[F] 1869 - Waldenburger Bergarbeiterstreik [Waldenburg Mineworkers' Strike]: On October 1, 1869, the mine owners in Lower Silesia, fearing the consequences of the degree of recruitment carried out amongst the Waldenburg miners by the recently formed moderate Gewerkverein Deutscher Bergarbeiter (German Miners' Trade Union), had refused to recognise the union and issued a warning to its workers about union membership. The union replied by raising the demands of the miners for shorter working hours, better treatment by superiors, and fixing a minimum wage. In response, workers involved in the union were disciplined and refused access to company housing (werkswohnung). On December 1, Waldenburg's miners downed tools in what was the first large-scale mining strike in German history, and of the 7,400 miners in the region, around 6,400 joined the stoppage. A government commission travelled to the strike area, where they demanded that the workers quit the union, otherwise they could not continue in employment. The strikers sent a delegation to Berlin to present Wilhelm I to the demands of the workers but the kaiser did not receive the deputation. Funds arrived from across Germany but not enough to effectively support the miners and their families. Some miners tried to find work in the neighbouring Austrian Silesia, but the authorities blocked the border. Other ended up in the distant Ruhr mining area.
The strike ended on January 24, 1870, with the defeat of the miners. Many of them were refused re-employment and ended up being forced to leave the area. For the liberal trade unions, the defeat was a major setback, from which they would never recover.

1870 - In France Victor Hugo obtains the release of Louise Michel.

1886 - Rex Todhunter Stout (d. 1975), American writer of detective fiction best known as the creator of the fictional detective Nero Wolfe, born. Bizarrely, he was on the original board of the American Civil Liberties Union and helped start the Marxist magazine 'The New Masses', successor to 'The Masses' and 'The Liberator', but became a fervent anti-communist post-WWII (see 'The Second Confession' (1949)). Yet he also refused to appear before HUAC to answer questions about his early communist links. When he claimed that: "My theory is that people who don't like mystery stories are anarchists", he clearly did not know what he was talking about.

[B] 1893 - Ernst Toller (d. 1939), German Expressionist playwright, poet, pacifist, anarchist and one of the leaders of the Munich Soviet, born. He volunteered for military duty during WWI, spending 13 months on the Western Front, suffering a complete physical and psychological collapse, experiences which informed his first play 'Die Wandlung' (Transformation; 1919). In 1917, and no longer considered to be fit for combat, he attended the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, meeting Thomas Mann and Rainer Maria Rilke, and later the sociologist Max Weber. Around the same time he became involved in radical politics via a Munich discussion group involving Kurt Eisner, Felix Fechenbach, Oskar Maria Graf and Erich Mühsam, and joined the Independent Social Democratic Party (Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands - USPD). In Munich he was involved with Kurt Eisner in organising a munitions workers' strike, for which they and other trade union leaders were arrested and sent to Leonrodstrasse military prison. Charged with "attempted treason" but was released in May 1918 and returned to the German Army. Expecting to be sent to the Western Front, he was instead committed to a psychiatric clinic, only once again to be diagnosed as being unfit for active service and discharged from the army.
Following the 1918 overthrow of the Kaiser, and despite now being a convinced pacifist, Toller participated alongside Gustav Landauer, Erich Mühsam and Ret Marut (aka B. Traven) in the establishment of the Munich Soviet, becoming its President from April 6 to April 12 until the communist putsch overthrew his "Bavarian Revolution of Love", with its short-lived Workers' Councils and self-managed co-operatives.
Following the defeat of the Soviet by the Freikorps, Toller was arrested and charged with high treason. Toller expected to be found guilty and sentenced to death but his friends began an international campaign to save his life.
At his trial Toller argued: "We revolutionaries acknowledge the right to revolution when we see that the situation is no longer tolerable, that it has become a frozen. Then we have the right to overthrow it." Weber and Thomas Mann gave character references and, found guilty of high treason, the judge acknowledged his "honourable motives" and sentenced him to only five years in the prisons of Stadelheim, Neuburg, Eichstätt and, from February 1920 until his release, in the fortress of Niederschönenfeld where he spent 149 days in solitary confinement and 24 days on hunger strike.
While imprisoned, he completed work on 'Die Wandlung' (The Transformation; 1919) and wrote his Expressionist classics 'Masse Mensch' (Mass Man; 1920), 'Die Maschinenstürmer' (The Machine Breakers; 1922) and 'Der Deutsche Hinkemann' (Hinkemann, the German; 1923), along with many of his better known poems. Post-release he continued to write plays, including 'Hoppla, wir Leben!' (Hoppla, We're Alive!; 1925), a drama about a revolutionary who is discharged from a mental hospital after eight years only to discover that his once-revolutionary comrades have grown complacent and hopelessly compromised within the system they once opposed. In despair, he kills himself. 'Bourgeois bleibt Bourgeois' (Once a Bourgeois Always a Bourgeois; 1927) was his attempt to follow Brecht and 'Die Dreigroschenoper' (Threepenny Opera). He also remained active in politics, becoming a prominent figure within the League for Human Rights and the Group of Revolutionary Pacifists.
When Hitler came to power, Toller was personally denounced by Josef Goebbels, and his work was banned on the same list that included Marx, Freud, Brecht, and Mann. He was fortunate to be travelling outside of Germany when Storm Troopers arrested most of the league's members. He sought refuge in England an was able to complete his autobiography, 'I Was a German' (1933). In October 1936 Toller left London for a lecture tour of North America, where he was offered a contract to write film-scripts for MGM. While in the States, Toller became active in the campaign to raise funds to help the Spanish Republic's Civil War effort and went to Spain as a journalist. Depressed by the defeat of the Republic and the rise of Fascism in Europe, penniless from having given all his money to Spanish Republican causes, and discovering that his sister and brother had both been arrested and sent to concentration camps, he committed suicide in his hotel room in New York City.

1898 - The first issue of 'La Cuña' (The Cradle), "Periódico defensor de los obreros del ramo de elaborar madera de España" (Supporting newspaper of the workers of the wood processing branch of Spain) is published in Sabadell, Catalonia. It lasted 138 issues, the last on February 1, 1913.

1900 - The first edition of 'La Voix du Peuple', "journal syndicaliste: organe de la Confédération générale du travail", is published.

[1904 - W. A. 'Tony' Boyle, United Mine Workers (UMW) president, born.]

1907 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Le Combat Social', subtitled "Organe révolutionnaire des syndicalistes, socialistes antiparlementaires et libertaires", is published in Limoges.

1908 - Whilst politicians in Brazil and Argentina threaten war between the two countries, worker's organisations and anarcho-syndicalists in both countries jointly organise a day of protest against the possibility of a conflict.

1911 - The first issue of André Lorulot's neo-Malthusian libertarian publication 'L'Idée Libre', "Revue Mensuelle d'Éducation Sociale" and later "Revue Mensuelle de Culture Individuelle et de Rénovation Sociale" (Monthly Review of Individual Culture and Social Renewal), is published.

1911 - 'Los Angeles Times' Bombing: John McNamara pleads guilty to first degree murder in the 'Los Angeles Times' bombing and his brother James pleads guilty to bombing the Llewellyn Iron Works. [see: Oct. 1 & Dec. 25]

[1912 - Rustling card system put in place by the Anaconda Mining & Smelter Company.??]

[D] 1914 - Revolución Mexicana: Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata meet in the San Gregorio neighbourhood of Xochimilco near México City, where they sign a formal alliance called the Pacto de Xochimilco four days later.. Their combined armies of 50,000 march into the city, seizing control of the capital. Some Villiaistas rob churches and rape. Villa himself rapes a Frenchwoman manager at the luxury Hotel Palicio and was reported worldwide. The Zapaista army is mostly orderly.

1914 - Silvia Mistral (Hortensia Blanc(h) Pita; d. 2004), Cuban film critic, writer, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who lived in Spain and Cuba, born. Best known by her pen name Silvia Mistral, she also published under the names Silvia M. Robledo, Ana María Muriá and María Luisa Algarra.

1915 - Stuart Merrill (b. 1863), American Symbolist poet, who wrote mostly in French, and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Aug. 1]

[A] 1921 - Under the pretext of representing the Kropotkin Museum at an anarchist conference in Berlin, Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman are authorized to leave/escape the Soviet Union.

1925 - Joseph Jean-Marie Tortelier (b. 1854), French carpenter, anarcho-syndicalist, ardent proponent and speaker for the General Strike, organiser of La Ligue des Antipatriotes (League of Anti-patriots) and member of the Panthère des Batignolles, dies. [see: Dec. 26]

1928 - Anna Heilman, born Hana Wajcblum [poss. Hanka or Chana Weissman] (d. 2011), Polish Jew who took part in the Auschwitz Sonderkommando prisoner revolt of October 7, 1944, smuggling gunpowder out of the Union munitions factory with her sister Estusia, Roza Robota, Ala Gertner, Rose Grunapfel Meth and others, born. She published a memoir, 'Never Far Away: The Auschwitz Chronicles of Anna Heilman', in 2001.
[ Anna Heilman.htm]

1931 - The anarcho-syndicalist Confederación General de Trabajadores is founded in Chile by various anarchist and syndicalist groups including the defunct Federación Obrera Regional de Chile and the Chilean section of the IWW. At its peak it exerted great influence in guilds such as graphic workers, leather and footwear, electricians, carpenters, etc. and had around 20,000 members. [see: Dec. 27]

1931 - With the failure of 'Nepreryvka' (non-interruption), the five-day week [introduced 26 August 1929, commenced 1 October 1929, the Soviet calendar officially changes to the six-day week [announced 23 November 1931 as replacement for 5-day week]. Like the five-day week, this measure is sabotaged by workers and peasants taking both the banned Sundays and the new rest days off.

1932 - In a plenary session of the Regional CNT held in Madrid, the sindicato de ferroviarios (railway union) requested support to declare a general strike in support of wage increases. In the end the sindicato backed out as more than half of their union locals thought the strike would be a failure, but the Comité de Defensa Regional de Cataluña (Regional Defence Committee of Catalonia) having taken up the idea of an insurrectionary general strike, as proposed by Joan Garcia Oliver, was ready to implement the "gimnasia revolucionaria" (revolutionary gymnastics) that would precipitate the insurrectionary action needed to prevent the consolidation of the República Burguesa (bourgeois republic). The date chosen was January 8, 1933.

[C] 1936 - Hans Beimler (Johannes Baptist Beimler; b. 1895), German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands Reichstag deputy, anti-fascist and political commissar of the Thalmann Battalion of the XI International Brigade in the Spanish Civil War, is killed during the Battle of Madrid. A fervent anti-Nazi, he had been detained in Dachau concentration camp in April 1933, but managed to escape in May 1933 by strangling a SA guard and escaping in his uniform. His experiences of the camp were published in 'Im Mörderlager Dachau: Vier Wochen unter den braunen Banditen' (1933), which was published in Moscow and London. He began running communist aid organisation Rote Hilfe (Red Aid) in exile, first in Prague in 1934 and then in Zurich the following year. Involved in several conflicts with the rigid party bureaucracy, in the summer of 1936 the KPD removed him from all offices and sent him to Spain at the outbreak of the civil war. In Spain, Beimler set up the German Thälmann Centuria, which soon became the nucleus of the International Brigades’ Thälmann Battalion. He was killed during one of the battalion’s first battles near Madrid in circumstances that have proved controversial: "Antonia Stern, Beimler's companion, who was stripped of her rights and expelled from Spain, disputed this version of events. She claimed that Beimler had spoken out against the first Moscow show-trial and had been in contact with the former directors of the KPD, Arkady Maslow and Ruth Fischer, who led an opposition World Revolution, Civil War, and Terror group in Paris." ['The Black Book of Communism']
He would go on to become well-known because of the song Ernst Busch wrote and named after him.

1937 - Sellotape goes on sale for the first time.

1946 - Oakland General Strike: An attempt is made to end the month-long strike by sales clerks to gain union recognition at Oakland's two biggest downtown department stores, Hastings and Kahn’s, precipitates the 1946 Oakland general strike, the last of six that occurred that year and the last to occur in the United States. The strike had followed a month-long organising campaign in the summer by the Retail Clerks Local 1265, during which 425 members of the largely female workforce had signed union cards at two downtown stores – Hastings, a haberdashery, and Kahn's, a department store situated across the street. (The fact that both stores were in the same block would be an important factor in what was to happen later.) The Retail Merchants Association (RMA), representing 28 non-union stores, refused union recognition. With the holiday shopping season nearing, Hastings workers went on strike Oct. 23. Picket lines were set up a week later at Kahn's. The Alameda AFL labour council issued a call for members of its 142 affiliated locals to honour the lines, as did the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Most importantly, drivers who were members of teamster local 70 refused to make deliveries.
As the stock on store shelves had nearly disappeared by the peak holiday shopping period a month later, the city's power structure decided to take drastic measures to deal with the situation. RMA leaders, William Knowland (then Republican Renate majority leader), the police chief, the county sheriff, the district attorney and the head of the Central Bank, met secretly and decided to use strike-breakers to move a half a million dollars worth of goods into the stores. In the pre-dawn hours of Sunday, Dec. 1, six downtown blocks around the stores were roped off by hundreds of Oakland policemen. The 'solidarity picket' – mostly AFL union officers and members who had been in place following an agreement with the Oakland police that they would be forewarned of any deliveries and be allowed to search strike-breaking truck drivers for weapons – were beaten black and blue, as 150 of Oakland's finest in a wedge formation wielding their billyclubs against pickets and bystanders alike, at 06:00 began clearing the streets around Kahn’s and Hastings. Half an hour later, 250 more police marched in platoons out of nearby City Hall and, in the same manner secured a much larger area. The police also set up machine guns right in the middle of the square facing Kahn’s. To add insult to injury, the union members' cars, which they had been given permission to park next to their picket, were towed away by the police and their transmissions deliberately damaged. Effectively, the overnight picket and 75 AFL business agents who had largely made it up, had been set up and betrayed by the cops and, as a result, the unions would go on to withdraw all co-operation with the police.
At about 07:00, a streetcar stopped at the police line at 17th Street and Broadway. The police ordered the car man to take it through. However, Al Brown, president of the car men’s union, was standing in the street outside the line and he climbed up into the streetcar to join the driver. "This is a police picket line", he said, "I’ve never crossed a picket line in my life, and I won’t now." Removing the control mechanism, Brown and the driver stepped from the car. By noon, four dozen stalled buses and streetcars were lined up from Oakland’s downtown centre, effectively typing up traffic. The General Strike had begun.
Shortly after 07:00, a convoy of delivery trucks (which the overnight picket had been waiting for) and Berkeley and Oakland police in squad cars and motorcycles arrived, crossing police lines to make deliveries to Kahn’s and Hastings. At 10:30, a second convoy of twelve trucks carrying merchandise through picket lines at the entrances of Kahn's and Hastings' entrances. The trucks, owned by the Veterans Trucking Co. of Los Angeles, a professional strike breaking organisation set up by the RMA, had driven 400 miles from Los Angeles with their 'blackleg' cargoes and Oakland police escort. At midday, with the police lines withdrawing once the scab trucks had been unloaded, the streetcars and buses returned en masse to their depots. Soon after a meeting of around 75 union officials took place at the Labor Temple to discuss the situation. With those demanding an immediate general strike ranged against various calls for the strike to be postponed until the Tuesday in order to give the unions time to reach and organise their ranks for action, it was decided to call a larger meeting for Monday. Meanwhile, the downtown streets filled with crowds, trapping strike-breaking employees inside the two stores, as the momentum behind a general strike continued to build. [see: Dec. 3]

1955 - The trial of Wilhelm Reich on contempt charges for refusing to halt the distribution of orgone energy accumulators begins.

[E] 1955 - African American civil rights activist and NAACP member Rosa Parks refuses to obey a bus driver's order in Montgomery, Alabama, to give up her seat in the 'colored section' to a white passenger, after all seats in the 'white section' had filled up. Three days later on Sunday, December 4, 1955, plans for the Montgomery Bus Boycott were announced at black churches in the area, and a front-page article in the Montgomery Advertiser helped spread the word. The next day, Parks was tried on charges of disorderly conduct and violating a local ordinance. The trial lasted 30 minutes with Parks being found guilty and fined $10, plus $4 in court costs.
The bus boycott would eventually lead to the Supreme Court ruling on December 21, 1956 that segregation on the city bus system was illegal. [see: Feb. 4]

[EEE] 1960 - Ethel MacDonald (b.1909), Glasgow-based anarchist activist, labelled the 'Scots Scarlet Pimpernel' by the British press, dies. During the Spanish Revolution, she was a prisoner aid militant and propagandist on Barcelona Loyalist radio. Visiting comrades captured imprisoned following the May 1937 Stalinist crackdown, she smuggled letters and food into prison and helped many anarchists escape Spain. Eventually arrested by the Communist police, she went underground in Barcelona upon her release but later escaped to France. [see: Feb. 24]

1960 - Ada Martí (Maria de la Concepció Martí Fuster; d. 1960), Catalan writer, journalist and anarchist intellectual, dies from an overdose of sleeping pills, after a horrific night of insomnia, delusions and anxiety. [see: Jul. 1]

1965 - Last death sentence to be imposed in Britain given to David Chapman at Leeds Assizes. Not carried out as death penalty subsequently abolished.

1966 - The first observance of Prisoners For Peace Day.

1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Trial of Ian Purdie and Jake Prescott ends. Ian Purdie found not guilty on all charges. Jake Prescott found not guilty of specific bombings, but guilty of conspiracy to cause bombings on the basis of having written three envelopes, and was sentenced to fifteen years.

1976 - The infamous Sex Pistols' Bill Grundy interview.

1987 - James Arthur Baldwin (d. 1924), American novelist, essayist, playwright, poet and social critic, dies. [see: Aug. 2]

1988 - World AIDS Day founded by World Health Organisation.

1995 - Fifteen people, mostly soldiers, are arrested for the 1994 bombing of a Jewish centre in Buenos Aires.

1997 - A silent march by women in Khartoum protesting conscription is attacked by police and 37 women are arrested.

1999 - WTO in Seattle Day 2: Following yesterday's massive non-violent civil disobedience that temporarily shut down the Third Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organisation, police enforce a "no protest zone" around the WTO meeting in Seattle and arrest hundreds of demonstrators.

1999 - Carme Millà i Tersol (b. 1911*), Catalan artist (line drawing), designer, publicist and anarcho-syndicalist poster artist, dies. [see: Jan. 25]
[* many sources cite 1907]

2001 - Two anarchists arrested by the Ushak police (in western Anatolia, Turkey), after distributing 'illegal' leaflets at a trade union meeting. Later, another three are arrested. All are charged with "membership in an illegal organisation" - in this case, the Autonomous Anarchists of Ankara.

2009 - Josefa 'Pepita' Martín Luengo (Maria Josefa Martín Luengo; b. 1944), Spanish libertarian education activist and anarcha-feminist, dies. [see: Sep. 19]
1814 - Donatien Alphonse François, Marquis de Sade (b. 1740), French aristocrat, revolutionary politician, philosopher and writer of novels, short stories, plays, dialogues and political tracts, dies. [see: Jun. 2]

[D] 1816 - Spa Fields Riots: Following the refusal by the Prince Regent to meet with 'radical' politician Henry 'Orator' Hunt, who would be an important influence on the Chartistism, and accept a petition calling for universal (male) suffrage, annual general elections and a secret ballot. A follow-up meeting at Spa Fields, Islington, is attended by 20,000. After speeches from the likes of Henry 'Orator' Hunt and James Watson, Watson led part of the crowd towards the Tower of London, looting a gun shop on the way. The crowd was headed off by 80 constables (who had been forewarned of potential trouble by a police spy) and the 4 'ring-leaders' arrested. A John Cashman was arrested and sentenced to death for the stabbing to death of a passer-by and for the gun shop raid. The others were acquitted as the government spy, John Castle, was discredited at the first 'ring-leader' trial.

1859 - John Brown (b. 1880), U.S. exponent of direct action in the fight against slavery in the USA, who led the unsuccessful raid on the federal armoury at Harpers Ferry that ended in his capture, is hung in Charleston, Virginia.

1883 - Henri Arthur Gaston Quesnel (d. 1966), French metal turner, libertarian trades union activist and anarchist, who was secretary of the Le Havre UL-CGTU from June 1922 to June 1923 and of the UL-CGT after the Liberation, born. [expand]

1889 - London Gasworkers' Strike: With the majority of union members not having signed Livesey's agreement, they now stated that they were not prepared to work with those who had, the Union now ask for the removal of three retort house workers at Vauxhall who had signed the agreements.

1889 - Nathan Isaevich Altman (Натан Исаевич Альтман; d. 1970), Russian-Jewish and Soviet avant-garde artist, Cubist painter, stage designer and book illustrator, born. Associated with the anarchist circles around the weekly newspaper 'Anarkhiia', he managed to survive the Sovietisation of the Arts by focusing on stage design and was even allowed to move to Paris in 1928. He returned to Leningrad in 1936, where he worked mainly for the theatre, as well as a illustrating books and writing essays about art.

[A] 1889 - Octave Garnier aka 'Le Terrassier' (d. 1912), as a 13-year old he became a member of the anarchist Bonnot Gang, stealing cars and robbing banks, born. [expand]
[ Parry - The Bonno Gang.pdf]

[B] 1891 - Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix (d. 1969), fiercely anti-war German artist, painter and printmaker, born. Volunteered for the German Army during WWI and fought on the Western Front, taking part in the Battle of the Somme, and was later transferred to the Eastern Front. Dix was profoundly affected by the war, and would later describe a recurring nightmare in which he crawled through destroyed houses. From a working class background, he remained close to the labour movement and, essentially a libertarian influenced by the writings of Nietzsche, never joining the Communist party despite the membership of close comrades like Grosz and Heartfield.
In 1919 he went through an Expressionist phase before his 1920 meeting with Georg Grosz and Dresden Dada. Although initially active in Dadaist circles, he also maintained his links with the Expressionists, contributing to the Neue Sachlichkeit exhibition in Mannheim in 1925, alongside George Grosz, Max Beckmann, Georg Schrimpf, etc. In 1926, Dix became a professor in the Kunstakademie in Dresden. He maintained that position until the Nazis rose to power in 1933. His paintings 'Kriegskrüppel' (War Cripples; 1920) and 'den Schützengraben' (The Trench; 1923) were displayed at the Entartete Kunst and, like many of his works, burnt by the Nazis.
He remained in Germany and continued to paint allegorical anti-Nazi picture and in 1939 was arrested trumped-up charge of being involved in a plot against Hitler (involving Georg Elser), but was later released. During World War II Dix was conscripted into the Volkssturm, captured by French troops and was released in February 1946.
Amongst his most famous works are 'The Skat Players' (1920); 'Kriegskrüppel' (War Cripples; 1920); 'Den Schützengraben' (The Trench; 1923), the last displayed at the Entartete Kunst; 'We Want Bread!' (1923); 'Portrait of the Journalist Sylvia von Harden' (1926); 'Straßenkampf' (Street Fight; 1927); 'Flandern' (Flansders; 1934); the triptychs 'Metropolis' (1928) and 'Der Krieg' (The War; 1932); and 'Ecce Homo II' (1948).

1896 - [O.S. Nov. 20] Rose Pesotta (Rakhel Peisoty; d. 1965), US seamstress, labour activist, anarcho-syndicalist and feminist, born. From a family of grain merchants, Pesotta was well educated and influenced by the Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), and eventually adopted anarchist views. She emigrated to New York City at the age of 17 (1913), and found employment in a shirtwaist factory, she joined the International Ladies' Garment Workers Union very soon after. The ILGWU was a union that represented mostly Jewish and Latina female garment workers. She was elected to the all male executive board of ILGWU Local 25 in 1920 and attended Brookwood Labor College for two years in the 1920s. In 1933 the union sent her to Los Angeles to organise the garment workers there. The organising of the Mexican immigrant garment workers lead to the Los Angeles Garment workers Strike of 1933. As a result of this success, she was made vice-president of the union in 1934, and sent to Puerto Rico to organise seamstresses. In 1944, she resigned from the General Executive Board of the union in protest of the fact that, despite 85% of the union's membership were women, she was the sole female executive member. She returned to shopfloor organising in disgust. Rose also wrote and published two memoirs, 'Bread Upon the Waters' (1944) and 'Days of Our Lives' (1958).
Rose Pesotta died in Miami, Florida on December 6, 1965.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 19] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: A Latvian Congress of local officials in Riga demands autonomy.

1909 - 'Le Libertaire' brings out a special edition with the headline 'The Tragic Death of Philippe Daudet, Anarchist. Léon Daudet, his father, hushes up the truth', following the mysterious death of the young anarchist and posthumous poet. [see: Jan 7]

[E] 1916 - In a publicity stunt, US suffragists fly over President Wilson's yacht and drop suffrage amendment petitions.

[C] 1924 - Else Marie Pade, Danish electronic composer, who was active in the resistance during the Second World War, and was interned at the Frøslev prison camp (Frøslevlejren) from 1944 till the end of the war, born. Pade began by distributing illegal newspapers in August 1943, and in 1944 she received training in the use of weapons and explosives. From there she joined an all-female explosives group tasked with identifying the telephone cables in Aarhus in preparation for their being blown up when the British invasion came. However the plan was cancelled when the Normandy landings took place.
On September 13, 1944, Else Marie Pade was arrested by the Gestapo and underwent a tough interrogation. It was following this that she had a musical epiphany. She woke from a nightmare with a scream and out of the Århus Arrest prison window she saw a star flash and heard music coming from inside herself. Next morning she scratched tune into the cell wall with a buckle from her girdle. It was the song 'Du og jeg og stjernerne er venner' (You and I and the Stars are friends). Other songs and scores, including the aptly titled 'Sange fra en væg' (Songs from a wall), were composed and written down in the same manner. Some of these songs were published in 2005 on 'Sange midt i mørket: musik i Frøslevlejren 1944-45' (Songs in the Darkness: Music Frøslevlejren 1944–45). From the prison in Aarhus she was sent to Frøslevlejren, where she began composing, and decided to train in music. In Frøslevlejren the prisoners held song evenings to keep their spirits up. As a consequence of the importance of her role in this, her fellow prisoners there made a pact to help pay for her studies after the war.
In 1954, Else Marie Pade became the first Danish composer of electronic and concrete music.

1926 - Première issue of 'Combat Syndicaliste', journal of the Confédération Générale duTravail - Syndicaliste Révolutionnaire (CGT-SR), French anarcho-syndicalist section of the AIT.

1932 - Le Havre dockers strike to respond to the fall in their wages [til January 18, 1933].

[F] 1932 - Streik bei der Berliner Verkehrsgesellschaft [Berlin Transport Strike]: 84% of the 22,000 employees in the Berliner Verkehrsgesellschaft workforce participate in a strike ballot organised by the communist Revolutionäre Gewerkschafts Opposition (Revolutionary Trade Union Opposition). 14,471 workers vote for the strike, while 3,993 voted against it. The strike begins the following day, paralysing the German capital for four days and proves to be one of the most significant strikes during the final months of the Weimar Republic.

1935 - Robert Lee Cannon and Albert Kessell are the first people to be killed (for their part in the 1934 Folsom prison riot) in California's new gas chamber.

1936 - Novelist Thomas Mann is stripped of German citizenship.

1943 - Oreste Antonio Maria Ristori (b. 1874), Italian journalist, militant individualist anarchist, anarcho-communist and anti-fascist, is executed by a fascist firing squad (he and his four comrades were tied to chairs and shot in the back as a sign of their being 'traitors') whilst singing 'the Internationale'. [see: Aug. 12]

1944 - Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (b. 1876), Italian Symbolist poet, editor and the founder of the Futurist movement, dies. [see: Dec. 22]

1946 - Oakland General Strike: Following yesterday's attempts by the Retail Merchants Association to break the month-long retail clerks strike and economic blockade of two downtown Oakland stores – Hastings, a haberdashery, and Kahn's, a department store – when large crowds had taken to the streets after police had attacked pickets and passersby indiscrimiately as they tried to clear the streets for the dilivery of merchanise by blackleg drivers, large crowds once again take to the downtown streets, with at one point an estimated 10,000 people showing their support for the hundreds of Retail Clerks’ pickets around the two stores. The strike meeting that had been suspended yesterday, is reconvened at the Labor Temple at 10:00 by union officials in the knowledge that the calls for a general strike, which had spread out overnight across the city to its factories, shops and freight terminals, had now gained an irresistible momentum amongst the rank and file. Finally, after twelve hours of disagreement, a strike call was made. However, with the local leaderships of the various unions equivocating amid fears of reprisals and the potential loss of control over the increasingly militant street-level feeling, the meeting was unable to agree a unified position. The turnout of the 'Labor Holiday' the following day would be massive, as the workers seized control of the city's streets in a joyous celebration of solidarity. [see: Dec. 3]

1951 - Neith Boyce Hapgood (b. 1872), U.S. novelist, playwright and journalist, dies. [see: Mar. 21]

1959 - Silvia Secchiari (b. 1900), Italian anarchist militant and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Jun. 6]

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: The ramifications of the failed 'coup' and counter-coup continue to effect the political landscape of Portugal. Decreto-Lei nº674-B / 75, ending the state of siege declared on November 25 in the area of Military Region of Lisbon, which is now due to be lifted at 17:00 on December 2, is published.
The Constituent Assembly hold an at times heated meeting, during which the PS (Partido Socialista), PPD (Partido Popular Democrático) and CDS (Partido do Centro Democrático e Social) accuse the PCP (Partido Comunista Português) of involvement in the November 25 events. The PPD goes as far as calling into question the continuated membership of PCP in the 6th Provisional Government. The PS advocates a contrary position.
Meanwhile, the post-coup purges continue, with thirty four officials of Rádio e Televisão de Portugal (RTP) being suspended for their alleged involvement in the events of November 25. The following day the government announced the nationalisation of all radio stations. The same day a further forty two officials, this time from the Emissora Nacional (National Radio), were also arrested for their alleged involvement in the events on November 25. Further suspension were announced 6 days later.

1977 - First of three nights of rioting, with $5 million of destruction, in Bermuda protesting the hanging (despite a moratorium being in place) of two men convicted of the 1972 murder of Governor Richard Sharples. British troops are flown in to help an overwhelmed Bermudan army.

1978 - Christian Lagant aka 'Cri Cri', Christian Lag & Christian Lague (b. 1926), French anarchist militant, one-time surrealist and one of chief editors of 'Noir et Rouge', takes his own life, not wishing to live any longer in a society that in his view had returned to 'normality' after the period of unrest that had its climax in May-June 1968. A talented writer and artist, he contributed articles and drawings to the Fédération Anarchiste paper 'Le Libertaire' and was later one of the founders of the Groupes Anarchistes d'Action Révolutionnaires (GAAR), taking an active part in editing its magazine 'Noir et Rouge' over a period of fifteen years.

1980 - In El Salvador four female Catholic missionaries are raped and murdered by 5 members of the National Guard under direct orders of their commander.

1980 - Romain Gary (born Roman Kacew; b. 1914), French-Litvaks diplomat, novelist, film director and World War II aviator, dies. [see: May 21]

1990 - Aaron Copland (b. 1900), American composer, composition teacher, writer and conductor, dies. [see: Nov. 14]

1999 - WTO in Seattle Day 3: World Trade Organisation delegates meet as the core 50 block area of down-town Seattle is declared off-limits to protesters and most businesses in the area close.

2002 - Ivan Illich (b. 1936), Austrian philosopher, libertarian-socialist social thinker, polymath and polemicist, dies. [see: Sep. 4]
1803 - Charles Fourier publishes in the 'Bulletin de Lyon' an article entitled 'Universal Harmony', announcing the theory of "passional attraction" which will "lead the human race to opulence, to sensual pleasures, to the unity of the globe".

1831 - Première Révolte des Canuts: The army enter the city without any blood being shed and with no negotiation or agreements being made. The fixed rate is abolished, the prefect dismissed, the Garde Nationale disbanded, and a large garrison stationed in the town. The government then decided to build a fort to separate the commune of Croix-Rousse from the town of Lyon. 90 workers were arrested, 11 of whom were prosecuted and acquitted in June 1832.
The workers were thus left no better off.

1848 - José García Viñas (d. 1931), Spanish militant internationalist, medical doctor, pioneering advocate of anarchism in Spain, editor of 'La Federacíon' (1869) and 'La Revista Social' (1872-1880), born.

1853 - [O.S. Nov. 21] - Lydia Nikolayevna Figner (Лидия Николаевна Фигнер; d. 1920), Russian revolutionary member of Narodnaya Volya and the younger sister of Vera Figner, born. In 1872, she and her sister Vera went to Zurich where she studied at the Medical Faculty of the University of Zurich, as well as typesetting for the journal 'Вперёд' (Forward). She was also part of the Fritsche circle, a group of young Russian radical women, including her older sister Vera [Вера], Sophia Bardina [Софья Бардина], Olga Liubatovich [Ольга Любатович], Anna Toporkova [Анна Топоркова], Berta Kaminskaya [Берта Каминская], Alexandra Khorzhevskaya [Александра Хоржевская], Anna and Vera Lyubatovich [Анна & Вера Любатович], and the Subbotina sisters Evgeniya, Maria and Nadezhda [Евгения, Марии & Надежды Субботина], some of whom would become important members of the All-Russian Social Revolutionary Organisation. With their activities coming under the scrutiny of the Russian government, coupled with Mikhail Bakunin's urging of them to return home to carry out propaganda work, most returned to Russia. Vera stayed behind in Zurich to complete her degree and Lydia went to Paris and continued her medical studies. Returning to Russia in January 1874, she entered the midwifery course at the Medical-Surgical Academy in St. Petersburg. In April that years she moved to Moscow where she took part in propaganda activities in a Moscow factory. In February 1875, she participated in a populist (narodnik [народник]) conference, which drew up and agreed the founding charter of the All-Russian Social-Revolutionary Organisation (Всероссийской социально-революционной организации), also known as the Muscovites Circle (Кружок москвичей).
Following an appeal, the Governing Senate imposed a revised sentence: deprivation of rights and benefits, and exile to the village of [Urik Урик] in Irkutsk province (south-eastern Siberia). There she married and continued to fall foul of the security services for her revolutionary activities. In 1879 she was detained for "illegal correspondence" and on February 28 [16], 1882 she was arrested and held in Irkutsk fortress prison during an investigation into the activities of the Political Red Cross [политическом Красном Кресте] and Narodnaya Volya (People's Will [Народной Воли]). At her trial along side 81 others, she was accused of allowing her address to be used by other exiles for their communications and of concealing her fellow exile Evgeniya Subbotina, who had fled her place of exile without permission in 1879. On October 17 [5] October 1883 Lydia and and her husband Sergei Stachevich [Сергей Стахевича] were confined to the village of Novoyaminskom [Новояминском] in Irkutsk province and placed under three years police surveillance.
Finally, on June 19 [7], 1892, she was released and returned to her home town of Nikiforovo [Никифорово] and her family home on August 1 [Jul. 12]. In 1893 she moved to Riga and in March 1900 received permission to live in St. Petersburg, where she worked until 1915 for the literary magazine 'Russian Wealth' [Русское богатство]. After living in Nizhny Novgorod, in Kazan and Moscow with her sister Vera, in 1918 she moved from the widespread hunger of Petrograd to the village of Lugan [Лугань] in Orel Province to live with her daughter Vera (one of five children she had with Stachevich), a former military surgeon working as a doctor fighting a typhus epidemic there. Vera died of typhus on December 26, 1919, and two days later Lydia was stricken with paralysis and died of a stroke on March 9, 1920.

[DD] 1854 - Gold miners in the Ballarat region of Victoria, Australia, take part in the Eureka Rebellion (Battle of Eureka Stockade), one of the most significant stuggles against British colonial rule in Australia.

1857 - Józef Teodor Konrad ‪Nałęcz‬ Korzeniowski (aka Joseph Conrad; d. 1924), Polish author of the English language novel on/against anarchist attentats (based loosely on the 1894 Greenwich Bombing), 'The Secret Agent' (1907) and the anarchist-related short stories 'An Anarchist' and 'The Informer' (both 1906) [allegedly based upon the circle around Olivia and Helen Rossetti and the anarchist journal 'The Torch', born.

[1866 - Textile strikers win 10-hour work day, Fall River, Massachusetts.]

1872 - [O.S. Nov. 21] Maria Essen [Мария Эссен], aka 'Beast' [Зверь], 'Falcon' [Сокол], (Maria Moiseevna Bertsinskaya [Мария Моисеевна Берцинская]; d. 1956), Russian revolutionary, member RSDLP and later a Bolshevik, born. In the revolutionary movement since the early 1890s, member of the St. Petersburg League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class (Союз борьбы за освобождение рабочего класса). Head in 1898 of the Ekaterinburg Urals' Social-Democratic group (Уральскую группу социал-демократов), the successor to the Ural Workers' Union (Уральского рабочего союза).
Member of the Soviet Writers' Union (Союза писателей СССР) from 1939.

1893 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: Following the formation of the Fascio di Giardinello on November 13, 1893, and its demands for the reduction of taxes on bread, on vehicles and on duties of consumption, refused by the Mayor, the first serious explosion of discontent takes place in the commune. The target of the protest is the mayor, who had signed an agreement with the Duke of Aumale about the waters from the Scorsone spring without provision for the building of public washing facilities promised by the Duke. The washhouse was essential for the needs of the population.

[C] 1894 - Bernhard Bästlein (d. 1944), German Communist and resistance fighter against the Nazi régime, who helped form the Bästlein-Jacob-Abshagen Group, Saefkow-Jacob-Bästlein Organisation and the Bewegung Freies Deutschland (Free Germany Movement) resistance organisations, born.

1897 - William Victor 'Bill' Gropper (d. 1977), U.S. cartoonist, Social Realist painter associated with the Ash-Can Group, lithographer, muralist left (libertarian) communist and anti-fascist, born. Took his first art lessons at the Ferrer School in NYC and studied under Robert Henri and George Bellows, both philosophical anarchists if not particularly politically active.
One of the most significant American artists of his generation, he contributed to several mainstream newspapers and magazines including 'The New Yorker', 'Vanity Fair' and the 'New York Post', as well as numerous radical publications, including 'The Masses', 'The Revolutionary Age', 'The Rebel Worker', 'The Liberator', 'The New Masses', 'The Worker', and 'Morgen Freiheit' (Morning Freiheit).

[E] 1897 - [O.S. Nov. 21] Mollie Steimer (Marthe Alperine; d. 1980), Russian-American-Jewish-Mexican anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist labour activist, born. Her militant activities got her deported from both the US in 1921 (after getting 15 years of prison for publishing a leaflet opposing the landing of US troops in Russia), and by Lenin in Russia (1923). Arrested as a German Jew in France, then escaped a Nazi internment camp and fled to Mexico with long-time companion Senya Fleshin.

[1903 - Cooper Union mass meeting protests in NY City against anti-anarchist proceedings against John Turner, who is still awaiting deportation.]

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 20] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Mensheviks support the Zemstvo Congress’ call for reforms. Lenin briefly disagrees and calls for armed revolt.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 20] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: St. Petersburg janitors protest being forced to act as police informers.

[1905 - [O.S. Nov. 20] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Serious unrest by workers and soldiers in Irkutsk / to Jan. 2.1906.

1910 - Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) Brotherhood of Timber Workers Union, a racially integrated union, is formed in Louisiana and East Texas.

1912 - Irma Götze (d. 1980), German pediatric nurse, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, born. The daughter of Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands (Free Workers’ Union of Germany) members Anna Götze and Karl Brauner, she too was a FAUD member and was active in the Leipziger Meute, an opposition group of mainly young people. She acted as an underground courier, taking messages to and from Czechoslovakia, and helped produce illegal flyers and leaflets. In 1935, Irma Götze fled Germany for Spain, taking part in the Spanish Civil War in Catalonia in 1936. She was particularly involved in the political work of the German anarcho-syndicalists in Barcelona, and providing supplies for the militia. She was arrested by the Soviet secret police GPU in May 1937, taken to the notorious secret prison at Puerta del Angel, and later transferred to a women’s prison. After her release, Irma Götze emigrated to France in 1938. She was interned in the Gurs, Argelès-sur-Mer, and Rivesaltes camps as an “enemy alien” in 1940 and 1941, eventually ending up in the hands of the Gestapo. In 1942 the Dresden Higher Regional Court sentenced her to two years and six months in a penitentiary for her illegal work for the FAUD. After serving this term at Waldheim penitentiary, she was taken to Ravensbrück concentration camp. There, Irma Götze met her mother Anna for the first time in nine years, after the older woman had spent eight years in imprisonment. Both mother and daughter survived the war.

1916 - Seven Wobblies in Australia are sentenced to 15 years in prison for their anti-war efforts during WWI. Others IWW members are sentenced to five and 10 years. In August 1917 IWW is made illegal and membership rolls made available to employers (blacklisted). Despite widespread government and business repression, the IWW helps lead the General Strike of 1917.

1917 - Louise Olivereau, who was convicted on November 30 1917 for mailing out a circular which questioned the draft, is sentenced to ten years in prison at Cañon City, Colorado, the only federal prison for women in the west of the United States. She served 28 months in the state penitentiary in Cañon City, Colorado, before being paroled. The IWW provided no support for Olivereau or her case because of her anarchist pronouncements. Her case was barely mentioned in IWW newspapers.
After her release, Olivereau worked at a variety of clerical and sales jobs in Oregon and California. She settled in San Francisco in 1929 and worked as a stenographer. She died there in 1963.

1921 - Anti-authoritarian educator A.S. Neill establishes his school, Summerhill, at Lyme Regis in England. Moves it three years later to Leiston (Suffolk). Proponent of children sharing in running schools, Neill told of this anarchist experiment in numerous books.

1928 - Ruhreisenstreit [Ruhr Iron Dispute]: Employers in the Rhineland-Westphalian iron industry lift their lock-out of workers following the agreement by the Deutsche Metallarbeiter-Verband union to agree to the special arbitration. On December 21, 1928, the government-appointed arbitrator Carl Severing, the Social Democratic Minister of the Interior, delivered his decision: wages were increased by between one to six Phennigs and working time reduced from 60 to 57 or 52 hours, much worse than the orginal arbitration and a major blow to the unions. The Reichsarbeitsgericht ratified Severing's decision on January 22, 1929. [see: Nov. 1]

1930 - Jean-Luc Godard, French Marxist New Wave film maker, born. His early (and best) films include 'Le Petit Soldat' (1960; which dealt with the Algerian War of Independence and was banned by the French Government), 'Les Carabiniers' (1963; an anti-war film); 'Alphaville' (1965; dystopian sci-fi allegory); 'La Chinoise' (1967; pseudo-Maoist student rebellion) and 'Week End' (1967; anti-bourgeois morality play). Was also involved in making films with Jean-Pierre Gorin and with the Dziga Vertov group that had strong Maoist elements.

[B] 1930 - The right-wing Ligue des Patriotes (League of Patriots), outrages by the great popular success of 'L'Age d'Or', interrupt the screening by throwing ink at the cinema screen and assaulting viewers who opposed them; they then go to the lobby and destroy art works by Dalí, Joan Miró, Man Ray, Yves Tanguy, and others.

[CC] 1931 - Franz Josef Degenhardt (d. 2011), German poet, satirist, novelist, screenwriter, folk-singer/songwriter (Liedermacher), lawyer and leftist, born. His early songs were anarchist-romantic in the tradition of Villon and the anonymous Bänkelsang (broadsheet ballad) but after 1967 his politics became more communist, joining the German Communist Party (DKP). During the events of 1968, he defended many of those on trial from the German student movement and in 1972-73, defended members of the Red Army Faction. His first novel 'Zündschnüre' (Fuses; 1973) is about working-class youths who join an anti-Nazi resistance group in 1944, and the second, 'Brandstellen' (Burn Marks; 1974), also made into a 1978 film of the same name, tells the story of a community's resistance against a NATO military training ground. His 1986 album 'Junge Paare Auf Bänken' (Young Couples on the Benches) features his translations into German of French singer-songwriter Georges Brassens, and one of his last albums was entitled 'Krieg Gegen den Krieg' (War against the War; 2003).
He also wrote the anti-fascist song 'Edelweisspiraten' (Edelweiss pirates) based on the World War II era German working class anti-Nazi network of youth groups, which emerged out of the German Youth Movement of the late 1930s in response to the strict regimentation of the Hitler Youth.

1932 - Streik bei der Berliner Verkehrsgesellschaft [Berlin Transport Strike]: Just three months before Hitler came to power, thousands of Berlin transport workers paralyse the capital for four days in what was one of the most significant strikes in the last days of the Weimar Republic. Initially, the employers, the Berliner Verkehrsgesellschaft (BVG), had demanded a reduction of 14 to 23 Pfennig an hour, the fifth wage cut since 1929, but the communist Revolutionäre Gewerkschafts Opposition (Revolutionary Trade Union Opposition / RGO) union had succeeded in reducing the cut to 2 pfennigs per hour.
Of the 22,000 employees of the BVG, about 1,200 of them were RGO members, one fifth of the entire organisation. About 1,200 employees also belonged to the Nationalsozialistische Betriebszellenorganisation (National Socialist Operational Cell Organisation / NSBO) but the majority of BVG employees were unorganised. The RGO however, had been organising so-called Einheitsausschüsse (Unified Committees) within the BVG workforce, which included NSBO and unorganised workers as representative of the various committees and these committees recruited a delegation conference, which met on October 29. Egged on by the KPD and the NSDAP, who were normally sworn enemies, had agreed to cooperate on the issue
as both parties recognised that a strike immediately before the Reichstag election of November 6, 1932, would prove an opportunity to obtain new votes in the respective electoral district of the political opponents, they agreed to ballot the entire workforce about a strike, rather than just union members as was the normal practice. On November 2, 84% of the workforce participated. 14,471 workers voted for the strike, while 3,993 voted against it.
On November 3, the strike was solid. Not a single subway or bus went out of the depots – there were only a few trams sent on "demonstrative trips" in order to create the impression that everything was normal. But these trams were mostly empty, since riders were scared of the mobs of strikers throwing rocks and breaking windows.

1937 - Attila József (b. 1905), one of the most important and well-known Hungarian poets, dies. [see: Apr. 11]

1940 - On the eve of Vichy premier Pétain's visit to Marseilles, Andre Breton is arrested and held for four days. An official report describes him as a "dangerous anarchist sought for a long time by the French police."

[F] 1941 - Union Minière du Haut Katanga Strike: Black mine workers at various sites in the Belgian Congo province of Katanga go on strike, demanding that their pay be increased from 1.50 francs to 2 francs to compensate for rising living costs, in addition to other grievances against the colonial order including segregation. Whites of the colony were allowed to form trade unions for the first time during the war, and their requests for better wages and working conditions were often imitated by black workers. In October 1941, white workers in the colony unsuccessfully attempted a general strike across the colony. On December 3, black miners in the uranium, copper, cobalt, radium, zinc, cadmium, germanium, manganese, silver, gold, and tin mines owned by the Belgian mining company, Union Minière du Haut-Katanga, around Jadotville and Élisabethville followed suit and downed tools. By the following day 1,400 black workers were on strike.
From the start, the colonial authorities attempted to persuade the strikers to disperse and go back to work. When they refused, they were fired on. In Jadotville, 15 strikers were shot dead by the military. In Élisabethville (now Lubumbashi), the strikers, including their leader Léonard Mpoyi, were invited to negotiations at the town's stadium on December 9, where they were offered various concessions, including a 30% pay rise. When the workers refused, the Governor of Katanga, Amour Maron, shot Mpoyi, killing him. The Governor then ordered his soldiers to fire on the other strikers in the stadium. Between 60 and 70 strikers were killed during the slaughter, although the official estimate was around 30. The miners returned to work the following day.

1944 - Dekemvrianá [Δεκεμβριανά / December Events]: The Dekemvriana (Δεκεμβριανά, or December events) were a series of clashes fought in Athens from December 3. 1944 to January 11, 1945 between the Greek left-wing Resistance forces (EAM-ELAS [ΕΑΜ-ΕΛΑΣ], KKE) and the British Army, supported by the Greek Government, the Cities Police and the far-right Organisation X (Οργάνωση Χ) of Georgios Grivas (Γεώργιο Γρίβα) and the LOK (Lochos Oreinon Katadromon, the Greek stay-behind organisation).
On December 1, 1944, the Greek government of 'National Unity' under Georgios Papandreou (Γεώργιος Παπανδρέου) and Lt. Gen. Ronald Scobie (British head of the Allied forces in Greece at that time) announced an ultimatum for the general disarmament of all guerrilla forces by December 10, excluding those allied to the government (the 3rd Greek Mountain Brigade and the Sacred Band) and also a part of EDES (ΕΔΕΣ) and ELAS that would be used in Allied operations in Crete and Dodecanese if it was necessary. As a result, on December 2 six ministers of the EAM, most of whom were KKE members, resigned from their positions in the 'National Unity' government. The EAM called for a general strike and announced the reorganisation of the Central Committee of ELAS, its military wing. A demonstration was organized by EAM on December 3.
The demonstration involved at least 200,000 people marching on Panepistimiou Street towards the Syntagma Square. British tanks and police units were deployed around the area to block the route of the various marches. The shootings began when some of the demonstrators had broken through a Police cordon at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, above the Syntagma Square. They originated from the building of the General Police Headquarters, from the Parliament (Βουλή), from the Hotel Grande Bretagne (where international observers had settled), from other governmental buildings and from policemen on the street, with the head of the police Angelos Evert giving the order to open fire ("Shoot the bastards!") on the crowd. The lethal fusillade lasted half an hour, leaving more than 28 demonstrators dead, and 148 injured. Those firing included X and LOK members, as well as British troops and police with machine guns.
The shootings signalled the beginning of the Dekemvrianá, the 37-days of full-scale fighting in Athens between EAM fighters and smaller parts of ELAS, and the forces of the British army and the government. At the beginning the government had only a few policemen and gendarmes, some militia units, the 3rd Greek Mountain Brigade, the royalist group Organisation X, also known as 'Chítes', but lacked heavy weapons. Consequently the British intervened in support of the government, freely using artillery and aircraft as the battle approached its last stages.
Later on in the day, members of EAM tried to break into Papendreou's house armed with grenades but were repelled by armed guards.

1945 - Augustin Frédéric Adolphe Hamon (b. 1862), French sociologist and anarchist, who later became a socialist, dies. Participated in the July 27, 1896, International Congress in London with Malatesta, Pelloutier, etc. Also collaborated on Jean Grave's newspaper, 'Les Temps Nouveaux'. Wrote 'Les Hommes et les Théories du l'Anarchie' (1893), 'Psychologie de l'Anarchiste-Socialiste' (1895), 'Patrie et Internationalisme' (1896) and 'Un Anarchisme, Fraction du Socialisme' (1896). [see: Jan. 20]

1946 - Oakland General Strike: The Oakland General Strike begins after attempts to break a long strike by clerks (mostly women) at two major department stores in the city. In a city-wide act of solidarity, 130,000 workers from 142 unions, including workers from factories, industries, services, retail stores, transportation systems, etc. – the entire population of Oakland was a little more than 405,000 at the time! – declare a "work holiday" and walk off their jobs in an expression of support for striking department store clerks and outrage at police intervention that was facilitating strike breaking activity. The Oakland General Strike lasted for 54 hours, ending at 11:00 on December 5, on the basis of the Oakland City Manager's promise to union officials that police would not again be used to bring in scabs. However, the clerks were ultimately left to fend for themselves.
The 1946 Oakland general strike began with a dispute at two downtown department stores, Hastings’ and Kahn’s, where 425 clerks (mostly women) were on strike for union recognition. This followed a month-long organising campaign in the summer by the Retail Clerks Local 1265, during which the mostly female workforce had signed union cards at two downtown stores – Hastings, a haberdashery, and Kahn's, a department store situated across the street. (The fact that both stores were in the same block would be an important factor in what was to happen later.) The Retail Merchants Association (RMA), representing 28 non-union stores, refused union recognition. With the holiday shopping season nearing, Hastings workers went on strike Oct. 23. Picket lines were set up a week later at Kahn's. The Alameda AFL labour council issued a call for members of its 142 affiliated locals to honour the lines, as did the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Most importantly, drivers who were members of teamster local 70 refused to make deliveries.
As the stock on store shelves had nearly disappeared by the peak holiday shopping period a month later, the city's power structure decided to take drastic measures to deal with the situation. RMA leaders, William Knowland (then Republican Renate majority leader), the police chief, the county sheriff, the district attorney and the head of the Central Bank, met secretly and decided to use strike-breakers to move a half a million dollars worth of goods into the stores. In the pre-dawn hours of Sunday, Dec. 1, six downtown blocks around the stores were roped off by hundreds of Oakland policemen. The 'solidarity picket' – mostly AFL union officers and members who had been in place following an agreement with the Oakland police that they would be forewarned of any deliveries and be allowed to search strike-breaking truck drivers for weapons – were beaten black and blue, as 150 of Oakland's finest in a wedge formation wielding their billyclubs against pickets and bystanders alike, at 06:00 began clearing the streets around Kahn’s and Hastings. Half an hour later, 250 more police marched in platoons out of nearby City Hall and, in the same manner secured a much larger area. The police also set up machine guns right in the middle of the square facing Kahn’s. To add insult to injury, the union members' cars, which they had been given permission to park next to their picket, were towed away by the police and their transmissions deliberately damaged. Effectively, the overnight picket and 75 AFL business agents who had largely made it up, had been set up and betrayed by the cops and, as a result, the unions would go on to withdraw all co-operation with the police.
At about 07:00, a streetcar stopped at the police line at 17th Street and Broadway. The police ordered the car man to take it through. However, Al Brown, president of the car men’s union, was standing in the street outside the line and he climbed up into the streetcar to join the driver. "This is a police picket line", he said, "I’ve never crossed a picket line in my life, and I won’t now." Removing the control mechanism, Brown and the driver stepped from the car. By noon, four dozen stalled buses and streetcars were lined up from Oakland’s downtown centre, effectively typing up traffic. The General Strike had begun.
Shortly after 07:00, a convoy of delivery trucks (which the overnight picket had been waiting for) and Berkeley and Oakland police in squad cars and motorcycles arrived, crossing police lines to make deliveries to Kahn’s and Hastings. At 10:30, a second convoy of twelve trucks carrying merchandise through picket lines at the entrances of Kahn's and Hastings' entrances. The trucks, owned by the Veterans Trucking Co. of Los Angeles, a professional strike breaking organisation set up by the RMA, had driven 400 miles from Los Angeles with their 'blackleg' cargoes and Oakland police escort. At midday, with the police lines withdrawing once the scab trucks had been unloaded, the streetcars and buses returned en masse to their depots. Soon after a meeting of around 75 union officials took place at the Labor Temple to discuss the situation. With those demanding an immediate general strike ranged against various calls for the strike to be postponed until the Tuesday in order to give the unions time to reach and organise their ranks for action, it was decided to call a larger meeting for Monday. Meanwhile, the downtown streets filled with crowds, trapping strike-breaking employees inside the two stores, as the momentum behind a general strike continued to build.
On the Monday, large crowds – at one point growing to 10,000 people – assembled downtown, augmenting the hundreds of Retail Clerks’ pickets around the two stores. Union officials began the recalled strike meeting at 10:00 that day, in the knowledge that the calls for a general strike, which had spread out overnight across the city to its factories, shops and freight terminals, had now gained an irresistible momentum amongst the rank and file. Finally, after twelve hours of disagreement, a strike call was made. However, with the local leaderships of the various unions equivocating amid fears of reprisals and the potential loss of control over the increasingly militant street-level feeling, the meeting was unable to agree a unified position.
On Tuesday morning, the turnout was massive, with an estimated twenty-thousand people arriving downtown to join the pickets. Some workers joined the strike in organised contingents, marching from their union halls, whilst roving squads of Teamsters and the Seaman's International Union members patrolled the streets and highways, bringing most commercial transport to a halt. Other groups fanned out into the industrial districts, calling out those workers who were ignorant of, or had not heeded the strike call. Drivers from the Teamsters' local 70 also refused to deliver Oakland's three daily newspapers, thereby closing off the most important avenue of the city's ruling circle to undermine strike support.
However, confusion reigned over whether to keep open restaurants and other food outlets and it was said that the AFL negotiating committee had to send to San Francisco for sandwiches. But, despite the confusion, a holiday mood prevailed during the 'Labor Holiday', as many were calling it. Juke boxes from the downtown bars, which remained open, much to the relief of many, were carried out onto the sidewalks, with couples danced to songs like the then No. 1 'Pistol Packin’ Mama' whilst others broke out into bouts of community singing. The cops also gave up trying to police Oakland's largely peaceful streets – police records show only 86 arrests over a 36 hour period, and only two of those were for robberies, and only one involved assault with a deadly weapon.
A mass strike meeting was held Tuesday night at the Oakland Auditorium. It had been called before the General Strike in order to build support for the clerks but a huge crowd estimated at between 15,000 and 35,000, attended, despite the absence of public transportation and a driving rainstorm. The hall wasn’t big enough to accommodate the crowd and thousands had to stand outside in the rain, listening to the speeches over loudspeakers. The Seaman's International Union president, Harry Lundeberg, received the biggest cheer of the night when he denounced the use of police to escort scabs as "fascism in America" and claimed that the "strike breakers were "… just the average finks" and that "… the super finks are the city administration."
On Wednesday 4th, the downtown crowds grew at one point to 35,000 people. With many of the strikers as determined as the day before to "fight to the finish" amid rumours that the strike might spread to San Francisco and that the CIO, who had not come out in support of the strike, might join. Alameda County CIO had already giving vocal support to the strike, and their members were honouring AFL picket lines. The union had also called a mass membership meeting for Thursday night to decide whether its 30,000 members would join the strike, thereby cutting off the city's gas, telephones, electricity and water, if the dispute hadn’t been settled by then. Others feared that the National Guard might be called out. However, the first major setback to the general strike came when West Coast and national leadership of the Teamsters came out against the strike, calling it "a lot of foolishness". Dan Tobin, President of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, telegraphed the Local 70:
"The International Brotherhood of Teamsters is bitterly opposed to any general strike for any cause. I am therefore ordering you and all those associated with you who are members of our International Union to return to work as soon as possible … No general strike has ever yet brought success to the labour movement, On the contrary, the only result of the general strike is to persecute and inconvenience the public and seriously injury the thousands of fair employers with whom we have contracts."
The Teamsters' West Coast vice president Dave Beck ordered the teamsters back to work by midnight Wednesday. With the Teamster leadership so publicly against the strike, the employers knew that they then held all the cards.
At a meeting of AFL business agents and officials at the Labor Temple on Wednesday, Einar Mohn, a Teamster International organiser in Los Angeles and Beck's man on the spot, together with Harry Lundeberg, managed to persuade those gathered that the strike was doomed despite the then widespread rank and file optimism. That night, the AFL negotiating committee met with Oakland City Manager, Jack Hassler, and the employers, who still refused arbitration on any but their own terms. However, after the employers had left the meeting about midnight, the union and Hassler continued to negotiate. Finally, at 04:00 the meeting broke up – Hassler had pledged that in the future police would not escort strike-breakers and would be impartial in bargaining disputes, and that the Veterans Trucking Co. would be removed from the Bay Area. Pending a vote of AFL officials, the strike was over. At this point the employers, "in light of last night’s events", decided to withdraw from any further discussion of arbitration. The store clerks would not benefit from the settlement.
Despite Beck's order, Local 70 instructed its members to stay on strike until the settlement could be voted by the AFL business agents Thursday morning – the teamsters would not break ranks and cause a stampede, even if their leaders had bowed to pressure for breaking the Strike. At 10:30, Thursday, the AFL business agents voted to end the strike. The committee issued a statement: "… our civil liberties have been restored by the appointment of a responsible executive head to our city government. We have the assurance from Mr. Hassler that the causes of the general walkout have been removed."
When news of the settlement reached the thousands of clerks, teamsters, car men and other unionists on the picket line, it was greeted with anger. One teamster told reporters that Beck had "stabbed us in the back". The clerks felt especially betrayed. They were to be left to fight on alone. For the rest of the day the picket lines remained, with hundreds of AFL rank and filers continuing to refuse to return to their jobs. Many of these attempted to revive the General Strike by convening meetings of their local unions. But the momentum was gone, and these attempts failed. The General Strike was over
The clerks however remained on the picket lines for a further six months despite warning of dismissal if they did not resume working. Negotiations resumed in December under the auspices of the Federal Conciliation Service, but remained deadlocked. Teamsters continued to honour the picket lines despite intense pressure from the West cast leadership. In mid-December, the Merchants’ Association obtained a court injunction limiting picketing to five per store entrance. The clerk's strike finally ended on May 14, after the union accepted a modified agency shop clause, sadly not appreciably different from that originally offered by the employers at the beginning of their dispute. Eventually Hastings would also sign a union contract, an act for which it was expelled from the RMA. The RMA itself later recognised the Retail Clerks local 1265 as the exclusive bargaining agent for its 27 other affiliates and agreed not to interfere with union organising campaigns among their employees. A somewhat pyrrhic victory.

