation in supportr of victims of political repression. Present are Errico Malatesta and Bonazzi Clodoveo for the UAI; Gigi Damiani for the newspaper 'Umanità Nova'; Diego Guadagnini for the Committee for Libertarian Defence; Dante Pagliai and Emilio Spinaci the Committee for Political Victims in Milan; Giuseppe Sartini for the USI; Domenico Giulietti for Federation of Maritime Workers; Andrea Pedrini and Cesare Stazzi for the Ancône Bourse du Travail; Camillo Berneri for the Federation of Revolutionary Youth and Andrea Viglongo for the Committee of Turin Factory Workers.

1927 - Spartaco Stagnetti (b. 1888), Italian militant anarcho-syndicalist, is murdered whilst exiled by the Fascist regime on the island of Ustica, near Palermo [NB. Year often incorrectly given as 1928.] [see: Jul. 4]

[E] 1930 - Selma James (Selma Deitch), US co-author of the women's movement classic 'The Power of Women and the Subversion of the Community' (1972), with Mariarosa Dalla Costa, co-founder of the International Wages for Housework Campaign and coordinator of the Global Women's Strike, born.

1935 - Paul Victor Jules Signac (b. 1863), French neo-Impressionist painter and anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 11]

1936 - The constituent congress of La Fédération Anarchiste Française (following a split within the Union Anarchiste) takes place today and tomorrow in Toulouse. Volin and André Prudhommeaux are the main facilitators.

1940 - Gudrun Ensslin (d. 1977), German radical leftist urban guerrilla and founder, with Andreas Baader, and 'intellectual leader' of the Rote Armee Fraktion, born. [expand]

1940 - Dora Beatriz Barrancos, Argeninian university professor, sociologist and historian, dedicated to the development of feminism in Argentina, social movements of the early twentieth century, revolutions carried out by women, socialist and anarchist movements, and the role of education in history Argentina, born.

1941 - Josef Jakobs, a German national parachuted into England, is the last person to be executed in the Tower of London.

1951 - The first performance of the Living Theatre takes place in the house of Judith Malina and Julian Beck as the could find a room or the money to finance its hire. Four plays are performed: 'Childish Jokes' by Paul Goodman, 'Ladies' Voices' by Gertrude Stein, 'He Who Says Yes and He Who Says No' by Bertolt Brecht, and Federico Garcia Lorca's 'The Dialogue of the Mannequin and the Young Man'.

[C] 1954 - Stieg Larsson (d. 2004), Swedish author and journalist, born. Editor of the magazine 'Expo', a member of the Communist Workers' League and editor of the Trotskyist journal 'Fjärde Internationalen'. A leading expert on anti-democratic right-wing extremist and Nazi organisations. He died in 2004, shortly after delivering the manuscripts of the Millennium series: 'Män Som Hatar Kvinnor' (The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo; 2005), 'Flickan Som Lekte Med Elden' (The Girl Who Played with Fire; 2006) and 'Luftslottet Som Sprängdes' (The Girl Who Kicked the Hornet's Nest; 2007), novels featuring the characters Lisbeth Salander and Mikael Blomkvist.

1962 - Colin Jordan, leader of the British National Socialist movement, and his deputy, John Tyndall, are convicted under Public Order Act for the speeches they gave at the 'Free Britain from Jewish Control' rally held in Trafalgar Square on July 1.

1962 - Colin Jordan, John Tyndall, Denis Pirie and Roland Kerr-Ritchie of the National Socialist Movement, together with Martin Webster, are arrested and charged under the Public Order Act 1936 with attempts to set up and equip a paramilitary force, Spearhead.
[ Goodrick-Clarke/Black Sun.pdf]

1963 - Henry John Burnett, the last man to be executed in Scotland, is hanged at HMP Craiginches. The Victorian prison, built in 1890, was decomissioned on Jan. 19, 2014.

1964 - A 'race riot' breaks out in Dixmoor in Chicago after a white liquor store owner beats a woman he had accused of stealing a bottle of gin. Two days of rioting [Aug. 15-17] break out in the predominantly black neighbourhood.

1967 - René François Ghislain Magritte (b. 1898), Belgian Dada, then Surrealist artist and one-time Communist Party member, dies. [see: Nov. 21]

[A] 1971 - Following the announcement by the British Government that internment was to be introduced in Ireland, there was a powerful explosion at the Army recruiting centre in Holloway Road, North London. This was accompanied by a Communique signed 'Angry Brigade Moonlighters Cell'.

1972 - Masacre de Trelew: 110 political prisoners, members of various Peronist and leftist armed groups including the People's Revolutionary Army (ERP), Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) and Montoneros, attempt a massive escape from the prison at Rawson, the capital of Chubut Province in Argentina. The escape plan, which involved the escapees being met outside the prison by a number of lorries that would take them to the nearby Trelew airport, where they would be met by a hijacked commercial airliner, was largely a failure and only two groups managed to breach the prison security. One group of six, consisting of the members of the Comité de fuga (escape committee) were able to make it to the airfiled and the hijacked BAC 1-11 but the main transport vehicles, via some confusion over the escape plan's signals, thought that the breakout had been discovered and left before the second group of nineteen men and women arrived. They managed to make their way to Trelew crammed into three taxis, but not before the hijacked plane had left with those on board fearing the imminent arrival of the security forces. The thwarted escapees decided to seize the air terminal but their were few passengers there and an incoming plane was diverted before it could land and, after giving a hastily arranged press conference, the nineteen surrendered to the troops from the nearby Almirante Zar Naval Air Base.
The event was to precipitate the 'Trelew massacre', the summary execution of sixteen of the nineteen recaptured prisoners (three were wounded and survived) on August 22, machine-gunned at the Almirante Zar Naval Base where they were being held following a supposed 'escape attempt'.

1977 - 100 local anti-racists and leftists picket Boulton Road School in Handwsworth where John Tyndall is due to speak on behalf of the NF's Ladywood by-election candiate, Anthony reed Herbert. Later, 200 Handsworth youths, mobilised by a loudspeaker van touring the area and by activists visiting cafe, youth centres and billiard hall, swell the numbers picketing the election meeting to 5-600. When the demonstrators realise that the cops had smuggled the NF into the building, angry anti-fascists stry to storm the school, despite the presence of 400 police protecting the meeting. Riot shields were again deployed following their first appearence on the mainland in Lewishman 2 days before. 58 police officers were injured, six seriously including one with a broken collarbone, and extensive damage was caused, with cops turned over and set on fire. The police station where most of those arrested were taken was attacked and black youths were later involved in attacks on shops in the nearby Soho Road. [PR]

1987 - Jean Émile Louis Scutenaire (b. 1905), Belgian poet, anarchist, surrealist and civil servant, dies. [see: Jun. 29]

1992 - Giorgio Perlasca (b. 1910), Italian anti-Nazi civil servant and merchant, who posed as the Spanish consul-general to Hungary in the winter of 1944, and saved 5218 Jews from transportation to Nazi Germany and the Holocaust, dies. [see: Jan. 31]

[CC] 2004 - Roger Albert Giner, a young Catalan anarchist and anti-Fascist is stabbed by a group of neo-Nazis skinheads in the Barcelona neighborhood of Gràcia. He died in the Hospital Vall d'Hebron after spending almost five months in a coma. The police, altered by a member of the public who described a group of 20 youths armed with chains and throwing stones fighting, found Roger lying on the ground with a deep wound in the neck and losing large amounts of blood. The intervention of a surgeon at the scene managed to stabilise him but he never recovered from his injuries. Police chased a group of six Nazis, arresting them in the Rambla del Prat. Amongst them was a 25-year-old skin Aitor Dávila, from Albal, Valencia, who was found with the weapon, a brass knuckleduster with attached blade - in his possession. In November 2006, Aitor Dávila was found guilty of murder and, controversially, sentenced to only 11 years, following the jury's unanimous request for clemency, plus €90,000 compensation for Roger's family. A second defendant, Emilio Cortés, was acquitted. Effectively, the judge held that Roger was responsible in part for his own fate and therefore decided on a lesser sentence and awarded half the costs of the defence bill against his family.

2009 - BNP Red, White & Blue Festival (14-16th): 1,500 strong march from Codnor Market Place up to the site of the BNP festival site entrance. Two seperate groups of anti-fascists occupied road junctions in the nearby village of Denby - around 300 anti-fascists congregated on the corner of Heanor Road and Codnor-Denby Lane in Codnor at 8am, refusing to move. A second group of about 200 protesters from the West Midlands occupied the other end of Codnor-Denby Lane towards Denby. They blocked the road between 0840 and 1000, when the police arrested some of them and cleared a path for vehicles. "We’ve managed to completely seal off the BNP event for over an hour," said a protester at the Denby blockade. "Lots of Nazis travelling to the BNP rally have been turned away. The police have know pushed us out the way but we’re still here demonstrating." At the larger march, protesters threw bags of flower, eggs and fruit at officers as a some people tried to force their way through a police cordon.
More than 500 police officers were deployed over the weekend, costing £500,000 and making only 19 arrests.

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Nearly one week after the officer shot Brown on Saturday afternoon, Ferguson Police Chief Tom Jackson names the officer involved in the shooting in a morning news conference as Darren Wilson, a 28-year-old white male Ferguson police officer. He also links the shooting directly to a "strong-arm" robbery that had occurred a few minutes before the shooting at a nearby convenience store called Ferguson Market & Liquor, describing Brown as the suspect involved in the robbery. Hours later, Jackson has to hold another news conference to state that Wilson wasn't aware of the robbery when he stopped Brown. Bang goes a possible 'justification'.
That Friday night the protests continued in "an almost celebratory manner" near the QuikTrip until police arrived at around 11:00 p.m. At around 1:30 a.m. Saturday morning, rioters broke into and looted the Ferguson Market & Liquor store that Brown allegedly robbed prior to his shooting, as well as other nearby businesses. Some protesters then gather to protect the stores from further looting.
[A/D] 1819 - Peterloo Massacre: In Manchester a crowd of 60,000–80,000 had gathered to demand the reform of parliamentary representation at an event organised by the Manchester Patriotic Union Society. The key speaker was to be famed orator Henry Hunt, the platform consisted of a simple cart, located in the front of what's now the Gmex centre, and the space was filled with banners - REFORM, UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE, EQUAL REPRESENTATION and, touchingly, LOVE. Many of the banner poles where topped with the red cap of liberty - a powerful symbol at the time. Shortly after the meeting began local magistrates called on the military authorities to arrest Hunt and several others on the hustings with him, and to disperse the crowd. Cavalry charged into the crowd with sabres drawn as the crowd lined arms to try and prevent arrests being made. An estimated 18 people, including a woman and a child, died from saber cuts and trampling. Over 700 men, women and children received extremely serious injuries. All in the name of liberty and freedom from poverty.

1842 - 1842 General Strike / Plug Plot (or Plug Drawing) Riots: Following yesterday's 'dispersal' of the Great Delegate Trades Conference by the city magistrates, the chairman, Alexander Hutchinson, defiantly declared that the conference had not been broken up the previous evening, but had finished its agenda and dispersed.
With the region around Manchester paralyzed, the National Charter Association (NCA) officially endorsed the campaign and the strike movemnt becomes a truly national event. The NCA’s nationwide organisational network immediately helped spread the strikes further. Parts of South Wales, Scotland, Dorset, and Somerset now joined the strike. Workers also spread unrest in London, but proper strikes never developed there due to intense police attention.
The strike was now at its high-water mark, the moment where the threat to the national government was greatest with the campaign having immense authority and dangerously close to becoming a revolutionary counter-government. The momentum did not last, however. Following the close of the Great Delegate Conference, delegates returned to their hometowns and left a void in central leadership. The NCA leaders also dispersed, and, although they continued to work locally, the Charter was a national-level political document which required top-down inception. With the campaign once again decentralised, more achievable wage demands began to dominate the discourse. Meanwhile, Home Secretary Graham forged local police and soldiers into a unified force of repression, ready to harass and disband marchers wherever they should turn up. By August 20, Chairman Alexander Hutchinson and many other union and Chartist leaders had been arrested. Others filled in, but the national strike organisation became less robust.

1856 - Pierre Martin aka 'le Bossu' (the Hunchback)(d. 1916), French anarchist, anti-miltarist and pacifist, born.

1872 - The first issue of the weekly anarchist 'La Revista Social', "Organo de la Union de los Obreros Manufactureros de España.", is published in Manresa (near Barcelona).

1878 - The German anarchist Heinrich Emil Maximilian Hödel, who tried to assassinate Kaiser Wilhelm I in Berlin on May 11, is sentenced to death and swiftly beheaded. His last words are "Vive la commune".

1889 - Great London Dock Strike: Ben Tillett again informs Dock House that he requires a satisfactory reply to his demands. When this was not forthcoming he carried out his threat to lead 10,000 men in the first of the mammoth colourful processions that raised the profile of the dispute locally, nationally and internationally. [see: Aug. 14]

1890 - The first issue of Ernesto Alvarez's anarchist newspaper 'La Anarquia' is published in Madrid. The newspaper ceased publication on June 15, 1893.

1893 - Massacre of Italians at Aigues-Mortes: Fighting breaks out in Aigues-Mortes, France, between Fench and Italian seasalt harvesters working for the Compagnie des Salins du Midi. It escalates and tomorrow sees the death of a number of Italian workers. In the summer of 1893, the seasonal recruitment of workers for threshing and lifting the salt in the evaporation ponds (salines) was under pressure being reduced because of the economic crisis in Europe, but the prospect of finding a seasonal job had attracted a greater number of workers than usual. These fell into three categories: local 'Ardéchois' peasants, 'Piémontais' from northern Italy prepared to work at cut-rate wages, and 'trimards' (tramps and vagabonds). The company policy was for foremen to form teams comprising both French and Italians, which led to friction and fighting.
A brawl between the two communities rapidly escalated into a battle of honour and, despite the intervention of a justice of the peace and gendarmes, the situation rapidly deteriorated. Rumours spread that the Italians had killed some local Aiguemortais, bringing villagers into the fray and the troops that préfet had summonsed did not arrive til later on in the day.

1894 - Santo Geronimo Caserio (Sante Jeronimo) (b. 1873), Italian anarchist who stabbed French President Sadi Carnot to avenge the execution of Auguste Valliant, is guillotined at 4:55am. Carnot died from his wounds.
"Corragio camaradi, evviva l'anarchia!" (Courage comrades, long live anarchy!)
[Costantini pic]

1895 - One year after the execution of Sante Caserio, a bomb explodes in front of the French consulate in Ancona (Italy), breaking its windows and front doors.

[B] 1896 - Tina Modotti (Assunta Adelaide Luigia Modotti Mondini; d. 1942), Italian photographer, model, actress and revolutionary political activist, born. She appeared in several plays, operas, and silent movies in the late 1910s and early 1920s, and also worked as an artist's model. Her Hollywood movie career, which often involved her playing the femme fatale, culminated in the 1920 film 'The Tiger's Coat'. Her bohemian circle of friends included the photographer Edward Weston, who used her as a model, becoming her lover and helped her develop her photography skills. [expand]

1902 - Paweł Lew Marek (born Melajach Lew; d. 1971), Polish journalist, anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist, co-founder of the Anarchistycznej Federacji Polski during the Second Republic, born. He participant defense of Warsaw in 1939, and then fought in the Warsaw ghetto uprising and the Warsaw Uprising itself. After 1945, he became as trade union activist. His autobiography covering the war years, 'Na krawedzi zycia. Wspomnienia anarchisty (1943-1944)' (After a life. Memoirs of an Anarchist (1943-1944)), was published posthumously in 2005.

1902 - Jean Frédéric Henry Barrué (d. 1989), French Professor of Mathematics, communist militant and revolutionary syndicalist and later an anarchist, born. During the Spanish Civil War, he worked on Aristide Lapeyre's 'L'Espagne Antifasciste' in Bordeaux and became an important figure in the Groupe Sébastien Faure.

1907 - Georgette Léontine Roberte Augustine Kokoczinski aka 'La Mimosa' (Georgette Léontine Brivadis-Ango; d. 1936), French anarchist, actress and nurse, born. At the age of 16, unable to get on with her parents any longer, she left for Paris where she was taken in by André Colomer and his partner Magdalena who introduced her to libertarian ideas. She frequented the cabarets in Montmartre and was attracted to show business and poetry. In 1928 she started using the stage name Mimosa as part of a theatre group that added colour to libertarian meetings and festivals in the area through singing, poetry readings and staging dramas.
She disappeared on October 16 during the Battle of Perdiguera (Zaragoza) and died the same day (or on Oct. 17), possibly shot by firing squad, in circumstances that are not entirely clear.

1907 - Miquel Liern Barberà (d. 1971), Spanish anarchist, CNT member and combatant on the Teruel, Brunete and Ebro fronts, born.
Following Franco's victory, he was interned in the Barcarès and Argelès concentration camps, later working for the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers. In 1941 he was arrested by the Germans and sent to Mauthausen concentration camp and then to Dachau. He managed to survive until the Allied liberation and settled in Montpelier, working as a mosaic maker and was active in the local CNT.

1912 - José Villanueva (d. 1989), Spanish anarchist and CNT member, who volunteered and fought in the Durruti Column alongside his brother Floreal Carbó, born. Following Franco's victory, went to France and was interned in the concentration camp at Vernet. After World War II he settled in Languedoc and remained a militant in the CNT in exile.

1916 - Paquita Jolis Puig (d. 1982), Catalan militant anarcho-feminist and Mujeres Libres activist, born. Active in the FIJL in Premiá de Dalt, in 1936 she, her sister Assumpció and a group of two dozen other women, formed a local Agrupació Mujeres Libres. This group participated in the running of the town's Municipal Council and was the promoter of the creation of the Museu de Física i Ciències Naturals (Museum of Physics and Natural Sciences). With the victory of Franco in the Civil War, she was forced into exile in France, where she became active in the local federation of the CNT in exile in Marseille. Paquita Jolis Puig died on August 16, 1982, on her birthday, in Marseille.

1916 - Ceferí Llop Estupiñà (d. 1939), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, member of the FIJL and CNT, born. Following the 1936 military coup, he joined the Comitè Revolucionari de Manresa and volunteered for the front. Following Franco's victory, he went to France but soon returned. However , he was denounced as a member of the Comitè Revolucionari de Manresa militia and of having participated in the assault of the Dominican convent. Arrested by Franco's army, on 28 April, 1939 he was tried by an emergency summary court martial and sentenced to death for the crime of "military rebellion". He was shot on August 9, 1939 in the Camp de la Bota del Poblenou in Barcelona.

[E] 1918 - The opening of the Centro Radical Femenino (Women’s Radical Centre), part of the anarcho-syndicalist Casa del Obrero Mundial. The Centre brings out a newspaper 'El Iconoclasta' that claims to be produced by “eager female fighters and designed to raise the consciousness of women enslaved by Roman vampirism” (a reference to Catholic clergy sucking on women’s life blood).

1919 - Conchita Guillén (born María de la Concepción Bertolín Pilar Guillén; d. 2008), Spanish militant anarcho-feminist and member of Mujeres Libres, born. Sister of the anarchist painter Jesús Guillén Bertolín.

[C] 1921 - The London 'Times' begins its 3-day exposure of the forged anti-semitic document 'The Protocol of the Elders of Zion'.

1924 - The body of Giacomo Matteotti (b. 1885), Italian socialist member of parliament and prominent opponent of the Fascist regime, is found outside Rome, murdered by fascist thugs. [see: Aug. 10]

1936 - The second day (of 2) of the constituent congress of La Fédération Anarchiste Française (following a split within the Union Anarchiste) in Toulouse. Volin and André Prudhommeaux are the main facilitators.

1940 - Raphael Friedeberg (b. 1863), German medical doctor, socialist and later an anarchist following his involvement in the Acona community, where he settled permamnently in 1904, dies. [see: Mar. 14]

1943 - Białystok Ghetto Uprising: The second Jewish uprising following Warsaw, is initiated by the Antyfaszystowska Organizacja Bojowa (Anti-fascist Militant Organisation) as regiments of the German SS reinforced by Ukrainian, Byelorussian, and Latvian auxiliaries tries to carry out the final liquidation of the Ghetto. During the night [16-17] several hundred Polish Jews start an armed uprising against the troops carrying out liquidation of the aktion. The guerillas led by Mordechaj Tenenbaum and Daniel Moszkowicz arere armed with only one machine gun, rifles, several dozen pistols, Molotov cocktails and bottles filled with acid. The main resistance lasted just one day, but isolated pockets resisted for several more days.
[łystok_Ghetto_Uprising ghetto.htmlłystok Ghetto Uprising]

1943 - Krychow Slave-Labour Camp Uprising: Armed resistance by Jewish prisoners during the liquidation of the Krychów labour camp, a satelitte camp to Sobibor built before World War II as a detention camp for Polish prisoners.

1944 - French Résistance fighters captured three German posts along the Swiss border.

1950 - Petra Schelm (d. 1971), German hairdresser, who joined the Rote Armee Fraktion in 1970 along with her partner Manfred Grashof, and was killed by a single gunshot wound through the eye during a confrontation with the police in Hamburg – the first death in the battle of the RAF against the West German state, born. [expand]

1957 - Adalgisa Fochi (b. 1865), Italian teacher, writer, anti-fascist, mother of Camillo Berneri and grandmother of Maria Luisa and Giliana Berneri, dies. [see: Jul. 31]

1962 - As part of a concerted drive against political and social dissenters, the Cuban government forces the Libertarian Association of Cuba to cease publishing its journal 'El Libertario' and suspend public activity because they had voiced minor criticisms of the Communist role in the government and their domination of the labour unions. All anarchist publications and public activities are banned across Cuba.

1964 - The 'race riot' in Dixmoor, Chicago, which broke out after a white liquor store owner beat a woman he had accused of stealing a bottle of gin, continues in the predominantly black neighbourhood.

1969 - Home of Duncan Sandys, Tory MP, fire-bombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1982 - Paquita Jolis Puig (d. 1982), Catalan militant anarcho-feminist and Mujeres Libres activist, dies on her 66th birthday. [see: Aug. 16]

1996 - Robert 'Bobby' Lynn (b. 1924), Scottish Stirnerite anarchist and militant trade unionist, dies.

2008 - BNP Red, White & Blue Festival (15-17th): On Saturday morning, 700 demonstrators from Unite Against Fascism and the TUC and Unison unions took part in a rally in nearby Codnor. Later on approx. 50 protesters attempted to barricade a road and prevent BNP membes from reaching the festival site. Police responded with batons, supported by dogs and a helicopter broke the group up and arrested six. The rest scattered across the fields and a number were arrested later. All told,
£250,000 was spent on policing the event and 36 arrests were made over the weekend.

2011 - Two men from Warrington in Cheshire are sentenced to four years each in prison for "organising and orchestrating disorder" on Facebook during the UK riots.

2011 - 27 year old Dale Burns dies in Barrow, Cumbria after being doused with pepper spray and Tasered three times in quick succession by police.

[F] 2012 - Marikana Massacre: South African police open fire on a large crowd of men who had walked out on strike at the British-owned Lonmin platinum mine at Marikana, killing 34 workers. The miners – who earned roughly $400 a month – were on strike over wages. In contrast, Lonmin’s annual profits for shareholders in 2011 was $273 million, and its CEO was paid nearly $2 million a year.

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: At a press conference Missouri Governor Jay Nixon declares a state of emergency, implementing nightly curfews in Ferguson from midnight to 5:00 a.m. Some residents at the press conference claim that the cops were instigating all the violence with their military-like tactics. Missouri Highway Patrol Captain Ronald S. Johnson, the black face that had been drafted in to front the authorities' PR, states that police will not enforce the curfew with armoured trucks and tear gas, and will give protesters time and opportunity to leave before curfew.
1828 - Maria Deraismes (Marie Adélaïde Deraismes; d. 1894), French author, orator, franc-maçonne, anti-clericalist and feminist, born. A major pioneering force for women's rights, who is said to be the first French woman to call herself a 'féministe'. She was also the first woman in France to be initiated in Masonism and she went on to found the Ordre maçonnique mixte international 'le Droit humain'.

1842 - 1842 General Strike / Plug Plot (or Plug Drawing) Riots: Mass meetings took place in London between August 17-20, and both the police and military were sent to disperse them. In Preston, troops fired on an unarmed crowd, killing four; soldiers also charged and fired on crowds at Newcastle-under-Lyme, Halifax and Skipton. But some elements of the state's response proved less than solid - in Manchester, a troop of Chelsea Pensioners refused to confront a crowd of strikers; shopkeepers and others called up to act as special constables declined to act against the workers, and there were reports of soldiers being taken away in chains for refusing to fight.
Despite this, with regular troops now on the streets with fixed bayonets and many of the strike's leaders now under arrest, the tide had turned against the strikers. The turn-outs ran on through August, and in many cases into September, with the Manchester weavers holding out to the last at the end of September. In many cases, mill workers went back with some element of their demand for a return to earlier wage levels met - or, at the very least, employers' demands for wage cuts abandoned. But all hope of achieving the Charter was now lost.

1864 - Librado Rivera (d. 1932), Mexican teacher and school principal, militant anarchist propagandist and one of the closest comrade and collaborator of Ricardo Flores Magón, born.

1867 - Romeo Frezzi (d. 1897), Italian anarchist, who was to die under interrogation following his arrest (he was found in possession of a photo of a group of people, including the putative assassin Pietro Acciarito) in connection with the attempted assassination of King Umberto I on April 22 1897, born.

1868 - Józef Edward Abramowski (d. 1918), Polish political thinker, philosopher, psychologist, sociologist, militant libertarian and coopertivist, born. Abramowski is considered to be a spiritual father of Anarchism in Poland.

1876 - Georges Gustave Gillet (d. 1951), French militant syndicalist, anti-militarist and anarchist propagandist, born.

1883 - Jeanne Françoise 'Jane' Morand (d. 1969), French militant individualist anarchist and anti-militarist activist, born. Jane Morand participated in the creation of a diction course for amateur actors at the libertarian Théâtre du Peuple collective and also participated in the creation of Armand Guerra's film co-operative, Cinéma du Peuple. [expand]

1885 - Clara Gertrude Meijer-Wichmann (d. 1922), Dutch lawyer, philosopher, pacifist, anti-militarist, anarcho-syndicalist and anarcho-feminist, born. As a law student, she co-founded the Nederlandse Bond voor Vrouwenkiesrecht (Dutch League for Women's Suffrage), lecturing and writing articles on the emancipation of women is all areas of society. Appointed in 1914 as a researcher at the Central Department of the Ministry of Justice Statistics in The Hague, she declared: "Criminal law should be banned completely, because I proclaim that it is an act of retaliation and not a way to render justice." In 1919 she founded the anti-prison organsiation Comité van Actie Tegen de Bestaande Opvattingen Omtrent Misdaad en Straf (Action Committee Against the Existing Notions of Crime and Punishment). A member of 'De Dageraad' (The Dawn), an association of freethinkers based around the magazine of the same name, motto: 'Magna est veritas et praevalebit' (Mighty is the truth and it will prevail). An active anti-militarist, she married the conscientious objector Jo Meijer in 1921 and they co-founded the War Resistors International that year.
Sadly Clara, aged 36, died giving birth to their daughter the following year. Jo Meijer went on help preserve his wife's intellectual heritage as well as continue their work in the WRI. The Clara Wichmann Institute (CLWI), a Dutch organisation dealing with the legal status of women, was established in her honour in 1987 but was forced to close in 2004 due to the withdrawal of government funding. Its work is continued via the Stichting Proefprocessenfonds Clara Wichmann (Trial Process Fund Foundation). Since 1988 there has also been a Clara Meijer-Wichmann medal awarded on Human Rights Day (December 10) in her honour, intially by the Dutch League of Human Rights but laterly by the J'Accuse foundation, recognising work in defence of humanity.

[F] 1893 - Massacre of Italians at Aigues-Mortes: Tensions from yesterday's unrest flared up and the rioters went into the Peccais salines, where the largest number of Italians were. Whilst these Italians were being escorted by gendarmes to the railway station in Aigues-Mortes, they were attacked by the rioters and massacred by a crowd that the gendarmes were unable to contain. Estimates range from the official number of eight deaths up to 150 (claimed in the Italian press at the time). Those killed were victims of lynchings, beatings with clubs, drowning and rifle shots, as well as many casualties.
When the news of the massacre reached Italy, anti-French riots erupted in many cities. The testimonies of the injured Italians as well as inaccurate news agency dispatches (there was a talk of hundreds of deaths, children impaled and carried around victoriously, etc.) contributed to a growing wave of indignation, which in turn led to widespread rioting through out Italy. In Genoa and Naples trams owned by a French company were set on fire, and in Rome the windows of the French Embassy were smashed by an angry mob.
Seventeen people were charged with the deaths but all were acquitted, much to the delight of the audience in the court.

1893 - Mary Jane 'Mae' West (d. 1980), American actress, singer, playwright and screenwriter, the Queen of Sex, born. She fought the Hays Code and won.
"Between two evils, I always pick the one I haven't tried before."

1894 - Emma Goldman released from prison after serving ten months for a speech at an unmemploymen rally on August 21, 1893. She sells a report about her prison experience for $150 to the 'New York World', which publishes it the day after her release.

1895 - Nicolas Lazarevitch (d. 1975), militant Russian anarcho-syndicalist, born into a Russian exile family in Belgium. [expand]

1896 - Lotte Jacobi (Johanna Alexandra Jacobi; d. 1990), German photographer and unaligned socialist, born. Jacobi began taking pictures as a young child, using a pinhole camera that her father constructed for her as a birthday present. The oldest of three children, she grew up in a family of photographers stretching back to her great-grandfather Samuel Jacobi, who learned his craft in 1839 from Louis Daguerre. Her family was also active in the leftist social and political movements during the Weimar period and she got to know and take photographs of Ernst Thalmann, Erwin Piscator and Erich Mühsam. Other visitors to the Jacobi studio included high-ranking German officials who, unaware that she was Jewish, often praised her work as "good examples of Aryan photography". From October 1932 to January 1933, she travelled to the Soviet Union, and in particular to Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, taking photographs of all that she saw. Whilst she was away, the Nazis came to power and due to her Jewish ancestry and her Leftist sympathies (she had also worked for the communist Berlin Unionbild agency), Lotte was a prime target. However, altered by her mother that the Gestapo were looking for her, she bought a large fur coat shortly before her return to Berlin under which she hid her camera and walked right by the Gestapo waiting at customs, and who were looking for a photographer with a torn leather jacket. As the Nazi repression and persecution of Jews increased, during which many people she knew were being arrested and killed e.g. Thalmann and Mühsam, she decided it was time to leave Germany. In 1935, she rejected the Nazis’ offer to grant her honorary Aryan status and, shortly after her father's death [like many Jews of the period, he had decided that he was a German first, that he was safe and that he wanted to die in Germany, not some foreign country] fled with her son, first to London and then to the United States, arriving in September 1935 in New York City, where she opened a studio in Manhattan. In 1940, Jacobi married Erich Reiss, a distinguished German publisher and writer who had survived the concentration camps and immigrated to the US, a marriage that lasted until his death in 1951. Lotte also continued portrait photography at her studio, whilst also embarking upon various camera-less and manipulated photography experiments including that with the artist Leo Katz, later named photogenics: abstract black-and-white images produced by moving torches and candles over light-sensitive paper.

1896 - Bridget Driscoll becomes the first person in Britain to be knocked down by a car when she is hit as she walks in Crystal Palace, London.

1902 - Julián Guijarro Priego (d. 1987), Spanish foundry worker and anarcho-syndicalist member of the MLE and CNT, born. During the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera he participated actively in all the workers and social struggles. Following the fascist uprising in July 1936, he participated in the street fighting and joined a Revolutionary Committee. With the triumph of Franco, he crossed the Pyrenees and was interned at the concentration camp at Vernet. He later enlisted in the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers (CTE). During the occupation was registered on a list of "dangerous anarchists" and sent to work in Germany as part of the Service du Travail Obligatoire. He later joined the Maquis.

1909* - Josep (José) Sabaté i Llopart aka Pepe (d. 1949), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, guerrilla fighter against Franco, and older brother of Francesc (Francisco) 'El Quico' Sabaté and Manuel aka Manolo, born into a strongly anarchist family. He joined the CNT in 1931, writing articles for its paper 'Solidaridad Obrera' and later joined the 'Los Novatos' action group alongside Fransesc. With the fascist uprising, he enlisted with the 'Los Aguiluchos' (Young Eagles) column, which was organised by anarchist Juan Garcia Oliver, and fought on the Aragon front where he headed a centúria. He later fought in a number of other units but was taken prisoner in April 1939 and sent to Alicante, where he ended up in the Albatera concentration camp. Following periods in the concentration camps at Cartagena and València, he was paroled (ransomed after paying a 'deposit') in 1946 [some sources incorrectly give the dtae as 1948] and crossed the border to fight alongside El Quico in the libertarian action groups. The pair were soon joined by their younger brother Monolo but later split to go their own ways. [expand]
[*NB: some sources give the year of birth as 1910]

[D] 1906 - [O.S. Aug. 4] Pamiat Azova Mutiny [Память Азова мятеж]: The verdicts in the trial of the 95 Pamiat Azova mutineers are handed down: Arseny Koptyukh and 17 sailors were sentenced to death, 12 others were sentenced to hard labour, 13 sent to the disciplinary battalions, and 15 were sentenced to other disciplinary punishments.
The Pamiat Azova itself became a training vessel in September 1907 and in February 1909 the cruiser was renamed the Dvina (Двину). It reverted to its old name after the February Revolution of 1917, but was sunk by a British torpedo off Kronstadt on the night of August 19, 1919.

1909 - Josep Miquel i Baró (b. 1865), Catalan Republican is shot at 07:00 in the Santa Amàlia battery of the Montjuïc fortress in Barcelona. He was one of five (the others being the anarchists Francesc Ferrer Guàrdia, Antoni Malet Pujol, Eugenio del Hoyo and Ramon Clemente García) tried and executed in the aftermath of the Setmana Tràgica.

1913 - A debate between the socialist intellectual Maynard Shipley (1872 - 1934), then director of 'The Commonwealth', organ of the Socialist Party of Washington, and the anarcha-feminist activist Emma Goldman, in the Liberty Hall, Everett, Washington. The debate centres on whether voting and political parties were necessary or not for the emancipation of the working class.

1918 - 95 Wobblies are sent to prison for up to 20 years for conspiring to hinder the draft, encourage desertion, and intimidate others in connection with labour disputes, under the new Espionage Act.

1926 - George Melly (d. 2007), English jazz and blues singer, critic, writer and lecturer on art history specialising in Surrealism who was court-martialled during WWII for distributing anarchist literature whilst in the Navy, born.

1935 - Charlotte Perkins Gilman (Charlotte Anna Perkins; b. 1860), US utopian feminist, socialist, prolific author (novels, short stories, poetry and non-fiction), publisher and lecturer for social reform, as well as an advocate of euthanasia for the terminally ill, puts her beliefs into practice and commits suicide by taking an overdose of chloroform after being diagnosed with incurable breast cancer. [see: Jul. 3]

1939 - Yeshaayahu Toma Ŝik (d. 2004), Hungarian-Israeli anti-militarist, pacifist, anti-Zionist and anarchist, born. Pioneer of the Israeli-Palestinian search for peace, a forerunner of the present day pacifist-refuseniks. His non-doctrinaire libertarian socialist politics and strong vegan life style were almost unique in the Israel of the 70s and 80s. Today they are embodied in part in the work of groups like Ma'avak Ehad (One Struggle).

1939 - Ed Sanders, American poet, singer, social activist, environmentalist, author, publisher and co-founder of The Fugs with anarchist Tuli Kupferberg, born. "I'm a democratic-socialist and Tuli's an anarchist - between those poles, an interesting tension derives. It fuels some of our [The Fugs] songwriting." His 2007 collection 'Revs of the Morrow' (2007) contains poems 'For Emma Goldman' and the environmentalist Rachel Carson.

1944 - Francisco Ponzán Vidal (b. 1911), Spanish militant anti-fascist guerrillero, anti-Francoist and resistance fighter, dies, shot by the Nazis in Buzet-sur-Tarn, near Toulouse. [see: Mar. 30]

1945 - George Orwell's 'Animal Farm' first published.

[C] 1947 - Battle of Ridley Road: The anti-fascist journalist Fredric Mullally had, via his Sunday Pictorial column, challenged Jeffrey Hamm of the British League of Ex-Servicemen and Women, who had taken to holding their meetings in and around the bustling Ridley Road street market in Dalston, to a public debate after having been outraged by the open displays of Nazi sympathies at their meetings, including an appearence by Mosley. The 43 Group had offered Mullally their protection as they had long been involved in running battles with the fascists as they tried to close down their meetings, but he refused. The police were out in great force, as were people eager to hear Mullally speak. When he arrived, 200 cops tried to clear a way thrugh the crown to the platform but, as Mullally neared the platform, the fascists started to attack him and he ended up on the ground. Fortunately, the 43 Group activists managed to rescue him and took him to a nearby street where they had set up their own platform but the police quickly closed that meeting down. The 43 Group then took Mullally into Ridley Road to the Communist Party loudspeaker car platform. However, before he had a chance to speak, 200 Blackshirts charged at Mullally’s small and heavily outnumbered group. Mullally was again rescued by 43 Group members and taken to the safety of a nearbt pub, as the battles spead up and down Kingsland Road and mounted police went in to clear the area.
The following Sunday, Mullally was invited back by the 43 Group to speak on a platform in Ridley Road that the anti-fascists had held since early morning. An all-London anti-fascist callout had been made and a 50-strong group of bodyguards met Mullally at Dalston station and he addressed a large rally, marking the effective end of the fascists' control of the streets in the area.

1963 - Spanish anarchists Francisco Granado Gata and Joaquín Delgado Martinez, having been arrested less than three weeks ago for a bombing they did not do, tortured and tried in secret, are garrotted in Carabanchel prison, still protesting their innocence. [see: Mar. 4 & Oct. 4]

1964 - The 'race riot' in Dixmoor, Chicago, which broke out after a white liquor store owner beat a woman he had accused of stealing a bottle of gin, ends with more than 80 arrests.

1965 - Takami Jun (高見 順; b. 1907), pen-name of Takami Yoshio, Japanese novelist, poet, Marxist and anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 30]

1965 - Jack Spicer (b. 1925), San Francisco Renaissance poet and gay anarchist son of a Wobbly, dies. [see: Jan. 30]

[AA] 1965 - The Watts Riots end after 34 deaths, 1,032 injuries, 3,438 arrests and over $40 million in property damage. Gov. Brown will feel safe enough to lift his curfew.

1976 - José Luis Quintas Figueroa (aka 'El Quintas', 'Alfonso' & Clemente Cabaleiro Covelo; b. 1911), Spanish tinsmith, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist member of FIJL, MLE and CNT, and anti-Franco guerrilla, dies. [see: Apr. 17]

1980 - Birth of Solidarity [Solidarność]: The 21 demands of MKS (21 postulatów MKS), which eventually led to the August Agreement (Porozumienia sierpniowe) [sometimes called the Gdańsk Agreement] and creation of Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy „Solidarność” ( Independent Self-governing Trade Union 'Solidarity'), is issued by the Interfactory Strike Committee (Międzyzakładowy Komitet Strajkowy) at the Stoczni Gdańskiej im. Lenina (Lenin Shipyard, Gdańsk) in Poland.

