1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: On behalf of the city council, Antonio Cuevas Jurado announces to the city a manifesto in which he claims that at such critical times, they had had to accept positions running the municipal offices, positions that they did not deserve but could also not refuse. They put at the disposal of the people their honesty and probity, with which they hoped to count on the support of all the social classes of the population, so that there would be public tranquillity, and attracted to it the visitors that the city always had in the past.

1876 - Mikhail Bakunin (b. 1814), Russian revolutionary and philosopher, theorist of collectivist anarchism, who was plagiarised mercilessly by Karl Marx (whilst at the same time being vehemently denouncing by him "a nonentity as a theoretician"), dies. [see: May 30]
[Costantini pic]

1873 - Sandra Lehtinen (Alexandra Reinholdsson; d. 1954), Finnish servant, seamstress, trades unionist, militant feminist, agitator and organiser in the Suomen Työväenpuolue (Finnish Workers' Party), and later Social Democrat (Suomen Sosialidemokraattinen Puolue) MP, born.

1876 - Susan Keating Glaspell (d. 1948), US radical and feminist playwright, actress, director, novelist, biographer and poet, born.

1888 - [O.S. Jun. 19] Serafim Ivanovna Deryabin (Серафима Ивановна Дерябина; d. 1920), Russian revolutionary and Bolshevik, who escaped from the White Army's notorious 'train of death', born. Member RSDLP (b) since 1904 .

1893 - The first issue of the monthly German language anarchist communist journal 'Die Brandfackel' (The Torch) is published in New York.

1894 - The anarchist Oreste Lucchesi kills Giuseppe Bandi, the director of the newspaper 'Il Telegrafo', and author of a series of articles attacking anarchists.

1903 - [N.S. Jul. 14] Baku Strike [Бакинская Cтачка]: The first general strike of the proletariat of the city of Baku begins in the mechanical workshops in Bibi-Heybat. [see: Jul. 14]

1905 - [O.S. Jun 18] Łódź Insurrection [Powstanie Łódzkie] / June Days [Dni Czerwca]: Cossacks attacked several thousand workers returning from a demonstration in the Łagiewniki forest (Lesie Łagiewnickim) as they march between the chapel of St. Anthony toward Bałucki Market Square (Bałuckiego Rynku) in Łódź. Around 10 people are killed.

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 18] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Odessa is brought to a halt by a large strike.

[D] 1905 - [O.S. Jun. 18] Potemkin Mutiny [Потемкин Мятеж]: During the morning the crew of the Potemkin seize the Odessa transportation vessel Peter Regir (Пётр Регир) and began to unload its cargo of coal onto the battleship. Meanwhile, the Commander of the Odessa Military District issued an order prohibiting outdoor gatherings more than twenty people and that violators of the order would be fired on without notice. The Potemkin also reiterated its demand that all military units should leave the city, Odessa citizens should be armed, popular rule should be established, all political prisoners released, and a delivery of coal and provisions be made to the Battleship.
In Sebastopol, the crew of the battleship Catherine II (Екатерина II) held a secret meeting and decided to join the rebellion but the plot was betrayed and the ringleaders arrested before the mutiny could take place.
At 15:00, loyalist members of Georgii Pobedonosets (Георгий Победоносец) retook control of the ship, posing a threat to the Potemkin drawn up alongside it. Fearing being fired upon, the Potemkin's crew panicked, with some calling for the 'traitors' to be fired upon. Most however decided that they should put to sea and sail for Constanța in Romania where they believed they could restock food, water and coal. At 20:00, Potemkin left port accompanied by its escort, the destroyer No. 267 [sometimes referred to as the Ismail (Измаил)], which had mutinied alongside the Potemkin, and the port vessel Milestone (Веха). The Milestone, who was carrying the wounded from the Potemkin and whose crew did not want to rebel, turned around during the night and eventually surrendered to authorities.
Meanwhile, the loyalist crew on the Georgii Pobedonosets had run the ship aground in Odessa harbour and surrendered to the port authorities. By 19:00, the ship was under the control of forces loyal to the government. In August 1905, the 75 mutineers seized on the morning of July 3rd were tried. Koshuba and two others were executed and 19 sailors got a total of 185 years of hard labour. Further mutinies in the Black Sea Fleet fizzle out.

1906 - The Program of the Partido Liberal Mexicano is published by the Organising Meeting in St. Louis , Missouri in the pages of 'Regeneración'. Despite being one of more important political documents of the history of México, Ricardo Flores Magón (who wrote the preamble) still considered it "a timid program" when writing about it in 1915.

[EE] 1909 - [N.S. Jul. 13] In a unique event in the annals of the Russian prison system, thirteen female revolutionaries and political prisoners escape from the Moscow female penitentiary with the assistance of the prison matron, Alexandra Vasilyevna Tarasova (Александра Васильевна Тарасова; 1887-1971), who had brought them clothes (arranged by the mother and sister of Vladimir Mayakovsky). The duty overseer was drugged and two matrons tied up before Tarasova used her keys to open the gate and let them out. Ten of the escapees, including Natalia Sergeyevna Klimova (Наталья Сергеевна Климова) managed to make their way to Paris. The other three were caught the same day. Mayakovsky himself was sentenced to exile for three years in the Narym region under the supervision of the police, but was eventually released as he was a minor.

1913 - [O.S. Jun. 19] Tikveš Uprising [Тиквешко въстание (Bul.) / Тиквешко востание (Mkd.)]: Serbian and Turkish forces are defeated by the rebels and retreat towards Velez (Велес).

1913 - Paterson Silk Strike: Elizabeth Gurley Flynn takes the witness stand in the Court of Quarter Sessions of Passaic County addresses the jury during her trial. [expand]

1914 - The first issue of the anarchist paper 'L'Action Anarchiste' is published in Uccle, Belgium.

[E] 1914 - Orli Wald (Aurelia Torgau; d. 1962), member of the German Resistance in Nazi Germany, who was sentenced to 4.5 years hard labour for high treason and later sent to Ravensbrück concentration camp, where she was held in "protective custody" as a danger to the Third Reich, born. She earned the name of the Angel of Auschwitz working as a prisoner functionary in the infirmary at Auschwitz-Birkenau.
From the FEMBIO website:
On the Wald family grave-plate in the Engesohde Cemetery in Hanover one can read: "Orli 1914-1962". Behind this simple inscription lies hidden the story of life of the 'Heroine of Auschwitz', a life which lasted only 48 years.
Orli was born as Aurelia Torgau into a working-class family in Bourell (France), on 1 July 1914. From an early age she was a member of the Communist Youth Organization of Germany (KJVD). When the National Socialists seized power her activities became illegal. In 1935 Orli married the construction worker Friedrich-Wilhelm Reichert. Although her husband soon became a member of the SA, she continued her work for the Communists.
The group for which Orli distributed party information was discovered and brought to trial. In 1936, at age 22, the "wife of Fritz Reichert, Aurelia née Torgau" was sentenced to four years and 6 months in prison for "an activity constituting high treason" by the 5th Criminal Division of the Higher Regional Court (5. Strafsenat des Oberlandesgerichts) in Hamm/Westfalen. A few years later such a charge would bring the death penalty.
Orli Wald-ReichertOrli Reichert served her entire sentence in the Ziegenhain Prison near Kassel. Her husband divorced her in 1939. At the conclusion of her prison term she was not, however, set free, but sent to the women’s concentration camp at Ravensbrück. On 26 March 1942 she was part of the first transport from Ravensbrück to the Auschwitz women’s camp, where she was given the number 502. From autumn 1942 till the end of the war she was in the ancillary camp Birkenau. Here she was assigned to the prisoners’ hospital; in 1943 she became senior prisoner in charge of the camp (Lagerälteste).
Orli’s selfless efforts on behalf of her fellow detainees in the prisoners’ hospital earned her the title 'Heroine of Auschwitz', or, as some of her fellow inmates called her, 'Angel of Auschwitz'. With daring and cunning she endeavoured to help: for example, even small provisions of food saved many lives. Together with an imprisoned Jewish physician she offered fellow inmates a brief period of rest in the hospital by diagnosing suspicion of typhus. She also was able to save the life of the Jewish doctor. But she was not always successful; 'The Handkerchief', a story she wrote after the war, tells how she was unable to protect a little blind girl from a deadly injection. Orli was a member of the German resistance group at Auschwitz; nothing is known, however, about her precise role in the activities leading up to the revolt of 7 October 1944.
Her final imprisonment was in a subsidiary camp of the Ravensbrück Camp, where she had been sent by the SS on January 18, 1945, on one of the death marches. From there she was able to escape – only to fall into the hands of Soviet soldiers, who raped her.
Orli had survived more than eight years’ imprisonment sick with tuberculosis, and in late 1945 she began treatment in the Sülzhayn Sanatorium. There she met Eduard Wald; after their marriage in 1947 she moved with him to Hanover. Orli was unable to cope with the traumatic experiences of her years as an internee and spent considerable time in the Psychiatric Institution in Ilten near Hanover, where she died on 1 January 1962. The city of Hanover regularly honours Orli Wald by laying a wreath on her grave.
After her second marriage Orli went by the name Wald, but she had become the 'Heroine of Auschwitz' under her first married name of Reichert. In 1984 a small cul-de-sac, the Reicherthof, was laid out in Hannover-Wettbergen and named after the resistance fighter Orli Reichert. And in April 2007 the city of Hanover decided to change the name of the Alte Döhrener Straße near the city cemetery Engesohde to the Orli-Wald-Allee.

1915 - Ada Martí (Maria de la Concepció Martí Fuster; d. 1960), Catalan writer, journalist and anarchist intellectual, born. [expand]

1917 - [O.S. Jun 18] Kerensky Offensive: Alexander Kerensky [right wing of the Socialist Revolutionary Party and vice-chairman of the Petrograd Soviet at the time of the February Revolution], the Provisional Government prime minister and newly appointed war minister, launches what was to be a disastrous offensive on the Eastern Front, despite incredibly low moral (with some army units calling for the overthrow of the government), poor supplies and logistics, and in the absence of sound strategic thinking. German counter-attacks bring devastating loses: 150,000 Russians are killed, with nearly 250,000 wounded.
News of the offensive was met with anger and hostility in the cities.
The same day in Petrograd, Moscow, Kiev, Kharkov, Ekaterinoslav, and other cities across Russia, right wing of the Socialist Revolutionary Party had called a demonstrations in support of the government . However, where many of the crowd of 500,000 workers and soldiers in Petrograd displayed 'communist' slogans calling for 'Soviet power' - the Bolsheviks would take this as a sign that 'the people' were on 'their side'. Meanwhile, under the cover of some of the demonstrations, groups of anarchists attacked several prisons, feeing 460 prisoners. The Provisional Government then turned this into propaganda, claiming the Bolsheviks helped. Many of the Petrograd Anarchists were arrested in the aftermath of the attacks on the prison there.

1917 - East St Louis Race Riot (July 1-3), probably the most notorious in US history.
[www.eslarp.uiuc.edu/ibex/archive/nunes/esl history/race_riot.htm]

1920 - The second congress of the Unione Communista Anarchica d'Italia (1-4 July) begins. Under the influence of Malatesta it will remove the reference to communism and change its name to Unione Italiana Anarchica (IAU).

[B] 1920 - First great Dada exhibition, the Erste Internationale Dada-Messe (First International Dada Fair) [July 1-August 25], takes place in the rooms of Dr. Otto Burchard's art-shop in Berlin. It features 174 exhibited objects and is the culmination of the Dada activities in Berlin.

[F] 1923 - Bloody Sunday: During a steelworkers' strike in the summer of 1923, a group of mounted provincial police rode down Victoria Road and into Whitney Pier. They charged a group of mostly women and children returning home from church. They galloped in, swinging bats and clubs. One group was followed by a mounted police officer into the lobby of a local hotel. Men, women, and children were trampled and beaten. The miners' union struck in protest. Federal troops were called in to break both strikes.

1925 - Erik (Éric Alfred Leslie) Satie (b. 1866), French composer and pianist, dies. [see: May 17]

1932 - The first issue of the Italian language newspaper 'La Lanterna', "Periodico Anarchico", is published in Marseilles by a group of Italian anarchist refugees. Printed in Nîmes, it provides support to victims of political repression in Fascist Italy.

1933 - The first issue of the monthly literary magazine 'Prolétariat' is published in Paris by Henry Poulaille and the Groupe Prolétarien.

1937 - In Barcelona the Via Laietana, main artery of the city passing the CNT HQ is renamed Via Durruti in tribute to Buenaventura Durruti and his revolutionary activities.

1946 - Pia Turroni begins publishing 'Volontà', the monthly magazine of the Italian anarchist movement clandestinely as the US authorities refused him permission. He continues as managing editor until 1980, when the Milan anarchist group Bandiera Nera (Black Flag) take it over.

1951 - Anne Feeney, US feminist, IWW member and community activist, folk musician and singer-songwriter or "unionmaid, hellraiser and labour singer" as she herself puts it, born.

1952 - Fráňa Šrámek (b. 1877), Czech poet, novelist, short story writer, Impressionist playwright, anti-militarist and anarchist rebel, dies. [see: Jan 19]

[C] 1962 - Colin Jordan's National Socialist Movement holds a 'Free Britain from Jewish Control' rally in Trafalgar Square, which ends in a riot. Around 800 nazis were present, attracted by the NSM’s hatred for Jews and democracy, who were opposed by 4,200 or so anti-fascists. Denis Pirie and John Tyndall were the first to speak in front of a massive banner bore the words 'Free Britain From Jewish Control' and 'Britain Awake', the latter comparing the Jews to "a poisonous maggot", and were subjected to a continuous barracking and a barrage of pennies, tomatoes, eggs and apples from those gathered around the platform. When Jordan, who was dressed in the uniform of his NSM’s paramilitary force Spearhead – brown shirt, military boots and pagan Sunwheel symbol armband – spoke, he praised Hitler and the Nazis as well as continued to spew the anti-Semitic bile of the others two. By the time the police intervened to arrest the speakers a riot was under way after the platform had been stormed. Many of Jordan’s supporters were injured and their military-style Land Rovers damaged. 20 arrests made, fifteen cases on charges of offences against Section 5 of the Public Order Act, 1936.
The event would precipitate an attempt to reform the anti-fascist 43 Group, with many of the original members as well as many new members acting under the umbrella name of the 1962 Committee aka the 62 Group. It would also be a catalyst for the formation of the mostly Jewish 'no platform' anti-fascist Yellow Star Movement. [see below]
Later that year Jordan and his core officers, including John Tyndall, who went on to lead the National Front and found today’s British National Party, were convicted at the Old Bailey under the 1936 Public Order Act for organising and equipping a paramilitary force for political ends. He was jailed for nine months.
nazbol.net/library/authors/Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke/Black Sun.pdf
www.lboro.ac.uk/media/wwwlboroacuk/content/socialsciences/downloads/10_Richardson_British fascist discourse_final.pdf

1962 - At the same time as the NSM meeting in Trafalgar square, Rev. Bill Sargent was holding his own protest against the NSM by wearing a yellow star at a meeting on the steps of the church in nearby St Martins in the Fields. Included in the protest were members of the Jewish Ex-Servicemen's group (AJEX), and this would mark the beginning of the Yellow Star Movement. [see: Jul. 22]

1977 - Lewisham 21 Defence Committee demonstration in New Cross in support of local black youths arrested in police operation: '300 demonstrators marched through Lewisham and New Cross'; more than 100 National Front supporters turn out to attack it: "Shoppers rushed for cover as racialists stormed down New Cross Road" ['Kentish Mercury']. NF throw bottles, "rotten fruit and bags of caustic soda at marchers" ['South London Press']. More than 60 people, fascists and anti-fascists, are arrested in clashes in New Cross Road and Clifton Rise.

1978 - In Manchester a defence campaign was created to support Nazir and Munir Ahmed. On July 2, a group of strangers attack Nazir and Munir Ahmed's shop in Longsight. The Ahmeds, assume that the attackers are linked to the National Front but when the brothers attempt to call the police, they learn that their assailants were in fact plain-clothes officers. Nazir and Munir Ahmed were eventually charged on several counts, including assault on a policeman, wounding with intent and carrying offensive weapons. They could count themselves doubly unfortunate. For most victims of racist attacks, the police merely contributed to the problem; they were not the problem itself.

1985 - Parisian daily newspapers fail to appear following the sabotage of the IPLO print shop near Nantes. "We decided to impose a half day’s silence on the national press in honour of the rebellious jailbirds..." The action is also dedicated to all the dead prisoners who were allegedly "suicides". "All these papers are well known for their hostility to the recent movement of revolt in the prisons."

2003 - Chicho Sánchez Ferlosio (José Antonio Julio Onésimo Sánchez Ferlosio; b. 1940), Spanish singer, poet, songwriter, journalist, one-time communist but later an anarchist and CNT member, dies. [see: Apr. 8]

2008 - The new Ungdomshuset social centre opens in Copenhagen, Denmark.

2009 - Josefa Martín Luengo aka 'Pepita' (María Josefa Martín Luengo; b. 1944), Spanish libertarian educationalist and anarcha-feminist, dies. [see: Sep. 19]

[A] 2011 - Inmates in the Security Housing Unit at the Pelican Bay State Prison, California begin their first hunger strike to protest the conditions they are subjected to including the gang 'validation' system and their long-term solitary confinement.
1789 - Marquis de Sade shouts from the Bastille that prisoners are being slaughtered.

1809 - Alarmed by the growing encroachment of whites squatting on Native American lands, the Shawnee Chief Tecumseh issues a call to all Indians to unite and resist. By 1810, he has organised the Ohio Valley Confederacy, which unites Indians from the Shawnee, Potawatomi, Kickapoo, Winnebago, Menominee, Ottawa, and Wyandotte nations. For several years, Tecumseh’s Indian Confederacy successfully delays further white settlement in the region.

[D] 1839 - Captive Africans on the Cuban slave ship Amistad, led by Joseph Cinquè (a Mende from what is now Sierra Leone), mutiny against their captors, kill the captain and the cook, and seize control of the schooner.

[F] 1855 - Primera Huelga General de España: In the wake of the on-going repression of the labour movement in Catalonia, Spain's industrial heartland, the Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera* (Central Board of Directors of the Working Class) in Barcelona call for a general strike in protest at the execution of the militant cotton spinner Josep Barceló Cassadó on June 6 and the June 21 order from the Military Governor of Catalonia, Capitán General Juan Zapatero y Navas, for the dissolution of all 'illegal' societats obreres.
At midday, workers in the Catalan textile industry in Bacelona, ​​Gracia, Badalona, ​​Sans and other towns on the outskirts and in Igualada come out on strike in defence of the freedom of association and improvements in working conditions, in what is considered to be the first general strike convened in the history of Spain. In Sans the president of the employers' association and Cortes deputy José Sol y Padrís is shot dead. Zapatero issues a proclamation banning all working class organisations that take part in supporting the strike movement.
Industrial actions quickly extends to the main towns of the Principality, including Sabadell, Igualada, Vic, Reus, Vilanova i Geltrú, Sitges and the manufacturing areas of Ter and Cardener. The extent of the strike movement surprises both the authorities and the manufacturer, and they express concern about the high level of organisation amongst workers that it implied. Even the bishop of Vich joined the calls made by the authorities to return to work: "If in your laborious life you have to submit to some privations, religion teaches us resignation and suffering, religion comforts us, promising us more abundant happiness in a future life, the greater the privations in the present are." However, the strike continued under the motto written on a banner: "Viva Espartero! Asociación o muerte. Pan y trabajo." (Viva Espartero [the Spanish president]! Association or death. Bread and work.)
Following negotiations between a government emissary, Colonel Saravia, and the Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera, an agreement was reached on July 10 promising a new law for the recognition of workers' associations. The following day, after with General Espartero having issued a message to Catalonia's workers asking them to trust him, saying that he was "a son of the people who never deceived the people", the strike was called off.
[*Its members were Pau Barba, Secretaries Joan Rovira and Joan Bertran, and members Joan Company, Ramon Maseras, Martomeu Arrons, Jerònim Alsina, Pau Folch, Manuel Escuder and Pere Puigventós]

1857 - Carlo Pisacane (b. 1818), Italian revolutionary, anti-authoritarian precursor of libertarian socialism and the first Italian (and essentially Proudhonian) anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 22]

1873 - Nella Giacomelli (d. 1949), Italian anarchist and propagandist, co-founder with Ettore Molinari of 'Il Grido della Folla' (The Cry of the Crowd) in 1902 and of 'La Protesta Umana' in 1906, and in the post-war period a contributor to Errico Malatesta's anarchist daily 'Umanita Nova', born. [expand]

1877 - Hermann Hesse (d. 1962), German poet and novelist, born. Author of 'Der Steppenwolf' (1927), whose central character Harry Haller is invited to attend an: "Anarchist Evening at the Magic Theatre, For Madmen Only, Price of Admission Your Mind."

[E] 1892 - Luz Corral (María Luz Corral de Villa; d. 1981), Pancho Villa's forbearing first wife, who brought up a number of the other children of the polyamorous revolutionary (some estimates claim that he had up to 75 'wives'), their own daughter dying very young, born. They were married on May 29, 1911, despite her widowed mother's objections and would continue to live in their house in Chihuahua, which she turned into a museum dedicated to Villa.

1892 - Olaf Bryn Kullmann (d. 1942), Norwegian one-time naval officer, who later became an anti-militarist and peace activist, born. When Norway was invaded by Germany in 1940, he bicycled around Norway to agitate against Norway's involvement in WWII, something that got him arrested when he refused Nazi demands that he cease his pacifist agitation. He ultimately ended up in Sachsenhausen concentration camp, where he died in July 1942.

1894 - André Kertész (born Kertész Andor; d. 1985), Hungarian-born photographer and ground-breaking photojournalist, born.

1898 - The first issue of the Italian language anarchist-communist periodical 'L'Agitatore' is published in Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 19] Potemkin Mutiny [Потемкин Мятеж]: At 09:30 the training ship and minelayer Rod (Прут) also mutinied and set sail for Odessa hoping to link up with the Potemkin, only to find them not there. They then decided to return to Sébastopol and its main fortress with the red flag raised to act as an example of the rebellion to the rest of the Black Sea Fleet.
The Potemkin arrived in the Romanian port of Constanța at 18:20 and released it 'Appeal to the entire civilised world' (Обращение ко всему цивилизованному миру):
"To all civilized citizens and to the working people! The crimes of the autocratic government have exhausted all patience… The government wants to drown the country in blood, forgetting that the troops consist of sons of the oppressed people. The crew of the Potemkin has taken the first decisive step… All free men and all workers will be on our side in the struggle for liberty and peace. Down with the autocracy! Long live the constituent assembly!!" [from 'Proletary' (Пролетарий/The Proletarian*) No. 7, July 10 (June 27), 1905]
The other ships in the port immediately put to sea and the British government threatened to send its navy to sink the rebellious battleship. Port authorities accepted the battleship's lists of needed supplies and said that the demands of the rebels would be transferred to the central authorities in Bucharest and any decisions would be made ​​there.
[* the RSDLP underground newspaper]

1905 - [O.S. Jun 19] Łódź Insurrection [Powstanie Łódzkie] / June Days [Dni Czerwca]: Funerals of the victims of Jul. 1 [O.S. Jun. 18], which are attended by large crowds, are held today and tomorrow. They escalate into major demonstrations.

1909 - Albert Louis Aernoult (b. 1866), French syndicalist, union activist and libertarian roofer, dies a day after arriving at the military-style discipline camp at Djenan al-Dar, Algeria. Supposedly only serving a few days punishment there, at 5 a.m. in the morning he was subjected to 4 hours strenuous. He collapsed from heat stress and exhaustion, and was then beaten with sticks by a lieutenant and 2 sergeants. He was then put to the crapaudine: forced to lay face-down, the legs are bent up to the kidneys, where the ankles and wrists are then bound behind one's back by a cord. About 3 p.m. Aernoult was thrown into a cell and submitted to the crapaudine again. He died later that night, supposedly of "heat stroke" and "cerebral excitement" as a result of the African sun.

1910 - Unemployed shoe-maker Jean-Jacques Liabeuf (b. 1886) is guillotined following his act of revenge against police for his wrongful conviction for 'pimping'. Armed with a pistol and 2 cobblers' knives, whilst wearing heavily spiked armbands, he is confronted by police - killing one, severely wounding a second and hospitalising six others. Despite widespread protests in his support organised by the anarchist milieu, he is executed, precipitating extensive rioting.

1913 - [O.S. Jul. 20] Tikveš Uprising [Тиквешко въстание (Bul.) / Тиквешко востание (Mkd.)]: On the same day that a new Bulgarian government is chosen, about 30,000 Serbian army troops and irregulars led by Vasilije Trbić are sent to crush the uprising.

1917 - The first issue of the libertarian weekly 'Germinal' is published in Tampico, Mexico.

1917 - East St Louis Race Riot (July 1-3), probably the most notorious in US history.
[www.eslarp.uiuc.edu/ibex/archive/nunes/esl history/race_riot.htm]

1921 - Thirteen Anarchists, held for no plausible reason in the Taganka prison in Moscow, inaugurate a hunger strike to the death, timed to coincide with the gathering of the International Congress of Red Trade Unions (the Profinterri) in the capital city, in order to campaign for the release of all political prisoners in Russia.

1923 - Criminal Syndicalism: Harold B. Fiske, an organiser for the IWW's Agricultural Workers Industrial Union No. 110, is arrested in Geneseo, Kansas by Rice county authorities and put in the jail at the county seat in Lyons. He was described upon his arrest as "a regular walking roll top desk, his pockets serving for pigeon holes" for the abundance of IWW literature he was carrying. On the basis of this evidence and his alleged admission to the sheriff that he had taken two applications for membership, Fiske was charged with violating the Kansas' Criminal Syndicalism act, which prohibited the advocacy of force or violence as a means of political or industrial change. The evidence introduced at trial against Fiske consisted primarily of the following: membership applications, membership cards, and accounting records found in Fiske's possession; the bylaws and other records pertaining to the Agricultural Workers' Industrial Union No. 110, an IWW affiliate; the preamble of the IWW's constitution; and a copy of an IWW song, which Fiske was alleged to have sung while in jail. For his part, Fiske admitted his role as an organiser; stated that he understood the teachings and constitution of the IWW; and defended the IWW's program of social revolution, asserting that the IWW would "in time rule the labour situation and overpower the capitalists of the United States"; but denied that the IWW was committed to unlawful means of change, that he had advocated violence as a means of political or industrial change as prohibited by the criminal syndicalism act, or that he had recruited workers in the county in which he was charged. After deliberating for two hours, the jury found Fiske guilty of violating the criminal syndicalism act.
On September 20, Judge C. R. Douglass of the Rice County district court sentenced him to serve from one to 10 years in the Kansas state prison.

1925 - Medgar Wiley Evers (d. 1963), African American civil rights activist from Mississippi involved in efforts to overturn segregation at the University of Mississippi, born. He became active in the civil rights movement after returning from overseas service in World War II and completing secondary education, became a field secretary for the NAACP. Evers was assassinated by Byron De La Beckwith, a member of the White Citizens' Council, shot in the back early in the morning of June 12, 1963, just hours after President John F. Kennedy's speech on national television in support of civil rights, as he pulled into his driveway after returning from a meeting with NAACP lawyers.

1926 - French Police announce they have thwarted a plot to assassinate the king of Spain Alphonse XIII (officially visiting France), with the arrests of the Spanish anarchists Francisco Ascaso, Buenaventura Durruti and Gregorio Jover (on June 25). Also today numéro 65 of the anarchiste paper 'Le Libertaire' is seized in Paris. [see: Jun. 25]

[B] 1935 - Nanni Balestrini, Italian experimental poet, novelist and writer of the Neoavanguardia movement, visual artist and anarchist, born. Member of Novissimi (Last Things) and Gruppo 63 writers groups.

1937 - A handbill from the Bolshevik-Leninist Section of Spain (on behalf of the Fourth International) expresses solidarity with the POUM militants persecuted by the Stalinists.

1945 - The date incorrectly attributed to the first action of the Vigilantes aka the Secret Committee of Ex-Servicemen in squatting a house in Roundhill Crescent, Brighton. [see: Jun. 29]

1948 - Ingeborg Barz, German secretary and 'disappeared' former first generation Rote Armee Fraktion member, born. Co-founder of the Schwarzen Hilfe (Black Aid) prisoner support group in 1971 and supporter of Bewegung 2. Juni (June 2 Movement), she was recruited to the RAF along with her partner Wolfgang Grundmann in autumn 1971. On December 22, 1971, she was involved in a raid on the Bavarian Mortgage and Exchange Bank (Bayerische Hypotheken- und Wechsel-Bank) in Kaiserslautern with Klaus Jünschke and Grundmann during which a cop, Herbert Schoner, was shot dead. In a telephone call to her mother on February 21 the following year (the same day that an eight-person raid was carried out on a Bayerische Hypotheken bank in Ludwigshafen, in which she was probably involved) she indicated that she wanted to quit the group and return home. She was never seen alive again. Rumours (and the testimony of former RAF member Gerhard Mueller) had it that Baader had killed her shortly before his arrest in 1972, fearing that she might betray the group, and in July 1973 a female skeleton obody was found in the Höhenkirchener Forst south of Munich but this has never been definitively identified as that of Barz.

1961 - Ernest Miller Hemingway (b. 1899), American author and journalist, dies. [see: Jul. 21]

1977 - Lewisham 21 Defence Committee demonstration in New Cross in support of local black youths arrested in police operation: '300 demonstrators marched through Lewisham and New Cross'; more than 100 National Front supporters turn out to attack it: 'Shoppers rushed for cover as racialists stormed down New Cross Road' ['Kentish Mercury', July 7]. NF throw bottles, 'rotten fruit and bags of caustic soda at marchers' ['South London Press', July 5]. One teacher was kicked unconscious by the fascists. More than 60 people, fascists and anti-fascists, are arrested in clashes in New Cross Road and Clifton Rise, with 35 NF supporters and 17 anti-fascists remanded on bail following court appearances on July 4th & 5th.

[C] 1986 - In Chile a two-day General Strike to protest military rule begins.

1989 - Jean Painlevé (b. 1902), French biologist turned film director, actor, translator, animator, critic and theorist, anti-fascist and anarchist, dies. [see: Nov. 20]

1990 - In South Africa a General Strike involving up to 3 million participants takes place.

[A] 1998 - The eternal flame at the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, burning continuously since 1921 to commemorate WWI dead, is extinguished by drunken Mexican soccer fan Rodrigo Rafael Ortega with his urine.

2007 - Gerald Flamberg (b. 1922), English anti-fascist activist in the 43 Group and co-founder of the Brunswick Boys Club [now the Brunswich Club for Young People] in Fulham, dies. [see: Dec. 15]
1843 - [N.S. Jul. 15] Anna Henryka Pustowójtówna (Anna Teofilovna Pustovoytova [Анна Трофимовна Пустовойтова]; d. 1881), Polish nationalist and revolutionary, she actively participated in the January Uprising (Powstanie Styczniowe)[January 22, 1863 - October 1864] against the Russian Empire, for which she was arrested; and, whilst in self-imposed exile, took part in the Franco-Prussian War and the Paris Commune as a military nurse and, in the latter, fighting on the barricades, born. [see: Jul. 15]

1848 - Journées de Juin [June Days Uprising]: The Ateliers Nationaux (National Workshops) are disbanded.

1855 - Primera Huelga General de España: By its second day, the strike had spread to Vich, Roda and San Hipólito de Voltregá. The same day a large demonstration heads to Barcelona's city hall to demand the delivery of a red flag that had been requisitioned the previous day by a municipal policeman. By 22:00 that night, the flag had been returned and the demonstration dissolved with songs and acclamations." [see: Jul. 2]

[E] 1860 - Charlotte Perkins Gilman (Charlotte Anna Perkins; d. 1935), US utopian feminist, socialist, prolific author (novels, short stories, poetry and non-fiction), publisher and lecturer for social reform, born. Amongst her best known works are the important feminist book 'Women and Economics: A Study of the Economic Relation Between Men and Women as a Factor in Social Evolution' (1898); her utopian novel 'Herland' (1915) ,about a community of women who reproduce via parthenogenesis; and the semi-autobiographical short story 'The Yellow Wallpaper' (1892), which she wrote after a severe bout of postpartum psychosis.

1865 - Auguste Garnery (d. 1935), French jeweller, anarchist militant, revolutionary trade unionist and anti-militarist, born.

1866 - Bernardino Verro (d. 1915), Sicilain socialist and syndicalist, who helped found Fascio Contadino di Corleone (Peasant Fascio of Corleone) in 1892 and became the first Socialist mayor of Corleone in 1914, born. Having formed a strategic alliance with a Mafia clan in Corleone in order to protect the fasci strikers, during the Fasci Siciliani Uprising in September 1893 the Fratuzzi mobilised to boycott it. Verro quit the clan and became a staunch enemy of the mafiosi, and it was a Mafia assassin who killed him with 11 shots, while he was returning home on November 3, 1915.

[B] 1883 - Franz Kafka (d. 1924), Czech-born German writer and anarchist sympathiser, born.
"I followed in the footsteps of Ravachol. They led me later to Erich Mühsam, Arthur Holitscher and the Viennese anarchist Rudolph Gassman, who called himself Pierre Ramuz and edited the journal 'Wealth for All'." - Gustav Janouch: 'Conversations with Kafka' (1953)

1890 - Josep Gené Figueras (d. 1980), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. The son of a baker of advanced ideas, he was enrolled in the Ateneo Igualadino de la Clase Obrera (Igualada Ateneo for the Working Class), a cultural institution that opened in 1890 as a day school for children aged 8-15 years. Raised in that environment, at the age of eighteen José Gene joined the Partit Republicà Democràtic Federal (PRDF; Federal Democratic Republican Party). He also read much Catalan literature, especially theatre works.
An asthma sufferer, he asked to be exempted from military service, but was denied the waiver and chose to flee into exile in France. He lived in Lyon, where in 1912 he frequented the local 'Causeries Populaires' (Popular Lectures), and in Paris, where he worked at a telephone company and came into contact with the libertarian ideas popular in France at this time: he joined the French Syndicalist Youth, he began a relationship with anarchists like Carlos Malate and Sebastian Faure, and in 1914 began collaboration 'El Obrero Moderno', the newspaper of the Igualada comarca run by Juan Ferrer, with whom he always maintained a close friendship. At this time he met Leon Trotsky and became good friends with Charles Malato and Sébastien Faure.
As a result of his militant activism, the French government expelled from the country in 1919, but he managed to outwit the Guàrdia Civil and returned safely to Barcelona, coinciding with the period of pistolerismo and the strike agitated form by the Canadian employers. He joined the CNT and was soon part of the committee of the Sindicat Metallúrgic in Barcelona at the Ramón Achs company. In 1921 he was elected general secretary of the Regional Committee of the CNT of Catalonia following the murder of his friedn Ramon Archs, a position of maximum danger that tested his militant determination and organisational skills.
In 1922 attended the secret Zaragoza Conference that ratified the reorganisation of anarcho-syndicalism within the CNT and, that same year, he spent a short time in the Modelo in Barcelona. He was released in October 1922, decided to return to his native Igualada and work as adjuster, keeping discreetly in the background during the dictatorship of General Miguel Primo de Rivera. His union militancy resumed with the arrival of the Second Republic, but remained in his native Anoia, joining the CNT Regional Committee in 1931 and in 1932 he married Maria Serrarols. He also collaborated on 'Ateneo Porvenir' and organised rallies in Capellades, Vallbona and Pobla de Claramunt.
With the beginning the Civil War, he remained in Igualada, he collectivised the family's cattle herd, bought a poultry farm and undertook to supply milk to his town as part of his contribution to the Social Revolution. He also took part in various rallies in neighboring villages and, between 1937-38, worked on the Igualada 'Butlletí CNT-FAI'. After the Civil War, he crossed the border into France with his partner Maria Serrarols and her daughter Aurora. They embarked on the steamer Mexique, which came into the Mexican port of Veracruz on July 27, 1939. In his long period in Mexico, he was a member of the CNT in exile and treasurer of the local federation in Mazamet. He also held a number of positions in the Mexican confederal organisation. He also worked in various jobs, finally opening a grocery store in Mexico City, where his partner, Mary Serrarols, died in 1972 never having wished to return to Spain.

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 20] Ivanovo Soviet [Иваново-Вознесенский Депутатов] / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Around 100 strikers return to work but are quickly persuaded by their fellow workers that they ahve made the wrong decision.

[F] 1901 - Telluride Miners' Strike: On the morning of July 3, as the scabs of the night shift were leaving the mine in Telluride, Colorado, striking hard rock miners attacked them in an ambush. Several men dropped; others returned fire. A brother-in-law of Arthur L. Collins, superintendent of Smuggler-Union mines, was seriously wounded, as were two other scabs and another two strikebreakers were killed. The battle lasted several hours. Finally, the scabs at the mine, outnumbered and outclassed in arms, put up a white flag, whereupon a parley was arranged between the miners' union president, Vincent St. John, and the agents of the employers, just as in real war. In the negotiations, the union secured the possession of the mines on the condition that the scabs should be allowed to depart in peace with their wounded. But before the scabs finally left, there was another battle, in which a few more were wounded; whereupon "the rest of the gang," as miners’ union organiser Bill Haywood put it, "was escorted over the mountains."
The strike was settled three days later when the mine owners agreed the miners' demands for $3 a day and an eight-hour day.

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 20] Potemkin Mutiny [Потемкин Мятеж]: In Bucharest the Romanian government had decided to offer the sailors the chance to surrender as military deserters but that they would be exempt from forced deportation to Russia, guaranteeing his personal freedom, but also banninf the supply of the battleship with coal and provisions. At the same time, the Romanian cruisers Elizabeth and Mircea were given orders to open fire on any ship that tried to enter the harbour without permission, which they did that morning when the destroyer No. 267 tried to enter the port. The Potemkin turned down the Romanian's offer and, at 13:20, the battleship and its escort, destroyer No. 267, left Constanta having decided to sail for the small, barely defended, port of Theodosia in the Crimea where they hoped to resupply. Meanwhile, in Sevastopol that morning (06:00) the crew of the training ship and minelayer Rod (Прут) decided to end their rebellion and surrender. 44 rebels ended upunder arrest. In Odessa at 08:30, 75 mutineers on board the Georgii Pobedonosets were also arrested [see: Jul. 1].

1905 - [O.S. Jun 20] Łódź Insurrection [Powstanie Łódzkie] / June Days [Dni Czerwca]: The first armed workers uprising in Poland against the Russian Empire, and a key event during the 1905 Revolution, breaks out.
Funerals of the victims of Jul. 1 [O.S. Jun. 18] continue. Rumours quickly spreas that one of the victims of Sunday's clashes was secretly buried by police. Outraged, within a few hours Łódź workers manage to get an estimated 50,000–70,000 people out on the streets. A demonstration forms and marches through the city centre. At the corner of Piotrkowska (ulica Piotrkowskiej) and Żwirki (ulica Żwirki) Streets they clash with Cossack cavalry, in what the demonstrators claim is a pre-prepared ambush. The crowd begins throwing stones, and the Russian cavalry returned fire, killing 25 people and wounding hundreds, many in the paniiced stampede that follows. As a result of the massacre, Socjaldemokracja Królestwa Polskiego i Litwy (Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania / SDKPiL) called for a general strike on Jul. 6 [O.S. Jun. 23].

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 20] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: A receptive Tsar meets with conservatives opposed to a democratic assembly (Jul. 3-4); he reneges on his pledges of June 19. Liberals abandon conciliation and move closer to the revolutionary left.

1906 - [O.S. Jun. 20] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Tsarist regime flatly rejects their proposals for the compulsory redistribution of land; the Duma is enraged. [see: May 23 & Jun. 19]
The Duma passes a bill outlawing capital punishment after furious deliberations. The bill is stalled by the State Council.

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: The trial of Kitty Marion and Betty Giveen for the arson of the grandstand at Hurst Park racecourses held at the Surrey Assizes at Guildford. Both are found guilty, and each sentenced to three years' penal servitude. Both also went on hunger strike and were released on medical grounds under the Cat & Mouse Act. Both women subsequently escaped police observation whilst on temporary release and warrants for their arrest were issue. The outbreak of WWI coincided with one of Marion's later hospital stays, and the British government permitted the German immigrant Marion to move to the United States instead of returning to prison.

1913 - Paterson Silk Strike: With cases against his fellow IWW defendants concluded at last, Pat Quinlan went before Judge Abram Klenert for sentencing. Klenert sentenced Quinlan to 2 to 7 years in Trenton State Prison and fined him $500 on the basis of his conviction. No release pending appeal was allowed and the following Monday Quinlan was taken to Trenton to begin serving what would be two years behind bars.
Elizabeth Gurley Flynn's trial ends with a deadlocked jury. She will have to wait two further years before she is finalluy acquitted on November 30, 1915.

1917 - [O.S. Jun. 20] At the All-Russian Conference of Trade Unions (Всероссийская конференция профсоюзов), the Provisional All-Russian Central Council of Trade Unions (Всесоюзный центральный совет профессиональных союзов) is elected. At the First All-Russian Congress of Trade Unions (I Всероссийском съезде профсоюзов) on Jan. 20-27 [Jan. 7-14], it would be replaced by the All-Russian Central Council of Trade Unions (Всесоюзный центральный совет профессиональных союзов).

[DD] 1917 - [N.S. Jul. 16] July Days [Июльские дни]: Workers and soldiers in Petrograd demand the Soviet take power. Sporadic fighting results and the Soviet restores order with troops brought back from the front. [see: Jul. 16]

1917 - East St Louis Race Riot (July 1-3), probably the most notorious in US history.
[www.eslarp.uiuc.edu/ibex/archive/nunes/esl history/race_riot.htm]

1933 - Franz Wilhelm Seiwert (b. 1894), German painter, sculptor, poet, Marxist, anarchist sympathiser, Expressionist, Dadaist and then a Constructivist and member of the Cologne Progressives, dies. [see: Mar. 9]

[C] 1936 - Slovak Jewish journalist Stefan Lux (b. 1888) commits suicide in the general assembly of the League of Nations in Geneva in protest of German persecution of Jews.

1966 - Anti Vietnam War protests outside the American Embassy in Grosvenor Square.

1970 - Simultaneous bomb attacks in Paris and London against Spanish State Tourist offices, and the Spanish and Greek Embassies. [Angry Brigade/First of May Group chronology]

1970 - Battle of the Falls: Beginning in the afternoon, the British Army carried out extensive house searches in the Falls Road area of Belfast for members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and IRA arms. A military curfew was imposed on the area for a period of 34 hours with movement of people heavily restricted. The house searches lasted for two days and involved considerable destruction to many houses and their contents. During the searches the army uncovered a lot of illegal arms and explosives. However the manner in which the searches were conducted broke any remaining goodwill between the Catholic community and the British Army. During the period of the curfew there were gun battles between both wings of the IRA and the Army. Two people were killed by the British Army during the violence; one of them deliberately run over by an Army vehicle. Another person was shot and mortally wounded by the Army and died on 10 July 1970.
cain.ulst.ac.uk/cgi-bin/dyndeaths.pl?querytype=text&keyword=Falls Road curfew

[A/D] 1981 - Liverpool 8 Uprising / Toxteth Riots: The aggressive and heavy-handed arrest of black photography student Leroy Cooper sparks the Liverpool 8 Uprising (Toxteth Riots), one of the most significant of the period. [expand]

[CC] 1981 - A gig at the Hambrough Tavern in Southall involving three bands aligned to Oi! is attacked by local Asian youths objecting to the arrival of a large skinhead presence in an area with a recent history of racial conflict. By 10 p.m., the pub is ablaze beneath a hail of petrol bombs. The next day, newspaper front pages were dominated by images of cowering police officers, burnt-out vehicles and stories of a 'race riot'. Initially a form of 'working-class protest', a street-level music that sought to align working-class youth cults in the face of welfare cuts and growing unemployment. However, by 1981, the skinhead element of Oi! were actively being recruited as foot-soldiers for the British far right, both the National Front and the British Movement, and Oi! was a target for those seeking retribution for previous cowardly racist attacks.

1995 - Gil J. Wolman (born Gil Joseph; b. 1929), pioneer French film-maker, writer, sound poet, political activist and Internationale Lettriste, dies. [see: Sep. 7]

1999 - Paul Wulf (b. 1921), German anarchist and communist artist, anti-fascist victim of the Nazi regime's sterilisation programmes, dies. [see: May 2]

2008 - Habib 'Paps' Ullah, ages 39, dies from breathing difficulties after the car he was in was being searched by police for drugs in High Wycombe.
[A] 1776 - Transportation of convicts to America ends.

1845 - Henry David Thoreau moves into his shack on Walden Pond.

1866 - Marius Monfray (d. 1894), French anarchist trade unionist, plasterer and painter, born. In November 1886, he was sentenced to eight days in prison for organising an illegal lottery (providing support funds for Toussaint Bordat, a defendant in the Procès des 66). His shout in response — "Vive l'anarchie!". Such impudence, for "contempt of court," got him two years in prison tacked on to his eight days.

1868 - Michael Bakunin moves to Geneva, where he will join the Geneva section of the International Workingmen's Association.

1876 - Albert Parsons joins the Knights of Labor.

[BB] 1880 - Leda Rafanelli (d. 1971), Italian anarchist, feminist, anti-militarist, writer, artist and member of the Futurists, who was known as the 'Gypsy anarchist', born. At a young age she had one of her first poems published in the PSI newspaper, also moving with her family to Alexandria where she came into contact with the Baracca Rossa anarchist group and Sufism. Initially an individualist, she gradually moved towards libertarian socialism and, upon her return to Italy (with husband Ugo Polli), formed a friendship with Pietro Gori and declared her pacifism by coming out against the Manifesto of the Sixteen. Her admiration for Armando Borghi led to his asking her to write the forward to his book 'Il Nostro e l'Altrui Andividualismo' (Our and Others' Individualism; 1907). Leda and Ugo founded the publishing house Casa Editrice Rafanelli-Polli but their relationship soon ends.
Becoming involved with the Futurists, she begins a brief but intense relationship with Carlo Carrà, influencing his adherence to anarchism and results in Alberto Ciampi's book 'Leda Rafanelli, Carlo Carrà: un Romanzo, Arte e Politica in un Incontro' (Leda Rafanelli, Carlo Carrà: a novel, art and politics in a meeting; 2005). A longer-term and more fruitful relationship with Giuseppe Monnanni followed and with whom she started the magazines 'La Rivolta' (The Revolt; 1910) and 'La Libertà' (Freedom; 1913-14), and later still the anarcho-individualsit arts and literature magazine 'Vir' and also 'La Sciarpa Nera' (The Black Scarf).
Other activities included joining the editorial board of 'La Protesta Umana' (1906-09 ) with the anarchists Ettore Molinari and Nella Giacomelli, and collaborating on various libertarian publications such as Pietro Gori and Luigi Fabbri's 'Il Pensiero' (The Thought), 'Il Libertario' (The Libertarian), 'Il Grido della Folla' (The Cry of the crowd), 'Volontà' (Will), 'La Blouse' (1906-10), 'La Donna Libertaria' (1912-13), etc. In 1910, Leda also founded the Società Editrice Sociale, perhaps the most important Italian libertarian publisher.
Between 1913 and 1914 Mussolini, then a socialist participant in the Settimana Rossa fell in love with and unsuccessfully pursued her, a period that she covered in her book 'Una Donna e Mussolini: la Corrispondenza Amorosa' (1975). The rise of Fascism made publishing difficult and the Società Editrice Social was closed by the authorities in 1923, along with the magazine 'Pagine Libertarie'. Its replacement, the Casa Editrice Monann, was itself closed down by the fascist regime in 1933. Forced by economic hardship, she became a fortune teller and write popular novels under a host of pen names, all on oriental themes, much of it biographical e.g. 'Nada', 'La Signora Mia Nonna' (The Lady My Grandmother) and 'Le Memorie di una Chiromante' (The Memoirs of a Fortune Teller). Towards the end of her life, Leda taught Arabic and collaborated on 'Umanità Nova'.
Her written works include popular novels and short stories such as 'Sogno d'Amore' (Dreams of Love; 1905), 'Bozzetti Sociali' (Social Sketches; 1910), and 'L'Oasi' (1926),written under a pseudonym about fascist repression in Libya; as well as her political writings which include: 'Valide Braccia' (1907) a pamphlet against the construction of new prisons, 'Seme Nuovo' (New Seed; 1908), 'Verso la Siberia, Scene della Rivoluzione Russa' (Towards Siberia, Scenes of the Russian Revolution; 1908), 'L'Eroe della Folla' (The Hero of the Crowd; 1910), and 'Donne e Femmine' (Women and Girls; 1922).

[B] 1886 - [O.S. Jun. 22] Olga Vladimirovna Rozanova (Ольга Владимировна Розанова; d. 1918), Russian Cubo-Futurist and Suprematist artist, painter, graphic artist, illustrator, designer, art theorist and poet, born. In 1911 she joined and became one of the most active members of Soyuz Molodyozhi (Union of the Youth). She was also close to the Futurist poets Velimir Khlebnikov and Aleksei Kruchenykh, her future husband. She later joined Malevich's avant-garde artists group Supremus in 1916 and was involved with the weekly anarchist newspaper 'Anarkhiia'. She published a number of polemical articles in the paper's arts and literature section, 'Tvorchestvo' (Creativity or Creative Work), including 'Art - only in Independence and Freedom!' and 'Suprematism and the Critics'. On April 2, 1918, 'Anarkhiia' also published a salute to Rodchenko, Olga Rozanova, Udaltsova and others among the avant-garde: "With pride we look upon your creative rebellion".
Rozanova died of diphtheria in 1918.

1888 - Spartaco Stagnetti (d. 1927), Italian militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1889 - Elena Melli (d. 1946), Italian anarchist militant, who was a companion of Errico Malatesta during the last years of his life, born.

1890 - First issue of the Yiddish 'Freie Arbeiter Stimme' (Free Voice of Labour) appears, New York.

1892 - Homestead Steel Strike: Frick formally requests that Sheriff William H. McCleary intervene to allow supervisors access to the plant. Carnegie corporation attorney Philander Knox gave the go-ahead to the sheriff on July 5, and McCleary dispatched 11 deputies to the town to post handbills ordering the strikers to stop interfering with the plant's operation. The strikers tore down the handbills and told the deputies that they would not turn over the plant to nonunion workers. Then they herded the deputies onto a boat and sent them downriver to Pittsburgh. [see: Jun. 30]

1894 - Republic of Hawaii established. Soon afterwards it is invaded by the United States.

[B] 1899 - Benjamin Péret (d. 1959), French poet, Parisian Dadaist, founder member of the French Surrealist movement, automatism and anarchist, born. Known to have used the pseudonyms Satyremont, Peralda and Peralta. Worked with and was an influence on the Mexican writer Octavio Paz, he moved to Brazil in 1929, where he published 'Le Grand Jeu' (1928) but was expelled from the country along with his wife, the Brazilian singer Elsie Houston, and his newly born son, on grounds of being a "Communist Agitator", having helped form the Brazilian Communist League. Joined the French Communist Party but fought initially with POUM but later joined the Durutti Column on the Aragon Front during the Spanish Revolution. Upon returning to France, he was interned and eventually fled the Nazi invasion, ending up in Mexico. Returning to France post-WWII, he caused a furore with his recently published pamphlet 'Le Déshonneur des Poètes' (1945), in answer to Pierre Seghers, Paul Éluard and Jean Lescure's 'L’Honneur des Poètes' (1943), a collecton of patriotic poems bringing together religious writer with communist and Surrealist poets. He also became an active member of an anarchist group in the Paris region and contributed to the anarchist paper 'Le Libertaire' e.g. 'The factory committee: motor of the social revolution' (September 4, 1952).

1900 - Robert Desnos (d. 1945), French poet, author, anti-fascist and anarchist, who was one of the most important figures of the French surrealist movement in the 1920s and 30s, born. A youthful anarchist - he was associated with the circle around Rirette Maitrejean, Henri Jeanson, etc. [Armand Salacrou, Georges Limbour] - he would fall out with André Breton and most of the Surrealists when they gravitated towards the French Comunist party in the mid-late 1920s. He was also a fervent anti-fascist, working on behalf of Republican Spain, writing amongst other things a cantata in memory of the murdered García Lorca, whom Desnos had met in 1935. At the outbreak of war he joined up as a sergeant and was deeply shocked by the defeatist attitude that prevailed within the army. He was taken prisoner June 27, 1940, and released after the Armistice. For Desnos, Hitler and fascism were now hs mortal enemies. He went on to become a writer on the journal 'Aujourd’hui', hoping to maintain its independence from censorship, whilst openly attacking Pétain and the conditions prevailing under the occupying Germans, and an active member of the French Résistance network Réseau AGIR. Much of his non-'Aujourd’hui' work was published under various pseudonyms in the underground press and for Réseau Agir, Desnos provided information collected during his job at 'Aujourd'hui' and made false identity papers. Unfortunately, his obvious anti-fascism led to his inevitable denunciation and he was arrested by the Gestapo on February 22, 1944. After a lengthy period of interrogation, Desnos was deported to the Nazi German concentration camps of Auschwitz in occupied Poland, then Buchenwald, Flossenburg's Flöha sub-camp in Saxony, making parts for Messerschmitts, and finally on a forced march to Terezín (Theresienstadt) in occupied Czechoslovakia. Through out his time in the camps he carried on his active resistance to the Nazi war machine, often earning him brutal beatings. In Terezín he died from typhoid at 5.30 on the morning of June 8, 1945, only weeks after the camp’s liberation and less than a month short of his 45th birthday. His ashes were returned to France to be interred in the Montparnasse Cemetery.

1905 - Élisée Reclus (b. 1830), French radical geographer, writer and anarchist, dies. Author of a 19-volume masterwork 'La Nouvelle Géographie Universelle, la Terre et les Hommes' (Universal Geography), over a period of nearly 20 years (1875–1894), for which he was awarded the prestigious Gold Medal of the Paris Geographical Society in 1892, despite having been banished from France because of his political activism. As a member of the Association Nationale des Travailleurs, he published a hostile manifesto against the government of Versailles in support of the Paris Commune of 1871 in the 'Cri du Peuple'. He served in the National Guard, being taken prisoner on April 5, and on November 16 was sentenced to deportation for life.

[C] 1906 - Emídio Santana (d. 1988), Portuguese militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. He attempts to assassinate the Portuguese dictator Salazar on this day in 1937.

1909 - In Cairo's Eden Theatre, socialists and anarchists launch the International Federation for resistance Among Workers. Its aim, as stated in the manifesto drafted also in Greek and Arabic was "the emancipation of the workers and the immediate betterment of their conditions". The organisation the mainifesto stated "will stand outside of any political, national or religious camp."

1910 - The IWW newspaper 'Solidarity' tackles the theme of "sabotage" in reference to a strike of 600 tailors, who obtain most of their demands thanks to the solidarity of others and their use of sabotage.

[E] 1910 - Renée Losq (Renée Baudic; d. 2003), French communist and anti-fascist member of the Résistance, born. She was involved in the Procès des 42 trial of members of the Résistance in Nantes, distributing anti-Nazi propaganda (posters and illegal leaflets). She also ran a FTP safehouse. On September 9, 1942, she participated in the liberation of Raymond Hervé, an official of the Nantes resistance being questioned at the Nantes Law Courts. She goes into hiding with two of her children. Her husband Jean Losq was arrested on September 27 and Renée the following day. Jean Losq was condemned to death and shot on February 13, 1943. Renée was deported via Aix-La-Chapelle to Prünn, Breslau and the concentration camps of Ravensbrück and Mauthausen. Released on April 23, 1945, via the Red Cross, she was 35 years old and weighed just 32kg.

1913 - [O.S. Jul. 22] Tikveš Uprising [Тиквешко въстание (Bul.) / Тиквешко востание (Mkd.)]: The rebels are reinforced by the arrival of the insurgents of the Hristo Chernopeev (Христо Чернопеев), and the Chaulev (Чаулев Чекаларов) and Vasil Chekalarov (Васил Чекаларов) groups. The Serbian army begins to burn many Bulgarian villages, and the villagers flee to Kavadarci, whilst he rebels fight fierce battles in the heights above the village of Palikura (Паликура) and along the Black (Черна) and Luda Mara (Луда Мара) Rivers.

[F] 1914 - Lexington Avenue Explosion: The Lexington Avenue bomb incident takes place in the apartment of Louise Berger in New York City. Berger was an editor of Emma Goldman's 'Mother Earth News' and her apartment was being used by fellow members of the Lettish (Latvian) Anarchist Red Cross Carl Hanson and Charles Berg, together with IWW member Arthur Caron to assemble the bomb that prematurely exploded. Their plan to bomb Kykuit, John D. Rockefeller Jr.'s massive mansion in Tarrytown, NY, in retaliation for the 1914 Ludlow Massacre in Colorado and police violent suppression of the ensuing protests outside Rockefeller's mansion, Rockefeller being the main owner of the Ludlow mine. Berg, Berger and Hanson, together Marie Chavez, who had not been involved in the plot but had merely been renting a room in the apartment at the time, were killed. A fifth man, an IWW member named as 'Mike' Murphy, escaped with only minor injuries when the bomb caused the floor below his bed to collapse into the apartment below. Sought by the police, he managed to escape via the 'Mother Earth' offices went in to hiding, ending up in Canada.
On July 11, over 5,000 people attended the mass memorial meeting called by the Anti-Militarist League for Berg, Hanson, and Caron, the three anarchists killed in the Lexington Avenue explosion. Over 800 policemen monitored the meeting, while Alexander Berkman, Leonard D. Abbott, Becky Edelsohn, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Carlo Tresca, David Sullivan and Charles Plunkett all spoke for their dead comrades. Plunkett and Berkman were later implicated in the plot

1914 - Arthur Caron (b. 1883), French Canadian anarchist and a member of the Industrial Workers of the World, blows himself along with two members of the Lettish section of the Anarchist Black Cross, Carl Hanson, and Charles Berg, whilst building a bomb which they planned to plant at John D. Rockefeller's home in Tarrytown, New York. [see: Dec. 16]

1917 - [N.S. Jul. 17] July Days [Июльские дни]: [see: Jul. 17]

1919 - Peru General Strike for the 8-hour Work Day: Amidst the widespread clashes during the general strike, the President of the Republic José Pardo y Barreda is deposed. Augusto B. Leguía takes advantage of the situation to seize power amid popular enthusiasm.
The same day, the Comité Pro-Abaratamiento de las Subsistencias (Committee for the Lowering of Subsistence) occupies the premises of the Confederación de Artesanos "Unión Universal" (Confederation of Craftsmen "Universal Union"), transforming it into the headquarters of the second Peruvian Regional Workers' Federation, the Federación Obrera Regional Peruana, established on July 8, 1919, and based on the principles of the old Federación Obrera Regional del Perú.