1951 - Fredrika Newton, African-American community activist, she joined the Black Panther Party as a youth member in 1969, joining fulltime shortly after she had first met Huey P. Newton in late 1970 and working in the BPP school. Later, she worked to open the George Jackson People’s Free Health Clinic in Oakland, the first of the many free health clinics in the United States that would screen over 500,000 children nationally for Sickle Cell Anaemia.
Fredrika and Huey married in 1981 and worked side by side through years of struggle and state repression until Newton's death in 1989. In 1993 Fredrika and fellow ex-Panther David Hilliard established the Huey P. Newton Foundation, a non-profit educational organisation and she serves as the Foundation's President, running the community-based programs, which include literacy, voter outreach and health-related components.

1956 - Aleksander Mikhailovich Rodchenko (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ро́дченко; b. 1891), Russian Constructivist artist, sculptor, photographer, photo-montagist, graphic designer and one-time anarchist, dies. Influenced by Cubism, Russian Futurism and Suprematism, he later became a member of the post-Revolutionary Productivist group. [see: Dec. 5]

1967 - First human heart transplant performed in South Africa.

1969 - Lucien Haussard (b. 1893), French militant, anarchist advocate and free thinker, dies. Joined Marc Pierrot's review, 'Plus Loin', which he managed from 1931 until arrested and interned in 1939. Involved in the S.I.A. (Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste) and in providing false documents to Spanish anti-fascists. [see: Jul. 11]

[D] 1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Spanish Embassy in London machine gunned following international protests against the trial of the Basque nationalists, the Burgos Six. This was not reported. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: The government announces the nationalisation of all radio stations.
42 officials of Emissora Nacional (National Radio) for alleged involvement in the events of November 25. More will be suspended 6 days later.

1979 - British Steel Workers Strike: The British Steel Corporation announced to the Iron and Steel Trades Confederation (ISTC) Union of 90,000 steel workers that it could afford only a base raise of 0- 2% for the next year, and that workers could negotiate raises of up to 10% on a local plant-by-plant level depending on the plant’s productivity. The national inflation rate was 17%.

[A] 1984 - A vast cloud of poisonous methyl isocyanate gas escapes from the Union Carbide plant in Bhopal killing thousands and leaving a hundreds of thousands with lifelong injuries and congenital birth defects.

1999 - WTO in Seattle Day 4: The 'civil emergency' and curfew continues with a 25 block area of down-town Seattle under siege. Over 600 protesters have now been arrested and most denied access to lawyers or phone calls.

2009 - Madeleine Briselance (b. 1922), French bookbinder, feminist, anti-miltarist and libertarian activist, dies. [see: Jun. 5]

2010 - Massive DNS attack on the WikiLeaks and Guardian websites.

2013 - Looting begins in Cordoba, Argentina’s second-largest city, when the provincial police force go on strike, demanding a doubling of the basic wage to 13,000 Argentine pesos. More than 1,000 stores are robbed, hundreds of people are injured and one person is killed. Dozens are arrested and over thousand hypermarkets, supermarkets and small shops lose around 400 million pesos in thefts.
Events in Cordoba signal ten days of rioting (Dec. 3-13) across Argentina, during which the Argentina Confederation of Businesses and regional chambers of commerce estimated the losses at 568,450,000 Argentine pesos and 1,900 businesses were affected by looting.
[E] 1864 - Selina Cooper (d. 1946), English mill worker, trade union activist, suffragist, anti-fascist and the first woman to represent the Independent Labour Party in 1901, when she was elected as a Poor Law Guardian, born.

1866 - Wassily Kandinsky (d. 1944), influential Russian painter, art theorist and teacher at the Bauhaus, born.

1868 - Clara Gilbert Cole (d. 1956), English anti-militarist, anarchist and active suffragist in the Women’s Social and Political Union, alongside her husband the artist Herbert Cole, born. A passionate opponent of WWI; pre-empting the State call for conscription she founded a League Against War and Conscription in early 1915 which published an 8 page pamphlet written by her, 'War Won’t Pay', in 1916. She also produced a book of poems, Prison Impressions, based on her own experiences and those of others, in 1918. She later gravitated to anarchism and was active in the support of the Spanish Revolution and in anti-war agitation, and wrote anti-war articles in 'War Commentary' and Guy Aldred's 'The Word'.

[B] 1886 - André Colomer (d. 1931), Catalonian poet and anarchist, born. Involved in the review 'L'Action d'Art' and also the trade union of writers and dramatic authors. Also a founder of 'Libertaire' and manager of 'La Revue Anarchiste', before he broke with anarchism in 1927.

1878 - Juan Oliva Moncasi, a young Catalan anarchist worker in Tarragone who attempted to kill King Alphonse XII in Madrid on October 25 1878, and refused a commutation of his death sentence, is executed.

1882 - [O.S. Nov. 22] Zofia Dzierżyńska aka Sofia Sigizmundovna Dzerzhinskaya [Софья Сигизмундовна Дзержинская (ru)] (Zofia Julia Muszkat; d. 1968), Polish teacher and communist activist, who was a leading member of the Social Democract Party of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania (Socjaldemokracja Królestwa Polskiego i Litwy) and later Communist politician in the Polish Office of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)[Польского бюро агитпропотдела ЦК РКП(б)] and the Executive Committee of Comintern, born.
Member of the RSDLP (b) in 1905.

1889 - London Gasworkers' Strike: With the majority of the National Union of Gas Workers & General Labourers' members not having signed up for the profit sharing scheme agreement, which had been drawn up by George Livesey, the chair of the South Metropolitan Gas Company, as part of his plans to drive the Union out of the South Met.'s gasworks, and now refusing to work with those who had signed up, on November 2nd had Union had upped the ante by asking for the removal of three retort house workers at Vauxhall who had signed the agreements. Two days later on the 4th, the Board of South Met. Gas received a resolution that the Union had also sent to the daily papers. It read: "That in the opinion of this meeting who have signed the bonus scheme brought out by Mr. Livesey whom we look upon as blacklegs to our Society, is condemned by us as unjust, unfair and must be resisted and that all the men in the South Metropolitan Gas Works are justified in giving in their notices forthwith, until the same be abolished and the said men removed from the works" and stated that a copy be sent to the Directors. The following day a correction to the resolution was sent out by the union, claiming that it should have read "or the said men" (rather than "and the said men").

1893 - Herbert Read (d. 1968), English poet, art critic, anarchist and political philosopher, born. Wrote 'Anarchy & Order; Poetry & Anarchism' (1938); 'Philosophy of Anarchism' (1940); 'Revolution & Reason' (1953); 'My Anarchism' (1966), etc. Early champion of Surrealism. Accepted a knighthood which caused much consternation and ridicule among the anarchist milieu.

[D] 1905 - [O.S. Nov. 21] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: A city-wide Moscow Soviet, representing eighty thousand workers, is formed.

1912 - In Jack London's 'The Iron Heel' the German fleet sinks American ships in Honolulu. War is declared between US and Germany the following day and within hours a general strike is called in both countries. The war is called off within a week as the working classes on both sides refuse to fight.

1912 - María Mañas Zubero (d. 1991), Spanish anarchist militant and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

[EE] 1912 - Irma Götze [ERROR]

1914 - Revolución Mexicana: Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa sign a formal alliance, the Pacto de Xochimilco, merging the Northern Division and the Southern Liberation Army into a single entity to fight against Venustiano Carranza. The joint force them marches on the capital, seizing control of it on the 6th.

1919 - Criminal Syndicalism: An Oakland jury finds Oakland IWW secretary James McHugo guilty of violating California's Criminal Syndicalism Law; it takes the jury five minutes to arrive at its decision, and McHugo is sentenced to one to fourteen years in San Quentin prison.

1921 - Carlos Franqui (d. 2010), Cuban leftist writer, poet and journalist, member of the Movimiento 26 de Julio and co-editor of the underground newspaper 'Revolución', born. Exiled from Cuba after condemning the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia.

1923 - Maurice Barrès (Auguste-Maurice Barrès; b. 1862), French Symbolist novelist and journalist, dies. [see: Aug. 19]

1924 - The 'instantaneist' ballet, 'Relâche', choreographed by Jean Börlin to music by Erik Satie, with sets by Francis Picabia, is premièred at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées in Paris. During the intermission two Surrealist films, 'Entr'acte' by René Clair and 'Queue du Chien' by Francis Picabia, are shown. The première was originally planned for Nov. 27 but had to be cancelled due to illness, the irony being that relâche is the word used to indicate a cancelled show or closed theatre.

1925 - Francisco Sionil José, anti-colonial Filipino novelist and writer, born.

1935 - In Geneva, anarchists begin destroying slum housing, smashing windows and tearing up roofs this evening as part of an intense FOBB (Federation of Wood and Construction Workers) campaign of agitation over workers' homes which were little better than hovels.

1937 - Fierce fighting between the Fascist army and Republican troops near the province capital of Teruel.

1941 - Union Minière du Haut Katanga Strike: 1,400 black workers at the Belgian mining company, Union Minière du Haut-Katanga, in the Belgium Congo are now on strike. [see: Dec. 3]

1944 - Dekemvrianá [Δεκεμβριανά / December Events]: The funeral service for those killed in Syntagma Square is held in Athens Cathedral and then the funeral procession headed to Syntagma square. There were 300,000 protesters. The coffins were lined up in a row, where the victims of the Sunday shooting had fallen. Everyone knelt in silent prayer. Some were holding banners written with the blood of the dead. At the top of this peaceful procession there was a banner held by three young women who were dressed in black. The banner said: "When the people are set in front danger of tyranny they pick either chains, or arms." This time government forces took no action but the procession was attacked by Chites (Χίτες), members of the Nazi-collaborationist Organisation X (Οργάνωση Χ), led by Colonel George Grivas (Γεώργιο Γρίβα), leaving over 100 dead and many more were wounded. The angry crowd besieged the hotel Cecil in Omonia Square in order to set fire to it, but the British managed to prevent this.
In Thisio, two battalions of ELAS (ΕΛΑΣ) fighters battled with members of Organisation X and the British were forced to intervene with tanks to rescue the leader of Organisation X, George Grivas, and take him to safety in Athens. Elsewhere ELAS forces staged occupations of several police stations in Piraeus and in areas around the centre of Athens, seizing any available weapons. The same afternoon, ELAS forces attacked the prison at the top of Vouliagmeni Avenue, and occupied it.
That night, Georgios Papandreou (Γεώργιος Παπανδρέου), head of the government of 'National Unity', offered to resign as head of the National Unity government, but the British Commander, Lt. Gen. Ronald Scobie, told him he had to stay in office.

1944 - Louis Louvet and Simone Larcher begin publishing 'Ce Qu’il Faut Dire' (What Must Be Said) in France.

1946 - Oakland General Strike: Following the previous day's celebratory atmosphere, crowds once again thronged the downtown streets, growing at one point to 35,000 people. With many of the strikers as determined as the day before to "fight to the finish" amid rumours that the strike might spread to San Francisco and that the CIO, who had not come out in support of the strike, might join. Alameda County CIO had already giving vocal support to the strike, and their members were honouring AFL picket lines. The union had also called a mass membership meeting for Thursday night to decide whether its 30,000 members would join the strike, thereby cutting off the city's gas, telephones, electricity and water, if the dispute hadn’t been settled by then. Others feared that the National Guard might be called out. However, the first major setback to the general strike came when West Coast and national leadership of the Teamsters came out against the strike, calling it "a lot of foolishness". Dan Tobin, President of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, telegraphed the Local 70:
"The International Brotherhood of Teamsters is bitterly opposed to any general strike for any cause. I am therefore ordering you and all those associated with you who are members of our International Union to return to work as soon as possible … No general strike has ever yet brought success to the labour movement, On the contrary, the only result of the general strike is to persecute and inconvenience the public and seriously injury the thousands of fair employers with whom we have contracts."
The Teamsters' West Coast vice president Dave Beck ordered the teamsters back to work by midnight Wednesday. With the Teamster leadership so publicly against the strike, the employers knew that they then held all the cards.
At a meeting of AFL business agents and officials at the Labor Temple on Wednesday, Einar Mohn, a Teamster International organiser in Los Angeles and Beck's man on the spot, together with Harry Lundeberg, managed to persuade those gathered that the strike was doomed despite the then widespread rank and file optimism. That night, the AFL negotiating committee met with Oakland City Manager, Jack Hassler, and the employers, who still refused arbitration on any but their own terms. However, after the employers had left the meeting about midnight, the union and Hassler continued to negotiate. Finally, at 04:00 the meeting broke up – Hassler had pledged that in the future police would not escort strike-breakers and would be impartial in bargaining disputes, and that the Veterans Trucking Co. would be removed from the Bay Area. Pending a vote of AFL officials, the strike was over. At this point the employers, "in light of last night’s events", decided to withdraw from any further discussion of arbitration. The store clerks would not benefit from the settlement. [see: Dec. 3]

1952 - Giuseppe Monanni (b.1887), Italian editor, self-taught journalist, publisher and propagandist of individualist anarchism (a la Nietzsche and Palante), dies. A typesetter by profession, he founded the anarchist journal 'Vir' in 1907 in Florence. Alongside his wife Leda Rafanelli (whom Mussolini famously slobbered over whilst still editor-in-chief of the daily socialist newspaper 'Avanti!'), he collaborated on various newspapers and publications including 'La Questione Sociale' (1909); 'La Rivolta' (1911) and 'La Libertà' (1913-1914). In addition to his journalism, Monanni was editor of the Libreria Editrice Sociale (Social Publishing Library; 1910 to 1915), the Casa Editrice Sociale (Social Publishing House; 1919 to 1926), and finally the Casa Editor Monanni (Monanni Publishing House; 1926 to 1933), as well as publishing works on individual anarchism by Palante and Nietzsche. His editorial work suffered the interruption of WWI and temporary refuge in Switzerland. Upon his return to Italy, and like many others, he suffered increasing repression with the rise of fascism but managed with Carlo Molaschi to found L'Università Libera (Free University) whose work was subsequently limited to general educational work following the passing of special laws, and ceased all together due to financial and further political restraints. After the end of the war and the fall of Fascism in Italy, he collaborated again on the newspaper 'Libertario' under the pseudonym of 'Mony'.

[AA] 1969 - Black Panther Fred Hampton is shot dead in his bed by a Chicago police murder squad. [expand]

1969 - 19 years old and eight and a half months pregnant, Black Panther Party member Deborah Johnson (Akua Njeri) survives the 04:00 Chicago PD raid on the Black Panther headquarters on West Monroe and witnesses the assassination of her partner, the Chicago Panther leader Fred Hampton, as they lay in bed asleep together.

[A] 1971 - Georg von Rauch (b. 1947), German anarchist and founder of the Anarchist Black Cross in Germany and June 2nd Movement, is ambushed (along with Michael 'Bommi' Baumann , Hans Peter Knoll and Heinz Brockmann) by plainclothes armed police and shot in the eye, killing him instantly, despite being unarmed and having his hands raised. [see: May 12]

1973 - Dave Dellinger, Jerry Rubin and Abbie Hoffman of Chicago Seven, together with their attorney William Kunstler, are all found guilty of contempt by Judge Hoffman, but get no additional sentences. Rennie Davis, Tom Hayden and attorney Leonard Weinglass acquitted of contempt charges.

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: In a press conference, Mário Soares accused the PCP of having actively participated in the November 25 coup, using the extreme left as the "tip of the arrow head" and criticizes the PPD of "retrograde anti-communism" by calling for the removal PCP as a condition of it remaining in Government.
The same day the PS alongside the PPD and CDS call for a review of the Pacto MFA-Partidos, the covenant between the Movimento das Forças Armadas and the political parties involved in the Carnation revolution.

[C] 1975 - Hannah (Johanna) Arendt (b.1906), German American political theorist on the nature of power, politics, authority and totalitarianism, dies. Best known works include: 'The Origins of Totalitarianism' (1951); 'The Human Condition' (1958); 'On Revolution' (1963); 'Men In Dark Times' (1968); 'On Violence' (1970) and 'Crises of the Republic: Lying in Politics; Civil Disobedience; On Violence; Thoughts on Politics and Revolution' (1972).

1981 - Reagan authorises the CIA to spy on US citizens.

1988 - Teresa Pons Tomàs (d. 1988), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Apr. 10]

1995 - Earth Liberation Front (ELF) wrecks Whatley Quarry, AMEY Roadstone's flagship quarry in the Mendips.

[F] 2007 - South African Miners' Strike: South Africa’s 270,000-member National Union of Mineworkers hold a one-day strike action to protest unsafe working conditions in the country’s mines. In 2007, over 200 miners died on the job in South Africa. “We are losing mine workers on an almost daily basis,” said a union spokesperson. “This is because of pure negligence.” Affecting over 240,000 workers in 60 of the nation's mines, it was the first ever industry-wide miners' strike in South African history.

2013 - At 12:00, after 35 hours of violence, looting and destruction in Cordoba, Governor Jose Manuel de la Sota announced after four meetings, an agreement with the strikers and they returned to patrol the streets. It consists of a wage increase of more than 30 percent for the force personnel, the basic wage of 8,000 Argentine pesos (up from 6,500) from February 2014. He also promised that there will be no sanctions or reprisals against the strikers.
Events in Cordoba inspire police forces in other provinces to go out on strike too.
1848 - Alexandre Eugène Tennevin (d. 1908), French anarchist activist, born. [expand]

1869 - Temistocle Monticelli (d. 1936), Italian anarchist militant and anti-militarist, member of the Comité de Défense Libertaire, as secretary of the underground Comitato di Azione Internazionalista Anarchica he was arrested during WWI, born. [expand]

1885 - Louise Bryant (d. 1936), US journalist and writer, born. An anarchist and Marxist, she contributed articles and essays to Berkman's 'The Blast' and other radical journals on a number of radical political and feminist themes.

1885 - Maria Anna Rygier (also Maria Corradi-Rygier or Maria Rygier Corradi; d. 1953), Italian anti-militarist, syndicalist, anarchist propagandist, anti-fascist activist, and later a monarchist, born in Krakow into a wealthy Polish family. Her sculptor father, Teodoro Rygier, who had become popular in Rome society and become a naturalised Italian, would continue to support her later in life despite her radical politics in the hope that she would return to the conservative fold. Educated as a child in a rigid and austere college run by nuns, a strict, austere and conformist environment that had a profound and lasting effect on her character, but one where she also gained a wide knowledge of culture and of different foreign languages. In 1904 Maria moved with her mother Rozycka Sabina from Rome to Milan, where Maria began attending political circles and Milan radical, remaining fascinated. Working as a shop assistant, she became secretary of the women's section of the Federazione fra gli Impiegato e Commessi d'Aziende Private d'Italia (Italian Federation of Clerks and Salespeople of Private Companies) and, together with Gino Pesci, she was a delegate for the organisation at the International Conference for the fight against unemployment held in Milan on October 2-3, 1906. She also began collaborating on many of the period's socialists and libertarian newspapers, including the Federation's fortnightly 'L'Unione', an article in which shortly after the general strike of September 1904 led to her first prosecution, for "incitement to hatred between different classes". In January 1905, she participated in the Congress of Camere del Lavoro and the syndicalist Leghe di Resistenza (Resistance Leagues) in Genoa, where she met Virginio Corradi, the representative of the revolutionary syndicalist leadership of the Camere del Lavoro in Milan, whom she married the following year. 1905 also saw her join the Commissione di controllo of the Milan Camera del Lavoro.
Throughout this period she remained close to the group around Arturo Labriola, Walter Mocchi and the 'Avantguarda Socialista' (Socialist Vanguard) and, with the defeat of the revolutionary syndicalists within the Camera del Lavoro and the Unione degli Impiegati e Commessi, she took up journalism full-time. In December 1906, she was appointed editor-in-charge of the new Milanese syndicalist periodical 'La Lotta di Classe' (The Class Struggle). She also intensified her anti-militarist activities, starting a bimonthly anti-militarist propaganda sheet 'Rompete le File!' (Break the Line!; 1907-13) at the beginning of 1907 with Filippo Corridoni, Edmondo Mazzuccato and Edmondo Rossoni and also taking part in the setting up of the Italian section of the Alleanza Internazionale Antimilitarista (International Anti-militarist Alliance). Based on Gustave Hervé's 'Guerre Sociale', 'Rompete le File!' openly incited desertion, and was clandestinely distributed in barracks and in places frequented by young people or where recruitment was taking place.
The reaction of the military authorities was swift and soon the convict battalions were enriched with new recruits, amongst them in 1908 the entire editorial staff of the magazine. Maria Rygier herself had to answer for twenty-two articles published in the 'Rompete le File!', a journal which the Prefect of Milan claimed was targeted "for its revolutionary and rebellious nature, contemptuous of every principle of authority." Rygier ended up serving time in prison, something that would become a regular occurrence for this fiery and combative character. Her incendiary newspaper articles were passed from hand to hand, appropriated as slogans of struggle and transcribed into speeches, becoming powerful and deadly weapons at the disposal of revolutionaries of every political tendency.
Amongst the other newspaper that she wrote for was 'Avanti' and 'La Demolizione' (Demolition), Ottavio Dinale's newspaper based on the revolutionary syndicalist of Georges Sorel, which was published between 1907 and 1911, first in France, in Annemasse, and then in Italy, in Milan. Maria also embraced with enthusiasm and conviction the cause of universal suffrage and women's empowerment, urging women to "overcome the apathy and resignation imposed [on them] for centuries by their fathers and husbands". 1907 also saw her face arrest and imprisonment for her activism (a demonstration at the Prefecture on July 4 and the invasion of the Archbishopric on July 21 to protest against acts of paedophilia by some priests): sentenced to twenty months imprisonment on August 3, six months on August 22, six months and twelve days on September 10, and two years on February 14, 1908. Described by police as suffering from an "intimate fever to make herself famous", the superintendent of Milan denied the request for a pardon made by her father, who was concerned about the health consequences of prison of his daughter, stating instead that "the rest, peace and quiet" in the custody would have positive health benefits for her. On May 1, 1908, the Parma syndicalist newspaper 'L’Internazionale' published a postcard with a picture on it depicting her as a new 'heroine' as she languished in Santa Viridiana prison in Florence. She also began to be widely referred to the "Luisa Michel d'Italia".
Following the amnesty of February 1909, she was freed and on her return to Milan on February 14, a procession accompanied her from the station to her home in the via S. Gregorio, where about four hundred people sang the 'L'Inno dei Lavoratori' (Hymn of the Workers) for her. That same year, Maria began an intense campaign in the columns of 'Il Secolo' (The Century) on the conditions of the detainees: the abuse, lack of hygiene, poor sanitary conditions, non-compliance with regulations, sadistic nuns, etc. in the local prison in Milan, the judicial prisons in Bologna, Florence and Turin, and the reformatory in Perugia, which was closed in June 1910 following the Maria's complaints. 1909 also saw her break with Corradi and move to Bologna, having witnessed Armando Borghi present the agenda for the proclamation of a general strike on the occasion of the National Congress of the Leghe di Resistenza. In Bologna she joined the local Camera del Lavoro and aligned herself within the anarchist movement. The reasons for her transition from revolutionary syndicalism to anarchism were laid out in her pamphlet 'Il Sindacalismo alla Sbarra: Riflessioni d'una ex-sindacalista sul Congresso omonimo di Bologna' (Unionism in the Dock: Reflections of an ex-syndicalist on the eponymous Congress of Bologna) published in 1911.
A popular lecturer, she toured the country speaking on her usual theme of anti-militarism and prisons, as well as religion, free thought, the role of women, anarchist organisation, and the figures of Giordano Bruno and Francisco Ferrer. On July 29, the tenth anniversary of the death of Umberto I, at a private conference held in the hall of Modern Art in Milan, and in front of almost all of Milan's anarchists, she argued that the regicide in Monza was "necessary and proper". During the same period he collaborated on 'L’Agitatore' (The Agitator), which she was editor of twice (at the end of 1911 and in early 1913). Returning from a speaking trip to Switzerland in May 1911, she was arrested again when a bottle of white phosphorus that she was carrying caught fire. The arest sparked widespread protests from the anarchist, socialist and trades union press. 'L’Alleanza Libertaria' in an article 'Pro vittime politiche e per la liberazione della nostra Maria Rygier' (For political prisoners and for the liberation of our Maria Rygier) on July 20, 1991 called her the "heroine of anarchy". In response, the Interior ministry expedited her trial and, found guilty, appealed and was granted parole.
At the outbreak of the war in Libya, she plunges back with undiminished fervour into her anti-militarist propaganda activities. And when Augusto Masetti on October 30, 1911, famously shot Colonel Stroppa in Cialdini barracks in Bologna, shouting "long live anarchy" in an act of rebellion whilst inciting his fellow recruits to also refuse to fight in Lybia. Masetti's act prompted a major campaign of solidarity and anti-militarist propaganda, during which Maria celebrated his gesture in the columns of 'L’Agitatore', resulting in the arrest of the entire editorial staff of the magazine, excluding Armando Borghi who managed to flee abroad. Thus began another period in prison, during which she expressed a desire to be involved in the failed assassination attempt on Victor Emmanuel III made by the anarchist Antonio D'Alba on March 14, 1912 in Rome. Although ending up playing no material part in the plot, she was still sentenced to three years in connection with it. The influence of her support campaign spread as far as France, where 'La Bataille Syndicaliste', 'La Guerre Sociale' and 'Le Libertaire' all publish articles in her support. With a new amnesty in December 1912, the staff of 'L’Agitatore' were released and Maria regained the editorship from Domenico Zavattero, beginning a conflict which would split the Italian anarchist movement and cause widespread disgust at Zavattero's attacks on Rygier.
In the latter half of 1913, Maria once again began campaigning on Masetti's behalf, who in the meantime had been locked up in a mental hospital. With the help of Borghi, she organised a visit to France to give lectures in support of Masetti. In Paris she joined in the "grandiose but useless" campaign launched by the SFIO, the CGT and the anarchists against the 'Loi des trois ans' (Law of three years), which increased the term of military conscription from two to three years. During a visit to London she made sure that she publicly attacked the "odious monarchy", with the 'The Daily Citizen' publishing a short biography, describing her as a heroine who had renounced the life of luxury for the labour movement. Back in Paris, she attended the French Anarchist Communist Congress in August, and returned to Bologna in early September.
Meanwhile, Maria Rygier had become involved in the Masons, who had granted her membership, and continued her pro-Maseeti campaigning, support for whom had spread across the Atlantic to America, where on April 12, 1914, an international meeting promoted by Italian anarchists was held in New York. The Comitato Nazionale pro Masetti, of which Maria was secretary, decided to organise on June 7, 1914, the date of the Festa dello Statuto Republican celebrations, anti-military rallies across Italy. In Ancona, the tragic outcome of the rally there kicked off the 'Settimana Rossa' (Red Week). On June 10, following a speech by Rygier in Imola, demonstrators set fire to the district court and attacked the police barracks. That same evening, Rygier spoke in Faenza and again an angry mob tried to set fire to the cathedral and other churches. Following the 'Settimana Rossa', Malatesta fled to London and Fabbri to Lugano, whilst Rygier returned to France, where she held a series of meetings and gave interviews, first in 'La Guerre Sociale' and then in 'République Italienne'.
At the outbreak of the war, she returned to Italy and, though at first appearing to take a neutralist position, whilst expressing the deepest sympathy for France, on September 14 in Rome during the commemoration of Caesar Colizza and the young Republicans fallen in Serbia, she expressed the need for Italian intervention in the "war of liberation". Now, firmly in the interventionist camp (something that she shared with her new French Masonic friends), she helped draft the manifesto 'Per la Francia e per la Libertà' (For France and for Freedom). The anarchist press responded by attacking her: the 'heroine' had become a mere 'scribbler' (scribacchina), a "false anarchist", "a crook [...] who had returned to the bourgeoisie", "Marietta the warmongering viper", etc.
Rygier continued her pro-interventionist activities, writing in the pro-interventionist press such as 'L’Internazionale', 'La Guerra Sociale', 'L’Iniziativa', Milan's 'L'Avanguardia', 'Il Libertario di La Spezia', Benito Mussolini's socialist newspaper 'Il Popolo d'Italia', and 'La Riscossa', the newspaper of the interventionist Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria in Bologna. She also participated in the Congresso Nazionale dei Fasci Interventisti (National Congress of Interventional Fasci [= workers leagues]) as president, alongside Angelo Oliviero Olivetti and the French revolutionary Madame Sorgue. The organisers of the congress were Mussolini and Alceste De Ambris, head of the interventionist section of the Unione Sindacale Italiana, both of whom had jointly founded the Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria movement in December 1914, to promote the interventionist within the workers' movement.
In 1915 he published 'La Nostra Patria. Sulla Soglia di un'Epoca' (Our Homeland. On the Threshold of an Era) and, at the end of 1915, and with her creditability in anarchist and revolutionary syndicalist circles ruined, Rygier moved to Genoa and in February 1916 participated in the Republican Congress in Rome. In 1917, she was secretary of the Rome Camera del Lavoro but was forced out due to her bad relations with the workers' leagues. After the war, she did not become part of the fascist movement, defining herself as a nationalist and anti-Bolshevik. In 1923, she eschewed nationalism and three years later in 1926, following public criticism of Mussolini, the police searched her home and was arrested and confined to a psychiatric hospital. Threatened with death on March 30 that year, she went into exile in Paris, expressing open opposition to the fascist regime, and published a pamphlet in Brussels in 1928 (later reprinted in 1945 in Italy), entitled 'Mussolini indicateur de la police française: ou les raisons de sa occultes "conversion"', which claiming that since the early 1910s he had been funded by the French police and / or the secret services (Bleus), firstly to bring Italy to an anti-militarist and neutralist positions and then to at least bring some of the Socialist movement there to a pro-French / anti-German interventionist position. She was awarded the International Prize for Literature Against War for the publication. In 1930, she published 'La Franc-Maçonnerie Italienne devant la Guerre et devant le Fascisme' and in 1935 'Démagogie Rouge et Démagogie Fasciste', as well as being active in the Ligue des Droits de l'Homme. She remained in France through out the war, living in hardship and difficulty. , living in hardship and difficulty. Back in Italy after WWII, she proclaimed herself a liberal monarchist and in 1946 published the controversial book 'Rivelazioni sul Fuoruscitismo italiano in Francia' (Revelations about Anti-fascist Exiles in France).
Maria Rygier died in Rome February 10, 1953.

1889 - London Gasworkers' Strike: By noon on December 5th 2,000 notices had been handed in. Strictly speaking, this was not actually a strike, although it is always described as such. 'Strike' is a convenient shorthand term to described what happened. Under the Conspiracy and Protection of Property Act it was illegal for gasworkers to strike and so it was necessary for them to give a week's notice to terminate their employment, thus the employers had a week's notice of cessation of work. Given this, the employers now argued that there was no need for them to negotiate with the union as men had legitimately and legally left their jobs and they had legally and legitimately replaced them with new workers. The fact that the men had all left together was unfortunate but irrelevant.
The Board now set in motion their strikebreaking plans. Agents had been sent round the country to obtain blacklegs; in the Kent brickfields 'willing workers' were being offered a bonus and free food on top of wages – 5/4 for an eight hour shift. The entire staff of Ramsgate Gas Works was recruited – to the annoyance of Mr Valon, its manager; agents were giving away beer in Cambridge. In Yarmouth scabs protected by the police were taken off by train but the local SDF branch saw them off "with a warm groan". Barclay’s Brewery sent men, workhouse inmates were told to apply or lose benefit; the Prisoners Aid Society directed discharged prisoners to there, Gasworkers on strike from the Manchester arrived – they said Londoners always blacklegged on them. 'Free Labour' also came – men recruited as dedicated strikebreakers by politically motivated agents like William Collinson'. Corrugated iron huts were erected inside the works. Food was brought in – animals, tinned meat, tapioca and bread from the Golden Grain Bread Co. Beer from the Lion Brewery was provided – criticised by temperance strikers who thought Livesey was on their side in this: "this virtuous gent is one of the shining lights of the temperance platform yet he has collected numerous barrels of beer, anxious to make his blackleg crew roaring drunk."

1891 - [O.S. Nov. 23] Aleksander Mikhailovich Rodchenko (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ро́дченко; d. 1956), Russian artist, sculptor, photographer, photo-montagist, graphic designer and one-time anarchist, born. One of the founders of Constructivism and Russian design; he founded the Profsoiuz (Professional'nyi soiuz khudozhnikov-zhivopistsev, Professional Union of Artist-Painters) and was secretary of its left or avant-garde division, the Young Federation (Molodaia federatsiia). Married to fellow artist Varvara Stepanova.
An early anarchist active in various Moscow anarchist groups, including the Activist Group of the Moskovskija Associacija Anarchistov alongside Vladimir Tatlin, he was a close associate of Malevich, publishing regularly in 'Anarkhiia' under the pseudonyms 'Anti' and Aleksandr. On April 2, 1918, the newspaper published a salute to Rodchenko, Olga Rozanova, Udaltsova and others among the avant-garde: "With pride we look upon your creative rebellion.... We congratulate the creator Rodchenko on his spirited three-dimensional constructions of coloured forms..."
In an April 1919 catalogue for an exhibit in which he exhibited his black-on-black paintings (which many have interpreted as symbols of his anarchist views), Rodchenko assembled quotations from figures including Max Stirner ("That I destroy myself only shows that I exist") and poet Walt Whitman ("What invigorates life invigorates death"). Yet later that year he had already helped form Asskranov (Assotsiatsiia krainikh novatorov, Association of Radical Innovators), in opposition to Malevich's Suprematism, and by 1921, when the artistic avant garde had officially been dropped by the Bolshevik government, he had fully embraced the Communist/official Constructivism line that artistic endeavour - the intellectual production - of artist-engineers should entail the "mechanisation of creative methods and the reduction of the creative process to rational operations" (Gassner, p. 307) - when, in March of that year he, Aleksei Gan and Stepanova joined with Konstantin Nledunetskii, Karl Ioganson, Gregorii Stenberg and Vladimir Stenberg to form The First Working Group of Constructivists.
"Three artists spent the night in the mansion, since outside the museum a studio was set aside fur making art. As the artists told it, that memorial morning, 'We were awakened by shouts of, "We'll shoot! Hands up!''' Armed soldiers ordered them to get dressed, took them out to the courtyard and together with anarchists sent them off to the Kremlin." - Rodchenko's description of a government raid on the anarchist-held Morozov mansion in Moscow in the early morning of April 12, 1918, published in 'Anarkhiia'.

[BB] 1896 - Henry Poulaille (d. 1980), French novelist, anarchist, director of Éditions Grasset, the journal 'Le Nouvel Âge Littéraire', founder of Le Musée du Soir [a room for workers, which included a library of books, magazines, newspapers and brochures, organised exhibitions of photographs and engravings, as well as meetings with writers], born into a poor working class anarchist family. Avidly devoured his father's library of anarchist books. Orphaned at 13, his brother and sister went to relatives but he chose to fend for himself selling newspapers and other unskilled jobs. Eventually he became friends with Jules Erlebach, known as Ducret, who ran an anarchist bookshop L’idée Libre (The Free Idea). Others he met around the same time were Jean Grave, Paul Delesalle, Victor Serge and Rirette Maîtrejean. During WWI he was wounded (Oct. 1917) and following his demob (Apr. 1919) he ended up working at the newspaper of the Commune Libre of Montmartre, 'La Vache Enragée' (The Angry Cow), wrote for other papers including L’Humanité and also signed the Manifesto of The International Union of Progressive Artists launched by the Dutch group De Stijl in 1922.
Later he became secretary of its press service and then its director. This helped him publish his own writings and those of other anarchist authors. He continued writing for the anarchist press (including 'La Revue Anarchiste' and 'L’Insurgé', edited by André Colomer) and promoting the idea of proletarian literature, creating the Prize Without A Name, which he promoted in his paper Journal 'Sans Nom' in 1925. The same year he published his first novel 'Ils Etaient Quatre' (They Were Four). [expand]
Many of his other novels are autobiographical: 'Le Pain Quotidien' (Daily Bread, covering the years 1903-1906; 1931); 'Les Damnés de la Terre' [Le Pain Quotidien 2: 1906-1909] (The Wretched of the Earth; 1935); 'Pain de Soldat' [1914-1917] (Soldier's Bread; 1937); 'Les Rescapés' [Pain de soldat 2, 1917-1920] (The Survivors; 1938) and, unpublished in his lifetime, 'Seul Dans la Vie à 14 Ans' [1909-1914] (Alone in the Life of a 14-year-old'; 1980) - all featuring a working class family: the Magneux; with the character of Loulou Magneux being his literary double.
During and after WWII, Poulaille also anthologised numerous stories, carols and songs, and many of these books still remain in use as reference tools.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 22] Chita Republic [Читинская республика] / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: at mass meeting elected the Board of soldiers and Cossack deputies and created an armed workers' militia numbering four thousand. man. The Council and the squad headed by A.A. Kosciusko-Volyuzhanich. On the same day the workers without prior arrangement entered an 8-hour workday.

1908 - The newspaper 'Bezvlastie' (Безвластие / Anarchy) first appears, in Razgrad, Bulgaria. Founded by Varban Kilifarski, it represents the largest diffusion of anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist thought in the country before the First World War.

1912 - In Jack London's 'The Iron Heel' war is declared between US and Germany following sinking of American ships in Honolulu by the German fleet. Within hours a general strike is called in both countries. The war is called off within a week as the working classes on both sides refuse to fight.

1913 - A warrant is issued for the arrest of Clara Giveen for failing to return to Pentonville Prison following her release under the 'Cat and Mouse' Act.

1919 - Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman are detained on Ellis Island in NYC.

1920 - In Barcelona, ​​following a general strike in protest against the deportation of about thirty anarcho-syndicalist militants to the Mola de Mahón in Minorca, a group of cenetistas stationed in a strategic place of the Campo del Arpa opened fire against pickets of Guardia Civil that patrolled the area. The guards were able to arrest Gregorio Daura Raduá [Gregorio Dora in the Castillian language Madrid press], whom they took to the police station, which was heavily handcuffed, but halfway behind the Plaza de Toros de la Monumental, they applied the 'ley de fugas' – the right to shoot to kill 'fleeing prisoners'. According to the note that appeared in the press, Daura had tried to flee and was then shot him down by the Guardia Civil. Thus Gregorio Daura Raduá became the first victim of the application of this 'ley de fugas', even though Eduardo Dato, the president of the Consejo de Ministros, did not formally sign the Ley de Fugas legislation into law until January 20, 1921. From that day the 'law' would become the default tactic for ridding the authorities of troublesome workers.
However, this first execution of the 'ley de fugas' did not turn out as the guards had planned when, in the belief that Daura was dead and had taken his body to the Depósito Judicial del Hospital Clínico de Barcelona, ​​the doctors there discovered that Daura was still alive and managed to save the life.

[C] 1930 - Having premièred before an invited audience the previous evening, the first showing before the paying public in Berlin of Universal Studio's 'Im Westen nichts Neues', the dubbed (and judiciously cut) German version of 'All Quiet on the Western Front', directed by Lewis Milestone, is disrupted by Nazi protesters. Having recognised the potential propaganda potential of film, the new Gauleiter of Berlin and member of the Reichstag, Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels, organised the buying of a large number of tickets taken up by SA (Sturm Abteilung) stormtroopers and Nazi supporters. After Goebbels had given the signal by flashing his Reichstag pass (which gave him immunity from arrest), some 200 - 300 Nazis (reports vary) began booing and catcalling, threw stink bombs, and then, as the French rightist paper 'Je Suis Partout' reported the incident, released white mice "to frighten the ladies." Fighting broke out as the Nazis attacked anyone who protested at their antics. The showing of the film was stopped, and the police had to clear the Mozartsaal theatre at the Nollendorfplatz. The Nazi version of the incident, as reported in the 'Völkischer Beobachter', was naturally somewhat different. Their account, labelled a "storm of protest," demanded that the insult to German soldiers and the fallen created by the "Jewish-Bolshevist underworld" be ended, and blamed the Marxists for starting the riot in the theatre.
The next night, Goebbels led a substantial demonstration outside the theatre, followed by nightly protests. Spectators were searched for stink bombs and white mice before entering the theatre. The 'Völkischer Beobachter' carried detailed accounts of the Nazi protests, including Goebbels's speech against the film. According to the report, he proclaimed that it was a "cultural shame" that a film that belittled "the best soldiers of all time, the German front soldiers" should be allowed to run. The Berlin police were finally forced to ban all demonstrations in front of the theatre. On December 11, the film was again reviewed by the censors and, after a five-hour inquisition, banned. Two articles in the 'Neue Preußische Kreuz-Zeitung' provide a detailed account of the censors' review and conclusions. The head censor declared it "not a presentation of German war, but of German defeat, and thus is painful and depressing to the German viewer".

[E] 1930 - Zhang Zhixin (張志新; d. 1975), Chinese dissident during the Cultural Revolution, who took on the Gang of Four, publicly criticising them and the deification of Mao Zedong, for which she was imprisoned for six years (1969 - 1975) and tortured, before being executed, born.张志新]

1932 - Streik bei der Berliner Verkehrsgesellschaft [Berlin Transport Strike]: In clashes, three protesters (Albert Kayser, Otto Schmirgal und Conny Behrens) are shot by the police, eight more seriously injured. As per their threat, the BVG's directorate begins handing out the first thousand of dismissals following the unions' refusal to accept the terms of a mediation process that had confirmed the 2 Pfennig an hour pay cut. [see: Nov. 3]

1933 - Prohibition comes to an end in USA.

1935 - Svalyavsky Timberworkers' Strike [Свалявський страйк деревообробників]: 800 Transcarpathian loggers in Svalyavy (Сваляви) go out on strike following the employers refusal to meet the workers' demands of September 29. They are joined by workers from the area's sawmills and chemical plant bringing their numbers to around 3,000. In parts of Transcarpathia and Slovakia the populus help collect food and money in support of the strikers. Police responded by cutting off electricty to woekrs dwellings and the strikers were threatened with loosing their jobs and faced eviction. The strike ended on December 14 when the bosses were forced to sign a new collective bargaining agreement nad increase pay by 10%.

1943 - National Plenem of the Regionals of the CNT in Exile in France is held in Marseille.

[D] 1944 - Dekemvrianá [Δεκεμβριανά / December Events]: Overnight (Dec. 4-5) attempts by ELAS forces to occupy Sygrou and Hatzikosta prisons are thwarted by the British using armoured vehicles. ELAS seize the Directorate of Special Security of the State (Διεύθυνση Ειδικής Ασφαλείας του Κράτους) building on Patission Street in the capital. Most of the police escape with the assistance of British tanks. Elsewhere in the city, protesters are beaten by police and troops for the third day running, police stations are attacked and the noise of gunfire is heard everywhere. Barricades also begin to spring up dividing the city between the British and right-wing Greek elements based in the centre of the city and EAM-ELAS in the surrounding districts, being particularly strong in the north and east, with the initial 'front line' of fighting around Omonoia Square (Πλατεία Ομόνοιας).
Lt Gen Scobie imposes martial law in Athens.

1946 - Oakland General Strike: Despite the order by the Teamsters' West Coast vice president Dave Beck to retuurn to work, Local 70 instructed its members to stay on strike until the settlement could be voted by the AFL business agents Thursday morning – the teamsters would not break ranks and cause a stampede, even if their leaders had bowed to pressure for breaking the Strike. At 10:30, Thursday, the AFL business agents voted to end the strike. The committee issued a statement: "… our civil liberties have been restored by the appointment of a responsible executive head to our city government. We have the assurance from Mr. Hassler that the causes of the general walkout have been removed."
When news of the settlement reached the thousands of clerks, teamsters, car men and other unionists on the picket line, it was greeted with anger. One teamster told reporters that Beck had "stabbed us in the back". The clerks felt especially betrayed. They were to be left to fight on alone. For the rest of the day the picket lines remained, with hundreds of AFL rank and filers continuing to refuse to return to their jobs. Many of these attempted to revive the General Strike by convening meetings of their local unions. But the momentum was gone, and these attempts failed. The General Strike was over
The clerks however remained on the picket lines for a further six months despite warning of dismissal if they did not resume working. Negotiations resumed in December under the auspices of the Federal Conciliation Service, but remained deadlocked. Teamsters continued to honour the picket lines despite intense pressure from the West cast leadership. In mid-December, the Merchants’ Association obtained a court injunction limiting picketing to five per store entrance. The clerk's strike finally ended on May 14, after the union accepted a modified agency shop clause, sadly not appreciably different from that originally offered by the employers at the beginning of their dispute. Eventually Hastings would also sign a union contract, an act for which it was expelled from the RMA. The RMA itself later recognised the Retail Clerks local 1265 as the exclusive bargaining agent for its 27 other affiliates and agreed not to interfere with union organising campaigns among their employees. A somewhat pyrrhic victory. [see: Dec. 3]

1946 - Alexander 'Sanja' Schapiro (Alexander Moissejewitsch Schapiro [Александр Моисеевич Шапиро]; b. 1882), Russian Jewish anarcho-syndicalist militant active in the international anarchist movement, dies. Secretary of the London branch of the Anarchist Red Cross and of the anti-authoritarian A.I.T. (Association Internationale des Travailleurs). Worked on the Russian anarcho-syndicalist newspaper 'Rabochii Put'' (The Workers Voice) and the French anarcho-syndicalist paper, 'La Voix du Travail' (The Voice of Labour).

[F] 1955 - The American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations merge to form, yes you guessed it, the AFL-CIO.

1967 - Creation of the American section of the SI, composed of Robert Chasse and Tony Verlaan.

[B] 1970 - 'Accidental Death of an Anarchist' premières in Varerse, Italy.

1974 - Final episode of Monty Python broadcast.

1984 - Ethel Mannin (b. 1900), Irish anarchist, novelist and author, dies. Her writing career began in copy-writing and journalism but she later became a prolific author and novelist (100 plus books published in her lifetime), encompassing many aspects of anarchism and feminism as well as her travel writing. [see: Oct. 6]

[A] 1996 - Paramilitary death squad murders one union leader, kidnap another and burns down the building from which Coca Cola workers self-organise, in Bogota, Colombia.

2002 - José Borras Cascarosa aka 'Cantaclaro', 'Jacinto Barrera', 'Sergio', 'Sergio Mendoza' (b. 1916), militant Spanish anarchist and syndicalist, CNT, FIJL and Durruti Column member, dies. [see: May 17]

2007 - South Africa Miners' Strike: More than 240,000 workers in 60 of South Africa's mines hold a one-day strike over working conditions and safety in the country's mining industry. Called by the National Union of Mineworkers of South Africa on Novemebr 27, it was the first ever industry-wide miners' strike in South African history.
1670 - An attempt is made to abduct and kill James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde, by the adventurer Thomas Blood. Returning during the evening from a great banquet that had been held in the Guildhall, London, in honour of the visiting Prince William of Orange, Blood and his armed accomplices stop Ormonde's coach on St James's Street. He is dragged out and tied to a man on horse back before setting off towards Piccadilly with the intention of hanging him at Tyburn. Putting up a struggle, Ormonde managed to force himself and his abductor off their horse and, grabbing his assailant's sword, put up a fight. Blood and his men attempted to shoot Ormonde but he managed to escape due to the arrival of a number of men and the
darknees of the evening.

[F] 1811 - Luddite Timeline: 1811 - A curfew is declared in Nottinghamshire to try to stop Luddites revolt; in response, 36 frames are destroyed in the next six days.

[E] 1848* - Harriet Tubman (ca. 1822 - 1913), an African-American slave, escapes her owners in Maryland and goes to Philadelphia. After escaping, she immediately returns to Maryland to rescue her family. She makes repeated trips to help other slaves escape to the northern U.S. and then to Canada, using the network of activists and safe houses known as the Underground Railroad.
When the Civil War breaks out, Tubman works for the Union Army, first as a nurse and cook, and then as an armed scout and spy. She becomes the first woman to lead an armed expedition in the war, the Combahee River Raid, which frees more than 700 slaves. After the Civil War she is active in the women’s suffrage movement. [see: Mar. 10]
[* Poss. date of HT's birth, 1820 and 1821 also given as her year of birth.]

1855 - [N.S. Dec. 18] Natalia Nikolaevna Olovennikova (Наталья Николаевна Оловенникова; d. 1924), Russian revolutionary, member of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), who was the sister of fellow Narodistas Maria [Мария] and Elizaveta [Наталья], born. [see: Dec. 18]

1874 - [N.S. Dec. 18] Anna Rasputin [Анна Распутина](Anna Mikhaylovna Shulyatikov [Анна Михайловна Шулятикова]; Mar. 2 [Feb. 17] 1908), Russian revolutionary and member of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров) and its Combat Organisation's (Боева́я организа́ция) 'Northern combat flying squad' (Северный боевой летучий отряд / ЛБО СО ПСР), born. [see: Dec. 18]

1889 - The trial of the Chicago Haymarket anarchists begins. [expand]

1890 - Rudolf Schlichter (d. 1955), German Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) artist, Dadaist, and member of the KPD, who helped for the Rote Gruppe alongside John Heartfield and George Grosz, born. Painted 'Death of the Anarchist Moro' (1920) and 'Dada Roof Studio' (c. 1920).

[C] 1893 - Sylvia Townsend Warner (d. 1978), English feminist and lesbian writer and poet, born. Books include 'Lolly Willows' (1926) and 'Mr Fortune's Maggot' (1927). Active in the CPGB and visited Spain during the Civil War as a Red Cross representative.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 23] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: The Moscow Censorship Committee launch prosecutions against the editors of the liberal newspapers 'Evening Mail' (Вечерняя почта), 'Voice of Life' (Голос жизни), 'News' (Новости дня), and the Social Democratic newspaper 'Moskovskaya Pravda' (Московская правда).

1909 - Moishe Tokar, a young Russian Jewish anarchist and exiled member of Judith Goodman's group in London before slipping back into Russia, attempts to assassinate Hershelman, the hated military commander of the Vilna Fortress.

1914 - Revolución Mexicana: The troops of Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata seize control of México City. [see: Dec. 1]

1916 - Katya Budanova (Катя Буданова) (Yekaterina Vasylievna Budanova [Екатерина Васильевна Буданова]; d. 1943), WWII Soviet Air Force pilot and, along with Lydia Litvyak, one of the world's only two recognised fighter aces, born.

1918 - The US Department of War abolishes the practice of manacling prisoners (i.e. conscientious objectors) to the walls of their cells in solitary confinement.

1920 - First issue of the fortnightly paper 'L'Agitazione' (highest circulation 25 thousand copies) in Boston, Massachusetts.

[FF] 1928 - Matanza de las Bananeras [Banana Massacre] / Masacre de Ciénaga or Santa Maria: Alarmed by the extent of the civil unrest, but unwilling to allow America to participate in a domestic matter, the Colombian government sent a regiment of 300 men from Bogotá to put down the strike. Under the leadership of General Cortés Vargas, the government forces set up machine guns on the roofs of the low buildings at the corners of Ciénaga’s main square, closed off the access streets, surrounding the strikers who were gathered within. A five-minute warning was issued to disperse, but before the protesters had time to respond, orders were given to open fire on the crowd. Reports of casualties widely differed, and were constantly disputed by both sides, but estimates of striker fatalities range from Cortés Vargas's 47 to around 2,000, with 100 injured. Survivors, popular oral histories and written documents give figures of 800-3000 killed, adding that the killers threw the bodies into the sea, with many women and children included amongst the dead. The bloody events were recounted in Gabriel Garcia Marquez’s 1967 novel 'One Hundred Years of Solitude'.
The aggressive and uncompromising tactics of General Vargas ensured a swift end to the strikes.

1932 - Streik bei der Berliner Verkehrsgesellschaft [Berlin Transport Strike]: The Reichstag election takes place, which brought gains for the KPD (700,000 votes - 140,000 or 2.4% of the vote in Berlin - and was now supported by 6 million voters countrywide), whilst the NSADP lost 2 million votes, mostly amongst bourgeois voters, who deserted them for having participated in the strike. [see: Nov. 3]

1937 - The IWA meets in extra-ordinary congress in Paris (December 6 -17) to examine the CNT’s struggle in Spain, especially the problematic entry of anarchists into leading positions within the government. [expand]

1944 - Dekemvrianá [Δεκεμβριανά / December Events]: At dawn, ELAS forces launched an attack on Patission Street, ELAS' 4th Regiment occupied the Makrigiannis Constitution Gendarmerie building, the headquarters of the Greek Gendarmerie regiment, capturing 80 officers. After four days of hard battle, the forces of ELAS were repelled after active intervention of British armour. After a two-day battle, ELAS capture the Directorate of Special Security of the State building on September Third Street and torched the building that was a venue for the torture and executions of resistance fighters during the occupation.
In Athens, Lt. Gen. Ronald Scobie ordered the aerial bombing of the working-class Metz quarter. ELAS was asked to remove its fighters occupying the Acropolis so that the historic site would not be damaged in the fighting. ELAS complied but the British Army immediately occupied the ruins, from where they mortared ELAS positions in Vally. ELAS ordered it forces not to return fire.

[B] 1955 - James Koehnline, Surrealism-influenced collage artist who designs and editor of the yearly 'Autonomedia Calendar of Jubilee Saints' who illustrates numerous US anarchist projects including 'Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed' and 'Fifth Estate', born. His work is probably more widely know through the CD cover art featuring on numerous Bill Laswell releases.

1958 - 46 protesters enter a military site at North Pickenham in Norfolk in an attempt to stop construction on a Thor IRBM nuclear missile base.

1961 - Frantz Fanon (b. 1925), French-Algerian psychiatrist, anti-colonialist/nationalist philosopher, revolutionary and writer, dies. Works include 'Black Skin, White Masks' (1952) and 'The Wretched of the Earth' (1961). [see: Jul. 20]

1965 - Rose Pesotta (Rakhel Peisoty; b. 1896), US seamstress, labour activist, anarcho-syndicalist and feminist, dies. [see: Nov. 20 / Dec. 2]

1970 - Taiji Yamaga (b. 1892), Japanese anarchist militant, advocate of Esperanto and a long-time secretary of international relations for the Anarchist Federation of Japan, dies. [see: Jun. 26]

1972 - Stoke Newington Eight: The `Stoke Newington Eight' trial ends. Jim Greenfield, Anna Mendleson, Hilary Creek and John Barker are sentenced to 10 years for `conspiracy to cause explosions'. The other four charged are acquitted, and the sentence of Jake Prescott is reduced to 10 years.

1979 - British Steel Workers Strike: Following the British Steel Corporation's announcement on December 3 that it could afford only a base raise of 0- 2% for the next year, and that its workers could negotiate raises of up to 10% on a local plant-by-plant level depending on the plant’s productivity (this during a period when the national inflation rate was 17%) BSC management now announce a reduced 1980 production target of 15.2 million tonnes, down from an estimated 18.3 million in 1979. This decrease in production would allow a reduction of 52,000 employees in the work force of 160,000. The following day the Iron and Steel Trades Confederation announce a national strike beginning on January 2, 1980.

1985 - Hugo Gellert (b. 1892), Hungarian-born American artist, radical illustrator, muralist, socialist and anti-fascist, dies. A communist and anti-fascist, he famously illustrated 'Das Capital' in lithographs and caused much controversy in the US art world. [see: May 3]

1986 - Malik Oussekine, a 22-year-old French-Algerian student is beaten to death by police motorcyclists during protests against proposed eduction reforms. The 2 cops directly involved in his death are tried for "assault causing death without intention to kill", and sentenced on 28 January 1990 to two and five years probation.
Rioting in the Latin Quarter of Paris follows new of his death and that of Abdel Benyahia, a 20-year-old Algerian killed by a drunked off-duty cop in a cafe the previous day: cars trashed and shops looted; a newspaper kiosk is set alight — "Don't do that! It belongs to a worker". Up runs a guy: "I work here ... burn it, burn it!"

1989 - Fourteen women are murdered at the L’École Polytechnique in Montreal. December 6 is now commemorated in Canada as the National Day of Remembrance and Action on Violence Against Women.

2001 - Thomas William Gould (b. 1914), English Naval officer who won a Victoria Cross during WWII and co-founded of the anti-fascist 43 Group in 1946, dies. [see: Dec. 28]

[A/D] 2008 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: Alexis Grigoropoulos is assassinated by Greek police in the Eksarhia district of Athens, becoming the trigger for the 2008 insurrection. That night up to 10,000 people take to the streets of Athens in spontaneous protests, burning and smashing banks, ministries and multinational shops.
1549 - Kett's Rebellion: Robert Kett hung at Norwich Castle. [see: Aug. 28]

1822 - Émile Digeon (d. 1894), French revolutionary socialist journalist, born. Best remembered as the leader of the short-lived Narbonne Commune of late March 1871, libertarian free thinker and contributor to the anarchist journal 'L'insurgé'. In 1883 Digeon was an anarchist candidate(!) in the Narbonne elections, author of 'La Commune de Paris Devant les Anarchistes' (1885).

1837 - Charles Perron (d. 1909), Swiss-born anarchist, militant of the First International, Bakuninist propagandist and cartographer, born. [expand]

1861 - Han Ryner (Jacques Élie Henri Ambroise Ner; d. 1938), French teacher, anti-clerical, pacifist, individualist anarchist, philosopher (called a "contemporary Socrates"), novelist and all-round prolific writer, born. He published more than 50 books including novels, such as 'L'Humeur Inquiète' (The Worried Humour; 1894) and 'La Folie de Misère' (The Insanity of Poverty; 1895), short stories, essays, plays and poetry [he was voted prince of storytellers by the readers of the Parisian newspaper 'L'Intransigeant' in 1912] as well as his works on political theory and practice.

1862 - Paul Adam (d. 1920), French author, novelist, art critic, editor of 'Entretiens Politiques et Littéraires' and leading writer in the French anarchist movement, born. Amongst his other works is the totalitarian dystopia 'Lettres de Malaisie' (Letters from Malaysia; 1898), reprinted in 1908 under the title 'La Cité Prochaine' (The Next City).

1878 - Akiko Yosano (与謝野 晶子), the pen-name of Shō Hō (鳳 志よう; d. 1942), Japanese author, poet, pioneering feminist, pacifist, and social reformer of the late Meiji, Taisho and early Showa periods in Japan, born. She is one of the most famous, and most controversial, post-classical woman poets of Japan.

1893 - A Special Unit of the Guardia Civil is formed in Barcelona, charged with repressing the anarquistas.

1896 - Yoshiko Yuasa (湯浅 芳子; d. 1990), Japanese Russian language scholar and translator of Russian literature in the Shōwa period, socialist, feminist and lesbian, who travelled in the Soveit Union (1927-30) with her lover Yuriko Miyamoto (宮本 百合子), born.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 24] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Tsar introduces 'Provisional Rules', which at once abolish some aspects of censorship, but introduce harsher penalties for those praising 'criminal acts'.
The government announces a relaxation in press censorship laws and regulations, sparking a flood of anti-tsarist literature and propaganda.

1908 - National Union of Dock Labourers organiser James Larkin is officially suspended from the Liverpool-based union by the union's general secretary, James Sexton. Sexton had intervened to end the Belfast Dockers’ and Carters’ Strike in the summer of 1907, fearing the effect of the ongoing drain on the union's funds due to the payment of strike pay. Larkin had been instrumental in organising the dispute and Sexton's intervention marked the beginning of his conflict with the NUDL's executive, a situation which had been further exacerbated by his success in reviving many of the union's moribund Irish branches and even opening new ones. The final straw as far as the executive was concerned was Larkin's use of the union's funds to support an unofficial strike of dock workers in Cork, leading directly to his suspension. Larkin's response was to found the Irish Transport and General Workers Union, with many of the NUDL's members defecting to join his new organisation.

[1918 - 100,000 textile workers strike in Lancashire, England. [unknown orig. source]

1919 - Palmer Raids: At 21:00 on November 7, 1919, a date chosen because it was the second anniversary of the Bolshevik revolution, agents of the Bureau of Investigation, together with local police, executed a series of well-publicised and violent raids against the Union of Russian Workers (Союз Русских Рабочих) in 12 cities

1924 - Thomas Elek aka Tamás Elek and KERPAL (d. 1944), French communist Résistance fighter, who was executed at the fort du Mont Valérien as a member of the Manouchian Group, a volunteer of the French liberation army FTP-MOI, born in Budapest. His name was one of the ten featured on the 'Affiche Rouge', the propaganda poster distributed by Vichy French and German authorities in the spring of 1944 in occupied Paris following the trial of the 23 captured members of the Manouchian group. His photograph was displayed with the caption "Elek Juif Hongrois 8 déraillements" (Elek, Hungarian Jew, 8 derailments).