1982 - Sébastien Briat, French anti-nuclear activist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was struck and killed near Avricourt by a train carrying nuclear waste which had been reprocessed in France, and was heading to Gorleben, Germany for storage, born.

1987 - Julián Guijarro Priego (b. 1902), Spanish foundry worker and anarcho-syndicalist member of the MLE and CNT, dies. [see: Aug. 17]

2001 - Anthony Earnshaw (b. 1924), English artist, author, illustrator and self-styled "armchair anarchist", dies. [see: Oct. 9]

2002 - Todor 'Tocho' Mitev (b. 1926), Bulgarian anarchist and doctor, dies. [see: Mar. 26]

[B] 2004 - Jaceguay Lins (b. 1947), Brazilian composer, conductor, music teacher, writer, poet and anarchist beekeeper, dies in destituion complications associated with throat cancer.

[A] 2009 - Prisoners at Sollicciano, the main prison in Florence, riot after being served mouldy bread for 3 days running.

2012 - Nadezhda Tolokonnikova, Maria Alyokhina and Yekaterina Samutsevich, the three Pussy Riot members arrested following the February 21 'Punk Prayer: Mother of God, Chase Putin Away!' [Панк-молебен: Богородица, Путина прогони!] event in Moscow's Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, are convicted of "hooliganism motivated by religious hatred", and each was sentenced to two years' imprisonment. Two other members of the group, who escaped arrest after the February protest, reportedly left Russia fearing prosecution.

[E] 2012 - 'Pussy Riot Global Day': In support for the Russian group Pussy Riot, then on trial in connection with the February 21, 2012, 'Punk Prayer: Mother of God, Chase Putin Away!' [Панк-молебен: Богородица, Путина прогони!] performance in Moscow's Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Inna Shevchenko and two other FEMEN activists cut down a 4m high wooden cross near Maidan Nezalezhnosti in Kiev, erected in 2005 as a memorial to the victims of Stalinist repression and the famine of the 1930s, with a chainsaw.

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Despite prior assurances, in the early hours of the morning tear gas and tactical units are deployed, One of the protesters is shot and critically wounded, with the police claiming that they did not fire any shots. Seven other people are arrested. Later that morning, a Missouri Highway Patrol spokesman announces that the curfew would be extended for a second day.
1563 - Étienne de La Boétie (b. 1530), French aristocrat and proto-anarchist, author of the classic work on tyranny 'Discours sur la Servitude Volontaire' (The Politics of Obedience: The Discourse of Voluntary Servitude; 1548), dies.

1612 - Trial at Lancaster Assizes of the Pendle Witches begins.

1789 - Liège Revolution [Révolution Liégeoise / Revolucion Lidjwesse] aka the Happy or Blessed Revolution [Révolution Bienheureuse / Binamêye Revolucion]: Simultameously with the outbreak of the French Revolution and the Brabant Revolution [Révolution Brabançonne / Brabantse Omwenteling] in neighbouring Netherlands, the Prince-Bishop of Liège is removed by a coup of the bourgeoisie, supported by the workers and peasants. Feudalism is abolished. The revolution occured in three phases, which ended in 1795 with the disappearance of the principality and its incorporation into the French Republic.

1812 - Luddite Timeline: Riot of women and boys led by ‘Lady Ludd’ at Corn Market in Leeds, also food shops threatened. Riots in Sheffield against flour and meal sellers.

[D] 1823 - Slaves in the Crown colony of Demerara-Essequibo (now part of Guyana), using the licence to travel on an official rest day (for the purposes of churchgoing), launch an uprising involving around 13,000 of the estimated 74,000 slaves on 10% of the 350 plantations estates in the colony. The largely non-violent rebellion was brutally crushed by the colonists, with up to 250 rebels killed during the fighting. At the so-called 'courts-martial' that followed, which began on August 25 and continued into 1824, death sentences were handed down on hundreds of Africans, who were either shot or hanged. Many of the latter then had their heads cut off and nailed to posts or placed on stakes in prominent places around the colony. Others faced sentences that included solitary confinement or flogging of up to 1,000 lashes. May were condemned to be chained for the rest of their lives as slaves.

[E] 1824 - André Léo (pen name of Victoire Léodile Béra; d. 1900), French novelist, journalist, militant feminist, Communard and Bakuninist, who is considered by many modern feminists to be one of the great writers of the nineteenth century, born. Member of the International who was also involved with the Association of Women for the Defence of Paris and Aid to the Wounded. After writing her first novel 'La Vieille Fille' (1864), Béra took the pen name André Léo, she started the newspaper 'La Coopération', advocating workers associations. Returning to Paris in 1860, she became involved with the Republicans and with the feminist activists Paule Minck and Louise Michel, and was arrested alongside Louise Michel at a protest put down by the army in Sept. 1870. She then founded a newspaper, 'La République des Travailleurs', and joined the Paris Commune, publishing editorials in 'La Sociale', which had a distribution of 100 000 copies, and for ' Cri du Peuple', and organising girl's eduction with Noémie Reclus and Anna Jaclard. She escaped the repression of the Bloody Week and went into exile in Switzerland and Italy, taking a prominent part in the publication of the journal 'Le Socialisme Progressif'.

1886 - Samuel Schwartzbard (Sholem-Shmuel Schwarzbard/Samuil Isaakovich Shvartsburd; d. 1938), Russian Jewish watchmaker, anarchist and Yiddish poet, born. Escaped the Russian pogroms in 1905, settled in Paris and active in local anarcho-communist groups with Alexander Berkman, Mollie Steimer, Senya Fleshin and Nestor Makhno. In 1926 he gunned down Simon Petliura, who had directed the Ukrainian pogroms in which some of his family were murdered. He fired three times, announcing: "This, for the pogroms; this for the massacres, this for the victims." Schwartzbard was acquitted by a jury and freed.

[BB] 1886 - Emil Szittya (Adolf Schenk; d. 1964), Hungarian anarchist, writer, journalist, painter, art critic, traveller and vagabond, born. He arrived in Paris in 1906 and, later that year moved into the Monte Verità settlement at Ascona. Around 1908, he met Blaise Cendrars in Leipzig, then they meet in Paris. In 1910, Emil Szittya published in Paris a first series of anarchist magazine, the Franco-German 'Neue Menschen: Les Hommes Nouveaux' (The New Men). A second series will be published in 1911 in Vienna and Munich. In October 1912, he collaborated with Marius Hanot, Blaise Cendrars and Freddy Sausey on the first issue (third series) of the French version of 'Les Hommes Nouveaux. Review Libre'. One issue emerged. When war broke out in 1914, he moved to Zurich, where he remained until 1918, getting to know Lenin , Radek and Trotsky.
In 1915, in collaboration with Hugo Kersten, he published the pre-Dadaist 'Der Mistral' and frequented the Cabaret Voltaire from it inception in 1916. There he met a fellow Hungarian, the painter and writer Lajos Kassák who published the avant-garde magazine 'A Tett' and with whom he returned to Hungary in 1918 to take part in the revolution. Following time spent in Budapest, Vienna and Berlin publishing numerous magazines including 'Horizont-Flugschriften' with Hans Richter, he fled the rise of fascism and returned to Paris, where he published the anti-fascist magazine 'La Zone' (1933-1934), a "cross-section of German politics, culture, science, art, theater, music and radio." With the Nazi invasion, he fled to the south of France and took part in the Résistance. In 1961 he met in Paris another marginal revolutionary, Franz Jung, and his 'Hommage à Franz Jung' (1988) would be published posthumously. He also published a series of monographs on numerous leading contemporary European artists.
He also knew most of the European avant-garde such as the members of Les XX: Stravinsky, Darius Milhaud, Arthur Honneger, Erik Satie, etc., numerous artists including Picasso, Otto Dix, Dressler, Derain and was important in championing Chagall. And his memoir, 'Das Kuriositäten-Kabinett: Begegnungen mit seltsamen Begebenheiten, Landstreichern, Verbrechern, Artisten, religiös Wahnsinnigen, sexuellen Merkwürdigkeiten, Sozialdemokraten, Syndikalisten, Kommunisten, Anarchisten, Politikern und Künstlern' (The Cabinet of Curiosities: Encounters with strange events, vagrants, criminals, artists, religious lunatic, sexual oddities, social democrats, syndicalists, communists, anarchists, politicians and artists; 1923), caused something of a scandal when published.

1889 - Great London Dock Strike: The Union of the Stevedores of London and the Tea Operatives & General Labourers' Association issue a joint manifesto, entitled 'To the Trade Unionists and People of London', which calls on other workers to support the dockers:
"Friends and Fellow Workmen. The dock labourers are on strike and asking for an advance in wages ... 6d per hour daytime and 8d per hour overtime. The work is of the most precarious nature, three hours being the average amount per day obtained by the docker.
We, the Union of the Stevedores of London, knowing the condition of the dock labourers, have determined to support their movement by every lawful means in our power...
We now appeal to members of all trade unions for joint action with us, and especially those whose work is in connection with shipping - engineers and fitters, boiler makers, ships' carpenters, etc. and also the coal heavers, ballast men and lightermen. We also appeal to the public at large for contributions and support on behalf of the dock labourers." [see: Aug. 14]

1889 - The first issue of the Italian language anarchist newspaper 'Il Socialista', "redatto da lavoratori" (written by workers, is published in Montevideo. Its subtitle "Periodico Irreligioso, Antipatriottico" is changed to "organo Comunista-Anarchico" from issue 3 onwards.
"Padrone Nè Dio" - "Parlate di liberta Chi è povero è schiavo?". (Neither God nor Master - You speak of freedom Who is poor and a slave?)

1890 - Albert Dubois-Pillet (b. 1846), French neo-Impresssionist and Pointillist painter and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies. [see: Oct. 28]

1893 - The day after a riot of the unemployed, Emma Goldman addresses a public meeting, urging those in need to take bread if they are hungry. The next evening she helps lead a procession of several hundred anarchists to Union Square, where, among many other speakers, she addresses a crowd of the unemployed.

1895 - The first issue of the Rosario (Santa Fe, Argentina) anarchist-communist periodical 'La Libre Iniciativa' is published.

1900 - Albert Victor Samain (b. 1858), French Symbolist poet, writer and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 3]

[B] 1903 - Moriya Emori (盛弥 江森; d. 1960), Japanese poet, children's writer and anarchist, also known as Soma Jukichi, born. Beginning around 1924, he published poems in and collaborated on anarchist different newspapers, especially 'Genshi' (Origins). He was a founder of the anarchist journal 'Bungei Kaiho' (Literary Liberation) and wrote for 'Musanaha Simbun' (Proletarian Weekly). With the demise of 'Musanaha Simbun' in August 1929, he helped start 'Daini Musansha Simbun' (Second Proletarian Weekly). In March 1940 he participated in the creation of the anarchist journal 'Shiga' (Plain Poetics). In 1945 he became editor of 'Jinto Shimbun Jinming' (People's Journal) and, when the paper of the Japanese Communist Party, 'Akahata' (Red Flag) was banned, he became editor of 'Tone Dokuritsu Heiwa' (Peace and Independence).
Amongst his publications are 'Gendai Rōdō Seisaku' (Modern Labour Policy; 1941) and 'Shijin no Sei to Shi ni Tsuite' (About the Life and Death of the Poet; 1959).

1908 - Jan Paweł Rogalski (d. 1993), Polish anarchist and anti-Nazi fighter, born. Before the war, employee newspaper 'Ostatnie Wiadomości' (Last News), a member of the Anarchistycznej Federacji Polski (AFP; Polish Anarchist Federation). In 1924, one of the editors of the socialist magazine 'Nowy Zew' (New Call). Since 1926, a student of the Faculty of Politics and Social Sciences at the Polish Free University. In the same year he began to act in self-education anarchist group organised by Benjamin Wolman, then in 1927 he was on the organising committee of the Anarchistycznej Federacji Polski (Polish Anarchist Federation), a comrade of Jerzy Borejsza. Worked in the clandestine AFP newspaper 'Walka' (Struggle). In 1929, in Warsaw, arrested in connection with the Akademią Kropotkinowską (Kropotkin Academy). During this time, he served as Secretary of the Organisation of the Warsaw AFP. In 1930 he went to France, where he worked as a labourer and studied at the Sorbonne. In 1932, he returned to Poland. During the occupation, went into hiding and helped hide others. In October 1939 together with Roman Jablonowski (before the war member of Communist Party of Poland, then close to syndicalists, activist and last leader of ‘Zegota’ (Council for Aid to Jews) initiated a socialist resistance group. In August 1942, escaping from the Warsaw ghetto. During the Warsaw Uprising, he was arrested along with his ​​family by the SS Division Galicia, but they manage to escape. By the end of the occupation, they were hiding in Nadarzyn. In January 1947 invited by Rose Pesotta (union activist and member of anarchist group publishing Freie Arbeiter Shtimme Yiddish language paper, who visited Poland in 1946) Rogalski went to the USA, where he held a series of lectures on Poland and the Warsaw Uprising. After his return, he was interrogated by Urzad Bezpieczenstwa (Public Security – secret police). In 1946, together with other anarchists and Roman Jabłonowski found the Spoldzielczy Instytut Wydawniczy 'Słowo' ('Word' Cooperative Publishers Institute) in Lodz, becoming its chairman. As part of its activities, among others, issued Kropotkin's books. Rogalski also lectured extensively, including in America, on the Warsaw Uprising. The Cooperative was persecuted by Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza (Polish United Workers Party) and was forced to close in 1949. From mid-1949 until his retirement he worked in the ‘Ksiazka i Wiedza’ (Book and Knowledge) publishing house.

[F] 1911 - National Railway Strike: With industrial unrest among railway workers due to high prices, long hours and dissatisfaction with the slow moving conciliation system, an unofficial strike that had started in Liverpool had already spread to other cities, prompting sympathetic action from dockers, carters and other transport workers. On August 18, 1911 the four rail unions – the Associated Society of Locomotive Engineers and Firemen (ASLEF), The Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants (ASRS), the General Railway Workers' Union (GRWU) and the United Pointsmen and Signalmen's Society (UPSS) – made the strike official, by which time an estimated 70,000 workers (including 20,000 railway workers) were on strike and troops were mobilised. After Government mediation, the unions' grievances were brought forward to a Royal Commission called to discuss industrial relations in the railways. In 1913, three of the rail unions combined to form the National Union of Railwaymen.

1917 - Huelga General Revolucionaria [Revolutionary General Strike] / Vaga General Espanyola [Spanish General Strike]: The governement proclaims that it had restored order and that the strike is over. However, it took several days more to crush the last redoubt of the revolutionary in the Asturian mining areas, where the army applied its repressive measures with great harshness. The official figure of casualties sstood at 71 dead - 37 of them in Catalonia, 200 injured and 2000 detained.
The failure of the strike, in part due to the behaviour of their supposed allies, the socialists of the UGT and PSOE, and confirmed the CNT in its 'apolitical' position and its confidence in the use of direct action tactics against employers. The strike was also discussed during the XIII UGT Congress held in October 1918. Indalecio Prieto affirmed that "the strike failed at the moment when the committee decreed that it be peaceful", and that it would not become "revolutionary" as it should have been. Largo Caballero, a member of the strike committee, replied: "We are accused of not properly preparing a revolutionary movement when what we were asked to prepare was a general strike."

1921 - Lydia Vladimirovna Litvyak (Лидия Владимировна Литвяк; d. 1943), pioneer WWII Soviet Air Force pilot and fighter ace, one of only two worldwide, who was the first female fighter pilot to shoot down an enemy plane and remains the holder of the record for the greatest number of kills by a female fighter pilot, born.

1922 - Alain Robbe-Grillet (d. 2008), French writer, literary theorist, screenwriter and filmmaker, born. One of the figures most associated with the Nouveau Roman. His first published novel (second completed), 'Les Gommes' (The Erasers; 1953), is a detective story set within 24 hours in an unnamed northern French coastal city with a plot involving an anarchist group who kill a string of 'officials' to a strict timetable.

1925 - Warlaam Dzon Aslanovic Tcherkesoff (or Tcherkezov; or Varlam Cherkezov; b. 1846), Georgian Prince, anarchist militant and collaborator with Kropotkin, helped found the Anarchist Red Cross, dies in London. [see: Sep. 15]

1932 - The founding congress of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FILJ) is held in Madrid (August 18-22).

1936 - Celestino Alvarado Quirós (b. 1903), Andalusian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, secretary of the Sindicat del Metall of the CNT, member of the Germinal group of the FAI and Freemason, is murdered by Falangists. [see: Aug. 18]

[C] 1942 - Marianne Baum (b. 1912), German anti-Nazi resistance fighter, who led the Gruppe Baum, a largely Jewish resistance group, with her husband Herbert, is executed in Berlin-Plötzensee Prison. At the end of the 1920s, Marianne Cohn was a member of the Deutsch-Jüdischen Jugendgemeinschaft, where in 1928 she met Herbert Baum, whom she later married. In 1931 she joined the Kommunistischen Jugendverband (Communist Youth Federation; KJVD) and, after the Nazi seizure of power, he together with his wife Marianne Baum and their friends, Martin and Sala Kochmann, began to organise anti-Nazi meetings. The circle of friends, most of whom were Jewish, designated Herbert Baum as chair and up to 100 youths attended these meetings at various times, engaging in political debates and cultural discussions. The group openly distributed leaflets arguing against National Socialism. In 1940, she and Herbert were forced into slave labour in the Jewish department at the Siemens electric motors factory. By 1941, Herbert Baum was heading a group of Jewish slave labourers (including Marianne) at the plant, who, to escape deportation to concentration camps, went into the Berlin underground. There they organised semi-clandestine demonstrations, leafleting and propaganda poster campaigns and the printing of a 19-page document, 'Organisiert den revolutionären Massenkampf gegen Faschismus und imperialistischen Krieg' (Organize the mass revolutionary struggle against Fascism and the Imperialist War).
In May 1942, the group decided to target the massive anti-communist and anti-Jewish propaganda exhibition 'Das Sowjetparadies' (The Soviet Paradise) that had been organised by Goebbels’ propaganda services at the Berlin Lustgarten. The Rote Kapelle (Red October) group had already targetted the exhibition [Liane Berkowitz and Otto Gollnow posted approx. 100 anti-Nazi posters in the vicinity of the Kurfürstendamm and Uhlandstrasse whilst Harro Schulze-Boysen acted as a lookout] and the Baum Group also flypostered but, wanting to go further, decided to carry out a firebomb attack on it. Herbert and Marianne Baum, Hans Joachim, Gerd Meyer, Sala Kochmann, Suzanne Wesse and Irene Walter took part in the action, planting their miniature incendiary bombs at different points in the exhibition on May 18 (they had tried the day before but too many people were present). Within days of the event, the seven participants and most of the other members of the group were arrested by the Gestapo (the Baums on May 22). On July 16, 1942, Marianne was tried by a special court in Berlin and sentenced to death. She was executed in Berlin-Plötzensee Prison on August 18, 1942.

1944 - Miquel Bueno Gil (b. ca. 1882), Spanish miner, member of the CNT, MLE and a well known FAI activist, born. He was active participation in the uprising in January 1932 leading to a spell in prison. During the Civil War he was a militiaman in the Durruti Column. Exiled in France following Franco's victory, during WWII he participated directly in the resistance along with his son-in-law as part of the network organised by Pat O'Leary and Francisco Ponzan Vidal to smuggle allied pilots out of France via Spain. In October 1943, was stopped by the Gestapo and arrested, under the pseudonym Miguel Solano García, along with his son Josep Bueno Vela and both were deported to Mauthausen concentration camp. On 18 August 1944, he was killed in the gas chamber at Mauthausen following a protest against the brutalities committed by the SS guards.
His daughter Alfonsa Bueno Vela participated in resistance activities along with her ​​husband Josep Ester Borràs, who was himself arrested and deported to Ravensbrück concentration camp, where he was experimented on by Nazi 'doctors', the consequnces of which affected him for the rest of his life.

1954 - Hermila Galindo Acosta aka Hermila Galindo de Topete (b. 1896), Mexican feminist and writer, who was an early supporter of many radical feminist issues, primarily sex education in schools, women's suffrage, and divorce, dies in Mexico City, the victim of a heart attack. [see: May 29]

1961 - Leonhard Frank (b. 1882), German Expressionist novelist, short story writer, playwright, libertarian pacifist and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies. [see: Sep. 4]

1963 - Suffering from cancer, Amadeo Ramón Valledor (aka 'El Asturiano' and 'Ramón'; b. 1920), Spanish miner militant anarcho-syndicalist and libertarian anti-fascist fighter, commits suicide in Perpignan by a shot to the heart. [see: May 24]

1969 - Jean Goldschild (aka Goldsky, or Jacques Guerrier)(b. 1890), French anti-militarist, militant anarchist and journalist, dies. [see: Dec. 13]

1970 - The London offices of Iberia Airlines, Spanish State airline, bombed. [Angry Brigade chronology]

[A] 1977 - Steve Biko, a leading student apartheid resister, is arrested prior to his death on September 12th following prolonged interrogation in Police Room 619.

1991 - Attempted coup against Mikhail Gorbachev's government begins with tanks on the street.

1992 - Felicitas Casasín Bravo (b. ca. 1913), Aragonese militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, active in the FAI and FILJ, dies. Member of the Catalan CNT, she took part in the street fighting in Barcelona during the fascist uprising in July 1936. Her father, Bartolomé Casasín Pérez, also a CNT member, was shot by the Falangists alongside 36 others in Huesca on January 5, 1937. Following the libertation of Huesca, she returned there but went into exile in France in 1939 and was interned in the concentration camps at Casimira Sarvisse Sesé and Belle Isle.

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Following last night's violent clashes during the imposed curfew, the National Guard is called in to "help restore peace and order and to protect the citizens of Ferguson". It is also announced that there will be no curfew on the night of August 18. Amnesty International sends in a 13-person contingent of human rights activists to seek meetings with officials as well as to train local activists in non-violent protest methods. Police are also recorded threatening the media with mace and Obama dispatches Attorney General Eric Holder to Ferguson to monitor the unrest there.
That night several hundred protesters throwing bottles, charge toward a wall of police 60 wide and five deep but some in the crowd pushed them back by locking arms, averting a more serious confrontation. 78 people are arrested.
1612 - Trial at Lancaster Assizes of the Pendle Witches ends.

1692 - Sale 'Witch' Trials: Martha Carrier along with George Burroughs, John Willard, George Jacobs, Sr. and John Proctor are hung in the third of four sets of executions.

1862 - Maurice Barrès (Auguste-Maurice Barrès; d. 1923), French Symbolist novelist and journalist, born. Initially an individualist, he was elected to parliament as a socialist within the populist nationalist Boulangist coalition. However, he became an ardent nationalist and anti-Semite during the Dreyfus Affair, becoming a leading mouthpiece, alongside Charles Maurras, of the Anti-Dreyfusard side. Amongst the Dadaists, Breton and Aragon initially admired Barrès' anarchist views in 'Un Hommes Libre' (189), the 'Culte du Moi' trilogy (1888-91) and 'L'Ennemi des Lois' (1892), whose main character spends three months in Sainte-Pelagie prison for anarchist propaganda, but eventually subjected him to the mock trial [charged with an "attentat à la sûreté de l'esprit" (attempt against the security of the spirit)] that signalled the end of the Dadaist movement in the spring of 1921.

1864 - Juan Montseny i Carret (aka Federico Urales) (d. 1942), Catalan teacher, novelist, publisher, anarchist militant, companion of Teresa Mañé (Soledad Gustavo) and father of Federica Montseny, born. A cooper, he joined the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party in 1885 and 3 years later was appointed general secretary of the National Federation of Barrel Workers. He married Soledad Gustavo, a secular teacher in Vilanova i la Geltrú, and the two became local figures of Anarchism in Reus. Following the repression sparked by the June 7 1896 attack, the authorities closed down the school, and Joan Montseny was detained along with hundreds of activists in Barcelona's Montjuïc prison. After a year in prison he was expelled from Spain and, after a few months exile in England, returned clandestinely to Spain under the name of Federico Urales, publishing 'La Revista Blanca' in Madrid in 1898. Gaining a retrial, he was amnestied but the paper was shut down in 1905. He then devoted himself to agriculture, journalism, writing books and plays including the novels 'La Novela Ideal' (1925), 'La Novela Libre' (1929) and 'El Luchador' (The Wrestler; 1931). He signed the manifesto in favour of the Allies during the WWI and, together with his wife and their daughter Federica Montseny, started publishing a new version of 'La Revista Blanca' in 1923. He remained by his daughter's side throughout the Spanish Civil War and was forced to flee for France in 1939 following the defeat of the remaining Republican armies, dying in an internment camp.
Amongst Montseny's other pseudonyms were Mario del Pilar, Siemens, Doctor Boudín, Remigio Olivares, Un profesor de la normal, Rudolf Sharfenstein, Ángel Cunillera, Antonio Galcerán, Ricardo Andrés, Un Trimardier, Charles Money, Ricos de Andes, etc.
His other works include: 'El Hombre y la Locura Humana' (Man and Human Madness; undated); 'Sembrando Flores' (Planting Flowers; 1920); 'La Barbarie Gubernamental' (Governmental Barbarism; 1933) and 'La Evolución de la Filosofía en España' (The Evolution of Philosophy in Spain; 1934) in 2 Volumes.

1877 - Pierre-Jules Ruff (d. 1942), Algerian anarchist and anti-militarist, who perished in the Neuengamme concentration camp, born.

1882 - George Bellows (d. 1925), US painter and illustrator, born. Associated with a group of radical artists and activists called the Lyrical Left, who tended towards anarchism in their extreme advocacy of individual rights. Teacher at the Modern School in New York. [also listed as being born on 12th]

1888 - The first edition of Ricardo Mella's 'La Solidaridad', "Anarquia Federació Colectivismo", weekly anarcho-collectivist newspaper is published in Seville. Issue no. 59, dated November 17, 1889, is probably the last edition of the paper printed.

1894 - A large anarchist gathering in New York welcomes Emma Goldman back. Among the speakers are Voltairine de Cleyre, English anarchist Charles Mowbray, and Italian anarchist Maria Roda.

[D] 1896 - Philippine Revolution [Himagsikang Pilipino] / Tagalog War: The existence of the secret Philippine revolutionary organisation the Katipunan is revealed to Spanish authorities following a dispute between two Katipuneros (Katipunan members). Teodoro Patiño and Apolonio de la Cruz both worked at the Spanish-owned 'Diario de Manila' and, in an action against de la Cruz, Patiño revealed the secrets of the society to his sister, Honoria, an inmate at the orphanage in Mandaluyong in the suburbs of Manila. She was shocked and upset at the revelation, and her crying alerted Sister Teresa the orphanage's portress. Patiño was asked by the Sister to tell all he knew to Father Mariano Gil, the parish priest of Guadalupe, which he did. The friar rushed to the printing shop of the 'Diario de Manila' and, with its owner, conducted a search of the premises. They found the lithographic stone used to print Katipunan receipts, which was confirmed by Patiño. In a locker they also found a dagger and other documents. The news of the discovery of the Katipunan spread rapidly as did that of the mass arrests that followed. Upon learning of this, Bonifacio told his runners to call all the leaders for an emergency general assembly to be held on August 24, in Balintawak, Caloocan. That night, he, his brother Procopio, Emilio Jacinto, Teodoro Plata, and Aguedo del Rosario were able to slip past the Spanish sentries in the area. Before midnight, they were in Balintawak.

1897 - Cesare Zaccaria (d. 1961), Italian anarchist and anti-militarist propagandist, also known by his nom de plume as David Levi, born. Longtime friend of the Berneri family, he became the companion of Giovanna Caleffi in February 1943 (Camillo having been murdered by the communists in May 1937 in Barcelona). Involved in the refounding of the Italian anarchist movement post-WWII. He left the anarchist movement in the mid-1950s and died in October 1961.

1903 - [O.S. Aug. 6] Preobrazhenie Uprising [Преображенско въстание] / Strandzha Commune [Странджанската република]: During the night of August 18-19th and the following morning, attacks by Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) insurgents are made on villages throughout the region, including Vasiliko (now Tsarevo), Stoilovo (near Malko Tarnovo), and villages near Edirne. The main goal of the uprising in Thrace is to give support to the uprisings further west (the Ilinden uprisings), by engaging Turkish troops and preventing them from moving into Macedonia. Many of the operations are diversionary, though several villages were taken, and a region in Strandzha (site of the declared Strandzha Republic or Commune) is held for around twenty days.

1905 - [O.S. Aug. 6] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Tsar issues a manifesto on the creation of a state Duma; this plan, created by Bulygin and nicknamed the Bulygin Duma, is rejected by revolutionaries for being too weak and having a tiny electorate.

1905 - [O.S. Aug. 7] A conference of women from the Bulgarian Social Democratic Party (Българска социалдемократическа партия) today marks the beginning of an organised women's movement in the country, whose aim is the take on fight against Bulgarian bourgeois social order and win political and civic rights for women in Bulgaria. Prominent in their ranks are the leadership of the Sofia БСДП organisation,: Tina Kirkova (Тина Киркова\), Ljubica Ivosevic (Любица Ивошевич) and Stefana Bakalova (Стефана Бакалова).

1909 - The first edition of the IWW's 'The Little Red Songbook' is published.

1909 - Jerzy Andrzejewski (d. 1983), prolific Polish author, born. His novels, 'Popiół i Diament' (Ashes and Diamonds; 1948), about the immediate post-war situation in Poland, and 'Wielki Tydzień' (Holy Week; taken from the 1945 collection 'Noc' [Night]), which deals with the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, have been made into film adaptations by the Polish director Andrzej Wajda.
Having joined the communist party in 1950, he left the party after the 1956 October Revolution. In 1976 he was one of the founding members of the intellectual opposition group Komitet Obrony Robotników (KOR; Workers' Defence Committee), formed to provide aid for prisoners and their families after the June 1976 protests and government crackdown.

1911 - During the 'Great Unrest' sweeping South Wales (the riots and strikes that started in July with Cardiff dockers and culminated in October with copper workers in Swansea), a series of (what have sometimes been labelled anti-Semetic) incidents starts when a handful of alcohol-fueled miners leaving a Tredegar pub on Saturday night, began attacking Jewish-owned businesses, unpopular for their perceived high prices and sharp practices, scapegoating them for their distress at the poverty caused by the year-long Cambrian Combine strike. Windows of Jewish shops and homes were smashed and 20 Jewish businesses looted as the crowd rose to over 200 rioters. Police were unable to prevent the riot spreading beyond Tredegar to nearby towns like Caerphilly, Ebbw Vale and Bargoed.

1916 - Everett Shingle Weavers' Strike: At the start of the shift at Jamison Mill, the only mill in town still on strike, seventeen striking workers on the picketline were attacked by seventy "mill guards" i.e. blacklegs within view of several Everett police who did nothing because they claimed that the incident happened just outside the line delineating the city limits. The picketers were beaten badly. Ten hours later at the end of the shift when the thugs tried it again, there were more picketers and as soon as the picketers started to gain the advantage the city police stepped in, city limits or no, fired several shots to gain control, shot one picketer in the hip, and arrested the union men, once again, for defending themselves.
A few days later Sheriff McRae closed the Everett IWW office, hoping this would drive the Wobblies out of town, but this only served to further intensify the free speech fight. Now the police switched tactics and began began beating the speakers the arrested. They ran Wobblies out of town, and banned their entry into town, merely for being members. The IWW began bringing members to town in groups, but the police and local citizen-deputy vigilantes beat these groups as well. [see: May 1 & Aug. 22]

1916 - Esteban Navarrete Berbel (d. 2002), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1917 - The Spokane office of the Industrial Workers of the World is raided, leaders are arrested, and martial law is declared. The military authority is the National Guard, controlled by the U.S. War Department. This occurs in reaction to a demand by IWW leader James Rowan that all prisoners of the "class war" – Wobbly strikers and strike leaders involved in a statewide lumber strike – be released or Spokane would face a general strike.

[DD] 1920 - Tambov Rebellion [Тамбо́вское Восста́ние]: The revolt begins in a small town of Khitrovo in the agricultural region of the Tambov Governorate south-east of Moscow where a military requisitioning detachment of the Red Army, pursuing the Bolshevik 'War Communism' (военного коммунизма) policy of Prodrazvyorstka (Продразвёрстка, продовольственная развёрстка - confiscation of grain and other agricultural produce from the peasants for a nominal fixed price according to specified quotas) appropriated everything they could and terrorising the local population into revealing any hidden agricultural stocks, leaving them with little to survive on themselves and event taking the seeds kept back for the following year's harvest. Instead,
In the Soviet Union the uprising was official derided as the Antonovshchina (Антоновщиной) or Antonovskii mutiny (Антоновский мятеж), deriving its name from one the prominent members of the rebellion, the Left Socialist-Revolutionary Aleksandr Stepanovich Antonov (Алекса́ндр Степа́нович Анто́нов). A long-term prisoner under the Tsarist for his revolutionary activities, he had been released under an amnesty of the Russian Provisional Government and had joined the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, Internationalists [The Party of the Left, Internationalist-Revolutionary-Socialists](Партия левых социалистов-революционеров-интернационалистов), as well as being appointed head of the police in Kirsanovsky (Кирсановской) county and a member of the Kirsanov county Board of Workers, Peasants and Soldiers' Deputies (Кирсановского уездного Совета рабочих, крестьянских и солдатских депутатов). In July 1918, he quit his posts in protest at the anti-peasant policy of the Bolshevik government and went into hiding, helping organise a guerrilla army and began an armed struggle against the Bolsheviks based around local self-defence units.
The rebellion itself – one of many predominantly peasant uprising against the Bolsheviks that were collectively termed as 'Green' (Зелёная) – began with peasants refusing to give up the bread and other products demanded of them and, with the support of the guerrillas, destroyed the requisition and attacked the local requisition units. The uprising quickly spread to neighbouring districts and, organised by the Union of Working Peasants (Союза Трудового Крестьянства) and its Joint Guerrilla Army (Объединённой партизанской армией), both nominally headed by the former Russian Imperial Army Lieutenant Petr Mikhaylovich Tokmakov (Пётр Михaйлович Токмакoв), the organs of Soviet Power – attacking it representatives and military garrisons – and took power into their own hands.
Whilst the Soviet forces in the Tambov province were initially able to inflict heavy losses on the rebels, a punitive expedition that was organised in August 1920 and sent out into the wider region was defeated and forced to retreat. By then the revolt had become widespread and protracted, with the peasant army estimated to number over 50,000 fighters by that October.
On February 2, 1921, the Soviet leadership announced a political retreat, ending the policy of Prodrazvyorstka and issued a special decree directed at peasants from the Tambov region implementing the 'prodnalog' (Продналог - 'tax in kind') policy – a fixed food tax, as well as offering an amnesty to the rank and file insurgents (subject to the surrender weapons and information about the whereabouts of their commanders). This began to have some effect within the ranks of the insurgents but on February 21 insurgent forces were still able to defeated the garrison at Rasskazovo (Рассказово) and take prisoner an entire battalion of the Red Army. However, with the defeat of Wrangel (largely with the help of Makhnovist forces who then came under attack from the Bolsheviks) in late 1920 and the end of the Polish-Soviet War (March 1921), more Bolshevik forces poured into the region and the widespread use of heavy artillery and the summary execution of civilians turned the tide against the rebels.
In the end, the suppression of the Tambov uprising involved up to 100,000 troops of the Red Army, including nine artillery brigades, cavalry squadrons and four armoured trains, as well the first known use of Chemical Weapons against an insurgent population following the notorious signing of Order Number 0116 on June 12, 1921 by Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky (Михаил Тухачевский), commander of the Tambov district. He also ordered the introduction of repressive measures against individual harbouring bandits and their families and the destruction of rebel communities. The tactic of the taking of hostages (including children) was also widely used by the Soviets and more than 50,000 people, mostly women, children, and the elderly, ended up in a network of concentration camp, which had huge mortality rates – some estimates put it at up to 20% dying of disease and starvation per month.
Aleksandr Antonov died on June 24, 1922, when he and his brother Dmitri were cornered by a Cheka detachment near the village of Shybriay near Borisoglebsk and, after a two hour firefight, was killed. Petr Tokmakov died of wounds sustained in battle and was buried in secret.
On July 16, 1922 Tukhachevsky reported to the Central Committee of the RCP (b) that the "rebellion has been eliminated and Soviet power is restored everywhere".

[B] 1921 - Georges Darien (pseudonym for Georges Hippolyte Adrien)(b. 1862), French writer (novels, plays, literary magazines, etc.) associated with anarchism and an outspoken advocate of Georgism, dies. His novel 'Les Pharisiens' (1891) is a fictional indictment of French anti-semitism and its most prominent advocate, Édouard Drumont. Forgotten after his death, he was rediscovered after the reissue of 'Voleur' (1897) in 1955 and of 'Bas les Cœurs!' (1889) in 1957. [see: Apr. 6]

1936 - Trial of the Sixteen, the first great Stalinist show trial, begins in Moscow. Convicted of high treason in the first of the Moscow show trials, the old Bolsheviks Kamenev and Zinoviev are executed. Smirnov executed.

[C] 1936 - Federico García Lorca (b. 1898), Andalusian poet,dramatist and artist, is murdered by fascist militiamen. [see: Jun. 5]

1949 - Luisa Amanda Espinoza (d. 1970), Nicaraguan Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional member, who was the first female Sandanista to be killed in battle against the Somoza regime, born. The youngest in a family with 21 brothers, she joined the FSLN at the age of 14, she later left her abusive husband and became a courier between safe houses in Managua until she was killed after being betrayed by an informant. The Nicaraguan women's association , the Asociacion de Mujeres Nicaraguenses Luisa Amanda Espinosa, was alter named after her in commemoration of her role in the revolution.

1953 - Coup in Iran installs the pro-Western Shah Mohammed Pahlevi in power.

[E] 1954 - Emilia Libera aka 'Nadia', Italian former Brigate Rosse militant, who played a key role in the kidnapping of General James Lee Dozier, born.

1961 - Emili Vivas Blanco (b. unknown), Catalan journalist, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. Prosecuted along with 5 collegues for their part in the La Candadenca strike in 1919, he emigrated to the U.S. in the mid '20s with his companion Aurora. During the campaign in defence of Sacco and Vanzetti they were both imprisoned. Returning to Spain, he became active in the trentistes section of the Confederació Nacional del Treball (CNT) in Catalonia, was appointed secretary of the Ateneu Sindicalista Llibertari in Barcelona in June 1932 and at the beginning of 1933 he became active in the Federació Sindicalista Llibertària (FSL), an organition created within the CNT in opposition to the Federació Anarquista Ibèrica (FAI). During this period he worked on the trentistes newspaper 'Cultura Llibertària' (1931-1933). In the War, he was secretary of the Sindicat de Periodistes in València and editorial secretary of the anarcho-syndicalist newspaper 'Fragua Social'. In August 1937 he was arrested on charges of having published an anonymous article in 'Fragua Social' critical of the Director General of Security. Afetr the war, he crossed into France and was one of the first to join the Résistance in the Roussillon area in the ​​Languedoc. Arrested by the Vichy authorities, he was jailed for a few months in Toulouse. In the summer of 1943, he was arrested by the Gestapo in Perpignan and in 1944 ended up in the Fresnes prison in Paris (Ile de France).

1969 - Bomb explodes after being thrown into army recruiting office, Brighton. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1969 - Black Panther Party leader Bobby Seale is arrested in San Francisco and charged with murder.