1920 - The second congress of the Unione Communista Anarchica d'Italia (1-4 July) ends. Under the influence of Malatesta it removes the reference to communism and takes the name Unione Italiana Anarchica (IAU).

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: The first CNT labour dispute since the proclamation of the Second Republic begins when on July 4, 1931, the newly created [at the III Congress of the CNT, June 11-16, 1931] Sindicato Nacional de Teléfonos calls out workers in the Telefónica Española telephone service, run by AT&T (American Telephone and Telegraph) under terms and conditions extremely favorable to the company and that were considered by many to be as a real abuse of power. The strike would end with 30 dead, more than 200 left wounded and 2,000 in prison, as the army and police try to suppress it.
Following AT&T's refusal to negotiate with the CNT, 6,200 of Telefónica Española's 7,000 employees came out on strike. The intention was to stop the telephony service and for the demands to be heard. These include:
· Recognition of the Sindicato Nacional de Teléfonos;
· Reinstatement of all those dismissed since 1925, 1,500 employees;
· Review of employee records;
· Inclusion in the workforce those temporary staff with over a year of service;
· Creating the roster by order of seniority;
· Voluntary retirement at 55 years of age and compulsory retirement at 60;
· Right of female staff to marry and to grant the corresponding benefits for childbirth; and,
· Wage equalisations.
The strike is a success in Seville, Zaragoza and Barcelona, but has uneven results in the rest of Spain. The Socialists, in power, choose to try to alleviate its effects and send UGT members to provide services to cities like Madrid and Barcelona to try to restore 'normalcy' - protecting the interests of a foreign company and give a message of 'stability' to potential investors in the young republic.
On July 7, members of the strike committee are arrested and its public meetings banned. The union fights back with a campaign of sabotage. The following day sees the Chief of Police order all Guardia Civil to lie in ambush and to shoot on sight anyone interfering with telegraph poles. On the 9th, international lines are cut, a bomb damages the Seville exchange and the antennas of the Amposta company are also damaged. July 17 sees strikers in Vizcaya arrested for sabotage and on July 18, a general strike is called in Seville in protest at the death of a striking brewery worker, resulting in further clashes that end with the murder of a worker from the Osborne factory. During his burial anarchists clash with the police, leaving four workers and three security guards dead. The next day another general strike is called in Seville.
On July 22 the government belatedly declares the strike illegal as 10 days notice was not given. The Minister of the Interior orders the closure of all anarcho-syndicalist centres across Spain and the arrest of CNT leaders. Across Spain acts of sabotage continue and in Barcelona saboteurs hold up traffic in order to prevent injuries whilst they set off their explosives. July 22 also sees the declaring in Seville of a state of war and at dawn on the 23rd, in Maria Luisa Park, prisoners trying to escape from a police van are shot, leaving four dead. That same day, the Minister of the Interior orders an assault on the Casa Cornelio tavern, a rebel stronghold in the city. On August 9, a Sindicato Nacional de Teléfonos member is also shot whilst playing cards in a bar.
At the end of August, two months-worth of tension during the strike spill over in Zaragoza as itchy trigger-fingered Guardia Civil shoot 5 passersby, killing one, Isidro Floria Sánchez. [see: Aug. 31]. The CNT calls a 2-day strike that ends up lasting for four days, during which the army is deployed on the Zaragoza streets. Many are wounded on both sides as CNT militants continue to carry out numerous acts of sabotage.
The strike ends on September 4

1932 - Rose Lilian Witcop Aldred (Rachel Vitkopski; b. 1890), Ukrainian-British Jewish anarchist, journalist and pioneer of birth control and sex education, who was sister of Milly Witkop and partner of Guy Aldred, dies from gangrenous appendicitis. [see: Apr. 9 / 23]

1933 - Ley de Vagos y Maleantes [Vagrancy Act]: Known popularly as La Gandula, the law to control beggars, pimps and thugs with no known occupation is approved by consensus by all political groups of the Second Republic. It was later amended on July 15, 1954 by the Franco regime to include the repression of homosexuals.

[D] 1937 - On his way to Mass at a private chapel in his friend Josué Trocado's house in the Rua Barbosa du Bocage in Lisbon, as the Portuguese dictator António Salazar steps out of his car at 10:30, a bomb explodes within 10 feet/3.5m of him (the bomb had been hidden in an iron case). The bomb-blast leaves Salazar untouched (though his chauffeur is rendered deaf). Following the attack, the Portuguese political police PIDE (Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado) begin searching for the militant anarcho-syndicalist and founder of the Metallurgists National Union (Sindicato Nacional dos Metalúrgicos) Emidio Santana, as one of those behind the 'outrage'. Santana fled to England, only to be arrested by the British police and sent back to Portugal, where he is sentenced to 16 years in prison.
In a collective letter in 1938, Portugal's Catholic bishops would claim that Salazar having escaped death was an "act of God".
[www.esferadoslivros.pt/livros.php?id_li= 357]

1937 - A proposed BU march from Limehouse through the east End to Trafalgar Square is rerouted as the Home Office invokes Clause 3 of the Public Order Act. Instead it starts in Kentish Town. There are scuffles at Kentish Town and Mosley's speech in the Square is drowned out by the cries of 5,000 anti-fascists. [PR]

1969 - Erwin Blumenfeld (b. 1897), German-Jewish photographer, Dadaist collage artist, anti-fascist and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Jan. 26]

1970 - Barnett Newman (b. 1905), US abstract expressionist, colour field painter and life-long anarchist, dies. [see: Jan. 29]

1970 - Battle of the Falls: The Falls Road curfew continued throughout the day. A man was killed by the British Army.

1976 - Brigitte Kuhlmann (b. 1947), founding member of the West German left-wing militant group Revolutionäre Zellen (Revolutionary Cells), is killed by the Israel Defense Forces in Entebbe, Uganda, following the Air France 139 hijacking.

1977 - Lewisham National Front organiser Richard Edmunds complains about police arrests of NF supporters at the weekend and announces plans for a National Front 'anti-mugging' demonstration in Deptford in August, promising its "biggest-ever rally... Everybody will know that the Front is marching. Where we had a couple of hundred people in New Cross on Saturday, we will be talking of thousands for our march." ['South London Press', July 5]

1981 - The second of nine days of consecutive rioting in Liverpool's Toxteth district.

1981 - The final Rock Against Racism Festival is held in Potternewton Park, Leeds featuring Wolfrace, The Au Pairs, Aswad, Misty in Roots, and with The Specials headlining.

1998 - Lin (or Linn) Newborn aka 'Spit' and Daniel Shersty, two Anti-Racist Action members and SHARP (Unity Skins) skinheads from Las Vegas are brutally murdered by neo-Nazi John Edward Butler. African-American Spit, who had previously sung in the band Life of Lies, and Dan, a white U.S. Air Force serviceman, were lured to the rocky Nevada desert northwest of Las Vegas on the promise of a party, before being shot to death by white supremacists, of whom only John Butler, leader of a group called the Independent Nazi Skins, was ever convicted.

2000 - Chiquet Mawet (Michelle Beaujean; b. 1937), Belgian playwright, storyteller, poet, polemicist, social activist and professor of ethics, who was a regular contributor to the Belgian anarchist monthly 'Alternative Libertaire', dies. [see: Jan. 23]

2011 - Up to 6,600 prisoners at a third of California's 33 prisons join the Pelican Bay hunger strike protest over the 4th of July weekend.
1855 - Primera Huelga General de España: Two delegations representing the workers and the employers' sides go to Madrid to lobby the head of the government, General Espartero. The Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera (Central Board of Directors of the Working Class), made up of its President Pau Barba, Secretaries Joan Rovira and Joan Bertran, and members Joan Company, Ramon Maseras, Martomeu Arrons, Jerònim Alsina, Pau Folch, Manuel Escuder and Pere Puigventós, presents a manifesto (published the same day) calling for the recognition of the right of association and the 10-hour day amongst other demands. Esparero greets them coldly, saying to "the children of the people, my favourites" that their demands would be met if they ended the strike. [see: Jul. 2]

[E] 1857 - Clara Zetkin (Clara Josephine Eissner; d. 1933), German Marxist theorist, communist activist, and advocate for women's rights, who in 1889 first proposed an International Women's Day to be celebrated on the same day across the world, born.

[A / FF] 1888 - London Match Girls' Strike: Outraged by Besant’s article, Bryant & May attempted to bully the matchworkers into denying its revelations but these heavy-handed tactics further enraged the match girls and, on July 5th, around 200 of them downed tools and marched to the offices of 'The Link' in Fleet Street, their "spirit of revolt against cruel oppression" aroused by the dismissal of one of their colleagues in the box-filling department in Bryant and May's Victoria factory, wilfully disregarded the orders of her foreman. The action spread quickly, and soon abound 1,400 workers had walked out in sympathy. Over the following days many of the striking match girls paraded the streets in the neighbourhood of Bow to publicise their strike. The management quickly offered to reinstate the sacked employee but the women then demanded other concessions, particularly in relation to the unfair fines which were deducted from their wages. A deputation of women went to management but were not satisfied by their response.
An appeal for donations was launched in 'The Link' and other sympathetic newspapers, and money rolled in from all quarters. Even the London Trades Council – a body representing skilled craftsmen, which had traditionally rejected associations with the unskilled – pledged its support, donating £20 to the strike fund and offering to act as mediators between the strikers and the employer. At the same time, a battle was fought in the pages of the press, with managing director, Frederick Bryant, using his contacts to get his first statement into print: "His (sic) employees were liars. Relations with them were very friendly until they had been duped by socialist outsiders. He paid wages above the level of his competitors. He did not use fines. Working conditions were excellent... He would sue Mrs Besant for libel". Annie Besant called his bluff. Ranged against him were many prominemt figures including William Stead, the editor of the 'Pall Mall Gazette', Henry Hyde Champion of the' Labour Elector', Catharine Booth of the Salvation Army, Emmeline Pankhurst, George Bernard Shaw and various MPs.

[F] 1889 - Glasgow Dockers' Go-Slow aka The World's First Ca'canny Strike: By July 5th the newly formed union had run out of strike funds and so agreed to go back to work at the old wage level. The dock employers throughout the strike said they were happy with the scabs work, even though cargo was being lost and dropped and in general was a full four times slower at unloading, ships were also being condemned as un-seaworthy due to dangerous loading. To break the strike the employers had had to keep up a false front and pretend everything was rosy.
It was agreed by the dock workers when they returned that since the scabs work was seen as acceptable and paid at a higher rate, then it was only logical to keep the same level of incompetence and slowness as well as dropping as many packages in to the water as the scabs but there would be no need to fall in the water in the same manner as the scabs – and so the "ca’ canny" strike was born.
Within a few months the employers had offered the dock labourers a pay increase if they went back to pre-strike work rate. Workers from Dundee, Tilbury and Leeds once they had found out that they had been brought in as strike breakers all refused to work, even though free tobacco, food and higher wages were all on offer from the hard done by employers! [see: Jun. 11]

1889 - Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (d. 1963), French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, playwright, artist and filmmaker, born. His fiche policière labelled him a "poète anarchiste homosexuel à Paris".
"Si je n'étais pas reine, je serais anarchiste. En somme je suis une reine anarchistes. C'est ce qui fait que la cour me dénigre et c'est ce qui fait que le peuple m'aime." ("If I was not a queen, I would be an anarchist. In short I am an anarchist queen. This is what makes the court denigrate me and this is what makes the people like me.") - The Queen in 'L'Aigle à Deux Têtes' (The Eagle has Two Heads; 1943) as she lies dying from a stab wound to the heart.

1892 - Homestead Steel Strike: Having been given the go-ahead by the Carnegie corporation's attorney Philander Knox to intervene to assist company supervisors in gaining access to the plant, Sheriff William H. McCleary dispatched 11 deputies to the town to post handbills ordering the strikers to stop interfering with the plant's operation. The strikers tore down the handbills and told the deputies that they would not turn over the plant to nonunion workers. Then they herded the deputies onto a boat and sent them downriver to Pittsburgh.

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 22] Potemkin Mutiny [Потемкин Мятеж]: Potemkin and the destroyer No. 267 arrived in Feodosia at 06:00 and 2 hours later the battleship raised signal flags and a specially made ​​red banner with on both sides in white the following inscription: "Liberty, Equality and Fraternity" and "Long live the people's rule". It then demanded that the Feodosia city government immediately report on board. At 09:00, representatives of Feodosia including the mayor arrived on board. They were presented with a copy of the appeal "To all the civilised world" and threaten with bombardment of the city unless provisions, including water and coal, were brought to the battleship. Despite the prohibition of the military authorities, municipal authorities, fearing the shelling of the city, at 16:00 delivered four live bull, 200 pounds of flour, 40 pounds of bread, 40 pounds of meat, 30 pounds of cabbage, 30 buckets of wine, but not coal and water, whose provision had been strict prohibited the garrison commander.

1905 - [O.S. Jun 22] Łódź Insurrection [Powstanie Łódzkie] / June Days [Dni Czerwca]: During the evening, an armed uprising breaks out. On Eastern Street (ul. Wschodniej), insurgents attack a company of infantry and 50 Cossacks. During the night (July 5-6 [Jun. 22-23]) the first of more than 100 barricades begin to appear in the streets of Łódź. Six regiments of infantry, two cavalry regiments and a regiment of Cossacks are hastily dispatched to the city to help put down the insurrection.
In the area of ​​East street workers opened fire on a group of Russian soldiers and cavalrymen, and on South Street was surrounded by the entire Russian Military Police unit. Located in several fires broke out as workers set fire to warehouses of alcohol. Soon after, government forces have made the first assault on the barricades, at first without a clear success.

1906 - [O.S. Jun. 22] Białystok Pogrom [Белостокский погром]: A Duma committee concludes that the bloody Białystok pogrom was organized by local officials. It lists the casualties as 82 dead, including 7 Christians and 75 Jews, 78 wounded, including 18 Christians and 60 Jews, 169 flats and shops belonging the Jewish population destroyed, amounting to losses of about 200 000 roubles. [see: Jun. 15]

1913 - [O.S. Jul. 23] Tikveš Uprising [Тиквешко въстание (Bul.) / Тиквешко востание (Mkd.)]: The headquarters of the uprising sent an appeal to the Bulgarian High Command to send help. But rebel detachments received orders to retreat as Bulgarian army retreat to the east.
1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: A bomb explodes during the night [Jul. 5-6] in a passageway beneath Liverpool Cotton Exchange.

[EE] 1914 - 6,000 people, the majority women, take to the streets of Paris in the first women's suffrage protest in French history. The event, organised by Séverine (Caroline Rémy de Guebhard), came in the wake of a poll of women carried out on April 26, 1914, by the Ligue du Droit des Femmes section of the Association de Etudiantes on behalf of 'Le Journal', which polled 505 972 votes in favour of "I want to vote" and just 114 voting "no". Amongst those participating are the stage actress, journalist, and a leading suffragette Marguerite Durand, Caroline Kauffmann, general secretary of the socialist-feminist organisation, Solidarité des femmes (Women's Solidarity), the radical feminist and misandrist Arria Ly, Maria Vérone, president of the Ligue Française pour le Droit des Femmes, Marguerite de Witt-Schlumberge, president of the Union Française pour le Suffrage des Femmes, Lydie Martial, president of the Société pour l'amélioration du sort de la femme, and Pauline Rebour, head of the suffrage section of the Conseil National des Femmes Franchises. Assembling on the terrace of the Orangerie at Tuileries, they marched via the quai des Tuileries, the Pont-Royal, and the quais Voltaire and Malaquais to the Institut de France, where they laid flowers at the statue of the Marquis de Condorcet (1743-94), philosopher and mathematician, who was chosen because of his historical prominence as an advocate of women’s rights during the French Revolution. Séverine, Maria Vérone, Pauline Rebour, Marguerite Durand and the socialist politician Marcel Sembat gave speeches. However, the imminent declaration of war put an end to the momentum of the suffrage movement, and the right to vote would not given them for 30 more years until it's grudging approval by the Senate in 1944.

1917 - [N.S. Jul. 18] July Days [Июльские дни]: [see: Jul. 18]

1927 - Lesbia Harford (Lesbia Venner Keogh; b. 1891), Australian poet, novelist, free love advocate, member of the I.W.W. and state vice-president of the Federated Clothing and Allied Trades Union, dies of lung and heart failure, exacerbated no doubt by the tuberculosis that she had suffered from for many years. She was aged just 36 years old. [see: Apr. 9]

[D] 1934 - San Francisco's 'Bloody Thursday': Police shoot down striking longshoremen and supporters at Rincon Hill, killing two and injuring over 100.

[C] 1940 - Carl (Karl) Einstein (b. 1885), German poet, experimental prose writer, Dadaist, theorist of Expressionist poetics, art historian and critic, who was one of the first to champion Cubism, anarchist combatant and nephew of Albert Einstein, dies a suicide to prevent capture by the Nazis. [see: Apr. 26]

1942 - Germaine Berton (b. 1902), French trade union militant and anarchist, dies from a large overdose of Véronal. [see: Jun. 7]
[NB: The date is often given as July 4 as the overdose was taken during the night of July 4-5]

1948 - The National Health Service declared open for service.

1970 - Battle of the Falls: At approximately nine in the morning the Falls Road curfew was lifted after a march by women had breached the British Army cordon. The women, mainly from the Andersonstown area of west Belfast, had brought supplies of basic foodstuff and marched to the Falls area. The British soldiers initially tried to hold back the women but were forced to let them through; so ending the curfew. [It was later reported that two Unionist ministers, William Long and John Brooke, had been driven through the area in British Army vehicles.]

[B] 2007 - George Melly (b. 1926), English jazz and blues singer, critic, writer and lecturer on art history specialising in Surrealism who was court-martialled during WWII for distributing anarchist literature whilst in the Navy, born.
1535 - Thomas More (b. 1478), English lawyer, social philosopher, humanist, author and statesman, born. Best known for his satirical novel 'Utopia: A Fruitful and Pleasant Work of the Best State of a Public Weal, and of the New Isle Called Utopia' published in 1516, describes an ideal society has abolished the property and where the tolerance is a rule: "Fay ce que vouldras" (Do what you will). Claimed as a precursor to anarchism, yet slavery and religion are still posited as universal institutions.

1843 - Rebecca Riots: The Bolgoed tollgate is attacked and destroyed by a group of some 200 men.

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: In the town hall it is decided that, as the critical situation experienced by the city had already passed, and since the committee had legal status, it was necessary to inform the Provincial Government and the governor of the province that the Municipality was already operating within the legal system, and that it offered its total support to the Government and to the constituted authorities. Orders were also given to suspend the demolitions and the workers were to repair the streets of the city damaged during the uprising. The confiscated churches, convents and church property were to be returned and those properties was were still able to be used were to be guarded by the Volunteers of the Republic.

1881 - The sixth and last Congress of the Bakuninist faction of AIT (International Workingman's Association, the first Communist International).

[A] 1890 - Leeds Gasworkers' Victory Parade: 25,000 people wound onto Hunslet Moor to celebrate the success of the strike. [expand]

[F] 1892 - Homestead Massacre or Battle of Homestead: With 'Fort Frick' surrounded by picketing strikers, 300 Pinkerton agents armed with Winchester rifles had assembled downstream the previous night ready to access the plant grounds from the river before dawn on July 6 and remove the strikers by force. However, the strikers were prepared for them. A small flotilla of union boats went downriver to meet the barges. Strikers on the steam launch fired a few random shots at the two specially outfitted barges towed by a tug, then withdrew, blowing the launch whistle to alert the plant. The strikers in turn blew the plant whistle at 02:30 and, alerted, thousands of workers and their families rushed to the river to keep them out. As the Pinkertons attempted to land under cover of darkness about 04:00, the assembled crowd tore down the barbed-wire fence and strikers and their families surged onto the Homestead plant grounds. Some in the crowd threw stones at the barges, but strike leaders shouted for restraint. Various attempts were made by the Pinkertons to land but, vastly outnumbered, they were driven back and those on shore used everything from a cannon, dynamite, a 'fire-ship' barge and setting alight an oil slick; all to no avail.
A Pinkerton Guard named John W. Holway later recalled, "...there were cracks of rifles, and our men replied with a regular fusillade. It kept up for ten minutes, bullets flying around as thick as hail, and men coming in shot and covered with blood." In the end, around 17:00, 234 Pinkertons surrendered and came ashore, where they were beaten and cursed by the angry workers as they were forced to run the gauntlet. As the detained Pinkertons were marched through town to the Opera House (which served as a temporary jail), the townspeople continued to assault the agents. After negotiations between the strike committee met and the town council over the handover of the agents to McCleary, a special train arrived at 00:30 on July 7. McCleary, the international AA's lawyer and several town officials accompanied the Pinkerton agents to Pittsburgh.
The final casualty toll was 14 dead and 24 wounded on the workers' side, whilst seven Pinkertons killed, with a further three missing, presumed dead, and 22 wounded. [see: Jul. 12]

1902 - Alfons Tomasz Pilarski aka 'Janson', 'Jan Rylski', 'Kompardt', etc. (d. 1977), German anarcho-syndicalist who took part in the German and Polish anarchist and anti-Nazi movements, born in Upper Silesia. Before WWII one of the leading activists of anarchist movement in Poland. 1917-1921 draughtsman in agronomic office in city hall of Raciborz. In 1918 joined Upper Silesia Communist Party and in 1919 anarcho-syndicalist workers union Freie Arbeiter Union Deutchlands. Until 1933 he was an activist of the FAUD. Resistance organizer against Hitler. In 1929 initiated paramilitary anarchist organization Schwarze Scharen (Black Troop) 1928-1932 editor of 'Freiheit' (Freedom) published in Wroclaw (Breslau) and Raciborz. Accused by Third Reich regime of high treason, fled to Berlin where he was hidden. With help of Polish diplomat he managed to flee to Poland where he got political refugee status. 1933-35 scholar in Institute for Ethnographic Research in Warsaw. He was active in the Związku Związków Zawodowych (ZZZ; Union of Workers Unions) as an anarcho-syndicalist. 1934-36 secretary of Union in Zaglebie Dabrowskie. He represented Polish anarcho-syndicalists during IWA congress in Paris in 1938. From 1939 in Central Section of ZZZ. Published in 'Front Robotniczy' (Workers’ Front) as Jan Rylski. From May 1939 he worked in a German-language anti-Nazi programme in Katowice radio station. From July 1939 member of ZZZ board. After September defeat went to Mozejki near Wilnus [Vilna]. He joined Zwiazek Walki Zbrojnej (ZWZ: Association of Armed Struggle, precursor of Polish National Army [Home Army/ AK]). Worked in an office preparing fake documents for underground. In 1942 he came back to Warsaw as a Swedish citizen. Took part in so called 'N-action' (disinformation in press and leaflets for Eastern Front German soldiers). He joined the Syndykalistyczna Organizacja Wolność (SOW-a; Syndicalist Organisation Freedom), published in 'Walka Ludu' (Peoples Struggle). Took part in Warsaw Uprising in the ranks of Polish Popular Army. August 8 1944 wounded. Joined Syndicalist Brigade. After defeat of Uprising, together with his wife and daughter, evacuated to Ojcow near Krakow. From January 1945 worked as secretary of propaganda section of District Committee of Workers Unions in Krakow. In June 1945 went to Silesia where he organized reconstruction of industry. After the war he maintained contact with German anarcho-syndicalists. In 1947 he joined Polska Partia Robotnicza (Polish Party of Workers) then Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza (Polish United Party of Workers – communist regime party). 1948-50 worked in office in Ministry of Western Lands. In 1950 expelled from the Party for "anarchist aberration". In 1953 imprisoned for months without sentence. He worked in Warsaw in Dom Słowa Polskiego (Polish Word House) and Panstwowa Centrala Handlu Ksiazkami 'Dom Ksiazki' (State Central of Books Trade 'Book House'). He refused to receive decorations and honorable awards. Died February 3 1977 and was buried in Powazki Cemetery in Warsaw.

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 23] Ivanovo Soviet [Иваново-Вознесенский Депутатов] / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: A mass demonstration in memory of those who died on June 16th (O.S. Jun. 3). In the square in front of the city council, workers hold a sit-in and reiterate their demands. The area is surrounded by troops but, protected by armed members of the combat brigades and the workers' militia, the authorities dare not use force.
During the evening the Govenor offers the factory owners opportunity to return to Ivanovo to conduct negotiations under his protection.

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 23] Potemkin Mutiny [Потемкин Мятеж]: At 01:00, the Potemkin rebels handed over to the city authorities an ultimatum, demanding the immediate supply of coal within four hours or they would start shelling the city. At 05:00, the mayor appealed to residents of Feodosia,asking them to leave the city. The garrison commander also declared the city under martial law, having secretly brought troops into the port.
The rebels decided to seize their own barges with coal, and at 09:00 that morning a boat with a boarding party of sailors entered the port and attempted to seize a coal barge. However, the were ambushed by troops leaving six rebels dead and several injured, whilst the sailors that had jumped into the water were taken prisoner. The boat with the surviving sailors hastily left the port.
On board the battleship unrest began amongst the crew: some demanding punishment of the city; others, headed by lieutenant DP Alekseev and junior officers, were against firing. The 'Наш' signal flag, indicating that it was willing to fire on the port, was again run up [see: Jun. 28] but the latter group prevailed, and it was decided to return to Constanța
At 12:00, Potemkin and its escort left Theodosius without firing a single shot at the city. Upon leaving, however, the rebels pretended towards Novorossiysk but, once over the horizon, they changed course towards Constanța.
Meanwhile further ships were dispatched to intercept the rebels: the destroyer Rapid [Стремительный], which had already been involved in the search, arrived in Yalta and quickly put to sea again upon learning of Potemkin's presence in Feodosia; and a squadron composed of four battleships, a cruisers and four destroyers of four, was dispatched from Sébastopol under the command of Admiral Grigory Krieger [Александр Кригер], with orders to sink the Potemkin.

1905 - [O.S. Jun 23] Łódź Insurrection [Powstanie Łódzkie] / June Days [Dni Czerwca]: Across Łódź all markets, workshops, shops and offices are closed and there was open clashes between workers and government forces. In the area of ​​Eastern Street workers opened fire on a group of Russian soldiers and cavalrymen, and on Southern Street another group of workers were surrounded by an entire Russian Military Police unit. Several large fires broke out as workers set fire to alcohol warehouses.
The most bloody battles take place on the barricades erected in the New City (Nowe Miasto) district on the corner of Eastern Street (Ulica Wschodniej) and Southern Street (Ulica Południowej) [now Revolution of 1905 Street (Ulica Rewolucji 1905 roku)], and on Northern Street (Ulica Północnej), near the Rokicińska highway (Szosy Rokicińskiej) and Źródliska Park (Parku Źródliska).
On the same day SDKPiL (Socjaldemokracja Królestwa Polskiego i Litwy / Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania) orders a general strike throughout the Polish Kingdom and the Tsar signs a decree introducing martial law in the city. Six infantry regiments and several regiments of cavalry also arrived from Częstochowa, Warsaw and several summer training camps.

[C/E] 1907 - Frida Kahlo de Rivera (born Magdalena Carmen Frieda Kahlo y Calderón; d. 1954), painter, communist, and one of Mexico's greatest artists, born. Around the age of 6, she contracted polio, which caused her to be bedridden for nine months. While she did recover from the illness, she limped when she walked because the disease had damaged her right leg and foot. Frida Kahlo began painting after she was severely injured, impaled on a steel handrail and suffering fractures to her spine and pelvis, in a bus accident on September 17, 1925. Inspired by her marriage to Diego Rivera, her miscarriages, and her numerous operations, Kahlo's works are often characterised by their suggestions of pain: "I never painted dreams. I painted my own reality."
Through Rivera, Karlo became an active communist, in 1937 befriending Trotsky who lived initially with Rivera and then at Kahlo's home (he and Karlo had an affair). The bisexual Kahlo had affairs with both men and women, including Isamu Noguchi and Josephine Baker; Rivera knew of and tolerated her relationships with women, but her relationships with men made him jealous. For her part, Kahlo was furious when she learned that Rivera had an affair with her younger sister, Cristina. The couple divorced in November 1939, but remarried in December 1940. Their second marriage was as troubled as the first.
At the invitation of André Breton, she went to France during 1939 and was featured at an exhibition of her paintings in Paris. And back in Mexico she befriended many Surrealist who had left Europe, fleeing from the Nazi occupation, included Leonora Carrington, Wolfgang Paalen, Alice Rahon, Luis Buñuel, Frida Kahlo, Kati Horna, Benjamin Peret, Remei Varo and the young Octavio Paz.
In her fial years she underwent a series of unsuccessful surgeries on her spine that rendered her even less mobile and, following the amputation of her right leg at the knee due to gangrene in August 1953, she became increasingly dependent on painkillers. Her last public appearence was at a demonstration against the CIA invasion of Guatemala on July 2, 1954. The demonstration worsened her illness and early on the morning of July 13, 1954, she was found dead in her bed by her nurse. Frida Kahlo was 47 years old.

1913 - [O.S. Jul. 24] Tikveš Uprising [Тиквешко въстание (Bul.) / Тиквешко востание (Mkd.)]: Realising that help will not be arriving, the rebels leave their positions and, as Serb troops enter Kavadarci, the entire population and all the refugees gathered there from nearby villages flee into the mountains.

1915 - Revolución Mexicana: Alvaro Obregon resumes command of the army

1916 - Revolución Mexicana: Pancho Villa rejoins his followers at San Juan Bautista.

1917 - [N.S. Jul. 19] July Days [Июльские дни]: [see: Jul. 19]

1923 - The falling out of André Breton and Tristan Tzara over their differing views of the Dadaist movement and 'aesthetic' came to a head, following Tzara's issuing of the manifesto 'Le Cœur à Barbe' (The Bearded Heart; 1922), at the Soirée du Cœur à Barbe hosted by Paris's Théâtre Michel. During the première of a new production of Tzara's 'Le Cœur à Gaz' André Breton "hoisted himself on the stage and started to belabour the actors", provoking a riot. According to poet Georges Hugnet, the actors could not run away because of their restricting costumes, while their attacker also managed to assault some of the writers present, punching René Crevel and breaking Pierre de Massot's arm with his walking stick. The police were called but not before rows of seats were torn up and the stage trashed, leaving the director of Théâtre Michel tearing his hair out and lamenting "My lovely little theatre!'"

[D] 1931 - ERROR

1944 - Operation Walküre: Lieutenant Colonel Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg (1907 - 1944) takes a briefcase bomb into the conference room at the Berghof, Hitler's Bavarian Alps' retreat, but (for reasons he never revealed) fails to trigger the explosives.

1950 - Workers in the Walloon industrial belt go out on strike as part of the countrywide campaign to prevent King Leopold III from resuming the throne.

[B] 1951 - The surrealist manifesto 'Haute Fréquence', dated May 24th, appears in the anarchist periodical 'Le Libertaire' published today.

1975 - Alexander Sapoundjiev (b. 1893), Bulgarian teacher, anarchist activist and propagandist, dies. In June 1919, he participated in the founding congress of the FACB (Bulgarian Communist Anarchist Federation). In 1921, after several arrests Sapoundjiev was banned from teaching and he dedicated himself to the publication of several clandestine newspapers, including 'анархист' (Anarchist), 'Robotnitcheska Missal' (Workers' Thought) and 'свободно общество' (Free Society). Following the 9 June 1923 coup d'état and ensuing September insurrection, he was arrested and imprisoned, eventually going into exile in France in 1928. Following a 1931 amnesty, he return to his activitieS in Bulgaria but pro-Fascist coup of May 19, 1934, saw him retire to the village of Biala to devote himself to viticulture and the cooperative movement. He was to suffer further periods of imprisonment, including under the Communists in 1948, but never gave up the struggle.

1981 - Luz Corral (María Luz Corral de Villa; b. 1892), Pancho Villa's forebearing first wife, who brought up a number of the other children of the polyamourous revolutionary, their own daughter dying very young, dies of heart and respiratory failure. [see: Jul. 2]

1986 - Ernesto Bonomini (b. 1903), Italian militant anarchist, anti-militarist and anti-fascist, dies. [see Mar. 18]

1989 - René Lochu (b. 1899), French journeyman tailor, anarchist, syndicalist union activist and pacifist, dies. His close friend Leo Ferre dedicated his song 'Les Etrangers' to him. [see: Aug. 26]

1994 - Nikolas Tchorbadieff (b. 1900), Bulgarian anarchist militant and propagandist, dies. [see: Mar. 1]

1998 - International blockade at Temelin, an unfinished nuclear power plant presently under construction in southern Czech Republic.

2002 - Pietro Valpreda (b. 1933), Italian dancer, writer and anarchist, who was one of those wrongly accused of the Piazza Fontana bombing, dies. [see: Aug: 29]

2010 - Fritz Teufel (b. 1943), West Berlin Communard, political activist, author and active participant in the West German anti-authoritarian student movement in the 1960s, dies. [see: Jun. 17]
1839 - Jules Thomas (d. 1892), French Icarien [follower of Étienne Cabet], Parisian communard, Blanquist, then a militant anarchist, born. Fled France following the fall of the Commune and took refuge in New York, founding the Société des Réfugiés de la Commune which, in addition to its solidarity actions, commemorated the anniversary of the March 18 Paris uprising.

[E] 1852 - [O.S. Jun. 25] Vera Nikolayevna Figner (Ве́ра Никола́евна Фи́гнер; d. 1942), Russian revolutionary, Bakuninist socialist, poet and memoirist, who plotted to blow up the Tsar and later directed the Kropotkin Museum, born. One of six children, her three sisters – Lydia, Evgenia and Olga - all took part in the revolutionary movement along side her. Vera herself first became involved in revolutionary politics as a student in Zurich (1872-75), discovering the ideas of Bakunin and joining the anti-authoritarian AIT. Returning to Russia, she worked as a nurse/paramedic amongst the peasantry and became involved with firstly the Narodniks, then Zemlya i Volya (Land and Liberty) and, in 1879 following the split of Zemlya i Volya, she became a member of the Executive Committee of Narodnaya Volya (The Will of the People), conducting propaganda activities among intelligentsia, students and military in St.Petersburg, Kronstadt and southern parts of Russia. He involvement in the paramilitary wing of Narodnaya Volya included the planning the failed Feb. 5, 1880, assassination attempt on Alexander II in Odessa and the successful assassination attempt on the tsar on March 13, 1881.
Figner was arrested in Kharkov on February 10, 1883, betrayed by Sergey Degayev, a police informer who had infiltrated her circle, and a was sentenced to death a year later during the Trial of the Fourteen. The sentence was commuted to perpetual penal servitude in Siberia. Having spent the 20 months before her trial in solitary confinement in the Peter and Paul Fortress, she was imprisoned for 20 years at Schlüsselburg and in 1904 exiled to various parts of Siberia. Allowed to emigrate in 1906, she campaign around Europe for political prisoners in Russia. In 1915 she returned to Russia but never accepted the legitimacy of the Bolshevik Government, and was constantly under Secret Police surveillance. After the 1917 Revolution she worked with the Society of the Former Political Prisoners and Exiles (Обществo бывших политкаторжан и ссыльнопоселенцев) and was Chair of the committee in 1921 to honour Kropotkin upon his death. The committee set up a museum in Kropotkin's birthplace (Kropotkingasse No. 26), of which Vera Figner was director until she was banished by the Communists on Feb. 3, 1930, aged 78, for protesting against the maltreatment of women' in communist prisons.
Her written works include a single book of poetry 'Stikhotvoreniia' (Poems; 1906) and her memoirs 'Nacht über Rußland' (Night over Russia; 1922) and 'Memoirs of a Revolutionist' (Book I: 'A Task Fulfilled' & Book II: 'How the Clock of Life Stopped'; 1927).

1867 - Charlotte Anita Whitney (d. 1955), US women's rights activist, political activist, pacifist, socialist, suffragist, and early Communist Labor Party of America and Communist Party USA organiser in California, born. She is best remembered as the defendant in a landmark 1920 California criminal syndicalism trial, Whitney v. California, and was prominent in the founding and early activities of the Communist Party in the United States.

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: Antonio Cuevas Jurado acquired in Cadiz a thousand carbines, sabers and bayonets and 50,000 cartridges, in exchange for 50,000 pesetas. The revolution of the small town of Sanlúcar de Barrameda was now properly armed.

1873 - Revolució del Petroli / Revolución del Petróleo [Petroleum Revolution]: A revolutionary syndicalist uprising takes place in Alcoy , Valencia, an important textile centre that was known at the time as 'la petita Barcelona', both for the strength of its nascent labour movement and for the proliferation of its different industries. The name derives from the torches soaked in oil and other pertoleum products that the angry banner-carrying crowds brandished, which were used to set fire to buildings, and for a few days, according to sources, the whole city smelled of oil. A forerunner of the Revolución Cantonal that was to break out in Cartagena five days later and spread across many rgions of Spain, including, Valencia, Andalusia and Murcia, the Revolució del Petroli was formented by the Comissió Federal of the Spanish section of the IWA (FRE de la AIT), who had moved to Alcoy in January 1873 following the Congress of Cordoba.
On July 7, 1873 the workers of Alcoy gathered in the plaça de Toros bullring to deamnd a reduction in the working day to eight hours and a wage increase from four to six reales per day. Rejected by the employers, a general strike was called for the following day, initially counting on the neutrality of the federal republican mayor Agustí Albors Blanes (Pelletes). However, the employers bribed him with 60,000 pesetas and Albors telegraphed the Civil Government of Alicante and asked him to come to the city with military reinforcement, whilst issuing an anti-worker ban.
On July 9, a workers' committee made up of Vicente Fombuena, Tomàs Montava, Severiano Albarracín, Juan Chinchilla and Rafael Abad Seguí met with the mayor with the intention of demanding that the city council resign and that the workers take charge of the municipal government. Albors responded by ordering an attack against the more than two thousand workers who were gathered in the central square of the city, claiming the lives of two internationalists and leaving 20 workers wounded. During the following hours, four other workers were killed and 20 more wounded. Some houses neighbouring the town hall, where the authorities had taken refuge, and some factories are burned. Attempts at mediation proved fruitless and the security forces and employers began to run out of ammunition and finally, after 20 hours of fighting, the Guàrdia Civil surrendered to the crowd, who then occupied the city hall. Albors was shot dead and four guards and two of the employers were wounded. The people elected a Comitè de Salvació Pública, chaired by Severiano Albarracín, which governed Alcoy for the next three days, arresting 42 of the manufacturers who had fired on the crowd, releasing them three days later.
On July 12, the news that a military column led by General Velarde was coming in Alcoy began circulating; the same day Josep Maria Morlius, governor of Alicante, and a commission from Madrid chaired by Deputy Cervera arrived in the city. That same night, the leaders of the uprising fled the city. Everything seemed to have calmed down after a mixed commission of workers and employers had taken charge of the municipal government, and the armed workers had stood down without any resistance following the promise of an amnesty. But there followed a media campaign, triggered by the minister of state Eleuterio Maisonave, who spoke of "chaos", murder and rape.
Gradually normality returned with curfews between July 21-23 July put in place by the new Mayor Tomás Maestre. The employers, however, demanded venegence and on September 13, the Castelar government appointed a special judge and military commander. The city was occupied by the army two days later and 129 workers were arrested and taken to the castle of Alicante, where four years later they remained imprisoned without trial. Five years later, there were still 93 left, 80 prisoners finally having been released on bail; one of the detainees was only released 10 years after the events. A total of 700 workers stood trial, even minors aged between 12 and 17 years. The Revolució del Petroli marked a final break between the republicans and anarchists.

1878 - [O.S. Jun. 26] Anna Krasteva Maymunkova [Ана Кръстева Маймункова] aka Anna May [Ана Май] (d.1925), Bulgarian teacher, journalist and prominent communist activist and the Bulgarian female revolutionary movement, born. A member of the Bulgarian Workers' Social Democratic Party (narrow socialists) [Българската работническа социалдемократическа партия (тесни социалисти)], which go on to rename itself the Bulgarian Communist Party (narrow socialists) [Българска комунистическа партия (тесни социалисти)] in 1919. She was one of the founders of the Teachers' Social organisation (Учителската социалдемократическа организация) in 1906 and participated in the publication of 'Teachers Spark' (Учителска искра) and 'Workers Journal' (Работнически вестник), as well as being editor of 'Equality' (Равенство) and 'Worker' (Работничка). She lead a delegation of Bulgarian women to the Second International Conference on Women Communists in Moscow in June 1921, where the Bulgarians proposed the establishing of a common day for celebrating women's struggle for equality, suggesting March 8 as the date.
She was brutally murdered on May 16, 1925 in the Police Directorate in Sofia during the crackdown on the communist opposition in the wake of the April 16 bombing the Sveta Nedelya church.

1884 - Lion Feuchtwanger (d. 1958), German-Jewish novelist and playwright, who was a prominent figure in the literary world of Weimar Germany, influencing many contemporaries including playwright Bertolt Brecht and was a fierce critic of the Nazi party long before it rose to power, born. One of the very first to recognise and warn against the dangers of Hitler and the Nazi Party. As early as 1920 published in the satirical text 'Gespräche mit dem Ewigen Juden' (Conversations with the Wandering Jew), a vision of what would later become the reality of anti-Semitic racist mania: "Towers of Hebrew books were burned, and bonfires were erected high up in the clouds, and people burnt, innumerable priests and voices sang: Gloria in excelsis Deo. Traits of men, women, children dragged themselves across the square from all sides, they were naked or in rags, and they had nothing with them as corpses and the tatters of book rolls of torn, disgraced, soiled with faeces Books roles. And they followed men and women in kaftans and dresses the children in our day, countless, endless."
'Erfolg: Drei Jahre Geschichte einer Provinz' (Success: Three years of history of a province; 1930), was a fictionalized account of the rise and fall of the Nazi Party in Bavaria from 1921-24 [at the time the Nazis were considered a spent force] and his 1933 novel, 'Die Geschwister Oppenheim' (The Brothers Oppenheim), the second novel of the series 'Der Wartesaal' (The Waiting Room) and which was retitled 'Die Geschwister Oppermann', has an explicitly anti-Nazi theme relating the consequences of the Nazi seizure of power in January 1933 for the members of a Jewish upper middle class family in Berlin. [expand]

1886 - Manuel Buenacasa Tomeo (d. 1964), important Spanish anarchist, trade unionist and Confederación Nacional del Trabajo militant, born. [expand]

1887 - Marc Chagall (born Moishe Segal; d. 1985), Russian Modernist artist who worked in virtually every artistic medium, including painting, book illustrations, stained glass, stage sets, ceramic, tapestries and fine art prints, born to a Lithuanian Jewish family. "He synthesized the art forms of Cubism, Symbolism, and Fauvism... [but] he remained most emphatically a Jewish [folk] artist." Spent the years 1911-14 living in the libertarian artists community La Ruche in Paris and was involved in the post-Revolution Russian avant-garde arts movement, founding the Vitebsk Arts College. However, he fell out with the Suprematists on the faculty and resigned his teaching job.
Like almost all the European Modernists, Chagall fell foul of the Nazis and the Entartete Kunst and had to flee France in 1941 for America.

1890 - Marius Paul Metge (d. 1933), French individualist and illégaliste, a member of the Bonnot Gang, born.

1892 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: Bernardino Verro, who had helped form one of the first Fasci in Corleone, and Giacomo Luciano, president of the Fascio di Palazzo Adriano, are arrested.

1892 - Philippine Revolution [Himagsikang Pilipino] aka the Tagalog War: The Katipunan (Samaháng Kataástaasan, Kagalanggalang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan [Supreme and Venerable Society of the Children of the Nation]), a secret Philippine revolutionary organisation advocating independence through armed revolt against Spain, is founded by Filipino patriots Andrés Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, and others on the night of July 7 in Manila in reaction to the banishing of the Filipino writer José Rizal* to Dapitan on the island of Mindanao. Initially, the Katipunan was a secret organisation influenced by the rituals and organisation of Freemasonry (Bonifacio and other leading members were also Freemasons), until its discovery in 1896 that led to the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution, in which it played a cebtral role.
[* Rizal's novels, 'Noli Me Tángere' (Touch Me Not, 1887) and 'El Filibusterismo' (The Filibuster, 1891), were key steps in the exposure of the inequities of the Spanish Catholic priests and the ruling colonial government.]

1895 - Danel 'Dan' Chatterton (b. 1820), English communist atheist pamphleteer, bill poster, slum dweller, early birth control advocate, fierce public ranter and founder of 'Chatterton's Commune: the Atheist Communistic Scorcher', dies. [see: Aug. 25]

[AA] 1896 - Charles Thomas Wooldridge is hung in Reading prison and Oscar Wilde writes 'The Ballad of Reading Gaol' in memoriam:
"Yet each man kills the thing he loves
By each let this be heard,
Some do it with a bitter look,
Some with a flattering word,
The coward does it with a kiss,
The brave man with a sword!"

1900 - Luigi Bertoni publishes the première issue of 'Il Risveglio Anarchico, Le Réveil Socialiste Anarchiste', in Geneva.

1903 - IWW co-founder Mary Harris 'Mother' Jones begins leading the 'March of the Mill Children' the 100 miles from Philadelphia to President Theodore Roosevelt's Long Island summer home in Oyster Bay, New York, to publicise the harsh conditions of child labour and to demand a 55-hour work week.

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 24] Ivanovo Soviet [Иваново-Вознесенский Депутатов] / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The factory owners reiterate their refusal to make any concessions. When this is communicated to the strikers, they send a message to the Governor stating that the Workers' Council bears no responsibility for maintaining order in the city and its surroundings. That evening, the buring of manufacturers' houses, smashing of shops and stalls, and attacks on telegraph links reignites. Police arrested 64 people. The governor immediately leaves for St. Petersburg to report to the Government, which allocates additional troops.
Having sustained heavy losses during the strike, some of the manufacturers make additional concessions: the industrialist Gryaznov (Грязнов) announces a 9-hour day, wage increases of 7%, a rent subsidy and the promise not to dismiss any strikers.

1905 - [O.S. Jun 24] Łódź Insurrection [Powstanie Łódzkie] / June Days [Dni Czerwca]: At dusk (some sources claim noon on the 8th [Jun. 24th]) the last of the barricades, on the Eastern Street and in Źródliska Park, fall to Tsarist troops - according to the sources. Over the following days there were many individual militant actions, such as attacks on police outposts or shooting at individual police patrols.
In most cases, the Łódź insurgents were very poorly armed, fighting with a few revolvers, paving stones, boiling water and acid poured from the windows etc., and it was inevitable that they would succumbed to the overwhelmingly superior Tsarist police forces. They also had to combat the actions of the endecki [Narodowa Demokracja (National Democratic Party)] militias, as there was in effect a mini civil war during the June uprising between the workers associated with the Polska Partia Socjalistyczna (Polish Socialist Party) and the workers supporting the National Democracy movement, who resoundingly denounced the 1905 Revolution.
The number of victims during the fighting is not known. Official reports claim 151 civilian deaths (55 Poles, 79 Jews and 17 Germans) and about 150 wounded, whilst historians estimate at least 200 dead and between 800 and 2,000 wounded.

1906 - [O.S. Jun. 18] Seventh Cavalry Reserve Regiment Mutiny: On the eve of the mutiny in Tambov (Тамбове), an angry delegation of troops in the 7th Cavalry Reserve Regiment (7-м запасном кавалерийском полку) presents their demands to their brigade commander. He promises to satisfy them within the law, managing to calm the soldiers down.

1913 - [O.S. Jul. 25] Tikveš Uprising [Тиквешко въстание (Bul.) / Тиквешко востание (Mkd.)]: Early morning and police detachments and the IMRO withdraw towards Begnisht ( Бегнище). The city was plundered and burnt. 60 houses in Dukas (дюкана) were burnt to the ground, and 24 captured people were shot on the spot. Negotino (Неготино) suffered worse, with more than 800 houses and 750 shops burned.

1913 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Suffragette Edith Rigby firebombs Lord Leverhulme's bungalow in Lancashire, UK.

1916 - [O.S. Jun. 24] In the Russian town of Taganrog (Таганрог) in the Don region, a crowd of over one thousand people, identified as mainly soldatki (soldiers' wives), commandeered stores of sugar held by local merchants and distributed them among themselves. Then, when the supply ran out, they set about breaking into shops. The crowd dispersed only after troops were called in and ordered to fire.

1917 - [N.S. Jul. 20] July Days [Июльские дни]: [see: Jul. 20]

[F] 1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: Members of the Sindicato Nacional de Teléfonos strike committee are arrested and the CNT's public meetings are banned. The union fights back by beginning a widespread campaign of sabotage. [see: Aug. 6]

1937 - Marguerite Aspès (b. 1901), French anarchist militant and revolutionary syndicalist, commits suicide upon hearing of her lover Leopold's death. [see: Jan. 26]

[A] 1945 - Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn sentenced in absentia to eight years in a labour camp in Russia.

1945 - Canadian troops riot in Aldershot over the slow rate of repatriation.

[D] 1954 - Guatemalan Coup D'État: In Guatemala, Operation PBSUCCESS, a military coup directed and funded by the CIA, which was aimed at deposing President Jacobo Árbenz Guzman and physically eliminating the much feared (and largely peripheral) "Communists and collaborators" that were supposedly maintaining Árbenz in power, thereby saving the United Fruit Company for the free world, comes to fruition as the Agency's stooge Carlos Castillo Armas is unanimously elected president of the military junta. The US are surprisingly tardy in recognising the new military dictatorship six days later.
Whilst not on the scale of the Bay of Pigs seven years later, the invasion on June 18, 1954 by Castillo Armas' force of 480 men, supported by a handful of US supplied WWII surplus planes, was just as farcical, achieving few military successes. However, the invasion itself was only a smll part of an overall of a psychological warfare campaign that ultimately ended in victory for Castillo Armas and the CIA's plan, unlike the charade perpetuated in April 1961. The Árbenz Government knew that it could easily defeat the insurgents, but the overwhelming fear of a potential full-scale American invasion should Castillo Armas' force be defeated led Árbenz to hold back from arming the civilian population, relying on a reluctant military who finally forced his resignation on June 27, hoping to somehow prevent the US invasion and save democratic government in the country and the social reforms that he had brought in, and that the American government so hated [cf. the labour and land reforms, and a minimum wage that were so stifling the UFC's hugely profitable business model.]
The head of the Guatemalan armed forces, Carlos Enrique Díaz, then took over the presidency and, in an attempt to placate the CIA, formed a three-person military junta. Further machinations led to his overthrow by Elfego Hernán Monzón Aguirre, a more 'acceptable' military officer, on July 2, with further US pressure Castillo Armas and his right-hand man Enrique Trinidad Oliva joined Monzón on the junta. However, the CIA was not finished yet, and on July 7 two key Monzón supporters, Colonels José Luis Cruz Salazar and Mauricio Dubois, were bought off – paid $100,000 each to withdraw their support. Monzón resigned, clearing the path for Castillo Armas to take control of the country.
Elections to held in early October 1954, and from which all political parties were banned from taking part, saw the only candidate, Castillo Armas, get 99% of the vote, thereby rubber-stamping the CIA's coup. Despite this apparent ringing endorsement and knowing that he lacked popular support, Castillo Armas launched an immediate wave of terror: mass imprisonments led to the building of concentration camps to hold those that the overflowing prisons could no longer accommodate and tens of thousands were executed or simply 'disappeared' without trial. Inevitably, the country was plunged into a bloody civil war, which lasted until 1996. Even the United Fruit Company suffered; despite the abolition of the labour laws and unions, the company's profits plummeted and it ended up merging with its rival AMK in 1970 to avoid bankruptcy.

1957 - The first Pugwash peace conference.

[C] 1960 - Reggio Emilia Massacre: 5 Trade Unionists, including three Italian Partisan veterans, are shot by police in Reggio Emilia, Italy. Following the announcement in June 1960 by the fascist MSI that its national conference will be held in Genoa, a city famous for its resistance to Fascism, workers in Genoa organised a series of wildcat strikes. In clashes with police, one anti-Fascist trade unionist is killed. In response, the Italian General Confederation of Labour calls a national strike. In the city of Reggio Emilia, 20,000 workers take to the streets. The only 'official' space allowed - the Verdi Hall which has 600 seats - is too small to contain the crowd, so a group of 300 workers from the Mechanical Workshops Reggiane gather in front of the War memorial, singing anti-Fascist songs. The police charge and attack the crowd with tear gas and water canon. Workers man barricades and fight back. Dejected by the resistance of the protesters, the police take out their guns and start shooting. Five are killed and sixteen are wounded.
Those killed:
· Lauro Farioli (b. 1938), aged 22, married father of one.
· Ovid Franks (b. 1941), aged 22, the youngest of the fallen.
· Marino Serri (b. 1919), aged 41, a veteran of the 76th Partisan Brigade.
· Afro Tondelli (b. 1924), aged 36, also a veteran of the 76th Partisan Brigade.
· Emilio Reverberi (b. 1921), aged 39 years, a veteran of the 144th Partisan Brigade.
The dead were imortalised in the famous song by Fausto Amodei entitled 'To the Dead of Reggio Emilia'.

1973 - Bewegung 2. Juni (June 2 Movement) member Gabi Kröcher-Tiedemann is arrested after a shootout in a Buchen carpark after a policeman tries to arrest her for stealing number plates. She was sentenced on December 12, 1973 to 8 years imprisonment for the attempted murder.

1980 - Juan García Oliver (b. 1901), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist and Minister of Justice in the Republican Government, dies. Consider by many Spanish anarchists to be a traitor for his willingness to compromise with government and for having encouraging workers to disarm during the Barcelona May Days (1937).

1984 - George Oppen (b. 1908), American Objectivist poet and political activist, dies. [see: Apr. 24]

1992 - Mika Feldman de Etchebéhère (Micaela Feldman; b. 1902), Argentinian Marxist and anarchist activist, who fought with the P.O.U.M. in Spain, dies. [see: Mar. 14]

1994 - Third International Anarcho-Syndicalist East-West Conference held in Prague.

[B] 1997 - Erik Heino Jaeger (b. 1938), German painter, graphic artist, comedian, satirist, story teller and cabaret artist, born. [see: Jan. 1]
1794 - Maximilien Robespierre inaugurates a new state religion of his own invention, Le Culte de l'Être Suprême (Cult of the Supreme Being), across the new French Republic.

1822 - Percy Bysshe Shelley (b. 1792), English Romantic poet, son-in-law of William Godwin and Godwinite social radical, dies.

1855 - Primera Huelga General de España: Some normality returns to Barcelona as office worker go back and the courts resume sitting. The repression of strikers continues, with the frigate Julia leaving for La Habana in Cuba with seventy of the workers detained so far on board. [see: Jul. 2]

1862 - [O.S. Jun. 26] Olga Afanasevna Varentsova [Ольга Афанасьевна Варенцова], aka 'Maria Ivanovna' [Мария Ивановна] & 'Ekaterina Nikolaevna' [Екатерина Николаевна] (d. 1950), Russian historian, revolutionary, member of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), and later a Bolshevik and a Soviet party and state leader, born. In the 1880’s she belonged to Narodnik (Populist) circles formed by high school students and became an active supporter of the RSDLP's underground newspaper 'Iskra' in 1900. In 1901, she joined the Northern Workers’ Union (Северный рабочий союз), the Northern Committee of the RSDLP, becoming a member of its Central Committee and secretary in chief. During this same period she was also a member of the Yaroslavl committee of the RSDLP.

[E] 1867 - Käthe Kollwitz (d. 1945), German Expressionist painter, printmaker, sculptor, socialist and pacifist, who was one of the most important women artists of her period and also artists of the working classes in Europe, born.
Trained initially as a painter, but by 1890 turned to printmaking as means for social criticism, especially on proletarian and anti-war issues. A non-aligned socialist, she helped form a Workers' and Artist Council in Berlin during the 1918 Revolution, supporting Rosa Luxemburg January 1919 position against an armed uprising. Kollwitz's drawing of Karl Liebknecht in his coffin, 'Memorial for Karl Liebknecht' (1919), was condemned by the German Communist Party (KPD) because it had not been produced by a member of the party.
"I have been through a revolution, and I am convinced that I am no revolutionist. My childhood dream of dying on the barricades will hardly be fulfilled, because I should hardly mount a barricade now that I know what they are like in reality. And so I know now what an illusion I lived in for so many years. I thought I was a revolutionary and was only an evolutionary. Yes, sometimes I do not know whether I am a socialist at all, whether I am not rather a democrat instead."

1884 - Mauro Bajatierra Morán (d. 1939), Spanish journalist, prolific writer, novelist, playwright, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist propagandist, born.

1885 - Ernst Bloch (d. 1977), German Marxist philosopher, utopian, pacifist and one-time anarchist, born. An important influence on liberation theology, who has been called "one of the greatest of modern utopian thinkers." Having studies philosophy at Munich University, he begun to develop his utopian theories and, what he came to call later, a "Anarchotheokratie" (theocratic anarchism). A committed opponent of the war, he spent the period 1917-19 in Bern, Switzerland, believing that only in the cataclysm of war could his desired "an anarchist-expressionist determined world" come about. In Bern he came to know Hugo Ball, who introduced Bloch to his friend Walter Benjamin, and it was there that he also finished 'Geist der Utopie' (The Spirit of Utopia; 1918). He had also begun to self-identify as a socialist even though he still looked upon Lenin as a "Red Czar". Upon his return to the now Weimar republic, he gegan to embrace Marxist philosophy, writing 'Thomas Müntzer als Theologe der Revolution' (Thomas Müntzer as Theologian of the Revolution; 1921), effectively a Marxist revision of his 'Geist der Utopie'. He also wrote numerous essays, stories and reviews for the 'Frankfurter Zeitung', as well as befriending Bertolt Brecht , Kurt Weill and Theodor W. Adorno. Bloch also took part in the fight against the emergent Nazi party and was forced to flee to Switzerland following Hitler's seizure of power.

1888 - Deolinda Lopes Vieira [also known as Deolinda Quartim] (d. 1993), Portuguese educator, feminist, Mason, anarchist militant and anarcho-syndicalist, born.