1928 - Noam Chomsky, American linguist, anarchist, social critic and activist, born. [expand]

1932 - Streik bei der Berliner Verkehrsgesellschaft [Berlin Transport Strike]: The joint strike front crumbles and workers drift back. By the following morning, trams, buses and underground trains are operating as normal. [see: Nov. 3]

1941 - Charles Radcliffe, English cultural critic, political activist, theorist and anarchist, born. Member of the Situationist International and editor of the magazine 'Heatwave'. [expand]

1946 - The founding conference of the anarcho-syndicalist Confédération Nationale du Travail (CNT-F) is held in Paris [Dec. 7-9. Its name is derived from its Spanish counterpart, the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, and is set up by exiled Spanish anarcho-syndicalists, former members of Confédération Générale du Travail-Syndicaliste Révolutionnaire (CGT-SR), as well as young people who participated in the Résistance and who had left the CGT because of its links to the PCF.

1952 - Founding Conference of the Lettrist International at Aubervilliers, France. Participants: Serge Berna, Jean-Louis Brau, Guy-Ernest Debord, Gil J. Wolman.

[F] 1959 - Fiji Oil Workers Strike: Oil workers for Shell Oil Co. and Vacuum Oil Co. in Suva and Nadi take part in a strike called by the Wholesale and Retail General Workers' Union. The union had submitted a series of demands on October 10: a raise in the company’s minimum wage from £3.6d to £6, a 40-hour working week, paid sick leave, and two weeks paid vacation per year. In response, Shell and Vacuum each offered a raise to £3.10s, with no added benefits. The bosses' offer was rejected on December 2. On Monday, December 7, the union notified the two companies that their workers in Suva and other key oil distribution points were on strike, whilst making arrangements to allow oil supplies to basic services, which included the electrical station, water station, hospital, and rubbish collectors. The colonial government had made no preparations for such a strike and serious disruption followed, as petrol supplies to motorists ran out by midday on the first day of the strike.
The following day the colonial administration and the oil companies decided to try and break the strike by employing non-union drivers to distribute petrol to several outlets in Suva, which would be protected by policemen. As a result, the petrol stations where the scab fuel was to be distributed were picketed and Fijian and Indian drivers persuaded not to seek petrol, leaving only Europeans in line for the pump. Meanwhile, taxi drivers joined the strike in solidarity, and James Anthony, the secretary and de facto leader of the WRWGU, decided that buses would no longer be classified as an “essential service. Strikers gathered at the bus station and coerced drivers into abandoning their routes. Striking Indians and Fijians and their supporters were now throwing rocks at Europeans trying to get petrol. An attempt by Anthony at 16:00 to talk to an angry crowd of frustrated commuters was refused by police, with riot police then demanding that the people disperse. They refused, and violence between strikers and police ensued. Police threw tear gas grenades, and the crowd answered with barrages of stones. A short time later time, police using tear gas and batons were able to clear the area but the rioting spread into the city, where it raged for most of the night with European-owned properties one of the main targets. The clashes between Fijian and Indian strikers on one side and the riot police on the other continued the following day. The colonial administration imposes martial law, sets a curfew and brings in extra police to arrest the crowds. The violence would likely have continued if it had not been for the intervention of the traditional Fijian chiefs, who stood with the Brits and managed to quieten things down.
Following two days of rioting and the overnight curfew, the Fijian streets on December 11th remained relatively calm even though oil industry workers are still on strike. Taxi drivers also remain on strike, and buses only have enough fuel to operate four hours a day. This state of affairs continues for the next several days. Meanwhile, in the absence of the WRWGU secretary and strike leader James Anthony, the more moderate WRWGU president Ratu Meli Gonawai had taken it upon himself to negotiate a settlement based on an increased minimum wage to four pounds eleven shillings and four pence, half the union's initial demand, and with no other additional benefits. Faced with a fait accompli, James Anthony was forced to sign the agreement, and on December 16th the striking Shell Oil Co. and Vacuum Oil Co. workers return to work.

[C] 1959 - Bernard Goldstein (b. 1889), Polish socialist, union organiser, who was active in the Warsaw Ghetto, helping smuggle in arms in preparation for the 1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, dies. After Poland's liberation from German occupation, he emigrated to the United States and wrote his autobiography, 'Five Years in the Warsaw Ghetto' (1949), originally titled 'The Stars Bear Witness' (1959).

1970 - Édith Thomas (b. 1909), Fench novelist and journalist, palaeographical archivist and historian, who was a pioneer of women's history in France, and reputedly inspired the character of Anne-Marie in the famous erotic novel 'Histoire d'O.', written by her lover Anne Desclos under the pen name Pauline Réage, dies. [see: Jan. 23]

1972 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: After the Angry Brigade sentences the previous day, Scotland Yard names two more people they want in connection with the bombings: Gerry Osner and Sarah Poulikakou, both living abroad at the time. 300 people marched in protest to Holloway Prison.In all, 12 people were arrested and charged - 2 had the charges against them withdrawn, 5 were acquitted, five were convicted and imprisoned for conspiracy.

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: The PCP holds a rally in Campo Pequeno at which Alvaro Cunhal acknowledges that "... the Portuguese left suffered a heavy defeat on November 25", and calls for "unity of forces interested in safeguarding liberties, democracy and the revolution."

1975 - Indonesia invades East Timor.

1979 - British Steel Workers Strike: Following the announcements by BSC management on its wage increase offer [Dec. 3] and the production target for the following year [Dec. 6], the Iron and Steel Trades Confederation call a national strike beginning on January 2, 1980.

1979 - In Valencia-Córdoba, a militant of the CNT transport union is arrested, accused of belonging to the Grupos Autónomos Anarquistas implicated in the Vilamarí Street tunnel which aimed to free prisoners from the Modelo de Barcelona prison.

1986 - Enrico Arrigoni (aka Frank Brand; b. 1894) , Italian American individualist anarchist Lathe operator, house painter, bricklayer, dramatist and political activist influenced by the work of Max Stirner, dies. [see: Feb. 20]

[B] 1990 - Horst Bienek (b. 1930), dissident East German novelist and poet, dies of AIDS. [see: May 7]

[E] 1994 - Amina Sboui (أمينة السبوعي) aka Amina Tyler (أمينة تيلر‎), Tunisian student, women's rights activist, and one-time member of FEMEN, born. Having posted a photo of herself topless with the slogan "My body is mine and not the source of anybody's honour" on Facebook, Imam Adel Almi issued a fatwa for her to be punished with 100 lashes and stoned to death. Arrested for painting "FEMEN" on a cemetery wall in Kairouan on May 19, 2013, to protest against the annual congress of Salafi party Ansar al-Sharia, she was acquitted for contempt and defamation on July 29, but remained in jail pending trial on a separate charge of desecrating a cemetery. Upon her release in August 2103, she announced she was leaving FEMEN following the group's protests in support of her in front of the Grand Mosque in Paris, where they burned a Tawhid flag. Tyler claimed that FEMEN's actions in Paris were disrespectful to the Muslim world. She later moved to Paris to continue her education and co-authored an autobiography, 'My Body Belongs to Me'.

1995 - Up to 1.75 million striking French workers demonstrate in marches, shutting down the country as part of an escalating series of General Strikes protesting government cutbacks and global exploitation of workers.

[A] 1996 - An American hacker subverts the Labour Party's election website - 'Please Buy Our Junk' and 'Same Old Lies, New Packaging' and the site's links are changed to transfer browsers to a porn site, The Labour Party Sex Shop.

1996 - A handful of squatters climb up on to the roof of Palazzo Reale (Royal Palace) in the centre of Turin. They hoist flags, place a puppet, hang a transparency and throw leaflets entitled ‘Anarchists have Wings’ to draw attention to the preliminary hearing of the strange investigation by public prosecutors Marini and Ionta and the general State repression against anarchists in Italy.

2006 - Hugo Cores (b. 1937), Uruguayan anarchist and influential political activist, dies. [see: Nov. 7]

2008 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: In Greece rioters rampaged through Athens and the northern city of Thessaloniki, hurling Molotov cocktails, burning stores and blocking city streets with flaming barricades after protests against the fatal Dec. 6 police shooting of 15-year-old Alexandros Grigoropoulos in Exarchia erupted into chaos.

2010 - Julian Assange, founder of Wikileaks, surrenders himself to police in England concerning charges of sexual assault made in Sweden.

[D] 2012 - Workers in the big Egyptian textile city of al-Mahallat al-Kubra (Mahalla for short) take over the City Council offices, ousting the council and declaring themselves a Revolutionary Committee. Entrances to the city and its rail lines were blocked as the city declared itself the 'Independent Republic of Greater Mahalla', autonomous from the Muslim Brotherhood's 'Ikhwani (Brotherhood) State' (although retaining its allegiance to the Egyptian state and using its national anthem). The act comes in response to bloody clashes in the city’s centre on November 27 between supporters and opponents of President Mohamed Morsy. Then 5,000 workers had finished their evening shift at the massive Misr Spinning and Weaving Company and marched on to Shon Square, protesting at what they perceived to be Morsy’s power grab, where they were attacked by pro-Morsy thugs with shotguns and Molotovs, leaving more than 350 injured.
Long a focus of anti-goverment and militant workers' struggles, in April 2008 the city was the focus for protests against perceived election fraud following the re-election of Hosni Mubarak as president, which developed into a general strike, nicknamed the 'Egyptian Intifida', across the country on April 6 in protests against low wages and rising food prices. In Mahalla, plainclothes security personnel and police tried to intimidate workers into not going on strike, infiltrating factories and attempting to force them to work. However, the strike and protests still went ahead across the country. In many places the security forces responded with teargas, rubber bullets and live ammunition and in Mahalla dozens of people were injured and at least two people killed. Many Egyptians would come to view the 2008 general strike as the turning point in the country's politics that would ultimately lead to Mubarak's overthrow. In Mahalla the protests continued intermittently, with the city (and the Misr Spinning and Weaving Company works in particular) becoming the focus in 2011 for the protests that ended in the collapse of the Mubarak dictatorship, as it was again in July 2008 that began amongst the city's textile workers (calling for increased profit sharing and the sacking of the management) on July 15 and spread to other industries, to doctors and nurses, university lecturers, etc. across Egypt, and would spark the creation of the 'Independent Republic of Greater Mahalla' later that year.
1733 - The first recorded UFO sighting in Britain at Fleet in Dorset.

1851 - Batalla de Loncomilla / Chilean Revolution: Forces of the Conservative Chilean government defeat liberal rebel forces in the decisive Battle of Loncomilla during the 1851 Chilean Revolution. Evenly matched (aprrox. 3,700 on each side), the goverment forces' frontal attack led to bloody house to house fighting in Villa Alegre and after 4 hours of fighting the rebel leader General José María de la Cruz ordered his forces to retreat. The government side, led by General Manuel Bulnes Prieto, sustained 800-1,000 casualties but managed to kill, wound or take prisoner 1,700 rebels, prompting mass desertions from their ranks and forced De la Cruz into a negotiated surrender and an amnesty under the Capitulación de Purapel (Treaty of Purapel), which was signed on December 16, 1851. In its provisions, De la Cruz agreed to recognise Manuel Bulnes Prieto as president in return for an amnesty and all rebel soldiers being allowed to re-enter the national army with their ranks and positions unchanged. In the city of La Serena, one of the main focuses of the revolution and which had been under siege by government forces since mid October, news of the defeat at Loncomilla led to widespread disaffection with the besieged city, which was now the sole seat of the uprising. Many of the revolutionaries left for Copiapó when news of the uprising led by Bernardino Barahona there on December 26 arrived, weakening the defences of the city, which fell on December 31 to General Vidaurre Leal's forces.

[E] 1871 - Tang Qunying (唐群英; d. 1937), Chinese revolutionary, who was the first female member of the Tongmenghui (Chinese Revolutionary Alliance), a secret society and underground resistance movement founded in Tokyo by Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren in 1905, born. Often cited as one of the "best-known women activists in modern Chinese history". She was chairwoman of the Women's Suffrage Alliance, an organisation created by the merger of the Nanjing Women's Alliance, the Women's Backup Society, the Women's Martial Spirit Society, and the Women's Suffrage Comrades' Alliance in 1912. The following year she founded the 'Women’s Rights Daily', Hunan's first newspaper for women. Tang died in her hometown of Hunan, China, on June 3, 1937, aged 66.

[B] 1880 - Shin Chae-ho (신채호; d. 1936), Korean historian, Journalist, novelist, 'nationalist' independence activist, Bakuninist anarchist and social Darwinist, born. A writer of elegant prose, he composed the draft of the 'Korean Revolutionary Manifesto' issued by the Band of Heroes (Eiyuldan), a revolutionary terrorist group responsible for a campaign of anti-Japanese violence in the 1920's. His novels are collected in 'The Dream Sky. Anthology of Novels by Shin Chae-ho' (1990), containing 'The Dream Sky' (Kkum Haneul, c. 1916) and 'The War of the Dragons' (Yonggwa Yongui Daegyeokjeon, c. 1920s-30s). His works, including his historiography, are still read in Korea today, where he is still held up as a national (sic) hero.

1882 - Tom Mooney (Thomas Joseph Mooney; d. 1942), US political activist and labour leader, Socialist Party of America member and one-time IWW member, who was falsely convicted with Warren K. Billings of the San Francisco Preparedness Day Bombing of 1916, born. [expand]

1883 - Georges Thomas (d. 1970), French teacher, anarchist, syndicalist and the socialist politician, born. Involved in anarchist circles between 1910-14, collaborating on Jean Grave's 'Temps Nouveaux'. Post-WWI, he moved towards libertarian socialism but still collaborated with anarchist Charles Benoît on 'L'Avenir International'. However, he embraced the October Revolution, forming l'Association Ouvrière et Paysanne des Victimes de la Guerre d'Indre, joining Secció Francesa de la Internacional Obrera (SFIO) and ultimately the Parti Socialiste, where he denounced his previously held libertarian views.

1886 - Diego Rivera (Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez; b. 1957), Mexican painter, muralist and Marxist, who let Trotsky sofa-surf at his pad whilst in exile, born.

1891 - [N.S. Dec. 20] Maria Skobtsova [Мария Скобцова] (Elizaveta Yurievna Pilenko [Елизавета Юрьевна Пиленко]; d. 1945), Russian noblewoman, revolutionary, poet, nun, and member of the French Résistance during World War II, who was executed in a gas chamber in Ravensbrück concentration camp, a week before the camp was liberated by the Red Army, born. [see: Dec. 20]

1896 - John (Johann) Neve (b. 1844) dies in Moabit Prison, Berlin. Active in the anarchist and workers' movements in Denmark, Belgium, England and Germany.

1911 - Sidney Solomon (d. 2004), Russian-born American painter, book designer, publisher and long-time anarchist, who lived in New York, born. With his wife, Clara, and others, Solomon was a co-founder of the Atlantic Anarchist Circle.

1913 - Revolución Mexicana: Pancho Villa occupies Chihuahua City.

1919 - Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman appear in federal court before Judge Julius M. Mayer, who declares that as aliens, they have no constitutional rights. They remain in detention at Ellis Island.

1922 - Mary Marcy (Mary Edna Tobias; b. 1877), US author, poet, pamphleteer, socialist and Wobbly, who was a member of the Socialist Party of America and editor of the Chicago-based monthly magazine 'International Socialist Review', suffering from depression and the loss of her home, commits suicide by taking poison. [see: May 8]

1927 - A petition set up by the anti-war Union of Democratic Control committing its 128,770 signatories to "refuse to support or render war service to any Government which resorts to arms" is handed to British PM Stanley Baldwin.

1930 - Janos (John) Réty (d. 2010), Hungarian-British anarchist poet, translator, publisher, chess-player, activist, born.

1930 - Adolphe Retté (b. 1863), French Symbolist poet, writer and anarchist,dies. [see: Jul. 25]

1938 - Georges Delaw (Henri Georges Deleau; b. 1871), French anarchist, poet, artist, designer and illustrator, dies. [see: Sep. 4]

1939 - Jean Grave (b. 1854), an important activist, writer and publisher in the French anarchist and avant-garde movements, dies. Involved with Élisée Reclus' 'Le Révolté' and wrote 'Mouvement Libertaire Sous la IIIe République'. [see: Oct. 16]

1949 - Helen Archdale (Helen Alexander Russel; b. 1876), English journalist, feminist and suffragette, who with her lover Margaret Haig Thomas, Lady Rhondda, together with whom she founded the Six Point Group of Great Britain, dies. [see: Aug. 25]

1961 - Adelaida Bou Cañalda (b. 1905), Catalan knitting machinst and anarcho-syndicalist, who was the partner of her fellow anarcho-syndicalist, Jaume Rosquillas Magrinyà (1901-1975), dies in Mexico.

1970 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Big demonstrations against the Tory Government's Industrial Relations Bill. In the early hours of December 9 the Department of Employment and Productivity in St James Square, London, is bombed. The police had searched the building and no sooner left it than it went off. Action claimed by the Angry Brigade.

1970 - Italian writer and Internationale situationniste Gianfranco Sanguinetti declares his solidarity with the group's November 11 tendency.

1977 - The CNT convenes a rally against trade union elections in the Palacio Municipal de Deportes in Barcelona with the attendance of more than 8000 people and in favour of freedom of association in factories, workshops, offices, etc.

1977 - Troops from Grupo de Tareas 3.3.2 (Task Force 3.3.2), under the command of Alfredo Astiz, kidnapped nine people linked to the Madres de Plaza de Mayo (Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo), including two founders, Esther Ballestrino de Careaga (b. 1918) and Maria Eugenia Ponce de Bianco (b. 1924), and two French nuns, from the Iglesia de la Santa Cruz in the San Cristobal district of Buenos Aires. They are all taken to the Escuela de Mecánica de la Armada (ESMA; School of Naval Mechanics), where they are tortured for the next ten days, along with Azucena Villaflor de De Vincenti and two others linked to the Madres. On either December 17 or 18, they are taken to the military zone of the capital's Aeroparque and loaded on board a naval aircraft for one of the Dirty War's numerous vuelos de la muerte (death flights). Drugged and stripped naked, they are thrown alive into the sea off the coast of Santa Teresita, dying as they hit the water. On Dec. 20, they corpses began to wash ashore, their multiple fractures consistent with hitting a solid object from a great height.

[F] 1979 - V Congreso de CNT: First Congress of the CNT after the Dictatorship of Franco, and the long exile is held in the Casa de Campo in Madrid [Dec. 8-16]. Those years of exile and the recent return to electoral democracy had built up tensions within the libertarian movement, and many of the reformist elements within the CNT 'rump' (who included many Marxist 'entryists') were already at odds with what they contemptuously called the 'exilio-FAI'*, who they blamed for all the problems within the organisation. This 'factionalism' mirrored the treintista vs. faísta* [gradualist vs. revolutionary / unionism vs. anarcho-syndicalism] split precipitated following the publication of the Manifiesto de los Treinta (Manifesto of the Thirty) in 1931. The reformists wanted the CNT to participate in the elections for the Jurados Mixtos, the Comités Paritarios and Jurados de Empresa – the various levels of Works and Factory Council formats set up during Second republic for setting wages and working conditions, which had been revived during the transition of democracy. Taking part in these they argued would offer the CNT the opportunity to become the "tercera fuerza sindical" (third trade union force – after the socialist UGT and communist CCOO). On the other hand, the anarcho-syndicalist current argued that such a move would effectively incorporate bourgeois parliamentarism into the CNT. The reformist platform was rejected by a large majority of the congress in favour of the renewal of Spanish anarcho-syndicalism from top to bottom. The congress also voted by overwhelming majority for the maintenance of the fraternal relationship with the FAI and the FIJL and, internationally, it would affiliate with both the International of Anarchist Federations (IAF-IFA) and the International Workers' Association (AIT-IWA).
The hardening of the two opposing positions would ultimately provoke a rupture of the anarcho-syndicalist (union) centre into the CNT-AIT and the CNT-Congreso de Valencia aka CNT-U(nificación), giving rise to the dismemberment of the Spanish libertarian movement, with the latter changing its name to the CGT in 1989 having lost the legal battle for the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo name.
[*It should be noted that the majority of both these grouping had no links with the Federación Anarquista Ibérica and linking them with the FAI was merely an attempt to paint them as dangerous radicals.]
[ -breve-introduccion-historica-0 -especial-v-congreso-de-la-cnt-madrid-1979-0ón_Nacional_del_Trabajoía:CNTía:CGT_(España)]

1980 - Working Class Hero and de facto libertarian John Winston Ono Lennon (b. 1940), is assassinated outside his apartment building in NYC by Mark David Chapman.

[C] 1981 - Nine Manchester Squad anti-fascists, having pleaded guilty on charges of possessing offensive weapons in a deal with the prosecution that led to the dropping of kidnap charges, are mostly sentenced to between 12 and 15 months (one anti-fascist received 6 months) at Manchester Crown Court. The 'kidnap' had occurred when a number of Squad members and some Manchester students had gone to Rochdale ostensibly to see if they could help a student called Michelle Mole who had supposedly been being harassed by the National Front, including having death threats posted through her letterbox. A skin with an NF badge was grabbed from near Mole's house and questioned (without violence). Despite being stopped by the police, the skin had not said anything until after his release, when he flagged down a second cop car and the anti-fascists' van was stopped and they were arrested. Michelle Mole subsequently disappeared after having given a less than favourable statement, and squad members drew the inevitable conclusion that they had been set up by the Special Branch. ['No Retreat']
"Eight supporters of Manchester Anti-Nazi League were sent to jail for taking a militant stand against fascist violence and intimidation in Rochdale. The sentences range from 12 to 15 months, and as a result the families of the jailed comrades face serious financial hardship. Supporters of the fund so far include: UB40, Seething Wells, Red Action Manchester, Red Action London, South Manchester ANL, Tony Ahearne, Provisional Sinn Fein, Manchester IRSP, Manchester Poly Students, Central Manchester ANL, ICI Shop Stewards Committee, Islington ANL." ['Searchlight', May 1982]

1982 - American anti-nuclear weapons activist Norman Mayer threatens to blow up the Washington Monument with 1,000 lbs (500 kg) of TNT that he claims are loaded in his van, unless the news media devote "90% of its time" to the subject of nuclear weapons or he would blow up the monument with his van (which contained nothing but a battery-powered TV set). When he tries to drive away after 10 hours of intense media scrutiny and negotiations, U.S. Park Police sharpshooters kill him, for which they received medals.

[D] 1987 - 16-year-old protester Hatem Abu Sisseh is killed by Israeli soldiers, igniting the First Intifada in Israeli-occupied Palestine, a campaign of militant resistance against Israeli military occupation. The uprising begins in the Jabalia refugee camp and quickly spreads throughout the occupied territories: Gaza, the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Palestinian actions primarily include nonviolent civil disobedience and resistance, including general strikes, boycotts on Israeli products, refusals to pay taxes, graffiti, barricades and demonstrations.

1995 - Alton Manning, a 33-year-old Black remand prisoner dies after being assaulted by GSL prison officers at the private prison HMP Blakenhurst. The Crown Prosecution Service refuses to bring charges. His brother Osman Cameron, 45, is to die in January 2005 after being taken into police custody and sectioned under the Mental Health Act.

2004 - Jackson Mac Low (b. 1922), US anarchist, pacifist, poet, Fluxus performance artist, composer and playwright, dies. [see: Sep. 11]

2008 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: Several thousands of high school students walked out of their schools and marched on local police stations, throwing eggs, paint bombs, and water bottles. Other staged symbolic protests, offering flowers to police and lying naked on the steps of police headquarters as if they were corpses. Most universities ans technological educational institutes ahd also closed so as to prevent the possibility of student occuaptions. During the evening mass demonstartions across Athens and the rest of Greece, with stores, banks, hotels targetted, as well as the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and various university building including the European Law Library and the Kostis Palamas building. The President of the Republic remained under guard in the presidential palace followng successive attacks on his private residence in Athens.

[A] 2010 - 81 killed in fire begun during prison riot at San Miguel prison in Santiago, Chile.
1828 - Josef Dietzgen (d. 1888), German socialist theorist whose writings exerted considerable influence on the workers' movement, born. He developed a version of dialectical materialism independently of Marx and Engels. [expand]

[F] 1833 - Tolpuddle Martyrs: The Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers in the Dorset village of Tolpuddle holds an invitation ceremony on the pattern of other trade societies at which the founder members swore to abide by the Society's rules. Amongst those present is Edward Legg, who proceeds to inform local magistrates of the meeting and later acts as a witness against the six Tolpuddle Martyrs at their trial.
Low wages, appalling conditions and unemployment, bad winters and poor harvests in 1829 and 1830 fuelled a great explosion of anger had resulted in the Swing riots, which broke out in November 1830. Workers would post letters to their employers threatening damage unless pay was improved or the new machines destroyed. The letters would be signed 'Captain Swing'. The uprising quickly spread across the south of England and through Dorset. 600 rioters were imprisoned, 500 sentenced to transportation and 19 executed. Some employers agreed to the workers' demands but once order was restored wages were cut. George Loveless, in Tolpuddle, drew his own lessons from the consequences of this action and concluded there had to be a different way. With farm labourers in the Tolpuddle parish being paid nine shillings a week, and having heard that almost all labourers in surrounding parishs were the being paid ten, all the labouring men in the village made application to a neighbouring magistrate. George Loveless spoke for the men only to be told by the magistrate that they had to work for whatever the employers saw fit to pay. In vain they remonstrated that an agreement had been made, but shortly afterwards their pay was reduced to seven shillings per week, and shortly after the employers informed them that they must lower it to six shillings. In response, some of the men formed Friendly Society among the labourers at the end of October 1833. After a preliminary meeting, the invitation ceremony is held at which they swear an oath, an act that, unbeknowns to the participants, is illegal.
Greatly alarmed by the information, a local landowner and magistrate, James Frampton, wrote to Home Secretary Lord Melbourne to complain about the union. Melbourne recommended invoking the Unlawful Oaths Act 1797, an obscure law promulgated in 1797 in response to the Spithead and Nore mutinies, which prohibited the swearing of secret oaths.

1842 - [N.S. Dec. 21] Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin (Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин; d. 1921), Russian revolutionist, anarchist and landmark geographer who had a mountain range named after him (he posited a now accepted theory on mountain formation), born in Moscow. [see: Dec. 21]

1867 - Emma Ballerini (Maria Gemma Mennocchi; d. unknown), Italian dressmaker and anarcha-feminist, who became Gigi Damiani's long-time partner, emigrating to Brazil together in 1897, born.

1868 - Paolo Lega aka 'Marat' (d. 1896), Italian anarchist illegalist who attempted to assassinate Prime Minister Francesco Crispi in Rome in 1894, for which he sentenced 20 years in prison, born. At nine, he learned the trade of a carpenter which he later pursued in various locations. A Republican at the age of fifteen, he shortly thereafter became a socialist anarchist and internationalist. In 1886, he was in Bologna for work and three years later he moved to Genoa, where he became a tireless agitator and organiser of strikes and demonstrations according to police records, as well as a member of the executive board of the newspaper 'Primo Maggio'. It was for this activity that he was arrested and deported back to his home town of Lugo. It will be followed by many other such 'repatriations'. Acquitted in a trial at the Bologna assizes for further press offences, in 1892 he moved to Marseilles and then returned to Genoa due to poor health. He is again forcibly removed to Lugo in April and then again in October of that year. His activities in Genoa including as manager of several different newspapers under the pseudonym 'Marat', as well as involvement in Genoa and La Spezia anarchist groups. After a few months working in Bologna and Marseille, where he attended anarchist anti-organisationalists circles close to Paolo Schicchi, in June 1893 he was again in Genoa, from which is expelled in August and then again in March of the following year. On the latter occasion he was also sentenced to 45 days in jail, and it was during this period of imprisonment that the idea is an attempt on the life of Prime Minister Francesco Crispi. The event occurred on June 16, 1894 on the Via Gregoriana in Rome as Crispi's coach passed. The gun Crispi was using fails to fire at first but a second shot is fired, and misses and Crispi remains unharmed. Lega is arrested and tried on July 19, 1894, the same day that the Italian parliament passed "exceptional laws" against anarchists, and in fact against all opposition parties, at the behest of Crispi. Lega is sentenced to twenty years and 17 days in jail and just over two years later, he died in Cagliari at the agricultural penal colony of St. Bartholomew.
At the trial of his alleged accomplices, Domenico Francolini, Emidio Recchioni, Luisa Minguzzi and Francesco Pezzi, which took place on November 7-30, 1895, resulted in their acquittal due to lack of evidence, but they were sent into internal exile on the island of Lipari.

[D] 1893 - August Vaillant bombs the French Chamber of Deputies to avenge Ravachol. A symbolic gesture, meant to wound rather than kill, Vaillant is condemned to death and guillotined February 5, 1894.

1889 - London Gasworkers' Strike: During the afternoon Livesey returned from an interview with Police Commissioner Munro to find a crowd of stokers in the yard at Old Kent Road arguing with the Chief Engineer. He threatened them all with prosecution alleging the reply was "can’t help that master we must obey the union". Forms for summonses had already been made out and by late afternoon 50 policemen had marched into each works "to relieve public fear of destruction of gasometers".

1893 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: Revolts in Sicily against increases in council tax and duty, which leads to a rise in the price of flour. Brutally suppressed leaving around 100 people dead and dozens wounded.

[E] 1895 - Dolores Ibárruri aka 'La Pasionaria' (the Passionflower) (Isidora Dolores Ibárruri Gómez; d. 1989), Basque seamstress, housemaid and Marxist, who gained fame as a Spanish Communist political leader during the Second Spanish Republic and, in particular, the Civil War, gaining her legendary reputation as an impassioned orator, coining the Republican battle cry, "No pasarán!" (They shall not pass!), born. Compelled by poverty to quit school at age 15 to work as a seamstress and later as a housemaid/cook, instead of studying to be a teacher as she had originally planned. She quickly became radicalised, joining the Partido Socialista Obrero Español with her husband Julián Ruiz Gabiña, who she married in 1915 and with whom she had six children – five girls, four of whom died very young [this included a set of triplets, of whom one, Anya, was her only daughter to survive into adulthood], and a son, Rubén, an officer in the Red Army, died in the Battle of Stalingrad. She participated in the general strike of 1917 and in 1918 Ibárruri published an article in the 'El Minero Vizcaino' newspaper under the pseudonym La Pasionaria. Following the split in the PSOE, she joined the Partido Comunista Español at its founding in 1921, going on to become a writer on the party newspaper 'Mundo Obrero' in 1931. She was also imprisoned a number of times for her PCE activities. In 1933 she became the president of the newly founded Unión de Mujeres Antifascistas and was elected to the Cortes Generales as a PCE deputy for Asturias in February 1936. Following the fascist victory, she went into exile in the Soviet Union, later becoming General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Spain (1942-60) in exile. Following Frnaco's death, she returned to Spain on May 13, 1977. She died of pneumonia on November 12, 1989, aged 93.árruriárruri]

[B] 1896 - First performance (dress rehearsal) of Alfred Jarry's subversive play 'Ubu Roi' sets off a riot. An even bigger one occurs at the première tomorrow.

1897 - The first issue of the French feminist daily newspaper 'La Fronde', founded by the prominent French journalist and feminist Marguerite Durand to defend the campaign for women's rights, is published. It is not only aimed at women, it is also wholely written, administered, manufactured and distributed exclusively by women journalists, editors, collaborators, typesetters, printers, etc.

1899 - Emma Goldman appears in London among a cast of international speakers, including Louise Michel and Kropotkin, at a 'Grand Meeting and Concert for the Benefit of the Agitation in Favour of the Political Victims in Italy'.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 26] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The head of the St Petersburg Soviet of Workers' Deputies (Петербургский совет рабочих депутатов), George S. Nosar (Гео́ргий Степа́нович Носа́рь) aka Peter A. Khrustalev aka (Пётр Алексеевич Хрусталёв) aka Yuri Pereyaslavsky (Юрий Переяславский), and several other members of the Executive Committee of the Board, are arrested by Tsarist police. Trotsky becomes the president of the Soviet, which is arrested em mass on Dec. 16.

1905 - Dalton Trumbo (d. 1976), American writer, director, anti-Fascist and anti-militarist, who was the author of the 1939 anti-war novel, 'Johnny Got His Gun', born. Trumbo was part of the anti-fascist Popular Front coalition of communists and liberals in the late 1930s, at the time of the Spanish Civil War. By the time of America's entry into World War II, Trumbo was one of the most respected, highest paid screenwriters in Hollywood. He had also established a name for himself as a left-wing political activist whose sympathies coincided with those of the American Communist Party (CPUSA), and his anti-War views coincided with the CPUSA's support for the USSR's non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany and firmly against the interventionist standpoint. However he reportedly did not join the Party until 1943 and continued to harbour personal reservations about its policies as regards enforcing ideological conformity. Pro-peace and anti-FDR, his stance changed when Nazi Germany invaded the USSR and Trumbo instructed his publisher to recall all copies of 'Johnny Got His Gun' and to cease publication of the book. He would go on to fall foul of HUAC, refusing to testify before it in 1947. Blacklisted in October 1947, he went on to write numerous scripts under a pseudonym but his blacklisting effectively ended when he was 'outed' after Kirk Douglas made public Trumbo's credit for the screenplay for 'Spartacus' (1960).

1912 - Jura Soyfer (d. 1939), Russian-born Austrian political journalist, cabaret writer and anti-fascist, born.

1912 - Rolf Wickstrøm (d. 1941), Norwegian labour activist and shop stewart at the Skabo Rail Coach Factory, who was executed by the Nazis during the Oslo Melkestreiken, born.

1914 - Hildegart Rodríguez Carballeira (d. 1933), Spanish socialist (in the Partido Socialista Obrero Español) and activist for the sexual revolution, she was concieved by her mother in a eugenics experiment and brought up by her as a model for women of the future, only to be murdered by her at the age of eighteen, born. A child prodigy, she was writing by the age of three, spoke 6 languages when eight years old and had finished law school whilst still a teenager. Hildegart was one of the most active people in the Spanish movement for sex reformation, corresponding with Havelock Ellis, whom she translated, and Margaret Sanger, and participated in the foundation of the Liga Española por la Reforma Sexual. In the end it appears that her mother's paranoia and jealousy of her daughter's new found relationships, sexual as well as social, drove her to kill Hildegart, shooting her three times in the head, and once in the heart.íguez_Carballeiraíguez_Carballeira]

1920 - Prosincová Generální Stávka [December General Strike] / Oslavanské Povstání [Oslovan Rebellion]: T
The left-wing Marxist party faction of the Československé Sociálně Demokratické Straně (Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party), is ejected from the Prague People's House (Lidový dům), the party's headquarters building, by the police they execute a court order in favour of the 'legal' owner, former party leader Antonín Němec [political parties were legally prohibited from owning real estate]. This was the latest stage in the on-going struggles between the two factions of the Socialist Party, which had begun in September 1920 when the Marxist left summoned the leadership of the Social Democrats to a conference, where they demanded that they accept Lenin’s 21 points and join the Comintern or to be ousted from the party. The party congress, which was scheduled for later in the month was postponed a few days by the executive committee (led by moderates) until December. The Marxist Left held a rump congress on the once due date [Sept 25-28], and ousted the moderates, choosing a new executive committee. The Marxist faction then claimed legitimacy by maintaining that their congress was attended by 67.7% of the delegates. For the moment, though, they did not join the Comintern, for two reasons: the name of Social Democrats was still very attractive; moreover, it was still linked to the party's property, which included its headquarters in Prague and the party's printing press.
The radical faction duely took occupation of the building and the moderates sued the leftwingers to get back both the copyright on the Party's paper and the property, winning the court case. The right wing then held its own rump congress at the end of November and decided to call the police to enforce the court's decisions on the headquarters.
The ousted leftists called an immediate general strike for the following day in support of their right's to the building and the party's newspaper, 'Rudé Právo' (The Red Truth).

1939 - Anna Korba [Анна Корба] (Anna Pavlovna Mengart [Анна Павловна Мейнгардт]; b. 1849), Russian nurse, historian, editor, revolutionary, member of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will) and a member of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, dies. [see: Nov. 22]

1941 - Massacre d'Élisabethville / Union Minière du Haut Katanga Strike: Repression of the strike at the Belgian mining company, Union Minière du Haut-Katanga results in Élisabethville (now Lubumbashi) in the Belgian Congo results in the massacre of 60-70 black miners. On strike in pursuit of a pay increased 50 centimes (from 1.50 francs to 2 francs) to compensate for rising living costs, in addition to other grievances against the colonial order including segregation, the colonial authorities had invited the strikers, including their leader Léonard Mpoyi, to negotiations at the town's stadium. There they were offered various concessions, including a 30% pay rise but when the workers refused, the Governor of Katanga, Amour Maron, shot Mpoyi, killing him. The Governor then ordered his soldiers to fire on the other strikers in the stadium. Between 60 and 70 strikers were killed during the slaughter, although the official estimate was around 30. The miners returned to work the following day. [see: Dec. 3]

1944 - Dekemvrianá [Δεκεμβριανά / December Events]: ELAS attacks the Goudi Barracks of the 3rd Greek Mountain Brigade. Again, the British intervene and save the day. Churchill orders reinforcements from the 10th Army Corps in Italy sent to Greece.

1953 - In the USA, General Electric announces all Communist employees will be fired.

1959 - Fiji Oil Workers Strike: The colonial administration and the oil companies meet during the morning to discuss strategy. They decidedto employ non-union drivers to distribute petrol to several outlets in Suva, which would be protected by policemen. As a result, the petrol stations where the scab fuel was to be distributed were picketed and
Fijian and Indian drivers persuaded not to seek petrol, leaving only Europeans in line for the pump. Meanwhile, taxi drivers joined the strike in solidarity, and James Anthony, the secretary & de facto leader of the WRWGU, decided that buses would no longer be classified as an “essential service. Strikers gathered at the bus station and coerced drivers into abandoning their routes. Striking Indians and Fijians and their supporters were now throwing rocks at Europeans trying to get petrol. An attempt by Anthony at 16:00 to talk to an angry crowd of frustrated commuters was refused by police, with riot police then demanding that the people disperse. They refused, and violence between strikers and police ensued. Police threw tear gas grenades, and the crowd answered with barrages of stones. A short time later time, police using tear gas and batons were able to clear the area but the rioting spread into the city, where it raged for most of the night. [see: Dec. 7]

1961 - The Committee of 100 holds demonstrations at various US air and nuclear bases across Britain.

1972 - U.K. Miners' Strike: The National Executive Committee of the NUM agrees that a national strike – the first in the industry since 1926 – and gives the NCB one month notice of strike action, to commence on Monday 9 January.

1975 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: Ramalho Eanes, newly promoted to General, takes over as CEME (Chefe de Estado Maior do Exército) and Vasco Lourenço assumes command of the RML (Região Militar de Lisboa).
Military units surround the headquarters of Partido Comunista Português (PCP) and Liga de Unidade e Acção Revolucionária (LUAR; League for Unity and Revolutionary Action) in Cova da Piedade, in search of weapons and ammunition.

1976 - Sentences on Noel and Marie Murray commuted to life in prison.

[AA] 1981 - Black Philadelphia journalist and activist Mumia Abu-Jamal is arrested and charged with the killing of a Philadelphia policeman.

1984 - Amelia 'Amelio' Robles Ávila (b. 1889), Mexican revolutionary, who in 1924 took the name Coronel Amelio Robles Ávila or simply Señor Robles, dies aged 95 years old. She was buried according to her last two requests: that she be buried in accordance to the honours that she earned and that she be dressed as a woman to commend his soul to God. [see: Nov. 3]

[C] 1985 - Hugo Gellert (Gellért Hugó; b. 1892), Hungarian-born American artist, illustrator, muralist, socialist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: May 3]

1991 - Maurice Joyeux (b.1910), French anarchist active in the Committee of the Unemployed, l'Union Anarchiste, the occupations of factories, and a prison revolt at Montluc [he escaped after having fomented a mutiny; subject of the book 'Mutinerie à Montluc' (1971)], dies. Founded the newspaper 'Le Monde Libertaire' in 1953 and wrote a number of books including 2 volumes of memoirs, 'Sous les Plis du Drapeau Noir' and 'Souvenirs d'un Anarchiste' (both 1988). [see: Jan. 29]

1999 - Anarchist protesters climb onto the Lenin mausoleum in Moscow's Red Square in a rare demonstration at the holy of holies of the former Soviet Union. The protesters draped a white banner with the words "Against Everyone" scrawled on it over the large 'LENIN' inscription which fronts the mausoleum before being arrested.

2008 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: The funeral of Alexandros takes place on a day that the Greek Culture Ministry have ironically declared a day of mourning. Even more ironically, following a report in whuch Amnesty International accused the Greek Police of brutality in handling the riots, the Greek section of Amnesty International canceled thier scheduled celebrations tomorrow for the 60th anniversary of the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in response to the police violence in the wake of Andreas Grigoropoulos' death.
Hundreds of protesters clashed with police in front of Greece's parliament. Lines of riot police fought off demonstrators, many throwing stones and bottles at them, as they tried to storm the building. Police report durning the morning put the numbers of injured police officers at 12, arrested rioters at 87, and persons who had been brought before a public prosecutor at 176.

[A] 2010 - Prisoners in 10 prions in the US state of Georgia begin a co-ordinated work strike. The protest had been in planning since September when tobacco was banned across the prison system.

2010 - Amidst student protests in London against spending cuts, a car containing the Prince of Wales and his wife is attacked.
1815 - Ada Lovelace aka Augusta Ada King-Noel, Countess of Lovelace (Augusta Ada Byron; d. 1852), English mathematician and writer, born. The only legitimate child of the poet George Lord Byron, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's early mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine.

1865 - August Spies (d. 1887), US labour agitator and one of the Haymarket anarchists, born.

1869 - Steven T. Byington (d. 1957), American individualist anarchist and populariser of the philosophy of Max Stirner, born.

[DD] 1893 - Massacro di Giardinello [Giardinello Massacre]: On Sunday morning a demonstration in Giardinello, part of the Fasci Siciliani protests, headed to the Town Hall with shouts of "Down with the taxes, down with the municipality". There the Mayor received a delegation of the Fascio who presented him with the demands of the demonstrators - the abolition of taxes on food and the disbandment of the local field guards (guardie campestri). The mayor responded by blaming the councilors for the tax increases and told the protesters to leave, saying that he had washed his hands of the whole business, and that they could scream bloody murder for all he cared but they would be wasting their time.
The demonstrators continued the protest under the balcony of the mayor, whose wife then threw a bucket of water over them, saying: "I will cool these bastards down." At that point the crowd attacked the town hall, trashing and burning offices but spared the registry and land registry office. The local police patrol then requested the Montelepre send reinforcements, from where 23 troops and six policemen arrived under the command of Lieutenant of Sharpshooters Cimino, who tried to calm the demonstrators. No one knows exactly what precipitated the shooting which followed, but 10 people in the crowd were left dead and many others wounded. Following the massacre, the bodies of Salvatore Nicosia, the municipal messenger, and his wife were discovered, shot dead and stabbed to death respectively.
A squadron of cavalry was sent in to break up the protests and occupy the region whilst the mayor fled to Palermo where he stayed at the Hotel Vittoria. From the ensuing investigation, it emerged that four types of bullets were foundin the protesters' bodies and that the first shots were fired from the houses of Francesco Caruso, brother of the Mayor and the house of Girolamo Di Miceli, local Mafia boss and head of the field guards.
At the military tribunal held on March 7-10, 1894, the case against Di Miceli was dismissed for lack of evidence, no charges were brought against Mayor Angelo Caruso but life sentences were passed on three leaders of the banned Fascio di Giardinello, including Giuseppe Piazza and his brother Salvatore. The guardie campestri was disbanded on December 20, 1893 and the Municipal Council was dissolved by Royal Decree of January 7, 1894, with a Royal Commissioner Extraordinary being appointed until the elections of April 15, 1894.
Text of the telegram sent to Rome on December 11, 1893 at 15:30 at the deputy Napoleone Colajanni: "Yesterday at Giardinelli small town near Montelepre, while the people demonstrated asking for tax cuts, a squad of riflemen commanded by a lieutenant, with no warning, suddenly fired at the unarmed crowd, killing and wounding men and women. Ten dead and twenty wounded. Soldiers unharmed. After this murder he who ordered the firing has not yet been arrested."

1896 - The première of Alfred Jarry's subversive play 'Ubu Roi' sets off a riot, with different sections of the crowd alternately booing, whistling and shouting their outrage prompted by its scatological references [its first word is "Merde"], pompous style and bastardised French, or cheering and applauding the reaction of the outraged bourgeoisie. This follows similar disturbances at the dress rehearsal yesterday and these would be the only 2 performances of the play during the author's lifetime.
Interestingly, Joan Miró would go on to produce a set of lithographs (the Barcelona Series, published in 1944 and which he would revisit in colour in 1966), whilst in internal exile in Mallorca, based on the Ubu character. Produced in reaction to his experiences of the Spanish Revolution and its aftermath, the lithographs clearly depict Franco and his generals as versions of the fictional tyrant.

1904 - The first and only edition of 'L'Effort', intended to replace the French language supplement in 'Protesta Umana', and published by the French anarchist group Germinal, appears in San Francisco, California.

1905 - [N.S. Dec. 25] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: The SRs bombed the HQ of the Moscow Okhrana at night.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 27] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Following the previous day's arrests, the St. Petersburg Soviet appeals to the armed forces and elects a triumvirate to replace Georgy Khrustalyov-Nosar (Георгий Хрусталёв-Носарь); it includes Trotsky. The first issue of the Bolshevik daily newspaper 'Struggle' (Борьба) is published by the literary and lecture group of the Moscow Committee of the RSDLP (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party / Росси́йская социа́л-демократи́ческая рабо́чая па́ртия, РСДРП), lasting for 9 issues with a published circulation of 10 000 copies. It played an important role in the run up to the Moscow Uprising (Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́).
The majority of the Soviet would later be arrested on December 16 [3]. At their trial in the autumn of 1906 (Oct. 26 [13 - Nov. 15 [2]) they were chatrged with an "attempt to forcibly change the established basic laws of the Russian form of government and replaceme it with a democratic republic", using in evidence leaflets from the proto-fascist Black Hundreds [Черносо́тенцы] calling for pogroms, which the prosecution alleged were printed by the Soviet. A former director of the Police Department Alexei Lopuchin [Лопухин,_Алексей] revealled to the defence team that the government already knew that the leaflets were infact of Black Hundreds' origin and that the police had been actively organising Black Hundreds gangs and attrocities. The court refused his request to give evidence and the fifteen members of the Soviet then on trial were sentenced to life in exile in Siberia, with deprivation of all civil rights.

[F] 1906 - The IWW sponsors the first sit-down strike in the US, at a General Electric plant in Schenectady, New York. The method was adopted by the labour movement in the 1930s, with the Great Flint Sit-Down Strike being one of the most famous. [expand]

"When they tie the can to a union man,
Sit Down! Sit Down!
When they give him the sack they'll take him back,
Sit Down! Sit Down!
When the speed-up come, just twiddle your thumbs,
Sit Down!, Sit Down!
When the boss wont talk don't take a walk,
Sit Down! Sit Down!"

– Maurice Sugar (a prominent labour and civil rights attorney, General Counsel of the UAW, songwriter and author of the famous songs, 'Soup Song' and 'Sit Down')

1910 - Amèlia Jover Velasco (d. 1997), Spanish secretary, chef, home schooler and anarcho-syndicalist militant, born.

1919 - II Congreso de CNT: The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo hold their second congress at the Teatro de La Comedia in Madrid [Dec. 10-18]. It is attended by more than 450 delegates representing almost 800,000 affiliates. During the congress a declaration of principles in which libertarian communism is considered as an end is agreed upon; Also, in terms of tactics, an opinion is adopted that defends direct action, rejecting all types of arbitration, and the use of sabotage. the possibility of merging the confederation with the UGT and the Federaciones Nacionales de Industria (National Federations of Industry / FFNNI) in order to contribute to a greater unity of the Spanish labour movement is debated and rejected. Finally, the elephant in the corner, the Russian Revolution, is addressed. After much discussion (though little apparent opposition), the congress voted provisionally to join the Communist Third International because of its revolutionary character, expressing the hope, however, that a universal workers' congress would be called to determine the basis upon which a true workers' international could be built. It would withdraw from the International in June, 1922, after the Conferencia Nacional de Zaragoza.

1920 - Prosincová Generální Stávka [December General Strike] / Oslavanské Povstání [Oslovan Rebellion]: Against the backdrop of the struggle within the Československé Sociálně Demokratické Straně between the party's Marxist left wing and the moderate rump (that included the executive committee), which had led to the radicals seizing control of the Prague People's House (Lidový dům), the party's headquarters building, from which they had been evicted the day previously by the police following a court ruling in favour of the moderates, the radicals sought to re-establish control of the building and party with a general strike. In addition to their demands regarding party control, they demanded the resignation of the clerical government, increase in salaries, the 'nationalisation' of all agricultural and industrial production, the creation of workers' councils, and the introduction of further revolutionary measures.
In rural areas, farms were occupied by their workers and production taken under collective organisation. In places such as Kladno, Hodonín, Třebíč and the Rosice-Oslavany coal basin, armed workers met serious resistance as they tried to sieze control. In many of the larger cities however, the strike was poorly supported and, after the introduction of martial law in parts of Bohemia, Slovakia and Ruthenia on December 13 and the launching of a full-scale military operation the following day, the Marxist faction called off the general strike on December 13. The protests collapsed and the last pockets were pacified two days later. Approximately 3,000 workers were arrested and tried. In the regions where martial law had been declared, the trials were without a jury.

1921 - Albert Einstein receives Nobel Prize for Physics.

1924 - The first US gay rights organisation, the Society for Human Rights, is established in Chicago.

1927 - Fernand Julian (b. 1877), French anarchist and syndicalist who help found the Cité Coopérative Paris-Jardin à Draveil, dies. [see: May. 6]

1930 - The Prefect of Police in Paris, Jean Chiappe, has 'L'Age d'Or' banned from further public exhibition after the regular organised disturbances that followed the mini-riot of the 3rd., by getting the Board of Censors to re-review the film.

1941 - Union Minière du Haut Katanga Strike: Following yesterday brutal attack on striking black miners in Élisabethville (now Lubumbashi), during which 60-70 miners, including the strike leader Léonard Mpoyi, had been slaughtered on the orders of the Governor of Katanga, Amour Maron, the defeated miners are forced to return to work. [see: Dec. 3]

1944 - Dekemvrianá [Δεκεμβριανά / December Events]: British troops supported by tanks finally manage to take the Makrigiannis Constitution Gendarmerie building for the occupying forces of ELAS' 4th Regiment.
The British also launch an operation to recapture Piraeus from ELAS forces. After heavy fighting, during which the Gurkhas suffer significant losses, the Castella district is seized on December 14.

1944 - The first public anarchist assembly following the Libération (WWII) is staged today. Organised by the editors of the newly revived newspaper 'Ce Qu’il Faut Dire' (What Must Be Said) and Charles Auguste Bontemps.

1948 - The United Nations passes Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

1948 - Na Hye-sok (나혜석; b. 1896), pioneering Korean feminist, poet, novelist, painter, educator, journalist. independence and feminist activist, and all-round rebel, whose pen name was Jeongwol (정월 / the bright moon), dies alone int a hospital for vagrants, having had no one to care for her in the later days. [see: Apr. 28]

[D] 1949 - The People's Liberation Army begins its siege of Chengdu, the last mainland city held by the Kuomintang, forcing the Nationalist retreat to Taiwan.

1955 - Basiliso Serrano Valero, a.k.a 'Fortuna' & 'El Manco de La Pesquera' (b. 1908), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist guerilla fighter, who later fought with the Maquis and joined the PCE, is executed in the Paterna military barracks in Valencia. [see: Apr. 15]

1959 - Fiji Oil Workers Strike: The clashes between Fijian and Indian strikers on one side and the riot police on the other that had begun yesterday afternoon, continue throughout the day. The colonial administration imposes martial law, sets a curfew and brings in extra police to arrest the crowds. The violence would likely have continued if it had not been for the intervention of the traditional Fijian chiefs, who stood with the Brits and managed to quieten things down. [see: Dec. 7]

1970 - Dario Fo's 'Accidental Death of an Anarchist' is published in Italy.

[A] 1975 Fourteen members of British Withdrawal from Northern Ireland Campaign found not guilty by a jury of “incitement to disaffection” of British soldiers (they published a leaflet on how to leave the armed services).

[CC] 1976 - Blues singer Carol Grimes tops the bill at the first RAR gig at the Princess Alice pub in East London, on . On the door were a group of dockers organised by Mickey Fenn, Eddie Prevost and Bob Light from the Royal Group of Docks Shop Stewards Committee. Fenn and Prevost had left the Communist Party in 1972 and later joined Light in the International Socialists. Stewarding RAR events was to become an important activity for anti-fascists. Hundreds of gigs followed the one at the Princess Alice." ['Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)]

[E] 1977 - Azucena Villaflor de De Vincenti (b. 1924), Argentine social activist and one of the founders of the Madres de Plaza de Mayo, is abducted and 'disappeared' by the military on International Human Rights Day. Her son Néstor had been abducted by the military, together with his partner Raquel Mangin, during the Jorge Rafael Videla dictatorship's 'Dirty War', and Azucena Villaflor had sent six months searching for them through the Ministry of Interior and had sought support from the military chaplain Adolfo Tortolo (though they could only speak with his secretary, Emilio Grasselli). During this search, she met other women also looking for missing relatives and together they decided to begin the Movimiento de las Madres de Plaza de Mayo.
Possibly with the knowledge that the Mothers had planned to publish a newspaper advertisement on International Human Rights Day, the military had decided to begin abducting members of the group on December 8, when nine activists including founders Esther Ballestrino de Careaga (b. 1918) and Maria Eugenia Ponce de Bianco (b. 1924) were kidnapped by troops from Grupo de tareas 3.3.2 (Task Force 3.3.2), under the command of Alfredo Astiz. The following day the decision was taken to go ahead with the advert listing the names of the disappeared, despite objections from some of the families. On the night that the advert appeared, Azucena Villaflor was also kidnapped and she too was taken to the Escuela de Mecánica de la Armada (School of Naval Mechanics), tortured and killed during a vuelos de la muerte, probably along side the other Madres desaparecidos.

1986 - A joint commemoration of Malik Oussekine, a French-Algerian student beaten to death by police motorcyclists on Dec. 6, and Abdel Benyahia, a 20-year-old Algerian killed by a drunken off-duty cop in a café on 5 Dec. [the latest in a long line of racist killings that have included 35 deaths in fire-bombings of immigrant homes in Paris], is held drawing 600,000 people. During further protests two police stations are fire-bombed and cars set on fire.

[1988 - Riots in Lhasa

1998 - Luisa Arnau Capaces (b. 1920), Spanish anarchist, who was active in the CNT in exile, dies in Montpellier.

2001 - Vernon Richards (d. 1915), Anglo-Italian anarchist, éminence grise of 'Freedom' for much of the second half of C20th and companion to Marie Louise Berneri until her tragic death during childbirth in 1949, dies. [see: Jul. 19]

[C] 2006 - Augusto Pinochet finally slithers off his mortal coil.

2008 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: Protesters attacked Athens' main courthouse with fire-bombs during a hearing for police officers whose shooting of a teenager set off rioting that appeared to be tapering off even as a general strike paralysed the country.

[2008 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: preliminary results of the ballistic tests

[B] 2008 - The Athens Surrealist Group release a statement, 'To φάντασμα της ελευθερίας έρχεται πάντα με το μαχαίρι στα δόντια' (The phantom of liberty always comes with a knife in its teeth), is support of the unrest in Greece.
"Let's not allow this flaming breath of poetry to loosen or die out. Let's turn it into a concrete utopia: to transform the world and to transform life! No peace with cops and their masters! All in the streets! Those who cannot feel the rage may as well shut their traps!"
1849 - Ellen Key (Ellen Karolina Sofia Key; d. 1926), Swedish suffragist and feminist writer of the 'difference' persuasion, who was known as the 'Pallas of Sweden', born. She wrote on many subjects in the fields of family life, ethics and education and was an important figure in the maturalist Modern Breakthrough (Det moderna genombrottet) movement, born. She was also an early advocate of a child-centered approach to education and parenting.

1864 - Maurice Leblanc (d. 1941), French novelist and creator of the fictional gentleman thief and detective Arsène Lupin, who was based on the anarchist illegalist burglar Marius (Alexandre) Jacob, born.

[F] 1877 - A small group of black farmers, barred from membership in the all-white Southern Farmers’ Alliance, found the Colored Farmers’ National Alliance and Cooperative Union in Houston County, Texas to provide mutual self-defence against 'land sharks,' merchants, horse thieves, and cattle ranchers. Through intensive organising, along with merging with another black farmers group, the renamed Colored Alliance by 1891 claimed a membership of 1.2 million.

1889 - London Gasworkers' Strike: With the 'strike' date looming and 50 policemen having already been stationed in each of South Met's works "to relieve public fear of destruction of gasometers", George Livesey, the chair of the South Metropolitan Gas Company, met the National Union of Gas Workers & General Labourers' Executive. Positions were restated. The Union wanted the profit sharing/union-busting scheme withdrawn – the company refused. A deputation of local MPs and local clergymen tried for an hour and a half to persuade Livesey that the right to strike was 'sacred'. He told them to mind their own business. Non-conformist ministers were told unionists had given in their legal notice and were leaving. Later on the Labour Co-partnership Association which had been agitating for years for schemes like Livesey’s as a solution to industrial ills made a major attempt at negotiating a settlement. The Strike Committee issued a statement: "the directors will not advance one inch …. we deeply regret this step fully knowing the inconvenience to which it will put the general public …. we hope that all trade unions will see in this a test case as to the right of existence of trade unions versus bonus". Arrangements were made for the day when men would leave. All workers contributed 3d a week to a superannuation scheme and would withdraw their 'lump sums' – they would have to live on some- thing. The 'old men' would leave the works by 06:00 – the 'new men' would come in two hours later.

1893 - The first in a series of votes (Dec. 11-15), two days after Auguste Vaillant's bombing of the National Assembly, passing the lois scélérates (villainous laws), a set of severe anti-anarchist laws aimed at curtailing propaganda by deed attentats.

1905 - [N.S. Dec. 26] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: The Bolsheviks issue a handbook on street fighting. [see: Dec. 26]

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 28] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Police attack student demonstrators in St. Petersburg; the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks blame each other for the fiasco.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 28] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: Arrests of Moscow labour activists take place over the following 3 days [Dec. 11-13].

1907 - Enrique Garcia Sanchiz (d. 1994), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. A member of the CNT, he joined the Columna de Ferro following the fascist uprising in July 1936 and fought until the end of the war in the 26th Division, the militarised Durruti Column. Seriously wounded, he managed to cross the Pyrenees and was interned in various concentration camps in France. Whilst trying to emigrate to Mexico, he was arrested by the French police in Saint-Hilaire and placed along with other Spanish refugees on a train to be deported to Spain. Halted at Montendre (Charente) on August 18, 1940, where he was interned in a camp which had been established to accommodate refugees from regions in eastern France. In the camp he met his future wife, a Basque native who had arrived at the camp on August 19. On January 28, 1941, he was hired by the Société Nouvelle to work at the German military base at Bussac and on July 22, 1941, he was assigned to the Entreprises Industrielles to work in Aytré, shipped daily to and from the camp. Enrique Garcia Sanchiz was released from the camp at its disbanding in December 1943. He remained a militant member of the CNT in exile in Carbon Blanc, close to Bordeaux, where he and his partner settled in 1992. He died there in August 23, 1994.

1911 - Yaqui Indians in the Sonora region, influenced by the Mexican Liberal Party of Ricardo Flores Magon's 'Tierra y Libertad', reclaim their stolen communal lands. Their war with government lasts, officially, until 1929.

1912 - Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman speak at the Chicago celebration of Peter Kropotkin's 70th birthday.

1917 - Thirteen black soldiers are secretly hanged at dawn at a military camp outside San Antonio for their parts in the 1917 Houston or Camp Logan Riot four months earlier. [see: Aug. 23]

1918 - Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn (d. 2008), Russian author and chronicler of the Soviet gulags, born.

1922 - Grace Paley (d. 2007), American short story writer, poet, teacher, feminist and "somewhat combative pacifist and cooperative anarchist", born. Her works include three collections of fiction: 'The Little Disturbances of Man' (1959), 'Enormous Changes at the Last Minute' (1974), 'Later the Same Day' (1985) as well as 'The Collected Stories of Grace Paley' (1994); her collection of essays, 'Just As I Thought' (1998); and her poems appear in several collections, including 'Long Walks and Intimate Talks' (1991) and 'Begin Again: Collected Poems' (2002).

[D] 1927 - Guangzhou Uprising: Failed communist uprising (Canton Soviet aka the 'Paris Commune of the East') by Red Guards in Guangzhou city. Within 3 days it is put down with great brutality by Kuomintang forces — an estimated 5-6,000 insurrectionaries, including women and children, are massacred over the following 5 days.

1928 - Tomás Gutiérrez Alea (d. 1996), post-Revolutionary Cuban film maker who trod the fine line between support and criticism of the social, economic, and political conditions of the country, born.