[A] 1975 - Supporters of framed bank robber George Davis dig holes in the Headingley cricket ground pitch and pour oil over one end of the pitch.

1975 - The four main Rote Armee Fraktion prisoners are finally officially charged: Gudrun Ensslin, Andreas Baader, Ulrike Meinhof, and Jan-Carl Raspe are jointly charged with four murders, 54 attempted murders and a single count of forming a criminal association.

1977 - Julius Henry 'Groucho' Marx (b. 1890), the only true Marxist, dies. [see: Oct. 2]

1991 - Gibbering drunkard Boris Yeltsin single-handedly defeats the attempted coup against Mikhail Gorbachev's government by climbing onto a tank to harangue the crowd!

1996 - Parliament House Riot / Canberra Riot: protesters broke away from the "Cavalcade to Canberra" rally organised by the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) and sought to force their way into the national Parliament of Australia, causing property damage and attacking police.

2000 - Luce Fabbri (d. 1908), Italian anarchist writer, journalist, theorist, publisher, poet and daughter of Luigi Fabbri, dies. [see: Jul. 25]

2000 - Dachine Rainer (Sylvia Newman; b. 1921), US Anglophile writer, poet, essayist, anarchist and pacifist, dies aged 79. Her tombstone in Highgate Cemetery reads "Poet and Anarchist". [see: Jan. 13]

2006* - América Scarfò aka 'Fina' (América Josefina Scarfó; b. 1912), Argentinian teacher, anarchist and pioneer of the anarcha-feminist movement, who used the pseudonym of Josefina Rinaldi de Dionisi, dies in Buenos Aires. [see: Nov. 18]
[* many sources erroneously cite Aug. 26]

2008 - Maximino Nardo Imbernón Cano (b. 1937), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: May 29]

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: 47 arrests are made during the day and night.
1549 - Kett's Rebellion: Rebel attack on Yarmouth is repelled.

[1812 - Luddite Timeline: 'Lady Ludd' leads autoreduction in Leeds again!

1873 - Ivan Kliun (Иван Васильевич Клюн; d. 1943), Russian Suprematist and Constructivist painter, graphic artist and sculptor, born. Participated in exhibitions of the Soyuz Molodyozhi (Union of Youth) group and joined Malevich's Supremus group in 1915. Also associated with the 'Tvorchestvo' (Creativity/Creative Work) section introduced into 'Anarkhiia' in early 1918, that specialised in art and literature. Later taught at the Vkhutemas (Moscow state art and technical school) before sinking into obscurity like many of the reviolutionary artists that chose to stay in the Soviet Union rather than go abroad.

1886 - Sentences are handed down against the Haymarket Trial defendants, with George Engel, Samuel Fielden, Adolph Fischer, Louis Lingg, Albert Parsons, Michael Schwab and August Spies sentenced to death. Oscar Neebe is meanwhile sentenced to fifteen years in prison.

1889 - Élie Étienne Monier (or Monnier) aka Simentoff (d. 1913), French illegalist anarchist member of the Bonnot gang, born. [expand]

[E] 1895 - Käthe Leichter (Marianne Katharina Pick; d. 1942), Austrian social scientist, socialist trade unionist, journalist, author, and founder and director of the Women's Unit of the Vienna Chamber of Labour (Frauenreferats der Wiener Arbeiterkammer), who was one of the most prominent socialist feminist in Rotes Wien (Red Vienna) during the interwar years, born. A member of the Parteischüler-Bildungsverein Karl Marx (Karl Marx Association for Party Scholars and Education), a Marxist group for the Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei Österreichs (Social Democratic Party of Austria) members who opposed the war. When the SDAPÖ was banned in Austria in February 1934, Leichter joined the Revolutionäre Sozialisten (Revolutionary Socialists), an underground socialist organisation that had been formed in response to the party ban.
Leichter was arrested by the Gestapo in Vienna on May 30 1938 and subsequently imprisoned. She was sent to Ravensbrück concentration camp in 1940 and was murdered (gassed) in Bernburg Euthanasia Centre (NS-Tötungsanstalt Bernburg) sometime in February 1942 as part of the so-called Aktion 14f13.

[AA] 1897 - Michele Angiolillo Lombardi (b. 1871), Italian typographer, anarchist and proponent of 'propaganda by the deed', who shot and killed the infamous reactionary, Antonio Cánovas del Castillo [see: Aug 8], refuses the last sacraments and is garrotted in the prison yard. His execution, photographed by the press, is one of the first visual testimonies of this official brand of cruelty. [see: Jun. 5]
Michele Angiolillo refused the last sacraments and was garrotted in the prison yard. "The that smile of his, full of light, life and dawn, expired there on the horrifying garrotte: GERMINAL!"
[Costantini pic]

1898 - The first issue of 'Le Cri Révolte', "Organe révolutionnaire bi-mensuel", is published in Paris. It lasts 10 issues.

1899 - Following Sébastien Faure's invite in the pages of 'Le Journal du Peuple' for all libertarians to gather that Sunday on the Place du Chateau d'Eau "en faveur de la vérité (affaire Dreyfus), du bien-être et de l'émancipation sociale", the préfet Lépine responded by mobilising the police to try and prevent the demonstartion. Confronted by the police, protesters target the clergy (who had been prominent in the anti-Semetic campaign aganst Dreyfus), forcing their way into the Church of St-Joseph on the Rue St. Maur. Clashes continue into the evening with 200 arrests, including that of Sébastien Faure. According to the Lépine, 137 officers were injured, including a policeman severely beaten after trying to seize a red flag.

1902 - Aldo Aguzzi (Lucio Ermes aka Agal; d. 1939), Italian anarchist activist, propagandist and anti-fascist, active in Italy, Argentina and Spain, born. [expand]

1913 - The Chinese anarchist journal, 'Hui-ming-lu' (The Voice of the Cock Crowing in the Dark), produced by the Hui-Ming Hsüeh-she (Midnight Society Singing in Darkness) libertarian group, begins publication (ceases in 1916). The newspaper also included texts in Esperanto an after a few issue changed its name to 'La Voĉo de l'Popolo' or 'Min Sheng' (People's Voice).

[EE] 1914 - American anarchist Rebecca 'Becky' Edelsohn (ca. 1892 - 1973), who had been carrying out a hunger strike protest against her conviction and imprisonment following an anti-Rockefeller demonstration in Tarrytown, New York on May 31, 1914, is released from prison after her supporters had raised the $300 needed to post a bond for her release, a bond that she had refused herself to pay. According to a 'New York Times' article the following day, "Invitations to the funeral of Becky Edelson, whose friends thought her hunger strike at the Workhouse on Blackwell's island would result in her death, were recalled tentatively yesterday when she was released..." [see: May 31]

1915 - [O.S. Aug. 7] In Kolpino (Ко́лпино), an industrial suburb of Petrograd and the location of the Izhorsk (Ижорские) Works, one of the giant shipbuilding plants of the Naval Ministry, female shoppers, mainly workers’ and soldiers’ wives, outraged at escalating prices, find that their audience with the manager of the factory results in the usual empty promises. Dissatisfied with the outcome, the women took direct action, going about the city and forcibly closing shops. About two thousand men joined them when their shift ended, and at that point the crowd became genuinely violent. Members of the crowd attacked the shops and threw stones when police tried to restrain them. When the riot came to an end around 10 p.m. that same evening, fifteen shops had been wrecked, their contents stolen or destroyed.

1921 - Battle of Blair Mountain: Having decided to march on Logan and Mingo counties to free the confined miners, end martial law, and organise the counties, an estimated 13,000 armed miners begin gathering at Lens Creek Mountain, near Marmet, West Virginia before their march south. Meanwhile, Sheriff Chafin's private army of 3,000 state police, the state militia, and coal company employees had assembled and dug trenches and set up machine gun nests to stop the miners from entering Logan County. [see: Aug. 31]

1922 - Sciopero Legalitario [Strike for Legality]: Tram 948 in Milan is hijacked and driven by the Blackshirts, in an attempt to break the general strike called "against fascist lawlessness'". [pic] It is driven by Aldo Finzi. With his Jewish ancestry, Finzi fell out of favour in 1938, he was sent into internal exile and expelled from the PNF. In 1943 he went to the resistance in Roma. Captured by the Germans, he was murdered at the Ardeatine.

1922 - Bernard Konrad Świerczyński aka 'Aniela' & 'Kondek' (d. 2002), Polish journalist, libertarian and a key figure in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, born. Inspired by the involvement of his father, Konrad Świerczyński aka 'Wicek', in the anarchist movement, he was active during the Nazi occupation, helping Jews to escape from the Warsaw ghetto and organising hideouts for them, including in his own family's house. He also played an important role, liaising between the inside and outside of the ghetto, and organising and directly participating in the smuggling of food, clothing and letters into the Ghetto. During Warsaw Uprising a soldier of Syndicalist Brigade (104 Kompania Związku Syndykalistów Polskich), as was his father. After WWII, he was awarded the title ‘Righteous Among the Nations’. Journalist in the cooperative movement press and member of the Polish Journalists Association.
In the Żydowski Instytut Historyczny (ŻIH; Jewish Historical Insitute) in Warsaw, there are many examples of that activity. He placed many of his charges, which escaped from the ghetto, in the apartment of his parents and later in other shelters relatively more secure. Among others, the following benefited from his help: Bronka Frydman, Fryda Hofman, Halina Horowic, Pawel Lew Marek and his wife and mother, Roza Rozenberg, Mr. Szlamowicz and his wife and sister, Dr. Aleksander Wolberg, Dr. Zelikson. Bernard obtained from his neighbour a room in the loft for the ghetto escapees. After the fall of the Warsaw Uprising he helped to build a bunker where 40 Jews hid. Among them were two Greek Jews from the ca. 400 Jews from Greece, France and Belgium, liberated by the Polish scouting battalion ZOSKA from Gesiowka (a central camp in the Warsaw ghetto) on Aug. 5, 1944. Pawel Lew Marek underlined his noble attitude to the people helped. The latter in his long account written in July 1966 says: "With his lightheartedness, and his disrespect for danger, he kept up the spirit of all of us and never showed to anyone that he is his benefactor. All this lasted for four years, and especially the last two years, in which every minute decided about life and death. In every one of them 'Kondek', as they called him, and his deceased father showed the most beautiful humanitarian attitude, of which the Polish nation may be proud." Fryda Zgodzinski wrote a similarly glowing homage in July 1966. She relates how he brought her to the ghetto letters from her betrothed from a Stalag (POW camp for soldiers). She describes also how he received her, staying himself at a neighbour's, after she jumped from the train transporting Jews to extermination, wounded and half living, and later how many services he rendered with total disinterestedness and with the greatest warm-heartedness. "He was for them a treasure beyond value and the memory of him will remain as the only shining point in those terrible years."

1927* - Manuel Sabaté Llopart (d. 1950), Catalan anarchist and anti-Franco guerrilla Spanish, who was the youngest of the three Sabaté brothers, born. Despite a youthful desire to become a bullfighter, he cross the Pyrenees to join his brothers in France in 1946. Neither brother wanted him to become a guerrilla but in September 1949, taking advantage of Francisco then being in prison and José being in Spain with his action group, he joined the guerrilla group headed by Ramon Vila Capdevila aka Caracremada (Burntface). After crossing into Spain, the group was ambushed and scattered. Manuel was captured by a couple of the Guàrdia Civil. Tried by a summary court martial on December 10, 1949, he was sentenced to death and was executed on February 24, 1950 at the Camp de la Bota in Barcelona (Catalonia), along with fellow guerrilla Saturnino Culebras Saiz.
[* NB: some cite 1925]

1934 - Fredy Perlman (d. 1985), American author, publisher, anti-authoritarian activist and important anarchist theorist, born.

[EEE] 1937 - Founding Congress of the anarchist women's group, Mujeres Libres, in Valencia.

1940 - Trotsky gets his courtesy of an icepick.

1941 - Francisco Mares Sánchez (b. ca. 1895), Spanish construction worker, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist member of the MLE and CNT, is executed by firing squad in Paterna. He began working as a construction labourer at 10 whilst attending night school. He soon joined the construction section of the CNT in Valencia. At the beginning of the Primo de Rivera dictatorship, he emigrated to Cuba, returning in 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic. He later became associated with the Sindicats d'Oposició of the trentista tendency of the CNT. In November 1933, he was one of those arrested in connection with the death of Francesc Puchades Xulià, president of the Torrent polling station, and a member of the Valencian Regional Rights party during the elections on November 19 that year. When the fascist coup of July 1936 occured, he was living in Barcelona and was a member of the local Comitè Executiu Popular (Popular Executive Committee) plus one of the organisers of the Iron Column. After militarisation, the column became the 83rd Mixed Brigade of the Republican Army and he was appointed commander of the Second Battalion of the Brigade (73 Division) and Brigade Commander, replacing the wounded Josep Pellicer Gandia, fighting on the Teruel and Extremadura fronts. In 1939, with the triumph of Franco, he was taken prisoner at the port of Alicante and was interned in the Albatera and Los Almendros concentration camps, but escaped and joined the first National Committee of the CNT in Valencia. In late 1939, on his way to France after completing a mission in Barcelona, ​​he was arrested by the police and sent to the Modelo prison in Barcelona, though the Francoist press did not announce his capture until May 5, 1940. After a time in the Modelo prison in Valencia, he was sentenced to death in an emergency summary trial by the Military Court in Valencia.
On August 20, 1941, he was shot by firing squad at the Camp de Tir in Paterna alongside Francisco Cano Alcaraz, director of the EA5A.D Radio Torrente republican radio station.

[C] 1944 - During an uprising by the Résistance in Toulouse, André Malraux (aka Colonel Berger, commander of the Lot maquis), who had been held their since his arrest in July, takes command of the Saint-Michel prison.

[B] 1949 - Nikolas Asimos (Νικόλας Άσιμος [Asimopoulos (Ασιμόπουλος)]; d.1988), Greek lyricist, composer and singer of Greek rock and 'folk' songs, and anarchist, though he never apparently expressly self-identified himself as such, born. "[T]he greatest troubadour of the anarchist movement in Greece and one of the figures that made Exarcheia diachronic habitat of radical thinking and practice" according to Libcom.

'Εγώ με τις ιδέες μου' (I only come with ideas)

Εγώ με τις ιδέες μου
κι εσείς με τα λεφτά σας,
νομίζω πως τα θέλετε μονά ζυγά δικά σας,
δε θέλω την κουβέντα σας
ούτε τη γνωριμιά σας.

Θα χτυπήσω εκεί που σας πονάει,
κανένα δε θα αφήσω εμένα να κερνάει.
θα με χρίσω ιππότη και τζεντάι
και άμα ξεμεθύσω
σας λέω και γκοντμπάι.

Και οι θεοί σαν πείθονται
εάν υπάρχει ανάγκα,
για πόλεμο δεν έκανα
ποτέ εγώ το μάγκα
και ούτε νεροπίστολο
δεν έχω στην παράγκα.

Θα τραβήξω το δρόμο μου όσο πάει
κανένα δε θα αφήσω
εμένα να κερνάει,
Θα απολύσω κι όποιον με περιγελάει,
χιλιάδες δυο αλήθειες
ο πόνος μου γεννάει.

Εγώ στα δίνω έτοιμα
κι εσύ τα θες δικά σου
λιγούρα που σε έδερνε
παρ' όλα τα λεφτά σου
και ούτε στο νυχάκι μου
δε φτάνει η αφεντιά σου.

Δε σε παίρνει εμένα να κοιτάξεις
χωρίς καμιά ουσία εσύ
θα τα τινάξεις.
Είσαι θύμα του νόμου και της τάξης
δεν ξέρεις καν το λόγο
για να με υποτάξεις

(Ι only come with ideas
you only come with money
I think you want it all yours, heads and tails
I don't need your small talk
neither knowing you at all

I'll punch you where it hurts
I won't let anyone to pay for me
I'll dub myself a knight and jedi
and if I sober up
I'll tell you a "goodbye"

Even gods may change their mind
when great need there is
I never played brave
when it comes to was
and neither a water pistol
I have in my shack

I'll keep my way as far as it takes
I won't let anyone to pay for me
I will fire anyone that laughs on me
my pains gives birth
to a thousand truths

I hand it all prepared to you
but you want it all yours
your greed won't let you in peace
take your money and go
and neither with my small toe
I can compare your pride

You can't look me in the eyes
and you'll die without a past
You are a victim of law and order
you don't even know the reason
to conquer me.)


1959 - Jean-Baptiste Victor Sipido (b. 1884), Belgian anarchist and tinsmith's apprentice, who attempted to assassinate the Prince of Wales at the Brussel-Noord railway station in Brussels on April 5, 1900 and was subsequently acquitted, dies. [see: Dec 20]

[D] 1955 - Battle of Philippeville / Massacres du Constantinois: An uprising at Aïn Abid a small village about forty kilometers south of Constantine, which had been the scene of the killing of seven of its European inhabitants by the ALN, and at the mine of Al-Alia near Philippeville (now Skikda) degenerated into a massacre of Europeans, followed by the summary execution of Muslims.

1961 - Greg Egan, Australian science fiction author, born. His novel 'Distress' (1995) sympathetically renders an anarcho-syndicalist society called Stateless.

1962 - Colin Jordan, leader of the British National Socialist movement, and his deputy, John Tyndall, are sentenced for their speeches at the 'Free Britain from Jewish Control' rally held in Trafalgar Square on July 1. Jordan is sentenced to two months’ imprisonment and Tyndall to six weeks.

1968 - Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia. [expand]

[F] 1976 - Grunwick Dispute: A small number of Asian workers walk out "in protest at oppressive working conditions", sparking one of the longest strikes in British history, before it was eventually defeated in July 1978.

1978 - The ANL organise a march to (prematurely) celebrate the departure of NF paper sellers from Brick Lane, who appeared to have been driven out of the area.

[A] 1989 - José Peirats Valls (b. 1908), member of the FAI and CNT, combatant in the Spanish Revolution, including a stint with the Durutti Column in Aragon and Catalonia, dies. Editor, writer and director of various papers ('Solidaridad Obrera', 'Tierra y Libertad', 'Acratia') and author of 'Anarchists in the Spanish Revolution' etc. [see: Mar. 15]

1991 - August Coup [Августовский путч]: At 12:00, Moscow military district commander General Kalinin, who was loyal to Gennady Yanayev, chair of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, as well as Vice President (and acting president during the coup days) of the Soviet Union and one of the 'Gang of Eight', declares a curfew in Moscow from 23:00 to 05:00, an act widely understood as a signal that the attack on the White House was imminent. In response, more that 100,000 people rally outside the Russian parliament building to protest the threatened coup, secretly tined for 02:00 tomorrow morning.

1996 - Maria Occhipinti (b. 1921), Italian anarcha-feminist, dies from complications associated with Parkinson's Disease. [see: Jul. 29]

1996 - Rio Reiser (Ralph Christian Möbius; b. 1950), German singer, musician, composer, songwriter, actor and queer anarchist, dies. [see: Jan 9]

1999 - Jesús Guillén Bertolín aka Guillembert (b. 1913), Spanish anarchist, painter and designer, dies. Partner of Sara Berenguer and brother of Conchita Guillén Bertolín. [see: Oct. 31]

2007 - José Palacios Rojas aka 'Piruli' (b. 1914), Spanish farm labourer, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and Civil War combatant, dies. [see: Apr. 14]

2010 - Nair Lazarine Dall'Oca (b. 1923), Brazilian seamstress and anarchist, dies of a heart attack having spent several years suffering from Alzheimer's disease. [see: Apr. 23]

2010 - Francisco 'Chico' Cuberos Neto (b. 1924), Brazilian militant anarchist and theatre and TV actor, dies. [see: Feb. 18]

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Only 6 arrests, prompting Missouri Governor Jay Nixon to withdraw the National Guard tomorrow
1752 - Jacques Roux (d. 1794), French radical Roman Catholic priest that took an active role in the revolutionary politics during the French Revolution, born. Nicknamed 'le Curé Rouge', he is considered a precursor of modern socialism and anarchism. A skillful orator who communicated the ideals of popular democracy and classless society to crowds of the poorest Parisian sans-culottes, working class wage earners and shopkeepers, radicalising them into a dangerous revolutionary force as well as inciting women to assert their rights. He became a leader of a popular far-left political faction known as the Enragés, writing the famed 'Manifeste des Enragés', which was signed by Jean Varlet and Leclerc d'Oze, and in 1791 was elected to the Paris Commune.

1791 - During the night of the 21st-22nd, the slaves of Saint Domingue in Haiti rise up in revolt and plunge the colony into civil war. Within the next ten days, slaves had taken control of the entire Northern Province in an unprecedented slave revolt. Whites kept control of only a few isolated, fortified camps.

1848 - The working-class population of Vienna take to the the streets to protest high unemployment and the government's decree to reduce wages.

1869 - Jean-Charles Fortuné Henry (d. unknown), French anarchist militant, anti-militarist and founder of the libertarian Aiglemont community, born. His father, Henry Fortune (1821-1882) was sentenced to death in absentia for being a member of the Paris Commune, and his brother, Émile, was guillotined for committing two attentats, including the Café Terminus bombing on February 26, 1894.
Artists who came to Aiglemont included the cartoonist Alexandre Steinlen, playwright Maurice Donnay, journalist and novelist Lucien Descaves, the painter Francis Jourdain, and the novelist Anatole France.

1893 - Following a meeting three days earlier, Emma Goldman again leads a march of a thousand people to Union Square, where, speaking in German and English, she repeats her belief that workers have a right to take bread if they are hungry, and to demonstrate their needs "before the palaces of the rich"; about three thousand gather to listen. Goldman's speech is characterized by the press as "incendiary" and, over a week later, cited as the reason for her arrest.

1903 - [O.S. Aug. 8] Preobrazhenie Uprising [Преображенско въстание]: The harbour lighthouse at Igneada is blown up.

[E] 1910 - Sara Estela Ramírez (b. ca. 1881), US-Mexican teacher, journalist, labour organiser, activist, feminist, essayist, and poet, who was a prominent supporter of the Partido Liberal Mexicano and close friend of Ricardo Flores Magón, dies after a long illness. Along with her collaborators Juana Gutiérrez Belén de Mendoza, Elisa Acuña y Rosetti and Dolores Jiménez y Muro, she was one of the founders of Mexican feminism.

[CC] 1911 - Nicholas Turčinović aka Nicolas (or Nicolò) Turcinovich or Nicola Turcini (d. 1971), Croatian anarchist and anti-fascist fighter, born. He left school at an early age and came into contact with libertarian workers circles in Rovigno. In August 1927, he signed on as a cabin boy aboard the Belvedere, a ship plying between Trieste and the Americas. After a fight on board with a fascist who provoked him, he decided during a stop-over in Buenos Aires not to go back to fascist Italy, and he deserted. At around the same time, in December 1929, he was sentenced in absentia by a court in Pula to six months in prison. In Buenos Aires he made contact with the FORA in which a number of Istrian militants were active, people such as Francesco Depanghere and Giuseppe Pesel, members of the Umanitá Nova group. He tried all sorts of jobs to earn a living.
In 1930, fleeing the repression that followed upon General José Félix Uriburu’s coup d’etat, he stowed away on a Yugoslav ship bound for Europe. After coming ashore in Antwerp he settled in Paris where he worked as a bricklayer and, according to the police, became "one of the most active Italian militants", as a result of which he was expelled from France in May 1931. With some Spanish comrades, he then left for the newly proclaimed Spanish Republic and, in Barcelona, he joined the CNT. In September 1931 he was arrested following a general strike and charged with having helped in the armed defence of the CNT Construction Union premises in the Calle Mercaders in Barcelona when it was attacked by the police and he was held on the prison ships, the Dedalo and the Antonio Lopez. In February 1932, together with fellow Italians Luigi Sofra and Egidio Bernardini, he mounted an escape bid. In February 1933, following an intensive campaign mounted by the CNT he was amnestied but was handed an expulsion order and escorted with Egidio Bernardini and his partner, Livia Bellinari, to the French border. After passing through Belgium and Holland, by May 1933 he was back in Barcelona. Charged with membership of a "criminal gang", he was promptly arrested and committed to the Modelo prison in Barcelona for "breach of an expulsion order". In December 1933 he took part in a mass break-out from the Modelo, only to be rearrested within days. On his release on 28 February 1934, he was arrested again and tried for "resisting the security forces" and given a 4 month jail term. In September 1934 he was expelled and escorted to the border with Portugal. He managed to re-enter Spain via Andalusia and settled in Seville, but the repression following the Casas Viejas incident was so severe that in October the same year he fled to Tangiers and thence to Algeria, living in Algiers and in Oran. Persecuted even in Algeria, by 1935 he was back in Spain and settled in the Valencia area.
Following the coup attempt in July 1936, he set off for Barcelona where the FAI put him in charge of organising the Italian Section of the Ascaso Column. According to a number of witnesses (Umberto Calosso, Carlo Rosselli, etc.) he played a crucial part in the engagements in Monte Pelado and Huesca. In January 1937, at the request of the CNT’s Federació Regional de Pagesos (Regional Peasant Federation) of Levante, he was dispatched to Valencia to oversee the running of some farming collectives. The end of the civil war found him stranded in the Alicante rat-trap but he managed to get out to Madrid and laid low in the home of a fascist whose life he had saved during the early months of the war. On March 29, 1941, after he was "turned in" by his landlord, he was arrested in Madrid. Extradited to Italy, he was sentenced in September 1941 to five years’ internment on the island of Ventotene.
In July 1943, with the collapse of fascist rule, he was moved to the Renicci d’Anghiari concentration camp (in Tuscany) together with dozens of other anarchist comrades deemed "dangerous". On September 18, 1943, he was freed and set off for Istria where he promptly joined the partisans led by Josip Broz aka Tito. After he fell out with the Yugoslav communists, he left for Genoa where he made contact with the libertarian movement in the city. With other activists (Marcello Bianconi, Emilio Grassini, Pietro Caviglia, Alfonso Failla, Pasquale Binazzi, etc.) he took part in the Liberation struggle. Using the experience gained in Spain he served as a liaison between anarchist partisan groups and groups from other organisations. He also commanded the Malatesta Brigade – part of the Squadra Partigiane of Azione (SAP; Partisan Action Squads) – alongside Francesc Ogno, Emilio Grassini, Pietro Pozzi and Giuseppe Verardo – and the Pisacane Brigade, an anarchist urban guerrilla outfit operating in the Cornigliano and Plegi quarters of Genoa. After the Liberation he was one of the most active militants in Genoa. In June 1945 he was the Federazione Comunista Libertaria Ligure (FCLL; Ligurian Libertarian Communist Federation) delegate to the Milan congress of the Italian Federazione dei Comunisti Anarchici (FdCA).
In 1946 he moved to Venice where he set up home with Alberta Machiori and they had a daughter the following year. In 1954 he returned to Genoa where he took part in most of the congresses held in the city by the Federazione Anarchica Italiana (FAI). In 1965 at the Carrara congress he was appointed to run the FAI book service and served on the organisation’s Correspondence Commission. In 1970 he was one of the founders of the Armando Borghi Circle in Genoa, marshalling young people drawn to anarchism through the social struggles of the day. Nikola Turcinovic died on December 30, 1971 in Genoa and was buried on January 2, 1972 in that city. In 2005 the 'Nicola Turcinovic' Libertarian Group was launched in Genoa.

[F] 1913 - Dublin Lock-Out: Nearly 200 men and boys in the parcels office of the Tramway Company in Dublin receive the following notice: "As the directors understand that you are a member of the Irish Transport Union, whose methods are disorganising the trade & business of the city, they do not further require your services. The parcels traffic will be temporarily suspended. If you are not a member of the union when traffic is resumed your application for re-employment will be favourably considered."
This act precipitates the 1913 Lock-Out in Dublin which begins August 26, when tram drivers took out their union badges, pinned them in their buttonholes and walked off their trams.

1917 - Antonia Ugeda Fuentes (d. 2006), Spanish furniture worker, nurse and anarchist activist, born. Having worked in child care and as a maid, she joined a furniture factory as an apprentice varnisher. At the age of 14, with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic, he joined the CNT and in early 1936 took part in a strike in solidarity with sacked varnish workers. Around this time she also joined the Iberian FIJL. During the war, after taking a nursing course, she worked as a nurse at the hospital that was created in Villena and became romantically involved with a comrade, Joaquín García. Following Franco's victory, she hid until 4 May 1939 in Villena, the date on which she was denounced, arrested and imprisoned spending one year in Redován and three in Alicante prison. Released in May 1943, she broke with Joaquín and moved to Barcelona, where she worked again as a varnisher and later became involved with Ginés Camarasa, a prominent activist. During these years they were active in the underground struggle and Antonia became responsible for the upkeep of the 'Tres Tombes' (of Ferrer Guàrdia, Durruti and Ascaso) in the Montjuïc cemetry. Between 1990 and 2004, she also worked on the anarchist journal 'Orto'. Antonia Ugeda Fuentes died in Badalona, Cataloni on November 24, 2006.

1922 - As part of its efforts to set up the Federación de Trabajadores Regional Ecuatoriana (Ecuadorian Regional Federation Of Workers), the Sociedad Cosmopolita de Cacahueros 'Tomás Briones' (Cosmopolitan Society Of Cacao Workers 'Tomás Briones') issues a call to other organisations and workers' unions to unify on the basis of anarcho-syndicalism, the main revolutionary tendency at that time in the Ecuadorian working class. The 'Principios y Finalidades' (Principles and Purposes) section of its manifesto, is in effect a direct copy of Errico Malatesta's 'Il Programma Anarchico' (1920):
"WE WANT to radically abolish the domination and exploitation of man by man, WE WANT men united as brothers by a conscious and desired solidarity, all cooperating voluntarily for the well-being of all, WE WANT human society be constituted in order to provide for all human beings, with the means for achieving the maximum well-being, both moral and material, WE WANT this for everyone: BREAD, FREEDOM, LOVE AND SCIENCE." [Sociedad Cosmopolita de Cacahueros 'Tomás Briones' manifesto, August 21, 1922]

1927 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Supreme Court Justice Brandeis refuses to hear request for stay of execution in the case of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti.

1930 - Goliardo Fiaschi (d. 2000), Italian anarchist partisan who fought Franco, Moussolini and Hitler's troop, born.

1933 - Francesca Saperas i Miró (b. 1851), Catalan seamstress, and militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Feb. 12]

1934 - Minneapolis General Strike: On August 21, a federal mediator got acceptance of a settlement proposal from A. W. Strong, head of the Citizens Alliance, incorporating the union’s major demands. The settlement was ratified and the back of employer resistance to unionisation in Minneapolis was broken.

1935 - German writer Heinrich Mann becomes a citizen of Czechoslovakia. His attacks on militarism, nationalism and the authoritarian social structure of German society led to his exile in 1933 by the Nazis.

1938 - The Italian government bars Jewish teachers from the public schools.

1941 - A German naval cadet became the first victim of French Résistance, shot in a Metro station in Paris, France. Over 150 Parisians were shot in reprisal.

1942 - As part of Operation Reinchardt, the destruction of the Minsk-Mazowiecki Ghetto is ordered. Around 1,000, including those who did not follow the order to gather in the centre of the ghetto, are summarily executed. The next day captured Jews were deported to the Treblinka extermination camp. 370 qualified workers are saved and employed in the Wehrmacht factory and Rudzki factory. They are kept in the labour camp, in the Mikołaj Kopernik’s school building at Siennicka Street (Camp Kopernikus), which would stage an uprising on January 10, 1943.

1943 - During the final Aktion in the Minsk Ghetto about 2000 Jews are murdered at Maly Trostinets.

[C] 1944 - Maquis uprising, which involves more than 4,000 Spanish exiles, begins today in Paris.

1944 - Eugène Dieudonne (b. 1884), individualist, illegalist and member of the Bonnot Gang, dies. [see: May 1]

1953 - Nikolay Nikolayevich Punin (Russian: Никола́й Никола́евич Пу́нин; b. 1888), Russian art scholar and writer, dies. [see: Nov. 28]

1962 - A public meeting planned to be held by the anti-fascist Yellow Star Movement in Trafalgar Square on September 2nd is banned by the Minister of Public Works.

[D] 1967 - The US embassy in London machine gunned in an attack claimed by the First of May Group.

1968 - Juan Antonio Llerda (b. ca. 1908), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. Born in Crete, he was a member of the CNT and in July 1936 joined a militia column in Tarragona that ended up in Horta and Gandesa and in which he served as a stretcher bearer. After the Republic's defeat in the region, he left for France, returning to Barcelona and fought on the Ebro front where he was severly wounded by an explosive bullet. During the Retirada, he was interned before enlisting in a Compagnie de Travailleurs Etrangers. During the German occupation he was requisitioned under the STO to work in the submarine base in Bordeaux, where he came into contact with the resistance. Following his release, he joined the Bataillon Libertad, trained as an anarchist Guerrilla and in 1945 fought with the Basque Guernika Battalion against the last German pockets of the Pointe-de-Grave. Some of the weapons he captured went directly to the anti-Franco guerrillas bound for Spain. He remained a member of the Comarcale de Valderrobres in exile, the militia of the FL-CNT in Bordeaux.

[A] 1971 - George Jackson, Black Panther, and five others are shot and killed by guards in San Quentin prison, California, during a supposed escape attempt.

1971 - A house in Amhurst Road, London, is raided by Special Branch and CID. Jim Greenfield, Anna Mendelson, John Barker and Hilary Creek are arrested. The four are taken to the `Bomb Squad' HQ in Albany Street, London, where the two men are subjected to a brutal beating-up to extract a confession from them. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1973 - Juan Portales Casamar (b. 1922), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: May. 24]

[B] 1996 - René Cavanhié (pen name René Cavan; b. 1922), French poet, songwriter, anarchist and résistance fighter, dies. [see: Mar. 25]

2006 - Joaquín Pérez Navarro (b. 1907), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies. [see: Aug. 4]

2007 - Jacinto Pérez Merino aka 'Pinilla' (b. 1915), Basque metalworker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, and anti-Francoist and Résistance fighter, dies. [see: Sep. 21]

2008 - Sean Rigg, a physically fit 40-year-old black man with a long history of mental health problems, is found dead in the notorious custody suite of Brixton police station.

2009 - Mohammed Mudhir, a 25-year-old remand prisoner, is found hanged in the segregation unit of HMP Leeds. Despite a history of depression, clear signs that his mental health was deteriorating and lacerations found on Mohammed’s wrists, the prison health department failed to open a self harm form (otherwise known as an ACCT form).

2011 - Léandre Valéro (b. 1923), Algerian anarchist and anarchist, who fought in the Spanish Civil War and was active in the Algerian independence movement, dies. [see: Oct. 12]

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: The National Guard withdraws from the town following Governor Jay Nixon's decision yesterday.
[D] 1791 - The slaves of Saint-Domingue (Haiti) begin the first, and only successful, slave revolt in history with the 'Night of Fire' (Aug. 22-23) as plantations burn. At its height, 100,000 slaves were involved in the insurrection.

[1812 - Luddite Timeline: General Maitland gives the Home Office his view of the recent West Riding riots

1818 - Carlo Pisacane (d. 1857), Italian revolutionary, anti-authoritarian precursor of libertarian socialism and the first Italian anarchist, born. Influenced by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, and perhaps the first anarchist to advocate 'propaganda by deed'.

1860 - Théodule Meunier (d. 1907), French anarchist and advocate of propaganda by deed, born. [expand]

1862 - Claude Debussy (d. 1918), French composer heavily influenced by the Symbolists and Impressionist, born. Whilst never an anarchist (although his father was a Communard and definitely sympathetic to anarchism), he was also influenced by the Parisian anarchist milieu and associated with the 'Revue Blanche' (as its music critic) and the likes of Félix Fénéon and Felix Vallotton. A youthful play he had written, 'Frères en Art' (Brothers in Art), features a series of discussions amongst a group musicians, painters and poets featuring anarchist ideas, and he had in fact published two poems, 'De Rêve' and 'De Grève' (Dec. 1892), that were set to music in the song cycle 'Proses Lyriques' (1893), in Francis Viele-Griffin's anarchist-leaning 'Les Entretiens Politiques et Litteraires'.

1869 - Arthur Holitscher (d. 1941), Hungarian playwright, novelist, essayist, travel writer and anarchist, born. Helped found the Bund für Proletarische Kultur (League for Proletarian Culture) in 1919. Amongst his works are his first novel, 'Weiße Liebe' (White Love; 1896); 'O. Wilde: Ballade des Zuchthauses zu Reading' (1918), his translation of 'The Ballad of Redaing Gaol'; travel books, including those from his visit to revolutionary Russia, 'Drei Monate in Sowjet-Russland' (Three Months in Soviet Russia; 1921) and 'Stromab die Hungerwolga' (Downstream of the Volga famine; 1922); plus his books on anarchism and related subjects, including 'Frans Masereel', with Stefan Zweig (1923) and 'Ravachol und die Pariser Anarchisten' (Ravachol and the Paris anarchists; 1925). His books were on the Nazi's 1933 Black List of burnt books, and shortly after he fled to Paris, moving to Geneva in 1939, where he lived in obscurity and died in poverty.

1878 - Ladislav Klíma (d. 1928), Czech Expressionist novelist, playwright, poet, youthful anarchist and individualist philosopher, born. His philosophical texts were inspired by Berkeley, Schopenhauer and Nietzsche. "I systematically disgraced the crosses in the city's environs, caused scandals in church, for lack of bombs threw anarchist leaflets all over the place..." ['Vlastní životopis filosofa Ladislava Klímy' (The Autobiography of Ladislav Klíma, Philosopher; 1924)]

1882 - [O.S. Aug. 10] Henrietta Karlovna Derman [Генрие́тта Ка́рловна Де́рман (ru.) / Henriete Matilde Dermane (lv.)] (nee Abel [Абеле (ru.) / Ābele (lv); d. 1954), Latvian librarian and one of the country's first revolutionaries, who spent the last 15 years of her life in Soviet gulags, born. In 1900, she came under the influence of the Baltic Latvian Social Democratic Workers' OrganiSation (Baltijas Latviešu Sociāldemokrātisko Strādnieku Organizāciju) and, durign a period of study in Moscow (1903-05), she became involved with the Moscow Committee of the RSDLP and, after graduating, returned to Riga. In the Autumn of 1905, she was sent to Europe (Switzerland, Germany and Belgium) on the instructions of the Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party (Latviešu Sociāldemokrātisko Strādnieku Partiju).
A prominent Soviet librarian with worldwide links, on January 8, 1938, she was arrested and three days later kicked out of the CPSU (b) as "an enemy of the people" and handed over to the NKVD. On May 8, 1939, the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the Soviet Union handed down its decision in what was termed the "case of the librarians group" and condemns Henrietta Derman as a "terrorist, Trotskyite - nationalist, member of the anti-Soviet Latvian organisation, member of the subversive sabotage organisation, distribution of counter-revolutionary literature" and sentenced to "imprisonment in a corrective labour camp for 15 years, followed by the removal of her political rights for 5 years and with confiscation of privately owned property."
Henrietta Derman died in the city hospital in Vorkuta on January 18, 1954, following a second stroke that she suffered whilst in Reslag (Речлаг) aka Special Camp No. 6 for political prisoners, shortly before she was due for release and was buries in an unmarked grave.