1890 - Walter Hasenclever (d. 1940), radical German Expressionist poet, playwright, anti-militarist and anarchist fellow traveller, born. His first book of poems, 'Städte, Nächte, Menschen' (Cities, Nights, People) was published in 1910. At the beginning of WWI he volunteered for the army but quickly lost his enthusiasm for war and, feigning mental illness, he earn his discharge. One of the German Expressionists, in fact he one of the first to use the term 'expressionist' in relationship to drama in his series of essays 'Das Theater von Morgen' (The Theatre of Tomorrow; 1916), who were influenced by the Austrian psychoanalyst and anarchist Otto Gross. Like many of his fellow Expressionists, his work is a protest against bourgeois materialism and the war-making state. His plays include: 'Der Sohn' (The Son; 1914), about a youth who becomes a political revolutionary and brings about his father’s death, became the manifesto for the German post-WWI generation; 'Der Retter' (The Saviour; 1915), about a poet who tries to stop the war and is executed by a firing squad; and 'Antigone' (1917), a pacifist reinterpretation of Sophocles’ play. 'Die Menschen' (Humanity; 1918) however is his Expressionist masterpiece and best known work. After that his plays became more populist and he even wrote scripts for Greta Garbo and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. However, when the Nazis came to power, his works were banned and he went into exile in France in 1934, only to be interned by the Vichy regime as a 'foreign enemy'. He died of a barbiturate overdose in internment at Camp des Milles in the south-east of France.

Zum Andenken an Karl Liebknecht
Der Zug entgleist. Zwanzig Kinder krepieren.
Die Fliegerbomben töten Mensch und Tier.
Darüber ist kein Wort zu verlieren.
Die Mörder sitzen im Rosenkavalier.

Soldaten verachtet durch die Straßen ziehen.
Generäle prangen im Ordensstern.
Deserteure, die vor dem Angriff fliehen,
Erschießt man im Namen des obersten Herrn.

Auf, Dirigent, von deinem Orchesterstuhle!
Du hast Menschen getötet. Wie war dir zu Mut?
Waren es viel? Die Mörder machen Schule.
Was dachtest du beim ersten spritzenden Blut?

Der Mensch ist billig, und das Brot wird teuer.
Die Offiziere schreiten auf und ab.
Zwei große Städte sind verkohlt im Feuer.
Ich werde langsam wach im Massengrab.

Ein gelber Leutnant brüllt an meiner Seite:
"Sei still, du Schwein!" Ich gehe stramm vorbei:
Im Schein der ungeheuren Todesweite
Vor Kälte grau in alter Leichen Brei.

Das Feld der Ehre hat mich ausgespieen;
Ich trete in die Königsloge ein.
Schreiende Schwärme schwarzer Vögel ziehen
Durch goldene Tore ins Foyer hinein.

Sie halten blutige Därme in den Krallen,
Entrissen einem armen Grenadier.
Zweitausend sind in dieser Nacht gefallen!
Die Mörder sitzen im Rosenkavalier.

Verlauste Krüppel sehen aus den Fenstern.
Der Mob schreit: "Sieg!" Die Betten sind verwaist.
Stabsärzte halten Musterung bei Gespenstern;
Der dicke König ist zur Front gereist.

"Hier, Majestät, fand statt das große Ringen!"
Es naht der Feldmarschall mit Eichenlaub.
Die Tafel klirrt. Champagnergläser klingen.
Ein silbernes Tablett ist Kirchenraub.

Noch strafen Kriegsgerichte das Verbrechen
Und hängen den Gerechten in der Welt.
Geh hin, mein Freund, du kannst dich an mir rächen!
Ich bin der Feind. Wer mich verrät, kriegt Geld.

Der Unteroffizier mir Herrscherfratze
Steigt aus geschundenem Fleisch ins Morgenrot.
Noch immer ruft Karl Liebknecht auf dem Platze:
"Nieder der Krieg!" Sie hungern ihn zu Tod.

Wir alle hungern hinter Zuchthaussteinen,
Indes die Opfer tönt im Kriegsgewinn.
Mißhandelte Gefangene stehn und weinen
Am Gittertor der ewigen Knechtschaft hin.

Die Länder sind verteilt. Die Knochen bleichen.
Der Geist spinnt Hanf und leistet Zwangsarbeit.
Ein Denkmal steht im Meilenfeld der Leichen
Und macht Reklame für die Ewigkeit.

Man rührt die Trommel. Sie zerspringt im Klange.
Brot wird Ersatz und Blut wird Bier.
MeinVaterland, mir ist nicht bange!
Die Mörder sitzen im Rosenkavalier.

- 'Die Mörder sitzen in der Oper' (The Murderer sitting in the Opera House; 1917)

1898 - May (Marie-Jeanne) Picqueray (d. 1983), French militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, feminist and anti-militarist, born. [expand]

1900 - Ettore Cropalti (d. 1955), Italian shoemaker, anarchist and anti-fascist militant, born.

1905 - The founding convention of the Industrial Workers of the World concludes in Chicago. Founder member William 'Big Bill' Haywood addressed the convention: "This is the Continental Congress of the working-class. We are here to confederate the workers of this country into a working-class movement that shall have for its purpose the emancipation of the working-class from the slave bondage of capitalism." [see: Jun. 27]

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 25] Potemkin Mutiny [Потемкин Мятеж]: Having arrived shortly before midnight the previous day, and having held negotiations with members of the judiciary committee and the Romanian authorities, and having accepted the conditions previously proposed by the Romanian administration (on Jul. 3), the crew of the battleship Potemkin surrenders to Romanian authorities at Constanța. The crew gathered on shore at 16:00, where the Quartermaster Matiushenko shared out all the cash seized from the ship to the crew. Subsequently, the sailors moved to various cities and villages in Romania or were granted safe passage to the country's western borders. Meanwhile, once released, the crew of the destroyer 'Ishmael', fled back to Sébastopol where the crew were arrested but subsequently acquitted in court.

1906 - [O.S. Jun. 25] Białystok Pogrom [Белостокский погром]: The military command in Białystok commends its troops for their "glorious service" during the pogrom of June 14th.

1906 - [O.S. Jun. 25] Seventh Cavalry Reserve Regiment Mutiny: Following yesterday's presentation of demands to their commander by troops of the 7th Cavalry Reserve Regiment (7-м запасном кавалерийском полку), three prominent members amongst the rebellious soldiers are arrested. The troops mutiny and armed members of the 3rd, 7th and 8th Squadrons seize control of the regiment's headquarters.

1919 - The Federación Obrera Regional Peruana (Peruvian Regional Workers' Federation) is founded, based on the principles of the old Federación Obrera Regional del Perú.

1928 - Crystal Catherine Eastman (b. 1881), US lawyer, antimilitarist, feminist, socialist, and journalist, best remembered as a leader in the fight for women's suffrage, dies of nephritis. [see: Jun. 25]

[D] 1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: All Guardia Civil are ordered to lie in ambush and shoot on sight anyone interfering with telegraph poles. [see: Aug. 6]

[F] 1932 - Sucesos de La Villa de Don Fadrique: A strike occur during the harvest ends up resulting in a Communist-led peasant revolt, which included clashes and gun battles between the town's peasants and the Guardia Civil, plus the arson of eras (threshing areas) and agricultural machinery, the cutting of telephone and telegraph lines, and the blocking of road and rail routes.
One policeman was left dead and five of his collegues wounded, one dead landlord, two peasants were also killed and twenty others injured, and more than sixty were arrested.

[B] 1933 - Jeff Nuttall (d. 2004), the English poet, publisher, actor, painter, sculptor, jazz trumpeter, anarchist sympathiser and social commentator who was a key part of the British 1960s counter-culture, born.
"His books are full of anarchists -- some of them very bizarre like the anarchist aesthetes of 'The Centauri Device'." - Michael Moorcock

1936 - Grève Générale en Belgique: The law on paid leave is approved by a vote in parliament. It applies to all sectors of commerce.

1940 - Yoshiyuki Eisuke (吉行 エイスケ; b. 1906), Japanese Dadaist poet, novelist and anarchist, dies. [see: May 10]

1943 - Esteban Pallarols Xirgu aka José Riera (b. ca. 1900), Catalan individualist anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist militant, naturist and vegetarian, sentenced to death and executed at the Camp de la Bota, Barcelona.

1944 - Marianne Cohn aka 'Colin' (b. 1922), German accountant and French Résistance fighter, who was active in the smuggling of Jewish children from France into Switzerland, is beaten to death using boots and shovels by Gestapo thugs in the early hours of the morning. [see: Sep. 17]

1963 - Tintino Persio Rasi (b. 1893), Italian individualist anarchist activist and propagandist, journalist, writer and Futurist poet, dies. [see: Sep. 15]

1965 - Ronnie Biggs escapes from Wandsworth prison.

1966 - Antonio Casanova (b. 1898), Spanish-born Argentinian baker, editor, translator and anarchist combatant in the Spanish Civil War and French Résistance, dies. [see: Jun. 7]

[1967 - Hong Kong Leftist Riots: hundreds of armed militia from the PRC fired at the Hong Kong Police at Sha Tau Kok - five policemen were killed in the brief exchange of fire

1971 - Two Berlin radicals, Thomas Weissbecker (loosely connected to the RAF and future members of Movement 2 June) and Georg von Rauch (soon to help form Movement 2 June), are in a Berlin courtroom, charged with beating a journalist from the hated Springer Press. Von Rauch is convicted and Weissbecker is acquitted, but in the confusion after the sentences are announced, von Rauch and Weissbecker (who looked quite similar) switch places and von Rauch walks out of court a free man. As soon as von Rauch had had sufficient time to escape, Weissbecker announces that he is the one who should have been released. Confused and embarrassed court personnel are forced to release him.

[C] 1978 - An outdoor NF by-election meeting in Moss Side, Manchester, is attacked by 70 anti-fascists, made up of AFA Squadists and locals. The fighting escalated as locals joined the anti-fascists. The police were forced to escort the NF out of town. [PR]

1982 - Virginia Hall (b. 1906), American spy with the British Special Operations Executive during WWII and who worked as a radio operator and network manager, supporting the French Résistance in the Lyon and Haute-Loire regions, dies. [see: Apr. 6]

1985 - Jean-Paul Chanois (born Jean-Paul Étienne Dreyfus; b. 1909), French filmmaker, TV and theatre director, actor, French Communist Party member and trades union activist, dies. [see: Oct. 25]

[A] 2001 - Bradford riots begin as hundreds of Asian youths fight pitch battles with the police. Two people are stabbed and 80 police officers injured after a protest march against the National Front turns violent.

2008 - Sharon Batey, 41, collapses and dies in her cell at Bradford Custody Office. She had been arrested arrested for being drunk in a public place in charge of a child under seven years the day before and since then had been examined by two doctors and two nurses and at one stage sent to hospital.
[A/DD] 1549 - Kett's Rebellion: In Tudor England one of the major factors driving the forced enclosure of common land by large landowners was the profitability of raising sheep over arable farming. This land was essential for villagers to be able to grow their own food and supplement income from farm work. Landowners very rarely sided with the peasants on the issue, but at Wymondham in Norfolk a yeoman farmer Robert Kett decided to do just that. Not only did he help the enclosure rebels pull down the fences on his own land, but he also took on the role of leader of the commons protest march on Norwich that set off on Tuesday July 9, 1549 – but not before he had led the rebels to tear down the fences and hedges on the land of a much hated local bigwig, Sir John Flowerdew, who had in fact bribed the protesters to spare his land and to target Kett's instead.
By Friday July 12, the rebels were camped on a hill at Mousehold Heath overlooking Norwich and their number had swollen to around 16,000, many protesting wider grievances than the enclosure of common land such as the erosion of tenant rights and recent rises in food prices. The rebels set up a council made up of representatives from the villages that had joined the revolt, which drew up a list of 29 grievances (including some rather bizarre ones) that they promptly sent off to the king, Edward VI, and his government. They responded by proclaimed the gathering a rebellion but offering pardons to all who gave up their protest and went home. Kett rejected the demand/offer on July 21, saying he had no need of a pardon as they had not committed treason.
The rebels then decided to enter Norwich but were refused entry by its mayor. So, after a short artillery exchange by the handful of cannon on either side, thousands of rebels armed with spears, swords and pitchforks stormed the city, circumventing its walls by swimming across the River Wensum and taking control of England's second largest city. 1,500 men under the command of William Parr, Marquess of Northampton, were dispatched to restore order and arrived in Norwich on July 31, only to be routed the following day by the rebel's guerrellia-style tactics in the city's narrow streets. Northampton was forced to order a retreat and the Royal army withdrew to Cambridge with its tail between its legs. A much larger force of around 14,000 men including mercenaries from Wales, Germany and Spain, were then dispatched under the command of the battle-hardened John Dudley, Earl of Warwick. Having surrounded the city, Dudley called on Kett and his men to surrender, only to be answered by one of the rebels baring his buttocks in the Dudley's direction. Something of a mistake as one of Dudley archers shot an arrow into his backside.
Dudley's force entered the city on August 24, attacking two of the main gates and there followed several days of fierce street fighting as the rebels fired many of the city's buildings and ambushed the invading forces. The camp at Mousehold Heath was also surrounded and, now facing being overwhelmed in both Norwich and at the camp, Kett and the rebels chose to leave Norwich and Mousehold Heath under cover of darkness and, on the morning of August 27, face Warwick's army outside the city walls. Faced with well armed and trained troops as well as cavalry, the rebels were slaughtered with an estimated 3,000 put to the sword as the survivors ran for their lives. Up to 300 rebels were also executed, hung from the Oak of Reformation under which Kett's council had meet at Mousehold Heath and from the city gates.
Kett himself was captured, along with his brother William, in the village of Swannington the night after the battle and both were taken to the Tower of London to await trial for treason. Both were found guilty and returned to Norfolk for execution. Kett was hanged at Norwich Castle on December 7, 1549, and his brother William was hanged the same day from the west tower of Wymondham Abbey, close to Robert Kett's farmstead.

1855 - Primera Huelga General de España: Demonstrations take place on Las Ramblas and Army units take positions in the working-class neighbourhoods. Factories also reopen, but hardly any workers return to work. The liberal and conservative press printed today attacks the strikers and only the Democrats' newspaper 'La Soberanía Nacional' (National Sovereignty) defending their claims, especially through a series of articles written by the utopian socialist journalist Sixto Cámara. [see: Jul. 2]

1872 - Jacques Mesnil (pseudonym of Jean-Jacques Dwelshauvers; d. 1940), Belgian anarchist, historian, journalist and scholar of Florentine Renaissance art, born.

[B] 1872 - Montéhus (Gaston Mardochée Brunswick; d. 1952), French singer-songwriter, anti-militarist and "revolutionary jingoist", born. He adopted his pseudonym to avoid the anti-Semitism then rampant in French society (his concerts were often interrupted by racist violence). Initially a moderate socialist, he became virulently anti-militarist and libertarian in outlook. A contemporary of Jean-Baptiste Clément, Eugène Pottier, Jules Jouy, Pierre Dupont and Gaston Couté, he like them used his songs as propaganda tool for socialist and anarchist dissent, opposing war [cf. 'Gloire au 17ème' (1907), capitalist exploitation, prostitution, poverty, religious hypocrisy, and even income tax in his lyrics. During Lenin's exile in France, Montéhus became friendly with him and sang at some of his gatherings. The jingoism he adopted during WWI (and a Croix de Guerre) led to his post-war disgrace, which he tried to redeem by composing 'La Butte Rouge' (1923). Later a member of the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and Popular Front supporter, he managed to avoid being sent to a concentration camp, but was forced to wear the yellow star until the Liberation of France.

1873 - Revolució del Petroli / Revolución del Petróleo [Petroleum Revolution]: Having had their demands rejected by the city's industrialists, the protesters create a workers' commission, made up of Vicente Fombuena, Tomás Montava, Severiano Albarracín, Juan Chinchilla and Rafael Abad Seguí, who now meet with the mayor with the intention that the City Council resign and that the workers take over the municipal government. Albores responded by ordering a discharge against the more than two thousand workers who were gathered in the central square of the city and claimed the lives of two internationalists, in addition to leaving 20 injured. During the following hours, there were four others dead and 20 wounded. During the following hours, four other workers were killed and 20 more wounded. Some houses neighbouring the town hall, where the authorities had taken refuge, and some factories are burned. Attempts at mediation proved fruitless and the security forces and employers began to run out of ammunition and finally, after 20 hours of fighting, the Guàrdia Civil surrendered to the crowd, who then occupied the city hall. Albors was shot dead and four guards and two of the employers were wounded. The people elected a Comitè de Salvació Pública, chaired by Severiano Albarracín, which governed Alcoy for the next three days, arresting 42 of the manufacturers who had fired on the crowd, releasing them three days later.

1892 - The first issue of the fortnightly 'L'Uguaglianza Sociale' (Social Equality) is published in Marsala, Sicily.

[C] 1898 - Johannes Sigfred Andersen aka 'Gulosten' (The Yellow Cheese)(d. 1970), Norwegian alcohol smuggler, furniture manufacturer and resistance fighter during WWII and, as a survivor of the notorious Bastøy school home for maladjusted boys, children's rights advocate, born.

1900 - Louis Simon (d. 1980), French mathematician, individualist anarchist and militant pacifist, born.

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 26] Potemkin Mutiny [Потемкин Мятеж]: With the arrival of a squadron from Sevastopol, consisting of the battleships Chesma (Чесма) and Sinop (Синоп), and 4 destroyers, the Romanian authorities handed the Potemkin over. A Russian priest then celebrated a prayer and sprinkled holy water on the ship to expel the "devil of the revolution". But, having taken sea water on, its engines were damaged and the battleship had to be towed back to Sevastopol by the Sinop.

1906 - [O.S. Jun. 26] Seventh Cavalry Reserve Regiment Mutiny: Elements of the 1st and 6th Squadrons of the 7th Cavalry Reserve Regiment (7-м запасном кавалерийском полку) clash with the troops - two companies of the 21st Kromsky (21-го Пехотный Резервный Кромский полков) and 218th Borisoglebskiy Infantry Reserve Regiments (218-го Борисоглебского пехотных резервных полк), hundreds of Cossacks, and a squadron of the 52th Nijinsky Dragoon Regiment (52-го драгунского Нежинского полка) - sent to put down their mutiny. In the clashes that followed the company commander of the 218th Borisoglebskiy Infantry Reserve, Captain Gorky (Горецкий), was killed, two Dragoons and three soldiers of the 7th Cavalry Regiment Reserve were wounded. Six horses of the Nijinsky regiment were also killed in the battle. The troops retreated, leaving the 7th still in control of the barracks.

1906 - Gabriel-Constant Martin (b. 1839), French member of the Commune (elected as the teachers' delegate), the International, Blanquist and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 5]

1913 - [O.S. Jul. 27] Tikveš Uprising [Тиквешко въстание (Bul.) / Тиквешко востание (Mkd.)]: Those remaining at the Uprising's HQ quietly return home and, despite assurances on their safety negotiated by the priest Grigor Hadzhiyordanov (Григор Хаджийорданов), they are subjected to bloody reprisals: in Moklishte (Моклище) 18 people are killed; in Koreshnitsa (Корешница) - 19, and in Ribartsi (Рибарци) - 16. In Kavadarci (Кавадарци) 150 people are tied to stakes left for 30 hours without water and finally killed and left unburied. According to other sources, 363 civilians were killed in Kavadarci, 230 in Negotino (Неготино), and 40 in Vatasha (Ваташа).

1917 - Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman are charged breaking conscription law, are sentenced today to serve two years in prison, to pay fines of $10,000 each, and quite likely deported to Russia at the expiration of their prison terms. US Marshal McCarthy states: "This marks the beginning of the end of Anarchism in New York."

1917 - Antonio Martínez, a young Spanish shoemaker and anarchist, is killed by the São Paulo cops at a demonstration during a textile strike. His killing precipitates a 3-day General Strike on the 13th.

1920 - André Devriendt, French anarchist, rationalist and mutualist, born. Director of 'Le Monde Libertaire' since 1990.

[E] 1923 - Soviet GPU secret police raid Mollie Steimer and Senya Fleshin's apartment and they are again [see: Nov. 1] placed under arrest, charged with propagating anarchist ideas, in violation of Art. 60-63 of the Soviet Criminal Code. Sequestered from their fellow prisoners, Fleshin and Steimer again declared a hunger strike. Protests to Leon Trotsky by foreign anarcho-syndicalist delegates, including Emma Goldman, who wrote a personal letter of protest to a congress of the Red International of Trade Unions (Profintern) eventually brought about their release. This time, however, they were notified of their impending expulsion from the country, which was carried out on September 27, deported on board a ship bound for Germany.
In a 1923 letter to a friend, Steimer had declared: "No, I am NOT happy to be out of Russia. I would rather be there helping the workers combat the tyrannical deeds of the hypocritical Communists."

1929 - William Charles Owen (b. 1854), Anglo-American militant and anarchist individualist propagandist, dies. [see: Feb. 16]

1929 - Georges Blondeaux aka Gébé (d. 2004), French journalist and cartoonist in the satirical press, film director and anarchist, born. Began as an indusrial illustrator and published his first cartoon in 1955 in 'La Vie du Rail' under the pen name Gébé, in addition to 'Le Journal du Dimanche', 'Radar', 'Paris-Match' and 'Bizarre'. In 1969, he became editor of 'Hara-Kiri' and in 1970 of 'Charlie Hebdo' (until 1982). He then spent six months in 1986 as editor of the monthly periodical 'Zero', artistic director of 'L'Idiot Internationale' (1989-92) and rejoining the relaunched 'Charlie Hebdo' in 1992.
His works included the comic books 'Rue de la Magie' (Street Magic; 1960), 'L'an 01' (Year 01; 1972) made the following year into a film with sections directed by Gébé, Jacques Doillon, Alain Resnais and Jean Rouch), 'Anarchie Douce' (Sweet Anarchy; 1982); the photo novel '17 Romans Photos' (1974; with Chenz); novels such as 'Les Résistants du Square' (1991); contributed to the collective publication 'Mai 68' (2008); and has even written radio plays and song lyrics, the most famous of which is 'Casse-Têtes' (Puzzles) as performed by Yvs Montand.

"Ils m'ont tapé sur la tête
Je ne me rappelle plus pourquoi
Ni même si ça m'a fait mal
Parce que j'en suis mort

Qu'est-ce que j'étais déjà?
Travailleur immigré, philosophe?
Résistant caché, dissident notoire?
Ou bien animal à fourrure?

Je m'appelais comment, déjà?
José, Abdel, Argentino?
Arabica, Jan Patocka?
Ou bien alors bébé phoque?

Ils m'ont tapé sur la tête
Je ne me rappelle plus pourquoi
Ni même si ça m'a fait mal
Parce que j'en suis mort

M'a-t-on assommé pour mes idées?
Ou pour faire de moi un manteau?
Pour de l'argent ou la couleur de ma peau?
J'ai un bout d'os dans la mémoire

Quand leurs pieds chaussés m'ont cerné
Étais-je allongé dans des draps?
Ou bien couché sur la banquise?
Ou est-ce que je sortais d'un café?

Je suis mort dans la rue de l'ouest
Sur la glace du nord ou chez les flics de l'est
Ou dans la pampa des casquettes
À coups de triques noires

Est-ce que je rêve de vengeance?
De têtes policières éclatées?
De têtes de chasseurs sanglantes?
De têtes de racistes en purée?

Ou bien est-ce que je vois des têtes?
Émerveillées d'elles-mêmes
Émerveillées de leur dedans
Et se découvrant Nouveau Monde?

Je suis mort, répondez pour moi
Je m'appelais Jan Patocka
Argentin et bébé-phoque arabe
Maintenant, ça me revient!"

[They hit me on the head
I can not remember why
Or even if it hurt me
Because I'm dead

What am I?
Migrant worker, philosopher?
Hidden Resistance fighter, prominent dissident?
Or furry animal?

I'm called what, again?
José, Abdel, Argentino?
Arab, Jan Patocka?
Or else baby seal?

They hit me on the head
I can not remember why
Or even if it hurts me
Because I'm dead

Did you because of my ideas?
Or to make out of me a coat?
For some money or the colour of my skin?
I have a piece of bone in the memory

When their shod feet encircled me
Was I lying in bed sheets?
Maybe asleep on the ice floe?
Or was it that I went out to a cafe?

I died on western street
On the ice in the north or with the eastern cops
Or on the safari hats
By blows of black cudgels

Do I dream about vengeance?
Of fragmented police heads?
Of bloody heads of hunters?
Of racists' heads mashed?

Or is what I see heads?
Amazed by themselves
Marvelling at their insides
And discovering the New World?

I died, answer for me
I was called Jan Patocka
Argentinian and Arab baby-seal
Now, it comes back to me!]

'Casse-Têtes' (Brain Teasers; 1970)


1942 - Olaf Bryn Kullmann (b. 1892), Norwegian one-time naval officer, who later became an anti-militarist and peace activist, dies in Sachsenhausen concentration camp. [see: Jul. 2]

[F] 1948 - The Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention (1948) No 87, an International Labour Organisation Convention, and one of eight conventions that form the core of international labour law, as interpreted by the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, is signed. It eventually came into force on July 4, 1950.

[D] 1947 - The Greek government orders the arrest of 11,500 persons on charges of plotting a Communist revolution.

1953 - Annie Kenney (b. 1879), English cotton mill worker, Independent Labour Party member and suffragette, who became a leading figure in the Women's Social and Political Union, and was the only working class woman to become part of the senior hierarchy of the WSPU, dies. [see: Sep. 13]

1962 - Georges Albert Maurice Victor Bataille (b.1897), French philosopher, novelist, poet and critic, whose writings cover a wide range of subjects including literature, anthropology, sociology and the history of art, dies. [see: Sep. 10]

1974 - Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes (b. 1884), French writer (plays, poetry, manifestos and opera librettos), painter and libertarian associated with the Dada movement, dies. [see: Jun. 19]

1977 - Alice Paul (b. 1885), US suffragist, feminist, and women's rights activist, and the main leader and strategist of the 1910s campaign for the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution which prohibits sex discrimination in the right to vote, dies three years after having suffered a debilitating stroke. [see: Jan. 11]
[B] 1830 - Camille Pissarro (d. 1903), French Impressionist painter, anarchist, contributor to the magazine 'Temps Nouveaux', born.

[E] 1849 - Béatrix Excoffon (Julia Béatrice Oeuvrie; d. unknown), French Communard and militant anti-clericist, born. At the outbreak of the Paris Commune, she campaigned in the Comité de Vigilance des Femmes in the Montmartre quarter and was Vice President of the anti-clerical Club de la Boule Noire. On April 1, 1871, she found herself at the head of a women's demonstration whose target was to march on Versailles but, to prevent bloodshed, she convinced the crowd that was better to rescue the injured. Like her friend Louise Michel, she was an ambulance nurse, first in the fort of Issy and then at the barricade in the Place Blanche.
At the fall of the Commune, she was arrested and after three mock executions, was finally interned at Camp Satory. On October 13, 1871, a court martial sentenced her to deportation, which was later commuted to 10 years in prison, but "good behaviour" led to her being released on September 26, 1878. She remained a life-long friend of Michel's, despite a sometimes stormy relationship, and became publisher (including works of Michel) and bookseller in Montmartre with her husband François Excoffon.

1855 - Primera Huelga General de España: Following the arrival of Colonel Sarabia, the envoy of General Espartero, an agreement is reached between the emissary and the Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera, With the workers' side exhausted after more than a week out on strike and fearing that General Zapatero was preparing to unleash a bloodbath, an agreement is reached between Colonel Sarabia, the recently arrived envoy of General Espartero, and the Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera. The agreement includes the maintenance of wages and the creation of a consultative body representing both workers and employers. [see: Jul. 2]

1868 - [O.S. May 29] Wealthy merchant Kosta Radovanović and his brother Pavle assassinate Michael Obrenovich III, Prince of Serbia, his mistress Katarina Konstantinović and her mother Princess Anka in Belgrade.

1872 - Belén de Sárraga Hernández (d. 1950), Spanish teacher, doctor, journalist, Freemason [member of the Orden Masónica Mixta El Derecho Humano, the only Spanish lodge to admit women], freethinker, Spiritist, anti-clerical feminist and anarchist propagandist, who toured and agitated extensively across Latin America, was involved in the Mexican Revolution and the establsihment of the Second Republic in Spain before going into exile in Mexico following Franco's victory, born.

1881 - The fifty or so workers' societies in Catalonia, who had held a previous assembly in March, issue a manifesto, probably written by Farga Pellicer, in which they call for a labour congress of the Spanish Region in Barcelona by the end of September. Soon 'obreros colectivistas' from twenty-two localities across the rest of Spain had signed up to the proposal. [see: Feb. 6 & Sep. 4]

[D] 1886 - George Wellington 'Cap' Streeter's 35-ton steamboat Reutan runs aground on a sandbank off Chicago's north shore in Lake Michigan, creating a new island, as the waves deposited tons of white sand around the stranded vessel on which he and his wife Maria continued to live. This was then settled as an autonomous zone - Streeterville, or "the Deestrict of Lake Michigan" as Streeter called it - with small lots leased or sold off to Streeter's supporters and, for the following 25 years, defended against the State of Chicago and the wealthy shore-front land owners who sought to evict Streeter and gain control of the valuable new real estate.

1888 - Giorgio de Chirico (d. 1978), Greek-born Italian Nietzschean artist, painter and novelist, who was a major influence on the Surrealists, born. His family settled in Milan in 1909, where he discovered Nietzsche. He later fled to Paris in order to escape Italian military conscription in 1911, but was caught and returned to Italy, escaping back to Paris after less than a week in uniform. His paintings in that period would depict his anti (Graeco-Turkish) war sentiments and exploring Cretan myth. At the outbreak of WWI he returned to Italy and tried to enlist, but was declared unfit and sent to a military hospital.

1894 - A new repressive law is passed against anarchist attacks, the possession of substances or explosive devices. This law will be enacted on September 2, 1896, by a Royal Decree which create a special corps of police to prosecute and punish these attacks.

1901 - Suzanne Masson (d. 1943), French industrial designer, trade unionist and communist activist, born. She joined the CGT in 1926, becoming a union official for the CGT Métallurgie section before joining the Communist Party in February 1934. After the banning of the Communist Party in September 1939, Suzanne Masson continued her communist activities in the Résistance (Organisation Spéciale / Front national de lutte pour l'indépendance de la France), distributing clandestine leaflets in occupied Paris, etc.. She was arrest on February 5, 1942 by the Vichy police, who found a revolver and leaflets in her home. Imprisoned in La Roquette and then La Santé, where she was tortured and held in solitary, where her health deteriorated. On May 18 1942 , she was sent to Germany in a convoy that was enroute to Karlsruhe for a month. Transferred to Anrath in the Ruhr, she refused Nacht und Nebel forced labour and was transferred to Lübeck. Arriving on June 13, where she was tried by a court martial for possession of weapons, calling for resistance against the German occupiers and clandestine links with the PCF. She received two death sentences. On October 28 she was transferred to Hamburg, where on November 1, 1943, she was guillotined.

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 27] Ivanovo Soviet [Иваново-Вознесенский Депутатов] / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: With the declaration of martial law in Ivanovo-Voznesensk (Иваново-Вознесенский) and facing the inevitable use of force to restore order ordered, the Workers' Council adopted a resolution ending the strike on July 1 [N.S. Jul. 14].

1906 - [O.S. Jun. 27] Seventh Cavalry Reserve Regiment Mutiny: Following yesterday's failed attempt to wrest control of their barracks from the 7th Cavalry Reserve Regiment (7-м запасном кавалерийском полку), the arrival from Oryol (Орёл) of the 141st Morshansky Infantry Regiment (141-й пехотный Можайский полк) results in the disarming of the rebels and the regaining of control over the whole regiment.
Amongst the rebels, 243 troops were subsequently put on trial: 21 received sentences ranging from eight to 15 years in prison, the others were either given shorter prison terms or sent to a penal battalion. Nicholas II also ordered the removal of the regiment's standard.

1914 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Suffragette Rhoda Fleming leaps on the footboard of the king and queen's limousine at Perth and tries to break its windows. Police saved her from an angry crowd who threatened her with a 'rough handling'.

1916 - [O.S. Jun. 27] A group of fifty to sixty soldatki in the Russian village of Morshansk (Морша́нск), Samara province, having received their government stipends, went to the dry goods shop of a local merchant and demanded that he sell them fabric at prewar prices. While he argued with them, the size of the crowd grew and the women became increasingly insistent. Eventually, one of the soldatki leaped up onto his counter and began to throw bolts of fabric onto the floor; others followed her example. The women carted off the goods and then proceeded to another shop where they repeated their actions.

[F] 1917 - Jerome Deportation: The Jerome Loyalty League clears the Arizona town of Wobblies using force. Nearly a hundred miners in Jerome, Ariz., are taken from their homes early in the morning by the Loyalty League. They are loaded on cattle cars. The train headed towards California, but was turned back at the state line by the officials of that state. The men were then taken to Prescott, Ariz., where they were held in jail for three weeks before they were released.

1917 - The funeral of former silk mill worker, socialist, life-long women’s rights activist, and anti-Boer War campaigner Harriet Ann Kidd (b. 1865) takes place at Golders Green Crematorium. The London-based Co-operative Women’s Guild mourns the death of Harriet Ann Kidd (b. 1865), donating a headstone for her unstinting work for women and working class issues over many years. Kidd began working at age 10 in the silk mills in Leek, Staffordshire, and was raped by a factory owner at the age of 17, giving birth to a son who she brought up as a lone parent.

1919 - A meeting to protest the three year sentence imposed on the anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist Dr. Marie D. Equi for an anti-war speech at an IWW union Hall in Portland, Oregan on June 27, 1918, is held at the premises of the International Longshoremen's Association (ILA Hall) in Seattle, Washington. Marie Equi and the militant socialist Kate Sadler Greenhalgh are the speakers.

1925 - The Scopes 'Monkey' Trial begins.

[C] 1934 - Erich Mühsam (b. 1878), German anarchist poet, murdered on the night of July 9/10, by the Nazis at the Orianenburg concentration camp following months of beatings and torture. His battered corpse is found hanging in the latrine on the morning of 10th. [see: Apr. 6]

1937 - The first issue of the weekly anarchist magazine 'Umbral' (Threshold) is published in Valencia.

1944 - Lucien Pissarro (b. 1863), French Impressionist and Néo-Impressionist landscape painter, printmaker, wood engraver and designer and printer of fine books, dies. [see: Feb. 20]

1944 - Robert Abshagen (b. 1911), German insurance agent, sailor, construction worker, Communist and resistance fighter against National Socialism, who was a member of the the Bästlein-Jacob-Abshagen Group, the largest resistance organisation in the Hamburg area, is behaeded by the Nazis. [see: Jan. 12]

1946 - Stuart Christie born in Glasgow, Scotland.

1968 - The Nice were banned from playing London's Royal Albert Hall after burning an American flag on stage.

1980 - 16-year-old Gail Kinchin, who had been taken hostage by David Keith Pagett, the abusive, violent and controlling father of her unborn child, is shot three times by police as they try to end the siege. She died of her wounds four weeks later.

[A] 1985 - French secret police blow up Greenpeace's Rainbow Warrior anti-nuclear vessel in Auckland Harbour, killing Fernando Pereira.

1989 - Mezhdurechensk / Kuzbass Miners' Strike [Междуреченска / Кузбассе Шахтерский забастовка] / 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: In the summer of 1989 in the USSR, as a direct consequence of the introduction of perestroika and a series of long-standing workers' grievances that had never been addressed by management, the Party, miners' unions or the government, a strike movements involving many hundreds of disputes arose. In July 1989, mass strikes began in the mining regions - the Pechersky (Печерском) Coal Basin [Komi ASSR], the Kuzbass (Кузбассе) in southwestern Siberia, the Donbass (Донбассе) in the Ukraine, and the Karaganda (Карагандинском) Basin in the Kazakh SSR.
At the Shevyakova (Северная) mine in the Kuzbass region city of Mezhdurechensk (Междуреченска), miners had drawn up a list of 21 demands – the main ones were relating to pay in the evening and night, the establishment of a single day off, the provision of mines and miners with detergents and meals while working underground – that they had sent to the central committee of their trade union, Rosugleprof (Росуглепроф) on June 28, who merely passed the letter on to the ministry. The demands were also submitted to the mine director, V.L. Soroka, and the city Party committee, giving them a deadline of July 10 to addresss their grievences. With the deadline now past and their demands not having been met, 80 miners coming off the night shift at 09:00 refuse to hand in their lamps and are joined by the 200 miners arriving for the first shift. It was quickly decided that the collective mood was in favour of halting work and they took the unusual step and decide to hold their strike above ground, going against the well-established pattern that Soviet strikes had taken since the June 1962 events in Novocherkass, when strikers were dispersed by armed militia, leaving dozens of dead. Oppositie the mine was another reminder of the risks that they were taking, a wooded hill with the graves of those killed in a previous large strike in Mezhdurechensk, when the prison labourers rose up in the late 1940s. Everyone now taking part in the strike knew of the incident and the possibility of facing a similar end.
The miners stayed at the mine, gathered around the administration building, organised food supplies, for which the union immediately offered to pay, and organised a maintenance rota without any reference to the administration. A strike committee was elected from the meeting, headed by Valerii Kokorin, one of the miners' foremen. Attempts by various local bureaucrats to address the strikers were rebuffed, with the miners demanding to talk to Minister for the Coal Industry Mikhail Shchadov, who alone had the power to resolve their problems. The mine's administration had initially not taken the workers seriously, but very quickly they and both union and the Labour Collective Council (Совет Трудового Коллектива) realised the way things were going, and rushed to align themselves with the workers. Meanwhile, delegates had been sent to neighbouring pits (Lenin, Tomskaya, Usinskaya and Raspadskaya) to explain their demands, with others also going to the local railway station where they blocked the railtracks while they discussed their demands with miners in a train taking them to other pits. Other delegates tour other pits via bus. By midday the four other local mines and other enterprises in the town had joined in, with 15,900 people on strike and the city at standstill. The strike would go on to spread like wildfire from Mezhdurechensk.
The following day, with the Shevyakova miners having arranged for the mine's own buses and electric trains to take the workers to the city square, backed up by the city's buses run volunteers from the city bus drivers, 12,000 miners in their work clothes marched along the main street and sat down in the city square next to the party committee’s offices. Delegates from neighbouring towns had also come to find out what was happening – the delegates from Anzhero-Sudzhensk had arrived drunk and, by the unanimous decision of the mass meeting, they were put into the drying-out prison.
Over the next two days, the workers held a continuous meeting discussing their situation and developing their demands. The discussions were relayed night and day not only over loudspeakers but also over the city radio. A city-wide strike committee was elected, again headed by Kokorin. They were given a set of rooms in the Komsomol building for their offices, from which they controlled the city, maintaining order in conjunction with the local head of the criminal police, setting up road blocks to control access to the city and enforcing a ban on alcohol. Two lorry loads of vodka mysteriously turned up on the first day of the strike, but were turned away! Whilst the strike committee held talks with local Party and city bureacrats, the square meeting drew up a list of 41 demands (the number and nature of the demands ramained quiet fluid throughout most of the strike). These included political, economic and ecological demands, including an end to work on a hydro-electric scheme which they said would cause pollution.
Meanwhile, Mikhail Shchadov, who was already in Kuzbass, arrived in Mezhdurechensk. He spoke to the crodw in the square for three hours, explaining that the majority of their demands could be settled locally. The others he would deal with except those outside his juristriction. This was greeted badly and, clealry shaken, Shchadov suggested that he return to Moscow to try and sort out their demands. The crowd refused to let him leave and he was forced to negotiate face to face with Kokorin, whilst holding long phone converstions with Moscow. Moscow would allow him to offer a raise in local pay supplements but noy yeild on any of the other major demands. Shchadov went back to the square to explain that he could not meet all the workers’ demands, and in particular the demand for independence of the mines, which Shchadov insisted was a complicated matter and would take time to prepare, but the miners in the square angrily rejected his offer of a pay rise and decided to continue the strike.
On July 12, Shchadov reported back to Moscow the workers' decision. In response the Council of Ministers (Сове́т мини́стров СССР) met and decided to cede to the demands from Mezhdurechensk, including the immediate provision of supplies of food and medical equipment, conscious no doubt of the spread of the strike movement to mines in Osinniki (Оси́нники), Novokuznetsk (Новокузнецк) and Prokopyevsk (Прокопьевск).... [expand]

Despite the growing tension in the Kuzbass mines and the increasingly frequent spontaneous strikes, there were few if any direct contacts between worker activists in the various pits, and little contact even between different shifts or sections within the same mine. Apart from the press and TV, which rarely reported strikes, the only sources of information were the official channels of meetings of the regional committee of the trade union, attended by mine trade union presidents, and the daily meetings of section chiefs within each mine. Nevertheless, small groups of workers in mines across the Kuzbass were discussing their grievances and beginning to formulate their demands.

2013 - Ali Ismail Korkmaz (b. 1994), a 19-year-old university student, who had fallen in a coma due to a brain haemorrhage suffered following a brutal police beating as he tried to escape tear gas fired by police during anti-government protest in the city of Eskisehir, dies.
1846 - Léon Bloy (d. 1917), French novelist, essayist and diarist, born. Confusing character who has been labelled a 'right wing anarchist'. Anti-bourgeois Catholic "un communard converti au catholicisme" who on occasion defended attentats. He spent his life in squalid poverty, waiting for a beatific vision which his God denied him.

1854 - Toussaint Bordat (d. unknown), Lyons anarchist, militant trades unionist and direct action advocate, born. Silk weaver and member of the Parti Ouvrier Socialiste, which he left in 1881 to start his own anarchist Parti d'Action Révolutionnaire. He was sentenced to a month's imprisonment following the violence that took place during a demonstration in memory of the bloody suppression of the miners at Ricamarie on June 18, 1882. He also worked on the Lyon anarchist newspapers 'Le Droit Social' and 'L'Etendard Révolutionnaire'. On October 14, 1882, he was arrested and charged with other activists "reconstruction of a revolutionary International" and tried during le Procès des 66.

1855 - Primera Huelga General de España: Following the drawing-up of an agreement between the government's representative, Colonel Sarabia, and the Junta de la Classe Obrera, workers begin to return to work following inclusion of a commitment to make a law authorising and regulating the companies working relations between employers and workers. [see: Jul. 2]

1891 - The first issue of the newspaper 'L'Indépendant', "Organe des Travailleurs", created by Eugene Humbert and Eugene Mariatte, and supported by the Nancy anarchist group Liberté, is publsihed in Commercy.

[F] 1892 - Coeur d'Alene Miners' Strike: Striking silver miners in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho blow up the Frisco Mill, a mine building filled with guards, after getting into a firefight with Pinkertons. Several men are killed, and about 60 mine guards surrender and are taken prisoner. Idaho Governor Steunenberg institutes martial law, and the National Guard is sent to restore order. [expand]

[D] 1892 - Ravachol (François Claudius Koenigstein) (b. 1859), French accordionist and anarchist bomber, is publicly guillotined in Montbrison, France. [see: Oct. 14]

1893 - Lucien Eugène Haussard aka 'Houssard' (d. 1969), French anarchist militant, propagandist, freethinker and anti-Franco activist, born. [expand]

1894 - The Italian parliament approved three 'anti-anarchiche' laws that aim to ban all the protest movements against the state.

1903 - [O.S. Jun. 28] Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprisings [Илинденско-Преображенско въстания]: An Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация) congress at Petrova Niva (Петрова нива) near Malko Tarnovo (Малко Търново) in the Strandzha (Странджа) 'Republic' sets the date of July 23 for an uprising, then deferred it a bit more to August 2 when those in the Thrace region, around the Adrianople Vilayet, said they were not ready and needed a later date for the uprising in that region. The uprising is based on the General Plan for the Uprising (Общ план на въстаниет), conceived in May 1903 by leading IMRO member Hristo Matov (Христо Матов).

1905 - [O.S. Jun. 28] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Count Pavel Pavlovich Shuvalov (Павел Павлович Шувалов), the military governor of Moscow, is shot and killed by a former Social-Revolutionary Combat Organisation member Peter Kulikovsky (Петром Куликовским) in the Prefecture of Police, Moscow.

[C] 1906 - Georges Hugnet (d. 1974), French poet, writer, playwright, graphic designer and filmmaker, who was the first historian of the Dada movement who was also involved with the Surrealist Group, born. Member of the French Résistance, he dedicated much of his wartime intellectual efforts towards the Résistance and published 'Non Vouloir' (1940), one of the first Resistance pieces published in France.

1906 - Herbert Richard Wehner (d. 1990), German politician, onetime anarchist activist, then a communist and latterly a SPD MP and government minister, born. Joined the Sozialistische Arbeiterjugend (SAJ), the youth wing of Freien Arbeiterunion Deutschlands (FAUD) in 1922, working on its newspaper 'Jungen Anarchisten' but left in 1923 to help found the Anarchistische Tatgemeinschaft (Anarchist Action Group), assuming the editorship of its newspaper 'Revolutionäre Tat' in 1926. In 1925 he had also began working with the prisoners support group Rote Hilfe and began co-operating closely with Erich Mühsam, moving to (autumn 1926 to spring 1927) and staying in his house and working on the newly founded periodical 'Fanal' (Beacon). June 27 joined the KPD, as well as the Roten Frontkämpferbund (Red Front Fighters' Federation) and full-time secretary of the Dresden Rote Hilfe group.
By 1930 he was a full-time party beuraucrat, member of the Saxony parliament, a vice president and deputy secretary of the Communist Party in Saxony.

1907 - [N.S. Jul. 24] Fruma Morduhovna Frumkina (Фрума Мордуховна Фрумкина; b. 1873), Russian midwife and middle-class member of the Minsk Bund, who later joined the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партии социалистов-революционеров), is hung during the night in Moscow's Butyrka prison. [see: Jul. 24]

1914 - Plans to hold a funeral demonstration in Union Square for the three anarchists – Lettish (Latvian) Anarchist Red Cross members Carl Hanson and Charles Berg and IWW member Arthur Caron – killed in the Lexington Avenue bomb explosion of July 4, 1914 had been drawn up but the New York City authorities refused the organisers permission to go ahead. Regardless, Berg, Caron and Hanson's comrades were insistent that a funeral of the three would take place. And on that day over twenty thousand supporters gathered in Union Square to mourn them.
The police refused to allow the funeral to continue, but instead of attempting to remove the crowd from Union Square, detectives arrived at Berkman's house in an attempt to seize the urn that contained the remains of Caron, Berg, and Hanson. One step ahead of the police, Berkman was able to slip out the back door where he had a red car waiting for him, just in case. He sped towards the demonstration in hopes of being able to make it to the speaking podium before being caught. As he approached the crowd, the police mistook Berkman's car to be that of the Fire Chief and eagerly cleared a lane for the car all the way up to the platform. By the time the police realized what had transpired, Berkman was already up on the platform. Any attempt to seize the urn at this point would have caused a riot.
After the demonstration, the urn was placed in the offices of Mother Earth, which had been decorated with wreaths and red and black banners. The urn, itself, took the shape of a pyramid with a clenched fist reaching out of its apex. The creator of the urn, Adolf Wolff, explained the meaning of the design, "It conveys three meanings. By the pyramid is indicated [sic] the present unjust gradation of society into classes, with the masses on the bottom and the privileged classes towering above them to the apex, where the clenched fist, symbolical [sic] of the social revolution, indicates the impending vengeance of those free spirits who refuse to be bound by the present social system and rise above it, threatening its destruction. The urn further symbolizes the strength and endurance of the revolution in so solid a base. A third suggestion is that of a mountain in course of eruption, the crude, misshapen stern fist indicating the lava of human indignation which is about to belch forth and carry destruction to the volcano which has given it birth."
Thousands of mourners passed through the office to pay their last respects. After the funeral, the urn of the fallen comrades was taken from the 'Mother Earth' offices to the Ferrer Center where it remained until the school closed several years later. From there it was taken to the Stelton Colony where the ashes were released in the wind. Afterwards, the bronze fist and hollow pyramid of the urn was used by the Stelton Colony as a bell to call children and adults to meetings.

1917 - Bisbee Deporation: Arizona County Sheriff Wheeler, who had previously met with Phelps Dodge corporate executives to plan the deportation of striking miners, now sets in motion his carefully contrived conspiracy to remove IWW strikers from Bisbee. Some 2,200 men from Bisbee and the nearby town of Douglas had been recruited and deputised as a posse – one of the largest posses ever assembled. Phelps Dodge officials also met with executives of the El Paso and Southwestern Railroad, who agreed to provide rail transportation for any deportees. Phelps Dodge executives also planned to seize control of the telegraph and telephones to prevent news of the arrests and expulsion from being reported.
Forty two IWW members who were involved in yesterday's failed deportation from Jerome, Arizona to California are released by Governor Campbell. Federal Troops stationed near Ellensburg, Washington also arrest fifty to sixty IWW members for allegedly interfering with crop harvesting and logging.

1918 - Polish anarchist freedom fighter Simón Radowitzky (1891-1956), aka 'The Martyr of Ushuaia', escapes from the Ushuaia concentration camp on the island of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Radowitzky is serving a life sentence for assassinating the chief of Buenos Aires police, who had ordered the Red Week massacre of workers during a May Day demonstration in 1909. Captured after just 23 days freedom, he spent 21 years in prison until his pardon, fighting in the Spanish Revolution and, from 1940 until his death, lived in Mexico.

1925 - Today and tomorrow, the police in Illinois destroy by fire all records of correspondence, documents and books belonging to the IWW that had served as evidence in the trial of William D. Haywood in 1918, thereby destroying the records of a large part of the history of the IWW's revolutionary syndicalism.

1944 - Operation Walküre: Lieutenant Colonel Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg (1907 - 1944) again attempts to assassinate Hitler and the Nazi hierachy at the Berghof with a briefcase bomb [see: Jul. 6] but the operation is called off due to Himmler not being present.

1951 - Yvonne Estassy (Yvonne Rhimboult; b. 1869), French teacher, journalist, poet and anarchist-individualist propagandist, dies. [see: Jul. 24]

[B] 1974 - A Barcelona cinema screening Carlos Saura's film 'La Prima Angelica' (Cousin Angelica), which portrays the Civil War from a republican view point, is firebombed.

[A] 1978 - A group of homeless people blows up the office of the Communist Party housing assessor in Rome.

[CCC] 1981 - Bradford 12: In the summer of 1981, and against a series of firebomb attacks on Asian properties by fascists and other racist attacks, rumours began to circulate that fascists were planning to attack Bradford’s Asian communities on July 11th. Members of the United Black Youth League (UBYL), an organisation which had recently been formed in Bradford after a split in the Bradford Asian Youth Movement over the issue of state funding, decided to organise the defence of the community. A group of young Asians made and stashed away two crates of petrol bombs to be used in the event of any such attacks. On July 17th, someone informed the police of the petrol bombs' whereabouts and the cops replace the petrol with tea and set a trap to catch the manufacturers. No one turned up and 13 days later, 12 young men from the Asian community in Bradford - Giovanni Singh, Praveen Patel, Saeed Hussain, Sabir Hussain, Tariq Ali, Ahmed Mansoor, Bahram Noor Khan, Tarlochan Gata Aura, Ishaq Mohammed Kazi, Vasant Patel, Jayesh Amin and Masood Malik - were arrested and subsequently charged with making an explosive substance with intent to endanger life and property, and conspiracy to make explosive substances. [In fact 13 were arrested, but the thirteenth, the only woman, Shanaaz Ali, was released without charge.] The 12 appeared before the local magistrates on Saturday, August 1st and were refused bail, spending the next 3-4 months in prison before they were eventually granted bail under particularly arduous conditions. Meanwhile, a very active defence campaign had been set up that, with thousands had marching in Bradford and Leeds under the slogan "Whose conspiracy? Police conspiracy!" and hundreds attended the trial each day, where 9 of the defendants admitted knowledge of the petrol bomb cache but argued, in a defence that they had not disclosed in advance of the trial, which began in Leeds Crown Court on April 26 1982, that their actions amounted to community self-defence. "Yes, we made these petrol bombs, the young men said. We were forced to, to defend our communities from the threat of an invasion by the far-right National Front, against which we knew from previous experience there would be no police protection." [IRR website] The trial lasted 31 days and the jury returned an 11 to 1 verdict of not guilty.
libcom.org/files/politics of asian youth movement.pdf
libcom.org/files/The struggle of Asian workers in Britain.pdf]

1989 - Mezhdurechensk / Kuzbass Miners' Strike [Междуреченска / Кузбассе Шахтерский забастовка] / 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: The following day, with the Shevyakova miners having arranged for the mine's own buses and electric trains to take the workers to the city square, backed up by the city's buses run volunteers from the city bus drivers, 12,000 miners in their work clothes marched along the main street and sat down in the city square next to the party committee’s offices. Delegates from neighbouring towns had also come to find out what was happening – the delegates from Anzhero-Sudzhensk had arrived drunk and, by the unanimous decision of the mass meeting, they were put into the drying-out prison.
Over the next two days, the workers held a continuous meeting discussing their situation and developing their demands. The discussions were relayed night and day not only over loudspeakers but also over the city radio. A city-wide strike committee was elected, again headed by Kokorin. They were given a set of rooms in the Komsomol building for their offices, from which they controlled the city, maintaining order in conjunction with the local head of the criminal police, setting up road blocks to control access to the city and enforcing a ban on alcohol. Two lorry loads of vodka mysteriously turned up on the first day of the strike, but were turned away! Whilst the strike committee held talks with local Party and city bureacrats, the square meeting drew up a list of 41 demands (the number and nature of the demands ramained quiet fluid throughout most of the strike). These included political, economic and ecological demands, including an end to work on a hydro-electric scheme which they said would cause pollution.
Meanwhile, Mikhail Shchadov, who was already in Kuzbass, arrived in Mezhdurechensk. He spoke to the crodw in the square for three hours, explaining that the majority of their demands could be settled locally. The others he would deal with except those outside his juristriction. This was greeted badly and, clealry shaken, Shchadov suggested that he return to Moscow to try and sort out their demands. The crowd refused to let him leave and he was forced to negotiate face to face with Kokorin, whilst holding long phone converstions with Moscow. Moscow would allow him to offer a raise in local pay supplements but noy yeild on any of the other major demands. Shchadov went back to the square to explain that he could not meet all the workers’ demands, and in particular the demand for independence of the mines, which Shchadov insisted was a complicated matter and would take time to prepare, but the miners in the square angrily rejected his offer of a pay rise and decided to continue the strike. [REWRITE]

1992 - Deng Yingchao [邓颖超] (Deng Wenshu [鄧文淑]; b. 1904), Chinese Communist revolutionary, who was a team leader in the Wusi Yundong (五四運動 / May Fourth Movement) anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement, and wife of Zhou Enlai (周恩来), dies. [see: Feb. 4]

[E] 1998 - Maria Soledad Rosas aka 'Sole' (b. 1974), 22-years-old Argentinian anarchist militant and member of the Italian squatter movement, hangs herself this evening in Benevagienna, Italy, where she is living under house arrest in the Sotto i Ponti community. Her body is taken to the hospital of Mondovì, as required by a magistrate, very upset because of this unexpected interruption of his fishing day.
Arrested, along with Silvano Pelissero and Edoardo Massari, on March 5th by Italian police on serious charges of subversive association for the purpose of constituting an armed gang, they are accused of various cases of direct action linked to the popular struggle against the construction of the High Speed Train Project (TAV) through the Val Di Susa in Piemonte. Edoardo Massari, a 38-year-old anarchist from Ivrea, died in the Vallette prison in Turin on March 28, 1998. The authorities claim that he had hanged himself with a bed sheet. Maria Soledad Rosas, would go on to hang herslef, choosing the same weekday and time to die as her companion Eduardo. The surviving prisoner, Silvano Pelissero, undertook a month long hungerstrike until on July 22nd he was finally transferred from the maximum security prison of Novara to house arrest. On January 31, 2000, he was sentenced to six years and 10 months. On appeal in Jan. 2001 the sentence is reduced by 9 months but on in Nov. 2001 the Court of Cassation in Rome invalidate the main charge (of terrorist activity with subversive purposes). Released in Mar. 2002, the Court of Cassation in Rome in the end reduces Silvano's penalty to 3 years and 10 months. [see: May 23]

2002 - Irene Bernard (Irene Altpeter; b. 1908), German socialist and anti-fascist fighter in the French Résistance, dies. [see: May 2]

2010 - The Barefoot Burglar arrested en route to Cuba in Bahamas on a stolen boat having arrived there from Indiana in a stolen plane.
[E] 1780 - Juana Azurduy de Padilla (Juana Azurduy Bermudez; d. 1862), South American Mestizo guerrilla leader, who fought in the Spanish American wars of independence for emancipation the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, born. She fought a guerrilla style war along side her husband, Manuel Ascencio Padilla, against the Spanish, beginning in 1809 and the Revolución de Chuquisaca, now known as the First Cry of Liberty in America, up to 1825, when she was awarded a pension by Simón Bolívar. Along the way, she lost her husband during the Battle of La Laguna and assumed the command of the 6,000 or so guerrillas who formed the then called Republiqueta of La Laguna. Later, she was appointed to the position of commander of patriotic Northern Army of the Revolutionary Government of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata. With this army she was able to establish an insurrectionary zone, until the Spanish forces withdrew from the area.
[NB Some sources give the year as 1781.]

1817 - Henry David Thoreau (d. 1862), American essayist, poet, practical philosopher and author of 'Walden', born.

1828 - Nikolay Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky (d. 1889), Russian radical critic, materialist philosopher and utopian socialist, born. He helped lay the basis for revolutionary populism and helped found the narodniki. Wrote 'What is to be Done?', a political novel that influenced two generations of Russian intelligentsia, including many anarchists such as Emma Goldman. [NB: Alexander Berkman used Rakhmetov as a pseudonym when he prepared to assassinate Henry Clay Frick in 1892.] It served as the manifesto of the 19th Century Russian Nihilists and prompted a number of responses, including Tolstoy and Lenin's sperarate appropriations of the title and Dostoyevsky roundly mocked the novel's utilitarianism and utopianism in his novella 'Notes from Underground' (1864) and the novel 'The Devils' (1872) aka 'The Possessed'.

1834 - Aristide Rey (d. 1901), militant French Blanquist, internationalist and Bakuninist Communard, born.

1850 - Oscar William Neebe I (d. 1916), US anarchist, labour activist and one of the defendants in the Haymarket bombing trial, born.