[B] 1930 - Jean-Louis Trintignant, French actor and leftist sympathiser, born. In 2012 declared himself: "contre l'autorité, la politique... plutôt socialiste. Voire anarchiste... L'idée de l'anarchie me plaît beaucoup, même si je sais qu'on ne sauvera pas le monde avec elle, born." (Against the authority, politics... rather socialist. Even anarchist... The idea of the anarchy pleases me a lot, even if I know that we will not save the world with it.)

[C] 1930 - The German language version of the film 'All Quiet on the Western Front' is banned by censors following 5 days of Nazi protests. [see: Nov. 5]

1933 - Militant Portuguese anarcho-syndicalist Acácio Tomás de Aquino (1899-1998) is arrested and thrown into the the Trafaria penitentiary. He is later sent to Angra do Heroísmo (1934-1937) and then spends the next 10+ years in the Tarrafal concentration camp in the Cape Verde Islands until his release in September 1949.

1937 - Angel Pestaña Núñez (b. 1886), militant Spanish anarcho-syndicalist who later split with the CNT, dies. [see: Feb. 14]

1950 - Nicanor Fernández Alvarez aka 'El Canor', 'Canor de Santa Rosa' & 'El Chato' (b. 1922) and Luis Gonzalez Melendi aka 'Barranca' (b. 1921), both members of Adolfo Quintana Castañon's group, who were arrested by French police crossing the border, handed over to the Francoist authorities, brutally tortured and sentence to death, are garroted.

1953 - Patrick Pécherot, French journalist, novelist and libertarian, born. Probably best known for his Série Noire detective fiction, including 'Tiurai' (1996), his début novel which was a tribute to anarchist writer Jean Meckert, and the trilogy of books featuring Léo Malet's character Nestor Burma: 'Les Brouillards de la Butte' (The Mists of the Hill 2002), 'Belleville Barcelone' (2003) and 'Boulevard des Branques' (2005). He has also written a novel about Bonnot gang member André Soudy, 'L'Homme à la Carabine' (The Man with the Rifle; 2011).

1958 - Alberto Meschi (b. 1879), prominent Italian anarchist, syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: May 27]

1959 - Fiji Oil Workers Strike: Following the two previous day's unrest, things remain relatively calm even though oil industry workers are still on strike. Taxi drivers also remain on strike, and buses only have enough fuel to operate four hours a day. This state of affairs continues for the next several days. [see: Dec. 7]

1960 - French paratroopers fire on civilians in Algiers, killing at least 65.

1962 - Arthur Lucas and Ronald Turpin are the last 2 people to be executed by the Canadian state, hung side by side in Toronto’s Don Jail for unrelated crimes, the killing of an FBI informant and the shooting of a policeman respectively.

1964 - Anti-Castro terrorists attempt to assassinate Che Guevara using a 3.5-inch bazooka during his speech at the United Nations in New York City.

1971 - Third retrial of Black Panther head, Huey Newton, ends in mistrial.

1975 - The Balcombe Street siege ends after a 6-day stand-off with the arrest of 4 members of the IRA.

1978 - Six masked men bound 10 employees at Lufthansa cargo area at New York Kennedy Airport and take off with $5.8 M in cash and jewelry.

1979 - Maria Mestre Gibert (b. ca. 1915), Catalan anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies after along fight against cancer.

[A] 1984 - 20,000 women turn out for anti-nuclear demonstration at Greenham Common.

[E] 1994 - Anna Mikhailovna Garaseva (Анна Михайловна Гарасёва; b. 1902), Russian geologist, anarcho-syndicalist and later secretary to AIexander Solzhenitsyn whilst he was compiling 'The Gulag Archipelago' (Архипелаг ГУЛАГ; 1873), dies. [see: Dec. 20]

1999 - In Mexico City UNAM students protest at the US embassy demanding freedom for Mumia Abu-Jamal and police repression at the recent World Trade Organisation meeting in Seattle.

2008 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: As Greece underwent its sixth day of street protests, there were troubling signs of unrest spreading across Europe. Angry youths smashed shop windows, attacked banks and hurled bottles at police in small but violent protests in Spain and Denmark, while cars were set alight outside a consulate in France.

[2008 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: provocative cops statement about "deviant behaviour"
1830 - When Swing rioters set fires outside Carlisle, a mob assembles to prevent them being extinguished by throwing buckets into the flames, cutting the pipes, harangues and general obstructionism.

[D] 1842 - Rebecca Riots: All the gates in the St.Clears area (some of which had been re-ercted after the earlier attacks) were destroyed.

1872 - Johann Heinrich Vogeler (d. 1942), German painter, printmaker, architect, designer, educator, writer and communitarian, born. Member of the artistic community of Worpswede. Founder of the Barkenhoff artists commune. Having been a dandy and aesthete in the years before WWI, he volunteer for the German army in 1914 and became a pacifist in 1917. Influenced by utopian socialism and anarchism, and also by the English Garden City movement, he later became a member of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) and of the Rote Hilfe Deutschland. He emigrated to the Soviet Union in 1931.

1873 - Lola Ridge (d. 1941), Irish-American anarcho-feminist poet, artist's model, illustrator and organiser for the Francisco Ferrer Association's Modern School, born. An influential editor of avant-garde, feminist and Marxist publications best remembered for her long poems and poetic sequences. She was particularly active in the campaign against the execution of Sacco and Vanzetti in 1927, for which she was arrested, and in support of Tom Mooney, and Warren Billings, who had been framed for a bombing at the Preparedness Day Parade in San Francisco in 1916. Much of her political poetry is collected in 'Red Flag' (1927). Her other writings include 'The Ghetto, and Other Poems' (1918); 'Sun-Up: and Other Poems' (1920); 'Firehead' (1929); and 'Dance of Fire' (1935).

'The Ghetto'

Section I

Cool, inaccessible air
Is floating in velvety blackness shot with steel-blue lights,
But no breath stirs the heat
Leaning its ponderous bulk upon the Ghetto
And most on Hester street…

The heat…
Nosing in the body’s overflow,
Like a beast pressing its great steaming belly close,
Covering all avenues of air…

The heat in Hester street,
Heaped like a dray
With the garbage of the world.

Bodies dangle from the fire escapes
Or sprawl over the stoops…
Upturned faces glimmer pallidly–
Herring-yellow faces, spotted as with a mold,
And moist faces of girls
Like dank white lilies,
And infants’ faces with open parched mouths that suck at the air
as at empty teats.

Young women pass in groups,
Converging to the forums and meeting halls,
Surging indomitable, slow
Through the gross underbrush of heat.
Their heads are uncovered to the stars,
And they call to the young men and to one another
With a free camaraderie.
Only their eyes are ancient and alone…

The street crawls undulant,
Like a river addled
With its hot tide of flesh
That ever thickens.
Heavy surges of flesh
Break over the pavements,
Clavering like a surf–
Flesh of this abiding
Brood of those ancient mothers who saw the dawn break over Egypt…
And turned their cakes upon the dry hot stones
And went on
Till the gold of the Egyptians fell down off their arms…
Fasting and athirst…
And yet on…

Did they vision–with those eyes darkly clear,
That looked the sun in the face and were not blinded–
Across the centuries
The march of their enduring flesh?
Did they hear–
Under the molten silence
Of the desert like a stopped wheel–
(And the scorpions tick-ticking on the sand…)
The infinite procession of those feet?


[B] 1882 - Jiří Mahen (real name Antonín Vančura; d. 1939), Czech poet, novelist, journalist, dramaturge, librarian, director, theatre critic, anarchist and anti-militarist, born. Cousin of Vladislav Vančura. He was influenced by the turn of the century generation of Czech Anarchističtí Buřiči, "básníci života a vzdoru" (Anarchist Rebels, "the poets of life and defiance"), but later wrote in an Impressionist style.
He joined a group of anarchists around S.K. Neumann’s magazine 'Nový Kult' (New Cult) in 1902, along with his contemporary Rudolf Těsnohlídek. and wrote for a number of other anarchist and socialist journals including 'Novým Životem' (New Life) and 'Prací' (Work). In 'Nový Kult' he first used the pseudonym Mahen inspired by a character in Zola's novel 'Germinal'.
From 1907 he worked as a supply teacher at secondary schools in Moravia, and in 1910 he settled permanently in Brno. Between 1910 and 1919, he worked as an editor of Brno’s 'Lidové Noviny' (Popular Newspaper), as a director and dramaturge of Brno National Theatre (1918-22) and from 1920 to 1924 he taught at the Brno Conservatory. In 1921 he became librarian and later director of the Brno Municipal Library. Jiří Mahen sympathized with postwar literary generations especially with Vitezslav Nezval and Frantisek Halas, who were his pupils and friends for life. As a result of the German occupation and personal depression, Jiří Mahen committed suicide in 1939. He was later to have found to have been amongst the first on the Nazi's list of those destined to be sent to the concentration camps.
A prolific author, his most important texts are the novels 'Kamarádi Svobody' (Friends of Freedom; 1907, which depicts the material poverty and political activity of his student years) and 'Mesíc' (The Moon; 1920), a fantastic novel evoking the relaxed style of Poetism; the theatre plays 'Janosík' (Janosik; 1910), based on the popular legend of the highwayman Juraj Jánošík; 'Mrtve Moře' (Dead Sea; 1917); and the three strongly socially critical and anti-war dramas: 'Nebe, Peklo, Ráj' (Heaven, Hell, Paradise; 1919), 'Desertér' (1923) and 'Generace' (Generation; 1921). He was the author of many essay books; of them 'Rybařská Knízka' (Fishermen's Book; 1921) is the most well-known.
"Odstranění militarismu se dá provést jen absolutním odstraněním autority vůbec. Autority každé, tedy především i státu. Militarismus a autorita, militarismus a stát, tyto pojmy, které trvání své navzájem podmiňují, určují také jediný prospěšný způsob boje, jaký má být proti nim veden." (Removal of militarism can be done only by the total removal of all authority. Every authority, and particularly the State. Militarism and authority, militarism and the State, these notions are conditional on each other, and determine the only useful way of fighting the battle that has to be conducted against them.)

1905 - [N.S. Dec. 26] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: Six of the seven railway stations and many districts were in rebel hands, 50 officers were seized as they arrived by train. The troops and artillery were hemmed in the squares and Kremlin.

1905 - [O.S. Nov. 29] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Nicholas II authorises local officials to impose martial law in the event of a communications breakdown, the government's tough response to the failed postal strike.

[E] 1909 - Emma Goldman speaks in Lyric Hall on Sixth Avenue in New York on 'Will the Vote Free Woman: Woman Suffrage' to an audience of three hundred women, many of whom are suffragists. She characterises it as "a wild goose chase". A collection is taken for Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, recently sentenced to a three-month prison term resulting from her arrest during a free-speech battle in Spokane.

1913 - Matilde 'Mati' Escuder Vicente (1913-2006), Spanish libertarian teacher and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1916 - Dr. Ben Reitman arrested in Cleveland for organising volunteers to distribute birth control information at Emma Goldman's lecture 'Is Birth Control Harmful - a Discussion of the Limitation of Offspring'.

1920 - Prosincová Generální Stávka [December General Strike] / Oslavanské Povstání [Oslovan Rebellion]: Workers' delegates meet in Brno, and during the stormy meetings the decision is taken to continue the strike, with many delegates demanding not only the socialisation of the industry but also of the whole of society. [see: Dec. 9 & 10]

[FF] 1921 - Army of Amazons / Southeast Kansas Women’s March: In January 1920, the Kansas legislature had established a board of compulsory arbitration, known as the Kansas Industrial Court, which banned strikes against unfair labour practices and working conditions. Miners, however, felt that the right to strike was constitutionally grounded, and in September 1921, nearly all unionised miners in Kansas laid down their tools to defend this belief. The strike began when a county judge convicted and jailed Alexander Howat, president of the Kansas district of the United Mine Workers of America, for violating the Industrial Court’s strike injunction. Howat, hoping to create a test case for the U.S. Supreme Court that would result in a ruling against the Industrial Court, had called a small-scale strike in protest of wage inequality at several local mines. When Howat was predictably charged and sent to prison, nearly all Kansas coal miners walked off their jobs in solidarity.
The striking miners’ primary objectives were 1) Howat’s release from prison and 2) the restitution of their right to strike through the abolition of the Kansas Industrial Court. Leaders of the strike drew up a resolution declaring that, "not one member of the Mine Workers of District 14 will dig another pound of coal until the doors of [Howat’s] Bastille… shall be opened." They called the establishment of the Kansas Industrial Court the 'Kansas Slave Act' and argued that because it denied miners their constitutional right to strike, it created a system of involuntary servitude comparable to the enslavement of blacks in the pre-Civil War South.
Enemies of the strike included coal industry leaders, Kansas’s republican governor Henry Allen, members of the Kansas Industrial Court, local law enforcement officials and judges, and UMWA president John L. Lewis. Lewis opposed the strike because he considered the strike illegal as per a national strike injunction dating to the WWI and also because he considered Howat a personal opponent within the UMWA. Lewis and the UMWA International Board successfully suspended Howat along with all striking Kansas miners from the national union. This action significantly weakened the strike, as families could no longer draw strike benefits from the union treasury. One striker noted that, "The International [Board of the UMWA] is against us, and that is the hardest thing we have to contend with." By early December 1921, many Kansas mines had resumed operation as strikers returned to their jobs and coal companies imported workers from other states.
Appalled by this turn of events, the women of the Kansas coalfields decided to take action. Several prominent women – all friends or relatives of striking miners – called a meeting at a union hall in the town of Franklin. At the meeting, which was closed to men, the women drew up a resolution in which they determined to "stand shoulder to shoulder with our husbands in this struggle." They called for the preservation of the strike and disparaged the Kansas Industrial Court, calling it the 'Allen Industrial Slavery Law' and asserting that its purpose was "to enslave our children".
The following morning, December 12, 1921, several thousand women gathered before dawn in downtown Franklin. They carried American flags and sang patriotic songs. From Franklin, the women marched to a local mine, where they intercepted miners reporting for work, declaring that the mine was closed and that all patriotic miners ought to support the strike. After successfully stopping work at this first mine, the marching women divided into several groups and spread out to other area mines. Over a three-day period, the women marched on and closed approximately sixty mines throughout the region, bringing coal production in Kansas to a standstill. The marching women used their gender as a tool of non-violent action. They were aware that strikes could quickly turn violent, and they hoped that aggressors would be unwilling to target women. Many marchers brought their children with them or even carried their babies. As one participant wrote to a local paper, "we don’t want any bloodshed here in Kansas like there was in the Ludlow strike and in Alabama and Mingo County, West Virginia."
Despite its primarily peaceful nature, the march did include some violent encounters. Women threw red pepper into the eyes of several working miners, while others pelted miners with their own lunch pails. A number of brawls broke out, and although no one was seriously injured, several men on both sides of the issue discharged firearms to intimidate their opponents. Fear of a violent popular uprising prompted local law enforcement officials to deputize and arm a small army of World War I veterans, and Governor Allen dispatched four companies of the Kansas National Guard, including a machine gun division, to subdue the marching women.
When the National Guard arrived on December 15, the women ceased marching, hoping to avoid a violent showdown. Local, state, and federal law enforcers, however, took advantage of the guardsmen’s presence and the resulting militarization of the region to arrest participants of the march and to generally target the immigrant families they blamed for the recent disturbances. Officials arrested over fifty men and women, conducted daily home searches under the guise of liquor raids, and deported non-citizens. Nationally, Americans discussed the women’s march in the context of both labour debates and gender issues. The prominent socialist Mother Jones called for more women to “Go out and raise hell,” while Alice Robertson, the only woman in the United States congress called the march a disgrace “to be deplored by the womanhood of the nation."
Tensions in the Kansas coalfield subsided in early 1922. The National Guard began leaving on January 4, and eight days later, Alexander Howat called miners to return to their jobs, as they had successfully proven the ineffectiveness of the Kansas Industrial Court.
But while the miners’ strike and women’s march had both officially concluded, the movement against the Industrial Court continued. During the 1922 electoral season, the women of the coalfields travelled across Kansas by train, 'electioneering' for candidates who opposed the Industrial Court. They successfully unseated several anti-strike incumbents and even helped elect a labour-friendly democratic governor. In 1924, Howat and his allies won a U.S. Supreme Court case against the Kansas Industrial Court (Dorchy v. Kansas, 264 U.S 286), which in 1925, the Kansas legislature subsequently disbanded.

1926 - Jean Richepin (b. 1849), French poet, dramatist, novelist, actor, sailor and stevedore, dies. [see: Feb. 4]

1930 - Ruben G. Prieto (d. 2008), Uraguayan anarchist, who was one of the founders in the 1950's of the Comunidad del Sur, a co-operative self-managed community, born.

1933 - Émile Ernest Girault (b.1871), French typographer, militant anarchist advocate and anti-militarist before becoming a communist, dies. [see: Jun. 15]

1937 - Mae West causes a scandal on NBC radio by performing a typically risque skit on the subject of Adama and Eve, which will eventually lead to her being banned from NBC airwaves for 15 years.

1942 - Jewish prisoners at a labour camp in Lutsk, Ukraine, armed with knives, bricks, iron bars, acid, and several revolvers and sawed-off shotguns, revolt against Germans and Ukrainians. The uprising is crushed.

1944 - Dekemvrianá [Δεκεμβριανά / December Events]: ΕΑΜ is in control of most of Athens and Piraeus. Outnumbered, the British fly in the 4th Indian Infantry Division from Italy as emergency reinforcements.

1950 - Paolo Schicchi aka 'il leone di Collesano' (b. 1865), Italian anarchist supporter of the spontaneous/anti-organisational current (anarchico-spontaneista/tendenza antiorganizzatrice), anti-militarist, anti-clericalist, who was prominent in the anti-fascist struggle, dies. [see: Aug. 31]

[A] 1969 - Piazza Fontana Bombing: A bomb explodes at the Banque Nationale d'Agriculture in Milan. 18 die, many injured. It is attributed to anarchist though it has all the hallmarks of Operation Gladio. More than 80 anarchist are arrested including Giuseppe Pinelli, an anarchist railway worker, who died after falling from the fourth floor window of the police station where he was being held.

[C] 1970 - At an anarchist protest on the anniversary of the 'strage di Stato' (Piazza Fontana bombing), and to show solidarity with the militants of ETA on trial in Burgos, in Via Larga, Milan, 22-year-old Italian anti-Fascist Saverio Saltarelli is killed during a police attack on the demonstration, when a tear canister hits him in the face. Dozens of injuries are sustained by protesters, among which the journalist Giuseppe Carpi who is hit by a bullet. Carabinieri captain Antonio Chirivi and police captain Alberto Antonietti are subsequently indicted the death of Saltarelli. Many believe neo-Fascists in the police ranks were behind the attack.

1970 - Nathan Isaevich Altman (Натан Исаевич Альтман; b. 1889), Russian-Jewish and Soviet avant-garde artist, Cubist painter, stage designer and book illustrator, dies. [see: Dec. 2]

1971 - The 'Research Group' (研究会) of the L-Class Struggle Committee (Lクラス闘争委員会), the forerunner of anarchist East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front (東アジア反日武装戦線), bombs the Koa Kannon (興亜観音) temple, destroying the Seven Martyrs Monument (殉国七士墓) stone as a protest aganst Japanese imperialism. The '1068 Monument' (1068の碑 or Great East Asia War Martyrs' Death Penalty Monument (大東亜戦争殉国刑死一〇六八柱供養碑) was also targetted but survived due to a second pipe bomb (both devices were constructed from fire extinguisher casings) failed to detonate properly, causing only minor damage.

1973 - Bewegung 2. Juni (June 2 Movement) member Gabi Kröcher-Tiedemann is sentenced to 8 years imprisonment for the attempted murder of a policeman on July 7, 1973.

1977 - Virginia Tabarroni aka 'Danda' (1888-1977), Italian typographer and anarchist, who was the aunt of Anteo Zamboni, the 15-year-old who attempted to assassinate Mussolini in Bologna on October 31, 1926, dies. [see: Mar. 11]
[NB. some sources give the date of her death as Dec. 29]

1982 - 30,000 women join hands around the RAF Greenham Common Cruise Missile base.

2008 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: Greek youths hurled rocks and Molotov cocktails at riot police in Athens outside the parliament building, who responded with stun grenades and tear gas. The protests inspired small protests in some European cities, sowing fears of copycat riots elsewhere. On the same day, Greek police issued an appeal for more tear gas after supplies ran low, since more than 4,600 capsules of it were released against the protestors by that time. Despite seven straight days of unrest, Greece's prime minister rebuffed calls to resign and hold early elections.

[F] 2012 - Global day of action for ratification of International Labour Organisation Convention No. 189 on Decent Work for Domestic Workers. Adopted by the ILO on June 16, 2011, the convention establishes the first global standards for the estimated 50-100 million domestic workers worldwide, the vast majority of whom are women and girls.
1797 - Heinrich Heine (d. 1856), German lyric poet, satirist, journalist and rebel, born. Despite a friendship with Marx, Heine feared that communist matrialism would result in a cutural desert as happened with socialist realism. His books were burnt by the Nazis (at the destruction of the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft archives).

1852 - Frances (Fanny) Wright (b. 1795), Scotish-American lecturer, writer, freethinker, feminist, abolitionist, founder of Nashoba co-operative community (a utopian community in Tennessee established to prepare slaves for emancipation), anti-authoritarian socialist and a central figure in the workingmen's movement, dies of injuries sustained in a fall.

1881 - Jules Le Gall (d. 1944), French boilermaker, journalist, ironmonger, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and Freemason, born. Helped found in 1903 of the Jeunesse Syndicaliste in l'Arsenal de Brest and appointed secretary of the Bourse du Travail de Brest in 1904, he was charged with "inciting soldiers to disobedience" but acquitted in January 1906.
"The society is rotten and it should stop at nothing to overthrow! We are ready to make holes in the skin to maintain our rights and whether bloodshed, are spreading it!"
"I am neither a saint nor a bloodthirsty, I simply revolutionary and I claim. I am a revolutionary because I suffered because I have seen people suffer, because I see everywhere suffer. When at the age of ten I lost my father, I knew what suffering."

[F] 1889 - Fyrstikkarbeiderstreiken i Kristiania [Kristiania Match Workers' Strike]: Despite the nearly 14 000 kroner raised by their strike fund, and despite the almost overwhelming support and sympathy amongst the public since the strike began at the end of October, the women strikers finally capitulate and return to work.

1889 - London Gasworkers' Strike: Men began to leave on 13th December, played out by the SDF brass band. A procession of sympathisers was turned back by police who, many mounted, lined the streets. The last gangs at Greenwich and Old Kent Road set fire to washrooms. An effigy of Livesey was burnt outside the Pilot pub in Riverway, just outside the East Greenwich gates.
A train from Spalding arrived at Victoria and replace- ment workers marched across Vauxhall Bridge. A train from Margate came into Cannon Street at 10am with new workers for Bankside. Men were brought to the West Greenwich works wharf in ‘two strange steamers’ having embarked at Woolwich from trains at Arsenal station.

1890 - Jean Goldschild (aka Goldsky, or Jacques Guerrier)(d. 1969), French antimilitarist, militant anarchist and journalist, born. Collaborated with Miguel Almereyda and others to create the Fédération Révolutionnaire, which advocated the use of direct action for "the radical destruction of capitalist society and authority", and on 'Le Bonnet Rouge' during WWI, as well as working on Louis Lecoin's journal 'Liberté'.

1895 - Lucía Sánchez Saornil (d. 1970), Spanish poet, painter, anarchist and feminist, born. Her early highly erotic paeans to female beauty, which were written under the male psuedonym of Luciano de San-Saor, first appeared in the literary magazine 'Los Quijotes' in 1918. She was considered one of the foremost Ultraïsmo poets, an avant-garde literary movement of the era, and certainly the only female one. Becoming a convinced anarchist in the '20s, she was appointed editorial secretary of the CNT in Madrid and began having articles regularly published in 'Tierra y Libertad', 'La Revista Blanca' and 'Solidaridad Obrera', expounding on the centrality of the feminist cause to the class struggle. As a result of the resistance to these ideas amongst her male colleagues, she co-founded Mujeres Libres, along with Mercedes Comaposada and Amparo Poch y Gascon, in 1936. During the war some of her poems, now much less lyrical and more directed towards expressing her political views, were collected in 'Romancero de Mujeres Libres' (Ballads of Free Women; 1937), as were several of her articles in 'Horas de Revolución' (Hours of Revolution; 1938). In May 1938, she became general secretary of Solidaridad Internacional Antifascista (SIA) and later editor of the weekly 'Umbral' (Threshold), were she met her companion América Barroso. Following Franco's victory, they fled to Paris but were forced to return clandestinely to Spain after the Nazi invasion of France.

'Romance de Durruti'

¿Qué bala te cortó el paso
-¡Maldición de aquella hora!-
atardecer de noviembre
camino de la victoria?

Las sierras del Guadarrama
cortan la luz y sombra
un horizonte mojado
de agua turbia y sangre heroica.
Y a tus espaldas Madrid,
con el ojo atento a tu bota,
mordido por los incendios,
con jadeos de leona,
tus pasos iba midiendo
prietos el puño y la boca.

¡Atardecer de noviembre,
borrón negro de la historia!

Buenaventura Durruti,
¿Quién conoció otra congoja
más amarga que tu muerte
sobre tierra española?

Acaso estabas soñando
las calles de Zaragoza
y el agua espesa del Ebro
caminos de laurel rosa
cuando el grito de Madrid
cortó tu sueño en mal hora...

Gigante de las montañas
donde tallabas tu gloria,
hasta Castilla desnuda
bajaste como una tromba
para raer de las tierras
pardas la negra carroña,
y detrás de ti, en alud,
tu gente, como tu sombra.

Hasta los cielos de Iberia
te dispararon las bocas.
El aire agito tu nombre
entre banderas de gloria
-canto sonoro de guerra
y dura función de forja-

Y una tarde de noviembre
mojada de sangre heroica,
en cenizas de crepúsculo
caía tu vida rota.

Sólo hablaste estas palabras
al filo ya de tu hora:
Unidad y firmeza, amigos;
¡para vencer hais de sobra!

Durruti, hermano Durruti,
jamás se vió otra congoja
más amarga que tu muerte
sobre la tierra española.

Rostros curtidos del cierzo
quiebran su durez de roca;
como tallos quebradizos
hasta la tierra se doblan
hercules del mismo acero
¡Hombres de hierro, sollozan!

Fúnebres tambores baten
apisonando la fosa.

¡Durruti es muerto, soldados,
que nadie mengüe su obra!

Sen buscan manos tendidas,
los odios se desmoronan,
y en las trincheras profundas
cuajan realidades hondas
porque a la faz de la muerte
los imposibles se agotan.

-Aquí está mi diestra, hermano,
calma tu sed en mi boca,
mezcla tu sangre a la mía
y tu aliento a mi voz ronca.
Parte conmigo tu pan
y tus lágrimas si lloras.
Durruti bajo la tierra
en esto espera su honra.

Rugen los pechos hermanos.
Las armas al aire chocan.
Sobre las rudas cabezas
sólo una enseña tremola.

Durruti es muerto. ¡Malhaya
aquel que mengüe su obra!


[B] 1900 - Karel Teige (d. 1951), Czech graphic artist, photographer, typographer and "poet-anarchist", born. A major figure in the Czech avant-garde movement Devětsil (Nine Powers) in the 1920s, he edited and contributed graphics to the most influential avant-garde journals on Czech and international cultural affairs (including 'Revue Devětsilu', 'Disk' and 'Pásmo'), wrote essays and books on the theory and criticism of art and architecture. He also produced paintings, collages, photomontages, film scripts, book covers, and typefaces and participated in theatrical performances.
An anarchist communist aligned with the (anarchist) Union of Communist Groups, in 1929 he co-founded and chaired the communist arts group Levá Fronta (Left Front), which replaced the now defunct Svaz Moderní Kultury Devětsil (Devětsil Union of Modern Culture), which had split following fallout over the news of the Stalinist purges and trials in Russia. [At the time he had a running battle with fellow poet and hard-liner Josef Hora over keeping Devětsil independent of party influence, even though Teige's opportunism ended up with him as a party apparatchik and the more principled and independent Hora c.f. the 'Proclamation of the Seven', whose concept of proletarian art was much the broader, eventually outside of it.] And, despite his suspicions about the wider surrealist movement (he claimed that it neglected the political and was too anarchistic) he eventually became a member of the newly founded Czech Surrealist Group in 1934, serving time as its theoretical spokesman.
Following the Soviet takeover in 1948, Teige was first hailed as a progressive but then silenced by the Communist government, who prevented him from writing for official journals and study for a doctorate. Instead he published the samizdat 'Sborníku Znamení Zvěrokruhu' (Proceedings of the Zodiac). However, he committed suicide following a press campaign that labelled him a "Trotskyite degenerate", his papers were destroyed by the secret police, and his published work was suppressed for decades.
NB The decades-long feud between S. K. Neumann and Karel Teige.

1904 - [N.S. Dec. 26] Baku Strike [Бакинская Cтачка]: The strike, which was to be the first example of a dispute in the history of the workers' movement in Russia that was concluded with a collective agreement between strikers and bosses (in this case the oil owners), begins in Balakhany and in the Bibi-Eibat workshop district.
[see: Dec. 26]

[EEE] 1910 - Queen Silver (d. 1998), US office worker, court reporter, "girl scientist", feminist, freethinker, and social activist and orator, born. Her mother was the labour activist and soapbox radical Grace Verne Silver (1889 - 1972), a woman who listed her occupation as "Socialist Lecturer", and Queen attended her first political meeting at six days of age, as her mother made an impassioned speech from the platform.
A veteran public speaker by the age of eight, she delivered a series of six lectures in Los Angeles sponsored by the London Society of Science on subjects ranging from Darwinian evolution to Einstein's then new theory of relativity. She started reading Darwin at seven and became involved in the Scopes Monkey Trial, where her pamphlet 'Evolution, From Monkey to Bryan' – William Jennings Bryan being the prosecutor in the trial – was distributed [the family was unable to afford her fare to travel to Tennessee], and she even challenged Bryan to a public debate. He declined to reply, but her well-publicised taunts resulted in national notoriety.
Both women were also active in the Industrial Workers of the World and, when panic spread throughout America as news of the Russian Revolution broke on the world stage, Queen’s meetings began to be regularly attacked by veterans from the notoriously reactionary American Legion, who also attacked Grace’s bookstore, the first socialist bookshop in L.A., setting fire to its stock and eventually forcing its closure. Fiercely protective of her daughter, in late 1925 Grace physically attacked an evangelist who made unflattering comments about Queen and, when Grace was arrested for assault and battery, Queen defended Grace in criminal court, and won. Sadly, Queen ended up largely withdrawing from activism in the late 1930s, when Grace’s health deteriorated and it fell upon her to financially support the family.

[BB] 1911 - Kenneth Patchen (d. 1972), American anarchist and pacifist poet and novelist, born. Author of 'The Journal of Albion Moonlight' (1941) and 'Memoirs of a Shy Pornographer' (1945). [expand]

[E] 1913 - Matilde Escuder Vicente (d. 2006), Spanish libertarian teacher and follower of Francisco Ferrer, born. Member of the Durruti Column and participated in the Aragon collectist movement. Imprisoned after the war, she later participated in the anti-Franco underground.

1915 - Icchak Cukierma aka 'Antek' (d. 1981), Polish Jewish socialist member of Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Combat Organisation), who was one of the leaders of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 1943 and a fighter in the Warsaw Uprising 1944, born.

1920 - Prosincová Generální Stávka [December General Strike] / Oslavanské Povstání [Oslovan Rebellion]: There are widespread riots, strikes, and seizures of factories, churches, and public building by rioting workers across Czechoslovakia. The prime minister Jan Černý declares martial law across parts of Bohemia, Slovakia and Ruthenia.
The unrest is a direct result of the on-going struggles between the two factions of the Československé Sociálně Demokratické Straně (Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party), which had begun in September 1920 when the Marxist left summoned the leadership of the Social Democrats to a conference, where they demanded that they accept Lenin’s 21 points and join the Comintern or to be ousted from the party. The party congress, which had been scheduled for later in the month, was postponed a few days by the executive committee (led by moderates) until December. The Marxist Left held a rump congress on the once due date [Sept 25-28], and ousted the moderates, choosing a new executive committee. The Marxist faction then claimed legitimacy by maintaining that their congress was attended by 67.7% of the delegates. For the moment, though, they did not join the Comintern, for two reasons: the name of Social Democrats was still very attractive; moreover, it was still linked to the party's property, which included the People's House (Lidový dům), the party's headquarters building in Prague and the party's printing press.
The radical faction duly took occupation of the building and the moderates sued the left-wingers to get back both the copyright on the Party's paper 'Rudé Právo' (The Red Truth) and the property, winning the court case. The right wing then held its own rump congress at the end of November and decided to call the police to enforce the court's decisions on the headquarters. On December 9, the police executed the court order – which had been made in favour of the 'legal' owner, former party leader Antonín Němec, as political parties were legally prohibited from owning real estate. The ousted leftists then called an immediate general strike for the following day in support of their rights to the building and the party's newspaper. In addition to their demands regarding party control, the left wing faction called for the resignation of the clerical government, wage increases, the 'nationalisation' of all agricultural and industrial production, the creation of workers' councils, and the introduction of further revolutionary measures.
On the first day of the general strike [Dec. 10], farms in rural areas were occupied by their workers and production taken under collective organisation. In places such as Kladno, Hodonín, Třebíč and the Rosice-Oslavany coal basin, armed workers met serious resistance as they tried to sieze control. In the coal basin in particular the strike was supported across the entire coalfield, leaving one of the largest industrial centres in the country at a standstill. In many of the larger cities however, the strike was poorly supported and, after the introduction of martial law in parts of Bohemia, Slovakia and Ruthenia on December 13, the Marxist faction called off the general strike on December 15.
Events in the Rosice-Oslavany coal basin however took a more dramatic turn on December 13th. When a mass meeting of strikers was told that troops had occupied the power plant overnight and arrested the strike leaders, 5,000 protesters immediately set off for the electricity plant. On the way, they disarmed a group of gendarmes and seized their first weapons. The crowd surrounded the power plant, disarmed the soldiers and police, and occupied the buildings. A train that had brought another contingent of troops that was standing in the station was raided and the insurgents seized six machine guns, a box of grenades, and over 300 rifles. The following day a full military operation involving artillery and aircraft was launched against the coalfield and, after a brief clash, the rebels gave up. One gendarme and eight workers were wounded and 220 strikers arrested and sent to Cejl and Špilberk prisons in Brno. In Mostě, after the arrest of its strike committee, a meeting of about 500 strikers sent a deputation to the district political office with the request to release the arrested strike committee. The deputation was told it would receive a reply within 10 minutes. However, by the time the deadline had expired the offices had been closed and mounted gendarmes and troops had surrounded the quietly waiting crowd, sparking the gathering to protest. The police and soldiers responded by opening fire leaving four dead and many wounded amongst the demonstrators. Two more died after being taken to Mostě Hospital, and 24 people were severely wounded.
The protests collapsed following the ending of the strike on December 15, and the last pockets of resistance were pacified two days later. During the protests around 3,000 workers were arrested and later tried, and in the regions where martial law had been declared those trials were held without a jury.

1933 - The beginning of a series of uprisings initiated by the anarchists in Spanish provinces (Andalusia, Aragon, Estremadure). In several villages, they declare anarchist-communism, destroy property files and abolish the currency. But these movements remain insulated and on December 10 the Republican government declares a State of Emergency and sends in the army who finally crush the insurrection by the 13th.

1943 - Ivan Kliun (Иван Васильевич Клюн; b. 1873), Russian Suprematist and Constructivist painter, graphic artist and sculptor, dies. [see: Aug. 20]

[C] 1945 - Three notorious female Nazi war criminals, who had been SS guards at the Nazi concentration camps of Ravensbrück, Auschwitz-Birkenau and and – Irma Grese (b. 1923), Elizabeth Volkenrath (b. 1919) and Juana Bormann (b. 1893) – are hung in Hameln (Hamelin) jail in Wesfalia following the conclusion of the first trial of Bergen-Belsen camp guards.

1947 - Marilyn Jean Buck (d. 2010), US Marxist revolutionary and feminist poet, who was sentence to 80 years in prison for her participation in the 1979 prison escape of Assata Shakur [Nov. 2], the 1981 Brink's robbery [Oct. 20] and the 1983 U.S. Senate bombing [Nov. 7], born.

1960 - Dora Marsden (b. 1882), British individualist anarchist, militant suffragette and literary publisher, dies. [see: Mar. 5]

1966 - The Strasbourg county court sequesters the offices and management of the Strasbourg Bureau of the local Student Association (AFGES) following the scandal surrounding the publishing of 'On the Poverty of Student Life, Considered in its Economic, Political, Psychological, Sexual & Especially Intellectual Aspects, with a Modest Proposal for Doing Away With It'. [See: Nov. 16 & 22]

1970 - At midnight (Dec. 12-13) martial law is declared in Poland in the wake Solidarity-related unrest. Mass arrests and internment take place and the military are on the streets in large numbers.

1971 - White Panther Party founder, author, music critic and one-time manager of the band MC5, John Sinclair (sentenced to 10 years in jail for selling two marijuana joints) is freed.

1974 - Betty Van Patter (b. ca. 1932), Black Panther Party bookkeeper and aide to Panther chair Elaine Brown, is murdered. No one was ever charged in connection with her death.

1976 - Massacre de Margarita Belén: Eleven young Peronist members of Montoneros, who were amongst a group of 23 that had already been subjected to prolonged torture are murdered near the Argentinian town of Margarita Belén, in the Chaco Province, and a further four 'disappeared' during a 'transfer' from Penitentiary Unit #7 in Resistencia. During joint operation of the Argentine Army and the Chaco Provincial Police, which was carried out in retaliation for an attack carried out on October 5 on the Regimiento 29 de Formosa, the women prisoners were raped and three of the men were castrated. Ten of the bodies were taken to Resistencia's cemetery and buried in graves that had been prepared beforehand.

[D] 1981 - At midnight (Dec. 12-13) martial law is declared in Poland in the wake Solidarity-related unrest. Mass arrests and internment take place and the military are on the streets in large numbers.

1981 - Cornelius Cardew (b. 1936), English experimental music composer and Maoist, dies in a hit-and-run incident. [see: May 7]

1986 - Kuwasi Balagoon (born Donald Weems; b. 1946), US Black Panther, a member of the Black Liberation Army, a New Afrikan anarchist and prison writer, dies in prison of pneumocystis pneumonia, an AIDS-related illness. [see: Dec. 22]

[A] 1995 - The death in custody at Brixton Police station of 26-year-old Wayne Douglas precipitates a riot. 22 people are arrested and 3 cops hospitalised.

2008 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: Large groups of demonstrators gathered in front of the Greek Parliament in central Athens. Despite the fact that the protest in front of the Greek parliament was relatively peaceful, the riot police attempted to dissolve it at 13:30 by using tear gas and violence. Around 300 anarchists attack the offices of the Ministry of Planning and Public Works in solidarity with the struggle of the people of the village of Leukimi in Corfu (a local woman was assassinated by the police there in the summer). Two banks are also smashed and burnt. High street shops are smashed. The police are nowhere to be seen.
Thousands of people gathered at the point of assassination of Alexandros (at the corner of Messologiou and Tzavella Street in Eksarhia) and about 100 protesters firebombed a police station nearby.

2009 - In Milan, Silvio Berlusconi struck in face by a replica of the city's cathedral. He gets two broken teeth, a nose fracture and a bloody lip!! His heroic assailant Massimo Tartaglia later told police he had attacked Mr Berlusconi because he hated him.
1825 - [N.S. Dec. 26] Decembrist revolt (Восстание декабристов) by Russian army officers against the new Tsar, Nicholas I.

[DD] 1831 - Carrickshock Incident: A group of 38 constables under the command of a sub-inspector, Captain James Gibbons, a veteran of the Napoleonic Wars, who were protecting a local butcher, Edmund Butler, who had been employed as a baliff serving processes relating to people defaulting on their tithes to the vicar of the local Church of Ireland parish during the Irish Tithe war, is cornered in a boreen (narrow lane) near Carrickshock in County Kilkenny. Faced by one or two thousand locals barring their war through the narrow lane flanked by high stone walls, a youth ran into the party and grabbed Butler. The youth was bayonetted by two constables and shot by Gibbons. Butler was then struck on the head by a stone hurled from the crowd and Captain Gibbons ordered his men to open fire. They got off 20 rounds but could not reload in the confined space. The crowd began hurling rocks from the walls onto the party. Within five or ten minutes the affray was over; Butler, Gibbons, and 11 constables had been killed or mortally wounded, and 14 constables severely injured, by blows from rocks, mallets and hurleys and stab wounds from pikes and scythes. Three locals were killed and an unknown number injured.

1845 - André Augustin Bastelica (d. 1884), French typographer and printer, member of the First International, Communard, agitator, anarchist avant la lettre, supporter of Bakunin and organiser of the Marseilles working class, born. Secretary of the Marseille section of the AIT, he was castigated by Marx for "preaching total abstention from politics"

1852 - Daniel DeLeon (d. 1914), American socialist newspaper editor, politician, Marxist theoretician and trade union organiser. He is regarded as the forefather of the idea of revolutionary industrial unionism and worked with the American Labor Union to help found the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) in 1905.

[A] 1853 - Errico Malatesta (d. 1932), Italian mechanic, anarcho-communist, theorist and editor, born in Italy. [expand]

1864 - Thomas Cantwell (d. 1906), British militant anarchist active in the Socialist League, co-publisher of the 'The Commonweal' and manager of 'Freedom', born.

1895 - Francesco Barbieri (d. 1937), Italian anti-fascist and anarchist militant, born. During the Spanish Revolution in 1936 he joined the Italian column fighting in Huesca. While hospitalized in Barcelona in May 1937 Barbieri is arrested by cops under command of the Communists and his body is found full of bullet holes the next day, along with that of Camillo Berneri.

[C] 1895 - Paul Éluard (Eugène Émile Paul Grindel; b. 1952), French poet and communist, a one-time Dadaist who went on to become one of the founders of the Surrealist movement, born. Wrote under the noms de plume of Didier Desroches and of Brun. Involved in the Résistance during WWII (he used the noms de guerre Jean du Haut and Maurice Hervent) and later fawned over Stalin whilst in the French CP.

"Sur mes cahiers d'écolier
Sur mon pupitre et les arbres
Sur le sable sur la neige
J'écris ton nom

Sur toutes les pages lues
Sur toutes les pages blanches
Pierre sang papier ou cendre
J'écris ton nom

Sur les images dorées
Sur les armes des guerriers
Sur la couronne des rois
J'écris ton nom

Sur la jungle et le désert
Sur les nids sur les genêts
Sur l'écho de mon enfance
J'écris ton nom

Sur les merveilles des nuits
Sur le pain blanc des journées
Sur les saisons fiancées
J'écris ton nom

Sur tous mes chiffons d'azur
Sur l'étang soleil moisi
Sur le lac lune vivante
J'écris ton nom

Sur les champs sur l'horizon
Sur les ailes des oiseaux
Et sur le moulin des ombres
J'écris ton nom

Sur chaque bouffée d'aurore
Sur la mer sur les bateaux
Sur la montagne démente
J'écris ton nom

Sur la mousse des nuages
Sur les sueurs de l'orage
Sur la pluie épaisse et fade
J'écris ton nom

Sur les formes scintillantes
Sur les cloches de couleurs
Sur la vérité physique
J'écris ton nom

Sur les sentiers éveillés
Sur les routes déployées
Sur les places qui débordent
J'écris ton nom

Sur la lampe qui s'allume
Que la lampe qui s'éteint
Sur mes maisons réunies
J'écris ton nom

Sur le fruit coupé en deux
Du miroir et de ma chambre
Sur mon lit coquille vide
J'écris ton nom

Sur mon chien gourmand et tendre
Sur ses oreilles dressées
Sur sa pate maladroite
J'écris ton nom

Sur le tremplin de ma porte
Sur les objets familiers
Sur le flot du feu béni
J'écris ton nom

Sur toute chair accordée
Sur le front de mes amis
Sur chaque main qui se tend
J'écris ton nom

Sur la vitre des surprises
Sur les lèvres attentives
Bien au-dessus du silence
J' écris ton nom

Sur mes refuges détruits
Sur mes phares écroulés
Sur les murs de mon ennui
J'écris ton nom

Sur l'absence sans désir
Sur la solitude nue
Sur les marches de la mort
J'écris ton nom

Sur la santé revenue
Sur le risque disparu
Sur l'espoir sans souvenir
J'écris ton nom

Et par le pouvoir d'un mot
Je recommence ma vie
Je suis né pour te connaître
Pour te nommer"

- 'Liberté'.

(On my school notebooks
On my desk and trees
On the sand on the snow
I write your name

On all pages read
On all blank pages
Stone blood paper or ash
I write your name

On the golden image
Arms warriors
On the crown of kings
I write your name

The jungle and the desert
On nests on the broom
The echo of my childhood
I write your name

About the wonders of the night
On white bread days
The seasons brides
I write your name

On all my blue rags
Sun on the pond mold
Lake living moon
I write your name

The fields on the horizon
On the wings of birds
And the mill of shadows
I write your name

On each breath of dawn
Sea on boats
The insane mountain
I write your name

The foam clouds
The sweat of the storm
The thick rain fade
I write your name

On sparkling form
On the bells of colors
On the physical truth
I write your name

On waking trails
Deployed on roads
Squares overflowing
I write your name

The lamp lights
The lamp is extinguished
On my home together
I write your name

The fruit cut in half
Mirror and my room
On my bed empty shell
I write your name

On my dog greedy and tender
Its ears pricked
On his clumsy paste
I write your name

On the springboard of my door
Of familiar objects
On the flow of the blessed fire
I write your name

On any given flesh
On the front of my friends
On each hand reaching
I write your name

On the glass of surprises
On careful lips
Well above the silence
I write your name

On my shelters destroyed
Collapsed on my headlights
On the walls of my boredom
I write your name

Of absence without desire
On the bare loneliness
On death marches
I write your name

Health back
The risk disappeared
On hope without memory
I write your name

And by the power of a word
I start my life
I was born to know you
To name you.)


1897 - Octave Mirbeau's 'Les Mauvais Bergers' (The Bad Shepherds) premières at the Théâtre de la Renaissance in Paris.

1897 - Margaret Chase Smith (d. 1995), first woman elected to both houses of Congress (R-ME), serving 8 years in the House of Representatives and 24 in the Senate, first in Senate to challenge Senator Joseph McCarthy’s anti-communist crusade, born.

1902 - Greta Kuckhoff (d. 1981), member of the German Resistance group, the Red Orchestra during the Nazi era, born. She was married to Adam Kuckhoff, who was executed by the Third Reich. In 1935, she joined the KPD and, in 1939, worked on the English translation of Hitler's 'Mein Kampf', hoping the translation would educate the British public about Hitler. After the war, she lived in the German Democratic Republic, where she was president of Deutsche Notenbank from 1950 to 1958.

1910 - Aberdare Miners' Strike or 'Block Strike': On November 14, the union executive had called a conference, at which a proposal from the executive committee that the Aberdare men should return to work as recommended and that anyone who was not re-employed would receive lock-out pay was put before the 284 delegates (representing 152.559 miners). A call for a wider stoppage was made but lacked support and the meeting broke up having only adopted a resolution condemning "the action of the Home Secretary in refusing to grant an inquiry into the conduct of the police and military forces". At the reconvened conference on December 14, the executive committee's recommendation for a return to work was passed by 1,815 votes to 921. A mass meeting of the Aberdare strikers held on December 15 discussed a resolution calling on each colliery committee to meet its management to obtain a guarantee of no victimisation before the men returned to work. The meeting eventually broke up in disorder, revealing the demoralised mood of the miners.
After receiving assurances from the executive committee that any victimisation would be a breach of the Conciliation Board agreement and that the Federation would assist any victimised men, the PD strikers decided to return to work at a meeting on the 23rd A large section of the PD men had wanted to continue but the prospect of carrying on without the other pits was enough to deter them. Because of the need for repairs to the workings. the actual return to work was delayed until January 2, 1911. Only about half of the PD men had their jobs back. immediately. As further repairs went ahead more men had their jobs back, but by the end of 1911, 1,000 were still out of work, still on lock-out pay.
The result of the strike was the temporary defeat and demoralisation of the labour movement in Aberdare. As might be expected. the victimisation of the PD men led to an increasing level of non-unionism in 1911.

1910 - Bruno Salvadori, aka Antoine or Antonio Gimenez (d. 1986), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist fighter in Spain, born.

1914 - Antonio Ramón Ramón attempts to kill Roberto Silva Renard, the General who directed the slaughter of 3,000+ unarmed women, children and workers in the Santa Maria School Massacre during a strike in Iquique in 1907.

[E] 1917 - American socialist and women’s rights advocate Kate Richards O’Hare is sentenced to five years’ imprisonment for a speech denouncing World War I.

1918 - The first issue of 'Der Syndikalist', the newspaper of the Freie Vereinigung Deutscher Gewerkschaft (FVdG, Free Association of German Trade Unions) and later of the Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands (Free Workers' Union of Germany), is published in Berlin with a first edition of 10,000 copies following the November Revolution. It replaces the banned publications 'Die Einigkeit' (Unity) and 'Der Pionier' (The Pioneer).

[D] 1918 - The Portuguese President Sidónio Pais is assassinated by the militant Republican José Júlio da Costa, ending the virtual dictatorship of the Primeira República.

[F] 1920 - Prosincová Generální Stávka [December General Strike] / Oslavanské Povstání [Oslovan Rebellion]: A full military operation involving artillery and aircraft is launched against the Rosice-Oslavany coalfield and after a brief clash, the rebels gave up. One gendarme and eight workers were wounded and 220 strikers arrested and sent to Cejl and Špilberk prisons in Brno. In Mostě, after the arrest of its strike committee, a meeting of about 500 strikers sent a deputation to the district political office with the request to release the arrested strike committee. The deputation was told it would receive a reply within 10 minutes. However, by the time the deadline had expired the offices had been closed and mounted gendarmes and troops had surrounded the quietly waiting crowd, sparking the gathering to protest. The police and soldiers responded by opening fire leaving four dead and many wounded amongst the demonstrators. Two more died after being taken to Mostě Hospital, and 24 people were severely wounded. [see: Dec. 9 & 10]

1923 - Théophile Alexandre Steinlen (b. 1859), Swiss-born French Art Nouveau painter, printmaker and contributor to the anarchist magazine 'Temps Nouveau', along with Aristide Delannoy, Maximilien Luce, Théo van Rysselberghe, Camille Pissarro, Paul Signac, Van Dongen, George Willaume, etc., dies. [see: Nov. 10]

1926 - Théo van Rysselberghe (b. 1862), Belgian Impressionist, neo-Impressionist and then Pointillist painter, Member of Les XX and anarchist, dies. Contributed to the anarchist magazine 'Temps Nouveaux'. [see: Nov. 23]

1928 - Josef 'Sepp' Oerter (b. 1870), German bookbinder and anarchist, dies. [see: Sep. 24]

1937 - Republican offensive begins at Teruel. [expand]

1939 - Winter War: The Soviet Union is expelled from the League of Nations for invading Finland.

1959 - Fiji Oil Workers Strike: An exhausted James Anthony stepped back to get some rest and the more moderate union president Ratu Meli Gonawai arranged a settlement with the oil companies that increased the minimum wage to four pounds eleven shillings and four pence. This was half of the initial requested increase, and no further benefits were extended. When Anthony rejoined the negotiations on December 15, he initially refused to sign the settlement, but soon did so under duress. Oil workers returned to work the next day. [see: Dec. 7]

1960 - Grève Générale de l'Hiver [Winter General Strike] / Grève du Siècle [Strike of the Century]: As a foretaste of the Grève Générale de l'Hiver, a one-day demonstration was called by the the militant trade union, the General Federation of Belgian Labour (Fédération générale du travail de Belgique / Algemeen Belgisch Vakverbond; FGTB/ABVV) and the Parti Bocialiste Belge / Belgische Socialistische Partij to protest against a propose austerity law, the Loi d'expansion économique, de progrès social et de redressement financier (Law of Economic Expansion, Social Progress and Financial Recovery) or Loi Unique (Single Law). It met with tremendous success. [see: Dec. 20]

1970 - Strikes begin in Gdansk, spread to Gdynia, Szczecin, other industrial centres. Widespread factory occupations/resistance. Riots topple the Communist government, but a new military regime takes power in its place. This movement lasts until February 1971 when it is recuperated by the reformed government.

1981 - Strajk w KWK Piast [KWK Piast Miners' Strike]: Following the introduction of martial law the previous day, around two thousand miners at the KWK Piast mine in Bieruń begin a sit-in strike at the 650m level, the longest postwar underground mining strike, as a protest against the militarisation of the mine and the suspension of activities of all organisations and associations. By the end of the protest, more than a thousand people still remained underground and the strikers left the mine on December ​​28 only after receiving security guarantees from the authorities.
At midnight [00:00] on December 13, 1981, the government of the People's Republic of Poland introduced martial law, in order to suppress political opposition, mainly the Solidarity movement. This decision was met with resistance from workers in enterprises across the country. Most major Polish factories went on strike, such as Katowice Steelworks, Gdańsk Shipyard, Szczecin Shipyard, Huta Stalowa Wola, Vladimir Lenin Steelworks, and Ursus Factory. Altogether, after the introduction of the martial law, 50 Upper Silesian enterprises went on strike, including 20 five coal mines. The workers demanded the end of the martial law and the release of imprisoned Solidarity leaders.
The protest at Piast began in the morning of December 14, 1981, 650 meters below the ground when miners of the first shift lay down their tools, upon hearing that Eugeniusz Szelągowski, deputy of the Komisję Fabryczną Solidarności (Solidarity Factory Committee), had been arrested, together with Stanisław Dziwak of the Solidarity Factory Committee at the Przedsiębiorstwa Robót Górniczych (Mining Works Enterprise) in the nearby town of Mysłowice. The mine director asked four members of the Solidarity Factory Committee and a member of the National Coordinating Commission (Krajowa Komisja Porozumiewawcza), Zbigniew Bogacz, to go down to try and pursuade the miners to end their protest. Instead the delegation remained with the miners after they had decided to stay put. Meanwhile the second and third crews joined them and by the following day more than 2,000 miners were taking part in the sit-in. With the power in their lamps exhausted, and the management refusing to replace them, the miners were now to spend the next two weeks in total darkness. The strike as supported by the miners' families and the rest of the town, and those miners not down the mine helped collect the protesters wages come payday.
The miners spent Christmas underground, away from their families, already knowing that they were the last striking enterprise in Poland. Since staying underground for such a long time was bad for their health, on December 28 the strike ended, with some 1,000 returning home in the evening. On the same day, arrests of leaders of the protest took place. Many workers were dismissed, and seven were brought to court. Military prosecutor accused them of organizing and leading the protest, demanding from 10 to 15 years for each person. During the trial, an unusual situation took place, as all prosecutor’s witnesses withdrew their testimonies, stating that they had either been fabricated or extorted. Finally, on May 12, 1982, all cases were dismissed, due to lack of evidence. All seven miners were released, and rearrested on the same day, a few hours later. Zbigniew Bogacz remained in prison until December 12, 1982.

1985 - Wilma Mankiller is sworn in as principal chief of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma – the first woman in modern history to lead a major Native American tribe.

1990 - Black Panther supporter Paris becomes the first western rap artist to perform in Cuba. Before playing to the packed house at the Karl Marx auditorium in Havana, he and exiled Black Liberation Army activist Assata Shakuur speak of the need to contain capitalism and develop Third World unity.

[1990 - Food riots in Morocco (Dec. 14-15) - 33 dead

1992 - Three hundred thousand Polish coal miners go on strike in what is meant to be a two-hour warning strike called by NSZZ "Solidarność" (Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy „Solidarność” / Independent Self-Governing Trade Union "Solidarity") following the failure to resolve a labour dispute between the union and the Hanna Suchocka government [Lech Wałęsa also being the first elected president of the III Republic at the time as well as chair of "S"] over the issues of rising cost of living and the restructuring of the Wałbrzych Province and the liquidation of the Lower Silesian Coal Basin – which included the cutting of coal production quotas, the closure of a number of mines and redundances of 170 000 workers over a 10-year period. Within a few days all the mines are out on strike. By New Years Eve, the government had promised the miners' strike committees that miners would get a raise from April 15, 1993 and on January 7, an agreement between the government and the union was signed guarrenting cost of living compensation.

2003 - Cesare Fuochi (b. 1917), Italian anarchist, syndicalist railway worker and anti-fascist partisan, dies. [see: Sep. 17]

2008 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: Students joined residents of the Exarcheia district to demand the renaming of that street in honour of the dead teenager. Also, at least four radio stations based in Athens were occupied by protesters. In Thessaloniki, students demonstrated in solidarity with all the people who were arrested as a result of rioting over the past week.

2011 - Pussy Riot perform 'Smert tyurme, svobodu protestu' [Смерть тюрьме, свободу протесту](Death to Prison, Freedom to Protests) from top a garage beside the Moscow Detention Center No. 1 prison [Cпецприёмника № 1 Москвы], where opposition activists from the December 5 rally against the State duma election results were among the prisoners being held. The prisoners loved it, applauding from the prison's windows.

[B] 2012 - State television channel CCTV-6 shows 'V for Vendetta' for the first time in China. Confusion reigns over whether it was previously officially banned but the newly dubbed into Chinese version was shown under a new title, 'V Special Forces', rather than the more lurid 'V the Revenge Killing Squad' rendering previously used in China.
1857 - Lucien Louis Guérineau aka 'Fleury' (d. 1940), French carpenter, cabinetmaker, anarchist propagandist and revolutionary syndicalist, born. Deeply affected by the Paris Commune he was apprenticed to a cabinetmakers. In 1879, he was introduced to Constant Martin, Émile Eudes and Louis-Auguste Blanqui and began to become interested in the libertarian movement. A convinced anti-militarist, he formed an anarchist along with a dozen soldiers. In 1884, he became a member of Drapeau Noir and collaborated on it journal 'Terre et Liberté'. In 1884, he was arrested after being found with copies of Jean Grave's statement of protest against July 14, and locked in the Parisian prison of Mazas. On August 9 he was sentenced to two months imprisonment for "violence and violence against agents of the state." In 1885, he collaborated on 'L'Audace' (Boldness) and on 'Tire-Pied' (literally knee-strap, a leather strap used by a cobbler). In 1887, he joined the anarchist group in Montreuil and later joined Les Communistes des Amandiers, a group fromed by ex-Communards (Parthenay, Coulet, Vory, Picardat, Bourges, Wagner) and that would go on to rename itself Les Communistes Anarquistes des Amandiers. He was also active in other groups, including Les Égaux, La Cloche de Bois (The Wooden Bell), the Syndicat des Hommes de Peine (Union of Handymen) or the Pieds-Plats (Flatfeet). In 1888, he was the founder of the militant Union Syndicale du Meuble Sculté et de l'Ébénisterie (Trade Union Carved Furniture and Joinery; USMSE) in opposition to the more moderate Cambra Sindical de l'Ebenisteria. In 1890 he worked on 'Révolution Future' and the following year founded the periodical 'Le Pot à Colle'. [expand]

1866 - Luigi Molinari (d. 1918), Italian lawyer, educator and anarchist militant, active with Errico Malatesta and Camillo Berneri, born. Molinari was arrested and convicted by a military tribunal for instigating an insurrection, in 1894, by armed bands of anarchists supporting Sicilian victims of the 'State of Siege' (the government was repressing revolts against increased flour prices). Sentenced to 23 years in prison, Molinari was released in 1895 as the result of massive protests.

1870 - Achille Daudé (Achille Daudé-Bancel; d. 1963), French trade union activist, anarchist and advocate of co-operatives, born. Wrote numerous works on cooperatism, as well as on food and social questions, including 'Le Coopératisme Devant les Ecoles Sociale' (1897); 'Une Coopérative de Consommation. "La Famille" Société de Consommation Coopérative, d'Epargne et de Prévoyance Sociale' (1905) and 'Pain Riche ou Pain Appauvri' (1916).

[F] 1882 - The Tailoresses' Association of Melbourne, Australia's first female trade union, is established at a meeting held in Trades Hall. At this meeting women met in response to attempts by the Melbourne clothing manufacturer Beith Shiess & Co. to reduce piece-rate wages. A strike was called on February 15, 1883 when clothing manufacturers had not responded to the union's log of claims. As each manufacturer accepted the log, employees resumed work. The strike is generally regarded as instrumental in the establishment of the Shops Commission and the eventual passage of the Factory Act. When the new Factory Act was passed in 1885, the recommendations of the March 1884 Royal Commission regarding outwork were not incorporated and working conditions in the industry were not substantially affected by its operation. In 1906, the Tailoresses' Union amalgamated with the Tailors' Society.