1889 - Great London Dock Strike: An estimated 100,000 men are now on strike. [see: Aug. 14]

1890 - Juan José Luque Argenti (d. 1957), Spanish civil engineer and anarcho-syndicalist, born. He held numerous government infrastructure jobs and became the chief engineer of the Board of Works for the Port of Santa Cruz de Tenerife. For his activities against the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, he was deported to Cap Juby (now part of Western Sahara). He was part of the CNT group took part in the plot of 'Sanjuanada', the attempted military uprising on the eveniong of 24 June, 1926 that attempted to overthrow Primo de Rivera. Arrested, he was finally acquitted by a court martial in 1927. He was also dismissed as chief engineer of the Board of Works for the Port of Santa Cruz de Tenerife. During the Civil War he was a member of the National Committee of the CNT and participated in important meetings of the political section of the anarcho-syndicalist union. He was also one of the leaders of the Associació Nacional de Tècnics d'Espanya (ANTE), attached to the CNT. In 1938 he worked in the newspaper 'CNT Marítima' and was a member of the Consell Econòmic Confederal.
When fascist troops reached the capital, he was one of the few members of the National Committee who had not abandoned Madrid. Following Franco's triumph, he was arrested and remained in jail, where he met Cipriano Mera Sanz, until at least 1944. Following his release, he joined several clandestine CNT committees, representing the Canary Islands. He became a member of the Provisional National Committee of the CNT formed in November 1945 and later was appointed the CNT representative on the Alliance Nationale des Forces Démocratiques (ANFD), tasked with forging links with anti-Franco monarchists.
In April 1946 the whole National Committee was arrested with the exception of Luque, who flee abroad. The talks with the monarchists continued until August 1948 when Juan Borbon, the pretender to the throne, came to an arrangement with Franco. He returned to Spain in August 1951 under safe-conduct agreement that fixed his residence in Madrid, where he remained on probation. A few months after he was arrested during a raid which also was detained Tierno Galvan. Juan José Luque Argenti died August 29, 1957 at the Los Alamos clinic in Madrid.

[E] 1893 - Dorothy Parker (d. 1967), US poet, short story writer, critic, and satirist, who became a vocal advocate of causes like civil liberties and civil rights, resulting in her being labelled a communist by the FBI, born. Best known for her writings in 'The New Yorker' and as a founding member of the Algonquin Round Table, she later became an increasingly vocal advocate of causes like civil liberties and civil rights, and critic of those in authority, Her lifelong commitment to activism began in 1927 with the pending executions of Sacco and Vanzetti. Parker travelled to Boston to protest the proceedings, where she and fellow Round Tabler Ruth Hale were arrested, and Parker eventually pleaded guilty to a charge of "loitering and sauntering", paying a $5 fine. 1n 1936, she helped to found the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League as well as reporting on the Loyalist cause in Spain for the Communist magazine 'The New Masses' in 1937. Parker also served as chair of the Joint Anti-Fascist Rescue Committee. She organised Project Rescue Ship to transport Loyalist veterans to Mexico, headed Spanish Children's Relief, all activities that would alienate her from her old Algonquin Round Table friends and lead to her Hollywood blackisting as a suspected communist (the FBI had a 1,000-page file on her!).

1904 - Lucio Arroyo Fraile aka 'El Verdejo' and 'El tuerto Teruel' (d. 1988), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Joined the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL) early and was one of the founders of a Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) branch in his home town. Living in France in 1932, he was expelled from the country for his anarchist activities. During the Civil War, he fought with the Columna de Ferro (Iron Colum), and then in the International Brigades, being wounded three times. At the Battle of the Ebro he lost an eye, which earned him the nickname El tuerto Teruel (The Eye of Teruel) by his companions and obtained the rank of captain. Crossing the border with France on February 6, 1939, he was sepearted from his wife and 3 children (who were sent to the Mâcon area) and he was interned in the Boulou (Voló) concemtration camp. The following month he joined the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers No. 10 and was sent to Bordeaux to work on the construction of the munitions store at Saint-Médard-en-Jalles. At the outbreak of war in June 1940, while his wife and children were returned to Spain, Lucio Arroyo was interned in the Argelès camp. In October 1940, he was enlisted in the Groupement de Travailleurs Étrangers (GTE) No. 183 and worked in the learing and reconstruction following severe floods in Catalan country. In March 1943 he was interned in the camp of Saint-Médard-en-Jalles requisitioned for forced labor (Organisation Todt) in the submarine base near Bordeaux. He was then tranferred to Soulac and Cap Ferret. Arrested by the Germans, he twice escaped whilst being deported to Germany and, in June 1944, joined the Maquis and particiapted in the liberation of Ariège. He remained in Pamiers in the Ariège region, aiding clandestine crossings by militants into Spain. In 1947 he and his family settled in Perpignan, where he held positions in the Local Federation of the CNT, and their home was a haven for militants who had fled the Iberian Peninsula.

[F] 1908 - Corruganza Boxmakers' Strike: The strikers, together with the Federation of Women Workers, held a demonstration at Trafalgar Square. The women came from Earlsfield Station carrying banners with the words 'Box Makers At Bay'. They marched in a downpour from Waterloo Station via the Embankment to Trafalgar Square where they were met by a crowd of between five and seven hundred supporters. Mary MacArthur opened the proceedings and the crowd heard speeches from the women themselves, from Frank Smith of the London County Council and from Victor Grayson MP.
The 'Woman Worker' of August 28th gives the following account of the demonstration:
"When we got to Waterloo it was raining. My word, it did rain. We marched three a line over Waterloo Bridge and along the Embankment. The rain soaked through and through us. It got into your bones, so to speak - as Polly said. "And the mud. It was slush up to our ankles, but we felt real gay all the same. 'We waited for a bit under the archway, till all at one it cleared. Polly started to sing, 'If you can't do no good, don't do no harm', the women's strike song. We were all still singing when we marched into the Square, and all at once the sun started shining, and the big crowd started cheering."
"Miss MacArthur told the people all about the goings-on at the Corruganza works. Then she asked Alice to speak up and tell the people all about everything. Alice is what they call a fine girl. She's the big dark one what does the heavy work. Her as Mr Stevenson calls the 'Battersea Bruiser'. She told 'em how we had been cut down so as we couldn't earn nothing, and how she stood up to Mr Stevenson and the Galloping Major (what Miss MacArthur says is a commissionaire) and how she got the sack. Then Polly up and spoke. She told the folk how heavy the work was, and what hard times we had been having before the prices were cut down. Then it was Annie's turn. She has always kept respectable, has Annie, though she has had an awful struggle."
"Annie told them as how she had lost her mother before she was a year old, and her father when she was seven. "I have always kept strite up to now" Annie said. "Gawd 'elping me, 1 will still". All the speeches were fine. Miss Margaret Bondfield and Mr Frank Smith spoke up for us grand, and Mr Victor Grayson, who looked a very young boy to be a member of Parlyment, was spiffin'. When the speaking came to an end the crowd flung no end of money up to us. Not only pennies, but crowns and half-sovereigns too."
Support continued to pour in after the demonstration in the form of money and letters. A group of box-makers from Manchester wrote to the 'Woman Worker' saying: "We know how hard it is to make a living wage, and we realise that it is our battle the girls are fighting as well as theirs. So we made a collection amongst us, because we think it is our duty to help one another as much as lies in our power."

[B] 1908 - Henri Cartier-Bresson (d. 2004), famed French photographer and life-long anarchist, considered to be the father of modern photojournalism, born.
“I’m an anarchist - anarchism is an ethic, its a way of behaving.”
"L'anarchie c'est une éthique avant tout. Une éthique d'homme libre. Relisez Bakounine" (Above all anarchism is an ethic. An ethic of free men. Reread Bakunin.)

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Suffragettes are blamed for two fires in Edinburgh at Fettes College and a mansion house at Grange in Moray, Scotland.

1916 - Everett Shingle Weavers' Strike: The IWW responded by sending their best speaker to Everett, James P. Thompson, who had led the successful free-speech fight in Spokane. On the evening of August 22, 1916, he measured off the required 50 feet from Hewitt Avenue, set up his speaker's platform, mounted it, and for the next 20 minutes spoke to the crowd in support of the Everett shingle weavers. When Sheriff McCrae pulled Thompson down from the soapbox and dragged him away, James Rowan took his place. He was also arrested, and was followed by other Wobbly orators. Then Letelsia Fye of Everett mounted the platform and began reading the Declaration of Independence. She too was hauled away, followed by Jake Michel, who was arrested and released.
As the repression worsened, trades unionists and many Everett citizens who disagreed philosophically with the Wobblies began supporting the Wobblies right of free speech and protesting the violent tactics of the sheriff.

1917 - In Italy, police open fire on protesters against the war and the lack of food. The majority of the protesters are women. Tomorrow a General Strike is declared, insurrectionist barricades rise high and cops occupy the labour halls. On the 24th a state of siege is proclaimed, but confrontations continue until the 26th.

1921* - Piotr Petrenko-Platonov, Makhnovist guerrilla, elected member of the Revolutionary Military Council of Guliaipolé and commander of a detachment of troops in the Ukrainian insurrectionary army of Sýmon Petliüra, dies in the last major battle against the Red Army, having successful helped in securing Nestor Makhno's flight abroad.
[* some sources cite Aug. 26]

1929 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: A 'Gran Mitin Anarquista', called called for by the Verbo Rojo group and the 'La Anarquia' newspaper, takes place in Ciudad Juárez to mark the second anniversary of the execution of Sacco and Vanzetti. The poster advertising the event also calls for workers to make this day a protest against all injustices, to demand the release of Simón Radowitzky imprisoned for 20 years in Usuhaia prison in Argentina, as well as prisoners in Russia and other countries. "Luchemos por las completa Libertad de los Pueblos!"

1936 - Diego Rodríguez Barbosa (b. 1885), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist militant, anarcho-naturalist propagandist, writer, poet and novelist, is arrested whilst in hiding following the July Fascist uprising, and is tortured and killed by Phalangists. The fascists cut off his head and play football with it. [see: Nov. 5]

1936 - Robert Rizal Ballester (b. 1915), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, dies at the Gusen concentration camp in Austria. [see: Oct. 12]

1936 - The first issue of 'L'Espagne Antifasciste', the French language version of 'Solidaridad Obrera', the weekly paper of the CNT-FAI, is published in Barcelona. It is designed to keep French comrades up to date on development in the Spanish Revolution and on the creation of committees to aid Free Spain. Its news is also relayed via French-language programming on Radio 1 ECN CNT-FAI. From issue no. 7, is is printed in Paris and ceases publication on Jan. 8, 1938, after 31 issues.

1941 - Hasegawa Shigure (長谷川 時雨) (Hasegawa Yasu [長谷川 ヤス]; b. 1879), Japanese writer, novelist, feminist, and the founder and editor of a literary journal 'Nyonin Geijutsu' (Women's Arts), she was Japan's first woman playwright and acted as a mentor to those who came after her, dies of thrombocytopenia. [see: Oct. 1]

1942 - Alice Duer Miller (b. 1874), US writer and feminist, whose poetry on the subject of women's suffrage actively influenced political opinion, dies. [Jul. 28]

1944 - A group of 32 Spaniards and four Frenchmen tackle a German column (consisting of 1,300 men in 60 lorries, with six tanks and two self-propelled guns), at La Madeiline in France. The Maquis blow up the road and rail bridges and position themselves on surrounding hills with machine guns. The battle rages from 3:00pm till noon tomorrow. Three Maquis were wounded, 110 Germans killed, 200 wounded and the rest surrendered. The German commander committed suicide!

1948 - Princess Sophia Alexandra Duleep Singh (b. 1876), English Sikh suffragette and feminist of Punjabi descent, who was a member of the Women's Social and Political Union and played a leading role in the Women's Tax Resistance League, dies in her sleep. [see: Aug. 8]

1950 - Antonio Ejarque Pina aka 'Jarque' (b. 1905), Aragonese metalworker, militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, dies. [see: Mar. 25]

[A] 1953 - Last prisoners leave Devil's Island.

1972 - 16 militants of different Peronist and left organisations held as political prisoners in Rawson Penitentiary are forced to repeat a faked escape attempt mimicing that of 15 August.. The prisoners are recaptured and subsequently shot down by marines led by Lieutenant Commander Luis Emilio Sosa as revenge by the dictatorship for the successful escape of some of their comrades during the initial prison break. 3 ex-Army officers were eventually to life imprisonment in Oct 2012 for their part in the killings. [Trelew massacre]

1972 - Ana Maria Villarreal aka 'Sayo' (b. 1935), Argentine artist and member of the Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores (Revolutionary Workers Party), who later became an Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo (People 's Revolutionary Army) guerrilla, is among nineteen political prisoners to be woken at 03:30 and taken from their cells in the Almirante Zar Naval Base and summirarily executed (shot) in an event known as the Masacre de Trelew. [see: Oct. 9]

1972 - Clarisa Rosa Lea Place (b. 1948), Argentine student and member of the Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores (Revolutionary Workers Party), who later became an Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo (People 's Revolutionary Army) guerrilla, is among nineteen political prisoners to be woken at 03:30 and taken from their cells in the Almirante Zar Naval Base and summirarily executed (shot) in an event known as the Masacre de Trelew. [see: Dec. 23]

1972 - Susana Graciela Lesgart (b. 1949), Argentine Montoneros guerrilla, is among nineteen political prisoners to be woken at 03:30 and taken from their cells in the Almirante Zar Naval Base and summirarily executed (shot) in an event known as the Masacre de Trelew. [see: Oct. 13]

1978 - Sandinistas capture of Nicaraguan National Palace starts a revolution.

1980 - Umberto Tommasini (b. 1896), Italian blacksmith, anarchist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Mar. 9]

[C] 1981 - A group of NF paper sellers is attacked by anti-fascists armed with pickaxe handles, ironb bars and shovels [according to the 'NF News', Oct. '81] in Kingsbury, North London. Several NF salesmen were injured, including Graham John, NF North and West London Regional Organiser, and Paul Nash, NF Haringey Organiser, who was hospitalised after his head was gashed open and one of his hands slashed.

1983 - Juan Ruiz Martín (b. ca. 1912), Andalusian labourer, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies in exile in London. [some sources give Aug. 2] Affiliated to the Joventuts Llibertàries, in March 1932 he was elected second secretary of the Sindicat d'Oficis Diversos of the CNT in Marbella, a postion he held when the war broke out in 1936. Member of the Comités Antifascistas, from Septermber 1936 he was part of the Comitè d'Enllaç (Liaison Committee), the Comitè del Front Popular and the Comitè d'Abastiments (Committee of Supplies) until the fall of Malaga in Jamuary 1937. He was then an artillery officer in the Army of the Second Republic on the Ebro front, where he was wounded. In 1939, following Franco's victory, he crossed the Pyrenees and was interned in the Vernet concentration camp. Then he was sent to a Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers (CTE), which was able to escape, but was stopped by the police and deported to a concentration camp in the Maghreb. In 1941, in the Djelfa camp in Algeria he was a nurse and eventually enlisted in the British army, staying in England when the was ended (as did Agustín Roa Ventura, Antonio Vargas Rivas and others). Earning his libving as a kitchen worker in a hotel, he remained active organising aid for Spanish activists and wrote for 'Cenit' (Zenith), 'España fuera de España' (Spain outside Spain), 'Faro' (Beacon) and 'Nervio' (Nerve).

[BBB] 1988 - Mystag (Robert François; b. 1919), French illusionist, anarchist propagandist, neo-Malthusian, pacifist and freethinker, dies. [see: Sep. 17]

1989 - Huey P. Newton (b. 1942), Black Panther Party co-founder, is shot dead. [see: Feb. 17]

2007 - Grace Paley (b. 1922), American short story writer, poet, teacher, feminist and "somewhat combative pacifist and cooperative anarchist", dies. [see: Dec. 11]

2011 - Jake Michael, aged 25, dies in Runcorn police station after being beaten, restrained with pepper spray, handcuffed and held down by 11 officers, during his arrest.
1757 - The first riot against the Militia Act occurs at Washingborough, Lincs, from where it spreads rapidly to Bedfordshire and Nottinghamshire. The Act is meant to conscript troops to fight a colonial war and quell a year of domestic food riots; it succeeds instead, in provoking prolonged and massive rioting across 11 more counties.

1837 - Étienne Faure aka 'Cou Tordu' or 'Cou Tors' (d. 1911), French member of the Commune de Saint-Étienne, militant anarchist and propagandist, born. [expand]

1848 - Austrian troops open fire on unarmed demonstrators following 3 days of protests. [see: Aug. 21]

1871 - Alfred Sanftleben aka 'Slovak (d. 1952), German, Swiss and American libertarian activist and propagandist, born. German militant anarchist, also active in Switzerland and the US, typesetter and translator, born. A friend of Nettlau, Landauer, Rocker and the Flores Magón brothers (translating articles into English for their paper 'Regeneración'). He was greatly influenced by Giovanni Rossi (of the South American Cecilia Colony fame), who collected and translated many of his writings including his 'Un Comune Socialista' (1876), which Alfred Sanftleben translated and edited under the title 'Utopie und Experiment' (1897).

1877 - Ervin Szabó (Ármin Sámuel Schlesinger; d. 1918), Hungarian social scientist, librarian and Marxist anarcho-syndicalist revolutionary, born in what is mow part of Slovakia. Studied law at the University of Vienna and wrote for 'Népszava', a Social-democratic newspaper. In 1911, he became director of Budapest's Metropolitan Library (which now bears his name), creating a series of community libraries based on the British public library system. After 1905, he began to move away from social democracy towards revolutionary anarcho-syndicalism, and translated the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels into Hungarian. He also wrote articles in the German 'Neue Zeit' and the French 'Mouvement Socialiste' periodicals and the sociological journal 'Huszadik Század' (Twentieth Century). He became an associate of the likes of Sorel, Kautsky, Mehring, Plehanov, had contacts with Lagardelle and the French syndicalists whilst in Paris at the end of 1904 and with several Russian socialists living in exile. In the years of World War I, despite his serious illness, he became the spiritual leader of the anti-militarist movement. He finished his great historical work 'Social and Party Struggles in The Revolution of 1848-49' in his sick-bed.

1891 - Agostino Gazzei (d. unknown), Italian blast furnace worker and anarchist, born. Member of the Gruppo Pietro Gori. In 1911, he took an active role in the great strike of the Piombino and Elba Island steel workers, that proved to be a protracted and dramatic struggle between the proletariat and the local steel industry trust. In 1922, after the violent death of the fascist Salvestrini, Agostino emigrated to Belgium to escape the beatings and the purges by the Blackshirts, later marrying Emilie Camille Goffre. After working again in the steel industry, the late '20s saw him in a cement factory, where he and a number of comrades were seen by the fascists in the local emigre community as dangerous. Through the '30s he continued his anti-fascist activities and in 1943, whilst living in Charleroi, he was still reported as "hostile to the Mussolini regime".

1894 - Áurea Cuadrado Castillón, also known as Áurea Cuadrado Alberola (d. 1969), Spanish militant anarcho-feminist and fashion designer, born. Member of the Sindicat del Vestit de la Confederació Nacional del Treball (Union of Dressmakers of the CNT) and participated in the foundation of the Grup Cultural Femení (Women's Cultural Group) in 1934, the forerunner of the Mujeres Libres.
[ Corts/Aurea Cuadrado.htmÁurea_Cuadrado]

1896 - Philippine Revolution [Himagsikang Pilipino] / Tagalog War: Seven days after the Spanish authorities learned of the existence of the Katipunan secret society, Bonifacio met his men in Pugad Lawin, rather than in Balintawak. Bonifacio asked his men if they were committed to carry on the fight. All agreed to fight until the last drop of blood. To symbolise the commitment for the armed revolution against Spain, Bonifacio led his men in tearing up their cédulas personales (community tax certificates), shouting: "Mabuhay ang Filipinas!" (Long live the Philippines). For some time, the event was commemorated in the Philippines as the Cry of Balintawak [Sigáw ng Balíntawák]. Later, this was corrected to the Cry of Pugad Lawin [Sigáw ng Pugad Lawin]. The Cry of Pugad Lawin is help up as signalling the start of the Philippine Revolution.
[NB: The exact date of the event is disputed, being given as taking place between the 23rd and 26th.]

1901 - Albano Franchini (d. 1984), Italian anarchist-communist militant and resistance fighter, born. An activist in Mòdena and in 1918 joined an anarcho-communist youth group. A worker in the Oficina Mecànico Industrial, he was called up in 1920 but when he returned to Mòdena in July 1922, he was not reinstated due to his libertarian politics. Later that year, he attempted to create a committee for the protection of political victims and prisoners, returning to the anarchist struggle in Mòdena. Arrested by the Fascists for distributing anarchist propaganda, he was imprisoned in 1923-24, later deciding to emigrate to France. He returned the following year, however, and was arrested again in Mòdena in 1926 on the occasion of the failed attempt on Mussolini's life in Bologna by Anteo Zamboni. Once free, like many other anarchists, he found that most anarchist organisations involved in the antifascist struggle had been dismantled. So he joined the underground structure of the Italian Communist Party. Arrested in December 1930, he appeared before the Special Tribunal and was sentenced in April 1931 to four years in prison for "Communist propaganda", but was released in October 1932 under an amnesty. Arrested yet again in June 1937 at a meeting of "subversives", he was let off with a 'warning'. Arrested again in July 1943 for his anti-fascist activities, he succeeded in escaping and joined the ranks of Giustizia e Libertà, fighting under the nom de guerre of Paolo Romanelli in the Brigata Allegretti and taking part in the liberation of Mòdena.
Join the Resistance in Allegretti Brigade, Division Modena-plain, and on behalf of the shareholders becomes part of the first democratic junta to free Modena appointed by the CLN. While Franchini did not participating actively in the movement post-WWII, he remained a libertarian. He died May 3, 1984.

1903 - Manuel Medina González (aka Manolo Medina i Ariel; d. 1993), Andalusian journalist, poet, writer, Mason, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, then a Falangist, born. Active member of the CNT and FAI in Seville, he was forced to resign as director of Solidaridad Obrera de Valencia in 1932 was forced to resign after having posted criticism of Ángel Pestaña and the National Committee of the CNT. As a journalist, he worked for numerous newspapers including 'Acción Social Obrera', '¡Despertad!', 'Estudios', 'Iniciales', 'El Productor', 'La Revista Blanca', 'Solidaridad', 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Tierra Libre', etc. and directed 'Tierra y Libertad'.
When the Civil War broke out, he joined the Phalange in Seville and was director of the Falangist daily newspaper 'Azul' (Blue).

[D] 1906 - [O.S. Aug. 10] Sveaborg Rebellion [Свеаборг Восстание]: The leaders of the uprising, a total of 43 persons, including Arkady Emelyanov (Аркадий Емельянов) and Eugene Kochanski (Евгений Коханский), are shot. The others are sentenced to hard labour, imprisonment, or service in disciplinary companies.

1907 - Mexican anarchists Ricardo Flores Magón, Antonio Villarreal and Librado Rivera are arrested after their hiding place is discovered. Thomas Furlong, of the Furlong Detective Agency, had been employed by Enrique Creel, governor of Chihuahua, early in 1907 with the sole aim of hunting down PLM activists and had been on the trail of Flores Magón for a while. Many Mexicans knew he was in Los Angeles but he was using a pseudonym, and his location and identity was only known by 2 people other than his close comrades. It was one of these, Librado Rivera, who had left the city when it was known that they were being sought by agents working for the Mexican government, and who was followed on his return to Los Angeles and to Magón's hiding place. Finally, on August 23, 1907, Magón, Rivera and Antonio Villarreal were arrested without a warrant by Furlong, two of his assistants and some officers from the Los Angeles police department. During the arrest Ricardo was beaten unconscious when he tried to attract the attention of passers-by. The following day the Furlong detectives returned to the offices of 'Revolución' and removed all important letters and documents. 'Revolución' continued publication under the editorship of several comrades who were arrested one after the other until the journal was finally silenced in January 1908.

[B] 1908 - Arthur Adamov (d. 1970), Russian-born French playwright and anarchist, born. One of the foremost exponents of the Theatre of the Absurd.

1908 - Pedro Calvo Calvo (d. 1992), Aragonese basketmaker, railway worker, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. His four siblings, Isidro, Andrés, José and Jesús, were all members of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT). In 1927, he was a member of an anarchist group and, with the proclamation of the Second Republic, he joined the CNT in Jaca. Leaning the trade of basketmaking, he was able to travel the region, distributing anarchist literature alongside his baskets. In July 1932, he began working for the Ferrocarril del Nord and 2 years later joined the timber workers union. When Jaca fell into Franco's hands, he was able to cross into France and from there he made his way to Barcelona. There, he joined the 25th Division, fighting on the Aragon front. Later in the 130th Brigade, he worked in supplies and fought as a sapper in the area of ​​Huesca (Olivan, Broto) and was a quatermaster in the 176th Brigade.
Exiled in France at the end of the war, he was interned in the camp at Septfonds and, in September 1939, he was sent with the Compagnie de travailleurs to the mines at Gravan. In 1940, he was confined in the internement camps at Argelés, Bram and again at Argelés. Requisitioned to work in Germany, he managed to escape in July 1941 and then participated in the anti-Nazi resistance. After the war, he worked as a forester in various places (Arbusol, Illas, Canet, Perpignan, etc.) and belonged to the MLE in exile in Perpignan. He lived with Adelina, a nurse whom he had met on the Aragon front. He also collaborated on 'Tierra y Libertad' and was the author of 'Un arrancapinos de la provincia de Huesca' (A small man from Huesca province; 1987 & 1991, revised and enlarged) and 'La sociedad liberal y sus contradicciones' (The liberal society and its contradictions; 1987).

1909 - A group of IWW strikers board a streetcar in McKees Rock, Pennsylvania looking for scabs. A deputy sheriff shoots at them and dies in the return fire. The ensuing battle leaves 11 people dead but, despite the battle, the striker remains solid and on September 8, 1909, the company gives in to their demands.

1911 - José Gonzaga Herrera (d. 2006), Andalusia labourer and anarcho-syndicalist, who joined the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) in 1929, born. A machinegunner during the Civil War, he fought for the Pedro Rubio Battalion in the Castuera area and was a defender during the seige of Madrid at the Ciutat Universitària, gaining the rank of seargenat in the Republican Army. With Franco's victory, he returned to his village where he was arrested and imprisoned. Court-martial, he was sentenced to death, but the sentence was commuted after a year to 30 years in prison. Between 1942 and 1944 he was one of the 2,000 political prisoners working as slave labour on the digging of the Canal del Baix Guadalquivir aka Canal de los Presos (Canal of Prisoners) under Franco's Redención de Penas por el Trabajo policy. Caught with barley, from which prisoners made a coffee substitute, he was imprisoned in Sevilla and worked raising rabbits. In total, he spent 13 years, 3 months and 3 days, in prison and was released on August 6, 1952. He returned to his home village Constantina, but threats from the local Falange forced him to move to Madrid. After the death of Franco, he returned to Constantina and was reinstated as a seargent in the army, receiving compensation as a prisoner of 1,600,000 pesetas.

1916 - Having appealed his sentence of two and a half years in jail for high treason passed on June 28, following the anti-war demonstration in Berlin on May 1, Karl Liebknecht has his sentence increased by military court to four years and one month.

1917 - The 1917 Houston or Camp Logan Riot occures [only a few weeks after probably the most notorious US 'race riot' in East St. Louis, when gangs of whites roamed through black neighborhoods indiscriminately beating and murdering black men, women, and children on July 1-3] when 156 African American soldiers of the Third Battalion of the all-black Twenty-fourth United States Infantry Regiment sought revenge on the city's white police (only 2 members of the 159-man force were black) after the brutal beating of two of thier fellow soldiers. They stole weapons from the camp depot and marched on the city of Houston. After two hours of violence, 16 (white) civilians, including four policemen, are killed and 12 more injured. Four soldiers died. 118 soldiers in total were charged with disobeying orders, mutiny, murder, and aggravated assault in connection with the riots and, between November 1, 1917 and March 26, 1918, the army held three separate courts-martial. In all, testimony was heard from 169 prosecution witnesses, but only 29 for the defence. None of the testimony was conclusive that any of the men on trail had participated in the event.
On November 28, 13 of the men were sentenced to be hung, however, they were not notified of their sentence until Dec. 9, two days before their execution. Sixteen other death sentences were passed down in the other 2 trials, but 10 were later commuted to life following pressure from the NAACP and National Equal Rights League on President Woodrow Wilson.
In total, 19 soldiers were eventually executed, most in near total secrecy, and 79 received life sentences, in one of the most infamous courts-martial ever involving African-Americans. Continuing public pressure on Woodrow Wilson led to most prisoners being freed within the next ten years, with the last released in 1938.

[E] 1919 - Emilia Avgustovna Alekseeva (Эмилия Августовна Алексеева; b. 1890), Finnish-born Russian revolutionary and Bolshevik, who was prominent in the organisation of the Russian women's movement in 1917, takes poison after being arrested Kolchak's counter-intelligence, fearing that she would not be able to stand up to torture and betray her comrades in the communist underground.

1927 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Ferdinando Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti are executed tonight in the electric chair, in Boston, Massachusetts, framed for two murders which occurred during an armed robbery in 1920.

1936 - Maria Silva Cruz aka 'La Libertaria' (b. 1915), Spanish anarchist and popular hero of the Casas Viejas Uprising in Andalusia, is shot at dawn by the fascists. She was later immortalised by Federica Montseny in her book 'María Silva: la libertaria' (1951).

1936 - Concha Monrás Casas (María de la Concepción Monrás y Casas; b. 1898), Catalan Esperantist, life-long partner of Ramón Acín and mother of the artist Katia Acín Monràs, is shot along with a hundred other Republican prisoners, seventeen days after Ramón faced a firing squad himself. [see: Nov. 3]

1939 - Josep Domènech Agulló (b. ca. 1896), Spanish shoemaker, anarcho-syndicalist member of the CNT and of the member of the Municipal Council in Cocentaina (Valencia), is executed by Franco's troops at the entrance of Alcoi cemetery.

1946 - Peter Marshall, English philosopher, historian, biographer, travel writer, poet, ecologist, Green anarchist and animal liberationists, born. Author of 'William Godwin' (1984); 'The Anarchist Writings of William Godwin' (1986) [ed.]; 'William Blake: Visionary Anarchist' (1988); 'Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism' (1992/2008); and 'Nature's Web: An Exploration of Ecological Thinking' (1992).

1948 - Adrienne Montégudet (Victorine Valentine Augustine Amélie Valdant; b. 1885), French school teacher, militant communist, revolutionary syndicalist and ultimately a libertarian, dies. [see: Jun. 12]

1954 - Marina Petrella, Italian former member of the Brigate Rosse, who is currently living in exile in France, having been granted political asylum for "humanitarian reasons", born.

1958 - Nottingham Riots: A number of events have been identified as the spark that set off the rioting in St. Ann's but it is clear that the 'racial' unrest that had been building up between the largely Afro-Caribean immigrants and the white population in Nottingham for quiet some time, particularly around the latter's opposition to interracial sexual relationships. Those tensions boiled over on the night of Saturday 23rd. when a young black man was assaulted outside a pub and soon a crowd of over 1,000 had gathered in the area and went on the rampage. The heavily outnumbered black population were quick to arm themselves and fierce fighting broke out. The violence lasted for many hours and eight people were reportedly taken to the city hospital, including a police constable allegedly run down by a black driver's car. One man required 37 stitches following a wound to the throat.

1956 - Ernst Frick (b.1881), Swiss anarchist, artist, archaeologist and scholar of primitive languages, dies. [see: Sep. 21]

1956 - Several tons of Wilhelm Reich’s publications - including hardcover books - are burned under FDA supervision.

1959 - Tiffany Ellsworth Thayer (b. 1902), US actor, author, atheist, anarchist, skeptic and founder of the Fortean Society, dies. [see: Mar. 1]

[F] 1966 - Wave Hill Walk-off / Gurindji Strike: A walk-off and strike by 200 Gurindji stockmen, house servants and their families begins at the Wave Hill cattle station, south of Darwin, Australia, where they worked for the British pastoral company Vestey. It was a strike over workers’ rights and land rights that would last seven years and was instrumental in the passage of the Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act of 1976.

1970 - Sterling Hall Bombing: A car bomb planted by anti-war activists - Karleton Armstrong, Dwight Armstrong, David Fine, and Leo Burt, aka the New Year's Gang - explodes at 03:42 at the University of Wisconsinin Madison, killing 33-year-old researcher Robert Fassnacht. The intended target, the Army Math Research Center, is largely undamaged.

1971 - Angry Brigade charges are laid against Stuart Christie, Jim Greenfield, Anna Mendelson, John Barker and Hilary Creek at Albany Street Police Station:
Conspiring to cause explosions between January 1 1968 and August 21 1971.
Possessing explosive substances for an unlawful purpose.
Possessing a pistol without a firearms certificate.
Possessing eight rounds of ammunition without a firearms certificate.
Possessing two machine guns without the authority of the Secretary of State.
Possessing 36 rounds of ammunition without a firearms certificate.
Jim: attempting to cause an explosion in May 1970.
Anna and Jim: attempting to cause an explosion in Manchester, October 1970.Stuart: possessing one round of ammunition without a firearm certificate. (This was dated back 2 years when a bullet was taken from his flat. No charges were preferred against him at the time.)
John, Jim and Stuart: possessing explosive substances.
Jim, John and Hilary: receiving stolen vehicle.
Stuart: possessing explosive substances. (The two detonators planted by the police).
All are refused bail and remanded in custody to await trial.

1987 - First strike in its 195-year history shuts down 'The Times' in London.

1994 - Enrique Garcia Sanchiz (b. 1907), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Dec. 11]

1996 - Mariano Cruellas Maraña (b. ca. 1913), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies in Caracas. Born into a family of small landowners in Fraga, Huesca who were part of the anarchist movement. One of the founders of the Jeunesses Libertaires (FIJL) in Fraga, during the war he was a Milicien in the Roja y Negra column, fighting on the Huesca front where, after a failed attack and a confrontation with the Stalinists, his unit was dissolved and he left the front. Exiled in France with his wife Salvadora Serveto (born circa 1917 in Fraga, who died in November 1992 in Perpignan), he first fought in the Résistance in Perpignan and eventually emigrated to Venezuela, where he participate at the core of the CNT in Caracas. After having started a small buisiness with a number of employees, the CNT decided in the 1960s to excluded from the organisation. Told of the decision, Mariano Cruelas said that the union could remove his membership but they would never remove the CNT, which he had been a member of since 15 years old, from his heart.

[C] 2001 - Henriette Bie Lorentzen (Anna Henriette Wegner Hågå; b. 1911), Norwegian humanist, peace activist, feminist and WWII resistance member, who survived Ravensbrück concentration camp, dies. [see: Jul. 18]

2003 - Helmut Kirschey (b. 1913), German construction worker, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

[A] 2009 - A new immigrant detention centre is burnt down at Rotterdam airport.

2011 - Philip Hulmes, 53, dies after being Tazered by police trying to end a seige where he had barricading himself in his home in Over Hulton, near Bolton, and stabbed himself in the abdomen.

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: Peaceful protests continue with just 3 people arrested.
1549 - Kett's Rebellion: Earl of Warwick's army arrives at Norwich. Pardon is offered to Kett's followers and rejected. Warwick's army enters the city. Running battles are fought through the streets of Norwich. By nightfall Warwick controls the City while Ketts force returns to Mousehold.

1698 - Elspeth MacEwen is the last person burned for witchcraft in Scotland.

1753 - Bartolina Sisa (d. 1782), indigenous Aymara leader, who led a major indigenous revolt, along with her ​​husband, Julián Apasa Nina (Túpac Katari), and sister-in-law, Gregoria Apaza Nina, against Spanish colonial rule in Bolivia, born.

1772 - David Tyrie, the last person to be hanged, drawn and quartered in Britain, is executed in Portsmouth.

1814 - In a show of imperial pique, a British force burns the White House in Washington in retaliation for the burning of York (now Toronto) the previous year by American forces.

1876 - Nesta Helen Webster (neé Bevan; d. 1960), British historian, fascist and conspiracy theorist, who belived that the French Revolution, the First World War and the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 were a product of the Illuminati, a secret Judeo-Masonic conspiracy, born. Amongst the right-wing groups she was a member of were the British Fascists, the Anti-Socialist Union, The Link, and the British Union of Fascists, and she was also the leading writer of the anti-Semitic paper 'The Patriot'.
Amongst her works were: 'Britain's Call to Arms: An Appeal to Our Women' (1914), 'The French Revolution: A Study in Democracy' (1919), 'The French Terror and Russian Bolshevism' (1920), 'World Revolution: The Plot Against Civilisation' (1921), 'The Need for Fascism in Britain' (British Fascists Pamphlet No. 17, 1926), and 'The Surrender of an Empire' (1931), amongst others.

1887 - Joseph Rosenzweig Moir (d. 1944), Czech anarchist poet, writer and lawyer of Jewish origin, born. The uncle of the Czech poet Jiří Orten. In February 1942, Rosenzweig Moir and his wife were deported to the Theresienstadt concentration camp during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia. He was selected for transfer to Auschwitz on October 12 1944 (the last record of him), where he is persumed to have died.

[FF] 1889 - Great London Dock Strike Great March: 'The Star' newspaper backed the strikers stating on the day itself: "STAND FIRM STRIKERS! This is the critical day for the dock labourers. We do not for a moment believe that Mr Norwood’s brutally cynical expectation that the pinch of hunger would be too much for the men the end of the week will be fulfilled; but everyone in sympathy with this gallant army who are 'out of principle' should do his utmost to help them." The march started after breakfast at Poplar Town Hall. Thousands of dockers, headed by a group of police, advanced towards the City. Leading the march was the strike committee. Then came the brass bands, followed by mass rows of marching men, all carrying their trade banners festooned with hundreds of slogans.
A banner from one of the striker’s wives had as its slogan:
‘Our husbands are on strike
For us wives it is not honey
And we think it’s right
Not to give the landlords any money.’
Huge floats followed with cartloads of men, some in fancy dress depicting dock scenes, Britannia in a Union Jack skirt with Father Neptune alongside a scene depicting a director’s huge dinner compared to that of a docker. The march was a magnificent success.
'The Star' reported: "The excitement along Commercial Road was intense...Over the entrance to Star Street was suspended the inscription 'No Rent paid in the East End till the docker gets his tanner'. The fireman at Commercial Road came out later on the roof of the station and cheered. The big hotels later on had throngs on their balconies and along the embankments at De Keyser’s Hotel and the Savoy, opera glasses were much in request, and rich men and women waved their handkerchiefs as token of sympathy with their poor brothers marching below.....the men on the river steamers blew their boats’ whistles in invitation of three cheers. The show of sympathy reached its climax when the strike army passed the barracks in Birdcage Walk. Here the soldiers from the windows and in groups about the place responded to the cheers of the strikers........"
It was one of the largest movements ever seen and showed that the dockers were not going back without their tanner. Speaking at the Hyde Park rally that ended the demonstration, Ben Tillett noted that working men had done the organising themselves and by doing so had demonstrated the need for the labouring man to get their own representatives in the House of Commons. [see: Aug. 14]

1894 - [O.S. Aug. 12] Varvara Nikolaevna Batiushkov (Варвара Николаевна Батюшкова; b. 1852), Russian revolutionary and narodnitsa member of the Moscow Tchaikovsky (чайковцы) circle, and later a Socialist-Revolutionary, dies. Arrested on charges of attempting to disseminate banned books, she was indicted in the Trial of the 193 (процесс 193-х) but released before the trial. She later became involved with the Muscovites Circle (Кружок москвичей) of the All-Russian Social Revolutionary Organisation (Всероссийской социально-революционной организации) and was sentenced on March 26 [O.S. Mar. 14], 1877 during the 'Process of 50' (Процесс 50-ти) to the deprivation of rights and 9 years hard labour. This was later replaced, by imperial order, with exile to one of the less remote areas of Siberia. In the summer of 1889, she was granted permission to return to European Russia (whilst being kept under secret police surveillance), but banned from residence in Moscow and St. Petersburg.