[DD] 1873 - Revolució del Petroli / Revolución del Petróleo [Petroleum Revolution]: News that a military column led by General Velarde was coming in Alcoy began circulating; the same day Josep Maria Morlius, governor of Alicante, and a commission from Madrid chaired by Deputy Cervera arrived in the city. That same night, the leaders of the uprising fled the city. Everything seemed to have calmed down after a mixed commission of workers and employers had taken charge of the municipal government, and the armed workers had stood down without any resistance following the promise of an amnesty. But there followed a media campaign, triggered by the minister of state Eleuterio Maisonave, who spoke of "chaos", murder and rape.
Gradually normality returned with curfews between July 21-23 July put in place by the new Mayor Tomás Maestre. The employers, however, demanded venegence and on September 13, the Castelar government appointed a special judge and military commander. The city was occupied by the army two days later and 129 workers were arrested and taken to the castle of Alicante, where four years later they remained imprisoned without trial. Five years later, there were still 93 left, 80 prisoners finally having been released on bail; one of the detainees was only released 10 years after the events. A total of 700 workers stood trial, even minors aged between 12 and 17 years. The Revolució del Petroli marked a final break between the republicans and anarchists.

[B] 1874 - Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven (born Else Hildegard Plötz; d. 1927), German self-proclaimed anarchist, walking Dadaist art work, artist model and poet, born. Her poetry was published posthumously in 2011 in 'Body Sweats: The Uncensored Writings of Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven'.

1876 - Max Jacob (d. 1944), French poet, painter, writer, critic, queer and anarchist fellow-traveller, born. Jacob is regarded as an important link between the Symbolists and the Surrealists. He was one of the first friends Pablo Picasso made in Paris and both frequented anarchist circles in the city and Jacob contributed poems to Florent Fels's anarchist journal 'Action' after the war. Jacob’s brother, sister and brother-in-law died in Auschwitz and, on February 24, 1944, Jacob was arrested by the Gestapo and put into Orléans prison. He died in Drancy deportation camp on March 5, 1944, suffering from bronchial pneumonia.

1881 - Ludwig Rubiner (d. 1920), German Expressionist poet, literary critic, essayist, translator, painter and anarchist sympathiser, born. At college he was a member of the Stirner-influenced Neuen Gemeinschaft and hailed 'The Ego and Its Own' (1845) as being the "most important manifesto of the Century". He also met many writers including Erich Mühsam, Paul Scheerbart, René Schickele, Ferdinand Hardekopf, Wilhelm Herzog and Herwarth Walden, all important representatives of Expressionism. His first poem, 'Zu den Höhen' (To the Heights) was published in the anarchist journal 'Der Kampf' in 1904. Between 1911 and 1918, he worked with Franz Pfemfert on his magazine 'Die Aktion' and in 1914 began writing for the Expressionist literary magazine 'Die Weißen Blätter' (The White Sheets). When war broke Rubiner and his wife went into voluntary exile in Zurich, where he continued to work for 'Die Weißen Blätter' as well as starting the anarchist-influenced anti-war magazine 'Zeit-Echo' (Echo-Time) and beginning a correspondence with Leo Tolstoy. In December 1918 he was given an Austrian passport in Zurich which coincided with his expulsion from Switzeralnd because of his support for the Russian Revolution. Back in Berlin he founded the Bund für Proletarische Kultur (Covenant for Proletarian Culture), alongside Arthur Holitscher, Rudolf Leonhard, Franz Jung and Alfons Goldschmidt, and the Proletarischen Theaters. His books would be burned by the Nazis decades after his death.
His major works include the manifesto 'Der Dichter Greift in die Politik' (The Poet Engages in Politics; 1912), the play 'Die Gewaltlosen' (Men of Nonviolence;1919) and 'Kriminalsonetten' (1913), a book of poems hailed as a forerunner of Dadaism. He also published a detective novel, 'Die Indischen Opale' (The Indian Opal; 1910) under the pseudonym Ernst Ludwig Grombeck.

1886 - Raoul Hausmann (d. 1971), Austrian anarcho-individualist influenced artist, collagist, photographer, sculptor, writer, poet, theorist and anti-fascist, who was one of the key figures in Berlin Dada, born. Helped established 'Die Freie Strasse' (1915-18), the anarchist and Dadaist magazine, with Franz Jung, and support from Oskar Maria Graf, Max Herrmann-Neisse, Richard Oehring, Otto Gross, Clare Oehring and Georg Schrimpf. Amongst his expressly anarchist writing were those in the German individualist anarchist magazine, 'Der Einzige', where Hausmann wrote (under the pseudonym Panarchos) 'Zu Kommunismus und Anarchie', an article heavily critical of Marxist communism [issue no. 2, 'Der Einzige', Jan 26 1919].
After his engagement with Dada, Hausmann focused primarily on photography, producing portraits, nudes, and landscapes. After the Nazi seizure of power in January of 1933, Hausmann, his wife Hedwig and Vera Broido emigrated to Ibiza. The photographs he produced focused on ethnographic and architectural motifs of premodern life in Ibiza. After the outbreak of the the Spanish Civil War in 1936, and the bombardment and subsequent occupation of Ibiza by Franco's troops, Hausmann (who had been active in Spanish anti-fascist groups) had to leave Ibiza. After an adventurous voyage he shortly settled in Prague, but was forced to flee again in 1938 after the German invasion of Czechoslovakia. He then moved to Peyrat-le-Château, near Limoges where he lived illegally with his Jewish wife Hedwig, hiding for years in a small and humid rooftop chamber. After the Normandy landings in 1944, the pair finally moved to Limoges, where Hausmann lived in a secluded manner for the rest of his life. [expand]

1893 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: A Fasci protest takes place in Belmonte Mezzagno that morning involving around fifty women, protesting for abolition of the gabello (Mafia sharecropping) system and the adoption of the Patti di Corleone. It should be noted that women were particularly prominent in many of the Fasci activities, especially the demonstrations.

[BB] 1904 - Pablo Neruda (Neftali Ricardo Reyes Basoalto; d. 1973), Chilean poet, youthful anarchist, then a communist and subsequently socialist diplomat and politician, born. At the age of 13, Ricardo published his first poems, 'Entusiasmo y Perseverancia' (Enthusiasm and Perseverance; 1917). In a rage, his father burned the adolescent’s writings. After that, he would publish under the pen name of Pablo Neruda: Pablo for Paul Verlaine, his favorite French poet, and Neruda for Jan Neruda, Czech writer. It also became his legally adopted name later in life. As a university student in Chile’s capital Santiago, he participated in the anarchist student movement, and published his first volume of verse, 'Crepusculario' (Book of Twilights; 1923), followed by the collection 'Veinte Poemas de Amor y una Cancion Desesperada' (Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Desperation; 1924). The latter's erotic love poems gained him a degree of local notoriety as well as an international reputation as a poet. However, poverty forced him to take an honorary consulship in Rangoon, later working in Colombo (Ceylon), Batavia (Java, where he marries a Dutch bank employee who he quickly abandoned), and Singapore and beginning to write a number of surrealist poems.
The Chilean diplomatic service then sent him, via a post in Buenos Aires, to Republican Spain as the cultural attaché in Madrid. There he joined a group of intellectuals and artists that included Federico García Lorca, as well as his future wife, Delia del Carril. In Spain he became a staunch anti-fascist but also adopted a hardline Stalinism (despite the later Hitler-Stalin pact), that also saw him rail against the Spanish anarchist movement as he swallowed the Communist propaganda about anarchist inefficiencies and 'crimes'. His politics lost him the consulship but in 1938 the newly elected Chilean Popular Front President Pedro Aguirre Cerda appointed special consul for Spanish emigration in Paris. Responsible for shipping Spanish refugees then housed by the French in squalid internment camps to Chile, it is alleged that Neruda was involved in the excluding of anarchists and anti-Communists from the available places. Certainly only a handful of non-communist ever made it onto the 4 ships used to transport the refugees. It is also said that this discrimination is tied into his alleged links to the NKVD, which in turn is tied in with his arranging of a visa (as the then Consul General in Mexico City) for the Mexican painter David Alfaro Siqueiros following his part in a failed assassination attempt against Leon Trotsky. He would also go on to write a truly dreadful ode to Stalin upon his death and be awarded the Stalin Peace Prize that same year (1953), something that he took more pride in than his 1971 Nobel Prize for Literature
"A few years ago, I was an anarchist, editor of the anarchist trade union journal, 'Claridad', where I published my ideas and things for the first time. And I still retain the anarchist's distrust of all forms of the state, of impure politics. But I believe that my romantic intellectual's point of view is not important. What is true is that I hate proletarian, proletarianising art. In any period, systematic art can tempt only the lesser artist. There has been an invasion here of odes to Moscow, tanks [or bullet-proof agitprop trains], etc. I continue to write about dreams." [1933 letter]

1917 - Bisbee Deporation: The morning of July 12, the 'Bisbee Daily Review' carried a notice announcing that: "...a Sheriff's posse of 1,200 men in Bisbee and 1,000 men in Douglas, all loyal Americans, [had formed] for the purpose of arresting on the charges of vagrancy, treason, and of being disturbers of the peace of Cochise County all those strange men who have congregated here from other parts and sections for the purpose of harassing and intimidating all men who desire to pursue their daily toil." A similar notice was posted throughout the town on fence posts, telephone poles and walls.
At five o'clock in the morning, over 2,000 company officials, gunmen, businessmen, etc., armed with rifles and each wearing a white armband for identification, and carring a list of the men on strike, dispersed through the town. At 06:30, Sheriff Harry Wheeler gave orders to begin the roundup. Throughout Bisbee, men were dragged from their beds, their houses, and the streets. Though armed, the vigilantes were instructed to avoid violence, beatings, robberies, vandalism, and abuse of women took place. Many non-miners were rounded up, seemingly at random, including several local grocery store owners and in the process, the deputies took cash from the registers and all the goods they could carry. Two men died during the roundup. James H. Brew, a card-carrying IWW member shot Loyalty Leaguer, Orson McRae, after warning McRae he would shoot anyone who attempted to take him. Brew was in turn shot and killed by the three other deputies accompanying McRae.
At 07:30, the 1,186 arrested men were assembled in front of the Bisbee Post Office and marched 3km / 2 miles to Warren Ballpark. There they were surrounded by armed Loyalty Leaguers and urged to quit the strike. Anyone willing to put on a white armband was released. At 11:00 a. m. an El Paso & Southwestern locomotive with 23 boxcars and cattle cars arrived, and 1,186 men were loaded aboard boxcars inches deep in manure. Also boarding were 186 armed guards; a machine gun was mounted on the top of the train. At noon the train pulled out of Warren en route to Columbus, New Mexico. It arrived at Columbus the next day, but was forced to leave the way it came when the town constable at Columbus told the deputies that the town could not accommodate the deportees, where it was turned back because there were no accommodations for so many men. On its return trip the train stopped 17 miles up the line from Columbus at the Sonoran Desert town Hermanas, New Mexico, where the men were abandoned without adequate supply of food and water and shelter for two days. An EP&S train brought water and food rations the next day, but the men were left without shelter until July 14 when U. S. troops arrived and escorted the men to facilities in Columbus where they were housed in a camp built earlier to house Mexicans fleeing Pancho Villa's forces. Many were detained for several months. According to an army census of the deported men, 199 were native born Americans, 468 were citizens, 472 were registered under the selective draft law, and 433 were married.
Arizona Governor Campbell wired General Parker at Fort Sam Houston informing him of the deportations from Bisbee and asked for federal troops to be sent there at once. Federal mediators John McBride and G.W.P. Hunt in Globe, Arizona sent an appeal to the Department of Labor suggesting that President Wilson take action to stop further deportations of strikers from Bisbee and other Arizona towns in order to prevent sympathetic strikes and industrial paralysis.
The Washington State Council of Defense announced the appointment of a Home Defense Committee to deal with the IWW in Seattle. The committee recommended the organization of at least one regiment of the state militia to fight against the IWW and protect the harvest and closing of industrial plants.
Elsewhere, Thirty-three Wobblies were deported from Fairbury, Nebraska.

1918 - Luigi Molinari (b. 1866), Italian lawyer, educator and anarchist militant, active with Errico Malatesta and Camillo Berneri, dies. [see: Dec. 15]

1919 - Poet and expressionist Erich Mühsam, on trial in Munich since July 7 for High Treason, is sentenced to 15 years in prison for his involvement in Bavarian Workers' Councils uprising.

1919 - Peru General Strike for the 8-hour Work Day: Detainees arrested during the past two months of general strike are released and popular demonstrations in celebration of the workers' victory take plave.[es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federación_Obrera_Regional_Peruana

1920 - Shortly after the second congress of the Unione Anarchica Italiana in Bologna (July 1-4, 1920) the offices of the newspaper, Errico Malatesta's rooms and the premises of the Unione Anarchica Milanese, of which he is a member, are raided, under false pretext.

1926 - At the Union Anarchiste Congress in Orléans (12-14th) the U.A. changes its name to Union Anarchiste Communiste (UAC). This reflects the major shift in the French movement away from the individualist anarchism of the pre-WWI years.

1929 - Robert Henri (b. 1865), American painter, teacher and anarchist sympathiser, dies. [see: Jun. 25]

[CC] 1934 - Oswald Mosley attempted to hold a BUF rally at the Dome in Brighton, which he considered to be a fascist stronghold. However, the rumour that he was planning to stand as a parliamemntary candidate in the town together with the Olympia debacle ensured that he was greeted by a large voiciferous crowd outside when he turned up to speak. A few days before the meeting, local anti-fascist and community activist Harry Cowley had organised with workers at the Dome to wire up the hall with loudspeakers hidden in the chandeliers and a cable leading to the nearby offices of Labour councillor Lewis Cohen. When Mosley started to speak, the strains of 'La Marseillaise' were heard instead throughout the hall. Mosley’s lip curled with anger as he struggled to be heard against the more melodious sound coming from the loudspeakers.
Afterwards the fascists attempted to march around Brighton but were met by determined opposition from hundreds of counter demonstrators. Any attempts by the Blackshirts to silence those jeering at them was resisted and a number of fascists had to be treated for their wounds in nearby Victoria Gardens. It was not the first time there had been clashes between fascists and their opponents in Brighton but it was a turning point in the Fascists' fortunes in Brighton and they never managed to hold an unopposed meeting in the town again. [PR]

1935 - Xu Zihua (徐自华; b. 1873), Chinese poet, feminist and revolutionary, who was a close friend of Qiu Jin (秋瑾), with whom she started the magazine 'Chinese Women's News' (中國女報館; 1907), dies.

1936 - Riot of Corporation Fields: Unable to find an indoor venue that would host a Mosley meeting and organisers decide to hold one outdoors in Corporation Fields. The open air meeting was held at Corporation Fields, in Hull. The trouble had developed before the arrival of the Blackshirts, making a meeting almost impossible. Blackshirts were greeted by a hail of bricks and Mosley´s car, it was claimed, was hit by a bullet, smashing a car window - no bullet was ever found and Mosley made no complaint to the police. The Blackshirts fought back with steel-buckled belts and 8 of them were hit on the head by bricks. The Chief Constable told Mosley to abandon the meeting or he would read the Riot Act. Mosley complied and jumped off the coal cart he had been using as a speakers platform and into his car. The Blackshirts marched off in the pouring rain in ranks of three, with "[m]any of the younger Blackshirts ... frightened, with hundreds screaming for their blood, they were surrounded."
More than 100 people required medical treatment, with one fascist source claiming that only 21 Blackshirts were injured. Amongst the weapons police collected after the battle were "brush staves with six-inch nails in the end, bicycle chains, lengths of ship's steel hawser, knuckledusters, raw potatoes studded with razor blades and thick woollen stockings with broken glass in the heel and foot." No anti-fascist was arrested because, according to the police: "owing to the violence of the crowd it was impossible to take anyone into custody for these assaults, as we had our work cut out to protect ourselves." [PR]

[C] 1936 - An 'Against Fascism and War' demonstration, organised by the London Trades Council and the Labour Party takes place in heavy rain. As it passes through Bethnal Green near to the local BU HQ in Green Street, Blackshirts shower the marchers with eggs, bags of flour and soot. In Victoria Park, Herbert Morrison, Labour leader and head of the London County Council, addressed the crowd. [PR]

1936 - Lt. José Castillo is assassinated by Falangists. Tomorrow the Monarchist leader Calvo Sotelo is assassinated in reprisal while in the custody of State security forces. The Falangists attempt their fascist coup on the 17th, but the anarchists immediately battle back and prevent the takeover, ultimately sparking the Spanish Revolution.

1965 - The first issue of 'Provo' is published in Amsterdam, marking the appearence of the protest group of the same name. Fifteen issues will appear up til March 17, 1966.

[source?][D] 1966 - Major riots in the Puerto Rican community begin in Chicago and quickly spread to other cities. The target is the police.

[A] 1967 - Six days of rioting begin in Newark, New Jersey, sparked by yet another incident of routine police violence against an African-American community member. Ends with 26 dead and 1,500 injured. Over 1,400 people are arrested and $16 million in property damage.

1989 - Mezhdurechensk / Kuzbass Miners' Strike [Междуреченска / Кузбассе Шахтерский забастовка] / 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: The Mezhdurechensk (Междуреченска) strike spreads to all the mines of the Kemerovo (Кемеровской) region of Kuzbass. The Minister for the Coal Industry Mikhail Shchadov, who had arrived in Mezhdurechensk from Moscow the previous day to a hostile reaction from the striking miners, and sent a telegram to all the mines in the Kuzbass region, promising to immediately meet the miners' demands. In Mezhdurechensk, up to twenty thousand workers held a continuous meeting in the city square as negotiations inside the local party headquarters proceeded through the night. At 15:00 next day, the strike committee announced that 36 of the now 42 demands had been met and recommended a return to work. The miners rejected this.
That day the city strike committee sent an Open Letter to the Soviet government demanding improvement in the food supply to Siberia and the Far East, an end to official privileges and an immediate opening of a public discussion for a new draft constitution. The letter also called for a general strike in the Kuzbass and demanded that the leaders of the Party and government come to the Kuzbass. [expand]

[F] 2009 - Workers at collapsed French car parts maker New Fabris threaten to blow up their factory if they did not receive payouts by July 31 from auto groups Renault and Peugeot to compensate for their lost jobs.

2009 - Simon Vinkenoog (b. 1928), Dutch writer, poet, Provo and anti-Drugs war activist, dies. [see: Jul. 18]

2010 - Naphtali 'Tuli' Kupferberg (b. 1923), American counter-culture poet, author, cartoonist, pacifist anarchist, publisher and co-founder of the band The Fugs, dies. [see: Sep. 28]

2012 - An unknown woman dressed in a dress, leggings, and wearing a balaclava similar to those worn by members of Pussy Riot chains herself to a cross next to St. Petersburg's Church of Saviour on Blood. She spends approximately 40 minutes tied to a cross bearing the inscription, 'This could be your democracy', before being arrested for illegally installing a city fixture, an administrative offence, and being released.
[E] 1793 - Girondist sympathiser Charlotte Corday assassinates Jean-Paul Marat, one of the chief architects of the September Massacres (September 2-7, 1792) and the Reign of Terror (September 6, 1793 - July 28, 1794), by plunging a knife into his chest, piercing his lung, aorta and left ventricle, as he sat in his bath.

1843 - Rebecca Riots: Two incidents that showed not only the fact that there was (and always is) one law for the rich and another for the poor, but the contempt which some of the landed elite held the tolls followed incidents on July 13 & 14, 1843. On the 13th, the wife of Colonel Colby refused to pay the toll on passing through a gate near Narberth, and the following day, one of her servants, William Harris, also refused to pay, but went a step further and broke the toll bar, allowing unrestricted passage. The Reverend Richard Buckley, who alerted the government to the incident, believed if an example were made of the lady, it would show the rioters that law and order always prevailed, regardless of the wealth and status of the individual. The general opinion in the area, according to the Reverend, was that ‘a rich man may do that with impunity for which a poor man would be punished’. The Home Office responded by alerting the magistrates of the district in order to make the matter public. Harris was duly arrested and brought before a Grand Jury, but was ultimately discharged. Whilst Harris’s misdeeds were made known in the press, Mrs Colby’s name was not, her reputation preserved.

1851* - Marie de Saint Rémy aka Marie Romanoff or 'La Voyante' (The Seerer) (Marie Andrieu; d. unknown), French anarchist propagandist, spiritualist, occultist, psychic and alternative therapist, born.
[*Some sources give her d.o.b. as July 14, 1852]

1876 - Hilja Pärssinen (Hilja Lindgren; d. 1935), Finnish teacher, journalist, militant feminist, Social Democrat (Suomen Sosialidemokraattinen Puolue) MP, writer and Suomen Sosialidemokraattisen Työläisnaisliiton (Finnish Social Democratic Workers' Union) Chairwoman, born. She was the early Finnish radical feminist movement's main theoretician, advocated a strict class-based analysis. She was also later a Workers' Educational Association (Työväen Sivistysliiton) lecturer.

1876 - Auguste Gabriel Durand (d. unknown), French anti-militarist, militant anarchist and Marseilles revolutionary syndicalist, born.

1893 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: Following yesterday's protests in Belmonte Mezzagno, a delegation of women goes to the police station to demand the abolition of the gabello 'duty', the dismissal of the Mayor and the dissolution of the City Council.

1909 - [O.S. Jul. 1] In a unique event in the annals of the Russian prison system, thirteen female revolutionaries and political prisoners escape from Moscow's Novinsky Women's Prison (Новинская женская тюрьма) with the assistance of the prison matron, Alexandra Vasilyevna Tarasova (Александра Васильевна Тарасова; 1887-1971), who had brought them clothes (arranged by the mother and sister of Vladimir Mayakovsky). The duty overseer was drugged and two matrons tied up before Tarasova used her keys to open the gate and let them out. Ten of the escapees, including Natalia Sergeyevna Klimova (Наталья Сергеевна Климова) managed to make their way to Paris. The other three were caught the same day. Mayakovsky himself was sentenced to exile for three years in the Narym region under the supervision of the police, but was eventually released as he was a minor.

1913 - Maurice Pernette (d. 1986), French anarchist, small press publisher, poet and author, born.

[C] 1915 - José López Penedo aka 'Liberto López' (d. 1950), Galician bricklayer, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who fought in the Durruti Column and later as a member of Francisco Sabate Llopart 'El Quico' guerrilla group, born. [expand]

1917 - Greve Geral no Brasil: A 3-day general strike erupts in São Paulo following the killing of the Young Spanish anarchist shoemaker, Antonio Martínez, three days previously. [expand]

1920 - Today and tomorrow, the trial in Milan of the anarchists Guido Villa, Aldo Perego, Elena Melli and Maria Zibardi, accused of complicity in the September 7, 1919, attempted bombing of the Café Biffi in the gallery Vittorio Emanuele where the city's wealthiest were holding one of their regualr get-togethers. Bruno Filippi dies during the attack when his bomb exploded prematurely. Aldo Perego gets 12 years and Guido Villa 10 years in prison.

1921 - The Taganka hunger strikers [see: Jul. 2] end their hunger strike after 11 days following the Central Committee of the Communist Party agree to allow them to leave Russia on pain of being shot if they try to return.

[B] 1923 - Carlos Cortez (d. 2005), US anarcho-syndicalist, poet, graphic artist, photographer, muralist and political activist, born. The son of a Mexican-Indian Wobbly union organiser father and a German socialist pacifist mother, he was active for six decades in the Industrial Workers of the World. As an accomplished artist and a highly influential political artist, Cortez is perhaps best known for his wood and linoleum-cut graphics, and his cartoons for the union newspaper the 'Industrial Worker'.
www.politicalgraphics.org/exhibitions/Carlos Cortez/CarlosCortez.htm

1942 - Juana Belén Gutiérrez de Mendoza (b. 1875), Mexican anarcho-feminist activist, typographer, journalist and poet, dies. [see: Jan. 27]

1944 - Germans authorities ban the use of bicycles, the preferred means by Gruppo d'Azione Patriottica (Patriotic Action Groups; GAP) to make the attacks, in Italy.

[D] 1949 - The militantly anti-communist Pope Pius XII excommunicates all communist Catholic voters in Italy.

[B] 1949 - Clifford Harper, anarchist graphic artist, born in Chiswick, London.

1952 - Dr. Marie Diana Equi (b. 1872), American medical doctor, lesbian anarchist, labour organiser and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Apr. 7]

1954 - Frida Kahlo de Rivera (born Magdalena Carmen Frieda Kahlo y Calderón; b. 1907), painter, communist, and one of Mexico's greatest artists, dies. The official cause of death is given as a pulmonary embolism, although some suspected that she died from an overdose that may or may not have been accidental given her frail health - her right leg had been amputated at the knee the previous year and had suffered from bronchopneumonia. [see: Jul. 6]

[A] 1958 - Ruth Ellis, the last woman to be hanged in Britain, is executed. Found guilty of killing her repeatedly abusive boyfriend, who caused her to miscarry by punching her in the stomach, it appears likely that she did not carry out the killing.

1962 - Members of the British Committee of 100 demonstrates against all nuclear weapons in Red Square, Moscow.

1977 - New York City blackout, during the night of 13-14th. Much looting.

1979 - The Pete Townshend Band, The Pop Group, Misty In Roots and The Ruts appear at The Rainbow, Finsbury Park, in the first of a two night RAR event, which together raised £5,000 for the defendants charged by the police with public order offences following Southall.

1989 - Mezhdurechensk / Kuzbass Miners' Strike [Междуреченска / Кузбассе Шахтерский забастовка] / 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: Having held discussion deep into the previous night, at dawn Shchadov spoke to the crowd offering the workers their demand of an independant association (union). However, in the meantime the strikers had been persuaded during a speech by Vyacheslav Golikov that there best option was not the creation of a new association, to which they would be beholden, but full financial independence of the mines. The crowd rejected Shchadov's offer and the strike committee now put forward a new demand, one that can only have been seen as an ominous sign for the government of the way the situation could develop if they did not settle fast. This was the demand that a new constitution be submitted for immediate discussion and adopted by November 7, 1990, and that the leaders of the Party and government should come to Kuzbass to negotiate on this issue, the committee calling for an All-Kuzbass strike to back the demand. With further reports of the spread of the strike, Shchadov backed down once more and conceded full independence, promising that all the mines in Mezhdurechensk the status of state enterprises, signing an agreement with the strike committee later that morning.
The deal provoked a split in the strike committee, With a minority resisting the settlement on the grounds that many of the original demands had not been satisfied and that there were insufficient guarantees that Shchadov’s promises would be fulfilled. The strike committee issued a statement at 15:00 callijng on the workers to return to work at 08:00 the following morning and also appealed to the workers in the rest of the Kuzbass region to support their decision. Within an hour of the strike committee issuing their statement the city's square was empty.

1996 - 7,000 Anti-Roads protesters took over the A41 motorway in north London to stage a huge all-day street party.

2004 - Yeshaayahu Toma Ŝik (b. 1939), Hungarian-Israeli anti-militarist, pacifist, anti-Zionist and anarchist, dies. [see: Aug. 17]

2006 - Marie Laffranque (b. 1921), French linguist, philological scholar, anti-militarist and libertarian, who was an expert on the life and works of Federico García Lorca, dies. [see: Nov. 29]

[AA] 2011 - The 27-day siege of El Rodeo II prison in Venezuela ends with the peaceful surrender of the 60 or so armed prisoners who had held off thousands of police and National Guards. At least 5 prisoners died during the siege, with a further four being shot dead after escaping shortly before the prison was retaken.
1764 - Jean-François Varlet (d. 1837), French revolutionary considered by many an anarchist precursor, involved with Les Enragés faction in the French Revolution, born.

[A/D] 1789 - Prise de la Bastille [Storming of the Bastille]: One of the key events of the French Revolution. [expand]

1811 - Luddite Timeline: Luddite frame-breaking at Sutton-in-Ashfield.

1817 - Germaine de Staël, Madame de Staël (Anne Louise Germaine Necker; b. 1766), French-Swiss woman of letters, philosopher, political propagandist, and scourge of Napoleon Bonaparte, dies. [see: Apr. 22]

[FF] 1854 - Conflicte de les Selfactines: Amid the euphoria of the victory of the Vicalvarada, the popular uprising against the Partido Moderado government of Luis José Sartorius y Tapia, Conde de San Luis, crowds of spinners directly effected by the new technology and other cotton workers in Barcelona set fire to several factories where they worked on the 'selfactines' cotton spinning machines. In one such fire a factory owner, his son and the factory's foreman were killed. Three worker arrested and accused of having participated in the fires, were shot.

1864 - Pierre Quillard (b. 1912), French Symbolist poet, playwright, anarchist and supporter of Dreyfus, born.

1867 - Ettore Molinari (d. 1926), Italian chemist and anarchist, born.

1876 - Henri 'Dayen' Fabre (d. 1969), French anarchist (then socialist) and pacifist journalist, born. Sacked at the age of 15 for sending articles to the newspaper of L'Union des Employés. In 1896 he founded the newspaper 'La Jeunesse Nouvelle' in Lyon and wrote for Sébastien Faure's 'Le Libertaire'. In 1902, whilst a member of the anarchist group Germinal, he founded 'Action Révolutionnaire', whilst also working on 'Le Flambeau' (Organe des Ennemis de l'Autorité) and the libertarian communist 'L'Aube Nouvelle'. In 1906, he helped launch 'La Guerre Sociale' with Gustave Hervé and two years later in Paris he started another newspaper, 'Les Hommes du Jour', each issue of which featured a character biography of noted anarchists illustrated by Aristide Delannoy. During WWI, in which he refused military service, he founded the socialist newspaper 'Le Journal du Peuple', and went on to join and later be expelled from the French Communist Party.

1881 - London anarchist Congress (until the 20th) of about 30 delegates representing a dozen country meet with an aim of rebuilding the anti-authoritarian International Workingmen's Association. They adopt 'propaganda of the deed', signalling an era of attentats (acts of political violence/property damage).

1883 - La Bande Noire: 45kg of dynamite, 1.2kg of compressed powder and 210m of fuse are stolen from Perrecy.

1886 - Nakano Hatsuko (中野初子; d. 1983), Japanese editor and haiku poet of the Meiji and Showa eras, feminist and one of the co-founders, along with Raichō Hiratsuka (平塚らいてう) and others, of the monthly feminist magazine 'Seitō' (青鞜 / Bluestocking), born.

1889 - The founding congress of the Second Socialist International and the congress of the Possibilistes, supporters of Paul Brousse, are held in Paris, with anarchists attending both conferences.

1896 - José Buenaventura Durruti Dumange* (or Domínguez) (d. 1936), legendary Spanish sindicalista y revolucionario anarquista, born. [expand]
*[NB: Domínguez is the Castillian version of the Catalan Dumange]
libcom.org/files/Paz - Durruti in the Spanish Revolution.pdf

[F] 1903 - [O.S. Jul. 1] Baku Strike [Бакинская Cтачка]: The first general strike of the proletariat of the city of Baku begins in the mechanical workshops in Bibi-Heybat. Under the leadership of the Baku Committee of the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party, the strike became universal and by July 19 [O.S. Jul. 6] the city's industrial and mercantile life of the city reached a complete standstill, with even oil tanker crews joining the strike. A strike committee was formed and amongst the demands put forward by the strikers were the release of the arrested and hired workers of previous demonstrations and strikes, the introduction of an eight-hour working day, the termination of overtime, the increase of wages by 20-50%, the abolition of fines, the improvement of housing conditions.
The employers refused to grant the demands of strikers. The factories and factories were occupied by the troops of the Baku garrison. Since Aug. 1 [Jul. 19] the strike began to decline, and on Aug.4 [Jul. 22] it stopped. The Baku strike of 1903, the first general strike in Transcaucasia, demonstrated the solidarity of workers in various professions, had a revolutionary influence on the proletariat of the Transcaucasus and Ukraine, and laid the foundation for a general strike in the south of Russia in 1903.

[C] 1912 - Woody Guthrie (d. 1967), radical American singer-songwriter and folk musician, born. Amongst his political songs were 'Two Good Men', about Sacco and Vanzetti [and on 'Hard Travelin': The Asch Recordings Vol. 3'], as was the whole album, 'Ballads of Sacco & Vanzetti' (1946-47). As a member of the IWW, he also wrote and sung songs about the Wobblies, hobos, Joe Hill ['Joseph Hillstrom'] and about historic strikes. And not forgetting a guitar that proclaimed: "this machine kills fascists".
"Left wing, chicken wing, it don't make no difference to me."

1916 - The first Dada Soirée in the Zunfthaus zur Waag, Zürich. Tristan Tzara reads aloud his first 'Dada Manifesto'.

1916 - [N.S. Jul. 27] A crowd comprised mainly of soldatki (soldiers' wives) rioted in the village of Losevo (Лосево) in the Voronezh (Воро́неж) province. About fifteen women entered a shop and one of them asked to buy a length of Chinese calico at fifteen kopeks an arshin (.71 meters). The shopkeeper replied that that was no longer the price of calico and when the woman insisted on paying the old price, he took her by the elbow and led her from the shop. Or at least that was what he claimed to have done. The woman, however, screamed that he had beaten her badly (thereby, presumably, violating the unwritten rule that permitted only a woman’s husband to lay hands on her). Her screams quickly drew a crowd of about three hundred, mainly women, who went about breaking into shops and stealing goods. The officer who described the events reported a rumor that soldiers at the front were sending letters to their wives urging them to riot (buntovat’) so that the soldiers would be sent home.

1917 - Bisbee Deporation: The situation was brought to the attention of the War Department, and on July 14 the deportees were escorted by troops to Columbus, New Mexico, where they were maintained by the Government until the middle of September. Here they stayed for three months, being furnished army rations, waiting for the Government to give them protection in returning to Bisbee. This the government steadfastly refused to do, and finally, when the army rations were cut off, the camp broke up. Some of the men drifted back to Bisbee where they were promptly arrested. Others scattered to different parts of the country.

[E] 1917 - Sixteen women from the National Women’s Party's 'Silent Sentinels' picket are arrested whilst protesting outside the White House demanding universal women’s suffrage. They are charged with obstructing traffic and sentenced to 60 days in jail or to pay a $25 fine. The women choose jail.

1921 - The jury in the Sacco and Vanzetti trial return a verdict of guilty of murder in the first degree.

1921 - Man Ray arrives in Paris. Marcel Duchamp introduces him to Dadaists.

1924 - Isabella Ormston Ford (b. 1855), British author, lecturer, suffragist and social reformer, member of the national administrative council of the Independent Labour Party and anti-war campaigner, dies. [see: May 23]

1934 - John Hutchyns Tyndall (d. 2005), British anti-Semite, white suprematist and neo-Nazi politician, born. One time member of the League of Empire Loyalists and founder or co-founder of the National Labour Party (until forced by the Labour party to abandon the name); the first British National Party (via the merging of the NLP and Colin Jordan's White Defence League in 1960 in order to "preserve the Northern European race and free Britain from Jewish domination and coloured influx"); the National Socialist Movement, again with fellow neo-Nazi Colin Jordan, as was the paramilitary group Spearhead; the Greater British Movement, the National Front in 1967; and the British National Party in 1982.
www.hopenothate.org.uk news/home/article/283/john-hutchyns-tyndall-a-text-book-study-in-pe]

[B] 1939 - Dieter Kunzelmann, German left-wing radical and political activist and theoretician, Happenings artist and writer of art and social manifestos, born. Member of the Munich artist group SPUR and the Situationist International, and active in the 68er-Bewegung ('68 Movement) as one of the co-founders of Kommune 1 (K1), the Zentralrats der Umherschweifenden Haschrebellen (Central Council of Wandering Hash Rebels) and, along with Georg von Rauch, founder of the underground Tupamaros West-Berlin. Kommune 1 members Dieter Kunzelmann and Rainer Langhans, attempted to bomb Richard Nixon's motorcade in Berlin on Feb. 27 1969, but the bomb is discovered. Kunzelmann was arrested on July 21 1971 for his bombing activities in the West Berlin Tupamaros. He was later convicted and sentenced to nine years.

1942 - Sébastien Faure (b. 1858), French anarchist and main proponent of 'synthesis anarchism', dies. [see: Jan. 6]

1948 - Sciopero del 14 Luglio: An anti-communist student, Antonio Pallante [of somewhat confused political alignment, having been a youthful fascist, joined the Partito Liberale Italiano, which he then left as it was too socially conservative, and then became a journalist on the communist newspaper 'l'Unità'] tried to assassinate the leader of the Partito Comunista Italiano (PCI), Palmiro Togliatti, shooting him three times. PCI militants reacted immediately and the whole country was the scene of riots: factories and public buildings were occupied, roadblocks were set up, strikes broke out, military vehicles requisition, the police attacked, leaving many dead and wounded. The Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro (Italian General Confederation of Labour) immediately called for a general strike on the same day. According to some interpretations, this reaction was the sign of the activation of the paramilitary organisation of the PCI, which felt that the time had come to act. According to others, it was a popular reaction to what was considered a very serious political provocation.
In hospital, and alarmed by the possible social and political consequences, Togliatti sent a message to his party colleagues: "Be careful, do not lose your heads". The Communist leadership, which met that same evening, reiterated that it had no plans for an ​​armed insurrection.

1949 - Gil Bel Mesonada (b. 1895), Spanish militant anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, writer, journalist, novelist and avant-garde arts theorist, dies. [see: Sep. 1]

1967 - Tudor Arghezi, or simply Arghezi (Ion N. Theodorescu; b. 1880), Romanian writer, best known for his contribution to poetry and children's literature, dies. [see: May 21]

1970 - Rivolta di Reggio [Reggio Revolt]: A general strike is called in protest at the government decision to make Catanzaro, not Reggio, regional capital of Calabria. [expand]

1975 - Jehan Mayoux (b. 1904), French Surrealist poet, teacher, pacifist, anti-militarist and libertarian, dies. [see: Nov. 25]

1976 - Zivia Luibetkin (Cywia Lubetkin) aka 'Celina' (b. 1914), Polish Jewish activist in the Warsaw ghetto underground, who was a member of the leadership of the Žydowska Organizacja Bojowa (Jewish Fighting Organization) and participant of the Warsaw ghetto uprising, dies. [see: Nov. 9]

1979 - Claude Le Maguet (aka Jean Salivas; b. 1887), French poet, typographer, anarchist and militant pacifist, dies. [see: Apr. 27]

1979 - The Clash, Aswad, the Enchanters and the Members appear at The Rainbow, Finsbury Park, in the second of a two night RAR event, which together raised £5,000 for the defendants charged by the police with public order offences following Southall.

1982 - Frothing at the mouth, as people inn the USA mistake their free mailbox samples of lemon-scented washing-up liquid for lemon juice.

1984 - National Front 'Rights for Whites' march in Maidstone, Kent.

1989 - Mezhdurechensk / Kuzbass Miners' Strike [Междуреченска / Кузбассе Шахтерский забастовка] / 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: The workers in Mezhdurechensk return to work. However, a single mine south of Novokuznetsk (Новокузнецк), the historic capital of Kuzbass and the nearest mining city to Mezhdurechensk, one mine refused to return to work. Within 12 hours, dozens of mines in the Kuzbass shut down and the strikes spread to Vorkuta, the Donbass and Kazakhstan.

1989 - Cecilia García de Guilarte (b. 1915), Basque journalist, writer - novels, plays, narrative history, etc., university professor and anarcho-syndicalist, dies. [see: Dec. 20]

1993 - Léo Ferré (b. 1916), Franco-Monégasque anarchist singer, poet, composer and interpreter of the French poètes maudits, dies. [see: Aug. 24]
[D] 1381 - John Ball, one of the leaders of the Peasant's Revolt, is hanged, drawn and quartered in the presence of Richard II.

1843 - [O.S. Jul. 3] Anna Henryka Pustowójtówna (Anna Teofilovna Pustovoytova [Анна Трофимовна Пустовойтова]; d. 1881), Polish nationalist and revolutionary, she actively participated in the January Uprising (Powstanie Styczniowe)[January 22, 1863 - October 1864] against the Russian Empire, for which she was arrested; and, whilst in self-imposed exile, took part in the Franco-Prussian War and the Paris Commune as a military nurse and, in the latter, fighting on the barricades, born. Convicted in 1861 of organising one of the may nationalist demonstrations thta she was an active participant, she fled abraod to escape punishment. At the outbreak of the January Uprising (Powstanie Styczniowe), she crossed back into Poland and, after disguising herself as a man and taking the name Michał Smok, she fought in a number of battle and was arrested along side General Mariana Langiewicza whilst crossing the Vistula into Galicia.
Released after the defeat of the uprising, she went into exile, first in Prague and then in Switzerland, finally in Paris. In Paris she survived by selling artificial flowers, teaching music, and raising children (her own and other people's). She also took part in the Franco-Prussian War and the Paris Commune as a nurse. For assisting the wounded while serving in ambulances in the Franco-Prussian War he was awarded the Cross of Merit. She also put the skill learnt during the January Uprising in defence of the Commune, fighting on the barricades.
"Henryka Lewenhard (nee Pustawojtow) / Full of Courage, Energy & Dedication / in her Country and in Exile / on the Battlefield and in the Family / 1843 - 1881" - inscription on her tomb in Montparnasse Cemetery.

1858 - Emmeline Pankhurst (Emmeline Goulden; d. 1928), British suffragette leader and socialist, who was the mother of three other prominent suffragettes, Christabel, Sylvia, and Adela Pankhurst, born. Active in the women's suffrage movement from the age of 14, she founded and became involved with the Women's Franchise League in 1889 and late joined the Independent Labour Party, though not without initially being refused membership because she was a woman. While working as a Poor Law Guardian, she was shocked at the harsh conditions she encountered in Manchester's workhouses. In 1903, five years after her husband died, Pankhurst founded the Women's Social and Political Union. However, her increasingly radical position with the WSPU, moving from its initially non-violent protests, via window-breaking and hunger strikes to arson, took an about-face, initially with the defections from within the ranks of the WSPU of those objecting to the increased radicalism (such as her daughter Adela, who would emigrate to Australia, never to see her mother again. Sylvia too would become estranged from Emmeline but for the opposite reason, the tactics of Sylvia's East London Federation of Suffragettes group being too radical) and then via the accomodation with the government in 1914, the abadnonment of the enfranchisment cam paign in favour of a pro-war and anti-German nationalism, eventually joining the Conservative Party in 1926 and, two years later, running as a candidate for Parliament in Whitechapel and St George's. She died in June 1928 in a nursing home following a period of ill heath. Three weeks after her death The Representation of the People Act 1928 was passed, extending the franchise to women aged over 21, regardless of property ownership.

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: At dawn, the anarchist sector of the International, believing that the City Council, presided over by Antonio Cuevas Jurado was too moderate, especially in matters relating to the social terrain, mounted a coup attempt. They failed, and according to the Cadiz press: "[...] it is evident that the most intransigent group of the internationalist party that prevails in Sanlúcar has the purpose of destroying the one that is possessed of the city council. What is done up til now does not satisfy their desires; what is wanted is the social liquidation; death and extermination of certain capitalists."

[B] 1884 - Robert Berkeley 'Bob' Minor (d. 1952), US political cartoonist, radical journalist, anarchist, and later a central figure in the Communist Party of the USA, born.

1885 - The first issue of the strongly anti-religious Yiddish langauge socialist newspaper 'Der Arbeiter Fraynd' (The Workers' Friend) is published in London. When Saul Yanovsky became its editor in February 20, 1891, the paper takes a clear anarchist orientation.

1886 - Charles Gallo is sentenced to 20 years in prison and is sent to New Caledonia for his failed assassination attempt of March 5, 1886, at the Paris Bourse.

1892 - Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (d. 1940), German philosopher and "Romantic anarchist", who made influential contributions to aesthetic theory, Western Marxism and anti-fascist thought, and is associated with the Frankfurt School, and was also a respected literary and cultural critic, essayist and translator during the Weimar Republic, born. Exposed to Zionism as a university student, he quickly rejected its political and nationalist aspects, developing his own form of 'cultural Zionism', a concept that would inform all his later ideas. He studied at Freiburg's Albert Ludwigs University , Berlin's Humboldt University, where he was elected president of the Freie Studentenschaft (Free Students Association), Munich's Ludwig Maximilian University and the University of Bern. Along the way he met met Rainer Maria Rilke, Gershom Scholem, Ernst Bloch and Leo Strauss. In 1923, he moved to Frankfurt and there met Theodor Adorno, befriended Georg Lukács, and began his association with the Institut für Sozialforschung (Institute for Social Research). During the ensuing decade he would write much of his most important work as well as spending time in Paris and Moscow, and also considered emigrating to Palestine. He also expanded on his journalistic work, having been writing for the German newspapers 'Frankfurter Zeitung' (The Frankfurt Times) and 'Die Literarische Welt' (The Literary World), and began working with Bertold Brecht and in radio. In the summers of 1932 and 1933, he stayed on the Spanish island of Ibiza, falling in love at Ibiza in the Dutch painter Anna Maria Blaupot ten Cate on his second visit. Unsettled by the rise of Hitler and the Nazis, after his first visit to Nice he had flown to Nice, where he planned to take his life in a hotel room. Instead he went to Italy, returning to Germany at the year's end.
When the National Socialists finally seized power, his knew his life was under threat as he was classified a "Jewish intellectual" and already having suffered the increasing everyday anti-Jewish harassment, he took refuge in Svendborg, Denmark with Bertold Brecht, and later in San Remo. Eventually, he settled in Paris, where he began working with Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer, receiving financial support from the Institut für Sozialforschung. He also befriended fellow German refugees Hannah Arendt, Hermann Hesse and Kurt Weill, and also became a member of Georges Bataille's secret society Acéphale. At the end of February 1939, the Gestapo stripped Benjamin of his German citizenship, which meant that he could not leave France without a residence permit in the country of destination, fully establishing his status as a German refugee. On September 1st, he was interned with other German refugees in the Camp Vernuche at Nevers. Released in later November following the intervention of French friends, he returned to Paris but was forced to flee Paris the day before the Nazis arrived in the city. In August, he obtained a travel visa to the US with the assistance of Max Horkheimer, hoping to travel via Portugal. Continuing to keep one step ahead of the German Army, he managed to safely cross the French-Spanish border and arrive at the coastal town of Portbou, in Catalonia. However, the Franco government had cancelled all transit visas and ordered the Spanish police to return people to France, including the Jewish refugee group Benjamin had joined, thwarting his chances of travelling to the United States. On the night of September 25, 1940, he took an overdose of morphine tablets in his room in the Hotel de Francia. The Portbou registry records September 26, 1940 as the official date of death.
Amongst his most important works are 'Zur Kritik der Gewalt' (Critique of Violence; 1921), 'Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit' (The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction; 1936) and 'Über den Begriff der Geschichte' (On the Concept of History / Theses on the Philosophy of History; 1940). See also 'Surrealism: The Last Snapshot of the European Intelligentsia' (1929).
www.lboro.ac.uk/media/wwwlboroacuk/content/phir/documentsandpdfs/arg/Sagriotis Paper - Benjamin and Anarchism.pdf

1893 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: 600 peasants took to the streets of Belmonte Mezzagno. The town's mayor ordered this peaceful march broken up by forces. All women attending the event were arrested, and some men were transported to Misilmeri prison.

1894 - In Buenos Aires, Fortunato Serantoni publishes the first issue of the relaunched Argentinan anarchist newspaper 'La Questione Sociale', originally the title of Errico Malatesta's own 1885 Buenos Aires paper. Published in Italian, it will include a Spanish language supplement from that September.

1895 - The first issue of the fortnightly Italian socialist-anarchist periodical 'La Questione Sociale' is published in Paterson, New Jersey. The journal is published by the group Diritto all'Esistenza (The Right to Existence), which also has an older in-house paper 'Era Nuova' (The New Era). The senior editors are: the anarchist writer Giuseppe Ciancabilla (until September 1899), Malatesta (1899), Carlo Tresca (1901), Aldino Felicani , Luigi Galleani, etc.. Postal copies were intercepted in May 1908 as part of anti-anarchist repression but the paper continued to be published until 1924.

1898 - Ernest Ernestan (aka Ernest Tanrez) (d. 1954), Belgian militant, writer, theorist of libertarian socialism, and a significant figure of Belgian anarchism, born.

[E] 1907 - Qiu Jin (秋瑾; b. 1875), Chinese revolutionary, feminist, writer and poet, who is considered a national heroine in China, is publicly beheaded in her home village, Shanyin, at the age of 31 for her involvement in the Anqing Uprising (安慶起義), a plot to overthrow the Qing Dynasty. [see: Nov. 8]

1908 - At the co-operative restaurant at 33 rue Guersant in Paris, a fight breaks out when a Commissaire de Police, accompanied by a secretary, an Inspector and two agents of the Anthrométrique Service (the police's crude criminological biometric service), attempt to pull down from the restaurant's window an anti-militarist flag declaring: "A Bas la Patrie!" Customers beat up the cops. A few days later, police arrested several people who frequent the place. Amongst them were two anarchists, 'chauffeurs syndiqués' Maurice Girard, who was not even at the restaurant but whose car (which he had lent to his brother) had been parked outside at the time of the incident, and Albert Jacquart. Both were charged and on Aug. 19, 1908 sentenced to three and two years in prison respectively. Their support campaign will stage the first manifestation en automobile through Paris on Jan. 20, 1909.

1912 - The first issue of '¡Luz!' is published by Grupo Luz, in México. Initially a monthly "workers and libertarian" journal, it goes on to become a "weekly of libertarian thought and dissent, written for workers, for the defence of women and the workers themselves."

1914 - Revolución Mexicana: Following his defeat in the Toma de Zacatecas, Victoriano Huerta resigns the presidency.

1915 - Odette Ester, aka Odette Beilvert (Lucienne Marie Kervorc'h; D. 2010), French anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist resister, who was the long time partner of the Catalan anacho-syndicalist miltant Josep Ester Borràs (José Ester Borrás) aka 'Minga', born.

1917 - [O.S. Jul. 2] July Days [Июльские дни]: The Kadets Party walks out of the Russian Provisional Government, threatening the Mensheviks and the Socialist Revolutionaries (SRs) with the breakup of the government coalition. A government crisis ensues. Meanwhile, at a secret conference, anarchists decide to call the Petrograd workers and soldiers out to an anti-government demonstration the following day. [see: Jul. 16]

1918 - Intelligence agencies begin to circulate the names and addresses of over 8,000 'Mother Earth' magazine subscribers, targeting them for investigation. Emma Goldman also reluctantly concurs with Stella Ballantine's decision to close the Mother Earth Bookshop.

1919 - Robert Brayton Nichols (d. 2010), US political radical and anti-war activist, Beat poet, playwright, anarchist-themed sci-fi novelist and architect, who was married to the "cooperative anarchist" and writer Grace Paley, born.

1920 - Eight-member expedition for the Petrograd Museum of the Revolution, including Henry Alsberg, Alexander Berkman, and Emma Goldman, travels through the Ukraine (July 15-August 6). The events are recounted by Berkman in 'The Bolshevik Myth'.

[CC] 1927 - Vienna Palace of Justice Fire (Wiener Justizpalastbrand) aka July Revolt of 1927: Mass rioting breaks out following the acquittal of 3 members of the Austrian right-wing paramilitary group the Frontkämpfervereinigung Deutsch-Österreichs. They had been on trial for the murder of a World War I veteran and an eight-year-old boy, having shot them from ambush, during a clash between the Frontkämpfer and the Social Democratic Republikanischer Schutzbundin Schattendorf, Burgenland on January 30, 1927.
The so-called 'Schattendorf Verdict', during which the paramilitaries pleaded self-defence, precipitated a general strike aimed at bringing down the government. Massive protests began on the morning of July 15, when a furious crowd tried to storm the main building of the Vienna University on Ringstrasse. The protesters attacked and damaged a nearby police station and a newspaper building, before proceeding to the Austrian Parliament Building. Forced back by police, they arrived in the square in front of the Palace of Justice. At about noon, protesters entered the building by smashing the windows; they then demolished the furnishings and began setting fire to files. Soon the building was ablaze; the fire quickly spread out as the Vienna fire brigade was attacked by several demonstrators, who also cut fire hoses, and could not be brought under control until the early morning.
The ex-Austrian chancellor Johann Schober, and then Vienna chief of police, ordered his police to suppress the protests with force. Supplied with army rifles, they opened fire, killing 84 protesters. Five cops were also killed and more than 600 people were injured.
Wilhelm Reich was present at the Palace of Justice fire and, though already a member of the Sozialdemokratischen Arbeiterpartei Österreichs (SDAP), he secretly joined the Kommunistische Partei Österreichs (KPÖ) radicalised by what he had witnessed.
"As if struck by a blow, one suddenly recognizes the scientific futility, the biological senselessness, and the social noxiousness of views and institutions, which until that moment had seemed altogether natural and self-evident. It is a kind of eschatological experience so frequently encountered in a pathological form in schizophrenics. I might even voice the belief that the schizophrenic form of psychic illness is regularly accompanied by illuminating insight into the irrationalism of social and political mores." ['People In Trouble' (Menschen im Staat; 1937/1953)]

1927 - Julien Content (b. 1892), French miltant anarchist, anti-militarist and revolutionary syndicalist, commits suicide. He had been diabled in a car accident in 1926. [see: Sep. 26]

1927 - Countess Constance Markievicz (Constance Georgine Gore-Booth; b. 1868), Irish Sinn Féin and Fianna Fáil politician, revolutionary nationalist, suffragette, socialist and landscape painter, dies of complications related to appendicitis. [see: Feb. 4]

1930 - Jacques Derrida (d. 2004), French philosopher/linguist, born.

[F] 1959 - U.S. Steel Strike: 500,000 steelworkers go on strike over management's demand that the union give up a contract clause which limited management's ability to change the number of workers assigned to a task or to introduce new work rules or machinery which would result in reduced hours or numbers of employees.
The strike's effects persuaded President Dwight D. Eisenhower to invoke the back-to-work provisions of the Taft-Hartley Act. The union sued to have the Act declared unconstitutional, but the Supreme Court upheld the law.

1970 - Rivolta di Reggio [Reggio Revolt]: In the city there is an air of guerrilla war. In the afternoon the barricades begin to burn. Clashes between protesters and security forces, the launch of tear gas, the repeated charges, the crowd respond with stone-throwing.
First victim: Bruno Labate , a 46-year-old railway workers, is found in via Logoteta. [expand]

1971 - Police attempt to stop Petra Schelm and Werner Hoppe at a roadblock on a bridge in Hamburg. Having broken trough they are chased and corners. Both come out of the car shooting. Hoppe gets cornered by police, who arrest him but Schelm refuses to surrender when cornered and is shot dead, aged just 20 years old.

1971 - Petra Schelm (d. 1971), German hairdresser, who joined the Rote Armee Fraktion in 1970 along with her partner Manfred Grashof, is killed by a single gunshot wound through the eye during a confrontation with the police in Hamburg – the first death in the battle of the RAF against the West German state.

[A] 1974 - News anchor Christine Chubbuck commits suicide live on air. She shot herself in the head, after saying "In keeping with Channel 40's policy of bringing you the latest in blood and guts, and in living colour, you are going to see another first — an attempted suicide." The channel faded to black and then showed Gentle Ben reruns.

[C] 1976 - Eva Schulze-Knabe (b. 1907), German painter and graphic artist, and resistance fighter against the Third Reich, dies. [see: May 11]

1977 - Battle of Lewsiham: A fire breaks out at headquarters of West Indian League, 36 Nunhead Lane, SE15, an organisation providing advice and activities for black youth. The London Fire Brigade suggests that the fire may have been started by a petrol bomb ['South London Press']

1978 - Rock against Racism Northern Carnival: March from Strangeways to Alexandra Park and 35,000 people watch Steel Pulse, Buzzcocks, Exodus and China Street.

1985 - Jon Mikkleson, believed to have been the only black Hell's Angel in Britain, is hit over the head by a police truncheon in west London. He and 2 friends are arrested and taken to Hounslow police station where, according to evidence presented to the inquest, he was left lying and apparently unconscious on the floor of the charge room for 30 minutes. A woman sergeant eventually called an ambulance, but Mikkleson was dead on arrival at hospital having suffered brain damage and asphyxiated on the contents of his stomach. On March 18, 1986 an inquest finds that he was unlawfully killed and seven police officers were suspended from duty. However, in December 1986, the High Court quashed the verdict of unlawful killing and ordered a fresh inquest on the grounds that the coroner had gravely misdirected the jury. In February 1987, the second inquest jury decided that Mikkelson's death was due to 'misadventure'.

1986 - Grete Hoell (Margarete Hoell; b. 1909), German communist resistance fighter and member of the VVN-BdA (Association of Victims of the Nazi Regime – The Anti-Fascist Alliance), dies. [see: Oct. 18]

1989 - Kuzbass Miners' Strike [Кузбассе Шахтерский забастовка] / 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: the Palace of Culture in Novokuznetsk was overflowing with miners while the Minister and district First Secretary bargained with the strike committee delegates. But this time they were not dealing with five mines and 12,000 workers, but 158 mines and 177,000 workers. The miners demanded the presence of Gorbachev and Prime Minister Ryzhkov to guarantee that they would not be deceived again. [expand]

1989 - Donbass Miners' Strike [Донбасса Шахтерский забастовка] / 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: on the evening of July 15, miners in Makeyevka, in the Donbass coal-field in the Ukraine, came out on strike. Despite government assurances that the Kuzbass agreement covered the entire industry, the miners insisted that top government officials talk directly to them. On July 18, the strike spread across the whole Donbass coal-field. On July 20, just as the Kuzbass miners were returning to work, the strike spread to the rest the Ukraine, and a regional strike committee was formed in Donetsk (Донецьку). In all, 220 mines struck in the Donbass with up to 90,000 miners out on one day.

1994 - Anarcho-punks from five separate states in the north and north-east of Brazil hold a conference at the University of Ceara, (July 15-17).

1998 - Vincent Ruiz Gutiérrez (b. 1912), Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who participated in the Spanish Civil War, dies after a long illness. [see: Aug. 1]

[AA] 2002 - Martin Green, a 25-year-old prisoner on detoxification programme dies of dehydration in HMP Blakenhurst despite health care staff having noted his severe and continuous vomiting, dramatic weight loss and lack of energy and his having repeated requested to be taken to hospital. His cause of death was dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, as a consequence of repeated vomiting. He was also found to have two duodenal ulcers. Martin, who was 6ft 2in (188cm), weighed just 6st 10lbs (43kg) at the time of his death.