1890 - Sioux Chief Sitting Bull (Tatanka Iyotake) murdered in the act of submitting to arrest as the alleged 'power' behind the outlawed Ghost Dance Movement.

1893 - 'La Revue Libertaire', under the direction of Charles Chatel, Henri Gauche and Henri Guerin, begins publishing in Paris. Victim of the anti-anarchist laws (lois scélérates), the review is shut down, after a mere five issues, on February 20, 1894. The epigraph for the first number (which changed each issue) is from Henrik Ibsen: "The State is the curse of the individual".

[E] 1894 - Fania Esiah Mindell (d. 1969), American theatre set and costume designer, feminist and activist, who together with Margaret Sanger and her sister Ethel Byrne opened the Brownsville Clinic in Brooklyn, the first birth control clinic in the United States, born in Minsk.

[C] 1900 - Franz Borkenau (d. 1957), Austrian philosopher of history, cultural historian, sociologist, communist, anti-Stalinist and anti-fascist, born. A member of the German Communist Party (KPD) and Comintern official, he resigned from the party over Stalin's treatment of dissidents, an event that helped prompt his studies into totalitarianism. Borkenau remained a socialist and worked as a researcher for the Institute for Social Research and became associated with what became known as the Frankfurt School. In 1933, the half-Jewish Borkenau fled from Nazi Germany and lived for a time in Paris. Over the next few years Borkenau was involved in organising support for the Neu Beginnen underground group, which was working for the overthrow of Adolf Hitler and his Nazi government. In 1936, he published his biography of the Italian sociologist Vilfredo Pareto ('Pareto'), where he first outlined his first attempt at a theory of totalitarianism from a Marxist perspective. He also began visiting Republican Spain in soon after the beginning of the Civil War and became highly critical of the Comminists' persecution of the anarchists and POUM, leading to his being denounced as a supporter of Leon Trotsky and was arrested by the Communist Party (PCE). After his release, Borkenau wrote his highly acclaimed book, 'The Spanish Cockpit: an Eye-Witness Account of the Political and Social Conflicts of the Spanish Civil War' (1937). This was followed by 'Austria and After' (1938), an attack on the Nazi Anschluss, and 'The New German Empire' (1939), in which he argued that Hitler was intent upon world conquest and his attempts to regain Germany's lost African colonies was the first step to a war against Britain and France. During World War II, Borkenau lived in London, and worked as a writer for the Cyril Connolly (who he had known in Span) journal 'Horizon'. In 1947, Borkenau returned to West Germany to work as a professor at the University of Marburg and joined the circle of European anti-Communist intellectuals.

1905 - [N.S. Dec. 26] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: Head of the Moscow Okhrana is assassinated. The Moscow Soviet has its last meeting. Presnia is shelled.

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 2] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Governor of Latvia reports the nearly complete breakdown of government authority.

1912 - The Federación Obrera Regional del Perú (Regional Workers' Federation of Peru), which had been formed earlier that year in October holds its second Assembly, adopting the demand for the eight-hour day. Since October, the Unión Local de Jornaleros (Local Union of Day Labourers) had joined the FORP's orginal members, the Sociedad de resistencia de los obreros galleteros y anexos (Resistance Society of Gallete Workers and Annexes), the Federación de Electricistas (Federation of Electricians), the Federación de Obreros Panaderos "Estrella del Perú", the Unificación Textil de Vitarte (Textile Unification of Vitarte), the Unificación Proletaria de Santa Catalina, and other anarcho-syndicalist organisations.[ón_Obrera_Regional_Peruana]

1913 - Muriel Rukeyser (d. 1980), US feminist poet, radical political activist, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, born.

1916 - Dr. Ben Reitman is again arrested for distributing illegal birth control literature at one of Emma Goldman's lectures in Rochester, NY.

1920 - Prosincová Generální Stávka [December General Strike] / Oslavanské Povstání [Oslovan Rebellion]: Realising that the poorly organised strike now had no change, the left-wing leadership issue a call to stop the protests and the strike petered out two days later. In the wake of the strike's collapse, around 3,000 were under arrest and later tried and in the regions where martial law had been declared, those trials were held without a jury. [see: Dec. 9 & 10]

1921 - Mollie Steimer, Jacob Abrams, Samuel Lipman and Hyman Lachowsky arrive in Moscow after being deported from the US as victims of the Red Scare in America. They find that Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman have already departed for the West, disillusioned by the turn the revolution has taken.

1921 - Army of Amazons / Southeast Kansas Women’s March: A protest by 500 women in Kansas that had begun earlier in the week – organised in support of striking mine workers and against new anti-labour legislation that forced unions into arbitration and outlawed strikes in the state – swells to 4,000, stretching a mile long. The women, dubbed the 'Amazon Army' by 'The New York Times', marching, hoping to avoid a violent showdown, after hearing that the National Guard militia was on its way. Local, state, and federal law enforcers, now take advantage of the guardsmen’s presence and the resulting militarisation of the region to arrest participants of the march and to generally target the immigrant families they blamed for the recent disturbances, arresting more than fifty men and women, conducting daily home searches under the guise of liquor raids, and deporting non-citizens.
Victory in the dispute came a year later when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled the Kansas anti-labour laws unconstitutional.

[CC] 1922 - Gerald Flamberg (d. 2007), English anti-fascist activist and co-founder of the Brunswick Boys Club [now the Brunswich Club for Young People] in Fulham, born. During WWII, he was in the Parachute Regiment and won the Military Medal at Arnhem during Operation Market Garden. He would become a leading member of the anti-fascist 43 Group and be arrested in December 1947, with fellow 43 Group member John Wimbourne, for the alleged 'murder attempt' on John Preen, leader of the British Vigilantes Action League.

1927 - Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven (born Else Hildegard Plötz; b. 1874), German self-proclaimed anarchist, walking Dadaist art work, artist model and poet, dies. [see: Jul. 12]

1934 - Iza Zielińska (Iza Gąsowska; b. 1863), Polish journalist, educator, social activist and participant in the Polish and International anarchist and socialist movements, dies. [see: Mar. 11]

1936 - George Orwell dispatches manuscript of 'The Road to Wigan Pier' to his publishers and leaves for the revolution in Spain.

1941 - The AFL labour union pledges there will be no strikes in defence-related industry plants for the duration of the war.

1944 - Chico Mendes (Francisco Alves Mendes Filho; d. 1988), Brazilian rubber tapper, trades union leader and environmentalsit, who was murdered by landowners for his leadership in the struggle against the destruction of Amazon rainforests, born.

1945 - 800 ex-18B detainees and fascists attend a Reunion Dance at the Royal Hotel in London. After being greeted by chants of "Hail Mosley" and fascist salutes as his took the stage, Mosley gave a speech in which he referred to his detention as "a disgrace to British civilisation". A 'Sunday Pictorial' journalist who attended is kicked and punched before neing thrown out.

1961 - Adolf Eichmann, former Nazi leader, is sentenced to death in Jerusalem.

1965 - AFL-CIO pledges "unstinting support" for the US war effort in Vietnam.

1966 - Members of the British National Party, Racial Preservation Society, and League of Empire Loyalists hold a meeting at Caxton Hall in London to form a new less openly neo-Nazi political party - what would become the National Front. There are riots outsice the hall and concerted attemtps by 62 Group members and others to disrupt events inside. [NB. This is the real date of formation and not the commonly used February 7 1967, which was the actual official launch date.][PR]

[AA] 1969 - Anarchist Black Cross member Guiseppe Pinelli is thrown out of a window whilst being interrogated by Italian police. He dies, no one is ever charged with his murder.
[Costantini pic]

[A] 1970 - Grudzień 1970 [December 1970] / Masakra na Wybrzeżu [Massacre on the Coast]: In Poland where a wave of strikes had already spread from Gdansk to Gdynia, Szczecin, other industrial centres, youths and workers torch the local government office building containing the Gdańsk Polish United Workers’ Party (PZPR) HQ and quietly watch it burn.
On December 12 1970, just before Christmas, the Polish government had announced a sharp increase in the prices of many key consumer commodities, especially foodstuffs, in addition to the cancellation of workers' Christmas bonuses. The proposed prices meant a reduction of nearly half the real wages of urban workers, hitting those currently termed as 'JAMs' (on the lowest wages and already struggling to make ends meet) the hardest. On the morning of December 14, thousands of workers in Gdańsk's Lenin Shipyard downed their tools and gathered in front of the management building demanding that the introduced price increases be withdrawn. Jerzy Pieńkowski, the secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party (KZ PZPR) in the city, was shouted down as he tried to address the crowd. Unable to gain concessions from the management, in the early afternoon the crowd left to march to the Municipal Headquarters of the KW PZPR in the city centre. Their ranks swelled along the way with more striking workers, students and other protesters against the price rises, they demanded to speak to the Secretary of the Provincial Committee of the Communist Party, Alojzy Karkoszka, but he was away and, frustrated, they move off into the city where they are atacked by police and Milicja Obywatelska (Citizens' Militia) militia using tear gas and stun grenades. Fierce fighting between the two side broke out but, as the police did not resort to firearms, no one was seriously injured or killed.
The following day, the strike had spread from the Lenin Shipyard to Gdańsk Harbour and the Gdańsk Ship Renovation Yard. Workers in the Paris Commune Shipyards in Gdynia, the Warynski Shipyards in Szczecin and a number of factories in Elbląg had also come out on strike, with workers making widespread calls for the declaring of a general strike. In the early hours of the morning shipyard workers appeared on the streets and many again went to the KW PZPR building where protesters detained the previous day were being held. In many parts of the city, protestors clashed with the security forces, who this time responded with live ammunition. On Świerczewskiego 20,000 workers protested in the square in front of the main train station (which was later set on fire). Workers then stormed the MO building and members of the militia, now armed with machine guns, responded by firing on the crowd. The building was trashed and set on fire along with cars parked in the building car park. Clashes between the two sides intensified as the demonstrators spread across the city. Police cars were turned over and set on fire and barricades built, and the local government office building containing the Gdańsk Polish United Workers’ Party were set on fire. The vast majority of people passively watched, but they were reportedly happy to see the building burn, as it was a symbol of hatred and power. When the fire began to engulf the Party’s offices on the next floor, the crowd blockaded the fire department from intervening. One of their fire engines is itself set on fire. Troops attempting to clear protesters away from the building opened fire on the crowd. Militia later successfully evacuated the building but an attempt by the authorities to rescue two cops who remained trapped inside the building using a helicopter failed due to strong cross winds. By mid afternoon many of the shipyard workers in Gdańsk had returned to their factories and announce sit-in strikes at the Lenin and Northern Shipyards and the Gdańsk Ship Renovation Yard.
In the fighting that day in Gdańsk, the militia killed at least 7 people and injured hundreds, with roughly 500 demonstrators ending up under arrest. According to official figures, during the period of the December revolts [14 - 22], 45 people were killed and a further 1,165 injured in the battles between striking workers and Polish security forces across the region affected by the strikes.

[D] 1971 - The Jordanian Ambassador in London and former chief of the Jordanian royal court, Zaid al Rifai, is wounded when his car is machine-gunned in an attack claimed by Black September.

1981 - Strajk w KWK Piast [KWK Piast Miners' Strike]: With the second and third crews having joined the original sit-in, there are now more than 2,000 miners taking part in the protest. With the power in their lamps exhausted, and the management refusing to replace them, the miners were now to spend the next two weeks in total darkness. The strike as supported by the miners' families and the rest of the town, and those miners not down the mine helped collect the protesters wages come payday. [see: Dec. 14]

1981 - Strajk w KWK Piast [KWK Piast Miners' Strike]: Having already taken control of the Silesian mines in Jastrzębie and Moszczenica without facing any resistance from striking miners, workers at the Manifest Lipcowy mine in Jastrzebie, Upper Silesia resist the ZOMO riot police. They fire on the strikers without warning, wounding four.

1994 - Raid on the house where the Italian anarchist weekly 'Canenero' [Blackdog] is edited and printed, with a warrant seeking "documentation concerning the committing of armed robberies". Part of a long, dragged out legal farce to suppress the Italian libertarian movement.

[2008 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: cops lawyer appeals their pre-trial custody

[B] 2010 - Jean Michel Rollin Roth Le Gentil (b. 1938), French cult erotic horror filmmaker, actor, novelist and anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 3]

2013 - Thirty or so Swedish Nazis from the Svenska Motståndsrörelsen (SMR; Swedish Resistance Movement) attempt to disrupt a rally against racism and increased Nazi activity, which had been organised by local residents in the Kärrtorp district of Stockholm in conjunction with the anti-fascist network Linje 17. The peaceful demonstration, consisting mainly of the elderly and children, was attacked by the SMR members carrying makeshift shields, knifes, glass bottles and pyrotechnics. Fortunately, comrades from AFA Stockholm were present and they and the locals counter-attacked, forcing the Nazis back. In the end 28 Nazis were arrested, one stabbed and several left bleeding. No anti-fascists were arrested on the day but Joel Almgren, a co-founder of Revolutionära Fronten, was arrested a few days later, even though all the anti-fascists had done was defend themselves and others.
In response to the attack on the peaceful protest, a second demonstration was organised in nearby Kärrtorps a week later on December 22. This attracted more than 16,000 people, the largest ever anti-racism demonstration in Sweden.
Joel Almgren was later tried for, and convicted of, attempted manslaughter following the stabbing of one of the SMR attackers and was sentenced to 6 years and 6 months.
1851 - Chilean Revolution: The signing of the Treaty of Purapel signals the defeat of the victory of the Conservative government and the defeat of the liberal rebels in the 1851 Chilean Revolution.

[AA/E] 1871 - Louise Michel, a 36-year-old popular communard and teacher, is brought to trial before a military court by the Versailles Government. She is accused of:
1. Trying to overthrow the government.
2. Encouraging citizens to arm themselves.
3. Possession & use of weapons, & wearing a military uniform.
4. Forgery of a document.
5. Using a false document.
6. Planning to assassinate hostages.
7. Illegal arrests, torturing & killing.

1878 - Amédée Dunois (pseudonym for Amédée Gabriel Catonne; d. 1945), French anarchist militant, communist, and then a revolutionary socialist trade unionist, born. Arrested by the Nazis and sent to Bergen-Belsen, where he died March 21, 1945. Author of several works of history (in particular on the Paris Commune) and the chapter 'Marxism and Socialism' in Sébastien Faure's 'Anarchist Encyclopaedia'.

1893 - A benefit concert and ball held in New York City for Emma Goldman and others imprisoned for speaking at the Aug. 21 demonstration. Voltairine de Cleyre delivers a speech, 'In Defense of Emma Goldman and the Right of Expropriation'.

1897 - Alphonse Daudet (b. 1840), French novelist, short story writer, playwright, poet and anarchist sympathiser, whose texts appeared in 'Le Révolté', dies. [see: May 13]

1899 - [N.S. Dec. 28] Tatiana Nikolayevna Lapshina (Татьяна Николаевна Ланшина; d. 1938), Polish anarchist, whose OGPU / NKVD files show that she was "of the nobility" and had attended "higher education", born in Lodz. [see: Dec. 28]

1901 - Margaret Mead (d. 1978), American radical anthropologist, born.

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 3] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: Approximately 250 members of the St. Petersburg Soviet are arrested en masse, including Trotsky and most of the executive committee, after Socialist Revolutionaries (SR) hand out weapons. At their trial in the autumn of 1906 (Oct. 26 [13 - Nov. 15 [2]) they were chatrged with an "attempt to forcibly change the established basic laws of the Russian form of government and replaceme it with a democratic republic", using in evidence leaflets from the proto-fascist Black Hundreds [Черносо́тенцы] calling for pogroms, which the prosecution alleged were printed by the Soviet. A former director of the Police Department Alexei Lopuchin [Алексей Лопухин] revealed to the defence team that the government already knew that the leaflets were infact of Black Hundreds' origin and that the police had been actively organising Black Hundreds gangs and attrocities. The court refused his request to give evidence and the fifteen members of the Soviet then on trial were sentenced to life in exile in Siberia, with deprivation of all civil rights.
At the same time Moscow authorities order the closing down of revolutionary newspapers.

[B] 1908 - Remedios Varo (María de los Remedios Alicia Rodriga Varo y Uranga; d. 1963), Catalan-Mexican anarchist, anti-fascist and Surrealist painter, born. A member of the Logicophobiste artists' group, she met the French Surrealist and libertarian communist poet Benjamin Peret in 1936, when he had come to Spain to fight in the POUM and anarchist militias, and became his companion and was active in the Spanish Revolution herself, collaborating with the Republican and Anti-fascist resistance. In 1937, they moved to Paris to escape the fighting, taking part in the activities of the French Surrealist group around André Breton (1937-1940). However, she later found herself unable to return to Spain following Franco's closure of the border in 1939 because of her anti-fascist work. When Paris fell to the Nazis, Varo and Peret were put in a concentration camp until 1941, when the Emergency Rescue Committee rescued her and she then fled to Mexico with Peret. During WWII, she also made dioramas for display in the windows of a British anti-fascist propaganda office. In 1948, when Benjamin returned to France, she remained in Mexico and became married the surrealist painter Gunther Gerzo.

1910 - 'Houndsditch Murders' in London's East End: Three policemen are shot dead and two others seriously wounded by a gang of Latvian anarchists who bungle a jewellery shop burglary. Investigators focus on the Anarchist Club in Jubilee Street and Malatesta is wrongly implicated. Prelude to the Sidney Street Siege in January.

1912 - General Strike against the War To End All Wars, organised by CGT.

1913 - Despite warnings by the Paterson, N.J., police forbidding Emma Goldman from speaking, she addresses members of the IWW on 'The Spirit of Anarchism in the Labor Struggle'. Emma is forced off the platform and audience members engage in a battle with the police to release her.

1915 - Dolores Rodríguez Fernández (d. 1959), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1918 - The First National Congress of Workers' and Soldiers' Councils in Berlin votes to set up elections for a parliamentary National Assembly, effectively divesting themselves of all power. Here endeth the revolution.

[F] 1920 - A conference convened by the Dutch Nationaal Arbeids-Secretariaat and the German Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands is held in Berlin [Dec. 16-21] in order to create the foundations for the reconstruction of the International Workers Association.

1928 - Philip K. Dick (d. 1982), US science fiction novelist par excellence, born. [expand]

1929 - Battle of Rothbury / Rothbury Miners Strike: Having been locked out of the Rothbury Colliery on March 2, 1929, after having refused to agree to new employment terms that included wage cuts, a ban on union activities and the removal of job security, about 4,000 miners demonstrate against the introduction of non-union labour into the Rothbury mine by the conservative Bavin government, which had taken over the colliery. The government had called in 400 New South Wales police officers from districts outside Newcastle to protect the colliery and allow the entry of the scab labour. Angry miners marched to the mine gate led by a pipe band and when they charged the gate, the miners were met with baton charges by the police and there were hand-to-hand clashes. Then the police drew their revolvers and shot into the crowd. One miner, Norman Brown, received a fatal wound. 15-year-old Joseph Cummings, the youngest miner present, risked his life, dodging bullets as he ran for the doctor, in a futile effort to help save Brown's life. Approximately forty-five other miners were wounded.
In June 1930, after fifteen months of living in poverty and starvation, the miners capitulated and returned to work on reduced contract wages. However, the lock-out failed to break the resolve or organisation of the miners union.

[EE] 1932 - Lin Zhao [林昭] (Peng Lingzhao [彭令昭]; d. 1968), Chinese Communist student, poet and prominent dissident during the Hundred Flowers Movement (百花運動) of 1957, who was later imprisoned and executed by the People's Republic of China during the Cultural Revolution for her criticism of Mao Zedong's policies, born. A zealous Communist, who took to heart the call for citizens to openly express their opinions of the communist regime during the Hundred Flowers Campaign (aka Rectification Campaign) and, like many, suffered persecution for it during the Anti-Rightist Movement (反右運動) that followed. In July 1960, Lin Zhao was arrested along with other dissidents for counterrevolutionary activities, including criticism of the effects wrought on the Chinese people associated with the Great Leap Forward (大跃进) and, on October 24, Lin Zhao was again arrested as an "active counterrevolutionary" for her poems and was sent to the Shanghai No. 1 Detention Centre. After suffering a relapse of tuberculosis, Lin was released to her mother’s care under medical parole in March 1962. Her dissident activities swiftly led to her rearrest on November 8, 1962 and she was eventually sent her for evaluation at the Shanghai Psychiatric Hospital, where she was declared insane. Protesting her abuse in prison, she repeatedly went on hunger strike and attempted suicide.
She was tried in December 1964, and in May 1965 was sentenced to 20 years’ imprisonment for "counterrevolutionary crimes". In Tilanqiao Prison, she wrote hundreds of pages of critical commentary about Mao Zedong using hairpins and bamboo slivers with her own blood as ink.
On April 29, 1968, an amended judgment from the PLA’s Shanghai Municipal Public Security, Procuratorial and Judicial Military Control Commission condemned Lin Zhao to death. That same afternoon, Lin Zhao was executed in secret at Shanghai’s Longhua Airport. Two days later public security officers went to Lin Zhao mother's home to obtain the five cents costs of the bullet used to kill her. Her remains were never given to her family, neither were they informed of how they had been disposed of.

1944 - Dekemvrianá [Δεκεμβριανά / December Events]: British reinforcements land at Faliro and immediately begin operations to recapture the areas of Athens held by ELAS froces.

1955 - María Ascaso Budría (b. 1900), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist activist, who was imprisoned several times in Zaragoza then Barcelona for her anarchist activities, dies in Paris following failed major surgery. [see: Jun. 29]

1959 - Fiji Oil Workers Strike: With the more moderate WRWGU president Ratu Meli Gonawai having negotiated in his abscence an increased minimum wage to four pounds eleven shillings and four pence, half the union's initial demand, and with no other additional benefits, the union secretary James Anthony, who had been leading the strike, forced to sign the agreement, the striking Shell Oil Co. and Vacuum Oil Co. workers return to work. [see: Dec. 7]

1962 - John Paul Scott and Darl Parker (the final 2 prisoners to attempt the feat) escape from Alcatraz. Using banjo strings and a makeshift saw, Scott cut through the bars on a kitchen window in the cell house. Parker only manages to Little Alcatraz, a rock formation 100m from the main island, but Scott reached Fort Point on the mainland where he is found by teenagers, suffering from hypothermia. After recovering in the hospital, he is returned to Alcatraz. It is the only proven case of an Alcatraz inmate reaching the shore by swimming.

[A] 1969 - The Death Penalty is finally abolished in UK (but not in Northern Ireland). One of the last countries in Western Europe to do so.

[C] 1969 - Following yesterday's 'defenestration' of Giuseppe Pinelli, victim of the 'strategia della tensione', from the 4th floor of Milan police station, the police scramble for excuses, including the classic from one Superintendent Marcello Guida: "Improvvisamente il Pinelli ha compiuto un balzo felino verso la finestra che per il caldo era stata lasciata socchiusa e si è lanciato nel vuoto. Il gesto potrebbe equivalere a una confessione." (Suddenly Pinelli made a great cat-like leap towards the window that the heat had been left ajar, and he launched into the void. The gesture could amount to a confession.) On July 3, 1970, Giuseppi Pinelli's death was rulled a suicide. Five years later on October 27, 1975, after Pino's innocence of any involvement of the Piazza Fontana massacre, for which he had ended up in custody on December 15, and after three years of judicial investigation into his death, the magistrate in charge Gerardo D’Ambrosio explained the 'fall' away as following: "Pinelli lit up a cigarette offered to him by Mainardi. The air in the room was unbearably stale, so he opened the balcony window and went over to the rail for a breath of fresh air. He suddenly suffered a dizzy spell, made a clumsy attempt to save himself, and his body tumbled over the rail into the void."; thereby exonerating all those who had been involved in Pino's murder.

1970 - Pacification of Polish coastal cities where workers rebel against high prices; the Communist army and police shoot shipyard workers, killing over 50 (among the victims are soldiers who refuse to shoot people): officially, 47 are killed; independent sources claim 147 are killed in Szczecin alone.
ZOMO riot police attempt to break the strike at the Gdańsk Shipyard [see yesterday]. Street fighting breaks out in Gdańsk and helicopters and tanks are sent to reinforce the militia.

1981 - Pacyfikacja kopalni Wujek [Pacification of Wujek]: On December 14, 1981, the day after the introduction of the martial law in Poland and the arrest of the NSZZ Solidarność official Jan Ludwiczak from the Wujek Coal Mine in Katowice, Wujek miners went on strike, occupying the mine, demanding the release of Ludwiczak, and the end of the martial law and the militarisation of the mine. On the 15th, the miners learned of the brutal pacification of workers in the region by ZOMO riot police and, fearing they too would be targets, a hundred or so of the strikers set to improvising weapons with which to defend themselves.
Ranged against the miners on December 16 were eight companies of riot police – ZOMO, supported by ORMO (police reservists) and NOMO – with seven water cannons, three companies of military infantry fighting vehicles (each with 10 vehicles) and one company of tanks. The miners were ordered to quit the mine by 11:00 or force would be used against them. At 10:53 tanks broke down thefences around the mine and the assault began. The miners repeatedly fought the fiot cops off with just their tools, catapults and improvised weapons. During the brawl a number of strikers and 41 troops were injured, including 11 severely.
At the peak of the fighting, a commando-type special platoon of ZOMO armed with 9mm machine pistols opened fire on the miners, killing nine of them (Jan Stawisiński, Joachim Gnida, Józef Czekalski, Krzysztof Giza, Ryszard Gzik, Bogusław Kopczak, Andrzej Pełka, Zbigniew Wilk and Zenon Zając), with twenty two other strikers sustaining serious gunshot wounds. Dozens more suffered other injuries. It was later revealed that some of killed were hit by ZOMO snipers firing from a helicopter overhead.
In the wake of the slaughter at Wujek and Manifest Lipcowy, Solidarity resistance starts to weaken.

[D] 1989 - Mass protests in Timișoara, Romania mark the outbreak of revolt against the Ceausescu regime. The protests escalate and spread, and on December 25 the regime falls.

1989 - Émile de Antonio (b. 1919), American anarchist film director, producer, academic and author, who was the only filmmaker on Richard Nixon's enemies list, dies. [see: May 14]

1994 - 34 year old Shiji Lapite is arrested by two police Stoke Newington police officers as he leaves a club in east London. They claimed that he was carrying £4,000 of crack cocaine and during a struggle, Shiji is placed in a neck hold whilst another officer kicks him in the head. Half an hour later he was dead from suspected asphyxiation after being placed in a police van.

2008 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: In Greece protesters forced their way into Greece's state NET television news studio and interrupted a news broadcast featuring the prime minister so they could urge viewers to join mass anti-government demonstrations.

2016 - A full scale riot breaks out in the recently privatised HMP Birmingham braks out on N Wing, as prisoners broke lights and grabbed fire hoses. As prison officers moved in to lock prisoners back in their cells in an effort to contain the fracas, prisoners overpowered a screw, took his keys and started unlocking the cells. The screws were then forced to flee after up to 600 rioters, using stolen equipment, cut through the chains that had been used to secure internal connecting security gates in an effort to prevent rioters taking control of the whole prison. Within a short time four wings – said to be L, M, N and P – fell under the control of the rioters, who also broke into the security store, pharmacy and gym, in the worst prison disorder for more than 20 years.
Some inmates donned stolen guard uniforms and riot gear to taunt the authorities. There are reports that some snatched control and restraint equipment including batons, shields and helmets. A relative of an inmate said: “Prisoners are running wild, wearing guards’ uniforms and balaclavas. They have knocked down gates and pulled up bars."
As the stand-off ran into the early evening the authorities were panicking that rioters might break through gates into so-called 'sterile' areas between the walls of the prison and the lock-up areas. The prisoners made it as far as the exercise yard and cops started to block the gate. It was reported that the inmates broke in to the Offender Management Unit, where their paper records are stored and started setting fire to the documents. One was said to have hurled a computer out of the window of the office. By 18:00 fires could be seen raging in the OMU, laundry and gym inside the prison and an armed unit of cops was also seen entering the prison to quell the riot. Prisoners commenced battle with the riot cops even throwing paint at them, as cops could be seen leaving the prison later covered in it.
A friend of a prisoner described the scene as relayed to him: "My mate not long phoned back he said there is people still stuck in their cells from last night and their cells are full of smoke. He was coughing while he was on the phone. Said it’s not just a cell that’s on fire it’s half the wing. Said it looks like Armageddon or a burnt out old warehouse in there."
The riot started according to prisoners earlier this morning because they couldn’t watch TV or go the gym. "The TV antenna has been broken and we have not been able to watch TV for a couple of days now. I used to be on one of the wings and there has been plenty of occasions where just a couple of guards have been in charge of 160 prisoners. There are all sorts of problems in here. Two people have passed away in the last couple of weeks after taking Black Mamba [an easily available synthetic drug rife in many Uk prisons]."
Another inmate sais: "I’ve never seen anything like this before. The biggest issue for most of us is the lack of exercise. They have stopped us from using the gym and from having any exercise. When we were told this morning that we were not getting exercise everyone went mad. They have had enough. They cancel gym all the time, the showers are cold, the food is crap, the heating is never on and we never get our mail on time."
After 12 hours of chaos, Tornado teams with police support were finally able to repress the riot in all 4 wings at 23:00.
Over the following days, 240 prisoners were transferred and dispersed across England, spreading the unrest to other prisons such as HMP Hull and York.
[F] December 17 - International Day to End Violence Against Sex Workers

1862 - Urbain Gohier (born Urbain Degoulet and used the pen name Isaac Blümchen; d. 1951), French author, journalist, anti-militarist, lawyer and one-time writer for the anarchist 'Le Libertaire', 'Cri de Paris' and 'L'Aurore', born. Though an ardent Dreyfusard, anarchist-socialist and anti-militarist - even being prosecuted for publishing the pamphlet 'L'Armée Contre la Nation' (1898), for which he was acquitted and being sentenced in Dec. 1905 to a year in prison for participation in an international anti-militarist action allied with anarchists, he eventually became a rabid anti-Semite, and is now best known for publishing a French edition of 'The Protocols of the Elders of Zion' (c. 1920).

1883 - Hoche Arthur Meurant (d. 1950), French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, born.

1885 - Alphonse Barbé (d. 1983), French anarchist and anti-war militant who fought in the Spanish Revolution, born.

1890 - Pierre Lentengre (aka Pierre Lentente) (d. 1982), French militant, founder of a Parisian anarchist group and administrator of 'La Voix Libertaire' (1928-1939), born.

1893 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: Many people are wounded when troops fired on a demonstration in Monreale against taxes.

[B] 1893 - Erwin Friedrich Maximilian Piscator (d. 1966), German theatre director and producer and poet, born. Along with Bertolt Brecht, the foremost exponent of epic theatre. Associate of Erich Mühsam. Had a number of anti-militarist poems published in the radical Expressionist literary magazine 'Die Aktion' in 1915-16.

1917 - Sacramento Governor's Mansion Bombing: Much reviled by the left and workers movement for his attitude towards Thomas Mooney and Warren K. Billings following the July 22, 1916, Preparedness Day bombing, an alleged assassination attempt on California Governor William D. Stephens takes place. A bomb is placed in the basement at the rear of the governor's mansion explodes at 23:55. The chief of police immediately suspected the IWW and arrested fifty-three men who were in or around the local IWW hall. The IWW General Defense Committee Office and general headquarters in Chicago were closed by federal officers so they could seize all papers that would be of use to the prosecution and defence team of the 166 IWW men indicted. On December 22, IWW members William Hood and G.F. Voetter are caught by police with a soap box filled with dynamite at the IWW headquarters in Sacramento, California. They are arrested for transporting explosives and eventually charged with the attempted assassination of Governor Stephens.

[C] 1936 - The anti-Stalinist Marxist party P.O.U.M. (Partit Obrer d'Unificació Marxista) is excluded from the Consell de la Generalitat de Cataluña government under pressure from Moscow's representatives now in Spain via the Partido Comunista de España and the Partido Socialista Unificado de Cataluña (the Catalan branch of the PCE). Its leader Andrés Nin (Andreu Nin i Pérez), who lost his position of Minister of Justice in the Generalitat during the purge, would go on to be murdered by the Stalinist secret police following the events of May 1937.
In Moscow, 'Pravda' announces that: "As for Catalonia, the purging of Trotskyist and anarcho-syndicalist elements has begun; this work will be carried out with the same energy with which it was done in the USSR."

1939 - Florence Finch Kelly (b. 1858), American journalist, author of novels and short stories, anarchist, feminist and suffragist, dies. [see: Mar. 27]

[E] 1941 - Josefina Lamua Broto (b. 1914), Aragonese anarcho-syndicalist in the CNT is shot by Franco's troops in Barbastro near Huesca.

1942 - Kruszyna Camp Uprising: Jewish inmates at the forced labour camp at Kruszyna, near Radom, awaiting transportation to the extermination camps attack guards with knives and fists. Six prisoners are killed and four escape.

1944 - Dekemvrianá [Δεκεμβριανά / December Events]: During the night (Dec. 17-18), ELAS forces launched a successful occupation of the Kifissia, Pentelikon and Cecil hotels, where RAF personnel were billeted. A total of 50 officers and 500 RAF aircraftsman were captured. Meanwhile Lt. Gen. Scobie, now having the appropriate support forces, orders a new wave of attacks. The districts of Athens and Piraeus are pounded mercilessly by land, sea and air. Following their early set-backs, the British now have the upper hand over the poorly armed and equipped Greek leftist forces.

[D] 1970 - Czarny Czwartek [Black Thursday] / Rewolta Grudniowa [December Revolt]: More clashes with the ZOMO on the streets of Gdańsk as 23-year-old Antoni Browarczyk dies from a gunshot wound to the head during street fights, with two more injured. The ZOMO break up mass demonstrations in Kracow. The last striking factories in Wrocław are pacified.
The bloodiest day of the December workers' uprisings in Poland sees 18 people killed in Gdynia and 12 in Szczecin. Clashes also took place in the other main northern costal city protest centres of Gdańsk and Elblągu. PM Józefa Cyrankiewicza signs a resolution "on security and public order", something designed to 'legitimise' the state of emergency order promulgated on Tuesday 15th. [expand]

1983 - The first screening of the film 'Écoutez May Picqueray' takes place in the Studio St. Severin in París. A biographical documentary film about the recntly deceased prominent anarchist activist and propagandist May Picqueray (1898-1983), it is produced and directed by Bernard Baissat. Amongst the friends and collegues of May Picqueray presnt are Léo Campion, P. M. Cardona, J. J. Combaut, Nicolas Faucier, Sylvain Garrel, Daniel Guerin, Denis Langlois, Franck Neveu and Rita Tabai. Many of the film's sequences were recorded at the headquarters of the newspaper 'Le Réfractaire', which she founded and directed, and at her home. The songs for the film, which won the Quality Award from the Centre Nacional de la Cinematografia Francès, were performed by May Picqueray's daughter, Sonia Malkine.

1997 - In Chechnya, five Poles, including members from the Polish Anarchist Federation (FA) kidnapped, while delivering medicine, food and other supplies from a Polish-Chechen friendship society. Their van was found 40 km west of Grozny with its two front tires shot out. They were attacked by a gang of 15. Two Chechen bodyguards (friends of one of the hostages) shot two of the attackers. Eventually freed in early February.

2002 - Mustafa al-Hallaj (مصطفى الحلاج‎‎; b. 1938), Palestinian graphic artist, who was a founding member of the trade union committee of the General Union of Palestinian Writers and Journalists, and a member of the Managing Committee of the General Union of Palestinian Abstract Artists in Syria.

2010 - Georgia Dept. of Corrections officials meet with striking prisoners’ representative group, the Concerned Coalition to Respect Prisoners’ Rights, bringing a negotiated end to the work strike. [see December 9]

[A] 2010 - Mohamed Bouazizi, a street vendor in Tunis, sets himself on fire in protest against harassment and confiscation of his wares by officials. He dies on January 4. His act becomes a catalyst for demonstrations and riots against the Tunisian regime, which lead to the collapse of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali’s government on January 14, 2011, as well as triggering the Arab Spring.

2016 - Within hours of the arrival at HMP Hull of 15 prisoners disperesed from HMP Birmingham following the riot there, staff were assaulted, CCTV cameras were torched and inmates at the East Yorkshire prison refused to return to their cells following the arrival of the Birmingham prisoners.
In HMP Cardiff four other prisoners also transferred from Winson Green barricaded themselves into a cell in protest at their trnasfer. Other prisons also underwent similar disturbances.
1855 - [O.S. Dec. 6] Natalia Nikolaevna Olovennikova (Наталья Николаевна Оловенникова; d. 1924), Russian revolutionary, member of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), who was the sister of fellow Narodistas Maria [Мария] and Elizaveta [Наталья], born. Whilst still in school, she particpated in the populist (Jacobin) circle around Pyotr Grigoryevich Zaichnevsky [Пётр Григорьевич Заичневский]. In 1878, she joined Zemlya i Volya (Land and Liberty) with her sister Maria, advocating working with peasants. After the split of Zemlya i Volya into Black Partition (Чёрный_передел) and Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), she entered the latter, running one of its safehouses in St. Petersburg. After her mental health failed, she spent a period in psychiatric hospitals in Orel and Tver, later engaging in educational activities among the peasant children. She died sometime in October 1924.

1874 - [O.S. Dec. 6] Anna Rasputin [Анна Распутина](Anna Mikhaylovna Shulyatikov [Анна Михайловна Шулятикова]; Mar. 2 [Feb. 17] 1908), Russian revolutionary and member of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров) and its Combat Organisation's (Боева́я организа́ция) 'Northern combat flying squad' (Северный боевой летучий отряд / ЛБО СО ПСР), born. Organiser of the assassination attempt on the Minister of Justice Ivan Shcheglovitov (Иван Щегловитова)
One of the seven hanged in the village of Lisy Nos (Лисий Нос) February 17, 1908 near St. Petersburg – the theme of a well-known Russian story 'The Seven Who Were Hanged' (Рассказа о семи повешенных; 1908) by Leonid Andreyev (Леонида Андреева).

1886 - [N.S. Dec. 30] Olga Aleksandrovna Dilevskaya (О́льга Алекса́ндровна Диле́вская; d. 1919), Russian writer, teacher, and active member of revolutionary movement in Russia as a member of the military organisation of the Moscow Committee of the RSDLP, born. [see: Dec. 30]

1904 - [N.S. Dec. 31] Baku Strike [Бакинская Cтачка]: The strike has spread to the majority of enterprises in Baku and become a general strike. [see: Dec. 31]

1905 - [N.S. Dec. 31] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: General Min orders the last assault: "Act without mercy. There will be no arrests."

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 5] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: Moscow's Bolsheviks, Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries meet in Fidler's technical school (one of the centres of revolutionary activity at the time) to plan a revolt, calling for a General Strike on December 20th.

1905 - Eugene Debs: "Too long have the workers of the world waited for some Moses to lead them out of bondage. I would not lead you out if I could; for if you could be led out, you could be led back again. I would have you make up your minds there is nothing that you cannot do for yourselves."
[From an address on Industrial Unionism delivered at Grand Central Palace. New York City, Dec. 18, 1905]

[E] 1915 - Vicki Ama Garvin (d. 2007), African-American communist, liberation activist, pan-Africanist and internationalist, born. In the 1950s, she was vice president of the National Negro Labor Council and as executive secretary in the council's New York chapter. In the late 1950s she move to Africa, and while there helped organise Malcolm X's itinerary while he was in Ghana, taught English in China (1964-71) and, following her return to the States was active in prisoner support, including the Mumia Abu Jamal campaign,

1916 - In response to the Spanish government having ordered the arrest of the signatories of the 'Pacto de Zaragoza', the UGT and CNT hold a 24-hour general strike, which is proves to be a success and according to Largo Caballero "had the support of the middle classes and widespread sympathy in the country."

1917 - [O.S. Dec. 5] The Cheka (ЧК – чрезвыча́йная коми́ссия chrezvychaynaya komissiya, Emergency Committee) is created following a decree issued by Vladimir Lenin, unleashing a wave of state repression against anyone who resisted the consolidation of power by the Red Tsar and his acolytes. Originaly known as the All-Russian Emergency Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution and Sabotage (Всеросси́йская чрезвычайная коми́ссия по борьбе́ с контрреволюцией и саботажем; Vserossiyskaya chrezvychaynaya komissiya po bor'bye s kontrrevolyutsiyei i sabotazhem), its name was changed to the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution, Profiteering and Corruption (Всеросси́йская Чрезвычайной комиссии по борьбе с контрреволюцией спекуляции и коррупции; Vserossiyskaya chrezvychaynaya komissiya po bor'bye s kontrrevolyutsiyei spekulyatsii i korruptsii), shortened to Cheka or VCheka.
In 1922 it was replaced by the GPU [short for State Political Directorate under the NKVD of the RSFSR (Государственное политическое управление при НКВД РСФСР, Gosudarstvennoye politicheskoye upravlenie pri NKVD RSFSR)], the intelligence service and secret police of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.

1918 - Germany's defeat in WWI exposed the Black Sea to the Allies. French troops occupy Odessa to support the Whites.

1922 - Nelly Roussel (b. 1878), French free thinker, anarchist and feminist, dies. [see: Jan. 5]

[F] 1922 - Strage di Torino [Turin Massacre]: In Turin, the fascists attack the Camera del Lavoro, and set fire to the Circolo Anarchico dei Ferrovieri (Anarchist Railwaymen's club) and the home of the anarchist paper 'L'Ordine Nuovo'. Twenty two workmen – socialists, Communists and anarchists – are assassinated over the next three days, including nine on the 18th.

[B] 1939 - Michael Moorcock, Nebula award-winning science fiction author and anarchist, born.

1942 - Jewish forced labourers at Kruszyna forced labour camp refuse to board trucks following yesterday's revolt, a further 113 are shot for their defiance.

1944 - Dekemvrianá [Δεκεμβριανά / December Events]: British forces capture the key Athens landmark of Mount Lycabettus, setting up roadblocks/checkpoints on the most important thoroughfares and drive the rebels that had gathered during the previous day close to the British base in the Acropolis back beyond Ardittou (Αρδηττό) Hill and Syngrou (Συγγρού) Avenue. RAF planes continued to target the areas held by ELAS forces, causing many civilian deaths.
Now, having finally gained the upper hand after two weeks of fighting thanks to the army reinforcements that had landed at Faliro (Φάληρο) on December 16, the Greek gendarmes in conjunction with British forces regained control of the Gargaretta/Koukaki (Γαργαρέττας/Κουκακίου) area of Athens and began to push home their advantage, threatening the communist forces located to the east of Syngrou (Συγγρού) Avenue.
Red December (Κόκκινου Δεκέμβρη) was now effectively over. Despite the communist revolt having succeeded in occupying almost the whole of Athens, with British troops having come close to evacuating Athens following the attacks on the Patission Street building of the Directorate of Special Security of the State (Διεύθυνση Ειδικής Ασφαλείας του Κράτους) and the nearby Makrigiannis Constitution Gendarmerie building, it was those very attacks that had proved too costly to the poorly armed and equipped ELAS forces. Thus the plans of the EAM leadership for simultaneous advances from the northeast via Kifissias (Κηφισίας) Avenue and southwest through Syngrou Avenue to occupy the final pockets of British resistance in the city centre, drive out the 'National Unity' government and set up their own communist-led coalition government, which would be swiftly recognised by Yugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria and other Soviet satellites failed before they could be put into action. Defeat of the uprising was now inevitable.

1969 - Áurea Cuadrado Castillón, also known as Áurea Cuadrado Alberola (b. 1894), Spanish militant anarcho-feminist and fashion designer, dies. [see: Aug. 23]

1970 - Rewolta Grudniowa [December Revolt]: Following the protest of Czarny Czwartek (Black Thursday) against government food price increases, announced in Poland on December 12, which resulted in 30 deaths and many more people injured, the army surrounded the military shipyard in Szczecin (Szczecinie). In Elblag (Elblągu) it decided to use force, which resulted in clashes with the demonstrators who had been trying to burn down the Communist Party HQ building for the past three day. In the Northern Polish towns of Białystok, Nysa, Oświęcim, Warszaw and Wrocław new strikes also broke out but proved to be lesser in scale and duration than those in Gdańska, Gdyni and Szczecina.

[EE] 1971 - IRSM / Angry Brigade: Kate McLean arrested and charged along with Angela Weir, Chris Allen and Pauline Conroy, who had been arrested during the course of November of having conspired with the six people already arrested on conspiracy charges. Shortly before the opening of Committal proceedings against the ten militants, Attorney General, Sir Peter Rawlinson, the victim of one of the Angry Brigade attacks, decided there was insufficient evidence for a case to be made against Pauline Conroy and Chris Allen, and they were released from custody.

1974 - An ETA squad unsuccessfully attempts to steal 25 million pesetas from a factory near Urduliz, wounding two members of the Guardia Civil while escaping.

1974 - Dolores Morata Díaz (b. 1899), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Jan. 30]

2000 - ETA tries to kill a professor by placing a bomb inside an elevator at the University of the Basque Country in Lejona, Biscay.

2001 - A Federal judge refuses Abu-Jamal's request for a new trial, upholding his 1982 conviction on first-degree murder charges but overturns Abu-Jamal's death sentence.

2004 - Maoist rebels attacked a police post near Nepal's capital with crude bombs and automatic weapons, killing five policemen.

2005 - ETA detonated a bomb inside an eel cannery in Irura, Guipúzcoa. No injuries were reported although the cannery suffered extensive damage. The police reports that the bombing is part of an extensive extortion campaign of ETA to Basque business owners.

[A] 2007 - Omar Deghayes finally released from Guantamo Bay. Whilst there guards tortured him and blinded him in one eye with pepper spray.

2008 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: Riot police clashed with rock-throwing demonstrators in central Athens, sending Christmas shoppers and people in cafes running for cover. Frightened parents scooped up their children from a Christmas carousel in the city's main square and fled.

[C] 2009 - The Arbeit Macht Frei ("Work makes you free") sign is stolen from Auschwitz concentration camp. A state of emergency in Poland is declared with increased border controls and random police checks as part of a countrywide hunt to try and recover the bronze sign.
It was later recovered in three pieces and Anders Högström, a Swedish former neo-Nazi and ex-leader of the Nationalsocialistisk Front, was sentenced in December 2010 to two years and eight months for the theft (to be served in a Swedish prison). Five of Högström's Polish accomplices were also jailed for lesser terms.
The sign itself is now kept in storage and has been replaced with a replica.

[D] 2010 - Start of Tunisian protests that lead to the overthrow of the government on January 14, 2011.

2012 - Pierre Chabert (b. 1914), French professor of French, Latin and Greek, poet and anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 3]

2012 - Two prisoners, Jose Banks and Kenneth Conley, manage to squeeze throught a 5 inch wide window 17 floors up in the 28 storey Chicago's Metropolitan Correctional Center and rappel down 200 feet of knotted bedsheets to the ground. There they flagged down a taxi and made good their escape.
1861 - Fritz Kater (d. 1945), German anarcho-syndicalist active in the Freien Vereinigung deutscher Gewerkschaften (Free Association of German Trade Unions; FVdG) and its successor organisation, the Freien Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands (Free Workers' Union of Germany; FAUD) and editor of both organisation's newspapers, 'Die Einigkeit' (Unity) and 'Der Syndikalist' respectively, born. [expand]

1862 - Nicolas Stoïnoff (or Stoïnov)(d. 1963), 'patriarch' of Bulgarian anarchism, anti-militarist, writer, journalist and teacher, born. [expand]
"People around the world, decide:
the elimination of militarism!
the abolition of military service!
education of youth in the spirit of humanism and peace!"
"This is also the conclusion of my life, the clamour of a hundred years old, my last words to men." - from 'A Centenarian Bulgarian Speaks'

[B] 1894 - Senya (Simon) Fléchine (alternate spellings, Flechin, Fleshine) (d. 1981), Ukranian anarchist activist, propagandist and photographer, born. He emigrated to the U.S. in 1910 and worked for 'Mother Earth' in New York, In 1917 he returned to Russia and joined the Nabat Confederation of Anarchist Organisations of Ukraine. In December 1921, he worked at the museum of the revolution in Petrograd, and met Mollie Steimer (also expelled from the USA) who became his companion in love and struggle.
After several arrests, including being senteced to two years in exile in Siberia an a hunger strike, they were released and, following another hunger strike, allowed to leave Russia in 1923. In Berlin, they became members of the Joint Committee for the Defence of the revolutionaries imprisoned in Russia (1923-26), the Relief Fund of the International Association Workers (AIT) for Anarchists and Syndicalists Imprisoned or Exiled in Russia (Paris and Berlin) (1926-1932), and a number of other aid groups for anarchists. They emigrated to Mexico in 1941, and their house became a meeting place for political refugees, and they corresponded with the anarchists worldwide.

1902 - Voltairine de Cleyre (b. 1866), American anarchist, feminist, teacher and poet, is shot by an enraged former student named Herman Helcher. She refused to testify against her assailant, who was a familiar face in the anarchist scene.

1905 - [N.S. Jan. 1] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: The uprising is crushed.

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 6] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: An improvised St. Petersburg Soviet calls for a third general strike.

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 6] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: Issue number 9, the final issue, of the Bolshevik daily newspaper 'Struggle' (В Борьба) is published carrying a proclamation of the Moscow Soviet of Workers' Deputies and the Moscow Committee of the RSDLP(b): "To all the workers, soldiers and citizens", which includes a call for a strike and armed insurrection. The newspaper is subsequently banned Moscow Court of Justice.

1907 - [N.S. Jan. 1] Vera Spiridonovna Lyubatovich (Вера Спиридоновна Любатович; b. 1855), Russian revolutionary and member of Narodnaya Volya (Земля и воля / People's Will), dies. [see: Aug 7]

1919 - The car containing Arturo Luis Elizalde, son of the industrialist Arturo Elizalde is fired on by two individuals between the Calles Bailen and Corsica, close to the Passeig de Sant Joan in Barcelona, as he is returning home from his father's car factory. Elizalde is unharmed but his driver, Florencio Palomar Valero, is killed. Two anarchists, Ramon Casanellas Lluch and Pere Mateu Cusidó, employees of the Elizalde company, are accused by the police of having carried out the attack, possibly prompted by the rumours then circulating that Arturo Elizalde had financed the July 18 assassination of the anarcho-syndicalist Pau Sabater Lliró aka 'El Tero', who had been prominent during the La Canadiense earlier in the year. Florencio Palomar's burial was turned into a major demonstration by the bourgeoisie against 'terrorism'. Ramon Casanellas and Pere Mateu would later be arrested for the assassination of the Spanish Prime Minister Eduardo Dato e Iradier in Madrid on March 8, 1921, carried out in retaliation for the persecution and killing of trade unionists and workers in Catalonia.

[E] 1919 - Pepita Carpeña (Josefa Carpeña-Amat; d. 2005), Catalan anarcho-syndicalsist and anarcha-feminist militant, who in exile became one of the mainstays of the Centre Internacional de Recerques sobre l'Anarquisme (CIRA) in Marseille, born. Combattant during the Spanish Revolution, member of the CNT, Jeunesses Libertaires (JJLL) and Mujeres Libres. Wrote 'De Toda la Vida' and appeared in two films, Richard Prost's 'Un Autre Futur' and Lisa Berger and Carol Mazer's adaptation of her memoirs 'De Toda la Vida'. [expand]

1922 - Karel Destovnik aka 'Kajuh' (d. 1944), Slovenian poet, translator and resistance fighter, both in the Yugoslav army and Slovene partisans, born.

[C] 1932 - Yun Bong-gil (윤봉길; b. 1908), Korean independence activist, teacher and poet, best known for orchestrating the deadly bombing of a gathering of Japanese dignitaries at Hongkou Park in the Shanghai International Settlement in April 29, 1932, the Japanese Emperor’s birthday, is executed – shot in the forehead by a single bullet, he takes 13 minutes to die. A member of the nationalist group, the Korean Patriotic Corps (한인애국단), he had sworn an oath before the attack in front of a meeting of the organisation: "I make this oath as a member of Korean Patriotic Association to kill the military leaders of the enemy who are invading China in order to redeem the independence and freedom of our country." The hand grenade [which is claimed as being disguised as a water bottle by some sources] that he threw at the reviewing platform killed General Shirakawa Yoshinori (白川 義則), and the government minister for Japanese residents in Shanghai, Kawabata Sadaji (河端貞次). Among the seriously injured were Lieutenant General Ueda Kenkichi (植田 謙吉), commander of the 9th Division of the Imperial Japanese Army; Shigemitsu Mamoru (重光 葵), Japanese Envoy in Shanghai (both lost a leg); and the Japanese Consul-General in Shanghai, Murai Kuramatsu (村井倉松), who suffered serious head and body injuries. Yun then tried to kill himself by detonating a second bomb disguised as a bento box. It failed to explode and he was arrested at the scene. [see: Jun. 21]

[BB] 1942 - Jean-Patrick Manchette (d. 1995), French crime novelist, screenwriter and libertarian, born. Widely recognised as the foremost French crime fiction author of the 1970s - 80s, he is credited with reinventing and reinvigorating the néo-polar genre of Leo Malet and Georges Simenon. Politically active during the Algerian War, he was particularly influenced by the writings of the Situationist International. Initially a screenwriter, he was later advised to take his first novel, 'L'Affaire N'Gustro' (The N'Gustro Affair; 1971) to the famous crime fiction imprint Série Noire at Gallimard publishers, who would go on to publish the majority of his novels. Amongst these was 'Nada' (1972), made by Claude Chabrol into a film with a Manchette screenplay in 1974. He also co-wrote the 1982 Franco-Hungarian animated science fiction feature film 'Les Maîtres du Temps', directed by René Laloux and designed by Mœbius; as well as writing science fiction brain teasers in 'Métal Hurlant', under the pseudonym Général-Baron Staff; film criticism for 'Charlie Hebdo'; was editor of the comic 'La Bande Dessinée'; had numerous novels turned into comics, collaborating with French cartoonist Jacques Tardi on the 'Griffu' series; as well as translating Alan Moore's 'Watchmen' into French. Manchette also wrote a novelisation of the Sacco and Vanzetti story ('Sacco and Vanzetti' under the pseudonym Pierre Duchesne) in 1971.

1943 - French Résistants engaged in heavy fighting with Germans in Bernex, France.

1948 - Amir Sjarifuddin Harahap (or Amir Sjarifoeddin Harahap; b. 1907), Indonesian socialist politician and one of the Indonesian Republic's first leaders, who was a major leader of the Left during the Revolution, is killed whilst in army custody. [see: Apr. 27]

1950 - Yukiko Ekida(えきだ ゆきこ) aka Yokuta Yukiko (浴田 由紀子), Japanese member of the 'Fangs of the Earth' (大地の牙) cell of the Higashi Ajia Hannichi Busō Sensen (東アジア反日武装戦線), or East Asia Anti-Japan Armed Front armed struggle organisation and former leader of the now disbanded Nihon Sekigun (日本赤軍), or Japanese Red Army, born. Currently serving 20 years hard labour for a series of bombings targeting large companies in 1974 and 1975.

1966 - Pierre Mualdes (Pierre-Louis Beauchet; b.1885), French militant anarchist, collaborated on 'Le Libertaire', 'La Revue Anarchiste', 'La Revue Internationale Anarchiste', etc., dies, a victim of Parkinson disease. [see: Aug. 1]

1970 - Rewolta Grudniowa [December Revolt]: Following the protest of Czarny Czwartek (Black Thursday) against government food price increases, announced in Poland on December 12, which resulted in 30 deaths and many more people injured, the army surrounded the military shipyard in Szczecin. In Elblągu it decided to use force, which resulted in clashes with the demonstrators who had been trying to burn down the Communist Party HQ building for the past three day. In the Northern Polish towns of Białystok, Nysa, Oświęcim, Warszaw and Wrocław new strikes also broke out but proved to be lesser in scale and duration than those in Gdańsk, Gdynia and Szczecin.

[A] 1994 - Zapatista rebels in Southeastern México break through an army siege designed to contain and neutralize them, briefly occupying 38 towns, rebel outposts outside the original zone of conflict, in Chiapas state, crippling Wall Street investments in the Mexican bond market.

1998 - A non-violent Civil Disobedience Campaign to Free Leonard Peltier is launched.

[D] 2001 - The Argentine government declares a state of siege, trying to stop the worst looting and riots in a decade, sparked by austerity measures and poverty.

2008 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: Masked youths attacked the French Institute in Athens with firebombs Friday, while Greek union members and university professors geared up for new anti-government rallies outside Parliament.

[F] 2008 - Istanbul Metalworkers Strike: Management at the Sinter Metal Technologies plant in the Ümraniye working class district of Istanbul announce plans for the loss of a further 400 jobs (in addition to the 37 job losses announced 3 days earlier) and lock the workers out of the plant. The workers responded to the initial lay-offs by joining the metalworkers' union, Birlesik-Metal, and staging a protest outside the plant. However, this time the workers responded to the lock-out by climbing the gate and occupying the plant for two days.

2011 - FEMEN performed a topless protest against Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko outside the KGB Headquarters in Minsk, mocking Lukashenko's recognisable haircut and moustache. Afterwards, according to FEMEN, the three protesters Inna Shevchenko, Oksana Shachko and Aleksandra Nemchinova were abducted by the Belarus authorities and taken to a remote forest blindfolded, doused with oil, forced to strip and then threatened with being set on fire, before having their hair violently cut with knives and being abandoned in the snow half-naked.
1881 - Paul Florent Gourmelon (aka 'Paulus' & 'Mahurec'; d. 1928), French militant, neo-Malthusian and, according to the police, a "dangerous anarchist", born.

1884 - Jean-Baptiste Victor Sipido (d. 1959), Belgian anarchist and tinsmith's apprentice, who attempted to assassinate the Prince of Wales at the Brussel-Noord railway station in Brussels on April 5, 1900, born. At his trial, Sipido is acquited despite his obvious guilt as he was less than 16 years old. The jury "held that by reason of his age he had not acted with discernment and could not be considered doli capax" or legally responsible, and he was not even detained in a reformatory.

[E] 1891 - [O.S. Dec. 8] Maria Skobtsova [Мария Скобцова] (Elizaveta Yurievna Pilenko [Елизавета Юрьевна Пиленко]; d. 1945), Russian noblewoman, revolutionary, poet, nun, and member of the French Résistance during World War II, who was executed in a gas chamber in Ravensbrück concentration camp, a week before the camp was liberated by the Red Army, born.

1901 - Rafael Liberato Torres Escartín aka 'El Maño' (d. 1939), Aragonese anarchist militant, anarcho-syndicalist and guerrillo. born in the barracks of the Civil Guard in Bailo, where his father Pedro Torres Marco was stationed. His brother Benito, a member of the Unió General de Treballadors, was indicted because of the strike demanding better working conditions that paralyzed factories Sabiñánigo in 1932. He and nine other workers faced charges of arson, explosion and illegal possession of weapons and explosives, with the prosecution demanding 34 years in prison for each defendant. Defended by the famous lawyer Eduardo Barriobero, he managed to escape conviction. Another brother, Fidel, who was also an anarchist, was shot in Huesca on 23 August 1936. Torres Escartín came into contact with anarchism during his studies in Huesca, where he became a follower of Ramon Acin. After abandoning his studies, he became a baker in Zaragoza in 1919, having already become active in the Sindicat de l'Alimentació of the CNT the previous year. In this period, he began to read the great French thinkers and Russian, and was a strict vegetarian, not smoking or drinking alcohol. He also became involved with the action groups Voluntad (Will) and Los Justicieros, the latter with Francisco Ascaso, Cristobal Albadatrecu and Sancho Mangado, moving regularly in those years between Zaragoza and Barcelona, ​​where he began working as a confectioner at the Ritz Hotel in October, 1920. In his first known action, Suberviola, Durruti and he appropriated 300,000 pesetas in Eibar.
In August 1922 along with Francisco Ascaso and Marcelino del Campo, he helped create the Barcelona anarchist group Crisol, which expanded in October with new members Ricardo Sanz, García Oliver, Garcia Vivanco and others, to form Los Solidarios, one of the most prominent organisations of pre-war Spanish anarchism.
In response to the March 1923 murder of Salvador Seguí, the secretary of the CNT, by pistolers of Sindicat Lliure de la patronal, Los Solidarios went on the offensive. In May 1923, Torres Escartín, along with Ascaso and Aurelio Fernandez, travelled to San Sebastian and La Coruna to try and cary out attacks against the Military governor of Barcelona, General Martínez Anido, who led the anti-union repression. On June 4, 1923, Cardinal Soldevilla, Archbishop of Zaragoza and organiser of (financing and recruiting) the bosses' hired gunmen, was shot dead in his car by Rafael Torres Escartín and Francisco Ascaso. Ascaso was arrested on June 8, but was involved in a mass escape of prisoners away from Predicadores Prison on November 8, 1923. Torres Escartin however managed to elude the police, and he and other Los Solidarios members reappeared on September 1 robbing the Bank of Spain in Gijón, collecting 650,000 pts. After an armed confrontation with the Guardia Civil in Oviedo on September 9, his partner Eusebio Grau was killed and he was arrested on a train; beaten and interned in Oviedo, he escaped the following day along with seven other detainees. Hiding on Mount Narango, he was captured on the 11th, after being denounced by a radical member whom he had asked for help.
Tried in Predicadores prison in Saragossa on April 1-4, 1925, he denied all charges but was sentenced to death for the Soldevilas assassination, later commuted to life in prison. Two other defendants, Esteban Salamero and Julia López Mainar, were sentenced to 12 and six years respectively. Confined in Dueso prison, Santoña, in a special isolation cell, spending 15 months in the dark without any break, he pursued two hunger strikes. In these conditions his health and sanity suffered and he was transferred to the asylum of Sant Boi de Llobregat. Upon the reappearance of 'Solidaridad Obrera' in August 1930, the paper began a public campaign, led by the doctor and anarchist Isaac Puente, denouncing his situation and calling for an amnesty. With the advent of the Second Republic, he was released on 30 April 1931. In June 1931, he participated in the first conference of the FAI, prior to the 3rd Congress of the CNT. He was arrested and beaten in the dungeons of the Direcció General de Seguretat (General Directorate of Security) and, arriving in Barcelona, he was arrested again, going on to become a spokesman for social prisoners. Having again gained his freedom, his comrades committed him to the Institut Pere Mata Psychiatric Hospital in Reus, from which he escaped three times, once getting as far as Ayerbe, where he was arrested at the home of his brother Fidel.
Labelled as an "extremist" by the government, he was put in prison in Huesca. During this period, he stated that he preferred death to being in the asylum. His family asked to take charge of the patient, and 'Solidaridad Obrera' also campaigned for his freedom, but he was admitted to a psychiatric hospital. On 23 November 1936, he appeared in the second row at the massive funeral his friend and partner Buenaventura Durruti, looking haggard and aged beyond his years. However, he still continued to participate in various charities helping children and refugees. He met his end when Fascist troops took him from his asylum cell and shot him on January 21, 1939 in Barcelona. His comrades had hoped that his obvious insanity would save him from that fate but the fascists thought otherwise.

