1752 - January 1st becomes the official first day of the New Year in England.

1788 - Étienne Cabet (d. 1856), French philosopher, lawyer, utopian socialist and founder of the Icarian movement, born. In 1839 he published a novel, 'Voyage et Aventures de Lord William Carisdall en Icarie'. Influenced by the ideas of Robert Owen, it expounded Cabet's ideas about a communist ideal city, replete with a primitive Christian morality. [NB: dispute over exact date. See: Jan. 2]

1800 - Socialist planner Robert Owen assumes control of mills at New Lanark, Scotland.

[B2] 1818 - Mary Shelley publishes 'Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus'.

[D2] 1842 - The British commander in Afghanistan, Sir William Elphinstone, agrees to Akbar Khan's terms for the surrender and withdrawal of British troops to India.

1864 - Alfred Stieglitz (d. 1946), American photographer, gallery owner and anarchist sympathiser, born. Renowned both for his photography and his promotion of modern art through his galleries 291 and The Intimate Gallery, and magazines such as '291' and 'Camera Work'. He was also married to painter Georgia O'Keeffe.

1879 - Ben Reitman (d. 1942), American anarchist, physician to the poor (known widely as 'the hobo doctor'), advocate of women's right to control their own bodies and lover of Emma Goldman, born.

1881 - Louis Auguste Blanqui (b. 1805), French revolutionary socialist and president of the Paris Commune, dies in Paris. [see: Feb. 8]

[EE] 1886 - Ethel Carnie Holdsworth (d. 1962), English working class writer, socialist and feminist, who started working in the mills in Lancashire at the age of 11. Her poetry brought her to the attention of the editor of 'The Clarion', Robert Blatchford, who helped her to get work as a writer. She wrote poetry, novels and children's stories, edited the 'Woman Worker', as well as the anti-fascist monthly magazine 'The Clear Light' (1920-25) with her husband Alfred. Her 1913 novel, 'Miss Nobody', is widely believed to be the first published novel written by a working-class woman in Britain and another of her novels, 'Helen of Four Gates', was filmed in 1920. She was also national organiser for the anti-fascist organisation the National Union for Combating Fascismo (NUCF), formed in 1924 by E. Burton Dancy.
The composer Ethel Smyth set two of Holdsworth's poems in the song cycle 'Three Songs' (1913). Smyth dedicated 'Possession' to Emmeline Pankhurst and 'On the Road: a marching tune' to Christabel Pankhurst. She also published a series of sonnets in the early 1920s in the anarchist journal 'Freedom', protesting at the imprisonment of anarchists in Soviet jails.
Her works include poetry: 'Rhymes from the Factory' (1907), 'Songs of a Factory Girl' (1911), and 'Voices of Womanhood' (1914); children stories: 'Lazy-Land, And Other Delightful Stories' (1911), 'The Magic Shoe And Other Tales' (1912), and 'The Lamp Girl, and other stories' (1913); and novels: 'Miss Nobody' (1913), 'Helen of Four Gates' (1917), 'The Taming of Nan' (1919), 'The Marriage of Elizabeth' (1920), 'The House that Jill Built' (1920), 'General Belinda' (1924), 'This Slavery' (1925), 'The Quest of the Golden Garter' (1927), 'Eagles' Crag' (1928), 'All On Her Own' (1929), and 'Barbara Dennison' (1929).

1886 - [N.S. Jan. 13] Evstolia Pavlovna Rogozinnikova aka 'Little Bear' (Евстолия Павловна Рогозинникова 'Медвежонок'; d. 1907), Russian revolutionary and member of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров) and its Combat Organisation's (Боева́я организа́ция) 'Northern combat flying squad' (Северный боевой летучий отряд / ЛБО СО ПСР), born. [see: Jan. 13]

1888 - The first issue of the monthly 'L'Anarchico: Organe du Groupe Socialiste-Anarchiste-Révolutionnaire Italien' appears in New York.

[C2] 1888 - Jules Dumont (d. 1943), French Communist militant, who fought in the Spanish Civil War and in the Résistance during WWII, born. He commanded a century in the Commune de Paris Battalion of XIV International Brigade, earning the nickname of 'Colonel Kodak' for his penchant for striking heroic poses during the Civil War when photos were being taken. He was also active in the French Résistance during the war under the nom de guerre of 'Colonel Paul'. Arrested by the Gestapo, he was shot at the Fort du Mont-Valérien, Suresnes, near Paris, on June 15, 1943.

[1888 - Michele Guasco (d. unknown)

1889 - Nietzsche has a nervous breakdown after seeing a horse whipped by a cab driver.

[F1] 1894 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: 20 people were killed and many wounded in Gibellina and eight dead and 15 wounded in Pietraperzia during protests against taxes and the gabello (Mafia sharecropping) system.
[Costantinni pic]

1894 - Procès des Trente: Élie Reclus is amongst those arrested across France as police commissioners use the new lois scélérates to enact search warrants against known anarchists. The repression will continue throughout 1894, forcing many into hiding or exile. The higher profile anarchist arrested will be tried during the 'Procès des Trente' (Trial of the Thirty). [see Aug 6 - Oct 31]

1897 - Nakahama Tetsu (中浜 哲), born Tomioka Makoto (富岡 誠; d. 1926), Japanese anarchist militant and author, who was executed for acts of propaganda of the deed, including a plan to assassinate Prince Hirohito, born. Member of the Girochin Sha (ギロチン社事件 / Guillotine Society).

1898 - At a conference in Stockholm called by the 1897 Scandinavian Labour Congress and the Swedish Social Democratic Party (Sveriges Socialdemokratiska Arbetareparti) it is decided that Swedish trade union should cooperate or even merge. The Landsorganisationen i Sverige (Swedish Trade Union Confederation) was the outcome. In 1910 after the Storstrejken 1909, the syndicalists broke away to form the Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation. [see: Jan 30 & Aug. 7]

[1898 - [O.S. Dec. 22, 1897] Ivanovo-Voznesensk Strike [Иваново-Вознесенские Cтачк]:

[CC] 1898 - Viktor Ullmann (d. 1944), Silesia-born Austrian-Jewish composer, conductor and pianist, born. On September 8, 1942 he was deported to the Theresienstadt (Terezín) concentration camp. Theresienstadt was something of an anomaly within the Nazi death camp infrastructure. Like other ghettos, it had its own Jewish Council which nominally ran the ghetto, provided their own police force (that reported directly to the SS) and made the selection of people, when required by the German authorities, for transport to the extermination camps. It also provided slave labour for the nearby industry - mica works, making boxes and coffins or uniforms for the Eastern front. And it acted as a transit camp for Treblinka and Auschwitz. However, its most important role was as a part of the Nazi propaganda machine, a "model Jewish settlement" created to try and camouflage what was really taking place in concentration camps across Nazi occupied Europe. To this end, many of the Jews specifically singled out for being sent there were what they termed Jews of "special merit", which included artists, musicians and scholars who were able to continue their creative activities. Amongst those was Ullmann, and it was in Theresienstadt that he wrote his last work, 'Der Kaiser von Atlantis oder Die Tod-Verweigerung' (The Emperor of Atlantis or The Disobedience of Death), a one-act opera or "legend in four scenes" by Viktor Ullmann with a libretto by Peter Kien. Written in 1943 and rehearsed in March 1944, it was due to be premièred that autumn but the SS camp commander, seeing that it was an obvious allegory of the Third Reich with Hitler as the Kaiser von Atlantis, that he banned it. Both Ullmann and Kien were deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau on on October 16, 1944, and Ullman died there in the gas chambers two days later. The opera received its world première in Amsterdam on 16 December, 1975.

1900 - Furuta Daijirō (古田大次郎; d. 1925), Japanese anarchist and member of the Guillotine Society (Girochin Sha / ギロチン社事件), an anarchist terrorist group, born. Captured on September 10, 1924 in Tôkyô, tried on September 10, 1925 and condemned to death. Refusing to appeal his sentence, he was hanged on October 15, 1925.

1906 - The socialist-aligned Nederlands Verbond van Vakverenigingen (Dutch Trade Union Confederation) founded. [expand]

1906 - [O.S. Dec. 19 1905] Moscow Uprising [Дека́брьское восста́ние 1905 года в Москве́]: With support dwindling and a brutal tsarist crackdown ongoing, the Moscow Committee of Social-Democratic Workers’ Party orders its comrades back to work. The commander of Presnia’s fighting unit Litvin-Sedoy issues a last communiqué: "We are ending our struggle… We are alone in this world. All the people are looking at us — some with horror, others with deep sympathy. Blood, violence and death will follow in our footsteps. But it does not matter. The working class will win."
More than 1,000 workers and their family members have been killed during the Moscow uprising. Severe repression follows as the army sweeps across Russia crushing dissent.

1906 - [O.S. Dec. 19 1905] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The remnants of the St. Petersburg Soviet call off their general strike. [see: Dec. 19]

1908 - [O.S. Dec. 19] Vera Spiridonovna Lyubatovich (Вера Спиридоновна Любатович; b. 1855), Russian revolutionary and member of Narodnaya Volya (Земля и воля / People's Will), dies. [see: Aug 7]

1911 - The murder of the slum landlord Leon Beron, an event that precipitated the 'Sidney Street Siege' on January 3.

1911 - The opening in New York of a 'Modern School' founded by the Ferrer Association, with the assistance of Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman.

1911 - Grève de la Thune* [Thunder Strike]: Following the week-long national strike of railway works the previous October, the Aristide Briand government now announces that "les grévistes de la thune" will receive an increase in their wages and that regulation of their pensions will be introduced. [see: Oct. 11]
[* the nickname of the five-franc piece]

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: A new labour law comes into effect in Massachusetts reducing the maximum weekly work hours for women and children under 18 from 56 to 54 hours. Workers welcomed the two-hour reduction, provided that it did not reduce their weekly take home pay, which for women and children averaged only $6.00 per week anyway. The first two weeks of 1912, the workers tried to learn how the owners of the mills would deal with the new law – a letter was sent from the small English speaking IWW branch to President Wood of the American Woollen Company asking how the new law would affect wages. Wood did not reply. Anger with the company increased when workers realised that a reduction of two hours pay would mean (as the IWW publicly pointed out) three fewer loaves of bread a week to put on the table.
In fact, the American Woolen Company, the largest mill operator in Lawrence reduced its workers' wages by 3.5%, arguing that if workers' hours were to be decreased, then wages would have to fall in order to keep competitive with mills in New Hampshire, Vermont, and in the South, where wages were even lower. Mill owners had assumed that workers would accept the pay reduction without protest. Instead, textile workers would go out on strike, demanding a 15% increase in pay, maintenance of the 54 hour work week, double pay for overtime, and abolition of the bonus system, which encouraged workers to work longer hours and rewarded only the top performers.
Soon after walking out, the Industrial Workers of the World arrived to help organise and lead the strike, and the mayor orders that a local militia patrol the streets. Local officers turn fire hoses on the workers. After two months, mill owners settle the strike, granting substantial pay increases.
[IWW First 70 years: conditions + pp. 54-5 1911 strike & recruiting campaign]
www.wsc.mass.edu/mhj/pdfs/Bread, roses, and other possibilities.pdf

[FF1] 1918 - Huelga de Barranquilla: After a period of relative calm in Colombia that coincided with the Great War and the revolutionary events in Russia, a militant strike movement broke out in the important ports of Barranquilla, Cartagena and Santa Marta, protests that would include the first general strike to occur in the country. In the main ports of the Colombian Caribbean region, strikers blocked public roads, will be picketing and prevent the use of blacklegs. The tactics of syndicalism – the general strike, direct action, sabotage and boycott – are used by the strikers: cutting the water supply in Puerto Colombia and taking up railway tracks. Army detachments and guardia civil patrols were dispatched to maintain "order" in the streets. Given the scale of protests by the revolutionary trade union movement, employers were obliged to grant a 50% increase on wages. The right of workers to strike in Colombia was later prohibit by law.
In Barranquilla, the dock workers were the first to go on strike on January 1, demanding increases in wages, a cut in the working day from nine to eight hours and changes in the working day so that manual work would be carried out at more comfortable i.e. cooler times of the day.
ciruelo.uninorte.edu.co/pdf/huellas/11/Huellas_11_2_Barranquilla, 1920-1930.pdf

[B1] 1919 - Sara Berenguer Laosa (d. 2010), Catalan poet, anarchist and member of Mujeres Libres, is born in Barcelona. Wrote a narrative autobiography 'Entre El Sol y la Tormenta' (Between the Sun and the Storm; 1988). [expand]

[E2] 1921 - Sarah Goldberg (d. 2003), Polish-Belgian Jew, member of the Rote Kappelle (Red Orchestra) anti-Nazi resistance network and founding member of Amnesty International in Belgium, born in Warta, Poland. In 1936, aged 15, under the influence of her sister Esther and her brother-in-law Marcus Lustbader, she joined the militant communist organised Unité sports club and participated in the solidarity campaigns for the International Brigades in Spain. Following the fall of Belgium, she took refuge in France in St. Ironwood, near Revel in Haute-Garonne, getting a job as a clerk in the local police station. There she copied lists of wanted persons, mostly people who had participated in the Spanish Civil War alongside the Republican forces and who had managed to evade detention in the camps at Gurs and Saint-Cyprien. After returning to Belgium, she joined friends involved in the Jeunes Gardes Socialistes Unifiés, participating in the distribution of leaflets and underground newspapers. In June 1941, she was contacted by Hermann Izbutski, a former member in the International Brigades' Jewish Botwin Company in Spain, and asked to work illegally under the name 'Lilly' for the Soviet military intelligence network, becoming a radio operator.
Following the arrest of Hermann Izbutski in August 1942, Sarah Goldberg lost contact with the network. Meanwhile, her brother Marcus was arrested and sent to Breendonk , where he was tortured by the Gestapo; he was later deported to Auschwitz and then to Buchenwald and was repatriated in 1945. Her father and step-mother were also deported to Germany (on September 26, 1942) but were killed in the Auschwitz gas chambers 2 days later. A few months later she managed to reconnect with her friends from the Unité group, and Leibke Rabinowiz ('Rosa') contacted Jacob Gutfrajnd ('Albin'), commander of the 1re Compagnie Juive du Corps mobile des Partisans Armés (1st company of the Mobile Jewish Partisan Armed Corps), part of the Front de l'Indépendance (FI), in Brusselles. Given permission to join actions to assassinate traitors, collaborators and German officers, she was involved in the death of a Jewish informer, I. Glogowski aka 'Jacques', working for the Gestapo and helped move Jacob Gutfrajnd to Etterbeek hospital on April 26 1943 following his wounding during a Partisans Armés action.
She was arrested on June 4, 1943, together with her ​​fiancé Henri Wajnberg (Jules) and her friend Laja Bryftreger-Rabinowitch, following a denunciation, the day before a major sabotage action against the rail route to Germany. Deported on July 31, 1943, together with 'Jules' (killed in a gas chamber on January 25, 1944) to Auschwitz-Birkenau, she ended up working for the Schuh-Kommando, surviving numerous selections, typhoid, dysentery, boils, scurvy. She also took part in the January 18, 1945, death march to Ravensbrück (arriving on January 22), on February 26 to Malchow, a commando at Ravensbrück and then to Leipzig, finally to be liberated on April 23 on the banks of the Elbe by the Red Army. Back in Belgium, she recovered in the Blankenberge home of the Solidarité organisation, affiliated to the Front de l'Indépendance, later working for Aide aux Israélites victimes de la guerre. She would later become one of the first members of the Belgian section of Amnesty International. During the last years of her life, she devoted herself to the Comités de défense des sans-papiers (Committees for the Defence of undocumented migrants) locked up in detention centres and also gave talks in schools on the deportations to Nazi camps.

1921 - Mary Reid Macarthur (Mary Reid Anderson; b. 1880), Scottish suffragist and trades unionist, dies of cancer following two unsuccessful operations. [see: Aug. 13]

1924 - IWW Lumber Workers IU120 begins a strike in British Columbia, Canada against the lumber owners, calling for an 8 hour day with blankets supplied, minimum wage of $4 per day, release of all class war prisoners, no discrimination against IWW members and no censuring of IWW literature.

1924 - The first issue of the magazine 'Pensiero e Volontà' (Thought and Will) appears in Rome. This review of social studies and general culture is managed by Errico Malatesta and appears fortnightly. Its final issue will appear on 10 October 1926.

1925 - The first issue of the fortnightly (then monthly) revolutionary syndicalist paper 'La Révolution Prolétarienne' appears in Paris. It ceased publication on August 10, 1939, but reappeared in 1947 until the eighties.

1928 - The début in Paris of the newsletter 'Le Trait-d'Union Libertarian'. Published by dissidents of L'Union Anarchiste Communiste, it announces the inaugural meeting of L'Association des Fédéralistes Anarchistes (AFA).

1929 - Insurrection in Chiapas. [expand]

1930 - Imperial Valley Lettuce Strike: Several hundred Mexican and Filipino lettuce workers in Brawley, California, walk off their jobs in a spontaneous protest against declining wages and intolerable working conditions, vowing to strike until their demands are met. In less than a week they are joined by 5,000 other field workers, and the impromptu walkout of Imperial Valley lettuce workers turns into a serious strike, ushering in a decade of farmworker militancy that sent tremors throughout California's powerful agricultural establishment.
Unorganised, the workers were initially represented by the Mexican Mutual Aid Society, a conservative and nationalistic workers' association that had replaced the Workers Union of the Imperial Valley following the collapse of the cantaloupe pickers' strike in 1928. The MMAS sought to peacefully negotiate with the Imperial Valley's vegetable and melon growers' organisation. However, the growers refused and the strike began to loose steam until the Communist Trade Union Unity League, having read about the strike in the
Los Angeles Times, sent in three young organisers to take over leadership of the strike, attempting to organise the workers under the auspices of the Agricultural Workers Industrial League. Now the strikers produced a coherent set of demands that the growers had to meet before any return to work, including a fifty cent hourly wage, guarantee of minimum four hours pay, eight-hour work day with time and a half for overtime, and no discrimination based upon gender or race amongst other complaints. Feeling usurped, the leadership of MMAS, who were mostly local businessmen themselves, now switched sides, supporting the growers and threatening the strikers with the possibility of deportation as well as holding out the false promise of "free land" for those willing to return to Mexico, thereby splitting the strikers. With the strike again loosing momentum, on January 12, AWIL organisers were arrested on vagrancy charges and thrown in separate jails where they were subjected to brutal interrogation. The International
Labor Defense Fund and the American Civil Liberties Union sent representatives to the valley to try to gain the release of the organisers, only to see them beaten up by the local sheriff. Eventually the AWIL organisers were released only to find that strike was on the verge of collapse, with the authorities having been able to block shipments of food and other strike relief effectively starving the strikers back to work.
With the majority of the Mexican strikers either deported or back to work, the AWIL called off the strike on January 23, just over three weeks after it began, without winning any of the workers' demands.

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: The insurrection planned by the Comité de Defensa Regional de Cataluña for the 8th begins early in a number of locations. In La Felguera, the home of the CNT in Asturias, a number of powerful explosions occur between 7-9 in the evening. Simultaneously, in Sevilla , street riots occur and are assaulted shops and bars. In the town of Real de la Jara rioters set fire to the local church. Looting also occur Lleida and confrontations take place in Pedro Muñoz (Ciudad Real), where trade unionists seize the city, proclaiming libertarian communism.

[C1] 1937 - The Public Order Act (1936): "An Act to prohibit the wearing of uniforms in connection with political objects and the maintenance by private persons of associations of military or similar character; and to make further provision for the preservation of public order on the occasion of public processions and meetings and in public places", comes into force.

1938 - Erik Heino Jaeger (d. 1997), German painter, graphic artist, comedian, satirist, story teller and cabaret artist, born.

1939 - Georgy Ivanovich Chulkov (Гео́ргий Ива́нович Чулко́в; b. 1879), Russian Symbolist poet, editor, writer, critic and the founder and popularised of the theory of Mystical Anarchism, dies. [see: Feb. 1]

1942 - Jean Moulin, the former mayor of Chartes, parachutes into France in an effort to coordinate and unify Résistance groups.

1949 - Douglas George Fetherling, American-born Canadian poet, novelist, journalist and essayist, born. Author of the dystopian Vietnam War novel 'The File on Arthur Moss' (1995) and 'The Gentle Anarchist: A Life of George Woodcock' (1998), the only biography of his long-time friend.

[D1] 1959 - The 'end' of the Cuban Revolution as the dictator Fulgencio Batista flees the country, boarding a plane at Camp Columbia at 03:00 with forty of his supporters and immediate family members, and flew to Ciudad Trujillo in the Dominican Republic. Comandante William Alexander Morgan however, leading non-communist anti-Batista (and later reconstituted anti-Castro) Directorio Revolucionario 13 de Marzo rebel forces, continued fighting and captured the city of Cienfuegos on January 2. The same day Batista sought refuge in the Dominican Republic courtesy of his fellow despot Rafael Trujillo.
Baptista had managed to flee despite plans formulated during a December 28 , 1958 meeting between General Eulogio Cantillo, Batista's Chief of the Joint Staff, and Fidel Castro in the Sierra Maestra. According to their agreement, on December 31 at 15.00, Cantillo was to direct a military uprising against Batista in Havana, and arrest him. The army would be ordered to ceasefire, which would facilitate the entry of the Rebel Army into Cuba's cities, and then the two forces together, would form a national government.
However, Cantillo only partly fulfilled the plan, appointing as the new interim president to Justice Manuel Piedra, announcing a ceasefire and the formation of a new cabinet would be formed in accordance with Fidel Castro, whilst leaving Batista free to leave the country.
In the main, the rebels were glad, but when Castro found out at 5 in the morning of January 1, he was furious. He immediately went to Palma Soriano to broadcast on Radio Rebelde to Cuba . Meanwhile, Cantillo was trying to locate him by telephone. Upon his arrival at the radio station, those present asked Castro to take the opportunity and talk to Cantillo. But to the amazement of his comrades, Castro replied: "Yo no estoy loco, ustedes no se dan cuenta de que los locos son los únicos que hablan con cosas inexistentes, y como Cantillo no es el jefe del Estado Mayor del Ejército, yo no voy a hablar con cosas inexistentes, porque no estoy loco. Todo el poder es para la Revolución." ["I'm not crazy, you do not realise that the mad are the ones who speak with non-existent things, and as Cantillo is no longer the chief of staff of the Army, I'm not talking to non-existent things, because I'm not crazy. All the power is for the Revolution."]
Castro had already made it clear that he would not share power with anyone. In his radio address, Castro accused Cantillo of attempting a coup to seize power from the successful revolution. He exhorted the people to carry out a general strike under the slogan "Revolution yes, military coup no." He ordered his troops to continue the advance on all fronts, and specifically that Ernesto Che Guevara and Camilo Cienfuegos were to enter the capital, and Camilo to take the Campamento Militar de Columbia and Che La Cabaña, the Fortaleza San Carlos de la Cabaña. Castro announced his own departure for Havana and asked the people to meanwhile expect his arrival in the capital.
At the same time, an ultimatum for the army in Santiago de Cuba to cease fighting was announced. Given that the head of the garrison of Santiago de Cuba, Colonel Jose Rego Rubido, had already been ordered by Cantillo to contact Castro as part of the planned coup. Castro then persuaded the colonel to stick with the plan by giving the post of Chief of Joint Staff of the Army (Estado Mayor Conjunto del Ejército) rather than Cantillo. Rego Rubido accepted and the rebel army entered Santiago without firing a shot. Rego Rubido would remain head of the EMC for just 10 days, until Fidel Castro controlled the entire country. Then he replaced Raul Castro on January 11.

1959 - Michel Onfray, French libertarian philosopher of 'post-anarchism', atheism and hedonism, born. Was a high school philosophy teacher for 2 decades and helped establish a tuition-free Université Populaire (People's University) at Caen.

[A2] 1960 - Johnny Cash's first San Quentin concert.

1962 - Orli Wald (b. 1914), member of the German Resistance in Nazi Germany, who was sentenced to 4.5 years hard labour for high treason and later sent to Ravensbrück concentration camp, where she was held in "protective custody" as a danger to the Third Reich, dies in a psychiatric clinic, having suffered from depressions and later a complete mental breakdown as a result of her wartime experiences. [see: Jul. 1]

1972 - The Commonwealth Immigration Act of 1971 comes into force, severely cutting back on Commonwealth immigrants' entry and settlement rights.

1966 - New York City Transit Strike: Members of the Transport Workers Union and the Amalgamated Transit Union working for the New York City Transit Authority begin what would be a successful twelve day strike. An injunction issued later in the day under the 1947 Condon-Wadlin Act leads to the arrest of the TWU leader Mike Quill and eight other union leaders on Monday 3. Shortly before his arrest, Quill tells the waiting TV cameras, "The judge can drop dead in his black robes. I don't care if I rot in jail. I will not call off the strike."

[F2] 1974 - Three-Day Week: The Three-Day Work Order came into force at midnight on December 31, one of several measures introduced in the United Kingdom by the Conservative Government to conserve electricity, the generation of which was severely restricted owing to industrial action (a work-to-rule overtime ban) by coal miners in support of a 35% wage increase. Commercial consumption of electricity would be limited to three consecutive days each week. Rather than risk a total shutdown, working time was reduced to prolong the life of available fuel stocks. Television shut at 10:30 p.m. each night, and most pubs were closed (the last early closedown for television was on February 22). The order stayed in place until March 7, 1974.
On January 24, 81% of NUM members voted to strike, having rejected the offer of a 16.5% pay rise. In contrast to the regional divisions of other strikes, every region of the NUM voted by a majority in favour of strike action. The only area that did not was the white-collar COSA section. In the aftermath of the vote, there was speculation that the army would be used to transport coal and man power stations. NUM vice-president Mick McGahey called in a speech for the army to disobey orders, and either stay in the barracks or join picket lines, if they were asked to break the strike. In response, 111 Labour MPs signed a statement to condemn McGahey. He responded "You can't dig coal with bayonets."
The strike began officially on February 9, two days earlier Edward Heath had called the February 1974 general election, with his campaign emphasising the pay dispute with the miners, using the slogan "Who governs Britain?". Heath believed that the public sided with the Conservatives on the issues of strikes and union power. A few days before the election date, the Government's Pay Board reported that the NUM's case was basically sound in seeking to return miners' wages to the levels recommended by the Wilberforce Enquiry in 1972. The Tories lost their majority and, after they failed to secure enough parliamentary support from Liberal and Ulster Unionist MPs, Harold Wilson and Labour returned to power in a minority government. The new Labour government increased miners' wages by 35% immediately after the February 28, 1974 election

1976 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: The Polícia de Segurança Pública (Public Security Police) intervene close to Custóias prison to disperse a demonstration of solidarity with the November 25 military prisoners, leaving three dead and six wounded.

[E1] 1983 - Women protesters break into cruise missile base at the Greenham Common US Air Force base and dance on silos at dawn on New Year's day.

1984 - Gabriella 'Ella' Antolini (b. 1899), Italian-American agricultural worker and Galleanist anarchist, who earned the nickname the Dynamite Girl when she was arrested on a train from Steubenville to Chicago in January 1918 carrying a black leather case containing thirty-six sticks of dynamite and a .32 calibre Colt automatic, which were to be used to carry out revenge attacks for the arrests and persecution of the Milwaukee anarchists and the death in custody of Augusto Marinell on September 15, 1917, dies of cancer in Miami. [see: Sep. 10]

1984 - Augustin Souchy (b. 1892), German anarchist pacifist, dies. [see: Aug. 28]

[DD] 1994 - Zapatista Uprising: An armed insurgency breaks out, timed to coincide with the day on which the North American Free Trade Agreement became operational, led by the Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (Zapatista Army of National Liberation; EZLN), demanding social, cultural and land rights (demands set out in the 'Declaración de la Selva Lacandona' [Declaration of the Lacandon Jungle]). The EZLN quickly seized the municipalities of San Cristóbal, Ocosingo, Chanal, Margaritas, Oxchuc, Huistán and Altamirano, controlling approximately 25% of Chiapas.
The government responded by calling in the armed forces to retake the areas, 12 days of fighting ensues until a ceasefire is declared. During the following 5 month, the EZLN spent its time in consultations on the peace proposals, known as the dialogue of San Cristóball
On June 10, they issued the 'Segunda Declaración de la Selva Lacandona' (Second Declaration of the Lacandon Jungle), rejecting government proposals and calling for a National Democratic Convention, whilst organising political resistance from within civil society - what the EZLN term as "la insurgencia civil" (civil insurgency).

2000 - Arthur Lehning (b. 1899), Dutch anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-militarist, archivist and historian of the anarchist movement internationally, dies. Co-founded in December 1919, with Rudolf Rocker and Augustin Souchy of FAUD (Freie Arbeiter Union Deutschland). Founder of the IISH (International Institute of Social History). [see: Oct. 23]

2003 - Giorgio Gaber, stage name of Giorgio Gaberscik (b. 1939), Italian singer-songwriter, actor, theatre director, playwright and anarchist sympathiser, who was one of the first Italian rock and rollers, dies. [see: Jan. 25]

[A1] 2011 - Prison riot at HMP Ford in Sussex leaves part of the prison in ashes. Six prisoners eventually faced additional prison time for the riot, three receiving seven year sentences for prison mutiny.
1788 - Étienne Cabet (d. 1856), French philosopher, lawyer, utopian socialist and founder of the Icarian movement, born. [Dispute over exact date. See: Jan. 1].

[A1] 1813 - Luddite Timeline: Trial of Luddites starts at York Castle. George Mellor, William Thorpe and Thomas Smith tried and found guilty of the murder of William Horsfall. Five men were being convicted for the attack on Rawfolds.

1843 - Rebecca Riots: "It was about midnight when a large crowd, this time all on foot, dressed in a variety of garments, faces blackened, and armed with the usual array of weaponry, walked up to the gate at Pwll Trap. They halted a few yards short, and the lady Rebecca - stooped, hobbling, and leaning like an old woman on 'her' blackthorn stick - walked up to the gate. Her sight apparently failing her, she reached out with her staff and touched it. 'Children,' she said, 'there is something put up here; I cannot go on.' 'What is it mother?' cried her daughters. 'Nothing should stop your way.' Rebecca, peering at the gate, replied 'I do not know children. I am old and cannot see well.' 'Shall we come on mother and move it out of the way?' 'Stop,' said she, 'let me see and she tapped the gate again with her staff. 'It seems like a great gate put across the road to stop your old mother,' whined the old one. 'We will break it mother,' her daughters cried in unison; 'Nothing shall hinder you on your journey.' 'No,' she persisted, 'let us see; perhaps it will open.' She felt the lock, as would one who was blind. 'No children,' she called, 'it is bolted and locked and I cannot go on. What is to be done?' 'It must be taken down mother, because you and your children must pass.' ......Rebecca's reply came loud and clear: 'Off with it then my dear children. It has no business here.' And within ten minutes the gate was chopped to pieces and the 'family' had vanished into the night."

1858 - American forces invade Uruguay in order to protect American-owned property during a revolt.

[EE] 1886 - Elise Ottesen-Jensen, aka 'Ottar' (d. 1973), Norwegian-Swedish sex educator, journalist, feminist and anarchist agitator, who was a member of the Swedish anarcho-syndicalist union Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation and a pioneer of women's right to understand and control their own body and sexuality, born. She was one of the founders of the Riksförbundet för Sexuell Upplysning (Swedish Association for Sexuality Education) and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Through her international contacts in the sex education movement, she helped many German sex educators, openly gay Germans and Jews to find refuge in Sweden. In the 1920s, Ottar was a regular writer for Arbetaren, with her own column focusing on feminist issues. After a disagreements with the other editors of Arbetaren in 1925, she started her own paper, 'Vi Kvinnor' (We Women). The paper did however not last for long. A few years later, she also wrote for the anarchist magazine 'Brand' (Fire).
"I dream of the day when every new born child is welcome, when men and women are equal, and when sexuality is an expression of intimacy, joy and tenderness."

1886 - Gaetano Gervasio (d. 1964), Italian anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, carpenter, painter and sculptor, born. [expand]

1894 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: A farmer and soldier are left dead after protests against taxes and the gabello (Mafia sharecropping) system in Belmonte Mezzagno.

1904 - U.S. forces intervene in the Dominican Republic to 'protect American interests'.

[D1] 1905 - [O.S. Dec. 21, 1904] Putilov Strike / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Four workers at the Putilov Ironworks (the main Russian arms factory, military shipyards and train works) in St. Petersburg are dismissed for their membership of the Assembly of the Russian Factory and Mill Workers of the City of St. Petersburg aka 'The Assembly', headed by Fr. Georgy Apollonovich Gapon (Гео́ргий Аполло́нович Гапо́н).
This is the first step on a path that would lead to the Bloody Sunday (Крова́вое воскресе́нье) massacre on January 22 [O.S. Jan. 9] and the unrest that would last on and off for the next two years across the whole Russian Empire.

[F1] 1905 - An informal conference of 23 industrial unionists, formally representing nine organisations, in Chicago issues an Industrial Union Manifesto calling for an industrial union congress to be held in Chicago on June 27. The June congress became the founding convention of the Industrial Workers of the World.

1905 - Louis Dorlet (aka Samuel Vergine, Louis Dey, Serge and Louis Dorival; d 1989), militant French individualist anarchist, labour organiser and pacifist, born. Sent to prison in 1925 for desertion. Member of l'Union Anarchiste, organised among the unemployed and founded a consumer co-op. Dorlet wrote for many libertarian publications and was a co-editor of 'Le Libertaire'. Mobilized in 1939, he was captured and sent to a stalag. Released in 1945, he resumed his work with 'Le Libertaire'.

1906 - [O.S. Dec. 20 1905] Rostov Uprising: After an intensive artillery barrage Tsarist troops stormed and occupied the train station, forcing the rebels to the Aksai plant. During the night, troops also took the Aksai plant after a fire at the plant led to an explosion during which they lost their ammunition and weapons and many rebel fighters were killed.

1911 - Aberdare Miners Strike or 'Block Strike': Due to the need for repairs to the workings, the actual return to work was delayed until January 2, 1911. Only about half of the PD men had their jobs back. immediately. As further repairs went ahead more men had their jobs back, but by the end of 1911, 1,000 were still out of work, still on lock-out pay.
The result of the strike was the temporary defeat and demoralisation of the labour movement in Aberdare. As might be expected. the victimisation of the PD men led to an increasing level of non-unionism in 1911. [see: Oct. 20]

[1913 - Amor Nuño (Ricardo Amor Nuño Pérez; Jul. 17, 1940)

1912 - Marius Antoine Joseph Baudy (aka Oulié;b. 1875), French illegalist anarchist and jobbing sculptor, dies from physical exhaustion after being worked to death after 3 years in the Guyana prison colony. [see: Oct. 18]

1916 - The first issue of the anarcho-syndicalist 'La Fuerza' (The Force), "Periódico defensor de las sociedades obreras" (Newspaper advocating workers' societies) in Alcoy, Valencia.

1918 - Huelga de Barranquilla: In what had become effectively a general strike, direct action by the strikers had tied up large parts of the city and, caught by surprise by the scale and militancy of the striking workers, the authorities and employers agreed a 50% salary increase within days, and the strike was over by the 4th. Inspired by the success of the workers in Barranquilla, those in Cartagena would come out on strike on Janaury 7th.

[C1] 1918 - Willi Graf (d. 1943), German medical student and member of the Weiße Rose (White Rose) resistance group in Nazi Germany, born. At the age of eleven, he joined the Bund Neudeutschland, a Catholic youth movement for young men in schools of higher learning, which was banned after Hitler and the Nazis came to power in 1933. In 1934, Graf joined the Grauer Orden (Grey Order), another Catholic movement which became known for its anti-Nazi rhetoric. It too was banned and, unlike many of his future White Rose comrades, refused to associate with the Hitler Youth. After gaining his Abitur (high school qualification), he did 8 months in the Reichsarbeitsdienst (Reich Labour Service; RAD) and then started his medical studies. In 1938, he was arrested along with other members of the Grauer Orden and charged with illegal youth league activities. He was detained for 3 months but the charges were later dismissed as part of a general amnesty declared to celebrate the Anschluss. In early 1940, he was drafted into the army as a medic and witnessed first hand the horrors of the Holocaust and the eastern front.
During a 1942 study leave back in Munich, Graf met White Rose resistance figures Hans and Sophie Scholl and began participating in the distribution of illicit anti-Nazi leaflets and in anti-Nazi and anti-Hitler graffiti campaigns. On February 18, 1943, Willi Graf and his sister Anneliese were arrested and he was condemned to death on April 19, 1943 by the People's Court for high treason, undermining the troops' spirit, and furthering the enemy's cause. Graf was beheaded on October 12, 1943 at Stadelheim Prison in Munich, after six months of solitary confinement and torture by the Gestapo to extract information on White Rose members and other anti-Nazi movements. He yielded no names and claimed all White Rose activities for himself.
Many German schools have been named after him.

1919 - Peru General Strike for the 8-hour Work Day: Members of the Federación de Obreros Panaderos "Estrella del Perú" (Workers' Union of Bakeries "Star of Peru") join the strike for the eight hour day began in December 1918 by cotton mill workers. A few days later, a coordinating committee organised solidarity strikes in newspapers, in the footwear industry, in transportation and other sectors in Lima and Callao.

1920 - Palmer Raids: The Palmer Raids go into full swing in the US, with a second and larger series of raids (following the first on November 7, 1919) across 30 cities as thousands of suspected anarchist, communist, unionist and radical Americans are rounded up sans warrants. Federal agents seize literature and detain people on the hope of finding 'fellow travellers'. The raids go on until the 6th. None of the 2,700 people arrested are charged with any explicit crime. In all, more than 6,000 are detained during this period.
with follow up operations over the next few days

[C2/E1] 1920 - Anne-Sofie Østvedt (d. 2009), Norwegian university student active in the anti-Nazi resistance, who was one of the leaders of the Norwegian intelligence organisation XU, born. A 20-year-old chemistry student at the University of Oslo, she wasted no time in becoming involved in the Norwegian resistance, first by writing, editing, and distributing an underground, illegal newspaper and later by formally joining the resistance. In December 1941 XU recruited her, and she later became second in command of the organisation. However, her identity was a strict secret and almost none within the XU knew her except for her cover name 'Aslak', a male name in Norway, leading many to assume she was a man. Even the Gestapo, who began hunting her in the Autumn of 1942, forcing her to live undercover for the rest of the war, thought so.

[DD] 1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: An anarchist group led by Alfredo Fonte aka 'El Toscano' (the Tuscan) attack the El Campamento estancia in Patagonia.

[F2] 1922 - The first issue of 'Arbetaren' (The Worker), the weekly paper of the anarcho-syndicalist trade union federation Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation (Central Organisation of the Workers of Sweden), is published in Stockholm.

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: The Guardia Civil in Barcelona discovers a cache of bombs which that attribute to the CNT.

1937 - In England Emma Goldman begins organising a publicity campaign about the Spanish revolution, including planning mass meetings in London and the provinces, but is hampered by poor communication with and lack of urgency among key anarchist leaders in Barcelona.

1937 - The first issue of 'Alba Roja' (Red Dawn) appears in Premiá de Mar, Catalonia. Subtitled "Organe du Syndicat Unique des Travailleurs de Premiá de Mar" "Organe du Bureau de Propagande Local de la CNT - FAI - FIJL". Eight issues were published until July 1937.

1937 - In Reus (near Tarragona, Catalonia) the first issue of 'Adelante' (Front), "Paper of the CNT and FAI in Tarragona and Province, Spokesman of Workers in General". This anarcho-syndicalist weekly ceases publication on January 29, 1938 after 52 issues, including a special issue devoted to the first anniversary of the death of Durruti .

[B1] 1946 - Jean-Bernard Pouy, French creator of Gabriel Lecouvreur, a libertarian detective nicknamed 'The Octopus', born. Born into a family of Catalan anarchists, whilst he himself is not an activist, he retains a strong sympathy for anarchists and anarcho-syndicalist militants in particular.

1948 - Vicente García-Huidobro Fernández (b. 1893), Chilean poet, who was an exponent of the artistic movement called Creacionismo (Creationism), dies. [see: Jan. 10]

1949 - Dynam-Victor Fumet (b. 1867), French composer, organist, anarchist and bomb-maker, dies. [see: May 4]

1959 - The 'end' of the Cuba revolution as the military commander in Havana, Colonel Rubido, orders his soldiers not to fight, and Castro's forces take over the city. Comandante William Alexander Morgan, leader anti-communist Directorio Revolucionario rebel forces, captures the city of Cienfuegos.

[D2] 1965 - Bomb explodes in Naples at the Spanish Consulate. The attack is claimed by the Spanish anarchists of the CNT, FAI and Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL) who declare:
"As long as the Iberian people continue to be oppressed by the fascist dictatorship, dynamite will recall that the voice of freedom cannot be choked. Long live anarchy."

1966 - New York City Transit Strike: A judge orders the arrest of 9 union leaders under the previous day's injuction. [see: Jan. 1]

[A2] 1967 - 69 armed men, plus three CBS cameramen, arrested in Florida Keys as they complete preparations for an invasion of Haiti.

[B2] 1974 - Jean de Boe (b. 1889), Belgian anarchist militant, trade unionist and co-operativist dies in Anderlecht. Condemned as an accomplice to the Bonnot Gang, in February 1913, to 10 years hard labour in French Guiana. Escaped and returned to Belgium in 1922, where he was active in several strikes and he founded 'Les Arts Graphiques' (The Graphic Arts) co-operative. [see: Mar. 20]

1979 - Trial of Sid Vicious for the October 1978 murder of girlfriend Nancy Spungen, begins in New York City.

1980 - British Steel Workers Strike: With an inflation rate of 17% and an offer of 0-2% base rate increase in wages from British Steel Corporation, steel workers stage their first national strike for more than fifty years in support of the steelmen's demand for a 20% pay rise. The management has offered a 6% increase, with tough conditions attached. At the same time, the unions were also concerned about the British Steel Corporation plans to close some plants with the loss of thousands of jobs. 90,000 members of the Iron and Steel Trades Confederation and the 14,000 members of the National Union of Blastfurnacemen began picketing at local plants. The steel strike lasted nearly 14 weeks, January 2 - April 2 1980. After beginning in the nationalised sector, the stoppage gradually spread to the privatised steel works. The plants reopened after the Lever inquiry recommended a package worth 16% in return for an agreement on working practices and productivity deals. Later that summer, 17,000 of the 24,000 South Wales steel workers were put on short time and in September, the Consett works in County Durham was shut down with the loss of 3,400 jobs. By the end of 1980, BSC had completed the closure of a number of outdated and loss making plants and reduced its workforce to 130,000 - compared with a total of 268,500 employees at the time of nationalisation. This photo shows steel workers on March 9, 1980 on the TUC demonstration in opposition to the Conservative Government's economic and social policies and also to the Employment Bill.

1984 - Riot in Tunis kills over 100.

1991 - In Concepcion, Chile the 'Federacion Anarquista Interciudadana' is established.

[E2] 1996 - An estimated 100,000 Bangladeshi women travel to attend a rally in Dacca, to protest Islamist clerics’ attacks on women’s education and employment.

1999 - André Arru (Jean-René Saulière; b. 1911), French anarchist and pacifist, underground organiser during WWII, and a member since 1983 of the ADMD (an association for the right to die in dignity), dies. He ended his life, at age 87, refusing to subject himself to the risks and dependency of advancing age and disease. [see: Sep. 6]

2005 - 26-year-old Victoria Robinson, the fourth self-inflicted death in HMP New Hall in 10 months, is found hanging in her prison cell despite being on suicide watch.

2006 - Sago Mine Disaster: An underground explosion traps thirteen miners in a coal mine in Sago, West Virginia, for nearly two days; only one survived, with the other twelve mostly having died from asphyxiation. However, after mining officials released incorrect information on January 3, many media outlets had initially reported, erroneously, that 12 survivors had been found alive.
The mine had been cited more than 270 times for safety violations over the preceding two years but.

2015 - The death of Tanisha Anderson, a 37-year-old black schizophrenic woman who died after being restrained face down on the ground by Cleveland police after her family had requested that they escort her to a hospital to undergo a psychiatric evaluation on November 13, 2014, is ruled a homicide by the Cuyahoga County Medical Examiner's Office.
1781 - During the seige of Cuzco, the former capital of the Inca empire, the native and mestizo peasants forces of Túpac Amaru II engage the Spanish occupiers in an indecisive skirmish, which would be followed by a two day battle (January 8 - 10, 1781) on the heights around Cuzco and defeat for Amaru.

[A1/E1] 1792 - Mary Wollstonecraft completes 'A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects'.

1850 - [N.S. Jan. 15] Sofia Kovalevskaya [Со́фья Ковале́вская] (Sofia Vasilyevna Korvin-Krukovskaya [Со́фья Васи́льевна Корвин-Круковская]; d. 1891), Russian mathematician, engineer and Narodnik (народники), whose sister was the socialist and feminist Anne Jaclard (Anna Vasilyevna Korvin-Krukovskaya), born. [see: Jan. 15]

[B2] 1882 - Docking in New York, Oscar Wilde is asked by customs if he has anything to declare; he replies: "Nothing but my genius."

[C1] 1892 - John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (d. 1973), English writer, poet, and professor, known for his literary works, 'The Hobbit' and 'The Lord of the Rings', born. His anti-Communist views led to his condemnation of the Spanish Republic and his vocal support of the Spanish Nationalist and of Franco during and after the Spanish Civil War. It has been argued that this stemmed purely from his Catholicism but he maintained a twenty year subscription to 'Candour', the paper of A. K. Chesterton's British National Front but he also repudiated Hitler and Nazism and later apartheid. There is also the question of the latent racism in his early work but generally his political views were somewhat confused as can be seen in the following quote from a letter to his son Christopher in 1943: "My political opinions lean more and more to Anarchy (philosophically understood, meaning abolition of control not whiskered men with bombs) - or to 'unconstitutional' Monarchy. I would arrest anybody who uses the word State (in any sense other than the inanimate realm of England and its inhabitants, a thing that has neither power, rights nor mind); and after a chance of recantation, execute them if they remain obstinate!... Government is an abstract noun meaning the art and process of governing and it should be an offence to write it with a capital G or so as to refer to people... The most improper job of any man, even saints, is bossing other men. Not one in a million is fit for it, and least of all those who seek the opportunity."

[D1] 1894 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: n Palermo a secret meeting of anarchists takes place where a manifesto is drawn up calling for among other things, the abolition of taxes on flour, inquiries into public administration on the island, and expropriation of large estates with fallow fair compensation to the owners. The manifesto is communicated via telegraph to the new prime minister Francesco Crispi.
Hours later Crispi declares a state of siege throughout Sicily. Whether the anarchist manifesto played any part in Crispi's announcement, history does not record. Army reservists are recalled and General Roberto Morra di Lavriano is dispatched with 40,000 troops. The old order is to be restored through the use of extreme force, including summary executions. The Fasci are outlawed, the army and the police go on to kill scores of protesters, and hundreds. Thousands of militants, including all the leaders, are put in jail or sent into internal exile. Some 1,000 persons are deported to the penal islands without trial. All working-class societies and cooperatives are dissolved and freedom of the press, meeting and association is suspended.
Novelist and socialist Edmondo De Amicis on the conditions suffered by the rural poor at the time: "Hundreds of families do not anything to live on other than grasses and prickly pear."

1894 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: In response to Crispi's announcement of the state of siege, the Comitato Centrale dei Fasci (Central Committee) meets in Palermo to discuss its response to the order. Two factions quickly emerge - those, who support the need to take advantage of the situation of unrest and provoke a revolution on the island. This group is led by the Socialist politician and journalist Giuseppe De Felice Giuffrida, who was known for his anarchist tendencies. A second larger group take the opposite view, arguing the need to proceed peacefully. The meeting eventually agrees to condemn the violent incidents in various parts of the island, and launches an appeal to stay calm and not to retaliate, drawing up an appeal: "La nostra isola rosseggia del sangue dei compagni che, sfruttati, immiseriti, hanno manifestato il loro malcontento contro un sistema dal quale indarno avete sperato giustizia, benessere e libertà ..." (Our island is red with the blood of comrades who, exploited, impoverished, have expressed their discontent with a system from which you hoped in vain justice, prosperity and freedom. ...), to be published the following day.

[FF2] 1894 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: A large crowd gathered at the headquarters of the Fascio di Marineo (founded in May 1893 by Marretta Antonino, Bongiorno Francesco, Giordano Carmelo and Giordano Alfonso) pending a decision by the Municipal Council about the abolition of the duty on flour (tassa sul macinato). When the council decided to maintain the stats quo, one of the leaders of the Fascio, Francesco Palazzo, led the crowd in a demonstration. Matters were further inflamed by attempts by the police, supported by field guards, to arrest people. The crowd continued its rally towards the Town Hall and, under the excuse of fearing an assault on the building, the soldiers opened fire.
Those left dead in the street included Concetta Lombardo Barcia 40 years old, Giorgio Dragotta 26, Matteo Maneri 36, Filippo Barbaccia 65, Giovanni Greco 34, Antonino Francaviglia and Filippo Triolo 43 years old, Ciro Raineri 42 and Michele Russo 25 years old. Those who were seriously injured, and who died in the following days: Anna Oliveri 1 year old, Maria Spinella and Antonino Salerno both 2 years old, Giuseppe Daidone 40, Antonino Manzello 32, Giuseppe Taormina 46, Cira Russo and Santo Lo Pinto 9 months old. In total, 18 people, including 4 women and 5 children died.

1898 - [O.S. Dec. 22, 1897] Ivanovo-Voznesensk Strike [Иваново-Вознесенские Cтачк]: The strike of 1897–98, in which more than 14,000 textile workers participated, began on Dec. 22, 1897. The causes were hard work conditions and the cutting of holidays by the entrepreneurs. The workers’ demands included maintenance of the number of holidays and the establishment of workers’ control over the expenditure of the fines fund. Members of the Workers' Union (Рабочего Cоюза) set up in Ivanovo-Voznesensk participated in the strike leadership (including K.N. Otrokov and D.S. Yashin). The workers E.N. Zaitsev, K.M. Makarov, and A.V. Volkov were prominent in agitating for the strike demands. The strike was noteworthy for its level of organisation and its persistence. The Union of Workers maintained ties with the Moscow League of Struggle for the Liberation of the Working Class (Союзом борьбы за освобождение рабочего класса).
On December 27 and 28 [N.S. Jan. 8-9, 1898], 700 soldiers and 200 cossacks were sent out to suppress the strike. Despite the repression, the strikers achieved some concessions from the entrepreneurs, and on Jan. 13 [N.S. 25], 1898, they resumed work.

1899 - Alphonse Sauveur Cannone (d. 1939), French anarchist militant, born in Oran, Algeria. Took part in the 1919 Mutinerie des Marins de la Mer Noire (Mutiny of the Sailors in the Black Sea), refusing to fight against the Russian revolutionaries during the Allied intervention. Sentenced to 10 years in prison, he escaped, was recaptured and given another five years. Released August 1926, he was active with the international 'Black Group' (Groupe Noir) and a member of the CGT-SR. Cannone fought on the anarchist fronts with the CNT and FAI during the Spanish Revolution of 1936.

1901 - Miguel Chueca Cuartero (d. 1966), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1903 - Jack Frager (Yankel or Yakov Treiger; d. 1998), American anarchist and labour activist, born in the Ukraine.

1904 - Ricardo Flores Magón, with his brother Enrique, seeking to escape constant repression by the dictatorship, leaves México for the United States.

[D2] 1906 - [O.S. Dec. 21 1905] Rostov Uprising: Following the loss of many of its fighters and their weapons, the uprising is finally suppressed as clear the remaining rebels from the Temernik distirct. Many of the rebellion's members are arrested and imprisoned.

1906 - [O.S. Dec. 21 1905] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Prime Minister Sergei Witte (Серге́й Ви́тте) urges that army be re-organised to enable it to crush national unrest.
The sadistic Lt. General Alexandr Meller-Zakomelsky (Александр Меллер-Закомельский) leads a punitive expedition eastwards from Moscow along the Trans-Siberian Railroad.

[1907 - [O.S. Dec. 22, 1906] St. Petersburg Governor-General Launits is assassinated by the Socialist-Revolutionaries.

1908 - Higinio Carrocera Mortera (d. 1938), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist who played a prominent role in both the 1934 Asturias uprising and the Civil War, earning the title the hero of Mazucu in the latter, born in a village in the Asturian mining area. He began working in the Sociedad Metalúrgica Duro Felguera rolling mills aged just 13 following the death of his father, using his brother's identity documents as he was too young to legally work there. He also joined the CNT, the majority union amongst metallurgists in La Felguera. During the Jaca Uprising of Decmember 12, 1930 precipitated by the army captains Fermín Galán Rodríguez and Ángel García Hernández, he and other La Felguera militants were involved in an armed class with the Guardia Civil in Sama de Langreo, for which he was imprisoned for the first time. According to his friend Solano Palacios, "From then until his assassination participated in numerous revolutionary strikes in La Felguera, the Nalón basin and the rest of Asturias, frequently suffering persecution and imprisonment."
During a 9-month strike in 1932, he was involved in a number of acts of sabotage on the powe grid and attacks on security forces. In July 1932, a month before the end of the strike, Carrocera was jailed for his part in these actions. At the beginning of the October Revolution of 1934, he actively participated in the attacks on the barracks of the Guardia Civil in La Felguera and Sama, and, as soon as the first armoured trucks bearing the emblems of the FAI, CNT and UHP painted white markings on their sides emerged from the Duro Felguera factory, he led a column of 200 anarcho-syndicalist fighter to Oviedo. Arriving on October 6, he was at the forefront of the fight and his militia group attacked the Carabineros headquarters and took the city's Fábrica de Armas (arms factory), and later halted the advance of government forces. At El Berrón he fought against forces commanded by the then Colonel Solchaga, who he would face again 3 years later in the Battle of Mazucu.
Following the surrender of the insurrectionary forces, he fled into the mountains, like many others, to try and escape the inevitable repression that followed, but not before he and his comrades buried dozens of rifles and several machine guns that he had liberated from the arms factory. These would prove essential in the early stages of the 1936 uprising. After a period in hiding, he travelled to Zaragoza with the intention of going into exile in France but was arrested there on August 7, 1935, along with Constantino Antuña Huerta by Investigación y Vigilancia police. The 'ABC' newspaper announced his capture: "According to sources, Higinio Carrocera acted in Asturias as a revolutionary leader and signed several documents. He is considered a dangerous bomber." Charged with promoting and being a leader of the revolution, he was taken to the prison in Gijón to await judgement.
However, he gained his freedom after he participated in a mutiny of prisoners in the aftermath of the victory on February 16, 1936, of the Popular Front. An amnesty for those convicted of political or social crimes was a key part of its election manifesto and in the days immediately following its win pressure built for it to declare an amnesty date. The government officially decreed the amnesty on the 21st, but Carrocera and his fellow prisoners in Gijón had engineered their release a day earlier. Carrocera returned to La Felguera and spent the following months raising funds to support the families of political prisoners.
With the outbreak of the fascist uprising, he and his CNT comrades were ready. Having dug up their weapons cache, they positioned themselves in a church steeple overlooking the Guardia Civil Barracks in La Felguera and their decisive action prevented the guards from being able to set up defensive positions outside the barracks. They eventually surrendered and, with La Felguera in their hands, Carrocera led a column of 400 centitas to Gijón where they were among the first proletarian reinforcements arrived there. In Gijón they laid siege to the Simancas infantry Barracks for the next month and, following it fall, they immediately set off for the Western Front to try to head off the Galician columns advancing dangerously towards Avilés and Grado. He was in all the heavy fighting that took place in the Malleza area and was injured quite serious in an attack on San Cristobal on the Luiña-Faedo front.
Back in La Felguera, he underwent surgery a number of times and took the opportunity to rebuild his unit, which took the name Battalion Carrocera. The battalion fought on Monte de los Pinos and then at Belmonte, where Carrocera was wounded twice. After 6 months on the front in Belmonte he was given command of a brigade, consisting of four battalions, and a few months later command of the 192 Brigada Móvil del Ejército Popular Asturiano, comprising 3 CNT batallions. All through this period he foungth on the fronts at La Espina, La Cabruñana, Grado and Prania. He also took part in the Battle of El Mazuco, one of the most brutal of the war. On September 1, 1937, more than 33,000 Nationalist troops supported by artillery and airpower, including German aircraft of the Condor Legion, began an advance against hugely outnumber Republican forces. The defenders never exceeded 6,000 troops but they held up the thrust of the Navarre Brigades for 15 days and Higinio Carrocera played a key role.
With the front lines under threat and the Condor Legion carpet-bombing the ridge [the first recorded instance of its use] that the republican occupied, Higinio Carrocera received the order on September 8, 1937, to take command of the troops in the frontline at El Mazuco, replacing José Fernández, the head of the 12th Brigade killed in action while covering with a machine gun withdrawal of his men. Higinio and his men managed to hold the Fascists off for a further week despite running short of ammunition, allowing their comrades to withdraw safely before the Republican leadership, aware that his troops were being massacred, ordered a retreat. On October 3, 1937, he was honoured as a hero for his courage in Battle of Mazucu with the Medalla de la Libertad.
A new Republican defensive line on the Eastern Front was established along the Sella River only to fall back under the Nationalist advance. Higinio Carrocera and his men were in position at the Siege of Oviedo when the Consejo Soberano de Asturias y León (Sovereign Council of Asturias and León) decided to give the evacuation order on October 20, 1937. Carrocera refused to evacuate with the rest of the Council and leave until all his men were safe. Instead he boarded on the steamer Llodio with two hundred other people, one fifth of them women and children, and was one of the last to leave El Musel. Off Cape Peñas the Llodio was intercepted by an Italian warship acting as part of Franco's navy. Having given his captors gave a false name: Vidal Fernández Fernández, he and the other prisoners were moved to Ribadeo and then to La Coruña. In the Romaní concentration camp was identified by some visiting Phlangists and on January 2, 1938, he was handed over to the Guardia Civil for transfer to Oviedo. On January 21, an Emergency Council of War similarily sentenced to death along with thirty-five other men and eight women.
On May 8, shortly before being transferred to the cemetery to be executed, he removed his four gold teeth from his jaws with a spoon in order to get them sent to his mother, still safe in Catalonia. He also hastily wrote a short note in a locket with a picture of her niece Olga containing the date of his death and the text: "I die for freedom". His final words before before he stood in front of the firing squad were: "I die with the greatest peace of mind that in you can have in moments like these, since nothing is on my conscience, other than the condition that my mother and my sisters remain in." Higinio Carrocera was then buried in a mass grave with 260 other anti-fascists.

[AA/DD] 1911 - Sidney Street Siege: Three anarchists shoot it out against more than 1000 troops [bit of an exaggeration]. [REWRITE]
[Costantini pic]

1913 - Little Falls Textile Strike: The state Board of Mediation and Arbitration, who had held three days of public hearings in Little Falls at the end of December, announces its terms for the ending of the strike. They are largely favourable to the strikers: (1) The companies are to reinstate all workers (2) There is to be no discrimination against strikers (3) All men and women working 54 hours are to receive pay formerly paid for 60 hours. The IWW had prevailed and the strike was over. However, some of the strikers including organisers such as Ben Legere, who had been arrested on October 30, 1912 and charged with stabbing a detective "in the seat of the pants", when police had attacked the strikers' daily parade, remained in prison a full six months til his trial on May 13-21, during which he was sentenced to "not less than one year nor more than one year and three months in Auburn prison". [see: Oct. 9]

1921 - Robert Lapoujade (d. 1993), French painter, radical experimental filmmaker, cinematographer, writer and libertarian Marxist, born. Signatory of 'Manifeste des 121', who is best known for his portraits of French literary figures including Jean-Paul Sartre and Andre Breton. Amongst his short films are 'Prison' (1962), 'Trois portraits d'un oiseau qui n'existait pas' (1964) and 'Un Comedien Sans Paradoxe' (1974). [expand]

[BB] 1922 - André Breton announces a "Congrès international pour la détermination des directives et la défense de l'esprit moderne" (International Congress for the determination of guidelines and the defence of the modern spirit) in an explicit attempt to fracture the Dadaist movement, whose apparent nihilism he sees as mere infantilism: "that Dada may have served no other purpose than to keep us in the perfect state of availability, where we are currently and from which we will now proceed with clarity on what is calling us [i.e. Surrealism]."

1922 - The first edition of 'La Revue Anarchiste' appears in Paris.

[B1] 1923 - Jaroslav Hašek (b. 1883), author of 'Osudy Dobrého Vojáka Švejka za Světové Války' (The Fateful Adventures of the Good Soldier Švejk During the World War; 1923), dies having finished only four volumes of the projected six volumes of his classic anti-authoritarian novel. [see: Apr. 30]

[E2] 1924 - Ulyana Mateevna Gromova (Улья́на Матве́евна Гро́мова; d. 1943), Ukrainian staff member of the underground Komsomol partisan group Molodaya Gvardiya (Молодая гвардия), the 'Young Guards', born. The youngest in a family of five children, she was just eighteen and had only a month earlier graduated from high school, when the Nazis occupied her home province in the Voroshilovgrad Region on July 17, 1942. With no one around to care for her sick mother, she was unable to flee eastwards and instead helped organise an underground resistance group with fellow Young Communist League members in her village, Pervomaysky (Первомайке). In September that year, her group and others were brought together in the newly formed Molodaya Gvardiya organisation as part of the anti-fascist struggle. In October 1942, Gromova was elected a member of staff of the organisation, taking part in the planning and carrying out of military operations, the preparation and dissemination of anti-Nazi leaflets and agitating the local population against the occupiers, urging them not to aid the Germans, whilst attempting to prevent the recruitment of workers for German factories.
On January 10, 1943, she was arrested by the Gestapo whilst preparing a plan to free prisoners following a mass arrest of the underground in the nearby city of Krasnodon (Краснодоне). During her interrogations, she refused to give evidence on the activities of the underground or betray her comrades, despite being hung by the hair, having a five-pointed star cut into her back, her breasts cut off and salt rubbed into the wounds, burned with a hot iron, and put on a hot plate, as well as suffering a broken arm and broken ribs. Following days of torture, on January 16, 1943, she was executed along with a number of other Young Guards and thrown into Krasnodon's Mine Number 5.
On March 1, 1943, following the liberation of Krasnodon, she and her fellow dead Young Guards comrades were reburied in a mass grave in the central square of Krasnodon, where a memorial to the Young Guards was erected. On September 13 that year she was posthumous made a Hero of the Soviet Union.

[F1] 1925 - Mussolini puts an end to the parliamentary system and issues a decree ordering the dissolution of the anarcho-syndicalist USI (Unione Sindacala Italiana).

1929 - Australian Timber Workers' Strike: At mass meetings in Melbourne, Sydney and Adelaide of Australian timber workers, held in the wake of the December 23, 1928, Arbitration Court decision to reduce the wages and increase the hours for 20,000 timber workers from a 44-hour week to a 48-hour week, the decision is taken to work to rule, not working extra four hours stipulated by Judge Lukin's award, with many workers not working on Saturday mornings throughout January 1929. Thus began a ten-month dispute and, following the February 2 lock-out, the first Australian strike of the Great Depression.
The employers responded to the work to rule by applying to the court that a strike existed and the Arbitration Amendment Act was invoked

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: Another arsenal of explosives is discovered by the Guardia Civil in a garage in Barcelona: ​​five boxes full of bombs, ready to be sent to various locations; a car bomb and cartridges, and in several rooms, devices, ammunition clips, fuses and 10 carbines.

1937 - The first issue of 'Cultura y Porvenir' (Culture and Future), the weekly paper of the anarchist Libertarian Youth (JJLL) in the Alto Urgel region appears. It was discontinued on May 16, 1937 after 18 issues.

1937 - In Valencia (Spain), the first issue of the newspaper 'L'Indomptable' (The Indomitable), organ of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo and the Federación Anarquista Ibérica, appears. Published weekly in French. At least 39 issues appeared until 7 October 1937. Issue number 19 (13 May 1937) containing an article on the recent murder of Camillo Berneri by the Communists was heavily censored by Republican authorities.

[C2] 1946 - William Joyce aka 'Lord Haw-Haw' (b. 1906), Irish-American fascist politician and Nazi propagandist, is hung in Wandsworth Prison for treason following his English-language Nazi propaganda broadcasts during WWII. Despite his Catholic upbringing, he was a strong Unionist and bragged of aiding the Black and Tans during the Irish War for Independence. A bully, braggart and rabid anti-Semite, he was an early adherent to fascism, working with Rotha Lintorn-Orman's British Fascisti but never joining them. Never shy of using his fists, Joyce became involved in a fracas with an opposing left-wingers at a Conservative Party meeting in October 1924, and received a deep razor slash that ran across his right cheek, leaving a permanent scar (to add to his broken nose picked up fighting during his school days). Joyce was convinced that his assailant was a "Jewish Communist" and the injury made his anti-Semitic stance even more implacable. Disillusioned with the BF's boy scout mentality, he joined the Tory Party in 1925. He later joined the British Union of Fascists (BUF) under Sir Oswald Mosley in 1932, and swiftly became one of its leading speakers. In 1934 he became BUF's director of propaganda and spearheaded the BUF's policy shift from campaigning for economic revival through corporatism to a focus on anti-Semitism. He was also instrumental in changing the name of the BUF to the British Union of Fascists and National Socialists in 1936, and stood as a party candidate in the 1937 elections to the London County Council. In 1937, Mosley sacked Joyce from his paid position, which prompted him to form a breakaway organisation, the National Socialist League. After the departure of Joyce, the BUF turned its focus away from anti-Semitism and towards activism, opposing a war with Nazi Germany.
In late August 1939, shortly before war was declared, Joyce and his wife Margaret fled to Germany after he had been tipped off that the British authorities intended to detain him under Defence Regulation 18B. Joyce became a naturalised German citizen in 1940. It was his fellow Mosleyite, Dorothy Eckersley, that got him his audition at the Rundfunkhaus and was recruited immediately for radio announcements and script writing at German radio's English service.
Joyce recorded his final broadcast on 30 April 1945, during the Battle of Berlin. Rambling and audibly drunk, he chided Britain for pursuing the war beyond mere containment of Germany, and warned repeatedly of the "menace" of the Soviet Union. He signed off with a final defiant "Heil Hitler and farewell". On May 28, 1945, Joyce was captured by British forces at Flensburg, near the German border with Denmark. Tried on three counts of high treason and, despite his American citizenship leading to his being acquitted on 2 of the 3 charges, he was convicted because he illegally obtained a British passport [falsely claiming that he had been born a British subject after joining BUF in 1933, with the expectation that he might accompany Mosley on a visit to Hitler] which entitled him (until it expired) to British diplomatic protection in Germany and therefore he owed allegiance to the king at the time he commenced working for the Germans. It was on this basis that Joyce was convicted of the third charge and sentenced to death on September 19, 1945. His conviction was upheld by the Court of Appeal on November 1, 1945, and by the House of Lords on December 13, 1945.
His unrepentant gallows statement was read out on BBC Radio: "In death as in life, I defy the Jews who caused this last war, and I defy the power of darkness which they represent. I warn the British people against the crushing imperialism of the Soviet Union. May Britain be great once again and the hour of the greatest danger in the West may the standard be raised from the dust, crowned with the words — you have conquered nevertheless. I am proud to die for my ideals and I am sorry for the sons of Britain who have died without knowing why."

1952 - Harriette Vyda Simms Moore (b. 1902), African-American teacher and civil rights worker, dies of the injuries sustained by her following a bomb attack on her and her husband, Harry T. Moore (November 18, 1905 - December 25, 1951), founder of the first branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP) in Brevard County, Florida, on Christmas night, 1951 - their twenty-fifth wedding anniversary. [see: Jun. 19]

1961 - François Rose (b.1879), French anarchist, trade unionist (CGT, UD, CGTU), dies. Served on the editorial board of 'Germinal' and was a salesman for 'Libertaire'. Organised support for the Black Sea Mutineers in 1921.

1966 - New York City Transit Strike: At the Americana Hotel in Manhattan, where the Transit Authority meetings are being held, Michael J. 'Mike' Quill,Matthew Guinan, Frank Sheehan, Daniel Gilmartin, Ellis Van Riper, and Mark Kavanagh of the TWU and John Rowland, William Mangus, and Frank Kleess of the ATU are arrested for violating an injunction to end the strike, which had been issued on January 1 under the 1947 Condon-Wadlin Act. Quill, who is in obvious ill-health, states to the waiting press outside immediately before his arrest, "The judge can drop dead in his black robes. I don't care if I rot in jail. I will not call off the strike." Shortly after being jailed, Quill goes into cardiac arrest and is admitted to hospital on Jan. 4, where he remained, helping negotiate a 15 percent wage increase for more than 30,000 workers from his oxygen tent. The strike officially ended on January 13. Quinn himself, was released on the 25th, giving a victory speech to the victorious strikers and another press conference at the Americana. Three days later on January 28 he was dead. [see: Jan. 1]

1972 - Frans Masereel (b. 1889), Belgian radical woodcut artist, printmaker, illustrator, draughtsman, libertarian, communist, pacifist and Master of the wordless novel, dies, age 82. [see: Jul. 30]

[A2] 1994 - 108 prisoners die in a fire at Sabaneta prison in Venezuela.

1998 - Zapatista Uprising: Women in X'Oyep try to force soldiers to withdraw from the camp for displaced people in Chenalho, Chiapas. The camp housed the survivors of the Matanza de Acteal (Acteal Massacre) that had taken place two weeks previously on December 22, when right-wing paramilitaries of the Mascara Roja (Red Mask) attacked members of the pacifist group Las Abejas (The Bees), in the small village of Acteal, in the Mexican state of Chiapas. Forty-five people attending a prayer meeting, including a number of children and pregnant women, were murdered and many of the survivors driven out of the village to the refugee camp.

[F2] 2014 - Police opened fire with AK-47 rifles, killing five workers and injuring dozens more in a violent crackdown on demonstrating garment workers in a factory neighbourhood of Phnom Penh. Thousands of workers had been holding a series of demonstrations since December 29, 2013, demanding a minimum wage increase up to $160 per month to keep up with the cost of living in Cambodia. Hundreds of military police are deployed to deal with the demonstrators, with some firing live rounds into crowds of demonstrating workers, who threw stones at police in the Canadia Industrial Zone. Demonstrators also attacked a local clinic after it refused to treat the injured.
Following the attack, the government banned all demonstrations and used military force to clear the streets. At least 39 workers were detained and held in unknown locations.

2005 - Godfrey Moyo, 25, on remand at HMP Belmarsh, suffers a series of violent and exhausting epileptic seizures after he is restrained for a lengthy period of time by prison officers. Suffering breathing problems, he is rushed to hospital but pronounced dead on arrival.

2006 - Urbano Lazzaro aka 'Bill' (b. 1924), Italian communist partisan who played an important role in capturing Benito Mussolini near the end of World War II, dies. [see: Nov. 4]
1341 - Wat Tyler (1341-1381), one of the leader of the Peasants’ Revolt of 1381 in England, born.

[A2] 1698 - The Palace of Westminster burns and is blamed on a washer-woman who left some drying clothes too close to a fire.

1856 - (Jean Valérien) Maurice Mac-Nab (d. 1889), French poet, songwriter, performer and postal worker, born. Famed for his ironic songs of working-class life performed at the Club des Hydropathes, at the the literary club Café de l'Avenir, in the Latin Quarter, and at Le Chat Noir in Montmartre. Many of his popular songs, such as 'L'Expulsion' and 'Le Grand Métingue du Métropolitain', were explicitly anarchist in sentiment and were sung at demonstrations.

1857 - Émile Cohl (Émile Eugène Jean Louis Courtet; d. 1938), French caricaturist, cartoonist, and animator, born. Disciple of André Gill, member of the Hydropathes and of the largely forgotten Les Arts Incohérents (Incoherents), which included Eugène Bataille (Sapeck) and Jules Levy. Prolific animator whose work embraced his clearly libertarian political views, including the series 'Les Aventures des Pieds Nickelés' (Adventures of the Leadfoot Gang) may have been the best work of Cohl's career. It was based on a working class comic strip by Louis Forton, about a gang of anarchistic youngsters constantly getting into trouble with both the criminal underground and the law. See also his character Toto, who featured in a short entitled 'Toto Devient Anarchiste' (1910).

1865 - Lorenzo Panepinto (d. 1911), Italian politician and teacher, born. He was the founder of the Fascio dei Lavoratori (Workers League) in his hometown Santo Stefano Quisquina, editor of the newspaper 'La Plebe' and member of the Comitato della Federazione Regionale Socialista. He was assassinated in front of his in Santo Stefano Quisquina, with two gunshots in the chest. At the funeral, over 4,000 people followed the open coffin in procession. His killers were identified among the gabelloti with links to the Mafia, but the material killer was released by the Court of Catania in April 1914. No one has ever been convicted for the crime.

[B2] 1878 - Augustus Edwin John (d. 1961), Welsh Post-Impressionist painter, draughtsman and etcher, born. The King of Bohemia frequented the London anarchist clubs whilst a student at the Slade in the late 1890s, was familiar with Kropotkin’s 'Memoirs of a Revolutionist' and temporarily named his son Ravachol after the anarchist bomber in 1902 before finally plumping for David. Later in life, he joined the Freedom Defence Committee, the Committee of the National Campaign for the Abolition of Capital Punishment and the Committee of 100.

1879 - The weekly German language magazine 'Freiheit' (Freedom) begins publishing today, in London. [Some sources indicate the 3rd rather than the 4th]

[C] 1886 - Armand Guerra aka José Silavitse (José Maria Estivalis Cabo; d. 1939), Spanish anarchist, scenario writer, filmmaker, actor, typesetter and member of the young C.N.T., born. In 1913 he created the Paris film co-operative Le Cinéma du Peuple, which made a number of films social nature, including 'La Commune' (1914) and 'The Old Docker'. Guerra was both a producer and actor in these films and used old Communards and anarchists in them. After a 12 year period living in Germany, working on all aspects of the film industry (editor, dubbing director, producer, director, screenwriter, actor), he returned to Spain following the rise of Hitler. There he made his first full-length film during the summer of 1936, before going to the front to fight fascism with a camera. 'Carne de Fieras' (Meat of Wild Animals) was never released, and thought lost forever, until a negative was discovered and released in 1993. He also wrote a diary of his Civil War years entitled 37 'A Través de la Metralla: Escenas Vividas en Los Frentes y en La Retaguardia' (Through Shrapnel. Vivid scenes at the Fronts and in the Rearguard), 1937.
Filmography: 'Un cri dans la jungle' (A cry in the jungle; 1913); 'Les Misères de l'Aiguille' (The miseries of the needle; Dec. 1913), the story of a seamstress who, after the death of her husband, to escape misery, attempts suicide with her ​​baby, staring the rench actress, film director and writer, Musidora (Jeanne Roques) in her first role; 'Le Vieux Docker' (The Old Docker; Feb. 1914); 'La Commune' part 1 (1914); 'Sommernachtstraum' (A Midsummer Night's Dream; 1925), as actor; 'Luis Candelas o El bandido de Madrid' (Luis Candelas or The Bandit of Madrid; 1926); 'Batalla de Damas' (1928); 'Die Geschenkte Loge' (The Gift of the Lodge; 1928), banned by the German censors on the pretext that a gardener busy watering his garden appeared to be urinating; 'El Amor Solfeando' (1930); 'La Alegría que Pasa' (Joy Happens; 1934), playing the part of a clown; 'Carne de Fieras' (Flesh of Beasts; 1936); and 'Estampas Guerreras' Nos. 1&2 (Warrior Prints; 1937), shot with the 'España Libre' Column. [see also: Mar. 10]

1891 - Founding Congress of the Revolutionary Anarchist Socialist Party (PSAR), in the Swiss city of Capolago January 4-6.

1894 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: Central committee members Giuseppe De Felice, Nicola Petrina (Fascio di Messina) and Giacomo Montalto (Fascio di Trapani) are arrested after attending a meeting of the Revolutionary Committee. [see: Jan. 3]

1896 - In Ensival (Belgium) in the first issue of the fortnightly Belgian anarchist journal 'La Débacle Sociale' appears, at least ten issues were published until 03 May 1896.