1896 - Pere Massoni Rotger aka 'Mazoni' or 'Massoni Viva' (d. 1933), Catalan roofer and anarcho-syndicalist, born. In 1915 he joined the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) and became a delegate of the Sindicat d'Obrers Rajolers del Ram de la Construcció (Tilers Branch of the Construction Workers Union). This was an era where gunmen hired by employers regualrly attacked unionist and union organisers and, on 23 April 1919, he suffered an attack at the hands of a squad of pistolers and was seriously injured. He failed to recover from all his injuries and a progressive paralysis in the leg limited his abilty to worker as a tile, and he ended up as the caretaker at the Tilers Union offices in the Carrer de l'Om in Barcelona. He continued to work within the CNT, helping organise strikes, was a member of the defence committee for fellow tiler Enric Guiot i Climent, sentenced to death for robbery, and helped reorganise the sindicats de Treballadores de l'agulla (Needleworkers union), de Construcció (Construction) and de Constructors de Persianes (Blindmakers). During this period, he also became a good friend of Josep Peirats Valls.
In 1924, he was jailed for taking part in the conspiracy against the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, accused of being one of the organisers of the December 1924 Bera insurgency. In 1928, he joined the Solidaridad group and published a pamphlet 'Los ladrilleros a través de las luchas sociales' (Bricklayers across the social struggle). In April 1928, he attended the Assemblea de Cooperatives Catalanes and, in June, represented the CNT on the first Comitè Revolucionari de Catalunya, which plotted against the dictatorship. [expand]

1898 - Francisco Quintal (d. 1987), important Portuguese militant, propagandist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. General secretary of the Portuguese Anarchist Union (UAP) and director of its paper 'O Anarquista'.

[E] 1904 - Ida Cook (d. 1986), British romantic novelist and opera fanatic who, with her sister Mary Louise, used both the money earned from her Mills & Boon novels as funds and the cover of their pair's regular trips abroad to the opera to escape of Jews from Nazi occupied Europe, born.

1905 - [O.S. Aug. 11] October All-Russian Political Strike: Workers from all of the shops of the Sytin plant in Moscow meet and present management with a list of demands, which includes a nine-hour workday (eight on Saturdays and before holidays), graduated pay raises that would decrease pay differentials among workers, sick pay, maternity leave (of interest to female binding workers), and no retribution against workers who participate in negotiations. Although the Sytin workers ask for an answer in two days, they are not in fact especially impatient. After managers explain that some of the directors are out of town and that their answer to workers would in any case depend on the results of sales at the Nizhnii Novgorod fair, workers agree to wait an entire month for an answer to their demands.
The escalation in the dispute between the workers and management would drag on for a couple of months and eventually precipitate a printers strike in Moscow that would in turn help spark the a wave of strikes and armed uprisings that spread across the Empire, culminating in the failed December uprising in Moscow.

1905 - Ramón Lafragueta (d. 1981), Spanish railway worker, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, born. Particiapnt in the libertarian movement from a young age, he joined the Sindicat Ferroviari, part of the Federació Nacional d'Indústries Ferroviàries (FNIF) of the CNT, and held a number of union positions. During the Civil War, he fought on the Aragon front. After the war, he went to France and was interned in various concentration camps (Argelés, St Cyprien, Bram and Vernet). On his return from exile, he participated in 1945 in a tour throughout France in order to reorganize the Spanish libertarian movement. He then moved to Grenoble, where for 15 years he was the treasurer of the FL-CNT and held various positions of responsibility at departmental level.

[B] 1916 - Léo Ferré (d. 1993), Franco-Monégasque anarchist singer, poet, composer and interpreter of the French poètes maudits, born. [expand]

1917 - [O.S. Aug. 11] The first issue of anarcho-syndicalist newspaper 'Golos Truda' (The Voice of Labour), appears in Petrograd under banner of the Union of Anarcho-Syndicalist Propaganda, published by Voline upon his return from America, where the paper had first appeared in New York in 1911. Edited by G.P. Maximov, it is shut down by the government in May 1918 and its successor 'Volny Golos Truda' (The Free Voice of Labour) is closed down after its fourth issue (September 16, 1918).

1919 - Victor García (Tomás Germinal García Ibars) (d. 1991), indefatigable militant Catalan anarcho-syndicalist, writer, translator and historian of the international movement, born. [expand]

[EE] 1919 - Tosia (Taube or Tova) Altman (d. 1943), Polish Jewish member of the underground resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto and fighter in the Žydowska Organizacja Bojowa (Jewish Fighting Organisation) during the ghetto uprising, born. In the leadership of the Socialist-Zionist secular Jewish youth movement Ha-Shomer ha-Za’ir, she utilised her blonde hair to work as a courier, making contact with Jewish resistance groups in other ghettos outside of Warsaw, providing them with updates on resistance clashes, as well as providing educational material that was banned by the occupying German forces. Later, she was critical in helping to smuggle weapons and explosives into the Warsaw ghetto.
Following the German invasion of the Soviet Union (June 22, 1941), the ghetto was cut off and, amid rumours of the massacre of Jews in Ukraine, Serbia and Lithuania, Altman travelled to Vilna without contacts or information regarding current identity papers in order to make contact with the Ha-Shomer ha-Za’ir based there. She returned to Warsaw with the words of Abba Kovner ringing in her ears and the movement's decision that the Jews should not go to their deaths without a fight ("Let us not go like sheep to the slaughter"). On her route back to the capital, she spread the message of rsistance to the various ghettos along the way.
With the first wave of mass deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto to Treblinka (July - September 1942), the Žydowska Organizacja Bojowa was established, and Altman, a member of the central leadership of Ha-Shomer ha-Za’ir, was sent to the Aryan side to make contact with the Polish underground Armia Krajowa (AK) and the Communist Armia Ludowa in order to obtain weapons and support. Their contribution was minimal, but Altman and other women managed to bring in hand grenades and additional arms obtained at great risk. She also visited Krakow to try and organise co-opertation with the underground groups there. On January 18, 1943, an additional Aktion was carried out in the Warsaw Ghetto, just as Tosia was returning to the city, and ŽOB members took the opportunity to attack the Germans, mingled with the masses awaiting deportation and attacked German troops. Most of the ŽOB combatants were killed and Altman was captured during the ensuing round-up. Taken to the Umschlagplatz, Altman was rescued by a member of the Jewish police who was acting on behalf of Ha-Shomer ha-Za’ir.
ŽOB now set to dividing the ghetto into sections, building bunkers, distributing weapons (sent in by AK, who were impressed by the January resistance or via the black market) and creating separate fighting units. On April 18, 1943, the final Aktion began and the command of ŽOB moved to the bunker at 18 Mila Street, whilst Altman went out on rescue missions to retrieve fighters trapped in the burning sections of the ghetto. On the twentieth day of the fighting, May 8, 1943, the bunker was discovered by the Germans, who piped gas into it to force out those in hiding. Most of the 300 or so trapped in the bunker chose to take their own lives rather than surrender. Only six managed to escape via a concealed opening, amongst them was Tosia Altman. They were found that night by Zivia Lubetkin and Marek Edelman. Sick, wounded and exhausted, she escaped from Zivia Lubetkin’s bunker via the sewers together with a group of fighters. On the Aryan side, she was housed with several comrades in the attic of a celluloid factory.
On May 24, 1943, as the result of a terrible accident, fire broke out in the attic and spread rapidly. A few comrades managed to escape. Altman, who was badly burned, tried to jump out but collapsed, her entire body in flames. The Polish police handed her over to the Germans, who transferred her to hospital. There she died untreated (apparently on May 26, 1943), racked with pain and possibly tortured.

1922 - Howard Zinn (d. 2010), American anarchist historian, author, playwright, and activist, born.

1923 - Giovanni Minzoni (b. 1885), Italian Catholic priest and anti-fascist, who fought the introduction of the fascist youth movement, the Opera Nazionale Balilla, in Argenta, his home town, is murdered by two fascist squadristi, who smash his skull with a club. The case is a cause celebre in Italy.

1926 - Nancy Spero (d. 2009), US artist and feminist whose tough, exquisite figurative art addressed the realities of political violence, sexism, racism, social and political injustice, and the abuse of power, born.]

1927 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Violence breaks out in Paris in the wake of the executions of Sacco and Vanzetti.

1935 - Fifth Congress of the International Workers Association is held in Paris (24-32 August).

[D] 1937 - Santoña Treason: The Euzko Gudarostea (Basque Army) surrenders to the Italian Corpo Truppe Volontarie, without the knowledge of the Republican government, following the Santoña Agreement.

1941 - Vichy France passed anti-terrorist laws, punishable with death sentences, to deal with the résistance movement.

1943 - Simone Weil (b. 1909), French philosopher and one time anarchist militant during the Spanish Civil War, dies. [see: Feb. 3]

[CC] 1944 - The Spanish anarchist participation in the liberation of Paris: After having been interned in the French concentration camps and used as labour cheap, many Spanish anarchists took part in the anti-Nazi resistance in France and Africa. With their experience gained during the Spanish Revolution, they were adept at staging guerrilla actions in the countryside, drawing the German occupying forces and Pétain's militia away from the cities. Amongst those were La Nueve (The Nine - the 9th Company of the Régiment de Marche du Tchad, composed of Spanish anarcho-syndicalists) who, as part of the Free French Forces, participated in the liberation of Paris and were amongst the first to enter the city.
At 20:41, the first half-tracks of the Division Blindée de Leclerc (commanded by Captain Raymond Dronne) break into the insurgent capital, by the Porte d'Italie. They are led by the Spanish anarchists of La Nueve, who carry the names of battles fought against Franco in Spain (Guadalajara, Teruel, Brunete, Belchite, Ebro, Madrid, etc.). At 21:22, the armored half-track 'Guadalajara' is the first to appear in front of the Hotel de Ville. Spaniards are welcomed as liberators.
"Nous avons été les premiers à entrer dans Paris. Le premier canon installé place de l'Hôtel de Ville, c'est moi qui en étais responsable, nous l'avions appelé 'El Abuelo'." (We were the first to enter Paris. The first cannon installed in the Place de l'Hotel de Ville, I was in charge, we called it 'The Grandfather') - testimony of Jesus Abenza.

1947 - Battle of Ridley Road: Following the previous Sunday's battles, [see: Aug. 17] the 43 Group invite the anti-fascist journalist Fredric Mullally back to Dalston to speak on a platform in Ridley Road that the anti-fascists had held since early morning. An all-London anti-fascist callout had been made and a 50-strong group of bodyguards met Mullally at Dalston station and he addressed a large rally, marking the effective end of the fascists' control of the streets in Dalston.

1954 - The Communist Party is virtually outlawed in the U.S. as the Communist Control Act is signed into law by President Dwight Eisenhower. Capitalism in America is saved for posterity.

1954 - Pierre Marie Le Meillour (b. 1884), French boilermaker, printworker, anarchist, anti-militarist and revolutionary syndicalist, dies. [see: Apr. 24]

1958 - Notting Hill Riots: Two incidents in the run up to the 1958 Notting Hill 'race' riots occur in Shepherd's Bush and Notting Hill involving white youths assaulting black men, a number of whom were seriously injured. In the week that followed, groups of white youths, mainly Teddy Boys, armed with knives, iron bars, and other weapons, began attacking Afro-Caribeans on the street, hospitalising many of them.

1964 - Virgilio Gozzoli (b. 1886), Italian anarchist, anti-fascist, poet, playwright, publisher and Futurist artist, dies. [see: Nov. 10]

1967 - Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin and other Youth International Party members throw 300 one-dollar bills from the balcony onto floor of New York Stock Exchange, creating instant bedlam and causing trading to cease as people scrambled for the cash.

1970 - Sterling Hall Bombing: A car bomb planted by anti-war activists - Karleton Armstrong, Dwight Armstrong, David Fine, and Leo Burt, aka the New Year's Gang - explodes at 03:42 at the University of Wisconsinin Madison, killing 33-year-old researcher Robert Fassnacht. The intended target, the Army Math Research Center, is largely undamaged.

1974 - Following their woeful attempts at organising against the Imperial Typewriters strike (despite throwing large amounts of money at creating a NF union presence) and the fear of loosing any further confrontations with anti-fascists following Red Lion Square, the NF turnout was less than 600. Also, in lieu of Red Lion Square, the police banned the Front from going anywhere near the main Asian Communities. 5-6,000 anti-fascist take part in the Inter Racial Solidarity Campaign Committee's counter- demonstration. The march organisrs have problems with the International Socialists, who turn up with their own loudspeaker van and steward their own section of the march. Many anti-fascist militants ignore the counter-demonstration andsubject the Front demo to continous heckling and abuse. Matin Webster is attacked.
[ struggle of Asian workers in Britain.pdf Imperial Typewriter Company/order/nosort]

1982 - Ludovic Massé (b. 1900), French proletarian writer, novelist and libertarian, dies. [see: Jan. 7]

1985 - Five-year-old John Shorthouse is shot and killed as armed officers burst into his home looking for his father, also named John. The boy was shot in the chest as an officer searched under his bed.

1991 - A small anti-racist march from Peckham to Bermondsey in south London, organised by the National Black Caucus with help from the Society of Black Lawyers, which numbered only 300 due to the poor publicity surounding it and had been abused by the local population along much of its route,is attacked by an equal number of racists as it tries to enter Southwark Park in Bermondsey. Everyone, except the National Black Caucus and the SWP, viewed the event as both a farce and a significant setback in the anti-fascist struggle.
[ TALK - 02.pdf]

[C] 1998 - 'If You Tolerate This Your Children Will Be Next', the Manic Street Preachers' anti-fascist Spanish Civil War song is released. Penned in support of Welsh volunteers in the International Brigades.

The future teaches you to be alone
The present to be afraid and cold
"So if I can shoot rabbits then I can shoot fascists."

Bullets for your brain today
But we'll forget it all again
Monuments put from pen to paper
Turns me into a gutless wonder.

And if you tolerate this then your children will be next
And if you tolerate this then your children will be next
Will be next, Will be next, Will be next.

Gravity keeps my head down
Or is it maybe shame
At being so young and being so vain.

Holes in your head today
But I'm a pacifist
I've walked La Ramblas but not with real intent.

And if you tolerate this then your children will be next
And if you tolerate this then your children will be next
Will be next, Will be next, Will be next.

"And on the street tonight
An old man plays with newspaper cuttings of his glory days."

And if you tolerate this then your children will be next
And if you tolerate this then your children will be next
Will be next, will be next, will be next.

2003 - Safiyah Bukhari (b. 1950), African-American community activist and former political prisoner, who was a founding member of the Jericho Amnesty Movement, dies from complications due to a prolonged illness. [see:Apr. 2]

2006 - Antonio Moreno Ronchas (b. 1910), Spanish railway worker, miliatant anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Franco combatant, dies. [see: Oct. 1]

[A] 2007 - Anarchist supporters of the recently demolished Youth House disrupt the 94th birthday celebrations for Copenhagen's famous waterside Little Mermaid statue. Protesters wearing shark fins scatter the bikini-clad women taking part, spoiling the party.

2009 - Daniel Barret (Rafael Spósito Balzarini; b. 1952), Uruguayan sociologist, journalist, university professor and prominent anarchist, dies. [see: May 21]

[F] 2011 - Today and tomorrow, the Central Unitaria de Trabajadores de Chile (Workers' United Centre of Chile) organise a nationwide two-day strike. Four separate marches take place in Santiago today, as well as additional protests across the country. According to union officials, a total of about 600,000 people were involved in protests. Upwards of three hundred people are arrested, with six police officers wounded in Santiago, where protesters construct roadblocks and damage cars and buildings.

2012 - Shaun Beasley, a highly vulnerable 29-year-old who suffered serious mental ill health, is found hanging in his cell at the G4S-run HMP/YOI Parc. Already over tariff on his indeterminate sentence, he had recently been transferred to Parc only to discover that the offender behaviour course that he needed to take before he could be considered for parole was not available at the prison, and he would not be able to take it for another 2-3 years. He was found dead the morning after his family had alerted the prison that he was suicidal. A June 2012 inquest was to find that Shaun's death was "foreseeable and preventable" and that the provision of care and treatment by Parc to Shaun Beasley was "grossly inadequate" leading to a systematic failure to protect him from suicide.
1549 - Kett's Rebellion: Kett's followers make an attempt to recapture the City. Rebels torch houses and merchant halls. Whitefriars bridge is destroyed .The Day ends in stalemate.

[A] 1775 - Liverpool Seamen's Revolt: Sailors in Liverpool de-arrest nine comrades imprisoned for wrecking a ship when paid short wages. They then disable their ships and tax local merchants. When several demonstrators are killed at the Liverpool Exchange, the sailors raid warehouses and gunsmiths for arms and seize two cannon from a whaling vessel. On the 30th they "hoist the bloody flag", attack the houses of merchants and other "obnoxious persons" and bombard the Exchange.

1820 - Danel 'Dan' Chatterton (d. 1895), English communist atheist pamphleteer, bill poster, slum dweller, early birth control advocate, fierce public ranter and founder of 'Chatterton's Commune: the Atheist Communistic Scorcher', born.

1861 - William Barbotin (pseudonym of Joseph Barbotin; d. 1931), French painter, sculptor, engraver and libertarian, linked to anarchist geographer Elisée Reclus, born. In 1886, he visited communard and fellow artist Jules Perrier and fell in love with Sophie Guériteau, a young female member of the Reclus family. Under Reclus' influence, Barbotin became an anarchist and began attending the Parisian anarchist milieu and provides support and collaboration on 'La Révolte' and Jean Grave's 'Temps Nouveaux', creating woodcut portraits of Proudhon, Bakunin, Kropotkin, Carfiero, Reclus, Pierre Leroux, Auguste Conmtechisel, etc. and numerous etchings.

1873 - Charles Gogumus (d. 1915), French shopworker, revolutionary syndicalist militant, anarchist and anti-militarist, born.

1876 - Helen Archdale (Helen Alexander Russel; d. 1949), British journalist, feminist and suffragette, who with her lover Margaret Haig Thomas, Lady Rhondda, together with whom she founded the Six Point Group of Great Britain, born. In October 1909, she was arrested with Adela Pankhurst and Maud Joachim in Dundee after interrupting a meeting being held by the local MP, Winston Churchill. On October 20 all three women went on hunger strike. They were all released after four days of imprisonment. In December 1911 she was sentenced to two months in Holloway Prison for breaking a window in a government building. On her release Archdale worked on the WSPU newspaper, 'The Suffragette' and went on to be involved in the founding of the Open Door Council in 1926, which campaigned for the economic emancipation of women, lobbied for an Equal Rights Treaty at the League of Nations in the early 1930s and became secretary of the Liaison Committee of Women's International Organisations, as weel as chair of Equal Rights International.
Helen Archdale died in London on December 8, 1949.

1877 - 'L'Anarchia', "Bollettino del Movemento Scoiale", begins publication in Naples under the direction of Emilio Covelli. Due to frequent persecution, the newspaper ceased publication in Naples in October 1877 after just seven issues. It then transferred to Florence, where, under the direction of Giovacchino Niccheri, three other issues were published, the last dated 18 November.

1891 - Alberto Savinio (Andrea Francesco Alberto de Chirico; d. 1952), Italian writer, painter, musician, journalist, essayist, playwright, set designer, composer and Nietzchean-inspired "proto-anarchist" associated with Dada and Surrealism, born. He was the younger brother of 'metaphysical' painter Giorgio De Chirico. He was influenced by and a contemporary of Apollinaire, Picasso, Jean Cocteau, Max Jacob and Fernand Léger, and in turn was an important influence alongside Erik Satie on John Cage. Trying to differentiate himself from his increasingly famous artist-brother, Andrea adopted the penname Alberto Savinio in 1914, the same year he founded the musical movement Sincerismo (Sincerism). In 1915 he returned with his brother Giorgio back to Italy to enlist and ended up serving in the same military hospital as Carlo Carrà, where they formed the Schola Metafisica (Metaphysical School).
Both he and his brother were denounced by the fascist press for their pro-European attitude during the early 1930s after both returned from a period spent in France. In 1943 he also had to go into hiding after being denounced as an anti-fascist.

1900 - Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (b. 1844), German philosopher, poet, composer, cultural critic and classical philologist, dies. [see: Oct. 15]

1905 - The Congreso Constituyente marks the founding of the Federación Obrera Regional Uruguaya. All the participating organizations were societies of resistance, of clear anarchist imprint: "picapedreros y graniteros, obreros albañiles caldereros y anexos, panaderos, conductores de carruajes, obreros del puerto, aserradores y anexos, ferrocarrileros , pintores y obreros varaleros, peones de barracas, calafates y carpinteros de ribera y artes gráficas (Zubillaga)."
"El congreso obrero, al inaugurar sus sesiones, envía un saludo fraternal a todos los proletarios del universo en lucha por su emancipación económica y social, haciendo votos porque la solidaridad internacional sobrepase las fronteras, estableciendo la armonía sobre la tierra. Hace extensivo este saludo a los compañeros que gimen en las cárceles victimas de la prepotencia capitalista. Al mismo tiempo, acuerda un voto de censura contra la ‘ley de residencia’ de la Republica Argentina que coarta la libertad de pensamiento." ["The Workers' Congress, when inaugurating its sessions, sends a fraternal greeting to all the proletarians of the universe in struggle for their economic and social emancipation, hoping that international solidarity will surpass the frontiers, establishing harmony on earth. It extends this greeting to the companions who moan in the prisons victims of the capitalist arrogance. At the same time, it agrees to a vote of censure against the 'law of residence' of the Argentine Republic that restricts freedom of thought "]

[D] 1906 - [O.S. Aug. 12] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: An attempt on the life of Pyotr Stolypin (Пётр Столы́пин), the newly installed Russian prime minister, is made by SR Maximalists [Union of Revolutionary-Socialists-Maximalists (Союз социалистов-революционеров-максималистов)] as they blow up his cottage on Apothecary Island (Аптекарском острове), St. Petersburg. Stolypin and his cabinet escape with minor injuries but 27 people are killed on the spot and 33 are seriously injured, many of whom later died from those injures.
As a direct result, courts-matrtial for terrorist trials were introduced on September 1 [O.S. Aug. 19].

1906 - [O.S. Aug. 12] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Land belonging to the Imperial family is transferred to the peasants’ land bank for purchase - Stolypin’s agrarian reform is underway.

1910 - Dorothea Margaret Tanning (d. 2012), American Surrealist painter, printmaker, sculptor, writer, poet, ballet set and costume designer, born. Tanning married Max Ernst in 1946, in a double wedding with Man Ray and Juliet Browner. [expand]

1912 - [O.S. Aug. 12] Lena Goldfields Strike [Приисках Ленского Забастовка]: Despite the mass shooting of workers on April 17 [4], the strike at the mines continued until August 25 [12], after which over 80% of the workers (4738 working men, 2109 women, and 1993 children) quit the mines. In their place, new workers were hired. Meanwhile, the shares Lena Goldfields Co. Ltd. held in the Lena Gold Industrial Association (Lenzoloto) fell from 66% to 17%, and, as another result of the strike, the owners of mines suffered losses of about 6 million rubles.

1913 - Paterson Silk Strike: The last few hold-out strikers finally give up and return to work. [see: Jan. 27 & Feb. 24]

1917 - SMS Prinzregent Luitpold Mutiny: A military court trial of those identified as the 'ringleaders of the mutiny sentences Albin Köbis, Max Reichpietsch, Hans Beckers and Wilhelm Weber to death, and fines Willy Sachse. Weber and Becker's death sentences were later commuted into prison sentences of 15 years and Reichpietsch and Köbis were executed by firing squad on September 5, 1917. Sentences on others involved amounted to 360 years imprisonment. [see: Aug. 2 & Oct. 29]

1918 - First British Police Strike: PC Tommy Thiel, a prominent member of the force and an organiser for the National Union of Police and Prison Officers, is dismissed for his union activities. This, NUPPO stated, was "the straw that broke the camel’s back" in a force resentful of its impoverishment, lack of representation and its autocratic regime. Two days later the union issued a list of demands to the Government, which included the increase of the war bonus from 12s. to £1 and its conversion to permanent wages, and a new war bonus of 12.5% (as had been granted to other workers) inevitably appealed to the rank-and-file.

1918 - The first All-Russian Conference of Anarcho-syndicalists is held in Moscow [Aug. 25-Sept. 1].

1921 - Battle of Blair Mountain: The first skirmishes take place, with the bulk of the miners were still 15 ml (24 km) away. The following day, President Warren Harding threatened to send in federal troops and Army Martin MB-1 bombers and, after a long meeting in the town of Madison, agreements were made convincing the miners to return home. Within hours of the Madison decision, rumors abounded that Chafin's men had shot union sympathisers in the town of Sharples, and that families had been caught in crossfire during the skirmishes. Infuriated, the miners turned back towards Blair Mountain, many traveling in other commandeered trains. [see: Aug. 31]

1922 - Returning from a lecture tour, Ángel Pestaña, militant anarcho-syndicalist and CNT reformist, is ambushed by a right-wing death squad in the industrial town of Manresa, Catalonia, and seriously wounded.

[F] 1922 - La Grève du Havre: With the banning of all public gatherings and the summonng of the army into Le Harve in an attempt to break the steelworkers' strike, a general strike breaks out in the city. It will continue until September 1, 1922.

1925 - Pullman porters – fed up with working long hours for little pay and no job security – form the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters in New York City. It would be another twelve years before the union signed its first collective bargaining agreement with the Pullman Company.

[B] 1932 - Gérard Lebovici (d. 1984), radical French publisher, film producer, friend and financial supporter of Guy Debord, born. Radicalised during the events of May 1968, he frequented libertarian circles, founding Editions Champ Libre in 1969 and, following a meeting in 1971, formed a close association with Debord, republishing 'The Society of the Spectacle' and financing his film of the same name. Champ Libre also republished some classic revolutionary tracts and radical writers such as Bakunin and Landauer. He later bought up the Studio Cujas, a cinema located in the Latin Quarter of Paris, which became a centre for Situationist cinema. He also became fascinated by the libertarian character of Jacques Mesrine, adopting Mesrine's daughter Sabrina after his death in 1979 and planned in 1984 to republish his autobiography 'L'Instinct de Mort' (Killer Instinct). He was shot and killed on March 5 1984 in what many see as a police-inspired assassination.

[E] 1936 - Felicia Mary Browne (b. 1904), English artist and communist, is the first British volunteer to die in the Spanish Civil War. [see: Feb. 18]

1941 - Carol Bolt ( 2000), Canadian playwright, author of the Emma Goldmann play 'Red Emma, Queen of the Anarchists' (1974), born.

1944 - Members of La Nueve take part in the fighting against the occupying Nazi forces in Paris, including in the Place de la République. [see: Aug. 24]

[C] 1944 - Abdulla Aliş (Alişev Ğabdullacan Ğäbdelbari ulı; b. 1908), Soviet Tatar poet, playwright, writer and resistance fighter, who wrote mostly novels for children, is guillotined with fellow resistance fighter and poet Musa Cälil (b. 1906) in Plötzensee prison. [see: Sep. 15 & Feb. 15]

1944 - Musa Cälil (Musa Mostafa ulı Cälilev; b. 1906), Soviet Tatar poet and resistance fighter, is guillotined with fellow resistance fighter and poet Abdulla Aliş (b. 1908) in Plötzensee prison. [see: Feb. 15 & Sep. 15]

1945 - The first issue of 'España Libre', "Organe du Comité de Relations de la Confédération Régionale du Centre en France (CNT-AIT)", is publsihed in Paris. Its headline article is entitled: "Que l'action des forces de la Résistance en Espagne inspire les antifascistes de l'exil." (The actions of the forces of resistance in Spain is an inspiration ot anti-fascists in exile.)

[DDD] 1958 - Nuit Rouge: The FLN begins a military campaign on the territory of metropolitan France, marking a decisive turning point in its struggle for independence. The decision to open the second front was taken at a meeting of senior FLN members in Cologne in late July 1958 with the aim of forcing the government to maintain the maximum number of troops on the mainland, thereby allieviating the sustained pressure that the FLN in Algeria had been under ever since the end of the 'second' Battle of Algiers. The date set was midnight on the night of August 24-25 when 'choc' (shock) cells of the FLN's Organisation Spéciale would go into action, attacking military and infrastructure targets across the mainland.
02:15 - Le Havre, sabotage and fuel storage and refinery fire of Notre Dame-de-Gravenchon
02:130 - Paris, machinegunning and arson at a the Boulevard de l'Hôpital police headquarters garage, 3 guards killed and one wounded
03:00 - Bois de Vincennes, sabotage attempt at the Cartoucherie (cartridge factory) ends in a fierce firefight. A police seargent is killed and several cops wounded. On the FLN side two are killed and eight wounded.
02:15 - Marseille, sabotage and fire at the Shell depot.
02:15 - Narbonne, sabotage and the fuel depot fire.
02:15 - Saint-Mande, collision with a car of activists trying to break though a roadblock.
02:15 - Port-la-Nouvelle, two large explosions at the fuel depot. Within 4 hours, ten out of twelve tanks were destroyed and 17,000 cubic metres of oil were in flames.
02:18 - Frontignan, attempted sabotage the refinery; 5 bombs discovered.
02:20 - Paris, Porte des Lilas shootout with militants in a car trying to break though a roadblock.
02:20 - Toulouse, fire and fuel depot sabotage. The damage is estimated at 150 million francs.
02:35 - Ivry, fire at a military vehicle stoage facility.
02:35 - Gennevilliers, fuel depot fire at the Port of Paris.
02:43 - Marseille, one incendiary explodes and 5 others discovered at the fuel depots Aygalades and Cap Pinède fuel depots. An estimated 3 million litres of fuel lost.
04:00 - Airfield Villacoublay, attempted sabotage and capture of the commando.
04:00 - Paris, attack on a police jeep, 3 officers injured.
05:00 - Salbris, discover the sabotage of the Paris-Vierzon railroad.

1962 - 200 communists and AJEX members break up a UM meeting in Leeds. [PR]

1963 - Sébastien Doubinsky, French bilingual writer (English and French), translator, editor, poet and anarchist, born.

1968 - Battle of Lincoln Park: At the Democratic Convention in Chicago people attending a music festival in Lincoln Park are attacked by the police trying to clear the park before a 9pm curfew. A battle ensued between riot cops and the crowd, swelled by protesters in town for the convention, urged on by Yippie leader Jerry Rubin.

1990 - Julián Arrondo (b. 1917), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, dies. Born in Villafranca, Navarra, as a young man he moved to Barcelona, where he joined the Bonanova Joventuts Llibertàries. During the Civil War, he was a militiaman in the Durruti Column on the Aragon front. Escaping to France in February 1939, he was interned in various camps and joined one of the Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers. After his release, he became a forester on the Côte d'Or, settling in Dijon where he became the treasurer of the local fedartion of the MLE/CNT in exile, as well as treasurer of the Dijon-Nevers region.

1997 - Miguel Alejandro Dilla (b. 1909), Spanish anarchist activist member of the FIJL, CNT and MLE, dies. During the Revolution of 1936, he took an active part in the organisation of the Collectivité de La Fresneda and in the Joventuts Llibertàries. Exiled in France during the Retirada, he was interned in various camps. He then moved to Sabigny (Haute Marne) and continued to be active in the libertarian movement in exile until his death.

2011 - During the 2-day strike in Chile, another 450 people are arrested and several dozen reported injured. In Santiago, police forces use tear gas and water cannons on protesters at the end of the demonstrations; earlier, some protesters had thrown stones and started fires. One person, 16-year-old Manuel Gutierrez Reinoso, later dies from gunshot wounds to the chest; witnesses claim that he was shot by a police officer.

2014 - Ferguson, Missouri: The funeral of Michael Brown takes place, Brown's family having asked that supporters suspend their protests for one day out of respect during the funeral proceedings.
[D] 1789 - The 'Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen' is published in Paris in the lead-up to the French Revolution.

[E] 1827* - Nathalie Lemel (or Le Mel) (d. 1921), French bookbinder, militant anarchist in the Association Internationale des Travailleurs, feminist and Pétroleuse, who fought on the barricades at the Commune de Paris of 1871, born. She joined the First International in 1866 and, along with Eugène Varlin, helped found the La Ménagère food cooperative and the La Marmite cooperative resturant. An active participant on the barricades in the Paris Commune, she also organised food for the city's poor. Following the defeat of the Commune, she was deported to Nouvelle Calédonie alongside Louise Michel. Amnestied in 1880, she went on to be employed by the newspaper 'L'Intransigeant' and continued her fight for women's rights. [*NB: Other dates given include Aug. 24 and the alternative year of 1826.]
[ femmes/gdes-femmes4.html]

1837 - Carlo Gambuzzi (d. 1902), Italian Anarchist, who fought alongside Garibaldi at the Battle of Aspromonte in 1862, dies. Follower of Mikhail Bakunin, he eventually married his widow Antonia Kwiatkowska.

[DD] 1855 - Insurrection de la Marianne: Hundreds of Trélazé slate workers, many of them members of the Marianne secret society, dedicated to the overthrow of the regime of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte and the restoration of democracy, revolt in Saint-Barthélemy-d'Anjou, plundering the gendarmerie to seize weapons. The numbers involved grows during the night and early next morning to more than 600 men. They then march on Angers with, at their head, François Attibert, a marianniste quarry worker, singing 'La Marseillaise' in defiance against Napoleon III and the Second Empire. Alerted, armed police are waiting for them. There are no casualties, but hundreds are arrested. The leaders Jean-Marie Secrétain, Joseph Pasquier and François Attibert are deported to Cayenne.

[A] 1861 - Last execution in Britain for attempted murder - Martin Doyle in Chester.

[B] 1880 - Guillaume Apollinaire (born Wilhelm Albert Włodzimierz Apolinary Kostrowicki ; d. 1918), French poet, playwright, short story writer, novelist, art critic, youthful anarchist and proto-Surrealist, born in Rome. At school in Nice he discovers anarchism and becomes a Dreyfusard, before moving to Paris in 1899. There he becomes part of the artistic and anarchist communities of Montmartre and Montparnasse, befriending the likes of Cocteau, Jarry, Picasso, Breton, de Vlaminck, Derain, etc.
[ - La Revue Anarchiste n°6 (juin 1922) w/ de Vlaminck on Apollinaire]

1885 - Tomás González Morago aka 'Paulo' (b. unknown), Spanish writer and Bakunist member of the First International, dies of cholera in Granada prison. Member of the federal council of the Internacional Española (1870-1871) and the Alianza Internacional de la Democracia Socialista. His magazine 'El Condenado' (1872-73) defended the ideas of Bakunin against Marx. He also worker for the newspaper 'La Federación' and was associate editor of 'La Solidaridad' and 'El Orden', newspapers from which he challenged the pro-Marxist of the Madrid Federation. On December 30 1883, he was expelled from the Federation for "immoral conduct detrimental to the organisation", terms that concealed the fact that he had been printing counterfeit currency at the official Mint, where he worked as a recorder. He then found himself denounced and arrested. Abandoned by everyone, including the Federal Commission, he was jailed in Madrid for this crime.

1889 - Great London Dock Strike: "Dockmen, lightermen, bargemen, cement workers, carmen, ironworkers and even factory girls are coming out. If it goes on a few days longer, all London will be on holiday. The great machine by which five millions of people are fed and clothed will come to a dead stop, and what is to be the end of it all? The proverbial small spark has kindled a great fire which threatens to envelop the whole metropolis." ['Evening News & Post', August 26. 1889] [see: Aug. 14]

1894 - Australian Shearers' Strike: Striking sheep shearers in New South Wales, Australia, burn and scuttle the paddle steamer Rodney, which had been transporting scab labour. Later that day, Billy McClean, a union shearer, was shot and wounded in an altercation with scabs. He and five others were charged with rioting and sentenced to three years’ hard labour. McClean was released after eighteen months because he was dying from the bullet wound and died on March 22, 1896.

1899 - René Lochu (d. 1989), French journeyman tailor, anarchist, syndicalist union activist and pacifist, born. His close friend Leo Ferre dedicated his song 'Les Etrangers' to him and contributed a freface and afterword to his autobiography 'Libertaires, Mes Compagnons de Brest et d'Ailleurs' (Libertarians, My Comrades in Brest and Elsewhere; 1983).

1899 - Paweł Grossman (d. 1966), Polish Jewish libertarian socialist and anarchist militant, born. Anarchistycznej Federacji Polski militant and one of the most active members of the organisation during the period 1926-39.

1905 - V Congreso de la Federación Obrera Regional Argentina: In a climate of governmental and police repression against the working class: a state of siege, arrests, strikes and demonstrations repressed with much loss of blood (seee: May 21, 1905 ), the Fifth Congress of the FORA (Federación Obrera Regional Argentina) held in Buenos Aires, states: "The 5th Argentine Regional Workers Congress, consistent with the philosophical principles that have given the raison d'être for the organization of labour federations, declares: We approve and recommend to all its members the [organisation's] propaganda and its vast knowledge, with the aim of teaching the workers the economic and philosophic principles of the anarchistic communism." [expand]

1905 - Severino Campos Campos (d. 2006), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. A member of the CNT since 1918 and a well-known FAI militant, he collaborated on the Valencian newspaper 'Solidaridad Obrera' and was one of its most important writers. He worked for thirty years in various rationalist schools of Catalonia, especially at the Rationalist School in the Torrassa district, run by the family Ocaña, one of whose members Igualdad, was his companion. Secretary of the Regional Committee of the Catalan FAI in June 1937, he was also a member of the group that drew up the paper adopted in plenary CNT-FAI in Catalonia of 14 March 1937 opening up particiaption in the Generalitat and helped create a political council within the unified Regional Committee of the CNT-FAI-FIJL. In 1936-37, along with Peirats and others, fought against CNT participation in the Generalitat and suffered threats from Garcia Oliver. During the Civil War he collaborated with the magazine 'Ideas', porgan of the Moviment Llibertari del Baix Llobregat, which denounced the degeneration of the revolution. After the war he went into exile in Mexico, returning to Spain after Franco's death of Franco returned to Spain, he lived in L'Hospitalet de Llobregat. In 1979 he was appointed director of Solidaridad Obrera and was editor between 1982 and 1983. In the nineties he returned to Mexico, leaving his personal archive to the Fundació Anselmo Lorenzo (FAL). He died aged 100 years and was buried with a red and black flag that covered his coffin.

1906 - [O.S. Aug. 13] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: General Georgy Min (Гео́ргий Алекса́ндрович Мин), who was prominent as commander of the Semenov Life Guards (лейб-гвардии Семёновского) regiment in the brutal suppresion of the Moscow Uprising in December 1905, is assassinated by a Socialist-Revolutionary gunman in the New Peterhof (Новый Петергоф) railway station in St. Petersburg.

1907 - The International Anarchist Congress, 26-31 August, is held at the Plancius Hall in Amsterdam under the initiative of Domela Nieuwenhuis and the Association Internationale Antimilitariste, whose second Congrès Antimilitariste International is held concurrently on August 30-31.