1902 - [O.S. Dec. 7] Anna Mikhailovna Garaseva (Анна Михайловна Гарасёва; d. 1994) Russian geologist, anarcho-syndicalist and later secretary to AIexander Solzhenitsyn whilst he was compiling 'The Gulag Archipelago' (Архипелаг ГУЛАГ; 1873), born. Active in the anarcho-syndicalist movement in Moscow and, with her older sister Tatyana Mikhailovna Garaseva (Татьяна Михайловна Гарасёва; 1901 - post-1997), a librarian, in their home city Ryazan and in Petrograd where they both worked as nurses. [expand]
Her brother, Sergei Mikhailovich Garas (Сергей Михайлович Гарасёва; dates unknown), was also involved in the anarchist movement and, like the sister, subject to regular arrests.

[F] 1905 - [O.S. Dec. 7] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: In Moscow a strike breaks out against the increasingly repressive measures employed by the government; the largest enterprises stopped, the cutting-off of the electricity halted the trams, and many shops were shut. The strike spreads to about 60% of Moscow factories, with technical staff and employees of the Moscow City Duma joining it. In many of the larger Moscow enterprises workers did not come to work. Meetings and rallies were staged under the protection of armed groups of workers and revolutionaries. The best prepared and well-armed groups were organised by RSDLP(b) members and the industrialist Nikolai Pavlovich Schmidt (Николай Павлович Шмит; 1883-1907) from his furniture factory in the Presnya (Пресне) district. The uprising, which also briefly spread to St Petersburg where up to 125,000 people went out on strike, led to an armed insurrection in Moscow. Thirt three other towns and cities also saw mass strike activity. Many working class areas in Moscow ended up being under a state of siege as barricades were built to prevent access to the police and army.
Tsar Nicholas II announced that any crowd of over three people would be fired upon and the Governor-General Fyodor Vasilyevich Dubasov (Фёдор Васильевич Дубасов), fearing unrest amongst sections of the Moscow garrison, ordered troops disarmed and confined to their barracks, as well as declaring a state of emergency in Moscow and the whole province. Virgil Leonovich Schanzer (Виргилий Шанцер) aka 'Marat' and Mikhail Vasiliev-Ugine (Михаил Васильев-Южин), members of the Moscow Committee of the RSDLP, were arrested.

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 7] Rostov Uprising: With the beginning of the political general strike in Moscow, railroad workers in Rostov-on-Don (Ростов-на-Дону) go out on strike, supported by a large number of workers in the city. Following a series of rallies between December 23-25 [O.S. Dec. 10-12] in support of the rebels in Moscow, a general strike breaks out and soon leads to a serious local revolt.

1915 - Cecilia García de Guilarte (d. 1989), Basque journalist, writer - novels, plays, narrative history, etc., university professor and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1916 - Roland Kennedy and Frank Franz, two Australian IWW members were executed at Bathurst Gaol for the murder of a Tottenham police officer George Duncan on September 26. 1916.

[B] 1920 - George Leite (d. 1985), American libertarian author, poet and publisher, dies. A close associate of Henry Miller and Kenneth Rexroth, he published the anti-war, anarchist and anti-authoritarian arts magazine 'Circle' and 'Circle Editions', its companion literature magazine.

1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: An armed confrontation takes place between the Argentine Army commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Hector Varela and strikers led by anarcho-syndicalist labourer and wagon driver José Font aka 'Facón Grande' in the vicinity of the Estación Tehuelches, where the rebels are camped. One soldier is killed an another two wounded while the strikers suffer 3 dead and several wounded. Varela and his troops return to the Estación Jaramillo.

1958 - 36 arrested for re-entering Thor rocket base to prevent construction, North Pickenham, Norfolk.

1960 - Grève Générale de l'Hiver [Winter General Strike] / Grève du Siècle [Strike of the Century]: The strike of 1960-61 was the culmination of a growing movement of social protest that had been building up over many years. The economic situation of Belgium had been slowly deteriorating. The last and most drastic attempt to improve it, at the expense of the working class, was the introduction by Gaston Eyskens' Liberal and Social Christian coalition government of the Loi Unique or Eenheidswet (Single Law of Economic Expansion, Social Progress and Financial Recovery), which cut into workers' purchasing power and threatened their conditions of work. On December 14, 1960, a one-day demonstration was called by the the militant trade union, the General Federation of Belgian Labour (Fédération générale du travail de Belgique / Algemeen Belgisch Vakverbond; FGTB/ABVV) and the Parti Bocialiste Belge / Belgische Socialistische Partij to protest against this law. It met with tremendous success. In desperation, Eyskens even deployed the argument that the country's loss of the Congo, its imperial possession, had forced him into demanding sacrifices from the country under the Loi Unique.
On December 20, the day the debate on the law began in Parliament, the municipal workers came out on official, countrywide, strike. While most of the other unions were discussing what to do next, a spontaneous movement of unparalleled extent swept the country like a tidal wave. However, although the strike began across the whole of Belgium, it soon lost momentum in Flanders where workers returned to work after a few days, leaving those in Wallonia, a region already starting to experience deindustrialisation, on their own for the five weeks of the strike.

[A]1961 - Robert McGladdery is the last person to be executed in Northern Ireland.

1967 - António Gonçalves Correia (b. 1886), Portuguese anarchist, humanist, vegetarian, poet and essayist, dies. [see: Aug. 3]

1968 - Max Brod (b. 1884), Czech author, composer, journalist and one-time anarchist fellow traveller who was the friend, literary executor and biographer of Franz Kafka, dies. [see: May 27]

1969 - Giuseppe Pinelli's funeral takes place at the Musocco cemetery in Milan. Hundreds of people turn out for the procession and burial, despite the widespread police intimidation.

[D] 1970 - Koza Riot [コザ暴動 / Koza Bōdō]: In an event that has been regarded as symbolic of Okinawan anger against 25 years of US military occupation, around 5,000 Okinawans clashed with roughly 700 American MPs. The disturbances broke out spontaneously against a backdrop of growing tensions, which included the deaths of a number of Okinawan civilians at the hands of American servicemen, for which no one was charged. Beginning late at night on December 20, they lasted seven or eight hours, continuing past dawn the following morning. The spark appeared to be a hit and run incident by a drunk American, which swiftly escalated iwith a crowd of around 700 Okinawans throwing. rocks and bottles. American military police then fired warning shots, attracting a larger crowd, which soon numbered around five thousand; the number of MPs on the scene was now around 700. The rioters broke into, turned over, and torched over seventy cars, and continued to throw rocks and bottles, along with Molotov cocktails assembled in nearby homes, bars, restaurants, and other establishments. The rioters pulled American servicemen from their cars and beat them, then burned their cars. Some of the rioters danced traditional folk dances as the riot continued around them; others passed through the gate into the Air Force Base, overturning and torching cars, breaking windows, and otherwise raining destruction upon American property there as well. About 500 rioters then broke the fence of Kadena Air Base and razed the military employment building and the offices of Stars and Stripes newspaper. The MPs, meanwhile, began to deploy tear gas. The riot finally died down and came to an end around 7 o'clock in the morning; in the end, many were injured, including 60 Americans, and 82 people arrested.

[C] 1973 - Operación Ogro [Operation Ogre]: ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) assassinate Admiral Luis Carrero Blanco, the Prime Minister of Spain and potential successor to Franco. 80 kg of explosives that had been stolen from a Government depot and packed into a tunnel uner the Calle Claudio Coello in, Madrid, on the route that Blanco would take to go to mass at San Francisco de Borja church, are detonated by command wire as Blanco's car passes. The blast sent Blanco and his car 20 metres (66 ft) into the air and over a five-story building. The car crashed to the ground on the opposite side of a Jesuit college, landing on the second-floor balcony. Blanco survived the blast but died shortly afterwards. His bodyguard and driver were killed outright.

1973 - Proceso 1001: The trial of the ten leaders of the clanestine communist trades union, the Comisiones Obreras (Workers' Commissions; CC.OO.) arrested on June 24, 1972, takes place over 3 days - the first coinciding with the assassination of the Spanish Prime Minister Carrero Blanco.
On December 30th, the diez de Carabanchel (Carabanchel Ten), as they became known, were sentenced to: Marcelino Camacho, 20 years in prison.; Nicolás Sartorius, 19; Miguel Ángel Zamora Antón, 12; Pedro Santiesteban, 12; Eduardo Saborido, 20; Francisco García Salve (worker priest), 19; Luis Fernández, 12; Francisco Acosta, 12; Juan Muñiz Zapico Juanín, 18; and Fernando Soto Martín, 17 years in prison, for membership of an illegal organisation, because of their alleged links with the Communist Party of Spain, and for conspiracy. The harshness of their sentences, which were directly in line with the demands of the prosecution, were a consequnce of the political and judicial backlash following the Carrero Blanco assassination.
A year later on November 24, 1975, the supreme court would reduce their sentences to: Marcelino Camacho 6 years; Nicolás Sartorius 5 years; Miguel Ángel Zamora Antón 2 years; Pedro Santiesteban 2 years; Eduardo Saborido 5 years; Francisco García Salve 5 years; Luis Fernández 2 years; Francisco Acosta 2 years; Juan Muñiz Zapico 4 years; and Fernando Soto Martín 4 years in prison. [see: Jun. 24, Nov. 25 & Dec. 30]

1994 - 100,000 Chechnyan civilians linked hands in a 65 km-long human chain (40 miles) to protest the Russian invasion of their country and attack on their capital, Grozny.

1977 - Second generation RAF members Gabi Kröcher-Tiedemann and Christian Möller are arrested in Delémont, Switzerland after a shoot-out with Swiss police, during which two officers were injured, as they try to cross the border into France with a cargo of weapons and explosives. They were later tried and sentenced to 15 years in prison.

2008 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: In Greece protesters attacked a large city-sponsored Christmas tree in Syntagma Square in central Athens, tossing garbage and hanging trash bags from its branches, before setting light to it and clashing with riot police.

[2012 - Food riots and looting of supermarkets across Argentina
1842 - [O.S. Dec. 9] Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin (Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин; d. 1921), Russian revolutionist, anarchist and landmark geographer who had a mountain range named after him (he posited a now accepted theory on mountain formation), born in Moscow. [expand]

1850 - Lizzie Holmes (Sarah Elizabeth Mary Hunt; d. 1926), American music teacher, seamstress, labour organiser, journalist, socialist and militant anarchist, born. Also known as Elizabeth Swank (after her first husband Hiram Swank, who died in 1877), which she used as a pen name, along with May Huntley. After the death of her first husband, she moved to Chicago, where she became a member of the Working Women's Union, campaigning to organise her fellow seamstresses and denouncing their miserable working conditions. A member of the Socialist Labor Party and working on 'The Radical Review', she gravitated to anarchism in 1883. Two years later she married the English anarchist William H. Holmes. The Holmeses worked closely with Albert and Lucy Parsons in Chicago's American Group of the International Working People's Association. Lizzie served as assistant editor of 'The Alarm', and the day before the Haymarket meeting she led a march of 300-400 working women demanding the eight-hour day. When the authorities suppressed 'The Alarm', Lizzie was one of those arrested; in 1887 Dyer D. Lum revived the paper and appointed Lizzie as associate editor. She was also active in the Knights of Labor and participated in the founding of the Ladies' Federal Labor Union (1888) under the auspices of the AFL. In the mid-1890s, William and Lizzie Holmes moved to Colorado, living in La Yeta, where Samuel Fielden was a neighbour, and in Denver. Still later they went to Farmington, New Mexico; there Lizzie died in 1926. Until about 1908 she contributed regularly to anarchist papers, especially 'Free Society', and wrote for a variety of labour journals, including 'The Industrial Advocate', edited and published with her partner William, and the AFL's 'American Federationist'. Her syndicated articles for the Associated Labor Press appeared in labour papers across the country.

[B] 1859 - Gustave Kahn (d. 1936), French Symbolist poet, novelist, playwright, art critic, Dreyfusard and anarchist, born. Used the pseudonyms: Cabrun, MH, Walter Linden, Pip, and Hixe. A close friend of Felix Fénéon, he edited the anarchist review 'La Société Nouvelle' and played a major role editing and writing for the likes of 'La Revue Blanche'. He was also prominent amongst those that publicly supported Auguste Vaillant in a prominent article in 'La Société Nouvelle'. He was an early supporter of the Impressionists and much of his work is Symbolist in style, including one of the few examples (along with Paul Adam's 'Les Demoiselles Goubert' co-written with Jean Moréas), of Symbolist novel, 'Le Roi Fou' (The Mad King; 1896), a biting humorous social and political critique the collusion of governments and financiers and the fleecing of the poor and of the colonies.

1889 - London Gasworkers' Strike: A week into the strike and the Gas Workers' Union put out a statement saying that while they could not accept the agreements "we cannot forget the attachment that we feel to our old employers ... and. nothing would give us greater satisfaction than a return to our previous relations." However, the mood of the strikers and their increasing hard-up families was getting ever lower and men were beginning to go back to work, especially given the lack of support from other unions: South Met. was making gas for their customers, now that the scabs had learnt how to, and the Union members were all out of work – a meeting of unions at Mile End advised the Gas Workers to go to the London Trades Council and get them to sort out some kind of settlement. All they could do now was to try and persuade Livesey to take them back.
The same night, two strikers enter the West Greenwich works – Tom Elliot (31 Bellot Street) and Tom Jevons (21 Coleraine Road) – and spoke to the blacklegs in the canteen: "why don’t you act as men – it’s through you our wives and children are starving". They were arrested. The following day, and despite pickets besieging gasworks across London, and the fact that many of the blacklegs that had been recruited being initially unskilled and the gas they produced being of poor quality, the capital's holders were now full of gas. News also arrives that the parallel strike in Manchester had collapsed.

[C] 1892 - Rebecca West (Cicely Isabel Fairfield; d. 1983), English author, journalist, literary critic, travel writer, socialist, militant feminist, free love advocate and staunch anti-fascist, born. She took the name Rebecca West (after the heroine of Ibsen's 'Rosmersholm') while studying at the Academy of Dramatic Art (1910–11) and began working as a journalist on the feminist journal 'The Freewoman' in 1911. Its first edition (November 23, 1911) carried an article by West ['A Definition of Marriage' written under the pen-name of Edmund B. D'Auvergne] in support for free-love, which provoked widespread outrage: "Marriage had certain commercial advantages. By it the man secures the exclusive right to the woman's body and by it, the woman binds the man to support her during the rest of her life... a more disgraceful bargain was never struck."
Initially influenced politically by the Dreyfus affair, she quickly went on to become a militant feminist and active suffragette, as well as attending Fabian meetings and writing for the socialist British socialist newspaper 'The Clarion', she was at first hopeful about the outcome of the 1917 Revolution. However, she quickly became critical of the Bolsheviks, a position reinforced by Emma Goldman's visit to Britain in 1924. [West had also publicly condemned the US government's deporting of Goldmann in 1919 and the infamous anti-communist Palmer raids of 1919-20].
Having established her reputation as a spokesperson for feminist and socialist causes and as a critic, writing numerous essays and reviews for a wide range of publications including 'The New Republic', 'New York Herald Tribune', 'New York American', 'New Statesman', 'The Daily Telegraph', etc., she also began writing fiction. Her first published piece, a short story titled 'Indissoluble Matrimony', appeared in the first issue of the Vorticist journal 'Blast', June 20, 1914.
A staunch anti-Fascist, she was critical of the Western democracies' lack support for the Spanish Republic in 1936 and for the appeasement of Nazi Germany, both from the British government and the pacifist Left.
Rebecca West's politics inevitably also came to the fore in her fiction. Her first novel, 'The Return of the Soldier' (1918), featured a shell-shocked, amnesiac WWI soldier and his love for a working-class woman over his upper-class wife, and her final novel (published in her lifetime) 'The Birds Fall Down' (1966), was set in pre-revolution Russia was based on the life of the double agent Yevno Azef (Евгений Филиппович), head of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party's Combat Organisation as well as being a spy for the Okhrana (Отдѣленіе по Охраненію Общественной Безопасности и Порядка) secret police. Amongst her non-ficton works are 'The Meaning of Treason' (1947), a study of the trial of the British fascist William Joyce aka Lord Haw Haw, and other WWII traitors and spy on both sides during the conflict, and 'A Train of Powder: Six Brilliant Reports on Aspects of Our Lawless Times' (1955), her collected coverage of the Nuremberg trials, originally published in 'The New Yorker'.
Rebecca West died aged 90 on March 15, 1983 in London.

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 8] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: The first clashed take place at the Aquarium Gardens (Сад Аква́риум) as police try to disperse the rally and disarm those carrying weapons. Most of the fighters manage to escape, and the several dozen arrested are released the following day. However, the same night the rumours of mass executions of protesters, prompting several Socialist Revolutionary fighters to commit attack the Police Department building in Gnezdnikovsky Lane (Гнездниковский переулок), hurling two bombs thought its windows. One person is killed and several more injured.

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 8] An uprising is attempted in Aleksandrov (Dec. 21-28)

[DD] 1907 - Matanza de la Escuela Santa María de Iquique [Santa María School Massacre]: During the Huelga de los 18 Peniques (18 Pence Strike), nitrate workers, led by known anarchists, had joined the general strike, leaving their mines in the pampa (a grasslands region in South America), and converged on Iquique, the regional capital, to appeal for government intervention to improve their living and working conditions. Their strike headquarters was established at the Domingo Santa Maria School. Overall there were around 4,500 striking miners from different nitrate mines in Chile's far north, together with their families and supporters, in the school and another 1,500 or so who had been camping in tents around the square.
The army were called in by the bosses, martial law was declared, stores were locked and at 3.45 pm the slaughter began, including the use of artillery. Up to 3,600 men, women and children were massacred.

1916 - Emma Tenayuca (d. 1999), fearless and largely unsung Mexican-American labour leader, union organiser, libertarian communist and educator, who played a prominent role in the 1938 Texan Pecan Shellers Strike, born. Influenced by the Flores Magon brothers and the Wobblies from a very early age, attending political rallies from 6 or 7 years old, she became a labour organiser, founding two international ladies' garment workers unions and becoming involved in many of the most famous conflicts of Texas labour history. She was also active in the Worker’s Alliance of America, the Woman’s League for Peace and Freedom and joined the Communist Party in 1936.

[F] 1919 - Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman deported from USA alongside 250 fellow labour activists, anarchists [Ethel Bernstein (1898 - ??), Dora Lipkin] and radicals on board the S.S. Buford bound for Russia.

[D] 1920 - Husinska Buna [Husino Rebellion]: A short-lived miners strike and armed rebellion against industrial slavery in the new, post-WWI state known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Kraljevina Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca). 7,000 miners from Kreka, Tuzla, Breza and Zenica in central Bosnia, led by the Communist Party and the Union of Mining Workers (Saveza Rudarskih Radnika), participated in the strike in the village of Husino in Tuzla. On July 21, 1920, a collective labour agreement had been concluded between the Government and the Union of Mining Workers. However, the government reneged on the agreement when the miners requested a rise of wages of 30-45% to counter the gallop inflation which had paralyzed the economy (+60% between August and December 1920). Miners from the Kreka mine in Tuzla stopped work. The main strike actors were a group of 19 miners who were later prosecuted. The same day, the authorities claimed the miners had violated statutory agreements and ordered them back to work within three days. Anyone failing to comply with this order was threatened with being dismissed and loosing the right to state housing. Slovenian miners dominated the workforce in the Crimean mine and the authorities forcibly removed many of these miners and their families from their homes. Mminers from nearby villages of Husina and Lipnica quickly stepped in to help their co-workers from Slovenia, as had miners from other areas. More than 300 emigrants from Greece, predominantly Slovenes, ended up having to withdraw from the strike committee in Husino and other villages near Tuzla.

1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: At the Estación Jaramillo, Lieutenant Colonel Hector Varela sends for Mario Mesa, the Pico Truncado manager of the local stores company La Anónima, to send him to parley with 'Facón Grande' and tell him that he will respect the lives of all who accede to his demand to surrender. After a meeting, the workers decided to surrender in Tehuelches station the following day.
The following day, surviving strikers of the columna Facón Grande, including José Font himself, surrender at the Estación Jaramillo. Contrary to Varela's assurances, Facón Grande and at least fifty workers are shot by firing squad later that same day.

[A] 1924 - After five years of prison for his participation in the Republic of the Workers Councils, anarchist Erich Mühsam is released under amnesty. Thousands of workers turn out for his release.

1925 - Eisenstein's silent movie 'Battleship Potemkin' ('Броненосец «Потёмкин»' or 'Bronenosets 'Potyomkin'') premières in Moscow.

1935 - Kurt Tucholsky (b. 1890), German-Jewish pacifist, non-aligned socialist, journalist, satirist and writer, dies. [see: Jan. 9]

1936 - In the early hours of the morning in Stuttgart, Helmut Hirsch (1916 - 1937), a German Jew, is arrested by Gestapo agents for his part in a plot to bomb the Nazi Party headquarters in Nuremberg as part of a plan to destabilize the German Reich. At his trial it is revealed that a double agent in the Black Front (Schwarze Front) or Kampfgemeinschaft Revolutionärer Nationalsozialisten (Combat League of Revolutionary National Socialists) gave him up, and he is found guilty and condemned to death. Despite international calls for clemency, and even being declared an American citizen, he was executed on June 4, 1937.

1937 - In Spain, the first Republican soldiers enter Teruel.

1943 - Ateo Tommaso Garemi i Gagno (d. 1943), Italian-French communist, then anarchist and anti-fascist combattant, is executed for his involvement in the killing of Domenico Giardina. [see: Mar. 6]

1944 - The anarchist paper 'Le Libertaire', originally founded in 1895 by Sébastien Faure and Louise Michel, then as the organ of the l’Union Anarchiste (1920-1939), resumes publishing once again following the defeat of the Nazis.

1952 - Vlastimil Borek (b. 1886), Czech journalist, translator, anarchist and later a Communist politician, dies. [see: Dec. 24]

1958 - Lion Feuchtwanger (b. 1884), German-Jewish novelist and playwright, who was a prominent figure in the literary world of Weimar Germany, influencing many contemporaries including playwright Bertolt Brecht and was a fierce critic of the Nazi party long before it rose to power, dies. [see: Jul. 7]

[E] 1958 - Natalia Ligas aka 'Angela', member of the Rome and later of the Neapolitan Brigate Rosse cells, and was close to the Partito della Guerriglia section following the 1981 split, born.

1959 - Antonia Maymón (b. 1881), Spanish militant activist, rationalist teacher, naturalist, libertarian and feminist, dies. Maymón collaborated in numerous congresses and publications, such as 'Generación Consciente', and was a founder of the FAI. [see: Jul. 18]
1731 - Geroosterd Rundvlees Revolt: Dutch people revolt against a meat tax.

[A] 1849 - Fyodor Dostoyevsky is led out for execution, then pardoned at the last moment. Dostoyevsky and his comrades in the Petrashevsky Circle were under sentence of death for a mere 10 minutes.

1872 - Erroneous and frequently quoted date for the birth of Ettore Bonometti (d. 1961), Italian anarchist militant. [see: Nov. 22]

1875 - Lilian Wolfe (Lilian Gertrude Woolf; d. 1974), English pacifist, anarcha-feminist and member of the Freedom Press publishing collective, born. [expand]

1875 - Jules-Félix Grandjouan (d. 1968), French libertarian, revolutionary syndicalist, painter, caricaturist, illustrator and poster artist, born. Participated prominently on 'L'Assiette au Beurre' from 1901-1912 with his favourite themes including anti-militarism, anti-patriotism and anti-clericalism. His caricatures and illustrations, executed mainly in pastels, feature both in political papers such as 'Le Libertaire', 'La Voix du Peuple', 'Les Temps Nouveaux', 'La Guerre Sociale', 'La Bataille Syndicaliste', 'Le Travailleur du Bâtiment', 'Le Conscrit', etc. and the more satirical press, including 'Le Rire', 'Le Sourire' and 'Le Charivari'. Tried and sentenced to 18 months in prison for his caricature drawings of Clemenceau. He moved to Germany, where he met Isadora Duncan, who became his mistress and muse.
"Shame on those who do not revolt against social injustice"

1876 - Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (d. 1944), Italian Symbolist poet, editor and the founder of the Futurist movement, born. He spent much of the 1900s in Paris, associating with the anarchist and artistic milieu and was to become a regular at the Abbaye de Créteil utopian community. Although an Italian nationalist, he was avowedly anarchist and socialist, and strongly influenced by the writings of the French syndicalist theorist Sorel, himself inclined towards Proudhonian anarchism. These elements, together with his anti-clerical and Malthusian tendencies, all helped form his early leftist Futurism, already on display in his 1904 poem 'Destruction', his "erotic and anarchist poem", an eulogy to the "avenging sea" as a symbol of revolution.
Marinetti's debt to anarchism can also be seen in his dedication of his satirical tragedy 'Le Roi Bombance' (1905) to the anarchist Paul Adam (Henri de Régnier was another Marinetti dedicatee). Heavily influenced by Alfred Jarry (and from whom he stole much of his image/demeanour), the play was not performed until 1909, when its première at the Théâtre de l’Oeuvre in Paris provoked a riot. By this time he was already working on the 'Futurist Manifesto', written in French and published that year on the front page of 'Le Figaro', and was reprinted in the Italian anarcho-syndicalist newspaper of Ottavio Dinale, 'La Demolizione'.
In 1910, Marinetti forged links with the pro-labour, proto-syndicalist wing of the Italian Nationalist Association (ANI), but the rise of nationalism in Italy ultimately led to the progressive abandonment of Futurism's radical and avant garde elements in order to shoe-horning it into the ideology of another ex-fellow traveller of anarchism, Mussolini's Fascism. Marinetti even went as far as becoming a Catholic, in part to try and get Futurism adopted as the national Catholic art movement.
"9. Nous voulons glorifier la guerre – seule hygiène du monde -, le militarisme, le patriotisme, le geste destructeur des anarchistes, les belles Idées qui tuent et le mépris de la femme." (We will glorify war—the world’s only hygiene—militarism, patriotism, the destructive gesture of freedom-bringers, beautiful ideas worth dying for, and scorn for woman.) - 'Manifeste du Futurisme' (1909).
"We love the indomitable bellicose patriotism that sets you apart; we love the national pride that guides your muscularly courageous race; we love the potent individualism that doesn't prevent you from opening your arms to individualists of every land, whether libertarians or anarchists." - 'Futurist Speech to the English' (1910), Lyceum Club, London.

[1884 - German anarchists Emil Küchler, Franz Reinhold Rupsch and Auguste Reinsdorf, implicated in the failed assassination attempt against the German Kaiser and Princes at the unveiling ceremony of the Niederwald Monument to the glory of the German armies on September 28, 1883, are sentenced to death.

1886 - José Tato Lorenzo (d. 1969), Spanish anarchist militant propagandist, who was an important figure of the Uruguayan anarchist movement, born in Galicia. Tato Lorenzo began working aged 10 and in November 1900 he emigrated to Brazil, where he joined his father. Between August 1902 and September 1903 he lived in Montevideo, later settling in Rosario, Argentina where, in August 1904, he was jailed for anarchist activities. The following year he went to Buenos Aires, earning a living selling newspapers and edited the newspaper 'La Protesta'. In 1910, he was imprisoned and the following year expelled from Argentina and deported to Spain. [expand]

1900 - Valerio Isca (d. 1996), Italian-American anarchist, co-founder of the Libertarian Book Club, born.
[ Isca]

1901 - Fernando Demetrio Mata Povedano (d. 1936), Aragonese rationalist teacher, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Destined for the priesthood, instead he joined the anarchist Centro Instructivo Obrero de Oficios Varios (Centre for Workers Instruction for Various Crafts) in 1918 and, in 1924 during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, was named its president. He also gained permission to start a school - the Escuela de Niños Nueva (New Children's School) or the Colegio de Educación Científica y Racional (College of Scientific and Rational Education). He also corresponded with the Librería Luque in Montemayor, acquiring many books that he then distributed in the villages of the region where he traveled by bicycle. Married in 1927 to Maria de los Aneles Basilia Mata Carmona and in 1928 started sending money to a campaign by 'La Revista Blanca' for prisoner support. [expand]
On February 22, 1936, he was elected mayor of Montemayor, following the resignation of Antonio Carmona Jiménez, and was president of the Comisión de Hacienda (Committee on Finance), combining these posts with his teaching work. During his time as mayor he urged public works and land reform, developing arbitration between employers and workers. During his tenure the construction of the Grupo Escolar 'Francisco Ferrer Guardia' was also launched, with the first stone being laid on June 1, 1936, but which was halted due to the Francoist coup. On the night of July 18, 1936, a platoon of Guardia Civil from Fernán-Núñez, commanded by Lieutenant Cristóbal Jiménez, Fernando Mata Povedano and eight colleagues. Transferred to the prison in Córdoba, Fernando Mata was assassinated there on on September 26, 1936, and buried in a common grave in thecity's San Rafael cemetery.

[D] 1905 - [O.S. Dec. 9] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: Following two relatively peaceful days in the wake of the declaring of the state of emergency in Moscow and surrounding province, things hot up as the governor of Moscow, Vice Admiral Fyodor Dubasov (Фёдор Дубасов), ordered the arrest of the four Soviet of Workers' Deputies members coordinating the uprising, provoking a city-wide uprising. The revolt was based in part in Maxim Gorky's apartment, where bombs are made in the study and food for the revolutionaries in the kitchen. Though a member of the RSDLP and prominent fund raiser for the Bolsheviks, Gorky disliked the Bolsheviks' dogmatic collectivism but saw them as the best hope in the common fight against the backward peasants and Tsar. The Moscow Joint Council of Volunteer Fighting Squads* arm the workers with some of the 800 weapons that it had stockpiled, as the first fighting broke out that morning in Strastnoy [now Pushkinskaya] Square (Страстной [Пушкинская] площади), a prominent Moscow location for holding political demonstrations, when dragoons and members of the Black hundreds attacked a crowd gathered there. The first barricades were thrown up, constructed from whatever people laid their hands on, anything from tables and doors to overturned trams. Centred on Moscow’s Presnya (Пресне) district, the barricades were defended by upwards of 2,000 revolutionaries armed with around 200 guns (pistols and single-shot bolt-action rifles). The police made a number of attempts to dismantle the barricades but were driven back. Workers manning the barricades were joined by students and even some bourgeois, angered at the ongoing violence of the government. Later that day, about 150 representatives of Moscow’s worker squads gathered at Fiedler’s technical school, the workers' 'war ministry', which was regularly used for party meetings and where thousands of worker squads had received military training. Others discussed a plan to capture the Nikolaevski station (Никола́евский вокзал) in order to cut off communication between Moscow and St. Petersburg and thereby prevent reinforcements arriving. [The S-R Combat Organisation had organised the transfer of dynamite to workers at the station with plans to blow up the bridge carrying the rail tracks leading to it, but the plans were abandoned when the workers involved narrowly escaped arrest by the police.] At the end of meeting a group decided to go and disarm the police. However, by 21:00 the Fiedler building had been surrounded by troops, who presented an ultimatum to surrender. Following the revolutionaries' refusal to surrender, the troops proceeded to shell the Fiedler building from 22:00 to 03:00 the next morning, despite the besieged waving a white flag. About 20 workers were killed and 30 people, mainly workers from the railway guards and one soldier managed to escape over the fence. Eventually, the white flag was recognised and a large group, 80-100 people, surrendered but not before they had hastily rendered their arms unusable so they could not fall into the hands of the enemy. Subsequently, 99 people were put on trial, but most of them were acquitted.
The armed uprising had begun.
[* Formed at the end of October 1905 at the outset of the protracted struggle against the proto-fascist Black Hundreds and remained in existence during the December uprising. It included representatives of the combat organisations of the Moscow Committee of the RSDLP, the Moscow Social-Democrats, the Moscow committee of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, and the various local Moscow district volunteer squads.]

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 9] Bloody Friday in Yaroslavl [Кровавая пятница в Ярославле]: From November 28 [15], 1905 to January 20 [7], 1906, a strike was held at the Yaroslavl Large Manufactory (Ярославской Большой мануфактуре). The workers demanded the introduction of an eight-hour working day, additional social guarantees, and an increase in wages by 30 to 45 percent. The leadership of the strike was carried out by the strike committee. The City Duma adopted a resolution to allocate six thousand rubles for the workers of the Yaroslavl Large Manufactory. However, this decision was not carried out. The situation of the striking workers was complicated. Therefore, it was decided to organise on Friday, December 22 [9] a citywide demonstration and demand the allocation of money. The protesters wanted to present their demands to the Yaroslavl governor A.A. Rimsky-Korsakov (А. А. Римскому-Корсакову), and also to hold rallies outside the buildings of the city duma and the vice-governor. However, the workers' demonstration was fired on at various points by Cossacks, police and horse-guards leaving six people dead and more than twenty seriously injured. The very next day, the 'Северном крае' (Northern Territory) newspaper covered these events in detail. It was in the 'Northern Territory' that the term "bloody Friday" (Кровавая пятница) first appeared, which from now on began to designate one of the most tragic events in the history of the city.

1905 - Kenneth Rexroth (d. 1982), poet, essayist, critic, translator, anarchist, Wobbly, pacifist and conscientious objector, born. He active in groups like the Randolph Bourne Council (an anarchist group), the John Reed Club, the Libertarian Circle, and the Waterfront Workers Association in San Francisco. Apart from his numerous books of poems and his collections of essays, his 2 most important works which describe his libertarianism are 'Communalism: From Its Origins to the Twentieth Century' (1974) and 'An Autobiographical Novel' (1991). [expand]

1907 - Fermin Rocker (d. 2004), English artist, book illustrator and anarchist, born. Wrote 'East End: A London Childhood' (1992). [expand]
[ rocker]

[B] 1911 - Henry Treece (d. 1966), British poet, novelist, short story writer, essayist, playwright, editor, teacher, pacifist and philosophical anarchist, born. Member of the post-war New Apocalyptics poetry group, a fusion of anarchism and surrealism, alongside the likes of Alex Comfort, Ruthven Todd, Dylan Thomas and Vernon Watkins.
"The only way Left, as I see it is that of anarchism."

1918 - Randolph Silliman Bourne (b. 1886), American literary radical, essayist and anarchist, who was the originator of the phrase "War is the health of the State", coined in his unpublished work 'The State' (1918), dies in the Spanish flu epidemic. [see: May 30]

1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: The surviving strikers of the columna Facón Grande, including José Font himself, surrender at the Estación Jaramillo. Contrary to Varela's assurances, Facón Grande and at least fifty workers are shot by firing squad the same day.

1922 - International Congress of Revolutionary Syndicalists in Berlin. Founding of the anarcho-syndicalist International Workers Association (AIT/ IWA), on the initiative of Rudolf Rocker.

[E] 1942 - Espertirina Martins (b. 1902), Brazilian anarchist and working class militant, dies due to complications from a premature birth and appendicitis. In January 1917, when still only fifteen, she had carried the bomb, hidden in a bunch of flowers, that Djalma Fettermann used to counter a brigada militar cavalry charge on the funeral procession of a worker who had been murdered by the forces of repression, and which resulted in a pitched battle the Varzea (where the Avenida João Pessoa is today) between anarchists and brigadianos in January 1917.

[C] 1942 - Nine members of the (Nazi named) Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, comprising a large section of the 'Schulze-Boysen/Harnack circle' (Schulze-Boysen/Harnack-Kreis) – John Graudenz, Arvid Harnack, Horst Heilmann, Kurt Schulze, Harro Schulze-Boysen, Libertas Schulze-Boysen, Elisabeth Schumacher, Kurt Schumacher and Ilse Stöbe – are executed at Plötzensee Prison. Two others linked by the Nazis to the Rote Kapelle, Hans Coppi and Rudolf von Scheliha, are executed alongside them. [see: separate entries below]

[(C)] 1942 - John Graudenz (Johannes Graudenz; b. 1884), German press photographer and resistance fighter in anti-Nazi Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, is exectuted in Plötzensee prison. One of the founding members of the Kommunistischen Arbeiterpartei (Communist Workers' Party) in 1921 and travelled extensively in the Soviet Union. There he witness the hunger and misery endemic under the regime and was subsequently expelled from the country because of his public criticism of the situation. In 1928 he and Franz Jung founded the Berlin photo agency Dephot and from 1928 to 1932 he worked for the 'New York Times'. In 1933 he began making contacts with various resistance groups, as well as maintaining those that he already had with Franz Jung and the Roten Kämpfern (Red Fighters). He also helped the daughter of Jung's old friend the anarchist Otto Gross escape the country. In the spring of 1939, via Jung's contacts, he joined the Schulze-Boysen circle and began participating in the Berlin Rote Kapelle group's activities, writing and printing pamphlets and leaflets and secretly obtaining information on the latest aviation technology.
John Graudenz was arrested on September 12, 1942 and on December 19, 1942 the Reich Court Martial sentenced him to death. Three days later he was hanged in Plötzensee prison.

[(C)] 1942 - Arvid Harnack (b. 1901), German jurist, economist, and resistance fighter in Nazi Germany, is executed for his part in the activities of the (Nazi named) Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group. Founder of ARPLAN (Wissenschaftliche Arbeitsgemeinschaft zum Studium der sowjetischen Planwirtschaft or )[Scientific Working Community for the Study of the Soviet Planned Economy], he had travelled to the Soveit Union to study their ecomony but, with Hitler's rise to power ARPLAN was dissolved and Harnack gained a post as a scientific expert in the Reich Economic Ministry and was recruited as an agent by the NKVD. He also came into contact in 1939 with the Harro Schulze-Boysen group, and in 1940 with the Communists Hilde Rake and Hans Coppi. He also published the resistance magazine 'Die Innere Front' (The Inner Front) in 1941 but interception of the group's radio messages led to the arrest of Harnack and his wife Mildred on September 7, 1942. Arvid Harnack was sentenced to death on December 19 and executed 3 days later at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin. His wife was originally given six years in prison, but Hitler swiftly cancelled the sentence and ordered a new trial, which pronounced the desired death sentence.

[(C)] 1942 - Horst Heilmann (b. 1923), German anti-Nazi resistance fighter and member of the (Nazi named) Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, is beheaded in Plötzensee Prison alongside his Rote Kapelle comrades. As a student he was drafted into the Wehrmacht radio operator in a special intelligence unit of the Army High Command, decrypting enemy agents' radio traffic. He also joined the circle of intellectuals that had gathered around Harro Schulze-Boysen and Horst Heilmann in Berlin and towards the end of August 1942 he told Heilmann that his office had decrypted Soviet radio messages that contained the names of Harro Schulze-Boysen, John Graudenz, Arvid Harnack and others. Shortly afterwards more than 120 people linked to the Rote Kapelle network were rounded-up by the Gestapo. On December 19, 1942, the Reich Court Martial sentenced Heilmann to death and he was executed three days later in Plötzensee prison.

[(C)] 1942 - Kurt Schulze (b. 1894), German anti-fascist resistance fighter who worked for the Soviet secret service as a member of the resistance network Rote Kapelle, is executed in Plötzensee Prison. A radio operator in the German Imperial Navy during WWI, he joined the Kommunistischen Partei Deutschlands in 1920. At the beginning of 1929 he was trained in the USSR as a radio operator and, following a series of jobs, ended up working as a driver with Deutsche Post. As a radio operator for the Soviet military intelligence (GRU) he was part of Ilse Stöbe's, helped instruct Hans Coppi in wireless technology and also helped the 'Schulze-Boysen/Harnack circle' (Schulze-Boysen/Harnack-Kreis) transmit information to Moscow. On September 16, 1942, Kurt Schulze was arrested at work by the Gestapo and interned in Spandau. On December 19, 1942, he was convicted by the Reich Court Martial of "high treason and collaboration with enemies and spies" and sentenced to death. On December 22, he was executed in Plötzensee prison.

[(C)] 1942 - Heinz Harro Max Wilhelm Georg Schulze-Boysen (b. 1909), German officer, commentator and anti-Nazi Resistance fighter, is executed alongside his wife Libertas Schulze-Boysen for their part in the activities of the (Nazi named) Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group. In 1928, he joined the Jungdeutscher Orden, a youth organisation in the Weimar Republic and the Studentenverbindung Albingia student organisation. He studied law in Freiburg (Baden-Württemberg), and Berlin, without finishing and, by 1930, was a supporter of the intellectual-nationalistic group, the Volksnationale Reichsvereinigung (People's National Imperial Union). The same year, he became editor of Franz Jung's left-liberal anti-fascist 'Der Gegner' (The Opponents) and in 1932 he organized the Treffen der revolutionären Jugend Europas (Meeting of Europe's Revolutionary Youth). In April 1933, when the offices of 'Der Gegner' were destroyed by Brown Shirt thugs, Schulze-Boysen was beaten up and had swastikas carved into his flesh. In May 1933 he began pilot training, later working in the communications department of the Reich Air Transport Ministry. Beginning in 1935, he became part of a circle of left-leaning anti-fascists – artists, pacifists, and Communists – who published anti-fascist writings amongst other activities. In 1936, Schulze-Boysen made contact with Arvid Harnack and his circle, and also with the Communists Hilde and Hans Coppi (widely known as the Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) group. In July 1942, the group's radio messages were intercepted and decoded, and on August 31, Harro and his wife Libertas Schulze-Boysen were arrested by the Gestapo. They were sentenced to death on December 19 and executed three days later at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin. [see: Sep. 2]

[(C)] 1942 - Libertas Schulze-Boysen (Libertas Viktoria Haas-Heye; (b. 1913), German former press officer in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's Berlin branch office and anti-Nazi resistance fighter, who also gathered pictorial evidence of Nazi war crimes whilst working in the Reich Propaganda Ministry, is executed alongside her husband Harro Schulze-Boysen for their part in the activities of the (Nazi named) Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group. Part of the same circle of left-leaning anti-fascists as her husband, artists, pacifists, and Communists who published anti-fascist writings amongst other activities, she was also involved in the resistance group known as the Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra).. In July 1942, the group's radio messages were intercepted and decoded, and on August 31, she and Harro Schulze-Boysen were arrested by the Gestapo. They were sentenced to death on December 19 and executed three days later at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin.. [see: Nov. 20]

[(C)] 1942 - Elisabeth Schumacher (Elisabeth Hohenemser; b. 1904), German artist and resistance fighter in the Third Reich, who belonged to the Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, is beheaded in Plötzensee Prison. On September 12, 1942, she and her husband, the sculptor and staunch Communist Kurt Schumacher, were both arrested and on December 19, 1942, they were both was sentenced to death at the Reichskriegsgericht (Reich Military Tribunal) for "conspiracy to commit high treason", espionage, and other political crimes. Schumacher was beheaded on December 22, 1942 at Plötzensee Prison. [see: Apr. 28]

[(C)] 1942 - Kurt Schumacher (b. 1905), German sculptor, committed Communist and anti-Nazi resistance fighter with the Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group, is hung in Plötzensee Prison. Married to the painter and graphic designer, Elisabeth Schumacher, they were both arrested, during which the Gestapo wrecked his studio and much of his artworks, and on December 19, 1942 they were both was sentenced to death at the Reichskriegsgericht (Reich Military Tribunal) for "conspiracy to commit high treason", espionage, and other political crimes. Schumacher was hung on December 22, 1942 at Plötzensee Prison. [see: May 6]

[(C)] 1942 - Ilse Frieda Gertrud Stöbe (b. 1911), German journalist and anti-Nazi resistance fighter, is beheaded for her part in the so-called Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra)Soviet espionage ring. Between 1931 and 1933 she worked as a secretary for the journalist Theodor Wolff on the 'Berliner Tageblatt'. Through Wolff, she met the journalist Rudolf Herrnstadt, a noted communist politician and anti-fascist activist, who was also a GRU agent. In 1929, Stöbe joined the Kommunistischen Partei Deutschlands and the pair began setting up an intelligence group in Berlin. In early 1934 she and Herrnstadt moved to Warsaw, where Stöbe began working as a foreign correspondent for the 'Neue Zürcher Zeitung'. Stöbe also joined the NSADP as cover for her activities and in mid-1934 she was appointed Cultural Attaché of the Nazi party's foreign office in Poland.
Shortly before the German invasion of Poland, she returned from Warsaw to Berlin and worked in the Information Department of the Foreign Office. [Herrnstadt went into exile in Russia upon the invasion of Poland.] With her brother Kurt, Ilse soon resumed contact with a number of resistance groups and continued her work, passing information on to the Soviets. She was arrested on September 12 1942 by the Gestapo, for allegedly spying for the Soviet Union and for membership of the Rote Kapelle Soviet espionage ring. On December 14, 1942 the Reich Military Court sentenced to her death alongside Rudolf von Scheliha. She was executed by guillotine on December 22 in Plötzensee. [see: May 17]

[(C)] 1942 - Hans Coppi (b. 1916), German student and Communist resistance fighter in Nazi Germany, is executed in Plötzensee Prison alongside members of the Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group. A member of the Roten Pfadfinder (Red Scouts) and Kommunistischen Jugendverbandes Deutschlands (Young Communist League of Germany) in his youth, he later joined the Kommunistischen Partei Deutschlands. In 1932, he was expelled from the progrssive Internat Scharfenberg 'school-farm' in Berlin-Tegel for his involvement in the showing of Georg Wilhelm Pabst's banned Franco-German solidarity film 'Kameradschaft' (Fellowship). Following the Reichstag fire in March 1933, he went underground and in January 1934 he was arrested by the Gestapo and imprisoned in Oranienburg concentration camp spend. Convicted of distributing illegal leaflets, he received a one-year sentence. Released in 1935, he returned to his clandestine activities and, after being rejected for conscription as unfit and "unworthy to bear arms", he joined the resistance group around Wilhelm Schürmann-Horster, which had contacts with members of the so-called 'Rote Kapelle' circle. In 1941 he married fellow resistance member Hilde Rake and began working for the NKGB (Narodnij Komissariat Gossudarstwennoi Besopasnosti/People's Commissariat for State Security) under the codename Funker as a radio operator.
On September 12, 1942, Coppi and his pregnant wife were arrested in Schrimm (now Śrem, Poland) – his parents, brother and mother-in-law were also arrested around this time. He was convicted by the Reichskriegsgericht (Reich Military Tribunal) and sentenced to death on December 19. On December 22 he was beheaded in Plötzensee Prison. Hilde gave birth to their son, Hans, on November 27, whilst in Barnimstrasse Women's Prison in Berlin, and was executed less than a year later, on August 5, 1943.

[(C)] 1942 - Rudolf von Scheliha (b. 1897), German diplomat and anti-Nazi resistance fighter, is hanged from a meathook in Plötzensee Prison alongside members of the Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra) resistance group. The son of a Prussian squire. He served as an army officer in World War I, studied law in Breslau where he joined pro-republic and anti-totalitarian circles, was elected to the student council and campaigned against the anti-Semetic excess of some of the student bodies. He joined the German Foreign Service in 1922 and as a member of the German Embassy in Warsaw he became aware of the atrocities committed in the name of the Third Reich under the Nazi regime. After the outbreak of World War II, he
was appointed head of an information department in the Foreign Office, which enabled him to check the veracity of the reports and surveys carried out by Nazi officials abroad. In this position, he often protested to Nazi crimes against German departments in Poland. He also used his contacts to help his Polish and Jewish friends to escape abroad and secretly put together a collection of documents about the atrocities of the Gestapo, and in particular the murder of Jews in Poland, that contained photographs of the newly established extermination camps, in an attempt to make the world aware of the impending systematic murder of the Jewish people. In June 1941, he showed the dossier to the Polish Countess Klementyna Mankowska who visited him in Berlin, to make these details known to the Polish resistance movement and the Allies.
Long suspected by the Gestapo for his critical attitude, he was arrested on October 29, 1942 Scheliha was arrested by the Gestapo as one of the first alleged members of the Rote Kapelle [the Soviet authorities had tried to get their agents to contact him in the autumn of 1942 but von Scheliha never had any direct contact with the Schulze-Boysen/Harnack circle]. Accused of being a paid Soviet agent, he was charged with treason and confessed under torture. At his tried he retracted his confession and was sentenced on December 14 to death by hanging. He was executed in Plötzensee Prison on December 22 alongside members of the Rote Kapelle group. Amongst his last recorded words during the trial were: "I'm not to blame for what I'm being accused, I have accepted no cash amounts, I die a pure heart."

[CC] 1942 - Jewish fighters in the Krakow Ghetto, united under the command of Zvi 'Heshek' Bauminger and Aharon 'Dolek' Liebeskind, carry out a series of attacks on German forces throughout the city. Members of the Žydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŽOB; Jewish Fighting Organisation) throw grenades into three cafés frequented by Nazi officers, sabotage military vehicles, distribute anti-Nazi leaflets, and raise Polish flags on bridges over the Vistula River. At the Cyganeria café, the fighters kill at least seven German officers and wound many more. Two days later, the Gestapo located Liebeskind’s hiding place and killed him in a shoot-out; Bauminger survived the manhunt until March, 1943.

[F] 1945 - Senegalese Workers General Strike: Compagnie Française d'Afrique Occidentale workers in the port of Dakar go on strike demanding an increase in wages. The workers from the printing shops of Dakar and the Senegalese electrical factory in Saint Louis joined the strike. It would develop into an eleven-day-long general strike in mid January. [til Feb. 7, 1946]
The strike would fundamentaly change the colonial power's perception of African workers, establishing the permanance of unions as a power in French West Africa.

1946 - Kuwasi Balagoon (born Donald Weems; d. 1986), US Black Panther, a member of the Black Liberation Army, a New Afrikan anarchist and prison writer, born. He was a defendant in the Panther 21 case in the late sixties and was involved in the 1981 Brinks robbery, for which he was convicted of murber and other charges and sentenced to life.

1947 - Otto Weidt (b. 1883), German anarchist and pacifist, who ran a workshop in Berlin for the blind and deaf and fought to protect his Jewish workers against deportation during the Holocaust, dies. [see: May 2]

1951 - Georges Gustave Gillet (b. 1876), French militant syndicalist, anarchist propagandist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Aug. 17]

1966 - Lucy Burns (b. 1879), US suffragist and women's rights advocate, dies. [see: Jul. 28]

1969 - Federica Saraceni, Italian member of the Nuove Brigate Rosse, born. She was arrested on October 24 2003 and later convicted of the killing of Massimo D'Antona, a university professor and public official, and sentenced to 21 years and six months' imprisonment.

1986 - Ida Cook (b. 1904), British romantic novelist and opera fanatic, who, with her sister Mary Louise, used both the money earned from her Mills & Boon novels as funds and the cover of their pair's regular trips abroad to the opera to escape of Jews from Nazi occupied Europe, dies of cancer. [see: Aug. 24]

1988 - Chico Mendes (Francisco Alves Mendes Filho; b. 1944), Brazilian rubber tapper, trades union leader and environmentalsit, is murdered by landowners for his leadership in the struggle against the destruction of Amazon rainforests.

1989 - Samuel Beckett (b. 1906), Irish playwright, poet, novelist, theatre director, anti-fascist and member of the Résistance, dies. [see: Apr. 13]

1997 - Zapatista Uprising: Paramilitaries associated with the ruling PRI party massacre 45 peasants, the majority of whom are children and women belonging to the civil group 'Las Abejas', refugees in Acteal, Chiapas. The government uses this event to occupy and suppress the population with over 70,000 troops and expels humanitarian observers stationed in the area.

2000 - Ian Heavens (b. 1957), Scottish anarchist and co-founder of the punk/samba band Bloco Vomit, dies.

2003 - Bernard Voyenne (b. 1920), French anarcho-syndicalist activist, federalist, Résistance fighter, journalist, professor and writer on Proudhon, dies. [see: Aug. 12]

2009 - Wrongly jailed in 1998, 49-year-old Anthony Nolan is found dead in his cell at HMP Kingston.
1831 - Countess Emilia Plater (Emilija Pliaterytė / Emilia Platerówna; b. 1806), Polish-Lithuanian noblewoman and revolutionary, who fought in the November 1830 Uprising against the Russians as a captain in the Polish insurgent forces (the highest rank awarded to a woman at that time), falls ill and dies, having refused to cross into Prussia and accept internment there following defeat by the Russians. [see: Nov. 13]

[A] 1877 - Luigi Fabbri (d. 1935), Italian writer, professor and theorist of the Italian anarchist movement, born.
For anarchists: "Le devoir de s'opposer, même violemment, à la dictature révolutionnaire qui constitue toujours une régression conservatrice." ["The duty is to oppose, even violently, revolutionary dictatorship which is always a conservative regression."]

1882 - La Bande Noire: The trail postponed on October 24 in the wake of the intimidation of the jury and the attack on the Théâtre Bellecour's L'Assommoir restaurant in Lyon reached its conclusion in the court of assize in Puy-de-Dôme, with nine defendants receiving between one and five years in prison.

1886* - Salvador Segui Rubinat, aka 'El Noi del Sucre' (The Sugar Boy)(d. 1923), anarcho-syndicalist in the Catalonian CNT, born. He was assassinated in 1923 along with another trade unionist, Francesc Comes, the murders financed by the governor of Catalonia. [expand]
[*NB: some sources give his d.o.b. as Sep. 23, 1887]

1888 - Vincent van Gogh cuts off his own ear.

1888 - Christa Winsloe (d. 1944), German-Hungarian novelist, playwright and sculptor, born. Best known for her play 'Gestern und Heute' (Yesterday and Today), also known under several other titles, which was filmed in 1931 by Leontine Sagan as 'Mädchen in Uniform'.
A member of the Résistance in Cluny in the Rhone valley along with her partner the Swiss pianist Simone Gentet - both abducted and shot by four French men who falsely claimed that they had killed them under Maquis orders. The four were eventually acquitted of murder in 1948.

1889 - Victoria Lidiard (Victoria Simmons; d. 1992), British optician, suffragette, vegetarian and aninal rights campaigner, born. One of twelve children, only 8 of who survived, she was born in Clifton near Bristol on December 23, 1889 and she became a vegetarian at the age of ten, inspired by her mother's progressive views. Alongside her mother, she joined the WSPU in 1907, as later did her sisters, despite the opposition of her traditionalist furniture dealer father. Much of her suffragette campaigning was carried out in her home town of Clifton, selling 'Votes For Women', chalking on pavements and addressing meetings at Bristol Docks from the back of a lorry (she apparently was a hopeless speaker) and handing out leaflets. In 1912, Victoria received a two months for breaking a window at the War Office, one of 200 suffragettes arrested during the March 4, 1912 WSPU window-smashing raid on Whitehall, a protest at the Liberal government's refusal to give women the vote. However, unlike many of her fellow suffragette prisoners in Holloway, she did not go on hunger strike, having promised her formidable mother she would not. On her release she was awarded the suffragette brooch for bravery. In 1914, she went along with the majority of her fellow WSPU members when Emmeline Pankhurst and the organisation's leadership cut a deal with the government to cease campaigning in return for the release of all suffragette prisoners following the out break of WWI. After the war she became one of the country's first female opticians, as well as a campaigner for animal welfare and, in the 1980s, for the ordination of women priests.
On October 3, 1992, Victoria Lidiard – at the time the last known living British suffragette – dies in Hove, at the age of 102.

1896 - Isabel Vilà i Pujo (d. 1843), Catalan nurse, syndicalist, member of the International and rationalist educator, who is considered to have been a pioneer of syndicalism in Catalonia, dies. [see: Aug. 3]

1898 - Claudia 'Cordiet' Gacon (b. 1877), French anarchist militant, who condemned propaganda by deed (political assassination) because it would harm the libertarian movement, dies. She was the partner of Lucien Weil aka 'Dhorr' who worked with Sébastien Faure.

1902 - René Maurice Frémont (d. 1940), French anarcho-communist and syndicalist, born.

[D] 1905 - [O.S. Dec. 10] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: Following the previous night's confrontation and the capture of the Fiedler building, barricades appear on the streets and insurgents armed with seized weapons, begin to attack the soldiers, policemen and officers. The Executive Committee of the Soviet of Workers' Deputies issues a special proclamation declaring an armed uprising at 18:00. However, the action begins much earlier when at 02:30, two members of the Socialist-Revolutionaries Combat Organisation (Боева́я организа́ция па́ртии социали́стов-революционе́ров) in a speeding carriage threw two bombs into the Moscow Okhrana (Охранное отделение) headquarters on Big Gnezdnikovsky Lane (Большому Гнездниковскому), demolishing part of the front wall, killing one and injuring a number of other policemen. An hour latter troops began demolishing barricades around the Old Triumphal Arch (Старых Триумфальных ворот), on Tverskoy Street (Тверской) and Sadovoy Street (Садовой), where the poorly armed defenders initially put up a fight but are driven off. Later that night around 22:00, troops managed to temporarily dismantle the barricades on Malaya Bronnaya Street (Малой Бронной). However, the rebels would soon rebuild many of the dismantled barricades as their tactical plan began to develop: holding the Garden Ring (Садового кольца) District and the districts where the revolutionaries were better organised, such as around Bronnaya Street, which was defended by a student militia, and moving reinforcements in from areas that they were less able to defend.
That night a number of weapon stores including the Torbeka (Торбека) and Tarnopolsky (Тарнопольского) gun shops were looted. It also became clear that there was an urgent need to change tactics if the uprising was to be a success and that more of the revolutionaries needed to learn the techniques and methods of street fighting. To that end, the following morning the 'Izvestia' newspaper ('Известия Моск. С.Р.Д.' № 5) would publish its 'Tips to Insurgent Workers' (Советы восставшим рабочим).
On another note, the Executive Committee of the Soviet of Workers' Deputies also banned the production of white bread, since the proletariat only eat black bread!

1906 - [N.S. Jan. 5 1907] Peter Arshinov and several comrades blow up a police station in the workers’ district of Amur, near Ekaterinoslav. The explosion kills three Cossack officers, as well as police officers and guards of the punitive detachment. Due to the painstaking preparation of this act, neither Arshinov nor his comrades are discovered by the police.

1908 - Fortunato Serantoni (b. 1856), Italian internationalist and anarchist militant propagandist, dies. Founded 'La Questione Social' in Buenos Aires.

[F] 1928 - Australian Timber Workers' Strike: Citing economic depression in the industry, Judge Lionel Oscar Lukin rules that timber mill workers in Australia must accept increased hours of work and decreased wages. The resulting strike in wake of the February 2, 1929 lock-out – supported by workers across a number of industries and community organisations – lasted nearly nine months. [see: Jan 3]

1933 - Marinus van der Lubbe is sentenced to death for the Reichstag Fire.

1938 - Franco's fascist forces launch an offensive in Catalonia.