[B1] 1896 - André-Aimé-René Masson aka André Masson (d. 1987), French Surrealist painter, sculptor, illustrator, designer, writer and anarchist, born. Masson studied painting in Brussels and then in Paris. He fought in World War I and was severely wounded. He joined the emergent Surrealist group in the mid-1920s after one of his paintings had attracted the attention of André Breton. Masson soon became the foremost practitioner of automatic writing, which, when applied to drawing, was a form of spontaneous composition intended to express impulses and images arising directly from the unconscious. However, Masson rejected Breton's increasingly egotistic and dogmatic political stance, and especially the notion of having to join the PCF if he remained in the Surrealist group, and he left the Breton's circle.
Masson’s paintings and drawings from the late 1920s and the ’30s are turbulent, suggestive renderings of scenes of violence, eroticism, and physical metamorphosis. A natural draftsman, he used sinuous, expressive lines to delineate biomorphic forms that border on the totally abstract. The fascist riots in Paris on February 6, 1934 prompted Masson and his wife-to-be, Rose Maklès, to depart for Spain. They eventually settled in Tossa de Mar, where they immersed themselves in Spanish culture and politics. Masson supported the Republican government's attempts to create educational reforms, redistribute land, and improve living conditions for factory workers and rural labourers. He also joined an anarchist syndicate and designed the flags of the German and British forces in the International Brigades. His art from this period reveals his concern about the rising threat of Franco and Fascism [see: 'The Barcelona Acéphale: Spain and the Politics of Violence in the Work of André Masson' by Robin Greeley]. After Franco staged his 1936 coup, Masson and his family returned to France when civil war broke out in 1936, but the artist remained deeply concerned for the Spanish people. With the German occupation of France in 1939, Masson was in danger of persecution by the Nazis because of his degenerate art and the Surrealists had ties to the Communist Party, and the fact that his wife Rose was Jewish. In 1941, Masson managed to travel to the Caribbean island of Martinique, and from there to enter the United States.
Although Masson never learned English, he used his years in exile to educate Americans about contemporary French art, lecturing and collaborated with other European exiles on conferences and publications. The American critic Clement Greenberg believed that Masson's visit to America and his exhibitions played a pivotal role in the development of Abstract Expressionism in New York.
With the end of the war in 1945, Masson returned to his native France. He developed an interest in Japanese and Chinese calligraphy (as well as the Impressionist paintings of Monet and the Romantic landscapes of J. M. W. Turner) and was also drawn to the philosophy of Zen Buddhism.
"Painful contradictions are sometimes the source of the greatest riches".

[CCC] 1903 - Johann Georg Elser (d. 1945), German carpenter, communist sympathiser and member of the Roten Frontkämpferbund (Red Front Fighters' Union), who singlehandedly tried to assassinate Adolf Hitler and other high-ranking Nazi leaders, on November 8, 1939 - the anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch - at the Bürgerbräukeller in Munich via a homemade bomb, born. He was captured and interrogated but never tried for the act. Instead he was kept in special custody (known as special security prisoner 'Eller') in Sachsenhausen concentration camp between early 1941 and early 1945. He was then transferred to the bunker at Dachau concentration camp where, on 9 April 1945, four weeks before the end of the war in Europe, Georg Elser was shot dead and his fully dressed body immediately burned in the crematorium. [expand]

[F1] 1909 - The Irish Transport and General Workers Union is formally launched and registered as a trade union. It founding is a direct result of the suspension of James Larkin from the Liverpool-based National Union of Dock Labourers union on November 7, 1908 and his success as a union organiser in Ireland, where he had led strikes and organised NUDL branches in Belfast, Dublin, Cork and Waterford, almost singlehandedly reviving the moribund union in the country. Following his suspension, he had called the Irish Executive of the union to a meeting at the Trades Hall in Capel Street, Dublin on December 28, 1908, at which it was decided to found a new 'Irish Union'. The ITGWU was the result.

1915 - Adolf Opálka (d. 1942), Czech soldier and resistance fighter, one of a team of Czechoslovak British-trained paratroopers who took part in Operation Anthropoid, the assassination of acting Reichsprotektor (Reich-Protector) of Bohemia and Moravia, SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, on May 27, 1942, born.

1917 - Léo Voline (Léo Eichenbaum; d. 2002), third child of anarchist poet, historian and Russian refugee, Voline (Vsevolod Eichenbaum), born. In 1937, Léo, a committed anarchist, went to Spain to fight in one of the military columns of the C.N.T.. In February 1938, his unit was encircled and decimated by the fascists but Léo survived.

1918 - Huelga de Barranquilla: The dock workers in the port return to work having won a 50% pay increase. Inspired by the success of the workers in Barranquilla, those in Cartagena would come out on strike on Janaury 7th.

1918 - José Expósito Leiva (b. 1918), Andalusian journalist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, born. During the Civil War, he joined the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL), becoming secretary of the propganda committee in 1938 and editor of 'Juventud Libre'. In 1938 he published a lecture on Buenaventura Durruti in the collective book 'Hora Durruti. Conferencias pronunciadas ante el micrófono de Unión Radio'. At the end of the conflict, he was arrested at the port of Alicante and imprisoned in the fortress of Santa Bàrbara. Sentenced to death on 24 February 1940 before a court martial in Madrid, the penalty was commuted to 30 years in prison in the October of that year because of his youth. In September 1943, he was released on parole and joined the clandestine struggle with the CNT and the Aliança Nacional de Forces Democràtiques (National Alliance of Democratic Forces; ANFD). Secretary General of the Ninth National Committee of the CNT between May and July 1945, after the arrest of his predecessor Sigfredo Catalá Tineo.
Then he went to occupied France and then to Mexico on behalf of the CNT, where he was given the portfolio of the Minister of Agriculture in José Giral Pereira's first (August 1945 - March 1946) and second (April 1946 - January 1947) governments of the Second Republic in exile in Mexico, which drove a wedge between anarchist militants and the collaborationist wings of the CNT/MLE. He also signed a declaration of support for the call for a plebiscite in Spain and one in 1948 in favour of turning the MLE into a political party. In 1949 he settled in Venezuela, where he remained on the margins of the CNT.

[DD] 1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: During the first armed confrontation of the general strike in rural Patagonia, four policemen and a worker are killed in an ambush by the strikers, and two policemen and a gendarme are taken hostage near El Cerrito.

1927 - Jacob (Koos) van Rees (b. 1854), Dutch professor, Christian anarchist, teetotaler and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Apr. 16]

1932 - Gandhi arrested in India for restarting satyagraha campaign.

1943 - Częstochowa Ghetto Uprising: During the 'selection' in the 'Large Ghetto', established by the Germans in April 1941, of some 500 Jews to be deported to the ghetto in Radomsko (and ultimately to Treblinka), shooting breaks out at the Warsaw Square (Ghetto Heroes Square) in which Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Fighting Organisation) fighters Izsha Fayner and Mendel Fishelevitsh are killed. 25 (or 50) young Jews are executed in reprisal.

1944 - Henri 'Hans' Herman Flu (b. 1912), Dutch Indonesian family doctor and antifascist, is shot by the Nazis.

1944 - Kaj Munk (Kaj Harald Leininger Petersen; 1898), Danish Lutheran pastor and anti-fascist playwright, is taken from his home by the Gestapo and shot on the road to Silkeborg.

[D1] 1945 - In Ragusa, Sicily, the anarcha-feminist Maria Occhipinti, a leader of the anti-militarist movement Non Si Parte (We Won't Leave), lies down in front of army trucks which have come to find new young conscripts to incorporate into the new Italian army. Within minutes, a crowd surrounds the soldiers, forcing them to release their recruits, but they also kill a demonstrator, precipitating a four-day insurrection. After a period of fierce fighting, the Italian army was able to retake the city. Hundreds of insurgents were later detained and Maria served nearly two years' in prison for her part in the revolt. [expand]

1948 - Oriol Solé Sugranyes (d. 1976), Spanish libertarian, member of the MIL (Iberian Liberation Movement) who practised expropriation policies (bank robberies) along with Salvador Puig Antich , Jean-Marc Rouillan, etc., under the dictatorship in 70s Spain, born. On 24 July 1974, he was condemned by Franco's council of war to 48 years in prison. Incarcerated in Segovia prison, he escaped with thirty members of ETA on April 6, 1976 but was shot a few hours later by the Guardia Civil as he tried to cross the Franco-Spanish border.

1951 - Bob Black, US anarchist critic and author of 'The Abolition of Work and Other Essays', born.

[D2] 1960 - In the early hours of the morning, Catalan guerrilla 'El Quico' Francesc Sabaté i Llopart is wounded as his anarchist action group is trapped in a shoot-out with the Guardia Civil at Sarria de Ter, a town near Girona in Catalonia. Antonio Miracle Guitart (b. 1930), Rogelio Madrigal Torres (b. 1933), Francisco Conesa Alcaráz (b. 1921) and Martin Ruiz Montoya (b. 1939) die in the exchange. Sabaté is the sole survivor but is killed the following day.

1960 - Albert Camus (b. 1913), is killed, aged 46, in an automobile accident near Sens. [see: Nov. 7]

1960 - United Steel workers end longest strike in US, begun on July 15, 1959.

[F2] 1961 - Danish barbers’ assistants in Copenhagen end their 33-year long strike. According to the 'Guinness Book of World Records', the strike – which began in 1928 – was the world’s longest.

1965 - Eight thousand social workers represented by two different unions in New York City go on strike over workload and wages. Two locals led the strike: the independent Social Services Employees Union, a militant union that had just won bargaining rights for 6,000 caseworkers, and DC 37’s Local 371, which represented supervisors and clerical workers. Mayor Robert Wagner fired all of the strikers and threw nineteen leaders in jail for two weeks, but the workers won the strike after twenty-eight days. Supported by organised labour, the civil rights movement, and a community coalition that organised among welfare recipients, it was the longest labour action by public employees in the history of New York City. Among the strikers’ gains were 9 percent raises, impartial arbitration, 100 percent city-paid health insurance, the first union education fund for city workers, the right to bargain on a wide range of issues, and an automatic clothing grant for their clients.

[1966 - St. John's University Strike: [til Jun 1967] after autumn dismissal of 31 faculty members / ended in failure]

[E2] 1972 - Fosca Corsinovi, aka Marie Thérèse Noblino & Fosca Barbieri (b. 1897), Italian anarchist, who volunteered in the Spanish Civil War as a nurse with the CNT-FAI, dies. [see: Sep. 24]

1975 - Carlo Levi (b. 1902), Italian-Jewish painter, writer, activist, anti-fascist and doctor, dies. [see: Nov. 29]

1976 - A wave of wildcat strikes, which at its height involves more than 500,000 workers, begins in Spain.

[A1] 1988 - Fremantle prison riot in Western Australia causes A$1.8m damaged but also unintentionally prevents planned escape.

2004 - Jeff Nuttall (b. 1933), English poet, publisher, actor, painter, sculptor, jazz trumpeter, anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Jul. 8]

2007 - Carles Fontserè i Carrió (b. 1916), one of the important Catalan anarchist poster artists of the Spanish Revolution, dies. Active in the Sindicato de Dibujantes Profesionales de Barcelona (Union of Professional Illustrators; SPD), whose posters plastered the walls of Barcelona - as George Orwell noted on his arrival in the city that December: "The revolutionary posters were everywhere, flaming from the walls in clean reds and blues that made the few remaining advertisements look like daubs of mud." Fontserè was to bemoan the loss of vitality of these posters once they became 'official' productions of the Republic. The F.A.I. poster 'Llibertat!' (Freedom), with the sickle-waving farmer and the red and black flag in the background, is his work. [see: Mar. 9]

2007 - Helen Hill (b. 1970), American animation filmmaker and social activist, dies. [see: May 9]

2007 - Henri Portier (b.1941), French anarcho-syndicalist, pacifist, anti-militarist, and historian of the Freinet movement, born. A member of the Institut Coopératif de l'Ecole Moderne (ICEM) of the Freinet movement, he became the movement's historian, making several films and prompting the rediscovery of the movement via the 1996 documentary 'Le Mouvement Freinet'. He is also the author of the pamphlet 'Cinematograph and Freinet Movement' (1989).

[E1] 2009 - Helen Suzman (b. 1917), who was hailed by the African National Congress as a woman who became "a thorn in the flesh of apartheid by openly criticising segregation of Blacks by a Whites-only apartheid system", is buried in Johannesburg.
[B] 1844 - Manuel González Prada (d. 1918), noted Peruvian poet, literary and social critic, anarchist thinker, writer and polemicist, born. Numerous of his articles on anarchism and related themes appeared in the Lima newspaper 'Los Parias' (1904-1909) under the pseudonym Anarquía. Briefly head of the National Library of Peru, he resigned following the coup d'etat in 1914. Several of his collections of poetry were published or translated during his lifetime and after.

1874 - Léon Jules Léauthier (d. 1894), the French anarchist shoe-maker who stabbed and seriously wounded the Minister of Serbia, born. Sentenced to life, Léauthier was killed during a prison uprising at Îles du Salut in October 1894.

1877 - Giuseppe Fanelli (b. 1827), Italian revolutionary Bakuninite anarchist involved in the establishing of the First International, dies. A one-time nationalist and mason, he allegedly originated the 'circle A' symbol. [see: Oct. 13]

1878 - Nelly Roussel (d. 1922), French essayist, journalist, free thinker, anarchist, anarcha-feminist, franc-maçonne, and néo-Malthusienne, born. In 1902, she became the first French woman to publicly declare herself in favour of contraception and, with Madeleine Pelletier, she stressed the importance of sex education for girls. [expand]

1881 - The funeral in Paris of the revolutionary Auguste Blanqui is attended by a large crowd including Louise Michel. Neither an anarchist or a Marxist, he was the author of the phrase "Neither God, nor master".

[AA] 1883 - Eugene Vigo (Eugeni Bonaventura de Vigo i Sallés) (d. 1917), French anarchist and journalist better known as Miguel Almereyda, is born. Founder and editor of the 'La Guerre Sociale' (1906-1913) and 'Le Bonnet Rouge' (1913-1917). Falsely accused of treason for allegedly receiving funds from Germany in exchange for taking an anti-war position in his newspaper, he was arrested on August 6, 1917. He died a week later on August 13, probably at the hands of a paid assassin who strangled him with Vigo's own shoe laces.
[Costantini pic]

1885 - Alternative date given for the birth of Maria Anna Rygier (also Maria Corradi-Rygier or Maria Rygier Corradi; d. 1953), Italian anti-militarist, syndicalist, anarchist propagandist, anti-fascist activist, and later a monarchist. [see: Dec. 5]

[F2] 1891 - Australian Shearers' Strike / Great Shearer's Strike of 1891: Sheep shearers in Queensland, Australia, go on strike when the manager of the Logan Downs Station sheep ranch demands that they accept the ranchers’ new contract of 'free labour' that undermines their union security, hours, and wages.
One of Australia's earliest and most important industrial disputes, the 1891 shearers' strike was in response to the Queensland Pastoralists’ Employers Association, representing the pastoralist squatters, attempts to smash rural unions, in this case the Australian Shearers’ Union. The union, which boasted tens of thousands of members and had unionised thousands of sheds, prohibited its members from working with non-union workers. The QPEA however, had set about organising thousands of non-unionised wool workers, blackleg shearers and 'free labourers' who they would employ alongside union members, thereby precipitating a strike, and then replace the striking unionised workers.
The strike resulted in the formation of large camps of striking workers, and acts sabotage and violence on both sides, leaving Queensland was on the verge of civil war as the government set to brutally suppressing the strike. Troops were sent in to escort and protect the scabs, and union leaders and strikers subjected to brutal arrests. In support of the striking shearers, the Maritime Union called a black ban on wool shorn by non-union labour, but the strike was poorly timed, and when the union workers ran out of food and money, they were forced to come to terms. The strike was officially declared off on June 15 and, although the strike had failed, it had far reaching effects on the Australian labour movement.
Amongst the many strikers that were arrested during the dispute, thirteen union leaders were charged with sedition and conspiracy and, following a protracted trial in Rockhampton, the were convicted and on May 20 the men sentenced to three years hard labour on St. Helena Island in Moreton Bay. The legitimacy of the arrests and fairness of the trial has been heavily debated by historians over the years.

[EE2] 1891 - Lilian Ida Lenton, aka 'Ida Inkley' aka 'May Dennis' aka 'Miss Red' (d. 1972), English dancer, suffragette, and winner of a French Red Cross medal for her service as an orderly in WWI, born. The oldest of five children in a working class family, she joined the WSPU at 21 and immediately got involved in the March 1912 window-smashing campaign and that to destroy the contents of pillar-boxes. The former campaign led to her first arrest on March 5, 1912 and her first prison sentence, two months in prison under the false name of 'Ida Inkley', for smashing windows in Oxford Street alongside May Billinghurst, who had concealed their window-breaking stones under her rug which kept her warm in her invalid tricycle, and more than 150 other suffragettes. In early 1913, with Olive Wharry, she began a series of arson attacks in London, and was arrested on February 19, 1913, on suspicion of having set on fire the Tea House at Kew Gardens. In court it was reported: "The constables gave chase, and just before they caught them each of the women who had separated was seen to throw away a portmanteau. At the station the women gave the names of Lilian Lenton and Olive Wharry. In one of the bags which the women threw away were found a hammer, a saw, a bundle to tow, strongly redolent of paraffin and some paper smelling strongly of tar. The other bag was empty, but it had evidently contained inflammables." Whilst on remand in Holloway Prison, she held a hunger strike for two days before being forcibly fed. It took two doctors and seven warders to restrain her as she struggled so fiercely, and on February 23 the force-feeding [entailing being tied to a chair, having ones head forced backwards and an un-lubricated tube inserted through the nose and down the oesophagus or, in Lenton's case, down the trachea] resulted food entering her lungs, causing her to become seriously ill with pleurisy. Swiftly and quietly released, she managed the first of her soon to be famous escapes when police, thinking that she had just been taken by ambulance to hospital from May Billinghurst's home in Barnes, relaxed their guard, allowing Lilian to dash across the road and jump on a moving bus. The police gave chase à la Keystone Cops but she successfully made her escape.
The furore around Lenton's force-feeding and the claim by the then Home Secretary, Reginald McKenna, that Lenton's own doctor had stated that her pleurisy had not been caused by the force-feeding, the controversy spilled over onto the letters page of 'The Times', leading ultimately to the passing of the Prisoners (Temporary Discharge for Ill Health) Act, better known as the 'Cat and Mouse Act', rushed through Parliament that April allowing the release of ill suffragette (the 'mice') on temporary licence to recover their health, who could then be re-arrested and imprisoned again later.
After her recovery, Lenton managed to evade recapture, despite her virtually one woman campaign of setting fire to buildings and burning "Votes for Women" into golf greens and cricket pitches across the country, until she was arrested on June 9, 1913 in Doncaster during the trial of Harry Johnson, a local trainee journalist who hung out at the suffragette safe house where Lenton was staying, and Augusta Winship, a servant there, who were standing trial for the "burglariously entering Westfield House, Doncaster" with the plan of setting fire to it. Called as a witness under the name 'May Dennis', Lenton admitted that she and not Winship had been the person who had broken into the house and that she only failed to carry out the arson because they were disturbed by an elderly housekeeper there. Arrested and placed in the dock, she refused to recognise the court and the following day was committed for trial at Leeds assizes. As she was being removed to the cells, she told the accompanying police that she was going on hunger strike and, when released, she would again abscond and continue her arson campaign until she brought down the government. Her aim was: "to burn two buildings a week, in order to create such a condition in the country that it would prove impossible to govern without the consent of the governed."
She was then held in custody at Armley Prison in Leeds (having violently resisted having her fingerprints taken upon admission), during which her famous 'FIT' photograph was secretly taken as she exercised in the prison yard, whilst she pursued her hunger-strike but, on June 17th, she was released on license under the Cat & Mouse Act. This time, a grocer's van had arrived at the house's back door and an errand boy, in reality suffragette Elsie Duval in disguise, eating an apple and carrying a large and heavy hamper entered the house. Duval then swapped clothing with Lenton, who then exited carrying the now empty hamper and eating the apple. Jumping into the front seat under the noses of the watching detectives, the van and Lilian Lenton disappeared. Travelling by taxi to Harrogate and then Scarborough, she then adopted the disguise of a children’s nurse carrying the baby son of a fellow WSPU member. On arrival at the station a policeman helpfully opened the taxi door, where upon Lilian hid behind the child to prevent the officer recognising her. From there she took a train to Edinburgh and the following month she escaped to France in a private yacht.
Lenton was soon back in England setting fire to buildings and continuing to evade the police despite her description and photograph having been widely circulated. On one occasion, when she was transporting two bombs into Edinburgh in an attaché case, she stopped to ask a policeman directions and he helpfully show her the way to her tram whilst carrying her case for her! However, on October 9, 1913 she was arrested at Paddington Station as she went to collect her bicycle from the left luggage office. Formally charged with the fire at Kew Gardens and remanded in prison, she went on a hunger and thirst strike and was again forcibly fed.
She was released under the Cat and Mouse Act on October 15, 1913 due to concerns about her health. The police kept a strict watch on the house where she was staying, but again she managed to escape. By now the newspapers had begun to refer to her as the 'elusive suffragette'. On December 22, 1913 she was arrested at Cheltenham under the name 'Miss Red' (along with a second woman, 'Miss Black') and charged with setting fire to an unoccupied mansion in Cheltenham. She went on a hunger-and-thirst strike and was released on Christmas Day to a house in King’s Norton. Again she escaped from under the noses of the watching police.
She continued to evade the authorities until an eagle-eyed cop spotted her walking down a street in Birkenhead on May 4, 1914 and arrested her. She appeared in Leeds Assizes on May 8 in connection with the Doncaster arson. She again refused to recognise the court and kept up a tirade against the government addressed directly to the jury throughout the hearing. Lenton was sentenced to one year in prison but was released on May 12 on license to stay at the Pomona Food Reform Boarding House in Harrogate, run by fellow suffragist Leonora Cohen. This time the police would not be thwarted; Lilian Lenton was not to be allowed to escape. "Acetylene motor-car lamps are trained on the house back and front during the hours of darkness, and four police-officers are engaged day and night scrutinising everybody who leaves the house. A motor-car is at call ready to follow any vehicle that may be employed by Miss Lenton’s friends..." 'Yorkshire Evening Post' May 15, 1914.
When on May 19 the police enter the boarding house where she was staying to rearrested after the end of her license period, they found her gone, much to their embarrassment. It was thought that she made good her escape on the night of Saturday May 16, when 40 or 50 men and women visiting the house had all left simultaneous (the women all veiled), scattering in all directions and preventing police following them of pursuing them all. She fled to the Lake District, where she met D.H. Lawrence, who she later claimed tried and failed to get her into bed
Lilian remained free until the outbreak of war in August 1914 brought a suspension of militant activity. She served with the Scottish Women’s Hospitals Unit in Serbia during the war. After the war she worked in Norway, was a spokesperson for the Save the Children Fund, was employed as a travelling organiser and speaker for the Women's Freedom League, as well as being financial secretary of the National Union of Women Teachers. Lenton later recalled: "Personally, I didn't vote for a long time, because I hadn't either a husband or furniture, although I was over 30."
In 1970, as Treasurer of the Suffragette Fellowship, she unveiled a memorial in Christchurch Gardens, Westminster, dedicated to all the men and women who “had braved derision, opposition and ostracism, many enduring physical violence and suffering” to get women the vote. Lilian Lenton died in Twickenham on October 28, 1972, aged 81.

1894 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: Following a peaceful demonstration the previous day, at midday the population begin to meet outside the Fascio di Santa Caterina headquarters in the Piazza Garibaldi with flags, portraits of the king and queen and a crucifix, before planning to spread out through the streets of the town.
Meanwhile, lieutenant of police Colleoni has deployed in the piazza the military reinforcements that had recently arrived from Caltanissetta. With the president of the Fascio Lo Vetere abscent and Joseph Celestino, the vice president of the fascio, and Eugenio Bruno, its treasurer, claiming that they resigned, refused to intervene to disperse the crowd. Leaderless and unaware of the proclamation of the state of siege of January 3rd, the protesters arrived in the Piazza Garibaldi. The commander then ordered them to disperse, but, whilst some of them returned to their own homes, about 2,000 men and women continued to shout and protest.
After three useless trumpet blasts, the order to fire was given and a massacre ensued: ten dead and twenty wounded men, women, old people and children. Four of the injured will die over the following month.

1895 - French Captain Alfred Dreyfus, convicted of treason, publicly stripped of his rank.

1898 - Federico García Lorca (d. 1936) born. [expand]

1906 - [O.S. Dec. 23 1905] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: A young radical SR member, Alexander Kerensky (Алекса́ндр Ке́ренский), is arrested and imprisoned on suspicion of belonging to a militant group, after being found with inflammatory anti-tsarist literature.

1907 - [O.S. Dec 23 1906] Peter Arshinov and several comrades blow up a police station in the workers’ district of Amur, near Ekaterinoslav. The explosion kills three Cossack officers, as well as police officers and guards of the punitive detachment. Due to the painstaking preparation of this act, neither Arshinov nor his comrades are discovered by the police.

1911 - Emma Goldman speaks at the inauguration of the new Ferrer School in New York City.

1912 - Jacques Ellul (d. 1994), French philosopher, law professor, sociologist, lay theologian, and Christian anarchist, born.

1913 - Fight for the 8-Hour Day in Peru: In Peru the Unión General de Jornaleros (General Union of Day Labourers), a constituent organisation of the anarcho-syndicalist Federación Obrera Regional del Perú (Regional Workers' Federation of Peru), demanded an eight-hour working day, a salary increase, medical coverage in labour accidents, and other claims, giving a period of 24 hours before initiating an indefinite general strike.

[F1] 1914 - The Ford Motor Company raised its basic wage from $2.40 for a nine-hour day to $5 for an eight-hour day. When asked why he had done so, Henry Ford claimed that higher wages were necessary to retain workers who could handle the pressure and the monotony of his assembly line; he was buying higher quality work from all his employees: "If the floor sweeper’s heart is in his job he can save us five dollars a day by picking up small tools instead of sweeping them out." In fact, his problem was the high turnover of staff - in 1913, Ford hired more than 52,000 men to keep a workforce of only 14,000. That level of turnover is hugely expensive: not just the downtime of the production line but obviously also the training costs: even the search costs to find them. It can indeed be cheaper to pay workers more but to reduce the turnover of them and those associated training costs.

1915 - Revolución Mexicana: Mexican farmer-turned-Maderista general Alvaro Obregon takes Puebla City with 12,000 troops.

1918 - The Constituent Assembly, in which the Bolsheviks are a minority, meets for one day before being suppressed.

1918 - Alice Télot (d. 1918), French social worker, writer and anarchist, best known by her penname Jacques Fréhel, dies of pulmonary congestion. [Feb. 6]

[D1] 1919 - Spartakusaufstand: Spartacists, led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, head a revolt in Berlin to renew the November revolution, which lasts 6 days; both are murdered by the so-called 'democratic' left on the 15th. [expand]

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: More bombs go off in La Felguera and Gijón , and the strikes in Valencia amongst typographers, metallurgical and employees of the Electra company worsen.

[A2] 1936 - Emma Goldman lectures to the Leicester Secular Society on 'Traders in Death (The International Munitions Clique)'.

1937 - Poss. date for the formation of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade composed of American volunteers to fight against the Fascist forces in the Spanish Civil War. [see also: Jan. 6]

1942 - Tina Modotti (Assunta Adelaide Luigia Modotti Mondini; b. 1896), Italian photographer, model, actress and revolutionary political activist, dies. [see: Aug. 16]

1942 - Roland Lethem, Belgian radical filmmaker, screenwriter, actor, writer and anarchist, born. Influenced by Buñuel, Cocteau, Surrealist and Japanese cinema, his work has regularly outraged bourgeois sensibilities. Amongst his better known works are 'La Ballade des Amants Maudits' (Ballad of Star-crossed Lovers; 1966), 'La Fée Sanguinaire' (The Bloody Fairy; 1968), 'Les Souffrances d'un Ouf Meurtri' (The Sorrows of a Bruised Egg; 1967) 'Bande de Cons!' (Band of Idiots; 1970) and 'Le Sexe Enragé de la Fée Sanguinaire' (The Angry Sex of the Bloody Fairy; 1979).

1945 - The first issue of the magazine 'Tiempos Nuevos', a publication of Spanish anarchist exiles in France, appears in Toulouse.

[C] 1945 - Róża Robota [or Rojza, Rozia, Rosa](Shohanah Robota; b. 1921), Ala Gertner [Alla, Alina, Ella, Ela](b. 1912), Regina Safirsztajn [sometimes given as Safir, Safirstein, or Saphirstein (b. 1915), and Estera Wajcblum (Estusia Wajcblum; b. 1924), members of the Jewish resistance movement in Auschwitz-Birkenau, are hung for their part in the Sonderkommando prisoner revolt of October 7, 1944, which saw the blowing up of Crematorium IV and uprisings and escape attempts in the other crematoria.
One of the roles of the Birkenau camp was to provide labour for the nearby Weichsel - Union Metallwerke ammunition factory and resistance members amongst the Sonderkommando, knowing that at some point they and their successors would be liquidated, began planning a mass uprising. One element of this entailed the long-term smuggling of small amounts of gunpowder out from the factory into the camp in order to make improvised grenades. Amongst those involved the smuggling operation were:

· Ester Wajcblum, who had previously been deported to Majdanek with her sister Hanka and their parents, Jakub and Rebeka, both deaf-mutes who were murdered on arrival there, before arriving in Birkenau;
· Hanka Wajcblum [also refered as Hana Wajcblum or Chana Weissman, and who later became Anna Heilman](1928-2011), one of the few involved in the Sonderkommando uprising to survive the War;
· Ala Gertner, who was deported to the Geppersdorf labour camp in 1940 before being allowed back to the Sosnowiec Ghetto the following year, spending time in the Będzin ghetto before being sent to Birkenau in mid-1943;
· Regina Safirsztajn, the forewoman of the Gunpowder Room, who was recruited by her friend Ala Gertner to join the resistance movement, and about whom little is known; and
· Róża Robota, a member of Hashomer Hatzair Zionist-socialist youth movement, who joined that movement's underground upon the Nazi occupation but was arrested in 1942 and deported to the Birkenau women's camp. Róża worked in the clothing depot at Birkenau and helped get the gunpowder smuggled out of the factory by the women working there into the camp itself, passing it on the the resistance network established in the various parts of Auschwitz-Birkenau.
· Also involved in the smuggling operation were Hadassah Zlotnicka, Inge Frank, Genia Fischer, Marta Bindiger, Ruzia Grunapfel, and several other unnamed women.

Following the uprising and the destruction of Crematorium IV, an investigation into where the gunpowder had come from after a couple of weeks led back to the ammunition factory. Regina Safirsztajn, as the forewoman was arrested first, followed by all those from the gunpowder room. All were interrogated and tortured by the Gestapo in the infamous Bloc 23. Eventually Regina, Ala, Ester, and Róza were betrayed. They were tortured again and repeatedly raped but refused to reveal the names of others who participated in the smuggling operation. Ester Wajcblum and Regina Safirsztajn were hanged at the morning roll-call assembly and Ala Gertner and Róża Robota in the evening - in front of the rest of the camp prisoners just two weeks before the camp was evacuated.

1945 - Róża Robota [or Rojza, Rozia, Rosa](Shohanah Robota; b. 1921), Jewish participant in the resistance movement in Auschwitz-Birkenau, is hung along with 3 other women for their part in the Sonderkommando prisoner revolt of October 7, 1944. A member of Hashomer Hatzair Zionist-socialist youth movement, she joined that movement's underground upon the Nazi occupation and was arrested in 1942 and deported to the Birkenau women's camp. The camp also served as an ammunition factory and Róża, who worked in the clothing depot at Birkenau, helped get the gunpowder smuggled out of the factory by the women working there into the camp itself, passing it on the the resistance network established in the various parts of Auschwitz-Birkenau. Following the uprising and the destruction of Crematorium IV, Róża was arrested, along with Ala Gertner, Regina Saperstein [Regina Safirsztajn] and Estera Wajcblum [Estusia Wajcblum]. All four were tortured and repeatedly raped but refused to give up any information.

1945 - Dekemvrianá [Δεκεμβριανά / December events]: ELAS is forced to leave Athens as their ammunition runs out and they face being overwhelmed by the British.

1948 - Ericka Huggins (Ericka Jenkins), African-American activist and educator, poet, former political prisoner and leading member of the Black Panther Party, born. In 1963, she attended the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom and, in 1967, she joined the BPP, going on to become a leader in the Los Angeles chapter and later led the BPP chapter in New Haven, Connecticut alongside Kathleen Neal Cleaver and Elaine Brown. Her 14-year tenure as a leader of the Black Panther Party would be the longest of any woman in the leadership. Three weeks after the birth of their daughter Mai, her husband was John Huggins was shot to death on the UCLA campus on January 17, 1969, as part of a FBI-fueled fued with the rival black nationalist group 'US Organization' [as in us].
In May 1969, Huggins and fellow Party leader Bobby Seale were targeted and arrested on murder, kidnapping, and conspiracy charges following the torture and murder of Alex Rackley by members of the New Haven Black Panthers in the early hours of May 21, 1969. All the charges against her were eventually dismissed on May 25, 1971, with the jury in her and Seale's trial unable to reach a verdict, deadlocked 10 to 2 for Huggin's acquittal [and 11 to 1 for Seale's acquittal]. From 1973-81, Huggins was Director of the Oakland Community School, a groundbreaking community-run child development centre and elementary school founded by the Black Panther Party, and is a professor of Sociology and African-American Studies in Oakland and at Berkeley City College.

[A1] 1960 - Anarchist guérilla Francisco Sabaté (b. 1915), dies after a shoot-out with fascist Guardia Civil. Wounded yesterday, he escaped, but is killed today in San Celoni by a sometén (Catalan militia). [see: Mar. 30]

1962 - Marcelle Capy (Marcelle Marques; b. 1891), French journalist, writer, militant syndicalist, libertarian socialist, pacifist and feminist, dies. [see: Mar. 26]

1972 - U.K. Miners' Strike: After three months of negotiations with the National Coal Board, the NUM rejects the NCB's 7.9% pay rise offer and their promise of a backdated deal for an increase in productivity. Two days later the NCB announces it was withdrawing its pay offer as it was now clear that the miners were intent on striking. [see: Jan. 9]

1979 - Imperial Valley Lettuce Strike: The United Farm Workers union submits a series of economic demands to growers, and publishes them in the Mexicali newspaper, 'La Voz'. The UFW demanded 42% wage increases for field workers, bringing the entry wage from $3.70 to $5.25; 60 percent wage increases for tractor drivers and irrigators, from $3.75 to $6 per hour; and a 53 percent increase in the piece rate for harvesting lettuce, from $0.57 per 24-head carton to $0.87 per carton. The UFW also proposed a percentage formula for the medical plan rather than an hourly formula – as a way to deal with the fewer hours worked per day in the lettuce fields, five more paid holidays, paid union reps, an increase in the pension plan, gas expenses, per diem for travel, guarantee of earnings for the first week of the harvest, and standby and reporting pay.
[libraries.ucsd.edu/farmworkermovement/essays/essays/MillerArchive/062 The 1979 Lettuce Strike.pdf

1981 - Huelga Policial en Ecuador [Ecuador Police Strike]: Police in Ecuador go on strike at 07:00 over the issues of their unpaid salary for December 1980 and Christmas bonuses. Coordinated between the Ecuadorian National Police of Quito and Guayaquil, the main focus of the mutiny was the Quito Regiment No. 1 in the capital city. Clashes between the troops and the officers, which included a teargas incident in Guayaquil, broke out. The insubordinate policemen also demanded the removal of the Minister of Government Carlos Feraud Blum, who was in charge of the crisis and had said that the government would not yield to their demands. At 21:30 the same day, Feraud reported that the conflict had been resolved, with the government deciding to accelerate the payment of the outstanding remunerations in addition to improved meal allowance being paid.

1990 - Lola Iturbe (Dolores Iturbe Arizcuren; b. 1902), Catalonian militant anarcho-syndicalist and member of Mujeres Libres, who wrote under the pseudonym Kyralina, in tribute to the famous novel by Panaït Istrati dies. [see: Aug. 1]

1993 - Maria Zazzi (b. 1904), life-long Italian anarchist militant, dies. [see: Jun. 10]

2002 - Yves Peyraut aka Yvo Pero (b. 1934), French anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, Esperantist and prominent figure on Radio Libertaire, dies. [see: Sep. 14]

2006 - José Iglesias Paz (b. 1916), Spanish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist combatant, dies. [see: Aug. 26]

[D2] 2009 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: In Greece gunmen sprayed Athens riot police with automatic weapons fire, seriously wounding a policeman in an escalation of violence that broke out after the fatal police shooting of a teenager on Dec 6. The Revolutionary Struggle group later claimed responsibility. [expand]

2015 - Anti-Pediga Protests: Thousands of Germans demonstrate in German cities, including Berlin, Stuttgart, Cologne and Dresden, in opposition to the weekly Pediga rallies in Dresden. In Cologne the square around the cathedral is plunged into darkness as thousands join the demonstration. Only about 250 Pegida supporters show up in Cologne, as compared to about 10 times that number of counter-demonstrators. Similarly in Berlin, around 5,000 counter-demonstrators block about 300 'Bärgida' supporters from marching along their planned route from the city hall to the Brandenburg Gate. Münich - 60 'Mügida' vs. 1500 counter-demonstrators; Würzburg - 300 'Pegida' vs. 1500 counter-demonstrators; Kassel - 200 Pegida vs. 250 counter-demonstrators. Another 28,000 anti-Pegida demonstrators rally in Stuttgart, Münster, Marburg, Weinheim, Rostock and Hamburg.
Pegida’s main demonstration in the eastern city of Dresden, a region that has few immigrants or Muslims, attracts 10,000 [press] - 18,000 [police], up from the 10,000-17,500 on 22-12-2014.
[B] 1848 - Hristo Botev (Hristo Botyov Petkov; b. 1876), Bulgarian poet, writer, early anarchist, propagandist and revolutionary, born. The first prominent Bulgarian anarchist, his life and writings have shamelessly been appropriated by both Bulgarian nationalists and Communists.

1858 - Sébastien Faure (d. 1942), French anarchist who co-founded 'Le Libertaire' with Louise Michel in 1895, born.

1874 - Michal Kácha (d. 1940), Czech shoemaker, anarchist, journalist, editor, translator and publisher, who had a great influence on young writers of his time, born. In 1904, along with the poet, activist, and co-editor of 'Červen' (June), S. K. Neumann, Kácha founded both the Česká Anarchistická Federace (Czech Anarchist Federation, or ČAF) and the Česká Federace Va̧ech Odborů (Czech Federation of All Unions, or ČFVO). Unsuccessful in creating societal change, they merged to form the Federaci Českých Anarchistů Komunistů (Federation of Czech Anarchist Communists, or FČAK) during the Anarchist Congress held in April 1914 in Prague, despite Kácha's objections ["a germ of next compromises"] that it would betray anarchist ideals and corrupt the movement.
Editor of the magazines 'Práce' (Labour, official ČAF publication; 1905-08) and 'Zádruha' (The Cooperative; 1909-14), he also published fellow anarchist Fráňa Šrámek's poetry collection 'Života Bído, Přec Tě Mám Rád' (Life is Misery, Yet I Love You..!; 1905). After the outbreak of WWI, he was arrested and interned in Göllersdorf Castle, but was eventually sent to the front, where he was wounded and invalided out in 1917.
After the war, the anarchist movement fell apart but Kácha failed to follow many into the KSČ, but he created the anarchist-influenced magazine 'Červen' (1919-21) along with S. K. Neumann.

1883 - Eugénie Niboyet (Eugenie Mouchon; b. 1796), French author, journalist and early feminist, who is best known for founding 'La Voix des Femmes' (The Women's Voice), the first feminist daily newspaper in France, dies. [see: Sep. 10]

[E2] 1894 - Ona Šimaitė (d. 1970), Lithuania librarian, who used her position at Vilnius University to aid and rescue Jews in the Vilna Ghetto, born.
www.lituanus.org/2008/08_2_01 Sukys.html

[D1] 1906 - [O.S. Dec 24 1905] Novorossiysk Republic [Новороссийская республика]: The Tsarist government sends a large punitive detachment, supported from the sea battleship Three Saints (Три святителя), to suppress the workers' and peasants' Novorossiysk Republic (Dec 25, 1905 - Jan 7, 1906 [O.S. Dec. 12-25 ]).

1906 - Pohjolan Tukkityöläisten Lakko [Nordic Timber Workers' Strike]: Finnish skilled workers for the Kemi Oy company wood processing industry in Lapland town of Kemi submit a list of 12 demands on pay and condition, which included the right to belong to a union, as well as health care provision and the prices in the monopoly company shops on site. The company did not respond to the demands and on January 24, 1906, about 2,200 men went on strike in Sodankylä and Salla.

[A] 1907 - Emma Goldman is arrested by the New York City Anarchist Police Squad while delivering a lecture entitled 'False and True Conceptions of Anarchism', which she had successfully presented the previous month at a meeting organised by the Brooklyn Philosophical Association. She is charged with publicly expressing "incendiary sentiments". Berkman and two others are also arrested.

[1919 - Julia Barranco Hanglin (d. 1998), Catalan anarchist and member of the anti-Francoist resistance

1914 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'Rabotnitcheska Missal' (Workers' Thought) appears in Sofia, Bulgaria. Initially subtitled 'Journal of pure unionism' and from issue number 13 (August 20), 'Journal of revolutionary syndicalism' - an anarchist journal whose aim is to promote libertarian ideas among the workers and the formation of anarcho-syndicalist unions.

[C] 1920 - Josep (José) Lluis i Facerias aka 'Face' or 'Petronio' (d. 1957), Spanish anarchist who fought in the Civil War and guérilla resistance to Franco, born. A member of the Sindicat de la Fusta (Woodworkers Union) in the Confederació Nacional del Treball (CNT) and militant in the Joventuts Llibertàries de Catalunya (JLC/Libertarian Youth of Catalonia)[then a separate organisation from the Federació Ibèrica de Joventuts Llibertàries (FIJL)], when the Civil War broke out he enlisted in the Ascaso Column, a militia division formed by anarchists and which later became the 28th Division of the Army. He fought the whole war on the Aragon front until his captured in 1939 during the Retirada, the withdrawal from Catalonia. He also lost his partner and infant daughter, killed as they fled to France along with thousands of other refugees. He then spent the following years in various concentration camps and forced labour battalions in Zaragoza, Vitoria, Extremadura and Catalonia, until his release in late 1945. In Barcelona he immediately joined the Sindicat d'Indústries Gràfiques in the then clandestine CNT, whilst working as a waiter and cashier in a restaurant. He also engaged in other aspects of the underground anti-Franco resistance - robbing banks, factories, companies and jewellers to finance clandestine activities [eight robberies performed with his group in 1946 raised 3,000,000 pesetas for the CNT], and carrying out a series of acts of sabotage, including the shooting-up of the police station in Gracia Travessera de Dalt, destroying CAMPSA (the state-owned petroleum products company of Spain) storage tanks, and bomb blasts at the consulates of pro-Franco regime states (Bolivia, Brazil, Peru) - becoming one of the most active participants in actions and JLC activities.
At the Las Planas plenum of the FIJL in July 1946, he was appointed secretary of defence of the Regional Committee of Catalonia and the Balearics of the FIJL and also assumed the secretariat of the new underground organisation Movimiento Ibérico de Resistencia (MIR/Iberian Resistance Movement).
However, on August 17, 1946, Face was arrested along with most of the Regional Committee and other CNT activists. A total of 39 comrades ended up in prison. Upon his release from Barcelona's Modelo prison in June 1947, he became secretary of the Movimiento Libertario de Resistencia (MLR/Libertarian Movement of Resistance), participating in the Congress of the Movimiento Libertario en el Exilio (MLE/Libertarian Movement in Exile) in Toulouse. Intended to be the armed wing of Spanish anarcho-syndicalism, it was short-lived and was dissolved in February 1948.
However, he remained convinced that armed appropriations were still the best method of getting the money needed to support anarchist militant prisoners and their families, and he formed the Facerías maquis group. Its first action was the robbery of the Hispano-Olivetti factory in Barcelona and the group went on to conducted numerous expropriations, famously on 2 luxury brothels [the Pedralbes and La Casita Blanca] frequented by the Catalan bourgeoisie in August 1949 [returning to both in 1951 to rob them again], and sabotage actions, such as the burning of 20 vehicles at the bus garage of la Ronda de San Antonio and the attack on the police station in Gracia in August 1948. In May 1949 he participated in the bombing campaign organised by Francesc Sabaté Llopart, aka 'El Quico', and in March of that year in the attempt to assassinate the commissioner of the Brigada Político de Barcelona, Eduardo Quintela Bóveda. On August 26, 1949, he managed to escape a Guardia Civil ambush in the Pyrenees unharmed, but two of his companions were killed and one was seriously injured. On April 1, 1950, during the Fiesta de la Victoria commemorating Franco's victory, he placed a powerful bomb underneath a grandstand on the Paseo de Gracia whilst distributing thousands of anti-Franco leaflets throughout the city in a stolen car.
1950 also saw the beginning of deterioration in his relationship with the exiled CNT leadership as they became increasingly opposed to the armed struggle. At the same time, the maquis groups were suffering significant losses, including that of Facerías, who lost his best friend and comrade Guillermo Ganuza Navarro amongst others. On October 26, 1951, Face managed to escape from yet another ambush, killing one policeman and wounding nine. With the exiled CNT leadership's hostility to the armed struggle (which they eventually abandoning all together in 1953), even France was becoming a hostile environment for Face. Under the threat of arrest there (with potential deportation to Spain and certain death) and a lack of support from the so-called anarchist leadership, in June 1952 he travelled to Italy under the name of Alberto di Luigi. There he helped form the Grupos Anarquistas de Acción Proletaria (GAAP/Anarchist Proletarian Action Groups) and tried to restructure the Italian JL groups. He also carried out a series of expropriations with Jesus del Olmo Sáez aka 'Malatesta' to try and fund a series of international anarchist camping events.
Back in France, he contacted Sabaté in 1956 with the aim of carrying out join actions, but a series of disagreements put an end to the collaboration. Deciding to return to Barcelona, Face together with Luis Agustín Vicente aka 'El Metralla' (Shrapnel), a Murcian anarchist with whom he had worked in Italy, and the Italian anarchist Goliardo Fiaschi, in order to execute the traitor Aniceto Linnet Manzanero. Having managed to cross the border into Spain disguised as hikers despite the intense police activity, they split up aiming to meet-up in Barcelona. In the meantime, unknown to Facerías both El Metralla and Fiaschi had been arrested and, at a pre-planned rendezvous in the Saint Andreu district on Friday August 30, 1957 at 10:45 am, Face was ambushed by police hidden in nearby windows and on roofs at the confluence of the carrers Dr. Urrutia and Pi i Molist. Shot several times including in the leg breaking his ankle, he threw himself over a nearby barrier into a trench, falling twelve feet (4m). He then produced a hand-grenade from his pocket, but was fatally shot before he could pull the pin. Shot nine times, he died aged just 37. His death passed unnoted by the exiled libertarian press except for 'Atalaya', which remained critical of the CNT's stance on armed struggle. Face's death left the 'El Quico' Sabaté and Ramon Vila Capdevila 'Caraquemada' (Burnt-face) groups as the only active maquis guerrilla organisations left in Catalonia.

[F2] 1923 - The first issue of 'Solidaridad Obrera: Semanario sindicalista. Órgano de la Confederación Regional de Galicia y portavoz de la CNT' is printed in La Coruña, Galicia.

1937 - Poss. date for the formation of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade composed of American volunteers to fight against the Fascist forces in the Spanish Civil War. [see also: Jan. 5]

1952 - Serge Quadruppani, French author of romans noirs detective fiction, translator, essayist, literary editor, journalist and committed libertarian militant, born. The French translator of Andrea Camilleri's series of Inspector Montalbano novels.

1961 - Grève Générale de l'Hiver [Winter General Strike] / Grève du Siècle [Strike of the Century]: Liège witnesses the worst fighting of the strike. In all, 75 people were injured during seven hours of street battles. Two injured strikers died a few days later. The following weekend sabotage increased in the provinces of Liège and Hainaut. A train was derailed and there were attacks on bridges and high-voltage lines. Some 3,000 Belgian troops were brought in from Germany to protect rail and electricity infrastructure. [see: Dec. 20]

1974 - David Alfaro Siqueiros (born José de Jesús Alfaro Siqueiros; b. 1896), Mexican social realist painter, muralist, trades union organiser and one-time anarchist, dies. [see: Dec. 29]

1975 - 12,000 workers strike at Vaal Reefs gold mine in South Africa.

1977 - William Victor 'Bill' Gropper (b. 1897), U.S. cartoonist, Social Realist painter associated with the Ash-Can Group, lithographer, muralist, left (libertarian) communist and anti-fascist, dies. [see: Dec. 3]

1977 - Three months after signing the Sex Pistols for £40,000, EMI terminates the contract after releasing only one single.

1982 - Albert Meister (b. 1927), Swiss author and anarchist sociologist, dies. The real author of 'La Soi-Disant Utopie du Centre Beaubourg' (Éditions Entente; 1976) allegedly written by 'Gustave Affeulpin', a fictional text of a future radical libertarian space under the Pompideau Centre (built on what was the working class community of Beaubourg).Participated with Jacques Vallet on the creation of the arts and satire review 'Le Fou Parle' (The Fool Speaks) in 1977. A prolific author under a host of pseudonyms and a researcher in the Ecole des Hautes Etudes de Paris (School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences). [see: Jul. 22]

[1988 - Maria Duran, aka 'Rosina' (b. 1912), Catalan-born Brazilian anarchist propagandist

1997 - Nieves González (Nieves Floristán) (b. unknown), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who was the partner of the anarcho-syndicalist Julián Floristán Urrecho for more than sixty years, dies. At the beginning of the Revolution of 1936 she actively participated in the organisation of the Joventuts Llibertàries and the collectives in the Vall-de-roures region (Matarranya and Franja de Ponent) until their destruction in 1937 by troops under the command of the Stalinist counter-revolutionary Enrique Líster. In 1939, with the triumph of Franco, she went into exile in France with her companion. In the early fifties became a militant in the Local Federation of the CNT in Royan until her death.

[F1] 2014 - The Director of Human Resources Bernard Glesser and Production Manager Michel Dheilly are the subject of 'séquestration' ('bossnapping') by angry employees, mostly members of the CGT, and held for over 30 hours at the Amiens-Nord Goodyear tyre factory, which they had occupied following the announcement of the closure of the site and the laying-off of its 1,143 employees. Workers at the idle factory in the northern French city of Amiens have been trying to negotiate redundancy terms with management for nearly a year, after Texan tyre tycoon Maurice Taylor withdrew a potential rescue bid on the grounds that French workers were lazy - triggering a political storm. The bossnapped executives were finally released unharmed on January 7.

[E1] 2006 - Comandanta Ramona (b. 1959), Mexican and Tzotzil women's rights activist, as well as the female face of the Zapatista revolution in Chiapas, dies of kidney failure en route from the town of San Andrés de Larrainzer to the hospital in San Cristobal de las Casas. Born in 1959 in a Tzotzil Maya community in the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, Ramona earned a meagre wage by selling artisan crafts before joining the EZLN in 1993 and taking on her famous nom de guerre. A member of the Zapatista lead council, the Comité Clandestino Revolucionario Indígena (Clandestine Revolutionary Indigenous Committee), she was also one of seven female member (out of a total of 23) in leadership positions in an army of Tzotzil and Tzeltal Mayan Indians, one-third of whom were women. It was Ramona who led the Zapatista rebels into San Cristóbal de las Casas on New Year's Day 1994, demanding greater rights for the indigenous people of Chiapas and protesting at Mexico's involvement in the North American Free Trade Agreement. And it was she who was dispatched in February 1994 by the Comité to represent it at the first peace talks with the Mexican government, held in the colonial cathedral of San Cristóbal.
However, 1994 was also the year that she began another fight, this time against cancer of the kidney, receiving a donor transplant from her brother in 1996, something made possible by donations from Zapatista supporters. In October that year, though sick and frail, she defied a government ban and showed up in Mexico City for the Congreso Nacional Indígena (National Indigenous Congress), the first Zapatista representative to appear in the capital. Protected from potential arrest by the massed ranks of Zapatista supporters, she addressed the congress and later, to a rapturous reception, a crowd of 100,000 supporters in the Zócalo, Mexico City's massive central square.
Ramona's last public appearence was during the preparatory meetings for La Otra Campaña (The Other Campaign, the main political campaign of the Zapatistas aimed at the protection of indigenous rights and autonomy, by organising horizontally from below and uniting all the disparate radical and anti-capitalist elements within Mexican society) on September 16, 2005 , in the Caracol (autonomous council) in La Garrucha. La Otra Campaña was temporarily suspended for the duration of her funeral as a sign of respect. Her real name and details of her pre-revolutionary life have never been revealed.

2006 - C. J. Sansom's detective novel 'Winter in Madrid', is first published. Set in 1940 in the aftermath of Franco's victory, the novel describes Madrid under the yoke of political repression, food shortages, poverty, corruption, sadism and ignorance (religious and political), and puts the defeat of the Republic fully at the feet of the Communists.

[D2] 2011 - 10 prison officers are injured as they are attacked by 10-12 prisoners at HMP Swaleside on the Isle of Sheppey, Kent.

[EEE] 2014 - Marina Ginestà i Coloma (b. 1919), French-born Spanish journalist, translator, and anti-fascist miliciana and militant in the PSUC and JSUC, who became famous due to the photo taken by Juan Guzmán on the rooftop of Hotel Colón, Barcelona during the July 1936 military uprising, one of the most iconic photographs of the Spanish Civil War, dies at the age of 94. [see: Jan. 29]
1873 - Charles Péguy (d. 1914), French poet, playwright, essayist, editor, libertarian socialist and anti-clericalist, born. Strongly inspired by the anarchism of Jean Grave and, outraged at the anti-Semitism being displayed in the Dreyfus case, became an ardent Dreyfusard. His early political tracts were published in 'La Revue Socialiste' and 'La Revue Blanche', but he gradually moved towards mainstream socialist thought, nationalism and even Catholicism.

1876 - Rafael Barrett (Rafael Ángel Jorge Julián Barrett y Álvarez de Toledo; d. 1910), Spanish polymath, writer, essayist, journalist and anarchist thinker, who became an important figure of the Paraguayan literature during the twentieth century, born. Launched the anarchist newspaper 'Germinal' in 1908, which was quickly banned for exposing torture and abuses of power and Barrett arrested and exiled to Brazil, and them to Uruguay.

1881 - [O.S Dec. 26, 1880] Valentina Kolosova [Валентина Колосова] (Valentina Pavlovna Popova [Валентина Павловна Попова]; d. 1937), Russian revolutionary, member of the S-R Combat Organisation (Боева́я организа́ция), born. Soon after joining the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партии социалистов-революционеров) and being arrested with a suitcase full of illegal literature in May 1903, she was sent to learn bomb-making. In autumn 1907, she fled to France with her son. In 1916 she returned to Russia and 4 years later Valentina was arrested in Omsk, but after a few months in prison, she was released. Following her next arrest in 1925, Valentine and her partner Evgeny Evgenyevich Kolosov (Евгением Евгеньевич Колосовым) were sentenced to 3 years for "participating in an organisation acting in the direction of assistance the international bourgeoisie." In January 1928, she was released following an amnesty decree, but in February 14, 1933, she was arrested again and sentenced to two years in prison for "organising a counter-revolutionary group, whose goal is to overthrow the Soviet regime". In 1935 Valentin was exiled to Tobolsk (Тобольск), where she was joined a year later Eugene. In 1937 Kolosov was once again charged with participating in counter-revolutionary activities and sentenced in absentia to death. She was shot on August 7 or 12 [most likely date], 1937 in Tobolsk.

1884 - Arturo M. Giovannitti (d. 1959), Italian-American IWW activist, anarchist socialist, anti-fascist agitator and poet, born. He was involved in the IWW's organisation of the 1912 Lawrence 'Bread and Roses' textile strike (also known as the 'Strike for Three Loaves'), alongside Joseph Ettor, during which a woman striker named Anna LoPizzo, was killed as police broke up a picket line. Joseph Caruso, a striker, was charged with her murder (even though the fatal shot was fired by the police). Giovannitti and Ettor, who were not present, were later arrested and charged as accessories to murder as part of the authorities' attempts to break the union.

"A man may lose his soul for just one day
Of splendor and be still accounted wise,
Or he may waste his life in a disguise
Like kings and priests and jesters, and still may

Be saved and held a hero if the play
Is all he knew. But what of him who tries
With truth and fails and then wins fame with lies?
How shall he know what history will say?

By this: No man is great who does not find
A poet who will hail him as he is
With an almighty song that will unbind

Through his exploits eternal silences.
Duce, where is your bard? In all mankind
The only poem you inspired is this. "

- 'To Mussolini'


1887 - Henri Chassin (d. 1964), French poet, anarchist songwriter and an anti-militarist who deserted from the army in 1914, born. A "petit fils de communard" who was the author of numerous popular Parisian songs. Active in the great railway strike of 1920 and was charged with "conspiracy against state security" and imprisoned. Involved in le Groupe des Hydropathes, La Vache Enragée, the activities of La Muse Rouge and performed in many Paris cabarets such as the Grenier de Grégoire. Author of a book of poems 'Machin de Belleville' in 1927.

1891 - Zora Neale Hurston (d. 1960), US folklorist, anthropologist, novelist, short story writer and civil right activist, who was a fixture of the Harlem Renaissance before writing her masterwork, 'Their Eyes Were Watching God' (1937), born. The daughter of two former slaves, to support herself and finance her efforts to get an education, Hurston worked a variety of jobs, including as a maid for an actress in a touring Gilbert and Sullivan group. [expand]

1893 - The first issue of the short lived anarchist periodical 'El Eco Ravachol' appears in Sabadell (near Barcelona).

1893 - The first issue of the fortnightly newspaper 'La Debacle: Organe Revolutionnaire' appears in Saint-Josse-Ten-Node, Belgium. It runs for eleven issues, the last dated 23 July to 6 August 1893.

1895 - Georgette Ryner (d. 1975), French writer, poet, teacher and anarchist activist, who was also the daughter of anarchist thinker Han Ryner and companion of the individualist anarchist Louis Simon, born. Worked on numerous newspaper and journals including 'Le Semeur de Normandie' (The Sower), 'l'En Dehors' (The Outside) and 'Ce Qu'il Faut Dire' (What Must Be Said) and was author of numerous books and poems including 'Dans la Ronde Éternelle' (In the Eternal Round; 1926) and 'Adolescente Passionnée' (1969). [NB: Numerous internet sources state that Georgette was Han Ryner's partner (pace 'The Daily Bleed'). This is incorrect.]

1900 - Ludovic Massé (d. 1982), Catalan proletarian writer, novelist and libertarian, born. Author of 'Le Refus' (1946), in praise of pacifism, and numerous other novels.

1904 - Ruth Landshoff-Yorck (Ruth Levy; d. 1966), German-American actress, writer, journalist and translator, whose first appearance in a film was in Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau's 'Nosferatu' (1922), born.

[E2] 1905 - [O.S. Dec. 25, 1904] Esther Dolgoff (Esther Miller; d. 1989), US anarchist activist and member of the IWW, born in Russia. A friend of Emma Goldman, Rudolf Rocker, Augustin Souchy and other noted anarchists, Esther Dolgoff was active in the anarchist movement since her teens, she met Sam, her life companion, in Cleveland in 1930 whilst he was on an IWW speaking tour. Together they founded Libertarian League in 1955 and were active in the Libertarian Book Club and the Industrial Workers of the World. A contributor to many anarchist movement publications, she was co-editor of the New York anarchist journal 'Views and Comments' and translated important anarchist works into English, most notably Joseph Cohen's 'Di yidish-anarkhistishe bavegung in Amerike : historisher iberblik un perzenlekhe iberlebungen' (The Jewish Anarchist Movement In The United States: A Historical Review And Personal Reminiscences; 1945).

1906 - [O.S. Dec 24 1905] Novorossiysk Republic [Новороссийская республика]: The thirteen day old workers' and peasants' republic is suppressed by overwhelming Tsarist forces.

1907 - Matanza de Río Blanco [Slaughter of Río Blanco] / Huelga de Río Blanco [Río Blanco Strike]: The Río Blanco strike by unionised textile workers and associated rioting near Orizaba in the Mexican state of Veracruz became a symbol of the corruption and civil repression of the administration of Mexican president Porfirio Díaz and is considered a precursor event of the Mexican Revolution of 1910.
Central to the burgeoning workers movement in the central region of Mexico was the attempt at setting up the Gran Círculo de Obreros Libres (Great Circle of Free Workers), a workers' organisation launched by members of the Partido Liberal Mexicano on April 2, 1906. Based on the Sociedad Mutualista de Ahorros (Mutualist Savings Society), its constitution contained a secret clause that stipulated that it maintained secret links with the Junta Revolucionaria of Ricardo Flores Magón.
The Díaz government and local officials' response to the creation of the new union was swift, shutting down the GCOL and embracing a new 'moderate' GCOL set up by José Morales, a foreman in the Río Blanco plant, who pledged that the union would support the local governor and not become involved in politics, banning all 'radicals' from membership. Ninety three factory owners in the Orizaba, Puebla, and Tlaxcala region, most of them French, took their own steps to protect their businesses, forming a trade group called the Centro Industrial Mexicano, which in late November imposed a set of new work regulations – the Reglamento de Noviembre (November Regulations) – which banned all the region's industrial workers, family and friends from bringing uncensored reading material into company towns. All workers were also required to carry black passbooks, which contained identity documents and works discipline records.
As a consequence of this, together with the working conditions – a fourteen hour day, with just 40 minute lunch break, and punitive pay conditions – that the new GCOL union had recently negotiated as part of the Reglamento de Noviembre, the union's leadership suffered a backlash from rank and file workers. The workers in Puebla responded to the new regulations by going out on strike on December 3 [some sources give the date as the 1st, 4th or 7th], with more than 6,000 workers taking part.
On December 7 the GCOL held a large strike meeting in Puebla. About three thousand workers gathered to draw up their grievances and to request President Díaz to arbitrate. The list of workers’ demands included the release of workers at 17:30 on Saturdays instead of the usual 20:00, additional time for eating, a number of holidays, a pension plan, overtime pay, control of worker abuse by supervisors, the right to read uncensored newspapers, the recognition of the GCOL and entry of its representatives into the factories as observers, the prohibition of company stores and child labour (120 children were employed in Rio Blanco alone), and the regulation of night work. Labourers in Veracruz, including those at Río Blanco, supported their striking comrades in Puebla through donations of monies and foodstuffs. In retaliation, the owners in Veracruz implemented a lockout to prevent the flow of aid and to break the GCOL once and for all.
A number of speakers addressed the weary crowd but an anonymous orator received tumultuous applause when he declared that thus far Mexico had experienced only two revolutions, those of independence and La Reforma, and that there was going to be a third one, "that of class war (la lucha de clases)". The workers then developed a plan to strike against factories in selected regions. A strike by six thousand textile workers in Puebla ensued. A few days later, eight hundred more workers in Tlaxcala joined the effort. The textile industrialists, urged on by José Limantour, decided to shut down all the member plants of the Centro Industrial Mexicano, citing an accumulated warehouse supply inventory that required depletion as the reason for the closure. The plaintive GCOL leadership may have bargained in good faith but found itself caught between angry workers and intransigent factory owners.
The lockout began on December 22, 1906, and affected 22,000 workers in Puebla, 10,000 in Orizaba, and 25,000 more in and around Mexico City, Veracruz, Querétaro, and Guadalajara. The GCOL strike fund of 25,000 pesos lasted only four days. Some Puebla-Orizaba workers suffered extreme privation. About 2,050 of them migrated to other parts of the country seeking relief. The GCOL leadership had unsuccessfully petitioned the Díaz government to arbitrate the dispute on three separate occasions earlier in the month before the lockout began. Finally, when the government agreed to arbitrate, the industrialists predictably turned down its request. On December 31 the capitalists agreed to accept government arbitrations. By then the desperate GCOL leadership was ready to accept almost any settlement in order to reopen the factories.
On January 4 the stern terms of the accords became public. The only proviso that even hinted at compromise by the employers was the cynical abolition of child labour for those under seven years of age, but child workers were already normally older than that. The prohibitions on reading materials and the other rules, including the required passbooks, remained in effect. On January 6, Pascual Mendoza, the GCOL leader in Puebla, addressed the assembled workers there and, citing the endorsement of the archbishop, "God", "Church", and "Country", he gained majority approval for the new agreements. But in Orizaba – where some of the workers at the large Río Blanco mill who had not joined the strike, but were still blacklisted, locked out of work, and refused access to provisions from the monopoly company store, and remained particularly aggrieved – a large and loud minority shouted down and denounced Morales after he gained a majority vote. In PML-like rhetoric the protesters shouted out, "Death to Porfirio Díaz!" and "Down with the dictatorship!" Leaders of the Santa Rosa GCOL, president Rafael Moreno and vice-president Manuel Juárez, led the opposition to the accords.
On January 7, Mexico’s textile factories reopened and events passed normally except in Orizaba. At 05:30 the first contingent of workers, arriving early at Rio Blanco to get the plant ready for the first shift, confronted an angry crowd of dissidents; men, women, and children threw rocks at the buildings and shouted their protests. The sentiments expressed in the beginning are not known. Later that day the shouts clearly expressed rebellion against the government, as they had during the previous night. The arriving workers turned back and some of them joined the crowds.
As the crowd grew in front of the factory, Jefe Politico Herrera tried to disperse it, only to be shouted at and stoned. Some of the women felt a deep grievance against the management of the large monopolistic and virtual company store, the Centro Comercial, run by Frenchman Victor Garcín and Spaniard Manuel Díez. There are various explanations of the provocation which led the workers to attack it, including the killing of a female shopworker and several accounts of verbal insults offered by Garcín against the strikers. At 09:00 Margarita Martinez called upon the angry crowd gathered in front of the factory, "¡A la tienda! ¡A la tienda!" (To the store!) The crowd sacked and burned the Garcín-Díez-operated store. The smashed merchandise littered the ground around Orizaba for days afterward. At that point a unit of the 13th Infantry Battalion arrived on the scene reinforcing a small force of rurales (mounted police), who, caught up in the feelings of the crowd, had refused to take action. The soldiers took the rurales into custody and opened fire on the workers, killing seventeen and wounding eighty. Eleven of the rurales, including their commander, Lieutenant Gabriel Arroyo, later died before a firing squad, shot for their actions. With the store sacked and burned, some of the workers marched to the centre of town, shouting "Death to Porfirio Díaz", seized the jail, and released all the prisoners. The strike-lockout had turned into a working-class rebellion.
Another large segment of the crowd, still led by Martinez, headed toward the Nogales and Santa Rosa factories, several miles away, shouting rebellious slogans: "Death to the dictator Porfirio Díaz!" "Long live liberty!" "Long live Mexico!" "Down with the oppressors and company stores!" About two miles outside Nogales they linked up with the workers from the Santa Rosa and Nogales factories who had heard of the events in Rio Blanco and came out to meet them. The crowd, led by Santa Rosa GCOL leader Manuel Juárez, attacked the Nogales and Santa Rosa installations, burning down the company stores. Returning on the road from Santa Rosa, they encountered Colonel José Maria Villareal and his units from the 13th Infantry Battalion. The troops opened fire on the workers, killing scores in the largest single massacre of non-indigenous people in the history of the regime.
By late afternoon the remnants of the Nogales and Santa Rosa protesters struggled back to Rio Blanco. In the meantime, the workers there, many of them with guns, seized the nearby railroad station and engaged in one-sided battles with the army. With the bitter remnants from Nogales and Santa Rosa assisting, the crowd tore down and burned the cluster of houses in Rio Blanco where Morales and others in the GCOL leadership resided. Morales, fully understanding the situation, fled early in the day to Atlixco in Puebla. The contagion was not easily controlled. The military rounded up eighty workers from the Cerritos plant after they sacked and burned a pawnshop in Orizaba. Other armed workers formed roving bands. The one-sided gun battles between workers and soldiers continued through the night.
By January 8, an armed peace settled over Orizaba. Hundreds of workers resided in jail and 800 infantrymen, 150 local police, and 60 rurales patrolled the streets, roads, and factories. On the ninth, a crowd of still-angry workers gathered in front of the Santa Rosa plant. The troops opened fire, killing five workers. Santa Rosa strike leaders Juárez and Moreno also died that morning. Some reports allege that they fell in action. Others claim that they and six other strike leaders were executed in the ruins of the burned-out company store at Santa Rosa as an example to the others. On the ninth, 10 workers were summarily executed in the Rio Blanco jail.
The Rio Blanco strike–workers' rebellion resulted in almost 200 workers killed and countless casualties. Four hundred became prisoners, among them a number of women, including Martinez. About 25 soldiers died and 30 to 40 suffered wounds. Employers terminated or suspended over 1,500 workers in the Santa Rosa, Rio Blanco, El Yute, San Lorenzo, and Mirafuentes factories. Newspaper reports of Rio Blanco, however distorted and muted, resulted in a severe loss of prestige to the government. Despite the praise offered by the American consul from Veracruz to the military commanders on the scene, "for decisive action", the regime’s popular acceptance suffered.

1909 - Philippe Daudet (d. 1923), youthful French anarchist and author of the posthumously published poetry collection 'Parfums Maudits' (1924), who died in mysterious circumstances, born. Son of the reactionary 'Action Française' journalist Léon Daudet (1867-1942), who was himself the son of the anarchist sympathiser Alphonse Daudet (1840-1897). Léon had been the perfered January 22, 1923, target for Germaine Berton at the 'Action Française' offices, but who instead ended up shooting Marius Plateau. This action inspired Philippe, who anonymously contacted Georges Vidal, the editor of 'Le Libertaire', on Nov. 22, 1923, laying out his anarchist sympathies and stating that he was going to assassinate Raymond Poincaré (President of the Council of Ministers) or Alexandre Millerand (President of the Republic). Two days later he visited the supposed anarchist bookseller Pierre Le Flaouter, who was in fact a police informer. Alarmed at Philippe's plans, Le Flaouter stalled him, telling him to return to the shop later that day. Meanwhile he contacted the police to warn them about the plot.
What happened next is disputed. One version is that instead of entering the bookshop where the police lay in wait, Philippe hailed a taxi and went to the St. Lazare prison, where Germaine Berton was being held, and shot himself in the head, an unknown suicide.
On Dec. 2, 'Le Libertaire' brought out a special edition with the headline "The Tragic Death of Philippe Daudet, Anarchist. Léon Daudet, his father, hushes up the truth", after 'Action Française' had announced that Philippe's death was due to illness, laying out the truth (as far as they knew it).
Léon Daudet in turn claimed that the whole thing was a bizarre conspiracy between the French state and the anarchists somehow tied up to the failed assassination attempt on him, with the Sureté killing Philippe. The taxi driver Bajot then brought a defamation suit against Léon, which was successful and Léon spent 5 months in prison and was fined 5000 francs.
Where Philippe got the gun or what really happened is not, and probably never will be, known but the smart money is on his being killed by the police.

1912 - The first edition of 'Awakening: Social Anarchist Journal' published in Bulgaria. It tuns until 5 September 1912 and the title reappears during 1919-1920, as an organ of the Anarchist Federation Communist Bulgaria (FACB).

1913 - Fight for the 8-Hour Day in Peru: The strike to demand the eight-hour day in Peru begins after workers reject the employers' proposals. In El Callao, there is a total stoppage of works as gasworkers, mill workers, typographers, bakers and other guilds come out on strike. [see: Jan. 5]

1917 - Revolución Mexicana: Pancho Villa raids Santa Rosalia de Camargo, executing 300 Federal soldiers and Chinese prisoners. Emiliano Zapata retakes Jonacatepec.

1918 - Huelga de Cartagena: Cartagena grinds to a halt as a strike by more than a thousand workers organised by the city's Sociedad de Artesanos y Obreros (Artisans and Workers' Society) forces a halt to all port and business activity in the city. Braceros, labourers who shifted cargo on the Cartagena-Calamar railway, along with carreteros (wagon drivers), and the port workers and freighters on the La Bodeguita dock, stopped working for three days demanding increases in wages and reduction of the working day from nine to eight hours, in a petition initially addressed to the United Fruit Company and then extended to the rest of the shipping companies and industries of the city. They wanted an increase on their 70 centavos wage, arguing that excessive taxes had increased the cost of living, food, beverages and other necessities, and therefore their income should increase. The extensive working days (06:00 to 18:00, with extra shifts from 18:00 to 24:00 p.m. and from 24:00 to 06:00), likewise they should be organised at more comfortable or appropriate times under a new fair wage scheme.
On January 7, at 08:30 carreros were already on the street emploring their fellow workers to come out on strike: "hoy no se mueve ni una paja" (today, not a straw is to be moved). Workers toured the factories and businesses, bringing out their workers and forcing the bosses to close them down for the day. Those who refused to participate in the strike were taken to task, one carter having his wagon unhooked, his mule set free and his load scattered across the street. By 11:00, 2,000 strikers were on the streets having closed down the factories of Jabones La Palma, Villareal, Sombreros y Perfumes Lemaitre, the ice manufacturers Franco y Co., the brickworks and pottery. An hour later all the factories of the city were at stand still, including the printing presses. All canteens, bars, and bodegas were closed.
In order to avoid a total paralysis of the port, and consequently of the city, the civil authorities, in the guise of the governor Dr. Enrique J. Arrázola, together with General Lácides Segovia, in a joint meeting with the industrialists and the workers, initiated discussions on possible solutions to the conflict. The discussion continued into the following day.

1918 - IWW & Espionage Act: The Federal Grand Jury meets to hear the evidence against the 55 Wobblies held in Sacramento, California for violation of the Espionage Act. [see: Dec 22 & 31]

[F] 1918 - IWW & Espionage Act: An article in the 'Sacramento Bee' claimed that Germany was financing the IWW in a plot to destroy the industrial plants and crops on the Pacific coast.

[DD/AA] 1919 - Semana Trágica: The beginning of the 'Tragic Week' in Argentina when, in response to a police ambush on workers, the anarchist inspired Federación Obrera Regional Argentina (Argentine Regional Workers' Federation) called a General Strike. Rightist agitators and the police fought anarchist and communists (as well as attacking exiled Russian Jews), precipitating the declaration of martial law. Hundreds of workers were killed and injured in the fighting (estimates range between 100-700 killed and 400-2,000 injured). The police lost 3 dead and 78 wounded.

1919 - Robert Duncan (d. 1988), queer American poet and lifelong anarchist, who set himself against orthodoxy in all its forms, whether mercantile capitalism, the communist state or - most troubling for his friends during the Vietnam War - absolute pacifism, born. A devotee of the Imagist poet H.D. (Hilda Doolittle) and wrote 'The H.D. Book' (2011), the definitive work on H.D.'s poetics. Duncan was also gay and managed to earned himself a discharge by from the University of California, Berkeley, after previously having dropped out, by outing himself as a homosexual.
Member of the San Francisco Libertarian Circle, he also lived in a small upstate New York anarchist rural commune associated with Holly Cantine and his companion, Dachine Rainer, who were publishers for several years of the anarchist quarterly, 'Retort'.

[A] 1920 - Albert Meltzer (d. 1996), English militant anarchist, boxer, bit-part actor, historian, author and publisher, born in Tottenham, London. Co-founder, with Stuart Christie, of the Anarchist Black Cross, he helped found the Kate Sharpley Library. His best known works are his autobiography, 'I Couldn't Paint Golden Angels' (1996), 'Anarchism: Arguments For and Against' (1981) and 'The Floodgates of Anarchy' (1970; co-written with Stuart Christie).

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: CNT militants manage to escape from the Modelo prison in Barcelona through a tunnel dug into the city's sewers, a prelude to the insurrectionary strike that was to break out across Spain the following day. [see: Jan. 8]

[B] 1938 - Roland Topor (d. 1997), Polish-born French graphic artist, cartoonist, painter, writer, filmmaker, actor, songwriter, surrealist and cultural anarchist, born. Co-founder in 1962, with Fernando Arrabal and Alejandro Jodorowsky, of the Mouvement Panique (Panic Movement), an anarchist avant-garde collective, whose other members included Christian Zeimert, Jacques Sternberg and Olivier O. Olivier. Contributor for many years to the likes of 'Hara-Kiri' and 'Le Fou Parle' and ran the magazine 'Mépris' with Sternberg. A prolific book illustrator and poster artist, he was one of the artists to contribute original lithographs to the radical anarchist journal 'Situationist Times'. Wrote the novel 'Le Locataire Chimérique' (The Tenant; 1964), which was adapted by Roman Polanski for his 1976 film 'The Tenant'. His most famous film part was as Renfield in Werner Herzog's 'Nosferatu: Phantom der Nacht' (1979). Created the designs for René Lalouxs 'La Planète Sauvage' (1973), a 72-minute long animated film, based on a novel by Stefan Wul, and designed the magic lantern sequence in 'Il Casanova di Federico Fellini' (1976). His most famous novel is the widely translated 'Joko Fête son Anniversaire' (Joko's Anniversary; 1969), a scathing satire on social conformity. Posthumously awarded a Satrapcy in the Collège de Pataphysique.