2003 - Roberto Bolaño Ávalos (b.1953), Chilean novelist, poet, one-time Trotskyist and latterly an anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 28]

2010 - US Marxist revolutionary and feminist poet Marilyn Jean Buck (1947 - 2010), who was sentence to 80 years in prison for her participation in the 1979 prison escape of Assata Shakur, the 1981 Brink's robbery and the 1983 U.S. Senate bombing, is released less than a month before her death at age 62 from cancer. [see: Dec. 13]

2014 - 27-year-old white suprematist Holly Grigsby, who pleaded guilty on March 11 to one count of racketeering and other offenses in connection with a September 26 to October 5, 2011 crime spree, is sentenced to life imprisonment. She appologises to her fellow white suprematists: "My actions have further damaged the reputation of a movement misunderstood... I deeply regret this. Although I had nothing but the best of intentions, the bridge to Valhalla is not paved with good intentions." [see: Sep. 26/Oct. 1 & 3]
1439 - Henry VI bans kissing to stop the spread of pestilence.

[D] 1809 - Junta Tuitiva [La Paz Revolution]: In the city of La Paz, as celebrations for the Virgin of Carmen were taking place, a group of revolutionaries led by Colonel Pedro Domingo Murillo and other individuals besieged the city barracks and forced the governor, Tadeo Davila and the Bishop of La Paz, Remigio de la Santa y Ortega, to resign.

1827 - At King's Bench Prison, London inmates set up an election for a Member of Parliament. The authorities try to stop it, causing a riot.

1854 - Conflicte de les Selfactines: The capità general de Barcelona, Ramon de la Rocha, issues an order that all violations against property or against the security of the people would be executed by firing squad. The same day three cotton workers were shot at 19:00.
The cotton spinners and other workers effectively declared a 'ceasefire', vowing to continue to strike peacefully until the 'selfactines' were removed. With more than 50 factories now out on strike, the Captain General enters into talks with the workers' representative Josep Barceló Cassadó.

1888 - London Match Girls' Strike: Threatened by the bad publicity, Bryant & May’s directors eventual agree to a meeting with a deputation from the London Trades Council and the Match Girls Strike Committee. By the following day an agreement had been reached, whose terms "far exceeded the expectations", and included the abolition of all deductions and fines and the provision of a breakfast room. The agreement represented a resounding success for the match girls, who returned to work the next day, victorious.

1898 - Pierre Desgranges (aka Granges; b. 1865), French anarchist militant, as were his father and his brother Victor, dies. [see: Jun. 10]

1900 - A tunnel being dug for Alexander Berkman to escape from prison (serving 22 years for the attempted assassination of US industrialist Henry Frick) is discovered. Although prison officials cannot verify who is responsible or the tunnel for, Berkman is placed in solitary confinement. The tunnel rat, Eric Morton, sick from the physical hardship of digging the tunnel, soon sails to France and is nursed back to health by Emma Goldman.

1903 - Première issue of the anarchist weekly 'Il Libertario', is published in La Spezia, Italy. It suffers repeated repression by the authorities and its pressed are finally destroyed by fascists on Oct. 29, 1922.

1905 - The first issue of the fortnightly paper 'L'Action Directe' is published in Gilly, Belgium. Initailly the "Organe des travailleurs", then "Organe de la Confédération Générale du Travail" (Belge) and finally "Organe de Propagande Syndicaliste Révolutionnaire".

1917 - [O.S. Jul. 3] July Days [Июльские дни]: The third in a series of crises (after the April 1917 crisis and the June 1917 crisis) in Russia in the period spanning the period from the February bourgeois-democratic revolution to the October Revolution, when soldiers and industrial workers engaged in spontaneous demonstrations against the Russian Provisional Government.
After receiving an order to go to the front, thousands of machine-gunners hold a meeting about an armed insurrection. Spontaneous demonstrations break out in Petrograd started by the soldiers of the 1st Machine-gun Regiment (1-й пулемётный полк), influenced by the anarchist decision yesterday to call Petrograd's workers and soldiers out on an anti-government demonstration. The soldiers decide to march, fully armed, and send delegates from one factory after another, with workers dropping everything to join the march. Tens of thousands go marching, demanding All power to the Soviets! Initially having tried to restrain the protesters, the Bolsheviks change tactics. No longer trying to restrain the masses, they agree to support them, so long as they peacefully march to the seat of government, elect delegates, and present their demands to the Executive Committee of the Soviets. The masses agree.
Meanwhile, the Government spends the entire day calling on troops from across the country to come in defence of the capital. The Mensheviks and Socialist-Rrevolutionary Party decry the Bolsheviks for the insurrection, claiming they are threatening the Soviets. The leadership of the Petrograd Soviet changes its composition and becomes a Bolshevik majority. Further strengthening the Bolshevik majority, the Mensheviks and SRs refuse to co-operate and walk out, having lost their majority power. They remain in control of the Soviet Executive Committee, and thus the ravine deepens further between local Soviets and the Soviet Executive Committee.

1919 - Berlin Dadaist Johannes Baader carries out a leaflet drop of 'Dadaisten gegen Weimar' (Dadaists against Weimar) and his new broadside manifesto, 'Die Grüne Leiche' (The Green Corpse), during the first meeting of the Weimar Nationalversammlung (National Assembly) as they approve Article 118 of the Weimar Constitution: "Every German has the right to his opinions in speech and writing, or in any other form, to give free expression."
In the final issue (N° 10 'Präsident Baader') of the anarchist and dadaist magazine 'Die Freie Straße' (The Free Road) in December 1918, Baader had already declared himself President of the Republic. And he followed this up with 'Dadaisten gegen Weimar' (Feb. 6 1919), published [along with the Berlin Dada newspaper 'Jedermann sein eigner Fussball' (Everyman his own Football)] in part as a response to brutal suppression of the communist-inspired Spartakist uprising (January 1919) by the Socialist Weimar government. In it Baader went one stage further and proudly proclaimed himself to be the Oberdada Baader "Präsidenten des Erdballs" (President of the Terrestrial Globe) and the 'Dadaprophet'. 'Die Grüne Leiche' in turn states that "Der Präsident des Erdballs sitzt im Sattel des weissen Pferdes Dada" (The President of the globe sits in the saddle of the white horse Dada) and askes the question: "Ist das deutsche Volk bereit, dem Oberdada freie Hand zu geben? Fällt die Volksabstimmung bejahend aus, wird Baader Ordnung, Freiheit und Brot schaffen." (Are the German people willing to give the Oberdada a free hand? If the referendum answers yes then Baader will create order, joy, freedom and bread.) The document is signed by Die Dadaistischen Zentralrat der Weltrevolution (The Dadaist Central Committee for World Revolution).
"Wir werden Weimar in die Luft sprengen." (We will blow Weimar into the Air.)
"Ein Dadaist ist ein Mensch, der das Leben in allen seinen unübersehbaren Gestalten liebt und der weiß und sagt:
"Nicht allein hier, sondern auch da, da, da ist das Leben!
Also beherrscht auch der wahrhafte Dadaist das ganze Register der menschlichen Lebensäußerungen, angefangen von der grotesken Selbstpersiflage bis zum heiligsten Wort des Gottesdienstes auf der reif gewordenen, allen Menschen gehörenden Kugel Erde. Und ich werde dafür sorgen, daß auf dieser Erde Menschen leben künftig. Menschen, die ihren Geist in der Gewalt haben und mit diesem Geist die Menschheit neu schaffen.""
(A Dadaist is a man who loves life in all its incalculable forms, and the white and says: "Not only here, but also because, there, there is life! So also the true Dadaist dominates the whole register of human manifestations of life, ranging from the grotesque self-mockery to the worshipful holy word on the ripe, people carrying spherical earth. And I will ensure the people of this earth life in the future. People, in your spirit of strength and with the spirit of violence you will create a new humanity.")
- from 'Die Freie Straße', issue N° 10 'Präsident Baader'.

[EE] 1927 - Iro Konstantopoulou (Ηρώ Κωνσταντοπούλου; d. 1944), Greek teenage resistance heroine, born. Iro was just thirteen years old when the Germans invaded Greece. Despite her age, however, she got involved with the resistance, joining EPON (United Panhellenic Organisation of Youth / Ενιαία Πανελλαδική Οργάνωση Νέων), the youth wing of the liberation movement EAM, whilst still a schoolgirl. When she was arrested for the first time in early July 1944, when a group of the Security Battalions broke into her family home, her rich father managed to get her set free, and she fell in love with a young doctor who took care of her injuries following torture. A little before the withdrawal of the Germans, she participated in the blowing up of a train that was transporting ammunition, and she was arrested by the SS, but this time no one could save her. In the notorious Komantatour detention centre, she was tortured for three weeks in an attempt to get her to reveal details of her comrades, she did not break. On September 5, 1944, she was executed – shot with 17 bullets, one for every year of her short life – along side forty-nine other anti-fascist fighters at the Haidari concentration camp.

[B] 1928 - Carmen Bruna (born Bruna Carmen Zucarelli; d. 2014), Argentinian poet, Surrealist, physician and anarchist agitator, born. Since 1955, she has worked for various newspapers and literary magazines, including 'Clepsidra' and 'Sr. Neón'. A trained medical doctor, from from 1956 to 1969 she practised her profession in the villages around Salta in the rural hinterland of north-west Argentina. Her first book, 'Bodas' (Weddings; 1980), received the 1979 Premio Lorraine (Lorraine Award) for Argentinan Poetry. In 1982 she joined the Signo Ascendente surrealist group and has since published a number of books of her poetry, including 'Morgana o el Espejismo' (Morgana or the Mirage; 1983), 'La Diosa de las Trece Serpientes' (The Goddess of Thirteen Snakes; 1986), 'Lilith' (1987), 'La Luna Negra de Lilith' (The Black Moon of Lilith; 1992), and 'Melusina o la búsqueda del amor extraviado' (Melusine or finding lost love; 1993). She died on January 15, 2014, one of the last remaining Argentinian surrealists.
"The world of Lautréamont and Rimbaud is my world, barbaric and amazing. My poetry is the poetry of the damned poets. My poetry is actually an invitation to insubordination and revolt. And that is why my motto is that of the anarchists: Neither God Nor Master."
"Poetry does not sell. Perhaps that is because true poetry is, by definition, not for sale."

'Jam Session'

El sol ilumina los cantos rodados
atraviesa las aguas hasta el fondo
contempla la sombra de las truchas
que son almas en pena al atardecer.
El astro rojo se muere.
Ellas también se mueren.
En ríos extraños
en manantiales ciegos.
Los faros se apagaron,
la nave se estrelló contra las rocas.
Descalzos van los penitentes
sus pies sangrando entre las piedras
delgados son sus miembros de anacoretas.
Las bellas jóvenes lloran cuando ellos pasan.
Los olores alquímicos del azufre y el sabor del coriandro
conjuran el perfume de las ruinas
entre las tumbas anónimas de un viejo cementerio.
Y sirven en bandejas de plata
los mejores manjares a los sobrevivientes.
El lamento de las diosas es poco audible.
Thelonius Monk la revolución negra
el brillante Mississippi
la medianoche clandestina
no confiable
el piano que se vuelve loco a la luz de la lun
y rompe todas las camisas de fuerza
sólo un gigolo.
Las arterias estallan
la sangre borda los transparentes espejos viscosos
de las teclas y el saxo.
La lluvia pulveriza las estalactitas del corazón.
Los bellos gatos juegan a perseguir a las mariposas
con sus ojos hipnóticos.
La quimera clava sus uñas y muerde con sus dientes agudos
a los cuerpos enfermos.
Se padece el suplicio
se toleran todas las torturas
en el reino de las pesadillas
noche tras noche
en esa hora sórdida de los aparecidos
con sus órbitas vacías.


[F] 1934 - San Francisco General Strike: After the brutality of 'Bloody Thursday' [see: July 5], the Joint Marine Strike Committee calls for a general strike. The San Francisco Labor Council voted to support the call and on July 16, the city shut down as workers from all industries walked off the job. 127,000 workers participate. The four-day San Francisco General Strike ended with an agreement on arbitration in which most of the striking longshoremen’s demands were met.

1936 - In Barcelona members of the powerful Confederación Nacional del Trabajo urge, without success, Luis Companys, president of the Catalonian Generalitat (governing body), the distribution of weapons to the workers, to counter the imminent threat of a right-wing military coup d'etat.

1936 - Armand Guerra begins filming 'Carne de Fieras' in Madrid.

1939 - 'Britain First' Peace Rally: In the last of his full-scale Nazi-style Neuremburg rallies, Mosley and his BU Blackshirts hold their biggest 'pro-peace' rally in Earl's Court. The fascists claim that 20,000 people attended, though it was closer to 11,000, many members of the middle class who sported fascist lapel badges and symbols, gayly chanted: "Mosley... Mosley... Mosley... Mosley". It was the last hurrah for the fascists as the BU's support haemorrhaged shortly thereafter - the number of BU meetings held in London fell from 313 in August '39 to just 21 in September - and Defence Regulation 18B went from being applied in late 1939 to only German or Austrians who had been naturalised as British subjects to much of the hierarchy of the various fascist organisations in May 1940.

1942 - Vel' d'Hiv Roundup: The 2 day Opération Vent printanier (Operation Spring Breeze) begins in Paris with raids and the mass arrest of Jews. 13,152 victims are herded in to the Vélodrome d'Hiver cycling stadium and the Drancy and Beaune la Rolande internment camps nearby, prior to their being shipped to Auschwitz and their extermination. Following the launch of an appeal by the Comité Vel d'Hiv' 42 in 'Le Monde' on this date in 1992, the first Anniversaire de la rafle du Vélodrome d'hiver is first marked on July 16 1994 as a prelude to the unveiling of a memorial the following day at the site of where the velodrome once stood.

1945 - The first atomic bomb is detonated at Trinity Site, Alamogordo, New Mexico.

[E] 1947 - Assata Olugbala Shakur (JoAnne Deborah Byron), African-American activist and escaped convict who was a member of the Black Panther Party and Black Liberation Army (BLA), born. Between 1971 and 1973, Shakur was accused of several crimes and made the subject of a multi-state manhunt.
In May 1973, Shakur was involved in a shootout on the New Jersey Turnpike, during which New Jersey State Trooper Werner Foerster and BLA member Zayd Malik Shakur were killed and Shakur and Trooper James Harper were wounded. Between 1973 and 1977, Shakur was indicted in relation to six other alleged criminal incidents – charged with murder, attempted murder, armed robbery, bank robbery, and kidnapping – resulting in three acquittals and three dismissals. In 1977, she was convicted of the first-degree murder of Foerster and of seven other felonies related to the shootout.
Shakur was incarcerated in several prisons in the 70s. She escaped from prison in 1979 and has been living in Cuba in political asylum since 1984. Since May 2, 2005, the FBI has classified her as a domestic terrorist and offered a $1 million reward for assistance in her capture. On May 2, 2013, the FBI added her to the Most Wanted Terrorist list, making Shakur the first woman on this list, and increased the reward for her capture to $2 million. Attempts to extradite her have resulted in letters to the Pope and a Congressional resolution. Shakur is the step-aunt of the deceased hip-hop icon Tupac Shakur, the stepson of her brother Mutulu Shakur. Her life has been portrayed in literature, film and song.

1947 - Catherine Baker, French journalist, writer, feminist and prison abolitionist, born. She has also written a critique of compulsory education, 'Insoumission à l'École Obligatoire' (Noncompliance with Compulsory Education; 1985).

1948 - Founding of the Dutch Experimental Group by Karel Appel, Guillaume Corneille, and Constant and Jan Nieuwenhuys, Amsterdam.

1951 - Franco (Francesco) Serantini (d. 1972), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist, born. On May 5 1972, whilst taking part in an action against the fascist MSI in Pisa Franco was severly beaten by riot police. Arrested and transferred to a police station, he is interrogated the following day and, despite obvious illness and injury, the police, interrogating judge and prison guards, ignore his symptoms. On May 7 he is found in a coma in his cell and dies at 09:45. His life is the inspiration for Corrado Stajano's book 'Il Sovversivo: Vita e Morte dell'Anarchico Serantini' (The Subversive. Life and Death of the Anarchist Serantini; 1975) and Francesco Filidei's opera for 6 voices and 6 percussionists, 'NN'.

1953 - Ann Hansen, Canadian anarchist and former member of the urban guerrilla group Direct Action, born. She was one of the Squamish Five (or Vancouver Five), with Brent Taylor, Juliet Caroline Belmas, Doug Stewart and Gerry Hannah, who were tried for a number of actions including the October 14, 1982 bombing of a Litton Industries plant, which made guidance components for American cruise missiles.

1954 - Eva Sybille Haule-Frimpong, German social worker, photographer and former member of the 'third generation' Rote Armee Fraktion, born. [expand]

1970 - Rivolta di Reggio [Reggio Revolt]: The mayor proclaimed a day of mourning. [expand]

[C] 1978 - Battle for Brick Lane: A mass anti-racist, sit-down protest on the corner of Brick Lane and Bethnal Green Road in London's East End is staged in an attempt to prevent National Front literature from being sold.

1983 - The US and Soviet embassies in London are joined by a 10,000-string human anti-nuclear protest chain.

[A] 2001 - Derek Bennett, a 29 year old father of four, is shot dead by police marksmen in a Brixton street whilst holding a novelty lighter. The police gunmen claim that they believed that he was armed with a silver handgun and had taken a hostage.
[D] 1789 - La Grande Peur [The Great Fear]: As the news about the storming of the Bastille slowly spreads across France, it adds to the increasing unrest in rural areas sparked by fears of an aristocratic plot to ruin the harvest. The harvests in France had been poor since the massive 1783 Laki volcanic eruption on Iceland and frosts and snow had also damaged vines and wrecked chestnut and olive orchards in the south. To this were rumours that robbers paid by the nobles, had been responsible for cutting the unripe wheat to cause a famine or that landlords were hoarding the grain to sell at the highest price during the welding (time of pre-harvest shortage). In eastern France, it was said that the Comte d'Artois was back at the head of a large army. Others said that the queen had plotted a conspiracy, planning to blow up the Estates General and to massacre all of Paris.
Everywhere looting, riots, bombings, fires started breaking out...

1793 - Charlotte Corday (Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont) (b. 1768), French Girondist sympathiser is executed by guillotine four days after assassinating Jean-Paul Marat, a leading actor in the Reign of Terror (September 6, 1793 - July 28, 1794) and the September Massacres (September 2-7, 1792) that proceeded it. [see: Jul. 27]

[A] 1816 - Runaway slaves occupying a deserted British fort at Fort Gadsden on the Apalachicola river in Florida are besieged by US forces.

1834 - Tolpuddle Martyrs: Having set sail from Portsmouth on the Surry on April 7, 1834, James Loveless, Thomas and John Stanfield, James Hammett and James Brine arrive in Sydney, Australia. [see: Mar. 17 & 18]

1883 - Barthélemy De Ligt (d. 1938), Dutch anarcho-pacifist and anti-militarist, born. Author of 'Anarchismus und Revolution' (1922), 'La Paix Créatrice. Histoire des principes et des tactiques de l'action directe contre la guerre' (Creative Peace : History of the principles and tactics of direct action against the war; 1935),
'The Conquest of Violence : an Essay on War and Revolution' (1935) and 'Le Probleme de la Guerre Civile' (1937).

[E] 1884 - Louise Gavan Duffy (Luíse Ghabhánach Ní Dhufaigh; d. 1969), suffragist and Irish nationalist, who was present in the General Post Office, the main headquarters during the 1916 Easter Rising, born.

[F] 1888 - London Match Girls' Strike: During the second day of talks between Bryant & May's directors and the deputation from the London Trades Council and the Match Girls Strike Committee, an agreement is reached, which includes the abolition of all deductions and fines and the provision of a breakfast room, terms "far exceeded the expectations". The agreement represented a resounding success for the match girls, who returned to work the next day, victorious.

1890 - Hans Westermann (d. 1935), German Communist and anti-Nazi resistance fighter in the German Resistance, who died in Gestapo custody, born. A member of the left wing of the SPD, in 1914 he was drafted into the navy, though opposed to the war. During this period, Westermann sympathised with the Spartacus League and the Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (USPD; Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany). During the November 1918 Kiel Mutiny, he was elected delegate of the minesweeper flotilla in the Sailors' council. In 1919, he joined the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) and in 1921, became the full-time party secretary in Hamburg but in 1930 he was expelled from the party for his criticism of Ernst Thälmann's leadership of the party. After the Nazis seized power in 1933, a group that had formed around Westermann (made up of people from the KPD's Conciliator faction) began working underground, focusing on dock and shipyard workers and employees. Westermann was arrested and kept in detention between June 1933 and August 1934. On his release, made contact with other Conciliator groups both within and outside the KPD, eventually rejoining the party. However, shortly after he had begun reorganising the Hamburg party, Westermann and numerous others were arrested during the night of March 5-6, 1935, and died a few days later in the Fuhlsbüttel concentraion camp in Hamburg.

1892 - Carlo Cafiero (b. 1846), Italian anarchist and champion of Bakunin, dies in exile in the Swiss psychiatric hospital in Nocera Inferiore from tuberculosis. [see: Sep. 1]

1897 - Ida Scarselli (d. 1989), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist militant, born. Her father Eusebio aka 'Zoppo' was a member of the Unione Anarchica Italiana, as were her brothers and sister (Ferrucio, Egisto, Oscar, Tito and Ines Leda), and were collectively known to the police as the 'Banda dels Zoppo'.

1912 - 'Los Angeles Times' Bombing: Clarence Darrow is found not guilty of bribing a juror during the McNamara trial.

1913 - Paterson Silk Strike: With the silk workers close to starvation and the IWW's organisers having been battling to try and persuade the different groups of strikers not to accept the bosses' shop-by-shop settlement, Big Bill Haywood announces that he will no longer be actively involved in the Paterson Silk Strike. This comes as another blow to the silk strikers who are battling on in spite of hunger, arrests, and fines. Fellow IWW organiser Joseph Ettor claims that Haywood is ill and unable to continue his active role in the strike. Elizabeth Gurley Flynn is in New York City at the home with her parents, reportedly ill with a severe sore throat. It appears that 3,500 dyers will go back to work this week. Many of the ribbon and broad silk workers have been going back to work during the past three weeks. ['The Indianapolis News', July 17, 1913]

1916 - Following the XII Congress of the CNT held in May 1916, which passed a resolution in favour of calling a general protest strike, limited in principle to one day, and contacts with the socialists PSOE and UGT, leads to the signing of the 'Pacto de Zaragoza'. A joint committee of Ángel Pestaña and Salvador Seguí from the CNT and Francisco Largo Caballero, Julián Besteiro and Vicente Barrio for the UGT is set up in order to organise the protest strike.

1917 - [O.S. Jul. 4] July Days [Июльские дни]: At 03:00, 80,000 workers and soldiers reach the Tauride Palace. Junkers meet the demonstrators, and tear up placards. A shot is fired, but disaster is averted. The Bolsheviks spend the early hours of morning figuring out how to organise the demonstrators. By 11:00 the demonstrators assemble yet again. Now, entire Regiments arrive, but they are no longer at the front of the demonstrations: the workers have taken the lead by shear mass of numbers. Even in factories where Mensheviks and SRs hold influence, four out of five workers join the demonstrations. The country witnesses a massive General Strike. Lenin speaks to the demonstrators, encouraging their slogan of All power to the Soviets!
Over 500,000 people attend the demonstrations in Petrograd. The first of the soldiers from the front arrive ready to support the Provisional Government, and frightened that a revolution is imminent, are ordered to launch ambushes against the masses. 700 people are killed and wounded. The Mensheviks, hands covered in blood, eventually "convince" the demonstrators to go home. The SRs and Mensheviks support punitive measures against the insurgents. They begin to disarm workers, disband revolutionary military units, and carry out arrests.

1917 - [O.S. Jul. 4] Polubotkivtsi Uprising [Восстание Полуботковцев] or Polubotko Club Affair: An armed revolt by Kiev garrison troops during the July Days (July 17-18) following the collapse of the Kerensky Offensive (July 16), which takes its name from the Ukrainian Military Club of Pavlo Polubotok (Украинский военный клуб имени гетмана Павла Полуботка), a revolutionary nationalist organisation within the Ukranian military.

1917 - Alexander Berkman is wrongly indicted in absentia in San Francisco for complicity in three murders stemming from the July 16, 1916 Preparedness Day Bombing.

[B] 1917 - Christiane Rochefort (d. 1998), French writer, novelist, essayist, translator, journalist, feminist and anarchist, born. She has also written novels under the pseudonym of Dominique Fejös.

1919 - Pau Sabater i Lliró aka 'el Tero' (b. 1884), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, secretary of the Sindicato de Tintoreros of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, one of the most powerful unions in the textile industry, is kidnapped and killed by a band of employers' pistoleros led by Commissioner Manuel Bravo Portillo. Portillo will be killed in revenge on September 5. [see: Mar. 5]

1932 - Altonaer Blutsonntag [Altona Bloody Sunday]: Violent confrontations between the Sturmabteilung (SA) and Schutzstaffel (SS), the police, and Communist Party (KPD) supporters in Altona (Now in Hamburg, but at the time a part of Schleswig-Hosltein, which was part of Prussia) leaves 18 people dead, including two SA members, most of them killed by police bullets. The riots were used by Papen as an excuse for his Prussian Coup on July 20. When the Nazi Party seized power in Germany in May 1933, 15 Communists who had been arrested were tried for murder. In addition to prison terms, four of the accused were sentenced to death and executed in the guillotine on August 1, 1933.

1932 - Josep (or José) Prat (b. unknown), eminent Catalan anarchist anarcho-syndicalist and journalist, dies. In 1907 he participated in the organisation Solidaridad Obrera in Barcelona and became one of the progenitors of the CNT, touring Catalonia espousing a completely autonomous syndicalism that would not be subject to the direction of any political party and proletising in the pages of 'Tierra y Libertad' and 'El Obrero Moderno'. Early advocate of women's liberation, arguing that the condition of women is their repression by men. "'Nature' has nothing to do with this.... If woman is backward, it is because in all times man has kept her inferior ..." (1903). He worked on the newspapers 'El Productor' (1901-1906), 'Tierra y Libertad' (1906-09), 'La Publicitat', 'La Campana de Gràcia', 'La Aurora Social' (paper of the Federation of Workers of Zaragoza; 1910) and 'Solidaridad Obrera' (1918).

[C] 1936 - Army uprising in Morocco as Rightist generals declare war on the Spanish Republic. In Barcelona workers of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, seize 200 rifles from the holds of 2 ships docked in the harbour and distribute them to union activists. The Spanish Revolution begins.

1951 - Charles Desplanques (b. 1877), French anarchist, trade unionist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Feb. 6]

1954 - The first issue of the newspaper 'El Libertario' in Santiago, Chile: "The emancipation of the workers is the task of the workers themselves."

1970 - Rivolta di Reggio [Reggio Revolt]: Fourth day of general strike. Incidents continue. Antonio Coppola, a 17-year-old student, is hospitalised in a coma. Barricades and clashes in the suburbs. The Chamber of Labour is attacked. Twenty-one wounded among the police, 47 arrests. [expand]

1978 - Battle for Brick Lane: The Hackney and Tower Hamlets Defence Committee organises a day long strike, which brings Tower Hamlets to a standstill. They are joined by 400 pupils from the predominantly British Asian Robert Montefiore school in protest against the racist violence in and around their school.
[www.ideastore.co.uk/assets/documents/bengali booklet FINALcropped1.pdf

1980 - Juan García Oliver (b. 1901), Catalan anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist activist, anti-Franco fighter and Minister of Justice of the Republican government, dies. [expand]

1981 - Cape Breton Coal Strike: 3,500 miners in the Cape Breton Island coal fields in Nova Scotia, Canada, go on strike over wages. It was the first strike since nationalisation of the mines in 1967. The bitter strike was settled in October, with a tentative agreement that raised wages 50 percent over two years.

1987 - Concha Estrig (Concepció Estrig; b. 1909), Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, dies of complications relating to kidney disease. [see: Oct. 11]

1994 - A monument commemorating the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup is iinaugurated on the site of where the Vélodrome d'Hiver once stood.

1997 - Police raid anarchist centres and homes across Italy. The Italian Anarchist Federation denounces the raids.
1881 - Jules Sellenet, known as Francis or François Boudoux and as Jean Le Vieux (d. 1941), French militant, anti-militarist and anarcho-syndicalist secretary of the l'union des syndicats de Meurthe-et-Moselle, born. In 1907 during a peaceful demonstration by strikers in Raon-l'Etape, the forces of "order" opened fire on the procession, killing two workers. Boudoux deliveres a speech at the funeral services for the two workmen. [see: Jul. 28] A member of l'Association Internationale Antimilitariste, Boudoux was arrested numerous times for his anti-military activities and also for "offences related to industrial disputes". His own union denounced him as an agent provocateur, a charge that the Communists would revive following WWI. On January 11, 1924, he was wounded during a meeting that ended in a brawl between anarchist trade unionists and Communists (two anarchists were killed). In 1926, he served with Pierre Besnard, founder of the C.G.T- S.R (revolutionary syndicalist), as secretary of the Federation of Builders. He also fought in Spain in 1936 with the Durruti Column.

1881 - Antonia Maymón (Antonia Rufina Maymón Giménez; July 18, 1881 - December 20, 1959), Spanish rationalist pedagogue, militant naturist, anarchist and anarcha-feminist, who published books on various topics. Maymón collaborated in numerous congresses and publications, such as 'Generación Consciente', and was a founder of the FAI.

1887 - Ettore Mattei founds La Sociedad Cosmopolita de Resistancia y Colocación de Obreros Panaderos, the first organised workers' resistance society, in Buenos-Aires. Errico Malatesta, in Argentina at the time, writes its statutes.

1888 - London Match Girls' Strike: The victorious Bryant & May match girls return to work having won a series on concessions from management is excess of their initial demands. [see: Jul. 17]

1891 - The first issue of the Italian language newspaper 'Pensiero e Dinamite' (Thought and Dynamite), "il pensiero per sollevare i deboli, la dinami- te per abbattere i potenti" (thought to lift the weak, dynamite to bring down the mighty), is published in Geneva. The founder of the newspaper is the Sicilian anarchist Paolo Schicchi. Wanted by the Italian police for desertion, he intially took refuge in France before being deported. Ending up in Geneva (via Malta), he contacted other anarchists aiming to set up a newspaper expressly calling for violent action. He was eventually expelled from Switzerland after he committed an attack on a police officer.

1892 - Homestead Steel Strike: Sixteen of the strike leaders are charged with conspiracy, riot and murder in connection wit the battle on July 6. Each man was jailed for one night and forced to post a $10,000 bond. The union retaliated by charging company executives with murder as well. The company men, too, had to post a $10,000 bond, but they were not forced to spend any time in jail. One judge issued treason charges against the Advisory Committee on August 30 for making itself the law. Most of the men could not raise the bail bond, and went to jail or into hiding.
In the end, only four workers were ever tried on the actual charges filed on July 18. Three AA members were found innocent of all charges. Hugh Dempsey, the leader of the local Knights of Labor District Assembly, was found guilty of conspiring to poison nonunion workers at the plant – despite the state's star witness recanting his testimony on the stand. Dempsey served a seven-year prison term. In February 1893, Knox and the union agreed to drop the charges filed against one another, and no further prosecutions emerged from the events at Homestead.

1894 - Fauset MacDonald delivers an address on 'The Anarchists Plan of Campaign', at a meeting of anarchist-communists at Leicester, England.

1898 - Eva Brandes (d. 1988), US anarchist, who lived at the Ferrer Center in New York and at Stelton Colony, and served on the Board at Mohegan colony, as well as working in for many years in the offices of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union in New York, born.

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 5] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: After two days of debate (July 17-18), during which elements of the Social Democrats, Trudoviks and Kadets parties called for its redrafting with stronger language, the Duma passes the 'Appeal to the People' (Воззвание к народу), drawn up in the wake of the Government's rejection of its agrarian reform bill on July 3rd. The 'Appeal', which lays out the proposed reforms and the government's rejection of them, in effect calls for the Duma to assume executive power.

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 5] Markovo Republic [Марковская Республика]: Cossacks put an end to the Markovo Republic

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 5] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Following the Duma's pronouncements of land reforms, the Tsar decided that a liberal government is in fact a liabilty that cannot be allowed to continue.

1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: A series of bloody confrontations breaks out between the Spanish army and the working classes of Barcelona and other Catalan cities, backed by anarchists, socialists and republicans. It was caused by the calling-up of reserve troops by Prime Minister Antonio Maura to be sent as reinforcements when Spain renewed military-colonial activity in Morocco on July 9, in what is known as the Second Rif War in Melilla.
The transports had begun on July 11th without incident but on the 18th the first major flashpoint occurred when a party of conscripts, including the Batalló de Caçadors de Reus, integrated in the Brigada Mixta de Cataluña, boarded ships owned by the Marques de Comillas, a noted Catholic industrialist, en route for Morocco. The soldiers were accompanied by patriotic addresses, the Royal March, and religious medals distributed by pious well dressed ladies. Spain's narrow social construction was thus on display for all to see, an affluent Catholic oligarchy impervious to the rise of secular mass politics. The onlooking crowd, which contained a number of anarchist and socialist agitators, jeered and whistled, shouting: "¡Abajo la guerra! ¡Que vayan los ricos! ¡Todos o ninguno!" (Down with the war. They are the rich. All or nothing.) as the emblems of the Sacred Heart were thrown from the transport ship Cataluña into the sea. The police reacted by firing into the air and arrested several people.
The protests increased in the following days, with street demonstrations, not only in Barcelona, ​​but also in Madrid and other locations, as news began to come in of the first deaths in combat of the reservists.
www.pronunciamientos.rizoazul.com/semana tragica.html

[E] 1911 - Henriette Bie Lorentzen (Anna Henriette Wegner Haagaas; d. 2001), Norwegian humanist, peace activist, feminist, editor and WWII resistance member, who survived torture by Gestapo at Arkivet, then periods in Grini concentration camp and the Nazi Ravensbrück concentration camp, born. One of its three original teachers and co-founders of the humanist Nansen Academy in 1937, she became involved, along with her husband Øyvind and first cousin Henrik Groth, in the Norwegian resistance movement, helping anti-Nazi refugees, acting as a courier and distributing underground newspapers.
In 1943 she was arrested and tortured by the Gestapo at Arkivet, the Gestapo headquarters in southern Norway, even though she was pregnant, while her husband escaped to Sweden. She was then transferred to Grini detention camp, where she was told that her unborn child would be sent to Germany for forced adoption, prompting her to attempt to take her own life. However, following the intervention of an anti-Nazi Austrian military doctor, her newborn daughter was instead given to her father and sister. As a Nacht und Nebel political prisoner, she was sent to Ravensbrück concentration camp where she remained until the end of the war. After the war, she founded the women's magazine 'Kvinnen og Tiden' (Woman and Time) together with Kirsten Hansteen, the first female member of the Norwegian cabinet.
She later worked as a lecturer in Norwegian language and literature as well as drama at the Den kvinnelige industriskole / Statens lærerskole i forming, Oslo ( The Women's Industrial School / The State School of Education in Oslo), as well as being active in the Norsk Kvinnesaksforening (Norwegian Association for Women's Rights), Amnesty Norway and the anti-nuclear organisation Bestemødre mot atomvåpen (Grandmothers Against Nuclear Arms).
Henriette Bie Lorentzen died in Oslo on August 23, 2001.

1913 - Paterson Silk Strike: Skilled ribbon weavers are the first to break ranks and accept the mill owners' terms, returning to work en masse. [see: Jan. 27 & Feb. 24]

1913 - During the Potlatch Riots in Seattle, Washington, sailors destroy the Industrial Workers of the World union hall and burning all the books they found there.

1913 - The first issue (of only 2) of 'La Ira' (Wrath), "Paper of the expression of the disgust and anger of the people", is published in Barcelona.

[D] 1917 - [O.S. Jul. 5] Polubotkivtsi Uprising [Восстание Полуботковцев] or Polubotko Club Affair: An armed revolt by Kiev garrison troops during the July Days (July 17-18) following the collapse of the Kerensky Offensive (July 16), which takes its name from the Ukrainian Military Club of Pavlo Polubotok (Украинский военный клуб имени гетмана Павла Полуботка), a revolutionary nationalist organisation within the Ukranian military.

1917 - [O.S. Jul. 5] July Days [Июльские дни]: At 06:00, the Government begins the offensive. The offices and printing machinery of 'Pravda' are destroyed. Workers distributing the paper are murdered in the streets. Ironically, the last documents to come from the press are the continued Bolshevik position of stopping the demonstration. Government agents then ransack the Kshesinskaya Palace, headquarters of the Bolshevik Central Committee and Petrograd Committee. Union and Soviet workers are arrested in mass from factories and meeting halls in retaliation for their leadership of the demonstrations. Wide-scale fear and intimidation grips the city as the police presence intensifies to an almost martial law status; the mere mention of Lenin or the Bolsheviks is cause for arrest.

[A/F] 1917 - Greve Geral no Brasil: Beginning of city-wide General Strike in Rio de Janeiro, for an 8-hour day and 20% wage increase following a meeting at the headquarters of the Federação Operária do Rio de Janeiro the previous day. [expand]

[B] 1928 - Simon Vinkenoog (d. 2009), Dutch writer, poet, performer, Provo and anti-Drugs war activist, born.

1929 - Franca Rame (d. 2013), Italian theatre actress, playwright and radical activist, who at onetime was a member of the PCI as well as the prisoners support group Soccorso Rosso (Red Aid) and, later, the Partito della Rifondazione Comunista (Communist Refoundation Party), born.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: A general strike is called in Seville in protest at the death of a striking brewery worker, resulting in further clashes that end with the murder of a worker from the Osborne factory. During his burial anarchists clash with the police, leaving four workers and three security guards dead. [see: Aug. 6]

[C] 1933 - Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Yevtushenko, Russian poet, novelist, essayist, dramatist, screenwriter, actor, editor, director and political dissident, born. His early poems were profoundly influenced by Vladimir Mayakovsky and he gained international fame in 1961 with 'Babi Yar', in which he denounced Nazi and Russian anti-Semitism. It was the first inklings of dissent and the poem was not published in Russia until 1984, although it was frequently recited in both Russia and abroad. 'The Heirs of Stalin' (1961), which warned that Stalinism had long outlived its creator, cause further unease in the Communist Party but it wasn't until he published his 'A Precocious Autobiography' (1963) in English, and his privileges (including foreign travel) were withdrawn, though they were restored two years later.

1936 - Rightist rebels seize control of a third of the Spanish mainland and martial law is declared in the Canary Islands. The newspaper 'Solidaridad Obrera' features the headline: "In Seville, the fascists shoot at our brothers! In Cordoue, the soldiers uprise! In Morocco, one fights in the streets! Who does not fill their revolutionary duty is a traitor to the cause of the people! Long Live Libertarian Communism!"

1936 - Armand Guerra begins writing his journal of the Civil War that will become 'A Través de la Metralla' (1937).

1936 - The first issue of the weekly newspaper of the Federació Ibèrica de Joventuts Llibertàries (FIJL), 'Juventud Libre', is published in Madrid.

1939 - Hunter S. Thompson (aka Raoul Duke; d. 2005), American author and Gonzo journalist, born.
"I hate to advocate drugs, alcohol, violence or insanity to anyone, but they've always worked for me." [unknown]
"I sat there for a long time, and thought about a lot of things. Foremost among them was the suspicion that my strange and ungovernable instincts might do me in before I had a chance to get rich. No matter how much I wanted those things that I needed money to buy, there was some devilish current pushing me off in another direction- toward anarchy poverty and craziness. That maddening delusion that a man can lead a decent life without hiring himself out as a Judas goat." - 'The Rum Diary' (1998)
"America... just a nation of two hundred million used car salesmen with all the money we need to buy guns and no qualms about killing anybody else in the world who tries to make us uncomfortable." - 'Fear and Loathing: On the Campaign Trail '72' (1973)
"I have in recent months come to have a certain feeling for Joe Hill and the Wobbly crowd who, if nothing else, had the right idea. But not the right mechanics. I believe the IWW was probably the last human concept in American politics." - 'The Proud Highway: 1955–67, Saga of a Desperate Southern Gentleman' (1997)

[BB] 1943 - Gérard Tolck (d. 2005), Swiss painter, engraver, sculptor, editor, agitator and cultural anarchist, born. He was responsible for 2 important Les Breuleux libertarian publications, 'Le Détonateur: Journal de Contre Information et de Réflexion pour l'Unité de la Gauche Autogestionnaire' (1977-81) and 'Le Réveil Anarchiste' (1979-83), de la Fédération Libertaire des Montagnes (Libertarian Federation of the Jura Mountains; FLM). He was also one of the founders of 'Cahiers Noirs' and collaborated on 'Réfractions: Recherches et Expressions Anarchistes'. In 1980 he co-founded Le Café du Soleil, a self-managed libertarian cultural centre in Saignelégier, which organised its famous painting and writing workshops.

1945 - Nathalie (Natalie) Wintsch-Maléef (Jeanne-Natalie Maléef; b. 1880), Russian-Swiss doctor, teacher, feminist and anarchist, dies.

1958 - Anna Götze (b. 1875), German bookbinder, anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist and anti-fascist, who was the mother of FAUD members Irma and Ferdinand 'Nante' Götze, dies. [see: Apr. 6]

1964 - Riots break out in Harlem, New York - the first of a series of summer racial riots in Brooklyn (on the 20th), Rochester, Paterson, Elizabeth, Newark, Philadelphia and suburban Chicago - after a police officer shoots an unarmed 15-year-old black youth.

1968 - Protests by youths at the XIIème Festival de Théâtre in Avignon claiming that it is little better than a cultural supermarket in service of the bourgeoise coincide with the banning of a performance of Gérard Gelas' play 'La Paillasse aux Seins Nus' (The Bare-Breasted Clown) in Villeneuve-lès-Avignon by the préfet de police on the grounds that it "risked disturbing public order" and was "against the person of the Head of State". A peaceful protest that evening involving l'enragé Jean-Jacques Lebel is attacked by the CRS. In solidarity, Julian Beck and Judith Malina's Living Theatre, who are due to appear at the festival, refuse to perform their play 'Antigone'. [see: Jul. 20, 27 & 28]

1969 - Fania Esiah Mindell (b. 1894), American theatre set and costume designer, feminist and activist, who together with Margaret Sanger and her sister Ethel Byrne opened the Brownsville Clinic in Brooklyn, the first birth control clinic in the United States, dies in Mexico, a refugee from McCarthyism. [see: Dec. 15]

1973 - Georges Henein (b. 1914), Egyptian surrealist author and Trotskyist who was sympathetic to anarchism, dies. [see: Jan. 20]

[DD] 1977 - Motín en la Cárcel de Carabanchel: A major uprising in Carabanchel prison in Madrid organised by Coordinadora de Presos en Lucha (COPEL / Coordination of Prisoners in Struggle). It continues until the 22nd. [expand]

1989 - Donbass Miners' Strike [Донбасса Шахтерский забастовка] / 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: The strike that had begun in Mezhdurechensk (Междуреченска) and broken out in Makeyevka (Макеевка [ru] / Макіївц [uk]) now spreads across the entire Dombass region. At its height, the strike involved 220 mines in the Donbass with up to 90,000 miners out on strike in support of 37 demands (and a further four on behalf of Chervonohrad miners).

1997 - In Bombay, at least 8,000 low-caste Indians riot after a funeral for 10 children killed by police.
1692 - Salem 'Witch' Trials: Rebecca Nurse, Sarah Good, Susannah Martin, Elizabeth Howe and Sarah Wildes are hung in the second of four sets of executions.

1834 - Jean-Marie Déguignet (d. 1905), Breton peasant, soldier, farmer, salesman, shopkeeper, libertarian and writer, who is best known for his memoirs, 'Les Mémoires d'un paysan bas-breton' (1904), a classic depiction of the life of the rural poor in C19th France, born.

1848 - The Seneca Falls Convention, the first women's rights convention in the United States, takes place [Jul. 19-20] in Seneca Falls, New York. Organised by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and female Quakers from the area , there Stanton presented her Declaration of Sentiments and advocated women's right to vote.

1865 - Zelmira Peroni or Zelmira Binazzi (Carlotta Germina Peroni; d. 1936), Italian designer and anarchist propagandist, born.

1871 - [N.S. Jul. 31] Maria Isidine aka Maria Goldsmith or Maria Korn (Maria Isidorovna Goldsmith [Мария Исидоровна Гольдсмит]; d. 1933), Russian Jew, Socialist-Revolutionary, anarchist militant and biologist (animal psychology) at the Sorbonne préparatrice zoology laboratory, born. [see: Jul. 31]

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar & Cádiz: The Government of Spain decided to end the revolution in Sanlúcar. Meanwhile, the Cantón de Cádiz is declared, with the prominent Andalusian anarchist Fermín Salvochea y Álvarez elected Alcalde de Cádiz and Presidente del Cantón de Cádiz.

1879 - Eugène Lanti (aka Eugène Adam) (d. 1947), French Espérantist, anarchist, anti-nationalist, anti-Stalinist Communist, born.

1887 - [N.S. Jul. 31] Tatiana Ivanovna Lebedeva (Татьяна Ивановна Лебедева; b. 1850 or 1853), Russian revolutionary, member of the Tchaikovsky (чайковцы) circle, Zemlya i Volya (Land and Liberty) and the executive committee of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), dies from scurvy and tuberculosis in Carian (Карийской) prison. [see: Jul. 31]

[E] 1889 - Clara Zetkin delivers her first speech on the problems of women, 'Für die Befreiung der Frau!' (For the liberation of women!), to the Founding Congress of the Second International in Paris. She advocates women's right to work and protection of mothers and children, as well as women's broad participation in national and international events.

[B] 1893 - Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Маяко́вский; d. 1930), Russian and Soviet poet, playwright, artist and stage and film actor, born.

1894 - The anarchist Paolo Lega is sentenced to 20 years and 17 days in prison for his June 16 failed assassination attempt on the Italian prime minister, Francesco Crispi. [see: Dec. 9]

1898 - Herbert Marcuse (d. 1979), French philosopher, sociologist, political theorist and author of 'One-Dimensional Man' (1964), born.

1905 - [O.S. Jul. 6] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: A joint Zemstvo-City Council conference meets in Moscow in defiance of the government, drawing up a draft constitution and calls for mass agitation.

1905 - [O.S. Jul. 6] Ivanovo Soviet [Иваново-Вознесенский Депутатов] / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: With the manufacturers in Ivanovo-Voznesensk (Иваново-Вознесенский) having begun to renege on their promises with an attempted lockout, the Workers' Council is reactivated and resumes rallies on the banks of the River Talka (Реки Талка). Despite the lack of funds to support the striking workers and their families, they decide that only hunger will manage to force them to accept the partial concessions offered by the entrepreneurs and resume work.

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 6] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Cabinet secretly votes to dissolve the Duma. At the same time the leader of Kadets (Конституционно-демократической партии), Pavel Milyukov (Па́вел Милюко́в), warns of the possibility of civil war if the Duma is dissolved.

1907 - Belfast Lockout / Dockers & Carters’ Strike - Police Mutiny: The police mutiny broke out when the Royal Irish Constabulary over their role in escoting the blackleg carters who had been recruited to drive the traction engines that had been sent to Belfast to deliver the goods which had been unable to leave the port due to the striking carters. The traction engines, equipped with makeshift armour, were regularly blocked en route by flying pickets and the blackleg carters attacked. In one incident in East Belfast, a crowd of shipyard workers threw a telegraph pole at a blackleg carter and his traction engine. The merchandise he had been transporting ended up in the nearby Connswater River. The policemen, however, received no extra pay for the hazardous duty which left them vulnerable to attack nor for the regular breaking up of strikers' pickets; both of which threatened to alienate them from their own communities, and in some cases their own families.
On July 19, RIC Constable William Barrett refused to sit beside the blackleg driver of a traction engine who had been promised personal police protection by his employer. After flatly refusing to obey District Inspector Thomas Keaveney when the latter ordered him to accompany the driver, he was promptly suspended. In response, 300 angry policemen attended a meeting at Musgrave Street Barracks and declared their support for the strike. A brawl instantly broke out inside the barracks when Barrett resisted attempts by RIC officers to arrest him. This led to another 800 policemen (about 70 per cent of the police force) joining the mutiny. They refused to offer any protection to the blacklegs, made no further attempts to disperse the strikers' pickets and Larkin persuaded them to carry out their own strike for higher wages and better pensions.
Having prevaricated for a month, the military now rushed thousands of troops including cavalry into the city. Warships arrived in Belfast lough. This was effectively the imposition of martial law, and by early August some transport was moving in the city.

1907 - José Xena Torrent born (d. 1988), Catalan anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1908 - Emma Goldman's 'What I Believe' is published in the 'New York World'

1913 - Charles Keller (b. 1843), French poet, Paris Communard and Bakuninist, dies. [see: Apr. 30]

1915 - Vernon Richards (d. 2001), Anglo-Italian anarchist, éminence grise of 'Freedom' for much of the second half of C20th and companion to Marie Louise Berneri until her tragic death during childbirth in 1949, born.

[F] 1917 - Huelga General Revolucionaria [Revolutionary General Strike] / Vaga General Espanyola [Spanish General Strike]: Plans for the general strike have to be changed when a strike by UGT-affiliated Valencian railway workers in dispute with the Compañía de los Caminos de Hierro del Norte de España (Northern Spanish Railyway Company) takes place to coincide with the Asamblea de Parlamentarios in Barcelona. During the negotiations the company had refused to readmit 36 workers who had been dismissed, an inflexible position that the Government supported, no doubt based upon the threat of the imminent general strike. On July 21 the Capitán General of Valencia declared a state of emergency. In response, and despite the understanding that no dispute should be triggered prior to the general strike, pressure from the rank and file forced the Federación Ferroviaria de UGT to announce that if the company did not give in, a strike across the whole sector would begin on August 10. The company did not back down, so the leadership of the Unión General was faced with a difficult choice – it did not want to abandon the rail workers but to precipitate a strike before the wider revolutionary movement was fully prepared would likely prove distaterous. Finally, the socialist strike committee – composed of Francisco Largo Caballero and Daniel Anguiano for the UGT and Julián Besteiro and Andrés Saborit for the PSOE – decided to declare the general strike for Monday, August 13, three days after the railway strike was due to begin on the 10th

1917 - [O.S. Jul. 6] July Days [Июльские дни]: Around 120 Kronstadt sailors refuse to give in, and retreat to the Peter and Paul fortress. Red Guards (a militia of regular factory workers) accompany the sailors, following their pledge to protect them. The Government forces setup a barricade and begin a seige. Stalin mediates and reaches an agreement with both sides: the Kronstadters will disarm, in return for getting free passage back to Kronstadt. The General Strike comes to an end, and workers return to their jobs, fearful of arrest. The Government induced terror becomes near hysteria, and countless numbers are arrested as spies. All troops called in from the front arrive in Petrograd, in a massive show of force.

1917 - SMS Prinzregent Luitpold Mutiny: Whilst on its way from Kiel to Wilhelmshaven, sailors on board the dreadnought SMS Prinzregent Luitpold stage one of a series of ongoing protests, against the poor quailty of the rations and the unequal treatment of officers and crew, in the middle of the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal, blocking it. [see: Aug. 2 & Oct. 29]

1919 - In Bologna Riccardo Sacconi, Armando Borghi, Giuseppe Sartini, Virgilia D'Andrea, and others are arrested for their activism in social struggles (including the fight against rising food prices following the war) and their participation in various anarchist meetings.

1926 - Henri Gauche (aka René or Henri Chaughi; b. 1870), French anarchist and journalist, dies. Longtime contributor to 'Les Temps Nouveaux', and before that to 'La Révolte' and to 'La Plume'. Gauche originally agreed with the Manifeste de 16 and fought during WWI, though by 1916 he had concluded that he was wrong. [see: Feb. 7]

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: Another general strike is called in Seville following the previous day's clashes. [see: Aug. 6]

1933 - The Council of War in Brussels, Belgium, condemns two anarchist conscientious objectors: Hem Day and Léo Campion, who are sentenced respectively to 2 years and 18 months in prison for having returned their military papers to the Minister of Defence in protest against a new law aimed at curbing pacifist propaganda. The go on to start a hunger strike that will bring pressure on the Belgian government and lead to their release on August 3.

[C] 1936 - Military uprising in Barcelona put down by 'committees of defence' organised by the CNT, FAI and Libertarian Youth.
"... Y nosotros, proletarios, hemos escrito con nuestra sangre la única proclama : ¡ Muerte al fascismo y viva la Revolucion!"
(... And we proletarians have written with our blood the only proclamation: Death to fascism and long live the Revolution!)
- in 'Tierra y Libertad' (July 17, 1937).

1936 - Enrique Obregón Blanco (b. 1900 or 1904), Mexican-Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist secretary of the FAI groups, dies during the attempted fascist uprising, either protecting the central telephone exchange or the shipyards. The secretaries of the Catalan united socialist youth (Francisco Graells) and of the POUM youth (Germinal Vidal) also die in the fighting.

1936 - Arturo Menendez López, who was director general of Seguridad for the Second republic during the Casas Viejas incident, is arrested during the night by the military rebels in the Barcelona-Madrid train station Calatayud. He was taken to Pamplona and shot.

1936 - A planned meeting by the BU at Albert Croft in Miles Platting, Manchester is opposed by 5,000 anti-fascists. The Manchester Watch committee attempted to prevent the march taking place under the city's ban on politcal uniforms [see: Jun. 28] as black shirt likey to be present on the march would be provocative. However, a uniformless march goes ahead but an anti-fascist crowd jump the fascists' pitch in advance and when the march of 600 fascists arrives, it is roundly booed. [The BU's paper claims there were several tousand fascists in a half-mile long column.] Mosley is shouted down and scuffles break out. However, a heavy rain storm intervenes and the fascists decide to march off. [PR]

1937 - Official opening of the 'Entartete Kunst' (Degenerate Art) exhibition in Munich. "Insolent mockery of the Divine under centrist rule" - one of the slogans on the wall in Room One of the exhibition.

1938 - The release of a special issue of 'Nuevos Tiempos' in Barcelona marking the second anniversary of the events of July 19, 1936. " La mas alta expresion del pensamiento anarquista."

1943 - During WWII, an anarchist congress meets clandestinely near Toulouse (19-20th), at the farm of Alphonse and Paule Tricheux, to assess the political situation and attempt to reorganise the anarchist movement. Among those attending are André Arru, Voline, Maurice and Charles Laisant, etc.

1943 - Katya Budanova (Катя Буданова) (Yekaterina Vasylievna Budanova [Екатерина Васильевна Буданова]; b. 1916), WWII Soviet Air Force pilot and, along with Lydia Litvyak, one of the world's only two recognised fighter aces, is shot down during a dogfight with German fighter planes and killed. [see: Dec. 6]

1944 - From Britain, US 8th Air Force dispatched 5 B-17 bombers to drop propaganda leaflets in France and Belgium while 5 B-24 bombers paradropped supplies to French résistance fighters.

1947 - Huelga de Brazos Caídos [Strike of Lowered Arms*]: : Costa Ricans begin demonstrating in support of electoral reforms in the old capital of Cartago. The next day, government officers precipitated a clash with these protesters in Cartago, using gas and beating protesters; violence resulted, and multiple people, including some police officers, received bullet wounds from the clash. The following day, the 'Huelga de Brazos Caídos' began with an opposition-organised protest march. Angry at this violent response to demonstrations, the opposition issued a strike call and organised a march for the next day. At the same time, the federation of university students, who had their own grievances with the Picado government, voted to enter the protests. The marchers directly disobeyed a warning by Picado and a part of the electoral code that prohibited marches in the lead-up to the 1948 presidential election. They occupied the Plaza Soledad in San Jose, blocking and harassing official cars. By this time, five people, reportedly protesting students, had already been killed in violence relating to the protests.

1951 - In Barcelona, César Saborit Carrelero, Catalan guerrillero anarquista and member of the action group of José Lluis Facieras, is killed by two police officers of the Brigada Politico-Social. [see: Feb. 16]

[D] [July 19 - August 1 1953 - Vorkuta Uprising [Воркутинское Восстание]: [expand]

1985 - André Pierre Daunis (b. 1897), French railway worker, farmer, electrician, mason and militant libertarian communist, dies. [see: Aug. 1]

1989 - Donbass Miners' Strike [Донбасса Шахтерский забастовка] / 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: 67 mines in the Donetsk region now on strike with 22,000 miners in total not working. Workers in the Pavlogradugol (Павлоградвугілля) miners association in the Dnipropetrovsk (Дніпропетровської) region also come out on strike.
Particularly angry that the mass media had not published all of the demands of the Kuzbass miners, the night shift [July 19-20] of miners in the Karaganda Basin in Kazakhstan, the country's third largest coalfield, go out on strike. They also have a number of local environmental demands such as the construction of a purification plant in Mezhdurechensk, and the stopping of the Krapivinskii hydro-electric project on the Tom River and the ending of atomic testing in Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan. Work resumed with the night shift of July 22-23.

1990 - Ruth 'Coucou' Bösiger (b. unknown), anarchist and companion of André Bösiger, dies. [expand]

1998 - Giliana Berneri (b. 1919), Franco-Italian anarchist activist, dies. Daughter of Camillo Berneri and Giovannina Caleffi and sister of Marie-Louise Berneri. [see: Oct. 5]

[A] 2002 - A ten-day No Border Camp begins in Strasbourg.

2005 - John Hutchyns Tyndall (b. 1934), British anti-Semite, white suprematist and neo-Nazi politician, dies. [see: Jul. 14]
1821 - Fortuné Henry (d. 1882), French libertarian journalist and poet, who was one of the most influential figures in the Paris Commune, born. Father of Émile Henry (1821-1882) and Jean-Charles Fortuné Henry (1869-19??).

1868 - Georges Yvetot (d. 1942), French typesetter and corrector, anarchist, syndicalist, anti-patriot and pacifist, born.

[EE] 1889 - Ellen Liddy Watson (b. 1860), pioneering female homesteader in Wyoming, who became erroneously known as Cattle Kate, is lynched after daring to take on the powerful cabal of the Wyoming Stock Growers Association, whose members falsely accused her of cattle rustling in order to sieze her land. Falsely labelled as being a prostitute and misidentified as cattle rustler 'Cattle Kate' Maxwell, the subsequent publicity surrounding the lynching was ruthlessly exploited by the cattle ranchers to repeatedly justify and glorify their violence.