1910 - The Second International Socialist Women's Conference, held on August 26-27, 1910 in Copenhagen, endorses the idea of an international day of concerted action to protest for female suffrage, on the model of the annual May Day celebrations. The Second International at its Eighth Congress, also in Copenhagen between Aug. 28 - Sept. 3, 1910, passes a motion submitted by the German socialist Clara Zetkin (Leader of the 'Women's Office' for the Social Democratic Party in Germany) in favour of establishing an annual International Woman's Day, though no date is set.

1913 - Dublin Lock-Out: Members of the Irish Transport and General Workers Union in Dublin, Ireland, go on strike for union recognition in what was the most significant industrial dispute in Irish history. A concerted effort by hundreds of the city’s employers resulted in a lockout of over 20,000 workers. For months, picketing workers and their Irish Citizen Army battled scabs and the police in what would become known as the Dublin Lockout. [Aug. 26 1913 - Jan. 18 1914]
At 09:40, Dublin tram car men (drivers) and conductors pinned the Red Hand badge of the Irish Transport and General Workers‚ Union to their lapels and abandoned their vehicles. The strike was on. The demands were reinstatement of the parcels staff, equality of hours and wages with the tramway workers of Belfast. However, within forty minutes most of the trams were moving again. The Dublin United Tramway Company chairman William Martin Murphy had contingency plans in place to use inspectors and office staff (many of them former car men) to replace the strikers. Trams would still not venture out at night, for fear of stoning, and crews would often carry revolvers for protection, but within a few days daytime services would operate relatively normally.

1915 - Juan José Sacramento García (d. 1997), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, born. He started working at a young age as an apprentice baker and joined the CNT in Villena (Alicante) at the age of 15. Following Franco's coup d'état in July 1936, after participating in the fighting in Villena, he enlisted in the Columna España Libre and was sent to the Madrid front. His group of ccomrades assisted in the flight of the Republican government when they retreated to Valencia. In March 1939 he was taken prisoner in Alicante and was interned in the concentration camps at Los Almendros and d'Albatera before being transferred to Villena prison in Alicante, where he was sentenced to 30 years and interned at Dueso. Paroled in 1945, he moved to Barcelona where he worked as a baker and a wooden platform builder and became part of the clandestine CNT. It particular he helped his friend Ginés Camarasa García to hide and helped many wanted militants. After Franco's death he joined the CNT in L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, where he died on June 6, 1997.

1916 - José Iglesias Paz (d. 2006), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, born. on August 26, 1916 in Lobios (Ourense, Galicia). Moved to Sallent, Barcelona, to work in the potash mines, where his brother was already working. In 1935 joined the National Confederation of Labour (CNT) and the Juventudes Libertarias in Sallent, becoming its secretary. In July 1936, with the outbreak of the fascist military coup, he attended night school in order to take the entrance exam for the Post Office. He was immediately incorporated as a medical orderly into the Tierra y Libertad Column formed in the mining region of Upper Llobregat, and after a few weeks of training in Barcelona, ​​left for the Central front. He participated in various battles, including Talavera de la Reina, Toledo, San Martin de Valdeiglesias, Àvila.
In early 1937, after his column was militarised in the II Battalion of the 153th Mixed Brigade, he fought on the Aragon front, where he participated in the failed assault on Belchite. For a while José he was assigned, although reluctantly, to work in military censorship, working under the Stalinist Santiago Carillo. During the events of May 1937, he was forced to defend himself, with gun in hand, from a group of Stalinists who wanted to kill him and, with a few comrades, succeed win helping free his brother, a militant of the CNT, held in a communist prison.
In February 1939, during the withdrawal, he crossed the Pyrenees and was interned in the concentration camp at Saint Cyprien, from where he managed to escape 18 months later. For two months he worked in a mine in the area of ​​Lourdes, but after spending two months in hospital due to poisoning, ending up interned in the camp of Argelès. Two months later he managed to escape and found a job as a lumberjack. In 1942 he was arrested in Perpignan and forced to work in Bordeaux under the Service du Travail Obligatoire (STO). In October he was sent by train to Baden-Baden and then onto to Karlsruhe to work in a munitions factory. When he was released, he had to remain hospitalised three months recovering from malnutrition.
After the Second World War he returned to France and settled first in Paris and then in Lyon, where he played in the Movimiento Libertario Español (MLE) in exile and supporting the anarchist action groups leaving for Franco's Spain. In July 1948, as a delegate of the Legal Section of the CNT, he clandestinely crossed into the Peninsula to Roncesvalles, with the task of assisting (find lawyers, bribe judges, etc.). He was specifically in charge of aid and assistance to prisoners in Valencia, Barcelona, ​​Zaragoza and Madrid, settling in Terrassa, Barcelona. On May 3, 1950, having been denounced by the mother of one of his colleagues, he was arrested along with several members of action groups, including Silvio Aiguaviva Vila, Pedro Meca López, Ginés Urrea Piña and Santiago Amir Gruañas, and tortured for 17 days in the dungeons of the Direcció de Policia (Police Directorate).
On February 6, 1952, he was tried at a court martial, with thirty members and supporters of libertarian action groups, and sentenced to death, along with eight other companions. Five of them (Santiago Amir Gruañas, Pere Adrover Font, Jordi Pons Argilés, José Pérez Pedrero and Ginés Urrea Piña) were executed on March 14, 1952, and the remainder had their sentences commuted to 30 years in prison. For two years he remained locked in Barcelona's Modelo prison, where he was responsible for the library, and was then transferred to the prison of Dueso (Santoña). In 1961, following an amnesty, he was put on probation and went to Galicia, where he worked in municipal services in several locations (Ponferrada, Lugo, Vilalba, vilagarcía, etc..), But was always dismissed because of police harassment. In 1968 he married Pilar Rodriguez. Unable to find steady work, he went into exile in 1972 with his partner and her son George in Switzerland, settling first in Locarno and then Lugano, where in 1973 achieved the status of political refugee. He worked as a bricklayer and grocer and participated in the activities of the local anarchist movement, always in contact with the CNT and militants in the Italian section of the Lega Svizzera dei Diritti dell'Uomo (Swiss League of Human Rights).
Following the death of the dictator Francisco Franco, he regained the Spanish passport in July 2003 and finally returned to Galicia with his partner, settling in San Bieito and resuming contacts with the Galician CNT. The April 17, 2004 he participated in the Second 'Xornadas Cangas pola Memoria Común' (Cangas Days of Common Memory) and in November 2005, with Joaquina Dorado Pita and others, on the Libertarian Days Compostela. He also talks, participated in several local meetings and, on 05 January 2006, in the Antifascist Days II Lalin. Jose Iglesias Paz died on June 10, 2006 at the hospital in Ourense (Galicia) and was buried two days later in his hometown to many colleagues and after a speech of tribute paid by Rosa Bassave, secretary of the CNT de Compostela. He left unpublished autobiographical notes, parts of which were collected in the Italian edition of Albert Minnig's 'Diario di un volontario svizzero nella guerra di Spagna' (1986).

1921 - Alexander Taranovski (b. 1888), Ukranian anarchist reolutionary, dies. Born into a middle class peasant family of Jewish origin, in 1917 he fought in the Great War as a lieutenant and that same year declared himself an anarchist. He headed the Polish Jewish society's 'Black Guard' and, during the autumn of 1918, he entered the Revolutionary Insurgent Army of Nestor Makhno, and was appointed a member of staff in October 1920. He also commanded the battalion of Jewish guerrillas created in Hulaipóle. In November 1920, he left Crimea and, after breaking the siege by the Red Army, he managed to collect Makhnovist forces at Hulaipóle. In August 1921, he participated in the group responsible for the escape of Nestor Makhno abroad. Taranovskiwas captured on 18 August 1921 by a group of Ukrainian anti-Makhnovist peasants who, on 26 August 1921, burned him alive.

1922 - La Grève du Havre: The Salle Franklin - the traditional seat of the Bourse du Travail and the trade unions - is ordered closed. As protesters gather outside the building, mounted police charge into crowds. The strikers respond by throwing stones and troops are ordered fix bayonets and load their rifles. The mounted police charge results in the death of three demonstrators aged 18, 21 and 22. A fourth died of his injuries a few days later. Many others are left injured. The following day many of the strike organisers are arrested and the city is placed in state of siege.
With the closure of the Salle Franklin, steelworkers are forced to hold their meetings in the Forêt de Montgeon, the 'trou des métallos' (steelworkers hole), a grassed arena able to accomodate up to 20,000 people, and now a municipal park.

1922 - Cyril Paskin (d. 2011), British anti-fascist, who was a co-founder and later a field commander of the 1962 Committee or 62 Group, born. [expand]

1929 - The Council of People's Commissars (CPC) of the Soviet Union (Sovnarkom) declared "it essential that the systematically prepared transition of undertakings and institutions to continuous production should begin during the economic year 1929–1930". Introducing the concept of 'Nepreryvka' (non-interruption), the five-day week.

1930 - Louis Eugène Jakmin (aka Jacquemin) (b. 1876), French blacksmith, anarchist propagandist, anti-militarist and militant syndicalist, dies. [see: May 12]

1933 - René Lourau, French sociologist, political scientist, libertarian thinker, and theorist and practitioner of l'autogestion pédagogique (self-teaching), born. Co-author of 'Interrogations sur l'autogestion' (1979), with Amédéo Bertolo, Albert Heiter and Murray Bookchin.

1933 - Mussolini, in a speech before an audience of 2000, argues for the necessity for Italy to be a "military nation."

1936 - The Grup Sindical d'Escriptors Catalans (GSEC; Association of Catalan Writers Group) is established as part of the Sindicat d'Arts Gràfiques of the CNT, and later to the Sindicat Únic de la Ensenyança i Professions Liberals. Members include Jaume Balius Mir, Marc Benet, Manuel Cruells, Delfí Dalmau, Alexandre G. Gilabert, J. Guivernau Jané, Miquel Llor, Enric Lluelles, Carme Montoriol Puig, Víctor Mora, Anna Murià Romaní, Josep Maria Murià Romaní, Josep Pons Pagès, Dídac Ruíz, Joan Sallarès, Manuel Tarragó Romeu and Xavier Viura.

1937 - Santander falls to the Nationalists.

1944 - Members of La Nueve triumphantly march up the Champs-Elysées before the arrival of General De Gaulle. [see: Aug. 24]

1945 - Franz Viktor Werfel (b. 1890), Czech-born, Austrian-Jewish novelist, playwright and poet, dies. [see: Sep. 10]

[C] 1948 - Jeffrey Hamm, deputy leader of the UM, is hospitalised yet again after being hit by a brick as he tried to speak from on top of a speaker van at a meeting in Mile End. [PR]

1949 - Enrique Martinez Marin ('Quique'; b. 1927) and Celedonio García Casino (aka 'Celes' or 'el Largo'; b. 1922), anti-Francoist guerrillero members of José Luis Facerías' Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth (FIJL) group are ambushed (alongside 'Face', Antoni Franquesa Funoll and 2? others) and killed by the Guardia Civil ambush on the French frontier. [see: Apr. 14 & Dec. 25]

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: Following intelligence gained by (General Massu's chief of staff) Colonel Yves Godard's operatives, the troops of the 3e Régiment de Parachutistes d'Infanterie de Marine (3rd Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment) raid a house in the Impasse Saint-Vincent where Yacef Saâdi's new bomb-maker, Debbid Cherif aka 'Si Mourad', and his deputy, Hadj Athman aka 'Ramel', are believed to be hiding. After suffering several casualties trying to capture the two alive, both men were eventually shot dead, together with Benhafid Nourredine (Ramel's brother) and Amitouche Zahia, a 20 years old woman, who were hiding with them in the Lower Casbah.

[DDD] 1958 - Nuit Rouge: With the French papers full of the attacks all across the country, the Comité de Coordination et d'Exécution of the FLN announce that their military offensive on French territory has begun, claiming that the long-planned offensive was in response to the refusal of the French rulers to recognise the independence of the Algeria in the integrity of its territory, including the Sahara. "Le FLN entend d'ores et déjà affirmer solennellement que les civils ne seront pas visés, malgré la responsabilité quasi unanime du peuple français, complice par passivité de la poursuite barbare de la guerre d'Algérie… De nombreux Français ont prêté main forte aux gens de la répression et se sont livrés à plusieurs reprises à de véritables lynchages d'Algériens." (The FLN has already stated and reaffirms that the civilians will not be targetted, despite the almost unanimous responsibility of the French people, passively complicit in the barbaric continuing war in Algeria ... Many French people have lent a hand to the people carrying out the repression and have several times engaged in the lynching of Algerians.)

1970 - Women in more than ninety cities across the U.S. participate in the Women’s Strike for Equality, organised by the National Organization for Women. Among other things, the action called for women to stop working for a day to draw attention to the issue of unequal pay for women’s work.

1972 - Juan López Sánchez (b. 1900), Spanish construction worker, anarcho-syndicalist, anarchist theorist, minister in the Generalitat and one of the founders of the 'treintistas' Federación Sindicalista Libertaria, dies. [see: Jan. 16]

1978 - José Expósito Leiva (b. 1918), Andalusian journalist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Jan. 4]

1982 - Ana María Cruzado Sánchez (b. 19??), Catalan anarcho-syndicalist militant and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Oct. 24]

1986 - Boris Franteschini (b. 1914), Italo-Australian farm labourer, logger, anarchist activist and anti-fascist, dies. Born in the USA, his family of Italian immigrants anarchists returned to Italy when he was 7 years old, but with the rise of Mussolini's fascism and the repression against militants that followed , the family emigrated to Australia in 1927. He was involved in the fight against fascism and, in particular, providing support (moral and financial) to libertarians who continued to fight in Italy and Spain, and to the refugee victims of Francoism.

1987 - Domingo Díaz Ferrer (b. c.1908), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and railway worker, dies. Member of the Federació Nacional de la Indústria Ferroviària (FNIF; National Federation of Railway Industry) of the CNT. Following the fascist uprising in July 1936, he represented the CNT on the Comissió d'Ordre Públic (Public Order Commission) of Alicante. Shortly after he voluntered for the militia and became an organiser of the medical corps of the Iron Column. On November 20, 1936, he was one of the witnesses at the execution of the Falangist José Antonio Primo de Rivera. From February 1937 he represented the Iberian Anarchist Federation (FAI), was a member of the Provincial Council of Valencia and was later appointed Commissioner of Health of Valencia hospitals. At the end of the war he managed to reach Algeria and in 1945 became a pastry maker in Oran. At that time he was appointed head of the Interim Regional Committee of the FNIF in North Africa and political secretary of the Departmental Committee for North Africa of the CNT in exile. After Algerian independence, he settled in Nice (Provence, Aquitaine), where he worked remained active in the CNT and worked on the Parisian newspaper 'Frente Libertario' (Libertarian Front).

1989 - Jean Frédéric Henry Barrué (b. 1902), French Professor of Mathematics, communist militant and revolutionary syndicalist and later an anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 16]

1992 - Nguyễn Thị Định (b. 1920), Vietnamese communist revolutionary, who fought with the Viet Minh forces against the French and, as a founding member of the National Liberation Front (Việt Cộng), against the Americans during the Vietnam War, dies. [see: Mar. 15]

1995 - John Kilian Houston Brunner (b. 1934), prolific British libertarian socialist-orientated science fiction author, who was active in CND and wrote the CND marching song 'H-Bomb's Thunder', dies. [see: Sep. 24]

1999 - Zapatista Uprising: Confrontation between the army and Zapatista support bases in the community of San José la Esperanza, municipality of Las Margaritas. Three indigenous people are detained and 7 military personnel receive machete wounds.

2004 - Silvia Mistral (Hortensia Blanc(h) Pita; b. 1914), Cuban film critic, writer, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who lived in Spain and Cuba, dies in Ciudad López Mateos, Mexico. [see: Dec. 1]

2006 - Renato Biagetti, a 26-year-old Italian antivist in the Rome social centre movement in Rome, is murdered in Fiumicino, near Rome. Renato, who frequented the Acrobax project, where his brother was involved too, had been at a reggae party in Fiumicino, near Rome. After the concert, he and his friends had climbed into their car prior to heading home, when a metallic gray car approached them. After a brief exchange of words ("It's over the party?. Yes? So why do not you go to Rome?!") one of the two Nazis stabbed Renato three times in the chest. He died and his girlfriend and another friend were injured in the attack.

2006 - Date often erroneously given for the death of América Scarfò aka 'Fina' (América Josefina Scarfó; b. 1912), Argentinian teacher, anarchist and pioneer of the anarcha-feminist movement. [see: Aug. 19 & Nov. 18]

[2018 - Miner's Day [День шахтера]: Soviet-style official holiday for those in the mining industry that originated in 1947 (and first celebrated on August 29, 1948) based on the date (the night shift of Aug. 30-31) in 1935 when Russian miner Alexei Stakhanov (Алексе́й Стаха́нов) set a production record (he extracted 102 tons of coal at a rate of 7 tons per hour), which effectively signalled the beginning of the Stakhanovite movement. Miner's Day is still celebrated in Russia, Belarus, Estonia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Ukraine on the last Sunday in August.]
1549 - Kett's Rebellion: Warwick's army is reinforced. Kett abandons camp and Warwick's army attack rebels - 3000 rebels die in the field.

1587 - The entire colony of Roanoke Island on what is now North Carolina disappears, presumably having deserted to join the local indigenous peoples. They leave a sign carved in a tree that reads "Gone to Croatan" (another island).

1838 - Constant Marie aka Le Père Lapurge (d. 1910), French anarchist militant, Communard, singer and songwriter, born. Author of the revolutionary songs 'Dame Dynamite', 'le Père Lapurge' and 'la Muse Rouge'.

1855 - Insurrection de la Marianne: Following yesterday's uprising by hundreds of Trélazé slate workers, many of them members of the Marianne secret society, dedicated to the overthrow of the regime of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte and the restoration of democracy, and their raid for arms on the gendarmerie in Saint-Barthélemy-d'Anjou, they march on Angers. Singing 'La Marseillaise' in defiance against Napoleon III and the Second Empire, the rebels now number more than 600 men with, at their head, François Attibert, a marianniste quarry worker. Alerted, armed police are waiting for them. The insurrection is quickly over. There are no casualties, but hundreds are arrested. The leaders Jean-Marie Secrétain, Joseph Pasquier and François Attibert are deported to Cayenne.

1863 - Maria Teresa 'Teresina' Carini Rocchi (d. 1951), Italian anarcha-feminist and socialist, who became involved in the workers movement in São Paulo alongside fellow anarcha-feminists Ernestina Lesina, María Lopes and Tecla Fabbri (Teresa Fabri), born. Brought up in a bourgeois family, Maria Teresa Carini dutifully married a clarinetist Guido Rocchi when she was twenty-six and with him travelled to Brazil. There they settled in the country's capital, where her burgeoning social conscience led her to attend workers' meetings and protest actions. She was the co-author, with María Lopes and Tecla Fabbri, of the manifesto 'As Jovens costureiras de São Paulo' (The Young Seamstresses of São Paul) published in the anarchist periodical 'A Terra Livre' on July 28, 1906, which encouraged the capital's seamstresses to denounce their degrading living conditions, long hours and low wages.

1871 - Theodore Herman Albert Dreiser (d. 1945), American novelist, poet and journalist of the naturalist school, born. A socialist who was involved in a number of social justice campaigns including Sacco and Vanzetti, against the deportation of Emma Goldman (whose writings he regarded as "the richest of any woman’s of the century"), the conviction of the trade union leader Tom Mooney and was involved with the National Committee for the Defence of Political Prisoners. He joined the American Communist Party shortly before his death.

[E] 1884 - Anna-Thérèse Dondon (Florence Trinquet; d. 1979), French anarchist illegalist, born. Moving to Pars as a young woman, she quickly became involved in libertarian circles ('L'Anarchie' and Libertad's Causeries Popularies) as well as a prisoners relief committee. Having married George Dondon, she became involved with his brother in passing counterfeit currency, for which she was convicted twice, the second in 1906 she was sentenced to five years in Rennes prison. Released in 1909, she returned to Paris and became involved with René Valet, secretary of the Jeunesse Révolutionnaire. The couple lived in the Romainville libertarian commune where they later met members of the Bonnot Gang.

1885 - The first and only known issue of 'La Tête de Mort', "Journal communiste, anarchiste et révolutionnaire", is published in Saint-Imier, Switzerland. The paper turned out to be a hoax, and was in fact a version of the humorous magazine 'Cancan Jurassien' published (anonymously) by Numa Langel, who was fined 5 francs for his efforts.

1887 - [O.S. Aug. 15] Irina Konstantinova Kakhovskaya (Ири́на Константи́новна Кахо́вская; d. 1960), Russian revolutionary, memoirist and translator, a member of the Union of Revolutionary-Socialists-Maximalists (Союз социалистов-революционеров-максималистов) ca. 1906 and, after the October 1917 split, the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries [The Party of the Left, Internationalist -Revolutionary-Socialists](Партия левых социалистов-революционеров-интернационалистов) and its combat organisation, born. She was the organiser of the murder of the commander of the occupation forces in Ukraine Field Marshal Hermann von Eichhorn in 1918.

1889 - Great London Dock Strike: An estimated 130,000 men are now on strike. [see: Aug. 14]

[B] 1890 - Man Ray (born Emmanuel Rudnitzky; d. 1976), American Surrealist photographer, painter, film-maker, chess-player and anarchist, born. In the autumn of 1911 he began to life classes at the anarchist Modern School in Harlem (New York), also known as Ferrer School, and met a number of prominent anarchist intellectuals including Robert Henri, Emma Goldman Will Durant, Adolf Wolff, Jack London, John Reed, Alexander Berkman, Upton Sinclair, Hart Crane, Wallace Stevens, William Carlos Williams, Margaret Sanger, Isadora Duncan, Eugene O'Neill, etc. and studied several libertarian authors such as Max Stirner, Tolstoy, Walt Whitman, Thoreau, etc. and radical philosophers (Nietzsche, etc.).
Man Ray contributed to Emma Goldman's journal, ‘Mother Earth,’ by designing two covers of the magazine and, together with the Belgian anarchist Adon LaCroix (who he met while taking art lessons from Robert Henry and George Bellows at the Ferrer Center in New York, and who would later become his companion) would launch their own periodical, ‘The Ridgefield Gazook’, a proto-dadaist and anti-war broadsheet with explicit anarchist references. After befriending Adolph Wolff, Man Ray became acquainted with Stieglitz and Duchamp, joined the avant-garde, conceived Dada as a form of artistic anarchy, and forever changed the course of American art.

1895 - The first (and only) issue of the newspaper 'El Invincible', Periodico Comunista Anarquico", is published in Zaragoza by Juan Palomo. It replaces the suppressed 'El Eco del Rebelde', but it too will be forced to close and be replaced by 'El Comunista'.

1896 - Fernando Tarrida del Mármol (1861-1915) is released from the dreaded Montjuïc prison, thanks to help from family members. The Cuban-born Spanish anarchist theorist, writer, free-thinker, engineer, teacher and director of the Escuela Politecnica of Barcelona was imprisoned in the prison following the Proceso de Montjuïc into the June 7, 1896 bomb attack on the Corpus Christi procession in the Cambios Nuevos, Barcelona. It was only due to the fact that one of his jailers happened to be an old student and recognised him that he was released.

1903 - [O.S. Aug. 14] Ilinden Uprising [Илинденско въстание]: Kleisoura is finally recaptured by Ottoman troops.

1903 - Mosko Atanasov Rashev (or Rachev)(d. 1925), Bulgarian anarchist guerrilla, born into an extremely poor family. Illiterate, he worked in poorly paid manual jobs. and later, via Georgi Popov and Petar Maznev, came into contact with libertarian circles. A staunch enemy of the police, he joined the clandestine anarchist movement. His first guerilla activity involves the seizing of firearms in the barracks of the region of Veliko Tarnovo. During the night of June 3, 1921, was part of the squad led by armed anarchist revolutionary Gueorgui Sheitanov that ambushed a police escort, freeing anarchist Petar Maznev. The military coup of June 9, 1923, which established the proto-fascist regime of Alexander Tsankov, resulting in the death of 35,000 workers and peasants and provoked an armed resistance that culminated in the bombing of Sofia Cathedral by the Communist Party in April 1925. Following the proclaimation of martial law, which precipitated fierce repression against the revolutionary movement, Rashev joined the Sheitanov' libertarian guerrillas, who were dedicated to assaulting military garrisons, the sabotage of railways and telegraph, burning files and property, etc.. In the summer of 1925, after the breakup of the guerrilla group and the murder of several colleagues in Gorna Oryahovitsa, he decided to continue his fight under the banner of "Victory or death", sending a provocative letter to that effect to the authorities in a letter. The police launched a series of raids, searching for him and he is ambushed and killed by police and army units near Béderliy September 17, 1925 after a fierce firefight.

1906 - [O.S. Aug. 14] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Tsar demands harsh new anti-terror laws.

1906 - Julien Francois Gabriel Toublet (d. 1991), French jewellry worker and militant anarcho-syndicalist, as was his son Jacky Toublet, born. Active during the Spanish Revolution recruiting volunteers to fight, fundraising, coordinating the purchase and supply of arms, etc. In 1939, he was commissioned by the CNT-FAI to organise a Rescue Committee that visited the refugee camps. [expand]

[C] 1906 - Bjarne Dalland (d. 1943), Norwegian trade unionist, politician and communist resistance member, born. Bergen dock worker, steward of the local trade union, leader of the Young Communist League of Norway (1929-30), and a member of the central committee of the Communist Party. During the Nazi occupation, he was in charge of organising the illegal activities of the Communist Party in Western Norway. Arrested by the Nazis in 1940, and imprisoned for six months at the Ulven concentration camp, he was arrested for the second time on September 8, 1942, and imprisoned in the Grini concentration camp and Møllergata 19. He was sentenced to death in a trial on 27 February 1943, along with eight prisoners from Odda. In the same trial his brother Hans was sentenced to ten years imprisonment in Germany. On March 1, 1943 he was executed at Trandum. An SS police press release, titled 'Dødsdom over 17 nordmenn', appeared in Norwegian newspapers. Dalland's name was included on the list among seventeen persons who had been sentenced to death and executed.

[A] 1917 - In Australia the IWW is made illegal and its membership rolls are made available to employers. Despite widespread repression, the IWW helps lead the General Strike of 1917 [2 Aug. - 8 Sept.].

1918 - First British Police Strike: Following the dismissal of union organiser PC Tommy Thiel, the National Union of Police and Prison Officers issues a list of demands and presented to the govenrment, with a deadline of midnight on the 29th for a response. In addition to the reinstatement of Tommy Thiel, these include a pay increase, the increase of the war bonus from 12s. to £1 and its conversion to permanent wages, and a new war bonus of 12.5% (as had been granted to other workers), extension of pension rights to include policemen's widows, a shortening of the pension entitlement period, and an allowance for school-aged children. The most significant issue was that NUPPO be officially recognised as the representative of the police workers. With no response forthcoming, 12,00 officers went on strike on August 30. Prime Minister Lloyd George, who had been in France when the strike started, called a meeting on the 31st with the executive of NUPPO, and the strike was settled that same day. [see: Aug. 30]

1924 - Varvara Ivanovna Alexandrova (Варвара Ивановна Александрова; b. 1853), Russian revolutionary, member of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), the Political Red Cross (политическом Красном Кресте), and the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров), dies of cancer in Moscow. Like many young women of the perios, she had to go abraod to study medicine, enrolling in the medical courses at the University of Zurich in 1872. There she joined the Fritsche circle of young Russian female emigrants, who included Sofia Bardina, Vera and Lydia Figner, and Olga and Vera Lyubatovich. It was this group that drew up the statutes of the All-Russian Social Revolutionary Organisation (Всероссийской социально-революционной организации) in 1874.

1927 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Thousands continue to turn out in violent protests over deaths of Sacco and Vanzetti.

1940 - Manuel Pérez Feliu (b. 1892), Spanish cabinetmaker, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, is shot by a Phalangist firing squad. [see: Aug. 27]

1960 - Curt Corrinth (b. 1894), German Expressionist poet, novelist, dramatist, screenwriter and 'Bohemian anarchist', dies. His play 'Trojaner' (Trojans), a staunch critique of German anti-Sematism, caused controversy following its 1929 première in Berlin. [see: Feb. 20]

[F] 1974 - Lei da Greve: The new democratic government in Portugal enacts the anti-worker Lei da Greve (Strike Law) for the express purpose of stopping strikes against the Government and the newly liberated workers movement, which had helped put them in place, from continuing to press for improvements in their employment conditions and rights.

1974 - In the early hours of the morning, Joan Little, a 21-year-old female African-American petty criminal serving seven to ten years in Beaufort County Jail in Washington, North Carolina, stabs 62-year-old white male prison guard Clarence Alligood to death with an ice pick and, having secured Alligood's keys, escapes. Alligood's body is discovered naked from the waist down with eleven stab wounds to the temple and chest, and semen was found on his left leg as his body clutched the pick (a favourite tool of the all-male guard force). The 160cm (5'3") tall and 54kg (120lb) Little handed herself in just over a week later, claiming that she had killed 183cm (6') and 90kg (200lb) Alligood while defending herself against sexual assault. She was charged with first degree murder, which carried an automatic death sentence, in a case that became a cause célèbre for the civil rights, feminist, and anti-death penalty movements.
At her trial on August 14, 1975, Joan Little was acquitted, the first to successfully use the defence of having to use deadly force to resist sexual assault.

1976 - Ángel Continente Saura (b. 1901), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, dies in Saint-Paul-de-Jarrat. Born in Velilla de Ebro, Zaragoza, he moved to Barcelona at a young age, working in the port handling coal cargoes and joined the Transport section of the CNT. On December 17, 1931, he was arrested, along with comrades Antoni Anglès, Ismael Montoliu, Josep Balaguer Salvador and Felip Cano Pallarès, for the possession of a gun during a shootout between guards and workers during a transport strike at the western dock in Barcelona, in which the worker Luis Menéndez García was killed. On March 10, 1932 whilst still in Barcelona prison, he ​​signed a manifesto against Ángel Pestaña and the trentiste strategy. In July 1937 he was elected member of the Board of the Secció del Carbó Mineral del Sindicat de les Indústries d'Aigua, Gas, Electricitat i Combustibles (Coal Mineral Section of the Union of Industries of Water, Gas, Electricity and Fuels) in the Catalan CNT. In 1939 and the Fascist victory, he crossed the Pyrenees and was interned in various concentration camps. After WWII, he lived in Paris, where he was an active member of the Local Federation of the CNT, and between 1959 and 1960, he worked in the Parisian magazine 'Nervio'. He was also a member of the FAI group 'Los sin pasaporte' along with José Pascual Palacios, Jesús Imbernón, Bernabé Esteban, Olavarri, Josep Rossell, J. Martínez, etc.

1976 - Raymond Lachèvre (b. 1894), French militant anti-militarist, anarchist and syndicalist, dies. [see: Apr. 30]

1979 - Imperial Valley Lettuce Strike: West Coast Farms signs new contract agreeing to UFW strike demands.

[D] [1987 - Food riots in Beirut

2001 - Juan Gómez Casas (b. 1921), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, anarchist, underground militant, writer and historian, who was the first post-Franco Secretary General of the CNT, dies. Born in Bordeaux into a family of Spanish anarcho-syndicalists, who had emigrated for economic reasons, with proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931, his family returned to the Iberian Peninsula. After college, he joined his father as a member of the CNT (Chemical Industry section of Miscellaneous Crafts Guild) and, from 1936, the Federació Ibèrica de Joventuts Llibertàries (FIJL) in Madrid. During the civil war, he was appointed secretary of the FIJL in the Retiro district and had articles published in the CNT paper 'Castilla Libre'. In April 1938, he joined the 39th Mixed Brigade of the Republican Army and fought on the Teruel front for three months. With the triumph of Franco, he was arrested in the port of Alicante and interned in the Albatera concentration camp, but managed to escape from a juvenile prison. Returning to Madrid, he took up the clandestine struggle with the FIJL. Member of the Sindicat de la Construcció in the CNT and was an anti-collaborationist.
In 1947, he was elected as the Secretary General of the Juventudes Libertarias del Centro in Toulouse, France. Upon his return to Spain, he was arrested with his partner (María del Carmen Martínez Herranz) and his sons. In a search of his home they discovered the printing press used for the clandestine publishing of 'Tierra y Libertad' and 'Juventud Libre'. In July 1948, he was sentenced to 30 years in prison for "membership in illegal organisation". On February 6 1956, he made a failed escape attempt and was finally freed from prison in 1962 and went on to work as an antiques painter, a trade he learned in prison, and was an accountant for a Madrid hotel. Despite having no formal education, he wrote many books, including 'Historia del anarcosindicalismo español' (The history of Spanish Anarcho-syndicalism; 1968), 'Historia de la FAI' (The history of the FAI; 1977) and other historical books that are still considered classical texts. He even translated the classic book 'Moby Dick' into Spanish. He also wrote under the pseudonyms of Jacques de Gaulle (for dectective novels, etc.) and Benjamín.
During the late 1960s, he was a member of the Grup Anselmo Lorenzo in Madrid, alongside Mariano Trapero, Pedro Amijeiras, Florentino Rodríguez and Pedro Barrios, and, among other things, published in Paris in 1969 the anti-Marxist dicussion document 'Manifest Llibertari' and the pamphlet 'Problemas presentes y futuros del sindicalismo revolucionario en España' (Present and Future Problems of Revolutionary Unionism in Spain; 1969). In the seventies, he became one of the leading representatives of the CNT during its reorganisation and its first post-Franco secretary, from August 1976 to April 1978.
1549 - Kett's Rebellion: Robert Kett finally captured.

[D] 1830 - Swing Riots: In a period where rural workers were facing particular hardship stemming not just from a series of poor harvests but from social factors including the tithe system, the Poor Law guardians, and the rich tenant farmers who had been progressively lowering wages while introducing agricultural machinery, protests by the workers had been patchy. These had mostly been limited to arson attacks on farm building in Kent, England but the Swing protests (so named after the fictitious Captain Swing whose signature that was often appended to the threatening letters sent to farmers, magistrates, parsons, and others, and who was regarded as the mythical figurehead of the movement) take on a new phase with the first destruction of threshing machines in Kent.

1857 - [N.S. Sep. 9] Elizaveta Nikolaevna Olovennikova (Елизавета Николаевна Оловенникова; d. 1932), Russian revolutionary and Narodnaya Volya (People's Will) activist, who was the sister of fellow Narodnistas Maria [Мария] and Elizaveta [Наталья], born. [see: Sep. 9]

1882 - Práxedis Gilberto Guerrero Hurtado (d. 1910), Mexican journalist, poet, anarchist propagandist and secretary to the 'Junta Organizadora del Partido liberal Mexicano', born. He served as an insurgent leader during the 1910 Revolution, is the first Mexican anarchist to give his life for Land and Liberty, when he was killed, at the early age of only 28, on December 30, 1910, during an attack on the town of Janos, Chihuahua, in the early months of the Mexican Revolution.

1891 - Affaire de Clichy: At the trial of the three anarchists arrested and severly beaten on May Day when attacked by police, the Advocate General Bulot demands the death sentence for Henri Louis Decamps. He fails to secure that but the verdicts on two of the three are still severe: Decamps is sentenced to five years in prison and Charles Auguste Dardare to three years. Louis Leveillé is acquitted. [see: May. 1]

1892 - Augustin Souchy (d. 1984), German journalist, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, born. He became an anarchist at a very young age after reading Gustav Landauer and, in 1911, he went to Berlin, where the 19 year old Souchy met Karl Liebknecht, Clara Zetkin, Gustav Landauer, and other revolutionaries. At the outbreak of war in 1914, Souchy was in Vienna where he was arrested and deported to Germany. At the top of his arrest warrant were the words: "Beware! Anarchist!", which would become the title of his 1977 autobiography. From Germany he went to Sweden to escape conscription. There he was arrested for problems with his passport but managed to escape and cross over into Denmark and Norway clandestinely. Back in Sweden, in 1917, he took the opportunity of the fact that sick and wounded German soldiers on their way home from the Russian front having to change trains in Stockholm, handing out an anti-war pamphlet, 'Warum?', which he had written to the soldiers. Arrested and expelled from the country, only to return with the aid of a false passport. However, he is arrested whilst traveling to Copenhagen in 1919 and imprisoned for 6 months, time he uses to learn Swedish and to write the first book in that language about the recently assassinated Gustav Landauer.
Returning to Germany in late 1919, he joined the Freien Arbeiter Union Deutschland (FAUD), becoming the editor of its journal, 'Der Syndicalist' (from 1922-33). In 1920, he traveled to Russia for the Congress of the Third International, meeting Victor Serge, Zinoviev and Lenin. "I had expected from the social revolution more than a mere replacement of the tsarist autocracy by an authoritarian party dictatorship." During his stay, he spent 6 months visiting Kropotkin, who was then still at liberty, who warned him against the use of an authoritarian political party as an instrument with which to gain power. Six months later, in March 1921 came the suppression of the Kronstadt uprising, and followed by a wave of terror which compelled many SRs, syndicalists and anarchists to leave the "mother country of the world revolution." On his return, he wrote a highly critical book, 'Reise nach Russland 1920' (Travel to Russia 1920), about the Soviet regime. In 1922, he helped form the International Workers' Association (IWA/AIT) and, along with Rudolph Rocker and Alexander Schapiro, was one of three secretaries of the new organisation, which was set up to counter the Bolshevik Profintern (Red International of Labour Unions). Between 1924 and 1926, he was responsible for writing much of 'Die Internationale', the FAUD theoreical journal, and went on to write a number of important books including 'Sacco und Vanzetti' and 'Schreckensherrschaft in Amerika' (Reign of terror in America), both 1927. As a representative of the IWA, he went to Argentina in 1929 to take part in a Congress of Latin American anarcho-syndicalists in Buenos Aires. During his stay, he also undertook a lecture tour in Uruguay. In this period he also met Durruti for the first time and began to pay regualr visits to Spain on IWA business.
On his return from South America, he became involved in the burgeoning anti-fascist movement but, following the Reichstag fire, which was immediately followed by the arrest of Erich Mühsam, life for Souchy and other radicals became increasingly dangerous. Shortly after the fire, he was attacked by three young men in front of his house in Wilmersdorf. He managed to break free and, heeding the warning, escaped to France.
"When I was on the train taking me to Paris, people were glued to the Berlin newspaper columns with pictures of wanted anti-Nazis, including my own ... on Germany a bloody curtain had fallen. My second emigration would last longer than the first."
He settled in Paris, earning a living as a freelance journalist, working mainly for the foreign press and especially for Swedish newspapers, for one of whom he wrote the anti-Nazi polemic 'Die braune Pest' (The Brown Palgue). Just before the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, he was invited by the CNT to speak at a mass meeting in Barcelona against the impending war. Instead of the rally, he arrived in time for the military coup and ended up staying in Spain for 3 years. Handed a weapon, he waved it around, claiming not to know what to do with it: "Only for the present, the word is also a weapon, soon there will be other tasks to perform." On the evening of the third day of fighting, Augustin took to the airwaves on Radio Barcelona to announce the victory of the revolutionaries. He was soo appointed head of external relations (Information in Foreign Languages) and political advisor of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo and tried to organise getting money and arms from France for the CNT-FAI including an unsuccessful trip on behalf of the CNT to Paris at the end of August 1936 to negotiate with Léon Blum, the former Socialist Prime Minister. Later, he wrote his most influential books on collectivisation in Anarchist Catalonia - 'Die Bauern von Aragon' (The Peasants of Aragon; 1937) and 'Nacht über Spanien: Anarcho-Syndikalisten in Revolution und Bürgerkrieg 1936–39. Ein Tatsachenbericht; 1955' (Night over Spain: Anarcho syndicalism in revolution and civil war 1936-39. A factual report; 1955). He also wrote 'The Tragic Week in May', one the few firsthand accounts of the Barcelona May Days of 1937 available.
After the defeat of the Spanish Revolution in 1939, Souchy attempted to return to France. On the trip north, his refugee column was strafed by enemy aircraft and he broke his arm saving a small girl from falling under the wheels of a car. A doctor requisioned him a car and he managed to make it to Paris without being interned. War was yet to break out and he spent times working as a correspondent for various Swedish and American newspapers again. At the start of WWII, German citizens were interned, being sent to a prison camp in the interior but, having a French wife, was released. This provision was eventually repealed and he ended up in a warehouse on the Brittany coast. The Wehrmacht took Paris and proceeded to the Channel coast. When they were in sight of the camp, Augustin managed to persuade the camp commander to give him and other political or Jewish camp inmates the opportunity to escape. He had spent nearly two years in various prison camps and now made his way by bicycle to Marseilles, hoping to escape the country. From there he manage to make it to Mexico. "Mexico meant the end of insecurity, persecution and threats., I took the opportunity offered."
Mexico in 1942 was now one of the main centres for Spanish Civil War exiles, and there Augustine found a trade union organisation that was very close to the anarcho-syndicalist ideals. During the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas (1934-40), hundreds of farms, factories, mines and service companies had been taken over by the workers and were still run as cooperatives. For some of these he advised on agricultural iniatives. He also traveled as a lecturer throughout the country and help the unions in educational work. In Loma Bonita, in the house of an old friend, who had also fought in Spain, he found for more than ten years of a new home. Invited by the Movimento Libertario Cubano, he travelled in February 1948 to Havana, where he attended its Congress and used the opportunity to study and went on a lecture tour of the inland, returning after four months to Mexico. This was the beginning of an extensive period of travels, his "student revolution", as he often called the next 20 years: to Germany, Sweden, ,the United States, ,all countries of Latin America, from Mexico to Chile, as representative of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions to Madagascar, to Yugoslavia, Israel (studying the kibbutzim), Italy, studying and lecturing. "The direct study of economic innovations in revolutionary countries and their practical functioning, so to speak, I had made my specialty."
In May 1951, the exile organisation of the Spanish anarcho-syndicalists in Toulouse organised an international congress of the IWA. Augustine attended as delegate of the Föderation Freiheitlicher Sozialisten Deutschlands (German Federation of Libertarian Socialists Deutschalnds), a successor FAUD and in which Rudolf Rocker and Helmut Rüdiger were also involved. In 1963, he was commissioned by the International Labour Office in Geneva as an educational expert to travel round Jamaica, Honduras, Venezuela, Chile, Uruquay and Ethiopia for 3 years as an educational expert. In 1966, at the ripe old age of 74, he returned to Germany. - "When I had crossed the threshold of the biblical age, I had to remember to make me settle down." He went on to write extensively (both jouranlsim and numerous books), appeared regularly on the radio, attended conferences and workshops and appeared in the documentary 'Kleinen Fernsehspiel', broadcast a month after his death from Pneumonia aged 91 on January 1, 1984. There was no funeral and no grave - Augustin had bequeathed his body to science.