"Cette période historique
M'a insufflé la Panique
J'ai conservé le dégoût
De la foule et des gourous
De l'ennui et du sacré
De la poésie sucrée
Des moisis des pisse-froid
Des univers à l'étroit
Des collabos des fascistes
Des musulmans intégristes
De tous ceux dont l'idéal
Nie ma nature animale
A se nourrir de sornettes
On devient pire que bêtes
Je veux que mon existence
Soit une suprême offense
Aux vautours qui s'impatientent
Depuis les années quarante
En illustrant sans complexe
Le sang la merde et le sexe"

(This historical period
I breathed Panic
I kept disgust
The crowd and gurus
Of boredom and sacred
The sweet poetry
Moldy of cold fish
Universes cramped
Of fascist collaborators
Muslim fundamentalists
All those whose ideal
Nie ma animal nature
A feed of nonsense
It is worse than beasts
I want my life
Is a supreme offence
The vultures who are impatient
Since the forties
Illustrating unashamedly
Blood shit and sex)

extract from 'Un beau soir je suis né en face de l’abattoir ' (One evening I was born in front of the abattoir; 2000).


1938 - Vera Samoilovna Gassoh (Вера Самойловна Гассо́х; b. 1860), Russian revolutionary, member of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will) and later of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров), dies in Paris. On April 3, 1889, she took part in the armed resistance during the Yakutsk tragedy (Якутская трагедия) aka Monastyrёvsky Riot (Монастырёвский бунт) [when a group of 33 exiled Jews and Russians were ambushed and attacked by the military. The exiles fought back but six of their number were killed and seven others wounded. The survivours were brought before a military court in Yakutsk and charged with rebellion. Three were sentenced to death and the others received prison sentences. One of the three, Lev Matveevich Kogan-Bernstein (Лев Матвеевич Коган-Бернштейн), was so badly injured that he was hung whilst still chained to his sick bed], for which she was sentenced to deprivation of property rights and life with hard labour, later commuted to 15 years hard labour.
One of the founding members of the Paris Committee of the Political Red Cross (политическом Красном Кресте).

1942 - Hellmut G. Haasis, German historian, writer, publisher and libertarian, born. His writings cover everything from social and political history to poetry, theatre and radio plays, and a novel written in the Swabian dialect. Has been a regular contributor to the quarterly anarchist magazine 'Schwarzer Faden' (Black Thread).

[C] 1944 - Johannes Adrianus Jozef 'Jan' Verleun (b. 1919), Dutch resistance fighter and member of the CS-6 group, who had shot and killed Dutch General and Rijkscommissaris, Hendrik Seyffardt, head of the Dutch SS volunteer group Vrijwilligers Legioen Nederland, is executed on the Waalsdorpervlakte in The Hague. One of the last of the Dutch resistance group CS-6 still at large, he had been arrested on November 4, 1943.

1945 - Halfdan Jønsson (b. 1891), Norwegian trade unionist, vice chair of the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions and resistance member, dies in the Dachau concentration camp. [see: May 15]

1945 - Shulamith Firestone (August 28, 2012), Canadian-American writer and radical 'second generation' feminist, born. She was a founding member of the New York Radical Women, Redstockings, and New York Radical Feminists and wrote 'The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution' (1970), a classic text in second-wave feminism in the United States. In the early seventies, she withdrew from politics, working as a painter and in the last decades of her life she battled schizophrenia, surviving on public assistance. On August 28, 2012, she was found dead in her New York apartment, probably having starved to death – though the New York City Medical Examiner's Office recorded her as having died from natural causes (no autopsy was conducted, by preference of her Orthodox Jewish family).

1945 - Dekemvrianá [Δεκεμβριανά / December events]: ELAS is forced to leave Piraeus as supplies run out.

1948 - Jimmy Gladiator, French anarchist activist, CNT member, poet and novelist, born. Author of the surreal 'Éléphants de la Patrie' (Elephants of the Homeland; 2008).

[E1] 1949 - Althea Francois (d. 2009), African-American prisoner rights and community activist, and ex-Black Panther, born. She joined the Black Panther Party in New Orleans in 1970 as a community worker, later working as the Party's New Orleans health officer, raised funds for the breakfast programmes for school children and worked in the Sickle Cell Research Center. Later as a direct result of the high levels of imprisonment of Black Panthers at the time, Althea began supporting political prisoners and others in prison in Louisiana. In 2001, she became a member of the Prison Activists Resource Center's Advisory board and also co-founded the New Orleans Prison Organizing Resource Centre, being hired as its director in 2002. She was also one of Angola 3's earliest supporters, accompanying Robert King Wilkerson on his 2002 UK speaking tour, and remained a stalwart of the campaign up to her death in December 2009.

1949 - Elin Matilda Elisabet Wägner (b. 1882), prolific Swedish writer, novelist, journalist, feminist pioneer, teacher, ecologist and pacifist, who in 1935 issued a call for a "women's unarmed insurrection against war" in 'Tidevarvet', the Swedish weekly newspaper published by the Frisinnade Kvinnors Riksförbund (Liberal Women's Federation), dies of cancer. [see: May 16]

1951 - Horst Stowasser (d. 2009), German anarchist activist, historian and author, born. Founder of the German anarchist archive, anArchiv, the author of a book, 'Projekt A', proposing the establishment of a network of self-managed communal housing groups, self-managed businesses and political initiatives at the 'small town level', which led to his co-founding of the Projekt A/WESPE in Neustadt an der Weinstrasse.

1952 - Dacajeweiah (Splitting the Sky), also known as John Boncore Hill (b. 1952), Mohawk American Indian Movement activist, part time film and screen actor, born. He was the only prisoner convicted of murder [for the death of prison guard William Quinn] during the 1971 Attica State Prison rebellion. [see: Mar. 13]

[D1] 1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: General Jacques Massu, commander of the 10e Division Parachutiste (10e DP; 10th Parachute Division) is given full responsibility for the maintenance of order in Algiers by the Governor-General Robert Lacoste as the Algiers police force has proved incapable of dealing with the FLN and controlling the Pied-noirs.
Massu is to control not only the 4 regiments of the 10e DP, but also the police Urbaine et Judiciaire (Urban and Judicial police); the DST (Direction de la surveillance du territoire, the Interior Ministry intelligence service); the SDECEE (Service de Documentation Extérieure et de Contre-Espionnagecons-Intelligence Service), France's external intteligence service, and its armed wing; the GRE (Groupe de Renseignements et d'Exploitation [Information and Exploitation Group] counter-intelligence service); the SDECEE's special Algerian department), the 11e Choc (3200 11th 'Shock' Regiment paratroopers); the 9e Régiment de Zouaves (Army of Africa infrantry), based in the Casbah; 350 men of the 5e Régiment de Chasseurs d'Afrique (5th Regiment of African Hunters) cavalry, 400 men of the 25e Régiment de Dragons; 650 men of the 650 Intervention et de Reconnaissance (Reconnaissance and Response) troops; plus 1,100 police officers, 55 gendarmes, 920 CRS and around 1500 men of the Unités Territoriales (UT), mainly composed of pied-noirs ultras.
They set about 'pacifying' the city, laying seige to the Casbah, which is surrounded with barbed wire; through the liberal use of mass arrests, searches and 'disappearences'; torture including the infamous Gégène electrical generator and waterboarding; and assasinations and the 'suiciding' of detainees - many summary executions were carried out via 'corvées de bois' (roughly 'wood duty' or 'fetching wood'), prisoners forced to dig their own graves before being shot or thrown into the sea from an helicopter, the 'crevettes Bigeard' (Bigeard shrimps). The Battle would continue until the following October and the capture of Yacef Saâdi, aka 'Si Djaâfa' or 'Réda Lee', head of the FLN in the Autonomous Zone of Algiers [Zone autonome d'Alger] and of the bombs network (réseau bombes) and the death of Ali la Pointe, Yacef Saâdi deputy.
www.histoire-en-questions.fr/guerre algerie/alger-premiere-arrivee de massu.html
www.histoire-en-questions.fr/guerre algerie/alger-premiere-interrogatoires.html

1972 - U.K. Miners' Strike: The National Coal Board withdraws its 7.9% pay rise offer after its rejection by the National Executive Committee of the NUM two days earlier. A miners' strike was now inevitable. [see: Jan. 9]

[1973 - María Rodríguez (b. 1913), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, who was born to parents who were CNT militants

[D2] 1979 - The Vietnamese army ousts the genocidal Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia. Western governments, including the United States and Britain, as well as China, continue to support the Khmer Rouge, sending them arms, and allowing them to continue to hold Cambodia’s seat in the United Nations until 1993.

1993 - Leah (Leila) Feldman, aka 'the Makhnovist Granny' (b. ca. 1899), Polish-English life-long adherent of anarchism, who had died a few days before, is cremated in her native East London - a true working class hero. [expand]
[1994 also wrongly given as the year]

1998 - Queen Silver (b. 1910), US office worker, court reporter, "girl scientist", feminist, freethinker, and social activist and orator, dies. [see: Dec. 13]

2011 - Roger Paon (b. 1919), French socialist, then an anarchist and pacifist, dies.[expand/d.o.b.?]
[F] 1811 - German Coast Uprising: The largest slave revolt in U.S. history begins on Louisiana’s German Coast sugar plantations. Armed primarily with hand tools, the men marched toward New Orleans, setting plantations and crops on fire and adding to their numbers as they went. The uprising of an estimated 300-500 people lasted for two days before it was brutally suppressed by the military.

1813 - Luddite Timeline: Mellor, Thorpe and Smith executed for the murder of William Horsfall, as were later the five from the Rawfolds assault. A further nine Luddites were put to death for stealing arms or money and a further 6 were transported for giving in receiving illegal oaths. The Luddite rising in Yorkshire is over.

1863 - Paul Karl Wilhelm Scheerbart (d. 1915), German author of fantastic literature and drawings and an individualist anarchist, who was chosen as on of the 'saints' of Mynona and Anselm Ruest's 'Der Einzige' (he also contributed an article to the first issue), born. He published under the pseudonyms Kuno Küfer and Bruno Küfer, including his best known work, 'Glasarchitektur' (1914), published as Kuno Küfer. Closely associated with one of the leading proponents of Expressionist architecture, Bruno Taut, and he composed aphoristic poems about glass for Taut's Glass Pavilion at the Werkbund Exhibition (1914). He was also close to Erich Mühsam, Senna Hoy (contributing to 'Der Kampf') and Paul Scheerbart. He is also remembers as having tried to invent a perpetual motion machine and having been an influence via his writings and his 'scientific research', on Alfred Jarry.

1864 - Mary Kenney O'Sullivan (d. 1943), U.S. dressmaker, bookbinder and organiser in the early U.S. labour movement, first in the Chicago Women’s Bindery Workers’ Union, then as the AFL's first female organiser and later as the founder of the Women's Trade Union League, born. She also worked alongside the IWW during the 1912 Lawrence Textile Strike when the AFL ordered the WTUL to withdraw its support for the strike.

1871 - The first issue of the weekly newspaper 'La Revolucion Social: Organ of the Federation of the Palma International Workingmen's Association' is published in Palma de Mallorca.

1873 - Vincenzo Pezza (b. 1841), Italian Bakuninist Internationalist, dies. [expand]

1883 - In Lyon the trial of members of the International Workers' Association, known as 'The 66', begins. The 66 are accused of promoting workers' strikes and the abolition of the rights of property, family, fatherland, religion and thus attacking the public peace. Stiff sentences were handed down: 'Leaders' such as Peter Kropotkin, Émile Gautier, Joseph Bernard and Toussaint Bordat received four years in prison; 39 of their cohorts received sentences ranging from six months to three years.

1890 - London Gasworkers Strike: With the resolve of the strikers crumbling and many workers now trying to get their old jobs back as their hardship and that of their families gets ever more desperate, the strike committee is thrown out of their offices.

[D2] 1892 - Anarchist revolt in Andalusia, to the cry of "Vive la révolution sociale!" Hundreds of farm labourers take the town of Jerez. The uprising is quickly subdued and its leaders captured and tortured. Four are sentenced to death and executed 10 February 1892, setting off new waves of violence. [expand]

1896 - Paul Verlaine (b. 1844), French Symbolist poète maudit, dies. [see: Mar. 30]

[E] 1896 - The first issue of 'La Voz de la Mujer' probably "The ONLY newspaper in America and perhaps the world to propagate our ideals, written by women and especially for them", is published, in Buenos Aires. Those involved include Virginia Bolten, Pepita Guerra, Teresa Marchiso, Josefa Martinez, Soledad Gustavo , Ana Lopez and Irma Ciminaghi. Ten issues appear until 10 March 1897.
"Tired of asking and begging, of being the plaything, the object of pleasure and our infamous exploiters and our vile husbands, we have decided to raise our voices in the society and demand, we say demand - that we take part in the pleasures of the banquet of life. Ni Dios, Ni Patron, Ni Marido." "Ni dios, ni patrón, ni marido" (No god, no boss, no husband) became the paper's motto.

1898 - Tudor Vianu (d. 1964), Romanian literary critic, art critic, poet, philosopher, academic, and translator, known for his left-wing and anti-fascist convictions, born. Throughout the interwar period, Vianu was an adversary of the fascist Iron Guard, and was regularly a target of attacks in the right-wing press especially in 'Cuvântul', the newspaper of the fascist philosopher Nae Ionescu. Amongst his works are 'Dualismul Artei' (The Dualism of Art; 1925); 'Poezia lui Eminescu' (The Poetry of Eminescu; 1930); 'Arta şi Frumosul' (Art and Beauty; 1932); 'Idealul Clasic al Omului' (The Classic Idea of Man; 1934); 'Estetica' (Aesthetics), a work in two volumes, 1934 & 1936; 'Filosofie şi Poezie' (Philosophy and Poetry; 1937); 'Istorism și Naționalism' (Historicism and Nationalism; 1938); 'Introducere in Teoria Valorilor: : intemeiata pe observatia constiintei' (Introduction to the Theory of Values: founded on the observation of consciousness; 1942); 'Introducere in Teoria Valorilor' (Introduction to the Theory of Values;1942); 'Istoria Literaturii Române Moderne' (The History of Modern Romanian Literature; 1944), with Serban Cioculescu and Vladimir Streinu; and 'Dicţionar de Maxime (Comentat)' (Dictionary of Maxims (Annotated); 1962); etc.

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 27, 1904] Putilov Strike / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Workers at the Putilov Ironworks (arms factory) in St. Petersburg hold meetings following the dismissal of four workers for their membership of the Assembly of the Russian Factory and Mill Workers of the City of St. Petersburg aka 'The Assembly', headed by Fr. Georgy Apollonovich Gapon (Гео́ргий Аполло́нович Гапо́н). Their demands that the four be rehired and the foreman who had discharged them be fired are also published in today's 'Revolutsionnaya Rossiya' (Революционная Россия), the paper of the Socialist Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров).

[1907 - [O.S. Dec. 27, 1906] Chief Military Prosecutor Pavlov is assassinated by the Socialist-Revolutionaries.

1910 - Unemployed shoe-maker Jean-Jacques Liabeuf perpetuates his famous act of revenge against the Parisian police following his wrongful conviction for "pimping". Armed with a pistol and 2 cobblers' knives, and whilst wearing heavily spiked armbands, he is confronted by police - killing one, severely wounding a second and hospitalising six others. Despite widespread protests in his support organised by the anarchist milieu, he is executed on July 2, precipitating extensive rioting.

1911 - Pietro Gori (b. 1865), Italian anarchist, labour activist and lawyer, who was an ardent legal defender of numerous anarchists, dies. He was also renowned as a poet and songwriter - author of some of the most famous anarchist songs of the late 19th century, including 'Addio a Lugano' (Farewell to Lugano), 'Stornelli d'Esili' (Exile Songs) and 'Ballata per Sante Caseri' (Ballad for Sante Geronimo Caserio). Published a number of books of poetry, including 'Prigioni e Battaglie' (Jails and Battles; 1891) and 'Alla conquista dell'Avvenire' (Conquering the Future; 1892). [see: Aug. 14]

1912 - San Diego Free Speech Fight: The San Diego Common Council passes Ordinance No. 4623, which called for a restricted zone of 49-square blocks (more than that which was requested by San Diegans) in the middle of San Diego, encompassing all of 'soapbox row'. [expand]
After the passage of the ordinance, Chief of Police Keno Wilson announced he would wait until January 10 before he enforced it.

1912 - African National Congress founded, South Africa.

1918 - Huelga de Cartagena: In addition to the on-going talks to find a solution to the strike, some employers began shipping in workers from Turbaco to continue the loading and unloading, something that enraged the workers further. Meanwhile, after extensive deliberations, the following agreement was reached: reduction of the working day from nine to eight hours, and increase of 50% for wages under $ 1.50; 40% for those up to $ 1.70; 30% for $ 1.90, 25% for $ 2 or more. The crowd that had waited anxiously in the street received the pact details with great expectancy, and went back to their homes. However, the strike was far from over.

1925 - George Bellows (b. 1882), US painter and illustrator, dies. [see: Aug. 19]

1928 - L'Association des Fédéralistes Anarchistes is set up by Sébastien Faure and other dissidents from the Union Anarchiste Communiste in Paris.

[D1/DDD] 1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: The date chosen by the Comité de Defensa Regional de Cataluña (Regional Defence Committee of Catalonia), based upon an idea proposed by Joan Garcia Oliver, for an insurrectionary general strike in Catalonia.
The insurrection did not have a very wide following. The Army and Civil Guard took strategic positions in places where there was disorder was expected, and union leaders were detained. In some neighbourhoods of Barcelona there were clashes between anarchists and law enforcement. There were strikes, explosives incidents and proclamations of libertarian communism in some locations such as Aragón, Robres, Bellver de Cinca, the Comunidad Valenciana, Bugarra, Ribarroja, Bétera, Benaguacil, Utiel and Pedralba. In the latter town a Guardia Civil and A Guardia de Asalto (assault guard) were killed during the insurrection; when the Guardia Civil restored order it killed ten civilians.
The National Committee of CNT, which had not called the strike, said on January 10th that the insurrection had been "de pura significancia anarquista sin que para nada haya intervenido en ellos el organismo federal" (purely anarchist, without significance [and] that they, the federal agency, had not participated), although they or their confederal paper 'Solidaridad Obrera' [12/01/33] did not condemned it "con un deber de solidaridad y de conciencia" (out of a duty of solidarity and conscience). But that it was not the revolution that will "con garantías... a la luz del día" (guarantee... the light of day).
On January 9, the official journal of the CNT in Madrid published an editorial 'Esta revolución no es la nuestra' (This is not our revolution), followed up two days later with the claim "Ni vencidos ni humillados" (Neither loser nor humiliated), and blamed the uprising on "la política represiva… sectaria de los socialistas que detentan el poder y usan de él contra los intereses de los trabajadores" (the repressive sectarian politics ... the socialists who use power against the interests of the workers.) The riots "existen y aumentarán por razones de injusticia bien patentes" (exist and flourish because of patent injustice). Therefore, "vencida una insurrección surge otra, resuelta una huelga, otra se produce; apaciguado un motín, estalla otro mayor" (defeat one insurrection another pops up, settle a strike, another occurs; pacify a riot another major one breaks out.)
At the end of the insurrection, 9,000 CNT members have been jailed.

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: During the evening anarcho-syndicalist groups tried to approach the Carabanchel, Cuatro Vientos, de la Montaña and de María Cristina barracks in Madrid but are driven back.
Large explosions in Levante and in less than 2 hours during Sunday night more than 20 explosions are heard in Valencia, where the police prevented the burning of churches. There is unrest in many towns in the Valencia province, including Ribarroja , Bétera , Benaguacil and Utiel. In Gestalgar several bombs explode. In Bugarra after heavy fighting with the police, which leaves five Guardia Civil and Guardia de Asalto dead, the anarchists take the town and proclaim libertarian communism. Bloody fighting also takes place in Gandia, Tabernes de Valldigna and Pedralba. In Catalonia serious clashes occur in Sardañola, Tarrasa, Ripollet and Sallent. In Lérida an assault attempt is made on the barracks of the 25th Infantry Brigade, leaving one sergeant dead and seven sergeants and corporals injured. Five attackers are killed.
In Barcelona attacks take place on the Cuartel de Atarazanas, calle de Arco de Teatro, the calle Castaños and at the Mercado de San José. At 20:05 an attack was launched on the San Agustín barracks of the Regimiento de Infantería nº 10, setting off a bomb and commandeering a tram to use as a barricade in front of the barracks from which to fire from. At 21:00, two bombs explode in the basement of the police, wounding a Guardia Civil and two police drivers.
The turmoil also spreads to Zaragoza, Murcia, Oviedo and other provinces, reaching its greatest resonance in Andalucía, where numerous strikes break out. In Seville cars and trams are set on fire, and the police are shot at several time. In La Rinconada libertarian communism is proclaimed.

1934 - Paul Auguste Bernard (b. 1861), French bakery worker, metallurgist, anarchist and trade unionist, dies. [see: Dec. 26]

[C] 1934 - The 'Daily Mail', at the behest of its owner the media baron Lord Rothermere, enthusiastically backs Oswald Mosley with the infamous headline "Hurrah for the Blackshirts".

1948 - Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters (b. 1887), German dadaist artist, whose unique collage work and sound poetry he labelled Merz, dies. [see: Jun. 20]

1954 - Henrietta Karlovna Derman [Генрие́тта Ка́рловна Де́рман (ru.) / Henriete Matilde Dermane (lv.)] (nee Abel [Абеле (ru.) / Ābele (lv); b. 1882), Latvian librarian and one of the country's first revolutionaries, who spent the last 15 years of her life in Soviet gulags, dies shortly after her release from the Vorkuta gulag and her second stroke. [see: Aug. 20]

1959 - Castro arrives in Havana.

[A] 1972 - Kenneth Patchen (b. 1911), American anarchist poet, novelist, graphic designer, pacifist and war resister, dies in Palo Alto. [see: Dec. 13]

1973 - Durban Mass Strike: With talk of a strike doing the rounds, the management of the Coronation Brick and Tile factory outside Durban, South Africa, issues leaflets claiming that talk of an upcoming strike is the work of communist agitators. However, the workers had already been promised a raise in a speech by King Goodwill Zwelithini the year before and may well have heard rumours that studies by the Wages Commission for the Wage Board had stated that their wages were very low. Attempts by both management and the Bantu Labour officer for Durban to convince he workers to elect a representative body that would negotiate on their behalf had already been rejected by the workers, who feared leaders would be victimised.

1973 - Tupamaro guerrillas kidnap British ambassador Geoffrey Jackson in Uruguay.

[B] 1996 - Carmen Conde Abellán aka Florentina (b. 1907), Spanish teacher, narrative writer, poet, children's author, militant anarcha-feminist and Mujeres Libres member, dies. [see: Aug. 15]

2009 - Alison Colk, a 36-year-old mother of one, is found hanging in her cell at HMP Styal one day into a 28 day sentence for theft. She was not on suicide watch.

2012 - Gunnar Dyrberg (b. 1921), member of the Danish resistance movement during World War II, leading the Holger Danske, a Danish resistance group in the capital Copenhagen (1943-45), dies. [see: Nov. 12]
1831 - Luddite Timeline: Twenty-three workers from Buckingham are sentenced to death for destruction of a paper machine by one of a number of Special Commissions sent to East Anglia to suppress insurgent workers by the Whig Ministry.

1857* - [O.S. Dec. 28, 1856] Anna Kuliscioff or Kulischov, Kulisciov (Анна Кулишёва) (Anna Moiseyeva Rosenstein [Анна Моисеевна Розенштейн]; d. 1925), Russian Jewish revolutionary, prominent feminist, Bakunin-influenced anarchist, and eventually a Marxist socialist militant in Italy, is born into a wealthy and privileged Jewish merchant family. A natural scholar, she studied a number of foreign languages under private tuition before, in 1871, being sent to study engineering at the Zürich Polytechnic, where she also took courses in philosophy, Swiss universities being a prominent destination for the young Russian women who were denied the right to further education in the Empire. There, in a new-found environment of intellectual and political freedom, her nascent interest in political ideas developed after encountering narodnist and anarchist ideas. In 1873 Anja abandoned her studies and married the Russian revolutionary Pyotr Makarevich (Петра Макаревича), a member of Bakunin's circle. Forced to return to Russia following an order from the tsar, who feared the spread of revolutionary ideas from Switzerland via the Empires youth studying there, she and Makarevich joined the revolutionary movement, first in the Odessa group known as the Tchaikovsky Circle, or the Grand Propaganda Society (Чайковцы, Большое общество пропаганды) around Nikolai Vasilyevich Tchaikovsky (Никола́й Васи́льевич Чайко́вский) and Felix Vadimovich Volkhovsky (Феликс Вадимович Волховский), a populist (narodnist group based on the idead of Bakunin who pursued a "go to the people" ideology (and amongst whose members was Peter Kropotkin).
In 1874, Makarevich was sentenced to five years hard labour in 1874 for his activities and Anja, fearing possible arrest, fled Odessa, living underground in Kiev and later in Kharkov, often singing in public parks to earn a living. In Kiev she joined a Zemlya i Volya group engaged in armed resistance against the Tsarist regime as well as agitation in peasant communities, including participating in the failed 'Chigirinsky Plot' (Чигиринский заговор) in 1876. When her Zemlya i Volya comrades were arrested, she managed to escape and in April 1877 she fled Russia for Switzerland using someone else's passport. There she changed her name to Kuliscioff (Russian for a labourer) to avoid being traced by Tsarist spies and became involved in anarchist circles. She also met and became the partner of the Italian anarchist Andrea Costa, a turbulent relationship that lasted for five years of constant separation through imprisonment and exile.
In Paris the following year she was arrested for her political activities but was released following the intervention of the Russian novelist Ivan Turgenev, who was fascinated by her beauty and personality, and deported from France, ending up in Italy. There she and Costa became active in the anarchist movement but was arrested in 1879 in Florence on charges of conspiracy against the institutions of the State. She spent thirteen month in prison before being acquitted at her trial, during which she was to describe herself as a revolutionary socialist. Whilst in prison this time round she also contracted tuberculosis. Ejected to Switzerland, they soon returned clandestinely to Italy where they were arrested in Milan in April 1880, where they had begun the publication of the 'Rivista Internazionale del Socialismo'. In the 'Programma' of the paper, Kuliscioff had written for the first time about the need for women's involvement in the transformation of society towards socialism.
Upon her release, she was escorted to the Swiss border and settled in Lugano until the following year, when she returned to Italy and was reunited with Andrea Costa in Imola. There she gave birth to her daughter Andreina in December 1881. Anna's relationship with Costa however had begun to break down due to his 'traditional' and repressive attitude to women, despite his avowed support for women's suffrage, etc.. Anna eventually left him, taking with her their infant daughter, in order to study medicine in Bern against Costa’s wishes. In Switzerland, she reacquaints herself with Russian socialist circles, meeting Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (Гео́ргий Валенти́нович Плеха́нов) and becomes involved in the Marxist Emancipation of Labour (Освобождение труда) group.
In January 1884, her state of health forced her to transfer from the Faculty of Medicine in Bern to that in Naples, a move supported by the academic Arnaldo Cantani. Her arrival coincided with an outbreak of cholera, brought back from the Crimea by army veterans and which results in 3,500 deaths over a fifteen day period. She also met Errico Maltesta during this time whilst he was in hiding from the authorities.
Despite her poverty, she graduated as a doctor of medicine in November 1886 (one of the first woman to do so in Italy), having taken additional courses in Turin and Pavia to complete her specialisation in obstetrics and gynaecology. Her doctorate dissertation was on the aetiology of puerperal fever, a major cause of postpartum deaths, and her research on its bacterial origin, conducted in Pavia in collaboration with the future Nobel laureate in medicine Camillo Golgi, opened the way to a discovery that would save the lives of millions of women whilst giving birth.
To combat the academic ostracism that she was subject to in Naples (she was the first female graduate from its Faculty of Medicine), she moved to Turin for further studies in gynaecology. At this time, and having finally ended her relationship with Costa, she began a new one with the young lawyer socialist Filippo Turati, with whom she had begun corresponding at the suggestion of the prominent Italian feminist Anna Maria Mozzoni. Following another rejection, this time from the university medical clinic in Padua, she returned to Milan, where she opened a medical practice, caring for working women and the poor, working alongside the philanthropist Alexandrina Ravizza and earning herself the name "dottora dei poveri". In 1889, Anna and Turati founded the Lega Socialista Milanese, and two years later in 1891, they founded the socialist news magazine 'Critica Sociale', of which Anna would become the editor. That same year she was forced to abandon her practice due to her ongoing ill health, as well as fulfilling a desire to devote herself to politics.
On April 27, 1890, she made her first appearance on a public platform on the feminist question, speaking at the Circolo Filologico in Milan. The talk, entitled 'Monopolio dell'uomo' (The Monopoly of Man), which stressed the differences between her standpoint and those of Mozzoni and other early feminists, went into print immediately and swiftly became an influential feminist tract. Kuliscioff argued not only for women’s education and social equality, but for their political rights, for equal pay for women and protested against women’s exploitation by both their employers and their husbands, even arguing that women should be paid for housework as an occupation; ideas totally new in Italy at the time. In this she was showing her ardent support for August Bebel, who had introduced "the women's question" into Marxism, arguing that the working class and women were two subject peoples whose liberation would coincide.
'Monopolio dell'uomo' cemented Anna Kuliscioff's position as one of Italy’s leading feminists of the period and her views caused her to clash regularly with other leading Marxists and socialists of the period, including her partner Turati. Despite this, in 1892 Kuliscioff particiapted in the convention that resulted in the foundation of the Partito dei Lavoratori Italiani, the forerunner of the Partito Socialista Italiano. All this political activity inevitably attracted the attention of the State and on May 8, 1898 an armed group broke into her by now famous salon in the Portici Galleria, where the 'Critica Sociale' was laid out and celebrities and 'lowly' workers rubbed shoulder and discussed the issues of the day, arresting her on charges of crimes of conscience and subversion. In December she was released during an amnesty, but Turati remained in prison a further year. Despite this arrest, she participated in the drafting of legislation on children's and women's work, the Legge Carcano, sponsored through parliament by the PSI in 1902. In 1911, together with the prominent syndicalist and feminist Maria Goia, Anna participated in the organisation of the Comitato Socialista per il Suffragio Semminile (Socialist Committee for Women's Suffrage). In January 1912, she also helped found the bimonthly magazine 'La Difesa delle Lavoratrici' which she ran for two years until the advent of the war, which was to cause a falling out between her and the other editors. The same year, however, saw the introduction of the so-called legge di Giolitti, the Legge elettorale italiana del 1912, which widened universal male suffrage to all men over 30, even to those who were illiterate, and to men over 21 who had served in the army or had an elementary school education (increasing the electorate from 7% to 23% of the population), but continued to exclude women from the vote. The new law and her on-going ill health (down in large part to her earlier repeated spells in prison) plunged Anna into a period of despondency, during which her relationship with Filippo Turati, whom she had always been more radical than, ended. The advent of Fascism, which brought serious political and emotional difficulties for anti-fascists like her, also had the effect of further destabilising her self-belief.
Anna Kuliscioff died on December 27, 1925, in Milan and was buried in the cemetery Chimitero Monumental di Milano. In anticipation of her funeral procession, large crowds had gathered under her window on the Piazza del Duomo, but the procession itself was disrupted, attacked by Fascisti thugs who destroyed the flowers and wreaths sent by well-wishers. As the historian Luigi Salvatorelli said at the time: "Fascism did far worse things, but perhaps nothing revealed more clearly its irrevocable moral repugnance."
[* NB. There is some dispute over the exact year and it may have been ani between 1853 and 1857]

1870 - [N.S. Jan. 21] Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (Russian: Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен; b. 1812), Russian writer, journalist, novelist and thinker, who was one of the main 'forefathers' of Russian socialism and agrarian populism (an ideological ancestor of the Narodniki, Socialist-Revolutionaries, etc.), and who was greatly influenced by the anarchism, dies. [see: Apr. 6]

1874 - Helen Tufts Bailie (d. 1962), US anarchist, who was involved in the Modern School movement and outed the Daughters of the American Revolution in 1921 for maintaining lists of "doubtful speakers" which included individuals and organisations such as Mary Woolley, Jane Addams, William Allen White, The National Federation of Women's Clubs, and the American Peace Society, born. She served on Francisco Ferrer Association committee, producing a pamphlet on Ferrer; co-wrote 'The Background of Francisco Ferrer’s Assassination', with Hippolyte Havel and Leonard Abbott, for 'Man!' 1: 9-10 (Sept-Oct 1934) and 'Darling Daughter: A Satirical Novel' (1956) about the DAR blacklists and the 'Red Scare'.

1875 - Julio Herrera y Reissig (d. 1910), Uruguayan poet, playwright, essayist and anarchist, born. Stylistically, he began as a Romanticist but later became an early proponent of Modernism and Surrealism.

[C] 1890 - Karel Čapek (d. 1938), Czech playwright, writer, translator, journalist, photographer, philosopher and staunch anti-fascist, who is probably best known for his science fiction, especially his 1920 play 'R.U.R.' (Rossum's Universal Robots) which introduced the word robot, born. Many of his latter works, written just before the entry of Hitler into Czechoslovakia, deal with the rise of dictatorship and the terrible consequences of war. These include his anti-fascist novel 'War with the Newts' (Válka s Mloky; 1936), 'The White Scourge' [or 'The White Plague'] (Bílá Nemoc; 1937) and 'The Mother' (Matka; 1938). One of his later poems, 'Až my budem v tmavém hrobě spáti' (When we go to lie down in a dark grave), deals with the fascist bombing of Badajoz during the Spanish Civil War.

1890 - Kurt Tucholsky (d. 1935), German-Jewish pacifist, non-aligned socialist, journalist, satirist and writer, born. He also wrote under the pseudonyms Kaspar Hauser, Peter Panter, Theobald Tiger and Ignaz Wrobel. A member of the Gruppe Revolutionarer Pazifisten (Revolutionary Pacifist Group) alongside Ernst Friedrich, Walter Mehring and Ernst Toller. His books, which included 'Deutschland, Deutschland Über Alles' (1929), a strident piece of social criticism with illustrations by John Heartfield, were listed on the Nazi's censorship as Entartete Kunst and burned, and he lost his German citizenship.

1895 - Robert Proix (d. 1978), French socialist, anarchist and pacifist, born in Jean-Baptiste André Godin's Familistère de Guise, a industrial workers community based on the principles of Fourier. A friend of André Prudhommeaux and Albert Camus, who wrote for the libertarian review, 'Témoins' (Witness), that Proix edited. Proix also edited 'Albert Camus, ses Amis du Livre' (1962) [published in english as 'Albert Camus and the Men of the Stone' (1971)], a book of remembrances of Camus by members of the printing trade that knew him. He also worked on the newspapers 'Liberté', 'Union Pacifiste' and 'Monde Libertaire' and supported Louis Lecoin's conscientious objector / antiwar activities. During WWII, he was interned in the Fort du Hâ in Bordeaux for helping Jews escape persecution.

1896 - Manuel Rojas Sepúlveda (d. 1973), Chilean anarchist writer, novelist, poet and essayist, is born in Buenos Aires.

1904 - First issue in Berlin of the anarchist newspaper 'Der Freie Arbeiter', subtitled "Wissen und Wollen" (Knowledge and Desire). From 1919 to 1933 it would be the paper of the Föderation Kommunistischer Anarchisten Deutschlands (Federation of Communist Anarchists of Germany).

[A] 1905 - Louise Michel (b. 1830), French anarchist, member of the 1871 Paris Commune and co-founder of the Women's Batallion, dies. Her funeral will be attended by 100,000 mourners.

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 28, 1904] Putilov Strike [Russian Revolution of 1905-07]: Following yesterday's meetings of workers at the Putilov Ironworks (arms factory) in St. Petersburg in protest at the dismissal of four workers for their membership of the Assembly of the Russian Factory and Mill Workers of the City of St. Petersburg, The Assembly convenes a mass meeting of workers from 11 factories. Representatives of the Social Democrats and Social Revolutionaries are invited by some of the more radical workers, who also attempt to push the Gaponite leaders to take a more militant stance. The meeting decides to send a delegation with a petition to the management, the factory inspectors and the authorities in St Petersburg, setting forth the workers’ grievances.

1907 - The case against Emma Goldman from the Oct. 30, 1906 arrest is dismissed by the New York City grand jury.

1908 - Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir (d. 1986), French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist, born. [expand]
"A freedom that is interested only in denying freedom must be denied."

[BB] 1911 - The funeral of 'poet of anarchism' Pietro Gori , who died yesterday in Portoferraio (Elba) at the age of 46 years. His remains are transferred from Piombino to Elba Island (Tuscany) by boat, then taken by train to Rosignano, where he is buried. These impressive funeral arrangements take place over three days in order to allow the thousands of workers from all over Tuscany to bid farewell a revered comrade.

1912 - San Diego Free Speech Fight: The California Free Speech League is founded at a meeting of 18 free-speech advocates in the office of attorney E. E. Kirk, a well known San Diego socialist. The 18 represented various groups including the Wobblies, Socialists, church groups, single-taxers, the AFL and other trade unions. The League attempted to take a legal stand against the free speech restrictions by holding up the Constitution and defending the rights of non-property owning peoples. They chose 12 "martyrs" to "mount the corner rostrum, bait the cohorts of Captain Sehon", and go to jail gladly. Among those chosen for the "sacrificial altar": socialists, George W. Woodbey and Kasper Bauer; Wobblies, Laura Payne Emerson, Wood Hubbard, and Jack White. The group not only decided the order of the arrests, but at what intervals they would occur.
Then they named "disinterested witnesses" from the community. Sheriff Jennings, Councilman Woods, Judge Sloane, Rabbi Erlinger, and three ministers would report how the police behaved. Kirk proposed a ban of the businesses that petitioned for the ordinance. And the group even chose to invite their ongoing foe the Salvation Army – Joe Hill called them the 'Starvation Army' – to join the struggle. Above all else, Kirk concluded, "Violence, unless necessary in self-defense, will not be offered by the speakers. [We are] emphatically against that."

1913 - Fight for the 8-Hour Day in Peru: The President of the Republic exhorted the workers to lift the strike and sent troops to resume order; The workers rejected the president's demand and continued the strike. The company running the docks yields to the workers demands and also offer a 10% increase in wages. Other workers receive similar offers to return to work. [see: Jan. 5]

[CC] 1915 - William Herrick (born William Horvitz; d. 2004), US author of the classic Spanish Civil War novel 'Hermanos!' (1969), which depicts the Communist Party's machinations during the Spanish Revolution through the eyes of various International Brigade members and CP apparatchiks, born. Born into a Jewish communist family, he too joined the Party, whose ideology he was later to characterise as "a kind of brainwashing, . . . a religion. The world's worst." In the '30s Depression he spent time in an anarchist utopian community in Michigan, later drifting across the country "on the bum" joining picket lines and protests wherever he found them. He was also involved in trying to organise black sharecroppers in the South, a CP policy that he later repudiated as a reckless propaganda exercise by the Communists that led to the deaths of too many Black workers, and nearly led to his own death when a secret meeting he was at was attacked by police and racists.
He joined the Abraham Lincoln Battalion and rapidly became disillusioned with the Communist Party's role in the Civil War, the incompetence of its officers and its treatment of others on the Republican side including the anarchists and POUM (Partit Obrer d'Unificació Marxista / Workers Party of Marxist Unification). The story of Oliver Law is a case in point: a black American promoted to a senior position for communists propaganda purposes, he was hopelessly inadequate in the field and caused the deaths of many of the men under his command. When he was killed in action the Party press had him dying a hero's death when leading an attack, but Herrick suggests that he was deliberately shot by some of his own troops.
On February 23, 1937, during fighting near Madrid, Herrick was shot in the neck. The bullet lodged millimetres from his spinal cord, and could not be removed. Recuperating in Spain, he had an affair with a nurse who also happened to be the wife of a top (Hungarian) Communist official. Already under suspicion, his loyalty was questioned and he was forced to watch POUM members and anarchists being executed. These experiences all formed the basis of the anti-Stalinist roman a clef, 'Hermanos!', Spanish for 'brothers'.
He returned to the United States because of his wounds and given a job in the Party-controlled Fur and Leather Workers' Union, but what he had seen in the ranks of the Communist forces made it impossible for him to remain much longer a loyal supporter of the movement. The Hitler-Stalin pact of August 1939 was the last straw. He protested against Moscow's new alliance and was blacklisted from the Furriers Union.
He went on to write 9 novels (in addition to 'Hermanos!'), including 'Shadows and Wolves' (1980), 'Love and Terror' (1981) and 'Kill Memory' (1983), all set in Spain, and a memoir, 'Jumping the Line: The Adventures and Misadventures of an American Radical' (1998).

1918 - Huelga de Cartagena: The day began with expectancy but two incidents occurred which reignaited the workers' protests. The first was when the whistle of the American-owned railway workshop sounded at six o'clock in the morning, when it was supposed to be at the new time of seven o'clock, since the day had been reduced by one hour. The second was due to the refusal of many shopkeepers or foremen to comply with the agreement (wage increases and decreases in working hours). Both incidents caused the strike to restart. Unrest spread across the city. Many of those involved in the previous day's decision were booed and barracked. When a crowd arrived in front of the workshops of Messrs. Franco and Co., Diego Martínez y Co. and Pombo Hermanos, they broke down the doors and set about destroying and looting property, and the destruction of the symbols of oppression and misery too became a part of the spontaeous popular uprising.
Police units were dispatched to surround the city and sieze key points such as the Plaza de la Aduana, the Plaza de Bolivar, and the Plaza de los Coches in order to suppress the protests. With fixed bayonets, they demanded that the rights of private property be respected, but the people ignored the police's warnings by continuing their actions. The police opened fire at several locations where the crowd was concentrated, such as in the Portal de los Dulces, the Boca del Puente and part of the Camellón, resulting in four deaths, three protesters and a police officer, and several injured. The unofficial death toll was closer to twenty five.
Posters were later put up throughout the city on which the governor reiterated once again the pact agreed the day before. The mayor, likewise, considered that the agreement should be made effective and compliant by all parties. Public opinion was deeply shocked by the magnitude and characteristics of the strike. Even left-wing editorialists in the liberal press condemned the attack on property. Therefore, when the government declared the troubled peace on the Caribbean Coast, the press of all political shades applauded the measure that set such a dangerous precedent. When later having declared a State of Siege, the government was able to prohibit the meetings of any permanent strike committee. Decree 2 of 1918 established that no worker could be represented by a non-person who belonged to his guild or who did not belong to the same company, and those who did not comply with this were imprisoned, which effectively prohibited permanent strike committees, demonstrations and strike pickets.

[1918 - Sol Chick Chaikin (d. April 1 1991), U.S. trade union organiser. He served as president of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union from 1975 until 1986.]

1924 - Jean-Baptiste Thuriault (sometimes Thuriau) (b. 1853), French worker and anarchist militant, dies. [see: Apr. 24]

1928 - Première in Paris of the Association of Anarchist Federations, by dissidents of Anarchist Communist Union. The main architect of this new organisation is Sébastien Faure .

1929 - Heiner Müller (d. 1995), German dramatist, director, poet, anarchist, born.

1931 - The first edition of the weekly satirical newspaper 'El Luchador' (The Wrestler) is published in Barcelona. Edited by the anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist Federico Urales, after several interruptions, it will definitively cease publication after August 4, 1933 (issue 122).

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: The official journal of the CNT in Madrid publishes an editorial 'Esta revolución no es la nuestra' (that is not our revolution), followed up two days later with the claim "Ni vencidos ni humillados" (Neither loser nor humiliated), and blamed the uprising on "la política represiva… sectaria de los socialistas que detentan el poder y usan de él contra los intereses de los trabajadores" (the repressive sectarian politics ... the socialists who use power against the interests of the workers.) The riots "existen y aumentarán por razones de injusticia bien patentes" (exist and flourish because of patent injustice). Therefore, "vencida una insurrección surge otra, resuelta una huelga, otra se produce; apaciguado un motín, estalla otro mayor" (defeat one insurrection another pops up, settle a strike, another occurs; pacify a riot another major one breaks out.)

1943 - Giovanni Rossi (aka Cardias) (b. 1856), Italian anarchist who founded the two cooperative communities of Cittadella (Italy) and La Cecilia (Brazil), dies. [see: Jan. 11]

[B] 1950 - Rio Reiser (Ralph Christian Möbius; d. 1996), German singer, musician, composer, songwriter, actor and queer anarchist, born. Active in the Berlin Kreuzberg scene, writting the squatters' anthem 'Rauch-Haus-Song' (Smoke House Song). Singer and main songwriter of the band Sharam (1970-85), his most well known songs include 'Macht Kaputt, Was Euch Kaputt Macht' (Destroys What Destroys You; 1969) and 'Keine Macht für Niemand' (No Power for Nobody; 1972).

1950 - Wenceslao Jimenez Orive aka 'Wences' & 'Jimeno' (b. 1922), Asturian industrial designer, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who led the 'Los Maños' guérilla group in the resistance to Franco following the fascist victory in the Civil War, is shot down in the street without any warning, Seriously injured, he had just enough strength left to take the cyanide capsule, which he always carried with him, so as not to fall into the hands of the police alive. [see: Jan. 28]

1950 - Following the death of Wenceslao Jimenez Orive aka 'Wences' & 'Jimeno' (b. 1922), two members of his 'Los Maños' group, Simón Gracia Fleringán aka 'Miguel Montllor' & 'Aniceto Borrel' (1923 - 1950) and Placido Ortiz Gratal aka 'Vicente Llop' & 'Vicente Lobo' (1921 - 1950), were arrested later the same day.

1961 - Grève Générale de l'Hiver [Winter General Strike] / Grève du Siècle [Strike of the Century]: Belgian security forces begin arresting strikers to prevent any attempt of revolt. Some of the 2,000 strickers who were arrested are sentenced to one or more months in prison. [see: Dec. 20]

1954 - Herminia Catalina Brumana (b. 1897), Argentinian teacher, writer, journalist, playwright, anarchist and feminist activist, dies. [see: Sep. 12]

[E] 1959 - Rigoberta Menchú Tum, K'iche indigenous activist, who has dedicated her life to publicising the rights of Guatemala's indigenous peoples and campaigning against human rights violations committed by the Guatemalan armed forces, born. Her father, Vicente Menchú, was a member of the guerrilla movement Ejército Guerrillero de los Pobres (Guerrilla Army of the Poor) and died in 1980 during the Burning of the Spanish Embassy after being captured and tortured for his role in organising against abusive landowners.

[FF] 1972 - U.K. Miners' Strike: In the post-war period, British miners' pay had risen significantly higher than the average wage across the manufacturing sectors. However, throughout the 1960's that differential had gradually decreased to be below the manufacturing avarage and, at the 1971 NUM Annual Conference, it was decided to demand substantial weekly wages increases from £35 to £40 for faceworkers, £19 to £28 for underground workers and £18 to £24 for surface workers, representing 17% , 47% and 44% increases respectively, in order to help restore that differntial. However, at the time the Tories' had introduced a wage restraint policy with a target of 7% to 8% and were offering only £1.60 per week for all wage grades. The offer was rejected by the union's National Executive Committee who recommended to a special Delegates Conference on October 21 that an overtime ban should be imposed from November 1 and that a simultaneous ballot on the issue of strike action be held. In late November 1971, 58.8% voted in favour of taking strike action if their pay demands were not met. On December 21, the NCB made a last ditch offer of 7.9%, but it was rejected on January 5, 1972, and the NCB withdrew their offer two days later. The strike was now inevitable.
Shortly after midnight on the night of January 8-9, Britain's 280,000 coal miners walk off of the job in what was the first official national miners' strike since the General Strike in 1926, a strike that was generally considered to be one that the miners "could not possibly win". Woodrow Wyatt, writing in the 'Daily Mirror', said: "Rarely have strikers advanced to the barricades with less enthusiasm or hope of success... The miners have more stacked against them than the Light Brigade in their famous charge." However, the government were eventually forced to make the miners a 'special case' and swiftly set up a court of Inquiry under Lord Wilberforce to settle the dispute. Picketing was suspended when the Inquiry recommended a 20% rise and, following last minute talks at Number 10 during which the Coal Board were forced to make further compromises, the miners eventually came out of the dispute with a 21% pay increase, together with further concessions on overtime rates, shift allowances and transport. The result of the strike was that the miners' wages became almost the highest amongst the working class.
allerton-bywater.synology.me/memorial/1972 strike.html

[F] 1973 - Durban Mass Strike: Workers making a minimum wage considerably lower than the poverty line at the Coronation Brick and Tile factory outside Durban, South Africa, begin what will be a successful strike, demanding that their wages be increased form R8.97 to R20.00 a week. Employees living in the brickworks factory’s hostel marched to a nearby stadium after they were woken at 03:00 and asked by fellow workers to join the strike. Workers from small packaging, transport and ship repairs companies in the city and beyond followed suit, and by the end of January, the newspapers could no longer give precise details of the various strikes, and the 'Natal Mercury' printed a list of 29 firms affected by strikes. Employer representatives flew to Cape Town to discuss the strikes in parliament, which was reopening. The Minister of Labour blamed agitators, but came under fire from the British press, which blamed employers for paying low wages, and focused particularly on Philip Frame of the Frame Group. Even the Natal National Party’s mouthpiece, 'Die Natalier', blamed "shocking wages" and industrialists for the labour unrest.
By early February, 30,000 South African workers were on strike demanding increased wages and better working conditions. The strikes signalled the beginning of a turning point in the long struggle of Black, Coloured and Indian workers to build non racial trade unions and to open up the possibility of mass struggle against the Apartheid regime.
At the end of March 1973, close on 100,000 mainly African workers, approximately half of the entire African workers employed in Durban, were on strike. South Africa’s Apartheid Government and its White capitalist allies were shaken by, presumably, what looked like a spontaneous strike, which had its beginnings in the complex mix of low wages, the humiliation of pass laws, the hardship of migrant labour, forced removals and the denial of the right to organise, the denial of basic human rights and racism that was the bedrock of Apartheid legislation. Through songs and marches, Durban workers made their demands heard - the first time since the political 'stay at home' of the 1950s – and to exercise the power of factory based mass action.

2007 - Mary Stanley Low (b. 1912), Anglo-Australian Trotskyist and later anarchist, poet, Surrealist, linguist and classics teacher, dies. [see: May 14]

[D] [2009 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests:
1859 - The date commonly (and erroneously) given for the birth of Francesc (Francisco) Ferrer i Guàrdia (d. 1909), Catalan anarchist and radical educator. [see: Jan. 14]

1860 - The Pemberton Mill – a five-story brick textile factory in Lawrence, Massachusetts – collapses from excessive load, killing dozens of workers instantly and trapping many more in the rubble. An estimated 145 workers died and 166 were injured in the collapse and subsequent fire that broke out, the majority of whom were young Irish women.

1868 - Transportation of convicts to Australia ends.

[F] 1874 - The First International is declared illegal by the new government of General Francisco Serrano. After the events of Alcoy and Sanlúcar de Barrameda, the cantonal insurrection, the resumption of The Carlist war and the resurgence of the independence rebellion in Cuba, the president Emilio Castelar y Ripoll had asked for an extension of his semi-dictatorial powers. He subsequently lost a motion of confidence and on January 3, General Manuel Pavía (Manuel Pavía y Rodríguez de Alburquerque) had rebelled against the Republic in Madrid and dissolved Parliament [Golpe de Estado de Pavía] in order to prevent a radical republican government taking over. Pavía offered to restore Castelar, but he refused and instead General Francisco Serrano y Domínguez ended up heading a 'republicanos unitarios' cabinet of conservatives and radicals.

[D] 1883 - Squatters at Glendale, on the Isle of Skye, defeat the police force sent to evict them.

1885 - Vladimir Yevgraphovich Tatlin (Влади́мир Евгра́фович Та́тлин; d. 1953); Russian, and later Soviet, painter and architect, born. Initailly associated with the pre-Revolutionary anarchist movement around the Futurists, he was a member of a number of anarchist groups (including the Activist Group of the Moskovskija Associacija Anarchistov) and involved with the anarchist weekly newspaper 'Anarkhiia', alongside Malevich and Rodchenko. However, like a number of one-time anarchists who remained in Russia (rather than fleeing abroad) following the Bolshevik takeover, he joined the Constructivist orthodoxy along with the likes of Rodchenko and Aleksei Gan, which was in turn suppressed in favour of Socialist Realism.

[B] 1893 - Vicente Huidobro (Vicente García-Huidobro Fernández; d. 1948), Chilean poet, who was an exponent of the artistic movement called Creacionismo (Creationism), born. As a student Huidobro became interested in anarchism and, having become editor in 1912, published numerous anarchist and IWW texts and speeches in the modernist magazine 'Musa Joven'. He became close to the Feración de Estudiantes de la Universidad de Chile because 'Juventud' and 'Claridad' published the latest on new art and the avant-garde, as well as writings of renowned anarchists (Kropotkin, Bakunin, Proudhon), thus confirming a close bond between left-libertarianism politics and the avant-garde.

[1894 - Emilia Pérez Pazos, aka 'Manchada' (d. 1960), libertarian anti-Francoist militant

1901 - Herrmann Karl Robert 'Henning' von Tresckow (d. 1944), German Generalmajor, who organised Wehrmacht resistance against Adolf Hitler, born. Initially an enthusiastic supporter of Nazism because of its opposition to the Treaty of Versailles, he was quickly disillusioned by 1934 with the extra-judicial murder by the Schutzstaffel (SS) of many SA leaders and political opponents, including two generals, in the Night of the Long Knives (June 30, 1934). Events like the 1938 Blomberg–Fritsch Affair, and especiilaly Kristallnacht, strengthened his antipathy to the Nazis (as later would the mass shootings of Jews in the east, the Commissar Order [the Richtlinien für die Behandlung politischer Kommissare (Guidelines for the Treatment of Political Commissars), ordering the summary execution of any captured Soviet political commissars] and the general treatment of Russian prisoners) and he sought out civilians and officers who opposed Hitler. It was decided that Tresckow's group would assassinate Hitler and thereby provide the 'spark' for the coup, and plans for Operation Spark began to be drawn up in 1940. However, it was not until 1943 when the first opportunity arose for the anti-Nazi conspiracy of German army officers and political conservatives, given the name Schwarze Kapelle (Black Band) by Tresckow, to carry out their plan. Hitler planned to visit the Army Group Centre (AGC) on the Eastern Front on his journey back to East Prussia from Ukraine [see: Feb. 17] and Tresckow had prepared three options:
  • intercept Hitler on his way from the airfield to the HQ area, overwhelming Hitler's SS escort and killing the Führer (rejected as the plotters did not want to fight fellow German soldiers and the escort might prove too strong);
  • a group of plotters were to shoot Hitler collectively at a signal in the officers' mess during lunch; or
  • to smuggle a timebomb (disguised as a box supposedly containing two bottles of cognac) on to Hitler's plane on the flight back.
Plan B was abandoned when Günther von Kluge (1882 - 1944), Commander of Army Group Centre, persuaded Kluge not to carry it out. Instead the third plan was attempted and Tresckow asked Lieutenant Colonel Heinz Brandt, who was travelling with Hitler, whether he would be good enough to take a bottle of Cointreau to (fellow conspirator) Colonel Helmuth Stieff (1901 - 1944). Unfortunately, the bomb failed to detonate.
Other assassination attempt, including the March 21, 1943, suicide bomb attempt by Colonel Rudolph-Christoph von Gersdorff (1905 - 1980) at the Zeughaus military museum in Berlin, the winter uniform suicide bomb attempts on November 16, 1943 and February 11, 1944 plus an attempted shooting (March 11) and a bomb in the water tower at the Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) all failed.
Meanwhile, Tresckow had continued to try and increase the circle of plotters, with many refusing to participate but also failing to report his treasonable activities. Instead, the plotters were forced to rely more on the Reserve Army in Berlin and other districts, and its commander General Friedrich Olbricht (1888 - 1944), suggested a new scheme, to adapt the Operation Walküre (Valkyrie) emergency operational plan as the basis for a coup plot. Tresckow set about redrafted the Valkyrie plan as part of what would become the July 20 plot against. This time the bomb did go off but it failed to kill Hitler and by the time the conspirators found that out their takeover plans were in full swing and they were discovered, arrested and most were ruthlessly eradicated. [see: Jul. 20] When Tresckow heard of the plot's failure, he committed suicide the following day on the Eastern Front. Eventually, Tresckow part in the plot was discovered, with the Gestapo labelling him as being the "prime mover" and the "evil spirit" behind it, and his body was dug up and taken to the crematorium in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. His wife was arrested on August 15 and her children taken away under Nazi policy of Sippenhaft, meaning shared family guilt, but early in October she was released again and survived the war.

1903 - Pierre Kaan (d. 1945), French professor of philosophy, Marxist essayist, and prominent member of the Résistance during WWII, using the pseudonyms Biran, Brulard, Cantal and Dupin, born. [expand]
Denounced by a close collaborator in the winter of 1945, Pierre Kaan was arrested by the Gestapo on December 29 on the steps of Port-Royal métro station in Paris, tortured and then deported to Buchenwald concentration camp. Liberated by Czech anti-fascist fighters from the Gleina subcamp, he died a few days later, exhausted and stricken by typhus and tuberculosis in Ceské Budejovice hospital.

1905 - [O.S. Dec. 29, 1904] Putilov Strike / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Following the previous days' meetings amongst workers at the Putilov Ironworks (arms factory) in St. Petersburg protesting the sacking of four workers dismissed for their membership of the Assembly of the Russian Factory and Mill Workers of the City of St. Petersburg (Собрание русских фабрично-заводских рабочих г. Санкт-Петербурга) aka 'The Assembly', headed by Fr. Georgii Apollonovich Gapon (Гео́ргий Аполло́нович Гапо́н), petition the management of the plant on the workers' demands that the four be rehired and that the foreman who had discharged them be fired. The demand was rejected by the management.

1906 - [O.S. Dec. 28 1905] Gurian Peasant Republic / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: After two failed attempts in March and October 1905, the Russian expeditionary forces, who had been strongly reinforced by Colonel Krylov's troops, finally brutally suppress the uprising in the Georgian province of Guria, putting an end to the Gurian Republic. [See: Feb. 20]

1906 - The word ‘suffragette’ first appears in print today, in an article in the 'Daily Mail' of all places!

1913 - Paint Creek-Cabin Creek Miners' Strike: West Virginia Governor William E. Glasscock lifts martial law for a second time. It will be reimposed on February 10 following a number of attacks on Mucklow by striking miners. [see: Nov. 15]

1914 - Revolución Mexicana: Mexican president Victoriano Huerta's forces defeated at Ojinaga, end of Huerta resistance in Chihuahua.

1914 - The date on which two men were killed during a grocery store robbery in Utah, for which IWW labour organiser and folk singer Joe Hill, coiner of the phrase "pie in the sky", was railroaded and executed in Salt Lake City, Utah.

1918 - [O.S. Dec. 28] Olga Spiridonovna Lyubatovich (Ольга Спиридоновна Любатович), aka 'Shaeek' (Акула), Olga Doroshenko (Ольга Дорошенко), (Maria Svyatskaya) Мария Святская (d. 1917), Russian anarchist-influenced revolutionary, narodnitsa and member of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya (Земля и воля / People's Will), dies. [see: Jun. 29]

1919 - Arrest of the author, poet, publisher, anarchist Erich Mühsam and 11 other radicals in Germany.

[C] 1926 - The Executive committee of the CPGB issue a statement calling for the setting up of Workers’ Defence Corps across the country to protect striking workers against the police, strike breakers and the fascists, who were part of the official strike-breaking and special police organisation.

1928 - Philip Levine, American working-class poet, anti-fascist and anarchist, born.

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: Rioting, bombings and gunfights continue throughout the country as the Revolution spreads to the southern cities. Anarchists and Syndicalists besiege Barcelona. Armed anarchist risings in Barcelona (January-February) and several other cities are defeated by the Republican government; left-right polarisation develops further in Spain. The insurrection breaks out in Castellón de la Plana following the killing of a guardia civil and an assault guard. [see: Jan. 7 & 8]

1933 - Sucesos de Casas Viejas: On the night of January 10 and in the early hours of January 11, a group of CNT-affiliated farm labourers gather in the Ateneo Libertario in Casas Viejas, a town of about 2000 inhabitants, and quite unaware that they were isolated and that the uprising had failed in other nearby locations, embark upon an uprising during the January 1933 anarchist insurrection. Telephone wires are cut, trenches dug to prevent the movement of vehicles and control points set up at intersections and roads into the town.
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Sucesos de Casas Viejas
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Las fotografías de los Sucesos de Casas Viejas

1933 - Sucesos de Casas Viejas: Following rioting in the province of Cádiz organised by the anarchists, the government decide to send in a company of guardias de asalto under the command of Captain Manuel Rojas Feijespán.
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Sucesos de Casas Viejas
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Las fotografías de los Sucesos de Casas Viejas

[A] 1934 - Marinus van der Lubbe (b. 1909), a Dutch council communist, is guillotined for setting fire to the Reichstag building.

1938 - The final edition (issue 13) of 'Informa Bulteno', the 'Information Bulletin of the CNT - AIT - ISP' in Esperanto, is published.

1943 - Uprising in the Forced Labour Camp of Mińsk-Mazowiecki: The final liquidation of the Mińsk-Mazowiecki Ghetto is ordered but when the first group of around 300 of the remaining Jews resist their German overseers at the Camp Kopernikus as they are being taken to be killed at the nearby Jewish cemetery. The remained lock themselves in the building, throwing bricks, tools and stones at Germans. The building is shelled and they are burned alive in their barracks.

1946 - Daniel Giraud, French essayist, translator, poet, Sinologist, Taoist anarchist and blues musician, who perfoms under the stage name Dan Giraud, born.

1947 - Afeni Shakur (Alice Faye Williams; d. 2016), African-American social activist, former Black Panther Party member and record company executive, who was best known as the mother of Tupac Shakur, born. In 1964 Alice Williams became involved in community politics and four years later joined the BPP. The same year she moved in with fellow Panther Lumumba Abdul Shakur, changing her name to Afeni Shakur. In April 1969 she was arrested in connection with the New York 21 Panthers case and accused of conspiracy to bomb police stations, the Bronx Botanical Gardens, a city commuter train and five department stores, as well as long-range rifle attack on two police stations and an education office in New York City. Heavily pregnant with Tupac, she eventually stood trial and was acquitted with the 12 other defendants on all charges on May 12, 1971. On June 16, 1971, Shakur gave birth to her son, whom she reportedly named Lesane Parish Crooks, but who she later renamed Tupac Amaru Shakur.
She never returned to the Black Panther movement and drifted into drug addiction.

1949 - A.J. Alexandrovich (Alexander Joseph)(b.1873), prolific Russian-born French libertarian artist (portraiture and landscape) in paint, ink, charcoal, as well as etching and lithograph, dies. Painted many allegorical compostions as well as portraits of all the well known contemporary anarchist figures. [Mar 11]

1950 - Clovis-Abel Pignat (aka Tschombine Pategnon) (b. 1884), Swiss militant anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, dies*. [see: Nov. 16]
[*poss. alternate date on Jan. 13]

1957 - Bombings of four Montgomery, Alabama, churches and two local black community leaders' homes.

1961 - Dashiell Hammett (b. 1894), author and creator of Sam Spade ('The Maltese Falcon') and Nick and Nora Charles ('The Thin Man'), dies. ​[see: May 27]

1965 - The ad hoc 'organisation of organisations' formed by the numerous Commonwealth migrant groups to represent and fight on behalf of all 'coloured' people in Britain, adopts the name the Campaign Against Racial Discrimination (CARD). Their inaugural meeting in February 1965 would be invaded by 35 neo-Nazis. [PR]

1973 - Durban Mass Strike: With the strike at the Coronation Brick and Tile factory on-going, workers at the transport firm AJ Keeler stop work, demanding a wage increase of R2.00 a week but management rejects the demand on the grounds that workers were being paid R2.00 more than the Government stipulated minimum wage. The workers fail to mount a full-blown strike and retunr to work after only 45 minutes.

1977 - The first issue of the monthly 'Sicilia Libertaria: Giornale Anarchico per la Liberazione Sociale e l'Internazionalismo', produced by the Ragusa group in Turin, is published.

1986 - Jaroslav Seifert (b. 1901), Czech poet, writer, journalist and translator, dies. [see: Sep. 23]

1998 - Over 20,000 villagers from the Narmada Valley of central India occupy the partially built site of the new, World Bank-funded Maheshwar Dam.

2002 - Eight members of the group Those Pesky Kids (TPK) charged with Criminal Trespass after scaling the Argentine Embassy walls and dropping the red and black Anarchist flag in solidarity with the insurrectionary events in Argentina.

2004 - Ramón Liarte Viu (b. 1918), Spanish anarchist propagandist, anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist militant, autodidact, journalist and writer, dies. [see: Aug. 28]

2009 - Julia Hermosilla Sagredo (b. 1916), Basque anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Franco resistance movement, dies. [see: Apr. 1]

2011 - 2 prison officers are injured during a disturbance at HMYOI Littlehay in Cambridgeshire.
1811 - Guerra de Independencia de México [Mexican War of Independence]: Despite consisting of almost 100,000 Mexican revolutionists, the insurgent troops of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and Ignacio Allende are defeated by the 6,000 or so professional soldiers of the Royalist forces of New Spain, led by General Félix María Calleja del Rey, a Spanish military officer and (later) viceroy of New Spain. Calleja's forces were better equipped than the insurgent forces and Royalist artillery struck an insurgent ammunitions wagon, causing it to explode. The explosion caused panic in the insurgents' ranks, giving victory to the much smaller but better disciplined Royalist forces. The Batalla del Puente de Calderón (Battle of Calderón Bridge) is a decisive defeat and turning point in the War of Independence, which resulted in a ten-year delay before insurgent victory and independence could be achieved.
Blamed for the defeat, Hidalgo was removed from command of the army and replaced by Allende and what was left of the insurgent Army of the Americas fled towards America hoping for help from its supporters there.

[F]1831 - Luddite Timeline: Three workers in Dorset are sentenced to death for extorting money and two workers are sentenced to death for robbery by one of the Special Commissions sent by the Whig Ministry to suppress insurgent workers.
Fifty-five workers in Norwich are convicted of "machine breaking and rioting" by one of the Special Commissions sent by the Whig Ministry to suppress insurgent workers.
Three workers in Ipswich are convicted of extorting money by one of the Special Commissions sent by the Whig Ministry to suppress insurgent workers.
Twenty-six workers in Petworth are convicted of "machine breaking and rioting" by one of the Special Commissions sent by the Whig Ministry to suppress insurgent workers.
"Upwards of thirty" workers in Gloucester are convicted of "machine breaking and rioting" by one of the Special Commissions sent by the Whig Ministry to suppress insurgent workers.
Twenty-nine workers in Oxford are convicted of "machine breaking and rioting" by one of the Special Commissions sent by the Whig Ministry to suppress insurgent workers.

1856 - Giovanni Rossi (aka Cardias) (d. 1943), Italian anarchist who founded the two cooperative communities of Cittadella (Italy) and La Cecilia (Brazil), born.

1874 - General Arsenio Martínez-Campos Antón, the capitán general of Catalonia, follows up on yesterday's banning of the First International in Spain by the new government of General Francisco Serrano, by also declaring the Federació Regional Espanyola de l'AIT, then based in Barcelona, illegal too. [see: Jan. 10]

1885 - Alice Paul (d. 1977), US suffragist, feminist, and women's rights activist, and the main leader and strategist of the 1910s campaign for the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution which prohibits sex discrimination in the right to vote, born.

1886 - Jean-Jacques Liabeuf (d. 1910), a young unemployed French cobbler who was notoriously guillotined after his July 2,1910 act of revenge against police for his wrongful conviction on trumped-up charges of 'pimping', born.

1887 - Clément Duval, French anarchist burglar and member of La Panthère des Batignolles, whose story was appropriated for the plot of the novel 'Papillion', goes on trial at the Seine Court of Assizes. Duval had broken into the apartment of a rich woman (25th October 1886), stolen her jewels and accidentally set it on fire.

[B] 1890 - William Morris' 'News From Nowhere (or An Epoch of Rest)' begins serialisation in 'The Commonweal'.

1906 - [O.S. Dec. 29 1905] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: At the second SR party congress (Jan. 11-17 [O.S. Dec. 29-Jan. 4] , held at Imatra in Finland, controversy over the use of terrorism causes a split within the party. The Maximalists on the left, who formed the Union of Socialists Revolutionaries Maximalists (Союз социалистов-революционеров-максималистов), endorsed not only attacks on political and government targets but also 'economic terror' (i.e., attacks on landowners, factory owners etc.); the Popular Socialists rejected all terrorism. Other issues also divided the defectors from the PSR: The Maximalists disagreed with the SRs' version of a 'two-stage' revolution (the first stage being 'popular-democratic' and the second 'labour-socialist'), a theory advocated by Victor Chernov (Виктора Чернова), which, to the Maximalists, smacked of the Social-Democrats' distinction between 'bourgeois-democratic' and 'proletarian-socialist' stages of the revolution. Maximalism stood for immediate socialist revolution. The Popular Socialists (Партия народных социалистов), or Labour Popular Socialist Party (Трудова́я наро́дно-социалисти́ческая па́ртия), meanwhile, disagreed with the party's proposal to 'socialise' the land (i.e., turn it over to collective peasant ownership) and instead wanted to 'nationalise' it (i.e., turn it over to the state; they also wanted landowners to be compensated, while the PSR rejected indemnities).

1906 - Albert Hofmann (d. 2008), Swiss chemist, who first synthesised lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), born.

1907 - Joan Dalmau Ferran aka Joan de la Castanyola (d. 1941), Catalan farmer, Master builder and anarcho-syndicalsit militant, born. Member of the CNT, during the revolution he was a member of the CNT agricultural collective in Puigpelat. On May 25, 1937 he was a delegate to the plenary of the Régional de Sindicats, Seccions i Collectivitats and to the regaional plenum of the CNT on January 8-9, 1938, both held in Barcelona. After the war, he went into exile in France and eventually enlisted in a Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers (CTE) to work on the fortifications of the Maginot Line. Taken prisoner by the Germans, he was deported to Mauthausen concentration camp and died on August 28, 1941 in the Gusen concentration camp (aka Mauthausen II) in Austria.

1908 - General Strike by workers in Buenos Aires. [expand]

1911 - First Modern School, based on ideas of Francisco Ferrer, founded by a group including Leonard Abbott, Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman, New York City. Established in 1911, it was moved to Stelton, New Jersey, in 1914.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike aka The 'Strike for Three Loaves': Beginning of the IWW-organised 'Bread & Roses' textile strike of 32,000 women and children at Lawrence, Massachusetts – a workforce made up mainly of Portuguese, French-Canadian, English, Irish, Russian, Italian, Syrian, Lithuanian, German, Polish, and Belgian immigrant families who lived in overcrowded, highly-flammable wooden tenements and whose average wage was $8.76 a week. The first to walk out were a group of Polish women textile workers at the Everett Mill who, upon collecting their pay and finding it short by thirty-two cents, exclaimed that they had been cheated and promptly abandoned their looms. The 'Lawrence Eagle Tribune' reported on a strike meeting held that Friday, January 11. "Voting unanimously to walk out if their pay for 54 hours is less than that received for 56 hours, several hundred Italians, Poles, and Lithuanians, who are employed in the local mills, met last evening at Ford’s Hall. A majority of those who attended the meeting will receive their pay today. A mass meeting will be held Saturday afternoon at 2 o’clock in the City Hall at which speakers in English, Italian, Polish, and French will be present." [NB: Helen Schloss & Matilda Robbins (Tatiana Gitel Rabinowitz)]
www.wsc.mass.edu/mhj/pdfs/Bread, roses, and other possibilities.pdf

1915 - Germaine Violette Nozière (d. 1966), notorious French parricide of a father who had raped her throughout her teenage years, born. The 18-year-old only daughter of an engine driver and a housewife who lived in a claustrophobic two-room apartment in the working-class 12th Arrondissement of Paris, the police, courts and press had suppressed the rape/incest evidence, instead trying the "the monster in petticoats" from a "respectable home" for the company she kept, "effete" morally questionable Latin Quarter students: "men with jackets of extremely narrow waist and coat-hanger shoulders, with Mexican-style trousers", as one Paris daily condemningly put it. "Violette Nozière will remain in our memories a sad and lovely ode to perversity", said a writer in 'Paris-Midi'. "She is the inverted muse of youth, the scarlet idol of a capsized world, the flower of evil of our age."
Having given both parents a lethal dose of soménal (a sleeping pill) in their drinks (her mother did not drink all her's and survived), Violette was charged with attempted intentional killing her legal parents and the murder of her father.
Found guilty of parricide on October 12, 1934, she was sentenced to death. An appeal is dismissed December 6, 1934, by the Criminal Chamber of the Court of Cassation but President Albert Lebrun commuted the death sentence against Violet, that of hard labour for life on December 24 following an appeal for clemency. Following the intervention of the Catholic Church (Violette having undergone a Catholic 'rebirth' in prison), Marshal Philippe Petain reduced her sentence to 12 years hard labour from the date of her imprisonment in 1933 by a decree on August 6, 1942. She was finally released on August 29, 1945. In 1953, André Breton became an advocate for her rehabilitaion under the law but it was not until a decade later (March 13, 1963) that she was officially rehabilitated andable to fully exercise her civil rights and have a blank criminal record again.

1924 - In the premises of the union CGTUnitaire at 33 Rue de la Grange-aux-Belles in Paris, a bloody confrontation takes place during a meeting of the Communist Party. Anarcho-syndicalist militants opposed to the use of the local union for political purposes are fired on by young communist stewards, killing 2 anarcho-syndicalist workers, Adrien Poncet and Nicolas Clos.

1928 - Trotsky is exiled by Stalin.

1931 - Emma Goldman finishes her autobiography, 'Living My Life'.

1933 - Sucesos de Casas Viejas: In Casas Viejas libertarian communism and common ownership of the land is declared, the town's archive and the property deeds are set on fire and its food store distributed. Early that morning María Silva Cruz aka 'La Libertaria' and her friend Manuela Lago Estudillo [sometimes mistakenly called Manuela Lago y Gallinito - this appears to stem from a mistranslated text, and that Gallinito was actually Antonio Cabaña Salvador, who was prominet in the anarchist group Amor y Armonía (Love and Harmony) that Maria and Manuela were members of], both anarchist militants, march through the village with a red and black flag. The town's mayor is dismissed and, armed with shotguns and the odd handgun, the insurgents surround the Guardia Civil barracks, and its three guards and one sergeant are called upon to to surrender. When they refused, an exchange of gunshots erupts and the sergeant and one of the guards are seriously wounded.
At 14:00, a team of twelve Guardia Civil under a Sergeant Anarte arrive in Casas Viejas, free their colleagues, who had been left behind in the barracks and take over the village. Three hours after that, a further batch of police reinforcements arrive under the command of Lieutenant Gregorio Fernández Artal: they comprise 4 Guardia Civil and 12 Guardias de Asalto. They promptly set about arresting those allegedly responsible for the attack on the civil guards barracks, two of whom after torture, point the finger at two sons and a son-in-law of Francisco Cruz Gutierrez, nicknamed Seisdedos (Six Fingers), a 70 year old charcoal maker and CNT member, who had sought refuge in his home, a mud-and-stone shack, alongside his family. On attempting to break down the door to Seisdedos’ home, one assault guard is shot dead on the doorstep and another is seriously wounded. An unsuccessful attempt to storm the shack is made at ten o’clock that night. Sometime after midnight, newly arrived Captain Manuel Rojas Feijespán ordered his men to open up on the shack with their rifles and machine-guns and later gave the order for it to be torched, killing all but one inhabitant. [see: Jan. 12]
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Sucesos de Casas Viejas
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Las fotografías de los Sucesos de Casas Viejas

[E] 1933 - Maria Isidine, aka Maria Goldsmith or Maria Korn (Maria Isidorovna Goldsmith [Мария Исидоровна Гольдсмит]; b. 1871), Russian Jew, Socialist-Revolutionary, anarchist militant and biologist (animal psychology) at the Sorbonne préparatrice zoology laboratory, commits suicide following the death of her mother. [see: Jul. 31]

[C] 1943 - Assassination of the Italian-born anarchist militant Carlo Tresca (b. 1879) in New York City by unknown assailants. Forced into exile following his involvement in the newspaper 'Il Germe' (The Origin), he emigrated to the USA via Switzerland. In New York he published an Italian language paper, 'La Plèbe', became involved in IWW union activities and in 1917 started 'Il Martello' (The Hammer), a newspaper he published until his death. In 1923, he was sentenced to one year in prison for publishing a book on birth control, but due to large demonstrations in his support his sentence was reduced to four months. Later he organised resistance to Italian blackshirts in America. Tresca's funeral, which was held on January 16 in Manhattan Center, was attended by over 5000 anti-facists. [see: Mar. 9]

1945 - Dekemvrianá [Δεκεμβριανά / December events]: The fighting in Greece comes to an end, with the agreement of EAM with General Scobie.