1901 - [N.S. Aug. 2] Ida Mett [Ида Метт] (Ida Meyerovna Gilman [Ида Мееровна Гилман]; d. 1973) Belarusian-born anarchist, syndicalist and author, born. Member of the Dielo Truda group from 1925 to 1928. Author of 'The Kronstadt Uprising' (1921) and 'The Russian Peasant in the Revolution and Post Revolution' (1968) amongst others.

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 7] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The current Minister of Internal Affairs, Pyotr Stolypin (Пётр Столы́пин), is chosen to replace the archconservative Ivan Goremykin (Ива́н Горемы́кин) as Prime Minister. As a consequence, the once powerful General Dmitri Trepov (Дми́трий Тре́пов), the chief of police and gendarme corps, looses influence.

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 7] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Duma demands that the instigators of the Białystok pogrom be punished and that the government resign. As a final act before it dissolution, the Duma publishes its 'Appeal to the People' (Воззвание к народу). An outraged Tsar decides to sack the Duma. In preparation for potential unrest, troops start moving into St. Petersburg.

1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: News of the first armed clashes in Morocco and the death of the first reservists arrives in Spain, provoking further protests. [see: Jul. 18]

[E] 1912 - Suffragette Direct Action Campaign: Mary Leigh, Gladys Evans, Lizzie Baker and Mabel Capper attempted to set fire to the Theatre Royal in Dublin during a packed lunchtime meeting of 4,000 Irish Nationalists to be addressed by PM Herbert Asquith. They left a canister of gunpowder close to the stage and hurled petrol and lit matches into the projection booth, which contained highly combustible film reels. The previous day, Mary Leigh had hurled a hatchet (around which a text reading "This symbol of the extinction of the Liberal Party for evermore" was wrapped) into the carriage containing Asquith, which narrowly missed him and instead cut the Irish Nationalist MP John Redmond on the ear. Redmond's focus on the campaign for Home Rule had led to his refusal to insert a clause giving women the vote, assuring his status as a target. All four were remanded in prison during the trial and on August 7, Mary Leigh and Gladys Evans were sentenced to 5 years penal servitude, Jennie Baines (under the nom de guerre Lizzie Baker) was given seven months hard labour, and the charges against Mabel Capper were dropped.

1917 - [O.S. Jul. 7] July Days [Июльские дни]: The Provisional Government orders the arrest of Lenin, claiming he is a German spy, and that the Bolsheviks incited the uprising. The Provision Government further orders the disbandment of the Petrograd garrison.

1920 - The militant anarcho-syndicalist Spartaco Stagnetti, secretary of the Syndicat des Traminots de Rome is attacked and wounded by a bunch of nationalists and fascists, setting off a General Strike.

1921 - Jacques Long (aka Jacklon; b. 1890), French anarchist and partner of Jane Morand, commits suicide in Belgium. [see: Jun: 27]

1923 - Revolución Mexicana: Pancho Villa, his secretary Daniel Tamayo, his driver Colonel Miguel Trillo and four bodyguards are ambushed while driving through Parral. As Villa passed by a school in his black 1919 Dodge roadster, a pumpkinseed vendor ran toward Villa's car and shouted "Viva Villa!", a signal for a group of seven riflemen who then appeared in the middle of the road and fired more than 40 shots into the automobile. In the fusillade of shots, nine Dumdum bullets hit Villa in the head and upper chest, killing him instantly.

[D] 1923 - Francisco 'Pancho' Villa (José Doroteo Arango Arámbula; b. 1878), Mexican revolutionary, is ambushed and killed in Parral, México. [see: Jun. 5]

1925 - Frantz Fanon (d. 1961), French-Algerian psychiatrist, anti-colonialist/nationalist philosopher, revolutionary and writer, born. Works include 'Black Skin, White Masks' (1952) and 'The Wretched of the Earth' (1961).

1926 - Geoffrey Ostergaard (d.1990 ), English anarcho-pacifist, who wrote on workers' control, and also similarities of Sarvodaya in India and anarchism, born.

1936 - In Barcelona, following the fascist uprising by Franco and the military against the Republic yesterday, the workers of the CNT and POUM counter-attacked and today only Atarazanas barracks remain in fascist hands.

1936 - Francisco Ascaso (b. 1901), militant Spanish anarchist activist and anarcho-syndicalist, emblematic figure of the anti-Francoism killed during the anarchist raid on the Ataranzas barracks in Barcelona. [see: Apr. 1]

1939 - Judy Chicago, iconic US feminist artist, educator and author, known for large collaborative art installations, who coined the term "feminist art", born. Chicago's work 'The Dinner Party' (1974-79), which celebrates the achievements of women throughout history, is considered to be her masterpiece, as well as being probably the most famous example of such a "feminist artwork" to date.

1942 - Paolo Antonini (b. 1920), Italian anarchist who fought with the Republican forces during the Spanish Revolution, dies in prison in Casablanca, victim of ill treatment by French jailers. He was imprisoned with a number of fellow anarchists for trying to seize a trawler to sail to Gibraltar.

1943 - Shlomo (or Szlomo) Podchlebnik and Josef Kopf, members of the Waldkommando (Forest team) at Sobibor, whilst obtaining water to drink at the nearby village of Zlobek, attack the 2 Ukrainian guards, killing one, with them with a knife Podchlebnik had in his boot. They took the guards' guns and encouraged the others Jews in the Waldkommando to also try to flee. The others in the group decided to flee on foot while their eight guards were eating lunch later that day. Several of them - Podchlebnik, Kopf, Zindel Honigman, Chaim Korenfeld, Symcha Bialowitz, Abraham Wang, and Aron Licht - were able to successfully escape. Josef Kopf and Aron Licht were murdered by Polish anti-Semites in separate incidents after their escapes. The others survived the duration of the war.

[C] 1944 - July 20 Plot/Operation Walküre: Another attempt is made to assassinate Adolf Hitler [see: Jul. 6 & 11], this time inside his Wolf's Lair (Wolfsschanze) field headquarters near Rastenburg in East Prussia. High ranking Wehrmacht officers plotted to seize political control of Germany and its armed forces from the Nazi Party (including the SS) in order to obtain peace with the Allies as soon as possible. The failure of both the assassination and the military coup d'état (under the guise of Operation Walküre) which was planned to follow it led to the arrest of at least 7,000 people by the Gestapo. Amongst those prominent in the planning were Lieutenant Colonel Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg (1907 - 1944), Oberleutnant Werner Karl von Haeften (1908 - 1944), General Friedrich Olbricht (1888 - 1944) and Field Marshal Erwin von Witzleben (1881 - 1944), and they were among the 4,980 people executed in the aftermath. The methods involved ran from hanging and firing squad to beheading and slow strangulation with a garrote. Count Berthold Schenk von Stauffenberg (1905 - 1944), Claus von Stauffenberg's eldest brother, was killed by the latter method, which involved multiple resuscitations, all filmed for Hitler's later enjoyment. Others, including Colonel General Ludwig Beck (1880 -1944), Chief of the German General Staff, Generalmajor Henning von Tresckow (1901 - 1944) and Generalfeldmarschall Erwin Rommel (1891 - 1944), commited suicide, with Rommel being forced to do so by Hitler or face the persecution of his family.

1944 - 6 US B-17 bombers were launched after sundown to drop propaganda leaflets over France while 12 B-24 bombers dropped supplies to résistance fighters.

1945 - Paul Valéry (b. 1871), French poet, essayist, philosopher, polymath and non-doctrinal an-archiste, dies. [see: Oct. 30]

1962 - André Renard (b. 1911 ), Belgian socialist, anti-fascist résistant, syndicalist and Wallonian activist, who was prominent in the 1960-61 Grève Générale de l'Hiver and founded the political ideology Renardisme, which combined elements of syndicalism with Walloon nationalism, dies. [see: May 25]

[B] 1964 - Henri Chassin (b. 1887), French poet, anarchist songwriter and an anti-militarist who deserted from the army in 1914, dies. A "petit fils de communard" who was the author of numerous popular Parisian songs. Active in the great railway strike of 1920 and was charged with "conspiracy against state security" and imprisoned. Involved in le Groupe des Hydropathes, La Vache Enragée, the activities of La Muse Rouge and performed in many Paris cabarets such as the Grenier de Grégoire. Author of a book of poems 'Machin de Belleville' in 1927.

[DDD] 1967 - Wuhan Incident [七·二〇事件/ July 20th Incident]: Tanks and other military units are sent into Wuhan during an armed conflict in the People's Republic of China between two hostile groups - the Million Heroes (百万雄师), mainly skilled workers, state and local party employees, and were supported by the local PLA, and the Wuhan Workers' General Headquarters (工人总部), mostly comprised workers and students from Red Guard organisations - fighting for control over the city at the height of the Cultural Revolution.

1968 - After the events of July 18 in Avignon, a new protest rally against censorship takes place. It is dispersed by CRS riot cops who carry out further arrests. But while the local press spread its hateful and racist diatribes against the cast of Living Theatre, during the night fascist thugs (recruited from the sports of the city by the mayor and politicians left and right) attack the school where are Living Theatre actors are lodged, beating the director of the New York theatre and a passing youth whose only crime was to have long hair. [see also: 27 and 28 Jul.]

1972 - Salvadora Carmen Medina Onrubia de Botana aka 'La Venus Roja' (b. 1894), Argentine poet, novelist, playwright, anarchist and feminist of Spanish-Jewish origin, dies largely unknown in Buenos Aires, with barely a couple of female friends to follow her coffin. [see: Mar. 23]

1979 - Native American political prisoner Leonard Peltier escapes from Lompoc federal penitentiary, California.

[1989 - Donbass Miners' Strike [Донбасса Шахтерский забастовка] / 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: 88 mines now closed involving over 43,000 workers on strike, including 15,000 face workers.
The government delegation headed by Deputy Prime Minister L.D. Ryabev arrived in Donetsk.]

1994 - Paul Delvaux (b. 1897), Belgian painter, usually classed as a Surrealist though he was never a member of any Surrealist group, dies. [see: Sep. 23]

1996 - Albert Meltzer's (b. 1920) ashes are scattered in the CNT section of Montjuich cemetery in Barcelona. Co-founder of the Anarchist Black Cross, former used bookseller, author, etc., he helped found the Kate Sharpley Library.

[A] 2001 - Carlos Giuliani, a 23-year-old Italian activist and anarchist, is murdered in Genoa by Italian police during protests against the G8 summit.
[B] 1882 - David Davidovich Burliuk (Дави́д Дави́дович Бурлю́к; d. 1967), Ukrainian Futurist book illustrator, publicist, author and anarchist, born. Often called "the father of Russian Futurism". Brother of fellow artist Volodymyr (Wladimir) Burliuk and of anarchist Nikolay, who was arrested by the Red Army in December 1920, sentenced to be shot and executed on December 27. Burliuk himself had to flee Moscow after the Cheka raid against anarchists in April 1918. Co-author of the manifesto 'A Slap in the Face of Public Taste' (1912), said to be the spark that began Russian Futurism.

1887 - In Warsaw a small 40 page book entitled book titled 'Международный язык. Предисловие и полный учебник' (International language: Foreword and complete textbook) is published in Russian under the pseudonym Doktoro Esperanto (Doctor Hopeful), the pseudonym of Dr. Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof. Zamenhof initially called his language "Lingvo internacia" (international language), but those who learned it began to call it Esperanto after his pseudonym, and this soon became the official name for the language. Many anarchists were enthusiastic about the language, seeing this as a way to counter the nationalist instigators of war, but also a way to spread the libertarian ideal beyond state borders.

[F] 1877 - Pittsburgh Railway Riots / Great Railroad Strike: The Great Railway Strike of 1877 is underway across several states. In Pittsburgh, militia bayoneted and fired on rock-throwing strikers, killing 20 people and wounding 29 others. The workers responded by forcing the militia to take refuge in a railroad roundhouse, and then set fires that razed 39 buildings and destroyed 104 locomotives and 1,245 freight and passenger cars. [EXPAND]

[FF] 1899 - New York Newsboys' Strike: Large numbers of New York City newsboys refuse to distribute the papers of Joseph Pulitzer, publisher of 'The Evening World', and William Randolph Hearst, publisher of the 'New York Evening Journal' following the fall in newspaper circulation at the end of the Spanish–American War. With the advent of the war the previous year bringing an increase in newspaper sales, several publishers had taken the opportunity to raise the cost of a newsboy bundle of 100 newspapers from 50¢ to 60¢, a price increase that at the time was offset by the increased sales. After the war many papers reduced the cost back to previous levels, with the notable exceptions of the 'World' and the 'Journal'.

1899 - Ernest Miller Hemingway (d. 1961), American author, journalist and all-round macho man, born. In 1937 he began reporting on the Spanish Revolution for the North American Newspaper Alliance, writing his one and only play, 'The Fifth Column', later that year in Madrid as the city was being bombarded. He was also present at the Battle of the Ebro, the longest and bloodiest battle of the war, and was one of the last journalists to visit the scene. Hemingway's novel 'For Whom The Bell Tolls' (1940) is largely based upon his Spanish experiences during 1937-39.

1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: As the protests grow against the war in Morocco (Second Rif War), Solidaridad Obrera held a rally in Terrassa at which a proclamation by the socialist journalist Antoni Fabra i Ribas is read calling for a general strike throughout Spain on Monday July 26th. The 4,000 workers present approved the resolution in favour of the strike. There was now enormous pressure on the UGT to call a general strike throughout the State on August 2, which they would eventually bow to but too late for the workers in Catalonia. Their strike eventually took place on August 2 but with little support, due to the repressive measures taken by the government, which included the arrest in Madrid on July 28 Pablo Iglesias Posse and the rest of the socialist party leadership.
www.pronunciamientos.rizoazul.com/semana tragica.html

1913 - Paterson Silk Strike: William Brueckmann, the Socialist mayor of Haledon is indicted for malfeasance in office. [see: May 18]
[fultonhistory.com/Newspaper 14/New York NY Evening Call/New York NY]

1917 - Francesco Pezzi (b. 1849), Italain anarchist militant and self-taught accountant, dies. Companion of fellow Italian anarchist Maria Luisa 'Gigia' Minguzzi.

1920 - In Turin, Guglielmo Musso is killed by his own bomb during a solidarity strike following yesterday's fascist attack on Spartaco Stagnetti (the trade union secretary in Rome). The young anarchist Musso, about to toss a bomb at a group of police officers, apparently chose to hang onto the bomb at the last moment to avoid killing innocent bystanders.

[D] 1921 - Strage di Sarzana [Massacre of Sarzana]: The Strage di Sarzana (or Fatti di Sarzana [Facts of Sarzana] as it is also known) is one of the few instances of armed resistance to the rise of fascism in Italy, when an Italian town defended itself against a fascist column.
In July 1921, the fascists in Sarzana and the region around the town (then in the Province of Genoa and currently in the province of La Spezia) were not as well organised as in other areas of Italy. This was in a large part to the strong working class organisations present in the region, including that of the anti-fascist Arditi del Popolo. So, when a column of about 300 armed squadristi commanded by Amerigo Dumini and Umberto Banchelli arrived in the town at dawn on July 21, 1921, they face determined opposition. Thier objective was to storm the Fortezza Firmafede and free a group of fascists, who included the founder of the fascio di combattimento from nearby Carrara, Renato Ricci, who were being held there following the arrest for possession of weapons during a show of power by local fascists on June 12 – the incident, during which the town's guardie regie had attempted to prevent a clash with local socialists had ended with the fasciti firing randomly, mortally wounded a passing local worker Luigi Gastardelli.
The arrival of the squadristi provoked a stand-off with the local police and troops from the town's garrison in front of Sarzana's railway station. During negotiations between the two sides, a shot (whose source has never been ascertained) rang out, hitting a policeman in the arm. This provoked an exchange of shots that left four dead amongst the fascists and one of the garrison's soldiers. A number of other fascists were also wounded, two of whom later died in hospital. Around 100 squadristi then took refuge in the train station, where they held out until a specially laid on train evacuated them (one of the fascists on board was killed when the train was fired upon). Other squadristi scattered into the town's side streets and the surrounding countryside, where they were easy prey for the Arditi del Popolo and local farmers. Beaten, stabbed and shot, three died in Sarzana itself, one in the village of Romito and another was found in a dead in a ditch, killed by a single gunshot to the heart. Many others barely escaped with their lives.

1923 - The National Women’s Party launches its campaign for a Constitutional amendment guaranteeing equal rights for women and men.

1927 - In a Paris resturant, a meeting of the Comité International de Défense Anarchiste, Ascaso , Durruti and Jover hold a banquet to celebrate their liberation from French jail after plotting against King Alfonso XIII. In addition to their families, they are surrounded by thirty activists such as Sebastien Faure , Nestor Makhno and Louis Lecoin (the real architect of their release).

1930 - 24-hour general strike in Montevideo, Uruguay, protesting Uruguay protesting imprisonment of anarchists.

1931 - Émile Pouget (b. 1860), French anarcho-communist militant and propagandist, dies. Founded 'Le Père Peinard'. Author and signatory to the 'Charte d’Amiens' (Charter of Amiens; 1906), adopted by the CGT. [see: Oct. 12]

1936 - Start of the Siege of the Alcázar in Toledo. Creation of the Central Anti-Fascist Militias Committee (CAMC) in Catalonia, formed with representatives not only from the CNT but also from the POUM and bourgeois Catalan political parties in the Generalitat (the Catalan government). Within a few months the CAMC was dissolved, the Generalitat was reconstituted and the CNT entered the Generalitat on September 28th, 1936, taking over the Department of Food Supplies. Thus concessions by the CNT leadership towards the state had started already.

1936 - The date on which the iconic photograph of 17-year-old communist militant Marina Ginestà i Coloma was taken by Juan Guzmán on the rooftop of Hotel Colón overlooking Barcelona. [see: Jan. 29]

1940 - César Terron Abad (b. 1915), Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist guerrillerio, dies when his guerrilla group is attacked and he is shot in the head. Previously involved in the anarchist insurgency of 1933 (December 9), taking over the city of Fabero and proclaiming Libertarian Communism. Captain of the 210th Battalion (of the 192th Brigade), during the Spanish Revolution, which distinguished itself in the battle of El Mazuco. With the loss of Asturies in October 1937, César Terron formed a group of about 30 guerrillas who continued badgering and fighting the fascists.

[C] 1944 - Claus Philipp Maria Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg (b. 1907), German army officer and aristocrat who was one of the leading members of the failed 20 July plot of 1944 to assassinate Adolf Hitler and remove the Nazi Party from power, is executed by firing squad (alongside his aide, Lieutenant Werner von Haeften (1908 - 1944), General Friedrich Olbricht (1888 - 1944), and Colonel Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim (1905 - 1944)) at 1 a.m., following an impromptu court martial (called by their fellow conspirator Generaloberst Friedrich Fromm, Commander-in-Chief of the Replacement Army, in order to save his own neck) had condemned the ringleaders of the conspiracy to death shortly after the bomb that he planted in the Wolf's Lair (Wolfsschanze) failed to explode and Operation Valkyrie is aborted.

1944 - Herrmann Karl Robert 'Henning' von Tresckow (b. 1901), German Generalmajor, who organised Wehrmacht resistance against Adolf Hitler, commits suicide after the failure of the July 20 plot to assassinated Hitler. [see: Jan. 10]

1947 - Huelga de Brazos Caídos [Strike of Lowered Arms*]: The strike was part of a strategy organised by the opposition to the Calderónist government of Teodoro Picado Michalski, and the strike focused on labour and economic activities; with closures of shops and even educational centres, mainly in the Universidad de Costa Rica which also joined the strike. By this time the motto "No le compre, no le venda" (Do not buy, do not sell) had been coined in reference to the Calderonists. The strike was characterised by conflicts in the opposition ranks, particularly in the student and youth ranks and amongst young communists and social democrats, which became very violent.
Finally, after negotiations between government and opposition, the strike was called off on August 3, 1947 after the government agreed to create a Tribunal Nacional Electoral that would be left in the hands of the opposition. This, however, did not prevent the outbreak of the civil war in 1948 when, after the elections, the Constitutional Congress annulled the results alleging electoral fraud. [rewrite]
[*or "strike with arms at our sides"]

1955 - André Robèr, French anarchist writer, poet, painter and editor of the annual review 'Art & Anarchie', born. Founder of Editions K'A which publishes books in Creole.

1967 - Francois Mayoux (b. 1882), French teacher, syndicalist, pacifist and companion of Marie Mayoux, dies. [see: Jun. 24]

[E] 1972 - Salvadora Carmen Medina Onrubia de Botana (b. 1894), Argentine poet, novelist, playwright, anarchist and feminist of Spanish-Jewish origin, dies largely unknown in Buenos Aires, with barely a couple of female friends to follow her coffin. [see: Mar. 23]

[A] 1973 - Mossad agents murder Ahmed Bouchiki in Lillehammer, Norway in case of mistaken identity. The entire cell is arrested, blowing Mossad's operations in Europe.

1974 - Aurelio Fernández Sánchez (b. 1897), Spanish militant anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, member of Los Solidarios, dies. Active in the FAI and CNT. Took refuge in Mexico, with Garcia Oliver. Became secretary of the CNT (in exile) of Mexico. [see: Sep. 29]

1978 - Postal Workers Wildcat Strike: A wildcat strike begins by postal workers at the New Jersey Bulk and Foreign Mail Center in an attempt to nullify the tentative national contract agreement between the postal unions and the United States Postal Service. The conflict spread until eventually 4,750 postal workers were on strike nationwide. After the strike was broken, 125 workers were fired, 130 were temporarily suspended, 2,500 received letters of warning, the union memberships did not ratify the proposed settlement, and an arbitrated contract settlement was imposed.

[1989 - Donbass Miners' Strike [Донбасса Шахтерский забастовка] / 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: All 12 mines in the Ukrainian city of Chervonograd (Червонограда) are closed by strikes.
The 43 Requirements of the Interdepartmental Strike Committee of the Miners of the City of Vorkuta (Требования межшахтного забастовочного комитета шахтёров города Воркуты), drawn up at the Vorgashorskaya (Воргашорская) mine in Vorkuta are read out to a mass meeting of strikers.]

2007 - Ilya Borodaenko (Илья Бородаенко; b. 1986), Russian member of the Anarchist group Autonomous Action, dies from head injuries sustained during a neo-Nazi attack on an anti-nuclear protest camp at Angarsk, Siberia. At 5 a.m., around 15 neo-Nazi skinheads attacked the protesters, beating them with iron bars, knives, and air pistols. As a result of the attack, eight people were hospitalised – one, Ilya Borodaenko, died later that day of his injuries.
1788 - James Granger, a 38-year-old married weaver with six children, who had been the leader of the 1787 Calton Weavers Strike, stands trial accused of "forming illegal combinations". He was found guilty on July 22 and sentenced three days later on Friday 25th. The sentence was that he be carried to the Tollbooth, to remain there until August 13, on which day he would be publicly whipped through the streets of the city at the hands of the Common Executioner; that he should then be set at liberty and allowed till the October 15 to settle his affairs, after which he is to banish himself from Scotland for seven years, under the usual certifications, in case of his again returning during that term. A severe price to pay for trying to prevent a wage cut. James Granger returned and took part in the 1811-1812 strike and lived to the age of 75. [see: Jun. 30]

1867 - Gustave Le Rouge (Gustave Henri Joseph Lerouge; d. 1938), French writer, journalist, socialist and anarchist, born. A prolific author (Blaise Cendrars claims 300+ published works) of almost every genre: poetry, memoirs, plays, screenplays for thrillers, anthologies, essays, critical works, adventure novels, spy thrillers, fantasy, science fiction, etc.. Many of his works, such as 'La Conspiration des Milliardaires' (The Conspiracy of Billionaires; 1900), display a clear anti-American and/or anti-capitalist undercurrent.

1873 - Rebelión Cantonal / Revolución Cantonal in Sanlúcar: The Sanluqueño Comité de Salud Pública now preparesr the defence of the city, ordering the collect all kinds of ammunition to make available to volunteers. Unrest and fear are becoming unsustainable, with many Sanluquenians seeking shelter in safer places. Gradually the canton began to fall apart. The secretary of the town hall resigned, followe by members of the secretariat, and the popular masses began to manifest symptoms of decay and fatigue.

1877 - Chicago Railroad Strike / Great Railroad Strike: In anticpation of the coming strike, communist organisations release a statement: "In the desperate struggle for existence now being maintained by the workingmen of the great railroads throughout the land, we expect that every member will render all possible moral and substantial assistance to our brethren, and support all reasonable measures which may be found necessary by them." Throughout the day closed meetings were held by the men of the Michigan Southern, Rock Island, Chicago, & Northwestern and the Milwaukee & St. Paul railroads. The decision was made to suspend movement on the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago line until the strike atmosphere had passed.

1882 - José Oiticica (d. 1957), Brazilian lawyer, student of medicine, teacher, poet and an influential figure in the Brazilian anarchist and labour movement, born. Founder in 1946 of the newspaper 'Ação Direta' (Direct Action).

Sou aquele que vai de fronte erguida,
Entre turbas hostis ou indiferentes,
Cheio de bênçãos para os maldizentes,
Certo do que serei na minha vida.

Domador de demônios e serpentes,
Tenho a índole e as manhas do que lida.
Para o arranco final da acometida
Minhas células todas vão contentes.

Tenho alma de guerreiro e missionário,
Mãos de ferro e palavras de evangelho...
Fui herói num passado legendário.

E, Poeta da Anarquia, anjo do povo,
Fecho as portas cardeais do templo velho
E ilumino o altar-mór do templo novo

'Marcadores' (1919 )


1886 - In San Francisco a brewery workers union (formed last month among mostly socialist German workers to resist the prevailing 16-18 hour workday) win all it's demands as breweries admit defeat. The demands include free beer, the closed shop, freedom to live anywhere for brewery workers (who had, until now, typically lived in the brewery itself), a 10-hour day, six-day week and a board of arbitration.

1886 - Hella Maria Wuolijoki (Ella Marie Murrik; d. 1954), Estonian-born Finnish feminist writer and playwright (under the pen names Juhani Tervapää and Felix Tuli), Marxist and Soviet spy, born. In the 1920s and 1930s, Wuolijoki had a literary and political salon that discussed culture and promoted left-wing ideas. She had secret connections with the Soviet intelligence and security structures. The Finnish police suspected her of being an illegal resident spy, but there was no solid proof until 1943, when she was arrested for hiding Kerttu Nuorteva, a Soviet paratrooper spy on a mission to acquire information about Finnish political sentiments and the German troops in Finland, and sentenced to life imprisonment. She was released in 1944, after the ceasefire that ended the Continuation War, and went on to become a Finnish MP (1946-47) and Director-General of the Finnish Broadcasting Company (Yleisradion). Wuolijoki also collaborated with Bertolt Brecht on the initial version of his comedy 'Herr Puntila und sein Knecht Matti' (Mr Puntila and his Man Matti; 1940).

[B] 1894 - Oskar Maria Graf (d. 1967), Bavarian author, poet, novelist and anarchist, who occasionally used the pseudonym Oskar Graf-Berg, born. Much of his work is autobiographical and has an anarchist and/or socialist outlook.
Drafted during WWI, in 1915 he had a short story published in 'Die Freie Straße', through the offices of which he got to know Franz Jung, Georg Schrimpf, Dadaist such as Raoul Hausmann and Richard Huelsenbeck, and, in particular, the influential psychologist Otto Gross. In 1916 he was jailed for refusing orders and, after 10 days on hunger strike, he was taken to a psychiatric hospital and dismissed from the military. A year later he was arrested for participating in an ammunition worker's strike, and again in 1919 for his involvement in the revolutionary movements in Munich alongside Erich Mühsam. In 1920, he became active in the working class theatre Die Neue Bühne (The New Stage), and made his literary breakthrough in 1927 with his autobiographical 'Wir Sind Gefangene' (We Are Prisoners).
Bizarrely, when the Nazis came to power his works were not censored and, in 1933, he published in the 'Vienna Arbeiterzeitung' his famous anti-Nazi appeal, 'Verbrennt Mich!' (Burn Me Too!) [see: May 12], which they duly did the following year. Graf left Germany for Czechoslovakia and on Mar. 24 had his citizenship stripped by the Third Reich. In 1938 he left Europe for the US
His books include the early Impressionist-influenced revolutionarypoetry collections 'Die Revolutionäre' (1918) and 'Amen und Anfang' (Amen and the Beginning; 1919); a number of autobiographical works including 'Wir sind Gefangene' (1927) and 'Zur Freundlichen Erinnerung' (For Friendly Rememberance; 1922); 'Das Proletarische Schicksal' (The Proletarian Destiny; 1929), poetry citicism; and novels such as 'Bolwieser' (1931), made into a two-part 1977 TV film by Rainer Werner Fassbinder, 'Der Abgrund' (The Abyss; 1936), the satirical anti-Nazi 'Anton Sittinger' (1937) and 'Die Eroberung der Welt' (The Conquest of the World; 1949).

1903 - [N.S. Aug. 4] Baku Strike [Бакинская Cтачка]: The first general strike of the proletariat of the city of Baku grinds to a halt.

[E] 1903 - Teresa Fabbrini (Teresa Maria Anna Carolina Fabbrini Ballerini; b. 1855), Italian feminist and anarchist, who from a young age was distinguished both as a tireless propagandist of anarchist ideas and as a lecturer and writer in favour of anarchism and women's rights, worn down by the constant persecution that she had suffered during her entire life, dies aged just 48, exhausted by her hardships and travails. [see: Sep. 1]

1905 - [O.S. Jul. 9] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: St. Petersburg workers strike to commemorate Bloody Sunday.

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 9] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: In the early hours of the morning troops forcibly dissolve the First Duma, occupying its seat, the Tauride Palace (Таврический дворец). Deputies turning up to the Palace were faced with locked doors and on a nearby pole hung a manifesto signed by the Tsar terminating the First Duma: "Elected by the population, instead of constructive legislative work, it turned aside into areas that do not belong to them... the peasantry, not expecting it to improve their legal provisions passed in a number of provinces into open robbery, theft of another's property, disobedience to the law and the legal authorities... Be it known that we will not tolerate any self-will or lawlessness, and with all the force of state power and law the diobedient will submit to the indomitable will of the Tsar." - 'Manifesto of July 9, 1906 (On the dissolution of the I State Duma)' [Манифест 9 июля 1906 г (О роспуске I Государственной думы)]
In dissolving the Duma, Nicholas II was clearly signalling the reassertion of his power as absolute ruler of the Empire and his rejection of the 'October Manifesto' (Манифест 17 октября), something that he had always regretted signing. The Duma had always been an irrelevancy when it came to running the country, something that the majority of Deputies had long since recognised as they passed a series of increasingly strident motions that had no chance of being signed into law by the Tsar. So, after a mere 42 days, Nicholas dismissed them and, to make his reassertion of power more obvious, he ordered public displays of force by the military throughout the Russian Empire.
In response to the scrapping of the Duma, Pavel Milyukov (Павел Милюков) and the Kadets (кадетов - Constitutional Democratic Party [Конституционно-демократическая партия]) leaders issue a call for civil disobedience and in response, 120 Kadets and 80 Trudoviki (Трудова́я гру́ппа aka 'The Labour Group') and Social Democrat (Menshevik) deputies left for Vyborg, then a part of the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland and thus beyond the reach of Russian police, in order to decide upon their response. In the Hotel Belvedere they settle down to their discussions, which begin at 23:00 and continue into the later afternoon of the following day, resulting in the 'Vyborg Manifesto' (Выборгское воззвание).

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 9] Vyborg Manifesto [Выборгское воззвание]: 200 Russian deputies finish their deliberations upon their response to the forcible disbanding of the Duma, which started late the previous evening and had continued deep into the afternoon. Their manifesto, 'To the People from the People's Representatives' (Народу от народных представителей), largely written by the Kadets leader Pavel Milyukov (with an obvious Trudovik influence, given is more radical stance than would be expected from a solely Kadets-written document), it calls for the non-payment of taxes and for draft avoidance - "not a single kopeck to the treasury, nor one soldier to the army" - and declares that all loans concluded without the Duma’s consent would be invalid. It also appeals for passive resistance, hoping to prevent a possible revolutionary outburst following the dissolution of the Duma and to channel the population's anger in a 'constitutional' direction. It also posits an obvious subtext, namely that the deputies should be reinstated to their previous positions.
Many of the deputies retuned to the capital with printed copies of the manifesto to try and ferment opposition to the government. Others, fearing the outcome of their actions instead left for Terioki (Териоках), now Zelenogorsk (Зеленого́рск), part of St. Petersburg, but then in the safe territory of the Grand-Duchy of Finland. Their presence there would lead to the calling of the Terioki Conference
The appeal proved both ineffective and counter-productive; it largely failed to elicit any reaction in the population at large and merely provoked the government to crack down harder on the Manifesto's signatories. Several ex-deputies were arrested and tortured or exiled, 24 were imprisoned and 74 others had a variety of sentences imposed on them. The vast majority (182) were brought to court in December 1907 and deprived of all political rights, including the entire Kadet leadership. They could not stand as candidates in future elections or hold any state post. This was an obvious blow to the Kadets. In such an atmosphere, ten deputies managed to go into hiding. [see: Dec. 25 & 31] Ironically, the Kadet Party would begin to backtrack from, and ultimately disown the 'Vyborg Manifesto' well before the disqualification of it leadership. [see: Jul. 31 & Oct. 7]

1912 - Charles Ostyn (François Charles Ostyn Leopold; b. 1823), French communard, Bakuninst and anarchist, dies. [see: Oct. 20]

1913 - In the wake of Parliamentary approval of a military bill which strengthens German imperialism and increases the likelihood of war, Rosa Luxemburg gives a speech on the political mass strike. She argues that Parliamentarism is a dead end, and that it is necessary for the working class to rely on extra-parliamentary means to challenge militarism and capitalism.

1913 - Paterson Silk Strike: The dyers’ helpers in the large dyeing shops and the broad-silk weavers have begun returning to work in large numbers. [see: Jan. 27 & Feb. 24]

1913 - André Bösiger (d. 2005), Swiss anarchist and militant trades unionist, born. A member of the Ligue d'Action du Bâtiment (L.A.B), and associated with Luigi Bertoni and 'Le Réveil Anarchiste' (The Anarchist Alarmclock) and Lucien Tronchet. A founder of the CIRA (Centre International de Recherches sur l’Anarchisme).

1914 - Charles Maurin (b. 1856), French painter, engraver, anti-clerical and anarchist, dies. [see: Apr. 1]

1916 - A bomb explodes during a Preparedness Day parade [a demonstration demanding the entry of the United States in the global confict] in San Francisco, killing 10 and injuring 40. Unsurprisingly, the authorities immediately suspect anarchist involvement in the bombing. Two radical labour organisers Tom Mooney and Warren K. Billings, are framed through perjured testimony and convicted -Mooney to hang and Billings to life (both were pardoned by Roosevelt in 1939). A few days after the bombing, the offices of 'The Blast' are searched by police and material aseized. Alexander Berkman (founder/editor) and M. Eleanor Fitzgerald are threaten to arrest.

1917 - Criminal Syndicalism: Lumberjack and secretary of the Beinidji branch of the IWW, Jesse J. Dunning, is arrested at the union's downtown headquarters by the city's chief of police, Frank Ripple. Dunning is charged with the possession of two books in violation of the state criminal syndicalism statute, enacted on April 13, 1917, which made it a felony for an individual to display any book or material that advocated or taught sabotage. The two books were both entitled 'Sabotage', one by Elizabeth Gurley Flynn and the other by Emil Pouget. At his trial in September, he was sentenced to two years in the state penitentiary.

1918 - Manuel González Prada (b. 1844), noted Peruvian poet, literary and social critic, anarchist thinker, writer and polemicist, dies. [see: Jan. 5]

1919 - Peru General Strike for the 8-hour Work Day: The Federación Obrera Regional Peruana (Peruvian Regional Workers' Federation) is officially constituted, based on the principles of the old Federación Obrera Regional del Perú. In its 'Declaration of Principles', FORP considered that the capitalists monopolise the profits, monopolise the market and reduce wages, that there is an absolute lack of morality and justice in the society, and that this social injustice forces Workers to seek ways to achieve a better social status of integral freedom and economic equality. The Federation states that it is international, shelters all workers without distinction of race, sex, religion and nationality; commemorates May 1 as a day of high protest by the international proletariat and states that "The emancipation of workers must be the work of the workers themselves."

[F] 1919 - Fort Leavenworth Prison Strikes: In the first week of July, prison guards learned of 21 sticks of dynamite within the prison, that were to be detonated on the 4th of July. An ex-prisoner tipped the guards off, and the event was avoided. 72 prisoners escaped Fort Leavenworth in the beginning of July. On July 21 1919, Leavenworth prison officials transferred a prisoner referred to as “Goldie” and another prisoner called “Frankie the Wop” to Alcatraz Prison without explanation. There was talk of another labor strike among the prisoners, but the Prisoners’ Committee opposed.
On July 22 1919, the new population of prisoners organised a labour strike with the goals of:
1. Immediate general amnesty for prisoners and a statement of their request be given to President Wilson;
2. Better food conditions;
3. Return of “Goldie” and “Frankie the Wop” to Fort Leavenworth.
The prison officials responded differently to the second strike, and labeled the action a mutiny. The prison officials placed all prisoners, even those who did participate in the strike, in solitary confinement for three days, and fed inmates only bread and water. The prison called in soldiers from Fort Riley, from Camp Dodge, the Second Battalion of the 46th Infantry, and Camp Grant to increase Fort Leavenworth security. Prisoners were released from their cells only for prison officials to search prison cells, and frisk each prisoner. The guards confiscated any belongings that did not originate from the prison. The prison officials placed the inmates back in their cells and kept them on bread and water for another three days. Afterward, the guards released the prisoners for work, and the inmates complied. In response to the strike, prison officials abolished the General Conference Prisoners’ Committee. The discipline by the prison guards also increased, and gun platforms were built and armed on top of buildings in the yard.

1920 - Revolución Mexicana: Pancho Villa telegraphs Adolfo de la Huerta requesting amnesty, Huerta gives a 25,000 acre estate.

1920 - Police raid the IWW's Santiago headquarters. In Valparaiso, police plant dynamite in the Wobbly hall and arrest most of the IWW organizers on terrorism charges.

1922 - In the Sacco and Vanzetti case, following the trial, the Goodridge motion for a new trial is made. It is based on the lack of credibility of prosecution witness Goodridge, a known felon who testified under a false name.

1922 - Serge Michel (pseudonym of Lucien Douchet; d. 1997), French libertarian journalist, novelist, poet, painter and anti-colonialist, born.

1927 - Albert Meister (d. 1982), Swiss author and anarchist sociologist, born. The real author of 'La Soi-Disant Utopie du Centre Beaubourg' (Éditions Entente; 1976) allegedly written by 'Gustave Affeulpin', a fictional text of a future radical libertarian space under the Pompideau Centre (built on what was the working class community of Beaubourg). Participated with Jacques Vallet on the creation of the arts and satire review 'Le Fou Parle' (The Fool Speaks) in 1977. A prolific author under a host of pseudonyms and a researcher in the Ecole des Hautes Etudes de Paris (School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences).

1929 - Australian Timber Workers' Strike: Seven union leaders - John Smith 'Jock' Garden (secretary of the Trades and Labour Council), John Kavanagh (chairman of the Disputes Committee of the Trades and Labour Council). Charles Reeve, Michael Patrick Ryan, Edward Wallace Paton, William Terry, and John Culbert, M.L.C. (members of the Disputes Committee of the Trades and Labour Council) - are arrested in police raids and charged with three counts of "unlawful conspiracy by violence and threats of violence" in order to prevent timber workers from working. At the end of October a jury acquitted them all those charged. [see: Jan. 3; Oct. 17 & 30]

1931 - The Republican government belatedly declares the strike illegal as 10 days notice had not been not given. The Minister of the Interior orders the closure of all anarcho-syndicalist centres across Spain and the arrest of CNT leaders. Across Spain acts of sabotage continue and in Barcelona saboteurs hold up traffic in order to prevent injuries whilst they set off their explosives. July 22 also sees the declaring in Seville of a state of war. [see: Aug. 6]

1932 - Errico Malatesta (b. 1853), peripatetic Italian anarchist militant and theorist, London ice cream seller, mechanic and member of the Naples section of the International Working Men's Association, dies after 6 years of fascist house arrest. [see: Dec. 14]

[C] 1936 - At the initiative of the Ateneu Enciclopèdic Popular, an Olimpiada Popular (Popular Olympics) is due to be held (July 22-26) as a fraternal counterweight to the grand Nazi spectacle that is the Berlin Olympic Games. However, the revolution prompts their cancellation.

1942 - The Nazis under SS General Jurgen Stroop begin the Gross Aktion Warschau, the deportation of the Jews confined in the Warsaw Ghetto: "All Jewish persons living in Warsaw, regardless of age and gender, [would] be resettled in the East". The Ghetto Jewish Council Judenrat and its leader, Adam Czerniaków, are required to find 7,000 'volunteer's a day for 'resettlement' resulting in about 254,000 Jews being sent to the Treblinka extermination camp. The Gross Aktion lasted until 12 September 1942. Overall it reduced the once thriving Warsaw Jewish community of some 400,000 to a mere 55,000 to 60,000 inhabitants.
The Gross Aktion Warschau also sparks the hardening of moves in the ghetto (first proposed, and rejected by the Jewish Labour Bund, in March 1942) towards the formation of the Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB; Jewish Combat Organization), a self-defense organization made up of members of various left Zionist youth groups, such as Hashomer Hatzair and Dror.

1942 - Krzemieniec Ghetto Uprising: In response to the systematic liquidation programme initiated in the ghettos in the provincial towns around Krzemieniec, an armed uprising begins in the city's ghetto. Responding, the Germans set fire to part of the ghetto and some of the inhabitants manage to escape into the surrounding countryside. The ghetto will survive a further 2 weeks but its 19,000 inhabitants will almost all be murdered.

1946 - A strike by members of the International Typographical Union had shut the 'Vancouver Daily Province' down on June 5, 1946. When the 'Province' resumed publication on July 22, newspaper delivery trucks leaving the loading docks were confronted by a large crowd of about 50 pickets and 1,000 onlookers at the protest. A couple of trucks loaded with papers left the Province to a chorus of boos, then protesters surrounded a 'Province' van and overturned it. Copies of the paper were strewn about the street and set on fire. Eight people were arrested. The violence failed to stop the paper from publishing, but many unionised workers in Vancouver switched their allegiance to the 'Vancouver Sun'.

1962 - The Union Movement holds a 3 p.m. rally in Trafalgar Square but, with the first speaker Jeffrey Hamm less that 15 minutes into his speach, the hostile crowd of a round 7,000 charged the plaform and the police disbanded the meeting even before Mosley has arrived. 56 people are arrested and an unknown number injured. Protesters then tried to reach the UM HQ in Vauxhall Bridge Road, but were ridden into by mounted police and badly beaten by the cops. Bill Sargent and Harry green (AJEX) had taken the opportunity to hand out hundreds of Yellow Star badges before hand in the Square but had protested on the St Martins in the Fields church steps again.

1967 - Lajos Tihanyi Kassák (b. 1887), Hungarian poet, novelist, painter, essayist, editor, theoretician of the avant-garde, anarchist, anti-fascist and anti-Stalinist, dies. [see: Mar. 21]

[1970 - Reggio Revolt: A bomb explodes on the Treno del Sole, the Palermo-Turin train, in the Calabrian city of Gioia Tauro, killing 6 persons and wounding 136.

1971 - During a dispute between Ford management and the militant shop steward John Dillon, in the Ford Liverpool plant, the Angry Brigade blow up the home of Ford's managing director, William Batty, in Essex. The same night a bomb damages a transformer at the Dagenham plant of the Ford Motor Company.

1972 - Max Aub (Max Aub Mohrenwitz; b. 1903), Spanish-Mexican experimentalist novelist, playwright and literary critic, dies. [see: Jun. 2]

[D] 1983 - Martial law in Poland, declared in December 1981 in an effort to destroy the Solidarność trade union workers' movement, formally ends.

[1989 - Donbass Miners' Strike [Донбасса Шахтерский забастовка] / 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: Donetsk: an accord is signed on July 22, and Gorbachev and Ryzhkov called on the miners to return to work.
Work resumed in mines in the Karaganda Basin in Kazakhstan with the night shift of July 22-23.]

1992 - María Mateo Bruna (b. 1902), Spanish anarchist and Moviment Llibertari Espanyol militant, dies. [see: Jan. 12]

[A] 2005 - Jean Charles de Menezes shot in the head and killed by undercover cops on an Underground train in Stockwell tube station, London.

2011 - Narcissistic neo-Nazi fantasist Anders Brevik kills 77 and injures 242 in separate bomb and gun attacks in Norway.
[1812 - The trial of the Horbury food rioters at York Summer Assizes

1823 - A renewed attempt by about 500 armed men to destroy spinning machines in Alcoy is prevented by troops deployed by the mayor. One of the ringleaders of the insurgents met with him demanding that the machines be taken outside the city to destroy them, but the mayor refused. Then exchanges of shots occurred and the assailants, some of them wounded, fled towards Cocentaina. The troops came after them and arrested five peasants. [see: Mar. 2]

1846 - Protesting slavery and US involvement in the Mexican War, Henry David Thoreau refuses to pay his $1 poll tax and is tossed into jail by his friend the Concord, Massachusetts town constable - an experience that moves him to write 'Civil Disobedience'.

1859 - Marceline Desbordes-Valmore (b. 1786), French poet, actress, singer and cantatrice, dies. [see: Jun. 20]

1870 - At the outbreak of war between France and Prussia, the International Working Men’s Association issues a statement (written by Karl Marx) condemning the war, and warning that victory as well as defeat could prove disastrous for working people.
It approvingly quotes a declaration adopted by an assembly of workers’ delegates in Chemnitz, which states: "In the name of German Democracy, and especially of the workmen forming the Democratic Socialist Party, we declare the present war to be exclusively dynastic.... We are happy to grasp the fraternal hand stretched out to us by the workmen of France.... Mindful of the watchword of the International Working Men’s Association: Proletarians of all countries, unite, we shall never forget that the workmen of all countries are our friends and the despots of all countries our enemies."

1877 - Chicago Railroad Strike / Great Railroad Strike: City authorities prepared for potential unrest in earnest, deploying muskets to police stations and equipping a newly created artillery company with three cannons. The governor ordered local militia to the ready to assist civil authorities if called upon to do so. There were multiple confrontations between crowds and police, forcing the police to retire. That night a meeting of as many as 10,000 occurred on Market Street. Speakers impressed on the crowd the need to join the strikes taking place elsewhere. They carried banners reading "We want work, not charity" and" Life by work, or death by fight". The crowd retired by 23:30, but resolved to meet again at 10:00 the following morning.

1877 - San Francisco Anti-Chinese Riot: Anti-Chinese nativist agitators at a huge outdoor rally in San Francisco about the economic depression and unemployment organised by the Workingmen’s Party of the United States incite a two-day riot of ethnic violence against Chinese workers, resulting in four deaths and the destruction of property. Five years later, President Chester Arthur signed the federal Chinese Exclusion Act, prohibiting immigration of Chinese labourers.

1888 - Raymond Chandler (d. 1959), American novelist and screenwriter, creator of Sam Spade, born.

[A] 1892 - In Pittsburgh, Alexander Berkman attempts and fails to assassinate the despised industrialist Henry Clay Frick, responsible for the deaths of nine miners killed by Pinkerton thugs on July 6, during Homestead Strike.

1895 - Adémar Schwitzguebel (b. 1844), Swiss anarchist and member of the Bakuninist Fédération Jurassienne (Jura Federation) in the l'Internationale, dies.

[F] 1902 - [O.S. Jul. 10] Buchachchyni Farmers' Strike [Хліборобський страйк на Бучаччині]: A series of grain strikes, where the peasants demanded not only increased wages, lower rents and also the right to keep back a higher percentage of what they grew for the landowners, breaks out in the Buchach (Бучацький) district of Galicia. On July 30 [17], a meeting of the various peasant strike committees was held in Buchach, where aa general strike across the region was proclaimed. During the strike, about 4,000 peasants were arrested, several dozen were wounded [til Aug. 12]
[During the strike, about 4,000 peasants were arrested, several dozen were wounded, but in the eyes of the peasants, it was a small victim compared to the achievements.
Strike in different counties had a different chronological framework. But in general it lasted from the beginning of June to the end of August. The results of the strike were rather controversial. They did not testify to the complete victory of the strikers, but did not mean their defeat. In particular, in 375 villages where the strike took place was increased by 50-100% of wages for agricultural workers. In only 25 communities, strikers did not meet any requirements. In 100 estates, the landlords incurred significant economic losses, since their harvest of grain has never been collected [30, p. 154]. But the strikers did not achieve the main thing - lower prices for land, as well as the right to free use of easements]

1905 - [O.S. Jul. 10] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Pro-tsarist reactionaries in the Ukraine launch a pogrom that kills around 100 Jews. 406 are also wounded and 100 houses looted.

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 10] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Peasants’ Union calls for civil disobedience in the wake of the dissolution of the Duma, taking up the theme of the Vyborg Manifesto.

[CC] 1908 - Elio Vittorini (d. 1966), Italian writer, novelist, one-time 'fascista di sinistra' and latterly an anti-fascist, born. At thirteen, he ran away from home to see the world, using free tickets gained via railwayman father. Begins to attend the Technical Institute for accountants and binds friendship with the anarchist Alfonso Faihla, participating in the activities of anarchist groups Syracuse. In 1927, after a daring elopement and wedding to Rosa Quasimodo, sister of the poet Salvatore Quasimodo, he became associated with those around the literary review 'Solaria', which saw to establish an art free of the prevailing ideology i.e. fascism and tradition, and was therefore implicitly anti-fascist, pan-European and pro-Modernism. During this period his work had already began to be published more widely and one article published in the pro-fascist magazine 'La Conquista dello Stato' (The conquest of the state) saw him bizarrely being identified with the bourgeois fascist tendency. However, his work that was subsequently published in 'Solaria' and elsewhere including 'Il Mattino' (Morning) and 'Il Lavoro Fascista' (Fascist Worker), and especially the essay 'Scarico di coscienza' (Discharge of consciousness) in 'Italia Letteraria', in which he accused the Italian literature of provincialism, caused something of a scandal and began to earn him a name as "uno scrittore tendenzialmente antifascista" (a writer of the anti-fascist tendency). In 1931, edizioni di Solaria published his first book, 'Racconti di piccola borghesia' (Tales of the petty bourgeoisie), a collection of short stories and 'Solaria' serialised his novel 'Il Garofano Rosso' (The Red Carnation) between 1933 and 1934 as fascist censorship prevented its publication, the fate of many of his novels and short stories from this period ('Il Garofano Rosso' was not published until after World War II). Living in poverty, in the years 1931-1937, he worked on the 'Bargello', the weekly of the Fascist Federation of Florence, on which he expresses his views of the fascista 'di sinistra' (leftist) tendency, and in 1937, he was expelled from the National Fascist Party for expressing in print his support of the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War and calling for Italian youth to got to fight. In fact, he had planned to go to Spain with his friend and fellow writer Vasco Pratolini but never made the trip. Becoming more conscious of the contradictions of fascism and annoyed by the "continuing harassment" of the fascists, leave Florence in 1938 and moved to Milan, where he goes to work at Simon and Schuster. An anthology of American literature which he edited for them was ceased by the fascist censors. Remaining an outspoken critic of Benito Mussolini's regime, Vittorini joined the Italian Communist Party and began taking an active role in the Resistance, which provided the basis for his 1945 novel 'Uomini e No' (Men and not Men). In 1943 he was commissioned by the Italian Communist Party to strengthen its contacts in Sicily and, on July 26 that year, he was arrested and remained in San Vittore prison until September. Upon his release, he became involved in the underground press, as well as helping found the Fronte della Gioventù (Youth Front) and organise a general strike in Florence in February 1944. Fearing arrest by the fascist police, he hid out in the mountains where, between the spring and autumn of 1944, he wrote 'Uomini e No', published by Simon and Schuster the following year. Also in 1945, he briefly became the editor of the Italian Communist daily 'L'Unità'.

1916 - Hélène Lecadieu (Hyacinthe Adolphine Lecadieu; b. 1853), French anarchist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Oct. 20]

[E] 1922 - Maria-Antonietta Macciocchi (d. 2007), Italian journalist, writer, feminist and politician, member of the Radical Party and member of the Italian and European Parliaments, born into a family of anti-fascists. She joined the underground Italian Communist Party (PCI) during the German occupation of Rome and participated in propaganda activities during the resistance. In 1950 she became editor of the party's women's magazine 'Vie Nuove'. She joined 'l'Unità', the paper founded by Antonio Gramsci, becoming their foreign correspondent in Algiers and Paris.

1931 - Huelga de Telefónica de 1931: At dawn in Maria Luisa Park, prisoners allegedly trying to escape from a police van are shot [cf. ley de fugas], leaving four dead. The Minister of the Interior also orders an assault on the Casa Cornelio tavern, a rebel stronghold in the city. [see: Aug. 6]

[C] 1942 - Treblinka: The extermination programme began, the first train of the 'shuttle service' from Warsaw arrives at the station.

1944 - The International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, bane of everyone's lives nowadays, are established as part of the Bretton Woods monetary agreements.

1944 - Max Nettlau (b. 1865), Austrian anarchist, historian, bibliographer and philologist, dies of stomach cancer in Amsterdam. [see: Apr. 30]

1952 - Idania de Los Angeles Fernandez (d. 1979), prominent Sandanista militant, who was executed by the Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua after the Comando Regional Occidental had been betrayed by an informer, becoming a martyr of the Revolution, born.

[B] 1961 - Woodrow Tracy 'Woody' Harrelson, American actor, born.
"I don't believe in politics. I'm an anarchist, I guess you could say. I think people could be just fine looking after themselves."

[D] 1967 - Detroit or 12th Street Riot: The people of Detroit, angry at the disappearance of jobs and, especially, at the abusive and virtually all-white police department, erupt following a police raid of an unlicensed, after-hours bar. Six days of rioting, finally put down by the National Guard, leave 43 dead, at least 347 injured, and 3,800 in jail. During the riots, 1,300 buildings are burned to the ground and 2,700 businesses are looted.

1977 - Year 2: At the Khmer Rouge's Tuol Sleng Security Prison 21 in Phnom Penh, 178 "enemies of the people", including 160 children, are executed - a routine day. Tuol Sleng, which means Hill of the Poisonous Trees or Strychnine Hill in Khmer, was one of at least 150 execution centres in the country, and as many as 20,000 prisoners were killed there during the Khmer Rouge's regime.

1980 - Mollie Steimer (b. 1897), Russian-American-Jewish-Mexican anarchist, labour agitator, anti-war activist and free-speech campaigner, dies. [see: Nov. 21]

[1989 - Donbass Miners' Strike [Донбасса Шахтерский забастовка] / 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: Mikhail Gorbachev broadcast on TV about the crisis.]

1999 - Emma Tenayuca (b. 1916), fearless and largely unsung Mexican-American union organiser and activist, libertarian communist, and educator, who played a prominent role in the 1938 Texan Pecan Shellers Strike, dies. [see: Dec. 21]

2012 - At 3 pm, Russian performance artist and political activist Pyotr Pavlensky arrives at Kazan Cathedral, St. Petersburg with his mouth sewn up with a coarse thread, holding a banner reading: Action of Pussy Riot was a replica of the famous action of Jesus Christ (Matthew.21:12–13) in protest at the jailing of Pussy Riot members Nadezhda Tolokonnikova and Maria Alyokhina. He then stands for an hour and a half outside the Kazan cathedral before policemen arrive, forming a circle around him and taunting and threatening him. The officers appear afraid to touch him, but he is eventually taken away in an ambulance for psychiatric examination and is determined by doctors to be sane.
1749 - Denis Diderot is arrested in Paris during a government crackdown on writers and publishers of subversive books - for writing his 'Encyclopedie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers' (Encyclopaedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts).

1791 - Robespierre expels all Jacobins opposed to the principles of the French Revolution from the Société des amis de la Constitution aka the Club des Jacobins.

1793 - The Citoyennes Républicaines Révolutionnaires swear to raise an obelisk in memory of Jean-Paul Marat, who they much admired, who had been stabbed to death by Charlotte Corday, a Girondist. The obelisk took until August 18 to erect and distracts the group from any political activity. That night, they vowed to focus on the issue of national security.

[B] 1864 - Frank Wedekind (Benjamin Franklin Wedekind; d. 1918), German playwright and satirical poet, born. A forerunner of expressionism, his works criticised bourgeois attitudes, particularly towards sex, and was an important influence on the Weimar theatre and cabaret scenes. Best known for the 'Lulu' plays 'Erdgeist' (Earth Spirit; 1895) and 'Die Büchse der Pandora' (Pandora's Box; 1904) [which served as templates for Alban Berg's opera 'Lulu' (1937) and the silent films 'Erdgeist' (1923) by Leopold Jessner and 'Pandora's Box' (1929) by Georg Wilhelm Pabst]. He also wrote the poem 'Der Anarchist', which Ernst Busch set to music and made famous.

1869 - Yvonne Estassy (Yvonne Rhimboult; d. 1951), French teacher, journalist, poet and anarchist-individualist propagandist, born.

1870 - Pierre Dupont (b. 1821), French Republican song-writer, poet and socialist balladeer, dies. [see: Apr. 23]

1877 - Chicago Railroad Strike / Great Railroad Strike: The next morning a committee of workers met with officer of the Michigan Central Railroad, and demanded a restoration of recent wage cuts. The company refused, and the work was swiftly stopped. At 09:00 165 workers of the Illinois Central Railroad joined those of the Michigan Central and quietly stopped work. A combined group of 500 then began a procession through the various rail yards. They made their way through the Baltimore & Ohio, Rock Island, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy and Chicago & Alton, and as they went the strike spread with them. By noon only a single railroad, the Chicago and Northwestern, had any traffic in or out of the city, but it too would be forced to close by the end of the day.
Soon, other railroads throughout the state were brought to a standstill, with demonstrators shutting down railroad traffic in Bloomington, Aurora, Peoria, Decatur, Urbana and other rail centers throughout Illinois. In sympathy, coal miners in the pits at Braidwood, LaSalle, Springfield, and Carbondale went on strike as well. In Chicago, the Workingmen's Party organised demonstrations that drew crowds of 20,000 people.
Judge Thomas Drummond of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit ruled the "strike or other unlawful interference with the trains will be a violation of the United States law", telling federal marshals to protect the railroads, and asked for federal troops to enforce his decision: he subsequently had strikers arrested and tried them for contempt of court. The mayor of Chicago, Monroe Heath, also recruited 5,000 men as volunteer militia to help in restoring order.