1904 - Agustín Remiro Manero (d. 1942), Spanish commander of one of the Durruti Column's machine-gun battalions, born. He was captured, tortured, then killed during an attempted prison escape. [expand]

[E] 1904 - [O.S. Aug. 14] Mariola Milkova Sirakov (Мариола Милкова Сиракова; d. 1925), Bulgarian actor and anarcho-communist revolutionary, born. From a well-to-do family, she rebelled at an early age against her social background, joining the anarchist movement. She regularly attended secret anarchist meetings and eventually became Bulgarian anarchist Gueorgui Cheitanov's partner. In her spare time she was involved in the Orpheus theatrical troupe in Kilifarevo. In 1922-23 she studied in Pleven, with fellow anarchists Vasil Popov and Valko Shankov hiding out in her quarters. Following the coup of June 9, 1923 Sirakova was arrested, raped and brutally abused by the police. In June 1924, she returned to Kilifarevo and was soon again arrested, but soon released. In the town she was active supporting the local population as well as hiding and treating wounded rebels. Following the April 16, 1925 attack on the St Nedelya Church, Sofia and the country's political and military elite gathered there for the funeral of General Konstantin Georgiev (Константин Георгиев), the Cheitanov group split, going into hiding. After the split of the band she and George Sheytanov and Zhelyu Grozev (Желю Грозев) attempted to emigrate to Turkey. In Nova Zagora supporters provided them with food and false papers, but on May 26 Mariola Sirakova and Cheitanov were caught in an ambush and arrested. They were taken back to Nova Zagora, where they were put on a train to Sofia. On May 28, Sirakova and Cheitanov were shot at Belovo railway station along with 12 other anti-fascist prisoners.

1910 - Following the endorsing by the Second International Socialist Women's Conference, held on August 26-27, 1910 in Copenhagen, of the idea of an international day of concerted action to protest for female suffrage, on the model of the annual May Day celebrations, the Second International at its Eighth Congress, also in Copenhagen between Aug. 28 - Sept. 3, 1910, passes a motion submitted by the German socialist Clara Zetkin (Leader of the 'Women's Office' for the Social Democratic Party in Germany) in favour of establishing an annual International Woman's Day, though no date is set.

1918 - Elizaveta 'Liza' Chaikina (Елизаве́та Ча́йкина; d. 1941), wartime Soviet partisan and guerrilla unit organiser, born. Liza Chaikina went on intelligence collecting missions into enemy-occupied towns and villages. In November 1941 Liza was spotted by a turncoat while on a guerrilla commander's mission and was caught by the Nazis in a safehouse Kuprovyh. The family sheltering her is shot. After terrible torture by the Nazis, who wanted her to disclose the location of the guerrilla unit, she revealed nothing and was shot on November 23, 1941 in Chaikin Peno.

1918 - Ramón Liarte Viu (d. 2004), Spanish anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist militant, autodidact, journalist and writer, born. Born in Almudébar, Huesca, his poor working class family moved to Barcelona whilst he was a child. During the Second Spanish Republic to become the general secretary of the Juventudes Libertarias of Catalonia. During the fascist uprising of July 1936, he was caught working in Jaca as a waiter and crossed the Pyrenees into Catalonia via Seu d'Urgell. He fought at the front in the Durruti Column and later in the 26th Division, becoming the editor of its newspaper 'El Frente'. In February 1937, at the Second Congress of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL) held in Valencia, was appointed secretary of the organisation. Also in June of that year, following the plenary session of the Cataln Regional Committee of the CNT, he was appointed as its secretary, a position he held until September of that year. On July 21, 1927, he participated in the CNT-organised rally held at the Olympia in Barcelona, along with Federica Montseny, Francisco Isgleas and Joaquim Cortes, to protest against the events of the Hecho de Mayo 1937 and the the repression that followed, and defending the FIJL's opposition to the Stalinist counter-revolution. In February 1938, following the Second Congress, he was appointed Secretary of the Organización del Comité Peninsular of the FIJL and later made secretary of the Organización del Comité Peninsular of the FAI. In March 1939, he joined the Comité de Coordinación y Defensa (Defence Coordination Committee) in opposition to the Consejo General del Movimiento Libertario Español (General Council of the Spanish Libertarian Movement; MLE).
With the fascist victory, he crossed into France and was held in various prisons (El Templo, Fresnes, Roland Corvejones, etc.) and concentration camps (Vernet, etc.). In 1942, he managed to escape the Algeria camp at Djelfa. He then fought in the French résistance and participated in a failed attempt to invade the mainland via the Basque Country. He was also arrested during a clandestine crossing into Spain and held in Cuevas de Almanzora, Almería and Granada prisons. Once freed, he returned to France, where he helped rebuild the MLE whilst hodling various post in the moderate i.e. collaborationist wing of the movement. In 1951 he was delegate to the Congress of the International Workers Association (IWA), was secretary of the Subcomité pro España and was proposed as a potential minister in a possible Republican coalition goverment. In 1955 he replaced Miguel Sebastián Vallejo as Secretary General of the collaborationist wing of the CNT. In 1957, he was appointed chair of the Alianza Sindical de España designed to unite the anti-Francoist activities of the CNT, Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT) and Sindicato de Trabajadores Vascos (STB). In 1962, he was made the Cultural Secretary of the CNT in Toulouse and went on to direct 'Solidaridad Obrera' between 1980 and 1982, following on from his editorship of 'España Libre', 'Esfuerzo', 'Estudios' and 'El Frente' at various times.
A prolific author, also writing under the pseudonyms 'Rotaeche' and 'Rali', he wrote for various newspaper and magazine, contributed to and wrote numerous pamphlets and books, including: 'AIT: La Internacional del sindicalismo revolucionario' (AIT: The International of revolutionary syndicalism); 'Estudio de la revolución española' (A Study of the Spanish Revolution); 'Voces juveniles: Interpretación àcrata de nuestra revolución' (The Voice of Youth: Our Interpretation of the anarchist revolution; 1937, with others); 'La CNT y los pueblos de España' (CNT and the people of Spain); 'La revolución social española' (The Spanish social revolution; 1975); 'La CNT y el federalismo de los pueblos de España' (CNT and the federalism of the peoples of Spain; 1977); 'La lucha del hombre: Anarcosindicalismo' (The struggle of man: Anarchosyndicalism; 1977); 'La CNT al servicio del pueblo' (CNT in the Service of the People; 1978); 'Marxismo, socialismo y anarquismo' (Marxism, Socialism and Anarchism; 1978); 'La sociedad federal' (Federal Society; 1989); 'Fermín Salvochea "El libertador"' (Fermín Salvochea "The Liberator"; 1991); and 'Bakunin, la emancipación del pueblo' (Bakunin, the emancipation of the people; 1995), etc. However, his most famous works are probably the 'Los pasos del tiempo' (The steps of time) trilogy - 'El camino de la libertad' (The Road to Freedom; 1983), '¡Ay de los vencedores!' (Woe to the winners!; 1985) and 'Entre la revolucion y la guerra' (Between Revolution and War; 1986) - a largely autobiographical account of the Civil War in which this fictional protagonist, Ramiro Rueda, travels the winding paths of Spanish history from the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera to exile.

[F] 1918 - At the end of the 5-month long trial of 101 prominent IWW members, all were found guilty on August 17, 1918 of criminal conspiracy to obstruct the war effort, advocating draft refusal and military desertion under the Espionage Act of 1917. At the sentencing hearing eleven days later, they were sentenced to terms of ten to twenty years and fines of $10,000 to $20,000 each. Big Bill Haywood and 14 other Wobblies received the 'full wack' of twenty years and $20,000.

1918 - Elizaveta 'Liza' Chaikina (Елизаве́та Ча́йкина; d. 1941), wartime Soviet partisan and guerrilla unit organiser, born. Liza Chaikina went on intelligence collecting missions into enemy-occupied towns and villages. In November 1941 Liza was spotted by a turncoat while on a guerrilla commander's mission and was caught by the Nazis in a safehouse Kuprovyh. The family sheltering her is shot. After terrible torture by the Nazis, who wanted her to disclose the location of the guerrilla unit, she revealed nothing and was shot on November 23, 1941 in Chaikin Peno.

[BB] 1921 - Fernando Fernán-Gómez (d. 2007), Argentine-born Spanish actor, screenwriter, film director, theatre director, novelist, anarcho-syndicalist and lifelong anarchist, born. He attended a CNT-organised Escuela de Actores (Actors College) in Madrid during the Revolution and was involved with the CNT-AIT for the rest of his life. He directed 30 or so films and acted in over 200, including Pedro Almodóvar's 'Todo Sobre mi Madre' (All About My Mother; 1999); José Luis Cuerda's 'La Lengua de las Mariposas' (Butterfly's Tongue; 1999) and Víctor Erice's 'El Espíritu de la Colmena' (The Spirit of the Beehive; 1973). He also wrote the play 'Las Bicicletas son Para el Verano' (Bicycles Are for the Summer) in 1984 (and released as a popular film in the same year, directed by Jaime Chávarri), which deals with the effects of the Spanish Civil War on citizens of Madrid.

1927 - Sacco & Vanzetti Case: Sacco-Vanzetti funeral procession from North End to Forest Hills Cemetery, where they are cremated.

1929 - Jean-Louis Bédouin (d. 1996?), French poet, writer, critic, Surrealist artist and collagist, and anarchist, born. Joined the Surrealists via a meeting with Andre Breton and began publishing his work in 'Le Libertaire'. In 1960 signed the 'Manifeste des 121' (Manifesto of the 121) against the French State's war in Algeria, denouncing the use of torture by the French army, and calling for French conscientious objectors to be respected. His books include his poetry collections: 'Libre Espace et Autres Poemes' (1967), 'L'Arbre Descend du Singe' (1975) and 'L'Épaule du Large' (1992); a biography of Benjamin Peret (1961); 'Vingt Ans de Surrealisme, 1939-1959' (1961); and the anthology, 'La Poésie Surréaliste' (1964). His assemblages of articles found washed up on the Oleron beaches is the inspiration for his film 'L'Invention de Monde' (1952), co-directed by fellow anarchist and Surrealist Michel Zimbacca, and with spoken text by Benjamin Peret.

1936 - The Italian section of the Ascaso Column repulse an attack by fascist forces at Monte Pelado, near Huesca, Aragon.

1936 - Michele Centrone (b. 1879), Italain carpenter, anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, is shot in the head and dies during the Battle of Monte Pelado on the Aragon front, between Huesca and Almudébar (Aragon, Spain), one of the first Italians to fall there. [see: Dec. 30]

1936 - Fosco Falaschi (b. 1899), Italian brickmaker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, is shot in the stomach and dies during the Battle of Monte Pelado on the Aragon front, between Huesca and Almudébar (Aragon, Spain), one of the first Italians to fall there. [see: Nov. 21]

1936 - Vincenzo Perrone (b. 1899), Italian railway worker, sales representative and anarchist, dies during the Battle of Monte Pelado on the Aragon front, between Huesca and Almudébar (Aragon, Spain), one of the first Italians to fall there. [see: Jan. 25]

1936 - Ricardo Naval Pimentel (b. ca. 1906), Andalucían merchant and anarchist, born Born in Chipiona, he was the third of eight children. Member of the Nuevo Horizonte union, affiliated to the CNT, the Guardia Civil labelled him as a "downright leftist and member of the Popular Front whose behavior leaves much to be desired." Arrested by marauding fascists, he was shot on the morning of August 28, 1936 in Cuesta Blanca, the road between Chipiona and Sanlúcar de Barrameda along with 4 other people: Segundo Alonso Leira, a fellow member of Nuevo Horizonte, the CNT and the FAI; Domingo Caro Blanco, member of the CNT and its onetime president; Antonio Rey Lora (Antoñito Iglesias), of the PSOE; and Manuel Ruiz Sáenz, of the PCE. He left a wife, Ursula Santos Galafate, and son, Augustus.
His brother, Eduardo Naval Pimentel, a travelling trader and CNT member, was also executed on December 8, 1936 near Rota, and his sister, Elvira Naval Pimentel was stripped naked and purged with castor oil [a standard Spanish torture regularly used in its prisons].

1937 - François Béranger (d. 2003), French libertarian singer, born. After working in a Renault factory, then as an itinerant street artist, he returned from an eighteen month stint as a conscript in Algeria disgusted by France's war there. He returned to the Renault factory, but also got some work in radio and cinema. In 1968 the social revolt encouraged him to write and pursue a career in music, becoming known for his French folk songs, and notorious during the 1970s for the controversial themes that he addressed through his music. Amongst his more famous works are the albums 'Tranche de Vie' (1970), 'L'Alternative' (1975) and 'Participe Présent' (1978).

1940 - Lucien Louis Guérineau aka 'Fleury' (b. 1857), French carpenter, cabinetmaker, anarchist propagandist and revolutionary syndicalist, dies. [see: Dec. 15]

1941 - Joan Dalmau Ferran aka Joan de la Castanyola (b. 1907), Catalan farmer, Master builder and anarcho-syndicalsit militant, born. Member of the CNT, dies in the Gusen concentration camp (aka Mauthausen II) in Austria. [see: Jan. 11]

1943 - Following a wave of sabotage, strikes and other acts of resistance, the Germans provided the Danish government with an ultimatum: prohibit strikes, public meetings of 5 or more persons, and any private meetings in closed rooms or the open air; impose a night curfew; collect all weapons; turn censorship over to the Germans; establish summary courts to deal with any infractions of these rules; and impose the death penalty for sabotage, defiance of the German military, and weapons possession. The Danish government refused and the following day the German troops occupied key facilities and arrested influential figures of the resistance, such as professors and newspaper editors. There was a complete military takeover by the Germans.

[B] 1947 - Frédéric H. Fajardie (d. 2008), French libertarian writer of detective, adventure, historical, 'neo-thriller' and juvenile fiction, screenplays, film dialogue and radio plays, and columnist on 'Charlie-Hebdo', born. As a student he was involved in May '68 and later a Maoist and member of Secours Rouge (Red Aid). He wrote his first novel 'Tueurs de Flics' (Killers of Cops) in 1975 (published in 1979) and was at the forefront of the néo-polar (neo-thriller) genre. Amongst his other books is 'Une charrette pleine d'étoiles' (Wagon full of stars; 1988) set during the Spanish Civil War.

1954 - Marius (Alexandre) Jacob (b. 1879), French anarchist illegalist burglar who was the inspiration for Maurice Leblanc's fictional gentleman thief and detective Arsène Lupin, takes his own life with an overdoes of morphine. [see: Sep. 29]

1957 - Ramon Plarromaní Mas aka 'Romaní' (b. 1892), Catalan textile worker and anarcho-syndicalist, dies from problems associated with his poorly healed chest (lung) wound sustained in the 1920s. [see: Jun. 13]

1961 - Fifth Situationist International conference.

1962 - Colin Jordan, leader of the British National Socialist Movement, his deputy and the NSM national secretary John Tyndall, Ian Kerr-Ritchie, a "research officer", and Dennis Pirie, assistant national secretary, are ordered to stand trial on charges of violation of the Public Order Act.

1965 - George (Gueorgui) Getchev (b. 1897), Bulgarian anarcho-communist, poet, writer of children's stories, translator and journalist, dies. [see: Apr. 20]

1967 - Alfons Vila i Franquesa (b. 1897), Spanish cartoonist, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. Better known as 'Joan Baptista Acher' or 'Shum', how he signed his paintings and drawings, and by his friends as 'el Poeta'. His cartoons regularly appeared in the Barcelona press including 'Papitu', 'L’Esquella de la Torratxa', 'L’Opinió' and 'La Humanitat'. [expand]

[A] 1968 - Chicago Police riot outside the Democratic National Convention, attacking not only 3000 protesters trying to march to the convention hall, but the attending press and bystanders. Carried live on national TV, the whole world was really watching.

1972 - Louis Montgon aka 'Vérité' (b. 1885), French labourer, artisan watchmaker, anarchist propagandist, militant anarcho-syndicalist in the CGTU, dies. [see: Mar. 26]

1982 - 'The Voice', "Britain's best black newspaper", is launched.

1983 - In the wake of the French Socialist governemnt's new regualtions restricting access to the airwaves, at 06:00 the CRS are sent in to attack Radio Libertaire, cutting the transmission cables to Radio Libertaire's antenna, smashing equipment and attacking and arresting seven station staff members and supporters who had rallied to their defence. Since August 14, about fifteen free radios had been silenced by the powers that be, but "les bûcherons roses s'avèreront impuissants à abattre le vieux chêne libertaire..." (The pink lumberjacks will prove powerless to tear down the old libertarian oak ...).

1986 - Elvi Aulikki Sinervo-Ryömä (b. 1912), Finnish working-class writer, novelist, poet, dramatist, translator, translator, anti-fascist and post-war member of the Suomen Kommunistisessa Puolueessa (SKP; Communist Party of Finland), dies. [see: May 4]

1993 - Edward Palmer 'E.P.' Thompson (b. 1924), British historian, writer, novelist, poet, socialist and peace campaigner, dies. [see: Feb. 3]

[C] 2010 - Having announced plans for 'The [next] Big One' in Bradford and (as usual) been banhned from marching, the local police insist that the EDL assemble in Halifax, from where they will be bussed into Bradford on police-hired coaches. Even before the EDL had made it into Bradfoed, they started fighting with the cops, and many never made it to the city. Meanwhile, as static demonstration was set up in the city's Urban Gardens, where the UAF counter protesters were outnumbered by the nationalists. The latter tried to surge towards the UAF lines and the hundereds on local Asian youths harranging them.
According to the BBC: "Riot police managed to force a 1,000 strong crowd of right-wing demonstrators back into a field in the city centre while at the same time moving local shoppers and counter-protesters out of missile range and back into nearby streets." This developed into a full-scale battle between the fash and the cops: "Riot police managed to force a 1,000 strong crowd of right-wing demonstrators back into a field in the city centre while at the same time moving local shoppers and counter-protesters out of missile range and back into nearby streets."
"During the protests, nearly 100 EDL supporters climbed over the 8ft (2.4m) barricade to get on to neighbouring waste ground [Westfield development site] from where they threw missiles at police. Other EDL supporters threw bottles, cans and stones over the barricade towards their UAF opponents gathered opposite Urban Gardens, shortly after 1400 BST.
A smoke bomb was also thrown over the temporary 8ft-high wall separating the two groups, landing on the ground and exploding by uniformed police officers." [BBC News]
Yet only thirteen EDL supporters were arrested by the 1,300 cops on duty. Compare that to the 54 UAF-affiliated protesters arrested in Bolton on March 20th earlier on in the year at a far less violent event. [PR]

2012 - Isidre Guàrdia Abella aka Leopoldo Arribas, 'Codine', Juan Lorenzo, 'Viriato', Juan Ibérico, 'Isigual', etc. (b. 1921), Spanish writer, autodidact, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Jun. 15]

2012 - Shulamith Firestone (b. 1945), Canadian-American writer and radical 'second generation' feminist, is found dead in her New York apartment, probably having starved to death – though the New York City Medical Examiner's Office recorded her as having died from natural causes (no autopsy was conducted, by preference of her Orthodox Jewish family). [see: Jan. 7]
1758 - First Indian [i.e. Native American] reservation is established.

[D] 1793 - Slavery is abolished (with severe limits on this freedom) in the north province of the French colony of Santo-Domingo (Haiti).

1844 - Edward Carpenter (d. 1929), English early queer activist, utopian and libertarian socialist, poet, songwriter, pacifist, born.

1849 - Émile Goudeau (d. 1906), French journalist, novelist and poet, born. Founder of the proto-anarchist and proto-Surrealist Cercle des Hydropathes in 1878.

1870 - Gabriel Giroud (d. 1945), French anarchist militant and néo-Malthusian propagandist, who also wrote under the pseudonyms Georges Hardy and C. Lyon, born. Editor of 'L'unpatriotic' (Paris, 2 issues in July 1891), whose motto was "Ni Dieu, ni maître! Fais ce que veux!". Suffered from pleurisy and typhoid fever whilst still in school and their after affects would affected him throughout his life. An adherent of the thought and action of Paul Robin, Giroud was a lifelong activist and propagandist, in speech and writing, of integrated education and néo-Malthusianism in France and abroad, in England and to New York where he went after the First World War. He collaborated on a number of Robin's publications: 'L'Education Intégrale' (1903-04), paper of the Ligue pour la défense de l'enfant, and 'Régénération' (1900-08). He then continued his activities on Jeanne and Eugène Humbert's newspaper 'Génération consciente' (1908-1914), and participates on Albert Gros' review 'Le Malthusien' (1908-1920), the magazine 'L'Ecole Renovated' (Brussels, 1908-1909) and on Lorulot's 'L'Idée libre'.
In 1914, when WWI broke out, he joined the "union sacrée" and was in favour of 'armed pacifism but, after loosing his son in the fighting, abandoned the position. In 1916, he published 'Le Néo-Malthusien' but it was banned, as were its successors 'La Grande Question' and the 'Néo-Malthusisme' (only 4 copies of which would appear during the war). In 1918, he joined the opponents of the war in the newspaper 'La Plèbe'. The 'Néo-Malthusisme' reappeared in March 1919, with twenty issued published up til July 1920. He was later involved in campaigning against laws prohibiting the advertising of contraceptives, worker on 'La Grande Réforme' (1931-39), published by Jeanne and Eugène Humbert, and paticipated on Sébastien Faure's 'L'Encyclopédie Anarchiste'. His wife Lucie dies on November 28, 1942, and after WWII, he participated in the relaunch of 'Le Libertaire' and Louis Louvet's 'Ce Qu'il Faut Dire'. He also wrote a number of books and pamphlets, including: 'La Loi de Malthus. Exposé et réponse aux objections' (The Law of Malthus. Presentation and response to objections; 1904); 'Néo-malthusianisme et socialisme. Controverse avec Alfred Naquet' (Neo-Malthusianism and socialism. Discussion with Alfred Naquet; 1910); 'La Vasectomie: Stérilisation de l'homme' (Vasectomy: Male Sterilisation; 1913); 'Moyens d'éviter la grossesse' (Ways to avoid pregnancy; 1908); etc.

1900 - Exactly one month after assassinating King Umberto, the anarchist Gaetano Bresci, appears in court, defended by Francesco Saverio Merlino. He is convicted and sentenced to seven years during a one day trial. In May 1901 he is found dead in his prison cell, likely killed by his guards.

1903 - Ernst Kreuder (d. 1972), German novelist, short story writer and poet, born. His novel, 'Die Unauffindbaren' (The Undiscoverables; 1948), concerns a clandestine anarchist society working against the drudgery of life under capitalism.

1905 - Jean-Marie Déguignet (b. 1834), Breton peasant, soldier, farmer, salesman, shopkeeper, libertarian and writer, who is best known for his memoirs, 'Les Mémoires d'un Paysan Bas-Breton' (1904), a classic depiction of the life of the rural poor in C19th France, dies. [see: Jul. 19]

1906 - [N.S. Sep. 11] Zinaida Vasilevna Konoplyannikova (Зинаида Васильевна Конопля́нникова; b. 1878), rural school teacher, member of the revolutionary movement in Russia, is hung in Schlisselburg fortress during the night of September 10-11 [Aug. 28-29], 1906, becoming the first woman to be hanged in Russia in the 20th century. [see: Nov. 26]

1911 - Last Native American in Northern California to have lived completely outside European American culture surrenders.

1919 - The newspaper 'Germinal', published in the decade before WWI by Georges Bastien, reappears in Amiens. Initailly subtitled "Journal du Peuple", from 1920 this switches to "Organe Communiste libertaire de la Somme, de l'Oise" (later adding "le Nord et le Pas-de-Calais") and in 1925 moves to 3 seperate regional editions. This important regional anarchist weekly disappeared in July 1933, a victim of judicial harassment but made a brief reappearance in 1938 (seven issues published).

[F] 1921 - Buckingham and Carnatic Mills Strike: During a six-month long strike by the workers of Buckingham and Carnatic Mills in the city of Madras (now called Chennai), India, over a disputed wage claim, against which the managing company, Binny and Co., had instigated a caste war to try and break the strike in a dispute, the authorities had adopted a ruthless policy to suppress the workers. On August 29, 1921, police opened fire on strikers near the Mills’ premises in Perambur, killing seven people. During their funeral procession, some agitators threw stones, leading to another round of caste violence. Two more uses of live fire by the police – on September 19 and October 21 – followed. After six months, the strike came to an end, failing to meet any of its objectives.

1922 - Georges Sorel (b.1847), French anarcho-communist, theorist of revolutionary syndicalism and direct action, author of 'Reflections on Violence', dies. [see: Nov. 2]

1933 - Tomás Granado Pozo, Spanish anarchist, Esperantist and poet, born. In 2007 he published a book of his poems 'Gotes de Poesías. Desde el Languedoc a Extremadura' (Drops of Poetry. From the Languedoc to Extremadura).

[B] 1933 - Pietro Valpreda (d. 2002), Italian dancer, writer and anarchist, who was one of those wrongly accused of the Piazza Fontana bombing, born. He grew up in Milan and was involved in the Circolo la Gioventù Libertaria (Libertarian Youth Cicle), alongside Giuseppe Pinelli, and later the Circolo Ponte della Anarchica Ghisolfa (Anarchist Circle of the Ghisolfa Bridge). Moving to Rome, he frequented the Circolo Bakunin, later helping form the more confrontational Circolo 22 Marzo (believed to largely be a tool of the State, controlled by the intelligence services via the neo-fascist infiltrator and provocateur Mario Merlino). An ideal target to use as a cover for the fascist bombing of Milan's Piazza Fontana on December 12, 1969, which left 16 dead and 88 injured, and the group was rounded up with Valpreda's arrested on Dec. 15. Vilified in the press, he languished in jail awaiting trial for 3 years. Eventually released in 1972, it would not be until 1979 that he was acquitted and officially declared innocent in 1985. It would not be until 2001, the year before Valpreda died, that Delphi Zorzi, Carlo Maria Maggi, Giancarlo Rognoni and Stephen Tringali will be found guilty of the bombing (Zorzi, Maggi and Rognoni's convictions were later overturned and Tringali's sentence reduced).

[C] 1942 - Occupation officials in the East inform Berlin that the "Jewish problem" has been "totally solved" in Serbia. Since German occupation, 14,500 of Serbia's 16,000 Jews have been murdered.

[E] 1946 - Augusta Deyanira la Torre Carrasco, aka 'Comrade Norah' (d. 1988), Peruvian Maoist and feminist, who was number two in command of Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) guerrilla organisation, born. The daughter of Communist party leader Carlos la Torre Córdova and Delia Carrasco, she joined the Partido Comunista Peruano in 1962 at the age of 17. The partner of Abimael Guzmán, a professor of philosophy, together they formed the Movimiento Popular Femenino del Perú in Ayacucho in 1965 and later, having gone into hiding together in 1978, the Maoist guerrilla organisation Sendero Luminoso (1980 - ca. 1999). She was also active in the Maoist organisation, Bandera Roja (Red Flag) and helped found the Socorro Popular del Peru (Popular Succour). She led the first offensive of the Shining Path on December 24, 1980 and died in November 1988 in mysterious circumstance, a possible suicide.

1947 - Virgili Batlle Vallmajó, better known as Virgilio or Virgilio Vallmajó (b. 1915), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, and self-taught Neo-Cubist painter, who later developed into a geometric abstactionist, dies of tuberculosis. [see: May 13]

1952 - The John Cage composition '4 Minutes 33 Seconds', scored for piano or any group of instruments, premières in Woodstock, NY.

1953 - Juan Naranjo (b. unknown), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. Active in the Sindicat del Vidre (Glassworkers Union) of the CNT in Gijón, Asturias and, from 1937, in the group Solidaridad, part of the FAI. During the Civil War he was an alternate on behalf of the FAI on the Tribunal Popular (People's Court) and was part of the local committee of anarchist organisation. When Asturias was occupied by fascist troops, the boat he was escaping was intercepted at sea by the Fascist battleship Cervera and he was interned in a concentration camp. After many years of imprisonment, he settled in Barcelona.

1957 - Juan José Luque Argenti (b. 1890), Spanish civil engineer and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 22]

1958 - Notting Hill Riots: During the summer of 1958, Notting Hill had become the centre of increasing racist violence as gangs of Teddy Boys began roaming the street attacking anyone who was black, as well as targetting Caribbean shops and businesses. Against that background, a minor incident took place - an argument between a husband and wife outside Latimer Road Tube Station - that would ultimately lead to a week of racially-motivated violence in the district. The argument was between a Swedish woman and ex-sex worker, Majbritt Morrison, and her husband, Raymond Morrison, a West Indian painter and pimp.
There already had been some tension between the neighborhood and Ray, who had had his windows smashed recently, and when a white crowd began racially abusing Ray, obviously thinking they were defending Majbritt, she turned on the abusers, who then turned on her, calling her a "nigger lover". Some of Ray's West Indian friends then turned up and suffles broke out, though no one was seriously injured.

1968 - In Chicago police brutally attack demonstrators, reporters and bystanders as antiwar protesters clash with police and national guardsmen in the streets outside the Democratic national convention in the city. "The whole world is watching"... but a fat lot of good it did.

[A] 1970 - A march against the Vietnam draft ends in riots in Los Angeles, with three killed. A largely Chicano mob trashes the city for the next week.

1971 - Two massive bombs explode at Edinburgh Castle in during the Tattoo, causing extensive damage. The are attributed to the Army of the Provisional Government (APG) aka 'The Tartan Army'.

1983 - Following the French Socialist government's new regulations restricting access to the airwaves that had resulted the previous morning in the CRS cutting the transmission cables to Radio Libertaire's antenna, smashing equipment and attacking and arresting station staff and the supporters who had rallied to their defence, during the night of August 28-29, 1983, 'Radio Libertaria' in Trieste, Italy suffers a fascist arson attack.

1985 - Lise Børsum (Milly Elise Børsum; b.1908), Norwegian resistance member during WWII and survivor of Ravensbrück concentration camp, best known for her books on her experiences as a prisoner and on the characteristics of concentration camps, both Nazi and Soviet, dies. [see: Sep. 18]

[1987 - Lebanese food riots continue

1992 - Félix Guattari (b. 1930), French militant, institutional psychotherapist, philosopher and semiologist, dies. [see: Apr. 30]

1999 - Juan Andrés Álvarez Ferreras aka Íbero Galo (b. 1916), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, Civil War and Résistance fighter, dies in Los Angeles. Born in France, the son of an emigrant anarchist who, in 1931, with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic, returned with his family to Spain and settled in Tolosa in the Basque Country. In this city he worked as a hairdresser and various members of his family were active libertarians and during the Republican years he actively participated in anarchist agitation. Following the revolutionary events of October 1934, it was imprisoned for a few months in Ondarreta and Irun. Also as a result of the transport strike in the Basque Country, he was jailed for three months in Ondarreta prison. Following the fascist uprising in July 1936, he fought in San Sebastian, Bilbao, Irun and Santander in the Batalló Malatesta, until he was captured by Italian forces when they occupied Santander. After passing through several workers battalions (working on the reconstruction of Belchite, etc.), in 1941 he was repatriated to France, where he was born and imprisoned in Fort Montluc in Lyon on charges of deserting from the French Army. Then he was sent as a forced labourer to Germany, where he remained until the end of WWII. Once freed in 1945, he collaborated in the reorganisation of the Local Federation of the CNT in Exile in Montlucon (Aquitaine) and was an activist in the Cultura y Acción group of the FAI, with his brother Félix and Salvador Fernández Canto. From 1952 he lived in Canada, first in Quebec, where he worked at Lake St. John, and then in Calgary. In 1962, he moved to Los Angeles and remained active in the American libertarian movement. He also collaborated, under his pseudonym, on numerous anarchist periodicals, such as 'Centi', 'Le Combat Syndicaliste', 'La Escuela Moderna', 'L'Espoir', etc..

2006 - Pedro Fernández Eleta aka 'El Taxista' (b. 1919), Spanish taxi driver, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, dies. [see: Jun. 29]

2009 - Date sometimes given for the death of Horst Stowasser. [see: Aug. 30]
1797 - Mary Shelley (d. 1851), daughter of anarchist philosopher William Godwin and feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, and author of Frankenstein, born.

1820 - James Wilson is executed for his part in the Scottish Insurrection of 1820 (aka the Radical War). [see: Apr. 3]

[E] 1841 - Maria Oliverio aka Ciccilla - La brigantessa delle brigantesse (b. ca. 1879), one of the most notorious female Italian brigands of the Kingdom of Vittorio Emanuele II, born. She was a member of the band of her husband, Pietro Monaco, a former soldier with Garibaldi, who had been married to Ciccilla's sister Concetta, who Ciccilla killed — the reasons given for this vary from jealousy to revenging an insult. She fled , joining Monaco's gang and taking part in numerous kidnappings, violent armed robberies, arsons, murders, killings of pets, etc. Eventually, Monaco was killed on December 23, 1863 by his right-hand man Salvatore De Marco, aka Marchetta, and Ciccilla took over the leadership of the gang until her capture in February 1864. At her trial she faced 32 separate charges. She only admitted to the murder of her sister, claiming that she was forced to take part in the others. She was sentenced to death but this was later commuted to 'lavori forzati a vita' (hard labour for life).

1843 - Rebecca Riots: Wheat mows on the estate of the powerful Dynevor family are set ablaze by the 'Daughters of Rebecca'.

1849 - Francesco Pezzi (d. 1917), Italain anarchist militant and self-taught accountant, born. Companion of fellow Italian anarchist Maria Luisa 'Gigia' Minguzzi.

1864 - Christian Cornelissen aka 'Clemens' (d. 1942), Dutch militant communist-anarchist, thinker and organiser within the revolutionary syndicalist international, anti-militarist and theoretical economist, born. [NB: some sources state the 31st]

1868 - Michelina Di Cesare, the 'Leonessa del Sud' (b. 1841), Italian bandit and leader of a criminal guerilla group, is killed in an ambush alongside her partner Guerra. Their bullet-riddled bodies were then displayed, together with those of two other bandits (Francesco Orsi and Giacomo Ciccone) who died along with them, in the square in nearby Mignano. The photo of Michelina (and that of Orsi) shows definite signs of torture and it appears likely that she did not die during the ambush, but later after sustained abuse.

1883 - Theo van Doesburg (Christian Emil Marie Küpper; d. 1931), Dutch artist, painter, poet, theorist on art and architecture, who is best known as the founder of De Stijl, born. He also published under a number of pseudonyms, including his Dada pseudonym I. K. Bonset (possibly an anagram of "Ik ben zot", Dutch for "I am foolish") and Aldo Camini, his Dada anti-philosopher encarnation, which he used to attack the whole school of German idealist philosophy (as practised by many of his fellow De Stijl members). De Stijl promoted an utopian ideal of spiritual harmony and order which, despite his part in its origins, van Doesburg instinctively reacted against, largely because of his libertarian sympathies. So much so that he was attracted to the anarchist-nihilist element in Dada, moonlighting as his alter ego I. K. Bonset especially with Kurt Schwitters, Hans Arp and Tristan Tzara. He also taught at the Weimar Bauhaus, where he associated with Raoul Hausmann, Le Corbusier, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Hans Richter.
"There is little doubt, that van Doesburg saw Dada’s revolutionary character and its engagement in the destruction of an old culture as a necessary preparation for the realisation of De Stijl’s utopian aims." - Joost Baljeu in 'Theo van Doesburg' (1974).

1887 - Adam Kuckhoff (d. 1943), German writer, journalist and member of the anti-Nazi Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, born. He and his wife Greta were involved with Arvid and Mildred Harnack and the Red Orchestra. He was arrested in Prague on September 12, 1942, following the arrests of Harnack and many other members of the organisation. He was executed at Plötzensee Prison on August 5, 1943.