1949 - Paco Ignacio Taibo II (born Francisco Ignacio Taibo Mahojo), Mexican intellectual, historian, professor, journalist, social activist, union organiser and world-renowned writer, born. Widely known as PIT, his working-class anarchist family fled Spain in 1958 to escape the Franco regime. In Mexico he became involved in the student movement of 1968 and later an organiser working with independent trade unions. Creator of Héctor Belascoarán Shayne, a one-eye anarchist detective from Mexico City who has appeared in 6 novels including the most recent, 'The Uncomfortable Dead' (2006), co-written with Subcomandante Marcos. Another novel, 'De Paso' (1986) published in English as 'Just Passing Through' (2000), is the story of an exiled Spanish anarchist, Sebastián San Vicente [a real historical figure] in 1920's post-revolutionary Mexico. He is also the author of '68' (2004), a study of the Tlatelolco Square massacre. [see: Oct. 2].

1952 - Peace Pledge Union organises 'Operation Gandhi', first British protest against nuclear weapons, London.

1973 - Durban Mass Strike: Workers at a tea packing company, TW Becket & Co, go out on strike, demanding an increase of R3.00 a week. Police are called in and the workers told to return or face dismissal. Of the 150 strikers, about 100 decide to continue the strike. By January 25 the company agreed to raise wages by R3.00 a week and agreed to reinstate most of the dismissed workers, although 'troublemakers' were left out in the cold.

1980 - Celia Sánchez Manduley (Celia Esther de los Desamparados Sánchez Manduley; b. 1920), Cuban revolutionary fighter, politician, researcher and archivist of the Revolution, dies of lung cancer. [see: May 8]

[D] 1981 - The Farabundo Marti Front for National Liberation launches a general offensive. Embattled El Salvadoran junta imposes dawn-to-dusk curfew. In two days the guerrillas' political arm will call for a General Strike. By January 15th, about half the shops in the capital city, San Salvador, are closed and 20,000 government workers walk out.

[A] 1981 - The 'Macheteros' blow up 11 jet fighters of Puerto Rico's National Guard near San Juan.

1999 - Fabrizio De André (b. 1940), Sardinian anarchist songster, dies in Milan. [see: Feb. 18]

2006 - Maria Rosa Alorda Gràcia (b. 1918), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies. [see: Sep. 17]

2007 - Yael Langella (Yael Sylvie Langella-Klépov; b. 1953), French-Catalan polyglot teacher writer, poet, translator, photographer and libertarian activist, dies. [see: Oct. 11]

2008 - Amnesty International stages protests around the world, marking the sixth anniversary of the first arrival of detainees at the US prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. The group demands the prison be shut down.
1791 - Slave revolt in Louisiana. [expand]

1875 - Jenny d'Héricourt (Jeanne-Marie-Fabienne Poinsard; b. 1809), French novelist, feminist activist, revolutionary, and physician-midwife, who founded the Société pour l'Émancipation des Femmes in 1848, dies. [see: Sep. 10]

1876 - Jack London (d. 1916), US author of 'The Iron Heel', 'The Sea-Wolf' and 'People Of The Abyss' amongst other works, born. A passionate advocate of unionism, socialism and considered by many as a "pre-mature anti-fascist" though, like many of his peers, he too feared the "the yellow peril".
His classic definition of a scab: "After God had finished the rattlesnake, the toad, the vampire, He had some awful substance left with which He made a scab. A scab is a two-legged animal with a cork-screw soul, a water-logged brain, a combination backbone of jelly and glue. Where others have hearts, he carries a tumor of rotten principles."

[EE] 1881 - Mary Eleanor Gawthorpe (d. 1973) British teacher, suffragette, socialist, trade unionist and co-editor of the radical periodical, 'The Freewoman:A Weekly Feminist Review' (1911-12), born. Disillusioned with the Nation Union of Women's Suffrage Societies and the Women's Labour League, Mary joined the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) in October 1905. The following year she gave up teaching and became the full-time organiser of the WSPU in Leeds and one of the Union's main speakers. Imprisoned on several occasions for her political activities, Gawthorpe was also badly beaten, suffering serious internal injuries after heckling Winston Churchill in 1909. In January 1910 on Polling Day in Southport, Gawthorpe and her fellow suffragettes Dora Marsden and Mabel Capper were the subject of a violent assault whilst demonstrating at the polling booths.
Gawthorpe emigrated to New York in 1916 and was active in the American suffrage movement and later in the Trade Union movement, becoming an official of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Union. In 1962 Mary Gawthorpe published 'Up Hill to Holloway', the story of her life up to her release from prison in November 1906.

1882 - Christian Eli Christensen (d. 1960) Danish author and revolutionary syndicalist, born. Christensen joined the Socialdemokratisk Ungdoms-Forbund (Social Democratic Youth League) at the age of 18, but left in 1906 to play a leading role in the creation of the Socialistisk Arbejderforening (Socialist Workers' Union). Two years later he joined the newly established Syndikalistisk Forbund (Syndicist League), and in 1910 he became a member of the revolutionary syndicalist organisation Fagoppositionens Sammenslutning (Confederation of Trade Unions) and editor of the organisation's newspaper 'Solidaritet' (Solidarty). Particiapted in the organisation of the Stormen på Børsen, the February 11, 1918 attack on the stock exchange in Copenhagen by unemployed syndicalists. Later that year he was sentence to 21 months in prison for a number of old articles on social revolution in an act of political revenge. Prison would physically break him.
In 1920, he visited the Soviet Union and, in 1921 was part of the majority of the FS who entered into federalist cooperation with Danmarks Kommunistiske Parti. In 1923 he went on a voluntary 'exile' in Silkeborg, where he made a living with poultry, horticulture, fishing, etc. Nevertheless, he remained throughout the period in the DKP but with the continuation of the Stalinist terror during the Spanish Civil War and the first Moscow trial in August 1936, he quit DKP and ideologically broke with communism. He tried, and failed, to revive the FS and his new weekly newspaper 'Arbejdet' (Work) folded after two years (1936-38). During his exile in Silkeborg, he formed a close friendship with the then 22-year-old Asger Jorn and future Situationist, upon whom he left a life-long impression - he dedicated his 1960 work 'Critique de la politique économique' to Christensen.
Christensen was the author of 'Arbejderne og Børneflokken' (Workers and the care of children), advocating sexual reolution and birth control; and the memoirs 'En rabarberdreng vokser op' (A Poor boy grows up; 1961) and 'Bondeknold og rabarberdreng' (Country bumpkin and poor boy; 1962), which were edited by his syndicalist comrade the poet Halfdan Rasmussen and published shortly before his death.

1883 - In Lyon at the trial of members the International Workers' Association, known as 'The 66', the 'Anarchist Declaration' is read out to the court. Likely written by Peter Kropotkin, it is a summary of the ideals of the accused.

1890 - Vasily Yakovlevich Eroshenko (d. 1952), blind Russian anarchist, novelist, linguist, translator and an important activist in the Esperanto Movement, born.

[B] 1900 - Yanase Masamu (柳瀬正梦; d. 1945), Japanese manga artist and cartoonist, born. Co-founder of the Miraiha-Bijutsu-Kyokai (Futurist Art Association) in 1920 and MAVO in 1923. Yanase was committed to both proletarian art and its more avant-garde elements as exemplified by the anarchist-influenced MAVO group. He also worked as a satirical cartoonist for various leftist papers including 'Tanemaku Hito' (The Sower), and was frequently investigated and imprisoned. One of the founders of the Japan Manga Society, Yanase also later became a member of the communist-affiliated Proletarian Artist's League and, in October 1931 after having worked on the Japanese Communist Party's officially sanctioned newspaper 'Musansha Shinbun' (Proletarian News), joined the outlawed organisation.

[C/CCC] 1900 - Todor Angelov Dzekov (Тодор Ангелов Дзеков / Théodore Angheloff; d. 1943), Bulgarian anarcho-communist revolutionary and anti-fascist, who was active for a long time in Western Europe and headed a Brussels-based group of the Belgian Resistance against Nazi Germany, born. A member of the anarchist left wing of Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (IMRO) and the Bulgarian Communist Party from an early age; in 1923 he took part in the failed and suppressed September Uprising. In 1923, he settled in Belgium with his wife Aleksandra Sharlandzhieva (Александра Шарланджиева) and daughter, the screenwriter and editor Svoboda Bachvarova (Свобода Тодорова Бъчварова; b. 1925) Between 1936–1938, he joined the XV Brigade's Georgi Dimitrov Battalion of Bulgarian volunteers and fought in the Spanish Civil War. Wounded, he spent time recuperating in a hospital in Murcia and was interned in Gurs concentration camp following the defeat of the republic. Upon returning to Belgium Angelov was an active supporter of the Communist Party of Belgium. In 1942, he organised a resistance group of around 25 people, mostly Central European Jewish immigrants; the group was mostly active around Brussels. Angelov was referred to as Terrorist X by the Nazi authorities and led over 200 actions against the Nazis, including the destruction of a train carrying military machinery and the burning of records of Jews to be deported. During a single year, around half of the group's members were killed or arrested. Angelov was arrested in early 1943 and interned in the Fort Breendonk concentration camp, where he was executed in late November 1943. The Nazis never knew who they had caught despite the 11 months of torture that they subjected him to.

1902 - María Mateo Bruna (d. 1992), Spanish anarchist and Moviment Llibertari Espanyol militant, born. On July 19, 1936, she participated in the construction of barricades in the Gracia district of Barcelona, resupplying the fighters and taking care of the wounded. She later worker in the popular collectivsed bars and cafés. After the war she settled in France with her partner and poet, Miguel Alba Lozano, who contributed to the anarchist periodical 'Cenit' (1991-96). Her brother Blas was also an anarchist militant.

1909 - Celso Ceretti (b. 1844), Italian anarchist contemporary of Bakunin involved with the founding conference of the Italian Federation of the International Association of Workers, dies. [see: Jan. 13]

1911 - Robert Abshagen (d. 1944), German insurance agent, sailor, construction worker, Communist and resistance fighter against National Socialism, who was a member of the the Bästlein-Jacob-Abshagen Group, the largest resistance organisation in the Hamburg area, born.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: Following the walk out of women workers at the Everett Mill yesterday, workers in the Washington Mill of the American Woolen Company also found that their wages had been cut. Prepared for the events by weeks of discussion, they walked out, calling "short pay, all out." A mass meeting is held in the City Hall after which the Italian language branch of IWW Local 20 decided to send a telegram to New York City for Joseph Ettor, an Executive Board member and the organisation's top Italian language leader, to come to Lawrence and help organise the strike. Ettor arrived the following day along with Arturo Giovannitti, secretary of the Italian Socialist Federation, a language federation within the Socialist Party of America, and editor of the socialist newspaper 'Il Proletario', who was not himself at the time a member of the IWW.
[IWW organise + tactics - Lucy Parsons Project]
www.wsc.mass.edu/mhj/pdfs/Bread, roses, and other possibilities.pdf

1913 - The creation of the Confederación General de Trabajadores (CGT), an anarcho-syndicalist organisation based on direct democracy, in Costa Rica.

1913 - Fight for the 8-Hour Day in Peru: The Federación Obrera Regional del Perú (Regional Workers' Federation of Peru) and the newspaper 'La Protesta' organise a meeting in El Callao to celebrate the victories gained so far and to mark the continuation of the struggle. After speeches from a number of prominent militants, the crowd toured the streets of the city celebrating the triumph of the workers.
The struggle for the 8-hour working day spread to other parts of the country, sparking a wave of strikes. There were conflicts in Talara, Lagunitas, Loritos and Negritos, and FORP also carried out a strike against Fox Duncan and Co., for the reinstatement of 60 redundant workers, who ended up going back to their old jobs. The 8-hour day would not be implemented throughour Peru until after the general strike in 1919.[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federación_Obrera_Regional_Peruana

1918 - [O.S. Dec. 30, 1917] The Latvians declare their independence from Russia but find it hard to celebrate while occupying Germans are still sitting in their laps.

[F] 1922 - Chinese Seamen's Strike: Chinese seamen from Hong Kong and Canton (now Guangzhou) went on strike for higher wages. Led by the Seamen’s Union after shipping companies refused to increase salaries by 40%, the strike quickly garnered over 30,000 participants, greatly disrupting everyday colonial life and food shipments to Hong Kong. Though the strike was declared illegal by the Hong Kong government, negotiations eventually took place after 52 days, with employers capitulating on March 5, 1922 and agreeing to wage increases of 15-30%.

1926 - Pedro Augusto Mota (b. 189?), Brazilian graphics worker, journalist, militant anarchist and labour activist, dies. [expand]

1933 - Sucesos de Casas Viejas: Sometime after midnight, a company of 40 Guardias de Asalto arrives in Casas Viejas under the command of Captain Manuel Rojas Feijespán who is under orders from the Director-General of Security, Arturo Menéndez, to close in from Jérez and stamp out the uprising by pouring "merciless fire at any who open fire on the troops". "Ni heridos, ni prisioneros." (No wounded, no prisoners.)
Captain Rojas orders his men to open up on the Cruz Gutierrez family shack with their rifles and machine-guns and later gives the order for it to be torched. Two of the occupants, a man and a woman, are cut down as they ran outside to escape the flames. Six people are burnt to death inside the shack: Francisco Cruz Gutierrez aka Seisdedos (Six Fingers), a 70 year old charcoal maker and CNT member; his two sons, Perico Jiménez aka Pedro (36 years old) and Francisco 'Paco' Cruz Jiménez (43); Josefa Franco Moya, Seisdedos' 41-year-old widowed daughter; her children Francisco (18) and Manuel García (almost 13 years); Jerónimo Silva González aka 'Zorrito' (38, CNT treasurer); and Manuela Lago Estudillo (17 years old), Maria Silva Cruz's friend and comrade from their anarchist youth group Amor y Aarmonía. María Silva, Seisdedos‘ grand-daughter, who was known as 'La Libertaria', a her young cousin were the only survivors of the conflagration .
At around 04:00, Rojas orders three patrols to scour the village and arrest all the leading militants, instructing his men to shoot at the first sign of resistance. They go on to kill a 74-year-old man, Antonio Barberán Castellar, and arrest a dozen others, leading them in handcuffs to the burnt-out shell of Seisdedos‘ shack. There, Captain Rojas and his men murdered them in cold blood in the little pen. Only one of the 12, Fernando Lago Gutiérrez aka 'Casares', had actually taken part in the attack on the barracks on the 11th. Shortly after that, they pulled out of the village. The slaughter was over. Nineteen men, two women and a child had perished. As had three guards. All told, 28 people including 2 from heart failure, died during the insurrection and ensuing retribution.
As a result of these events lots of locals were later subjected to torture and wholly arbitrary imprisonment. The last victim was María Silva Cruz, 'La Libertaria', Seisdedos‘ grand-daughter, the only survivor along with a young boy, Manuel García. She managed to run out of the conflagration, her clothes and hair ablaze, carrying the boy shouting "Don’t shoot! It’s a boy." Having persuaded the guards not to shoot them, she fled to her mother's house, where she was arrested on January 14, 1933, spending a month in at Medina Sidonia prison. In July 1936, the area fell into the clutches of the fascist rebels. María was then living in Ronda, a nearby village, with her Juan Perez Silva (her then husband, Miguel Perez Cordon, a CNT member having fled to the hills). The fascists sought her out there, carried her off and murdered her alongside two other people on August 23, 1936 at dawn next to the Laguna de La Janda in Tarifa, Cádiz.
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Sucesos de Casas Viejas
historiacasasviejas.blogspot.com.es/search/label/Las fotografías de los Sucesos de Casas Viejas

1942 - Bernardine Dohrn (Bernardine Rae Ohrnstein), US associate professor of law and former prominent activist in the Weather Underground, who spent time on the FBI's Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list for her WUO activities, born.

1944 - Inge Viett, German author and former member of Bewegung 2. Juni (June 2 Movement) and the second generation Rote Armee Fraktion, born. [expand]

1945 - Dekemvrianá [Δεκεμβριανά / December events]: The Dekemvriana ends definitively with the signing of the Treaty of Varkiza.

1948 - London's Manor Park Co-operative Society leads the way in consumerist recuperation by opening the first supermarket in Britain.

[E] 1958 - Rita Algranati aka 'compagna Marzia', Italian former member of the Brigate Rosse, who became a fugitive in 1985 following her being handed a life sentence for her involvement in the Aldo Moro kidnapping, born.

[A] 1971 - Thousands of people strike and march against the Industrial Relations Bill. The home of Robert Carr, Minister of Employment, in Hadley Green Road, Barnet, is bombed. The action is claimed by the Angry Brigade.

1983 - 6th CNT-AIT anarchist Congress, Barcelona (January 12-16th).

1983 - Colin Roach, a 21-year-old black Londoner, dies from a gunshot wound at the entrance to Stoke Newington police station. A coroner's jury was to later return a majority verdict of suicide despite a mass of inconsistencies.

1991 - Vasco Pratolini (b. 1913), Italian novelist, screenwriter, communist, anti-Nazi partisan and a major figure in Italian Neorealism, dies. [see: Oct. 19]

[D] 1994 - Zapatista Uprising: Following 12 days of fighting between government forces and the EZLN in Chiapas, a ceasefire is declared.

2000 - Antonio Zapata Córdoba (b. 1908), Spanish construction worker, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and Spanish Civil War fighter, dies during the night of Jan 12-13. [see: Oct. 27]

2009 - In Greece 3 gunmen grab Periklis Panagopoulos (74), founder of one of Greece's largest ferry operators, and his driver in the southern Athens suburb of Vouliagmeni. Panagopoulos was released unharmed on Jan 20 following a large ransom payment.

2010 - More than 4,000 prisoners escape from the grossly overcrowded National Penitentiary in Port au Prince during a massive earthquake.

2012 - Bernard Thomas (b. 1936) French libertarian journalist for 'Canard Enchaîné', dies. Wrote 'Alexandre Marius Jacob' (1970), 'Les Provocations Policières' (1972), 'Aurore ou la Génération Perdue' (1984), 'Anarchism & Violence: Severino di Giovanni', etc. ​[see: Oct. 25]
1794 - 'Paper Riot': In an attempt to rationalise production and reduce theft and waste of cigarette paper by the owners of Mexico City's tobacco monopoly, the management had introduced new rules preventing cigarette rollers from taking home each evening in order to be able to prepare it for the following workday. This paper came from Spain, but, as wars and embargoes interrupted shipments, the situation called for efficient use and stockpiling. 'Appropriation' of the increasingly expensive item by workers and waste through unskilled rolling exacerbated the shortage. A petition to reverse the ruling fell on deaf ears and the workers responded.
On Monday morning, January 13, 1794, an estimated crowd of fourteen hundred women and men, approximately one quarter of the cigarette rollers, shouted demands for a repeal of the order as they marched on the viceregal palace. Witnesses later testified that protesters stood in front of the manufactory and pelted compliant workers with stones as they passed by to enter. Troops arrived to disperse demonstrators and return them to the manufactory. By 10:30, reportedly, everybody had returned to work. and two weeks after the protest, management reversed its decision in the workers’ favour.

1844 - Celso Ceretti (d. 1909), Italian anarchist contemporary of Bakunin involved with the founding conference of the Italian Federation of the International Association of Workers, born. [expand]

1844 - [N.S. Jan. 25] Yekaterína Bréshko-Breshkóvsky [Екатери́на Бре́шко-Брешко́вская] (Yekaterína Konstantínovna Verigo [Екатери́на Константи́новна Вериго]; d. 1934), Russian activist in the revolutionary movement and teacher, who was one of the founders and leaders of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров) and its Fighting Organisation (Боева́я организа́ция), born. [see: Jan. 25]

1848 - Hippolyte Ferre (d. 1913), French communist, internationalist member of the Jura Federation and later an anarchist, born. [expand]

1874 - First Tompkins Square Police Riot: 7-10,000 mostly unemployed workers from all over the city assembled in Tompkins Square for a planned march on City Hall, which was taking place in the middle of the so-called 'Panic of 1873' - a full-fledged economic depression that began in 1873 and lasted for several years, leaving many people unemployed and suffering - to demand unemployment relief from the city authorities. The demonstrators planned to insist that then-Mayor William Havemeyer establish a public works program by giving $100,000 to a Labor Relief Bureau to be established by the Committee for Public Safety itself. Anti-labour newspapers warned of the "menace" the committee represented, spreading the wildest of unfounded rumours, including one that weapons had been bought with jewels stolen in Paris by Communards.
However, unbeknownst to the demonstrators, permission for the rally at City Hall had been withdrawn over night and the end point of their march changed to Union Square. So, as the various workers' groups gathered in the morning's bitter cold, there was confusion about what direction they should take. But before they were able to organise themselves, legions of police on horseback ploughed into the crowd, indiscriminately clubbing adults and children, leaving hundreds of casualties lying on the ground as they pursued shocked protesters through the streets. Future American Federation of Labor President Samuel Gompers, who was at the demonstration, described the police attack as "an orgy of brutality".
This officially instigated violence was directed against political action outside the traditional boss and party framework, with the city government wanting to curb 'freedom of the streets' which could undermine its efforts to maintain order in the face of a rapidly changing popular culture and an increasingly fragmented political geography.

[B] 1883 - 'An Enemy of the People' (En Folkefiende; 1882) by Henrik Ibsen receives its first performance at the Christiania Theatre in Oslo.

1886 - [O.S. Jan. 1] Evstolia Pavlovna Rogozinnikova aka 'Little Bear' (Евстолия Павловна Рогозинникова 'Медвежонок'; d. 1907), Russian revolutionary and member of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров) and its Combat Organisation's (Боева́я организа́ция) 'Northern combat flying squad' (Северный боевой летучий отряд / ЛБО СО ПСР), born. She took part in plotting the assassination attempt on Pyotr Stolypin (Пётр Столыпин) in July 1907. Killed the Head of Prison Administration Alexander Mikhailovich Maximovsky (Александр Михайлович Максимовский) on Oct. 28 [15], 1907. Tried the following day and executed in the village of Lisy Nos (Лисий Нос) near St. Petersburg.

[D] 1894 - Lunigiana Revolt [Moti Anarchici della Lunigiana]: In Lunigiana, Tuscany protests in support of the victims of the 'state of siege' declared across Sicily ten days earlier and in solidarity with those of the Fasci Siciliani arrested turn into an insurrection led by armed groups of anarchists.
Having armed themselves, miners and stone carvers from the stone and marble quarries of nearby Massa and Carrara, hotbeds of anarchism, cut telegraph lines, set up barricades on the road between Massa and Carrara and clash with police and strikebreakers, and loot police armouries. In Avenza during the first armed confrontation a policeman and a demonstrator are killed. That night rebels gather in Becizzano, Codena and Miseglia and march to the city, shouting "Long live Italy! Long live the revolution!", in the belief that it had broken out across the country.
Anarchist Luigi Molinari, author of the 'Inno della rivolta' (Hymn of the uprising), which is dedicated to the insurgents of the Lunigiana, including Pasquale Binazzi and Galileo Palla, is later arrested [see: Jan. 16] on charges of inciting insurrection for his part in the insurrection.

1898 - Émile Zola's polemic against rampant French anti-Semitism and the military cover up in the Dreyfus Affair 'J'accuse!' is published.

[F] 1905 - [O.S. Dec. 31, 1904] Baku Strike [Бакинская Cтачка]: A collective agreement is concluded guaranteeing a nine-hour working day, with night shift and drilling crews winning an eight-hour day; four paid days off per month; a raise in wages; improvement of working and living conditions; payment for the days of the strike; and other changes.

1909 - Emma Goldman lectures on 'The Dissolution of Our Institutions' in San Francisco, California, followed by a statement by William Buwalda, a soldier court-martialed last year and recently pardoned by President Roosevelt. This event actually takes place without police interference.

1909 - Marinus van der Lubbe (d. 1934), Dutch council communist, who was guillotined for setting fire to the Reichstag building, born.

1910 - Moishe Tokar, a young Russian Jewish anarchist who attempted to assassinate Hershelman, the hated military commander of the Vilna Fortress in Russia, is sentenced to death.

1914 - Joe Hill arrested on a trumped-up murder charge. [Some sources erroneously put the date as 19 Jan 1915]

1919 - Under the influence of the anarcho-syndicalist unions, a two-day general strike to demand the introduction of the eight hour day begins, paralyzing Lima and El Callao. Initiated by the weavers, it was quickly supported by the other unions, as well as the students of San Marcos. There are a series of fierce clashes with the forces of order, until the government signed a decree legalising the eight hours - although this decree did not apply widely, it was an important workers' victory.]
The Federación de Trabajadores en Tejidos del Perú (Federation of Textile Workers of Peru), the Graphic Federation (Federación Gráfica) and the Federation of Drivers (Federación de Choferes), were all formed the same month as direct results of the movement.

1921 - Dachine Rainer (Sylvia Newman; d. 2000), US Anglophile writer, poet, essayist, anarchist and pacifist, born. As a child was radicalised following the executions in 1927 of the Italian anarchists Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, and her readings of Tolstoy and Kropotkin. Her penname is derived from Rainer Maria Rilke, whose political and humanitarian writings she admired.
From 1946 until 1960, Dachine Rainer edited the quarterly anarchist magazine 'Retort', which was hand-set and hand-printed by herself and her partner, the anarchist and short story writer Holley Cantine.
Amongst her works are novellas and novels, including 'Outside Time' (1948), 'A Room at the Inn' (1958), 'The Uncomfortable Inn' (1960) and 'Giornale de Venezia' (1996).

1924 - Paul Feyerabend (d.1994), Austrian anarchist philosopher and anti-scientist, born. "Science is an essentially anarchic enterprise: theoretical anarchism is more humanitarian and more likely to encourage progress than its law-and-order alternatives."

[E] 1925 - Anna Maria Pietroni (d. 1974), Italian anarchist activist, born. From a family of anarchists (her father was a comrade of Malatesta and her brother Manilo was sentenced to 9 years imprisonment by a special court in 1940 for anarchist activities. She took part in the anti-fascist resistance as a messenger of the Maquis but later left the Communist Party and returned to anarchism, working on the weekly 'Umanità Nova'. Active in the post-Piazza Fontana bombing [see: Dec. 12] support campaigns for Valpreda and other arrested anarchists, and that for poet and anarchist militant Giovanni Marini.

1928 - Mara Buneva (Мара Бунева; b. 1901 or 02), Macedonian Bulgarian revolutionary, member of the IMRO, who is famed for the assassination of a Serbian official Velimir Prelić after which she committed suicide, born. She followed her brother Boris into the ranks of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Vatreshna Makedonska Revolyutsionna Organizatsiya [Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация](bg) / Vnatrešna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija [Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Организација](mk)) and, on the direct order of the leader of the IMRO, Ivan Mihaylov (Иван Михайлов), she was trained in Sofia to take on future terrorist actions. In 1927 she went back to Yugoslavia and opened a shop in Skopje as part of her conspiratorial mission. There she managed to acquaint herself with Velimir Prelić, the legal adviser of the Serbian governor of the Skopje district, who was known for ordering arrests and tortures of young local students, members of Macedonian Youth Secret Revolutionary Organisation [Македонска младежка тайна революционна организация (bg) /: Македонска младинска тајна револуционерна организација (mk)], many of whom were sentenced to long terms in prison in December 1927. As result IMRO ordered the execution of Prelić. At the appointed time on January 13, 1928, Buneva intercepted him on his way to lunch and shot the official after which she shot herself. Prelić hung on tol ife for a few days but ultimately succumbed to his wound. Buneva was buried in an unmarked grave

1933 - Insurrección Anarquista de Enero de 1933: 'Solidaridad Obrera' fails to condemned the January insurrection "con un deber de solidaridad y de conciencia" (out of a duty of solidarity and conscience).

1941 - James Joyce (b. 1882), Irish novelist and poet, dies. [see: Feb. 2]

[C] 1957 - Kadar government in Hungary declares that striking workers will face the death penalty.

1958 - Moroccan Liberation Army ambushes Spanish patrol in the Battle of Edchera, during the Ifni War, sometimes called the Forgotten War in Spain (la Guerra Olvidada).

1961 - Grève Générale de l'Hiver [Winter General Strike] / Grève du Siècle [Strike of the Century]: The Single Act was passed in the House by 115 votes to 90, with one abstention. [see: Dec. 20]

1966 - New York City Transit Strike: At 01:35, TWU Secretary-Treasurer Doug MacMahon announces that the union negotiators had agreed to a settlement package from the mediators and would recommend that the union executive board approve it. The Transit Authority announced its acceptance two hours later, and at 06:25, MacMahon made it official. Within minutes, subways and buses began to roll. Quill and his fellow prisoners were released later in the day, though Quill remained in hospital till the 25th. [see: Jan. 1]

1968 - Johnny Cash records a live album at Folsom Prison.

[A] 1970 - Three black prisoners are shot and killed by a guard at Soledad Prison.

1997 - Left-wing guerrillas holding 72 hostages open fire on police outside the Japanese Embassy in Lima.

1997 - Black musician Michael Menson, 30, dies from complications and two heart attacks caused by 30% burns to his back after being beaten, racially abused, robbed and set alight by 3 men in a unprovoked attack in north London. A racist police force treats Menson's death as suicide (one officer told a pathologist: “I don’t know why they’re worried – this only concerns a fucking black schizophrenic.”) but the 3 killers are eventually convicted.

2003 - Greenpeace activists break into Sizewell B nuclear power station to demonstrate lax security.

2004 - Tom Hurndall (b. 1981), member of the International Solidarity Movement, dies after nine months in a coma following injuries sustained from being shot in the head by an Israeli sniper.

2009 - In Riga between 10-20,000 people attend an opposition and trade unions organised rally demanding the dissolution of the parliament. During the evening the peaceful rally turns violent. Fifty people are injured and 100 arrested for overturning police cars and looting stores. The crowd also attempted to force into the Latvian parliament building, but was repelled by riot police.

2010 - The Italian government declares a year-long state of emergency in Italy's prisons due to widespread protests against overcrowding and deteriorating prison conditions.
1794 - Jacques Roux (b. 1752), French radical Roman Catholic priest that took an active role in the revolutionary politics of Paris during the French Revolution, tries to commits suicide in Bicêtre prison near Paris, after hearing the news that he faced being tried by the Revolutionary Tribunal, but fails. He will try agains on February 10 and succeed. [see: Aug. 21]

[AA] 1850 - While held in the Königstein fortress, the anarchist Michael Bakunin is condemned to death by Saxon tribunal for his part in the May 3 1849 Uprising in Dresden. His death sentence is commuted later to life imprisonment.

1859 - Francisco Ferrer i Guàrdia (d. 1909), Catalan anarchist and radical educator, born. [expand]

1888 - Émile Bachelet (d. 1967), French individualist anarchist, anti-militarist and member of the Bonnot Gang, born.

1888 - Maurice Dommanget (d. 1976), French historian of the labour movement and militant syndicalist, born. He is the author of numerous books on the French Revolution: 'Manifeste des Enragés' (Manifesto of the Enraged; 1948) and 'Babeuf et la Conjuration des Égaux' (Babeuf and the Conspiracy of Equals; 1969); books on Blanqui, the Paris Commune and the history of socialism; plus titles such as 'Histoire du Drapeau Rouge' (1966) and 'Histoire du Premier Mai' (1953).

1892 - Friedrich Gustav Emil Martin Niemöller (d. 1984), German anti-Nazi theologian and Lutheran pastor, born. A WWI submarine captain and battalion commander in the paramilitary Freikorps during the Ruhr Uprising in 1920, he was ordained as a Lutheran pastor on June 29, 1924. He initially welcomed Hitler's election in 1933, but later decided to oppose the Nazi's Arierparagraph (Aryan Paragraph), founding the Pfarrernotbund, an organisation of pastors to "combat rising discrimination against Christians of Jewish background". In 1934, with Karl Barth and Dietrich Bonhoeffer, he cofounded the Confessional Church, a Protestant group that opposed the Nazification of the German Protestant churches and signed the 1936 Protestant petition that declared the Aryan Paragraph incompatible with the Christian virtue of charity. Arrested on July 1, 1937, he was tried for activities against the State by a 'Special Court' on March 2, 1938, and sentenced to seven months in prison and fined 2,000 Reichmarks. Released from court because of time served, he was immediately rearrested by the Gestapo and interned in Sachsenhausen and, later, Dachau concentration camps until 1945.
Post WWII, he repented his previous pro-NSDAP views and the Church's lack of support for the Jews and went on to become a prominent anti-militarist and campaigner for nuclear disarmament.
"I began my political responsibility as an ultra-conservative. I wanted the Kaiser to come back; and now I am a revolutionary. I really mean that. If I live to be a hundred I shall maybe be an anarchist, for an anarchist wants to do without all government."

1893 - Independent Labour Party founded in Bradford.

1896 - John Roderigo Dos Passos (d. 1970), US novelist and artist, born. His anti-militarist and radical outlook was cemented by the time he spent as an ambulance driver in WWI in France and Italy, becoming involved in anarchist and IWW circles after the war. Arrested for handing out leaflets in support of Sacco and Vanzetti. [expand]

1900 - The first issue of Sébastien Faure's weekly magazine 'Les Plébeiennes' ("propos d'un solitaire") is published.

[B] 1904 - Henri-Georges Adam (d. 1967), French engraver, non-figurative sculptor, tapestry maker, anarchist, pacifist, anti-militarist and anti-clerical, born. An associate of the Paris Surrealists, in 1936 he joined the Association des Écrivains et Artistes Révolutionnaires (AEAR) and created a set of violent impressionistic engravings entitled 'Désastres de la Guerre' (Disaster of War) in response to the Spanish Civil War.

1909 - Ben Reitman and Emma Goldman arrested on charges of conspiracy against the US government.

1909 - Félix Likiniano (d. 1983), Basque anarchist and Civil War militia member, who would later join ETA, born.

1914 - The trial of IWW members Herman 'Hook Nose' Suhr and Richard 'Blackie' Ford begins. Blamed for instigating a strike that led to the Wheatland Hop Riot, they are charged with the murders of the 4 people who died during the riot.

[C] 1914 - Emmy Eugenie Andriesse (d. 1953), Dutch photographer and resistance fighter, who was part of the De Ondergedoken Camera (The Underground Camera) group that documented the Nazi Occupation, born. Emmy Andriesse was the only child of liberal Jewish parents, who both worked in the textile/fashion industries. At fifteen, she lost her mother and, since her father was an international representative and often travelled abroad, she was raised by several aunts. The aunts, all independent career women, inspired Emmy in her early interest in women's and leftist political ideas. After high school she studied advertising design at the Academy of Fine Arts in The Hague with its radical curriculum based on non-authoritarian teaching methods and functionalist ideas about the fair use of materials and the application of contemporary techniques, including photography and film.
Although initially enrolled to train as a graphic designer, from her second year she focused almost exclusively on photography, gaining the nickname 'Emma Leica' - though her preferred camera would soon become the Rolleiflex that she and many other Ondergedoken Camera network members would use during the War.
At the academy Emmy belonged to the group of students gathered around the left-wing designer Paul Schuitem, some of who lived together in a 'community centre' in Voorburg. The residents maintained close contacts with various anti-fascist and communist organisations, such as the Holland Section of International Red Aid and Nederland-Nieuw Rusland [Netherlands-New Russia, a pro-Soviet Union but anti-Dutch CP grouping]. After the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War Emmy became involved in the Spaanse Burgeroorlog (Help to Spain) committee and established contact with the Bond van Kunstenaars voor Kulturele Rechten (Union of Artists for Cultural Rights), a grouping composed of various anti-fascist artists organisations. Through the latter she met a number of socially committed Nieuwe Fotografie reportage photographers based in Amsterdam, such as Eva Besnyö, Cas Oorthuys and Carel Blazer, who would all go on to be involved with her in De Ondergedoken Camera.
Following the showing of Emmy Andriesse's first major series of reportage photos, 'In de Jordaan' (In Jordaan [the Amsterdam neighbourhood]), at the Photo '37 international exhibition in the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam and her graduation, she settled in Amsterdam, where she worked as a freelance photographer for various newspapers and magazines, including the journal of the Social Democratic Party 'Wij, Ons Werk, Ons Leven' (We, Our Work, Our Lives). Her photographs for the latter were very much in the Nieuwe Fotografie (New Photography) style, displaying a strong attention to detail (portraying what the eye actually sees rather than previous more 'painterly' images photographers made), utilising surprising camera angles, close-ups, the repetition of shapes and patterns, as well as displaying the movement's penchant for diagonal structure in their documentary photographs of working class lives in cities and villages, machinery, landscape, etc.
In 1941 Emmy married with the artist and graphic designer Dick Elffers, with whom she had two sons, Cas and Joost, the eldest of whom, Cas, drowned on holiday in 1945 died at the age of two. During the German occupation, as the daughter of Jewish parents she could not work and had to go into hiding until, in 1944, her anthropologist friend Arie de Froe arranged a forged Aryan declaration for her and she could rejoin the public life. She immediately joined the clandestine resistance being carried out by her fellow Dutch photographers, which became known after the war as De Ondergedoken Camera group. The images such as 'Jongen met pannetje' (Boy with pan), 'De doodgraver' (The gravedigger) and 'Kinderen op Kattenburg' (Children on Kattenburg) that she captured during the horrific conditions of the Hongerwinter (hunger winter) of 1944-45 in Amsterdam would become iconic, not just as representatives of her work but the whole of the Ondergedoken Camera output.
After the war, she continued to photograph the cities and landscapes of the Netherlands and its peoples, producing the well-known 'Amsterdam, its beauty and character' (1949), as well as producing the series of portraits of French, Belgian and Swiss sculptors and painters taken in their studios (1947-51), a commission by the Stedelijk Museum, and the 'De Wereld van Van Gogh' (The World of Van Gogh; 1951) photos she took in Provence, and contributing to the 'Family of Man' exhibition at the New York Museum of Modern Art in 1955. She was also a member of the Vereniging van Beoefenaars van Gebonden Kunsten (Association of Practitioners of Bound Arts), founded in the immediate post-liberation period, taking part in the 'Photo '48' group show and, along with Blazer, Besnyö and Oorthuys, the 'Photographie' exhibition, both held in Amsterdam's Stedelijk Museum. She also worked as a fashion photographer and her photos of fabrics, fashion design and clothing appeared in many fashion and women's magazines, and brochures around the world.
Shortly after finishing the 'De Wereld van Van Gogh' commission she became seriously ill and died on February 20, 1953, after a long battle with cancer aged just 39 years of age.

1918 - Emma Goldman is fined and sentenced to 2 years in prison for obstruction of justice (opposing the draft). Raised in America, but born in Lithuania, the young anarchist feminist will soon be deported from the Land of the Free.

1918 - Rosa Laviña i Carreras (d. 2011), Catalan anti-fascist militant, cenetista, secretary of the Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth (FIJL), National Committee member and Treasurer of SIA, born. [expand][NB: d.o.b. also given as 19th]

1919 - Voline, Russian revolutionary and anarchist historian, arrested.

1921 - Murray Bookchin (d. 2006) born in New York City. [expand]

[F] 1926 - Sierra Leone Railway Strike: From January 14 to February 26, 1926, all grades of the African workers within the Railway Department of the Sierra Leone Government participated in a strike. This strike represented the first time a trade union in Sierra Leone was effective in politically organising with a set organisational structure. It is also the first strike and act of political disobedience in which the Krio elite identified with and supported the strikers and the working class against the British colonising power.
On January 14, 1926, the strike officially began and the government, adopting a staunch resistance policy, placed Freetown under police and military surveillance, prohibiting te sale of intoxicating liquors for specific periods, etc. In the days that followed, starting on January 17, strikers were arrested for acts of violence and other perceived misconducts and on January 18 the railway management began dismissing many strikers from their posts. The workers responded with the use of sabotage, including the removal of rails in front of the general manager’s train, removing the rails on curves or steep banks and at the approach to a bridge, and pulling down telegraph poles and cutting wires, cutting telegraphic communication Freetown and the rest of the protectorate.
The Krio intelligentsia, the majority of the municipality, openly supported the workers against their colonial masters but their attempts to intervene on behalf of the strikers in setting up negotiations between the strikers and the government and the setting up a Strike Relief Fund at a 'Support the Strike Meeting' on February 8, 1926 to support the workers’ demands and show solidarity with their strike, were thwarted because of the African's lack of leaverage with the White colonialists.

1938 - Ethel Mannin and Emma Goldman speak on 'The Betrayal of the Spanish People' at a CNT-FAI program in London; the audience turns against the Communists when they attempt to break up the meeting.

[E] 1945 - Cathy Wilkerson (Cathlyn Platt Wilkerson), US radical member of the Students for a Democratic Society and later of the Weather Underground, who survived the Greenwich Village townhouse explosion alongside Kathy Boudin and spent seven years on the run, born into a comfortable haute bourgeois family. In her first year at the elite Swathmore College, Wilkerson first became involved in politics in April, 1962 with a civil rights group, organising anti-segregation work in Cambridge, Maryland. She also soon became involved in the SDS and writing political tracts, such as the SDS pamphlet 'Rats, Washtubs, and Block Organizations' (1964). In November 1963, she was one of 57 students (members of the Swarthmore Political Action Club, SDS members and local Blacks) arrested whilst leafleting and picketing outside a dangerously decrepit and overcrowded black school in Chester, Connecticut. The pickets (Nov. 4-14) proved successful, with the city authorities caving in to all the campaign's demands. The charges against all the demonstrators were also dropped.
Following her graduation in June 1966, she spent summer and working for the liberal Democrat Representative for Wisconsin, Robert Kastenmeier, and that December began working in the SDS national office in Chicago. Wilkinson also spent eight months editing the SDS newsletter, 'New Left Notes', as well as being voted on to the group's National Interim Council in July 1967, one of only three women in major organisational roles at the time. That September, she was given $200 to establish a regional office in Washington, moving there and living in a commune. Shortly after, she went to Cambodia with Jeffrey Jones and Steve Halliwell as SDS representatives at a meeting organised with the Vietnamese National Liberation Front, writing a number of articles about her experiences there and the war generally. At the same time she was active in helping set up and running the Washington Draft Resistance Union group (as its director).
On August 25, 1968, Cathy was arrested in Chicago the day before the Democratic National Convention opened and charged with disorderly conduct and posting flyers on private property without the owners' permission. These charges were later dismissed by a judge. Her participation in the SDS's campus demonstrations led to another arrest, this time the invasion and takeover of Maury Hall at George Washington University in Washington, DC. on April 23, 1969, resulting in charges of unlawful entry and destroying property. That June, Wilkerson aligned herself with the Weatherman [soon the become more commonly referred to as the Weathermen] faction, which had emerged as the dominant grouping within the SDS during its national convention in Chicago. She is then alleged to have travelled to Cuba [having previously visited shortly after graduating from college] with 30 other Weatherman members to meet with North Vietnamese representatives, who are said to have requested armed political action in order to halt the US government's war in Vietnam.
Other Weatherman activities included their high school 'jailbreaks', where they leafleted and entered high schools to address the students with the aim of recruiting for the forthcoming 'Days of Rage', planned for October 8–11, 1969. On September 4, Wilkerson was part of a group of Weatherwomen that marched on the mostly white, working-class South Hills High School in Pittsburgh. Carrying a Vietcong flag, they handed out leaflets during the lunch break, whilst another group interrupted a history lesson to decry the curriculum. Some students joined the protesters as they left but the intervention of a group of local construction workers led to a physical confrontation. When the police arrived, Wilkerson was one of 26 people arrested and charged with riot, inciting a riot and disorderly conduct.
On October 9, 1969, during the Days of Rage actions, Wilkerson was arrested for attacking a Chicago policeman with a club., when she and about 70 other members of the group's 'women's militia' gathered in Grant Park and set off for a nearby armed forces induction centre with the avowed intention to destroying it. This time she was charged with mob action, aggravated battery, and resisting arrest, and after spending two and half weeks in jail, she was released on bail. Having taken part in the Weather Underground Organization's 'War Council' in Flint, Michigan in December [27-31] 1969, she was sent to Seattle, Washington to join a local collective there. Days later she was in NYC.
During the Flint War Council it had been decided that the WU, whose collectives were facing increased police attention, should go underground and pursue a campaign of guerrilla warfare in its ongoing fight against the US government. The Weathermen collective in New York had already taken this decision on board when Wilkerson arrived, with a series of firebombings including the February 21, 1970, early morning Molotov cocktail attack on the home of New York State Supreme Court Justice Murtagh, who at the time was presiding over the 'Panther 21' trial. Dissatisfied by the outcome of this and other fire bombings (including on the Columbia University's International Law Library, the group had decided to abandon the use of Molotovs and on Army and Navy recruiting booths close to the Brooklyn College campus in Brooklyn), despite a total lack of knowledge of the theory and practice in the use of explosives, switch to dynamite, something that would all too soon prove to be a disastrous mistake.
The location selected for the setting up of their bomb factory was the basement in Wilkerson's father's townhouse at 18 West 11th Street and for their first targets they decided upon a Non-Commissioned Officers’ dance at the Fort Dix U.S. Army base and the Butler Library at Columbia University. Given their lack of expertise, they chose a simple design for their nailbombs: a battery, a fuse, a clock, and wires to connect these elements to dynamite and roofing nails packed into a one-foot length of water pipe. No safety devices were included in the design.
Shortly before 12:00 on Friday, March 6, 1970, Cathy Wilkerson and Kathy Boudin asleep in the front of the house, Ted Gold and a number of other people were elsewhere in the house.

"Downstairs, bent over the workbench, Terry Robbins, twenty-one, a Kenyon College dropout, and Diana Oughton, twenty-eight, a 1963 Bryn Mawr graduate and Peace Corps veteran, were at work fastening some doorbell wire from a cheap dimestore alarm clock through a small battery to a blasting cap set in a bundle of dynamite. Near them, on the floor and on open shelves, were more alarm clocks and batteries, additional wire, perhaps a hundred other sticks of dynamite, a number of already constructed pipe bombs and "antipersonnel" explosives studded with roofing nails, and several more blasting caps. A few minutes before twelve o'clock, one of the wires from the bomb they were assembling was attached in the wrong place, completing the electrical circuit.
Out through the back garden, with its pebbled walks and rococo fountain, at least three people stumbled, coughing and partially blinded, then made their way over the walls into adjoining gardens; they immediately disappeared and were never identified. In the front of the house, Wilkerson, dressed only in a pair of blue jeans, and Boudin, naked, scrambled through the rubble and out of a front window, faces covered with dust, glass cuts on their bodies, dazed and trembling but apparently composed. Two passers-by helped the women out and Ann Hoffman — who lived in an apartment right next door to the Wilkerson house and whose husband, the actor Dustin Hoffman, had ironically become a symbol of youthful discontent through his recent movie, 'The Graduate' — grabbed a curtain blown from the windows to cover the naked Boudin. Susan Wager, the former wife of actor Henry Fonda who lived a few doors down the block, ran up and helped pull the women away as more flames licked up the front wall and a part of it crumbled and collapsed; she quickly guided the two women to her own house, showed them the upstairs bathroom where they could wash and mend themselves, grabbed a few old clothes and dropped them outside the bathroom door, then returned to the burning house to see if anything more could be done. Behind her, Wilkerson and Boudin, hardly waiting to get clean, quickly put on the clothes and left the house, telling the housekeeper they were only going to the drugstore for some medicine; they, too, vanished without a trace and have never been seen in public again.
Inside the demolished house, three people lay dead. Ted Gold's body, recovered late that night, was crushed and mangled under the century-old beams, a victim of what the coroner called "asphyxia from compression". In the basement the torso of Diana Oughton was found four days later, without head or hands, riddled with roofing nails, every bone in it broken, and it was not until seven more days that she was identified, through a print taken from the severed tip of a right-hand little finger found nearby. The body of Terry Robbins was so thoroughly blown apart that there was not even enough of him left for a formal identification, and his identity was learned only through the subsequent messages of his companions."
[Kirkpatrick Sale - 'SDS: The Rise And Development Of The Students For A Democratic Society', 1973]

Wilkerson and Boudin stayed overnight at Boudin's parents' house a few blocks away on St. Luke's Place before they both went underground. Both women were charged in absentia with illegal possession of dynamite and criminally negligent homicide and on June 23, 1970, Wilkerson and twelve other members of Weather Underground Organization were indicted by a federal grand jury on charges of conspiring to bomb and kill. The FBI later placed the thirteen on its Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list.
Wilkerson succeeded in avoiding capture for a decade, during which time she gave birth in California to her daughter Bess. Wilkerson surrendered in July 1980 and was tried and convicted of illegal possession of dynamite and sentenced to three years in prison. She was released on a sentencing technicality after serving 11 months, a decision that received widespread criticism. She went on the spend the following decades teaching mathematics in high schools and adult education programs, and in 2010 had a book, 'Flying Close to the Sun: My Life and Times as a Weatherman', published.

1945 - Jean Ajalbert (b. 1863), French Impressionist poet, writer and naturalist anarchist, dies. Author of several novels and plays, he participated in numerous literary journals and editorial boards of several journals. [see: Jun. 10]

[A] 1961 - Prison revolts in HMP Maidstone and HMP Shrewsbury.

1962 - Justin Olive (b. 1886), French militant anarchist and revolutionary syndicalist, dies. [see: Oct. 26]

1963 - Reesor Siding Strike: One of the defining labour conflicts in Canadian history, resulting in the shooting of 11 union members, three of whom were killed, during a violent confrontation occurred near the small Francophone hamlet of Reesor Siding in Northern Ontario. Fifteen hundred members of the Lumber and Sawmill Workers Union, Local 2995 of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, walked out on strike on January 14, 1963, effectively halting operations at the Spruce Falls Power and Paper Company which relied on their logs for wood pulp.

1967 - Gathering of the Tribes for the First Human Be-In at Golden Gate Park in San Francisco, California.

1970 - During the biggest wave of strikes since the Civil War, which began on January 6 with a strike on the Madrid Metro and quickly spread across the metalworking industries, the Spanish government drafts 55,000 postal workers to the crush strike. Between January 10-19, 300,000 workers went out on strike including construction, telephone and the aforementioned postal workers. In Gatafe and other areas of the industrialised south, a general strike breaks out. These strikes would signal the beginning of a massive upsurge in industrial unrest aimed at the dictatorship of Franco, with more than 1,500 'huelgas', as many as the total over the previous 5 years.
In July that year a second strike on the Metro de Madrid ended with the 'militarisation' of the Metro on July 29 by the Franco junta, a tactic that the regime often used to break strikes by drafting striking workers into the military or, as in the July example, simply sending the army in to operate the trains.

CHECK [D] 1970 - Riots in Polish Baltic ports begin, continuing until the 18th.?? [Sparked by a strike in the Lenin shipyard in Gdansk against the dismissal of militant crane driver Anna Walentinowicz.ERROR]

1970 - Ammon Ashford Hennacy (b. 1893), Irish American pacifist, Christian, anarchist, social activist, member of the Catholic Worker Movement and IWW, dies. [see: Jul. 24]

1972 - Adrien Perrissaguet (b. 1898), French militant anarchist propagandist, shoemaker, founder of Groupe des Amis du Combat Syndicaliste and l'Association des Fédéralistes Anarchistes, dies. [see: Apr. 22]

1973 - Durban Mass Strike: With deadlock between the workers and management having been the rule and the strikers having rejected the earlier offer of Goodwill Zwelithini to represent the workers if they returned to work, the workers elected a committee headed by Nathaniel Zulu. They met with management and rejected the first offer of an increase of R1.50, but agreed to a second offer of R2.07, which brought the minimum wage to R11.50 a week. The offer was made to the workers on a plant by plant basis, meaning they were unable to meet and decide en masse, and the offer was grudgingly accepted.

1976 - Wildcat strike wave spreads across Spain to Barcelona, resulting in the formation of workers' general assemblies and defiance of the unions and government.

1977 - Anaïs Nin (Angela Anaïs Juana Antolina Rosa Edelmira Nin y Culmell; b. 1903), American author and diarist, who frequented anarchist circles and was involved in a long intellectual and sexual relationship with Henry Miller at the Villa Seurat in Paris, dies. [see: Feb. 21]

1978 - The Sex Pistols' final concert at the Winterland, San Francisco.

1994 - Federica Montseny (b. 1905), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, anarcha-feminist, poet and Minister of Health during the Civil War, dies. The daughter of Catalan libertarian activists and educators Joan Montseny (Federico Urales) and Soledad Gustavo (Teresa Mañé), who also co-edited the anarchists journal, 'La Revista Blanca' (1898-1905), she joined the CNT at seventeen years old. She wrote for anarchist journals such as 'Solidaridad Obrera', 'Tierra y Libertad' and 'Nueva Senda', and published her first novel under the name 'Blanca Montsan' in the series 'La Novela Roja'. In 1923 she urged her parents to relaunch 'La Revista Blanca', which led to the family to establishing in the publishing firm Ediciones de La Revista Blanca, specialising in promoting libertarian ideals throughout the 1920s and 1930s. Federica Montseny participated as an editor of the serials 'La Novela Ideal' and 'La Novela Libre', writing many of the novels herself. The 'Novela Ideal' had a weekly edition of 50,000 issues and the 'Novela Libre' a monthly publication of 64 pages, 20,000 issues. [see: Feb. 12]

2005 - Conroy Maddox (b. 1912), English Surrealist painter, collagist, writer, lecturer and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Dec. 27]
1809 - Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (d. 1865) born in France. [EXPAND]
"Whoever puts his hand on me to govern me is a usurper and a tyrant. I declare him my enemy."

[D] 1812 - Luddite Timeline: First indication of Luddism in Yorkshire: magistrates dispersed a crowd gathered in Leeds, some of the men having blackened faces. One was arrested and the magistrates learned of a plot to attack machinery.

1842 - Paul Lafargue (d. 1911), French revolutionary socialist author of 'The Right to Be Lazy', as well as being Marx's son-in-law, born.

1850 - [O.S. Jan. 3] Sofia Kovalevskaya [Со́фья Ковале́вская] (Sofia Vasilyevna Korvin-Krukovskaya [Со́фья Васи́льевна Корвин-Круковская]; d. 1891), Russian mathematician, engineer and Narodnik (народники), whose sister was the socialist and feminist Anne Jaclard (Anna Vasilyevna Korvin-Krukovskaya), born.
The first major Russian female mathematician, she was responsible for important original contributions to analysis, partial differential equations and mechanics. She was also the first woman appointed to a full professorship in Northern Europe and was one of the first women to work for a scientific journal as an editor.
Sophia organised a sham marriage with a young palaeontology student Vladimir Kovalevsky, who would later become famous for his collaboration with Charles Darwin, in order to gain the permission to study abroad that her father had denied her.
Sympathetic to utopian socialist and anarchist ideas, absorbed in part from her sister Anna, in 1871 she travelled to Paris together with her husband in order to attend to the injured from the Paris Commune. Kovalevskaya also helped save Victor Jaclard, her sister's husband.
Author of the partly autobiographical novel 'The Woman Nihilist' (Нигилистка; 1884) and the memoir 'Memories of Childhood' (Воспоминания детства; 1890).

1861 - Paul-Pierre Roux aka Saint-Pol-Roux (d. 1940), French Symbolist poet, novelist, playwright and anarchist, born. Somewhat of a 'forgotten poet', much of whose work was posthumously published despite being hailed by the Surrealists in the 1920s. His early work was regularly serialised in 'La Revue Blanche' including 'Le Fumier' (May-Aug. 1894), the second part of the 'Grands de la Terre' trilogy, a fervent defence of anarchism and the need for social justice and freedom. During WWI however, he became a nationalist but still pursued a strange rural pantheism, idealising the land and the people that worked it, still an essential libertarian and proto-ecological vision. Amongst his major unpublished works are 'Le Tragique dans l'Homme', Vols. I (1983) & 2 (1984).

1870 - The first issue of the weekly Bakuninist newspaper 'La Solidaridad', "Órgano de la Asociación de Trabajadores de la sección de Madrid" (paper of the Spanish anarchist section of the AIT) appears in Madrid. Founded by Anselmo Lorenzo, , it was the first publication of the AIT and, starting from issue no. 29 (July 30, 1870) its subtitle became "Órgano de las secciones de la Federación madrileña de la Asociación Internacional de los Trabajadores" (paper of the Madrid Federation sections of the International Association of Workers). The final issue (no. 49) appeared on January 21, 1871, when the Madrid Federation stopped editing the publication for economic reasons and it was taken over by comrades from the Barcelona Federation.

1881 - Pierre Monatte (d. 1960), French anarcho-syndicalist and founder of Révolution Prolétarienne, born. [expand]

1888 - Jean-Baptiste Godin (d. 1817), French utopian socialist thinker and Fourieriste founder of Familistère Guise.

1889 - Walter Serner (born Walter Eduard Seligmann; d. 1942), Czech-born German-language writer, essayist, Dadaist and anarchist, born. Also wrote under the pen names Vladimir Senakowski, A.D. and also used the name of his friend Christian Schad. His manifesto 'Letzte Lockerung. Manifest Dada' (Last Loosening. Dada Manifesto; 1918) was an important text of Dadaism. During World War I he was the editor of the magazines 'Sirius' and 'Zeltweg', and a writer for 'Die Aktion'. With the outbreak of World War I, he escaped to Switzerland in 1914 and participated in Dada activities in Zürich, Geneva, and Paris until 1920. From 1925, Serner became the target of anti-Semitism, having been born Jewish and converted to Catholicism in 1913 when he changed his name to Serner. His play 'Posada' premièred in Berlin in 1927, its only performance as it was then banned. In 1933 Serner's books, including 'Handbrevier für Hochstapler' (Handbook for Swindlers; 1928), were also banned by the government of Nazi Germany. Presumed to have died in Theresienstadt concentration camp sometime after 20 Aug. 1942. Serner's most successful novel 'Die Tigerin' (The Tigress) was made into an English-language feature film by writer/director Karin Howard and released in 1992'
"The Anarchists are the mere victims of spiritual collapse."
"Revolution is merely a hysterical skirmish between totally untalented beings with organic defects."

1894 - Lunigiana Revolt [Moti Anarchici della Lunigiana]: Following the breakout of the insurrection two days earlier, further clashes take place including one between workers on the road between Fossola and Carrara, where on of the insurgents is killed by a cavalry unit.

[DD] 1905 - [O.S. Jan. 2] Putilov Strike / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: About 600 workers from the Putilov and other factories gather at the Narva office of The Assembly in St. Petersburg to confirm the strike decision and work out new demands. These include the introduction of an eight-hour workday and a minimum wage ,and the formation of an elected workers’ committee that would work jointly with the management to resolve workers’ grievances. The factory management rejecet these demands as well.

1908 - The Aiglemont colony in France issues the first number of 'Le Communiste' ("For Communist-Libertarian Propaganda, Workers Education & Social Achievements").

1908 - The first issue of the anarchist and nihilist periodical 'Liberación', published on the 5th, 15th and 25th of each month, appears in Madrid.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: 20,000 workers, with many women to the fore, are now out on the picket lines as the mayor calls in the state militia, who class with pickets outside the Pacific Mills. After other early incidents where some scabs were attacked, the strikers embraced Joseph Ettor’s emphasis on nonviolent direct action without ever diminishing their militancy.
Meanwhile, the strike committee draws up their four demands: 1) 15% pay raise for all mill workers; 2) double pay for overtime; 3) an end to the hated 'bonus system' that paid extra money for meeting special, elevated production targets; and 4) amnesty for strikers.

1915 - Revolución Mexicana: Carranista army defeats Villiaista army and takes Guadaljara. [Venustiano Carranza: Primer Jefe of the Constitutional Army]

1916 - In San Francisco, California, the first issue of the fortnightly anarchist paper 'The Blast' appears. Created and published the newspaper for next two years by Alexander Berkman in support of the union workers Thomas Mooney and Warren Billings, victims of repression against US anarchists and revolutionary syndicalists. Its anti-militarist stance will result in its being banned, with the final issue dated June 29, 1917.

1919 - Peru General Strike for the 8-hour Work Day: What began in mid-December as a textile workers’ strike and evolved into a general strike that shut down Lima, Peru, ends when the Federal Minister of Development meets with the strike committee and its student allies and is convinced to support the workers’ demand for an eight-hour day. Shortly afterward, President Jose Pardo issues a decree establishing the eight-hour day for all Peruvian workers.

[A] 1919 - Great Boston Molasses Flood: A 58 ft. high metal tank, 90 ft. in diameter, filled with 2.5 million gallons of crude molasses bursts in Boston, and the explosion sends a 40 ft. tall tidal wave of molasses and debris crashing down Commercial Street. What became known as the Boston Molasses Flood killed 21 workers and residents and injured another 150. After many years of litigation, the United States Industrial Alcohol Company was eventually found culpable and forced to pay a million dollar settlement.

[E] 1919 - Rosa Luxemburg (b. 1871), German philosopher, economist, anti-militarist and revolutionist, is captured along with Karl Liebknecht by the Freikorps' Garde-Kavallerie-Schützendivision. They are brutally questioned by Captain Waldemar Pabst and Lieutenant Horst von Pflugk-Harttung. Luxemburg is beaten with a rifle butt by soldier Otto Runge, then shot in the head, either by Lieutenant Kurt Vogel or Lieutenant Hermann Souchon. Her body is then flung into Berlin's Landwehr Canal. In the Tiergarten Karl Liebknecht is later shot and his body, without a name, taken to a morgue. It is not until June 1, 1919, that Luxemburg's corpse is found and identified. [see: Mar. 5]

1919 - Karl Liebknecht (b. 1871), German socialist and co-founder, with Rosa Luxemburg, of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany, is captured along with Karl Liebknecht by the Freikorps' Garde-Kavallerie-Schützendivision. They are brutally questioned by Captain Waldemar Pabst and Lieutenant Horst von Pflugk-Harttung and Luxemburg is shot in the head and her body is then thrown into Berlin's Landwehr Canal. Later, the car that is transporting Karl Liebknecht, is stopped in the Tiergarten, and he is summarily shot in the back. His body, without a name, ends up in a morgue. [see: Aug. 13]

1919 - The first issue of 'Freedom' is published in New York. Initally subtitled 'A Revolutionary Journal Dedicated to Human Freedom', from number 4 April-May 1919 it is changed to 'A Journal of Constructive Anarchism'. The final issue has the numbers 9-10 October-November 1919.

1920 - Ivan Vasilyevich Turkenich (d. 1944), Ukrainian partisan, who was one of the leaders of the underground anti-Nazi Komsomol organisation the Young Guard, which operated in Krasnodon district during the German-Soviet War (1941-44), born. On August 13, 1944 Ivan Turkenich was mortally wounded in a battle near Głogów, Poland. He died in the field hospital a day later on August 14, 1944.

1923 - In Paris the first issue of 'La Brochure Mensuelle' (The Monthly Brochure) appears, published by Émile Bidault and the 'Groupe de Propagande par la Brochure'. It is published up until December 1937, with more than 190 issues devoted to the writings of over a hundred authors.

[FF] 1925 - Lossmen-Ekträsk-konflikten [Lossmen-Ekträsk Conflict]: During what would become the longest lockout in Swedish labour history [1924-31], locked-out workers carrying out a blockade in the forests around the Swedisn towns of Lossmen and Ekträsk in an attempt to prevent the bringing in of scab workers, respond to just such an attempt to bring in blacklegs from nearby villages, including Villvattnet, by organising a demonstration in Ekträsk.
The strike had begun the previous year when the Holmsund, Sandvik and Mo & Domsjö forestry companies delivered an ultimatumn to the Lossmen-Sävsjöns and Ekträsks Lokal Samorganisation (Local Co-operation) syndicates, local syndicalist workers organisations within the anarcho-syndicalist Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation (Central Organisation of the Workers of Sweden), to either dissolve their organisations or to become unemployed i.e. to order a lockout. Despite the fact that the companies were effectively the only employers in the area, the workers refused and began their own blockade of the forests in the area in an attempt to prevent scab workers from carrying out any logging.
Following the demonstration in Ekträsk, which had included 400-500 people who had turned up from nearby Norrland, the protesters split up into groups and went out into the forest to search for those trying to breach their blockade. Two company officials who turned up to try and persuade the workers to give up were driven off but returned later with police reinfocements. In the meantime, the blacklegs had given up and gone away and, instead of protecting the strike breakers, they arrested a number of the striking workers. Found guilty and fines, they workers were unable to pay and, after a few day of further intense conflit, a stalemate was reached. With the strikers facing economic hardship, SAC and the Norsk Syndikalistisk Forbund set up solidarity funds. After the spring of 1925, the companies broke off all forest felling in the blocked forest areas. Only in the spring of 1930 did the Holmsunds company succeeded in restarting cutting, with much help from the police and the local authorities. That autumn Sandvik also recommenced cutting, sparking an increase in the conflict. Eventaully, on May 21, 1931, company officials at the Sandvik works in Kalvträsk got in contact with the syndicalists to tell them that they would recognise their union and had accepted their salary demands. Shortly afterwards, the other companies agreed terms with the syndicalists and the conflict was over.

[B] 1928 - Victor Arthur James Willing (d. 1988), Egyptian-born British painter and anarchist, born. Married to the Portuguese-born British feminist painter and printmaker Paula Rego.He studied at the Guildford School of Art (1948-49), and at the Slade School of Fine Art, London (1949-54). He and Rego moved to Portugal in 1957 and he stopped painting. However, when he and his family returned to live in London in 1974, he took-up painting again. Little survives of his early purely figurative work but his later works have a vivid and highly coloured hallucinatory quality, which some claim was due to the side effects of the medication he had begun taking for his MS, which was first diagnosed in 1966:
"I have heard that people with MS sometimes get hallucinations. I have had hallucinations but due to special circumstances only indirectly due to my illness. In '74 I was started on a drug called ACTH. This is found to relieve MS symptoms in some cases. Luckily I was one of these and continue to get good results from courses of ACTH. It has however various side effects some of which are undesirable, including sleeplessness. On high doses I only slept 4 hours in 24. I was hyperactive. I would feel very tired but not sleepy, very calm but alert. In this state I would sit down in a comfortable upright chair, relax and stare at the wall. After a time, I could see through the wall - a scene, brightly lit, clearly defined on the other side, like a stage, spot-lit. No figures. No action, therefore, just a scene. The 'life-size' objects would appear in three dimensions but as though already drawn in charcoal and pastel.
"I guess this would last about 20 minutes. I don't think I closed my eyes. I was certainly not asleep ... I would remain in my chair and, taking paper and charcoal, simply copy down the scene. No interpolation was necessary, it had all been done for me - image both in the sense of symbol and form down to the mark. I did not have to do anything. Subsequently 'meanings' might occur to me but in advance there was nothing."
"Beneath even the desire to change society and the need to communicate is a need, urgent in some of us, to affirm our scratches that 'I exist'."
anarchist-studies-network.org.uk/documents/ASN 2.0/paraskos_rembrandt.doc]

1933 - Agustin Gomez Arcos (d. 1998), Spanish anarchist, gay novelist and dramatist, born. He began writing plays but was forced into exile, first to England and then to Paris, because of censorship. He went on to write numerous novels about Franco's Spain: 'L'Agneau Carnivore' (The Carnivorous Lamb; 1975), 'Maria Republica' (1976), 'Ana Non' (1977), 'L'Enfant Pain' (1983), 'Un Oiseau Brûlé Vif' (A Bird Burned Alive; 1984), etc.

1939 - Hartmut Geerken, German musician, composer, writer, journalist, radio playwright, filmmaker and anarchist, prominent as a percussionist in the free/avant-garde jazz arena, especially in Holland, born.

1943 - Procès des 42: The trial by a German Army Council of War of what were in fact 45 members - 43 men and 2 women - of the Francs-tireurs et partisans (FTP; Partisan irregular riflemen), mostly veterans of the International Brigades in Spain and young Parisian communists who had previously been recruited to the para-military Organisation Spéciale of the Parti Communiste Français, begins. They face 49 counts of terrorism - ranging from attacks against the occupying forces to the execution of collaborators and the theft of food stamps. [see: Jan. 28]

1944 - Zina Portnova (Zinaida Martynovna Portnova [Зина Портнова / Зинаида Мартыновна Портнова]; b. 1926), Russian teenager and Soviet partisan, born. She was on school holiday at her grandmothers house in the Vitebsk region when Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union, is either killed during torture or is taken into the woods and shot after being tortured and blinded. [see: Feb. 20]

[C] 1948 - John Wimbourne and Gerry Flamberg, two members of the 43 Group are freed from court after having been held on charges of the attempted murder of John Preen (a prominent fascist, ex-BUF member, Section 18B detainee, founder of the Britons Action Party and the British Vigilantes Action League, and fascist bookshop owner). In December, Preen had claimed that he had been shot at and had given the police the registration number of Flamberg's rental car. Flamberg was charged with attempted murder and remanded in prison along with another founder member of the 43 Group, John Wimborne. The preciding magistrate declared Preen's testimony unreliable, and the 43 Group members were released. In March 1948, the 43 Group's paper 'On Guard' reported: "The 43 Group have received a great volume of applications for membership of their organisation as a direct result of the Preen case".

1955 - Johannes Baader (b. 1875), German writer, artist, agent provocteur, Oberdada and member of Berlin Dada, dies. [see: Jun. 22]

1965 - Andrea Wolf aka Ronahî (d. 1998), German radical leftist activist and PKK militant, born. Her first involvment with the radical German left was via squatting at the beginning of the 1980s, and she and her brother Tom joined Freizeit 81. Both were arrested and sentenced to 18 months in prison for an arson attacks on a branch of Dresdner Bank, not her first arrest or time in custody. In November 1984, Tom Wolf died in a fall from a window, a suspected act of suicide. Andrea continued her autonomous activism in Munich via anti-fascist and anti-globalisation protests and those against the planned Wackersdorf nuclear reprocessing plant. Other activities included support for the hunger strike by female prisoners in Berlin in the summer of 1987; arrest in September 1987 and two months on remand after being linked to a bombing campaign, after which Wolf joined the autonomous group Kein Friede; support for the Rote Armee Fraktion hungerstrikers; protests against the World Economic Summit in Munich in 1992; as well as travel to El Salvador, the US and Guatemala. After being linked to the RAF bomb attack on the JVA Weiterstadt on March 27, 1993, rumours of her being linked to the secret service and the issuing of an arrest warrent for her in the summer of 1995, she went underground and at the end of 1996 she fled to Kurdistan and joined the PKK. After spending a few weeks with cadres of PKK, she joined the ARGK (Artesa Rizgariya gels Kurdistan / People's Liberation Army of Kurdistan) as a member of an all-woman YAJK (Yeketiya Azadiya jinen Kurdistan / Free Women's Union of Kurdistan). There she received military training, fighting against the Kurdish peshmerga of the Partiya Demokrata Kurdistanê and later against the Turkish army. It is believed that on October 23, 1998 Andrea Wolf was captured in a clash with the Turkish army and killed by an officer, her body dumped in a mass grave with 40 other Kurdish fighters.

1967 - David Davidovich Burliuk (Дави́д Дави́дович Бурлю́к; b. 1882), Ukrainian Futurist book illustrator, publicist, author and anarchist, dies. [see: Jul. 21]

1969 - Raegan Butcher, U.S. poet, singer and screenplay writer, born. Associated with the anarchist collective CrimethInc., who published his first two books of poetry, 'Stone Hotel' (2003) and 'Rusty String Quartet' (2005). In 1996, Butcher was arrested and convicted for first degree robbery and sentenced to eight years in prison, which is where he first started writing poetry.

[1974 - Peristiwa Malari [Malari Incident] or Malapetaka Lima Belas Januari [Fifteenth of January Disaster]: student protests against Japanese Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka, corruption, high prices, and inequality in foreign investments turn into a riot that afternoon (under the influence of Special Forces' agent provocateurs)

[F] 1978 - A demonstration organised by the Spanish anarcho-syndicalist union, the CNT official declared legal six months previously, draws 10,000 protesters in Barcelona, opposing the Moncloa pacts, which allows only the communist CC.OO. and socialist UGT the right to represent workers.

1994 - The Ian Stuart Memorial Gig in London, already having lost its original venue in Beaconsfield a few days before the event after a visit from anti-fascists and now planned to take place in the Wellington near Waterloo Station, is cancelled after the pub is trashed when police prevent Combat 18 and Blood & Honour skins from exiting to attack AFA outside the pub. ['No Retreat']

1997 - A general strike is called by a coalition of labour unions in South Korea. The unions claim 600,000 workers observe the strike call, the government claims it is "only" 100,000.

1998 - An unarmed James Ashley, 39, is shot dead during an armed police raid on his flat in St Leonards, Sussex as he lies naked in bed with his girlfriend. No cop is ever charged with his death.

1999 - Demonstrations in nearly every Greek city against the '2525/97 [Education] Act'. Clashes break out. In Athensin Athens, where 25,000 people protested, 14 arrests were made, with heavy charges centred on two people: Arban Belala, a 17-yr old Albanian and Vasilis Evangelidis, a 30-yr old anarchist and unemployed teacher.

2004 - The first Unite Against Fascism rally, following its formation in late 2003, takes place in Manchester Town Hall.

2005 - Antifa members involved in a confrontation with National Front white power skinheads in Woolwich.

2008 - In Àvila, Castella the first and only issue of 'Acratela', the publication of the Àvila anarcha-feminist collective of the same name. The articles on Anarcha-Feminism, the history of libertarian women, sexist language, education, biographies, poetry, comics, etc. were all published under pseudonyms.

[2009 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests: cops protest

2014 - Carmen Bruna (born Bruna Carmen Zucarelli; b. 1928), Argentinian poet, Surrealist, physician and anarchist agitator, dies. [see: Jul. 16]
1842 - Rebecca Riots: A toll-gate at Trevaughan, Wales, is destroyed by the Rebecca Rioters.

1843 - Following the uprising in Barcelona in November 1842, the Sociedad Mutua de Tejedores de Barcelona (Mutual Society of Weavers of Barcelona) is banned by the capitán general of Catalonia, Antonio Seoane Hoyos. It continued its activities clandestinely under the name of the Compañía Fabril de Tejedores de Algodón (Cotton Knitting Factory Company), running its cooperative workshops that had been organised by the weavers the previous year. [see: Sep. 26]

1855 - Eleanor Marx, aka 'Tussy' (Jenny Julia Eleanor Marx; d. 1898), English socialist activist and member of Socialist League in Britain, who was Karl Marx’s youngest daughter, born.
She visited Haymarket anarchists in prison during her 1886 lecture tour of the US.

1872 - Práxedes Mateo Sagasta, chairman of the Spanish Council order the preemptive dissolution of the International in Spain. Reduced to illegality, some members of the International find themselves in an underground organisation called 'Defensores de la International'. But a year later (11 February 1873) the first Republic was proclaimed, and freedom of association restored.

1880 - Paulette Brupbacher (d. 1967), Swiss physician, militant feminist, anarchist, author and member of the central committee of International Workers' Aid, is born in Pinsk, in what is now Belarus.

1894 - Lunigiana Revolt [Moti Anarchici della Lunigiana]: On the outskirts of Lunigiana, close to the Dogali barracks, a march of 400 demonstrators, armed with pruning hooks, pitchforks and some rifles, are met by a company of soldiers. Eight demonstrators are killed, many others wounded as the protesters scatter. Some groups flee to the mountains where they are rounded up in the following days.
The same day the Italian Prime minister, Francesco Crispi, also declares a state of seige in Lunigiana.

1894 - Lunigiana Revolt [Moti Anarchici della Lunigiana]: Luigi Molinari, author of the 'Inno della rivolta' (Hymn of the uprising), which is dedicated to the insurgents of the Lunigiana, inclduing Pasquale Binazzi and Galileo Palla, is arrested on charges of inciting insurrection for his part in the revolt. At his trial on January 31 before the military court in Massa, he was sentenced to twenty three years in prison, which was reduced at a new trial on April 19 to seven and a half years. However, after spending nearly two years in prison in Oneglia, he was released on September 20, 1895 following massive public protests.