1877 - St. Louis General Strike / Great Railroad Strike: The first general strike in U.S. history is underway in St. Louis. Led by members of the Workingmen’s Party, it began as an outgrowth of the railroad strike sweeping the country. Workers – skilled and unskilled, black and white – shut down the city for a week until thousands of federal troops and special deputised police arrived, killing at least eighteen people and arresting the strike leaders.

1880 - Filareto Kavernido (Heinrich Goldberg; d. 1933), Nietzschean communist-anarchist, pacifist, idiste and adherent of the Milieux Libres, born. Originally a German Jewish doctor and polyglot, aged 30 he threw everything in, changed his name to Filareto Kavernido and founded the Kaverno Tues Zaratustra anacho-communist commune in Berlin and started writing down his philosophy in anarchist newspapers including 'L'En Dehors' and 'Libereso'. The community practiced free love and naturism, published revolutionary tracts and works in Ido. Kavernido was also convicted of performing illegal abortions and left Germany for Paris in 1926, where he was invloved in the Rue Tolbiac commune and met Émile Armand. The community later moved to Tourrettes-sur-Loup in southern France but he emigrated in 1929 to the Dominican Republic. Based in Arroyo Frio, near Moca, he participated in the clearing of land parcels and bringing medical aid to the poor, all described in articles in 'L'En Dehors'. The community he tried to set up then faced progressive governmental and church interference and he was finally assassinated by 2 mystery gunmen.

1893 - Ammon Ashford Hennacy (d. 1970), Irish American pacifist, Christian, anarchist, social activist, member of the Catholic Worker Movement and IWW, born.

1894 - American forces invade Seoul, Korea, 'to protect American interests' in their own inimitable fashion. They remain until April 3, 1896.

1903 - Mother Jones delivers her famed 'The Wail of the Children' speech during the March of the Mill Children. [see: July 7]

1904 - Virginia Dantas (né Virginia Teixeira; d. 1990), Portuguese militant anarcho-syndicalist, anarchist and anarcho-feminist, born.

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 11] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: Premier Stolypin ruthlessly suppresses the liberal Kadet Party; Kadets headquarters in St. Petersburg are closed and a purge of Kadet members from government posts begins. Stolypin's actions also mark the beginning of a wave of arrests of the liberal opposition.
Widespread anti-government demonstrations occur across Russia.

[E] 1907 - [O.S. Jul. 11] Fruma Morduhovna Frumkina (Фрума Мордуховна Фрумкина; b. 1873), Russian midwife and middle-class member of the Minsk Bund, who later joined the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партии социалистов-революционеров), is executed in Moscow's Butyrka prison. Initially a member of the Bund (Бунд), the General Jewish Workers' Union in Lithuania, Poland and Russia, she joined the Socialist-Revolutionaries in 1903. Frumkina was arrested on April 19, 1903, [O.S. Apr. 6] at a clandestine S-R printing-press in Kiev, and on June 9 [May 27] during her interrogation she tried to cut the throat of the chief of the Kiev Gendarmerie General Basil Novitsky (Василий Новицкий) with a concealed knife, but only managed to graze his neck. Tried on June 27 [14] that year, Frumkina was sentenced to 11.5 years hard labour, intitially served in St. Petersburg's Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропавловской крепости) and in Gornyj Zerentuj (Горном Зерентуе) prison in the Trans-Baikal region. In 1905, her sentence was reduced to five and a half years and, after her petition for a pardon was refused, her sentence was again reduced (by a further two years) under and second amnesty later the same year. In 1906 she was sent into internal exile in a remote Trans-Baikal settlement but escaped, and on March 13 [Feb. 28], 1907, she was arrested in Moscow at the Bolshoi Theatre whilst holding a revolver and charged with the attempted assassination of Moscow's mayor, Anatoly Reinboth (Анатолий Рейнбота). In Butyrska prison on May 13 [Apr. 30], 1907, she shot Bagretsova (Багрецова), the head of the prison, wounding him in the arm. Sentenced to death, she was hanged during the night of July 23-24 [10-11], 1907, in Butyrska, becoming only the second woman after Sophia Perovskaya to be executed for a political act – one of the leaders of Narodnaya Volya (Народной Воли / People's Will), Perovskaya was executed for her role in the assassination of Tsar Alexander II.

1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: News arrived from Morocco that the Spanish army had been defeated by the Rif in Ait Aixa. 26 soldiers were dead and another 230 were wounded. The masses could not wait until August 2nd to begin their fight. The leaders of Solidaridad Obrera were forced to form a central strike committee and begin mobilising for the general strike on Monday 26th.
The strike committee was formed composed of the Socialist Antoni Fabra i Ribas (who tried unsuccessfully to postpone the Barcelona mobilisation so it would coincide with a general strike that the PSOE and UGT planned to call across Spain, and which eventually took place on August 2 with little support, due to the repressive measures taken by the government, which included the arrest in Madrid on July 28 Pablo Iglesias Posse and the rest of the socialist party leadership), the anarcho-syndicalists, and the bricklayer, and later police informer, Miguel Villalobos Moreno. None were then prominent within the Catalan workers movement. Workers began touring the city collecting money for the fund of resistance for what was planned to be an insurrectionary general strike.
www.pronunciamientos.rizoazul.com/semana tragica.html

1917 - SMS Prinzregent Luitpold Mutiny: Representatives of the crew of the SMS Prinzregent Luitpold gather to plan a peaceful demonstration, together with shipyard workers, against the poor quality of their rations and the unequal treatment of officers and crew. [see: Aug. 2 & Oct. 29]

1918 - Jean-Roger Caussimon (d. 1985), French anarchist singer-songwriter and film actor, born.

1935 - Against the background of increasing numbers of new BUF recruits in the East End of London, Oswald Mosley makes his first public appearence in Stafford Town Hall. Twenty four cops inside the hall prevent minor disturbances escalating into a full-blown riot. Mounted police prevent angry crowds outside reaching the building. [PR]

[A/D] 1936 - "Llevamos un mundo nuevo en nuestros corazones" (We carry a new world in our hearts) - the motto of the Durruti Column.
The Durruti Column, made up of 2,500 militiamen, leaves Barcelona towards the Zaragoza front. Along side it is the 800 fighters of the Columna Ortiz, also known as the Segunda Columna, Columna Sur-Ebro or Columna Roja y Negra.

1942 - Balbina Pi Sanllehy (b. 1896), Catalan textile worker, anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist proagandist, dies of a heat attack in Perpignan.

[C] 1974 - In Barcelona, the militants and MIL (Iberian Liberation Movement) members Oriol Solé Sugranyes and José Luis Pons Llobet (arrested near the French border on September 17, 1973 after a run in with the Guardia Civil) are condemned to 48 and 24 years of prison, respectively.

1983 - Women graffiti a US war plane at Greenham Common airbase, UK.

1989 - Donbass Miners' Strike [Донбасса Шахтерский забастовка] / 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: By the morning of July 24, 73 mines in Donetsk district had ended their strike, but 50 were still out, insisting on legislative guarantees. A delegation of Donetsk strike committee members and People’s Deputies from the Donbass flew out to Moscow and met with Ryzhkov on July 24 in the Kremlin. A concrete programme of action for the whole industry, which the government estimated would cost 2 billion rubles, was outlined.

1996 - It is reported that 3 prisoners in Turkey have died during a hunger strike by 1,900 inmates in 33 prisons. The protests were for government transfers of prisoners to remote locations and cancellation of visiting rights for political prisoners.
[F] 1788 - James Granger, leader of the 1787 Calton Weavers Strike, is found guilty of "forming illegal combinations" and sentenced to be carried to the Tollbooth, to remain there until August 13, on which day he would be publicly whipped through the streets of the city at the hands of the Common Executioner; that he should then be set at liberty and allowed till the October 15 to settle his affairs, after which he is to banish himself from Scotland for seven years, under the usual certifications, in case of his again returning during that term. A severe price to pay for trying to prevent a wage cut.

1854 - Conflicte de les Selfactines: Following protracted talks with Josep Barceló Cassadó, one of the main leaders of the cotton workers, the capità general de Barcelona, Ramon de La Rocha, issues a ban prohibiting the use of 'selfactines' cotton spinning machines. At the same time the main workers' leaders, Ramon Maseras, Miquel Guilleuma, Antoni Gual, Josep Nogué and Josep Barceló, sign and publish a document laying out for de la Rocha their greavences against the 'selfactines'. The conflict however dragged on following an appeal by the manufacturer to the government of Madrid against the prohibition order, whilst the workers continued their strike.

1863 - Adolphe Retté (d. 1930), French Symbolist poet, writer and anarchist, born. His key works date from his early phase amongst the Parisian anarchist milieu (before his conversion to Catholicism): 'Thulé des Brumes' (1892) and 'Promenades Subversives' (1897); and include the essays in 'Réflexions sur l'Anarchisme' (1894).

1864 - Kate Cooper Austin (d. 1902), American anarchist, feminist and journalist who wrote for many working class and radical papers, born.

1867 - 'Das Kapital' first appears in Germany.

1877 - Chicago Railroad Strike / Great Railroad Strike: On the morning of Wednesday the 25th it was announced that the Union Stock Rolling Mills and the Malleable Iron works had both closed. Crowds gathered and forced the Phoenix Distillery to do the same. The mayor issued a recommendation that citizens organise themselves into safety guards for their neighborhoods. Meetings of local businessmen and merchants were held, and the city counsel voted to give the mayor plenary powers.
Crowds of 25,000 and 40,000 gathered at the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy roundhouse and extinguished the fires in the engines there. When police arrived they were assailed by stones. They fired into the crowd over ten minutes, killing three, and wounding 16. The crowd retreated up Halstead street and attacked streetcars in the viaduct there. On South Halstead Street some broke into a gun shop and looted 200 shotguns and revolvers.

1901 - Andreas Laskaratos (Ανδρέας Λασκαράτος, b. 1811) Greek radical satirical poet and writer, dies. [see: May 1]

1903 - The first issue of the fortnightly magazine of sociology, art and literature, 'Il Pensiero', is published by Pietro Gori and Luigi Fabbri in Rome.

1905 - Elias Canetti (d. 1994), Italian author of 'Crowds & Power' and the novel 'Auto de Fe', born.

1905 - At the iniative of Georges Thonar, the Groupement Communiste (Communist Group), and which will change its name to the Groupement Communiste Libertaire" (GCL; Groupement Communiste Libertaire" (GCL) the following year, is formed in Belgium to further the ideals of anarchist communism through meetings, study groups, works of propaganda and its newspaper 'L'Insurgé'. The group is also involved that year in the creation of the L'Expérience colony with Émile Chapelier and his partner, first at Stockel-Bois, and then at Boitsfort, til 1908. The commune willpublishe the monthly 'Le Communiste' and 'Le Révolté' (1908-1914).

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 12] In Terioki (or Terijoki), now Zelenogorsk (Зеленого́рск), part of St. Petersburg, but then in the safe territory of the Grand-Duchy of Finland a series of inter-party meetings (July 25-27 [O.S. Jul. 12-14]), someting called the 'New Resort' (Новый Курорт) or Terioki Conference, take place. Called by members of Kadets and the Trudoviks, they also involve RSDLP representatives as well as Socialist-Revolutionaries and can be seen as another in the long line of attempts at establishing a 'Left bloc' following the Third RDSLP Party Congress in April/May 1905. Whilst this 'Left bloc' cooperation did take place at the level of strike committees, labour unions, and other groups, and meant that the different parties could jointly call for a general strike, an armed uprising, the nonpayment of taxes, aor expropriations, at the state level the Bolshevik's opposition to their particiaption in the Duma limited the potential scope of their co-operation. However, with no current Duma, there was less of an obstacle.
Largely lost to history, the 'conference' was described at the time as the "final swansong of the 'first parliament'." [Ivan Subbotin (Иван Субботин) - 'The dissolution of the First State Duma' (Роспуск первой государственной думы), 1907] The meetings produced a serious of mixed messages; there was unanimity on the need to renew the call for a revival of the Soviets, and the RSDRP and the Trudoviks jointly called on the military to revolt, whilst the Kadet leadership began thier retreat from the (as they saw it too radical) Vyborg Manifesto .
However, the factions remained as far apart as ever. Kadets insisted that with the country so calm it was impossible to save the Duma. Only a revolutionary upsurge would open up different tactics. The Trudoviks and RSDLP countered that an attempt to maintain the Duma as the new centre of power should be at the forefront of an attempt to generate a revolution. There were also irreconcilable differences over a Trudovik proposal that they establish an Executive Committee of the liquidated Duma to resolve tactical questions about how to best implement the demands of the Vyborg Manifesto. However, Kadets declined the Trudoviks proposal because it lacked credibility given the committee's origins in such a small meeting meant that it could not claim to speak for the whole Duma. There were also numerous practical difficulties, not least the government's likely measures against such a committee and the on-going persecution of the ex-deputies.
In the end the Terioki meetings proved inconclusive and the deputies began returning to their provinces and the backlash of the new government. Some were tortured and imprisoned or exiled. Many ended up in prison and the vast majority, including the whole Kadets leadership, were deprived of all political rights following a in December 1907. Also, one of the princpal organisers of the Terioki meetings, Mikhail Herzenstein, was murdered by the Black Hundreds several days later on July 31st.

1907 - Théodule Meunier (b. 1860), French anarchist and advocate of propaganda by deed, dies in the Cayene penal colony. [see: Aug. 22]

[B/E] 1908 - Luce Fabbri (d. 2000), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist writer, journalist, theorist, publisher, poet, teacher and daughter of Luigi Fabbri, born. Amongst her output was political writings: 'Camisas Negras: Estudio crítico histórico del origen y evolución del fascismo, sus hechos y sus ideas' (Blackshirts: Historical critical study of the origin and evolution of fascism, its facts and ideas; 1935) and, under the pseudonym Luz de Alba, '19 de Julio Antología de la Revolucíon Española' (July 19. Anthology of Spanish Revolution; 1937); literary criticism: 'La Poesía de Leopardi'; 1971); and her poetry: 'I Canti dell'Attesa' (The Songs of Expectancy; 1932), and the unpublished 'Propinqua Libertas'. [expand]

1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: Yesterday's decision to hold the general strike tomorrow is ratified at a meeting with delegates from 250 factories throughout the region of Barcelona, despite the civil governor of Barcelona, Ángel Ossorio i Gallardo, having officiall banned the holding of the meeting.
www.pronunciamientos.rizoazul.com/semana tragica.html

1917 - In Bemidji, Minnesota, thirty IWW men and women are corralled by 150 armed citizens led by the mayor, forced to salute the flag and packed onto a train bound for Foston. 1,000 people gather at the station to see them off. .

1920 - Rosalind Elsie Franklin (d. 1958), English chemist and X-ray crystallographer, who was largely written out of the discovery of the structure of DNA in her lifetime, despite the fact that her research and expertise in X-ray diffraction techniques was essential to the determination of the structure of DNA, born.

1927 - On a beach in Valencia during an open air festival (25th-26th) the Fédération Anarchiste Ibérique (FAI) is clandestinely formed. The União Anarquista Portuguesa (UAP; Portuguese Anarchist Union) had originally been going to hold their congress on the 20th in Lisbon but a military coup forcrd its postponement and relocation.

[D] 1934 - Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (Не́стор Іва́нович Махно́ [uk] Не́стор Ива́нович Махно́ [rus]) aka батько Махно [father Makhno](b. 1889), Ukranian anarchist general who fought both the red and white armies during the Russian Revolution of 1917, exiled in Paris dies in the early hours from tuberculosis. He was 44. [see: Oct. 27 & Nov. 7]

1938 - The beginning of the great battle in Spain on the Ebro front, the last protracted battle that end mid November with the defeat of the Republican forces.

1947 - Mary Dennett (Mary Coffin Ware; b. 1872), US artist, interior designer, women's rights activist, pacifist, and pioneer in the areas of birth control, sex education, and women's suffrage, whose 1929 landmark court case helped redefine the legal definition of obscenity, dies of myocarditis. [see: Apr. 4]

1967 - President Johnson orders federal troops into Detroit under the Insurrection Act to put down the 12th Street Riot.

[C] 1969 - Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix (b.1891), fiercely anti-war German artist, painter and printmaker, dies. Singled out by the Nazis for particular denigration. Arrested on trumped-up charges in connection with Georg Elser's 1939 assassination attempt on Hitler. [see: Dec. 2]

1980 - Kajsa Ekis Ekman, Swedish cultural journalist, commentator and writer, who is a member of the editorial board of the libertarian newspaper 'Brand' (Fire), and a founder of the climate action group Klimax and Feministiskt Nej till Surrogatmödraskap (Feminist No to Surrogacy), born.

1989 - Donbass Miners' Strike [Донбасса Шахтерский забастовка] / 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: July 25 it was decided to return to work. A majority of those still out returned, but in Donetsk they held out for two more days. Workers’ Committees were set up to monitor progress in implementation of the promises. The strike in the Ukraine and Southern Russia did not completely end until July 27.

1996 - Blanca Canales Torresola (b. 1906), Puerto Rican teacher and organiser of the Daughters of Freedom, the women's branch of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, she led the October 30, 1950, Jayuya Uprising against the Federal government of the United States, dies. [see: Feb. 17]

[A] 2001 - In Dijon, 40 anarchists occupy the Italian consulate to protest police violence at the G8 Summit in Genoa, Italy. A streamer proclaiming: “G8 kills to bury the anger of the street” is hung above the entrance.

2001 - Phoolan Devi ( फूलन देवी; b. 1963), Indian bandit and later a Member of Parliament, is shot dead by three masked gunmen outside of her Delhi bungalow. [see: Aug. 10]
1817 - Second Serbian Uprising [Други српски устанак]: Miloš Obrenović succeedes in forcing Maraşlı Ali Paşa to negotiate an unwritten agreement, ending the Second Serbian uprising. Obrenović goes on to become the ruler (Prince) of the new Principality of Serbia. [see: Nov. 6]

1830 - Trois Glorieuses [Three Glorious Days] or La Révolution de Juillet: The Second French Revolution [July 26-29] marks the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans. Louis-Philippe would himself be overthrown in turn in 1848. [expand]

1855 - [N.S. Aug. 7] Vera Spiridonovna Lyubatovich (Вера Спиридоновна Любатович; d. 1908*), Russian revolutionary and member of Narodnaya Volya (Земля и воля / People's Will), born. She accompanied her sister Olga to Switzerland and was pursuaded by Olga to enrol in the Medical Faculty of the University of Zurich as well as joining the Fritsche circle of young Russian female radicals and worked on the journal 'Вперёд' (Forward). [see: Aug. 7]
[* O.S. Dec. 19 1907 / N.S. Jan. 1 1908]

1870 - Louise Hutteaux (Louise Clement; d. unkown), French midwife and individualist anarchist, who was the companion of the Bonnot Gang member Pierre Victorin Joseph Jourdan alias Pierre Clément, born. She was arrested and accused of harbouring him, but was not charged and was released. In August 1913, following a denunciation, she was sentenced, based upon little evidence, to 5 years in prison for "assisting in an abortion".

1876 - [N.S. Aug. 7] Yekaterina Peshkova [Екатерина Пешкова] (Yekaterina Pavlovna Volzhina [Екатерина Павловна Волжина]; d. 1965), Russian proofreader, revolutionary, member of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров / ПСР), and Soviet public figure and human rights activist, born. [see: Aug. 7]

1877 - Battle of the Halsted Street Viaduct / Chicago Railroad Strike / Great Railroad Strike: The headline in the 'Chicago Times' that morning expressed the anxious outrage of the city's capitalists following the previous day's events: "Terrors Reign, The Streets of Chicago Given Over to Howling Mobs of Thieves and Cutthroats." But worse was yet to come.
Additional regular soldiers arrived from the west on Thursday July 26, bringing the total number of federal troops in the city to 12 companies. Orders came down from President Rutherford B. Hayes placing these in under the command of the governor. With the ploice attempting to disperse groups of people wherever they gathered, a crowd of around 10,000 men, women, and children assembled at Vorwärts Turner Hall, on West 12th Street (modern day Roosevelt Road) at 09:00 for a meeting organised there by the Chicago German Furniture Workers Union, when a large body of police arrived to disperse them. Some missiles were thrown but the main body of the crowd broke and fled south down Halsted Street to the other side of the viaduct (railway bridge) at 16th Street towards East Pilsen and the Chicago River, pursued by the police, who fired at them as they ran.
At 10:00 a group of 25 police arrived at Turner Hall and were assailed by stones and other missiles. Another group of 20 officers joined and a fight ensued, first on the street, and then in the hall when the police forced their way into it. One police officer was injured.
Meanwhile, the main body of the crowd on Halsted Street had turned around and began pursuing the police north, angered at the fact that they were shot at as they had tried to retreat. A firefight ensued, with the police doing most of the shooting, which lasted half an hour. Low on ammunition and fearing they were about to be overran, their sergeant gave orders to fire off all their remaining ammunition and at the same time withdraw under the viaduct back towards the police station. The massive crowd, still just as big as before and now even angrier, ran after the police in hot pursuit.
The mob headed north up Halsted Street past the viaduct at 16th Street towards 15th Street, where they met by the U.S. Army’s Second Cavalry Regiment and police reinforcements. It took the full force of the police, the cavalry and units of the 22nd U.S. Infantry, to put down the angry mob. The latter were fresh from suppressing Native American tribes out West, and now they turned their guns on the working class of Chicago. Uncounted numbers of rioters – and some innocent bystanders – were injured (uncounted, in part, because local women took the injured into their homes and hid them). It was estimated that at the Battle's end between 14 and 30 workers were left dead or dying, and up to 100 wounded; no police officers or soldiers died, but at least 13 were seriously wounded. Elsewhere, bloody encounters between police and enraged workers continued at nearby 16th Street, at Halsted and 12th, and on Canal Street for much of the rest of the day.
The following day the less-than-sympathetic 'New York Times' described the scene that day: By 10:30 in the morning, the 'New York Times' reported, "there were not less than 10,000 men present. The undecided peacefulness of the horde had vanished. Their numbers seemed to inspire them with the valor of savages. They were bent on violence and hesitated at nothing. The north approach of the Halsted Street Viaduct" -- the point from which the accompanying picture was taken -- "and the structure itself was blocked with a mass of rioters". The 'Times' described charges and counter-charges with rocks flying from the workers' side and police swinging clubs and firing rifles.

1881 - Paul Berthelot aka Marcelo Verema (d. 1910), French Esperantist, anarchist, journalist, writer, scientist and anthropologist, born. In 1900 he began to study medicine in Paris and joined the anti-militarist movement. In late 1901 he fled to Switzerland to avoid having to do military service. Having moved to Spain and, moving in anarchist circles, he founded a Catalan Esperanto Association in 1904 and worked on a number of Catalan and Esperantist newspapers. In 1907, Berthelot visit Uruguay and Argentina, settling permanently in Brazil. He first taught Esperanto and French at Berlitz Academy in Rio de Janeiro, then became director of its branch in Petropolis, before being fired for anti-militarist propaganda. He then attempted to establish an anarchist agricultural colony at Dumba, near Leopoldina in the state of Goya, which failed. He also wrote three plays in Portuguese - 'Os Judgment' (The Judgement), 'O Grande Dia' (The Great Day) and 'Impossivel Felicidade' (Impossible Happiness) - and the book of anthropology 'Entre Sertanejos e Indios do Norte' (1910). His most famous book, 'L'Evangile de l'Heure' (The Gospel of the Hour; 1912), was written in French and published in Paris in 'Temps Nouveaux'. The book is a transposition of the parables and teaching of Jesus from a libertarian point of view and appeals to the passions: not to pay rent, workers solidarity, equitable justice, the collectivisation of land, disobedience towards the state and religion, etc..

1893 - George Grosz (Georg Ehrenfried Groß; d. 1959), German artist and libertarian, Expressionist who became a prominent member of the Berlin Dada and New Objectivity group during the Weimar Republic, born. In November 1914 Grosz volunteered for military service, hoping for a safe post away from the front and was eventually discharged as medically unfit the following year. Like John Heartfiled, he too Anglicised his name in protest against German nationalism but was drafted in Jan. 1917 but against discharged as permanently unfit (he apparently tried to commit suicide and narrowly avoided the firing squad) that May.
Arrested during the Sparticist uprising in Jan. 1919, he managed to escape using false papers. Although active in the Kommunistischen Partei Deutschlands (KPD), he was much more aligned with anarchist thought and organisation, and having spent five months in Russia in 1922 and meeting Lenin and Trotsky, he left the KPD because of his antagonism to any form of dictatorial authority. [In 1933 he was condemned by his former comrades in the Communist Party as "a petty-bourgeois traitor".]
A member of the Berlin Dada group, with John Heartfiled he co-founded the satirical magazine 'Die Pleite' (Bankruptcy; 1919-1924) and would later edit the satirical (KPD) magazine 'Der Knüppel' (The Truncheon). He also co-edited 'Jeder sein eigener Fussball' (Everyman his own Football) with Franz Jung; and 'Der Blutige Ernst' (In Bloody Earnest), with Carl Einstein. In 1921 he stood trial with his published Wieland Herzfelde for defamation of the army for his portfolio 'Gott Mit Uns'. He was fined 300 marks and the print run destroyed. Again in 1923 he was in court, this time charged (using a law that had not been invoked in centuries) with defaming public morals, corrupting the inborn sense of shame and virtue innate in the German people for his portfolio 'Ecce Homo'. Found guilty, he was ordered to pay a 6000 marks fine; and 24 the portfolio's plates were confiscated and banned from publication.
In 1924, he and Wieland Herzfelde formed the artists' association Rote Gruppe (Red Group) based on the program outlined in their 1925 publication 'Die Kunst ist in Gefahr, Drei Aufsätze' (Art is in Danger, Three Essays), and Grosz would chair the group until 1928, when he was co-founder of the Association Revolutionärer Bildender Künstler Deutschlands (German Association of Revolutionary Artists). Grosz was again on trial in 1929, this time charged with blasphemy for his drawing 'Maul Halten und Weiter Dienen' (Shut Up and Obey) featuring a crucified Christ in a gas mask. The judge decided that it was a critique of militarism and not of religion and dismissed the charge.
Bitterly anti-Nazi, Grosz left Germany shortly before Hitler came to power, first on a summer teaching job in 1932 in the US and then, having returned to Germany, he emigrated with his family to New York. During the 1937 Entartete Kunst exhibition he is labelled a "cultural Boshevik" and his art is confiscated and destroyed for its "anarchist implications".
In the States the style of his art changed but he exhibited regularly, and in 1946 he published his autobiography, 'A Little Yes and a Big No'.
"Civilian again, I experienced in Berlin the rudimentary beginnings of the Dada movement, the start of which coincided with the 'swede' period of malnutrition. The roots of this German Dada movement were to be found in the recognition that it was perfectly crazy to believe that the spirit, or anything spiritual ruled the world. Dadaism was the only significant artistic movement in Germany for decades. Dadaism was no artificially fostered movement but an organic product, at its origin a reaction to the cloudlike ramblings of so-called sacred art. Dadaism forced artists to declare openly their position .. . What did the Dadaists do? They said that it did not matter whether a man blew a 'raspberry' or recited a sonnet by Petrarca or Shakespeare or Rilke, whether he gilded jack-boot heels or carved statues of the Virgin. Shooting went on regardless, profiteering went on regardless, people would go on starving regardless, lies would always be told regardless – what was the good of art anyway? In those days we saw the mad final excrescences of the ruling order of society, and burst out laughing. We did not yet see that there was a system behind all this madness." - 'Die Kunst ist in Gefahr, Drei Aufsätze' (Art is in Danger, Three Essays; with Wieland Herzfelde, 1925)

[BB] 1895 - Jankel Adler (d. 1949), Polish painter, printmaker and anarchist, born. Member of the Gruppe Progressiver Künstler Köln (Group of Progressive Cologne Artists) alongside Frans Seiwert and Gerd Arntz. As a modern artist and a Jew, he was forced to flee when Hitler came to power in 1933, the same year his work went on display as degenerate art (and he would also feature in the 1937 Muncih Entartete Kunst exhibition). Taking refuge in Paris, he saw his exile as a conscious act of political resistance against the fascist regime in Germany but eventually ended up in London, where he became involved with 'Freedom', something that would lead to his being refused British nationality after the war.

1896 - The first issue of the anarchist weekly 'The Alarm', "For your liberty and ours", is published in London. Involved are Peter Kropotkin and Emma Goldman but it ceased publication in December of the same year.

1905 - [O.S. Jul. 13] Ivanovo Soviet [Иваново-Вознесенский Депутатов] / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: According to a report of the provincial gendarmerie chief, only 3 mills and 4 factories in Ivanovo-Voznesensk (Иваново-Вознесенский) are currently operating, the rest of them stand idle. The regional governor sends the troops back into the city, where they occupy businesses and schools. Troops are als sent to Kohma (Кохму) and Shuya (Шую) where spontaneous workers protests have also broken out.

1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: The July Revolution (Revolució de Juliol (Cat.) / Revolución de Julio (Sp.) or the Glorious Week (Setmana Gloriosa / Semana Gloriosa) [more commonly known by the name given to it by the Catalan bourgeoisie, Setmana Tràgica (Semana Trágica (Sp.) / Tragic Week) begins in Barcelona.
Following the news of the first armed clashes in Morocco and the death of the first reservists arrives in Spain on July 20 and further protests against the war in Morocco (Second Rif War), Solidaridad Obrera held a rally in Terrassa on July 21 at which a proclamation by the socialist journalist Antoni Fabra i Ribas is read calling for a general strike throughout Spain on Monday July 26th. The 4,000 workers present approved the resolution in favour of the strike. On July 24, news arrived from Morocco that the Spanish army had been defeated by the Rif in Ait Aixa. 26 soldiers were dead and another 230 were wounded. The masses could not wait until August 2nd to begin their fight. The leaders of Solidaridad Obrera were forced to form a central strike committee and begin mobilising for the general strike on Monday 26th.
The strike committee was formed composed of Antoni Fabra i Ribas (who tried unsuccessfully to postpone the Barcelona mobilisation so it would coincide with a general strike that the PSOE and UGT planned to call across Spain, and which eventually took place on August 2 with little support, due to the repressive measures taken by the government, which included the arrest in Madrid on July 28 Pablo Iglesias Posse and the rest of the socialist party leadership), the anarcho-syndicalists, and the bricklayer, and later police informer, Miguel Villalobos Moreno. None were then prominent within the Catalan workers movement. Workers began touring the city collecting money for the fund of resistance for what was planned to be an insurrectionary general strike. The following day the decision to hold the general strike on the 26th was ratified at a meeting with delegates from 250 factories throughout the region of Barcelona, despite the civil governor of Barcelona, Ángel Ossorio y Gallardo, having officially banned the holding of the meeting.
Yet, despite all the ample warnings of the growing discontent, not just in Barcelona but across the whole country, Ossorio y Gallardo and the Generalitat de Catalunya had not put any serious plans in place to prevent serious civil disorder during the general strike. So, when the strike in Barcelona began in the suburbs, where most of the factories were located, little was done to halt the burning of the booths where the hated consumos (consumption) tax was collected.
The strike spread like wildfire from the suburbs to down-town. By mid-morning the whole Catalan economy was paralysed. Many employers, for fear of the workers, decided to close their businesses directly what added more space to the protest. Small businesses, some for fear of the pickets, others sympathetic to the reasons for the strike, closed their doors. Workers began began to forcibly stop trams which, as a key economic sector of the city life, the government tried to protect, but after several clashes between the Guardia Civil and the protesters, they had to abandon their efforts.
By the afternoon the city was in working hands. Workers had managed to secure weapons and began clashing with the Guardia Civil and the police, and attacking Guardia Civil barracks and police stations (military barracks initially went unnoticed), freeing political prisoners. To prevent the arrival of reinforcements rail lines were dynamited, cutting the city off from Madrid, while in the working class neighbourhoods rose hundreds of barricades. The police had dispersed unable to stop the move. The state apparatus was divided between those who wanted the strike suppress immediately (the Minister of the Interior) by bringing in the army, and those like Governor Ossorio who did not want to use troops, fearing that they would fraternise with the workers. That same afternoon, the Madrid government finally forced Ossorio to resign and, unable to stop the workers, the Capitán General de Cataluña, Luis de Santiago, declared martial law in Barcelona.
www.pronunciamientos.rizoazul.com/semana tragica.html

1912 - Paint Creek-Cabin Creek Miners' Strike: Striking miners attack Mucklow, present-day Gallagher, leaving at least twelve strikers and four guards dead. The county sheriff then made a request for troops to be sent in, which now allowed the governor William E. Glasscock to intervene officially.

[C] 1912 - Dawid Eugeniusz Dawidek Szmulewski (d. 1990), Polish Jew who fought in the International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War and was active in the resistance in Auschwitz-Birkenau, who provided the camera used by the Sonderkommando to photgraph the crematoria and helped blow up Crematorium IV in Birkenau on October 7, 1944, born in Koło (Poland). After fighting in the International Brigades in Spain, he was interned in Saint-Cyprien concentration camp and escaped with others following the French decision to move the majority of prisoners were transferred to Africa. Eventually arrested, he was deported to Auschwitz on March 27, 1942. After the war, he remained in Poland and occupied important positions in the security services. It is part of the Jewish communists who were expelled from their positions in 1968 by a regime they had served for years. He moved to France, where he wrote a testimony (in Yiddish), 'Souvenirs de la Resistance dans le Camp d' Auschwitz-Birkenau' (Memories of Resistance in Auschwitz-Birkenau; 1984).
www.alba-valb.org/resources/media/SzmulewskiConCyrankiewicz.jpg/view?searchterm=David Szmulewski

1917 - Criminal Syndicalism: Following the burning down of the Crookston lumber mill in Bemidji, Minnesota on July 21, which was immediately blamed on the IWW, and the 'discovery' of pamphlets on sabotage in Bemidji's IWW hall, further 'proof' in many's eyes, and for which three Wobblies including Jesse Dunning, the local IWW secretary, were arrested, a mob led by the mayor rounds up 24 Wobblies, including Dunning. They are then forced to salute the flag and packed onto a train bound for Foston. 1,000 people see them off. Dunning later became the first person convicted under Minnesota's new criminal syndicalism legislation.

1917 - IWW & Espionage Act: The Minnesota Commission of Public Safety led by ex-governor Lind summoned the chief of Chicago branch of the Bureau of Investigation to Minneapolis for a conference on the IWW situation. Lind suggested that the federal government prosecute the IWW leaders on charges of conspiring to violate the Espionage Act.

1936 - With the attempted fascist takeover of Spain faltering, Adolf Hitler agrees to provide aid to the insurgents. The Comintern finally agrees to seek aid for the democratic Republic (after sending its gold reserves to Russia).

1936 - Jewish People's Council Against Fascism and Anti-Semitism (JPC) founded at the Absa House Conference in the east End of London. Organised by working class Jews in the face of the Board of deputies passivity in response to BU activities, it involved 87 different Jewish working class organisations: "Jewry – itself united against Fascism and thus against anti-Semitism – must seek alies. Who are our possible allies? Only the democratic forces also threatened by fascism. Can we say to them, "help us in our fight against anti-Semitism, but we will not fight with you against Fascism"? Can we expect allies on such terms? Clearly the answer is "No."
From amongst some of those involved emerged 2 radically different Jewish anti-fascist groupings. The rather curious Legion (or League) of Blue and White Shirts, a small short-lived group which claimed to be a non-political and non-sectarian organisation aimed at physically combatting fascism and anti-Semetism in all its forms - BUF labelled them the "storm troops of Jewry". The Ex-Servicemen's Movement Against Fascism (EMAF) on the other hand consisting of both Jews and non-Jews and had close links with the CPGB. With a strong base of support in the Jewish East End, it could mobilise 1,000 members [the largest anti-fascist organisation in the capital outside of the CPGB] at short notice to "attack Fascism in its strongholds and sweep it off the streets".

1937 - Hélio Oiticica (d. 1980), Brazilian visual artist (painting and sculpture) and anarchist, born. Grandson of José Rodrigues Oiticica. Best known for his participation in the Concrete group, his Rio de Janeiro installation 'Tropicália' (1967), a labyrinth-like environment with parrots, plants, sand, texts, and a television — a satire on the clichés of Brazilian culture and a commentary on the conflict between tradition and technology typical in the Third World, gave its name to the Tropicalismo movement.

1937 - Gerda Taro (Gerta Pohorylle; b. 1910), German photographer and anti-fascist, dies in a Spanish Republican field hospital in the aftermath of the Battle of Brunette - the first female photographer to be killed while reporting on war. [see: Aug. 1]

[B] 1945 - M. John Harrison (pen name of Michael John Harrison), English anarchist, science fiction and fantasy author and critic, born.
"His books are full of anarchists -- some of them very bizarre like the anarchist aesthetes of 'The Centauri Device'." - Michael Moorcock

1948 - Raúl Carballeira Lacunza (b. 1917 or 1918), Argentinian anarchist who was active in the Spanish anti-Franco resistance, commits suicide rather than be captured in the Montjuich gardens during an ambush mounted by commissioner Eduardo Quintela Vault, head of Brigada Politicosocial de Barcelona. [see: Feb. 28]

1948 - Jean-Michel Carré, French director, cinematographer, film producer and screenwriter, born. A one-time Maoist who now claims to be a libertarian.

1948 - Pierre Peuchmaurd (d. 2009), French poet, Surrealist and anarchist, born.

1952 - Hated despot Farouk I of Egypt is overthrown and forced into exile by a militart coup. [expand]

[D] 1953 - Fidel Castro begins his revolt against Fulgencio Batista with an unsuccessful attack on an army barracks in eastern Cuba.
Fidel Castro leads a small group of revolutionaries (outnumbered more than 10 to 1 by the defenders) in an attack on the Moncada army barracks in eastern Cuba. It fails and Castro is arrested shortly afterwards. Fifteen soldiers and three policemen were killed and 23 soldiers and five policemen wounded during the attack. Nine rebels were killed in combat and eleven wounded, four of them by friendly fire. Eighteen captured rebels were immediately executed in the Moncada small-arms target range within two hours after the attack. Their corpses were strewn throughout the garrison to simulate death in combat. Thirty-four fleeing rebels captured during the next three days were murdered after admitting their participation.
The attack would provide Castro with the name for his revolutionary movement - Movimiento 26 Julio or M 26-7.

1966 - Henri Quesnel (b. 1883), French libertarian trades union activist, dies. [see: Dec. 2]

[A] 1979 - Native American Leonard Peltier recaptured six days after his escape from prison.

1985 - Fredy Perlman (b. 1934), author, publisher, anti-authoritarian activist and important anarchist theorist, dies. [see: Aug. 20]

1985 - Roger Monclin (b. 1903), French anarchist propagandist, pacifist, orator and writer, dies. [see: Jan. 31]

1989 - Donbass Miners' Strike [Донбасса Шахтерский забастовка] / 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: Soviet media povidmlyaly that "all the strikers West Donbass mines started to work. We started to work all 12 mines Chervonograd. The majority of miners in Voroshylovhradschyny started to work. Without exception mine and mine Donetsk reopened.

2000 - The premiere in San Francisco at the Castro Theatre of the documentary film 'Emma Goldman: The Anarchist Guest', directed by sociologist and director Coleman Romalis, at the XX Jewish Film Festival.

2004 - Silvia Mistral (Hortensia Blanc(h) Pita; b. 1914), Cuban fim critic, writer, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, who lived in Spain and Cuba, dies. [see: Dec. 1]

[E] 2012 - FEMEN activist Yana Zhdanova [Яна Жданова] attacks the Patriarch of Moscow and all the Rus', Kirill I of Moscow, while he is visiting Ukraine. Zhdanova has the words "Kill Kirill" painted on her back and screamed "Get Out!" to the Orthodox Christian leader. She was arrested and handed a 15-day administrative sentence for her actions.
1768 - Charlotte Corday (Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont) (d. 1793), French Girondist sympathiser who, outraged at the September Massacres of 1792 and fearing the outbreak of civil war during the Revolution, assassinated the leading actor in the Reign of Terror (September 6, 1793 - July 28, 1794), Jean-Paul Marat, born. [expand]

1830 - Trois Glorieuses [Three Glorious Days] or La Révolution de Juillet: The Second French Revolution [July 26-29] marks the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans. Louis-Philippe would himself be overthrown in turn in 1848. [expand]

1849 - [N.S. Aug. 8] Vera Ivanovna Zasulich (Ве́ра Ива́новна Засу́лич; d. 1919), Russian revolutionary, anarchist and then a Marxist and Menshevik, born. [see: Aug. 8]

1877 - Chicago Railroad Strike / Great Railroad Strike: On the morning of Friday July 27, five companies were dispatched to disperse crowds gathered at the corner of Archer Avenue and South Halstead Street, where they were joined by 300 additional cavalry and infantry. Mayor Heath issued a proclamation: "The city authorities, having dispersed all lawlessness in the city, and law and order being restored, I now urge and request all business men and employers generally to resume work, and give as much employment to their workmen as possible." From that point onward the city was quiet. The railroad workers, returned to work at their previous wages, demoralised by the failure of similar strikes throughout the country.

1882 - Poss. date [see also: Jan. 27] for the birth of Hélène Brion (d. 1962), French teacher, feminist, syndicalist and pacifist. The first French woman to be tried before a military tribunal (for publishing defeatist propaganda), she is given a 3 year suspended sentence. Author of 'La Voie Féministe' (1978) who never finished her monumental 'Encyclopédie Féministe', covering biographical information on all the foremost women of her time.

[E] 1884 - Zenzl Mühsam (Creszentia Elfinger; d. 1962), militant German anarchist and companion of Erich Mühsam, born. Having survived the life of a revolutionary activist during the Bavarian Soviet and Erich Mühsam's imprisonment (1919-24), she then had to face his 1933 arrest by the Nazis and murder in Oranienburg concentration camp the following year. Taking refuge in Prague, she is invited to the Soviet Union, where she publishes some of Erich's poems but falls foul of the Stalinist purges in 1936. Arrested in April, she spends the next 6 months in Butyrka prison. Upon her release, she is homeless and acquaintances refuse to help her for fear of arrest and she is forced to run the risk of being accused of anti-state contacts by relying on financial help from abroad. In November 1938, she requests an exit visa for the US and inevitably she is arrested and charged with "abuse of hospitality and participation in counter-revolutionary organisation and agitation". Sentenced to eight years' hard labour and sent to a Siberian gulag, she remains interned until 1947 despite an international campaign to try and free her. In 1955 she finally obtains permission to return to the GDR, where, with deteriorating health and forbidden to talk about her treatment in Russia, she lives under constant Stasi observation and is repeatedly asked to spy for the secret police, something she steadfastly refused to do.

1885 - Congreso Cosmopolita: Held in Barcelona [Jul. 27-29] after having been previously suspended because of a cholera epidemic. It received the name of Congreso Cosmopolita or Congreso lntenaciona. Those attending: the Comisión Federal (with three delegates), comarcales of Andalucía del Sur y Castilla la Vieja, Alcoy, Palencia, San Roque, Tarrasa, Valencia and Valladohd, Unions of transportes, calzados (footwear), manufactureros, hierro y metales (iron and metals), sombrereros (hatters), marineros (sailors), fulistas (felt workers) and panaderos (bakers), as well as anarchist groups of various strands and from different places (Anárquico de Pintores, Círculo de Estudios y Acción Social de Barcelona, Los Desheredados, Grupo Anarcocomunista Italiano de Barcelona, Unión del Pueblo di Marsella, others from Algiers, Bastia, Cairo, Cesenon, Clarence, Gracia, London, Martigues, New York, San Martín de Provensals and Torino). According to a manifesto of Los Desheredados (The Disinherited) there was the split between federalists, communists and desheredados. It was agreed to advise all anarchists to harmonise their propaganda and revolutionary action, without being able to be more specific because of the atmosphere of police harassment in which the congress was being held. ['Enciclopedia del Anarquismo Espanol']

1888 - London Match Girls' Strike: In the wake of their successful strike, the inaugural meeting of the Union of Women Match Makers is held.

1893 - Great Lock-out of 1893: Throughout 1893 the Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire miners were on a 3-day week. On May 22 at an International Congress of Miners held in Brussels, the president of the Miners' Federation of Great Britain Ben Pickard, representing 530,000 British miners had made a call for miners to take on the battle for a "living wage", a phrase that quickly became popular. Shortly after on June 23, the mine owners issued a demand a cut in wages of at least 15% due to the downturn in the industry, thereby taking miners' wages back to 1888 levels. This was rejected by the Miners' Federation. On July 27, men downed their tools and walked out, launching a general stoppage that would last 16 weeks and affect all British pits. The owners, who wanted a reduction of 25% in coal getting rates, locked out the men. The men were locked out at all pits from June 30 to November 17. On August 22 it was reported that practically all the men employed in the Cheshire, Midlands, Derbyshire, Lancashire, Leicestershire, and Nottinghamshire pits were out. On August 16, Northumberland miners voted not to go on strike and the votes of Durham miners did not reach the neccesary two-thirds majority to endorse the strike call. [expand]
www.farnhill.co.uk/History_Docs/1893 - miner's strike.pdf

1894 - Théodule Meunier, French practitioner of 'propaganda by the deed', is sentenced to life in prison in the Cayenne penal colony.
"A perpétuité? La société bourgeoise n'en a pas pour aussi longtemps! Courage, copains, et vive l'anarchie!"

[F] 1896 - The International Socialist Workers' and Trades Union Congress (July 27-Aug. 1) is held in London. Both delegations include a number of well-known anarchists including Errico Malatesta, Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis, Pietro Gori, Gustav Landauer, Bernhard Kampffmeyer, Rudolf Rocker, Fernand Pelloutier and Paul Delesalle, Louise Michel, Peter Kropotkin, Élisée Reclus and Jean Grave. The Marxists pass a motion requiring the recognition and the need for "political action" (in legislative and parliamentary voting), and finish by totally excluding anarchists and all anti-parliamentary Socialists from any future congresses (The latter convene their own anti-authoritarian Congress on the 29th).

1903 - Ono Tozaburo (小野十三郎; d. 1996), Japanese poet and anarchist, born. He attended Tokyo University in 1920, dropping out after 8 months because of his objections to the authoritarian forms of education there. He then came in contact with the growing anarchist movement. He started contributing to the new paper 'Aka to Kuro' (Red and Black) in 1923 writing anarchist poetry for it, which was suppressed in 1924. He founded his own paper 'Dam-Dam', a Dadaist-anarchist publication, which he was only able to produce for one issue. No publisher would print his collection of poems 'Hanbun Hiraita Mado' (A Half-Opened Window) so he printed it himself in 1926. He published another anarchist magazine 'Dando' (Trajectory) with anarchist poet Kiyoshi Akiyama which they were unable to publish for a year (1930-31). By about 1934 he had moved to a Marxist-realist position, but his poetry continued to be filled with social criticism. He was one of many active in the cultural wing of a vigorous anarchist movement.

下の方で しずかに

Climb the mountain
and the ocean rises to meet the sky.
Surrounded by an avalanche of young green leaves.
Quietly far below
a cuckoo cries.
Standing in the wind at such a height
anyone would naturally think about the breadth of the world.
I cover my mouth with my hands
wanting to shout something down below.
The mountain in May
is dazzlingly radiant.
Have you ever seen the horizon
draw its long blue arc
higher than the mountaintop?

'山頂から' (From the Summit)


1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: In Barcelona hundreds of barricades were erected and several armouries were looted for their pistols and rifles. Attacks were directed against churches and church properties, especially the convents, schools and boards of religious orders. In the space of a few hours many religious buildings were set on fire. In some cases the friars and nuns and property were respected, but in most cases arsonists rushed to plunder and pillage and burned furniture and fixtures. The parish priest of Poblenou died of asphyxiation in the basement of his church where he had taken refuge. Some cemeteries are also desecrated convents. The highlight of the anticlerical violence occurred during the so-called noche trágica from Tuesday to Wednesday in which twenty buildings in the city centre and eight convents on the outskirts were burned down, and many Catholics suffered insults and taunts, such as the elderly nun who was forced to strip to ensure that she hid nothing underneath her habit. Prominent in the carrying out of these acts of vandalism were the violently anticlerical jóvenes bárbaros (young barbarians), associated with the Partido Republicano Radical (Radical Republican Party) of Alejandro Lerroux, who at the time was in exile.
www.pronunciamientos.rizoazul.com/semana tragica.html

1911 - Władysław Głuchowski (d. 1941), Polish teacher, anarcho-syndicalist activist and anti-Nazi fighter, born. 1931-1932 editor of 'Życie Uniwersyteckie' (University Life) in Poznan, activist of Zwiazek Polskiej Mlodziezy Demokratycznej (ZPMD; Union of Polish Democratic Youth), graduated from the History Faculty. After his studies he worked as a teacher in Belorussian secondary school in Wilnus [Vilna]. 1934-1939 anarcho-syndicalist activist in ZZZ (Union of Workers Unions). At the same time member of Anarchistyczna Federacja Polski (AFP: Anarchist Federation of Poland). Published in 'Front Robotniczy' (Workers’ Front, newspaper of ZZZ). In 1935 became a section secretary of ZZZ in Krakow. Arrested January 10, 1937, after rally in Chrzanow, accused of calling for overthrow of the state. In October 1937 acquitted by the court after police and workers’ testimony. 1937-1939 secretary of section of ZZZ in Czestochowa. Strike organiser. Initiator of many workers common-rooms in Upper Silesia and people’s house in Czestochowa. With the lawyer Zygmunt Choldyk was an initiator of underground Polski Związek Wolności (PZW: Polish Association of Freedom). In 1940 joined Syndykalistyczna Organizacja 'Wolnosc' (Syndicalist Organization 'Freedom'). June 12, 1940, arrested by the Gestapo and send to Sachsenhausen concentration camp. January 12, 1941, died of infected wounds as prisoner no.17710. He left a daughter, Helen.

1916 - [O.S. Jul. 14] A crowd comprised mainly of soldatki (soldiers' wives) rioted in the village of Losevo (Лосево) in the Voronezh (Воро́неж) province. About fifteen women entered a shop and one of them asked to buy a length of Chinese calico at fifteen kopeks an arshin (.71 meters). The shopkeeper replied that that was no longer the price of calico and when the woman insisted on paying the old price, he took her by the elbow and led her from the shop. Or at least that was what he claimed to have done. The woman, however, screamed that he had beaten her badly (thereby, presumably, violating the unwritten rule that permitted only a woman’s husband to lay hands on her). Her screams quickly drew a crowd of about three hundred, mainly women, who went about breaking into shops and stealing goods. The officer who described the events reported a rumor that soldiers at the front were sending letters to their wives urging them to riot (buntovat’) so that the soldiers would be sent home.

1917 - SMS Prinzregent Luitpold Mutiny: A shop stewards meeting is held to finalise a plan of action and a coordinating group of 4 stokers, Albin Köbis, Max Reichpietsch, Hans Beckers and Willy Sachse, and seaman Wilhelm Weber, is formed. [see: Aug. 2 & Oct. 29]

1918 - Albert 'Ginger' Godwin (b. 1887), Anglo-Canadian coal miner, union militant, socialist and conscientious objector, is killed by a disgraced former British Columbia cop who had been kicked off the B.C. provincial police force for trying to extort money, but later hired as a special constable hunting down draft evaders. Goodwin, unarmed, was shot through the neck, severing his spinal cord. Although he had been ruled unfit for military service during World War I because he had lung disease, the conscription board reversed its decision just days after Goodwin led a smelter workers’ strike for the eight-hour day. Opposed to the war, Goodwin fled and for months avoided capture by the authorities.
Two undertakers refused a police request to bury Goodwin on the spot where he was shot. Instead, they hauled his body back to Cumberland using a fabric sling, where he was buried on August 2 in the Municipal Cemetery, his coffin having been followed by a mile-long cortege. His death inspired Canada’s first general strike in Vancouver on the day of his burial. [see: May 10]

1918 - Julio Rodríguez Fernandez, aka 'El Cubano' aka 'Fedor' aka Rafael Grau Raimundo (d. 1949), Cuban anarchist and anti-fascist guerrilla, born. [poss. alternate date includes 31 Jul.]

1918 - Ada Pavlovna Lebedev (Ада Павловна Лебедева; b. 1893), Russian revolutionary, member of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party (Партия социалистов-революционеров), and later a Bolshevik, is tortured to death by White Army troops. Exiled from St. Petersburg in 1915 for her S-R Party activities and following the February Revolution, she joined the left anti-war (Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, Internationalists [Партия левых социалистов-революционеров-интернационалистов] together with her partner Gregory Spiridonovich Weinbaum (Григорий Спиридонович Вейнбаум; 1891-1918). Elected a member of the Executive Committee of the Council of Krasnoyarsk (Красноярского Совета), she was a delegate to Central Siberian Congress of Soviets (Средне-Сибирского съезда Советов), and organiser of the rural Red Guards. Following the October Revolution, she was a member of the Provincial Executive Committee of the Yenisei Province (губернского исполнительного комитета Советов Енисейской губернии), Printing Commissioner and a member of the Central Executive Committee of Soviets in Siberia (ЦИК Советов Сибири). In 1918, she also joined the Bolshevik faction of the RSDLP and edited the 'Workers' and Peasant Gazeta' (Рабоче-крестьянскую газету), the publication of Krasnoyarsk Council.
Following the Revolt of the Czechoslovak Legion in May 1918, she and the other Bolshevik functionaries retreated and at Turukhansk the group she was with were arrested by White troops and returned to Krasnoyarsk and, on July 27, 1918, she was tortured to death.

1921 - The premises of anarchist militant, anti-militarist and anticlericist Léon Prouvost (the 'Libertarian Philanthropist') are raided. Days later he committed suicide, after having bequeathed part of his fortune to his fellow publisher André Lorulot. [see: Sep. 28 & Aug. 11]

1924 - On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the founding of the A.I.A. (Association Internationale Antimilitariste), a meeting is held in The Hague. Many well-known militants attend, such as Rudolf Rocker, Emma Goldman, Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis, Barthélemy de Ligt and Pierre Ramus.

1933 - Revolución del 33 / Cuban General Strike: During the long running campaign and violent struggle to oust the dictator Gerardo Machado, on July 27 Havana bus drivers went on strike for their own demands, and two days later intercity drivers struck in solidarity. Soldiers fired on demonstrators in Havana on August 1, killing two, and on the same day in Santa Clara, shops and theatres closed. When police attacked a group of striking teachers, more transportation workers went on strike. In Pinar del Rio drivers, tobacco workers, and journalists also went on strike. In the meantime, the sugar workers’ union organised demonstrations and hunger marches throughout the country.
In the following days more groups joined the campaign. In Havana, many storekeepers closed and garages refused to sell gas. Typographers and journalists struck and the longshoremen/dockers walked out. The Cuban Communist party not only supported workers’ demands but also called for an end to the Machado regime. There were reports of many strikes in the interior of the country, and a central strike committee was organised. The Confederación Nacional de Obreros de Cuba (Cuban Confederation of Labour) called for a general strike to begin August 5th.
The regime responded by arresting more than one hundred labour leaders and other campaign supporters, and tried to round up telegraph operators to force them to go to work. Police fired on a crowd, killing twenty and wounding over one hundred. Leaders of the campaign broadcast appeals to the people to stay off the streets to reduce the chance of escalating repressive violence.
By August 6 more groups joined the strike: railway workers, hotel and restaurant workers, physicians, bakers, cigarmakers. The campaign escalated when government employees went on strike in Sanitation, Communications, and the Treasury Department. Electric and telephone utilities even locked their employees inside to prevent them from striking. At that point the U.S. ambassador pressured Machado to leave office; the dictator took to the radio to announce his determination to resist U.S. intervention. Machado also tried to divide the opposition by making a separate deal with labour. Recognizing, the severity of the threat to his regime, Machado called a meeting with the CNOC and offered them legal recognition as well as official government support if they ended the strike. CNOC leaders were in favor of the agreement as was the Central Committee of the Communist Party in Cuba. The workers, however, rejected their leaders’ agreement and remained on strike.
Soon after the failed agreement with CNOC, an underground radio station controlled by the ABC, a staunch anti-Machado resistance group, falsely claimed that Machado had resigned and called for a huge public demonstration. Despite frantic retractions by other radio stations, a mob still emerged and began to march on the presidential palace. Police began to fire on the crowd before the marchers could reach the palace, killing twenty protestors.
Nonetheless, seeing the campaign’s broad support, the military decided to switch to the side of the people and placed Havana under military control on August 9. Without even the army to support him, Machado resigned on August 11 and left the country.

1936 - In Catalonia, with the enthusiasm of the revolution throughout Spain of the past few days, a new rationalist school - the Centre de l'Escola Nova Unificada (New Unified School Centre) is founded, based and run upon the Modern School principles of Francisco Ferrer.

1936 - Soledad Pastor Serrano (b. unknown), is murdered by the Falangists. Her son Rafael Cuesta Pastor, an active member of the local committee of the CNT and the Comité Revolucionario de Almodóvar had fled the town before the arrival of the Fascist army. Not finding her son, the Falangists beat her, forced her to drink caster oil and paraded her to the square with the village children foolowing and insulting her, before being shot.

1940 - Plans were laid for an assassination attempt on Hilter at a victory parade due to be held on the Champs-Elysées in Paris. Lieutenant Fritz-Dietlof Graf von der Schulenburg, who had been an active participant in earlier attempted coups in Berlin, and Dr. Eugen Gerstenmaier, worked in the Information Division of the Foreign Ministry, planned to shot Adolf while he stood in the reviewing stand along the parade route. However, on July 20 Hitler cancelled the parade. He quietly slipped unannounced into Paris in the early morning hours of July 23 and visited several places of personal interest, including Napoleon's tomb, the Louvre, the Eiffel Tower, and the Palace of Justice. Just as discreetly he left the city, his would-be assassins unaware of his brief sojourn there.

[D] 1941 - Srb Uprising [Ustanak u Srbu]: An uprising against the fascist Independent State of Croatia in Srb, a village in the Gračac municipality in Lika region, by the local population, aided by the Chetniks and the communist Yugoslav Partisans, after its troops had killed about 900 Serb civilians in the area.

[C] 1942 - Paintings by Picasso, Dalí, Ernst, Klee, Léger, Miró and many others are destroyed by the Nazis n a bonfire in the gardens of the Galerie Nationale du Jeu de Paume in Paris.