1943 - Dario Cagno (b. 1899), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, is executed for his involvement in the killing of Domenico Giardina. [see: Aug. 11]

[E] 1948 - Clarisa Rosa Lea Place (d. 1972), Argentine student and member of the Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores (Revolutionary Workers Party), who later became an Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo (People's Revolutionary Army) guerrilla and Desaparecido, born. She was arrested on January 28, 1971 by police after participating in a food delivery in a poor neighborhood of Tucuman and taken to the Cárcel del Buen Pastor in San Miguel de Tucuman.
Involved in the planned mass escape from the Penal de Rawson of more than one hundred prisoners from various armed leftist groups on August 15, 1972, which was to be followed by the hijacking of a scheduled BAC 1-11 airliner from nearby Trelew airport and seek political asylum in Chile. However, the plan went awry and only 25 prisoners managed to escape and the transport paniced and left before picking everyone up, with a second group of nineteen having to commandeer three taxis to get them to Trelew but not before the plane, hijacked enroute had taken off with just six escaped guerrillas. The nineteen eventually gave themselves up and were taken to the Base Aeronaval Almirante Zar at Trelew, where they were summilarily executed at 03:30 on August 22 in an event known as the Masacre de Trelew.

1948 - Hideki Tojo (東條 英機), Japanese Prime Minister and military dictator through WWII, and six other Japanese war leaders are executed by hanging in Tokyo.

[B] 1952 - Vasily Eroshenko (b. 1890), a blind Russian anarchist, novelist, translator and an important activist in the Esperanto Movement, dies. [see: Jan. 12]

1953 - Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (Лавре́нтий Па́влович Бе́рия), Soviet minister of internal security and Stalin's rotweiller, is bitten (executed) himself.

1961 - Fidel Castro announces Cuba he will release 1,113 prisoners from the failed 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion in exchange for $62M worth of food and medical supplies.

1961 - Fanny Schoonheyt aka 'la reina de la ametralladora' (the queen of the machine gun), Hans G. Rink & Fanny Lopez (Fernanda Maria Wilhelmina Albertina Schoonheyt; b. 1912), Dutch foreign correspondent, anti-fascist and miliciana (with the PSUC) during the Spanish Civil War, dies of a heart attack at the age of 49. [see: Jun. 15]

1975 - Richard Welch, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency's station chief in Athens is shot dead by 17N (Revolutionary Organisation 17 November / Επαναστατική Οργάνωση 17 Νοέμβρη) guerrillas. 17N was a Marxist urban guerrilla group named after the day of the 1973 Athens Polytechnic uprising against the military junta.

1975 - Units of the Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo (People's Revolutionary Army), the military wing of the communist Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores (Workers' Revolutionary Party), supported by Montoneros, mount a large scale assault against the (Batallón Depósitos de Arsenales 601) Domingo Viejobueno army supply base at the industrial suburb of Monte Chingolo, south of Buenos Aires. The plan was to acquire a large amount of sophisticated weaponry, however, the ERP had been infiltrated by an Army intelligence officer, and the army were well prepared. So, despite having ammassed a force of around 1,000 fighters, they were effectively ambushed by an equal but more heavily armed force and were defeated and driven off. 53 ERP guerrillas and 9 Montoneros militants were killed and 25 guerrillas wounded. Additionally, an estimated 30 guerrillas were executed after having surrendeed. Seven army troops and three policemen were reported killed and 34 soldiers wounded.

1979 - Assassination of Turkish attaché for tourism in France, Yılmaz Çolpan on the Champs Elysées by the Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide.

1989 - Ousted Romanian President Nicolae Ceaușescu and his wife, Elena, are captured as they attempt to flee the country by helicopter. Ordered to land by the army, which had restricted flying in Romania's airspace, they were forced to abandon their helicopter near Târgoviște and were quickly captured by local police.

1997 - In France Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, is convicted for the murder of two French agents and a Lebanese informant on Jun 27, 1975, and sentenced the next day to life in prison.

[C] 2003 - Patricio Andrés Leyton Quital aka 'ChicOi', a 16-year-old Chilean student and anti-racist skinhead is killed by neo-Nazis. Patrico had been attending an anti-Fascist gig when he and a small group of SHARP skins were attacked by a group of neo-Nazis outside the gig venue. Patrico was hit with a beer bottle across the head and then with a baseball bat. He died in hospital in the early hours of the following morning.
Two neo-Nazis skinheads, Patricio Bustamante Herrera and Rodespiere Chamorro Martínez, who were associated with the Nazi group Patria Nueva Sociedad, and who had been ejected from the gig earlier that night, were eventually convicted of Patricio's murder and sentenced to just seven years each in jail (with 'compensation' of 80 million pesos to be paid to Patricio's family). Three others were acquitted during the trial.

2008 - Members of Revolutionary Struggle (Επαναστατικός Αγώνας) fire on a bus transporting riot police outside Athens University.

2013 - Having served 21 months, Nadezhda Tolokonnikova and Maria Alyokhina are released after the State Duma approved an amnesty. [see: Aug. 17]

2016 - A riot breaks out at HMP Swaleside, as 60 masked prisoners take over a wing shortly before 19:00 at the Category B training prison on the Isle of Shippey. The riot lasted for more than 6 hours as extensive damage was done to A Wing, fires were set, fire extinguishers let off and pool balls thrown at screws. Tornado units had to be sent into the prison to quell the riot, which did not end till 01:00 the following day. Pictures and video footage that were sent out on illegally smuggled in phones show the rioters in full control of the wing gearing themselves up to fight the authorities, chanting loudly ‘Swaleside is burning!’
[F] 1865 - A Workers Congress is held at the Saló Universal in Barcelona [Dec. 24-26] during the respite produced by the relative atmosphere of tolerance during the government of General Domingo Dulce y Garay between 1864-66 when workers' organisations were allowed to operate openly. Originally an idea of the editors of the newspaper 'El Obrero' and its director Antoni Gusart i Vila, "to promote the cooperative movement, that implanted in England a few years ago, has spread with fast flight by all the European nations". The first such congress to be held in Spain, though it was effectively limited to Catalan organisations with about 300 delegates, representing 22 Catalan workers' societies in addition to 'sociedades de resistencia', cooperatives and mutual aid associations participating. The key decisions to come out of the events were the formation of federations of workers 'societies (federación de sociedades obreras) and workers' centers (centros obreros), and the addressing of a petition to the Government to recognise freedom of association.

1869 - Members of the Associació Internacional del Treballadors in Madrid sign the 'Manifest dels treballadors internacionals de la Secció de Madrid als treballadors d'Espanya' (Manifesto of the international workers' of the Madrid section of Spanish workers)

1886 - Vlastimil Borek (d. 1952), Czech journalist, translator and politician, born. Anarcho-communist, anti-miliatrist and anti-clerical activist pre-WWI, and was imprisoned for these activities 1910-12. Interned from 1914-17. Member of the Česká Strana Národně Sociální (Czech National Social Party; ČSNS 1918-23 and editor of 'Českého Slova' (Czech Words). Expelled from the ČSNS along with fellow Vrbenský group and joined Independent Socialist Workers Party (Neodvislá Socialistickou Stranu, or NZS) in 1923, later joining KSČ (initially non-Bolshevik Komunistické Strany Československa) in 1925, he worked in the editorial offices of 'Rudé Právo' (Red Truth). Went on to become a Communist politician and functionary.

1889 - London Gasworkers' Strike: Despite pickets besieging gasworks across London and many of the blacklegs that had been recruited being initially unskilled and the gas they produced being of poor quaility, the capital's holders were now full of gas and the strike in Manchester had collapsed.

[D] 1893 - Massacro di Lercara Friddi [Lercara Friddi Massacre]: During the Fasci Siciliani protests, a crowd of women gathered in the main squares of the country, a multitude of women leading a demonstration against the local administrators, those who impose taxes including the infamous tassa sul macinato (flour tax) on the poor. Their main target were the casotti daziari, the tollhouses and the meeting places and entertainment venues frequented by the local notables and Mafia bullies (gabelloti). The police failed to contain the crowd and the tollhouses were completely devastated.
The following day at about four in the afternoon the people of Lercara Friddi, with women and children to the fore, flooded the streets to protest outside the Town Hall. Waving their flags and improvised banners, they made it clear that they would no longer tolerate exploitation and hunger. A deputy prefect, who had been sent from Palermo, struggled to calm the crowd who faced the military reinforcements who had also just arrived. A tragedy was inevitable.
An officer warned the protesters to disperse and, following a moment of silence, shots began to ring out. From the balconies of the palazzotti on the square, the local notables, masters of Lercara, its fields and sulphur mines, incited the police to carry out the massacre. With his mouth still full of their Christmas lunch, they shouted: "Death to the instigators, death to the subversives." Eleven protesters were killed in the face of this cynical and shameful incitement to massacre.
"it will never be known who had fired first [...] is not at all impossible that a shoot first had been some watchman, some holy mother, lurking around the corner for some home and charged with causing the massacre by one of the factions vying for power in the country. The papers are silent about it." (Mario Siragusa - 'Stragi e stragismo nell’età dei Fasci siciliani' (Slaughter and massacres in the age of the Fasci Siciliani) in 'La Sicilia delle stragi' (The massacres in Sicily) by Giuseppe Carlo Marino, 2007, p. 119).

1894 - Andrés Capdevila i Puig (d. 1987), alternate birth date. [see: Dec. 25]

[C] 1895 - Kirsten Brunvoll (Kirsten Sørsdal; d. 1976), Norwegian resistance member, Nacht und Nebel prisoner, and World War II memoirist, who survived Grini, Ravensbrück, Majdanek and Birkenau concentration camps, born.

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 11] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: The Bolsheviks issue a instructions on street fighting in 'Tips to Insurgent Workers' (Советы восставшим рабочим), published via the Moscow 'Izvestia' newspaper ('Известия Моск. С.Р.Д.' № 5):
"Comrades! Street fighting had begun between insurgent workers and the troops and police. In this fight we may loose a lot of our comrades, freedom fighters, if we do not keep to certain rules. The Combat Organisation of the Moscow Committee of Russian Social Democratic Labour Party had rushed to show you these rules and asks you to strictly follow them.

1. The main rule - do not act as a crowd. Act in small bodies, three or four people at the most.... And let each one learn quickly to attack and disappear quickly. One hundred Police or Cossacks can shoot down crowds of thousands. If you're up against hundreds of Cossacks, deploy only one or two snipers. To attack a hundred is easier than [attacking] one, especially if that one fires unexpectedly from somewhere hidden and then disappears. The police and army will be powerless if Moscow is covered with all these little subtle forces.
2. Furthermore, comrades, do not occupy fortified positions. The army will always be able to take them or just destroy them with artillery. Let our fortresses be the thoroughfare and all the places from which it is easy to shoot and easy to leave. If they attack and take such a place, they will not find anyone there, and lose a lot. All the same it is impossible for them to take them all, because for they need to populate every home with Cossacks.
3. Therefore, comrades, if you are called [by someone] to go where there are big crowds and occupy a fortified place, consider that person a fool or a provocateur. If he is a fool - do not listen, if a provocateur - kill them. It has always been the case, that it is more profitable to operate in singles, twos, threes, it is beneficial to the police to shoot us in bulk, by the thousands.
Our immediate task, comrades, is to transfer the city into the hands of its people. We will start from the outskirts, and we will capture one district after another. In the occupied part, we will immediately establish an elected administration, [which will] introduce their own rules, the 8-hour working day, income tax, and so on. We will prove that under our administration public life will flow more smoothly, the life, the freedom and the right of everyone will be protected more than at present. Therefore, by fighting and destroying, you must keep in mind your future roles and learn to be stewards.

Fighting Organisation at Mosk. Com. RSDLP.

Distribute this sheet everywhere, stick up on the streets, distributed to passersby."


1910 - Dynamite wrecks the Llewellyn Iron Works in Los Angeles, where the workers are on strike.

1914 - Léon Bonneff (b. 1882), French proletarian writer, autodidact and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies as the result of injuries he received on December 13 during fighting in Lorraine. [see: Sep. 20]

1915 - Serafín Aliaga (d. 1990), Spanish anarchist, head of AJA (Alianza Juvenil Antifascista) and delegate to the founding congress of Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL), born.

1919 - The Federación Obrera Local de Santiago organises a meeting [Dec. 24-27] during which the Chilean section of the Industrial Workers of the World is constituted.

1921 - Teresa Wilms Montt (María Teresa de las Mercedes Wilms Montt; September 8 1893 - December 24 1921), Chilean writer, poet, and anarcha-feminist, who in her short life was locked in a convent by her family, escaping with the help of the anarchis-sympathiser Vicente Huidobro, and was deported from New York to Spain, accused of being a German spy, depressed at her separation from her children, commits suicide with an overdose of Veronal at the Hotel Laenaec in Paris. [see: Sep. 8]

[E] 1923 - Germaine Berton, the young individualist is acquitted for her attempt to kill Leon Daudet (father of the anarchist Philippe Daudet), the extreme rightwing propagandist for l'Action Française.

1927 - In Buenos Aires, the National City Bank is bombed, killing two and wounding 23 American and Argentinean customers: it is the work of anarchist (Giovanni and the brothers Scarfo) proponents of violent action. [REWRITE]

1936 - Zelmira Peroni or Zelmira Binazzi (Carlotta Germina Peroni; b. 1865), Italian designer and anarchist propagandist, dies. [see: Jul. 19]

1938 - Bruno Taut (Bruno Julius Florian Taut; b. 1880) German architect, urban planner and author of the Weimar period, dies. He was also a social reformer, anarchist and anti-militarist, whose ideas, including his architectural work, were influenced by the ideas of Kropotkin and Landauer, especially the latter's 'Die Auflösung der Städt' (Call to Socialism; 1911). [see: May 4]

1941 - Flossenburg Concentration Camp: "On the night of 23rd-24th December 1941, some Russian prisoners tried to break out of the camp, but were captured by the SS guards. Some of the Russians were shot immediately, the rest, eight men, hanged on the morning of the 24th." [as related in Heinz Heger's 'The Men with the Pink Triangle' (1972)]

1942 - Aharon 'Dolek' Liebeskind (b. 1912), co-leader, with Zvi 'Heshek' Bauminger (1919–1943), of the anti-Nazi Kraków Ghetto resistance, dies in a shoot-out with the Gestapo. Soon after German troops occupied Kraków in early September 1939, Jews there began to organise resistance to Nazi rule. Though the Jewish population was devastated by the mass expulsions from the city in 1940 and the creation of a ghetto the following year, activists, primarily from Zionist youth groups, succeeded in creating underground cells. In December 1941, members of the Akiva (Akiba), the largest of the prewar youth groups in Kraków, had even set up a secret base on an agricultural training farm outside the city.
By mid-1942, two main resistance organisations existed in the Kraków ghetto. The first was led by Aharon 'Dolek' Liebeskind based around members of the Akiva (Akiba) and Dror Zionist youth movements in the underground. The second band of fighters was headed by Zvi 'Heshek' Bauminger, a former soldier in the Polish and Soviet armies who had escaped from German hands. Returning to Kraków, he created a resistance group (Iskra), largely composed of his fellow youths in the left-wing Zionist Ha-Shomer ha-Tsa’ir movement, and established close ties to the local Communist resistance, the Polska Partia Robotnicza (Polish Workers’ Party).
Having learned about the mass murder of Jews in the Chelmno killing center and the deportations from Kraków to the Belzec death camp in June 1942, the Jewish fighters decided to respond with armed resistance against the Nazis. Using couriers like Hela Schüpper, the leaders of this group established contact with other Jewish resistance groups in Warsaw, Tarnow, and Rzeszow, obtained valuable information, and smuggled weapons back into the ghetto. They sent commando groups out into the nearby forests to link up with the partisans and set up a forgery workshop, under Shimson Draenger, to create false papers and documents.
In October 1942, the two resistance groups joined together to form the Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Fighting Organisation). In the months that followed, the ŻOB operated outside the ghetto, sabotaging rail lines, raiding German warehouses, and attacking German soldiers and security police. On December 22, the Jewish fighters carried out their boldest plan – a series of attacks on German forces throughout the city. Members of the ŻOB were to throw grenades into three cafés where German officers congregated, sabotage army and police vehicles, distribute anti-Nazi leaflets, raise Polish flags on the bridges over the Vistula, and assassinate German soldiers throughout the city. At the Cyganeria café, the fighters killed at least seven German officers and wounded many more.
In the wake of these attacks, German authorities launched a massive manhunt to find the resistance fighters. On December 24, the Gestapo located Liebeskind’s hiding place and he died in the violent shoot-out that followed. The next day, Hitler’s headquarters was informed of the action. In March 1943, the German police closed in on Bauminger, cornering him in his room, where he lay ill. He managed to fire at his attackers, perhaps saving the last bullet for himself. Though its membership had been decimated by arrests and its leaders killed or captured, the ŻOB continued to fight on, carrying out sabotage, distributing anti-Nazi materials, and urging Jews to resist and flee to the forests.

1946 - Karl Max Kreuger (d. 1999), Dutch anarchist activist and founding member of the Vrije Bond (Free Union) after it split with the OVB (independent union), born.

[B] 1949 - Néstor Osvaldo Perlongher (d. 1992), Argentinian sociologist, anthropologist, poet, writer, militant Queer activist and theorist, and anarchist, born. As a student, he was a member of the trotskyist Partit Obrer and a delegate to the Student Assembly responsible for self defence during his university's Faculty of Philosophy and Letters student demonstrations. He later particpated in various anarchist and May 68-influenced autonomist groups. In 1971, he was one of the founders of the Frentre de Liberación Homosexual Argentino (FLHA), the first gay political organisation in Latin America, and the libertarian Eros group. He also edited the FLHA magazine 'Somos' and Eros' publication 'Sexo y Revolución'. In 1976, he was arrested during the Argentine dictatorship's suppression of the FLHA. He graduated in sociology in 1982, later moving to São Paulo, where he received a doctorate in urban anthropology at the University of Campinas, and there became Professor of Anthropology in 1985. He 26 November 1992 he died of AIDS in São Paulo on November 26, 1992.
Perlongher's poetry was integral to his political activity, and was quoted as saying that "poetry emerged in the late '70s because of the way in which the military dictatorship of the time closed down other spheres of political debate and cultural intervention in politics. Poetry was one of the few areas of oppositional discourse that survived," becoming a key avenue in which to express individual opinion at the time. He published six volumes of his poetry in his lifetime: 'Austria-Hungría' (1980); 'Alambres' (Wires; 1987), which won the Boris Vian Prize for Literature in Argentina; 'Hule' (Rubber; 1989), 'Parque Lezama' (Lezama Park; 1990); 'Aguas Aéreas' (Air Water; 1990); and 'Chorreo de las Iluminaciones' (Drips from the Illuminations; 1992), in which he created his own literary style "neobarroso", which he claimed merged the neo-Baroque with the language of the slums of the Rio de la Plata. The 'message' of this neobarroso poetry was rendered opaque by the use of 'hidden meanings' - cultural allusions and plays-on-words - which meant that the poems did not reveal their true meanings at first reading - they had to be 'decoded'. This makes translation of his poetry into other languages difficult.
His other books included: 'O Que é AIDS?' (What is AIDS?; 1987); 'El Fantasma del SIDA' (The Phantom of AIDS; 1988); 'Territórios Marginais' (Marginal Territories; 1989); 'Poesía Neobarroca Cubana y Rioplatense' (Neobarroca Poetry Cuban and River Plate; 1991); 'La Prostitución Masculina' (Male Prostitution; 1993); and 'Prosa Plebeya' (Plebeian Prose; 1997). Perlongher also contributed to publications such as 'El Porteño' (Of Buenos Aires), 'Alfonsina', 'Último Reino' (Last Kingdom), 'Cerdos & Peces' (Pigs & Fishes), 'Fin de Siglo' (End of Century), 'Folha de São Paulo' (São Paulo Sheet), 'Parque' (Garden), 'Utopía', 'Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia' (Brazilian Archives of Psychology), 'Chimères' (Chimeras), 'Xul', 'Sociétes', and the 'Diario de Poesía' (Poetry Diary).

1950 - Zaragozan anarchist guerrilleros Simón Gracia Fleringán aka 'Miguel Montllor' & 'Aniceto Borrel' (b. 1923) and Placido Ortiz Gratal aka 'Vicente Llop' & 'Vicente Lobo' (b. 1921), the two members of the 'Los Maños' group arrested on January 9, 1950, are executed by firing squad. [see: Jun. 27 & Oct. 3]

1960 - Grève Générale de l'Hiver [Winter General Strike] / Grève du Siècle [Strike of the Century]: The Wallonian trade union leader André Renard, Deputy Secretary General of the FGTB/ABVV issues the following appeal to Belgium's troops: "Soldiers, the Belgian working class has entered a decisive struggle for its right to exist . The government will use the troops, alongside the gendarmerie, to try to break the strikes and repress the ongoing social movement. We ask you to understand and do your duty. If you are asked to work instead of the workers in companies or services immobilized by the strike, cross your arms! If you are faced with strikers or demonstrators, remember that they are your parents, your brothers, your friends. Fraternise with them. You are mobilised to defend the country and not to strangle it. Fear nothing. The whole socialist workers' movement is there to defend you." The newspaper 'La Wallonie' is seized for printing the appeal.

[AA] 1965 - Cuban Prison Uprising: The riot was sparked by three queers: Loime, 'Lovely Hick' and 'Miss Matanzas'. They stayed in bed that first Sunday morning, and not even the beating by the guards would move them. "I aam with my peerioood..." they screamed once and again. When the guards tried to drag them to the esplanade outside, all the other queers also rebelled. "Me too..." "And me..." The 'peerioood' epidemic spread through the camp like a prairie fire.

1975 - Nicolas Lazarevitch (b. 1895), militant Russian anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 17]

1985 - Anti-police riots in Sheffield, Monmouth and Southampton. [source?]

1990 - Malcolm Kennedy (1947-2013), a middle aged slightly built man with no history of violence is arrested for drunkenness in the early hours of Christmas Eve. Taken to Hammersmith Police station, he was locked in a cell where he fell asleep. Shortly after, Patrick Quinn, originally from Donegal in Ireland but a long term London resident, who had also been arrested for being drunk and placed in the same cell. Kennedy was later woken by a struggle in the cell between a police officer and Quinn and that when he tried to intervene he was punched unconscious. When he was subsequently woken up by 3 police officers, he found Quinn was dead on the floor with all but one of his ribs smashed, his heart and spleen crushed and his face pulped. If that was horrifying enough it was to get a whole lot worse for Kennedy when he was told "you did this", a charge he disputed from the very start.
The guilty police officers covered their tracks well: they cleaned the uniforms they were supposed to hand over for forensic tests, the log book showing who visited the cell was "lost" (just one of several vital documents which disappeared) and procedures for calling in the Police Complaints Authority and pathologist were not followed. Nevertheless when he was put on trial the jury backed the case against him and Malcolm Kennedy was convicted of Quinn’s murder and sentenced to life imprisonment in mid 1991.
Despite new witnesses, present in the police station on the night of Quinn’s death, were located by Kennedy’s solicitors and a 'World in Action' TV investigation casting serious doubt on the police’s version of events by alleging that the time of another arrest had been altered in order to get 2 officers - Emlyn Welsh and Paul Giles - out of Hammersmith Police station at the time Quinn died, the Court of Appeal retrial on February 11, 1993, where a retrial was ordered to allow a new jury to hear all the evidence, it was abandoned when one of the cops (PC Giles) helpfully 'found' his missing notebook (stuck behind his new pocketbook and had carried it around for months without knowing... except the notebook was shown to be unable to be fitted into the wallet!) and another vital piece of missing evidence - a computer aided dispatch [CAD] print out that provided support for the timings PC Giles was claiming. At the start of the second retrial, PC Giles was declared mentally unfit to give evidence but the trial still went ahead, with Kennedy being found not guilty of murder. Under considerable pressure from the judge, the jury found him guilty of manslaughter, a perverse judgment as Quinn’s injuries clearly indicated he’d been brutally murdered, and he was sentenced to 9 years imprisonment.
Malcolm Kennedy died on December 13, 2014, still protesting his innocence.
[ 2013/Malcolm Kennedy.html]

[A] 2001 - Horst Fantazzini aka 'The Kind Bandit' (b. 1939), who conducted non-violent bank robberies across northern Italy during the 1960s and '70s and was involved in an infamous prison escape attempt (subsequently made into a film), dies in prison in Bologna.
[A] 1647 - In Canterbury, UK, a mob shuts down all the shops that have obeyed the order to open for Christmas. They then serve free drinks for all, free the prisoners and throw shit at the Presbyterian minister. Then they play football.

1872 - Congreso de Córdoba: III Congreso de la Federación Regional Española de la Asociación Internacional de Trabajadores is held in the Teatro Moratín from December 25, 1872 to January 3, 1873. It involved 50 delegates representing 42 local Federations and 10 trade unions - at that time the FRE had 29,000 members. During the congress the FRE adopts an expressly anarchist structure and organisational position of the Internationale Anti-Autoritaire de Saint Imier.
[órdobaón_Regional_Española_de_la_AIT anarcosindicalismo y sus Congresos.Completo.pdfórdoba-de-1872]

1884 - Los Desheredados (The Disinherited), a dissident group from within the Associació Internacional dels Treballadors de la Regió Espanyola, organise its III Congrés Revolucionari [Dec. 25-28] in Cadiz. Attended by representatives of 34 organisations (24 in Andalusia), the delegates declared: "...the emancipation of the proletariat can not achieve peaceful..."

1889 - Octavius Albert Garnier (d. 1912), French individualist anarchist and illegalist, member of the Bonnot gang, born.

1889 - (Jean Valérien) Maurice Mac-Nab (b. 1856), French poet, songwriter, performer and postal worker, dies. Famed for his ironic songs of working-class life performed at the Club des Hydropathes, at the the literary club Café de l'Avenir, in the Latin Quarter, and at Le Chat Noir in Montmartre. Many of his songs, such as 'L'Expulsion' and 'Le Grand Métingue du Métropolitain', were explicitly anarchist in sentiment and were popularly sung at demonstrations.

1889 - Wilhelm (Willi) Jelinek (d. 1952), militant German anarchist-syndicalist, born. [expand]

[D] 1893 - Massacro di Lercara Friddi [Lercara Friddi Massacre]: Following yesterday's Fasci Siciliani protests, at about four in the afternoon the people of Lercara Friddi, with women and children to the fore, flooded the streets to protest outside the Town Hall. Waving their flags and improvised banners, they made it clear that they would no longer tolerate exploitation and hunger. A deputy prefect, who had been sent from Palermo, struggled to calm the crowd who faced the military reinforcements who had also just arrived. A tragedy was inevitable.
An officer warned the protesters to disperse and, following a moment of silence, shots began to ring out. From the balconies of the palazzotti on the square, the local notables, masters of Lercara, its fields and sulphur mines, incited the police to carry out the massacre. With his mouth still full of their Christmas lunch, they shouted: "Death to the instigators, death to the subversives." Eleven protesters were killed in the face of this cynical and shameful incitement to massacre.
"it will never be known who had fired first [...] is not at all impossible that a shoot first had been some watchman, some holy mother, lurking around the corner for some home and charged with causing the massacre by one of the factions vying for power in the country. The papers are silent about it." (Mario Siragusa - 'Stragi e stragismo nell’età dei Fasci siciliani' (Slaughter and massacres in the age of the Fasci Siciliani) in 'La Sicilia delle stragi' (The massacres in Sicily) by Giuseppe Carlo Marino, 2007, p. 119).

1894 - Andreu Capdevila i Puig (d. 1987), Catalan dye worker, militant in the CNT, the Spanish Revolution and in France, where he wrote for most of the exile papers ('Terra Lliure', 'Le Combat Syndicaliste', 'Umbral', etc.), born. Minister of Economy in the Generalitat de Catalunya and President of the Economic Council of Catalonia during the Republic.

[F] 1904 - [O.S. Dec. 13] Baku Strike [Бакинская Cтачка]: The strike, which was to be the first example of a dispute in the history of the workers' movement in Russia that was concluded with a collective agreement between strikers and bosses (in this case the oil owners), begins in Balakhany and in the Bibi-Eibat workshop district. Members of the strike committee were Prokofy 'Alyosha' Dzhaparidze (პროკოფი ფარაძეიძე), Alexander Stopani (Алекса́ндр Стопа́ни), Ivan Fioletov (Ива́н Фиоле́тов), and others. The Baku committee of the RSDLP was heavily involved in the organisation of the strike and the Muslim Social Democratic Party Hummet (Hümmət / Endeavor) did a great deal to attract Azerbaijani workers into an active role in the strike struggle. The Armenian Social Democrat Hunchakian Party HNCHAK (ՍԴՀԿ) also selected representatives to the strike committee. Along with demands already presented in the summer of 1903 [release of arrested workers and re-employment of those who had previously been blacklisted for agitational activities; the introduction of an eight-hour working day; the termination of overtime; the increase of wages by 20-50%; the abolition of fines; the improvement of housing conditions], the workers proposed new ones: designation of one day off (Sunday) per week; shortening of the work day before Sundays and the work day before holidays; inclusion of May 1 in the list of holidays; establishment of a workshop board, consisting of an equal number of workers and employers, for hearing conflict cases; participation of workers’ representatives in hiring and dismissing of workers; establishment of a guaranteed minimum wage according to a worker’s position; paying of wages on a strictly regular basis of not less than twice a month; and others. By December 31 [18] the majority of enterprises in Baku were on strike. Mass gatherings, demonstrations, and clashes with troops took place in the city. Employers were compelled to begin negotiations with the strikers. On January 13, 1905 [O.S. Dec.30, 1904] a collective agreement was reached. Workers achieved a nine-hour working day, with night shift and drilling crews winning an eight-hour day; four paid days off per month; a raise in wages; improvement of working and living conditions; payment for the days of the strike; and other changes.

1904 - [N.S. Jan. 7, 1905] Esther Dolgoff (Esther Miller; d. 1989), US anarchist activist and member of the IWW, born in Russia. A friend of Emma Goldman, Rudolf Rocker, Augustin Souchy and other noted anarchists, Esther Dolgoff was active in the anarchist movement since her teens, she met Sam, her life companion, in Cleveland in 1930 whilst he was on an IWW speaking tour. Together they founded Libertarian League in 1955 and were active in the Libertarian Book Club and the Industrial Workers of the World. A contributor to many anarchist movement publications, she was co-editor of the New York anarchist journal 'Views and Comments' and translated important anarchist works into English, most notably Joseph Cohen's 'Di yidish-anarkhistishe bavegung in Amerike : historisher iberblik un perzenlekhe iberlebungen' (The Jewish Anarchist Movement In The United States: A Historical Review And Personal Reminiscences; 1945).

1904 - Philip Vera Cruz (d. 1994), Filipino American labour leader, farmworker, and prominent Asian American civil rights movement activist, born. Vera Cruz was one of the founders of the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee, composed mainly of Filipino workers. Their strike in 1965 against Delano, California, grape growers was joined by the mostly Latino union, the National Farm Workers Association. The two groups went on to merge to become the United Farm Workers. Vera Cruz remained an activist for social justice throughout his life.

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 12] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: Six of the seven railway stations and many districts are now in rebel hands, whilst government troops still hold the city centre against the insurgents' guerrilla offensive. Some food stores open in the morning but all are closed again by the afternoon. Fifty officers are seized as they arrived by train, and many troops and artillery remain hemmed in the city's squares and at the Kremlin. The Governor General is forced to attempt to form his own voluntary militia to fight the 600 or so armed insurgents who now have the government forces pinned down. The Zamoskvorechye (Замоскворечье) and Butyrskaya (Бутырском) districts witnessed the worst of the fighting, and in the former the Sytin printing works on Valovaya Street (Валовой улице), heart of the October strikes and which had been occupied by an estimated 600 armed insurgents (mainly workers from the plant) was burnt down following an assault by government troops. Numerous people, including the families and children of workers who lived in the building, lost their lives in the conflagration. All that was left were the building's walls. The damage, with the plant's machines, was estimated at one million roubles. At the same time, the army began shelling private houses from which bombs were being thrown or shots fired at them.
Across the Empire in cities such as Nizhny Novgorod, Sormov and Kunavino [Dec. 25-29]; Kharkov [Dec. 25]; Rostov-on-Don [Dec. 12-Jan. 3], Novorossiisk [Dec. 25-Jan. 8]; Krasnoyarsk [Dec. 22-Jan. 9]; Gorlovka, Ekaterinoslav and the Donetsk Basin [Dec. 22-30]; Motovilikha [25-26], and other towns and cities, similar workers' uprising took place during December 1905.
In response to what is taking place in Moscow and elsewhere, the Tsarist Regime decrees new tough penalties for striking government workers.

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 12] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Tsarist Regime decrees tough penalties for striking government workers.

[1905 - [O.S. Dec. 12] December uprising in Nizhny Novgorod (Нижний Новгород) (Dec. 25-29)

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 12] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The 'Majority' Bolshevik Conference meets in Tammerfors, Finland (Dec. 25-30) instead of the regular Party Congress which the Central Committee had planned and announced and which could not take place because of revolutionary developments (the railwaymen’s strike and the Moscow armed uprising). It decides on a joint RSDRP Congress for reuniting with the Mensheviks. Lenin meets Stalin for the first time: neither is impressed.

1906 - [O.S. Dec. 12-25] Novorossiysk Republic [Новороссийская республика]: December uprising in Novorossiysk (Новороссийск) (Dec. 25 1905-Jan. 7 1906)

1907 - [O.S. Dec. 12-18] Trial of ex-Duma deputies and signatories of the Vyborg Manifesto (Dec. 25-31) ... the Special Office of the St. Petersburg appellate court sentenced 167 of 169 defendants to three months imprisonment. The sentence meant that the defendants were disfranchised during elections to the Duma and could not be elected to public offices.

[FF] 1910 - Iron Workers’ Bombing Campaign: At 01:55, dynamite wrecks a portion of the Llewellyn Iron Works in Los Angeles, where the workers are on strike. This is thought to be one of between 85-150 bombings from 1908 to 1911 linked to the battle between the steel industry and its workers as the former fought to exclude unions from the industry, one supposedly carried out by the same people that carried out the October 1 bombing of the 'Los Angeles Times' building. In April 1911 James McNamara and his brother John McNamara, secretary-treasurer of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers, were charged with the two crimes. James McNamara pleaded guilty to murder and John McNamara pleaded guilty to conspiracy in the dynamiting of the Llewellyn Iron Works. [see also: Oct. 1]

1911 - Louise Joséphine Bourgeois (d. 2010), French-American autobiographical artist, sculptor and feminist icon, born. Bourgeois' mother was a follower of the militant feminist anarchist Louise Michel in the late 1800s and named her daughter after Michel.

1914 - German troops approach the Allies, wishing them Happy Christmas. Everyone is out of the trenches and the Christmas Truce last a few days. They play football.

1922 - The clandestine founding conference in Berlin [Dec. 25, 1922 - Jan. 2, 1923 ] of the International Workers Association [AIT-Association Internationale des Travailleurs; AIT-Asociación Internacional de los Trabajadores; IAA-Internationale ArbeiterInnen Assoziation; AIL-Associazione Internazionale dei Lavoratori; KTI-Kansainvälinen Työväen Liitto; IAA-Internationella Arbetar-Associationen], the international federation of anarcho-syndicalist labour unions - the direct descendent of the International Workingmen's Association (IWMA) of First International. [expand]

1922 - Celedonio García Casino aka 'Celes' or 'El Llarg' (d. 1949), Catalan anarchist and anti-Francoist guerrilla, born. After the Phalangist victory, the then seventeen-year-old Celedonio decided to participate in the anti-fascist guerilla movement, entering the ranks of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL) in Gracia, Barcelona and as a member of the organisation's Comité Regional de Cataluña. On June 14, 1939, he and sixteen other activists were arrested. Tried on September 19, 1940 for "illegal association and propaganda and possession of illegal weapons", he was imprisoned in Barcelona's Modelo prison, where he was part of one of three groups formed by Manuel Aguilar Martínez, Secretary of the Comité Peninsular of the Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI). His group whose head was Enrique Gómez Laborda included Manuel Graupera Rodilla, Ángel Bernal Lozano and Blas Fuster Carreter. These groups went on to become active in the clandestine struggle as they were progressively released.
Paroled on 23 November 1945, Celedonio García Casino Celes immediately rejoined the FIJL in Gracia and then in Carmel, later joining José Lluis 'Face' Facérias' action group, often crossing the border between 1947 and 1949 on expropriation missions and attacks on Franco's forces. In March 1946, he attended the Congress of the FIJL in exile in Toulouse, recovered materials and returned to Spain on March 15. In September 1946, he was appointed Secretary of Defence of the Regional Committee of Catalonia and the Balearic Islands of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias at a clandestine plenum. In 1947, he was a member of the short-lived Moviment Llibertari de Resistència (Libertarian Movement of Resistance; MLR – intended to be the military wing of Spanish anarcho-syndicalism, it effectively folded when Liberto Sarrau Royes and Joaquina Dorado Pita were arrested in February 1948), he organised a bomb attack in May 1947 against the barracks of the Guardia Civil in Gracia, which the communists tried to claim it as their own. On July 6, he was appointed, with Manuel Ramos Fernández and Manuel Tomas Llaster as the FIJL Catalonia delegates to the national plenum to be held on July 15 and the plenary of the FAI to be held in Madrid three days later.
In early November 1947, he crossed into Spain with José Lluís Facerias, Ramón González Sanmarti, Francisco Ballester Orovigt, Domingo Ibars Juanias and Juan Pedrero Cazorla aka 'Tom Mix'. With Facerias, he participated in the 1949 attempted kidnapping of the chief of police Eduardo Quintela Bóveda. Celedonio García Casino Celes was killed along with Enrique 'Quique' Martinez Marin near the French border on August 26, 1949. He was buried at the cemetery Espolla (Figueras) in the part reserved for non-believers. He left his companion, Remedies Falceto and a daughter, Olga.

1931 - Motín del Norte Grande [Norte Grande Insurrection]: In 1931, Chile was in the midst of a political and economic chaos, with high unemployment and poverty, resulting from the market crash of 1929, combined with the loss of income to a country financially dependent on its nitrate industry caused by the increasing use of artificial nitrates worldwide. By mid-December, rumours were rife of a communist coup in the north of the country, and that in the cities of Vallenar and Copiapó the insurrectionists were going to take over the Esmeralda regiment barracks and the police headquarters on Christmas night, as the first step to a full fledged revolution. Authorities gave no credence to any of the rumours, precisely because they were so open and precise.
At 02:00, Communist militia attacked the army barracks in Vallenar. The lieutenant and soldiers at the guard caught by surprise had to retreat to the infirmary where they were able to mount a hasty defence. The noise from the battle alerted the police, who arrived promptly to swell the ranks of the defenders. After more than half an hour of battle, the revolutionaries, who had suffered several casualties, escaped towards the hills. A police platoon was dispatched to capture the Communist headquarters in Vallenar. The police arrived shooting, and fire was returned from the inside. Since the policemen couldn't capture the building, they proceeded to dynamite it, killing everyone inside. Then they rounded up all the known Communists they could find in the city and shot them immediately.
An investigation established that 21 people were killed, nine of them during the assault on the barracks. On the other side, three policemen and two soldiers died, plus an unarmed civilian who happened to be passing by and was hit by a stray bullet.

1936 - The Generalitat de Catalogne publishes a decree legalising abortion. Pushed for by the women's anarchist group Mujeres Libres and enacted because of the strong presence of the libertarians. Article 4 specifies abortions should not exceed three months pregnancy, except in the event of therapeutic need.

1938 - Karel Čapek (b. 1890), Czech playwright, writer, translator, journalist, photographer, philosopher and staunch anti-fascist, who is probably best known for his science fiction, especially his 1920 play 'R.U.R.' (Rossum's Universal Robots) which introduced the word robot, dies of double pneumonia shortly after the German annexation of the Sudetenland. [see: Jan. 9]

1944 - Dekemvrianá [Δεκεμβριανά / December Events]: Having planted more than a ton of dynamite in the sewers under the hotel Grande Bretagne during the night of December 23-24, intending to blow up Lt. Gen. Ronald Scobie and his headquarters staff based there, EAM call off their attack at the last minute having discovered Churchill had arrived in Greece capital in a failed bid to make peace on Christmas Day and they did not wish to kill one of the 'Big Three' by accident. The British eventually identified and disabled the explosives. Churchill stayed near Faliro on the battleship Ajax and the next day [Dec. 26] he went to the hotel Great Britain where he participated in negotiations between the government, Lt. Gen Scobie and the EAM-ELAS delegation. The negotiations failed, in part because ELAS was ignorant of Stalin's ceding of 90% of post-war Greece to Britain and saw the presence of Churchill as a sign of weakness on his part, and the fighting continued until January 5 and 6, 1945.

1946 - William Claude (W.C.) Fields (b. 1880) dies. Loved kids and dogs.

1948 - The Bulgarian Communist Party outlaws the anarchist founders of the FACB (Federation Bulgare Anarcho-Communist) and its newspaper 'Rabotnitche Skamisal'.

1953 - The Anarchist Federation and the Libertarian Communist Federation founded by the FAF (French Anarchist Federation).

1955 - Aurèle Patorni (b. 1880), French anarchist, writer (plays, operettas, etc.), journalist, pacifist and néo-malthusien, dies of complications following surgery. [see: Jun. 26]

1958 - Baldo aka Baldomero Jose-Luis Ortas, Spanish-born French artist, musician and libertarian, born. Son of a bohemian anarchist artist.

1962 - Jean Souvenance (pseudonym of Serge Grégoire; b. 1903), French writer, libertarian, militant pacifist and free thinker, dies. [see: Oct. 6]

[B] 1972 - Staceyann Chin "poet, performer, and anarchist extraordinaire", LGBT rights political activist, born.

1977 - Charlie Chaplin (b. 1889) dies.

1979 - Russia invades Afghanistan.

1983 - Joan Miró i Ferrà (b. 1893), Catalan painter, sculptor and ceramicist, dies. [see: Apr. 20]

[C] 1989 - An xmas present to savour: Nicolae Ceaușescu and his wife Elena are executed by a one-man firing squad. Ceausescu’s last words before the execution were: "Long live the Socialist Republic of Romania! History will revenge me!" before starting to sing the 'Internationale'! Elena Ceaușescu was a little less prosaic, she screamed: "You motherfuckers!"

2006 - James Brown (b. 1933), Godfather of Soul, dies.

2009 - Althea Francois (b. 1949), African-American prisoner rights and community activist, and ex-Black Panther, dies after a period of prolonged ill-health. [see: Jan. 7]
1854 - Joseph Jean-Marie Tortelier (d. 1925), French carpenter, anarcho-syndicalist, ardent proponent and speaker for the General Strike, organiser of La Ligue des Antipatriotes (League of Anti-patriots) and member of the Panthère des Batignolles, born.

1861 - Mikhail Bakunin disembarks in Liverpool enroute to London, having travelled the long way around the globe (via Japan and across the Pacific, USA and Atlantic) escaping from exile in Siberia.

1861 - Paul Auguste Bernard (d. 1934), French bakery worker, metallurgist, anarchist and trade unionist, born.

[E] 1870 - Marie Jenney Howe (d. 1934), US Unitarian minister, feminist writer and organiser, who founded the Heterodoxy Club (for "women who did things and did them openly"), which met at Polly’s Restaurant in Greenwich Village, and who was prominent in the National American Woman Suffrage Association and as a birth control advocate, born.

[EE] 1876 - Virginia Bolten aka 'the Louise Michel of Rosario' (d. ca. 1960), Argentinian shoemaker, sugar factory worker, labour organiser, anarchist and feminist orator and agitator, born in either the province of San Luis or in the city of San Juan [a third version has her born in Uruguay during a period of exile for her family]* the daughter of an German street vendor who opposed the militaristic German regime and had emigrated. Virginia's parents split up hen she and her sister and two brothers were still teenagers, and she eventually moved to Rosario. Known as the 'Barcelona of Argentina' because of the concentration of heavy industry, it was also a hotbed of radical political and industrial agitation. There she worked in a shoe factory and then in a massive sugar factory, the Refinería Argentina de Azúcar, which employed thousands of workers, many of them European immigrants and many of them women. She married Marquez, an organiser of a shoe workers' union. In 1888, Bolten became one of the editors (along with fellow anarchist Romulo Ovidi and Francisco Berri) of 'El Obrero Panadero de Rosario' (The Working Baker of Rosario), one of the first anarchist newspapers in Argentina. In 1889 she organised the seamstresses' demonstration and consequent strike in Rosario, probably the first strike by female workers in Argentina. In 1890, Bolten, Ovidi and Berri were the main organisers of the first May Day demonstration in the city - Domingo Lodi, Juan Ibaldi, Rafael Torrent, Teresa Marchisio and Maria Calvia were also involved. The day before (April 30, 1890), she was detained and interrogated, by local police forces, for distributing leaflets outside the major factories of the area. Not to be deterred she was at the head of a march of thousands of workers which proceeded to the main square of Montevideo, the Plaza Lopez, on the First of May. She carried a large red flag with black lettering proclaiming: "Primero de Mayo - Fraternidad Universal" (First Of May - Universal Brotherhood). At the Plaza Lopez her fiery speech entranced the crowd. She is credited as being the first woman in Argentina to address a workers rally (it should be borne in mind that she was twenty years old at the time). She was instrumental in publishing 'La Voz de la Mujer' (Woman’s Voice, 1896-1897), 'Periódico comunista - anárquico', whose motto was "Ni Dios, ni patrón ni marido" (Neither god nor master nor husband), which was published nine times in Rosario between January 8, 1896 and January 1, 1897, and was revived, briefly, in 1901. [expand]
[* Recent research ahs thrown doubt upon some of the details of her early life, possibly including the events around May Day 1890.]

1880 - [N.S. Jan 7, 1881] Valentina Kolosova [Валентина Колосова] (Valentina Pavlovna Popova [Валентина Павловна Попова]; d. 1937), Russian revolutionary, member of the S-R Combat Organisation (Боева́я организа́ция), born. [see: Jan. 7]

[BB] 1891 - Henry Valentine Miller (d. 1980), American writer, banned novelist, memoirist, critic, painter, individualist anarchist and champion of free speech, born. Miller's grandfather, Valentin Nieting, who regularly looked after him was an anarchist sympathiser whose anti-war ideals was a significant initial catalyst in his politics. However, Miller claimed that his attending of a 1912 lecture by Emma Goldman and later personally meeting her in 1913 was "a turning point in my life". At the lecture he purchased books there Nietzsche and Max Stirner and would come to embrace an individualist anarchism. However, he also began to read Kropotkin, Bakunin and other anarchist classics which would eventually temper his individualist outlook. Kropotkin's mutualism would become especially important in moderating Miller's individualist outlook.
His is best known for the novels 'Tropic of Cancer' (1934), 'Black Spring' (1936), 'Tropic of Capricorn' (1939) and 'The Rosy Crucifixion' trilogy: 'Sexus' (1949), 'Plexus' (1953) and 'Nexus' (1960) - all of which clearly display strong elements of his anarchist individualism, one tempered by his desire for community and compassion. The early books, 'Tropic of Cancer' and 'Black Spring', together with his resolutely anti-communist/pro-anarchist 'An Open Letter to Surrealists Everywhere' (1938), was a primary influence in turning the English Surrealists, which included Herbert Read and David Gascoyne and fellow travellers like Alex Comfort, away from Surrealism's André Breton-inspired communist orthodoxy towards an anti-authoritarian politics. This influence, via the literary community that had sprung up around Miller at the Villa Seurat in Paris (and which included Anais Nin and Lawrence George Durrell), would also affect the likes of Robert Duncan and George Woodcock?
"I have no money, no resources, no hopes. I am the happiest man alive. A year ago, six months ago, I thought that I was an artist. I no longer think about it, I am. Everything that was literature has fallen from me. There are no more books to be written, thank God. This then? This is not a book. This is libel, slander, and defamation of character. This is not a book, in the ordinary sense of the word. No, this is a prolonged insult, a gob of spit in the face of Art, a kick in the pants of God, Man, Destiny, Time, Love, Beauty." - 'Tropic of Cancer' (1934) pp. 1-2.
"There are barely a half-dozen names in the history of America which have meaning for me. Thoreau's is one of them ... that rarest thing on earth: an individual. He is nearer to being an anarchist than democrat, socialist or communist. However he was not interested in politics; he was the sort of person who, if there were more of his kind, would soon cause governments to become non-existent. This to my mind is the highest type of man a community can produce. And that is why I have an unbounded respect and admiration for Thoreau." - Letter to Herbert Read (1936)

1891 - Stefan Szwedowski aka 'Wojciech', 'Szwed', 'Błażej', 'Cezary', 'Sosiński', 'Stolarski' and a host of other pseudoynms/nom de guerre (d. 1973), Polish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-Nazi fighter, born. During the 1905 revolution in Poland he participated in a school strike and was active in a youth independence movement, leading to his being interrogated by Tsarist secret police, the Ochrana. First time arrested in 1913 in connection with its activity in the Galician independence movement, he was deported to Russia where he spent 2 years in prison. Thanks to the intercession of Polish deputies in the Duma, he was released in 1915 and returned illegally to Warsaw where he joined ‘Warsaw Battalion’ of the Polish Legions. Seroisly injured in the battle of Optowąz, he was invalided out of the army and in 1917 he returned to Warsaw. At the end of WWII he belonged to the leadership of the clandestine Polish Youth Association, Zet. In 1919, he finished his studies at the Warsaw University's law faculty. In 1922 he was one of the organisers of Związek Obrony Kresow Zachodnich (Western Frontier Defence Association) and Związek Rad Ludowych (People’s Councils Union). From 1931 onwards he was involved in the Związku Związków Zawodowych (ZZZ; Union of Workers Unions) and from 1935-39 was a member of the organisation's Central Department of Vocational Training. In October 1939 one of the founders of the underground Zwiazek Syndykalistow Polski (ZSP: Union of Polish Syndicalists). At the outbreak of WWII, he founded the clandestine Koło Związku Patriotycznego (Patriotic Union Circle, later known as the Związek "Wolność i Lud" ("Freedom and People" Association). In 1943 he became the central secretary of the ZSP, and was co-founder and the ZSP delegate on the Council for Aid to Jews (Radzie Pomocy Żydom "Żegota"). From February 1944 vice-chair of the Centralizacja Stronnictw Demokratycznych, Socjalistycznych i Syndykalistycznych (Centralisation of Democratic, Socialists and Syndicalist Groups). During the Warsaw Uprising he fought in the Old Town area as a member of the 104 Kompanii Syndykalistów (104 Company of Syndicalists). In Śródmieście he was co-initiator of Syndykalistyczne Porozumienie Powstańcze (Syndicalist Uprising Agreement – a syndicalist and anarcho-syndicalist coalition). After WWII together with anarchists and co-operative activists worked in Spoldzielczy Instytut Wydawniczy 'Słowo' ('Word' Cooperative Publishers Institute) and other cooperatives.

[B] 1899 - Georges Charensol (d. 1995), French journalist, arts, literary and film critic, film extra and individualist anarchist, born. Worked on fellow anarchist individualist Florent Fels' journal 'L'Art Vivant' and befriended many writers and artists including Maurice de Vlaminck, André Derain, Marc Chagall and especially Rene Clair, working as an extra in 'Entr'acte'. Foreseeing the revolution, he went to Spain in 1930 a correspondent for 'Vu' and 'Le Soir' He later became literary editor of the individualist anarchist paper 'L'Intransigeant'.

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 13] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Oil workers in Baku go out on strike, the start of labour unrest that is to sweep the Russian Empire. The dispute ends on Jan. 12 [O.S. Dec. 30] with the first collective agreement between workers and employers in Russian history.

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 13] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Tsar orders General Pavel Karlovich von Rennenkampf (Павел Карлович фон Ренненкампф) to lead a punitive expedition west from Harbin along the Trans-Siberian Railroad to tackle unrest rife amongst the army units and workers and peasants since the October general strike. Other large-scale punitive expeditions ruthlessly suppress rural unrest into 1908, with about 15,000 executions having taken place by spring 1906. Interior Minister Pyotr Durnovo (Пётр Дурновó) writes governors: "Arrests alone will not achieve our goals. It is impossible to judge hundreds of thousands of people. I propose to shoot the rioters and in cases of resistance to burn their homes."

[D] 1905 - [O.S. Dec. 13] Rostov Uprising [Ростовское Bосстание]: Workers seize Rostov Station, marking the beginning of the active phase of the uprising [the city's rail workers had come out in support of the strikers in Moscow on December 7, swiftly followed by other industries with a series of large rallies held on the 10th-12th]. The town's garrison is ordered to open fire with its artillery on the station. During the barrage, a projectile lands in the canteen at the railway workshops in which a meeting is being held. Several people are killed and wounded. In the Temernik (Темерника) district, which becomes the centre of the uprising, barricades are built and a workers' militia formed to defend against government troops. The main railway workshops urgently produce weapons and ammunition for the workers' militia. Controlled by the Bolsheviks, it initially numbered 250, but was soon swelled by 150 from outside the city.
Government troops and Cossack units, formed from the surrounding villages, went on to fight fierce battles with the rebels over the following week, managing to localise the rebellion in the Temernik area by blocking the bridge to it and artillery was used to shell barricades.

[C] 1912 - Renato Guttuso (d. 1987), Italian anti-fascist painter and polemicist, atheist and Communist, who was the leader of the social realist group in Italy, born. His best-known paintings include 'Flight from Etna' (1938-39), 'Crucifixion' (1941) and 'La Vucciria' (1974). [expand]

1986 - Bruno Salvadori, aka Antoine or Antonio Gimenez (b. 1910), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist fighter in Spain, dies. [see: Dec. 14]

[A] 1988 - Funeral of Chico Mendes in Brazil, murdered by landowners for his leadership in the struggle against the destruction of Amazon rainforests.

1992 - María Bruguera Pérez (b. 1915), Spanish member of Mujeres Libres, anarchist, anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Nov. 6]

[F] 1996 - South Korean General Strike / Labour Law Snatch Case [노동법 날치기 사건]: The largest series of strikes and walkouts in South Korean history, involving hundreds of thousands of workers, takes place to protest new labour legislation allowing companies to lay off and fire workers more easily and to avoid paying overtime in a more flexible work system.
In an attempt to reform labour laws that would limit the power of the country's unions and allow companies to introduce cost-cutting ideas such as the use of contract workers and part-time workers, zero-hours contracts, make it legal for companies to lay off workers, increase the working week, vary working hours, use scab labour during strikes legal and outlaw strike-pay, South Korea’s New Korea Party government set up the 30-member Labor-Management Relations Reform Committee with an aim of producing the New Labour Law. The LMRRC set up a series of committees and held public consultations but was unable to draft the new law. Therefore, on December 3, the NKP decided to set up their own secret committee to drive through the bill. In the early hours of Dec. 26, four buses filled with NKP members arrived in the capital and in the course of twenty minutes eleven bills were passed. In response, the same day the officially recognised Federation of Korean Trade Unions called its 1.2 million members out on strike on December 26, its first such call for a general strike since the union's founding in 1962.

1997 - Cornelius Castoriadis aka Pierre Chaulieu or Paul Cardan (b. 1922), social critic and editor of the journal 'Socialism or Barbarism' (1949-1967), dies. [see: Mar. 11]

2010 - Ramón Cambra aka 'Mona' (b. 1917), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-militarist, printer and poet, dies. [see: Mar. 28]
[B] 1821 - Joseph Déjacque (d. 1864), early French anarcho-communist poet and writer, born. The first recorded person to employ the term libertarian (libertaire) for himself in a political sense, in a letter written in May 1857 criticizing Pierre-Joseph Proudhon for his sexist views on women, his support of individual ownership of the product of labour, and of a market economy, saying: "it is not the product of his or her labour that the worker has a right to, but to the satisfaction of his or her needs, whatever may be their nature."
Arrested and imprisoned for a time for socialist agitation during the revolutionary upheavals in France in 1848, he was released but rearrested in 1851, and sentenced to two years of prison (plus a fine of 2000 francs) for his collection of poems 'Les Lazaréennes, Fables et Poésies Sociales'. He fled to Jersey, by way of Brussels and London, around the time of the December 2, 1851 coup d'état, publishing 'La Question Révolutionnaire' (1854), an exposition of anarchism. Moving the the States in 1854, he he wrote his famous anarchist utopia 'L'Humanisphère, Utopie Anarchique', but failed to find a publisher. However he serialised his book in his periodical 'Le Libertaire: Journal du Mouvement Social'. Published in 27 issues from June 9, 1858 to February 4, 1861, 'Le Libertaire' was the first anarcho-communist journal published in America and the first to use the term "libertarian".

[A] 1831 - 60,000 slaves mutiny in Jamaica. [source?]

1843 - Rebecca Riots: John Jones, David Davies and 39 of their followers were tried at Carmarthen Assizes for an attack on Hendy Toll house on September 23, 1843. John Jones was sentence to Transportation for life, David Davies to 20 years transportation. Both laughed as they left the dock but very shortly afterward they both confessed and informed on others.

1912 - Conroy Maddox (d. 2005), English Surrealist painter, collagist, writer, lecturer and anarchist sympathiser, born. He discovered Surrealism in 1935 and dived into the mileau head first, visiting the International Surrealist Exhibition in London in 1936, spending the summer of 1937 in Paris, where he took art classes, and getting involved in the British surrealsi scene. Passionately anti-war and anti-clericial, both views he gained from his father, he escaped military duties during WWII through his 'reserved' occupation as a draughtsman of aircraft parts for a Birmingham design firm. At the height of the war, several of his collages were seized by the special branch during a raid on the home of Simon Watson Taylor (they were looking for John Olday), on suspicion of being coded messages to the enemy or anarchist propaganda. Whilst not politically active, he did contribute to the various London and Birmingham Surrealist groups' interventions (e.g. support for Cohn-Bendit in 1968) and contibuted alongside George Melly to issue number 3 of 'The Raven' anarchist quarterly.
When he died he had been the last surviving Surrealist painter from the original pre-war British avant-garde.

[F] 1919 - On the initiative of Rudolf Rocker, the founding Congress of the Freie Arbeiter Union Deutschland (Free Union of German Workers), is held in Berlin, from the 27th-30th.

1920 - Husinska Buna [Husino Rebellion]: A troop of 19 armed gendarmes and police officers are sent to Husino, which was then regarded as general headquarter of the strike movement, and from Lipnica to take striking foreign workers to the station in Kreko from where they were intended to be deported. They arrive late that night and their actions, including an attack on two women, provoke and armed response from the strikers. A gendarme is wounded and dies of his wounds the following day. The authorities respond by sending in military reinforcements, who besieged the villages where the strikers offered resistance and brutally surpress the strike. [see: Dec. 21]

[E] 1925 - Anna Kuliscioff or Kulischov, Kulisciov (Анна Кулишёва) (Anna Moiseyeva Rosenstein [Анна Моисеевна Розенштейн]; b. 1857), Russian Jewish revolutionary, prominent feminist, Bakunin-influenced anarchist, and eventually a Marxist socialist militant in Italy, dies. Her funeral procession was attacked by fascists enroute to the Cimitero Monumentale in Milan. [see: Jan. 9]

1927 - Stalin's faction wins All-Union Congress in USSR and Trotsky is expelled.

[C] 1929 - Stalin orders the "liquidation of the kulaks as a class", ostensibly as an effort to spread socialism to the countryside. Following the announcement, more than 1.8 million peasants were deported in 1930-31 and the policy ended up causing the death of at least 14.5 million peasants in the period 1930-37.

1936 - The Confederación de Trabajadores de Chile is founded by the anarcho-syndicalist Confederación General de Trabajadores (CGT, anarcosindicalista), the communist Federación Obrera de Chile and the socialist Confederación Nacional de Sindicatos (CNS socialista) during the unification congress held from December 25 to 27 in Santiago. The Congreso de Unidad Sindical had been called by the Frente de Unidad Sindical, which the organisations had formed in the wake of the violent repression perpetrated by the Arturo Alessandri government against the 1934 national railway strike. At that same event, it was decided to support the formation of an anti-fascist Frente Popular (Popular Front).

1941 - Clara Lida (Clara Eugenia Lida), Argentinan writer, professor and historian of the anarchist and social movement in the 19th century, and Spanish emigration and Republican exile, born.

1943 - President Franklin Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9412. In a statement Roosevelt claims: "Railroad strikes by three Brotherhoods have been ordered for next Thursday, the Government will expect every railroad man to continue at his post of duty. The major military offensives now planned must not be delayed by the interruption of vital transportation facilities. If any employees of the railroads now strike, they will be striking against the Government of the United States."

1944 - Dekemvrianá [Δεκεμβριανά / December Events]: British forces renew their attacks on already weakened ELAS military forces.

[D] 1946 - With high postwar unemployment precipitating waves of protests all across Italy, the situation in especially dramatic in the south, with the population demanding work and bread, and poverty forcing the crowds into the streets. In clashes in Bari following one such demonstration demanding work and bread, police open fire, killing a college student, Domenico Liaci, and an unnamed worker. Another 25 demonstrators are injured along with 6 cops.