1894 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: Dr Nicola Barbato, organiser of the Fascio in Piana dei Greci, and Bernardino Verro, founder of the first Fasci in Corleone, along with fellow Fasci di Palermo leader Rosario Garibaldi Bosco, are arrested on board the steamship Bagnara as they try to escape to Tunis. [see: Jan. 3]

1900 - Juan López Sánchez (d. 1972), Spanish construction worker, anarcho-syndicalist, anarchist theorist, minister in the Generalitat and one of the founders of the 'treintistas' Federación Sindicalista Libertaria, born. Son of a member of the Guardia Civil, his family moved to Barcelona when he was 10 and there he came into contact with anarchist circles. He began working aged 11 and joined the Sociedad de Moldistas y Piedra Artificial, becoming secretary of it Board (1916-17). The union was eventually incorporated into the Sindicato de la Construcción of the CNT. He began his militant union activity in 1920 in the era of the difficult years of gangsterism, and on 29 July, 1920 was involved in a shootout with agents of the employer and was arrested with a comrade, Joaquím Roura Giner. After several attempts of trial, was finally sentenced on February 24, 1923 to one year and a day for manslaughter and one year, eight months and 20 days on firearms offences. Roura was acquitted. On Decmeber 7 that year, he appeared before a military tribual gave him to six-year sentence for having fired at the police whilst trying to prevent his arrest. Imprisoned in the Ocaña reformatory, he became an autodidact.
Released from prison in 1926, under an amnesty, in 1928 he joined the the anarchist group Solidaridad along with Juan Peiro and Angel Pestana. However, López Sánchez was always more of a unionist rather than an anarchist and, during his work within the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo he always tried to steer the organisation away from its adherence to anarchism. However, he continued to clandestinely fight against the dictatorship of General Primo de Rivera as a CNT member, participating in its congress and helping negotiate the legal reconstruction of the organisation, as well as signing the Manifesto de los Treinta, the document of the treintista faction of the union. From 1930 to 1931, he edited the journal 'Acción'. In September 1932, the trentistas were expelled and in 1933 helped found the Federación Sindicalista Libertaria, becoming its general secretary, and joined the Partido Sindicalista, led by Ángel Pestaña. During this period, he was also editor of the papers '¡Despertad!' in Vigo and 'Sindicalismo' in Barcelona and Valencia. After the failure of the Aliança Obrera, he favoured the rfturn of the Sindicats d'Oposició to the CNT and attended the May 1936 Congress of Zaragoza that brought about the reconciliation.
On July 18, 1936 he was chosen to be part of a strike committee that had to face the disturbing indecision of the army quartered in the city but only played a minor role. He however did found the newspaper 'Fraga Social' during this period. On 4 November 1936, at the proposal of the National Committee of the CNT, was appointed Minister of Commerce in the second government (Govern de Concentració) chaired by the Socialist Francisco Largo Caballero. In February 1937, he drew up a decree which defined and regularized the operation of factories, businesses and commerce. This helped to reassure the owners of enterprises that had been nationalized and collectivised. He became the first anarchist minister to visit a foreign country when he visited Paris for meetings with the French government. After the events of 'May 1937' resigned his ministerial position along with fellow ministers Frederica Montseny Joan Peiró and John Garcia Oliver.
On March 7, 1939 in Valencia was appointed member of the National Committee of the Movimiento Libertario Español (MLE) and traveled to Paris to inform Maria Rodriguez Vazquez (Marianet) of its creation. López was forced to flee from Spain when General Francisco Franco and the Nationalist Army took control of the country in March 1939. He went to England and during World War II he worked in radio broadcasting in Spanish from the BBC. He remained there until 1954, when he then moved to Mexico where he stayed until returning to Spain in 1966 and even joined the Organització Sindical Espanyola. In these years he adhered to the reformist 'Aliança Nacional de Forces Democràtiques (National Alliance of Democratic Forces; ANFD), a broad Republican/Socialist/CNT alliance whose original purpose was to peruse the parliamentary road and restore again the Second Republic in Spain, and which later became the Consell Nacional de la Democràcia Catalana.

1902 - Antonio Blanco Blanch (d. 1941), Spanish chocolatier, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Member of the CNT, he was imprisoned several times during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera for his significant union activity. Member during the civil war of the Ministry of Industry and from 1937 to the end of the war was rresponsible of collectivised chemical plant Casa Gros in Badalona. Exiled in France, he was interned in various camps and incorporated into a Compagnies de Travailleurs Étrangers working on the fortifications of the Maginot Line. Captured during the German breakthrough, he was interned in Stalag I-B Hohenstein (Poland) and, on August 9, he was deported with 168 other Spanish Republicans to the Mauthausen concentration camp. On January 24, 1941, he was transferred to Gusen sub-camp, where he died on November 19, 1941.

[DD] 1905 - [O.S. Jan. 3] Putilov Strike / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Following the rejection of their demands [see Jan. 10 & 15], all 13,000 workers at the the Putilov Ironworks go out on strike. The only people still inside the plant were two police agents. The strikers demanded an eight-hour day, a ban on overtime working, improved working conditions including the sanitary facilities, free medical aid, higher wages for women workers, permission to organise a representative committee and payment of wages for the period of the strike.
The St. Petersburg Committee of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) also attempts to turn the Putilov workers' strike into a general strike of the St. Petersburg proletariat.

1908 - Jean Bourguer (d. unknown), French textile worker, militant anarchist, anti-militarist, anti-clerical and revolutionary syndicalist, born.

1908 - Marie Anastasie Vincentine Krysinska (d. 1857), Polish-born French poet, innovator of free verse, musician, femme chansonnier, composer, and novelist of the decadent and symbolist period, dies. [see: Jan. 22]

[EE] 1915 - Virginia Gervasini, aka 'Sonia' and 'Marta' (d. 1993), Italian seamstress, Trotskyist revolutionary, anti-fascist, miliciana and Résistance fighter, born. Together with her father, the anarchist cabinetmaker Carlo Emilio Gervasini, she was exiled in France in 1924. There she was a regular attendee along side her father of anarchist social events but, around the age of eighteen, she became a Trotskyist in the Gruppo di Unità Comunista and formed a long-term relationship with fellow Trotskyist Nicola Di Bartolomeo aka 'Fosco'. In 1934, they helped found the dissident Trotskyist group around the paper 'La Nostra Parola' (Our Word). In April 1936, the couple took refuge in Barccelona where they and some German comrades were arrested by the Spanish police. Her release was secured through the intervention of POUM (Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista), following which she helped found the Comité Unico Internacional de los Refugiados Antifascistas (CUIRA) together with fellow Italian anti-fascist Giuseppe Capizzi (killed in the fighting in Siétamo, Huesca, on August 1, 1936) and the Italian anarchist Duilio Balduini (who had fought on the barricades in Berlin along side the Spartacists in 1919 and joined the ranks of POUM's Lenin column). With the fascist revolt in July 1936, she was immediately caught up in the fighting and was amongst the revolutionaries seizing the Hôtel Falcó. In August, Virginia enrolled in POUM's Columna Internacional 'Lenin', formed from the ranks of CUIRA, and took on the job of registering foreign volunteers coming to fight in the POUM ranks. Virginia also began working as an announcer for the Italian and French-language broadcasts of Radio POUM.
However, sectarian fighting within the ranks of the French Trotskyists led to Fosco's expulsion from the party and their pair forming the independent group, 'Le Soviet'. She also became responsible for the typing and publication of its self-titled bulletin (Jan. 1937 - Jan. 1938). Virginia and Fosco remained active within POUM ranks, taking part in the 'May Days' events, but in January 1938, having been warned by the Italian republican leader Mario Angeloni of Fosco's imminent arrest by the Stalinists, the couple left for France. There they joined the Parti Communiste Internationaliste and were active in various Troskyist entrist adventures. In July 1939 Virginia and Fosco travelled to Brussels and London, but upon their return to Paris a month later they were overtaken by the outbreak of war. Fosco's attempt to escape via Belgium was thwarted when he was arrested at the border. Interned in the concentration camp of Vernet-sur-l’Ariège that October, her was eventually handed over to the Italian Fascist police in the summer of 1940.
Following the fall of Paris, Virginia ended up in the south of France, joining the Résistance in Toulouse and in whose ranks she fought until the war's end. She returned to Italy, settling in Palermo and opening up a tailoring workshop there. In 1976 she received a gold medal for her activity as an anti-Fascist militant in Spain, refusing to shake the hand of the former Stalinist agent Vittorio Vidali aka 'Carlos Contreras', a member of the presentation team.
Virginia Gervasini died in Varese on November 6, 1993.

1916 - Revolución Mexicana: Pancho Villa's forces attack train, killing 16 Americans.

1917 - Zimmermann Telegram / Revolución Mexicana: Germany offers Mexico material aid in the reclamation of territory lost during the Mexican-American War and the Gadsden Purchase, Venustiano Carranza formally declined Zimmermann's proposals on April 14, by which time the U.S. had declared war on Germany.

1919 - Semana Trágica: The 'Bloody Week' general strike in Argentina ends, leaving hundreds of workers dead and injured in the fighting (estimates range between 100-700 killed and 400-2,000 injured). The police lost 3 dead and 78 wounded. The militant Argentinian anarchist movement is decimated by the repression which follows and trade union reformists gain control of the workers' movement.

1919 - Late on January 16, 1919, General Joaquín Milans del Bosch, the Captain General of Catalonia, fearing the rising power of the Confederación Regional del Trabajo de Cataluña and the possibility of industrial action coinciding with Catalan Nationalist agitation creating a 'perfect storm', manages to persuade the Spanish Prime Minister Álvaro de Figueroa to suspend constitutional privileges in Barcelona. The would remain in place uninterrupted until March 1922.
Confederal premises are raided and unionists arrested. Workers found at or frequenting the homes of prominent militants are jailed. Imprisoned in the Cárcel Modelo, they are later transferred to the boats 'Pelayo' and 'La Giralda,' which serve as floating prisons in the harbour. All newspapers are censored, so that there is no voice in defence of the prisoners. The CNT is forced to operate underground.
Milans also allows the formation of anti-labour, para-military urban militias in the city known as Somatenes. Elsewhere, police are forcefully removing quadribarrada ties from young Catalans. Chasing one protester Catalan police entered a bakery in the carrer del Pi, broke windows and wounded an elderly woman and her granddaughter. An attorney was arrested when he protested against the police action on Las Ramblas.

1926 - The first issue of the weekly anarcho-syndicalist newspaper 'Vida Sindical: Periodico de los Trabajadores' is published in Barcelona under the military dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, and whilst the CNT is illegal. It is probably directed by Angel Pestaña.

[C] 1927 - A gang of British Fascisti surround an International Class War Prisoners' Aid (ICWPA) rally in Trafalgar Square in support of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti and attempt to break it up. Groups of anti-fascists pick off fascists as they try to leave the Square.

1936 - The Unidad Popular is formed in revolutionary Spain.

1938 - Fascists begin the bombing of Barcelona.

1943 - Ulyana Mateevna Gromova (Улья́на Матве́евна Гро́мова; b.1924), Ukranian leader of the underground Komsomol partisan group the 'Young Guards', is executed and thrown into a mine after days of Gestapo torture. [see: Jan. 3]

1946 - Jean-Pierre Bouyxou, French actor, 'Happenings' participant, filmmaker, film critic, journalist, author, 'post-Situationist' and anarchist, who is seen as the father of the French underground, born. Amongst his pseudonyms are J.P Buixou, Jerôme Fandor, Georges Le Gloupier, Claude Razat and Annie Schon. Georges Le Gloupier is the imaginary film director whose name Belgian anarcho-humourist Noël Godin appropriated for his entarteur personality.

[E] 1947 - Sara Jane Olson (Kathleen Ann Soliah), US member of the Symbionese Liberation Army, who was allegedly involved in the 1975 robbery of the Crocker National Bank in Carmichael, California and an attempted bombing of a Los Angeles Police Department patrol car and spent 23 years living clandestinely, born. From a conservative Lutheran family, Soliah had a typical middle-American upbringing and even volunteered on Richard Nixon's presidential campaign in 1968. However, like many Nixon-era students, she was radicalised during her time at university and after graduating from the University of California-Santa Barbara she moved to Berkeley in 1972. There she met aspiring actress Angela Atwood, and through her members of the Symbionese Liberation Army. However, Soliah and her partner James Kilgore did not join the SLA at the time.
When Atwood was killed during the May 17, 1974 police raid on the SLA safehouse in Los Angeles, she and her siblings Steve and Josephine, both SLA sympathiser, organised a series of memorial rallies
including a rally in Berkeley's Willard Park where Kathleen made an impassioned speech in support of the SLA and her friend 'Gelina' (Angela Atwood), stating: "SLA soldiers - I know it is not necessary to say; but keep on fighting. I'm with you and we are with you!"
Shortly after, Soliah was visited at the bookshop where she worked by the then underground and on-the-run SLA member Emily Harris and agreed to help hide and support the SLA, sourcing the birth certificates of dead infants in order to secure fake IDs and providing supplies for their San Francisco safehouse. Soliah later joined their ranks, allegedly taking part in the April 21, 1975 robbery of the Crocker National Bank in Carmichael, California (during which 42-year-old mother of four Myrna Opsahl was shot and killed) and the planting of two pipebombs on August 21 that year under LAPD police cars, both of which failed to detonate. Soliah was linked by police to both crimes and was indicted in absentia in connection with the pipebombs in February 1976. She then disappeared off the federal authoties' radar for the next 23 years. She moved to Minnesota and, having assumed the name Sara Jane Olson, married a doctor, had three children and lived a normal bourgeoise existence - throwing lavish parties, appearing in local productions of Shakespeare and becoming a community activist. At the same time, via a San Francisco reporter, she made contact with the FBI in an attempt to discuss terms for her surrender. Then around the the date of the 25th anniversary of the California bank shooting, she was profiled on two episode of 'America's Most Wanted' TV programme in March and May 1999.
On June 16, 1999, she was pulled over by the police whilst driving her camper van and arrested. She was charged with conspiracy to commit murder, possession of explosives, explosion, and attempt to ignite an explosive with intent to murder. Shortly after her arrest, Soliah legally changed her name to that of her alais (as well as publishing a cookbook titled 'Serving Time: America's Most Wanted Recipes' in support of the Sara Olson Defense Fund Committee).
On October 31, 2001, she accepted a plea bargain, pleading guilty to two counts of possessing explosives with intent to murder, the other charges being dropped. Immediately after entering the plea, however, Olson claimed that she was innocent and had only accepted the deal because, in the wake of the September 11 attacks, she felt that she could not expect a 'fair trial'. On November 13, Olson filed a motion requesting the withdrawal of her guilty plea. On January 18, 2002, she was sentenced to two consecutive 10-years-to-life terms, having refused to testify in her defence.
On January 16, 2002, first-degree murder charges for the killing of Myrna Opsahl were filed against Olson and four other SLA members: Emily Harris, Bill Harris, Michael Bortin, and James Kilgore, who remained a fugitive. Having pleaded not guilty, she later changed her mind and pled guilty. She was sentenced on February 14, 2003, to six years, the maximum term allowed under her plea bargain, to run concurrently with the 14-year sentence she was already serving (the 10-to-life having already been changed in October 2002 by the Board of Prison Terms). Having served her time under maximum security 'Close A' status, she was released on parole on March 17, 2008 and rearrested four days later, when it was decided that she had been mistakenly released a year early following a miscalculation by the parole board! She was funally released on March 17, 2009, having served seven years.

1949 - Barbara Balzerani aka 'Sara', Italian writer and former member of the Brigate Rosse, born. She was involved in the kidnap of Aldo Moro and, following the BR split in 1981, led the Brigate Rosse - Partito Comunista Combattente group.

1950 - Poss. alternate date for the death of Clovis-Abel Pignat (aka Tschombine Pategnon) (b. 1884), Swiss militant anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist. [see: Jan.. 10]

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: Assassination attempt (by bazooka) on General Raoul Albin Louis Salan, military commander in Algeria, by French residents of Algiers who wanted General René Cogny to take his place, as he was seen to be more likely to take a harder line with the FLN.

1958 - Eusebio Carbó Carbó (b. 1883), Spanish militant anarchist, editor and director of 'Solidaridad Obrera' in 1930s as well as secretary of the IWA, dies in exile in Mexico. Active and very much a globe-trotting internationalist, he saw the inside of nearly sixty prisons around the world from the age of 18 onwards. [see: Dec. 31]

[B] 1963 - Revolutionary students in Caracas make an armed attack on an exposition of French art and carry off five paintings, which they declare they will return in exchange for the release of political prisoners.

1968 - Youth International Party (Yippies) founded.

1969 - Jan Palach sets fire to himself in Wenceslas Square, Prague in protest at the Communist regime.

[A] 1970 - Soledad Brothers (including George Jackson) are accused of killing a guard in Soledad (California) state prison.

[1974 - Peristiwa Malari [Malari Incident] or Malapetaka Lima Belas Januari [Fifteenth of January Disaster]: the riots that broke out yesterday are ended by the military leaving a total of 11 people killed, 17 critically injured, 120 non-critically injured and roughly 770 arrested of the two days.

1982 - Ramon J. Sender (Ramón José Sender Garcés; b. 3 1901), Spanish novelist, essayist, journalist, anarchist and then communist, dies. [see: Feb. 3]

1991 - US-led invasion of Kuwait and Iraq.

1992 - Government and FMLN rebels sign a peace accord, after 75,000 deaths, formally ending their 12-year-old civil war in El Salvador.

[1997 - Rebelimi i Vitit 1997 / Kriza Piramidale [Albanian Unrest of 1997 / Pyramid Crisis]: first protests begin following the collapse of a number of pyramid schemes, including Sudja and People's Democracy-Xhaferri. The vast majority of these Ponzi schemes would quickly follow into bankruptcy.

[F] 1997 - Militant Indian trade union leader and politician Dr. Datta Samant is murdered by hired gunmen. Samant led nearly 250,000 textile workers in Mumbai on a year-long strike in 1982. The New York Times described him as having a “reputation for rough tactics – threatening companies with strikes and agitation that often resulted in violent clashes, winning the loyalty of workers with heft wage increases, and ousting older, established labour leaders.”

[2009 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests:

2012 - Riot in a detention facility in the Kyrgyz capital, Bishkek leaves one prisoner dead after special security forces fight with inmates.
1863 - Flush toilet patented by Mr Thomas Crapper.

1875 - Florencio Sánchez (d. 1910), Uruguayan playwright, journalist and anarchist, born. Regarded as Uruguay's leading playwright.

1885 - Sakae Ōsugi (d. 1923), Japanese anarchist, polemicist and founder of the first Japanese Esperanto school, born. [expand]

[BB] 1885 - Emmy Hennings (born Emma Maria Cordsen; d. 1948), German cabaret performer, poet, chanteuse, dancer, puppeteer, painter and 'mystical anarchist', born. Probably the most misunderstood and ignored of all the Dadaists, she was both anarchist and Catholic, a well-published writer and an active member of the Bohemian intelligentsia, who was THE driving force behind the Cabaret Voltaire, effectively keeping it open by managing the club's finances and occasionally making ends meet by working as a prostitute.
She had already been married with a daughter, been divorced, run away with an acting troop, travelled in France, been forced into prostitution, become a performer at the Künstlerkneipe Simplizissimus and other cabarets in Munich, as well as a friend and lover of Erich Müsham, and been involved in libertarian and anti-militarist circles, before she met the Bakuninist, and her future life partner, Hugo Ball in 1913. She had also had her poetry published in 'PAN' and 'Die Aktion', and that same year she published a short poetry collection 'Äthergedichte' (Ether Poems). She would also soon collaborate with Ball and Hans Leybold on their magazine 'Revolution'.
In 1914 she had spent time in prison for theft and the suspected forging of passports for draft dodgers and, with Ball under threat after having made a number of public anti-war pronouncements, they both moved to Zurich the following year, where they decided to form their own 'vaudeville' ensemble (called Arabella, with Ball playing the piano and Hennings reciting verse, including in their repertoire some of Erich Müsham's poetry). However, their idea for their own venue, the Künstlerkneipe Voltaire, soon mutated into the Cabaret Voltaire, and they found themselves at the forefront of the founding of Dadaism. Yet, Henning and Ball's time as Dadaist was very short, consisting of only two active years, and they went to live in Bern in 1917. In 1920 they married and Ball was to reconvert to Catholicism.
Towards the end of her life, Hennings wrote a number of revisionist memoirs, effectively writing-out her own artistic and political activities (as other have subsequently written her out of history) in favour of a catholic reinvention of her life and a hagiography of Ball's, something she admitted to Herman Hesse, who had become her closest friend after the death of Ball in 1927. And it is only due to the publication of her letters that we have gotten to know of her life as a morphine addict, prostitute and hustler, a promoter of free-love, anarchy and social revolution, and of her stints several in prison.
Amongst her other writings are the poetry collection 'Die Letzte Freude' (The Last Joy; 1913); the novels 'Gefängnis' (Prison; 1919) and 'Das Brandmal. Ein Tagebuch' (The Stigmata. A Diary; 1920); and her biographical writings: 'Hugo Ball. Sein Leben in Briefen und Gedichten' (Hugo Ball His Life in Letters and Poems; 1930), with a foreword by Hermann Hesse; 'Hugo Balls Weg zu Gott. Ein Buch der Erinnerung' (Hugo Ball's Path to God. A Book of Remembrance; 1931); and 'Ruf und Echo. Mein Leben mit Hugo Ball' (Call and response. My Life with Hugo Ball; 1953).

Dir ist als ob ich schon gezeichnet wäre
Und auf der Stunde Totenliste.
Es hält mich ab von mancher Sünde.
Langsam am Leben wie ich zehre.
Ängstlich und sind meine Schritte oft,
Mein Herz hat einen Schlag kranken
Schwacher und wird mit jedem Tag's.
Todesengel steht ein meines Zimmers in Mitte.
Tanz ich doch bis zur Atemnot.
Bald werde ich im Grabe liegen
Niemand und wird sich an mich schmiegen.
Ach, küssen will ich bis zum Tod.

(To you it's as if I was Already
Marked and waiting on Death's list.
It keeps me safe from many sins.
How slowly drains life out of me.
My steps are Often steeped in gloom,
My heart beats in a sickly way
And it gets Weaker every day.
A death angel stands in the middle of my room.
Yet I dance till I'm out of breath.
Soon lying in the grave I'll be
And No One Will snuggle up to me.
Oh, give me kisses up till death.)

- 'Tänzerin' (Dancer)

Wir warten auf ein letztes Abenteuer
Was kümmert uns der Sonnenschein?
Hochaufgetürmte Tage stürzen ein
Unruhige Nächte - Gebet im Fegefeuer.

Wir lesen auch nicht mehr die Tagespost
Nur manchmal lächeln wir still in die Kissen,
Weil wir alles wissen, und gerissen
Fliegen wir hin und her im Fieberfrost.

Mögen Menschen eilen und streben
Heut fällt der Regen noch trüber
Wir treiben haltlos durchs Leben
Und schlafen, verwirrt, hinüber...

(We expect the last adventure
What matters sunlight?
Days filled with illusions collapse
Restless nights - Prayers in purgatory

We do not read the news of the day
It only happens sometimes we laugh secretly
Because we know everything, and malignant,
We sail here and there, frisonnants fever

Men can run well after their futile concerns
Today the rain falls more sullen
We wander through the ropes without existence
And helpless, we fall asleep to the other side...)

- 'Morfin' (Morphine)

"The world lies outside there, life roars there. There men may go where they will. Once we also belonged to them. And now we are forgotten and sunk into oblivion." - excert from 'Prison' (1916).

dspace.mic.ul.ie/bitstream/10395/1392/2/Schönfeld, C.(2000), 'Confessional Narrative/Fragmented Identity: Emily Henning's Das Brandmal. Ein Tagebuch'.(Book Chapter).pdf

1890 - London Gasworkers Strike: Will Thorne, chair of the National Union of Gas Workers & General Labourers reiterates that the strikers "had come out for eight hours and they would go back for eight hours", and that "they were not going to creep and crawl to Livesey for work, they would become revolutionists – a revolt of every working man in England to overwhelm the country". This despite little support from other unions and all the gas workers' overtures to the company being ignored.

1891 - Pablo Manlapit (d. 1969), Filipino labour organiser, lawyer, and migrant-rights activist, born. He moved to Hawaii as a young man and worked on several sugar plantations before pursing a law degree. Hawaii’s first Filipino lawyer, Manlapit worked tirelessly to represent Filipino workers. He helped organize the Filipino Labor Union and was a leading figure in the plantation workers’ strikes of 1920 and 1924 Manlapit was deported in 1935.
efilarchives.org/pdf/social process vol 33/kerkvliet_manlapit.pdf]

1892 - Bruno Misefari (also known by the anagrammatical pseudonym Furio Sbarnemi; d. 1936), Italian anarchist, philosopher, poet, author, engineer and deserter, born. He deserted during the First World War and fled to Switzerland, marrying Pia Recati-Zanolli in Zurich who, after his death, took care of the publication of his writings. There he worked on the anarchist newspaper 'Il Risveglio Comunista Anarchico' and lectured, using his anagrammatical pseudonym, Furio Sbarnemi. On 16 May 1918 he was arrested for a bomb plot fabricated by the police and was expelled from the country after 7 months in prison. That same year he published his first poetry collection 'Diario di un disertore (Dal carcere di Zurigo)' (Diary of a Deserter (From a Zurich Prison); 1918).
After a period in Germany, he returned to Calabria in Italy in 1919 when a general amnesty for deserters was announced but, like all Italian revolutionaries in this period, he continued to be harassed by the police and, later, by fascist groups. With the anarchist dentist Giuseppe Imondi, he published the newspaper 'L'Anarchia' (Anarchy). Between late 1920 and early 1921 had close contacts with Errico Malatesta, Camillo Berneri, Pasquale Binazzi, Armando Borghi and Giuseppe Di Vittorio, amongst other revolutionaries, was a correspondent with 'Umanità Nova' and 'L'Avvenire Anarchico' (The Anarchist Future) and campaigned for Sacco and Vanzetti.
Despite the advent of fascism, in 1924 he founded the libertarian newspaper, 'L'Amico del Popolo' (The Friend of the People), which was banned after the fourth issue. He was also denied work in his chosen profession and arrested on charges of "undermining the powers of the State, for the purpose of killing the king and Mussolini", but was acquitted after 25 days in prison. On 31 March, 1931, he was arrested again and whilst in internal exile on the island of Ponza he married Pia Zanolli. Another amnesty in 1933 led to his release and returned to Calabria but is dispirited, writing to Zia: "Freed yes, but at what price: health shattered, no money, no prospects for the future", and is diagnosed with a brain tumour in November 1933. Despite reunion with Zia, things do not improve and after a failed business venture, his health deteriorates and he dies on 12 June 1936. Zia goes on to edit and publish his works, including 'Schiaffi e Carezze: poesie in brutta copia' (Slaps and Caresses: poems in draft; 1969) and 'Utopia? No!: Scritti scelti di Bruno Misefari' (Utopia? No!: Selected writings of Bruno Misefari; 1976; [Pia Zanolli (ed.]), plus two of her own memoirs of Misefari, 'Tu o Uno Come Te' (You or Someone Like You; nd) and 'L'Anarchico di Calabria' (The Anarchist of Calabria; 1967).

"La religione è il più solido puntello del capitalismo e dello Stato, i due tiranni del popolo. Ed è anche il più temibile alleato dell'ignoranza e del male."
(Religion is the strongest prop of capitalism and the state, the two tyrants of the people. It is also the most formidable ally of ignorance and evil.)
- from: 'L'Amico del Popolo' (The Friend of the People)

Qui, ne la selva densa di roveti,
A l'ombra de le quercie ho la dimora:
Gli uccelli ei grilli fanno da poeti
Lietamente da l'una a l'altra aurora.
Qui, niuna i giorni, solitari e cheti
Fiammata d'ingiustizia, ecco, m'accora:
Solo co' miei pensieri alti e segreti
E i sogni miei vivo e converso ognora.
Uomini primi abitator del mondo,
Io non v'invidio più: simile a voi
De la calma solenne io mi circondo !
Affogati nel sangue, età civile
Di prostituti e di assassini eroi:
Io ti diserto; io, che non sono un vile!

(Here we find the dense jungle of brambles,
In the shadow of the oak trees I have planted:
The birds and the crickets are the poets
Cheerfully from one to the other dawn.
Here, nobody and daylight, solitary and stealthily
Blaze of unrighteousness, behold, upset me:
Alone with my old thoughts and secrets
And my dreams alive convered.
Men first butchers of the world,
I do not envy you any more: like you
Peace solemnly surrounds me!
Drowned in the blood, the civil age
Of heroicn prostitutes and murderers:
I deserted you, and I, I'm not a coward!)

- 'Disertore' (Deserter)


1898 - Two day General Strike and riots in Ancône, Italy following an increase in bread prices. The army occupies the city. Errico Malatesta (publishing the newspaper 'L'agitazione'), Luigi Fabbri and several other anarchists are charged (tried on April 21-28, 1898), with a "criminal conspiracy" against public security and property.

1904 - The first edition of 'L'Action Syndicale: Organe des Travailleurs du Pas-de-Calais' is published in Lens. 261 issue are published up til 2 October 1910.

1905 - [O.S. Jan. 4] Putilov Strike / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The striking Putilov workers are joined by the workers at the Franco-Russian Factory.

[B] 1905 - Artur Streiter (d. 1946), German graphic artist, painter, writer, literary critic, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Influenced by Gustav Landauer, Leo Tolstoi and Erich Mühsam and a member of FAUD (Freien Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands), he maintained close ties with Gregor Gog and his FAUD-aligned international movement Bruderschaft der Vagabunden (Brotherhood of Vagrants).

1911 - Révolte des Cossiers / Révolte des Vignerons de la Champagne: In Damery, the neighbouring village, the loading of a truck is totally thrown into the Marne, and the cellars and cellar of the fraudulent merchant are sacked by 2,000 to 3,000 angry winemakers. A similar incident occurred the next day at Hautvillers. [see: Nov. 4]

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: Up to ten thousand strikers parade through city streets. Somewhat incongruously they march behind an American flag singing 'The Internationale' and are met and dispersed by soldiers with bayoneted rifles.

[A] 1915 - Anarchist Lucy Parsons leads hunger march in Chicago; IWW songwriter Ralph Chaplin wrote his famous labour song, 'Solidarity Forever' for the march.

1919 - Suspension of the constitutional guarantees in the province of Barcelona. Over the next two days, the military continues its crackdown on the leaders of the CNT, with many of the detainees brought to the prison ship Pelayo with plans to deport them. 25 CNT leaders are detained, among them is Salvador Seguí, aka 'el Noi del Sucre' (Sugar Boy), and journalist Jaume Brossa. They were imprisoned on the Pelayo in the harbour. The newspaper 'Solidaridad Obrera' is also banned. Some authors have argued that the arrest of twenty-five leaders of the CNT by the governor of Barcelona on the same day that constitutional guarantees were suspended on 17 January 1919, was a provocation intended to trigger a reaction amongst the working classes to disrupt and overshadow the autonomy movement. However, exactly the opposite is more likely as the sindicats were far better organised than the nationalist organisations, and therefore far more of a threat to order.
The die is cast and the Confederación Regional del Trabajo de Cataluña would respond to the crackdown by calling a strike at the earliest opportunity in order to demonstrate its ability to fight back against the threatening and repressive regional government.

1920 - Luigi Galleani and Raffaele Schiavina begin publishing their anarchist paper, 'Cronaca Sovversiva: Weekly Revolutionary Anarchist Propaganda - Journal of the Anti-Organisational Tendency', in Turin. Galleani began the paper in the US in 1903, but he and other 'Cronaca Sovversiva' supporters were deported on June 24, 1919.

1920 - The first issue of 'A Stormo!' (In Flight!) 'Revolutionary Libertarian Weekly' is published in Turin. This is actually the same newspaper as Luigi Galleani and Raffaele Schiavina's 'Cronaca Sovversiva', banned in the USA, but retitled to get around that prohibition.

1920 - Palmer Raids: S.S. Buford, transporting 250 labour activists, anarchists and radicals including Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman deported from the Land of the Free on 21 December 1919, lands at Hangö. On January 19 the deportees are met at the Russo-Finnish border by Russian representatives and received warmly at a mass meeting of soldiers and peasants in Belo-Ostrov.

1921 - Crackdown on Barcelona cenetistas involved with the Comité Pro-Presos de la CNT (Pro-Prisoner Committee).

1927 - Simultaneous General Strikes in Santiago and Valparaiso, Chile.

[C] 1928 - Vidal Sassoon (d. 2012), iconic English hairdresser, who was one of the youngest members of the anti-fascist group, the 43 Group, born into a family of Sephardic Jews living in London. Vidal's father died when he was 3 years old and, because of poverty, his mother placed him and his younger brother in a Jewish orphanage. They were reunited as a family in 1939 when his mother remarried. He left school at 14 and ended up as an apprentice hairdresser and, at the age of 17 and having been too young to fight in WWII, he became a member of the 43 Group, a Jewish veterans' anti-fascist organisation that took the fight to the fascists on the streets. His National Service in the Royal Air Force was just as eventful - having gone AWOL because of the all-pervasive racism that he and other Jews had to still endure despite the defeat of Nazism and the continuing revelations about the extent of the Holocaust. Arrested, he ended up sedated in a psychiatric ward in a military hospital but was eventually given a medical discharge. In 1948, he went to Palestine and joined the Haganah, the Jewish paramilitary organisation operating in the then British Mandate of Palestine, fighting in Israel's War of Independence.
"In 1946, I became an active member of the anti-fascist 43 Group — spending evenings taking on the fascist Black Shirts in street fights.
One evening in Kilburn we chased the fascists into a pub and were ourselves chased by the police.
They arrested three of us and one of the sergeants severely beat my friend Mo while calling us all kinds of names.
I couldn’t believe I was in the heart of London, listening to his hate. The following morning in front of the judge, we pleaded our case against the sergeant.
The judge gave us a look of scorn. ‘This is not Nazi Germany,’ he said. ‘Our police would never act like that. Now go home and be good boys.’ Being with the 43 Group meant I often turned up at work with bruises.
As my employers knew nothing about my nocturnal exploits, I got into the habit of saying ‘Oh, it’s nothing madam, I slipped over a hair pin’ to explain my injuries away."
"I was enlisted in the Royal Air Force and it wasn’t to be a happy experience. I got into my first fight the day after Yom Kippur when someone made a racist remark.
The taunts got to me so much, I then went AWOL — much to my mother’s
horror. She made it clear I was a disgrace and she was going to call the authorities immediately.
Then, when the Military Police came, she turned her back on me and walked into the kitchen without saying goodbye.
What followed is an experience that I have never told a soul about.
I was taken to I know not where and presented to a group of stern looking officers. Then, when I told them I would not put up with racist abuse of any kind, I found myself, to my horror, in the psychiatric ward of a military hospital somewhere near Wolverhampton.
Some of the other inhabitants were clearly very disturbed. Others seemed to be bound to their beds. I was sedated and woke up five or six days later, having been drugged sufficiently so that I could hardly remember a moment of my plight. I was then given a medical discharge and sent home."
- quotes, ironically, from a 2010 interview in the 'Daily Mail'

1932 - Revolta de l'Alt Llobregat*: In Figols in the Alt Llobregat (Upper Llobregat), Catalonia, Buenaventura Durruti gives a speech to a meeting of miners: "No creáis en las reformas de la democracia burguesa, de la que los trabajadores nada pueden esperar. (…). La democracia burguesa ha fracasado. (…). Es necesario realizar la revolución. (…). La emancipación total de la clase trabajadora solamente puede conseguirse mediante la expropiación de la riqueza que detenta la burguesía y suprimiendo el Estado". ["Do not believe in the reforms of bourgeois democracy, workers can expect nothing. (...). Bourgeois democracy has failed. (...). Revolution is necessary. (...). The total emancipation of the working class can only be achieved through the expropriation of the wealth that the bourgeoisie holds and abolishing the state."] The following day in Figols, and then in other towns of the region (Sallant, Suria, Berga, Cardona and Manresa), libertarian communism is proclaimed for the first time in Spain's history.
[*also known as the Fets de Fígols de 1932 (Events in Fígols in 1932)]

1944* - Alternate date for the death of Laurentino Tejerina Marcos (b. 1895), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndcalist. [see: Feb. 17]
[* or 1942]

[E] 1943 - Wendy Masako Yoshimura, US still life watercolour painter, better known for her involvement with the Revolutionary Army in Berkeley, California and, later, the Symbionese Liberation Army, born.

1947 - Eugène Lanti (Eugène Adam) (b. 1879), French anarchist, ex-communist (founder of the French Communist Party) and founder of the Esperanto movement 'Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda' SAT (World Association Anationaliste), dies. [see: Jul. 19]

1949 - Four militant communist guerrilas - Angel Carrero Sancho aka 'Alvaro' (b. 1917), Joaquín Puig Vigmunt aka 'Jaume Pujol Palau' & 'Jaume Serra' (1907), Pedro Valverde Fuentes aka 'Manuel Valls Riu' (b. 1915) and Numen Mestres Ferrando (1923) - members of the Partido Socialista Unificado de Cataluña (PSUC; Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia) linked Agrupació Guerrillera de Catalunya, having been sentenced to death on October 14, 1948, are shot at Campo de la Bota, Barcelona.

1961 - Patrice Lumumba, a leader of anti-colonial struggle and former premier of the newly independent Republic of the Congo (Zaire), is assassinated by the CIA.

1970 - Ona Šimaitė (b. 1894), Lithuania librarian, who used her position at Vilnius University to aid and rescue Jews in the Vilna Ghetto, dies in Paris. [see: Jan. 6]

1985 - Hashimoto Yoshiharu (橋本 義春; b. 1930), Japanese anarchist and publisher, dies in Tokyo. Founder in the 60s of the publishing house Barukan-sha and editor of 'Anaki' (Anarchy). Writer and translator into Japanese of many works by thinkers and theorists of the international anarchist movement including Proudhon, Kropotkin, Emma Goldman, as well as Oscar Wilde and many others.

1998 - Over 2000 indigenous Tzeltals and Tojolbals from the state of Chiapas occupy the military barracks of the 39th Military Zone in protest over Army incursions into their communities.

[2009 - Alexis Grigoropoulos Murder & Protests:
1671 - Pirate Henry Morgan defeats the Spanish defenders and captures Panamá.

1803 - Sylvain Maréchal (Pierre-Sylvain Maréchal; b. 1750), French essayist, poet, atheist, philosopher and political theorist, dies. [see: Aug. 15]

1857 - Gustave Bouillard aka 'Le grand Bouillard' & 'Le grand Nouillard' (d. unknown), Ardennes blacksmith and anarchist, born. Was once sentenced to six weeks in prison for saying to the Mayor of Nouzon: "Fuck you, you and your [tricolour] sash, I'm an anarchist and I do not recognise your authority."

[E] 1882 - Louise Michel sent to prison for fifteen days for insulting the authorities (outrages à agents).

1894 - Takamure Itsue (高群 逸枝; d. 1964), Japanese poet, activist-writer, anarcha-feminist, ethnologist and the first historian of Japanese women, born. Her mother was the daughter of a Buddhist priest and her father a primary school teacher. The latter taught her classical Chinese and encouraged her literary talents, with her first work (a poem) being published in 1906. In 1910, she was expelled shortly after admission into her normal school in Kumamoto after questioning the educational policies of the school's principal. Following a period in a girl's private school, she went to work in a cotton-spinning factory but was fired from her clerk's job after she wrote a letter to the management complaining about the company's emphasis on duty to the company, the 'nation', and the Emperor, as well as the low wages being paid to its female employees.
Returning to her home city in 1914, Itsue became a substitute teacher in her father's primary school. She also began a correspondence with Hashimoto Kenzō, a fellow teacher three years a junior and admirer of nihilist thought, who would become her lover and with whom she would have a tempestuous life-long relationship [Kenzō became Itsue's literary executor after her death, somewhat controversially as he suppressed (left unpublished or anthologised) many of he anarchist works and articles], with regular periods of estrangement and reconciliation. One such estrangement [which is said to have involved a third party, a young man who ardently pursued her, writing her love letter composed in his own blood three times a day!] led to her taking what would become a famed Shikoku Pilgrimage, Buddhist-inspired expedition to the temples on island of Shikoku, following in the footsteps of a great Buddhist saint, Kôbô Daishi. She left Kumamoto on June 4, 1918 with only the ten yen, an advance for a series of articles about her pilgrimage from the City Editor of the 'Kyūshū Nichi Nichi Shinbun' (九州日日新聞 / Kyushu Daily Newspaper), the paper on which she had failed to get a job after having quit her teaching job to go into journalism. The fact that she undertook the five month long pilgrimage as an unmarried woman alone and which she wrote about in 105 newspaper articles published in the 'Kyūshū Nichi Nichi Shinbun' made her something of a celebrity in Japan at the time. The articles were published after her death in the collection 'Musume Junreik' (娘巡礼記 / An account of a young woman's pilgrimage; 1979).
Upon her return on October 25, she and Kenzō were reconciled, getting officially engaged on April 14, 1919 (a date Takamure referred to as their 'anniversary though they legally 'married' three years later) whilst living together again. In August 1920, Itsue left to live in Tokyo alone and had her first two serious books of poetry published. She returned to Kumamoto with Kenzō in August 1921 but by the following spring they had returned to Tokyo, where her only child was stillborn, an event that played a major role in her awareness of 'bosei' (母性 / natural maternal instincts), something that became an essential element in the development of her personal philosophy of anarchism. The conflict between her intellectual independence and her role as a traditional wife led to another schism and reconciliation in 1923 and two years later, when she again left Kenzō for another man, the news caused a public scandal, increasing her public notoriety further, despite a swift reconciliation.
In 1926 Itsue met the anarchist and pioneering Japanese feminist Hiratsuka Raichō (平塚 らいてう), a move that would be accompanied by the full-flowering of Itsue's anarchism and feminist thought. That same year saw the publication of her first book on women's issues, 'Ren'ai Sōsei' (恋愛創生 / Genesis of Love), as well as her joining the Independent Peasant Movement (農民自治会を結) set up by the labour leader Yasaburō Shimonaka (下中弥三郎), anarchist Ishikawa Sanshirō (石川三四郎), and others. Her then role as chief income-earner for the household saw her (Kenzō having lost his teaching position), saw her publish a great many articles in various journals and newspapers during this period and her becoming one of the best known exponents of feminist thought in Japan. She also engaged in dialogues in print with other prominent Japanese feminists in journals and magazines such as 'Fujin Koron' (Women's Forum), 'Nyonin Geijutsu' (Women and Art), 'Kuroiro Sensen' (Black Front), and 'Chuo Koron' (Central Forum). her debate with Yamakawa Kikue (山川菊栄), one of the founding members of the socialist group Sekirankai (赤らん会 / Red Wave Society), which saw Itsue laying out her views on the relationships between the sexes in a post-revolutionary society based on her central advocacy of free love and her ideal of a Kropotkinesque agrarian self-government with women and mothers as a central element of that future society, a standpoint in stark contrast to Kikue's standard Marxist "marriage as a bourgeois institution of economic oppression" position.
In 1930, Itsue founded the anarcha-feminist group the Proletarian Women's Arts League (無産婦人芸術連盟) and its paper 'Fujin Sensen' (婦人戦線 / Women's Front), published from March 1930 to June 1931, of which she was editor and a major contributor under a number of pseudonyms. The group and paper marked a major turning point in Itsue's life and in her ideological stance. However, the paper drew the attention of the authorities and it was eventually closed down by the Thought Section of the Criminal Affairs Bureau of the Special Higher Police. The suppression and the occurrence of another 'extra-marital' relationship, led to Itsue and Kenzō moving out from the city to what she called the Mori no ie (森の家 / House in the Woods), named in homage to Henry David Thoreau's 'Walden'. This move marked the end of her activism and her devoting herself fulltime to academic study of Japanese women's history, with Kenzō as her assistant, and took place against a backdrop of an increasingly proto-fascist and isolationist society.
It was not until after her death on June 7, 1964 from peritoneal cancer that her the importance of her findings about the matriarchal tradition of Japan were recognised and taken up by the academic world, providing an invaluable legacy for historians, sociologists, and anthropologists, as well as going on to provide a unique historical framework for feminists of the 60s and 70s.

1898 - Outside the police station on the Rue Berselius, Claud-Francois Etiévant, anarchist printer, stabbed orderly Renard twenty times; seized and locked up without being searched, he took out his revolver and wounded policeman Le Breton in the cheek. Commissioner Rouffaud managed to persuade him to throw out his weapon. Condemned to forced labour for life, he died at Maroni, French Guyana. [see: Jun. 8]
[Costantinni pic]

[B] 1904 - The date wrongly given by Carlo Carra in his autobiography for the death of Angelo Galli, who he immortalised in his 1911 work, 'The Funeral of the Anarchist Galli'.
Carlo Carra - "I saw before me the bier, covered with red carnations, wavering dangerously on the shoulders of the pallbearers. I saw the horses becoming restive, and clubs and lances clashing, so that it seemed to me that at any moment the corpse would fall to the ground and be trampled by the horses." - 'La Mia Vita' (1943). [see: May 10]

1905 - [O.S. Jan. 5] Putilov Strike / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Workers at the Neva Shipbuilding Factory and other factories also come out on strike. 26,000 St. Petersburg workers are now out on strike.

1906 - Five members of an anarchist-communist group are shot in Warsaw, for their alleged involvement in a bombing in late 1905, against the Bristol Hotel in the city.

1911 - 26 defendants are found guilt of conspiring to assassinate the Japanese emperor. 24 are sentenced to hang, including anarchist Kanno Suga (she shouts "Museifu Shugi Banzai!” [Long Live Anarchy!] from the dock) and is the first woman political prisoner to be executed in modern Japanese history. [see: May 20 & Jan. 24]

[F] 1912 - Brisbane General Strike: The strike begins when members of the Australian Tramway Employees Association employed by Brisbane Tramways, owned by the UK firm General Electric Company, are fired for wearing their union badges to work in a protest at a management ban. At midday, a large crowd of sightseers had gathered in Queens Street to watch the tramway employees don their union badges at an appointed time. The manager of Brisbane Tramways, Joseph Stillman Badger, addressed the wearers at the depot, and gave them the choice of removing the badges or not working. Most who were confronted chose the right to wear the badges. As a result, the company was left short of trained staff. The dispute had been simmering for nine months since Badger, who refused to allow the formation of any industrial union among the company employees, had forbidden the wearing of any sign of membership of the union to work.
That night, an estimated 10,000 people rallied in Market Square (now King George Square) to hear speeches from Federal and State Labour members and from the union leaders. Many other large gatherings were held not only at the Square, but also at various parts of South Brisbane and at Red Hill during the following nights. By the end of the month, 43 unions in the city were out on Queensland’s first general strike, which lasted five weeks. [Jan. 18-Mar. 6]

1914 - Dublin Lock-out: The lock-out comes to an end after the TUC in Britain rejects James Larkin and James Connolly's request for a sympathy strike. Most workers, many of whom were on the brink of starvation, went back to work and signed pledges not to join a union. The ITGWU was badly damaged by its defeat in the Lockout, and was further hit by the departure of Larkin to the United States in 1914 and the execution of Connolly, one of the leaders of the Easter Rising in 1916. [see: Aug. 26]

1919 - The crackdown on the CNT and the arrest of its leaders by the military continues. [see: Jan. 17]

1921 - In a series of reprisals between the CNT and Barcelona police, police are ordered to murder ('Ley de Fugas') cenetistas currently being held in jail. Valencian cenetistas Juan Villanueva, Antonio Parra, Juli Peris, and Ramón Gomar - arrested the previous day while delivering funds to aid political prisoners in Barcelona - are among those shot down. Police announce all are killed in an attempted jailbreak.

1921 - Antonio Téllez Solá (d. 2005), Spanish anarchist guérilla, journalist and historian, born. [expand]

1921 - In a series of reprisals between the CNT and Barcelona police, police are ordered to murder ('Ley de Fugas') cenetistas currently being held in jail. Valencian cenetistas Juan Villanueva, Antonio Parra, Juli Peris, and Ramón Gomar - arrested the previous day while delivering funds to aid political prisoners in Barcelona - are among those shot down. Police announce all are killed in an attempted jailbreak.

1922 - The first edition of 'Libereso' (Liberty) 'Organo Monatala di la Anarkiista di Emancipanta Stelo' (Monthly Paper of the Anarchist Section of 'Free Star') is published by the Cosmopolitan Union of Idiste Workers in France.

1925 - Gilles Deleuze (d. 1995), influential libertarian anti-capitalist French philosopher and co-author of 'Capitalisme et Schizophrénie: Vol. 1. L'Anti-Œdipe' (Capitalism and Schizophrenia: Anti-Oedipus; 1972) and 'Vol. 2. Mille Plateaux' (A Thousand Plateaus; 1980), with the psychoanalyst Félix Guattari, which Michel Foucault described (in his preface to the English-language edition) as a contribution towards the fight against fascism, born.

1927 - Roberto Freire (d. 2008), Brazilian anarchist, writer, dramaturge, journalist, doctor, psychiatrist and ex-psychoanalyst, born.

[D] 1932 - Revolta de l'Alt Llobregat*: Libertarian communism is proclaimed and private property and money abolished in the Catalonia mining areas of the Alt Llobregat (Upper Llobregat), in Berga, Cardona, Fígols, Sallent and Súria. The miners, syndicated in the CNT, declared that private property and money had been abolished and proclaimed libertarian communism. Meanwhile, workers in the mines and factories carried on with their labours on a voluntary basis for the benefit of the whole community in lieu of securing the necessary social transformations to allow the organising of a new society based on the free and voluntary labour of those who were to participate in productive tasks. In Fígols consumption was quickly organised on the basis of commissary and, as money had been abolished, payments were made with vouchers authorised by a revolutionary committee (elected by universal suffrage on Wednesday 20th) in accordance with the needs of each individual.
The government immediately made use of the Ley de Defensa de la República (Law of Defence of the Republic) and the insurrection is suppressed within the week. Over 100 militants, including the anarchists Buenaventura Durruti and Francisco and Domingo Ascaso, are sent to the Rio de Oro prison colony in Equatorial Guinea. However, Durruti and seven others were ultimately sent to prison in Fuerteventura on the Canary islands as the governor of the port of Villa Cisneros (modern day Dakhla in the Western Sahara) considered Durruti to have murdered his father, the former Governor Bilbao Fernando González Reguera.
[*also known as the Fets de Fígols de 1932 (Events in Fígols in 1932)]

1932 - Robert Anton Wilson (d. 2007), US libertarian polymath, born.

[C] 1934 - CGT Portuguesa calls a General Strike against the dictatorship of Antonio Salazar.

1937 - Emma Goldman and Ethel Mannin address a public meeting on 'The Spanish Revolution and the CNT-FAI' held in London and chaired by Fenner Brockway of the Independent Labour Party. It was one of the many meetings that Goldman made as propagandist of the Spanish Revolution, always in contact with the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo and Federación Anarquista Ibérica.

1943 - Red Army breaks 890-day-long German siege of Leningrad.

1943 - Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: The Germans began their second deportation of the Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto, sparking the first instance of armed insurgency by its residents. While Jewish families hid in their so-called 'bunkers', fighters of the Żydowski Związek Wojskowy (ŻZW; Jewish Military Union, an underground resistance organisation made up mostly of ex-Polish Army officers), joined by elements of the Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Combat Organisation), begin engaging German forces in direct clashes armed only with a handful of pistols and molotovs. The ŻZW and ŻOB suffer heavy losses (including some of their leaders), the Germans also take casualties, and the deportation is halted within a few days. Only 5,000 Jews are removed, instead of the 8,000 as planned.

1943 - Mary Kenney O'Sullivan (b. 1864), U.S. dressmaker, bookbinder and organiser in the early U.S. labour movement, first in the Chicago Women’s Bindery Workers’ Union, then as the AFL's first female organiser and later as the founder of the Women's Trade Union League, dies ages 79 years old. [see: Jan. 8]

1949 - Susan Edith Saxe, former US student radical and fugitive from the FBI, born. She and her Brandeis University room-mate Katherine Ann Power worked to organise student protests through the National Student Strike Force in the late 1960s. With Power and NSSF member Stanley Ray Bond, she became involved in a plot to arm the Black Panthers as a response to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, robbing a bank in Brighton, Massachusetts on September 23. Bond and two others, William Gilday and Robert Valeri, who had taken part in the robbery were arrested shortly after. She and Power eluded capture and in November 1970, they became the sixteenth and seventeenth persons on the FBI's Most Wanted Fugitives list. On the run with Power, they hid out in women’s communes until she was arrested in Philadelphia after a police officer recognised her from a photo distributed by the FBI the same day. She served seven years in prison.

1966 - Carlo Frigerio (b.1878), Italian militant and writer, principal collaborator, along with Camillo Berneri, Luigi Fabbri and Carlo Molaschi, on the Malatesta edited 'Pensiero e Volontà' (Thought & Will), dies. [see: Mar. 7]

1966 - Eleuterio Quintanilla Prieto (b. 1886), Spanish anarchist, member of the Asturian CNT, Freemason and rationalist teacher, active in the Spanish Revolution of 1936 and the Orto group in the FAI, dies. [see: Oct. 25]

1968 - Japanese Zengakuren (Federation of Student Self-Government Associations) lay siege to the American airbase at Sasebo, preventing the nuclear aircraft carrier Enterprise from mooring there.

1969 - Tokyo student protests: Early in the morning, 8,500 riot police seal off the Hongo campus and begin clearing the occupied buildings one by one and arresting the occupants. Students from all over the country flock to the nearby Kanda-Jimbocho area and set up a 'liberated quarter' with Parisian style street barricades where they fight with police in a supporting protest.

1970 - René Keravis (b. 1928), French postal worker and anarchist, dies in a road accident.

1970 - Weathermen Judith Bissell and husband Silas 'Trim' Bissell are caught planting an incendiary bomb under the steps of a University of Washington ROTC portable building, in Seattle.

1971 - Glasgow South African Airways office firebombed. [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]

1971 - Jeffrey William Monson, American mixed martial artist and anarchist, born.

1977 - Egyptian Bread Riots: On January 17, 1977, the government announced plans to cancel around LE277 million (around £30 million) worth of subsidies, especially on food, as well as the cancellation of bonuses and pay rises for state employees. This immediately led to rapid price increases.
Reaction to the announcement was immediate. On the morning of the 18th workers in factories around Cairo walked out. At Helwan, an industrial city just south of the capital, workers rushed out of the factories and on to the streets in spontaneous demonstration against the government. Workers in Shoubra el Kheima, to the north of Cairo, did much the same, in many cases occupying their workplaces.
Students of engineering at Ain Shams University held mass meetings and organised a march on parliament, which was joined by civil servants and students from Cairo University. A delegation of students entered parliament to present a set of demands to M.P.s, and when they did not return for some time clashes broke out between demonstrators and police, leading to the rally being broken up by force. Opposition to the state’s new economic plans were not confined to Cairo. Factory workers in Alexandria led demonstrations and strikes with support from students of Alexandria University, and in a few days unrest had spread to Mansoura, Quena, Suez, Aswan and many other urban areas around the country.
Incidents of violence between protesters and the police increased, as did acts of sabotage. Railway lines were cut and tracks blocked, railway stations were set on fire and police stations attacked. Hotels, shops, casinos and upper-class districts became targets of popular anger, as did the headquarters of the ruling Egypt Arab Socialist Party in Cairo, which was attacked and set on fire.
Crowds attempting to reach the Ministry of the Interior were violently dispersed and fired upon by troops. In some areas, arms and ammunition were seized from police stations by demonstrators.
Strikes and demonstrations in industrial districts grew in intensity, with workers in a single factory often walking out and touring other plants in the area to convince others to join them. An example of this was in Giza, where striking workers from the textile factories were joined by thousands from print shops, wool factories, silk factories and military plants. In Helwan large-scale rioting broke out, with the railway lines between the city and Cairo being cut. Attacks on shops, banks, and government buildings were met with brutal force from the police, fearful of demonstrators seizing control of arms from besieged police stations. Government buildings in Cairo were ransacked, and another attempted march on the parliament building in Cairo was met with violence, as was a march on the presidential palace, and demonstrators were again fired upon, leaving many people dead.Fighting continued until the next morning, with rioting taking place throughout the night leading to the deaths of many demonstrators and arrest of many more.
Within just two days rioting and strikes had occurred in most major cities and industrial towns of Egypt. In an attempt to contain unrest, it ordered a military crackdown and deployed army units in to the streets who responded to unrest ferociously. Owing to the savagery of the state response to the insurrection, it is estimated that around 800 people were killed during the uprising with hundreds more injured. Shocked by the intensity and rapid spread of the protests, the government cancelled its economic decrees on the night of the 19th after only forty-eight hours.

1979 - Imperial Valley Lettuce Strike: On January 18, 1979, the growers responded to our economic proposals. Claiming that they would not break President Carter’s wage guidelines, they said they couldn’t offer anything beyond 7%. In addition to offering only 2¢ for the medical plan, they wanted to cut parts of the contract covering the good standing of union members and maintenance of standards. The UFW respond by calling its Cal Coastal workers out on strike from the 19th.
[libraries.ucsd.edu/farmworkermovement/essays/essays/MillerArchive/062 The 1979 Lettuce Strike.pdf

[A] 1981 - Thirteen young black people die in the New Cross Road fire in Depford. The party is believed to have been firebombed in a possible racist attack and became the subject of a police over-up. "Thirteen Dead and Nothing Said."

1982 - Great Bombay Textile Strike: Nearly 250,000 mill workers and more than 50 textile mills go on strike in Bombay. The strike, called by the Rashtriya Mill Mazdoor Sangh trade union under the leadership of Dutta Samant, was to obtain bonus and increase in wages. After a prolonged and destabilising confrontation, the strike finally collapsed in the middle of 1983 with no concessions having been obtained for the workers. The closure of textile mills across the city left tens of thousands of mill workers unemployed and, in the succeeding years, most of the industry moved away from Bombay after decades of being plagued by rising costs and union militancy.

1984 - A 24-hour general strike called for by the Plenario Intersindical de Trabajadores in Uruguay demands wage increases, union rights for public employees, the release of political prisoners, and respect for democratic liberties. The strike shut down the capital city and is followed by a series of other strikes that successfully united opposition against the military government.

1987 - Renato Guttuso (b.1912), Italian anti-fascist painter and polemicist, atheist and Communist, who was the leader of the social realist group in Italy, dies. [see: Dec. 26]

1999 - Black Londoner Roger Sylvester, 30, dies after being arrested by officers on 11 Januaury and taken to a psychiatric hospital. Restrained outside his home by eight police officers, from Tottenham Police Station, he later collapsed and fell into a coma after being held down by officers for 20 minutes in a padded room at the hospital. An inquest returned a verdict of unlawful killing but no cops faced any charges.

2007 - Black Londoner Jason McPherson, 25, dies in mysterious circumstances in Notting Hill Police Station after being arrested with two other men in a car in Ladbroke Grove.

[CC] 2008 - Jan Kučera (b. 1990), an 18 years old anti-fascist member of SkinHead Aganst Racial Prejudice (SHARP), is stabbed in the groin and back around 11 o'clock at night in Pribram in the Czech Republic. Tensions had been running high in the area after anti-fascists successfully prevented a neo-Nazi rally in November in Prague’s historic Jewish quarter to mark the anniversary of the Kristalnacht pogrom of the 1930s. Shortly before this attack, young local neo-Nazis were provoking with Nazi salutes and offending a group of young punks and anti-fascist skinheads, to which Jan belonged. Jan confronted the fascists but was stabbed with a large military knife by 20-year-old neo-Nazi Jiri Fous. Jan's friends called for an ambulance whilst they tried to stop the bleeding from his femoral artery. However, neither the paramedics nor Jan's friends realised that Jan had also been stabbed in the back before it was too late. Jan lost massive amounts of blood and fell unconscious. He was rushed to a nearby hospital, but even though he was in the hands of professional medical staff, he died 2 days later in the morning of Sunday January 20, 2008.

2012 - 18 prison guards are injured and A$50k damaged caused during a prison disturbance at G4S-run Fulham Prison in south-east Victoria, Australia.
1764 - English radical John Wilkes expelled from the House of Commons for libel.

1808 - Lysander Spooner (d. 1887), American utopianist, individualist anarchist and member of the First International, born.

1809 - Edgar Allan Poe (d. 1849), US author, poet, editor and literary critic, born.

1812 - Luddite Timeline: Luddites torch Oatlands Mill in Yorkshire.

1853 - Émile Jean-Marie Gautier (d. 1937), French journalist, Doctor of Law, Social Darwinist, follower of Jules Vallès, anarchist activist and theorist, born. Arrested in 1882, he was involved in the Procès des 66 where he defended himself, refuting the existence of an international anarchist conspiracy. Sentenced on 19 January 1883 to five years in prison, a 2000 franc fine, ten years of monitoring and four-year ban of civil rights, he renounced his politics in prison, earning a pardon in 1886. Released, he became a journalist under the pen name Raoul Lucet, popularising science.
"La prison telle qu'elle est organisée est un véritable cloaque épanchant dans la société un flot continu de purulences et de germes, de contagion physiologique et morale; elle empoisonne, abrutit et corrompt." (The prison is organized as a cesspool pouring in a steady stream of society and corruptions of germs, contagion physiological and moral; poisons her, brutalized and corrupt.) - 'Le Monde des Prisons' (The World of Prisons; 1889).

1865 - Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (b. 1809), French anarchist philosopher and printer, dies. [see: Jan. 15]

[B] 1877 - Fráňa Šrámek (d. 1952), Czech poet, novelist, short story writer, Impressionist playwright, anti-militarist and anarchist rebel, born. A representantive of the turn of the century generation of Czech Anarchističtí Buřiči, "básníci života a vzdoru" (Anarchist Rebels, "the poets of life and defiance"). In 1899 he volunteered started as a one-years military service which, however, was extended for year because of his "anarchistic attitude". After military service, he began studying law but in 1903 he decided to become a full-time poet. Moving to Prague, he joined the literary group Nový Kult (The New Cult), meeting S.K. Neumann and other anarchists and young writers. In 1905, he was arrested during an anarchist student demonstration and briefly imprisoned. He was also called up for a four-week military exercise, during which he wrote his anti-war poem 'Píšou Wed Psani' (They Write Me Letters) and, vowing a campaign of insubordination, he ended up spending 6 days in a military prison.
He went on to continue both his anarchist and literary activities, and during this time he wrote his first strongly anarchist influenced poetry collection 'Života Bído, Přec Tě Mám Rád...!' (Life is Misery, Yet I Love You..!; 1905) and his most famous work, the novel 'Stříbrný Vítr' (Silver Wind; 1910). Too ill to fight, he was still called up in Aug. 1914 and fought on the Russian front in WWI, but was wounded the following month, going on to fight on the Italian and Romanian fronts, events which fuelled his anti-war and love poetry.His works include the short story collection 'Kamení Srdce a Oblaka' (Stone Hearts and Clouds; 1906); the novels 'Stříbrný Vítr' (Silver Wind; 1910) and 'Tělo' (Body; 1919); his anti-militarist poetry collection 'Modrý a Rudý' (Red & Blue; 1906), which includes 'Píšou Wed Psani'; and the plays 'Červen' (June; 1905) and 'Léto' (Summer; 1915).

1883 - The trial to suppress the anarchists involved in the First International, begun on January 8, concludes in Lyon, against those known as 'The 66'. Peter Kropotkin, Émile Gautier, Joseph Bernard, Pierre Martin and Toussaint Bordat are sent to prison for four years, while others receive sentences ranging from six months to five years on charges which include "membership in the International Workers Association". [EXPAND]

1892 - Anarquistas celebrate the first Cuban Regional Congress.

1894 - The first issue of the anarchist communist monthly 'Liberty' is published by James Tochatti in London. The newspaper carries in its columns a wide range of libertarian ideas and published articles in particular by Louise Michel and Peter Kropotkin . It stopped publication in December 1896.

1898 - George Claude Etievant, a French typographer and anarchist who had previously served a 5 year setence for supplying Ravachol with dynamite, stabs a sentry at the Berzeliu street police station, and wounds another after being locked up. He is sentenced to death, subsequently commuted to life in the Guyana prison colony.

1905 - [O.S. Jan. 6] Putilov Strike / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Father Georgy Gapon decides to lead a mass march to the Winter Palace to present the workers’ petition to the Tsar.

1906 - A further five anarchist-communists [see: Jan 18] are shot in Warsaw, for their alleged involvement in a bombing in late 1905, against the Bristol Hotel in the city.

1908 - Fire burns down the building housing an office, printing plant and book stock at Benjamin Tucker's Unique Bookshop (a hotbed of individualist anarchism).

1910 - Andrea Costa (b. 1851), Italian anarchist participant in the national conference under the direction of Bakunin, before giving up on anarchism and becoming a socialist deputy in the Italian parliament, dies. [see: Nov. 29]

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: Police 'find' dynamite in three different locations in Lawrence: in a tenement house, in an empty lot, and in a shoemaker's shop next door to the print shop where Joseph Ettor receives his mail. The press and the police are quick to assign guilt to the strikers. An editorial in the 'New York Times' declares: "The strikers display a fiendish lack of humanity which ought to place them beyond the comfort of religion until they have repented." The IWW claim, however, that the 'BostonAmerican', a Hearst paper, was off the press and on sale in Lawrence with the details of the dynamite discovery before the sticks of dynamite had actually been found. Soon after, John A. Breen, a local undertaker and a member of the Lawrence school board, was arrested and charged with planting the explosives in a plot to discredit the workers. He was fined $500 and released on bail. It was later discovered that William Wood, the president of the American Woolen Company, had paid Breen $500. Another man, Ernest Pitman, who claimed that he had been present in the company offices in Boston when the plan was developed, committed suicide before he could give evidence in court. Wood was unable to explain why he had given Breen the money but charges against him were eventually dropped.
www.wsc.mass.edu/mhj/pdfs/Bread, roses, and other possibilities.pdf

1912 - Brisbane General Strike: On the second day of the strike, more than 25,000 workers, many of who had taken to wearing red ribbons as a mark of solidarity, marched eight abreast in a procession three kilometres long from the Brisbane Trades Hall to Fortitude Valley and back — with more than 50,000 supporters watching from the sidelines. A contingent of 600 women marched with the strikers. By now, the strike had begun to spread throughout Queensland, with many regional centres witnessing their own demonstrations. Other unions quickly joined the action. Altogether, 43 unions joined the Brisbane General Strike on January 30. [see: Jan. 18]

1912 - Armand Robin (d. 1961), French translator, writer/poet and anarchist, born. A visit to the Soviet Union in 1933 revealed the true nature of the Soviet dictatorship to him and pushed him towards anarchism. He later started writing his poemes de combat (fighting poems), violent attacks on 'stalanist' poets such as Eluard and above all Aragon, and a novel, 'Le Temps Qu'il Fait' (The Weather Is Like; 1942). He joined the French Anarchist Federation in 1945, which published his 'Poèmes indésirables' (Undesirable Poems; 1945). He authored 'La Fausse Parole' (The False Word; 1953), which dissected the mechanisms of propaganda in the totalitarian countries and his knowledge of 28 languages made him a prolific translator.

[F] 1915 - Roosevelt Massacre: Fifty guards employed by the Agricultural Fertilizer Chemical Company in Chrome, New Jersey (then part of the borough of Roosevelt but now a district of Carteret), open fire on 250 unarmed striking workers, killing two people and wounding eighteen others. The two who died were named in the media as either Desederio Alesandro or Alesandro Tessitore, 28-years-old, shot in the leg and back, and Carman Patty or Kalman Batyi, 38, shot in left arm and abdomen. The next day, 31 deputy sheriffs were arrested, charged with first degree murder, and held without bail. The workers eventually won a wage increase and nine of the deputies were convicted of manslaughter and received sentences of between two and ten years each

[E] 1918 - Rosa Laviña i Carreras (d. 2011), Catalan seamstress, anarchist, ancho-syndicalist and anti-fascist militant, secretary of the Federació Ibèrica de Joventuts Llibertàries (Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth), National Committee member and treasurer of Solidaritat Internacional Antifeixista (International Antifascist Solidarity), born. The daughter of Engràcia Carreras, a dressmaker and worker in Palafrugell's cork factory, and Martí Laviña Torroella, a barber and anarchist militant, whose activism led to him being blacklisted and the family being discriminated against. An example of the later involved Rosa herself, when in 1925 she was deliberately chosen to deliver a bouquet of flowers to welcome the king Alfonso XIII on the occasion of the opening of the Torres Jonama schools, a deliberate attempted humiliation which Laviña Torroella refused to countenance. A representative of the Asociación Internacional Antifascista in the town, contributor to the town's newspaper 'Ara' (Now) and prominent activist in Palafrugell's Ateneu Llibertari, he also ran a bookshop in the Carrer dels Valls that, because of his principles, only sold libertarian books and papers, philosophical works, and school textbooks, which failed to earn him and the family enough to get by on; hence working as a barber. In the end, he closed the bookshop down and reopened it as a library.
Rosa was an avid consumer of the library's anarchist literature and was apprenticed as a dressmaker with the Sitges family, only for her and her mother to be fired for celebrating May Day. She then went to work for a local tailors and her mother to the cork factory. When the war broke out she joined the FIJL, becoming its secretary and collaborated on 'Ruta', the organisation's Barcelona-based paper, as well as joining the local SIA group alongside her father, something that he mother was uneasy about. For a while she was head of the local Sindicat del Tèxtil of the Confederación Nacional del Treball and, following her military training, she worked as a nurse as well as caring for evacuated children in the town.
With the end of the civil war approaching, the family spent four days walking across the Pyrenees but only Rosa and her mother were allowed into france when they arrived at the border at Pertús. Rosa said goodbye to her father and that was the last time she saw him (he died in the Arràs concentration camp of congestive heart failure three months later). Rosa spent a year in the Argelès concentration camp where she worked as a nursing assistant, before being hired as a nursemaid in Perpignan from where she fled after being treated like a slave. After returning to Argelès, Rosa and her mother were contracted to work in a hotel. Later during the Nazi occupation they set up home in Montauban near Toulouse and the house was to serve during the Occupation and post-Liberation as a shelter for many members of the various libertarian maquis guerrilla groups, such as those of Marcelino Massana and Ramon Vila Capdevilla, whilst en route to and from Spain.
Following the death of her partner of the previous 38 years Pedro Vaqué 'Migreio', with whom she had a daughter, Rosa Laviña moved to Toulouse in 1954. There she worked as a dressmaker as well as again becoming secretary of the FIJL and a member of the National Committee of the SIA. She also conducted a number of clandestine missions into Spain on behalf of the CNT to carry out activities in support of the families of fellow militants locked up in Franco's prisons. At the same time set up and ran a vegetarian restaurant with her new partner, the French anarchist militant and Esperantist Etienne Guillemeau, as well as collaborating on a number of the newspapers of the exile community, such as 'Cenit', 'Espoir', 'La Proa' and 'Ruta', and became a close friend of Frederica Montseny and her circle.
After the death of her companion Etienne in 1999, she remained active in the libertarian movement in Toulouse into the early 2000s. She returned to live in Palafrugell for a period and was involved in the Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (Republican Left of Catalonia) there. Rosa Laviña dies on May 29, 2011 in Toulouse.
[NB: d.o.b. also given as Jan. 14]

1919 - Almost the entrie leadership of the CNT has been arrested, everyone that is except Ángel Pestaña, editor of 'Solidaridad Obrera', who managed to evade the police. Members of the Spanish Patriotic League shoot and wound a young seventeen year old Catalan nationalist worker Manuel Miralpeix on the carrer de Valldoncella. He died the following day. His funeral was attended by councillers consellers Ulled and Mestres on behalf of the Mancomunitat, the president of the council, Vallès i Pujals and a representation of the Ajuntament de Barcelona.

1919 - Joan Brossa i Cuervo (d. 1998), Catalan language poet Dadaist-influenced, playwright, graphic designer and plastic artist, born. One of the leading early proponents of visual poetry in Catalan literature and amongst the foremost innovators of poetry, the theatre and the art of the second half of the twentieth century. At seventeen Brossa joined the army and served in the Republican front Lleida and, following the defeat of the Republic and a period of national service (where he met numerous fellow avant-garde artists), he remained in Spain as a constant public critic of the Franco regime and the Catholic church. Initially an anarchist sympathiser, he became a Marxist and supporter of the clandestine PSUC following his 1947 meeting with the Brazilian poet and Marxist João Cabral de Melo and the founding of the explicitly Marxist Catalan artists group and magazine 'Dau-al-Set' in 1948.
"La verdadera insurrección no es la de los que toman el fusil, sino la que surge del fondo del hombre" (The real uprising is not to those who take the gun, but that which arises from the depths of man) - 'Clandestino'
www.pocio.cat/membres/GloriaBordons/arxius/introduccio cercle de lectors.pdf

[D] 1932 - Revolta de l'Alt Llobregat*: In response to the armed miners' uprising in Barcelona region, spontaneous anarchist uprisings and general strikes spread across Catalonia and throughout Spain over the next five days. In many places 'libertarian communism' is again declared and armed clashes take place between the revolutionaries and forces of the Second Republic, events that in places stretch deep into the following month [cf: Sabadell on Feb. 15].
[*also known as the Fets de Fígols de 1932 (Events in Fígols in 1932)]

1941 - Paul Reclus (b. 1858), French anarchist militant, engineer and professor, dies. [see: May 25]

1941 - Władysław Głuchowski (b. 1911), Polish teacher, anarcho-syndicalist activist and anti-Nazi fighter, dies of infected wounds as prisoner no.17710 in Sachsenhausen concentration camp. [see: Jul. 27]

1944 - Helen Duncan becomes the last person to be charged under the 1735 Witchcraft Act. She gets nine months.

1947 - Luigi Bertoni (b. 1872), Swiss typographer and the untiring publisher of the bilingual newspaper 'Le Reveil Anarchiste' (The Anarchist Alarm Clock) which he founded in July 1900 and edited until his death, dies. [see: Feb. 6]

1966 - Ruth Landshoff-Yorck (Ruth Levy; b. 1904), German-American actress, writer, journalist and translator, whose first appearance in a film was in Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau's 'Nosferatu' (1922), dies on stage during a theatre performance of 'Marat/Sade' by Peter Weiss. [see: Jan. 7]

1968 - Harumi Incident [Harumi Jiken]: Students protesting the lack of changes to the rule that medical graduates were required to work in the hospitals unpaid for 12 months after graduation, students confront the Director of Tokyo University Hospital. A member of staff, Doctor Harumi, claimed that he was violently confronted and harangued outside the Hospital. On February 11, the Medical Department responded to Doctor Harumi’s reports by punishing seventeen students and expelling four as a part of the disciplinary action, precipitating an indefinite student strike. In March 1967, 87% of all medical students refused to sit the state examinations in protest and the graduation ceremonies were held under the protection of the riot police in individual departments rather than on a university wide scale.

[1968 - Mass demonstrations in Tokyo against the visit of USS Enterprise end in clashes with riot police as water cannon are deployed against protesters.]

1969 - Tokyo Student Protests: Students from various groups occupying different floors of the Yasuda Auditorium clock tower fight all day with stones and Molotov cocktails as the riot police tear down their barricades and try to clear the building floor by floor, reaching the last holdouts on the roof at dusk. In the two days of conflict 653 police, 141 students and 6 bystanders were injured, and 819 students arrested.

1969 - Jan Palach finally dies of his injuries following his self-immolation on 16 Jan.

1970 - Llibertat Ródenas Domínguez (b. 1893*), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and anarcha-feminist member of the Mujeres Libres, who fought with the Durruti Column, dies in exile in Mexico. [see: Sep. 23]
[* alternative dates given as 1891 and 1892]

1971 - Jake Prescott was arrested on a cheque charge in Notting Hill. [Angry Brigade Group chronology]

1976 - Golpe de 25 de Novembro: Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho is arrested on "suspicion of responsibility for the military nature of the events of November 25", after approval by the Conselho da Revolução of the Preliminary Report of the Comissão de Inquérito ao 25 de Novembro (Commission of Inquiry into November 25th).

[A] 1976 - The Spanish government drafts 70,000 railway workers to crush strike.

1977 - Egyptian Bread Riots: The rioting that broke out yesterday following the government announcement on January 17, 1977 that it planned to cancel around LE277 million (around £30 million) worth of subsidies, especially on food, as well as the bonuses and pay rises for state employees, continued through out the night and had spread to most major cities and industrial towns across Egypt. In an attempt to contain unrest, it ordered a military crackdown and deployed army units in to the streets who responded to unrest ferociously. Official figures claimed that 79 people died in the riots, 556 were injured, and over 1,000 people were arrested but, owing to the savagery of the state response to the insurrection, it is estimated that around 800 people were actually killed during the uprising with hundreds more injured. Shocked by the intensity and rapid spread of the protests, the government cancelled its economic decrees on the night of the 19th after only forty-eight hours.