1888 - Ramón Acín Aquilué (d. 1936), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, professor, writer and avant-garde artist (painter, sculptor, cartoonist), born. Involved with the CNT and imprisoned for his support of political prisoners. A friend of film director Luis Buñuel, he helped finance 'Las Hurdes: Tierra Sin Pan' (1932), with money he won on the lottery, and is credited as co-producer on the film. He often signed his work under the pseudonym Fray Acín.

1900 - José Ledo Limia (d. 1977), Galician anarchist agitator and Civil War fighter, born. During the Great War, he emigrated to Rio de Janeiro and later travelled to Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Peru. In 1919 he was expelled from Argentina and returned to the Peninsula as a stowaway. He returned to Spain as a stowaway and was arrested in Vigo. He joined the army in the wake of the Anual military disaster (Morocco) and served for several years as a gunner in Africa (1921-25). Later he travelled to Havana and on to Mexico (1925-26) and worked in the United States (Pennsylvania). It was in the USA that he came into contact with A. Quintas who introduced him to anarchism. A short time after that he was deported to Spain over his involvement in the Sacco-Vanzetti campaign. He arrived in a Spain under the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and spent several months in prison. Later he lived in hiding but was very active, amongst other things helping to set up the social Ateneo in Madrid.
During the republic he worked for the Transmediterrnea shipping line (travelling to Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay) acting as a liaison between anarchists on both sides of the Atlantic (smuggling militants and propaganda materials). He gave up the sea after a trip to Fernando Poo when he nearly died of malaria. He was intensely active then in Barcelona and Madrid; the uprising in Asturias in 1934 found him up to his neck in the revolution and he was jailed along with Fosco Falaschi and Benigno Mancebo. He was released on parole in mid-1935 (although some people claim that he was sentenced to death and released under the amnesty in 1936). Thereafter he was active in the catering union in Madrid and in the anarchist federation the FAI. When the civil war broke out, he joined the Galician column as its trade union delegate, fighting on the Madrid front - and rejecting promotion.
He later joined the Investigation Branch (in Barcelona-Madrid) whose task was to counter the Stalinist counter-revolution (1937). At this time he was disappointed at the course being taken by the revolution and was bitter at the sight of yesterdays red-hot revolutionaries jockeying for 'position'. He had a miraculous escape from capture by the Francoists at the end of the war and crossed into France via Matar and Camprodon, only to begin an odyssey through concentration camps in Argeles, Barcares, St Cyprien and Arles - from which he escaped several times (he was in Perpignan in February 1939), but to little avail. He was sent to punishment camps and assigned to the Sur-Niort labour battalion. Eventually he made it to Paris where, after some harsh confrontation with anarchist trade union, the CNT, leaders he secured a passage to the Americas. In April he sailed from Le Harve, bound for Cuidad Trujillo in the Dominican Republic. Later he moved on to Queretaro in Mexico in 1942, where he remained until 1965 when he smuggled himself to Portugal from where he was forced to flee to Mexico after a short while. In 1974, sorely disenchanted, he returned to end his days in his native land, working on the land. An indefatigable battler, not much given to writing (though he was friendly with well-known libertarian intellectuals) and a born activist, he was without doubt one of the greatest anarchists of his day and one of the ones who resisted the temptation to compromise which seduced lots of other CNT members in 1936.
Among his friends were Carpio, B. Esteban, Odón, Tato, Lamberet and Mancebo. Yet he remains a little-known militant.

1907 - The second Congrès Antimilitariste International of the the Association Internationale Antimilitariste is held today and tomorrow in Amsterdam, concurrently with the International Anarchist Congress, 26-31 August.

[F] 1918 - First British Police Strike: The National Union of Police and Prison Officers had been founded in 1913 by ex-inspector John Syme. Syme, a notable figure in radical circles, who had been victimised in 1909 for 'undue familiarity' with his men, had been waging a campaign for his re-instatement ever since. The union had a largely underground existence until 1918, although five union members had been sacked in December 1916. In February 1917 there were a further 17 dismissals following a raid by the military police on a meeting of the London Branch of the Union.
Its strike started on August 30, 1918. There were two issues: the dismissal of PC Tommy Thiel on August 25 for union membership, which was the NUPPO stated, "the straw that broke the camel’s back", and the demand for a wage increase (including the increase of the war bonus from 12s. to £1 and its conversion to permanent wages, enhanced pension entitlements, and a new war bonus of 12.5% – something had been granted to other workers). Encompased within both those issues was that NUPPO be officially recognised as the representative of the police workers. NUPPO informed the authorities that unless their demands were met by midnight on the August 29, they would call a strike. The strike of 1918 caught the government off guard at a time when class unrest had already been spreading through different cadres of workers, and here were the government's disciplinarians joining in, becoming "Bolshevik bobbies" in the words of the 'Guardian' newspaper.
One of the first stations to be affected was Kings Cross Road, where meetings were held in the station yard, the men then forming a procession and marching to Whitehall. The strike spread like wildfire. Over half the men at Upper Street Station joined in immediately, and within a few hours 6,000 men throughout London were out, and with more joining all the time; even the Special Branch was affected. Later that day around 12,000 marched on Whitehall.

1919 - Jiří Orten (Jiří Ohrenstein; d. 1941), Czech poet and nephew of the anarchist poet Josef Rosenzweig-Moir, born. The foremost representative of the so-called 'war generation' in Czech literature, he was never a member of any artistic group, but his work was influenced by existentialism, surrealism and folklore. His first collection of poems, 'Čítanka Jaro' (Reader of Spring), was published in 1939. With the Nazi occupation, and being a Jew, his freedom was extremely restricted and he published his next book, 'Cesta k Mrazu' (Journey towards frost; 1940), under the pseudonym Karel Jílek and the long poem 'Jeremiášuv Plác' (The Lamentations of Jeremiah; 1940) was signed Jiří Jakub. Forced to give up writing, he worked as a labourer on a farm and later survived by taking odd jobs. 'Ohníč' (Challock; 1941) was work last published in his lifetime as on August 30, 1941, the day of his twenty-second birthday, Jirí Orten was knocked down in a Prague street by a German ambulance. A friend took him to the General Infirmary in Prague, but as a Jew, Orten could not be treated there and had to be moved to a different hospital. Two days later, he died.

1921 - Battle of Blair Mountain: With the arrival of the main body of the miners the previous day, the first clashes between them and the 3,000 dug in state police, the state militia, and coal company employees in Sheriff Chafin's private army begin.

1927 - Paulin Mailfait (b. 1867), Ardennes anarchist, participant in 'Sans Patrie' with Gustave Bouillard, Nicolas Thomassin, Pierre Leroux, etc., dies. [see: Feb. 27]

1930 - Zo D'Axa (b. 1864), French lampoonist, publisher, writer, adventurer and anarchist propagandist, commits suicide. [see: May 24]

1936 - Teodoro Mora (b. unknown), Spanish communist and then anarchist, is killed in action at Casavieja. A construction worker, whose militancy began at 14 in the Unió General de Treballadors (UGT), the main trades union on the Peninsular. He was expelled from the Partit Comunista d'Espanya (PCE) for refusing to criticise anarchists. In the early '30s, and under the influence of his friend Cipriano Mera, he joined the CNT and was activie in the organisation in the Madrid region. With Mera, Miguel Gonzalez and Feliciano Inestal Benito Anaya one of the architects of the exclusion of the union of its Bolshevik elements. During the great construction strike in Nouvelle Castille launched by the CNT in spring 1936, he defended the position of the Alianza Obrera. Arrested in June 1936 as a member of the strike committee, on 17 July 1936 he was released due to popular demonstrations demanding the release of prisoners. On July 19 of that year he presided in Madrid, along with Mera, the general assembly of members. He participated in the assault of the Montaña barracks and was one of the first organisers of the confederal militias in places such as Alcalá, Vicálvaro and Guadalajara. In August he led, with iron discipline, the Battalion Mora, part of the framed Colonne Del Rosal, which fought Buitrago and Serradag. Teodoro Mora was killed in action on August 30, 1936 at Casavieja (Avila, Castile, Spain). Other sources cite the September 12, 1936 in Mijares, Castile, and still others believe he was captured by the fascists in Gavilanes, also in Avila, being put in a cage and eventually murder.

1936 - An East London Trades Council organised anti-fascist march through the East End of London and rally in Victoria Park, is attacked along its route by Blackshirts throwing stones as well as bags of flour and soot. At the head of the parade was a contingent of war veterans wearing their medals and parade marshals prevented them from joining in the melee that followed the attack. Brawling began as the march entered Victoria Park and jeering Blackshirts rampaged up and down Green street attacking anyone they thought was Jewish. Two boys aged eight ad nine were badly beaten and the YCL offices were broken into and wrecked. After speeches in the park, the returning procession was again attacked as it was leaving the district, the BU fascists ambushing the head of the march in a narrow street. Police and parade marshals energetically prevented reinforcements from the ranks that sought to join the battle. One of those injured by fascist stoes was Sylvia Pankhurst, who was also one of the speakers at the rally. [PR]

[B] 1946 - Jacques Tardi, leading French comics author and illustrator, libertarian, anti-militarist and anti-capitalist, born. He is the creator of Adèle Blanc-Sec and has made a series of adaptions of various authors works including the four-volume series on the Paris Commune, 'Le Cri du Peuple' (2001-04), based on a novel by Jean Vautrin, and the Nestor Burma series, based on novels by anarchist Léo Malet, is often credited solely as Tardi. On New Years Day 2013, he was surprised and disgusted to learn that he had received the Légion d'Honneur, which he swiftly turned down "avec la plus grande fermeté" (with the greatest firmness).

[A] 1957 - José Luis 'Face' Facerias (b. 1920), Spanish anarchist and resistance guerilla, is assassinated by the Barcelona police. [see: Jan. 6]

[C] 1958 - Notting Hill 'Riots: 300 to 400-strong mobs of white youths, many of them Teddy boys armed with iron bars, butcher's knives and weighted leather belts, and shouting "Keep Britain White", "Down with the niggers" and "Go home you black bastards", go "nigger-hunting" among the West Indian residents of Notting Hill and Notting Dale. By the end of the night, five black men have been left lying unconscious on the pavements of Notting Hill.
Following yesterday evening's events, [see: Aug. 29] on Saturday night Majbritt Morrison is attacked as she leaves a blues dance. Recognised as haaving been involved in the previous night's incident, a crowd of drunken white men outside a nNotting Hill pub began abusing her, calling her a "Black man's trollop" amongst other insults. She is pelted with stones, glass and wood, and struck in the back with an iron bar as she tried to get home. The mob followed her home but she stood her ground, despite being wounded and police orders to go inside. She was then arrested and the crowd dicided to go off and attack a house party organised by one of Britian's first sound systems, Count Suckle. The police arrived just in time to prevent the attack but were unable to prevent mobs roaming the streets, breaking windows and attacking people in the street. Most of the Afro-Caribean residents stayed inside but some came out to fight the mobs.
The 'riots' would continue for the rest of the coming week, with neo-fascist groups, such as Colin Jordan's White Defence League and John Bean's National Labour Party, taking the opportunity to exploit the situation.
More than 140 people during the two weeks [Aug. 24 - Sep. 5] of the disturbances, mostly white youths but also many black people found carrying weapons to defend themselves with. 108 people were charged with crimes such as grievous bodily harm, affray and riot and possessing offensive weapons. 72 were white and 36 were black. Nine of the white youths were given "exemplary sentences", five years in prison and £500 fines.
In January 1959, five months after the riot, a direct precursor of the Notting Hill Carnival, the Caribbean Carnival, was held indoors at St Pancras Town Hall in central London as an act of solidarity and defiant in response to the racist events.
Majbritt Morrison would later write a book, 'Jungle West 11' (1964), about her and Ray Morrison's involvement in the Notting Hill 'race riots'.

1958 - Nottingham Riots: A week after the mass disturbances on Saturday 23 August in Nottingham's St. Ann's district, 4,000 people turn out on the streets looking for further trouble. But black people were conspicuous by their absence and, without any visible targets' the white crowd turned on itself. A huge fight ensued and dozens were arrested but the events were overshadowed by what was happening on the streets of Notting Hill in London.

1962 - Following a month of disturbances surrounding fascist events and prolonged lobbying for Jewish organisations, the Metropolitain Police bans all marches in London under the POA for a 48 hours period. This means that the UM march planned for Sunday 2 September in the East End will not now go ahead.

1969 - Ethel Duffy Turner (b. 1885), American journalist and author who took an active part in the Mexican Revolution alongside the Magonistas, dies in Mexico at the age of 70. [see: Apr. 21]

[D] 1970 - The London home of the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, Sir John Waldron, is damaged by a bomb blast. The bombing is not reported in the national press, as was the bombing of the home of Attorney General, Sir Peter Rawlinson, in Chelsea on September 8th. The Waldron bombing was accompanied by the famous Jack the Ripper quoting 'Dear Boss' letter. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1973 - Jean Senac (b. 1926), gay Algerian poet Christian infidel, socialist, libertarian and friend of Albert Camus, who was known as the "poet who signed with a sun", is murdered by an unknown assailant(s). [see: Nov. 29]

1974 - The bombing by the anarchist East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front (東アジア反日武装戦線) of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Headquarters, killing 8 and wounding 376 people, much to the surprise of those involved.

1976 - The Notting Hill Carnival Ends in Riots.

1979 - Jean Dorothy Seberg (b. 1938), US actress, who was effectively blacklisted and became a major target for the FBI's COINTELPRO program for her support of the Black Panther Party, which included a number of large donations to the Panthers' various projects, commits suicide in the back of her car in Paris, never having recovered from the death of her second child, who died two days after being born prematurely, an event Seberg blamed on the fallout from the FBI-sponsored May 1970 'Los Angeles Times' article claiming that a BPP member was the father of her child. [see: Nov. 13]

1980 - Josep Gené Figueras (b. 1890), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies in Mexico City. [see: Jul. 3]

1991 - Jean Tinguely (b. 1925), Swiss painter, sculptor and anarchist, dies. [see: May 22]

2002 - Kwame Wiredu, 23, dies of a cardiac arrest whilst being detained by police. Chased and apprehended outside a Dalston supermarket, he collapsed complaining of pain and trouble breathing. CCTV evidence shows his limp body being dragged to a police van. Inside Stoke Newington police station, he is left lying on the floor of a cell for over an hour by police officers because they believed he was “faking” an illness to avoid arrest.

2003 - The Federação Anarquista do Rio de Janeiro (FARJ) is founded with the publication of its Manifesto de Fundação.

2009 - Horst Stowasser (b. 1951), German anarchist activist, historian and author, dies of sepsis during the night of August 29-30. [see: Jan. 7]

2010 - The usual ragbag of neo-Nazis, fascists, nationalists, Islamophobes and general reactionary scum turn up for what is claimed to be a protest by the English Nationalist Alliance, a more overtly racist grouplet run by Essex fascist Bill Baker, turn up in Brighton on the August Bank Holiday weekend [they are also known for their occasional forrays to heckle the Brighton Pride procession]. Heavily outnumbered by anti-fascists, the fewer than 40 ENA morons, giving Hitler salutes and waving EDL flag, were able to march from the train station to the Old Steine, abusing the general public with chants of "Do you take it up your arse", "Where's your camel gone", "Allah is a paedo", "Allah loves his rentboys" and "You Muslim scum", only because of a large mobilisation by Sussex Police. And even then the anti-fascists were able to force the march to be rerouted.
A total of 14 arrests were made for public order offences, assault and to prevent a breach of the peace. One of those was Steven Sands was arrested for GBH after knocking out and hospitalizing an anti-fascist protester during an ambush outside the Fountainhead pub. Charges were subsequently dropped despite the fact that at least one police office recorded having witnessed the assault.

2010 - Following the previous day's [29th] harassment of the Occupy Newcastle camp in the city centre by a group of supporters of the EDL, SDL, the 'North East Infidels' and the National Front, 20-30 fascists attacked the camp at 4 a.m. Occupy protesters where held down and punched and kicked. Bricks where thrown and an occupier was stamped on.
1818 - Luddite Timeline: Weavers strike in Bolton, Manchester and across the north-east of England.

1865 - Paolo Schicchi aka 'il leone di Collesano' (d. 1950), Italian anarchist supporter of the spontaneous/anti-organisational current (anarchico-spontaneista/tendenza antiorganizzatrice), anti-militarist, anti-clericalist, who was prominent in the anti-fascist struggle, born. An individualist anarchist since an early age, he represented the tendency advocating terrorism i.e. the attentat as a way of sustaining the current political struggle at the 1891 libertarian socialist congress in Capolago. A regular resident of Italian jails, he was editor of the 'L'avvenire Anarchico' newspaper in Pisa in 1910 and a great influence among Sicilian workers and also the Partido Socialista Italiano (Italian Socialist Party) in the region. He also published 'La Zolfara', 'Il Piccone' and 'La Zappa', and was active in the land occupations of that period. After WWI, in 1921, he founded 'Il Vespro Anarchico', one of the most courageous and unstinting of newspapers in the struggle against fascism and the maffia, which, despite his individualism, he used to expond his views on the need for a united front of revolutionary forces to oppose squadrismo. Mussolini reacted by banning 'Il Vespro' and jailing Paolo. He managed to escape prison and leave Italy a few months later, settling in Tunisia. In August 1930, he tried to return to Italy to rejoin Salvatore Renda and Filippo Gramignano in the internal fight against Mussolini, with Severino Di Giovanni providing financial assistance in getting him back into the country.
However, the ship's captain betrayed him and he was arrested. At his trial he was defiant and was sentenced to ten years in prison. Upon his release he was sent into internal exile. Following the defeat of fascism, he began publishing 'Conversazioni Sociali', a series of collections of memoirs and old and new writings and, from March 1946 with a new monthly magazine 'L'Era Nuova', "rivista mensile di cultura sociale", in which he argued "the absolute necessity to form a united front of all revolutionary healthy forces to oppose any reactionary forces anywhere and under any banner that might come". This led him to work with communists and socialists alike in the realisation of a policy that still informs Italian anti-fascism today. He died on December 12, 1950 after having spent forty years in prison and in both internal and external exile.

1867 - Charles Pierre Baudelaire (b. 1821), French poet, essayist, art critic, and pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe, dies. [see: Apr. 9]

1869 - Irish woman May Ward becomes the first person to be killed by a car when she is thrown from an experimental steam car and goes under the wheels.

1872 - The resolutions of the Rimini Conference (A.I.T.), held August 4-6, 1872, are printed in the 'Bollettino dei Lavoratori' and then secretly issued in Naples. No detailed report exists of the Conference, which declares itself anarchist, opposed to the Marxist authoritarians, only he resolutions themselves.

1893 - Scheduled to speak to the unemployed, Emma Goldman is arrested in Philadelphia on New York warrants charging her with incitement to riot for her Aug. 21 speech.

1894 - The French anarchist pedagogue Paul Robin's libertarian Cempuis school at Prévost Orphanage is shut down by the government. Robin and the school, where 600 students attended, was subjected to numerous right-wing attacks, leading to the revocation of its license to teach.

[D] 1896 - Philippine Revolution [Himagsikang Pilipino] / Tagalog War: The Kawit Revolt marks the beginning of the revolution in Cavite, when 400 bolomen led by Emilio Aguinaldo, who would go on to become the first President of the Philippines, surprise and overpower the Guardia Civil in the town hall of Kawit, seizing their rifles. Later that afternoon, they raised the flag of the Magdalo faction of the Katipunan at the town hall to a large crowd of Kawitenos all assembled after hearing of their city's liberation.
After the bloodless and successful revolt, Aguinaldo quickly armed his men and by September 1896, Aguinaldo had a major force of 600 men and they marched to the city of Imus to the south of Kawit, which Aguinaldo saw as a strategic place to capture because of its proximity to Manila.

1900 - Gino Lucetti (d. 1943), Italian anarchist who attempted to assassinate Mussolini in September 1926, for which he got 30 years in prison, born.

1901 - Ramón Domingo (d. 1995), Spanish anarchist propagandist and Civil War combatant, born. When he was 17, he emigrated to Barcelona in search of work, where he joined the anarchist movement. As a CNT member, in 1919 he participated in the La Canadiense strike, for which he was imprisoned in the Modelo prison in Barcelona. In 1923, during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, he went to France, where he worked picking grapes. In 1933 he returned to El Ordial to work on family land and opened a library, which was later burned by Franco's troops during the war. In 1936 he joined the CNT militia that marched to Aragón, fighting at Cogolludo and Cifuentes and later joining the 43rd Battalion. With the fascist victory, went into exile in France and suffered in the concentration camps of Argelès and Barcarès. Later he became a Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers (CTE) worker in the Brest arsenal, from which he escaped and fled to Tours. From January 5, 1942 he was a member of the Local Federation of the CNT in Exile in Tours. He then went to live in the Paris region. An active anarchist propagandist - he sold the movemnet's newspapers on the streets and markets - and became a self-taught and cultivated reader - from 'l'Encyclopédie Anarchiste' to Sébastien Faure, and 'L'homme et la Terre' to Élisée Reclus. Ramon died on Sunday June 16, 1995 in Montreuil and was cremated on 23 June in the Parisian cemetery of Père Lachaise.

1909 - Francisco Ferrer (b. 1859), Spanish anarchist and teacher, is captured after hiding for five weeks in caves on his farm. He will be executed without trial by firing squad at Montjuich Fortress in Barcelona on 13 October.

1911 - Revolución Mexicana: Victoriano Huerta orders Emiliano Zapata's arrest, Zapata flees into the countryside.

1912 - Paul Robin (b. 1837), largely forgotten French anarchist educator and néo-Malthusian, whose libertarian legacy influences the educators Sébastien Faure and Francisco Ferrer, dies. [see: Apr. 3]

[F] 1913 - Bloody Sunday / Dublin Lock-Out: Inflamed by the failure of the strike to stop the tram service, workers had begun rioting in Ringsend on Saturday August 30. By nightfall the disturbances had spread to most of the city’s working class districts. A meeting by James Larkin and the Transport Union planned for the following day on Sackville (now O’Connell) Street had been banned by Dublin Castle the workers were holding a rally in Croyden Park Fairview, north of the city. Larkin himself was evading arrest, he had been charged with incitement to breach the peace.
Around half-past one on Sackville Street, the wide boulevard right in the heart of Dublin city, all was peaceful amongst the normal Sunday crowds, swollen with workers expectant to see if Larking would show up. Suddenly, on a balcony of the Imperial Hotel overlooking the street, a bearded man appeared. It was Larkin in disguise, and when he ripped the beard off and began to speak, the crowd went wild with cheering. Scarcely had Larkin begun to speak when he was arrested and all hell broke loose on the street below him. The police on O’Connell Street, roughly 300 strong, both the Dublin Metropolitan Police and detachments of the Royal Irish Constabulary, drafted into the city for the strike, had been nervously awaiting an outbreak of disorder. One sergeant mistook a surge in the crowd for an attack on the police. Now they charged the crowd, mostly of curious onlookers.
Next day, due in part to the lack of control exercised by senior officers, members of the Dublin Metropolitan Police and Royal Irish Constabulary injured between 400 and 600 people in ferocious baton charges on O’Connell Street, wildly striking with their truncheons at everyone within reach, who turned out to mostly be, in the words of watching MP Handel Booth, "respectable people left their hats and crawled away with bleeding heads."
Delegates to the British Trades Union Congress meeting in Manchester on Monday were outraged at the press reports. Much of their anger was directed at Dublin’s employers because they assumed that the local corporation, as in British cities, controlled the police force. Responsibility for policing rested in fact with the British authorities in Dublin Castle. The TUC committed massive support to the Dublin workers and over the next seven months more than £106,000 was donated in food, fuel, cash and clothing. [see: Aug. 26]

1918 - First British Police Strike: The second day of the strike began with a mass meeting of nearly 1,000 strikers at the Finsbury Park Empire. These then marched to Whitehall where they joined up with contingents from other parts of London. The officers then marched down Downing Street, a street the police had blocked to marching suffragettes. A Scotland Yard official watching the protest said the police were "mutinying in the face of the enemy". The men's delegates negotiated directly with Jan Smuts and David Lloyd George, freshly returned from France. The authorities caved in; the wage demands were conceded and Tommy Thiel was reinstated. The men returned to work triumphant. [see: Aug. 30]

[E] 1918 - Fanya Yefimovna Kaplan [Фа́нни Ефи́мовна Капла́н] (Feiga Haimovna Roytblat [Фейга Хаимовна Ройтблат]; b. 1890), a 28-year-old Socialist-Revolutionary Party member, attempts to assassinate Lenin at the 'Serp i Molot' (Серп и Молот / Hammer and Sickle) factory [its name, not what it produced]. Of the three shots fired, one of the poisoned bullets passed through his coat but the other two hit him in the neck and left shoulder. Despite four days of Cheka torture, Kaplan refused to implicate anybody else and was executed on September 3, 1918 with a bullet to the back of the head. The incident, along with the killing of the Bolsheviks’ Petrograd security boss Moisei Uritsky the previous week, is used as a pretext to launch the 'Red Terror'.

1920 - Occupazioni delle Fabbriche: The Union Anarchiste Italienne (UAI), with half a million members, begins a series of factory occupations in Milan, Turin and across northern Italy following the adoption of a policy advocating Factory Councils at the organisation's July 1-4 congress in Bologna. Anarchists, and Malatesta in particular, speak in the occupied factories and form pickets to guard them to oppose attacks by the police and fascists. The movement has gained such momentum by early September, that the bosses are driven to introduce some degree of self-organisation in their workshops, but they do not extend this to entire factories. The reformist unions, alarmed by the magnitude of the revolutionary movement (especially in steel and automobile industries), are eager to sign an agreement with employers to end the movement.

1921 - Battle of Blair Mountain: Coalminers in the West Virginia coalfields had attempted to unionise for decades in order to better their working conditions and pay, but they were constantly blocked by a corrupt political system, where the coal companies wielded a great deal of political power. In the absence of a National Guard in West Virginia, the coal companies effectively paid for and controlled local law enforcement, enabling widespread use of violence against miners, their families, and any union organisers foolish enough to stray into their coalfields. Union sympathisers were also blacklisted and barred from working in the region.
The West Virginia coal wars, which had included the Cabin Creek and Paint Creek strike of 1912-13, were becoming evermore confrontational. The previous year on May 19, 1920, a clash between agents of the Baldwin-Felts Detective Agency detectives and armed miners in Matewan in southern West Virginia had left seven detectives, including the brothers Albert and Lee Felts, dead together with two miners and the Matewan mayor, Cabell Testerman. The Matewan Chief of Police Sid Hatfield was indicted for the murder of Albert Felts but was acquitted by the jury.
In revenge for the Battle of Matewan, Baldwin-Felts detectives assassinated Hatfield and his deputy Ed Chambers on August 1, 1921, on the steps of the McDowell County courthouse. This enraged many of West Virginia's miners, who saw Hatfield as a hero who had been willing to protect them from the coalmen's hired thugs, the very same thugs that had murdered him in cold blood. The miners sought to fight back, and the miners along the Little Coal River were among the first to arm and organise themselves, patrolling and guarding the area. The fiercely anti-union Sheriff Don Chafin sent Logan County troopers to Little Coal River area, where armed miners captured the troopers, disarmed them, and sent them fleeing.
On August 7, 1921, the leaders of the United Mine Workers District 17, Frank Keeney and Fred Mooney, called a rally at the state capitol in Charleston. Keeney and Mooney met with Governor Ephraim Morgan, and presented him with the miners' demands. Morgan rejected the demands and the miners became more restless and began to talk of a march on Mingo to free the confined miners, end martial law, and organise the county. At the August 7 rally, 'Mother' Jones called on the miners not to march into Logan and Mingo counties and set up the union by force, fearing a bloodbath in any battle between lightly armed union forces and the more heavily armed deputies from the coal company stronghold of Logan County, which stood between the miners and their destination. The miners ignored her and on August 20 armed men began gathering at Lens Creek Mountain, near Marmet, West Virginia. As the estimated 13,000 union miners marched south to the border of Boone and Logan counties or travelled on a commandeered freight train, Chafin's private army of 3,000 state police, the state militia, and coal company employees had assembled and dug trenches and set up machine gun nests to stop the miners from entering Logan County.
The first skirmishes took place on the morning of August 25, when the bulk of the miners were still 15 ml (24 km) away. The following day, President Warren Harding threatened to send in federal troops and Army Martin MB-1 bombers and, after a long meeting in the town of Madison, agreements were made convincing the miners to return home. Within hours of the Madison decision, rumors abounded that Chafin's men had shot union sympathisers in the town of Sharples, and that families had been caught in crossfire during the skirmishes. Infuriated, the miners turned back towards Blair Mountain, many traveling in other commandeered trains.
The miners reached Blair Mountain on August 29, and the first fighting started in earnest on August 31, when a group of around 75 miners led by Reverend Wilburn stumbled across some of Chafin’s 'Logan Defenders' on a wooded ridge. Each side asked the other for a password and received the wrong answer, prompting a shootout that killed three deputies and one miner. That same day, the main army of miners commenced a two-pronged assault on Chafin’s trenches and breastworks. Scores of union men streamed up the mountainside, but despite their superior numbers, they were repeatedly driven back by the defenders, who riddled them with machine gun fire from the high ground. Chafin had also hired three private biplanes and equipped them with teargas and pipe bombs loaded with nuts and bolts for shrapnel. The planes dropped the homemade explosives, bleach bombs, and gas and explosive bombs left over from WWI.
In the end, the miners’ siege of Blair Mountain was only ended by the arrival of federal troops. A squadron of Army Air Service reconnaissance planes began patrolling the skies on September 1, and by the following day, General Bandholtz arrived with 2,500 army troops on the orders of President Warren G. Harding. Scattered fighting continued between the miners and the Logan Defenders until September 4, but in the face of overwhelming force, the pro-union miners decided to lay down their arms and surrender. Roughly 1,000 exhausted miners eventually surrendered to the army, while the rest scattered and returned home. The exact number of casualties is not known but up to 30 deaths were reported by Chafin's side and over a hundred on the union miners' side, with hundreds more injured or wounded.
The miners’ leaders were tried for insurrection and treason, legal fees all but bankrupted the union, and organizing in the coalfields halted until 1933.

1923 - José Luis García Rúa, Asturian philosopher, writer and prominent anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. The son of anarchist militant in the CNT, who died at the beginning of the civil war, he fled to France, where he was sent to a camp for women, young and old in Lorgues (Provence), and then to a concentration camp in Barcarés. Returns to Gijón in 1939 and worked in a tile factory and other odd jobs to help his family. Being aware of the exploitation of himself and his fellow workers, he decided to return to school. [expand]

1923 - The Italian Navy bombards the Greek island of Corfu and lands up to 10,000 troops on the island.
Following the August 27, 1923, assassination of the Italian general Enrico Tellini, three of his assistants and their interpreter fell in an ambush during a border dispute between Greece and Albania and an ultimatum from Italy 2 days later demanding: (1) a complete official apology, (2) a solemn funeral in the catholic cathedral in Athens, (3) military honours for the bodies of the victims, (4) full honours by the Greek fleet to the Italian fleet which would be sent to Piraeus, (5) capital punishment for the guilty, (6) an indemnity of 50 million lire within five days; and (7) a strict inquiry, to be carried out quickly with the assistance of the Royal Italian military attaché; the response to be given within 24 hours.
The Greek response, accepting four of the demands with modifications, was deemed unsatifactory by Mussolini and the Italian Cabinet and Mussolini launches an invasion of Corfu.

[B] 1928 - Brecht and Weill's 'Die Dreigroschenoper' (The Threepenny Opera) premières in Berlin.

1930 - Having been suppressed by the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera since May 28, 1924, 'Solidaridad Obrera', the newspaper of the CNT, is published again in Barcelona.

[C] 1931 - Gleiwitz Incident: As part of a series of provocations designed to precipitate the German invasion of Poland, Abwehr and SS forces disguised in Polish military uniforms occupy Gleiwitz radio station and broadcast a short anti-German message in Polish as a prelude to tomorrow's invasion. The corpse of Franciszek Honiok, a Silesean German known to be sympathetic to Poland and who had been detained by the Gestapo the previous day, is killed and left at the scene dressed to look like a saboteur. His corpse is subsequently presented as proof of the attack to the police and press.

[FF] 1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: The first labour dispute involving the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo since the proclamation of the Second Republic in Spain.
At 16:00 a group of workers from the telephone company had just repaired lines on the Paseo de la Independencia in Zaragoza, escorted by two pairs of the Guardia Civil. Having gotten into their truck several shots rang out, the Guardia Civil then opened fire on passers-by who surrounded them and the scabs, with the result of several serious injuries; Serafín Rodríguez, Tomás López Gascón, Enrique Moret and Felipe Zarzuela. Isidro Floria Sánchez suffered fatal wounds. Only one of them, Seraphim, is a telephone worker; the rest are civilians. Witnesses claimed that the shots from the Guardia Civil caused most of the victims, something the governor confirmed to the minister, by telegram, stating the he could not ensure that the victim was not shot by the police.
The UGT called for a one-day strike for the following day, an act supported by the governor. The CNT called a meeting and, raising the stakes, called a two-day strike which in fact lasted for four and was accompanied by widespread sabotage and protest. The government responded by sending the army in to guard government buildings, banks, Telefónica premises and the Central Market. Cavalry units also patrolled the centre of Zaragoza. The Guardia Civil was strengthened by sending in 200 reinforcements. Strikes and sabotage spread across the country to town and cities including Cadiz, Huelva, Teruel, San Sebastián, Pozoblanco, Zamora, and Criptana.
Telephone lines were pulled down and cable and ducts ripped up and burnt. Sabotage was repeated in the Plaza de Sas and in the Calles Democracia, San Pablo and San Blas. Telephone communication with Barcelona was broken and the trams were attacked and stopped as tram lines were lifted in the Calle Espartero. Many on both sides were shot and wounded on both sides, the first being two passers-by, Manuel Ortín Sebastián and José Catón Ara, shot by a Guardia Civil near the Arco de San Roque. The authorities subsequently claimed that they fired first despite neither being armed. On the 3rd and 4th, the clashes increased especially in the Paseo Independencia and the Plaza San Miguel; in the Paseo María Agustín a Guardia Civil sergeant was injured in one shoot-out and in the Calle Alfonso a ticket collector on a tram was wounded. [see also: Aug. 6]

1933 - Italian labour organiser, Giovanni Pippan (b. 1894), is murdered during his campaign to organise the Italian bread wagon drivers of Chicago. The well-known activist is shot and killed by unknown assailants on a street corner in Cicero, Illinois. During his short career, Pippan did a great deal to promote the plight of workers in his homeland of Italy as well as in the US. At the age of 25 he became the secretary of the Italian Federation of Coal Miners in the Albona region of Italy. However, Pippan fled his native country during the 1920s with the rise of fascism. Pippan was also active in the campaign for Sacco & Vanzetti and the struggle against pro-fascist forces in the Italian immigrant community in the US, and, shortly before his death, he organised the Italian Bread Drivers' League.

1935 - Leroy Eldridge Cleaver (d. 1998), US writer and Black Panther Party activist, including as Minister of Information, born. Many of the philosophical and political essays in his book 'Soul on Ice' (1968) were originally written in prison before his release in 1966 and subsequent membership of the Oakland chapter of the BPP.

1936 - Isaac Puente Amestoy (d. 1936), Spanish anarchist, CNT member and physician, is shot by a fascist firing squad during the night of August 31 - September 1. [see: Jun. 3]

1941 - Marina Ivanovna Tsvetaeva (Мари́на Ива́новна Цвета́ева; b. 1892) Russian and Soviet symbolist poet, who lived through and wrote of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Moscow famine that followed it, hangs herself. [see: Oct. 8]

1944 - Maria Dimadi (Μαρία Δημάδη; 1907), Greek interpreter and heroine of the National Resistance (Εθνικής Αντίστασης), who worked in the German garrison headquarters and clandestinly passed information on German military movements on to the General Headquarters of ELAS, is executed by members of the Greek collaborationist (Tagmata Asfaleias) (Security Battalions).

1962 - Hélène Brion (b. 1882), French teacher, feminist, syndicalist and pacifist, dies. The first French woman to be tried before a military tribunal (for publishing defeatist propaganda), she was given a 3 year suspended sentence. Author of 'La Voie Féministe' (1978) who never finished her monumental 'Encyclopédie Féministe', covering biographical information on all the foremost women of her time. [see: Jan. 27 or Jul. 27]

1967 - Tamara Bunke aka 'Tania' (Haydée Tamara Bunke Bider; b. 1937), East German communist revolutionary and spy [in Bolivia under the name Laura Gutiérrez Bauer], who played a prominent role in the Cuban government after the Cuban Revolution and in various Latin American revolutionary movements, is killed in an ambush by CIA-assisted Bolivian Army Rangers as the guerrilla column she was leading was crossing the Río Grande at Vado del Yeso. [see: Nov. 19]

1968 - The Internationale des Fédérations Anarchistes/International of Anarchist Federations (IFA/IAF) is founded at an international anarchist conference in Carrara (August 31-September 5), uniting the federations of France, Italy and Spain, as well as the Bulgarian federation in exile in France. Also present in the now defunct London Federation of Anarchists, who took part in the preparation for the conference in 1968.

1969 - Luisa Landová-Štychová (b. 1885), Czech journalist, populariser of science, pioneer feminist, atheist, anti-fascist, anarchist and then communist politician, dies. [see: Jan. 31]

1970 - Philadelphia police raid office of local Black Panthers Party. Amongst those arrested is a young teen Wesley Cook, later known as Mumia Abu-Jamal.

[AA] 1976 -The Hull Prison riot begins with 100 prisoners taking over 3 of the 4 wings of the prison in protest against the brutality of the screws.

1976 - Sympathisers battle with police as prisoners occupy the roof of Turin prison.

1977 - Atala Apodaca Anaya de Ruiz Cabañas (b. 1884), Mexican teacher, feminist, anti-clericalist and anti-Diaz revolutionary propagandist, who was known as the 'conferencista de la Revolución' (speaker for the Revolution), dies of stomach cancer. [see: Apr. 9]

[A] 1979 - At Wormwood Scrubs prison the Minimum Use of Force Tactical Intervention (MUFTI) Squad breaks up a peaceful sit down protest by lifers in D Hall, causing more than 50 to suffer head wounds from batons.

1980 - Birth of Solidarity [Solidarność]: Grasping a comically large pen decorated with a picture of the Pope John Paul II (issued for his first papal trip to Poland in 1979), Lech Walesa signs the August Agreement (Porozumienia Sierpniowe), aka the Gdańsk Agreement, in the Lenin Shipyard (Stoczni Gdańskiej im. Lenina) in Gdańsk. Mieczyslaw Jagielski signs the document on behalf of the government.
This is the second of four signings that ratify the August Agreement: August 30 in Szczecin; September 3 in Jastrzębie-Zdrój; and September 11 in Huta Katowice (Dabrowa Gornicza).

1980 - Hipólito Marivela Torres aka Germán Marivela (b. 1917), Castillian carpenter, anarcho-syndicalist and fighter with the Durruti Column, dies. [see: Oct. 11]

1996 - The last squat in West Berlin, the Marchstrasse/Einsteinufer, is evicted.

2010 - Colin Holt, 52, dies whilst being restrained by police under the Mental Health Act.
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C] 2016 [D] 2017 [E] 2018 [F]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC] 2016 [DD] 2017 [EE] 2018 [FF]
Monthly features: 2013 [AAA] 2014 [BBB] 2015 [CCC] 2016 [DDD] 2017 [EEE] 2018 [FFF]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)


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