1948 - Susan Keating Glaspell (b. 1876), US radical and feminist playwright, actress, director, novelist, biographer and poet, dies. [see: Jul. 1]

1949 - Jean Roumilhac (b. 1892), French libertarian activist, dies in car accident. Fought in the Spanish Revolution and was first president of the French section of the S.I.A. (International Solidarity Antifascist). In the 1940s Roumilhac created an agricultural company in the Rhone delta, enabling Spanish anarchist refugees to obtain legal residence permits.

1956 - Birgit Hogefeld, German former member and leader of the 'third generation' Rote Armee Fraktion, who was the final RAF prisoner to be released on parole, born.

1968 - Following the events of the 18th and 20th July and the banning of all protests and rallies in the city, the Living Theatre's play 'Paradise Now' is banned under a local decree. The give a free performance in the street.

1970 - António de Oliveira Salazar (b. 1889), Portuguese professor and politician who founded the Estado Novo (New State) and served as its Prime Minister/dictator from 1932 to 1968, finally dies still believing that he is still Prime Minister despite being removed from office 2 years earlier following a series fall and brain hemorrhage. [see: Apr. 28 & Aug. 3]

1970 - Albert de Jong (b. 1891), militant Dutch anarcho-syndicalist and anti-militarist, dies. [see: Apr. 29]

1973 - Oklahoma State Penitentiary Riot: Oklahoma State Pen aka 'Big Mac' explodes into one of the destructive prison riots in U.S. history. Built to hold 1,100 prisoners, the McAlester facility held more than 2,200 at the time of the uprising. It began at 2:30 pm in the mess hall when 2 prion officers were stabbed. Eventully 21 were taken hostage, with 3 inmates dying at the hands of their fellow prisoners. By 6 pm the prison was on fire. Among the demands the inmates made for the release of hostages were a total amnesty for the 'ringleaders', media coverage and access to Justice Department and American Civil Liberties Union attorneys.

1973 - The Bewegung 2. Juni (2 June Movement) carry out a bank robbery In West Berlin, stealing 200,000 Deutsch Marks.

1979 - Mozume Kazuko (物集和子) (Kazu Fujinami [藤浪和]; b. 1888), Japanese Taisho era novelist, feminist and one of the co-founders, along with Raichō Hiratsuka (平塚らいてう) and others, of the monthly feminist magazine 'Seitō' (青鞜 / Bluestocking), dies.

1981 - Liverpool 8 Uprising / Toxteth Riots: A major second wave of rioting broke out in Toxteth, Liverpool in protest against racist policing [on July 3 the aggressive and heavy-handed arrest of black photography student Leroy Cooper sparked the first wave of nine days of disorder that peaked on July 5-6 and saw the first use of CS gas on the British mainland]. Black youth from the area, joined by white youths from surrounding districts, attacked police with missiles and petrol bombs. Cars were set on light and 26 officers injured. Baton charges having proved ineffectually during the previous riots, the police resorted to the tactic developed in Northern Ireland by the RUC (and used during the Moss Side riots by Greater Manchester Police earlier in the month) of driving vehicles at high speed into crowds in order to disperse them. This led to the death of David Moore, a local disabled man struck and killed by a police Land Rover in the early hours of July 28.

[1989 - Donbass Miners' Strike [Донбасса Шахтерский забастовка] / 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: The strike in the Ukraine and Southern Russia did not completely end until July 27.]

2005 - Arsonists identifying themselves as the Earth Liberation Front damage two homes under construction in Whatcom County, Washington.

[A] 2011 - Topiary aka Jake Davis, arrested on Yell, Shetland Islands, UK on suspicion of being Lulzsec's spokesperson.

[B] 2013 - Michael Anthony 'Mick' Farren (b. 1943), English journalist, writer, poet, musician, activist, agent provocateur and anarchist, dies after having collapsed on stage at London's Borderline while performing with his band The Deviants. [see: Sep. 3]
[A] 1586 - The first potatoes arrive in England from South America. Things start to go downhill for the mighty parsnip.

[FF] 1766 - Huelga de Real del Monte [Real del Monte Strike]: A barra of pikemen met secretly on July 28 1766. They persuaded a scribe to draft a petition, on the advice of their priest. They got 70 signatures and presented their grievances to the officials of the royal treasury at Pachuca. Upon their return to Real de Monte, management set the recogedores on them. Several were forced to work an extra night in dry diggings. [see: Jul. 30]
[* The word "huelga" did not come into common used in Spanish until the late C19th and the workers of Real del Monte never used it.]

1830 - Trois Glorieuses [Three Glorious Days] or La Révolution de Juillet: The Second French Revolution [July 26-29] marks the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans. Louis-Philippe would himself be overthrown in turn in 1848. [expand]

[B] 1862 - Émile Maurin (d. 1913) (known as Élie Murmain), French anarchist militant and photographer, born. Implicated and sentenced in absentia at the Procès des 66 on January 19, 1883 to five years in prison. In exile in Geneva, he was amnestied in 1889 and returned to France, where he became a travelling photographer under the name of Murmain, in spite of serious problems with his eyesight (he gradually went blind). Maurin used this travelling trade to propagate the anarchist ideas. In 1891, he is again sentenced to prison (for six months) for encouraging soldiers to revolt.

1869 - Émile Masson (d. 1923), Breton militant, professor, writer and libertarian socialist propagandist, born. Wrote under the pseudonyms Brenn, Ewan Gweznou and Ion Prigent. A friend of Élisée Reclus and of Kropotkin, he took part in the universitaire populaires (1899–1905) and later on tried to reconcile his libertarian socialism and his Breton nationalist sympathies. Author of 'Les Rebelles' (1908), "anarchico-bretons" tales. [expand]

1874 - Ernst Cassirer (d. 1945), German neo-Kantianism philosopher and phenomenologist, born. His key area of study was symbolism and the phenomenology of knowledge. Cassirer was Jewish and was forced to flee Germany for England when the Nazis took power and his final work, 'The Myth of the State' (1946), which was published posthumously, is an important study of myth and the irrational in the intellectual origins of Nazi Germany.

[E] 1874 - Alice Duer Miller (d. 1942), US writer and feminist, whose poetry on the subject of women's suffrage actively influenced political opinion, born. She was a member of the militant Congressional Union for Women Suffrage that had been formed by Alice Paul and Lucy Burns and was based upon the methods employed by the WSPU in Britian.

[EE] 1879 - Lucy Burns (d. 1966), US suffragist and women's rights advocate, born. Whilst living in England (1909-12) she joined the WSPU and met fellow US suffragist Alice Paul in a London police station, both women having been arrested during a WSPU demonstration. When they both returned home to the United States they formed the radical Congressional Union for Women Suffrage, a split from the National American Women Suffrage Association. In 1916, the pair formed the National Woman’s Party, which was committed to direct action in fighting for women's rights and particularly their right to vote. The NWP led dozens of women to picket the White House in Washington, D.C. as Silent Sentinels beginning in January 1917.
She personally was arrested 6 times, organising her fellow prisoners and instigating hunger strikes despite the brutality she was subjected to. One one occasion in Occoquan Workhouse, what became known as the 'Night of Terror' on November 15, 1917, she was beaten and her arms were handcuffed above her head in her cell. Particularly brutal force-feeding soon followed.

[BB] 1887 - Marcel Duchamp (d. 1968), French-American artist, painter, sculptor, writer, chess player and individualist anarchist, born. Brother of the painter and printmaker Jacques Villon (1875–1963), the sculptor Raymond Duchamp-Villon (1876–1918) and the painter Suzanne Duchamp (1889–1963). The inventor of the 'readymade' who 'gave up' painting for chess in 1913. In Munich on his 1912 visit to Germany, where he painted 'Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors', he discovered Stirner's 'Der Einzige und sein Eigentum' (1845), which he considered a major turning point in his artistic and intellectual development, calling it "...a remarkable book ... which advances no formal theories, but just keeps saying that the ego is always there in everything." [NB: The previous year he had met Francis Picabia, who might also have introduced Duchamp to the works of Stirner, possibly including his essay 'Art and Religion'.] 'Three Standard Stoppages' (1913-14) was one of the first of his works produced under the expressed influence of Stirner's work.
His 'Nu Descendant un Escalier No. 2' (Nude Descending a Staircase No. 2) on show at the NYC Armory Show scandalised Americans and, following the outbreak of WWI in which he was exempted military service, he left for New York in 1915. There he fell in with Man Ray, with both frequenting anarchist circles and becoming the core of what was later labelled New York Dada.

1889 - London Gasworkers' Strike: The National Union of Gas Workers & General Labourers hold a "day of our emancipation" celebration in Hyde Park following the winning of the 8 hour day for gas workers in the capital. 12,000 heard Will Thorne, and John Bums – with local leader Mark Hutchins, and MP Mark Beaufoy (the vinegar magnate whose Kennington Liberal Party branch had just called on him to support the gasworkers).

1894 - In Paris the Chamber of Deputies passes the last lois scélérates (villainous laws), condemning any individual or publication using anarchist propaganda.

1903 - [O.S. Jul. 5] Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprisings [Илинденско-Преображенско въстания]: The message setting the date for the uprising as August 2 (July 20 in the old Julian calendar), the feast day of St. Elias (Elijah), a holy day known as Ilinden, is sent out through out the revolutionary movements, with the secret being kept until the last moment.

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 15] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The new Russian prime minsiter, Pyotr Stolypin (Пётр Столы́пин), begins his attempts (July 28-August 2 [O.S. Jul. 15-20]) to recruit moderates for his government, but refuses to pledge to enact any liberal reforms.

[D] 1906 - [O.S. Jul. 15] Sveaborg Rebellion [Свеаборг Восстание]: A general uprising in the Baltic Fleet had been scheduled for August 10 (July 29), 1906 by the RSDLP (b), but in the Sveaborg garrison and 20th Naval Depot, located on the island of Skatudden (Скатуден), an uprising begins prematurely. Spontaneous disturbances break out during the evening among the sailors of a mine company demanding the cancellation of an order stopping the issuance of so-called "wine money", regularly issued to supplement poor military rations and improve nutrition. The next day the company refuse to lay minefields.
The Sveaborg Socialist Revolutionaries group, which had proposed that the uprising should be jointly organised, but had been snubbed by the RSDLP (b), takes advantage of this opportunity to call for their own uprising. The St. Petersburg Committee of the RSDLP (b) hastily sent a delegation to Sveaborg to try and arrange a postponement of the uprising. And if a postponement were to prove impossible, the delegation was to take part in leading the uprising. The delegation however arrived at the height of the uprising and was unable to enter the fortress.

1907 - In Raon-l'Etape during a peaceful demonstration by French strikers, police open fire on the procession, killing two workers. Barricades appear in the streets and the black flag is raised. Francis Boudoux (Jules Sellenet), anarchist and secretary of the l'Union des Syndicats de Meurthe-et-Moselle, delivers a speech at the funeral services for the two workmen.

1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: Dawn saw Barcelona shrouded by the smoke plumes coming from numerous burning religious buildings. Throughout the day anti-clerical violence and shootings between insurgents and the forces of law and order continues, with the most serious incidents occurring in the district of San Andrés de Palomar, where rebels armed with rifles captured casetas de consumos (consumption tax booths) guards, whilst members of the Militia built barricades and set fire to the parish church. However the same day the first military reinforcements arrived from Zaragoza and Valencia, believing that they would be suppressing a "separatist" movement.
www.pronunciamientos.rizoazul.com/semana tragica.html

1909 - In Madrid, Pablo Iglesias Posse and the rest of the leadership of the PSOE is arrested ahead of the planned countrywide general strike... [expand]
www.pronunciamientos.rizoazul.com/semana tragica.html

1913 - Paterson Silk Strike: The vast majority of striking workers have now returned to work. The srike is effectively over and had resulteed in a partial victory for the workers. Although the dyer’s helpers did not gain the 8-hour day, the weavers did protect the two-loom system and preserve the right of free speech, both on the streets and in the factory. In 1919, Paterson silk workers won the 8-hour day, but by that time Paterson’s silk industry was already in decline. [see: Jan. 27 & Feb. 24]

1920 - Pasquale Binazzi, Italian trade union militant and director of the anarchist magazine 'Il Libertario', is arrested in Spezio and charged with forming an armed gang during social disturbances in the city last month. In response to his arrest workers initiate a General Strike.

1946 - Fahmida Riaz (فہمیدہ ریاض‎), Pakistani writer, Urdu poet, feminist, and human rights activist, born.

1968 - Following the municipal and prefectural bans on the Living Thetare's play 'Paradise Now', the company decide to withdraw from the festival to which they were invited to give 16 performances. In the Palace des Papes, police and hired thugs hunt down "hairies and hippies". The theatre troupe play the outdoor free Festival de Châteauvallon on August 1 without incident.

1969 - White Panther Party founder, anarchist, author, music critic and one-time manager of the band MC5, John Sinclair is sentenced to 10 years in jail for selling two marijuana joints.

1969 - Following the death of a local man, Kenneth Horsfall who was stabbed to death, a series of riots break out in the Burley area of Leeds (centred on Burley Road, Woodsley Road and Burley Lodge Road). Three coloured immigrant men are arrested in connection with the murder and local white people target the local Asian population, attacking homes and businesses. The disturbances, which drew white youths from across Leeds, were in part fermented by local fascists from the NF, BNP and BM, and there were numerous arrests for criminal damage, assault and setting cars on fire. In a separate incident, which reignited tensions, a West Indian man driving a car hit a white man and killed him. The disturbances continue for 3-4 nights.
The 3 men arrested in connection with the murder would appeared at Leeds Assizes in January 1970. Two were convicted of the murder and received life imprisonment and one man was acquitted of aiding and abetting the murder and carrying an offensive weapon.

1973 - Robin Gunningham, outed by the 'Daily Mail' as the 'real' identity of English graffiti artist, political activist, film director and all round artistic agent provocateur Banksy, born.
“[I] wouldn’t want to be remembered as the guy who contaminated a perfectly legitimate form of protest art with money and celebrities. I do sometimes question whether I’m part of the solution or part of the problem.” 'Time Out' (2010)

1973 - Oklahoma State Penitentiary Riot: National Guard troops and Oklahoma Highway Patrol officers were called out to help get the prison under control. At 12:30 pm prisoners released the hostages.

1981 - Liverpool 8 Uprising / Toxteth Riots: In the early hours of the morning, the use by the police of the tactic of driving vehicles at high speed into crowds in order to disperse them (as developed as a riot control technique in Northern Ireland by the RUC) claims its first victim on the UK mainland during the second wave of rioting in Toxteth as a local disabled man, David Moore, is struck by a police Land Rover and killed.

[C] 1985 - Anti-Fascist Action (AFA) is officially launched at a meeting in Conway Hall, London, attended by 250 people. Representatives from Red Action, Class War, the Jewish Socialist group, Newham Monistoring Project, Workers Power, Searchlight, the Refugees Forum and various local antiracist bodies from across the country.

[AA] 1993 - Joy Gardner, a 40-year-old Jamaican woman, dies in her flat in Crouch End, north London, as police try to serve a deportation order on her. They forced her face down on to the floor, sat on her body so they could bind her hands to her side with a leather belt and manacles. They then strapped her legs together and wound 4m of surgical tape round her head. Joy Gardner suffocated and subsequently fell into a coma, later dying in hospital.

2000 - Anti-government protesters fight street battles as the struggle to bring down President Alberto Fujimori kicks off.

2004 - Rebecca Turner, 22, was found hanged in her cell at HMP Low Newton 50 minutes after she had been seen by a prison guard who had asked her if she had wanted breakfast. Rebecca has said: "Yes".

2006 - Richard Mock (b. 1944), US printmaker, painter, sculptor, and editorial cartoonist best known for his linocut illustrations that appeared on the Op-Ed page of 'The New York Times', dies. His art frequently appeared on the covers of the magazines 'Fifth Estate', 'Alternative Press Review' and 'Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed'.
1830 - Trois Glorieuses [Three Glorious Days] or La Révolution de Juillet: The Second French Revolution [July 26-29] marks the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans. Louis-Philippe would himself be overthrown in turn in 1848.

1870 - Paul Delesalle (d. 1948), French mechanic, anarchist and syndicalist, born. One of the most influential figures of pre-WWI anarcho-syndicalism in France.

1871 - Roberto Elia (d. 1924), Italian militant anarchist and Galleanist, born. Elia and his friend Andrea Salsedo owned a print shop in the US. In 1920, during the Palmer Raids in suspects in the 1919 wave of anarchist bombings, both were abducted without a warrant or arrest [see: Mar. 8]. Held in secret, interrogated and beaten for eight weeks, Salsedo mysteriously "falls" from the 14th floor of the Department of Justice offices (May 3, 1920). Elia refused an offer to cancel deportation proceedings if he would testify about his role in the Galleanist organisation.

[B] 1889 - Karl Otten (d. 1963), German Expressionist writer, novelist, poet, playwright, essayist, artist and anarchist, born. He joined Erich Mühsam's Gruppe Tat in 1910 alongside Franz Jung, Oskar Maria Graf and Georg Schrimpf. During WWI his anarchist and pacifist beliefs got him interned at first and was forced to work as a Arbeitssoldat (working soldier) in a censorship office. In 1918 he published a book of poetry 'Die Thronerhebung des Herzens' and was rearrested and locked up in the fortress of Koblenz. |He was only was after the November Revolution had begun. During the war he also became involved in 'Die Aktion', contributing woodcuts and texts, and collected his short stories in 'Der Sprung aus dem Fenster' (1918).
He fled Nazi Germany in 1933, moving to Paris and then Mallorca. When the island became under threat from the Fascists and fearing internment, he fled via France to England. There he worked for the BBC on English and German publications and broadcasts, as well as anthologising English translations of his own anti-Nazi writings in 'A Combine of Aggression: Masses, Elite and Dictatorship in Germany' (1942). His major novel 'Torquemadas Schatten' (Torquemada's Shadow; 1938) is an important novelistic examination of the Spanish Revolution.

1900 - Angelo Gaetano Bresci assassinates King Umberto I of Italy at Monza, in revenge for the repression of the insurrection in Milan two years previously - the so-called Protesta dello Stomaco aka Massacro di Bava-Beccaris [May 6-9, 1898], when the Italian army under the command of General Fiorenzo Bava Beccaris opened fire on demonstrators protesting high bread prices, killing hundreds.
Exactly one month after the assassination, Bresci appeared in court, defended by by the anarchist lawyer and libertarian socialist theorist Francesco Saverio Merlino. He was convicted and sentenced life, with the first seven years spent in solitary confinement, in his one-day trial. On May 22, 1901 he was found dead in his cell in Santo Stefano prison, most likely having been killed by his guards.
"As he left a gymnastic display organised by the society of Fort e Liberi, Umberto I was hit by two revolver shots fired by the anarchist Gaetano Bresci, who had come from Patterson, USA, with the express purpose of avenging the Milan massacres of 1898. Wounded in the neck and shoulder blades, the king died shortly after. Bresci, condemned to convict prison, was found strangled in circumstances which remain obscure, in cell no 515 of Santo Stefano prison on May 22nd, 1901." - 'The Art of Anarchy'
[Costantini pic]

1900 - Teresa Noce aka 'Estella' (d. 1980), Italian metal worker, journalist, labour leader, Communist activist, anti-fascist and feminist, born. The partner of the PCI functionary Luigi Longo, they worked in the Italian anti-fascist underground until 1926, when they emigrated, settling first in Moscow and then in Paris. From then on, she made numerous clandestine trips to Italy in pursuit of her anti-fascist activities. In Paris she became a leading political figure among the Italian exile community, becoming the editor of 'Il Grido del Popolo' and, in 1934, the editor of the anti-fascist periodical 'La voce della donne' . In 1936, she went to Spain the carry out propagnda work, editing the Italain section of the International Brigade's newspaper 'Il volontario della libertà'. Back in Paris the following year she co-founded the clandestine anti-fascist newspaper 'Noi Nonne' (We Women) with Xenia Silberberg. She also published the autobiographical novel dedicated to the story of his youth in Turin, 'Gioventù senza sole' (Sunless Youth; 1938). Interned in the Rieucros camp at the outbreak of WWII, she was released due to Soviet intervention and was due to rejoin her children in Moscow, when the Nazis invaded the Soviet Union, Instead, she remained in Marseilles, where, on behalf of the PCF, directed the MOI (Main-d'Œuvre Immigrée) and, taking the nom de guerre 'Estella', engages in armed struggle waged against the Germans and their collaborators from within the ranks of the FTP (Francs-Tireurs et Partisans). Though she avoided arrest on a number of occasions, she was eventually arrested and deported to Ravensbrück, the German concentration camp for women. She was freed in the Spring of 1945 and returned to Italy. There she was one of 21 women elected to the Assemblea costituente italiana in 1946 and, though her alignment with the Unione Donne Italiane (Italian Women's Union), went on to help draft and pass some of the important post-War legislation designed to protect women.

1905 - [O.S. Jul. 16] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Menshevik paper 'Iskra' urges students to abandon their academic strike in Sep. and to use the universities for mass agitation.

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 16] Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The SR terrorist Boris Viktorovich Savinkov (Бори́с Ви́кторович Са́винков) escapes from prison in Sebastopol with the assistance of a sailer and SR combat organisation, Vasily Mitrofanovich Sulyatitsky (Василий Митрофанович Сулятицкий), sailing to Romania and then to Germany via Hungary and Switzerland.
arrested in Sevastopol, which was preparing an attempt on the Black Sea Fleet Commander Admiral GP Chuhnina Г. Чухнина.
managed to escape from his prison cell in Odessa
sentenced by a military court to be hanged

1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: Starting with the area of ​​the Ramblas and the port, about 10,000 soldiers were occupying the city of Barcelona, ​​while the morale of the insurgents was falling as they were aware that their rebellion was not being supported in the rest of Spain. Between Friday and Saturday the city was gradually regaining normal except in the districts of San Andrés and Horta, where they continued the shootings occurred and where the last burning and looting of monasteries and religious schools.
www.pronunciamientos.rizoazul.com/semana tragica.html

1914 -The first female Social Democratic (Българска социалдемократическа) conference takes place in Sofia, with the aim of establishing a revolutionary social organisation of Bulgarian women.

1917 - Rayna Popgeorgieva Futekova [Райна Попгеоргиева Футекова], better known as Rayna Knyaginya [Райна Княгиня](b. 1856), Bulgarian teacher and revolutionary born in Panagyurishte who is famous for having sewn the flag of the April Uprising of 1876, dies.

1920 - 'No more war' demonstrations by disabled German veterans.

1921 - Hitler becomes President of the German Nazi Party.

[E] 1921 - Maria Occhipinti (d. 1996), Italian anarcha-feminist, born. In 1945 she was involved in the Non si parte! anti-draft revolt in Ragusa, for which she was imprisoned.

1923 - International 'No more war' demonstrations occur in 23 countries.

1929 - Jean Baudrillard (d. 2007), French philosopher, sociologist, anarchist, born.

[C] 1944 - Silvano Fedi (b. 1920), Italian anarchist, anti-fascist partisan and local hero, is killed in a Nazi ambush. [see: Apr. 25]

1947 - British Forces in the Palestine Mandate execute Avshalom Haviv, Yaakov Weiss and Meir Nakar, 3 Irgun Zvei Leumi paramilitaries sentenced to hang under the 1945 Defence Emergency Regulations.

1953 - Rosa May Billinghurst (b. 1875), English suffragette and women's rights activist, dies. [see: May 31]

1962 - Mosley and the UM again tried to march through Manchester to Belle Vue but this time he had only 30-40 supporters. Even before march had started, 5 anti-fascists had rushed Mosley and knocked him to the ground (one of three occasions on which he was floored that day), only for him to be rescued by some of the 250 police present, who formed a ring round him and escorted him to the head of the march. Anti-fascists, who managed to prevent Mosley from parading through the centre of the city by sheer weight of numbers, showered the Mosleyites with tomatoes, eggs coins and stones, and the fascists' flags and banners were ripped down. At end of march, Mosley's speech before a hostile crowd of 5,000 people was inaudible and police called off the meeting after just seven minutes. Clashes between the Blackshirts and anti-fascists continued for some time after the rally had ended, with 47 people being arrested, including Jeffrey Hamm who was charged with threatening behaviour.

1963 - Two bombs explode in Madrid, including on at the Direction Générale de la Sécurité (General Security Directorate) which explodes prematurely causing 20 minor injuries. The press whip up a frenzy of resentment against the anti-Francoists. Anarchists Joaquin Delgado and Francisco Granados are arrested in possession of explosives in an unrelated incident. They are tortured before being sentenced to death by a military court and executed by garrot vil on August 17, 1963.

[A] 1968 - Riots rock Seattle's Central Area after a police raid on the local Black Panther Party headquarters. Seattle BPP leader Aaron Dixon is arrested for possession of a stolen typewriter. (Later acquitted.) 69 are arrested in riots over the following three days.

[F] 1970 - 1965-70 Delano Grape Strike & Boycott: After five years of strikes and boycotts, table grape growers in California sign their first collective bargaining agreement with the United Farm Workers of America. The contract – which covered over 10,000 workers – ended labour contracting and established seniority and hiring rights; included an immediate wage increase; and provided for fresh water and toilets in the fields, and a medical plan.

1970 - Johannes Sigfred Andersen aka 'Gulosten' (The Yellow Cheese)(b. 1898), Norwegian alcohol smuggler, furniture manufacturer, resistance fighter during WWII and, as a survivor of the notorious Bastøy school home for maladjusted boys, children's rights advocate, dies. [see: Jul. 9]

1973 - Oklahoma State Penitentiary Riot: Highway Patrol troopers and National Guard troops enter the prison grounds. At the end of the three day uprising, 4 prisoners were dead (one from a heart attack), 12 buildings were burned, 21 inmates and guards had been injured, and 24 buildings destroyed, mainly through fire. Total damage estimated at $20-30 million.

1979 - Herbert Marcuse (b. 1898), German philosopher, sociologist and political theorist, dies. [see: Jul. 19]

1979 - Émilie Carles (Émile Allais; b. 1900), French teacher, writer, peace activist and libertarian, who is more widely known as the author of the autobiographical 'Une soupe aux herbes sauvages' (A soup with wild herbs; 1977), dies. [see: May 29]

1983 - Luis Buñuel (b. 1900), Spanish surrealist film-maker/director, dies. [see: Feb. 22]

1989 - Donbass Miners' Strike [Донбасса Шахтерский забастовка] / 1989 Soviet Miners' Strikes [Забастовки шахтёров СССР в 1989 году]: Soviet media report that the State Planning Committee of the Council of Ministers and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions had considered the demands of the miners' strike committees from the Donetsk and Voroshilovgrad regions and signed protocols on agreed measures. One result was the adoption on August 3 by the Supreme Council of USSR of the law 'On the economic independence of the Ukrainian SSR', which caused major problems and difficulties in the economy, the collapse of production management, and the decline of many industries.

1997 - In Berlin, the Scharnweberstrasse 28, the Rigaer Strasse 80, the side of Schreinerstrasse 14, and the Pfarrstrasse 88/Eisenbahner are all evicted.

2000 - Goliardo Fiaschi (b. 1930), Italian anarchist partisan who fought Franco, Moussolini and Hitler's troop, dies. [see: Aug. 21]

2000 - The Direct Action Network stages a protest at the 2000 Republican National Convention in Philadelphia, United States.

2012 - Three US Ploughshares protesters - Megan Rice, an eighty-two-year-old nun, Gregory Boertje-Obed, a Christian pacifist in his late fifties, and Michael Walli, a Catholic in his early sixties - break into the Y-12 National Security Complex at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Cutting their way through 3 three security fences, they spray-painted peace messages on the plant's bomb-grade uranium storehouse exterior, draped banners and crime-scene tape, and poured human blood onto the concrete.
[FF] 1766 - Huelga* de Real del Monte [Real del Monte Strike]: In the summer of 1766 Mexican silver miners of Real del Monte, about one hundred kilometres north of Mexico city, stopped work in order to change their labour contract, an act that developed into a major industrial strike, one that took place without a trade union or a political ideology to sustain them. It was the first strike in the history of Mexican labour and the first strike in North America
Production at the silver mines was geared towards making the quota of ore-laden rock containing silver and other valuable minerals. Payment system was based on daily wages and the partido, any extra ore over the quota which they could sell themselves. The basic unit in the labour process was the barra or work gang of five or six men – pikemen, peons and the gang captain. While the pikemen attacked the rock face with explosives and mallets, peons carried sacksup precarious ladders. The miners worked 12 hour shifts because of the shortage of labour.
Legally the crown authorities allowed the use of forced 'Indian' labour and, unusually, at Real del Monte, African slave labour. Racism was not a significant issue in this dispute however. The mine owners were also allowed to organise a recogedores, a private army which rounded up extra workers and terrorised existing workers should they disobey or dissent. Straining beneath long hours, dangerous conditions and persistent coercion, the miners were welded together by common experience, shared feelings and aspirations and when the spark was lit, a knowledge of their own collective power.
The strike started after Pedro Romero de Terreros tried to cut costs and increase profits. This followed enormous expenditure on draining water from and rehabilitating one of the seams in the mine. In June 1765, peons’ wages were cut from 4 reales per shift to 3. Sacks became larger, making it impossible to met the quota and the partido. The traditional process of dividing the partido was changed. Bags of ore, of both quota and partido, were "mixed" so that workers received less of the high quality ore in their partido. The partido was the only thing enabling the workers to keep body and soul intact.
n July 1766 management started renting (instead of loaning) partido sacks. They increased the quota and undertook the process of "mixing" behind closed doors. Even more of the high quality ore went to the owner. The charity sack – traditionally a voluntary contribution to two local convents (as a hospital and burial provision) – had become compulsory and much larger.
The workers’ action began when a barra of pikemen met secretly on July 28 1766. They persuaded a scribe to draft a petition, on the advice of their priest. They got 70 signatures and presented their grievances to the officials of the royal treasury at Pachuca. Upon their return to Real de Monte, management set the recogedores on them. Several were forced to work an extra night in dry diggings.
By July 30 workers and their families were converging on Pachuca. Only 10 barras had reported for work. The strike had begun. On August 1 a new petition had been drafted and a mass meeting decided that it should be sent to the highest authority in the land, the Viceroy of New Spain, in Mexico City. The new petition was eloquently sore against the “mixing” and the loss of partido. It stood for four reales for peons, against the mineowner’s violence and the use of scabs. It squarely blamed Terreros, not the foremen for the trouble, and demanded a fair share of the profits for 1200 men.
[* The word "huelga" did not come into common used in Spanish until the late C19th and the workers of Real del Monte never used it.]
libcom.org/files/1766 The Real del Monte miners' strike.pdf

1849 - André Romans-Ville (d. unknown), French shoemaker, autodidact and militant anarchist, born. Involved with the group Terre et Liberté, and was a correspondent with Jean Grave, Sébastien Faure and others. Often under police surveillance. Arrested on February 10, 1894, with Pierre Martin and 20 other companions, they were accused of "participation in a criminal conspiracy". He was released a few weeks later, only to suffer further police persecution. In 1905, in Saillans, he participated in the founding congress of the socialist federation, SFIO.

1874 - Aristide Delannoy (d. 1911), French painter, cartoonist and libertarian, born. Passionate artist who survived financially by the publishing of his cartoons, which appeared numerous in anarchist and anti-militarist papers including 'Assiette au Beurre', 'Les Temps Nouveaux', 'La Guerre Sociale' and 'Hommes du Jour', producing over 150 covers for the latter including the first issues picture of Clemenceau's head on a pike. A cartoon of General Albert d'Amade represented a butcher, and published in the 'Hommes du Jour' gained him a year in prison in 1908. His health suffered during his prison sentence and he was released after 4 months, dying of tuberculosis less than 2 years later.

1882 - The first issue of anarchist weekly 'L'Etendard Révolutionnaire' is published in Lyon.

[B] 1889 - Frans Masereel (d. 1972), Belgian radical woodcut artist, printmaker, illustrator, draughtsman, libertarian, communist, pacifist and Master of the wordless novel, born. Passionately anti-war, he sought refuge in Switzerland during WWI, there befriending Stefan Zweig and Romain Rolland and began working for the pacifist publications 'La Feuille' and 'Les Tablettes'. It was there that he published his first works, three anti-war albums: 'Les Morts Parlent' (The Dead Speak; 1917), 'Debout les Morts' (Arise, You Dead; 1917) and the better known '25 Images de la Passion d´un Homme' / 'Die Passion eines Menschen' (25 Images of a Man's Passion; 1918). In 1922 Masereel returned to Paris and began painting his lesser known street scenes. He also travelled, living for a period in Berlin where he became close to George Grosz, sharing a house with him. With the rise of fascism, he reknewed his involvement in anti-war activities, participating in the World Congress Against War and Fascism in Amsterdam in 1932. However, the fear of war weighed heavily on him, with the Nazis banning and destroying his books and the Spanish Republic under threat. In 1937 Masereel travelled to Republican Spain as a member of a delegation of French artists and was involved with the Pavilion of the World Peace Movement at the 1937 World Exhibition in Paris. With the German invasion of France, he fled Paris and, following a failed attempt to leave for South America, his out in the south of France.
His other works include: 'Le Soleil' (The Sun; 1919); 'Mon Livre d'Heures' aka 'Passionate Journey' (1919); 'Histoire Sans Paroles' / 'Geschichte ohne Worte: Ein Roman in Bildern' (Story Without Words: a Novel in Pictures; 1920); 'Die Idee' / 'L' Idée' (The Idea; 1920), also made into a 1932 film by Berthold Bartosch with Masereel's assisstance; 'La Ville' / 'Die Stadt' (The City; 1925); 'Bilder der Großstadt' (Images of the Great City; 1926); 'Das Werk' (The Work; 1928) and 'La Sirene' (The Siren; 1932).
He also illustrated numerous works by others, including Victor Hugo, Tolstoy, Thomas Mann, Oscar Wilde ('The Ballad of Reading Goal'), Hemingway, Hermann Hesse (who wrote an afterword for his 'Histoire Sans Paroles', Romain Rolland (who provided a foreword to 'Mon Livre d'Heures'), Klaus Mann, Kurt Tucholsky, Thomas Mann, Émile Zola, Upton Sinclair and Stefan Zweig. Of these, 2 particulalry stand out: the 100 woodcuts in 1943 reprint of Charles de Coster's 'The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel and Lamme Goedzak' [originally 'La Légende et les Aventures héroïques, joyeuses et glorieuses d'Ulenspiegel et de Lamme Goedzak au pays de Flandres et ailleurs' (1867)] and Romain Rolland's 'Die Révolte der Maschinen, ou la Pensée Déchainée' (1921), with its 33 woodcuts.
"Masereel is also affected by the new course in Germany. Although he is not a Jew, nor a communist (not even salon-communist), his views on humanity, war and peace, rulers and oppressed are today not held highly in the country and as a result it could cost the windows of any bookseller who displayed Masereel's '25 Images de la Passion d´un Homme' in his shop window."
- Letter from George Reinhart to Hermann Hesse (dated 1 April, 1933)

1898 - As a wave of anti-worker and anti-anarchist repression intensifies following riots in Milan, Amilcare Cipriani and five other libertarians are sent to prison with sentences ranging from 1-5 years.

1898 - Juan Puig Elías (d. 1972), Spanish teacher and militant anarcho-syndicalist, born. [expand]

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 17] Sveaborg Rebellion [Свеаборг Восстание]: General Vladimir Layming (Владимир Александрович Лайминг), the commandant of the fortress, orders the disarming and arrest of the sailors in the mine company, some 200 people.

1906 - Alfonso Failla (d. 1986), Italian anarchist and anti-fascist fighter, who took part in the armed resistance against the fascist squadristi in the 1925 Siracusa Uprising and who spent many years interned on the island of Ponza by the fascist regime, born.

1908 - Grève de Draveil-Villeneuve-Saint-Georges: Following the June 2 shooting of two workers during the Société des Sablières strike in Vigneux Draveil, passions are still running high and the acts of sabotage continue. Despite the CGT claiming to be behind calls for a general strike, only the Fédération du Bâtiment (construction workers) strike for the day and hold a rally. After the meeting in Vigneux, they march to the cemetery at Villeneuve-St-Georges singing the Internationale. However, a regiment of Dragoons attack them with their sabres, seriously injuring many - Rirette Maîtrejean receives a leg wound, whilst Albert Libertad is forced to jump into the river, narrowly escaping death.
When the protesters arrive at Villeneuve-St-Georges, with many wounded among them, the streets leading to the station are blocked by the army, making any return on Paris impossible. Protesters begin to build barricades and throw stones at the soldiers, but they open fire on the crowd, causing carnage - leaving four dead and over 200 injured on the side of the workers. On the army's side, 69 are wounded and 5 dead.
Key CGT officials are arrested, including Yvetot, Griffuelhes, Pouget and Henri Dret (who had an arm amputated following the battle). Some activists go into hiding in Belgium and Switzerland to escape arrest. Other anarchists present at the event, such as Georges Durupt, are charged with "inciting military disobedience."

1917 - Bisbee Deporation: Having already written to President Wilson on July 13 demanding the return of those deported from Bisbee, Bill Haywood now telegraphs Wilson to threaten a general strike of metal miners and harvest workers if the government did not return the Bisbee deportees to their homes and families.

1922 - Paterne Berrichon (Pierre-Eugène Dufour; b. 1855), French poet, painter, cartoonist, anti-militarist and anarchist, born. Best known for being the brother-in-law and the much despised editor of Arthur Rimbaud. During his military service he was sentenced to two years in prison for disobedience, but pardoned after sixteen months. On returning to Paris, he was mostly homeless and destitute, frequenting anarchist and literary circles around publications such as 'Le Mercure de France', 'Le Chat Noir' and 'La Revue Blanche', and published a book of poems 'Le Vin Maudit' (1896), with a frontispiece by Paul Verlaine. He also participated in the many anti-militarist and 'ligue des anti-propriétaires' protests in the Latin Quarter, looting bakeries alongside Louise Michel and being arrested for resisting arrest.

1925 - Alexander Trocchi (d. 1984), Scottish novelist and International Situationist, born. Best known for his heroin addiction and the novel 'Cain's Book'.

1928 - The Nazi trade union, the Nationalsozialistische Betriebszellenorganisation (National Socialist Factory Cell Organisation), is formed when a number of organisations formed the previous year by NSDAP members in large factories, located mostly in the Berlin area, as an alternative to democratic and Christian labour unions, form an official structure. On January 15, 1931, the NSBO was declared a 'Reichsbetriebszellenabteilung' (German Reich Factory Cell Organisation) of the Nazi Party and it began a series of aggressive recruitment campaigns, which included both propaganda and violence, under the war-cry: "Hinein in die Betriebe!" (Into the Factories!).

[D] 1936 - Airlift of Spain’s fascist military leaders and their troops from Africa to the Iberian Peninsula with planes supplied by the fascist regimes of Germany and Italy.

1936 - At the Palais de la Mutualité in Paris, a CGT-SR solidarity event is held. Tributes are paid to Erich Mühsam, Alexander Berkman, Francisco Ascaso and Manuel Perez, and protests are made demanding the release of Zenzl Mühsam currently imprisoned in the Soviet Union and for Simón Radowitsky still imprisoned in Uruguay.

[C] 1938 - Frank Airlie (b. unknown), member of No. 4 Company of the British Battalion of the International Brigades, from Bellshill, Scotland (or Newcastle) dies at Gandesa during the Battle of the Ebro.

1941 - Jean-Louis Comolli, French writer, film director, screenwriter, editor, actor, jazz aficionado and libertarian, born. Amongst his films are 'Cecilia' (1976), which tells the true story of an Italian anarchist colony in Brazil in the 1890s, and 'Buenaventura Durruti, Anarchiste' (1999). He also played a part in Jean-Luc Godard's 'Alphaville, une étrange aventure de Lemmy Caution' (1965).

1950 - Fusillade de Grâce-Berleur: During a protest against the return of the exiled king, Leopold III, during the Communist-inspired general strike in Wallonia, police fire upon a crowd of protesters in Grace-Berleur just outside Liège. Three people are killed outright and one dies later of his injuries. Most are former resistance fighters and one of those who was killed had not been taking part in the protest but leaning on his bicycle, watching from a distance.

1957 - José Rodrigues Oiticica (b. 1882), Brazilian anarchist, poet, and activist dies. He was founder and editor of the anarchist journal 'Ação Direta' (Direct Action). [see: Jul. 22]

1969 - The Cap Rouge company is targeted by the FLQ with Canada’s first booby trap car bomb, which exploded before it could be disarmed.

[F] 1975 - Jimmy Hoffa (James Riddle Hoffa; b. 1913), U.S. labour activist, Mafia frontman and author, who served as the President of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters from 1958 until 1971 (the last four and a half years whilst serving part of a 13-year sentence for the attempted bribery of a grand juror, disappears from a parking lot in Bloomfield Township, an affluent suburb of Detroit, never to be seen again dead or alive. The presumed target of a Mafia hit, he "sleeps with the fishes". [see: Feb. 14]

[A/E] 1996 - Four female Ploughshares activists – Angie Zelter, 45 year old environmental campaigner, Joanna Wilson, 33 y.o. lawyer / borough counsellor, Lotta Kronlid, 28 y.o. gardener, and Andrea Needham, 30 y.o. nurse – are acquitted in Liverpool of all charges on the basis of preventing a greater crime, after having extensively damaged an F-16 fighter jet set to be sold to the Indonesian government in its genocidal occupation of East Timor.

2005 - Anthony Walker, aged 18, dies in hospital from massive head injuries after a gang of up to four white men, one armed with an axe, attacks him in Huyton, Merseyside. They did not like his having a white girlfriend.

2006 - Murray Bookchin (b. 1921), one-time anarchist militant and theorist, pioneer in the ecology movement, who introduced the concept of social ecology, dies. [see: Jan. 14]
[A] 1703 - Daniel Defoe forced to stand in the pillory in front of Temple Bar, for seditious libel (for 'The Shortest Way with Dissenters'), draws sympathetic crowds who pelt him with flowers instead of mud.

1784 - Denis Diderot (b. 1713), French essayist, philosopher and playwright, claimed to be a forebearer of anarchism, dies. [see: Oct. 5]

1848 - At the National Assembly in Paris, Proudhon presents a bill for the progressive abolition of land ownership. A frontal attack on the bourgeoisie, it proposes the abolition of l'ancienne société and continues the work begun with the Revolution of February 1848. The speech arouses public outrage and only Louis Greppo, a weaver from Lyon, votes in favour of the proposition.

[B] 1857 - Adolphe Willette (b. 1926), French painter, caricaturist and anarchist who bizarrely also ran as an 'anti-semitic' candidate in the Paris elections in 1889, born.

1864 - Fábio Luz (Fábio Lopez dos Santos Luz; d. 1938), leading Brazilian anarchist, doctor, writer, novelist, critic, short story writer, essayist and teacher, born. Involved in the anti-slavery movement as a youth, he discovered anarchism with the reading of Peter Kropotkin's 'Paroles d'un Révolté'. Wrote 'D'Ideólogos' (1903), 'D'os Emancipados' (1906), and 'Virgem-Mãe' (1908), the first novels in Brazil to tackle the social question.

1865 - Adalgisa Fochi (d. 1957), Italian teacher, writer and socialist activist in feminist circles, born. The mother of Camillo Berneri and grandmother of Maria Luisa Berneri and Giliana Berneri.

1871 - [O.S. Jul. 19] Maria Isidine aka Maria Goldsmith or Maria Korn (Maria Isidorovna Goldsmith [Мария Исидоровна Гольдсмит]; d. 1933), Russian Jew, Socialist-Revolutionary, anarchist militant and biologist (animal psychology) at the Sorbonne préparatrice zoology laboratory, born. Following the death of her father Isidor, the publisher of the St. Petersburg positivist oriented review 'Znanie', who had been deported to Siberia, she left Russia with her ​​mother, Sofia Ivanova Goldsmith, a disciple of the socialist-revolutionary, Pyotr Lavrov, in 1888. They settled in Zurich but, in 1890, moved to Paris where she enrolled in the Sorbonne gaining both undergraduate and masters degrees, and publishing numerous research papers, both individually and co-authored with her fellow biologist Yves Delage.
Considered one of the leading theoreticians of anarcho-syndicalism in Russia, she is mostly remembered for her contribution to the debate around 'Organisation and Party', in which she shows the limits of both the Platform and the Synthesis positions then current in anarchism. She contributed many articles in Russian, English, French and Yiddish to anarchist publications. She also translated Kropotkin's 'Ethics', carrying out a correspondence with him between 1897 and 1917, letters which have since been published. In 1928, she was the secretary of the Ukrainian anarchist Nestor Makhno, during his exile in France. She lived with her mother in a flat that became a regular meeting place for Russian anarchists in Paris. When her mother died, she committed suicide in January 1933.

1881 - Anna Mahé (Anna Marie-Rose Mahé; d. 1960), French teacher, accountant, militant anarchist individualist, anti-militarist and free-love advocate, born.

1881 - The first issue of the weekly 'La Propaganda', "eco de la clase trabajadora", is published in Vigo, Spain. Started by Ricardo Mella, ir is initially a republican paper but eventually adopts a collectivist anarchist line.

[E] 1887 - [O.S. Jul. 19] Tatiana Ivanovna Lebedeva (Татьяна Ивановна Лебедева; b. 1850 or 1853), Russian revolutionary, member of the Tchaikovsky (чайковцы) circle, Zemlya i Volya (Land and Liberty) and the executive committee of Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), dies from scurvy and tuberculosis in Carian (Карийской) prison. During the Trial of the 193 (процесс 193-х) she was setenced to preventive detention. In January 1880, she participated in an attempted robbery of the Chisinau Treasury and in March 1881 helped organise one of the attempts on the life of Tsar Alexander II. Arrested on September 3, 1881, she was involved in the Trial of the 20 (процесс 20-ти) with ten other Narodnaya Volya executive committee members and nine party members. They found guilty of involvement in eight attempts on the Tsar's life and sentenced to death; commuted on March 17, 1882, following interntional pressure, to indefinite penal servitude (katorga).

1887 - Teiko Kiuchi (木内錠子; d. 1919), Japanese Taisho era novelist, femnist and one of the co-founders, along with Raichō Hiratsuka (平塚らいてう) and others, of the monthly feminist magazine 'Seitō' (青鞜 / Bluestocking), born.

1893 - Fasci Siciliani Uprising: At the Fascio congress in Corleone, the Patti di Corleone (Corleone Covenants), model agrarian contracts for labourers, sharecroppers and tenants, are drafted and readied to present to the local land owners. The Patti di Corleone are considered by historians to be the first trade union collective contract in capitalist Italy.
According to the press, the Corleone Fasci now have 50,000 people involved in them - the true figure is probably double or triple that number.

1901 - Jean Philippe Arthur Dubuffet (d. 1985), French Art Brut painter, sculptor, lithographer, writer, anarchist, atheist, anti-militarist and anti-patriot, born.

[1905 - [O.S. Jul. 18] Ivanovo Soviet / Russian Revolution of 1905-07: The Ivanovo strike collapses.

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 18] Sveaborg Rebellion [Свеаборг Восстание]: Yesterday's disarming and arrest of the 200 sailors in the mine company, ordered by General Vladimir Layming (Владимир Александрович Лайминг), the commandant of the fortress, now provokes an uprising. Around 22:00, seven of the garrison's ten artillery companies take part in the uprising, and are joined by the sailors of the Sveaborg Port Company Command and the 20th Naval Barracks on the Skatudden Peninsula, a total of more than 2,000 military personnel. Seizing rifles and machine guns, the rebels captured Aleksandrovskiy (Александровским), Artilleriiskiy (Артиллерийским), Mikhailovskiy (Михайловским), and Inzhenernyi (Инженерным) islands and began an artillery bombardment of Komendantskiy (Комендантский)and Lagernyi (Лагерного ) islands, where troops loyal to the tsarist government are located. The workers of Helsingfors (Helsinki) declared a general strike in support of the uprising. Detachments of the Finnish Red Guard (about 150-200 men) under the command of Johan Kock joined the revolutionary forces; Red Guards also got involved in battles with police detachments (known as the 'White Guards') as the latter tried to prevent the strike. The rebels, however, undertook no further offensive operations. Aware that an uprising was imminent in Kronstadt, they awaited the arrival of revolutionary ships of the Baltic Fleet.
At the same time, the Social Democratic organisation, headed by the officers Arkady Emelyanov (Аркадий Емельянов) and Evgeniy Kokhanovsky (Евгений Коханский), tried to give the uprising an organised character, deploying slogans that called for the overthrow of the autocracy, the granting of freedom to the people, and the transfer of the land to the peasants.

1906 - [O.S. Jul. 18] Kadet land reformer Mikhail Yakovlevich Herzenstein (Михаил Яковлевич Герценштейн) is murdered by members of the right-wing nationalist Union of the Russian People (Сою́з ру́сского наро́да; СРН), a Black-Hundredist monarchist organisation - his killers are later pardoned by the Czar and investigations into their connections with the right are squelched

1909 - Revolució de Juliol / Setmana Gloriosa: The uprising in Barcelona had been more or less fully suppressed and the Maura government, through its Minister of the Interior Juan de la Cierva i Peñafiel, immediately began to exact a harsh and arbitrary repression. In the city, more than 2,500 people were arrested (had to enable ships to store the prisoners because it exceeded the capacity of the Barcelona jails) of which 1,725 ​​were prosecuted. 175 were sentenced to exile, 59 to life imprisonment, 18 to temporary detention, 13 to 'rigorous imprisonment' (prisión mayor), 39 to correctional prison and 5 were given death sentences. In addition, unions were closed down, including Solidaridad Obrera, and the closure of secular schools was also ordered.
The five people sentenced to death and executed by the government were: Josep Miquel Baró, a Republican nationalist was executed on August 17, 1909 in Montjuic Prison; Antonio Pujol Malet a Lerroux Republican, executed on September 13; Clemente Garcia, a young man with Down syndrome accused of dancing with the body of a nun in the streets of Barcelona, ​​executed on October 4; Eugenio del Hoyo, a former policeman and security guard; and best known of all, Francisco Ferrer Guardia, the anarchist educationalist and co-founder of Escuela Moderna, executed by firing squad on October 13, the government having used the pretext of his supposedly been the instigator of the uprising to rid itself of a prominent opponent. His murder cause worldwide protests.
www.pronunciamientos.rizoazul.com/semana tragica.html

1916 - Everett Shingle Weavers' Strike: With the arrival of IWW organiser and speaker James Rowan in Everett, the town became the latest site for the IWW's free speech fight campaign. In Everett, it was legal to speak at a number of sites but the IWW chose one where it was not for their campaign, the corner of Hewitt and Wetmore. Rowan drew a large crowd but the Snohomish County Sheriff Donald McRae (a former shingle who had been elected with union support!) pulled Rowan down from the speaker's platform, took him to the county jail, and then released him with a warning. Rowan returned to his soapbox and this time was carted off to the city jail and released again, after which he returned to Seattle. The Seattle Wobbly office then sent a one-armed, 37-year old organiser, Levi Remick, to set up an IWW office in Everett on the west end of Hewitt Avenue. Remick was a skillful organiser and speaker, and his office distributed copies of the 'Industrial Worker', a Wobbly daily newspaper that published in-depth coverage of the shingle-weavers' strike.
At first, the IWW's free speech fight speakers were merely arrested and released. But then they started to be given jail sentences and, as in Spokane and elsewhere, there were no shortages of volunteers. The Everett jail was kept busy, and Sheriff McRae quickly became frustrated. His next solution was to arrest the speakers, and upon their release, send them to Seattle, instructing them not to return to Everett. But things would get much more violent. [see: May 1 & Aug. 19]

1918 - Julio Rodríguez Fernandez, aka 'El Cubano' aka 'Fedor' aka Rafael Grau Raimundo (d. 1949), Cuban anarchist and anti-fascist guerrillerio, born. [poss. alternative date to 27 Jul.]

1919 - Second British Police Strike: Having been caught unawares by the first National Union of Police and Prison Officers strike in 1918, the authorities swiftly began preparing for round two. General Cecil Macready was appointed Metropolitan Commissioner and he used the ensuing months to get ready. Militants were isolated, moderates won over, and a number of partial reforms introduced, and when everything was ready the authorities introduced a new Police Bill which, apart from wages, nullified the men's gains and outlawed the NUPPO, establishing the Police Federation as the force's 'company union'.
The second police strike started on July 31, 1919 and it was an unmitigated disaster. At the beginning of June 1919, over 90% of union members had voted in favour of a strike in support of union recognition. Yet, when the strike came at the end of the month, only 1,156 out of a force of 18,200 men in the Metropolitan Police participated in the strike, all of whom were instantly dismissed, and although a bitter struggle continued for some time – for example, strikers broke into the Islington section house to force the inmates to join them, eventually being forcibly ejected – the strike was absolutely crushed, and along with it the Police Union.
There were numerous arrests during the strike, and there were even a couple of sympathetic stoppages - of railwaymen at Nine Elms, and the tube motor men. One other interesting feature of the dispute was when Inspector Dessent of Stoke Newington Station – the only Inspector to strike – formed his men up in a body and marched them to the main strike meeting at Tower Hill.

1919 - Primo Levi (d. 1987), Italian-Jewish writer, chemist and Auschwitz survivor, born.

[C] 1922 - Sciopero Legalitario [Strike for Legality]: A General Strike against Fascism, the Sciopero legalitario (Strike for legality) to protest against fascist violence, is called in Italy. It collapses on the August 2nd and the Fascists respond by attacking the last outposts of resistance to their rule.

[F] 1925 - Red Friday: In 1925 when employers attempted to impose yet another round of wage cuts and a lengthening of hours, they were faced with more formidable opposition from a re-grouped Triple Alliance of mine, railway and transport unions and the unofficial National Minority Movement formed in 1924. Strike action was threatened and on the day the strike would have started, Friday July 31, 1925, the Government announced that it would grant a subsidy to the coal industry for nine months while a Royal Commission conducted an inquiry. This victory, accomplished without strike action, was hailed in banner headlines in the 'Daily Herald' as 'Red Friday' (a union defeat four years earlier had been called 'Black Friday' [April 15, 1921]), although subsequent events proved it to be more of a truce than a victory.

1937 - Felipe Cortiella y Ferrer (b. 1871), prominent Catalan author, poet, translator, dramatist, anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist, dies of a stroke. [see: Nov. 9]

1947 - The bodies of two British army sergeants, Clifford Martin and Mervyn Paice, kidnapped by Irgun Zvei Leumi paramilitaries in retaliation for the death sentences passed on three of its own fighters, [see: Jul. 29] are discovered in a eucalyptus grove near Netanya. They had been hanged and the ground beneath them booby-trapped with a landmine. In retailation, British troops and policemen went on the rampage in Tel Aviv, breaking the windows of shops and buses, overturning cars, stealing a taxi and assaulting members of the Jewish community. Groups of young Jews then took to the streets and started stoning police foot patrols, which were then withdrawn from the city. Police in armoured vehicles later opened fire on two buses in Tel Aviv, killing one Jew and injuring three others on the first bus and killing three on the second. They also raided two cafés, detonating a grenade on departing from the second, bringing the Jewish death toll to five. No criminal charges were brought in connection with the violence and deaths.
The killings also provoked widespread anti-Jewish rioting across the UK over the August Bank Holiday weekend. [see: Aug. 1]

1952 - Verena Becker, West German member of the Bewegung 2. Juni (June 2 Movement) and later the Rote Armee Fraktion (Red Army Faction) and later informant for the Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz (Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution), born.

1962 - In Ridley Road, Dalston, anti-fascists had jumped the UM pitch were Mosley was due to speak. More than 200 police - including 10 on horseback - then attempted to clear an area around the lorry-platform. As soon as his meeting opened, Mosley and a gang of Blackshirts are punched to the ground. Police were forced to close the meeting within three minutes and made 54 arrests - including Mosley's son Max. As soon as he appeared from between two police buses the crowd surged forward, knocking Mosley to the ground. After police had helped him to climb on the lorry to give his speech, he was met by a hail of missiles including rotten fruit, pennies and stones and he was drowned out by a continuous chorus of "down with the fascists". When people tried to storm the platform, police had to quickly shepherded him to his car, which was also came under attack. fights between anti-fascists and the Blackshirts continued for well over an hour after the meeting was forced to close. The Mayor of Hackney, Alderman Sherman, and his wife were injured after being assaulted by UM supporters with iron bars.

1963 - Spanish anarchists Francisco Granados and Joaquín Delgado are arrested for two bombings they did not commit. Convicted solely on the basis of their being anarchists, they were later garrotted.

[D] 1968 - In México students occupy many schools and faculties, and convocate a General Strike. Violent battles erupt in México City between students and Granaderos special corps (riot police). The movement has its tragic climax on the 2nd of October in the Tlatelolco Massacre.

[AA] 1971 - Despite close police protection in the home of the Secretary for Trade and Industry, John Davies, is badly damaged by a powerful explosion in London. This action followed close on Davies' announcement of his intention to close Upper Clyde Shipbuilders, throwing thousands of men out of work. This is accompanied by the 11th Communique from the Angry Brigade.

1976 - Susan Stern (Susan Ellen Tanenbaum; b. 1943), US political activist, who was a member of Students for a Democratic Society), the Weathermen (expelled after five months) and the radical anti-Vietnam War movement, Seattle Liberation Front, dies of heart and lung failure aged just 33. [see: Jan. 31]

1977 - 60,000 strong demonstration against Super-Phenix nuclear reactor, Malville. One person is killed.

1980 - Louis Simon (b. 1900), French mathematician, individualist anarchist and militant pacifist, dies. [see: Jul. 9]

1985 - Germaine Luise Krull (b. 1897), German-Dutch photographer, political activist, and hotel owner, dies after a period in a nursing home following a stroke. [see: Nov. 29]

2002 - Zapatista Uprising: The autonomous municipality Ricardo Flores Magón denounces an attack on the Zapatista support bases in the La Culebra ejido by a group of 40 armed paramilitaries from the PRI community San Antonio Escobar.

2005 - René Bianco (b. 1941), French anarchist activist and historian, free-thinker and a Freemason, dies. [see: Oct. 4]
Daily pick: 2013 [A] 2014 [B] 2015 [C] 2016 [D] 2017 [E] 2018 [F]
Weekly highlight: 2013 [AA] 2014 [BB] 2015 [CC] 2016 [DD] 2017 [EE] 2018 [FF]
Monthly features: 2013 [AAA] 2014 [BBB] 2015 [CCC] 2016 [DDD] 2017 [EEE] 2018 [FFF]
PR: 'Physical Resistance. A Hundred Years of Anti-Fascism' - Dave Hann (2012)


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