1978 - Bohuslav Brouk (b. 1912), Czech Surrealist, writer, journalist, esthetician, sociologist, biologist and psychoanalyst, dies. [see: Nov. 19]

1979 - Imperial Valley Lettuce Strike: The UFW begins its selective strike in the Imperial Valley against California Coastal Farms in El Centro following the growers' negative response to the union's demands. [see: Jan 18]

1980 - Piero Ciampi (b. 1934) Italian anarchist singer-songwriter and poet, dies. [see: Sep. 28]

1981 - Marietta di Monaco (Maria Kirndörfer; b. 1893), German cabaret artist, poet, chanteuse, dancer, artist's model and poet's muse, who was involved in the Cabaret Voltaire, birthplace of Dada, in Zurich, dies. [see: Mar. 14]

1982 - Newbury Council votes to evict women's peace camp, Greenham Common.

1990 - Alexander Aronovich Pechersky (Алекса́ндр Аро́нович Пече́рский; b. 1909), Soviet-Jewish POW and co-organiser and leader of the Sobibor Uprising on October 14, 1943, the most successful revolt and mass-escape of Jews from a Nazi extermination camp during World War II, dies. [see: Feb. 22]

1990 - Herbert Richard Wehner (b. 1906), German politician, one-time anarchist activist, then a communist and latterly a SPD MP and government minister, dies. [see: Jul. 11]

1999 - Vasilis Evangelidis (Βασιλης Ευαγγελίδης), unemployed Greek teacher and anarchist, announces a hunger strike to protest his imprisonment and in solidarity with the student protest movement, occupations and demonstrations across the country.

2003 - 18-year-old Sarah Campbell, a sufferer of clinical depression, dies after having taken an overdose of prescription drugs at Styal Prison in Cheshire the previous day. Despite being an obviously vulnerable prisoner, Sarah was not placed on suicide watch or sent to a secure hospital as her mother, Pauline Campbell, had argued. Pauline goes on to become an outspoken campaigner against self-inflicted deaths in women's prisons.

2005 - Carlos Cortez (b. 1923), US anarcho-syndicalist, poet, graphic artist, photographer, muralist and political activist, who was active for six decades in the Industrial Workers of the World, dies. [see: Aug. 13]

2008 - 18 years old anti-fascist member of SkinHead Aganst Racial Prejudice (SHARP) Jan Kucera (b. 1990) dies of the stab wounds sustained in an attack by a neo-Nazi the evening before. [see: Jan. 18]

[C] 2009 - Anastasia Eduardovna Baburova (Анастасия Эдуардовна Бабурова; b. 1983), Russian journalist, anarchist and ecological activist, is shot dead, together with Russian lawyer and human rights activist Stanislav Markelov, by a neo-Nazi militant outside press conference in Moscow. Their deaths sparked widespread protests and in November 2009 their killer, neo-Nazi killer Nikita Tikhonov, and his girlfriend, Yevgenia Khasis, were arrested. In May 2011 they were both convicted of the murders, Tikhonov being sentenced to life imprisonment, and Khasis to 18 years in prison.
Active in Autonomous Action and various eco groups, Baburova also worked for 'Novaya Gazeta' and regularly wrote articles about the activities of neo-Nazis in Russia.

[C] 2009 - Stanislav Yuryevich Markelov (Станисла́в Ю́рьевич Марке́лов; b. 1974), Russian lawyer and human rights activist, who supported persecuted Russian anti-fascists, is shot dead alongside Russian journalist, anarchist and ecological activist Anastasia Baburova by a neo-Nazi militant outside press conference in Moscow.

2010 - At Les Cayes prison in Haiti, one of the few to survive the January 12 earthquake, 19 prisoners are killed and 40 others wounded in reprisals following an escape attempt. 7 prison guards are eventually sentenced to 2-7 years hard labour for the killings and the head local riot police, tried in absentia, gets 13 years hard labour.

2013 - Audrey Goodfriend (b. 1920), American lifelong anarchist militant, radical educator and "black diaper baby" (her parents were anarchists, and she was raised in that culture), who was was instrumental in the formation of the Walden Center and School in Berkeley, California, dies in her sleep. [see: Nov. 14]
1862 - Augustin Frédéric Adolphe Hamon (d.1945), French anarchist, sociologist and later a socialist, born. Author of 'Psychology of the Anarchist-Socialist' (1895). [expand]

[D] 1872 - Cavite Mutiny: Around 200 military personnel and labourers being an uprising at Fort San Felipe, the Spanish arsenal in Cavite, in the belief that it would precipitate a national uprising. The mutiny is unsuccessful, and government soldiers execute many of the participants and begin a crack down on the burgeoning nationalist movement.

1893 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising / Massacro di Caltavuturo [Caltavuturo Massacre]: The Fasci Siciliani dei Lavoratori (Sicilian Workers Leagues) mass movement was inspired by democratic, libertarian and socialist ideas, but which also had a clear secessionist intent, developed in Sicily from 1891 to 1894 and spread among farm workers, tenant farmers, and small sharecroppers as well as artisans, intellectuals, and the urban proletariat. It was dispersed only after a heavy military intervention under the government of Francesco Crispi in early 1894.
The Fasci movement took hold especially among workers, labourers, small farmers and sulfur miners, who decided to join forces (the fasci - a bundle of bound sticks that Mussolini's fascists would later appropriate - symbolising the unity of the exploited) against the arrogance and the coercive power of the dominant classes. It is also held to be the first example of an organised struggle against the Mafia, in this case the figure of gabellot[t]o [rural entrepreneurs who leased the lands from aristocrats, absentee landlords more attracted to the comforts of the city, and who rented out this farmland for short-term use by peasant farmers] mafia-like intermediaries between the landowner and labourer, and who established dominion over their territory by means of the system of extortion utilising hired guards (campieri [watchmen]) to protect livestock, equipment and other assets from bandits and cattle rustlers, and to control the peasants. The gabellotti were able to exploit the peasant sharecroppers endebted to them for the land that they rented to earn a subsitance living but also via the onorous local and state taxes (such as the hated flour tax) and the gabellotti's control of supplies and seeds for the peasants' crops.
Initially the Fasci movement was a purely an urban phenomenon, and the first Sicilian fascio was set up in Messina on March 18, 1889. On May 1, 1891 a fasci was founded by Giuseppe De Felice Giuffrida in Catania. Open to all, it maintained links with the anarchist movement on the mainland including the reknowned Communard Amilcare Cipriani. However, it was not until the formation of the fascio in Palermo on June 29, 1892, that the movement gained its real impetus, linking workers organisations with the peasant masses. In its wake, many workers' associations and mutual aid societies disbanded and became part of the fascio, and within two months the Palermo fascio had 7,500 members. The Leagues rapidly radiated over all Sicily. In the spring of 1893 the leaders of the movement decided to carry their propaganda to the peasants and miners of the countryside. Between March and October the number of fasci grew from 35 to 162 with more than 200,000 members.
A watershed event for the Fasci Siciliani movement was the Strage di Caltavuturo (Caltavuturo Massacre). The Duke of Ferrandina (who owned 6,000 acres of land), after a long negotiation had granted a share of his idle land to the municipality of Caltavuturo as settlement of 'civic uses'. Administrators, however, instead of distributing these 'common lands' to the peasants entrusted then to the local bourgeoisie, including the Town Clerk, and the gabelloti (mafia thugs and land rental intermediaries), and which the mayor did not intend to return to them. In response, at dawn on January 20, 1893, 500 farmers symbolically occupied the fields and the arrival of the military later in the day persuaded farmers to leave the occupied land. Instead, they went to demonstrate in front of the Town Hall and seek a meeting with the mayor. He refused to appear and, turning to leave and reoccupy the land, were attacked from behind with rifle fire and bayonets. Thirteen people lost their lives. The dead were left on the road until nightfall, prey to the town's dogs, and people were not allowed to help the wounded. The Strage di Caltavuturo provoked widespread solidarity demonstrations both locally and nationally. The Fasci di Palermo also launched a subscritption campaign to raise funds for the families of the victims.

1901 - Fransesco Giovanni (Frank) Fantin (d. 1942), Italian-Australian anarchist and anti-fascist, who was murdered by fascist fellow internees in an Australian internment camp, born.

1902 - Juan García Oliver (d. 1980), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndialist and Minister of Justice in the Republican government, born. [expand]

1904 - Jean Celestin 'Cointot' Renaud (b. 1841), French anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Nov. 27]

1905 - [O.S. Jan. 7] Putilov Strike / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Over the 20th and 21st the Putilov workers' strike becomes a general strike across St. Petersburg. According to the incomplete data of the factory inspectorate, it now affects 456 enterprises with 113,000 workers (150,000 according to some sources), roughly two-thirds of the workforce. No newspapers are published in St. Petersburg, and the city’s industrial and commercial life was paralysed. Troops are being rushed into the city as the government issues warnings against the planned workers’ march and threatens to use force.

1909 - La Première Manifestation en Automobile: The first vehicular protest takes place in Paris as 25 taxis full of union activists carrying yellow and green placards that read "Affaire Girard-Jacquart - une infamie judiciaire - Deux innocents condamnés" (a judicial infamy - Two innocent prisoners) in protest against the conviction of the two anarchists drivers, Albert Jacquart and Maurice Girard, following a fight with a police Commissioner on July 15 1908 over the display of an anti-miltarist poster at a co-operatively-run resturant. Organised by the 'Comité de Défense Sociale' (CDS), the procession started next to the Seine at the Tuilleries, passing through la Place de la Concorde, la Madeleine and l'Opéra, ending up at la Place de la République, all whilst the protesters handed out leaflets to dumbfounded passersby. Both drivers were eventually released without charge on February 3.

1911 - Révolte des Cossiers / Révolte des Vignerons de la Champagne: The prefect pledged to "stop the purchase of foreign wines", thus calming the revolt. [see: Nov. 4]

1911 - Julia Miravé Barrau [sometimes rendered as Miravet, Mirabé Vallejo, Mirabé Barreau, etc.] aka La Maña (d. 2000), Spainish anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and member of the anti-Franco resistance, born. [expand]

[B] 1913 - José Guadalupe Posada (b. 1852), Mexican cartoonist illustrator and artist who worked closely with the Magonistas, dies.

1914 - Georges Henein (d. 1973), Egyptian surrealist author and Trotskyist who was sympathetic to anarchism, born.
"Anarchy is the victory of the mind over certainty."
"I have come to a growing sympathy with the anarchists whose attitude despite (or because of) its innocence, is fine, consistent and honest … In truth, what is tearing me away from the strategy of the Fourth International is its lack of passion, which combines with an overabundance of plans. With Trotsky, there was passion, nobility, the explosion of gunpowder. I see nothing of these in the voice or the bearing of his successors." - letter to anarchist Nicolas Calas, explaining Henein's frustration with the politics of the Fourth International.

1918 - [O.S. Jan. 7] At the First All-Russian Congress of Trade Unions (I Всероссийском съезде профсоюзов) – Jan. 20-27 [Jan. 7-14] – the permanent leading centre of the trade union movement, the All-Russian Central Council of Trade Unions (Всесоюзный центральный совет профессиональных союзов) is elected. It replaced the Provisional All-Russian Central Council of Trade Unions (Всесоюзный центральный совет профессиональных союзов), founded July 3 [Jun. 20], 1917, and was replaced in turn on November 11, 1924 by the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions (Всесоюзный центральный совет профессиональных союзов).

1920 - Battle of Eseranza / Revolución Mexicana: Adolfo de la Huerta's forces defeated, Huerta flees Mexico. Minor revolts and mutinies in following years, but large scale fighting is over.
An estimated 2 million are thought to have died as a result of the Revolution.

1923 - Varban Kilifarski (b. 1879), Bulgarian anarchist, anti-militarist and libertarian teacher, dies. [see: May 25]

1930 - Alternate (and probably incorrect) date given for the assassination of Kim Jwa-Jin (김좌진), pen name Baekya (백야)(b. 1889), Korean anarchist guerrilla general, who is sometimes called the Korean Makhno. [see: Jan. 24]

1932 - Revolta de l'Alt Llobregat*: Elections for a revolutionary committee, consisting of a general delegate and eight assistants, voted for on the basis of universal sufferage of those aged 16 and over, take place in Fígols. Manuel Prieto, one of the leaders of the miners in Asturias, tarvels to Barcelona to inform the CNT leadership of the events in Fígols and the other insurgents nuclei ,as the revolutionaries in the Alt Llobregat begin to lay out their plans for the building of schools, libraries, more clinics, bathrooms, etc. in their putative anarchist utopia.
[*also known as the Fets de Fígols de 1932 (Events in Fígols in 1932)]

[A] 1934 - The Nazis adopt the Gesetz zur Ordnung der nationalen Arbeit (Act on the Regulation of National Labour) aka the Arbeitsordnungsgesetz (Work Order Act), replacing independently negotiated collective bargaining agreements. The act read, in part, "The leader of the plant makes the decisions for the employees and laborers in all matters concerning the enterprise…. He is responsible for the well-being of the employees and laborers. [They] owe him faithfulness."

1935 - The first Syndikalistiske Kvinnegruppe Samhold (Syndicalist Women's Group) is formed in Norway when the Nordstrand Lokal Samorganisation (Local Co-operation) syndicate hold a meeting at which local women decide to form an "organisering av husmødrene" (organisation of housewives [sic]). They then established a joint section for the women in Oslo and Nordstrand connected to Nordstand LS as a member organisation of the Norsk Syndikalistisk Forbund (Norwegian Syndicalist League). When the Oslo and Nordstrand sections split, the name Syndikalistiske Kvinnegruppe Samhold was adopted.

1936 - Between January 20 and 30, Emma Goldman presents three popular lectures in London. The first is at the Workers Circle House under the title 'The Two Communisms (Bolshevist and Anarchist. A Parallel)', a second at the National Trade Union Club called 'Russian Literature'; and a third, 'Mussolini, Hitler and Stalin (How far do their common methods lead to similar results?)' in Hammersmith.

1937 - Émile Jean-Marie Gautier (b. 1853), French journalist, Doctor of Law, Social Darwinist, follower of Jules Vallès, anarchist activist and theorist, dies. [see: Jan. 19]

1937 - First edition of the daily newspaper 'Aragon Nuevo', 'Boletin del Consejo de Defensa' (Bulletin of the Defence Council).

1938 - Émile Cohl (Émile Eugène Jean Louis Courtet; b. 1857), French caricaturist, cartoonist, and animator, dies. [see: Jan. 4]

[C] 1942 - Nazi officials hold the notorious Wannsee conference in Berlin deciding on a 'final solution' calling for the extermination of Europe's Jews. The documents produced at the conference show not only the truth of Hannan Arendt's phrase "the banality of evil" but also prove that these were not mere bureaucrats rubber-stamping someone else's plans for the extermination of the Jews of Europe, but that they were committed ideologues finalising the plans for a key part of the architecture that they collectively saw would bring about the millennial Thousand Year Reich.

1943 - Roeland Gerrit Hugo (Roel) van Duijn, Dutch writer and political activist, born. One of the founders of Provo and the Kabouterbeweging (Leprechaun Movement).

1948 - Pauline Campbell (d. 2008), vociferous campaigner against self-inflicted deaths in women's prisons following her daughter Sarah's death in HMP Styal in 2003, born.

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: Galician anti-Francoist Jorge Soutomaior, the nom de guerre of José Hernández Vázquez who had been a captain in the Spanish Republican navy, and 19 other Direcção Revolucionária Ibérica de Libertação (DIRL; Revolutionary Directorate for Iberian Liberation) members board the TN Santa Maria in La Guaira, Venezuela, prior to their hijacking of the vessel during the night of January 21st-22nd January. [see: Jan. 21]

1972 - Explosive letter sent to MP at House of Commons. [Angry Brigade chronology]

1981 - 10,000 Mexican farmers in southeastern Chiapas block roads to major oil fields to protest pollution of their fields and crops fields by the State Oil Company. Lasts several days.

[1998 - Julia Barranco Hanglin (b. 1919), Catalan anarchist and member of the anti-Francoist resistance

2000 - Charleston Five: 600 heavily armed police are deployed to protect scabs unloading freight in Charleston, South Carolina, during an International Longshoremen’s Association strike. The striking longshoremen arrived at the docks to picket and a fight ensued; police drove into the crowd, fired smoke grenades, and attacked with wooden batons. Five longshoremen – who became known as the 'Charleston Five' – were indicted for felony riot.

2008 - Jan Kučera (b. 1990), an 18 years old anti-fascist member of SkinHead Aganst Racial Prejudice (SHARP), who was stabbed in the groin and back two days earlier in Pribram in the Czech Republic, dies in hiospital, a victim of the ongoing battle against fascism. [see: Jan. 18]

[E] 2012 - Eight members of the group Pussy Riot [Пусси Райот] stage a performance of 'Putin Zassal' [Путин зассал](Putin has Pissed Himself) on the Lobnoye Mesto in Red Square. The song, which was inspired by the events of December 24, 2011, during which approximately 100,000 people attended anti-Putin rallies in central Moscow, called for a popular revolt against the Russian government and an occupation of Red Square.
1870 - [O.S. Jan. 9] Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (Russian: Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен; b. 1812), Russian writer, journalist, novelist and thinker, who was one of the main 'forefathers' of Russian socialism and agrarian populism (an ideological ancestor of the Narodniki, Socialist-Revolutionaries, etc.), and who was greatly influenced by the anarchism, dies. [see: Apr. 6]

1876* - [N.S. Feb. 2] Olga Iljinicna Taratuta [Ольги Іллівни Таратути (uk) / Ольга Ильинична Таратута (ru)], aka Babushka ,Valia, Tania, D. Basist (real name Elka Golda Eljevna Ruvinskaia [Елька Гольда Еліївна Рувинська (uk) / Элька Гольда Эльевна Рувинская (ru)]; d. 1938), Ukrainian teacher, anarcho-communist revolutionary and founder of the Ukrainian Anarchist Black Cross, born. [see: Feb. 2]
[*some sources give the years as 1874 or 1878]

1883 - Victor François Marie Pengam (d. 1920), French anarchist and anti-militarist, born. A labour activist from an early age, he became the secretary-general of the regional Union of the Trades Councils of Brest and was also active in the 'Université Populaire' and the 'Groupe d'Études Sociales. In 1912 Pengam, himself an orphan, became involved with the Pupilles de la Maison du Peuple and gave up his labour activities, devoting himself to the education of a hundred of these pupils in cultural, sporting and musical events and even founded a brass marching band that played songs such as 'l'Hymne au 17e' and 'l'Internationale' on May Day.

[F] 1887 - [O.S. Jan. 9] Matilda Gertrude Robbins (Tatania Gitel Rabinowitz; d. 1963), Russian-American labour organiser, editor, poet, socialist and Wobbly, born in Litin, Russia. She arrived in the United States in December 1900, along with her mother and four brothers and sisters, to join her father there, and adopted the name Matilda. The following year, she joined the workforce as a 'finisher' in a shirtwaist factory, trimming the threads off finished garments. The family settled in Connecticut where she completed her education at the eighth grade level and became an apprentice in a millinery (hat) store. By the age of 16, she was self-supporting, working in a variety of different jobs – from shirtwaist and corset factories to grocery and department stores to nursing and childcare. She became concerned with economic conditions as they affected the working class and with her brother, David, joined the Socialist Party. She was allied with the industrial union faction of that party which opposed the older craft union group. She became active in Socialist Party leadership but resigned in 1911 for a time during the dispute between the two factions.
Her career as an organiser began with an unsuccessful attempt to organise her fellow workers at the corset factory where she was employed, and where the younger women looked to marriage to free them from the drudgery of their work. The local American Federation of Labor chapter to whom she turned for help was equally uninterested in her organising efforts. She first encountered the Wobblies during the 1912 strike in Lawrence, MA, in which she played a small supportive role, leaving her job as a statistical assistant on a survey about working women in Boston to help the workers directly. After the strike, she offered her services to the IWW and in November 1912 Vincent St. John, the General Secretary of the IWW sent her to Little Falls, N.Y. to lead the strike which had broken out in the textile mills there. She replaced the IWW organisers who had previously been on the scene and who had been jailed, running the strike office, organising a strike kitchen, raising money and legal aid, and making sure the picket line stood strong, over the course of fourteen weeks. Amongst those she worked along side was Helen Schloss, 'The Red Nurse'. The strike lasted three months and, when settled, resulted in some small gains for the workers.
After this, Matilda was hired as an organiser by the Wobblies – alongside Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, the only other IWW woman organiser – later becoming a national organiser for the Textile Workers Industrial Union, and spent three years traveling from one labour battle to another as a speaker and organiser. Later she became a national organiser for the Textile Workers Industrial Union and she was sent by the IWW to other strikes to help by speaking and organising. Among them were the 1913 Studebaker strike in Detroit and the cigar makers strike in Pittsburgh of the same year. Robbins was briefly jailed while in Detroit. In 1914 she worked organising textile workers in Greenville, S.C. She ceased working as an organiser for the IWW in 1915.
In 1919 her daughter, Vita Robbins Legere, whose father was fellow IWW organiser Ben Legere, was born, with Matilda going on to raise Vita on her own. She later worked for the Amalgamated Clothing Workers on the Staff of Advance and for the Co-operative Society in E. St. Louis, Mo. She was also secretary of the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense League. Robbins later moved to California with her daughter where she lived in Los Angeles, Fresno, and the San Francisco area. Matilda remained an active socialist and served as the executive secretary of the Los Angeles chapter from 1945 to 1947. She wrote regularly for the 'Industrial Worker', including 'The Barb' column, until her death on January 9, 1963

[B/E] 1895 - Noe Itō (伊藤野枝; d. 1923), Japanese anarchist, social critic, author, novelist, translator and feminist, born in the rural village of Imajuku on the island of Kyūshū. Hers was a once prosperous family but which now lived in poverty and destitution, with her father a failed maritime agent now working in a tile factory and her mother working in the fields around their village. At the age of six, Noe entered school and soon proved to be gifted pupil. However, the economic situation of the parents deteriorated further and, after three years in school in Imajuku, the young Noe was sent to live with her uncle in Nagasaki in June 1904. Her new city life allows her to have access to a larger library and to continue her education, in which she demonstrates a great intellectual precocity. At the age of fourteen, she returned to her parents' home and had to work in the post office there to help support the family. Wishing to continue her studies, she pleaded her cause with her uncle who had since moved to Tokyo, and he arranged in April 1910 for a scholarship for her to study at the prestigious Ueno Girls High School, a progressive school that refused to include in its principles the famous Japanese patriarchal adage "Good wife, wise mother." There she studied philosophy, literature and foreign languages, including English. She graduated in 1912, at the time winning the admiration of the famous Japanese writer and novelist Murakami Namiroku (村上浪六).
That same year under her uncle's management, a marriage was arranged with a certain Fukutaro, the choice of her parents. He had recently returned from studying in the United States and Noe Itō reluctantly agreed to the marriage with the hope that he would take her back to America with him, planning to leave him as soon as they arrived on the continent. But his wish was not to be and, shortly after the ceremony, she fled. taking refuge with her former English teacher, the Dadaist and libertarian Tsuji Jun (辻潤), the first translator into Japanese of the anarchist philosopher Max Stirner. With his help, and that of her uncle, the seventeen year old Noe got a divorce. Tsuji encouraged Noe to continue with her education and they soon became partners, going on to have two sons together, Makoto and Ryuji, in 1914 and 1915 respectively.
In late 1912, Noe Itō joined the Bluestocking Society (青鞜社 / Seitō-sha), founded by the anarchist and feminist writer Hiratsuka Raichō (平塚 らいてう) and others, and began contributing essays, criticism and translations of foreign feminist works [her poetry had already appeared in its pages as early as November 1912, and it was claimed that the February 1913 issue was censored due to one of her articles] to its arts and culture magazine 'Seitō' (青鞜 / Bluestocking), later joining its editorial group. "Written by women's hands for women" and despite nominally being 'non-political', 'Seitō' attacked the inequalities suffered by women in its pages, whilst dealing with numerous themes such as prostitution, maternity and abortion. Noe herself condemned forced marriage in the pages of 'Seitō', basing her article on her own experience. She also obtained Emma Goldman's book 'Anarchism and other Essays' (1906) in late 1913 and translated three essays from the collection into Japanese ('The Tragedy of the Emancipation of Women', which appeared in the March 25, 1914 edition of 'Seitō'; 'Marriage and Love'; and 'Minorities against Majorities'). This marked a turning point as she approached anarchism, expressing her support for 'free unions' and her rejection of the system of marriage, whilst rejecting the superficial characterisation of the so-called 'liberated woman' of the times - the wearing of western clothes instead of traditional Japanese outfits, or the modernising of hairstyles or drinking alcohol.
In September 1914 she met the charismatic anarchist militant and intellectual Ōsugi Sakae (大杉 栄) and began corresponding with him, and when his weekly paper 'Heimin Shimbun' (平民新聞 / The Commoner's News) was confiscated by the police in October of that year, she defended him from the pages of 'Seitō'. In January 1915, she was made the editor-in-chief of 'Seitō', transforming it into an essentially anarchist publication but quickly found herself more and more isolated, abandoned by many of the monthly magazine's collaborators. Most of these were from a rather bourgeois milieu and used the magazine solely for the purpose of expressing their literary talent and, having already subjected Noe to criticism and attacks for her support of free unions, now found the magazine too contentious and political for them. The magazine's income dropped and its premises were transferred to Noe and Tsuji's house, where they live in poverty with their two children. Less and less satisfied with a small bourgeois feminist movement and the criticism that she was receiving from her colleagues on 'Seitō' for her "indecent behaviour", she began to take more of an interest in social issues, such as the injustices linked to the expropriation of peasant lands by the State, and now became a committed anarchist.
In 1916, she was finally forced to close 'Seitō' down, with the February 1 (vol. 2 no. 6) being its last issue. Around the same time she began a free union without obligations with Ōsugi Sakae, one based on economic independence and respect for the freedom of the other. That September she left Tsuji Jun and moved in with Sakae, who at the time was still living with with his legal wife Hori Yasuko (堀保子), who he had married in 1906. However, Ōsugi was also in a relationship with the journalist, socialist and Seitō-sha member Kanaka Ichiko (神近 市子), which he had started the year before and Kanaka, jealous of this new lover, attacked Ōsugi, stabbing him in the neck in November 1916 in what became known as the Hikage Teahouse incident [also known as the Shichya incident (日蔭茶屋事件)]. Kanaka was sentenced to four years in prison (later commuted to two) for attempted murder. The case cause a massive scandal as the bourgeois press seized on it to discredit the anarchist movement in general. Noe was attacked and severely beaten by a close friend of Kanaka and the publicity brought about the cancellation of the betrothal of Ōsugi's, who later committed suicide in disgarce. Ōsugi's wife also divorced him.
Subsequently, the two lovers settled together in complete destitution, and in 1917 Noe had the first of four daughters she would have with Sakae. In January 1918 the couple settled in the working-class neighbourhood of Kameido in Tokyo and founded the magazine 'Bunmei Hihyō' (文明批評 / Critique of Civilisation), which appeared from January to April 1918. Noe Ito actively participated in the anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist movements and wrote numerous articles in Ōsugi's newspapers, 'Rōdō Shimbun' (労働新聞 / Journal of Labour) and 'Rōdō Undō' ( 労働運動 / Labour Movement). On March 13, 1921, Noe gave birth to their third child, a daughter named Emma, after Emma Goldman. In April 1921 she participated with Yamakawa Kikue (山川菊栄), Sakai Makoto (堺真柄), Kozumi Fusako (九津見房子), Akizuki Shizie(秋月静枝), and Hashiura Haruko (橋浦はる子) in the founding of the 'Sekirankai' (赤瀾会 / Red Wave Society, the first socialist women's organisation founded in Japan, which was banned the following year and had to go underground. On June 7, 1922, she gave birth to her fourth daughter, Louise (after Louise Michel). That December Ōsugi left Japan in order to attend the international anarchist festival to be held in Berlin the following year. However, he spent all his time in France, where he was arrested and thrown into La Santé Prison. Rather than standing trial, he accepted deportation and did not return from France until July the following year. A month later on August 9, Noe gave birth to their final child, a boy named Nestor after Makhno.
On September 1, 1923, the Great Kanto Earthquake hit Japan, devastated the Kanto Plain ( Honshū Island, Japan's main island) and killed more than 100,000 people. Several cities are devastated by the earthquake itself, by fires and violent winds caused by a nearby typhoon. The result is real chaos, and rumours that the Koreans are taking advantage of the situation and plundering are spreading very quickly. Then began a wave of violence and lynching against the Koreans, and martial law was enacted. In confusion, the military police massively arrests socialist, communist and anarchist militants.
On September 16, 1923, Noe Itō, Ōsugi Sakae and his six-year-old nephew Tachibana Munekazu (の橘宗一 ) were arrested and taken to the military police headquarters in Kojimacho, where they were strangled and beaten to death by Lieutenant Amakasu Masahiko (甘粕 正彦) and his Kempeitai (憲兵隊 / Military Police Corps) squad. Their lifeless bodies are found a few days later, at the bottom of a nearby well. The murder of these two well-known militants and such a young boy, known as the Amakasu Incident (甘粕事件), caused a wave of indignation and anger across Japan, and an attempt by a number of militants to kill Amakasu in revenge on the first anniversary of the killings failed.
That December, Amakasu was sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment by a military tribunal (for the death of Noe and Ōsugi), but only served three, before being reinstated in the army as a national hero following his release. He committed suicide after the defeat of fascist Japan in 1945.

1898 - French author Émile Zola is sued for libel over his defense of Dreyfus.

1905 - [O.S. Jan. 8] Putilov Strike / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: 120,000-140,000 St. Petersburg workers are now out on strike, and the city has no electricity and no newspapers whatsoever. All public areas are declared closed. During the morning prominent liberals meet with Interior Minister Mirsky and warn against the use of violence on the marchers. Troops are deployed around the Winter Palace and at other key points and, despite his own advice to the Royal family, the Tsar leaves the city for for Tsarskoye Selo. A cabinet meeting, held without any particular sense of urgency that same evening, concludes that the police should publicise his absence and that the workers would accordingly probably abandon their plans for a march. A warrant is issued for Father Georgy Gapon’s arrest and at midnight troops in St. Petersburg are issued live ammunition and extra vodka.

1919 - Seattle General Strike: 35,000 shipyard workers were employed by the Emergency Fleet Corporation of the U.S. government and shortly before the war ended in November 1918 the Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment Board, which was created in August 1917 to arbitrate labour disputes between employers and workers in an effort to keep defence production running as smoothly as possible, issued a ruling setting wages for skilled and unskilled workers in shipyards across the country. The award effectively cut the pay of unskilled workers, the vast majority of the workforce, when they moved jobs with a maximum of $4.64 a day for unskilled workers and $6 a day for skilled workers, regardless of whether they had previously earned a higher wage for the same work at another shipyard.
Most shipyard owners were bound by the terms of this award, and if they failed to comply they faced the threat of the government pulling their contracts, crippling their operations if not putting them out of business entirely. However, having been subjected to two years of strict wage controls imposed by the federal government, less than two weeks after the November 1918 armistice ended WWI the unions in Seattle's shipbuilding industry demanded a pay increase across the board but with special emphasis on unskilled workers.
The Seattle Metal Trades Council, an alliance of more than 20 local metal-trades unions (representing welders, sheet metal workers, and the like), demanded a pay scale of $6 a day for unskilled workers, $7 for craftsmen, and $8 for skilled workers such as mechanics. The employers turned them down and instead set to trying to split the workers by offering an increase to $6.92 a day for mechanics and the Metal Trades Council voted on January 16 to call a strike for January 21, 1919. At 10:00 on January 21 more than 25,000 metal-trades workers walked out of Seattle's shipyards [Jan. 22]. The shipyard workers appealed to the Seattle Central Labor Council to call a general strike the following day. A resolution to have local unions poll their members about a general strike passed without opposition. Within twenty-four hours, eight local unions unanimously endorsed the strike.
Within two weeks, 110 union locals had endorsed the strike. Many of these local unions were threatened by their national union leadership if they joined the strike. The strike was to be run by the 300-member General Strike Committee consisting mostly of rank-and-file workers. Workers in various trades organised to cover essential and emergency services. Vehicles authorised to operate bore signs "Exempted by the General Strike Committee". Both employers and government officials sought exemptions from the committee. As the strike approached, many Seattleites armed themselves and stockpiled ammunition and supplies in their homes. Shelves were stripped bare in stores as a siege mentality took hold.
Workers organised 35 neighbourhood milk stations after purchasing milk from small local dairies. A voluntary commissary served 30,000 meals a day to strikers and others in the community. A Labor War Veteran’s Guard was organised to keep peace in the streets. They were to carry no weapons and to use the power of persuasion only. Other veterans proudly wore their uniforms as they too took part in the strike.

1920 - Palmer Raids: US Attorney General Palmer's 'Red' Raids target labour activists and radicals for US government repression. [expand]

[DD] 1921 - Patagonia Rebelde / Patagonia Trágica: Striking workers seize the Estancia La Anita, making hostages of their owners and the Deputy Police Commissioner Pedro J. Micheri; they then take the Estancia La Primavera.

1924 - Lenin dies of a stroke at 54.

1939 - Rafael Torres Escartín (b. 1901), Aragonese former member of Los Solidarios who, having had a death sentence (passed on him for his part in the assassination of Cardinal Soldevilla in 1923) commuted to life, lost his sanity while in prison and was sent to an asylum upon his release in 1931, is taken out by fascist troops and shot in Barcelona. [see: Dec. 20]

1942 - Christiaan Cornelissen (b. 1864), Dutch militant communist-anarchist, thinker and organiser within the revolutionary syndicalist international, anti-militarist and theoretical economist, dies. [see: Aug. 30]

1946 - Great Post-War Strike Wave: 750,000 steelworkers walk off the job, joining what would become known as the Great Strike Wave of 1946. The post-World War II strike wave was not limited to industrial workers; there were more strikes in transportation, communication, and public utilities than in any previous year. By the end of 1946, 4.6 million workers had been involved in strikes.

1946 - Isidore Isou and Gabriel Pomerand, forming the Lettrist movement in Paris earlier this month, create their first Lettrist scandal at the Théatre du Vieux-Colombier.

1950 - Eric Arthur Blair (aka George Orwell; b. 1903), dies in London aged 46. [see: Jun. 25]

1951 - Yuriko Miyamoto (宮本 百合子) (Yuriko Chūjō [中條百合子集]; b 1899), Japanese feminsit, socialist, and novelist of the Taishō and early Shōwa periods, dies of sepsis as a complication due to acute meningitis. [see: Feb. 13]

1956 - Ricardo Peña Vallespín (b. 1908), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, and novelist, who was part of the artistic and theatrical group Mistral, dies. [see: Nov. 15]

[C] 1961 - Operação Dulcineia: Spanish, Portuguese and South American activists hijack Portuguese liner Santa Maria to protest the Franco and Salazar dictatorships.
During the night of January 21st-22nd January, 1961, a group of 24 Direcção Revolucionária Ibérica de Libertação (DIRL; Revolutionary Directorate for Iberian Liberation) insurrectionists, mostly composed of Portuguese and Spanish veterans of the Civil War launched 'Operação Dulcineia' (Operation Dulcinea) in protest against the dictatorships of Franco in Spain and Salazar in Portugal. Under the command of Henrique Galvão, a former cavalry captain in the Portuguese army, and the Galician anti-Francoist Jorge Soutomaior, the nom de guerre of José Hernández Vázquez who had been a captain in the Spanish Republican navy, the fantastic [in all senses of the word] plan was to take over the luxury liner Santa María and sail it to the vicinity of the island Fernando Pó, in the Gulf of Guinea, abandon it and seize a gunboat and heavy weapons from the Spanish garrison there, and then sail to Luanda and take power in the Portuguese colony of Angola, installing a Portuguese "provisional government" and thus sparking armed uprisings against the peninsula’s two dictatorships.
On board the Santa María were more than 600 passengers, including Soutomaior and 19 other DIRL members who had embarked in La Guaira, Venezuela, and 356 crewmembers when it arrived in Curaçao in the Dutch Antilles the following day. Galvão boarded the liner with three of his men close to the sailing time of 19:00 as his face was well-know to many Portuguese and it was imperative that he was not recognised before the group's plans were put into action.
Towards midnight the rebels split into three groups in order to launch Operação Dulcineia at 01:30. The plan however got off to a bad start with a disagreement between Soutomaior, who was to lead the attack on the bridge and the pilothouse, and Galvão, who was to seize the second deck where the cabins of the captain and other senior officers were located - whilst a third group would seize the radio room, and time vital to its success was wasted in arguing over the exact method that should be employed in taking the bridge. So, instead of at 01:30, it was not until sometime between 01:45 [the time claimed by Galvão] and 02:45 that the bridge was stormed. During this the third pilot, Joao do Nascimento Costa, was shot and fatally wounded and the navigator, João de Souza, in the chartroom was shot, as was Dr. Cicero Leite, who had come to investigate the gunshots. The ship's captain Mário Simões Maia, having discovered armed men on the bridge, retreated to his cabin and telephoned the engine room, ordering the engines to be stopped. Meanwhile, three guerrillas had also taken the radio station before any alert could be broadcast.
Later, the captive crew of the Santa María were offered three alternatives for surrender: join the insurgents, become prisoners of war, or continue performing their duties under guard provided they do not try to resist the plans of the insurgents. Maia and his officers chose the latter and later that morning Maia and Galvão, dressed in a rather ostentatious uniform of his own creation, announced to the ship's passengers that they would not now be going to Miami but would instead be allowed to disembark safely in the next four days when the insurgents had made good their escape.
The delay in beginning the takeover of the ship, initially timed to allow the unlit ship to be unable to quit the Caribbean before dawn and cross the Atlantic undetected, was now further complicated by the fact that the ship's infirmary was unable to cope with de Souza's wounds and he need to be evacuated in order to prevent a second Operação Dulcineia death. Galvão decided to give permission to the evacuation of the wounded, having finally persuaded initially reluctant Spanish contingent that it was necessary, and the 2 seriously injured together with 5 crew members were let off in a lifeboat early on the morning of January 23rd two miles out from the St Lucia port of Castries. The Santa María then set sail at full speed.
On St Lucia the British authorities were alerted, as were the Portuguese owners of the liner. The hijacking came as a huge shock to the Salazar regime, not least because it was the British that told them rather than the ship's crew. However, the Portuguese public remained ignorant of the events until after the hijacking's end thanks to the iron censorship exerted over the media by the regime. Meanwhile, two distinct governmental responses to the hijacking took form. Immediately following Salazar's denunciation of the rebels as mere pirates, denying any political links between them and the opposition in Portugal to his regime. He therefore called on his NATO allies to intervene. France and the Netherlands refused and the American and British governments both began searches for the Santa María. At the same time, began to take Galvão's declaration that the hijacking was a political action (and therefore not an act of piracy according to International Law) seriously and, deciding that discretion was the better part of valour. Both now felt free to not intervene; the Tory cabinet bowing to Labour Party pressure and calling off the British navy's search but the Americans continued their search deploying a nuclear submarine and destroyers to locate the liner and the 38 US passengers in First Class.
Back on the ship itself, now renamed the Santa Liberdade, her new name painted in red letters on a banner hung in front of the bridge, and despite days of effort to indoctrinated the crew and especially the third class passengers - involving the distribution of anti-government pamphlets, the reading of anti-fascist poetry over the loudspeaker system and the creation of a new black, red, white and yellow-banded flag, together with attempts to breakdown the hierarchy among the crew and among the passengers - only five crew members joined their ranks [the rebels claim up to 50 passengers went over to their side too but there is little evidence beyond their own later accounts]. In fact, Maia and some of his crew were actively trying to thwart the rebels, claiming shortages of fuel and water, the former 'forcing' them to slow the ship's progress, and interfering with radio communication, even preventing Galvão's requests for asylum from the governments of Ghana, Guinea and Senegal. This would in fact help the would-be insurrectionists as Portuguese, American and Spanish warships were already patrolling the West African coast in wait for the rebel liner. Stung by the Portuguese government's claim that the rebels were mere pirates, he fought back making a statement on the 24th of the true reasons behind the hijack: he publicly denounced Salazar’s regime, emphasising that theirs was an act of political protest which called for the end of Portugal's New State dictatorship.
Then on January 25, the Danish freighter Fishe Gulua spotted the Santa Liberdade some 900 miles off of Trinidad. The following day an American plane also spotted them some 700 miles from the mouth of the Amazon en route to Africa. On the 27th, four American destroyers also began to 'escort' the liner, with Galvão now happily accepting the U.S. navy's protection "against action from Portuguese warships" according to his book on Operação Dulcineia, 'Santa María: My Crusade for Portugal' (1961). With the liner now, as Galvão thought, running out of water and fuel and the Americans now beginning to apply pressure for the rebels to release the passengers, something that they had already promised to do.
Brazil was the most logical point the passengers could be offloaded, the ship's fuel, water and food stores replenished before recommencing their African escapade, but Galvão believed that he could not trust the Brazilian president Kubitschek, who had already refused him asylum once previously. However a new president, Jânio Quadros, was due to be inaugurated as Brazil’s next president on January 31, so Galvão decided to try and link the passengers' release with Brazil granting the rebels asylum, and to enlist the US's assistance in aim. Meanwhile, the Portuguese government were far from happy with the Americans' handling, double-dealing as they saw it, of the situation, and demanded that they paid more attention to the fate of the ship's crew, fearing that they might be used as hostages in the future. Also, with the passengers out of the way, the Santa María would then become exclusively a Portuguese problem.
On January 27, Galvão contacted Admiral Robert Dennison, Commander in Chief of the US Navy's Atlantic Fleet who had been in contact with the Santa María since the 25th, asking for negotiations on the transfer of the passengers. The following day, the liner changed course at midday and headed towards the port of Recife to rendezvous with Dennison's representative Admiral Allen Smith 50 miles off the Brazilian coast. On January 30, the two sides held talks for 3 hours, with the rebels desperate to string things out until after the new president's inauguration and the admiral tasked with preventing any transfer of passengers at sea, the potential of which for disaster was high. To that end, they guaranteed not to hinder the Santa Liberdade putting to sea afterwards, paving the way for direct negotiations between the rebels and Brazilian officials over the following days.
By January 31st, the tension surrounding the negotiations with the Brazilians is lightened by the attempt by photojournalist, Giles Delamare, to parachute onto the Santa María. Missing the deck, he fell into the sea nearby and was picked up by an approached tugboat bringing a group of journalists from Brazil. Fellow French photographer Charles Bonnay was less fortunate. Jumping at the same time as Delamare, he ended up being rescued by a US Navy launch and had to spend 3 days after being hauled before Admiral Smith and given a dressing down for defying the US ban on newsmen attempting to board the liner. Meantime, Delamare got his story, which appeared, in 'Paris Match' on February 4th.
Then, on February 1, the day of his inauguration, the new Brazilian President Jânio Quadros sent a telegram to Galvão, in which he offered the rebels political asylum. Below decks the passengers were beginning to loose patience with the rebels.
In Third Class, passengers had formed an action committee and were planning to attempt to recapture the ship if they were not allowed to disembark by midday on February 2nd. Their plan was to announce this via a demonstration in First Class two hours prior to the deadline. Just as Brazilian officials arrived onboard, more than 100 passengers and crew began to chant "freedom for all" and "save us, save us". A rebel was pushed through a plate glass door but Brazilian marines intervened and a Brazilian Navy officer reassured the passengers that they would be able to disembark. Faced with further potential passenger rebellions and hostile naval forces closing in on them, Galvão accepted the Brazilians' suggestion to allow the passengers to leave immediately and to continue negotiations on the issues of the crew and reprovisioning. The liner would enter the harbour and those that wanted to leave could and the ship would return to its offshore anchorage; the rebels would not surrender and their talks with the Brazilians would continue.
A vote amongst the crew as to who would stay and who would disembark provided the final blow to the rebels, with only 5 of the 356 crew deciding to remain. The ship was effectively dead in the water as it entered Recife’s harbour and dropped anchor 350m off the quay. By 12:00 on February 2nd the first of three tugs arrived to ferry the passengers and crew ashore. It carried carrying sixty Brazilian marines and a contingent of newsmen who came on board to witness the debarkation. The marines would sleep on the deck that night whilst Galvão slipped onshore to give an exclusive interview to Dominique Lapierre and 'Paris Match' for the princely sum of $2000.
At 10:00 on February 3rd, Galvão, now back on board, recommences negotiations with the Brazilians but now his hand contained no winners and the rebels eventually agreed to hand over the Santa Maria. At 18:00 the insurgents gave up their weapons and, after a short ceremony, took down the Santa Liberdade and DRIL banners, gathered up their possessions and went into exile in Brazil. The following day, the Santa Maria was officially handed over to a military attaché from the Portuguese embassy in Rio de Janeiro and by nightfall Maia and his crew were back on board. On February 5, most of the Santa Maria's passengers resume their journeys on board the hijacked liner’s sister ship, the Vera Cruz, and the Santa Maria itself set sail for Portugal two days later. On February 17, the Santa Maria Lisbon entered harbour to be greeted by a flotilla of yachts, tugs, fishing boats and other vessels, and a crowd of 300,000 amongst who was Salazar who, rather theatrically, welcomed the liner, saying: "The Santa Maria is with us. Thank you, Portugal." The crowd responded with cries of "Long live Salazar" and "Long live Portugal" as though it was some sort of victory.
But, for the Salazar regime, the Santa Maria incident would be just one of a long list of setbacks for the New State dictatorship in 1961:
· issuing of the Programa para a Democratização da República (Program for the Democratisation of the Republic), signed by 62 leading Republican and Socialist opponents of the regime on January 31 [all later arrested by the PIDE secret police];· also in January 1961 was the violent suppression of a cotton workers strike in Angola, causing hundreds of deaths; on February 4th [now known as the official day of the beginning of the armed struggle for national liberation in Angola] there was a failed attempt by a large group of MPLA-linked guerrillas in Luanda to set free political prisoners held in the São Paulo Casa de Reclusão Militar (Military Prison), leaving 40 guerrillas dead as well 6 police officers killed for their weapons; also attacked at the same time in Luanda were the headquarters of a Polícia de Segurança Pública (Public Security Police) unit, the CTT (Post, Telegraph and Telephone) and the national broadcaster;· in March members of the Bacongo tribes in northern Angola rose up as part of a terror campaign organised by the Union of Angolan Peoples, killing around 1200 white settlers but resulting in the deaths of 5 times as many Africans;· on April 13 an attempted military coup led by the minister of defence Júlio Botelho Moniz was narrowly avoided, hours before the army was to have seized all key government offices;· the August 1st invasion and occupation of Portugal's São João Baptista de Ajudá fortress in the Dahomey Republic by Benin troops;· on November 10 the famous Operação Vagô, planned in large part by Henrique Galvão again, took place with the hijacking of a Portuguese national airline's regular Casablanca-Lisbon flight and the carrying out mass drops of 100,000 anti-government leaflets over Lisbon, Barreiro, Beja and Faro; and· the year would end in December (18-19), with the loss of the Portuguese territories in India - Goa, Daman and Diu, invaded by the Indian army; followed by the New Year's Eve assault on the Third Army Division barracks at Beja led by Captain Varela Gomes.[visualizingportugal.com/opp-vn5-1-santa-maria/

1961 - Blaise Cendrars (born Frédéric-Louis Sauser; b. 1887), Swiss Modernist novelist, amputee left-handed poet, adventurer, soldier, failed film director and an anarchist fellow-traveller who never fully committed himself to the movement, dies. [see: Sep. 1]

1963 - Franz Jung (b. 1888), German Expressionist then Dadaist writer, novelist, playwright, economist, journalist and one-time anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 26]

1967 - Workers and peasants clash with Red Guards in Kiangsi. [expand]

[A] 1970 - A Chicago coroner's jury rules the police murder of Black Panther Fred Hampton was "justifiable" despite his being drugged by a FBI informant and consequently asleep in his bed at the time of his assassination.

1971 - Vincenzo de Waure, an engineering student, leader in student revolts of '68 and active anti-fascist from Naples, is attacked in the Piazzale Tecchio and then set on fire in an obviously politically motivated murder.

1984 - A Women’s Peace Camp was set up near Volkel Airbase in The Netherlands to protest siting of U.S. nuclear weapons there.

1997 - A major riot in high security HMP Full Sutton in protest against the brutal prison regime. 8 prisoners are later acquitted of prison mutiny.

1998 - Paul David 'Charlie' Sargent, 37, former leader of the neo-Nazi group Combat 18 and fellow C18 member Martin Cross, 35, are jailed for life for the murder on February 10, 1997, of 28 year-old C18 member Christopher 'Catford Chris' Castle. Castle had been acting as a go-between in a dispute over control of C18 and the running of Blood and honour and the lucrative neo-Nazi music scene when he was stabbed in the back by former Skrewdriver guitarist Cross using a nine-inch (22 cm) blade. 'Charlie' Sargent had been kicked out of C18 following allegations that he was a security service spy.

[D] 1999 - Mineriada din Ianuarie 1999 [January 1999 Mineriad]: In what became known as the Bătălia de la Costeşti, striking Romanian coal miners, backed by residents, use stones, clubs and home-made explosives to force their way through riot police in a ravine in the Jiu Valley ravine near the town of Costeşti, and swept closer to Bucharest in a determined push to continue their march upon the capital. At least 40 people were injured and up to 50 police were taken prisoner in the fierce assault as 7,000 miners overran government roadblocks on a central highway leading to Bucharest. For two hours, police defended their positions with smoke bombs and tear gas - but out-manned and outmanoeuvred, the 3,400 police finally retreated.

1999 - Continuing demonstrations against the '2525/97 [Education] Act' in numerous Greek cities, with clashes in many. Over 40 people arrested, including many anarchists.

2015 - Lutz Bachmann, the founder of the German anti-Islamicist group Pediga, is forced to resign when a photograph of him posing as Adolph Hilter, replete with moustance and fringe, surfaces on the cover of the 'Dresden Morgenpost'. Also, posts on his facebook page included one of a photograph of a man wearing the uniform and pointed hat of the Ku Klux Klan with the caption: "Three K’s a day keeps the minorities away."; other messages saying asylum seekers acted like "scumbags" at the welfare office and that extra security was needed "to protect employees from the animals."
1825 - Ernest Coeurderoy (d. 1862), French writer and Socialist with anarchist leanings, born.

[BB] 1849 - Johan August Strindberg (d. 1912), Swedish playwright, novelist, poet, essayist, and painter, born. Noted for his satirising of Swedish society, in particular the upper classes, the cultural and political establishment, which brought him many enemies. During the 1880's Strindberg, his interest stirred by the history of the Paris Commune, he read a lot of anarchist and socialist texts including Rousseau and Chernyshevsky's 'What is to be Done?', sentiments that were further stirred up by his 1884 blasphemy trial for a short story in his 'Getting Married' collection, which also led to him embracing atheism. Unfortunately his radical politics were largely posturing and he soon returned to mysticism of various colours, and even abandoned his early pro-women's suffrage views.
Member of the Friedrichshagener Dichterkreis (Friedrichshagener circle of poets) naturalist writers circle.
[see his essays for claims of anarchist beliefs: 'Inferno, Alone, and other writings' (1968) and 'Selected Essays' (1996)]

1855 - Josef Peukert (d. 1910), Austrian anarchist advocate of propaganda by deed, born. Best known for his autobiographical masterpiece 'Erinnerungen eines Proletariers aus der Revolutionären Arbeiterbewegung' (Memories from a Proletarian Revolutionary Workers' Movement; 1913), edited by Gustav Landauer.

1857 - Marie Anastasie Vincentine Krysinska (d. 1908), Polish-born French poet, innovator of free verse, musician, femme chansonnier, composer, and novelist of the decadent and symbolist period, born. The only female member of such fin-de-siècle literary and artistic circles as the Hydropathes, Hirsutes, Jemenfoutistes, and Zutistes, and a prominent figure at Le Chat Noir cabaret. Many of her poems appeared in the anarchist press of the time, including her famous 'Le Poème des Couleurs' in 'La Revue Blanche' in 1893.

1858 - Beatrice Webb (d. 1943), Fabian socialist socialite, born.

1871 - Soulèvement du 22 Janvier 1871 [Uprising of January 22, 1871]: Armed with a rifle, Louise Michel fires her first shot in anger during the siege of Paris. Her target is the Breton Gardes mobiles of General Louis Jules Trochu who have just fired on the crowd protesting in front of the Hôtel-de-Ville during the early stages of the uprising that would see the establishment of the Paris Commune.

[B] 1879 - Francis Picabia (Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; d. 1953), French painter, illustrator, designer, poet, writer, editor and "congenial anarchist", born. [expand]

1880 - Alphonse Tricheux (d.1957), French militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and pacifist, born.

1888 - Having delivering a speech that afternoon at the Théâtre de la Gaîté in Le Havre, Louise Michel is attacked that evening by a royalist, Pierre Lucas, whilst giving a second speech in the hall of the Élysée. Enraged by Michel "denouncing wars, especially colonial ones, where soldiers are trained to commit theft and murder", he asks to speak. Mounts the stage, he makes an incoherent attempt to speak, gives up and returns to his seat. The meeting resumes and shortly after Lucas is back on stage behind Michel, firing two shots from a revolver. One bullet lodges in Louise Michel's left temple, the other in the lining of her hat. Michel tries to calm the crowd which is close to lynching Lucas, "This is nothing. It is a fool who fired blanks." before she realises that she is in fact injured. Lucas is arrested but Louise refuses to press charges against her attacker, even later testifying on his behalf, arguing for his acquittal.. Given first aid by two doctors attending her speech at the Élysée, she returned to Paris the following morning, despite the advice of the doctors. Her doctor in Levallois (Paris) was also unable to remove the bullet, as later was Dr. Labbé at Baujon hospital, and the bullet remained lodged in her skull until her death 17 years later.

1893 - Michal Mareš (Josef Mareš; b. 1971), Czech writer, poet, journalist and anarchist, born. 'Přicházím z Periferie Republiky' (I Come From the Periphery of the Republic; 2009) is his posthumous testimony of the horrors of post-war communist Czechoslovakia.

1898 - Vicenta Sáez (or Sáenz) Barcina (d. 1971), Spanish weaver and anarchist, who was active in the prisoner support movement in Barcelona during the 1920s, born. Due to the activities of the pistoleros, she and her partner, the anarchist militant Justo Donoso Millán (Donoso Germinal), were forced into exile in France in 1927. In 1931, with the declaration of the Republic, they returned to the Peninsula, where Donoso held the position of manager of the weekly 'Tierra y Libertad', an activity in which she helped. In 1939, with the fascist victory, the couple went into exile, first in France and then on July 27, 1939, they arrive in Veracruz, Mexico. Vicenta Sáez Barcina died on April 13, 1971, in Mexico.

[C] 1900 - Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Busch (d. 1980), German singer and actor, born. Joined the Sozialistische Arbeiter-Jugend (SAJ; Socialist Workers Youth) in 1916 and the Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (USPD; Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany) following the November revolution. Noted for his cabaret performances, his interpretations of political songs, including those of Erich Mühsam and Kurt Tucholsky, and for his theatre and silent film work. In 1928 Ernst Busch joined the Berlin Volksbühne, the workers' theatre of the workers and the Piscator-Bühne, acting in plays by Friedrich Wolf, Bertolt Brecht, Ernst Toller and Erich Mühsam, including the latter's 'Judas. Arbeiter-Drama in fünf Akten' (Judas. Workers drama in five acts; 1921) and 'Staatsräson. Ein Denkmal für Sacco und Vanzetti' (For reasons of State. A Monument to Sacco and Vanzetti; 1929).
He was lucky to escape one of the first SA raids at the artists' colony in Berlin-Wilmersdorf on 9 March 1933. Fleeing Germany, he first went to Holland, and from there to Belgium, Zurich, Paris, Vienna and finally the Soviet Union. In 1937 he travelled to Spain as a singer with the International Brigades where he gave out song books ('Brigada de las Canciones Internacionales'), sang before members of the International Brigades and recorded records and performed on the radio.
"Das singende Herz der Arbeiterklasse" (The Singing Heart of the working class) - Hanns Eisler

1903 - Helmut Rüdiger aka Rodriguez, Ivar Bergegren; Dashar, Stefan Stralsund (d. 1966), German author, journalist, anarcho-syndicalist and staunch anti-communist, and theorist of federalism, born. Rudiger fought in Spain with other German anarchists, such as Karl Einstein (Albert Einstein's nephew), and participated in the 'International Group' of the Durruti Column. [expand]
Having witnessed at first hand the ruthless liquidation of the CNT by the Stalinist in Spain, he is quoted as saying: "Since 1937 I hate the Communists as my actual mortal enemies."

[DD] 1905 - [O.S. Jan. 9] Bloody Sunday [Крова́вое воскресе́нье] / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: In the pre-dawn winter darkness of the morning of Sunday, 22 January [O.S. 9 January] 1905, striking workers and their families began to gather at six points in the industrial outskirts of St Petersburg. Holding religious icons and singing hymns and patriotic songs (particularly "God Save the Tsar!"), large crowds [est. 100,000] proceeded without police interference towards the Winter Palace. The troops, who now numbered about 10,000, had been ordered to halt the columns of marchers before they reached the palace square but in practice these orders were followed in an inconsistent manner and confusion reigned. Individual policemen saluted the religious banners and portraits of the Tsar carried by the crowd or joined the procession. Army officers variously told the marchers that they could proceed in smaller groups, called on them to disperse or ordered their troops to fire into the marchers without warning. When the crowds continued to press forward, cossacks and regular cavalry made charges using their sabers or trampling the people. There was no single encounter directly before the Winter Palace, as often portrayed, but rather a series of separate collisions at the bridges or other entry points to the central city. The column led by Gapon was fired upon near the Narva Gate. Around forty people surrounding him were killed or wounded although Gapon himself was not injured. Maxim Gorky would later report: "Gapon by some miracle remained alive, he is in my house asleep. He now says there is no Tsar any more, no church, no God. This is a man who has great influence upon the workers of the Putilov works. He has the following of close to 10,000 men who believe in him as a saint. He will lead the workers on the true path." [see below]
The first instance of shooting occurred between 10:00 and 11:00. As late as 14:00 large family groups were promenading on the Nevsky Prospekt as was customary on Sunday afternoons, mostly unaware of the extent of the violence elsewhere in the city. Amongst them were parties of workers still making their way to the Winter Palace as originally intended by Gapon. A detachment of the Preobrazhensky Guards previously stationed in the Palace Square where about 2,300 soldiers were being held in reserve, now made its way onto the Nevsky and formed two ranks opposite the Alexander Gardens. Following a single shouted warning a bugle sounded and four volleys were fired into the panicked crowd, many of whom had not been participants in the organised marches. The number killed is uncertain but numbers vary from 96 dead and 333 injured [the Tsar's officials' estimate] to the more than 4,000 dead claimed by anti-government sources. A truer figure would be around 1,000 killed or wounded, both from shots and trampled during the panic. Amongst the Putilov factory workers take part in the peaceful march to the Winter Palace, some 45 were killed and 61 were seriously wounded. The massacre enraged the workers, and the strike continued. Work at the plant was resumed only on January 31.
That evening 459 St. Petersburg intellectuals sign a letter denouncing the regime, declaring: "It is impossible to continue to live this way." Gorky cables Hearst’s 'New York Journal': "The Russian Revolution has begun." As reports spread across the city, disorder and looting breaks out, especially of liquor and guns. Gapon's Assembly was closed down that day, and Gapon quickly left Russia. In exile he established ties with the Socialist-Revolutionary Party and, utilising his fame, met many prominent Russian emigrees including Georgy Plekhanov, Vladimir Lenin, Peter Kropotkin, and the French socialist leaders Jean Jaurès and Georges Clemenceau. He found sanctuary in Geneva and in London he shared a house with anarchists Peter Kropotkin and Rudolf Rocker at at 33 Dunstan House, Stepney. Following the October Manifesto, Gapon returned to Russia in November 1905 and resumed contact with the Okhrana Secret Police. Back in St. Pertersburg Gapon soon revealed to an SR member Pinhas Moiseevich Rutenberg (Пётр Моисеевич Рутенберг) his contacts with the police and tried to recruit him. Rutenberg reported this provocation to his party leaders and Gapon was assassinated by the order of the Combat Organisation of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party on April 10 [O.S. Mar. 28], 1906.
The immediate consequence of Bloody Sunday was a strike movement that spread throughout the industrial centres of the Russian Empire, marking the beginning of the first Russian Revolution. Strikes began to erupt outside of St. Petersburg in places such as Moscow, Riga, Warsaw, Vilna, Kovno, Tiflis, Baku, Batum, and the Baltic region. Polish socialists in both the PPS (Polska Partia Socjalistyczna / Polish Socialist Party) and the SDKPiL (Socjaldemokracja Królestwa Polskiego i Litwy / Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania) called for a general strike. In all, about 414,000 people participated in the work stoppage during January 1905 and at its height in February it had spread to 122 cities and towns. Half of European Russia's industrial workers went on strike in 1905, 93.2% in Poland.
Tsar Nicholas II attempted in August to appease the people with a Duma at which the workers were not represented. Inevitably, the autocracy resorted to brute force near the end of 1905 in order to curtail the burgeoning strike movement that continued to spread. It is estimated that between October 1905, when the second wave of strikes began (with more than 1 million strikers demanding an eight hour day, civil liberties, an amnesty for political prisoners and a Constituent Assembly) and April 1906, 15,000 peasants and workers were hanged or shot, 20,000 injured, and 45,000 sent into exile.

1905 - [O.S. Jan. 9] Ivan Vasilievich Vasiliev (Ива́н Васи́льевич Васи́льев; b. 1880), Russian labour movement activist and chair of the Assembly of the Russian Factory Workers of the City of St. Petersburg (Собрания русских фабрично-заводских рабочих г. Санкт-Петербурга) is killed during the Bloody Sunday (Крова́вое воскресе́нье) protests at the Narva Triumphal Gates (Нарвские триумфальные ворота).

[E] 1905 - The funeral of Louise Michel takes place in Paris. The procession starts out at 08:00 from the Gare de Lyon but a crowd of more than 100,000 people along the route means that it takes 9 hours to reach the Levallois-Perret cemetery.

[1906 - [O.S. Jan. 9] Vladivostok experiences an armed uprising (Jan. 22-23).

1911 - Lina Ódena (Paulina Ódena García; d. 1936), Catalan Communist militant, who was one of the first milicianas to die during the Civil War, shooting herself rather than fall into Falangist hands, born.

1911 - Charles Laisant (d. 1952), French pacifist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. Charles is part of a generational family of anarchistes: His father Albert Laisant, his brother Maurice and his grandfather Charles Ange Laisant (1841-1920), were all militant libertarians.

1912 - Brisbane General Strike: Following the dismissal of Brisbane Tramways employees on January 18 for wearing union badges, a notice appears today in the daily press calling for the workers to report to work without their badges, and stating that those who did not show up would be seen as to have vacated their positions. That same day, John Moir, an organiser for the Brisbane Trades and Labour Council, who would become secretary of the soon-to-be formed Combined Unions’ Committee of Brisbane and District, requested a conference between Badger and the Tramway Union. Badger refused saying he was willing to talk with the employees, but not with unionists. This rebuff from Badger drew attention from many other union organisations, who all saw it as being a direct attack on the structure of unionism and the possibility of general strike began to be discussed. [see: Jan. 18]

1913 - Helmut Kirschey (d. 2003), German construction worker, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist fighter, born. Originally a Social Democratic, he lost his father in World War I. His mother then joined the USPD, serving on the Elberfeld council for the KPD up to her death in 1924. All four of her sons became members of the Communist Youth Federation. In 1931, Kirschey joined the anarcho-syndicalist Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands (Free Workers’ Union of Germany; FAUD). He was arrested in March 1933 and imprisoned for several months, emigrating to Holland in November 1933. He went to Spain in August 1936, initially working in the German anarcho-syndicalists’ police service in Barcelona, which was put in charge of all German-speaking foreigners. Kirschey joined the International Company of the Durruti Column in February 1937. He took part in the May battles in Barcelona on the anarchist side. Kirschey was arrested along with other German anarcho-syndicalists in June 1937, and put into communist secret prisons in Barcelona and Valencia, and imprisoned in Segorbe from April 1938. After that he spent some time in France and Holland. In early 1939, Kirschey managed to enter Sweden, where he was not granted a residency permit and did not receive permission to work during the first years of his stay. Nevertheless, he continued to fight National Socialism in conjunction with the International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF), and survived the war.
In 2006 a one-hour documentary, 'A las Barricadas' about Helmut Kirschey's life by Volker Hoffmann, Dieter Nelles, Jörg Lange and Angelika Feld was released on DVD.

1917 - [O.S. Jan. 9] On the twelfth anniversary of Bloody Sunday (9 January) 150- 200,000 workers hold a one-day general strike. Factories in the Vyborg (Выборгском) and Nevsky (Невском) districts, as well as the majority of enterprises in the City District (Городском районе) and on the Petrograd (Петроградской) side, and several enterprises on Vasilievsky Island (Васильевского острова) are effected. Amongst those involved are the Pulitov Works (Путиловские завод), the Arsenal (Арсенал), Obukhov (Обуховский), Nevsky (Невский), Alexander (Александровский), Phoenix («Феникс»), Nobel (Нобеля), and Lessner (Лесснера) factories and many other St. Petersburg companies, with workers holding mass rallies, processions with red banners and the singing of revolutionary songs.

1917 - Ethel Higgins Byrne (1883-1955), the first woman to be tried in connection with the arrests over the contraception clinic on October 26, is sentenced to thirty days in the workhouse on Blackwell's Island. In protest to what she believed was an unjust conviction, she went on a hunger strike, vowing to die for the birth control cause. This made front page news for several days in the New York Times, and after over 100 hours of fasting, she was forcibly fed by prison authorities. On 2 February 1917, Byrne was pardoned by Governor Whitman on the condition that after her release, she would not attempt breaking the law again. Sanger made assurances on behalf of her sister, as she said that Byrne was in no condition to make any promises. Although Byrne recovered from her ordeal, it effectively ended her involvement in the birth control movement and brought to the surface a permanent rift in relations between her and Sanger. Byrne resented Sanger's attempt to create new social and political connections stemmed from their new fame.

1919 - Vaga de La Canadenca / Huelga de La Canadiense / Barcelona General Strike: In Catalonia the Minister of Interior orders the governors of Lerida and Tarragona to arrange for the guardia civil to monitor the installations of La Canadiense and to guard Barcelona's gas and water supplies.

1919 - Seattle General Strike: The Seattle Central Labor Council, the presiding union body in Seattle, voted to hold a referendum with a tentative strike date set for February 1, allowing affiliated unions to vote on whether or not to join in a general strike. [see: Jan. 21 & Feb. 6]

[EEE] 1923 - Germaine Berton, a young anarchist walks into the office of right-wing newspaper Action Française and shoots right-wing extremist Marius Plateau. She was later acquitted for the act.

1932 - Revolta de l'Alt Llobregat*: Caught out by the news of the uprisings, the Republican government headed by Manuel Azaña eventually ordered the commander of the IV Región Militar (Fourth Military Region), General Batet, to send troops and artillery in to end the rebellion in the Alt Llobregat. He was to to proceed with all speed and with greater violence to repress the rebellion... as Azaña was not willing to have the Republic dictated to by "bandidos con carnet de socios de la CNT" (bandits with CNT membership cards). The troops managed to occupy many of the revolutionary towns without a fight or the need to fire a single shot. However, in Fígols many of the miners were willing to stand there. Armed with some rifles and pistols and a large quantity of dynamite, they had built barricades but it took a great deal of effort from Manuel Prieto, who had just returned disillusioned from his trip to Barcelona to talk to the CNT, having discovered that life in the big city and elsewhere remained as before and now realised that their spontaneous movement of a few thousand miners and textile workers had been doomed from its inception to an immediate and unavoidable failure, to persuade them to desist from what would be an act of pure folly. The bloody struggle would be worse than useless, counter-productive to the ideas that they advocated. Given the failure of the workers in Barcelona to launch a strike that week as an expression of solidarity with the miners, now was not the time for revolution and nothing could justified the sterile sacrifice of a handful of lives..
Some decided to escape into the mountains or to cross into France with the aim of continuing their fight but the majority decided to surrender. As a result of these events, hundreds of workers were arrested by the government and eventually deported to the colonies of Equatorial Guinea and the Canary Islands on board the merchant ship Buenos Aires.
[*also known as the Fets de Fígols de 1932 (Events in Fígols in 1932)]

1932 - Peasant uprising in El Salvador leading to the 'Matanza Massacre' of 30,000.

1944 - Charles Erskine Scott Wood (b. 1852), American author, poet, painter, civil liberties advocate, soldier, attorney, Christian socialist and philosophical anarchist, dies. [see: Feb. 20]

1945 - Else Lasker-Schüler (b. 1869), German-Jewish Expressionist poet and playwright, dies. [see: Feb. 11]

[FF] 1952 - Ekibastuz Prisoners' Strike [Экибастузская Забастовка Заключённых]: The first major strike of prisoners, which became widely known across the camp system, begins. Here the zeks made the fatal mistake of declaring a hunger strike as well as a work strike. Even the goners – the wicks, the garbage-eaters – joined the hunger strike. This technique is only effective where the authorities scruple to let their prisoners die: but in Ekibastuz it only weakened the strikers’ physical strength and facilitated repression.
This was, apparently, also the last mass hunger strike in the Stalin gulag. The events are largely known in the West due to their having featured in Alexander Solzhenitsyn's 'One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich' (1962), which was based on his experiences at Ekibastuz, and in 'The Gulag Archipelago' (1974).
The strike began on the evening of the 22nd as part of the long-running battle of the prisoners against spies and informers amongst the prison population, when prisoners of the 1st lagging unit, using the broken bunks of one of the barracks closest to the BUR (high-security barracks) attempted to break down the fence to attack the informers held there. May of the prisoners were badly injured by guards wielding iron pipes and truncheons. The guard towers then opened fire randomly in the darkness, killing a peaceful old man lying on his bed in the ninth barrack, just a month before the end of his ten-year sentence.
Two days later, the hunger strike was launched with the following demands
To judge the perpetrators of the shooting.
Remove the locks from the barracks [barracks were only locked at night in the osobolagah (особлагах) or special camps].
To remove numbers [numbers were worn on clothes by political prisoners only in osobolagah] .
Review of ОСО (special NKVD courts) sentences in open courts [the demand was put forward by some barracks of the striking camp].

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: An attack on the Algiers-Kolea bus 25 kilometers from Algiers, leaves seven dead and three seriously injured. The Muslims on the bus were all spared.

[F] 1960 - Labour Law No. 696 issued in Cuba, establishing labour control offices. All workers - employed and unemployed - are required to register under threat of punishment.

1960 - Christian Ferrer, Chilean-born Argentinia anarchist, sociologist and essayist, born.

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: Having successfully captured the bridge, radio room and the crew of the Santa Maria, Henrique Galvão negotiated the surrender of the crew and their agreement on their future conduct during the hijacking. They are given 3 alternatives: : join the insurgents, become prisoners of war, or continue performing their duties under guard provided they do not try to resist the plans of the insurgents. The ship's captain Mário Simões Maia and his officers agree to the latter.
At 07:20, Third officer Nascimento Costa, mortally wounded in the takeover of the bridge, dies. Later in the morning, after the playing of Tchaikovsky’s '1812 Overture' and the Portuguese national anthem through the ship's PA system, Maia and Galvão announce to the passengers that the ship has been hijacked and that they would all be allowed to disembark safely in the next four days when the insurgents had made good their escape from Carribean waters. [see: Jan. 21]

1963 - Johannes Nohl (d. 1882), German writer, anarchist pupil of Otto Gross, lover of Erich Mühsam and later one of Hermann Hesse’s analysts, dies. [see: Aug. 8]

1967 - 200 killed in Managua, Nicaragua by Somoza's American-trained National Guard during a protest against state violence.

1973 - Durban Mass Strike: Truck drivers at Motor-Via in Pinetown, near Durban, begin picketing for wage increases. Management take a hard line and call in the police, and when workers refused the first wage offer 250 workers were dismissed. By January 25 workers returned to work, but 100 had been dismissed.
Long distance truck drivers also go out on strike demanding R40.00 a week, and 250 of them are dismissed when they refuse the management’s wage offer. Most return to work by January 25 but 100 are dismissed.

1975 - In Almada, Portugal the first issue of the monthly magazine 'Voz Anarquista', produced by the Centre de Culture Libertaire, appears.

[A] 1980 - Native American political prisoner Leonard Peltier, already sentenced to two life sentences, gets an additional seven years for escaping from a federal prison.

1980 - Teresa Noce, aka 'Estella' (b. 1900), Italian metal worker, journalist, labour leader, Communist activist, anti-fascist and feminist, dies. [see: Jul. 29]

1991 - Fifteen villagers massacred by US-supported government troops in El Zapote, El Salvador.

2004 - Chea Vichea (ជា វិជ្ជា), leader of the Free Trade Union of Workers of the Kingdom of Cambodia (FTUWKC), is assassinated. He had recently been fired by a garment factory in reprisal for helping to establish a union at the plant and had experienced numerous threats on his life for years because of his efforts to organise workers.

2018 - Ursula Kroeber Le Guin (b. 1929), US libertarian science fiction and fantasy novelist, short story writer, poet and essayist, dies at her home in Portland, Oregon. [see: Oct. 21]
1844 - Paul Brousse (d. 1912), French medical doctor, anarchist and socialist, member of the Jura Federation (IWMA), born. [expand]

1844 - Celso Ceretti (d. 1909), Italian anarchist contemporary of Bakunin involved with the founding conference of the Italian Federation of the International Association of Workers, born.

1890 - Malatesta's 'L'Associazione' ceases publication with the final London issue (No. 7).

1891 - Antonio Gramsci (d. 1937), Italian philosopher/communist, born. [expand]

1893 - The first issue of the French language magazine 'La Liberté' is published in Buenos Aires.

1905 - [O.S. Jan. 10] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The events of Bloody Sunday caused an immediate reaction on the part of the working class. St. Petersburg’s power stations are closed down by strikes and barricades appear in its streets.
The government urges local officials to use "decisive measures" to restore order; widespread arrests follow and Father Gapon’s Assembly union is suppressed.

1906 - [O.S. Jan. 10] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: A proposal is presented to the cabinet to allow the army to use the most extreme measures against rural unrest; it is quickly adopted, despite protests from War Minister General Aleksandr Rediger (Алекса́ндр Ре́дигер).

[E] 1906 - [O.S. Jan. 10] Ludmila Volkenshtein [Людмила Волкенштейн](Ludmila Alexandrovna Alexandrova [Людмила Александровна Алекса́ндрова]; b. 1857), Russian revolutionary, member of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), is killed during the storming of the Vladivostok fortress in a successful attempt to free prisoners held there at the end of the Russo-Japanese War. [see: Sep. 30]

[A] 1909 - 'Tottenham Outrage': Two Latvian anarchists, Paul Helfeld and Jacob Lepidus, fire over 400 rounds at their many pursuers (the police had to borrow 4 pistols from passerbys and numerous onlookers joined in the pursuit) following an attempted robbery. One cop and a 10-year old boy, struck by a stray bullet, are killed. A wave of anti-Semitic, anti-immigrant and anti-Left violence and repression was to follow. [expand]

1909 - Édith Thomas (d. 1970), Fench novelist and journalist, palaeographical archivist and historian, who was a pioneer of women's history in France, and reputedly inspired the character of Anne-Marie in the famous erotic novel 'Histoire d'O.', written by her lover Anne Desclos under the pen name Pauline Réage, born. A member of the Association des écrivains et des artistes révolutionnaires, she became a journalist on 'Ce Soir', the left-wing evening newspaper close to the Popular Front government. She covered the Spanish Civil War on the Republican side from Catalonia, writing articles for 'Vendredi', 'Europe' and 'Regards' and during WWII she joined the Résistance and of the Comité national des écrivains, the intellectual Résistance group led by Louis Aragon. In 1942, she also became a member of the French Communist Party. Although Thomas declared herself heterosexual, she had her most enduring affair with the translator and editor Anne Desclos.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: The IWW strike committee opens the first of a series on fifteen relief stations and (eleven) soup kitchens to feed strikers and their children.

1913 - Joe Hill's song 'Mr. Block' appears in the 'Industrial Worker'.

1919 - Seattle General Strike: During a parade in the city of units of the 96th Division, the first local troops to return from France, the troops cheered loudly as they passed the strike headquarters in the Collins building in Pioneer Square. [see: Jan. 21 & Feb. 6]

1919 - First Regional Conference of Peasants, Workers and Insurgents (anarchist Makhnovists), held in Bolché-Mikhailovska, Ukraine.