1958 - Following a meeting of the Federación Libertaria Argentina, three old friends and comrades of international anarchism, the Germnan Augustin Souchy (1892-1984), the Italian Luce Fabbri (1908-2000) and the Spaniard Diego Abad de Santillán (1897-1983), meet to exchange memories of the Spanish Revolution and their clandestine activities during the repression that followed it. [photo]

1992 - Kay Boyle (b. 1902), American writer, novelist, poet, educator, political activist and anarchist fellow traveller, dies. [see: Feb. 19]

1999 - Pierre Clémenti (b. 1942), French actor, director and libertarian, dies. [see: Sep. 28]

2003 - Manuel Millán Calvo (b. 1925), Aragonese libertarian anti-Francoist guerrilla member of the Agrupación Guerrillera de Levante (AGL), dies. [see: Sep. 11]

2009 - Ashura Protests in Iran: Protests against the outcome of the June 2009 Iranian presidential election, which demonstrators claim was rigged, are fired on by the Iranian Government security forces in Tehran. An unknown number of people die on the Shi'a holy day of Ashura, a day "symbolically about justice" and during which any kind of violence is forbidden. State controlled media indicated on December 28 that 15 had died, including ten "well-known anti-revolutionary terrorists", so the numbers are likely to be much higher than that. Similar protests took place in other Iranian cities including Isfahan, Najafabad, Shiraz, Mashhad, Arak, Tabriz, Babol, Ardabil and Orumieh. Four people were reportedly killed in Tabriz, in north western Iran on 27 December, and one in Shiraz in the south of Iran.
1780 - The native and mestizo peasants forces of Túpac Amaru II lay seige to Cuzco, the former capital of the Inca empire, in an attempt to overthrow the Spanish rulers. However, by opting for a siege as opposed to an attack allowed the Spanish to send reinforcements to the city. After an indecisive skirmish on January 3, 1781, the Hispanics led a more concerted attack five days later that broke the siege following a two day battle (January 8 - 10, 1781) on the heights around Cuzco.

[D1] 1831 - Baptist preacher Samuel Sharpe leads a slave revolt, known as the Christmas Rebellion or the Baptist War, in Jamaica. 31 years old Sharpe had organised the rebellion in the mistaken belief that freedom had already been granted by the British Parliament. The rebellion was timed to have maximum impact, as Sharpe knew that if the ripe cane was not cut it would be ruined. Sharpe suggested that the enslaved people did not go back to work after their three day Christmas holiday. He hoped the owners would pay the slaves to cut the cane, so that it would not spoil. Sharpe told his followers that they should only fight physically for their freedom, if the planters did not accede to their demands.
The Kensington Estate Great House was set alight as a signal that the rebellion had begun. Other fires broke out and it soon became clear that the Sam Sharpe’s hope for peaceful resistance was impossible. The rebellion lasted for 8 days and spread throughout the entire island, mobilising as many as 60,000 of Jamaica's 300,000 enslaved population, and resulted in the death of around 186 slaves and 14 white overseers or planters. Retribution for the resistance was swift and merciless. Over 500 slaves were convicted and many were executed, most were hanged and their heads were cut off and placed around their plantations. Those who escaped the death penalty were treated brutally and many did not survive. Sam Sharpe was named as the key figure behind the resistance and he was captured and hanged on May 23, 1832 in Market Square, Montego Bay, now known as Sam Sharpe Square. His final words before being executed were: "I would rather die upon yonder gallows than live in slavery." Sharpe’s owners were paid the princely sum of £16.00 for their "loss of property".

1856 - [N.S. Jan. 9, 1857] Anna Kuliscioff or Kulischov, Kulisciov (Анна Кулишёва) (Anna Moiseyeva Rosenstein [Анна Моисеевна Розенштейн]; d. 1925), Russian Jewish revolutionary, prominent feminist, Bakunin-influenced anarchist, and eventually a Marxist socialist militant in Italy, born.

[A] 1863 - In Russia, 'nihilists' assassinate Georgy Sudeykin, Chief of the Okhrana (political police) in revenge for a series on mass arrests.

1884 - Maurice Bonneff (d. 1914), French proletarian writer, autodidact and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. He and his brother Léon met the old Communard Gustave Lefrançais and the libertarian novelist Lucien Descaves shortly after their family moved to Paris in 1900. They quickly resolved to write, both together and individually, about the conditions in which the Parisian working class lived.
He wrote 'Didier, homme du peuple' (Didier, man of the people; 1914); together with the studies jointly authored with Léon: 'Les Métiers qui tuent, enquête auprès des syndicats ouvriers sur les maladies professionnelles' (The trades that kill, survey for labor unions on occupational diseases; 1906); 'La Vie Tragique des Travailleurs: enquêtes sur la condition économique et morale des ouvriers et ouvrières d'industrie' (The tragic life of workers: investigations into the economic condition and morale of workers and industrial workers; 1908); 'La Classe Ouvrière: les Boulangers, les Employés de Magasin, les Terrassiers, les Travailleurs du Restaurant, les Cheminots, les Pêcheurs Bretons, les Postiers, les Compagnons du Bâtiment, les Blessés' (The working class: bakers, store employees, navvies, restaurant workers, railway workers, Breton fishermen, postal workers, building workers, the injured; 1910); 'Marchands de Folie: Cabaret des Halles et des Faubourgs - Cabaret-Tâcheron - Cabaret-Cantinier - Cabaret-Placeur - Cabaret de Luxe - L'Estaminet des Mineurs - Au pays du "Petit Sou" : sur les quais de Rouen - Au pays de l'Absinthe - De l'Infirmerie spéciale du Dépôt à la Maison de fous' ( Merchants of Madness; 1913). - which describes the employees in pubs, cabarets, on the banks of Rouen, the effects of absinthe (which will be banned in 1917) on the workers.

1893 - Victor Considerant (b. 1808), French socialist thinker who sought to develop and implement the theses of Fourier, in particular on the idea of the phalanstery, dies. [see: Oct. 12]

1894 - Kurt Schulze (d. 1942), German anti-fascist resistance fighter who worked for the Soviet secret service as a member of the resistance network Rote Kapelle, born. A radio operator in the German Imperial Navy during WWI, he joined the Kommunistischen Partei Deutschlands in 1920. At the beginning of 1929 he was trained in the USSR as a radio operator and, following a series of jobs, ended up working as a driver with Deutsche Post. As a radio operator for the Soviet military intelligence (GRU) he was part of Ilse Stöbe's, helped instruct Hans Coppi in wireless technology and also helped the 'Schulze-Boysen/Harnack circle' (Schulze-Boysen/Harnack-Kreis) transmit information to Moscow. On September 16, 1942, Kurt Schulze was arrested at work by the Gestapo and interned in Spandau. On December 19, 1942, he was convicted by the Reich Court Martial of "high treason and collaboration with enemies and spies" and sentenced to death. On December 22, he was executed in Plötzensee prison.

1899 - [O.S. Dec. 16] Tatiana Nikolayevna Lapshina (Татьяна Николаевна Ланшина; d. 1938), Polish anarchist, whose OGPU / NKVD files show that she was "of the nobility" and had attended "higher education", born in Lodz.
She joined the Moscow anarchist underground in 1929 and was arrested later that year on November 5 for "belonging to the anarchist underground circles" [whilst being "unemployed"], she was sentenced on December 23, 1929, to 3 years political isolation, served in Verkhneuralsk. Paroled on August 18, 1931, she was then exiled to Kazakhstan for 3 years. In November 1934, she was arrested by the Crimean OGPU in Simferopol [still "unemployed"] and charged under Art. 58-10, 11 RSFSR Criminal Code: membership of an anarchist group preparing the overthrow of the Soviet regime. On May 9, 1935, she was condemned by a NKVD court to 3 years in a labour camp. Arrested for a fourth time on September 26, 1937, and held in Minusinsk prison. Charged with counter-revolutionary activities, she was sentenced to death on April 11, 1938, by a NKVD tribual and shot on May 4, 1938 in Minusinsk.
Her father was convicted of counter-revolutionary activities in 1927, and her husband S.S. Tuzhilkin (C.C. Тужилкин) was convicted of counter-revolutionary activity on three occasions.

1903 - Celestino Alvarado Quirós (d. 1936), Andalusian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, secretary of the Sindicat del Metall of the CNT, member of the Germinal group of the FAI and Freemason, born. He was arrested during the strike of May 1932 and, in April 1935, he was also arrested in a group of students and accused of "stealing weapons". On 18 August 1936, he and his brother Narciso José were betrayed to the Falangists whilst attempting to escape from the port of Puntales by ship. They were arrested and taken to the Casino Gadità, headquarters of the fascists. The following day his corpse is seen in a mass grave on the beach and probably ended up being buried in a mass grave in the cemetery of San Jose. His brother and fellow anarcho-syndicalist Narciso José Alvarado Quirós was imprisoned in the Cárcel Real in Cádiz and later in Miraflores prison. Twenty days after his arrest, he disappeared and was never heard of again.

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 15] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: The Moscow Soviet holds its last meeting as its Presnensky district (Пре́сненский райо́н) stronghold comes under artillery fire following the arrival from St. Petersburg of the Semyonovsky Life-Guards Regiment (Семёновский лейб-гвардии полк) overnight via the Nikolaevski station, which had remained in government hands. With the government fearing a mutiny if the Moscow garrison are used to support the Cossack and dragoon units already involved in the fight against the insurgent forces, the regiment and its artillery now becomes key to the final defeat of the uprising. The regiment's artillery is deployed to drive insurgent forces from their footholds in the Bronnaya (Бро́нная) and Arbat (Арба́т) district. Fighting also breaks out around the Schmidt furniture factory in Presnya (Пре́сня), currently opperating as an arsenal, a printing house and a hospital for the remaining insurgents and as a mortuary for their dead.
Police also allegedly find evidence of the funding of groups involved in the uprising by a number of entrepreneurs such as Savva Morozov (Савва Морозов) and Nicholas Schmidt (Николай Шмит), whose furniture factory was one of the headquarters of the rebellion and in which Schmidt and his two sisters were active throughout the December uprising.
Prime Minister Sergei Witte (Серге́й Ви́тте) informs the Tsar that the government will continue its hard-line policy against unrest, with the army and tsarist police ordered to crackdown on suspected terrorists, protesters and the radical press, a policy that they carry out over the following four days with enthusiasm and efficiency in a series of mass arrests and summary executions as they sweep through the workers settlements and factories in a reign of terror.

1907 - Mécislas Golberg (or Goldberg) (b. 1869), Polish anarchist thinker and prolific writer (in French), dies of TB. [see: Oct. 21]

1908 - The Irish Executive of the National Union of Dock Labourers holds a meeting in the Trades Hall in Capel Street, Dublin. Attended by delegates from Belfast, Cork, Dublin, Dundalk and Waterford, the meeting had been called by the popular but now-suspended NUDL organiser James Larkin for the purpose of forming an 'Irish union'. On January 4, 1909, the Irish Transport and General Workers Union was formally launched and registered as a trade union. [see: Nov. 28]

1910 - Revolución Mexicana: The Praxedis Guerrero group takes the town of Casas Grandes, Chihuahua.

1912 - 'Los Angeles Times' Bombing: Thirty-eight union officials are found guilty on charges related to the 'Los Angeles Times' and other bombings, namely illegal transportation of explosives across state lines. Among the convicted was Frank Ryan, President of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers. [see: Oct. 1]

1912 - The Federación Obrera Regional del Perú (Regional Workers' Federation of Peru) holds its third Assembly and draws up a list of demands to accompany that of the eight-hour day adopted early that month on December 15.

[C] 1914 - Thomas William Gould (d. 2001), English Naval officer who won a Victoria Cross during WWII and co-founded of the anti-fascist 43 Group in 1946, born.

1916 - Founding congress in Oslo of the anarcho-syndicalist Norsk Syndikalistisk Forbund (Norwegian Syndicalist League), the Norwegian section of the AIT. Many of its early members were Swedes forced to move to Noway after being blacklisted in the wake of the 1909 Storstrejken or Great Strike. [see: Oct. 29]

1917 - [N.S. Jan. 10, 1918] Olga Spiridonovna Lyubatovich (Ольга Спиридоновна Любатович) aka 'Shaeek' (Акула), Olga Doroshenko (Ольга Дорошенко), (Maria Svyatskaya) Мария Святская (b. 1853), Russian anarchist-influenced revolutionary, narodnitsa and member of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya (Земля и воля / People's Will), dies. [see: Jun. 30]

[E] 1918 - Irish suffragette and Sinn Féin member Countess Constance Markievicz (1868-1927) becomes the first woman to be elected MP to the British House of Commons, elected for the constituency of Dublin St Patrick's while detained in Holloway prison for her alleged participation in a plot against the British government. [sse: Feb. 4]
[NB: The actual date of the poll was December 14, 1918, but the result was not announced until two weeks later.]

1920 - Husinska Buna [Husino Rebellion]: Following the armed resistance of the miners the previous day, two battalions of the army as well as heavy artillery and 50 gendarmes dispatched that same evening, beseiging the striking mine villages and using exemplorary force to put down the strike. Seven workers are killed and dozens of miners and peasants wounded. Many miner's wives are raped. Around four-hundred people taking part in sollidaity actions with the miners are arrested. The uprising was put down, provoking a general revolt and protest actions by workers across the country and abroad.
A large trial was held in Tuzla in January and February 1922. The indictment charged 350 miners and their families, as did the original 19 strikers, eleven of whom received long prison terms. Juro Kerošević, who was charged with the murder of a gendarme, and 31 other miners were sentenced to death by hanging, and a further 10 miners received sentences of one to 15 months in prison. Kerošević's trial conducted in the country and abroad solidarity actions, and the authorities were forced to replace his death sentence to 20 years in prison.
The rebellion has been called one of the most important historical events in the former Yugoslavia and has remained an example of class struggle against injustice and oppression and an important facet of Tuzla’s anti-authoritarian legacy. [see: Dec. 21]

1920 - The U.S. resume the deportation of communists and suspected communists suspended during WWI.

1920 - Pepita Estruch (d. 2011), Spanish militant anarcho-feminist fought in the French WWII anti-Nazi resistance, participant in the reformed Comité de Mujeres Libres in París in the '60s, born.

1931 - Guy Debord (d. 1994), French Marxist theorist, writer, filmmaker, member of the Letterist International and founding member of the Situationist International, born.

1933 - During the fourth session of the All-Union Central executive Committee of the Soviets, the Bolsheviks make their first guarded hints at the scale of the famine in the Soviet Union, with a representative making references to the "break" in Ukraine's agricultural economy.

1934 - Stalin uses the assassination of an aide as an opportunity to execute more than one hundred officials, beginning a series of purges that eliminated most of the old Bolsheviks.

1936 - Benito Mussolini dispatches Italian airforce planes to Spain to support his fellow fascist Francisco Franco’s forces.

1941 - Operation Arthropoid: The plan to assassinate Reinhard Heydrich begins with the parachuting of Jozef Gabčík and Jan Kubiš, along with seven soldiers from Czechoslovakia’s army-in-exile (plus two other group named Silver A and Silver who had different missions), into Czechoslovakia.

1945 - Theodore Herman Albert Dreiser (b. 1871), American novelist, poet and journalist of the naturalist school, dies. [see: Aug. 27]

1945 - Daniel Reeves Carter, American free jazz saxophone, flute, clarinet and trumpet player and anarchist, born. Best known for his work alongside bassist William Parker and pianist Matthew Shipp, but has played with a plethora of other musicians including Sun Ra, Billy Bang, Medeski Martin & Wood, Sam Rivers, Sunny Murray, Hamiet Bluiett, Cecil Taylor, Gunther Hampel, Sam Rivers, Sunny Murray, Hamiet Bluiett, David S. Ware, Butch Morris, Other Dimensions In Music, The Celestrial Communication Orchestra, Talibam!, the Merce Cunningham dancers, string trios, punk bands and many others.

1946 - The French declare martial law in Vietnam as a full-scale war appears inevitable.

1956 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: On the orders of Larbi Ben Me Hidi aka 'El Hakim', responsible for armed action in Algiers, FLN guérilla leader Ali La Pointe assassinates the Mayor of Boufarik and President of the Federation of Mayors of Algeria, Amédée Froger outside his house on Rue Michelet.

1960 - Grève Générale de l'Hiver [Winter General Strike] / Grève du Siècle [Strike of the Century]: The summit of the strike, with 320,000 strikers recorded that day according to analysts of the time. In Ghent, a demonstration by more than 20,000 workers takes place in the city centre. At the end when the crowds were dispersing, violent clashes occur between strikers and police forces, whose orders are stop any provocation. Tear gas, fights, several people are injured and transported to the hospital. A police charge results in two strikers being serious injured. Protesters are driven back by the gendarmes into a union building, who then force their wayinto it, and a general brawl broke out in the form of knives, chains, glasses, chairs and tables.

1962 - The South African government outlaws 36 organisations and any group which "attacks, criticizes, or discusses any...policy of government" under the Suppression of Communism Act.

1968 - Israel attacks the Beirut International Airport, destroying 13 civilian planes in retailation to an attack on an Israeli airliner in Athens by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP).

1972 - In Brooklyn, New York the owner of a bar is kidnapped by the Black Liberation Army during the course of a robbery, and held for $20,000
ransom. In October 1977, a judge dismissed murder and robbery charges against Asata Shakur in connection with the death of Richard Nelson during the robbery, ruling that the state had delayed too long in bringing her to trial.

[D2] 1973 - Four Black Liberation Army sympathisers are arrested exiting an open manhole near the Manhattan House of Detention for Men in what police claim was a attempt to free fellow BLA members.

1981 - The RAF Molesworth peace camp is set up outside the planned cruise missile base.

1997 - Inmates of the prison in Sorocaba took over and held over 600 hostages. They later dropped escape demands and agreed to be transported to less crowded prisons.

2005 - Rebellious inmates at a prison in Brazil's remote Amazon jungle ended a four-day uprising and released more than 200 hostages after authorities met their principal demand by returning one of their leaders from another prison.

2005 - Chilean police take fingerprints and mugs shots of Gen. Augusto Pinochet following his indictment for the killing and disappearance of 9 dissidents during his dictatorship.

[B] 2008 - Adrian Mitchell (b. 1932), English poet, novelist, playwright, librettist, anti-authoritarian social-anarchist and anti-war activist, dies. [see: Oct. 24]
"My brain socialist
My heart anarchist
My eyes pacifist
My blood revolutionary"

- 'Loose Leaf Poem' [in 'Ride the Nightmare' (1971)]
1846 - Maurice Rollinat (d. 1903), French poet, habitué of Le Chat Noir and member of Les Hydropathes, born. Although not an an anarchist, he did associate with anarchists, especially at Le Chat Noir and his poems appeared in 'La Revue Anarchiste'.

1855 - The 'Exposición presentada por la clase obrera a las Cortes Constituyentes' (Exposition presented by the working class to the Constituent Cortes), written by the prominent Catalan libertarian socialist Francesc Pi i Margall and now with 33,000 worker's signatures attached is handed to a parliamentary commission chaired by Pascual Madoz in a ceremony attended by two representatives of the workers from Catalonia, one from Malaga and one from Madrid, together with the director of the newspaper 'El Eco de la Clase Obrera', who had launched the initiative.

1872 - Camille Mauclair (pseudonym of Séverin Faust; d. 1945), French Symbolist poet, novelist, biographer, travel writer, art critic and anarchist, born. Prolific author and critic of the avant-guard arts, whose work appeared in numerous mainstream and anarchist publications including: 'L'En Dehors', 'La Revue Blanche', 'Le Mercure de France', 'Les Essais d'Art Libre', 'Les Entretiens Politiques et Littéraires', 'La Société Nouvelle', 'L'Aurore', 'La Dépêche de Toulouse', etc. He was also an anti-Semite and anti-Dreyfusard, becoming a nationalist during the thirties and an active supporter of the Vichy government. His best known work is 'Le Soleil des Mort' (1898), a roman à clef featuring fictionalised portraits of the literary and anarchist fin de siècle.
"L'exécution de Vaillant m'inclina à l'anarchisme." (The execution of Vaillant [which he attended] tilted me towards anarchism.)

[A/D2] 1890 - The U.S. Army’s 7th Cavalry surrounded a band of Ghost Dancers under Spotted Elk (Uŋpȟáŋ Glešká), latter known as Big Foot, a Lakota Sioux chief, near Wounded Knee Creek (Čhaŋkpé Ópi Wakpála) on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, in the U.S. state of South Dakota, demanding that they surrender their weapons. As that was happening, a fight broke out between a Native American and a U.S. soldier and a shot was fired, although it’s unclear from which side (there are a number of stories including that it was a deaf man, Black Coyote, who fired not understanding the order and not wanting to give up the rifle he had paid for; or that a young warrior or group of warriors refused to give up their weapons). A brutal massacre followed, in which it’s estimated 150 of the Lakota Sioux were killed (some historians put this number at twice as high), nearly half of them women and children. The cavalry lost 25 men. The conflict at Wounded Knee was originally referred to as a battle, but in reality it was a tragic and avoidable massacre. Surrounded by heavily armed troops, it’s unlikely that Big Foot’s band would have intentionally started a fight. Some historians speculate that the soldiers of the 7th Cavalry were deliberately taking revenge for the regiment’s defeat at Little Bighorn in 1876. Whatever the motives, the massacre ended the Ghost Dance movement and was the last major confrontation in America’s deadly war against the Plains Indians.

[BB] 1896 - David Alfaro Siqueiros (born José de Jesús Alfaro Siqueiros; d. 1974), Mexican social realist painter, muralist, trades union organiser and one-time anarchist, born. Exposed to anarcho-syndicalist writings at an early age, he was also involved in the Mexican revolution, bizarrely fighting for Venustiano Carranza’s Constitutional Army against both the Huerta government and the political factions of Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata. In 1919 he travelled to Paris and reacquainted himself with Diego Rivera, who introduced to Georges Braque and other Cubists. He also discovered and was strongly influenced by Cezanne. Returning to Mexico in 1922, he began his first mural, The Elements (1922), painted in a stairway of the National Preparatory School. The following year, having gravitated towards Marxism, he joined the recently-formed Mexican Communist Party (PCM) and gathered a group of artists to form the Sindicato de Trabajadores Técnicos, Pintores y Escultores (Syndicate of Revolutionary Mexican Painters, Sculptors and Engravers), of which he was elected secretary general. In 1924, they began to publish the newspaper 'El Machete', with a stated goal of safeguarding the revolution and protecting the interests of the working class. Continuing his union activities, he quickly became persona non grata with the government, and was harassed and detained several times by the police. In 1928, he visited the Soviet Union to attend the Congress of Red Trade Unions. Around this time, he met Uruguayan writer and fellow Communist Blanca Luz Blum, who loyalty was questioned by the PCM, leading to Siqueiros being expelled from the Party.
In 1930, he was arrested while participating in a May Day parade and thrown into prison, without trial or hearing of any sort. After several months in limbo, he was allowed to go free, on condition that he would leave Mexico City and settle in the town of Taxco, without the right to travel. In 1932, he had his first one-man exhibition in Mexico City, which included such politically-charged paintings as 'Mine Accident', 'Peasant Mother', 'Proletarian Mother' and 'Portrait of a Dead Child'. That year he secured a six-month visa to L.A. but the U.S. authorities refused to extend his stay. Expelled from America, he traveled to Montevideo in February of 1933, and by the end of May in that same year he had established himself in Buenos Aires only to be expelled that December.
In January 1936, Siqueiros was sent as a delegate to the American Artists' Congress in NYC, where he exhibited two works, 'The Birth of Fascism' (1936) and 'Stop the War' (1936), painted using pyroxylin paint and a spray gun, using techniques which still today influences grafitti artists.
He left America and arrived in Valencia in January 1937, six months after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War and enlisted in the Fifth Regiment, a part of the International Brigades. Restored to his Mexican Civil War rank of Captain, he passed up the ranks and commanded the Spanish anarchists 82nd Brigade amongst others. Now a fuly fledged Stalinist, whilst in Spain he had worked closely with members of the Comintern and even petitioned President Cardenas and the Mexican government to expel Trotsky, to whom they had granted asylum. Back in Mexico, he continued to try and get Trotsky expelled, to no avail. So he took matters into his own hands, when he organised 25 men with Comitern finances to assassinate Trotsky. On the night of May 23-24th, 1940, Siqueiros and his men overpowered the police guard posted around the exterior of Trotsky's house, they gained access to the building via a traitor among Trotsky's bodyguards. Once inside, the would-be assassins opened indiscriminate fire with automatic firearms. In his bedroom, Trotsky and his wife Natalya hid behind their heavy bed as the house around them was riddled with bullets. Fearing being caught by police reinforcements, they fled. Some of Siqueiros' men were arrested and implicated hime, forcing him to flee via Ecuador and Peru to Chile.
'Del Porfirismo a la Revolución' (The Porphyria to the Revolution; 1957-1966) is by far one of Siqueiros' most iconic works and in it it included the images of Kropotkin (with his hands bound in front of him), Proudhon and Ricardo Flores Magon, all standing next to Marx with the good red book in his hand.

[B] 1898 - Elfie 'Elsa' Gidlow (d. 1986), British-born, Canadian-American feminist poet, freelance journalist, philosophical anarchist, lesbian and Taoist, born. Known as 'The Poet Warrior', she is the author of 'On A Grey Thread' (1923), possibly the first volume of openly lesbian love poetry published in North America. The author of thirteen books, she appeared as herself in the documentary film, 'Word Is Out: Stories of Some of Our Lives' (1977) and published her autobiography, 'Elsa, I Come With My Songs' (1986), a month before she died. Amongst her other works are 'California Valley with Girls' (1932); 'From Alba Hill' (1933); 'Bridge Builders' (1938); 'Wild Swan Singing' (1954); 'Letters from Limbo' (1956); 'Moods of Eros' (1970); 'Makings for Meditation: Parapoems Reverent and Irreverent' (1973); 'Wise Man's Gold' (1974); 'Ask No Man Pardon: The Philosophic Significance of Being Lesbian' (1975); 'Shattering the Mirror' (1976); 'Sapphic Songs: Seventeen to Seventy' (1976); 'Sapphic Songs: Eighteen to Eighty, the Love Poetry of Elsa Gidlow' (1982); and 'A Creed for Free Women' (n.d.).

'Chains Of Fires'

Each dawn, kneeling before my hearth,
Placing stick, crossing stick
On dry eucalyptus bark
Now the larger boughs, the log
(With thanks to the tree for its life)
Touching the match, waiting for creeping flame.
I know myself linked by chains of fire
To every woman who has kept a hearth

In the resinous smoke
I smell hut and castle and cave,
Mansion and hovel.
See in the shifting flame my mother
And grandmothers out over the world
Time through, back to the Paleolithic
In rock shelters where flint struck first sparks
(Sparks aeons later alive on my hearth)
I see mothers , grandmothers back to beginnings,
Huddled beside holes in the earth
of igloo, tipi, cabin,
Guarding the magic no other being has learned,
Awed, reverent, before the sacred fire
Sharing live coals with the tribe.

For no one owns or can own fire,
it ]ends itself.
Every hearth-keeper has known this.
Hearth-less, lighting one candle in the dark
We know it today.
Fire lends itself,
Serving our life
Serving fire.

At Winter solstice, kindling new fire
With sparks of the old
From black coals of the old,
Seeing them glow again,
Shuddering with the mystery,
We know the terror of rebirth.


1904 - Jessie Bross Lloyd (Jessie Louisa Bross; b. 1844), US reformer, who was disinherited by her wealthy father, William Bross, owner of the 'Chicago Tribune', for her work on behalf of the Haymarket anarchists, dies. [see: Sep. 27]

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 16] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: Further military units arrive in Moscow, including the Life-Guards Horse-Grenadier Regiment (Лейб-гвардии Конно-Гренадерский полк), units of the 16th Ladoga Infantry Regiment (16-й пехотный Ладожский полк) and artillery and the Railway Battalion (Железнодорожный Батальон). The sections of the Semyonovsky Regiment that had been sent outside of Moscow to the workers' settlements and factories along the Moscow-Kazan Railway (Московско-Казанская железная дорога) line to the Golutvin (Голутвин) terminal. 150 workers are summilarily shot during the day, including the Socialist-Revolutionary revolutionary and train driver Aleksey Ukhtomsky (Алексей Ухтомский), who was head of the strike committee of railwaymen and one of the leaders fighting squads on the Kazan Railway.
Interior Minister Pyotr Durnovo (Пётр Дурновó) orders the mass dismissal of all "politically unreliable" local government employees.

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 16] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Interior Minister Pyotr Durnovo (Пётр Дурновó) orders the mass dismissal of all "politically unreliable" local government employees.

1906 - Thomas Cantwell (b. 1864), British militant anarchist active in the Socialist League, co-publisher of the 'The Commonweal' and manager of 'Freedom', dies. [see: Dec. 14]

1907 - Maurice-Henry (d. 1984), French poet, painter, filmmaker and cartoonist, born. Initially a member of Les Phrères Simplistes and involved with the anarchist-influenced Le Grand Jeu group, which operated in opposition to the André Breton-dominated Communist Party-supporting Paris Surrealist group, he later quit Le Grand Jeu for Breton's group in 1933. He also followed Breton's move towards anarchism after WWII.

[C2] 1907 - Émile Coulaudon aka Colonel Gaspard (d. 1977), French socialist, who was one of the principal leaders of the Résistance in Auvergne, born. Following the Battle of France, he was imprisoned at Gérardmer on June 22, 1940, and escaped on July 8. Soon after, with Jean Mazuel, he founded in Clermont-Ferrand and Brioude one of the first Resistance groups in Auvergne. Coulaudon then became head of Combat in Puy-de-Dôme November 1942 and, in April 1943, he went into hiding and created the Auvergne 1st Corps Franc. In spring 1944, Coulaudon became head of the Forces françaises de l'Intérieur in the Clermont region. After the war he was Socialist deputy mayor of Clermont-Ferrand and was the founding president of the Fédération des Mouvements Unis de Résistance et Maquis.

[C1/E] 1921 - Vladka Meed (Feigele Peltel; d. 2012), Polish member of the Jewish resistance, who famously smuggled dynamite into, and also helped children escape out of, the Warsaw Ghetto, born. Active in the Zukunft, the youth organisation of the Bund, the Jewish socialist-democratic party, which opposed to Zionism and advocated Yiddish language and culture and secular Jewish nationalism, she joined the Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Fighting Organisation) when it was formed after the great deportations of the summer of 1942. Because of her flawless Polish and red hair, Peltel could pass as a non-Jew. Adopting the name Vladka, a name she kept even after liberation, she began working as a courier and, together her future husband, Benjamin Meed, they helped organise the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, smuggling arms into the ghetto and helping children escape out of it. They married in 1945 and survived both the Holocaust and World War II. Vladka Meed's book 'On Both Sides of the Wall' was originally published in Yiddish in 1948 with a first hand account of her wartime experiences. The book was translated into English in 1972 (with a foreword by Elie Wiesel), and later into German, Polish and Japanese.

1937 - Massive counterattack at Teruel by Fascist troops supported by the Condor legion.

1937 - The Fascist authorities order the conversion of the resort and spa at Saturrarán beach in the Ondárroa bay to be converted into the notorious women's prison, where more than 4,000 female republican, socialist, communist and anarchist prisoners aged beween 16 and 80 spent time. The prison had a capacity of 700 but its population never dropped 1,500 inmates. Offical figure claim 116 women and 56 children died in the prison between 1938 and 1946 but many other deaths were not recorded in the civil registers. Hundreds of children were also forcibly removed and given up for adoption by Francoist families. In addition to the soldiers and guardias civiles, nuns from the Orden de la Merced (Order of Mercy) were also involved in running the prison, and many were more brutal than the guards.

1939 - Madeleine Pelletier (b. 1874), French doctor, intellectual, lesbian, anthropologist, psychiatrist, pacifist and militant feminist, one-time socialist and then a communist, latterly an anarchist, dies. Founded the review 'La Suffragiste' and collaborated on other néo-Malthusian and libertarian newspapers.

[F] 1948 - The Hind Mazdoor Sabha (Workers Assembly of India), the socialist trade union centre, is formed as an alternative to the communist All India Trade Union Congress and the Indian nationalist Indian National Trade Union Congress.

1956 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: Following yesterday's assasination of Amédée Froger, the Mayor of Boufarik, a bomb explodes in the cemetery where Froger is to be buried. Enraged European civilians carriy out a series of random revenge attacks (ratonnade), killing four Muslims and injuring 50.

1968 - Due to the ongoing protests and occupations by Tokyo University medical students, the university administration cancels the 1969 entrance examinations.

1970 - October Crisis [Canada]: Minister of Justice Jérôme Choquette announces that under the War Measures Act Regulation, there have been 3,068 seizures and 453 persons arrested, of whom 403 were released in connection with the search for members of the Front de Libération du Québec. Of those arrested 139 were students, 45 workers, 42 unemployed persons, 25 teachers and professors, 17 journalists, 15 office workers, and 14 technicians and others.

1975 - A bomb explodes at 18:33 in the main terminal of New York's LaGuardia Airport, killing 11 and seriously injuring 74. The identity of the bombers was never ascertained, though Croatian nationalists were suspected following the Grand Central Terminal bombing on September 10, 1976.

1975 - A bomb set off by the Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional (Armed Forces of National Liberation) paramilitaries in East Harlem, New York, permanently disables a police officer while causing him to lose an eye.

1977 - Alternative date for the death of Virginia Tabarroni aka 'Danda' (1888-1977), Italian typographer and anarchist, who was the aunt of Anteo Zamboni, the 15-year-old who attempted to assassinate Mussolini in Bologna on October 31, 1926. [see: Dec. 12]

1980 - Nadezhda Mandelstam [Наде́жда Мандельшта́м] (Nadezhda Yakovlevna Khazina [Наде́жда Я́ковлевна Ха́зина];d. 1980), Russian teacher, linguist, writer and memoirist, dies of long-running heart problems. [see: Oct. 30]

1992 - Ramona Viver Tudó (b. ca. 1908), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, who was widowed in the Civil War – her partnner was shot on the Teruel front whilst fighting with the Columna Roja i Negra – and was later involved in the anti-Franco underground, dies in Toulouse.

[D1] 1996 - The Guatemalan government and leaders of the leftist Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca (Guatemalan National Revolutionary Union) sign a peace accord in Guatemala City, ending a civil war that had lasted 36 years.

2001 - Giovanni Marini (b. 1942), Italian working class poet, writer and anarchist, dies. Caught up in Italy's Strategy of Tension, he was framed for the murder of a fascist in 1974.

2002 - Esteban Navarrete Berbel (b. 1916), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Aug. 19]
[C2] 1879 - Michele Centrone (d. 1936), Italian carpenter, anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. He was prosecuted in Italy for his anarchist activities around 1898 and emigrated to the United States in 1905. In San Francisco, he worked at 'La Protesta Umana', directed by Enrico Travaglio, and collaborating on the newspaper 'Cronaca Sovversiva', published by Luigi Galleani. An Individualist, he was a member of Nihil and manager of its paper 'Nihil' (San Francisco, 9 issues January 4 to September 6, 1909). He also held positions in the 'Latin Union' of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America and was also affiliated with the Industrial Workers of the World. Arrested a number of times for "disturbing the peace", and for "foreign anarchist propaganda", he spent time in prison and broke bail, fleeing to Mexico under the name of Francesco Paglia. Arrested again in April 1920, along with Luigi and Giuseppe Ciancabilla Galleani, was expelled from the U.S. and deported to Italy. Wanted in Italy, he went to Canada and tried to return to the United States; arrested crossing the border, he was deported in 1924 to Europe and settled in France, where he was expelled in December 1928. Spending time in Belgium, Switzerland and Luxembourg, he was active in the Comitè d'Ajuda per les Víctimes Polítiques. In 1936, he was back living in Paris and, in July of that year, he was in the first group of Italian anarchists (including Camillo Berneri, Mario Girotti, Giuseppe Bifolchi, Vincenzo Perrone, Ernesto Bonomini, Enzo Fantozzi, etc.) who went to Catalonia to fight the fascist uprising. He enlisted in the Italian section of the Ascaso Column, led by Carlo Roselli and Mario Angeloni, and fought on the Aragon front. On August 28, 1936, he was one of the first Italians (along with Mario Angeloni, Fosco Falaschi and Vicenzo Perrone) to die in the fighting in the Battle of Monte Pelado.

[D1] 1879 - Pastry cook Francisco Otero González fires 2 shots at Spain's Alfonso XII and Maria Cristina of Hapsburg-Lorraine, missing. He was sentenced to death and garroted on April 14, 1880.

[E1] 1880 - Madeleine ffrench-Mullen (d. 1944), Irish revolutionary, labour activist and radical feminist, who took part in the Easter Rising in Dublin in 1916 and was a member of the radical nationalist women's organisation Inghinidhe na hÉireann (Daughters of Ireland), as well as a prominent member of the Dublin lesbian network of the period, born.

[E2] 1886 - [O.S. Dec. 18] Olga Aleksandrovna Dilevskaya (О́льга Алекса́ндровна Диле́вская; d. 1919), Russian writer, teacher, Bolshevik and member of the military organisation of the Moscow Committee of the RSDLP (b), born.

[CC] 1887 - Robert Siewert (d. 1973), German communist, anti-Stalinist and member of the anti-Nazi Resistance, born. During WWI, he worked illegally for the Spartacist League whilst serveing as a soldier on the Eastern Front. In 1918, he was a member of the Soldiers' Council of the 10th Army and, after that, he became a member of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD). However, because of his opposition to the Stalinisation of the party, he was expelled in 1929. Arrested on April 8, 1935, the Nazis charged him with high treason and, in December 1935, he was sentenced at the Volksgerichtshof to three years at hard labour in a Zuchthaus (prison). Then in September 1938, instead of being released, he was sent to Buchenwald concentration camp. There he became involved in the leadership of the majority KPD underground resistance at the camp, standing up for Jewish prisoners and for the imprisoned Polish and Jewish children, saving many lives including that of the author and cameraman Stefan Jerzy Zweig. In 1945, and shortly before he was due to be executed, he was freed by American troops.

1890 - [N.S. Jan. 11, 1891] Victor Lvovich Kibalchich (Ви́ктор Льво́вич Киба́льчич) aka Victor Serge (Викто́р Серж) aka 'the Bolsheviks' pet anarchist' (d. 1947), one time anarchist before he became a Bolshevik lackey, born.

1904 - [N.S. Jan. 13, 1905] Baku Strike [Бакинская Cтачка]: A collective agreement is concluded guaranteeing a nine-hour working day, with night shift and drilling crews winning an eight-hour day; four paid days off per month; a raise in wages; improvement of working and living conditions; payment for the days of the strike; and other changes. [see: Jan. 13]

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 17] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: The Semyonovsky Regiment's artillery continues it bombardment of Presnya, the main rebel district and home to 150,000 mainly textile workers. The Schmidt furniture factory and the neighbouring house now come under artilley fire. Both are eventually captured and ultimately destroyed by fire. Nikolai Pavlovich Schmidt (Николай Павлович Шмит; 1883-1907) himself, one of the chief financers of the uprising and organiser of a rebel militia, is also arrested early that morning. The Prokhorov (Прохоровскую) textile factory [also known as the Trokhgorka (Трёхгорка) factory], another stronghold of the rebel fighting squads is shelled and the Semyonovsky artilley begin to randomly fire on the surrounding workers settlements as part of the widespread systematic reprisals against the rebels and city's workers. Many of the locals had by this time abandoned their barricades and salvaged what they could of their property before their homes could be destroyed during the barrage. The Humpback Bridge (Горбатый мост) in Presnya, with its well-fortified barricade, is shelled too in preparation for the final assault.
Elsehwere, troops of the Semyonovsky Regiment are also busy in the region of the Kazansky (Казанский), Perovo (Перово) and Lyubertsy (Люберцы) rail stations and around Kazansky Road (Казанской дороги) mopping-up the last insurgent resistance.

1910 - Práxedis Gilberto Guerrero Hurtado (b. 1882), Mexican journalist, poet, anarchist propagandist and secretary to the Junta Organizadora del Partido liberal Mexicano, who served as an insurgent leader during the 1910 Revolution, is the first Mexican anarchist to give his life for Land and Liberty, when he is killed, at the early age of only 28, leading a small band in capturing the town of Janos, Chihuahua, in the early months of the Mexican Revolution. He now has a town in the state named after him. [see: Aug. 28]

1910 - Paul Frederic Bowles (d. 1999), American expatriate composer, author and translator, born. Bowles first came into contact with the Communist Party of the USA (CPUSA) in 1935, joining in 1938 only to leave in 1940.
Q: What was it about communism that appealed to you?
A: Oh, I imagined it could destroy the establishment. When I realized it couldn't, I got out fast and decided to work on my own hook.
Q: Back to destroying the world. . . .
A: Well, who doesn't want to? I mean, look at it!
- Interview with Daniel Halpern in 1980.

1913 - Isabel Mesa Delgado (d. 2002), Spanish seamstress, militant anarcho-syndicalist and member of the CNT, born. At the age of 11 she began working as a seamstress and, following a move to Cueta at age 14, she joined the CNT Crafts Guild (Sindicato de Oficios Varios) local and the Ateneu Llibertari, as well as becoming secretary of Valencian Mujeres Libres. Isabel also help found a Union of Needleworkers (Gremio de la Aguja), becoming member No. 1.
Worked as a nurse during the Revolution / participated in the founding conference of the Mujeres Libres in September 1937 and, following the defeat of the revolution, organized a clandestine resistance group and provided aid to prisoners and their families under the fascist dictatorship. With the death of Franco Isabel helped with new libertarian projects, like Radio Klara and the ateneo Al Margen. [expand]
[NB: Dec. 31 also given as birth date]

1919 - In Berlin, under the impulse of Rudolf Rocker, the founding Congress of the anarcho-syndicalist FAUD (Freie Arbeiter Union Deutschland) rejects the State and parliamentarism. It will have up to 125,000 members. [see: Dec. 27]

1930 - Indigenous workers on the Pesillo hacienda in the northern Ecuadorian highlands go on strike, along with workers from Moyurco and La Chimba haciendas. No one was working, some Indians were in hiding in the high grasslands, and others had gone to Quito to present their demands directly to the government. Centuries of abuse and exploitation under the huasipungo land-tenure system had led to a situation in which they worked long hours for little pay on land which belonged to absentee property owners. According to a letter from local officials, the labourers had attacked the main hacienda house and the hacienda employees and some local officials were forced to flee. Feared that the strike would spread to other haciendas, the government sent 150 soldiers with bloodhounds to the haciendas to arrest the leaders of the strikes and destroy their houses. The soldiers arrested five leaders and sent them to Quito to be prosecuted.
The strikers presented the government with a list of seventeen demands which primarily concerned issues of raising salaries and improving work conditions. Victory proved slow in coming and was incomplete, but this strike created a model for rural protest actions which would be emulated throughout Ecuador during subsequent years.
This strike marked the beginning of significant rural social protest movements in Ecuador. The strike was not a small and isolated affair which only sought limited gains on a local level; it struck at the very heart of the land tenure system in Ecuador. The strike also represents the creation of new forms of identity among the rural dwellers who participated in this movement.

1935 - Having already dropped mustard gas canisters from their planes, seven Italian planes attack a Swedish Red Cross unit at Dolo in Ethiopia, killing 27 patients and a Swedish medic.

[F] 1936 - Great Flint Sit-Down Strike: Workers at General Motors Fisher Body plant in Flint, Michigan, go out on strike. At lunchtime, word is received that GM plans to move key production equipment out of the Fisher #1 plant, intending to defeat the strike by moving production to another plant. Workers responded by physically occupying the plant and keeping management out. Outside supporters kept up a regular supply of food to the strikers inside while sympathizers marched in support outside. The company used both violence and legal measures to try to defeat the strikers. The company finally signed an agreement with the recently formed United Auto Workers Union on February 11, 1937. The strike lead to a surge of support for the UAW and over the following year its membership grew from 30,000 to 500,000.

1937 - At two o’clock in the morning, Katia Landau is released from prison for the second time and told that if she refused deportation to Frnace, none of her friends would be allowed to leave Spain for safety. She eventally agrees and leaves for France.[see: Jun. 17; Nov. 8 & Nov. 22]
[ Landau/katia_landau.htm]

[C1] 1959 - Francisco 'Quico' Sabaté and his guérilla group (Antonio Miracle, Rogelio Madrigal, Francisco Conesa and Martín Ruiz) cross the French border into Spain for the last time. All will be killed within a week.

1969 - Umberto Nicola Palmiotti (b. 1895), Italian-American anarchist, who emigrated to America to avoid fighting in WWI, dies. [see: Nov. 11]

1971 - Nicholas Turčinović aka Nicolas (or Nicolò) Turcinovich or Nicola Turcini (b. 1911), Croatian anarchist and anti-fascist fighter, dies. [see: Aug. 21]

1974 - Proceso 1001: The diez de Carabanchel (Carabanchel Ten), as they became known, are sentenced to: Marcelino Camacho, 20 years in prison; Nicolás Sartorius, 19; Miguel Ángel Zamora Antón, 12; Pedro Santiesteban, 12; Eduardo Saborido, 20; Francisco García Salve (worker priest), 19; Luis Fernández, 12; Francisco Acosta, 12; Juan Muñiz Zapico Juanín, 18; and Fernando Soto Martín, 17 years in prison. The harshness of their sentences, which are directly in line with the demands of the prosecution, are a consequnce of the political and judicial backlash following the Carrero Blanco assassination. [see: Jun. 24, Nov. 25 & Dec. 20]

1977 - Police raid offices of 'The Body Politic' gay liberation newspaper in Toronto and seize twelve packing crates of material as 'evidence', including subscription lists.

1994 - Shannon Lowney and Lee Ann Nichols, receptionists at different abortion clinic in Brookline, Massachusetts are murdered in two seperate attacks. John Salvi, who prior to his arrest was distributing pamphlets from “Human Life International”, is arrested and confesses to the killings.

[B2] 1995 - Heiner Müller (b. 1929), German dramatist, director, poet, anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 9]

[D2] 1997 - Wilaya of Relizane Massacres: More than 400 people from four villages are killed by Groupe Islamique Armé (Armed Islamic Group) or al-Jama'ah al-Islamiyah al-Musallaha (الجماعة الإسلامية المسلّحة‎) fighters in the single worst incident during Algeria's Islamicist insurgency following the military's cancellation of 1992 elections, which set to be won by the Front Islamique du Salut (Islamic Salvation Front) or al-Jabhah al-Islāmiyah lil-Inqādh (الجبهة الإسلامية للإنقاذ).

1997 - In Serbia riot police dispersed thousands of Albanian students protesting in Pristina, who demanded the right to study in their own language.

1997 - In Spain a judge accuses 36 Argentine military and police officers of involvement in torture and the disappearance of 600 Spaniards during the dirty war from 1976-1983. Most of those named served in the ESMA, a torture centre used by the military regime.

[B1] 1997 - Denise Levertov (b. 1923), British-born American poet, anti-war activist and anarchist fellow-traveller, dies. [see: Oct. 24]

1998 - Joan Brossa i Cuervo (b. 1919), Catalan language poet Dadaist-influenced, playwright, graphic designer and plastic artist, dies. [see: Jan. 19]

2005 - In Chile former dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet is stripped of his legal immunity to face charges of diverting public funds to personal bank accounts.

2006 - A van bomb containing 500 to 800 kilograms explodes at terminal T4 of Madrid Barajas airport. Two Ecuadorian immigrants (Diego Armando Estacio Civizapa and Carlos Alonso Palate), who were napping inside their cars in the parking garage were killed, and 26 others were injured. On 9 January 2007, the Basque nationalist and separatist organisation ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) claimed responsibility for the attack.

[A] 2006 - Saddam Hussein hanged, Baghdad.

2012 - Beate Sirota Gordon (b. 1923), Austrian-American performing arts presenter and women's rights advocate, who at 22 almost single-handedly wrote women's rights into the post-War Constitution of Japan, dies of pancreatic cancer. [see: Oct. 25]
[E1] 1805 - Jeanne Deroin (Jeanne-Françoise Deroin; d. 1894), French embroiderer, schoolteacher, journalist and socialist feminist, who during the 1848 Revolution was the first woman in France to run for national office, born. An adherent of the utopian socialism of the Saint-Simonians, she penned the first part of the single piece article 'Appel aux Femmes' (under the pen name Jeanne-Victoire) in the first edition of Désirée Gay and Marie-Reine Guindorff's feminist newspaper 'La Femme Libre' in August 1832. \\\ during the 1848 Revolution, she became a prominent feminist campaigner and in March and April, she became involved with 'La Voix des Femmes', a feminist journal founded by Eugénie Niboyet, with the support of Jeanne Deroin, Pauline Roland and Désirée Gay. In June 1848, with Désirée Gay she founded the Association Mutuelle des Femmes and the newspaper 'La Politique des Femmes', "journal publié pour les intérêts des femmes et par une société d'ouvrière", which lasted for two issues, and then 'L'Opinion des Femmes', "publication de la société d'éducation mutuelle des femmes". [REWRITE]

1846 - Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis (d. 1919), Bakuninist and pioneer of Dutch anarchism and active in the International Anti-Militarist Association, born.

1854 - Paul Bilhaud (d. 1933), French poet, writer, humorist, author of verse drama, monologues and songs, born. Famous for his Les Incohérents all-black painting by poet Paul Bilhaud called 'Combat de Nègres dans une Cave, Pendant la Nuit' (Negroes Fighting in a Cellar at Night; 1882) [appropriated by Alphonse Allais (1854-1905) for a series of paintings including: 'Première Communion de Jeunes Filles Chlorotiques par un Temps de Neige' (First Communion of Anaemic Young Girls In The Snow); ‘Récolte de la Tomate par des Cardinaux Apoplectiques au Bord de la Mer Rouge’ (Tomatoes Harvested by Apoplectic Cardinals at the Edge of the Red Sea); ‘Stupeur de Jeunes Recrues de la Marine en Apercevant pour la Première fois la Méditerranée’ (Fear of Navy Recruits Seeing the Mediterranean for the First Time); ‘Des Souteneurs, Encore Dans la Force de l'Âge, le Ventre dans l'Herbe, Buvant de l'Absinthe’ (The Pimps, Still in the Prime of Life, Face Down in the Grass, Drinking Absinthe); ‘Manipulation de l'Ocre par des Cocus Ictériques' (Jaundiced Cuckolds Handling Ochre); and ‘Bande De Pochards Poussiéreux Dans Le Brouillard’ (Band Of Dusty Drunks In The Fog). Allias also wrote 'Marche Funèbre Composée pour les Funérailles d'un Grand Homme Sourd' (Funeral March for the Obsequies of a Deaf Man; 1897), nine blank measures en avat de Cage's '4'33"']. Also member of des Hydropathes alongside Maurice Mac-Nab and Maurice Rollinat.

1877 - Viktor Dyk (d. 1931), Czech poet, novelist, playwright, journalist, youthful member of the generation of the Czech Anarchističtí Buřiči, "básníci života a vzdoru" (Anarchist Rebels, "the poets of life and defiance") and later a right-wing nationalist, born.

1883 - Eusebio Carbó Carbó (d. 1958), Spanish militant anarchist, editor and director of 'Solidaridad Obrera' in 1930s as well as secretary of the IWA, born. Active and very much a globe-trotting internationalist, he saw the inside of nearly sixty prisons around the world from the age of 18 onwards. [expand]

[C1] 1902 - Nikos Ploumpidis (or Ploumbidis) (Νίκος Πλουμπίδης; d. 1954), Greek member and leading cadre of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) during the Metaxas dictatorship, the German Occupation and the Civil War in Greece, but also one of the most tragic figures in the history of the Communist Party, born. As a young teacher, he joined the KKE in 1926 and in 1930 became a member of the Executive Committee of the Central Union of Civil Servants. Sacked the following year due to his political activism, he was eventually elected to the Politburo of the KKE in 1938. In 1939 he was arrested by the secret police of the regime of General Ioannis Metaxas, and was imprisoned in Sotiria hospital until his escape in 1942. He then involved himself in the newly formed National Liberation Front (EAM) and in the communist youth organisation (OKNE). He resigned from the Politburo in 1945 due to ill-health (tuberculosis) and was later instrumental in establishing the United Democratic Left (EDA) party, essentially a proxy party of the now illegal KKE. In 1952 he was arrested by the secret police. After a three-week trial, he was found guilty on August 3, 1953, and sentenced to death. At the same time, the exiled KKE Central Committee under his rival Nikos Zachariadis decided to expel Ploumpidis from the party on the grounds that he was, supposedly, a secret police spy and British agent. He was executed by firing squad in Agia Marina, near Dafni on August 14th. The Greek government released a photo of his execution to the Greek press. 'Rizospastis' and 'I Avgi', the two left newspapers, didn't publish the photos following KKE's allegations that the execution was fake and Ploumpidis is spending the money he took for his treason.

[C2] 1903 - Ilarie Voronca (Eduard Marcus; d. 1946), Jewish Romanian-French avant-garde poet and essayist connected with Eugen Lovinescu's Sburătorul group, and later Ion Vinea's 'Contimporanul', Constructivism (via 'Punct', 'Integral' and his own '75 HP') and Surrealism, born. A French citizen in 1938 (having settled there in 1933), Voronca took part in the French Résistance as a writer and fighter. He visited Romania in January 1946, and was acclaimed for his writings and anti-fascist activities. He never finished his 'Manuel du parfait bonheur' (Manual for Perfect Happiness), committing suicide later in the same year.

1904 - [O.S. Dec. 18] Baku Strike [Бакинская Cтачка]: The strike has spread to the majority of enterprises in Baku and become a general strike.

[D1] 1905 - [O.S. Dec. 18] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: General Georgy Min (Гео́ргий Алекса́ндрович Мин), who was prominent as commander of the Semyonovsky Life Guards (Семёновского лейб-гвардии) regiment, orders the final assault: "Act without mercy. There will be no arrests."
The Moscow Uprising is finally crushed the following day.

1913 - Alternative date for the birth of Isabel Mesa Delgado (d. 2002), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist and member of the CNT. [see: Dec. 30]

[E2] 1918 - The anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist Dr. Marie D. Equi is sentenced to three years in prison and a fine of $500 for sedition in connection with her June 27 anti-war speech in Portland, Oregon.

1921 - The Life and Labour Commune, a Tolstoyan agricultural commune, is founded near Moscow.

[B1] 1925 - Alfredo Guevara Valdés (d. 2013), Cuban founder of the Cuban Institute for the Arts and Industry of Cinematography (ICAIC) and the Havana Film Festival, and a key figure in the New Latin American Cinema, born. An anarchist in his youth, he became a Marxist at the university, supporting what he called "Fidel’s Revolution" after the topplong of the Batista government. Initially a theatre director until he participated in the making of 'El Mégano', a documentary about the poor vegetable carbon makers in the Zapata swamps, which went on to become a seminal part of Cuba’s film history. And in 1958 he worked as assistant director for Luis Buñuel on 'Nazarín'.

[B2] 1928 - Maurice Albert Sinet aka Siné, French anarchist, anti-capitalist, anti-colonialist and anti-clerical cartoonist, writer, ex-cabaret singer [in the group Garçons de la Rue (1946-48)] and régent in the Collège de Pataphysique, born. He published his first drawing in France Dimanche in 1952 and went on to win the Grand Prix de l'Humour Noir in 1955 for his collection 'Complainte sans Paroles'. He later became the political cartoonist at 'L'Express' but his anti-colonialist views caused friction within the paper during the Algeria War and he left in 1962 to start his own newspaper, 'Siné Massacre', as a platform his anti-colonialist, anti-Zionist, his anti-capitalist, anti-clericalist and pro-anarchism views.
In May 1968 , he founded the satirical newspaper 'L’Enragé' with Jean-Jacques Pauvert, covering the May 68 events and their immediate aftermath. In 1981, he also joined the team on 'Charlie Hebdo' and, in 1984, the weekly 'Hara-Kiri Hebdo' but was ousted from the former in 2008 as a result of l'Affaire Siné, the events surrounding his published attack on Sarkozy's son Jean, and the cartoonist's perceived anti-Semitism, He then went on to launch his own weekly 'Siné Hebdo', replaced in 2010 by the monthly 'Siné Mensuel'. His deep love of jazz also led him to publish a 'Sinéclopédie du Jazz' in 1996 as well as a series of album selections of his favourite tracks and to illustrate numerous jazz album covers.

1941 - "Jewish youth! Do not trust those who are trying to deceive you. Hitler plans to destroy all the Jews of Europe… We will not be led like sheep to the slaughter! True, we are weak and defenceless, but the only reply to the murderer is revolt! Brothers! Better to fall as free fighters than to live by the mercy of the murderers. Arise! Arise with your last breath!" With these words on December 31, 1941, Lithuanian Jewish Hebrew poet and partisan leader Abba Kovner galvanized the divided factions of the Vilna ghetto resistance to join together and fight back against their would-be murderers. Three weeks later, the Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye (FPO; United Partisan Organisation) was born. Kovner would go on to command the FPO and lead the famed Avengers partisan unit. [see: Mar. 14]

1958 - Newfoundland Loggers Strike: Hundreds of loggers employed by the Anglo-Newfoundland Development Company at Grand Falls in Canada go on strike over wages and living conditions at wood camps. On February 12, 1959, the Canadian Premier intervened and stripped their union – the International Woodworkers of America, who had been, at the loggers' invitation, trying to replace the weak and ineffective Newfoundland Loggers' Association – of its bargaining rights and replaced it with the government-sponsored Newfoundland Brotherhood of Wood Workers. A contract that was almost identical to the one proposed by the IWA was quickly signed and the strike ended.

1959 - Arturo M. Giovannitti (b. 1884), Italian-American IWW activist, anarchist socialist, anti-fascist agitator and poet, dies. [see: Jan. 7]

[D2] 1964 - Syrian-based al-Fatah guerrillas of Yasser Arafat launches their first raid on Israel with the aim of provoking a retaliation and sparking an Arab war against Israel.

1966 - Elena Dmitrievna Stasova (Елена Дмитриевна Стасова; b. 1873), Russian Bolshevik and communist functionary working for the Comintern, dies. [see: Oct. 15]

1967 - Paulette Brupbacher (nee Raygrodski; b. 1880), Swiss physician, militant feminist, anarchist, author of numerous books and articles, dies. [see: Jan. 16]

[F] 1969 - The murder of United Mine Workers of America presidential election challenger Joseph 'Jock' Yablonski, together with his wife and 25-year-old daughter, takes place in a hit by three men paid for by the union president W. A. Boyle with $20,000 of embezzled union funds. Boyle had rigged the 1969 UMWA presidential election against Yablonski and Yablonski lost the election, but asked the United States Department of Labor to investigate the case. The federal government overturned the election in 1971 and Boyle and eight others were convicted of murder and conspiracy to commit murder in 1974.

1973 - The beginning of the three-day week in Britain.

1968 - Explosion of four FLQ bombs close to Montreal City Hall, the Federal Tax building and U.S. Secretary of State offices in Montreal. No one is hurt. A premium of $20,000 is offered to help find the bombers.

1981 - In Ghana Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings, a young fighter pilot, topples President Hilla Limann in a coup d'etat.

1982 - Martial law in Poland, declared in December 1981 in an effort to destroy the Solidarność trade union workers' movement, is suspended. It is formally ended on July 22, 1983.

1982 - Puerto Rican nationalist paramilitaries from Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional (Armed Forces of National Liberation) explode bombs outside of the 26 Federal Plaza in Manhattan, Federal Bureau of Investigation Headquarters and a United States courthouse in Brooklyn. Three New York Police Department police officers are blinded with one officer losing both eyes. All three officers sustained other serious injuries trying to defuse a second Federal Plaza bomb.

1983 - In France bombings in the main railroad terminal in Marseilles and on the Paris-Marseilles express train kill 5 people and injure 50. The attack is attributed to Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez.

1988 - Nicolas Calas (Νικόλαος Κάλας), pseudonym of Nikos Kalamaris (Νίκος Καλαμάρης; b. 1907), Greek-American poet, art critic, surrealist and anarchist, who also used the pseudonyms Nikitas Randos (Νικήτας Ράντος) and M. Spieros (Μ. Σπιέρος), dies. [see: May 27]

1995 - Maria Malla Fàbregas (b. 1918), Catalan writer, poet, and anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies. [see: May 2]

1999 - Earth Liberation Front activists set fire at MSU Agriculture Hall, Lansing, Michigan.

2004 - Alan Barlow (b. 1928), British trade unionist and anarcho-syndicalist, arrested, charged and imprisoned in 1969 for his role in the 1st of May Group bombing of the Francoist Banco de Bilbao in London, dies. [see: Mar. 28]

2004 - Berlusconi attacked by man in street in Rome, "because I hated him."

[A] Prisoner solidarity demos happen all around the world on NYE, check XXX for more details...
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PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism//' - Dave Hann (2012)
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