1920 - First great Dada event at the Palais des Fêtes in Paris, organised by the circle of the journal 'Littérature', and called 'Premier Vendredi de Littérature'.

[C] 1921 - In response to fascist attacks in Italy, the Unione Anarchica Italiana launches a manifesto 'Against Reaction and Its Political Victims' which concludes with the call "Workers! Comrades! Defend the political victims and defend yourself to!". During January the trades councils in Modena, Bologna and Vicenza are damaged or destroyed as well as the office of the socialist newspaper 'La Difesa' in Florence.

1922 - Vernon Scannell (John Vernon Bain; d. 2007), British poet, author, one time professional boxer who wrote novels about the sport, WWII deserter, agricultural labourer, honorary Gypsy, member of the editorial collective of War Commentary and anarchist, born.

1930 - Imperial Valley Lettuce Strike: With the majority of the Mexican strikers having either been deported or returned to work, the strike is called off just over three weeks after it began, without winning any of the workers' demands. [see: Jan. 1]

[F] 1933 - 196,000 workers – led by metal finishers – walk off the job over wage cuts at Briggs Manufacturing Company, sparking a strike wave of 15,000 auto body workers that paralyzes Detroit’s auto industry. With scabs trucked in and finished products trucked out under police escort, the company quickly resumed production. When the strike was called off on May 1, strikers were not rehired, but their collective action forced wage increases in the industry.

[B] 1937 - Chiquet Mawet aka 'La Woow' (Michelle Beaujean; d. 2000), Belgian playwright, storyteller, poet, polemicist, social activist and professor of ethics, who was a regular contributor to the Belgian anarchist monthly 'Alternative Libertaire', born. An adherent of the Yugoslav model of self-managed socialism (Titoism) and activist in the Joventuts Comunistes de Verviers in the 1950s, Michelle Beaujean spent six years (1955-61) in Yugoslavia studying Serbo-Croat and 'slavisme'. There she met her first husband, an actor, theatre director and accordionist, and their university theatre group toured the country. In 1961 she returned to Wallonia and became a teacher, whilst working with several theatre groups. In the 1970s, a period when she acquired the nickname 'Le Woow', she helped kick-start the Belgian anti-nuclear movement, representing the Association pour la Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants (APRI / Association for the Protection against Ionizing Radiation) at the press conference on June 19, 1975 that announced the creation of the Front commun Anti-Nucléaire (FAAN / Common Anti-Nuclear Front). On March 12 the following year during the constitutive general assembly of the Belgian section of Friends of the Earth held in Namur, Beaujean was appointed to the board of directors of this new ecological association. An active member of the radical anti-nuclear movement, she coordinated the organisation of protesters travelling from Belgium for the large demonstration on July 31, 1977 against the Superphénix nuclear reactor at Creys-Malville in France, and during which a protester died during violent clashes with the police.
In 1989, she took part in the Verviers-based artists' collective 'Silence, les Dunes!' and, into the 1990s, moved close to the anarchist movement, working regularly with the monthly newspaper 'Alternative Libertaire' and adopting her pseudonym Chiquet Mawet. In 1997 Chiquet helped found the Liege-based anti-electoral organisation the 'Cercle Carlo Levi' and the 'Chômeur, Pas Chien!' (Unemployed, not a dog!) collective, set up to campaign against the discriminatory regulations and policies then being enacted against the Belgian unemployed. That year she also collaborated on the collective book 'Le Hasard et la Nécessité : Comment Je suis Devenu Libertaire' (Chance and Need: How I Became a Libertarian), éditions Alternative Libertaire Belgique, 1997.
Amongst her theatrical works are 'La véritable histoire de Juliette et Roméo' (The true story of Juliette and Roméo; 1988), 'Piratons Perrault! ou L'horrible fin du sapiens : sortie sur le parvis du XXI e siècle' (Piratons Perrault! Or The horrible end of the sapiens: exit on the forecourt of the 21st century; 1990); 'Caius et Umbrella' (1990), 'La Pomme des Hommes' (The Apple of Man; 1991), 'La Reine des Gorilles' (The Queen of the Gorillas; 1991), 'Le Pape et la Putain' (The Pope and the Whore ; 1994), 'Le Prince-Serpent' (1994), and 'Nuinottenakt' (1995). After a long illness during which she did not publicise her illness and had refused further treatment, Chiquet Mawet died during the night of July 4-5, 2000, aged 62.

1940 - In Germany Jews were forbidden to buy shoes and leather.

1941 - The Spanish anarchist Agustín Remiro Manero is captured by the Secret Police in Portugal while acting as a courier for the British even though the Portugese PIDE secret police knew he was working for the Brits. Remiro is turned over to Francoist authorities who torture him and condemn him to death.

1945 - Georges Gourdin (b. 1915), French anarchist and WWII Resistance partisan, dies in the Nazi camps of Elbruck. [see: Apr. 11]

1945 - Nikolaus Groß (b. 1898), German Christian trade unionists, leaders in the Katholischen Arbeiterbewegung (KAB; Catholic Worker Movement), resistance fighter against the Nazis and Nazi victims, who was later beatified by Pope John Paul II in 2001, hanged at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin following the July 20 plot to kill Hitler. [see: Sep. 30]

1946 - Rob Stolk (d. 2001), Dutch Provo stalwart, anarchist and street activist, born. A founder in May 1965, with Roel van Duyn and Robert Jasper Grootveld. Provo officially disbanded on May 13, 1967.

1947 - Pierre Bonnard (b. 1867), French Post-Impressionist painter and printmaker, and a founding member of Les Nabis, dies. [see: Oct. 3]

1951 - Huelga Ferroviaria en Argentina: Against the backdrop of the continued intervention of the CGT in the UF and a total lack of progress in the introduction of the December agreements, a Congreso Extraordinario of delegates of all the different railway lines declared an indefinite strike from that date demanding:
1- Immediate application of the modified scale for peons and gatekeepers;
2- Immediate modification of the current roster with the participation of the Comisión Consultiva de Emergencia;
3- Cessation of the CGT intervention and elections in a term no longer than 60 days.

1952 - Võ Thị Sáu (Nguyễn Thị Sáu; b. 1933), Vietnamese schoolgirl who fought as a guerilla against the French occupiers of Vietnam, is executed by the French colonialists. At the age of twelve, having witness the French and their 'Việt gian' collaborationist minions killings and with her brothers already active in the anti-colonialist resistance, she joined the local underground resistance. Two years later she accompanied one of her brothers, escaping to the anti-French war zone in the north to join the Viet Minh. In 1949, she joined the police volunteers as cover for her underground activities and that year she threw a grenade at a group of French soldiers in a crowded market area in Đất Đỏ, killing a French officer and wound 23 soldiers. In 1950, Võ Thị Sáu was arrested by the Vietnamese National Government after throwing a grenade that killed two French officers. [NB: Other sources clain that she was arrested in late 1949 when her attempt to assassinate a collaborationist local canton chief, a local man responsible executing hundreds of suspected Viet Minh sympathisers, failed when her grenade did not explode.] Aged just sixteen, she was sentenced to death and the confiscation of all property. Her response to the judge's announcement of the sentence was to shout, "Down with the French colonialists!" A military court confirmed her death sentence in April 1951, despite her still being under the age of eighteen and she was executed by firing squad at 07:00 on January 23, 1952 whilst she sang what had been the North Vietnamese national anthem, 'Tiến Quân Ca' (Song of Advancing Soldiers). [NB: Mar. 13, 1952, the date given in Paul Grace - 'Vietnamese women in society and revolution. Volume 1' (1974), is incorrect.]

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: The 2 crew members seriously injured in the ship's takeover, together with 5 other crew, are let off in a lifeboat early on the morning two miles out from the St Lucia port of Castries as the ship's infirmary is unable to cope with their wounds. The Santa María, now renamed the Santa Liberdade, her new name painted in red letters on a banner hung in front of the bridge, then set sail at full speed on their south-eastern course. On the ship the insurrgents begin their attempts at indoctrinating the crew and especially the third class passengers - involving the distribution of anti-government pamphlets, the reading of anti-fascist poetry over the loudspeaker system and the creation of a new black, red, white and yellow-banded flag, together with attempts to breakdown the hierarchy among the crew and among the passengers, all with the aim of recruiting some to their cause as they will be unable to crew the ship across the Atlantic themselves. Only five crew members in the end joined their ranks [the rebels claim up to 50 passengers went over to their side too but there is little evidence beyond their own later accounts]
On St Lucia, Santa Lucia's Second Purser José dos Reis, who had been in command of the lifeboat, alerts the captain of the British frigate HMS Rothesay, which is in port, of the hijacking. The captain initially refuses to believe in the hijacking but Lord Oxford, the island's Administrator, says he witnessed a large white ship off the coast that morning and the Admiralty is informed. Reis also informs the Santa Maria's owners, the Companhia Colonial de Navegação (Colonial Navigation Company; CCN), who in turn informed the Portuguese government. Upon hearing the news, the prime minister Oliveira Salazar said of the rebels: "If I were them, I would have tried some kind of coup. For example, an attack on Cabinda or on one of the undefended Cape Verde islands and establish there, for at least a few hours, a type of government. It would be a great international scandal. Why are they so quiet?" This, more or less, was the insurrgents' plan, except that Salazar's version was a much more realisable one than Galvão's.
The search for the liner begins. [see: Jan. 21]

1961 - Grève Générale de l'Hiver [Winter General Strike] / Grève du Siècle [Strike of the Century]: The strike finally ends with "à une rentrée disciplinée des derniers grévistes" (a disciplined re-entry of the last strikers) [Pierre Tilly]. [see: Dec. 20]

1962 - Rolf Engert (b. 1889), German poet, playwright, publisher and writer on Stirner and Ibsen, dies. [see: Oct. 31]

1962 - Fifteen Committee of 100 supporters stage a sit-in at House of Commons demanding halt to nuclear weapon tests.

1972 - Miguel García Vivancos (b. 1895), Spanish Naïve painter, militant anarchist and member of the Los Solidarios group, dies. [see: Apr. 19]

1977 - 19-year-old Spanish student Arturo Ruiz Garcia is shot and killed as a group of armed fascists attacked a pro-amnesty [Ley 46/1977, eventualy passed on October 15] march on the Calle Estrella de Madrid. The action is later claimed in a phone call to the 'Information' (Information) newspaper by the Alianza Apostólica Anticomunista (Anti-Communist Apostolic Alliance), aka Triple A.
Ruiz García, a student at the Bachillerato Unificado Polivalente (Unified Multipurpose School) and a member of the construction section of the Comisiones Obreras (CC.OO.) union. Police later linked José Ignacio Fernández Guaza aka 'El Frutero', who fled on the evening of the attack to France in the possession of 2 pistols (and then to Argentina), and an Argentinian former member of the pro-nazi Alianza Libertadora Nacionalista de Argentina, Jorge Cesarsky Goldstein. The latter is understood to have owned the gun that Fernández Guaza took off him during the attack and with which he fired the fatal shot. Goldstein, who was arrested two days later, was sentenced to six years in prison but irronically he only served 10 months in prison because he was amnestied in November 1977 under the law that his victim was demonstrating in favour of.

1978 - A nationwide strike, involving both the public and private sectors, begins in Nicaragua, demanding the end to Anastasio Somoza’s dictatorship. The general strike paralyzed both private industry and public services for ten dates. The Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) overthrew Somoza’s U.S.-backed dictatorship the following year.

1986 - Joseph Beuys (b. 1921), German Fluxus, conceptualist and performance artist, sculptor, installation artist, graphic artist, art theorist, pedagogue of art, theosophist "anarchist and shaman", dies. [see: May 12]

1986 - About 500 kgs of uranium are accidentally pumped into the sea at Windscale.

1989 - Salvador Dali (b. 1904), Spanish Surrealist painter and self-publicitist, monarchist and fascist supporter who in his early years (falsely) claimed to be both an anarchist and communist, who also remained a life-long Catholic, dies. [see: May 11]

1999 - Maria Suceso Portales (b. 1904), Spanish anarchist militant and member of the Mujeres Libres, dies. [see: Mar. 4]

2002 - Robert Nozick (b. 1938), denizen of the minimal statists and other right-wing American fruit-loops ("Nozies"), dies. [see: Nov. 16]

2008 - Lisa Marley, a 32-year-old mother on suicide watch, was discovered hanged in her cell at women’s HMP Styal.

2012 - More than 1,000 Kyrgyz prisoners have so far sewn their lips shut as part of a hunger strike over prison conditions that began on January 18.
1864 - Marguerite Durand (Charlotte Marguerite Durand; d. 1936), French stage actress, journalist, socialist and feminist, who founded the daily feminist newspaper 'La Fronde', born.

1869 - In Madrid, Giuseppe Fanelli (sent by Bakunin) gathers the first Spanish group to join the First International and sows the seeds of anarchism among the peasants and workers, with lasting effect for over the next century.

1871 - Émile Roger (d. 1905), Ardennes anarchist, member of 'Les Desherities' (The Wretched) and 'Les Libertaires de Nouzon', born.

[B] 1890 - Jeanne Humbert (Henriette Jeanne Rigaudin; d. 1986), French writer, journalist, pacifist and anarchist militant, who belonged to the néo-Malthusien movement, fighting for sexual freedom and the right to contraception and abortion, born. Raised in Romans-sur-Isère and then, from 1901, in Tours, Jeanne Rigaudin was greatly influenced from the age of ten onwards by her mother's companion, the anarchist weaver Auguste Delalé. In Tours Jeanne got to know anarchist figures such as Laurent Tailhade and Jean Marestan. After Delalé was dismissed following his militant activities, the family went up to Paris where they were helped by Alfred Fromentin, 'l'anarchiste milionnaire', who owned the garage in Choisy run by Jules Dubois where Jules Bonnot and Octave Garnier were killed on April 28, 1912. In Paris Jeanne became the pupil of Eugène Vigo, aka Miguel Almereyda, the father of the libertarian filmmaker Jean Vigo, with Eugène teaching her shorthand. Following his birth in 1905, Jeanne became the secular godmother of Eugène's son Jean.
Among Eugène Vigo's circle was the Néo-Malthusien militant Eugène Humbert, whom Jeanne met in 1908 after she had become involved with the Ligue de la Régénération Humaine (League of Human Regeneration). Impressed by Humbert's views on free motherhood and women's emancipation, when in 1909 he asked her to join the secretariat running his Neo-Malthusian newspaper 'Génération Consciente', she accepted and they went on to collaborate closely, as well as becoming life partners, later marrying in 1924, and together they had a daughter in September 1915. Jeanne also collaborated on numerous other anarchist, pacifist and naturist publications including 'Le Libertaire', 'La Voie de la Paix', 'Liberté', 'Le Monde Libertaire', 'La Patrie Humaine', etc.
In the pre-war period, neo-Malthusian propaganda encountered severe repression, and Eugène had several periods in prison and when the war broke out in 1914, he took refuge in Barcelona. Jeanne joined him there. After their return to France in 1919, Eugène was arrested and sentenced to 5 years in prison. On November 5, 1921, under the new laws (passed in 1920) to repress anti-natalist propaganda, Jeanne and Eugène were both sentenced to two years in prison and a fine of 3,000 francs. Jeanne, who spent her prison term in Saint-Lazare prison, was on July 30, 1922. Eugène however was not released until February 1924.
They continued their activities promoting free motherhood but also in the naturist movement, of which Jeanne was inspired to write the 1928 novel 'En Pleine Vie' (In Full Life). With Eugène, she also participated in the creation of the French section of the World League for Sexual Reform (Ligue Mondiale pour la Réforme Sexuelle) andthey collaborated on Humbert's new publication 'La Grande Réforme' (May 1931- Aug. 1939), paper of the Ligue de la Régénération Humaine. From 1932 to the declaration of war she was a member of the Ligue internationale des Combattants de la paix (International League of Fighters for Peace), created by Victor Méric, writing articles and making numerous lectures for the movement.
During the same period she also collaborated on the Parisian review 'Controverse' (Jan. 1932 - Nov. 1934) and the Bordeaux bulletin Lucifer (1929-1931 and 1934-1935), edited by Aristide Lapeyre. She also authored numerous articles for Sébastien Faure's 'Encyclopedia Anarchiste' and toured widely in France lecturing on birth control and pacifism, famously being quoted on the theme of both saying: "Et d'abord les femmes ne doivent plus faire d'enfants tant que les patries auront le droit de les assassiner" (And first of all, women must not make children until their homelands have the right to assassinate them). This led to her being sentenced on July 18, 1934, to three months' imprisonment and a 100 francs fine but was pardoned following the protests of friends, fellow writers and intellectuals.
During the war she had taken refuge with her daughter Claude in Lisieux, where Eugène was arrested and imprisoned before dying under a bombardment at Amiens on June 25, 1944. In March 1946, Jeanne Humbert resumed the publication of 'La Grande Réforme', which she had to stop publishing for lack of resources three years later, after the thirty-second issue, having "vendu mes quelques bijoux que je tenais de ma mère, mes meubles, enfin tout" (Sold my few jewels that I held of my mother, my furniture, finally everything). In 1981, Bernard Baissat made the film, 'Ecoutez Jeanne Humbert', interviewing Jeanne on her life and times.
Jeanne Humbert's many works include 'Sous la cagoule. A Fresnes, prison modèle' (Under the cowl. In Fresnes, model prison; 1933), 'Contre la guerre qui vient', (Against the coming War; 1933), Éditions de la Ligue internationale des combattants de la paix, 'Jean Vigo, cinéaste avant-garde' (1957), 'Eugène Humbert : la vie et l'œuvre d'un néo-malthusien' (Eugène Humbert: the life and work of a neo-Malthusian; 1947), 'Sébastien Faure : l'homme, l'apôtre, une époque' (Sébastien Faure: the man, the apostle, an era; 1949), 'Les Problèmes du couple' (The Problems of the Couple; 1970), 'Deux grandes figures du mouvement pacifiste et néo-malthusien : Eugène Humbert et Sébastien Faure' (Two great figures of the pacifist and neo-Malthusian movement: Eugène Humbert and Sébastien Faure), as a special issue of 'La Voix de la Paix', 1970.
Jeanne Humbert died on August 1, 1986 in Paris.

1905 - [O.S. Jan. 11] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Moscow, Vilno, and Kovno are paralysed by general strikes. The Tsar appoints the reactionary Dmitri Feodorovich Trepov (Дми́трий Фёдорович Тре́пов), hated Chief of Moscow Police, as Governor General of the St Petersburg Governorate with full power to forbid all congresses, associations, or meetings. Gorky and other liberals that met with Mirsky on Jan.21 are arrested.

[1906 - [O.S. Jan. 11] Rebels create the Vladivostok Republic.

[D] 1911 - Eleven anarchists are hung for their supposed part in the High Treason Incident (大逆事件; Taigyaku Jiken) or Kōtoku Incident (幸徳事件; Kōtoku Jiken) plot against the Japanese Emperor's life. [see: May 20]

1911 - Kōtoku Shūsui (幸徳 秋水), pen name of Kōtoku Denjirō (幸徳 傳次郎; Kōtoku Denjirō; b. 1871), Japanese journalist, writer, and one of the most outstanding figures of Japanese anarchism, who translated many works of contemporary European and Russian anarchists, such as Peter Kropotkin, into Japanese, is executed alongside his partner Kanno Sugako (管野須賀子) and 9 other anarchists for their supposed part in the High Treason Incident (大逆事件; Taigyaku Jiken) or Kōtoku Incident (幸徳事件; Kōtoku Jiken). [see: Nov. 5]

1911 - Kanno Sugako (管野須賀子; b. 1881), also called Suga, Japanese anarcho-feminist journalist, writer and activist, is executed alongside her partner Kōtoku Shūsui (幸徳 秋水) and 9 other anarchists for their supposed part in the High Treason Incident (大逆事件; Taigyaku Jiken) or Kōtoku Incident (幸徳事件; Kōtoku Jiken). [see: Jun. 7]

1913 - Fight for the 8-Hour Day in Peru: The government took strong measures against the strike movement. A decree of January 24, 1913, prohibited strikes, prescribing severe penalties or those engaging in them. The employers took the offensive, and lock-outs were declared in the brewery, metallurgical, and other industries. [see: Jan. 5]

1915 - In Pisa an extraordinary congress is called to display a common postion amongst Italian anarchists in opposition to World War I.

1919 - Seattle General Strike: The Seattle Retail Grocers' Association discontinues food credit to idle workers. At the same time, the union-owned Cooperative Food Products Association extends credit, but its offices are raided by the police, allegedly looking for alcohol. [see: Jan. 21 & Feb. 6]

1919 - Calais Mutiny: Royal Army Ordnance Corps and the railwaymen at Calais go on strike, demanding the released of Private John Pantling, arrested for allegedly making a "seditious speech to an assembly of soldiers". On pay night (Friday 24) the men at Val de Lievre smashed open the jail and let Pantling out. The authorities tried to recapture him. When this failed, fresh military police were brought in. They arrested the sergeant of the guard for failing to prevent the prisoner's 'escape'. Anger was now rising. The Commanding Officer - by now a very frightened man - released the sergeant, and called off the attempt to recapture Pantling. He also agreed to a meeting with the men to discuss their grievances. The next day many concessions were made, including shorter hours. While this was taking place there was a distinct hardening of the attitude of the officers. The soldiers spent the weekend organising the other camps into Soldiers Councils. On Sunday the officers struck back and rearrested Pantling. The news spread quickly.

1920 - Palmer Raids: 3,000 arrested in a series of Red Scare raids across the US, most without cause or warrants, their homes and businesses invaded and destroyed.

1930 - Kim Jwa-Jin (김좌진), pen name Baekya (백야)(b. 1889), Korean anarchist guerrilla general, who is sometimes called the Korean Makhno, is assassinated by a young communist, Park Sang-sil (박상실 / 朴尙實), aka Choi Yeong-su (崔永錫), while carrying out repair work on a rice mill the Korean Anarchist Federation had built in Shinmin. [see: Dec. 16]
[NB: Jan. 20, 1930 is also sometimes cited as the date of his assassination.]

[A] 1932 - Prisoners in Dartmoor Prison riot over tainted food.

1937 - The first issue of the 'Boletin del Sindicato de la Industria Textil y de Badalona Fabril y su Radio' (Bulletin of the Union of Industry and Textile Factory of Badalona and Environs), a CNT-AIT monthly, is published.

1937 - A major conference entitled 'El Fascismo Internacional y la Guerra Antifascista Española', sponsored by Joan Garcia Oliver, the then Republic Justice Minister, the fourth in a series organised by the propaganda office of the CNT-FAI, is held in the Cinema Coliseum in Barcelona.

1942 - The Peace Pledge Union launches its Food Relief Campaign for occupied Europe.

1952 - Ekibastuz Prisoners' Strike [Экибастузская Забастовка Заключённых]: Two days after the prisoners had broken into the BUR (high-security) barracks as part of their long-running battle against the spies and informed housed there and during which the watchtowers had opened fire indescriminately, killing an innocent old man lying on his bunk, the prisoners launch a hunger strike, with the following demands:
To judge the perpetrators of the shooting.
Remove the locks from the barracks [barracks were only locked at night in the osobolagah (особлагах) or special camps].
To remove numbers [numbers were worn on clothes by political prisoners only in osobolagah] .
Review of ОСО (special NKVD courts) sentences in open courts [the demand was put forward by some barracks of the striking camp].

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: Commodore Laurindo dos Santos is appointed to coordinate the search for the rebel liner, the military, civil and religious institutions in Portugal’s African colonies - Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and Angola - are put on high alert ,and the frigate Pêro Escobar and two patrol aircraft are dispatched to Ilha do Sal in the Cape Verde Islands (Franco also dispatches the cruise Canárias). Meanwhile, the Portuguese authorities are claing the hijacking is an act of piracy (something the US and British eventually discount, recognising its political nature) and call on their NATO allies for assisstance.
Stung by the Portuguese government's claim that the rebels were mere pirates, Galvão fought back making a statement over the ship's radio about the true reasons behind the hijack: he publicly denounced Salazar’s regime, emphasising that theirs was an act of political protest which called for the end of Portugal's New State dictatorship.
Meanwhile, the ship's crew was keeping up a low-level sabotage orperation, claiming that they were suffering shortages of fuel and water, the former 'forcing' them to slow the ship's progress, and interfering with radio communication, even preventing Galvão's requests for asylum from the governments of Ghana, Guinea and Senegal. [see: Jan. 21]

[C] 1967 - Renato Castiglioni (b. 1897), Italian socialist, anarchist, trades unionist and anti-fascist, who fought in Spain but was deported back to Italy and internal exile in 1940, dies. [see Mar. 29].

[CC] 1977 - Matanza de Atocha [Massacre of Atocha]: Neo-fascists shoot dead five and injure four other leftists in Madrid during the Spanish transition to democracy after the death of Franco. The attack takes place in an office (55 Calle de Atocha) where specialists in labour law, members of the Comisiones Obreras (Workers' Commissions; CC.OO.) trade union, and of the then-clandestine Communist Party of Spain (PCE), have gathered.
Armed with Ingram M-10 sub-machine guns, the assassins are looking for Communist leader Joaquín Navarro, head of the CC.OO.'s Transport Syndicate. Failing to find him, the assassins decide to open fire on those present, killing five and injuring four. They first ran into Ángel Rodríguez Leál, an administrator who had returned from a nearby bar to retrieve some papers he had left in the office. After he is shot and killed, the attackers search the rest of the floor and discover eight lawyers in one of the offices. They line them up against the wall and shoot all eight. Labour lawyers Enrique Valdevira Ibáñez, Luis Javier Benavides Orgaz are killed instantly. Fellow labour lawyer Francisco Javier Sauquillo Pérez del Arco and law student Serafín Holgado de Antonio die shortly after being taken to hospital. Four others Alejandro Ruiz-Huerta Carbonell, Miguel Sarabia Gil, Luis Ramos Pardo and Dolores González Ruiz, partner of Francisco Sauquillo, are serious injured.
The joint funeral of the five was attended by over one hundred thousand people, the first mass demonstration on the left since the death of the dictator Franco.
Within days of the shootings, three men - Carlos García Juliá, José Fernandez Cerrá y Fernando and Fernando Lerdo de Tejada (nephew of the personal secretary of far-right party Fuerza Nueva's leader Blas Piñar) - were arrested for having carried out the attack, while Francisco Albadalejo Corredera, provincial secretary of the official transport union Sindicato Vertical, was arrested as the mastermind of the attack. Fernández Cerdá and García Juliá were sentenced to 196 years in prison each, and Albadalejo Corredera to 63 years. Tejada went on the run in 1979 whilst on bail, escaping to France, and then Chile and Brazil. Also arrested were Leocadio Jiménez Caravaca and Simón Ramón Fernández Palacios, veterans of the División Azul (Spaniards who volunteered to fight for the Nazis during WWII) who supplied the weapons, and Gloria Herguedas Herrando, the partner of Juliá, who was sentenced to a year in prison. García Juliá went on the run in 1994 whilst on parole and was arrested 2 years later in Bolivia on charges of trafficking 15 kilos of cocaine.

[E] 1977 - 21-year-old university student María Luz Nájera Julián dies in Madrid after being hit on the head by a smoke grenade fired by police at one of the numerous demonstrations across Spain protesting the death of Arturo Ruiz Garcia the previous day.

1977 - Lieutenant General Emilio Villaescusa Quilis, fromer member of the División Azul and high ranking Francoist officer, is kidnapped by GRAPO militants whilst riding his official vehicle. The kidnapping had a great political and social impact in Spain as it coincided with the recent kidnapping of the lawyer and Francoist politician Antonio Maria de Oriol (on December 11, 1976, also by GRAPO) and the Massacre of Atocha (which took place on the same day. However, on February 11th, police released Oriol and Villaescusa from where they were being held.

1978 - Robert Proix (b. 1895), French socialist, anarchist and pacifist, who was born in Jean-Baptiste André Godin's Familistère de Guise, a industrial workers community based on the principles of Fourier, dies. During WWII, he was interned in the Fort du Hâ in Bordeaux for helping Jews escape persecution. [see: Jan. 9]

1981 - Millions of Polish workers boycott their jobs in support of a demand by Solidarity for a 5-day work week.

[F] 1986 - News International Strike / Wapping Dispute: Beginning of the 54-week strike as 6,000 newspaper workers go on strike after protracted negotiations with their employers News International fail. On January 21, 'The Sun' NUJ chapel (the journalists had been offered a £2,000 bribe by the company) had voted 100-8 to move to Wapping despite NUJ instructions to the contrary. On the 23rd, the NUJ declared that 82% of its members had voted in favour of a strike. Police are moved into position around the Times Newspaper building.
The following day [24th], the union declares a strike. Rupert Murdoch's company responds by issuing dismissal letters to all print union members and starts production at Wapping, preciptating the historic Wapping print dispute. In solidarity with the sacked workers some, 'the refuseniks', decide not to move to the new Wapping site. [expand]

1993 - Manuel Medina González (aka Manolo Medina i Ariel; b. 1903), Andalusian journalist, poet, writer, Mason, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, then a Falangist, dies. [see: Aug. 23]

[1997 - Rebelimi i Vitit 1997 / Kriza Piramidale [Albanian Unrest of 1997 / Pyramid Crisis]: The de facto rebellion begins

1999 - Jay Abatan, a 42-year-old black Eastbourne man, is attacked by 2 white men while waiting at a taxi rank in Brighton. Punched to the ground, he hit his head on the pavement and is in a coma for five days before his life support machine is turned off. Charges against his attackers are dropped.

[AA] 2002 - The FBI and Secret Service Los Angeles Joint-terror Task Force armed with sub-machine guns, shotguns and bullet-proof vests raids the home of 18-year old Sherman Austin, anarchist webmaster of Raisethefist.com and founder of RTF Direct Action Network.

2005 - Osman Cameron, a vulnerable 45-year-old who suffered from autism and epilepsy, is found dead in his hospital room. Arrested on January 4 and taken to the Belgravia police station in Birmingham, where he spent two nights, he was assessed by doctors and social workers and sectioned under the Mental Health Act. Tragically, Osman was the brother of remand prisoner, Alton Manning, who also died in custody following a violent struggle with prison officers nearly ten years previously [see Dec 8] .

2006 - Nuur Saeed, aged 22, dies a fortnight after sustaining massive brain injuries when he fell from a second-storey flat in Woolwich, London, after police had entered the property on a search warrant. The police claim that on January 10 Nuur was in the property when officers attended but maintain that they had no physical contact with the deceased young man. No inquest has yet been held.

2011 - Peter-Paul Zahl (b. 1944), German anarchist of the '68 generation, writer, poet and novelist, dies of cancer in Jamaica. [see: Mar. 14]

2012 - Prison uprising at the Welikada jail in Columbo (Sri Lanka) leaving 28 prisoner (mostly with gunshot wounds) and five prison officials injured.
1844 - [O.S. Jan. 13] Yekaterína Bréshko-Breshkóvsky [Екатери́на Бре́шко-Брешко́вская], aka ' Babushka', 'grandmother of the Russian Revolution' (бабушка русской революции) (Yekaterína Konstantínovna Verigo [Екатери́на Константи́новна Вериго]; d. 1934), Russian activist in the revolutionary movement and teacher, who was one of the founders and leaders of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров) and its Fighting Organisation (Боева́я организа́ция), born. Best known for her memoirs 'The Little Grandmother of the Russian Revolution: reminiscences and letters of Catherine Breshkovsky' (ca. 1917). Initially a follower of anarchist Mikhail Bakunin, she was imprisoned in the katorga (ка́торга) system as a Narodnik revolutionary in 1874, and exiled to Siberia in 1878. After her release in 1896, she formed a Socialist-Revolutionary group and helped to organise the Socialist-Revolutionary Party in 1901. She escaped to Switzerland and the United States in 1900. After returning to Imperial Russia in 1905, she was captured and exiled to Siberia again. After the February Revolution of 1917, political prisoners were released, and Breshkovsky was offered a seat in Aleksandr Kerensky's government, which she turned down. When the Bolsheviks (who Breshkovsky was critical of) organised the October Revolution, she was again forced to flee. She died in Czechoslovakia.

1871 - Émile Roger (d. 1905), Ardennes anarchist, member of 'Les Desherities' (The Wretched) and 'Les Libertaires de Nouzon', born.

1882 - Francesco Cucca (d. 1947), Sardinian anarchist writer and poet, born. [expand]

1890 - The Knights of Labor Trade Assembly No. 135 and the National Progressive Miners Union combine to create the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA). The goal of the new union is to develop mine safety, to provide miners with collective bargaining power, and to decrease miners' dependence on the mine owners.

1891 - Jules Chazanoff aka 'Chazoff' (d. 1946), French electrical worker, proofreader, anarchist, syndicalist, anti-fascist and anti-militarist, born. [expand]
In 1936, Louis Lecoin entrusted Lucien Haussard and him with the mission to find weapons and ammunition on behalf of the Committee of Supply for the anti-fascist militias and the CNT. In January and February 1939, he and Haussard were sent by Solidarité Internationale Antifasciste to the Pyrenean border to provide assistance to refugees fleeing Spanish fascism. The pair wrote a striking account ('Visions d'horreur et d'épouvante') of the living conditions in these camps for the newspaper 'SIA' in February 1939, and he later intervens to free Haussard who had been arrested in Perpignan for "fraudulent introduction of foreigners into France". During the occupation, he reorganised the syndicat des correcteurs in the 'union-free zone' of the Lyon area (zone libre). Denounced as a communist for his work with the syndicat des électriciens, he was arrested by the Germans and interned at the Tourelles barrackes from July 2 to October 16 1941. During his detention he fell ill and had his stomach removed - the German Major in charge of the sick at Tenon hospital told him to "go off and die on your own" when releasing him. He then worked in the restaurants sociaux in the rue Pierre Lescot in Halles. November 18, 1943, he was arrested again after being denounced as a Jew, and interned at Drancy camp (north of Paris) in January 1944. He was released by the Allies on August 18, 1944, but having contracted tuberculosis, he could not now work and he died September 19, 1946.

1894 - Ramon Murull, a 37 year old bricklayer, attempts to assasinate Ramon Larroca i Pascual, the civil governor of Barcelona, in revenge for the crackdown against anarchist circles and the resulting torture inflicted on those detained following the attack on the Gran Teatre del Liceu of 7 November 1893. His first shot grazes the governor's cheek and before Murull gets a chance to fire again he is arrested. Murull claims that "My attack was not against Mr. Larroca, but against the civil governor, head of the anti-anarchist campaign". He gets 17 years in prison for his efforts.

1899 - Vincenzo Perrone (d. 1936), Italian railway worker, sales representative and anarchist, born. He fought in the Italian army during WWI and was sent to Tripoli during military operations against the Libyan revolt. Discharged from the army in December 1920, he enrolled in the Salerno section Combattenti ed ex Arditi di Guerra. A functionary in the State Railways, he attend some strikes and was fired for his political activities. As a suspected member of the anti-fascist Italia Libera (Free Italy), he was arrested on 29 April, 1925 in a group of communist militants as they tried to hold a May Day demonstration. In July 1925, he and the militant anarchist Gerardo Landi left Salerno and settled in Milan, where he frequented libertarian circles, and became an anarchist. He returned to Salerno in August 1926 and was caught up in one of the numerous fascist police raids 2 months later and was sentenced to 15 days in prison for "carrying a knife". Upon his release, he was sentenced to five years confinement and sent to various prison colonies (Favignata, Ponça and Lipari). With comrades Emilio Lussu, Francesco Fausto Nitti and Carlo Rosselli, he participated in a project to escape from the island of Lipari. In August 1928, he was brought before a Special Court for "communist activities", but was eventually acquitted for lack of evidence. In February 29, 1932 he was released and, in November 1933, crossed clandestinely in France and then into Switzerland, where in Geneva he contacted Luigi Bertoni. In March 1934, he went to Tunisia where, with the help of fellow anarchist militants Luigi Damiani, Antonio Casubolo and Giulio Barresi, to obtained permission to reside there, working as a sales representative and making numerous trips to France. In July 1936, when he was in Paris when war broke out in Spain, and he was in the first group of Italian anarchists (including Camillo Berneri, Mario Girotti, Giuseppe Bifolchi, Vincenzo Perrone, Ernesto Bonomini, Enzo Fantozzi, etc.) who went to Catalonia to fight the fascist uprising. He enlisted in the Batalló Giacomo Matteotti in the Italian section of the Ascaso Column, led by Carlo Roselli and Mario Angeloni, and fought on the Aragon front. On August 28, 1936, he was one of the first Italians (along with Mario Angeloni, Fosco Falaschi and Vicenzo Perrone) to die in the fighting in the Battle of Monte Pelado.

1899 - [N.S. Feb. 6] Maria Alexandrovna Ananyina (b. 1849), Russian revolutionary and member of the so-called terrorist faction (Террористи́ческая фра́кция) of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), dies of kindey disease. [see: Feb. 6]

1901 - Hippolyte Prosper Olivier Lissagaray (b. 1838), French independent revolutionary socialist, republican, literary journalist, lecturer and member of the Paris Commune in 1871, dies. [see: Nov. 24]

[E] [1903 - Fumiko Kaneko (金子 文子; January 25, 1903* - July 23, 1926), Japanese anarchist and nihilist. She was convicted of plotting to assassinate members of the Japanese Imperial family.
[* official records state 1902, however, these were drawn up many lears later & her family give it as 1903]

1905 - [O.S. Jan. 12] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: A railway strike began in Saratov, in Central Russia, where Governor Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin (Пётр Арка́дьевич Столы́пин) enforces a tough policy against strikers. The railway strike quickly spread to the other railway lines, extending the revolutionary wave outwards to the most backward provinces. Kiev is shut down by a general strike.
Stolypin's ruthlessness would somehow see him appointed as a 'reformist' prime minister on July 21 [8], 1906, following the resignation of the arch-conservative Ivan Logginovitch Goremykin (Ива́н Лóггинович Горемы́кин), a position he held until September 1911. His 'reformist' acts included the introduction of a new court system that made it easier for the arrest and conviction of political revolutionaries. Over 3,000 suspects were convicted and executed by these special courts between 1906 and 1909. As a result of this action the hangman's noose in Russia became known as "Stolypin's necktie".

1908 - André Mournier ('The Agronomist') flees to Switzerland after two anti-militarist articles by this anarchist and a member of the Colony of Aiglemont got him in hot water with the French government for "insulting the army".

1911* - Carme Millà i Tersol (d. 1999), Catalant artist (line drawing), designer, publicist and anarcho-syndicalist poster artist, born. Following the fascist military coup in July 1936, she was one of the creators in August 1936 (along with Enric Money, Gustau Cochet, Frank Alpresa, Ricardo Fernández, Lluís Alsina, Enrique del Amo, Enric Saperas, Josep Ballús, Ramon Saladrigas Ballbé, Joaquim Cadena, Josep Company, Eduard Badia Vilató, Albert Sanmartí, etc.) of the Secció de Dibuixants, Pintors i Escultors (Designers, Painters and Sculptors Section) of the Sindicat Únic de Professions Liberals (Single Union of Liberal Professions) in the CNT in Barcelona, known as the 'Dibuixants CNT' (CNT Designers), and a member of the section's Secretariat. In July 1936, she wrote the statutes of the Comitè de l'Escola Nova Unificada (Committee of the New Unified School) and designed its poster 'Escola Nova: Poble Lliure'.
In October 1936, along with Ramon Saladrigas Ballbé, appointed on behalf of the CNT to the Standing Liaison Committee of the Sindicat de Dibuixants Professionals (Union of Professional Designers), affiliated to the Unión General de Trabajadores. In May 1937, following the bloody events that took place in Barcelona, ​​she signed along with other CNY and UGT militants, a manifesto demanding the end to all violence amongst the workers; on the same date, she was appointed professor of art by the Catalan Generalitat. In 1938 she married her fellow anarcho-syndicalist artist Ramon Saladrigas Balbé and in March that year was appointed vice president of the 'Dibuixants CNT' (with Ramon as president). In April 1938 he signed, along with her fellow cenetistas Ramon Saladrigas, Eugenio Vicente, Ramon Arqués, Felipe Prado, Emili Freixes, Josep Company, Gaietà Marí i Joan Abellí, a manifesto addressed to the people of Catalonia calling on then to resist the fascist onslaught. With the fascist victory, she and Ramon left for France and eventually left for the Americas, arriving on July 27, 1939 in the port of Veracruz, Mexico. In 1941, along with Pere Calders and Ramon Saladrigas Ballbé, she held an exhibition of her work in Veracruz. She also illustrated numerous books, including Jaime Félix Gil de Terradillos - 'Los Senderos Fantásticos' (1949) and Josep Maria Francés - '13½ Cuentos' (1954), and led the editorial group on the 'Diccionario enciclopedico U.T.E.H.A.' (Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Union Tipografica Editorial Hispano Americana), that was eventually published in 1967.
In 1959, she returned to Barcelona, where in May she held an exhibition of her Mexican water colours in the Selecciones Jaimes gallery. She returned to Mexico in 1960 but returned permanently to Barcelona the following year, working in advertising. Carmen Millà Tersol died on December 1, 1999 in Barcelona.
[* many sources cite 1907]

1915 - In Coppage v. Kansas, the U.S. Supreme Court upholds "yellow dog" contracts, which forbid membership in labour unions, finding that state law, in this case Kansas, cannot outlaw companies from banning union membership amongst their employees.
denied to states as well the power to ban yellow-dog contracts.

1916 - Hans Coppi (d. 1942), German student and Communist resistance fighter in Nazi Germany, born. A member of the Roten Pfadfinder (Red Scouts) and Kommunistischen Jugendverbandes Deutschlands (Young Communist League of Germany) in his youth, he later joined the Kommunistischen Partei Deutschlands. In 1932, he was expelled from the progrssive Internat Scharfenberg 'school-farm' in Berlin-Tegel for his involvement in the showing of Georg Wilhelm Pabst's banned Franco-German solidarity film 'Kameradschaft' (Fellowship). Following the Reichstag fire in March 1933, he went underground and in January 1934 he was arrested by the Gestapo and imprisoned in Oranienburg concentration camp spend. Convicted of distributing illegal leaflets, he received a one-year sentence. Released in 1935, he returned to his clandestine activities and, after being rejected for conscription as unfit and "unworthy to bear arms", he joined the resistance group around Wilhelm Schürmann-Horster, which had contacts with members of the so-called 'Rote Kapelle' circle. In 1941 he married fellow resistance member Hilde Rake and began working for the NKGB (Narodnij Komissariat Gossudarstwennoi Besopasnosti/People's Commissariat for State Security) under the codename Funker as a radio operator.
On September 12, 1942, Coppi and his pregnant wife were arrested in Schrimm (now Śrem, Poland) - his parents, brother and mother-in-law were also arrested around this time. He was convicted by the Reichskriegsgericht (Reich Military Tribunal) and sentenced to death on December 19. On December 22 he was beheaded in Plötzensee Prison. Hilde gave birth to their son, Hans, on November 27, whilst in Barnimstrasse Women's Prison in Berlin, and was executed less than a year later, on August 5, 1943.

1923 - Kurt Gustav Wilckens, German anarchist pacifist emigrant, assassinates Colonel Varela aka the 'Killer of Patagonia' (so named for his role in the rounding up and summary execution of 1,500 workers, many of them anarchists) in Buenos Aires.

[F] 1926 - Passaic Textile Workers' Strike: Textile workers in mills in and around Passaic, New Jersey, go on strike over wages, hours, and working conditions. The strike ended on March 1 of the following year after the final mill being picketed signed a contract with the striking workers.

1937 - The Consell d'Economía de Cataluyna (Catalan Economic Council) launches a campaign called the Batalla de l'Ou (Battle of the Egg), designed to alleviate the scarcity of eggs in the region.

1938 - The first issue of the clandestine Spanish anarchist newspaper 'El Incontrolado' (The Uncontrolled) is published.

[B] 1939 - Giorgio Gaber, stage name of Giorgio Gaberscik (d. 2003), Italian singer-songwriter, actor, theatre director, playwright and anarchist sympathiser, who was one of the first Italian rock and rollers, born. Affectionately known as Il signor G (Mr. G) by his admirers (as well as being called "anarchico", "filosofo ignorante" (philosopher of ignorance) and "vate dei cani sciolti" (bard of the mavericks)), he was an accomplished guitarist and, together with Sandro Luporini, he pioneered the musical genre known as teatro canzone (song theatre).

Vorrei essere libero, libero come un uomo.
Vorrei essere libero come un uomo.

Come un uomo appena nato che ha di fronte solamente la natura
e cammina dentro un bosco con la gioia di inseguire un'avventura,
sempre libero e vitale, fa l'amore come fosse un animale,
incosciente come un uomo compiaciuto della propria libertà.

La libertà non è star sopra un albero,
non è neanche il volo di un moscone,
la libertà non è uno spazio libero,
libertà è partecipazione.

Vorrei essere libero, libero come un uomo.
Come un uomo che ha bisogno di spaziare con la propria fantasia
e che trova questo spazio solamente nella sua democrazia,
che ha il diritto di votare e che passa la sua vita a delegare
e nel farsi comandare ha trovato la sua nuova libertà.

La libertà non è star sopra un albero,
non è neanche avere un'opinione,
la libertà non è uno spazio libero,
libertà è partecipazione.

La libertà non è star sopra un albero,
non è neanche il volo di un moscone,
la libertà non è uno spazio libero,
libertà è partecipazione.

Vorrei essere libero, libero come un uomo.
Come l'uomo più evoluto che si innalza con la propria intelligenza
e che sfida la natura con la forza incontrastata della scienza,
con addosso l'entusiasmo di spaziare senza limiti nel cosmo
e convinto che la forza del pensiero sia la sola libertà.

La libertà non è star sopra un albero,
non è neanche un gesto o un'invenzione,
la libertà non è uno spazio libero,
libertà è partecipazione.

La libertà non è star sopra un albero,
non è neanche il volo di un moscone,
la libertà non è uno spazio libero,
libertà è partecipazione.

(I would like to be free, free as a man.
I would like to be as free as a man.

As a man born just in front of him only the nature
and walking through a forest with the joy of chasing adventure,
always free and vital, makes love like an animal,
unconscious as a man pleased with his own freedom.

Freedom is not star on a tree,
it is not the flight of a fly,
freedom is not free space,
Freedom is participation.

I would like to be free, free as a man.
As a man who needs to explore with their imagination
and that this space is only in its democracy,
who has the right to vote and who spends his life to delegate
and in taking control has found its new freedom.

Freedom is not star on a tree,
not even have an opinion,
freedom is not free space,
Freedom is participation.

Freedom is not star on a tree,
it is not the flight of a fly,
freedom is not free space,
Freedom is participation.

I would like to be free, free as a man.
As man evolved more that rises with their own intelligence
that defies the nature of science with the power unchallenged,
with him the enthusiasm of space without limits in the cosmos
and convinced that the power of thought is the only freedom.

Freedom is not star on a tree,
not even a gesture or an invention,
freedom is not free space,
Freedom is participation.

Freedom is not star on a tree,
it is not the flight of a fly,
freedom is not free space,
Freedom is participation.)

'La Libertà' (1972)


1949 - Katherine Ann Power, aka Mae Kelly and Alice Louise Metzinger, US academic and former student radical and fugitive from the FBI, born. She and her Brandeis University room-mate Susan Saxe worked to organise student protests through the National Student Strike Force in the late 1960s. With Saxe and NSSF member Stanley Ray Bond, she became involved in a plot to arm the Black Panthers as a response to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, robbing a National Guard armoury in Newburyport, Massachusetts on September 20, 1970, and a bank in Brighton, Massachusetts three days later on September 23. Bond and two others, William Gilday and Robert Valeri, who had taken part in the robberies were arrested shortly after. She and Saxe eluded capture and in November 1970, they became the sixteenth and seventeenth persons on the FBI's Most Wanted Fugitives list. On the run with Saxe (who eluded arrest until 1975), they hid out in women’s communes and she took the name Mae Kelly and, in 1977, Alice Louise Metzinger. She settled in Oregon in 1979, had a son, Jamie, working in restaurants and becoming a food writer.
In 1993, Katherine Ann Power negotiated a surrender with authorities and ended 23 years of hiding. On September 15, 1993, she pleaded guilty to two counts of armed robbery and manslaughter in Boston, and was sentenced to eight to twelve years in prison for the bank robbery, and five years and a $10,000 fine for the National Guard armoury crimes.

1950 - John William 'Chummy' Fleming (b. 1863), Britiah-born bootmaker, pioneer Australian unionist, agitator for the unemployed, and prominent Melbourne anarchist, dies aged 86 during the night of January 25-26. [expand]

1958 - First day (of 2) of the second SI conference in Paris.

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: The Danish freighter Fishe Gulua spoted the Santa Liberdade some 900 miles off of Trinidad, heading south-east. The Commander-in-Chief of the Atlantic Fleet of the U.S. Navy, Admiral Robert Dennison, is now in radio contact with Galvão and begins to apply pressure for the rebels to release their passengers, something that they had already promised to do. Brazil was the most logical point the passengers could be offloaded, the ship's fuel, water and food stores replenished before recommencing their African escapade, but Galvão believed that he could not trust the Brazilian president Kubitschek, who had already refused him asylum once previously. However a new president, Jânio Quadros, was due to be inaugurated as Brazil’s next president on January 31, so Galvão decided to try and link the passengers' release with Brazil granting the rebels asylum, and to enlist the US's assistance in aim. Meanwhile, the Portuguese government were far from happy with the Americans' handling, double-dealing as they saw it, of the situation, and demanded that they paid more attention to the fate of the ship's crew, fearing that they might be used as hostages in the future. Also, with the passengers out of the way, the Santa María would then become exclusively a Portuguese problem. [see: Jan. 21]

1961 - Military coup deposes El Salvador government.

1961 - Nadezhda Andreeva Udaltsova (Наде́жда Андре́евна Удальцо́ва; b. 1886), Russian Cubo-Futurist and Suprematist artist and painter associated with the anarchist movement during the 1917 Revolution, dies. [see: Nov. 29]

1962 - Lucy Fox Robins Lang (b. 1884), US anarchist and labour activist, dies. [see: Mar. 30]

1964 - Alternate date for the death of Gregorio Jover Cortés (b. 1891), Spanish militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist activist and fighter against Franco, according to the Ateneu Llibertari Estel Negre. [see: Mar. 25 & Oct. 25]

1968 - Alexander Dubcek ascends to power and launches the short-lived 'Prague Spring' of liberalisation.

[A] 1969 - 500,000 attend funeral of Jan Palach, Prague.

1971 - Home of the Lord Provost of Glasgow bombed. [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]

1972 - 18-year old Nan Freeman – a college student at New College in Sarasota, Florida and native of Wakefield, Massachusetts, who had responded to appeals for help by striking farm workers at the Talisman Sugar plant near Belle Glade, Florida – is struck and killed by a double trailer truck driven by a scab driver. Pickets had complained to the police about scab drivers speeding by the picket lines through stop signs at the plant gates to splash rain and mud on the striking workers. Cesar Chavez wrote of Freeman, "…she is a sister who picketed with farm workers in the middle of the night because of her love for justice…to be honored and remembered for as long as farm workers struggle for justice."

1973 - Durban Mass Strike: Workers at the Frametex textile company downed tools, demanding R20 a week – they were being paid between R5 to R9 a week. The British press in their coverage of the strikes blamed employers for paying low wages, and focused their reporting in large part on Philip Frame of the Frame Group. By February 2, workers at other Frame Group companies joined the strike, some 6,000 in total. By the time they accepted a wage offer, workers at yet other Frame Group companies went on strike, and textile workers at other factories, both large and small, joined in.

1975 - Willie Roger Holder and Catherine Marie Kerkow, both of who had been involved in the hijacking of Western Airlines Flight 701 from Los Angeles to Seattle on June 2, 1972, are arrested in Paris by French police after having entered the country illegally from Algeria on fake passports under the names Leavy Forte and Janice Ann Forte. Widely reported as being Black Panther members, indeed the FBI claimed that Holder was a "leading member", they were in fact an African American Vietnam veteran, and his girlfriend, who was a stripper and small-time weed dealer. Broke and out of jobs, they hatched their hijack plan, 'Operation Sisyphus', and initially planned to fly to North Vietnam and ask for political asylum there.
On board Flight 701, the hijackers claimed they had a bomb in an attaché case and demanded $3 million in ransom, later reduced to $500,000. After allowing half the passengers to get off in San Francisco and the other half to get off in New York on a re-fuelling stop, they flew on to Algeria, in what remains the longest-distance hijacking in American history. Arriving in Algiers the following day, they requested political asylum, and also asked to be met at the airport by Eldridge Cleaver, who had been granted asylum there after escaping an attempted-murder charge in the US. More interested in the ransom money, the Panthers' International Section in Algiers being desperately in need of cash, Cleaver met them and Holder and Kerkow were eventually allowed to leave in the Panthers’ custody. The group hailed them as revolutionary heroes until they learned that the country’s president, unconvinced that the couple were political refugees, announced that he was sending $488,000 of the ransom money back to the US.
The pair joined the International Section of the Black Panther Party but grew bored with the revolutionary life, eventually securing fake passports and, after Kerkow had made a number of undetected trips to France, they decided to leave Algeria for good and set up in Paris in a flat there. Arrested at the request of the FBI, on April 15, 1975, a French court refused a US extradition request for the pair on grounds the hijacking was a political act. In July 1986, French authorities moved to deport Holder to the US after he completed his sentence for 1984 assault charges. Kerkow, who remains on the FBI wanted list, was never extradited, and her whereabouts and status remain unknown.

[C] 1979 - A gang of fascists in black uniforms with 'Anti-Communist League' badges on break into a film show organised by the Brighton Campaign for Homosexual Equality and the Sussex University Gay Group in the Wagner Hall. [PR]

1979 - Imperial Valley Lettuce Strike: Employers offer a 21 percent wage increase over 3 years [i.e., 11%+3%+7%]. The growers also hire a PR firm to conduct an advertising campaign in Mexicali newspapers urging striking workers to return to work.

2001 - In Davos, under massive police protection the World Economic Forum meets as anti-Globalisation protesters (having slipped through closed borders) try to disrupt the Forum.

2001 - The first World Social Forum begins in Oporto Alegre, Brazil.

[D] 2011 - Over 50,000 people occupy Tahrir Square in Cairo during a 'Day of Rage', triggering the Egyptian Revolution.
[A] 1788 - A fleet of 11 ships lands in Port Jackson, Australia after sailing with the continent's first 1,030 English settlers, including 736 convicts

1817 - Jean-Baptiste Godin (d. 1888), Utopian socialist thinker, Fourieriste and founder of Familistère (Social Palace) utopian community in Guise, northern France, born.

1840 - Édouard Vaillant (d. 1915), Paris Communard revolutionary, co-editor of the 'Affiche Rouge' (Red Poster) and member of the Blanquist tendency of the First International, born.

1856 - The first Battle of Seattle occurs when Native Americans attack the new settlement of Seattle.

1876 - Gérard de Lacaze-Duthiers (d.1958), French Individualist anarchist, friend of the arts, pacifist intellectual and originator of the slogan "Make your life a work of art", born. A prolific author of over 40 books and pamphlets dealing with the arts, literature and pacifism, he founded the magazine 'L'Action d'Art' in 1913 with André Colomer and Manual Devaldès.

1877 - Kees van Dongen (Cornelis Theodorus Maria van Dongen; d. 1968), Dutch painter, cartoonist on the anarchist magazine 'La Revue Blanche' and one of the founders of Fauvism, born. [expand]
Participated, alongside fellow Fauvists André Derain and Maurice de Vlaminck, in the November 1941 Weimar congress of European artists organised by the Nazi "official state sculptor" Arno Breker, and was considered a collaborationist post-WWII.

[F] 1886 - In Decazeville, France, the pitiless sub-manager of Watrin Mines, who had forced a 10% reduction in workers' wages, ignores their protests. Attacked by an angry crowd, he barricades himself in his office and, still under attack, dies when he jumps from his window.

1887 - Mikhael Guerdjikov (d. 1947), Bulgarian anarchist influenced by Bakuninist ideas who started the first Bulgarian anarchist paper, 'Free Society', born. [expand]

1897 - Erwin Blumenfeld (d. 1969), German-Jewish photographer, Dadaist collage artist, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, born.
"Dadaism was a good vehicle from which to launch darts at all those aspects of society for which he felt contempt… he was intensely disillusioned with capitalism, nationalism, communism…all the isms except Dadaism and anarchism." - Yorick Blumenfeld, on his father.

1901 - Marguerite Aspès (d. 1937), French anarchist militant and revolutionary syndicalist, born.

1905 - [O.S. Jan. 13] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: In Riga 60,000 workers stage a political general strike in response to a call the previous day by the Latvijas Sociāldemokrātiskā Strādnieku Partija (Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party) to protest against the Bloody Sunday massacre in St. Petersburg. ["Now that the snow bridge in St. Petersburg have the blood of our comrades - a disgrace to work and shed sweat for the benefit of the exploiters. At this important moment in our duty, the duty of all workers to quit work and join the St. Petersburg comrades! We declare a general strike." - LSDWP leaflet] The strike quickly spread across Latvia to Liepaja, Venstspils, Jelgava and Daugavpils, lasting for 12 days.
In Riga itself, 15-20,000 workers staged a protest march. Starting from the city's Moscow suburb, the workers marched along Great Moscow Street towards the city centre singing revolutionary songs and carrying red flags and banners. At the then Iron Bridge (Dzelzs tilts) over the river Daugava [rebuilt and renamed as the Railway Bridge (Dzelzceļa tilts) after it was destroyed by WWII bombing] the protesters were stopped by a company of Riga junior officer school soldiers. Ordered to disperse, the crowd continued to press forward. Climbing onto the bridge, some began to pelt the troops with rocks whilst other tried to disarm the soldiers. Meanwhile, a second junior officer company had arrived from another direction, hemming-in the protesters on the bridge. Under orders from the blood-thirsty Russian governor general, Baron Alexander Meller-Zakomelsky (Александр Николаевич Меллер-Закомельский) — another target of the workers' ire, along with the rest of the Tsarist ruling class — to fire on the crowd, three volleys of turned the snow on the bridge bright red. Panic set in and many attempted to jump on the icy river Daugava to escape, but the ice was too thin and many drowned. More than 70 people were shot dead and over 200 injured. An unknown number were also drowned.
Meller-Zakomelsky was proud of the way his men had handled the situation and later wrote to the Tsar suggesting that if more local authorities were willing to act with such decisiveness there would be no further trouble. In the teeth of such ferocious repression, the strike movement continued to sweep like wildfire through Poland and the Baltic states. A similar situation existed in the Caucasus where a political general strike broke out. The movement cut across all national lines: Polish, Armenian, Georgian, Lithuanian and Jewish workers expressed their solidarity with their Russian counterparts in the most practical way — by fighting against the hated Russian autocracy.

[1907 - 'The Playboy of the Western World' première and riots

1912 - Emilio Vilardaga Peralba (d. 1969), Catalan militant anarcho-syndicalist and member of the 'Tierra y Libertad' column, who was imprisoned under Franco, born. [expand]

1913 - Juana Quesada (d. 2003), Argentinian feminist activist and anarchist, born in Pilar, Buenos Aires. Raised in a working class family of libertarian ideals, her brother Fernando Quesada also stood out as an anarchist militant. Based in the 1930s in Bahia Blanca, Juana joined the Federación Femenina Antiguerra and, following the fascist uprising in Spain in 1936, joined Ayuda al Pueblo Republicano, an anti-fascist solidarity organisation suporting the Second Spanish Republic, where she forged links with other anarchist women of the period including Carmen Vazquez, Juana and Menchu ​​Garballo, and Mercedes Vazquez. In 1938 she settled in Buenos Aires, joining the Federación Anarco Comunista Argentina, which in 1955 changed its name to the Federación Libertaria Argentina, where she took charge of the cultural commission. In 1942 she teamed with the anarchist Jacobo Maguid, known by his pseudonyms Jacinto Cimazo or Jacinto Macizo, and with whom she had a daughter. She died in Buenos Aires in October 2003).

1918 - Malka (Mala) Zimetbaum (d. 1944), a Belgian woman of Polish Jewish descent, known for her escape from the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp (the first woman to do so) and the resistance she displayed at her execution following the escape's failure, born. [see: Sep. 15]

1919 - Seattle General Strike: At a meeting of executive officers of local unions, it is recomended to the Central Labor Council that any general strike should be governed by a Strike Committee composed of three delegates from each striking union. The Seattle Central Labor Council holds a mass meeting, at which a motion to endorse the strike is carried by a unanimous vote. [see: Jan. 21 & Feb. 6]

1919 - The first issue of the weekly Italian language libertarian periodical 'Alba Rossa' (Red Dawn) published in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

[C] 1924 - The People's Defence Force (PDF) issues a statement following its founding at the 1917 Club in Soho by the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB), stating that the "existence of a militant body calling itself the British Fascisti obviously inspired by the example of the Italian reactionaries ... calls for a corresponding force pledged to resist any interference with the due operation of the constitution." The PDF described itself as a “…non-aggressive, legalistic organisation and even commended the police as a model to all its members. …independent but nevertheless aligned to the ‘workers movement’…’keep a watchful eye on the activities of the Fascisti…”

[B] 1924 - Armand Gatti, prolific French libertarian playwright, poet, journalist, screenwriter, film-maker and Maquis member, born. Captured by the Germans during WWII, he was tortured and sentenced to a concentration camp in Hamburg where he was forced to work in a diving bell at the bottom of the Baltic Sea. Gatti eventually escaped and made his way back into France on foot, and then to London where he joined a British Special Air Service special forces parachutist team. Post-war he became a journalist successively for 'Le Parisien Libere', 'Paris-Match', 'France Observateur', 'L'Express' and 'Libération', in order to pay for his travel and political adventures. He abandoned his journalism in 1959 to devote himself to the theatre. His works include the plays 'Chant Public Devant Deux Chaises Électriques' (Public Singing Before 2 Electric Chair; 1966) - on Sacco and Vanzetti; 'La Colonne Durruti' (The Durruti Column; 1972); 'La Passion du Général Franco par les Émigrés Eux-Mêmes' (The Passion of General Franco by the Émigrés Themselves; 1976). Husband of Hélène Châtelain, French actress (in Chris Marker's 'La Jetée'), writer, filmmaker and director of the film 'Nestor Makhno, un Paysan d’Ukraine' (1995).

1935 - Maria Paula Figueiroa Rego, Portuguese-born British feminist and anti-fascist/Salazar painter, collagist and printmaker, born. She was married to the British anarchist painter Victor Willing.

1939 - Following the unsuccessful attempt by the remnants of the Republican army to defend the front at the Llobregat river, Barcelona falls to the fascists. Fascist sympathisers and staunch Catholics crawl out of the woodwork to greet their entry into the city as hundreds of thousands continue to flood across the border into France during what became known as La Retirada (The Retreat).

1940 - The fascist trade union structure the Organización Sindical Española, also know as the Sindicato Vertical, the only legal trade union organisation in Francoist Spain and a main component of the Movimiento Nacional Francoist apparatus, is formed.

1942 - Diana Oughton (d. 1970), US member of the Students for a Democratic Society Michigan Chapter, the SDS's radical Jesse James Gang (as well as its full-time organiser) and the Weather Underground, who died in the Greenwich Village townhouse explosion, born.

[EE] 1944 - Angela Yvonne Davis, prominent African-American radical political activist, academic, educator, author, feminst, prisoner rights advocate and prison abolition campaigner, who helped found Critical Resistance, born. A prominent radical in the 1960s, she was active in the Civil Rights movement and, in 1967, joined the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and then the Black Panther Party, as well as the Che-Lumumba Club (an all-black branch of the CPUSA). A member of the Communist Party USA, in 1969 the University of California at Los Angeles, urged by then-California Governor Ronald Reagan, fired her from her professorship for her party affiliation. This move was deemed illegal and she resumed her job, only to be sacked for "inflammatory language" that she had used in four different speeches.
A supporter of the Soledad Brothers, she was charged in absentia with "aggravated kidnapping and first degree murder in the death of Judge Harold Haley" following the August 7, 1970 attempt by George Jackson's younger brother Jonathan to kidnapping Superior Court judge Harold Haley from the Marin County Courthouse during the trial of another Black Panther named James McClain. The three guns used in the 'Marin County courthouse incident', which ended in a shootout during which Jonathan Jackson, Haley and two others dies, were purchased and registered in Davis' name. Davis fled to avoid arrest and was placed on the FBI’s ten most wanted list. She was captured by the FBI on October 13, 1970, with President Richard Nixon congratulating the FBI on its "capture of the dangerous terrorist, Angela Davis." In February 1972, after sixteen-month on remand in prison, the state finally allowed her release on bail and acquitted of all charges by an all-white jury on June 4, 1972.
Her later academic career included Professor of Ethnic Studies at the San Francisco State University and professorships in the History of Consciousness and the Feminist Studies Departments at the University of California, Santa Cruz.
Davis left the Communist Party in 1991, leaving it to help found the Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism, which itself broke with the CPUSA folowing its support for the 1991 Soviet coup attempt.

[1952 - Black Saturday: Following yesterday's assault on the barracks attached to the governorate building in Ismaïlia, Egypt by the British military which left 50 Egyptians dead and 80 others injured, mass rioting takes place in Cairo.

[E] 1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: In the ten minutes between 17:00 and 17:10, female FLN operatives (the prefered bomb couriers) again planted bombs in European Algiers, the targets being the popular student café-bar the Otomatic on Rue Michelet, the Cafétéria milk bar and the Coq-Hardi brasserie - Danièle Minne, accompanied by Zahia Kerfallah because as this was her first mission, planting the Otomatic bomb, Zoubida Fadila the one at the Cafétéria, and Djamila Bouazza at the Coq-Hardi. The first bomb in the Otomatic went off at 17:24 and the other two at 18:35, the three explosions leaving 4 dead and 50 wounded. In retaliation a Muslim was lynched on the spot by Pied-Noirs.
www.histoire-en-questions.fr/guerre algerie/alger-attentats-otomatic.html
www.histoire-en-questions.fr/guerre algerie/alger-attentats-milkbar.html

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: An American plane spots the Santa Maria some 700 miles from the mouth of the Amazon en route to Africa. The liner is now under constant American surveillance. At the first official US press conference on the affair, President Kennedy states that the Navy has been instructed not to board the liner. [see: Jan. 21]

1968 - 40 members of the Nanterre University anarchist group march into the faculty hall with comical posters ridiculing the police. The dean of faculty calls in the police, who are chased off campus.

1970 - In Manila 20,000 riot following Marcos' State of the Nation address.

1971 - Noam Chomsky, famed linguist, critic and anarcho-syndicalist, delivers the Bertrand Russell Memorial Lecture in Cambridge.

1978 - The NF hold a meeting in Tameside Town Hall, with two thousand anti-racists protesting outside, while two hundred supporters of the National Front meet inside, and two thousand two hundred police are required to keep the meeting open.

1978 - Jeudi Noir [Tunisian Black Thursday]: Demonstrations organised by the Union Générale des Travailleurs Tunisiens (UGTT; General Union of Tunisian Workers) in Tunis led to clashes between state security forces and striking workers. Scores of demonstrators are killed and injured, and hundreds of UGTT members, including its leadership under Habib Achour, are arrested. The demonstrations were also an expression of the growing protest movement against the worsening economic crisis in Tunisia brought on by state policies as framed in the Five-Year Plan of 1973–1977.

[1978 - Grave riot in Carabanchel prison

1986 - Alfonso Failla (b. 1906), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist fighter, who took part in the armed resistance against the fascist squadristi in the 1925 Siracusa Uprising and who spent many years interned on the island of Ponza by the fascist regime, dies. [see: Jul. 30]

1989 - Llum Gil Domènech (b. 1901), Catalan anarcho-syndicalist militant, dies. Introduced the libertarian movement at a young age by her father, she was particularly active in the CNT from the 1930s in the Sindicat Tèxtil. In 1976 she joined the CNT's Sindicat de Jubilats (Pensioners Union) in the Verneda neighborhood of Barcelona.

1997 - Three thousand people attempt an assault on parliament following a demonstration in Tirana. In Valona (Vlore), a bomb is thrown at the police during a protest march. The town hall is set on fire.

1999 - Australian Heritage Commission accepts the Tent Embassy as a place of special significance to indigenous Australians.
1513 - African slaves are introduced into the island of Puerto Rico.

[D] 1606 - Guy Fawkes and the seven other surviving* Gunpowder Plot conspirators - Everard Digby, Robert Wintour, John Grant, Thomas Bates, Thomas Wintour, Ambrose Rookwood, and Robert Keyes - are tried, convicted and condemned to be drawn backwards to his death, by a horse, his head near the ground and "put to death halfway between heaven and earth as unworthy of both". Their genitals would be cut off and burnt before their eyes, and their bowels and heart then removed. Then they would be decapitated, and the dismembered parts of their bodies displayed so that they might become "prey for the fowls of the air" as a warning to others.
Their plan had been to blow up the House of Lords during the State Opening of England's Parliament on November 5, 1605, thereby killing King James I of England and VI of Scotland, who had been zealous in his persecution of the Catholics in England since his succession to the English throne. His assassination was then meant to spark a popular revolt in the Midlands (the base of the majority of the plotters) during which James's nine-year-old daughter, Princess Elizabeth, was to be installed as the Catholic head of state. However, during a search of the House of Lords around midnight on the night before the State Opening, Fawkes, who had been given the charge of the 36 barrels of gunpowder secretted in a cellar bellow the building, was discovered guarding the explosives, which had been hidden under piles of faggots (bundles of firewood) and coal. The jig was up and once news of the aprehension of John Johnson's arrest (the name Fawkes gave his captors) spread, the majority of the remaining plotters high-tailed it north in an effort to escape capture.
In an irony of history, the gunpowder — claimed to be enough to reduce the House of Lords to rubble — is now believed by many historians to have been old and so degraded that it would probably not have properly exploded even if Fawkes had managed to ignite it.
[*Plot leader Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, and the brother Christopher and John Wright having been killed during the seige of Holbeche House in Staffordshire on November 7, 1605, where they had fled follwoing the plot's discovery, and Francis Tresham died on December 23, 1605, in whilst awaiting trial the Tower of London - Catesby, Percy and Tresham's head were displayed on pikes outsdie Parliament.]

1842 - François Dumartheray (d. 1931), French anarchist communist and member of the First International, born.

1850 - Samuel Gompers (d. 1924), Anglo-American cigar-maker, conservative US labour union leader and Freemason, who as president of the American Federation of Labor strongly opposed the IWW ("rainbow chasers") and any thing that smacked of socialism in his defence of craft unionism, is born in London, England.
"We want more school houses and less jails; more books and less arsenals; more learning and less vice; more constant work and less crime; more leisure and less greed; more justice and less revenge; in fact more of the opportunities to cultivate our better natures, to make manhood more noble, womanhood more beautiful and childhood more happy and bright."

[B] 1875 - Juana Belén Gutiérrez de Mendoza (María Juana Francisca Gutiérrez Chávez; d. 1942), Mexican anarcha-feminist activist, typographer, journalist and poet, born. The daughter of a mestizo father, Santiago Gutiérrez, and a mother, Porfiria Chávez, of Indian descent, hers was a poor rural family typical of the period, surviving on the meagre wages her father earned as a blacksmith, horse-tamer and farm labourer. The family's one claim to fame was one of Juana Belén's grandfathers, a poor working man, who had been executed by firing squad because of his beliefs and was held in high esteem by the family. Even so, she was able to overcame this adversity. Largely self-taught, it was through the reading of Peter Kropotkin, Mikhail Bakunin and Pierre Joseph Proudhon, whose works she would later translate into Spanish, that she began to identify within the anarcho-syndicalist current. In 1887, at the age twelve, she married an illiterate miner in Sierra Mojada, Chihuahua, called Cirilo Mendoza, who Juana taught to read and write. In 1897, she began to collaborate on the newspapers 'El Diario del Hogar' and 'El Hijo del Ahuizote', and began learning the craft of typography. That same year she was imprisoned in the Minas Nuevas prison for her defence in print of the labour rights of the miners at the La Esmeralda mine in Chihuahua state, contained in a report she had written criticising the poor working conditions in the mine. Following her release, in 1899 she founded the Club Liberal Benito Juárez, a group frequented by the Flores Macon brothers, Camilo Arriaga, Librado Rivera and others. The following year she published a book of her poetry and participated in the creation of the libertarian Partido Liberal Mexicano (Mexican Liberal Party) with her fellow Club Liberal Benito Juárez members.
By 1901, Juana had become a teacher and was living in the town of Guanajuato, and it was there that she and fellow schoolteacher Elisa Acuña y Rossetti founded the weekly newspaper, 'Vésper', with Gutiérrez having sold some of her goats in order to raise sufficient cash to buy a small printing press. She has also become an active member of the Movimiento Precursor, a small but committed group throughout Mexico which agitated against the increasingly oppressive regime of President Porfirio Díaz. In the pages of 'Vésper' Juana regularly attacked the clergy in Guanajuato, wrote against the domination of foreign influences in Mexico and continued her campaigning against Díaz and his contempt for the ordinary people of the country. 'Vésper' quickly gained a reputation outside of Guanajuato itself, with the PLM newspaper 'Regeneración' stating: "Now, when many men have lost heart and, out of cowardice, retired from the fight…. now that many men, without vigour, retreat… there appears a spirited and brave woman, ready to fight for our principles, when the weakness of many men has permitted them to be trampled and spit upon." As the main contributor to 'Vésper' and its printer, she was denounced and the paper seized, and to avoid another spell in prison, she moved to Ciudad de México (Mexico City).
In 1902, she resumed the publication of 'Vésper' in the capital, continuing her attacks on the government. The following year she joined the Club Liberal Ponciano Arriaga, signing (on February 27, 1903) as First Member (primer vocal)[i.e. first listed non-official] the Manifiesto del Club Liberal Ponciano Arriaga, which called for the release of political prisoners and universal suffrage, amongst others demands. During the meeting, undercover police staged a 'riot', a pantomime that provided the excuse necessary for the arrest of Juana Belén, Elisa Acuña y Rossetti, Camilo Arriaga, Ricardo and Enrique Flores Magón and Juan Sarabia, who were all were held in the dismal prison of Belén. Later she was banished to Laredo, Texas, where she met up with the brothers Flores Magón, Santiago de la Hoz, Juan Sarabia, Elisa Acuña y Rossetti and Sara Estela Ramírez. With Elisa Acuña and Sara Estela Ramírez, Gutiérrez recommenced the publication of 'Vésper' and, with Acuña, she edited the socialist newspaper 'Fiat Lux'.
In 1905, Juana returned to Mexico City, where she brought together groups of workers under the banner Socialismo Mexicano, and edited the group's new newspaper 'Anáhuac'. At the same time, she also wrote for the more mainstream 'Excélsior' newspaper. In 1907, she founded Las Hijas de Anáhuac, a group of some 300 libertarian women, which agitated for strikes for better working conditions for women. The group was also prominent in the activities of the anti-Díaz Partido Nacional Antirreeleccionista, with Porfirio Díaz ordering her deportation to the United States as a consequence of her involvement in the organisation. Upon her return to Mexico in 1909, Gutiérrez founded the Amigas del Pueblo, a women's political association that involved Dolores Arana, Manuela y Delfina Peláez, Manuela Gutiérrez, Dolores Jiménez y Muro, María Trejo, Rosa G. de Maciel, Laura Mendoza, Dolores Medina and Jacoba González amongst others. With the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution in 1911, she became an active participant. Still close to Camilo Arriaga, she was involved in the Complot de Tacubaya on March 27, 1911, an unsuccessful attempt sponsored by the Círculo Ponciano Arriaga to ferment the rebellion of troops stationed in the barracks of San Diego, in Tacubaya, which was supposed to precipitate the spontaneous insurrection of the whole population, something that did not happen, and ended up with her being imprisoned for three years in San Juan de Ulúa prison in the company of Dolores Jiménez y Muro, María Dolores Malvaes and Elisa Acuña.
Following the resignation of Porfirio Díaz in May 1911, Juana Belén was one of the first voices to demand that the government of Francisco I. Madero accede to the claims of the workers and give the vote to women. She also quickly perceived that Madero was cut from exactly the same politically venal cloth as Díaz and Gutiérrez became an enthusiastic supporter of Emiliano Zapata, the fiery champion of Mexico's oppressed peasants and Indians, becoming part of the group that elaborated Plan de Ayala, first proclaimed on November 25, 1911. In 1914 upon her release from prison, Zapata made her a colonel in the Victoria regiment, a military unit which she not only commanded but set up from scratch. During this time, she also served as editor of the indigenist newspaper 'La Reforma' in Chilpancingo, Guerrero, which advocated the liberation of the Indian masses, whilst continuing the tough organisational and political work of the revolution. Marked out by Venustiano Carranza, Primer Jefe of the Constitutionalist Army, as a 'convicted Zapatista' for her outspoken writings, she was imprisoned in 1916 for ten months, after having been captured by government forces.
Even with the assassination of Zapata in April 1919, Juana Gutiérrez refused to give up on the idea that one day Mexico's peasants would possess the land they laboured on, and Mexico's women would be liberated from their ancient burdens and discriminations. In June 1919, she began yet another publishing project, 'El Desmonte', in which she continued to lay out her critique of Mexican society and put forward her own views on workers' and women's rights and politics in general during its short lifespan. In October 1919, she founded the Consejo Nacional de Mujeres Mexicanas (National Council of Mexican Women) with Elena Torres, Evelyn T. Roy, Thoberg de Haberman, María del Refugio García and Estela Carrasco, taking the presidency in this organisation. She also took part in the Frente Único Pro-Derechos de la Mujer (United Front for the Rights of Women), becoming one of its major figures.
In the 1920s and 30s, she continued her precarious living as a journalist, whilst founding an experimental agricultural colony in the State of Morelos in 1921 and, in 1922, founded another indigenist newspaper, '¡Alto!', in which she railed against the current state of land reform in the country whilst campaigning for an effective system of rural education. During the early 1920s, Juana Gutiérrez was appointed missionary teacher for the indigenous ethnic groups in the states of Jalisco and Zacatecas and also became director of the Hospital Civil de Zacatecas. In 1924 she published '¡Por la tierra y por la raza!' (For Land and for Race!), which sold out almost immediately. However, the book was not reprinted until 1967, when her daughter Laura Mendoza Gutiérrez and granddaughter Susana Mendoza brought out a second edition. Between 1926 and 1930 she was also the inspector of federal schools in Querétaro and in Zacatecas.
In 1930, and now 73 years of age, she returned to publishing with the newspaper 'Alma Mexicana: Por la Tierra y Por la Raza', in which she took to task both those feminists she believed to be "un-Mexican", due to their inability to understand the needs of ordinary women, as well as those involved in what she saw as engaging in pointless ideological dogmatism and infighting within the women's movement. In 1932,' Vésper' entered its fourth and final season.
Juana Gutiérrez lived in extreme poverty in her later years, and she was forced to burn many of her papers in order to heat beans that she sold on the street. However, she did not allow this her destitution to defeat her, and continued to speak out for the cause of social and economic justice for women. Thus in 1940, she founded the group La Republica Femenina (named after a 1936 book of hers), which argued that the social imbalance came from the triumph of patriarchy over matriarchy, and continued to collaborate in various newspapers up til her death, on July 13, 1942 in Mexico City.

[E] 1882 - Poss. date [see also: Jul. 27] for the birth of Hélène Brion (d. 1962), French teacher, feminist, syndicalist and pacifist. The first French woman to be tried before a military tribunal (for publishing defeatist propaganda), she is given a 3 year suspended sentence. Author of 'La Voie Féministe' (1978) who never finished her monumental 'Encyclopédie Féministe', covering biographical information on all the foremost women of her time.

1892 - First edition of fortnightly anarchist-communist paper 'Libertaire Organe Algérien' - epigraph: "Anarchy is the only solution of the social problem" - is published in Algiers.

1895 - The first issue of the weekly anarchist communist newspaper 'The Firebrand', subtitled: "For the Burning Away of the Cobwebs of Superstition and Ignorance", appears in Portland, Oregon.

1903 - Police arrest Emma Goldman and Max Baginski in New York City for being "suspicious persons". They are released after questioning.

1906 - [N.S. Feb. 9] Ekaterina Adolfovna Izmailovich (Екатерина Адольфовна Измайлович; b. 1881) Russian revolutionary, who followed her elder sister Alexandra Izmailovich (Александре Измайлович) into the SR Combat Organisation (Боева́я организа́ция), is shot is Sevastopol after a failed assassination attempt on on the commander-in-chief of the Black Sea Fleet Admiral Gregory Chukhnin (Григо́рий Чухни́н). [see: Feb. 9]

1908 - In Adair v. United States, the U.S. Supreme Court rules a law banning discrimination against union labour is unconstitutional, upholding employers’ "yellow-dog" contracts, which forbade workers from joining a union as a condition of their employment. In this case, William Adair, a master mechanic who supervised employees at the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, had fired O. B. Coppage in 1906 for belonging to labour union called the Order of Locomotive Fireman. Adair's actions were in direct violation of Section 10 of the Erdman Act of 1898 which made it illegal for employers to "threaten any employee with loss of employment" or to "unjustly discriminate against an employee because of his membership in ... a labour corporation, organization or association."
Yellow-dog contracts were finally outlawed in 1932 in the U.S. under the Norris-LaGuardia Act.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: Every mill in town is now closed and the number of strikers has swelled to 25,000, including virtually all of the less-skilled workers. The owners, contemptuous of the ability of uneducated, immigrant workers ability to organise themselves and survive the lack of wages, do not bother to recruit scabs, certain they will prevail quickly. By the time they realised they had a fight on their hands, the strikers were so well-organised that importing scabs was a far more difficult proposition.
www.wsc.mass.edu/mhj/pdfs/Bread, roses, and other possibilities.pdf

1912 - Arne Naess (d.2009), Norwegian philosopher who inspired the Deep Ecology movement, born.

[F] 1913* - Paterson Silk Strike: One of the oldest industrial cities in the United States, Paterson, New Jersey, was known as the "Silk City of America" with more than one-third of its 73,000 workers holding jobs in the silk industry. It also had a long history of conflicts between mill owners and textile workers, but the silk strike of 1913 was the biggest, longest, and most dramatic strike in Paterson’s history, during which approximately 1,850 strikers were arrested, including Industrial Workers of the World leaders William Dudley Haywood and Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, and five people, both strikers and non-strikers, killed.
The strike began when 800 silk workers, almost the entire work force at the Doherty Silk Mill, walked off the job following the sacking of four members of a workers committee. The mill's owner Henry Doherty had increased the number of looms each weaver had tended from two to four and, although Doherty had promised that wages would increase under the new system, their wages had not been increased and the weavers also anticipated that the four-loom system would eventually increase unemployment and job competition and decrease wages. They had therefore attempted to organise a meeting with the company's management to discuss the four-loom system on January 27, 1913, but following the dismissals, the workers had spontaneously struck.
The workers however were largely unorganised. Being mostly foreign-born, non-English-speaking, unskilled workers, the AFL's United Textile Workers did not want their dues but the smaller National Industrial Union of Textile Workers' Local 152 of the IWW, which had gradually grown in size through the efforts of local organisers, Ewald Koettgen and Adolph Lessig, were asked for their help. The local agreed and, with Doherty refusing to bargain with the strikers, Local 152 request help from IWW headquarters in Chicago. On February 25, 1913, [the date regularly and erroneously given as the beginning of the strike] IWW national [sic] organisers Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Carlos Tresca and Pat Quinland arrived to speak at a mass meeting, where all three were arrested that night at the meeting. A prominent feminist, Gurley Flynn would go on to be the most important of the IWW organisers in Paterson, along with Big Bill Haywood who arrived later that week. She was on the site of the pickets every day, delivered numerous speeches, and organised Tuesday night meetings for the female silk workers, who compromised half the strikers, and for the wives and daughters of male strikers. Flynn’s efforts helped cultivate female organisers, Italian and Jewish women like Carrie Golzio and Hannah Silverman joined the traditional local leadership of male weavers (Adolf Lessig, Louis Magnet and Evald Koettgen). Silverman, a seventeen-year-old mill worker who became an effective public speaker and also led the Paterson Strike Pageant parade up Fifth Avenue on June 8 to Madison Square Garden, where the strikers themselves reenacted scenes form the strike in a play organised by Greenwich Village artists in an effort to raise funds for the strikers.
The strike also itself proved to be extraordinary in that it was a general strike that unifyied the skilled and unskilled, the English-speaking with the Italians and Jews, and all the distinct crafts. Every morning workers gathered at Turn and Helvetia Halls to meet with the Central Strike Committee and plan the day’s picketing, to get food to strikers, and to respond to whatever events may happen that day.
In the end, the strike only proved to be a partial victory for the workers. Although the dyer’s helpers did not gain the 8-hour day, the weavers did protect the two-loom system and preserve the right of free speech, both on the streets and in the factory. In 1919, Paterson silk workers won the 8-hour day, but by that time Paterson’s silk industry was already in decline.
[NB: Some sources give the date as euither Jan. 23 or 24.]

[C] 1916 - Stjepan-Stevo Filipović (d. 1942), Yugoslavian communist and anti-fascist partisan who was executed during World War II, born. Shortly before his death, and in front of an audience forced out to watch his hanging, he was seen to shout "Smrt fašizmu, sloboda narodu!" (Death to fascism, freedom to the people!), an incident captured in an iconic photograph.

1917 - Founding of the first trade union organisation representing workers within the SNCF, as the Syndicat National des Chemins de Fer (National Union of Railwayworkers), the Fédération des Mécaniciens et Chauffeurs (Federation of Mechanics and Drivers), the Association des Agents de Trains (Association of Train Agents), the Association Générale du Personnel de l'État (General Staff Association of the State) and the Association Générale du Personnel des Chemins de Fer du PLM [Paris-Lyon-Méditerranée] (General Association of Railway Personnel of the PLM) merge to form the Fédération Nationale des Travailleurs des Chemins de Fer de France, des Colonies et des pays de Protectorat (National Railway Workers' Federation of France, the Colonies and Protectorate Countries) within the CGT.

1919 - Calais Mutiny: The newly organised Soldiers Councils called a strike, which was coordinated by a strike committee, the Calais Soldiers' and Sailors' Association. Not a single man turned up for reveille. The sentries were replaced by pickets. That same morning, at another camp in nearby Vendreux, over 2,000 men came out in sympathy. Later that morning they marched to the Calais camp as a gesture of solidarity. After a mass meeting both camps marched behind brass bands towards the headquarters, where Brigadier Rawlinson was stationed. By now the mutineers totalled 4,000. The headquarters were quickly surrounded and a deputation entered. They demanded the release of Private Pantling. The authorities capitulated and promised that he would be back in his camp within twenty-four hours.

1920 - First meeting of the International Labour Organisation (ILO).

1922 - Francisco Martínez Márquez, aka 'Paco' (d. 1922), Catalan anarchist and anti-Francoist guérilla, born. [see: Oct. 21]

1945 - Auschwitz/Oswiecim concentration camp is liberated by the 322nd Rifle Division of the Red Army. In 1996, January 27 was chosen as the Gedenktag für die Opfer des Nationalsozialismus (Anniversary for the Victims of National Socialism) in Germany. On January 27 2000, the date was also chosen by representatives from forty-four governments to mark International Holocaust Remembrance Day, starting from 2001. In 2004 The United Nations voted, by 149 votes out of 191, to formally commemorate the Holocaust on that date.

1952 - UFER, the International Movement for Fraternal Union Among Races and Peoples, is formed in Paris.

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: Four American destroyers, including the USS Robert L. Wilson, USS Demato, USS Gearing, and the atomic submarine USS Sea Wolf, now begin to 'escort' the liner, with Galvão happily accepting the U.S. navy's protection "against action from Portuguese warships" according to his book on Operação Dulcineia, 'Santa María: My Crusade for Portugal' (1961). On board the Demato was Admiral Allen Smith, commissioned to negotiate with Galvão on behalf of Admiral Dennison. Worried about the fransfer of the ship's passengers, Galvão sent Admiral Dennison an urgent request for a meeting on board the Santa Maria to work out the details concerning the offloading of the passengers. A meeting is set up between with Admiral Allen Smith at noon on the 28th on board the liner in international waters fifty miles off the Brazilian port of Recife.
Meanwhile, as part of the insurrgents' 'hearts and minds' campaign, some of the rebels turned up at the dance being held in the ship’s lounge. Gone were the drab khaki uniforms and red-green national armbands. Instead the rebels wore tropical business suits or sports shirts and slacks. They were an instant success with the female attendants. Before long, American women, enchanted by their captors’ Latin courtliness, found themselves in the arms of history’s strangest 'pirates' as they danced the night away. [see: Jan. 21]

1967 - Melbourne residents riot when Ronald Ryan is executed for killing a prison warder.

1968 - Following the Harumi Incident (Harumi Jiken)[see: Jan. 19], medical students hold a series of meetings a decide to begin indefinite strikes and to boycott examinations and to disrupt the graduation ceremonies scheduled for late March unless the Medical Faculty reverses its decision over the intern system or the punishments.

1971 - Angry Brigade's Communique 5 received by the Press Association.

1978 - In an interview for the ITV current affairs programme 'World in Action', Conservative MP and future prime minister Margaret Thatcher claims that British people fear being 'swamped' by immigrants from the new Commonwealth and Pakistan.

1985 - Forças Populares 25 de Abril (Popular Forces 25 April) carry out attacks on 6 NATO ships including the USS Richard E. Byrd.

1987 - Clara Thalmann-Ensner (b. 1910), Swiss revolutionary and anarchist, fought in the Spanish Revolution, founded Serena Commune in Nice in 1953 with her husband Pavel, dies.
I am going to make the revolution in the the sky” - Clara Thalmann, 1953.

[A] 1997 - In the Albanian city of Peshkopi about a hundred people attack the police station with stones. Six policemen are killed, then the rebels set fire to the town hall offices.

2012 - Adela García Murillo (b. 1919), Spanish anarchist, who joined the CNT when the Columna Maroto, headed by Francisco Maroto del Ojo, arrive in Güéjar Sierra, dies. During the war, along with her son-in-law José Barcojo and other militants, she participated in the reorganisation of the clandestine CNT in Granada and was involved in the post-1939 maquis support networks. Arrested following a tip-off, pent 10 years in a women's prison and, upon her release, she devoted herself to the reorganisation of the confederation in the city of Granada. After the death of the dictator Francisco Franco, she actively participated in the reappearance of the CNT in Granada.
[D] 1817 - As George, the Prince Regent (and future king George IV), is being driven to Westminster for the State opening of the British Parliament his carriage is attacked mob and the glass of his coach window is broken by either a stone or a bullet (it was never identified precisely). The debate in the House of Commons was interrupted as news of the attack was taken there from the House of Lords, and Parliament adjourned after having sent a message of loyalty to the Prince.
The 56 years old Prince Regent was a much hated figure of the British royal family; corpulent and self-indulgent at a time when thousands of ordinary people were on the verge of starvation, his profligate lifestyle - an illegal marriage to the Roman Catholic widow, Maria Fitzherbert, a disastrous official marriage to Princess Caroline of Brunswick and his low level of morality - made him a laughing stock throughout the country.
And this at a time when the fear of revolution was ever-present in the minds of the ruling class:
the Napoleonic Wars (1803-15) had just ended;
Luddites were roaming the country smashing the machinery of the new industrialism; and,
there had been a massive rise in Revolutionary Societies and radical Reformist Clubs, such as the Hampden Clubs, focuses for the widespread republican sentiments abroad in the country at the time, which had been sparked by the French Revolution two decades previously.
That the attack on George had followed hot on the heels of the Spa Fields Riots the previous month (December 2, 1816), no wonder Parliament believed that a revolution, organised by the numerous Hampden Clubs, was imminent.
Their immediate response was to pass the so-called 'Gag Acts':
on March 4, 1817, Habeas Corpus was suspended (the suspension was not lifted until January 1818);
the Seditious Meetings Act was passed and continued in force until July 24, 1818 - it was designed to ensure that all reforming "Societies and Clubs ... should be utterly suppressed and prohibited as unlawful combinations and confederacies" and no meeting of more than fifty persons could be held without the prior consent of the magistrates; and,
on March 27, the prime minister, Henry Addington, Viscount Sidmouth, ordered the Lords Lieutenant to apprehend all printers, writers and demagogues responsible for seditious and blasphemous material.
The government had little success with the latter, as juries refused to risk the freedom of the press, and the government managed to have only one printer convicted.

1853 - José Julián Martí Pérez (d. 1895), Cuban Revolutionary, poet, essayist, journalist, revolutionary philosopher, professor, and political theorist, born. [expand]

1873 - Colette (Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette; d. 1954), French novelist, mime, actress and journalist, born.

1881 - [N.S. Feb. 9] Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky (Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский; b. 1821), Russian novelist, short story writer and essayist, dies. [see: Nov. 11]

1883 - Edward Carouy (d. 1913), French anarchist illegalist and individualist, member of the Bonnot Gang, born. [expand]

1896 - Hannah Silverman, later Hannah Mandell (d. 1960), US silk worker and labour activist, born in New York City. Morris Silverman, her father, was an American-born Jew of German parentage. Sarah (Sarna) Silverman, her mother, was a Polish Jew born in the manufacturing city of Lodz, where her family worked in textiles. There were thirteen children in the Sarna family. Hirsh Sarna, their father, brought his wife, Fannie, and eight or nine children to the United States, where Sarah met and married Morris Silverman. Silverman was the second of their four children.
She became famous in 1913, when only seventeen, and having been mentored by Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, for her leading role in the Paterson, NJ. Silk Strike of 1913. Her life is obscure before 1913, and after 1913 it becomes obscure again. Only in the months during and immediately after the Paterson Strike was she a public figure. But in that brief period she became a symbol of what women could do in labour conflicts, if given the opportunity.
Silk was Paterson's biggest industry, and strikes at one or another of the almost 300 silk mills were a common occurrence. The 1913 Strike was different because all the mills went out on strike together, and because the strikers invited the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) to help them. When the strike began, late in February 1913, Silverman was working at the Westerhoff silk mill, which she enthusiastically joined in picketing. By April 25, 1915, she had become the captain of the pickets around the mill. So when the police arrived on that day and attempted to disperse the crowd, it was to the seventeen-year-old that they turned. She refused to cooperate, and they arrested her, before arresting 47 of her fellow picketers. She was charged with "unlawful assembly" and spent the night in the city jail. But she was undaunted. Out awaiting trial, she returned to the picket line and was arrested again, and again. In May, she and six other girls were charged with harassing two female strike-breakers. Silverman, in recognition of her growing leadership, was given the stiffest sentence, 60 days in the county jail. Cheered by hundreds along the way to jail, she and the six other girls sang union songs to show that they were unrepentant. A writ was filed on her behalf and she was freed on $5,000 bail after only two days. Not satisfied, Silverman threatened to take the case to the upper courts and to bring suit for false arrest. The charge was quietly dropped. Speaking that Sunday from the balcony of the Botto house, in nearby Haledon, to tens of thousands of silk-workers and their relatives and friends, she said she had been to the county jail three times but that the police could not keep her away from the picket lines. Now she was beginning to acquire a reputation as the incarnation of the fierce pride, resilient spirit, and idealistic hopes of the silk strikers.
She came to trial on the original charge of unlawful assembly early in June 1913, while the strike continued. The prosecutor, hammering away on the theme of outside agitators from the IWW stirring up local workers, tried to use her to make his point. He demanded that she tell what the IWW really was and admit that "Big Bill" Haywood. the famous labour agitator, was really the lWW. "Haywood is Haywood," declared the unflappable Silverman. "The workers in the mills are the IWW."
The next day, while waiting for her trial to resume, she was seated in the rear of the courtroom when the judge gave an unusually harsh sentence to another striker. Some accounts say Silverman gasped and others say she hissed, but the judge was furious and slapped her with a 20-day sentence for disorderly conduct. Lawyers secured her release from county jail in time for her to lead the massive Paterson Strike Pageant parade to Madison Square Garden on June 7, where the strikers acted out the drama of their strike before an overflow crowd.
"One of the leading lights in the present strike" was the way a Paterson newspaper described the seventeen-year-old. Opinions of Silverman varied according to attitudes held toward the strike. Described by a defence lawyer as a "mere slip of a girl, in fact only a kid," she was denounced as the "little agitator" by an assistant prosecutor and as an "impudent girl” by the judge. Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, the IWW organiser who encouraged Paterson women to come forward and be leaders, called Silverman "the heroine of the strike" and cited her in an article two years later as an example of what women could do in strikes, once given the chance.
But the strike was lost. Silverman was almost certainly blacklisted. It is not clear how she spent the next nine years. In 1922 she married a 39-year old Lithuanian Jew named Harry J. Mandell, who did not come from Paterson. She became a homemaker. The family, which included Robert and Jack, their two children, struggled economically during the Depression. In 1935 they moved from Paterson to Brooklyn, where Harry Mandell tried to make a living running a candy store. After it went bankrupt they were dependent on relief for several years. Eventually, Silverman's husband bought a new Store in Paterson, and she worked alongside him. She never spoke of her role in the strike in front of the children, though she and her husband frequently made mention of Haywood, Flynn, and the IWW and he sometimes teased her about her strike activities.
Silverman‘s own family reflected the social and political divisions in the Jewish community. Her older sister Bertha married a mill owner who moved his business out of State to escape Paterson’s labour militancy. Her younger brother Harold worked as a mill hand in Paterson and continued to denounce the owners. Silverman was particularly kind to him. Always proud of her Jewish heritage, she was never religious. She lived out her life with quiet integrity, but without special excitement or attention, and without an arena for her proven abilities as a speaker and leader. In the 1967 school board election in Wayne, her son Jack, who was not aware of his mother's activity in the 1913 Strike, bravely withstood anti-Semitic attacks and became (like his mother) briefly famous. Silverman herself had died seven years earlier on July 17. 1960. from a heart attack. She is buried in King Solomon's Cemetery in Clifton, NJ.

1912 - Brisbane General Strike: A meeting is held at the Trades Hall at which 43 unions are represented. By 18:00, they had decided to issue an ultimatum to Badger and the company. This Combined Unions' Committee (of the 43 unions) appointed a Strike Committee, with Harry Coyne (Australian Labor Party MLA) as its president, and John Moir the secretary. Meanwhile, the unions organised to meet the needs of the strikers and issued permits to businesses allowed to carry on with restricted union labour. [see: Jan. 18]

[E] 1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: The inimitable Flora Drummond (known as 'the General' in WSPU ranks) attempts to lead a Women's Social and Political Union march from the Agricultural Hall in Islington to the House of Commons to demand an interview with the Chancellor of the Exchequer, David Lloyd George. The interview was refused and the WSPU newspaper 'Votes for Women' records that the "women were treated with violence by the police". Flora Drummond was knocked down and slightly injured, whilst a number of shop and Government office windows in Whitehall were broken and around 30 women were arrested.

1914 - The Edmonton city council in Canada caves in to IWW, agreeing to provide a large hall for the homeless, pass out three 25-cent meal tickets to each man daily and employ 400 people on a public project.

1915 - Revolución Mexicana: Alvaro Obregon reenters Mexico City, abandoned by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata.

1917 - Bath Riots: 17-year old house cleaner Carmelita Torres leads what will become known as the 'Bath Riots' at the Juarez / El Paso border, refusing the gasoline and chemical 'bath' imposed on Mexican workers crossing the border into the U.S.. Torres and 30 other women resisted and several hundred people quickly joined in the demonstration. Troops eventually quelled the riot and Torres was arrested. The practice continued for decades.

1918 - Januarstreik [January General Strike]: General strike in major German cities. At a rally in Munich, Erich Mühsam calls the 10,000 workers present for a continuation of the strike. He is arrested by police and placed under house arrest.

1918 - Januarstreik [January General Strike]: During the First World War the German civilian population suffered greatly from the poor food supply, the resort to the use of the Arbeitsdienst (Work Service) and its often degrading working conditions. Their willingness to accept hunger, deprivation, and state repression fell rapidly as a result of the lack of military success in the course of the war years, and against the backdrop of the Russian Revolution. Thus, at the end of January 1918, for the first time since the beginning of the war in 1914, a political mass strike ensued, involving around one million people in the entire German Reich. Their main demand was "Frieden und Brot!" (Peace and Bread!). The strike began on January 28, 1918, called by the Spartakusbund and the allied metalworkers' union. As a result, workers from the armaments and ammunition industry were the first to go on strike, other industries soon followed. The strike is now seen as a "forgotten uprising", a "rehearsal for the November revolution".
In Berlin alone, 400,000 workers, mainly from the armaments and ammunition industry, followed the call and marched through the city. At a meeting in the Berlin Gewerkschaftshaus (Trade Union House) during the afternoon, a 414-strong Groß-Berliner-Arbeiterrat (Grand Berlin workers' council) was elected, who met in the trade union building and formed an action committee consisting of eleven members. The chair of the committee was Richard Müller, a leading head of the Revolutionären Obleute (revolutionary councilors). The Aktionsausschuß (Action Committee) also included the leaders of the two main Social Democratic parties: Philipp Scheidemann, Friedrich Ebert and Otto Braun from the SPD as well as Wilhelm Dittmann, Georg Ledebour and Hugo Haase from the USPD. In order not to lose their own influence over the workers, the SPD was particularly concerned not to leave the strike leadership solely to the Spartacus League. By participating in the strike, however, the SPD burdened its relationship with the other parties in the Reichstag on a lasting basis.
After the strike in Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, and other large cities, as well as in the Ruhr, with an increasing numbers of work stoppages, a tightening of the state of siege in Berlin was imposed on January 31, 1918, as the government and the military feared an insurrection in the capital. As a result, demonstrations and rallies were violently suppressed, where there were both many deaths and injuries. Seven of the city's largest companies were now placed under military control and a deadline of February 4 was set for the strikers to return to work or face arrest and facing military courts. With mass arrests already leading to up to 500 workers per day being sentenced to war service, on February 3 the Action Committee announced the ending of the strike, which had unequivocally expressed the weariness of the war to the wider population. Many of the strike leaders were also arrested but the government's attempts to curb the revolutionary potential in Germany that February eventually proved to be in vain, with the November revolution breaking out later that year.

1918 - Finnish Bolsheviks overthrow the coalition government, Helsinki; meanwhile West Ukraine is proclaimed a free (i.e. German puppet) republic.

[F] 1919 - Calais Mutiny: On Tuesday morning Private Pantling was returned. But by now some 20,000 men had joined the mutiny and the strike was spreading French workers were cooperating and a total embargo was placed upon the movement of British military traffic by rail. In fact the rail stoppage was a significant factor in the escalation of the struggle. 5,000 infantrymen due to return home, finding themselves delayed, struck in support of their own demand for immediate demobilisation.
In an attempt to intimidate the mutineers General Byng and fresh troops were sent for. Unfortunately Byng made the mistake of arriving before his men. His car was immediately commandeered by the mutineers and replaced by a modest Ford. Byng's troops were delayed for a further two days by Lhe blacking of British transport. When they arrived machine guns were placed at strategic points, such as food stores and munition dumps. Byng's troops, in the words of a participant, were "bits of boys who were sent out just as the war ended."

1922 - Wenceslao Jiménez Orivee aka 'Wences' & 'Jimeno' (d. 1950), Asturian industrial designer, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who led the 'Los Maños' guérilla group (maño being a slang term for natives of Aragon) in the resistance to Franco following the fascist victory in the Civil War, born. His father, a railroad worker, ticket collector and militant in the CNT, was arrested on the Zaragoza-Canfranc train and shot in Jaca the summer of 1936 by Francoists. Initially a member of a socialist youth group, Wenceslao had been arrested several times for distributing anti-Francoist literature before his 1946 meeting with libertarian activist Ignacio Zubizarreta Aspas. He subsequently joined the Federació Ibèrica de Joventuts Llibertàries (FIJL) and in August 1946 he was arrested in Zaragoza and brutally tortured. Released three months later, he took part in attempted attack against Franco in the Pierto Muela near Calatayud, which failed, and he joined a rural guérilla group. In July 1947 he was the Aragon delegate to the National plenary of Regional FIJL groups held in Madrid. Then, disappointed by the ineffectiveness of the guérillas went to France, where he worked for a time as a fitter in Lyon and Paris.
In Paris he was contacted by José Lluis 'Face' Facerias, joining his guérilla group and with whom he went to Spain on November 26, 1948. Following differences with Facerias, he formed his own group called Los Maños that would be active in Barcelona, Madrid and other regions. In Barcelona he participated in the expropriation of the Bank of Vizcaya and the attack against the informer Antonio Seba Amorós. On 9 March 1949, with the brothers José and Francisco 'El Quico' Sabaté Llopart, Simón Gracia Fleringan, Carlos Vidal Pasanau, Jose Lopez Penedo and Jose Lluis Facerias, he participated in the ambushing in Barcelona of what they believed to be the car of Eduardo Quintela Boveda, head of the Francoist secret police (Brigada Politico Social; BPS), who was not on board that day. Instead, they killed Manuel Piñol, the secretary of the Falangist Youth Front, and his driver. Subsequently the group carried out a string of armed robberies in Madrid, Malaga, Seville and France in order to fund an attempt on the life of Franco as he drove to his residence at the royal palace on Mount Pardo. A few months later they made a second, equally unsuccessful, attempt to blow up Franco’s convoy as it made its way up the steep winding road at La Cuesta de la Muela between Zaragoza and Madrid. The group then returned to Paris.
Meanwhile, in Spain, a huge number of other activists were being shot down in the streets of Barcelona, among who were close friends of Wences. Along with fellow Los Maños members Daniel G.M. aka 'Rodolfo', Salvador Luis Benito aka 'Salgado', Plácido Ortiz Gratal and Simón Gracia Fleringan, Wences left for Barcelona on December 22,1949, with the intention of investigating what had happened. However, traitors had penetrated his group as well. On January 2, 1950, the group was betrayed by a disaffected member, Aniceto Pardillo Manzanero aka 'el Chaval' (The Kid), and most were arrested on January 9, 1950. The same day Wenceslao was ambushed and shot without warning by police in a Barcelona street; wounded, and not wanting to fall into the hands of the forces of repression of the dictatorship, he committed suicide by taking a cyanide capsule that was mounted in the top of a pen that he carried.
Simón Gracia Fleringan was executed in Barcelona by firing squad on December 24 1950, together with Victoriano Muñoz Tresserras and Plácido Ortiz Gratal. Their bodies were thrown into a common, unmarked, grave. Los Maños group member Mariano Aguayo Morán was fortunate to have been in Paris when the group was betrayed in Barcelona and his testimony forms a major part of the 2013 book by Freddy Gómez, 'Los Maños: Anatomy of an Action Group'.

1933 - Greva de la Atelierele CFR Grivița [Grivița Strike]: As the Great Depression affected Romania, in 1932, the government introduced a series of austerity measures at the Căile Ferate Române (Romanian Railways) Grivița Workshops in Bucharest, firstly reducing the salaries of clerks, then cancelling rent and expenses allowances for blue collar workers, which amounted to a 25% pay cut. The final spark that triggered the revolt was when on January 20, 1933, at CFR Grivița Workshops in Bucharest, the administration announced that workers would be paid only if they brought proof that they had paid all their taxes for the previous three years. The following day, 700 workers from the train wagon workshop (who worked in the open air without cover) were dismissed until the weather improved.
When the cleaners at the Saturn workshop went out on strike, the sindicatul roşu (red union, controlled by the Communists) decided to organise a solidarity protest strike. On January 28, head of the communist-dominated 'comitet de fabrică' Panait Bogătoiu led the wagon workshop and the temporarily dismissed workers out on strike at 10:30, and submitted a list of demands to the company. These included the cessation of wage cuts and a pay increase of 20%; payments for periods when employees are unable to work because of the breakdown of machinery; payment for apprentices for the time they spent in school; re-employment of workers returning from the army; increasing women's salary; ensure a minimum wage for porters; and the re-introducing of the rent allowance. Especially important was the recognition of the factory committee chosen by all the workers regardless of what political party to they belonged to.
3,000 workers from other parts of the plant swiftly joined the walkout. The Liberal-Fascist Minister of Communications, Eduard Mirto, now intervened in the dispute, becoming involved in the mediation process between the workers and the Administration Council of the Romanian Railroads. Mirto approved all the economic demands of the workers: granting a minimum wage of 4000 lei and re-introducing the rent allowance. The leaders of the social-democratic union announced that they're content with the results of the negotiations but the remainder of the workers did not trust the authorities' promises. Despite the talks and concessions gained, the CFR Grivița Workshop workers remained in dispute.

1935 - Iceland becomes the first Western country* to legalise therapeutic abortion. Law No. 38 declared that the mother’s health and "domestic conditions" such as rape, incest and poverty, may be taken into consideration when considering whether to permit doctors to perform an abortion.
[*The Soviet Union had effectively legalised abortion on demand in 1920 but it would be revoked on June 27, 1936.]

1938 - Émile Armand Bidault (b. 1869), French anarchist militant, organiser, anti-militarist and pacifist, dies. [see: May 29]

1943 - Le Procès des 42: In Nantes courthouse, forty-two anti-fascist members of the Résistance, considered terrorists by the Nazis, are found guilty by a German military court after a two week trial. Thirty-seven were sentenced to death and five others, including two women, Renée Losq and Marie Michel, are sentenced to deportation and forced labour in Germany. Three others are acquitted due to lack of evidence. [see: Jan 15]

1944 - Gérard Duvergé (b. 1896), French teacher, anarchist and anti-fascist resister, is arrested in France. He will die tomorrow under Gestapo interrogation. [see: Jun. 15]

1946 - At Bulmes Square (Santiago, Chile) eight workers are murdered by police and many more seriously injured by the police dogs.

1953 - Derek Bentley hanged.

1957 - Bataille d'Alger [Battle of Algiers]: In late January the FLN called an 8-day general strike across Algeria against French rule commencing on Monday 28 January - timed to coincide with a scheduled UN debate on the Algerian question. The strike initially appeared to be a success with most Muslim shops remaining shuttered, workers failed to turn up and children didn't attend school. However General Jacques Massu reacted swiftly, ordering his paratroopers into the Casbah at 07:00 that morning. There they used armored cars to pull the steel shutters off the storefronts of recalcitrant shopkeepers and forcing them to open up, while army trucks rounded up workers and schoolchildren and forced them to attend their jobs and studies. Within a few days the strike had been broken.
www.histoire-en-questions.fr/guerre algerie/alger-premiere-greve du fln.html]

1960 - Zora Neale Hurston (b. 1891), US folklorist, anthropologist, novelist, short story writer and civil right activist, who was a fixture of the Harlem Renaissance before writing her masterwork, 'Their Eyes Were Watching God' (1937), dies of hypertensive heart disease. [see: Jan. 7]

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: The Santa Maria changes course towards Recife at noon. [see: Jan. 21]

1970 - Bomb attack on offices of the Spanish Cultural attache in Paris. [First of May Group]

1993 - Hannah Wilke (Arlene Hannah Butter; b. 1940), pioneering US feminist conceptual artist [painting, sculpture, assemblage, photography, performance, video and performance], dies of lymphoma, using her slow physical decline as the basis of her final artworks. [see: Mar. 7]

[B] 1995 - George Woodcock (b. 1912), Canadian anarchist thinker and historian, political biographer, essayist, poet and literary critic, author of 'Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements' (1962), dies. [see: May 8]

[C] 1995 - ERROR

[A] 2011 - Guards at al-Qatta prison in Egypt massacre at least 65 prisoners following an escape attempt by a small group of inmates.
1864 - Amédée Pauwels aka Étienne Rabardy (Désiré Joseph Pauwels; d. 1894), Belgian anarchist individualist, bomber and friend of Paul Reclus, born. He accidentally blew himself up when his bomb exploded prematurely during an attack on the Église de la Madeleine in the Place de la Madeleine, Paris, on March 15, 1894.

1888 - Jean-Baptiste Godin (b. 1817), Utopian socialist thinker, Fourieriste and the founder of Familistère (Social Palace) utopian community in Guise, northern France, dies. [see: Jan. 26]

1891 - [N.S. Feb. 10] Sofia Kovalevskaya [Со́фья Ковале́вская] (Sofia Vasilyevna Korvin-Krukovskaya [Со́фья Васи́льевна Корвин-Круковская]; January 15 [3] 1850), Russian mathematician, engineer and Narodnik (народники), whose sister was the socialist and feminist Anne Jaclard (Anna Vasilyevna Korvin-Krukovskaya), dies of influenza. [see: Jan. 15]

[B] 1905 - Barnett Newman (d. 1970), US abstract expressionist, colour field painter and life-long anarchist, born. Wrote 'The True Revolution is Anarchist' (1968) as a foreword to Kropotkin's ' Memoirs of a Revolutionist'. Little more than a week before the 1933 election, Newman and his friend Alexander Borodulin offer themselves as write-in candidates for New York City mayor and comptroller, respectively. They circulate thousands of copies of their manifesto, 'On the Need for Political Action by Men of Culture', which promotes a three-prong program of "more extensive education, a greater emphasis upon the arts and crafts, and the fostering of cultural living conditions."
"Anarchism ... the only criticism of society which is not a technique fro the seizure and transfer of power by one group against another... What is particualr about anarchism is not its criticism of society but the creative way of life it offers that makes all progrommatic doctrine impossible." - 'The True Revolution is Anarchist!' (1968), Newman's foreword to 'Memoirs of a Revolutionist' by Peter Kropotkin.

1906 - [O.S. Jan. 16] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Vice-Governor of Tambov, Gavril Luzhenovsky (Гавриил Луженовский) is assassinated in a train station by SR member Maria Spiridonova (Мари́я Спиридо́нова) - the beginning of a great wave of assassinations is underway in Russia

1910 - Maurice Joyeux (d, 1991), prominent figure in French anarchism, born. Constantly in and out of prison for his militant activities, including a five year sentence for refusing conscription in 1940. The following year he organised a mutiny in Montluc prison, near Lyon, and escaped only to be recaptured. He opened a bookshop in Paris, 'Le Château des Brouillards' (The Castle of Mists) and in 1953 he founded the newspaper 'Le Monde Libertaire'.

[DD] 1911 - Rebelión de Baja California / Revolución Mexicana: Mexicali in Baja California, a border town with several thousand inhabitants, is taken in a pre-dawn raid by a group of about thirty, mostly Mexican Magónista revolutionaries led by Jose Maria Leyva. The sole casualty is the town's jailer.
The American journalist John Kenneth Turner, who supported and supervised the movement from the American side of the border, began a solidarity campaign, known as "Hands Off Mexico!", with the Mexican revolutionaries Simón Berthold Chacón and José María Levya to denounce the movement of United States troops toward the border.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike / Death of Anna LoPizzo: At one of the largest demonstrations of the Bread & Roses strike, I.W.W. Executive Board member Joseph Ettor addresses a mass meeting on the Lawrence Common, urging the strikers to be peaceful and orderly, and leads them on a march through the business district. At one of the mills, a company of militiamen refuses to let them pass. Ettor avertes a conflict by waving the paraders up a side street. They follow, cheering him for his good sense.
During the evening, independent of the earlier demonstration, Anna LoPizzo, a woman striker, is shot and killed by a police officer (Oscar Benoit) as police try to break up a picket line. Despite being three miles away at the time talking to a meeting of German workers, Ettor and Arturo Giovannitti are arrested as "accessories to the murder" and charged with inciting and provoking the violence. They were refused bail and imprisoned for eight months without trial. In April, Joseph Caruso, an Italian striker, was arrested and jailed in an attempt by Lawrence police to find the man who had fire the fatal shot.
Martial law is enforced following the arrest of the two I.W.W. strike leaders. City officials declare all parades, open air meetings, and gatherings of three or more illegal, and Governor Foss (also a mill owner) calls out an additional twelve companies of infantry and two troops of cavalry to patrol the streets. A militiaman's bayonet killed a fifteen-year old Syrian boy in another clash between strikers and police.
The arrest of Ettor and Ciovannitti was aimed at disrupting the strike. However, the I.W.W. sent Bill Haywood to Lawrence, and with him came I.W.W. organisers William Trautmann, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, and, later, Carlo Tresca, an Italian anarchist. More than 15,000 strikers met Haywood at the railroad station and carried him down Essex Street to the Lawrence Common, where he addressed a group of 25,000 strikers. Group by group, they sang the "Internationale" for him in their various tongues. Looking down from the speaker's stand and seeing the young strikers in the crowd, Haywood roared in his foghorn voice: "Those kids should be in school instead of slaving in the mills."
libcom.org/files/1912 The Lawrence textile strike.pdf

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: WSPU members smash windows at the Home Office, the Treasury, the Admiralty, and the Local Government Board in Whitehall, the Hamburg-America Shipping Company's office and other properties in Regent Street. Oxford Street, Charing Cross and other business centres. During the day 22 arrests are made.

[F] 1919 - Fort Leavenworth Prison Strikes: A 'gang' of 150 workers, some of the approximately 400 conscientious objectors still being held in military prisons and serving long sentences, decide to stop their required daily work in the middle of the day, the beginnings of a labour strike. The prisoners as a group were undecided about the specific goals of the strike. That night three prisoners started a fire and burned parts of the quartermaster’s warehouse, causing $100,000 of damage. It is unclear whether these actions were related to the present strike or to prison tension. The next day of 30 January 1919, 2,300 prisoners refused to work, and during the strike leaders of the prisoners, like H. Austin Simons, urged non-violence. The prisoners were sent back to the prison and used the rest of the day to organise. Committees and elected leaders from each wing of the prison drafted a list of demands for the prison authorities. Their demands were as follows: 1.Colonel Rice recommend to the War Department the immediate release of military prisoners; 2. Immunity from punishment for all men who had participated in the strike; 3. Recognition of a permanent grievance committee consisting of prisoners which would connect the prisoner’s to the prison authority and try to improve prisoner grievances (called the General Prisoners Conference Committee or the Prisoners’ Committee.)

[EEE] 1919 - Marina Ginestà i Coloma (d. 2014), French-born Spanish journalist, translator, and anti-fascist miliciana and militant in the PSUC and JSUC, who became famous due to the photo taken by Juan Guzmán on the rooftop of Hotel Colón, Barcelona during the July 1936 military uprising, one of the most iconic photographs of the Spanish Civil War, born.
She grew up in Toulouse, the daughter of two trade unionists: Bruno Ginestà, secretary of the liaison committee CNT-UGT de Catalunya, Empar Coloma, a member of the Agrupació Femenina de Propaganda Cooperativista (Association of Women Propaganda Cooperativista), and moved to Barcelona with her parents at the age of 11. Ginestà later joined the Partit Socialista Unificat de Catalunya and the Juventudes Socialistas Unificadas de Cataluña. She worked as a translator during the Olimpiada Popular and, when the war broke out, she served as a reporter and a translator assisting Mikhail Koltsov, a correspondent of the Soviet newspaper 'Pravda'.
Caught up in the port of Alicante towards the end of the war, she was imprisoned in a concentration camp but was released when she was not found on any list of people who should be judged. Attempting to cross the Pyrenees with her wounded partner, a young political commissar, she fell and broke her wrist. Unable to return to her partner, Marina managed to get to Montpellier and, pretending to be French, was treated there. A few days later Ginestà was reunited with her parents and the family was interned in the camps of Argelès-sur-Mer and Agde. When France was occupied by the Nazis, she left Europe with her family for Mexico and, ultimately, the Dominican Republic, where she married. In 1946 she was forced to leave the country because of the persecution under the dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo. In 1952, Ginestà married a Belgian diplomat and returned to Barcelona. She moved to Paris in the early 1970s. Marina Ginestà died there at the age of 94 on January 6, 2014.

1925 - Emma Goldman lectures on 'The Bolshevik Myth & the Condition of the Political Prisoners' at South Place Institute, London, her first public meeting in England at which she denounces the Bolsheviks, prompting vocal protests from some members of the audience.

1925 - In Paris the first edition of the Italian language 'Tiempos Nuevos: Semanario de Educacion y de Lucha' (Weely on Education and Struggle) is published.

1927 - Edward Paul Abbey (d. 1989), American novelist, essayist, polemicist and desert anarchist, born.
"Freedom begins between the ears."
"Anarchism is not a romantic fable but the hardheaded realisation, based on five thousand years of experience, that we cannot entrust the management of our lives to kings, priests, politicians, generals, and county commissioners."
"Anarchism is founded on the observation that since few men are wise enough to rule themselves, even fewer are wise enough to rule others."

1933 - Greva de la Atelierele CFR Grivița [Grivița Strike]: At a meeting held at the headquarters of the railroad union in Grivița to discuss the situation, the workers assembled there are attacked by the police. Several workers are injured and two others killed; the government had now shown that it was fully determined to employ drastic measures in order to stifle the workers' struggle.
However, this act of repression did not have its intended effect. In Iasi, Galati, Braila, Cluj, Sibiu, etc., there followed a series of popular gatherings to protest both the bloody crackdown on January 29 and the government ban on the congress of civil servants. For the railway engineers it became clear that they could not win their claims without a fight.

[C] 1933 - Mass demonstrations throughout the country as workers protest Adolf Hitler's nomination as German Chancellor. He assumes office tomorrow.

1936 - After Firestone Tire & Rubber in Akron, Ohio, arbitrarily fires a worker, workers stage a fifty-five-hour sit-down occupation of the plant. It was one of three occupations that happened in January of the largest tire companies that refused to recognize the United Rubber Workers of America union and ignored demands for fair work rules.

1938 - The first issue of 'Vida' (Life), the CNT journal of anarcho-syndicalist peasants is published in Valencia.

[E] 1939 - Germaine Greer, the 'Untamed Shrew', a ratbag ("being tuppence in the quid") and intellectual, 'second-wave' feminist writer, and one-time anarchist communist as a member of the Libertarian Push in Sydney, is born in Melbourne, Australia. [expand]
self-described anarchist communist

1943 - Procès des 42: Nine résistants sentenced to death are shot at the Bêle firing range. [see: Jan. 28]

1944 - Gérard Duvergé (b. 1896), aka Fred Durtain, aka Chevalier, French teacher, anarchist and anti-fascist resister, dies following his arrest and torture by the Gestapo. [see: Jun. 15]

1952 - Ekibastuz Prisoners' Strike [Экибастузская Забастовка Заключённых]: The prisoners' hunger and work strike is called off. [see: Jan. 22 & 24]

1968 - General strike in Sardinia, involving 80,000 workers.

1972 - Benjamin J. Legere (b. 1887), US actor and IWW organiser, who played an important role in the Little Falls strike in 1912 and the 1922 Lawrence textile strike, dies. [see: May 30]

[D] 1975 - Weather Underground bomb damages 20 rooms in Washington's State Department Building.

1993 - Dundee Timex Strike: Workers at the Timex factory in Dundee, Scotland, go on strike against proposed layoffs, a wage-freeze, and reduction in benefits. They were subsequently locked out and replaced with scabs. Six months later, the factory closed. [til Aug. 29]

1996 - Four women Ploughshares activists cause millions in damage at the British Aerospace Warton site, disarming a F-16 fighter jet destined to be sold to Indonesia for use in its illegal occupation and genocide of East Timor. The women were later acquitted of all charges on the grounds of preventing a greater crime.

2000 - Police fire tear gas at World Economic Forum protesters, Davos.

[A] 2002 - Chumbawamba sell the song 'Pass it Along' to General Motors for $70,000 and give the money to an activist campaign against the company.

2008 - Claude Faraldo (b. 1936), French actor, screenwriter and director of 'Bof... Anatomie d’un Livreur' (1971) and 'Themroc' (1973), dies. [see: Mar. 23]

2011 - Dorothy Thompson (Dorothy Katharine Gane Towers; b. 1923), British socialist and feminist historian, and political activist, first in the Communist Party (she and her husband Edward broke with the party in 1956) and then in the peace movement, dies. [see: Oct. 30]
1606 - Gunpowder Plot members Everard Digby, Robert Wintour, John Grant, and Thomas Bates tied to hurdles are dragged through the crowded streets of London to St Paul's Churchyard. Digby, the first to mount the scaffold, asked the spectators for forgiveness, and refused the attentions of a Protestant clergyman. He was stripped of his clothing, and wearing only a shirt, climbed the ladder to place his head through the noose. He was quickly cut down, and while still fully conscious was castrated, disembowelled, and then quartered, along with the three other prisoners.

[D] 1649 - In London, the newly formed republican Commonwealth of England executes the former king, Charles I, beheading him for treason.

1826 - Gustave Adolphe Lefrançais (d. 1901), French revolutionary, member of the First International, of the Paris Commune, and a founder of the anarchist Jura Federation, born.

1837 - Tolpuddle Martyrs: Having been pardoned on March 10, 1836, on condition of good conduct, and given free passage home following a mass campaign back in England, George Loveless had had to delay his departure by several months until he was certain his wife Elizabeth had not set sail to join him. Only now does George Loveless set sail from Van Diemen’s Land on board the Eveline, arriving back in England on June 13, 1837. His five comrades are even more delayed as the authorities in New South Wales had been far more dilatory in conveying the government's instructions and offer to them, not setting sail until September 11.

1871 - Paraskiev Ivanov Stoyanov (also transcribed as Paraskeva Stojanov or Parachkef Stoyanov)(Параскев Иванчов Стоянов; d. 1941), Romanian surgeon, historian, and significant figure of Romanian and Bulgarian anarchism, born. [expand]

1894 - Italian anarchist propagandist Francesco Saverio Merlino is arrested in Naples and imprisoned until May 1896.

[E] 1899 - Dolores Morata Díaz (d. 1974), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. She was also known as Dolores Aguilar due to her 'unió lliure' (free union) with her fellow anarchist militant Miguel Aguilar Doñate, which began in 1922, and with whom she had four sons and a daughter. That same year, under pressure from the Primo de Rivera regime, the couple went into exile in France and settled in Lavelanet. In 1931, with the proclamation of the Second Republic, they returned to the Peninsula. Listed as a "dangerous anarchist", they suffered constant persecution and regular periods of imprisonment, and in February 1932 they were deported to the African prison colony of Bata in Spanish Guinea. In 1939 with the Fascist victory, they went in exile to France. With the declaration of war her companion was expelled and emigrated to Mexico. Dolores remained in France with their children. A member of the CNT in exile, Dolores Morata Diaz died on December 18, 1974 in Toulouse.

1905 - [O.S. Jan. 17] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: 160,000 workers are on strike in 650 factories in the capital. The spontaneous mass movement in solidarity with the St Petersburg workers swept across the whole country.

1906 - [O.S. Jan. 17] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Chief of Staff of the Caucasus Military District General Fedor Fedorovich Gryaznov (Фёдор Фёдорович Грязнов) is assassinated in Tiflis (Tblisi) by a bomb thrown by a Menshevik railway worker, Arsene Dzhordzhiashvili (Арсен Джорджиашвили).

1907 - Takami Jun (高見 順; d. 1965), pen-name of Takami Yoshio, Japanese novelist, poet, Marxist and anarchist, born.


Water wants to disappear under the ground
Even the water that welled up from my heart,
as soon as it falls on the ground with the rest,
it already wishes it were disappearing
The pure thoughts of my dirty mind
are also quick to hide from the public eye

'消えたがる' (Wanting to Disappear)


1908 - The first issue of 'Cultura', a monthly review of teaching, science, arts and literature, appears in Catalonia. Bilingual in Catalonian and Spanish, the publication of the Ecole Intégrale in Sabadell ceases after just 6 issues due to financial difficulties.

[F] 1910 - Founding congress in Lund of the anarcho-syndicalist Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation (Central Organisation of the Workers of Sweden).

1911 - Rebelión de Baja California / Revolución Mexicana: Anti-Diaz, and later anti-Madero and pro-Huerta, Mexican revolutionary leader Pascual Orozco Vazquez attacks the federal garrison in Ciudad Juarez in support of Francisco I. Madero's call to overthrow the Porfirio Díaz dictatorship. The garrison was relieved by federal troops three days later.
A wealthy businessman (in mining - he would later own a gold mine), Orozco was attracted by the ideas of the Flores Magón brothers and had initially aided the Magónistas, supplying them with arms, and at various points had Pancho Villa as his subordinate. However, following the defeat of Diaz, Madero's failure to name him to his cabinet or to a state governorship, as well as the new president's failure to implement a series of social reforms that he had promised at the beginning of the revolution, led Orozco to finance a rebellion of his own in March 1912, this time against Madero. This was ultimately defeated by General Victoriano Huerta, who Madero had brought out of retirement, and who would ultimately overthrow him in early 1913. Orozco recognised the new counter-revolutionary government of President Huerta and even accepted an appointment as Commanding General of all Mexican Federal forces, going on to lead attacks against the revolutionaries, including his former lieutenant Pancho Villa - a pattern of double-dealing and power-grabs common to many of the protagonists of the ten-year Revolución Mexicana.

1912 - Lawrence 'Bread & Roses' Textile Strike: A fifteen-year old Syrian striker, John Ramay [also variously given as Ramey, Rami and Ramy], is bayoneted in the back by a militiaman and later dies. With the death being blamed on the strikers themselves, Joseph Ettor from his jail cell comments: "Bayonets cannot weave cloth."

1912 - Brisbane General Strike: With no response from Badger and Brisbane Tramways, the strike committee declare a general strike. They declared that until the demands of the unionists are met, the strike would continue peacefully. The Strike Committee also decide to issue full publicity of the view of the strikers through a daily bulletin. By the following day Brisbane is practically at a standstill: the trains are not running, hotels are closed, and food shops are closing down rapidly. By Saturday 4th, a Citizen’s Automobile Corps had been formed to assist governmental works.
The strike leaders sought to keep the strikers busy with daily speeches, processions through city streets, sporting contests, and more speeches. The strikers generally wore red ribbons to show solidarity. The strikers formed a Vigilance Committee that recruited 500 Vigilance Officers in order to keep order among the strikers. They also set up an ambulance brigade. The government decided not to continue granting permits for processions and to issue a proclamation prohibiting them. [see: Jan. 18]

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Two hundred letter bomb incendiary devices in a box at the Vere Street post office were set on fire and considerably damaged. Similar device explode in York and other towns andcities. The Hamburg-America Shipping Company had a second window broken costing £150.

1914 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Bonnington House, Lanark completely gutted.

1916 - Giuseppe Scarlatti (b. 1854), Italian Bakuninist anarchist author of the 1909 book on the anarchist Cafiero, 'L'internationale des Travailleurs et l'agitateur Carlo Cafiero', dies. [see: May 6]

1919 - Calais Mutiny: The mutiny ends when General Byng finally surrounded Calais with troops equipped with armoured cars and machine guns. However, fraternisation continued between the forces. General Haig wanted the leaders of the Calais mutiny shot. However, the government feared provoking an explosion. There was no soldier punished for the incident despite the fact that mutiny was punishable by death. The only reprisals were in the navy, where one sailor was sentenced to two years’ hard labour, three to one year and three to ninety days’ detention for refusing to go to sea, taking over the patrol vessel HMS Kilbride at Milford Haven, hauling down the white ensign and hoisting the red flag instead.
Within three months demobilisation began in earnest - only just in time to avert another wave of mutiny. The lesson that the military machine could be beaten had been learnt. Churchill commented at the time that "if these armies had formed a "united resolve", if they had been seduced from the standards of duty and patriotism, there was no power which could have attempted to withstand them."

1919 - Fort Leavenworth Prison Strikes: Following the refusal of 150 conscientious objector prisoners to work the previous day, 2,300 prisoners now refused to work, and during the strike leaders of the prisoners, like H. Austin Simons, urged non-violence. The prisoners were sent back to the prison and used the rest of the day to organise. Committees and elected leaders from each wing of the prison drafted a list of demands for the prison authorities. Their demands were:
1.Colonel Rice recommend to the War Department the immediate release of military prisoners;
2. Immunity from punishment for all men who had participated in the strike;
3. Recognition of a permanent grievance committee consisting of prisoners which would connect the prisoner’s to the prison authority and try to improve prisoner grievances (called the General Prisoners Conference Committee or the Prisoners’ Committee.)

[BB] 1925 - Jack Spicer (d. 1965), San Francisco Renaissance poet and gay anarchist son of a Wobbly, born. Spicer formed the Committee for Anarchist Unity as well as an 'Unpopular Front' whilst an undergraduate at Berkeley. After graduating, he found work as a teaching assistant there, but lost his postgraduate post after refusing to sign the Loyalty Oath, a provision of the Sloan-Levering Act that required all California state employees (including graduate teaching assistants at Berkeley) to swear loyalty to the United States. Just as problematic in terms of a career was his open and avowed homosexuality.
His anarchist convictions also led him to refuse copyright on his poetry since he believed that he was in no sense its owner, hardly even its creator. He later forged an alliance with fellow gay poets Robert Duncan (whom he met at an anarchist meeting) and Robin Blaser, and together they referred to their common work as the Berkeley Renaissance.
An alcoholic, he collapsed into a pre-hepatic coma in the elevator of the building he lived in and died several weeks later in the poverty ward of San Francisco General Hospital.

Your life does not count. It is the rules of
the tribe. No
Your life does not count.
counting it all does not count. It is the rules
of the tribe that your life doesn’t count.
Numbering it doesn’t count. Madness doesn’t
Being mad at the numbers doesn’t count.
It is a rule of the tribe (dead as they are)
told over the dead campfires
That it doesn’t count.
That your life doesn’t count.
Countess Death give me Some life in this
little plain we live in from start to finish
Let me slit their throats and smash their heads on the

from 'Golem'


[B] 1926 - The chief of police in Paris forbids the playing of jazz versions of the French national anthem, 'La Marseillaise'.

1933 - The Machtergreifung: Adolf Hitler is sworn in as Chancellor of Germany by President Paul von Hindenburg, marking the effective seizure of power (machtergreifung) by the NSDAP and its national conservative allies.

1935 - Ludovic Ménard (Charles Ménard; b. 1855), French anarchist, syndicalist and founder of the slate workers union, dies. Signatory of the Charter of Amiens, adopted by the Confédération Générale du Travail in 1906. [see: Sep. 9]

1937 - Uncle Joe Stalin's purge trials: Trial of the 'Parallel Trotskyist-Zinovievist Centre'. Pyatakov and 16 others sentenced to death.

1940 - Denis Langlois, French lawyer, anarchist pacifist writer, who served prison time as a conscientious objector (see: 'Le Cachot' [The Dungeon]), born. He also wrote 'Les Dossiers Noirs de la Police Française' (Black Files of the French Police; 1971), 'L'Injustice Racontée aux Enfants' (The Injustices Told to Children1978), 'Le Nouveau Guide du Militant' (1979), 'L'Utopie est Morte! Vive l'Utopie!' (2005), 'Slogans Pour les Prochaines Révolutions' (Slogans for the Coming Revolution; 2008). He has also written a number of novels including 'Un Assassin Très Ordinaire' (A Very Ordinary Assassin; 1978), 'La Révoltution' (1985) and 'L'Affaire Seznec: un Innocent au Bagne' (The Seznec Affair: an Innocent in the Penal Colony; 1988)'.

1940 - Heinrich Bartling (b. 1880), German locksmith, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies in Sachsenhausen concentration camp. [see: Sep. 22]

[C] 1943 - The paramilitary Milice Française (French Militia) is formed, with German assistance, by the Vichy regime (with German aid) to help fight the French Résistance. Though the Milice's formal head was Prime Minister Pierre Laval, its Chief of operations and de facto leader was Secretary General Joseph Darnand. A direct successor to Joseph Darnand's collaborationist Service d'Ordre Légionnaire (SOL) militia, Milice troops (miliciens) included full-time and part-time personnel, some recruited from France's courts and prisons in order to have their sentences commuted, whilst others joined in order to avoid forced labour in Germany. The Milice would go on to participate in summary executions and assassinations, helping to round up Jews and résistants in France for deportation, and regularly using torture to extract information or confessions from those whom they interrogated. Its armed wing, the Franc-Garde (Free Guard) also fought alongside German troops in a number of major battles against the Maquis from late 1943 to August 1944 and, by the time of the Allied invasion, it numbered over 20,000 members.

1958 - The first issue of 'Liberté' newspaper published by the militant anarcho-pacifist Louis Lecoin appears.

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: Galvão and Admiral Allen Smith holds a three-hour meeting on board the Santa Maria, with the rebels desperate to string things out until after the new president's inauguration and the admiral tasked with preventing any transfer of passengers at sea, the potential of which for disaster was high. To that end, they guaranteed not to hinder the Santa Liberdade putting to sea afterwards, paving the way for direct negotiations between the rebels and Brazilian officials over the following days. [see: Jan. 21]

1968 - Viet Cong and North Vietnamese launch Tet offensive.

1972 - British paratroopers attack a demonstration and kill 14 unarmed civilians in the Bloody Sunday incident in Derry, Northern Ireland.

[A] 1978 - In Barcelona 50 anarchists are arrested, accused of the dastardly crime of attempting to "reconstitute the F.A.I" (Iberian Anarchist Federation). Franco is dead, but the old fears of a powerful revolutionary organisation re-emerging persists.

[CC] 1979 - Self-styled nationalist 'race' martyr Robert Relf is sentenced to 15 months in prison for incitement to racial hatred and displaying abusive or insulting notices for a series of racist leaflets distributed by him and his fellow fascist, ex-Warwick British Movement organiser Michael Cole. Cole received a suspended 6 months sentenced and fined £250. On March 13, 1979, the Court of Appeal reduced Relf's sentence to nine months. The judge also told Relf, who has been on hunger strike since being jailed, "If he wants to commit suicide, that is up to him. We are not going to be blackmailed by people like Relf merely because they are going on hunger strike."

1997 - Pepita Grau (Josepa Grau i Ferrer; b. 1916), Catalan anarcho-syndicalsits and anarcha-feminist militant, active in the CNT and the Mujeres Libres, dies. [see: Feb. 15]

2008 - Conchita Guillen Bertolin (b. 1919), Spanish militant anarchist and member of Mujeres Libres, dies. [see: Aug. 16]
1606 - Gunpowder Plot members Thomas Wintour, Ambrose Rookwood, Robert Keyes, and Guy Fawkes are hung, drawn and quartered, opposite the building they had planned to blow up, in the Old Palace Yard at Westminster. Keyes did not wait for the hangman's command and jumped from the gallows, but he survived the drop and was led to the quartering block. Although weakened by his torture, Fawkes also managed to jump from the gallows and break his neck, thus avoiding the horrors of having his testicles cut off, his stomach opened and his guts spilled out whilst still conscious. His body was subsequently quartered and his remains, together with that of his fellow conspitators, were sent to "the four corners of the kingdom" as a warning to others.
The other four surviving plot members, Everard Digby, Robert Wintour, John Grant, and Thomas Bates, had suffered the same fate the previous day.

1869 - Italian (Bakuninist) section of the International founded.

[E] 1885 - Luisa Landová-Štychová (Aloisie Vorlíčková; d. 1969), Czech journalist, populariser of science, pioneer feminist, atheist, anarchist and then communist politician, born. The daughter of a grocery and baker shop owner, she refused to take over the store despite her father's insistence and Aloisie changed her surname to Landová, the maiden name of her paternal grandmother. Politically active pre-WWI, especially among the Northern Bohemian miners, joining the Česká Anarchistická Federace (Czech Anarchist Federation) in 1907 and participating in its anti-militarist campaigns. In 1912 she became known for her radical feminist views and is arguable the first Czech anarchist to promote feminist or anarcha-feminist views. The following year she and her partner, the scientist and anarchist Jaroslav Štych, founded the atheist Svaz Socialistických Monistů (Union of Socialist Monists), which was banned during the war but continued its activities clandestinely as the Sdružení Dělnických Abstinentů (Workers' Association of Abstainers). Štych was also responsible for introducing Landová-Štychová to astronomy, and together they founded an observatory in Petrin and their astronomical society, the Astronomickém Kroužku (Astronomical Circle), would go on to become a gathering place for anarchist and socialists. The anarcho-communists amongst the group, including Landová-Štychová herself, having realised the limited opportunities for organising political struggle available within the group, in 1914 set up the Federace Českých Anarchokomunistů (Federation of Czech Anarcho-communists) under the iniative of Bohuslav Vrbenský and based on the ideas of Stanislaus Kostka Neumann. However, the development of the FČA was interruped by the war and many members were either jailed or ended up joining the army.
After the war, Vrbenský led an exodus of members into the Česká Národně Socialistické Strany (Czech National Socialist Party) and, after a series of negotiations involving Landová-Štychová, renamed itself the České Strana Socialistická (Czech Socialist Party) and allocated the anarcho-communist current three positions on its Executive Committee. Whilst the FČA was effectively absorbed into the ČSS, the anarcho-communists maintained their own organisational structures within the party, holding their own independent anarchist congresses. Landová-Štychová also participated in the preparation for the general strike on the October 14, 1918 as a member of the Socialist Council's action committee, helping draft the strike appeal which openly talked about a Czechoslovak Republic — the first such public declaration to refer to Czechoslovakia as a new state entity. Initially organised by the Socialist Council as a demonstration in protest against the export of food and goods to Austria, it mutated into all-out revolt across the country aimed at creating the new republic.
Between 1918-1923, Landová-Štychová was a member of the Revolučním Národním Shromáždění (Revolutionary National Assembly) as a representative of the ČSS, one of only three women at the time, and she used her position to actively campaign on feminist issues: highlighted the need to reform family law so that even housewives were paid an eight-hour working day and given full voting rights; to reform of the marriage law and called the possibility of establish civil marriages and legal separation; the decriminalisation of abortion; the expropriation of empty properties for the establishment of a homes for children and orphans; the introduction of physical and sexual health education in schools; as well as campaigning against prostitution, smoking and alcoholism.
However, disputes between the anarcho-communist wing and the ČSNS rump over issues, such as forming a Left front with the KSČ (Komunistická Strana Československa / Communist Party of Czechoslovakia), erupted and Landová-Štychová lost her parliamentary seat and the anarchist were marginalised. Finally, the more radical Vrbenský wing was expelled in 1923 for voting against the Law on Protection of the Republic and stripped of their parliamentary mandate. Later that year Landová-Štychová and Vrbenský co-founded the Neodvislá Socialistickou Stranu Dělnickou (Independent Socialist Workers Party), which went on to closely cooperate with the Neodvislá Radikální Sociálně Demokratická Stranou (Independent Radical Social Democratic Party), forming the Socialistické Sjednocení (Socialist Unification), which ultimately fell apart at its first congress the following year. In 1925 the vestiges of the NSSD merged with the KSČ.
Landová-Štychová went on to be a member of parliament (1925-29) for the KSČ, member of the Svazu Proletářských Bezvěrců (Union of Proletarian Atheists), the vice-president (1928-31) of Mezinárodní Dělnický Pomoc (International Workers' Aid), and, in 1925, president of Mezinárodní Rudá Pomoc (International Red Aid). An active anti-fascist, she helped organise support for anti-fascists in the Spanish Revolution and provided support for German anti-fascists escaping Nazi Germany and seeking asylum in in Czechoslovakia.
After 1945 she devoted herself to the popularisation of scientific knowledge and was the author of several publications and pamphlets, and in 1952 was made the vice-president of the Československé Společnosti pro Šíření Politických a Vědeckých Znalostí (Czechoslovak Society for the Propagation of Political and Scientific Knowledge).
Luisa Landová-Štychová dies on August 31, 1969 in Prague.
Amongst her publications are the memoir 'Žena v Manželství' (A Woman in a Marriage; 1923); 'Pomoc Proletářským Dětem' (Helping Proletarian Children; 1927), 'Proti Dnešnímu Vězeňskému Režimu v Československu' (Against Today's Prison Regime in Czechoslovakia; 1928), 'Proč Demonstrují Političtí Vězňové na Pankráci Hladovkou?' (Why Demonstrate in Support of the Political Prisoners on Hunger Strike in Pankrac?; 1928), 'Sociálně-Revoluční Význam 14. Října 1918' (The Socio-Revolutionary Significance of October 14, 1918; 1935), 'Výchova Dětí v Bezvěrecké Rodině' (Raising Children in an Atheist Family; 1947), 'Proslovy k Pohřbům Osob bez Vyznání' (Speeches for Funerals of People without Religion; 1949), and 'Astronomie v Boji s Vatikánem' (Astronomy in the Fight Against the Vatican; 1951).

1894 - Lunigiana Revolt [Moti Anarchici della Lunigiana]: At his trial before the military court in Massa, Luigi Molinari is hastily sentenced to twenty three years in prison, which is reduced at a new trial on April 19 to seven and a half years as the instigator of the insurrection earlier this month in Lunigiana. However, after spending nearly two years in prison in Oneglia, he is released on September 20, 1895 following massive public protests.

1897 - 'El Perseguido' (The Hunted), an anarchist-communist labour periodical, ceases publication in Argentina.

1899 - Aristide Lapeyre (d. 1974), French hairdresser, anarchist, militant pacifist and néo-Malthusian, born. Worked in the CNT-FAI propaganda office during the Civil War and helped many escape the clutches of the Gestapo during WWII and was captured by the Nazis for his pains.

1903 - Roger Monclin (d. 1985), French author and libertarian peace activist, born. Author of a book on the anarchist poet and songwriter 'Gaston Couté, 1880-1911, Poète Maudit' (1962).

1905 - [O.S. Jan. 18] Putilov Strike / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Following the Bloody Sunday massacre during which around 45 Putilov workers were killed and 61 were seriously wounded as they tried to present a petition to the tsar that they helped write, the enraged workers only resume work today. Coincidentaly, the tsar meets with a delegation of industrial workers and declares that he has "forgiven them".

1906 - [O.S. Jan. 16] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Second Kadet Party (Constitutional Democratic Party / Конституционно-демократическая партия) Congress (Jan. 31-Feb. 6 [O.S. Jan. 16-23]) endorses a program of liberal reform, but shows signs of drifting to the right despite creating the party subtitle 'People's Freedom Party' (Партия Народной Свободы) as their original name was not understood by many.

1909 - The opening of the Scuola Moderna Razionalista in Clivio, Lombardy, by the anarchist Felice Monzini following the model of Ferrer in Barcelona in order to provide an alternative to the religious schools and introduce teachings based on libertarian principles. Eventually forced by the authorities to close in 1921.

[C] 1910 - Giorgio Perlasca (d. 1992), Italian anti-Nazi civil servant and merchant, who posed as the Spanish consul-general to Hungary in the winter of 1944, and saved 5218 Jews from transportation to Nazi Germany and the Holocaust, born.

1912 - A General Strike begins in Brisbane, Queensland (until March 6). It follows the suspension of tramway workers for wearing union badges.

1914 - Australian IWW newspaper 'Direct Action: Paper of the Industrial Workers of the World' first appears in Sydney, New South Wales.

[F] 1918 - Januarstreik [January General Strike]: After the strike in Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, and other large cities, as well as in the Ruhr, with an increasing numbers of work stoppages, a tightening of the state of siege in Berlin was imposed on January 31, 1918, as the government and the military feared an insurrection in the capital. As a result, demonstrations and rallies were violently suppressed, and a demonstration of members of the police and mounted gendarmerie that had been organised by the Aktionsausschuß (Action Committee) was violently resolved. According to the police, there was one dead and 21 injured. Seven of the city's largest companies were now placed under military control and a deadline of February 4 was set for the strikers to return to work or face arrest and facing military courts. With mass arrests already leading to up to 500 workers per day being sentenced to war service, on February 3 the Action Committee announced the ending of the strike, which had unequivocally expressed the weariness of the war to the wider population. Many of the strike leaders were also arrested but the government's attempts to curb the revolutionary potential in Germany that February eventually proved to be in vain, with the November revolution breaking out later that year.

1919 - Fort Leavenworth Prison Strikes: The prison guards did not try to make the prisoners go to work and left them in the prison. Colonel Sedgwick Rice agreed to meet with the leaders of the committee and seventeen other prisoners to discuss further negotiation. At this meeting, the prisoners gave Colonel Rice their list of demands.
Colonel Rice agreed to give immunity to prisoners involved in the strike, and to give the prisoner’s request to the War Department. The next day, he left for Washington D.C. to deliver the message in person to the War Department and the Secretary of War. The prisoners voted unanimously to return to work. In response, the War Department appointed a committee called the the Judge Advocate Review Board (also called the Pardoning Board or the Clemency Board) to review the cases and sentencing of the prisoners....

[A] 1919 - Battle of George Square: Following the declaration of a strike in support of a 40 hour week on Monday 27 January, 60,000 workers gathered for a mass picket in George Square, Glasgow. A mass battle broke out between strikers and the Glasgow police that spread across the whole city. The government, claiming a "Bolshevist uprising", ordered 10,000 troops armed with machine guns, tanks and a howitzer into Glasgow on the Friday night and Saturday to occupy the city's streets.

[B] 1924 - Georgi Simeonov Popov (Георги Симеонов Попов; b. 1900), Bulgarian anarchist, teacher, poet, orator, anarchist organier and insurrectionist guerrilla, dies at his own hands to avoid being capture by the army. [see: May 22]

1929 - Erich Maria Remarque novel 'Im Westen Nichts Neues' (All Quiet On The Western Front) is published.

1933 - Greva de la Atelierele CFR Grivița [Grivița Strike]: Workers from the CFR Grivița Workshops elect a strike committee, which declares an immediate 4-hour 'grevă demonstrativă' protest strike. 7,000 workers take part but there is no response from management, and the action committee decides to call a strike for February 2.

1936 - Plemum of the FAI (Iberian Anarchist Federation) convenes in Madrid (Jan. 31 - Feb. 1). Members of the FARP-FAI (Portuguese Anarchist Federation) are also in attendance.

1938 - 12,000 pecan shellers in San Antonio, Texas, walk off their jobs at 400 factories in what would become a three-month/37-day strike against wage cuts. The pecan-shelling industry was among the lowest paid in the country; workers made between $2-$3 a week.

1943 - Susan Stern (Susan Ellen Tanenbaum; d. 1976), US political activist, who was a member of Students for a Democratic Society, the Weathermen (expelled after five months) and the radical anti-Vietnam War movement, Seattle Liberation Front, born.

1945 - Wiesław Protschke aka 'Wieslaw' (b. 1912), Polish syndicalist and anti-Soviet and anti-Nazi fighter, dies. [see: Nov. 13]

1945 - The first issue of the journal 'Estudios Sociales' (Social Studies) is produced by Spanish anarcho-syndicalist activists in exile in Mexico.

1949 - Around 700 people turn out to hear Oswald Mosley, prospective UM candidate for the London County Council speak in Kensington Town Hall. Over 3,000 protesters gathered outside at a demonstration organised by the 43 Group, who led a torch-lit wreath laying ceremony at the nearby war memorial. Attempts were made by the crowd to force their way into the meeting but were repelled by mounted police. Fifteen minutes into his address, tear gas was let off inside the meeting and over 100 fascists required medical treatment for its effects. There were seven arrests, several of whom were 43 Group members. [PR]

1961 - Operação Dulcineia: The tension surrounding the negotiations with the Brazilians is lightened by the attempt by photojournalist, Giles Delamare, to parachute onto the Santa María. Missing the deck, he fell into the sea nearby and was picked up by an approached tugboat bringing a group of journalists from Brazil. Fellow French photographer Charles Bonnay was less fortunate. Jumping at the same time as Delamare, he ended up being rescued by a US Navy launch and had to spend 3 days after being hauled before Admiral Smith and given a dressing down for defying the US ban on newsmen attempting to board the liner. Meantime, Delamare got his story, which appeared, in 'Paris Match' on February 4th. [see: Jan. 21]

1966 - Police kill two striking mine workers in Belgium.

[D] 1968 - Tet Offensive catches South Vietnam off guard as 70,000 Viet Cong troops attack 100 cities.

1980 - Siege of Plogoff (France). During the entire six weeks, from January 31 to March 14, the mobile mairies annexes (city hall annexes meant to display the plans) and the police guarding them come under constant attack from local people opposed to government plans to construct a nuclear plant.

1980 - In Milano, the state police mistakenly kill the housewife Anna Maria Minci.

1981 - Marcel (André) Voisin (b. 1892), French anarchist and pacifist who worked in 'La Ruche' (The Hive) libertatian school, dies.

1981 - West German squatters protest eviction attempts, battle the police in West Berlin.

1987 - Oksana Shachko [Оксана Шачко], Ukrainian artist and founder member of the international feminist protest group FEMEN, along with Anna Hutsol [Ганна Гуцол] and Alexandra Shevchenko [Олександра Шевченко], born. She invented the bare breast protest when she went topless on August 4, 2009 during a FEMEN demonstration on Ukrainian independence day.

2004 - William Herrick (born William Horvitz; b. 1915), US writer of the classic Spanish Civil War novel 'Hermanos!' (1969), dies. [see Jan 10]

2011 - Don Lacoss (b. 1964), US radical scholar, writer, adventurer, surrealist and anarchist, dies. Don was a contributing editor for 'The Fifth Estate' and an active member of the Chicago Surrealist Group.

2012 - Dorothea Margaret Tanning (b. 1910), American Surrealist painter, printmaker, sculptor, writer, poet, ballet set and costume designer, dies. [see: Aug. 23]
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C] 2016 [D] 2017 [E] 2018 [F]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC] 2016 [DD] 2017 [EE] 2018 [FF]
Monthly features: 2013 [AAA] 2014 [BBB] 2015 [CCC] 2016 [DDD] 2017 [EEE] 2018 [FFF]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)
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